Swimming Up The Land Bridge: The Dispersal And Evolution Of The Drum Aplodinotu

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Swimming Up The Land Bridge: The Dispersal And Evolution Of The Drum Aplodinotu
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19th Annual Undergraduate Research Symposium
Hoeflich, Jennifer
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Center for Undergraduate Research
Conference papers and proceedings
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The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze specimens of a new taxon of drum fish that was found at the Montbrook fossil site, a late Miocene (5.5 – 5 MYA) locality a few miles south of Williston, FL. Morphological comparisons to modern drum taxa indicate that this is an ancestral freshwater drum, Aplodinotus new species., and the earliest example of the genus in North America. This suggests that the earliest members of Aplodinotus arrived as a part of the Great American Interchange using ancient river systems, yet the modern freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens, evolved in North American river systems. Furthermore, the presence of this drum at the Montbrook site serves as a useful indicator of both the decreasing salinity of the region as well as the changing mollusc fauna, a primary food item of the drum family. The GABI typically describes dispersals of extinct mammals; the current study is novel because it describes the northward dispersal of a bony fish taxon. ( en )
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Research authors: Jennifer Hoeflich, Bruce MacFadden - University of Florida
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Faculty Mentor: Bruce MacFadden - Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida

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Copyright Jennifer Hoeflich. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Suprapharygneals from Aplodinotus sp from Montbrook site. From left, 1 -5 right suprapharyngeals 6 -10 left suprapharyngeals Infrapharygneals from Aplodinotus sp. f rom Montbrook site. From left, 1 -5 left infrapharygneals 6 -10 right infrapharyngeals Vertebra from Aplodinotus sp. f rom Montbrook site. Dorsal spines from Aplodinotus sp. from Montbrook site. Members of the Florida Museum of Natural History Crew dig at the Montbrook site. Image Credit: Courtesy of the FLMNH Left suprapharyngeals from McGehee Farm site. References Aguilera, O., Schwarzhans W., Moraes -Santos, H., & Nepomuceno, A. (2014). Before the flood: Miocene otoliths from eastern Amazon Pirabas Formation reveal a Caribbean-type fish fauna. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 56, 422-446. Coates, A. G., Jackson, J. B., Collins, L. S., Cronin, T. M., Dowsett H. J., Bybell L. M., ... & Obando, J. A. (1992). Closure of the Isthmus of Panama: the near -shore marine record of Costa Rica and western Panama. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 104(7), 814-828. French III, J. R. (1997). Pharyngeal teeth of the freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens ) a predator of the zebra mussel ( Dreissena polymorpha). Hoorn, C., Wesselingh, F. P., Ter Steege, H., Bermudez, M. A., Mora A., Sevink J., ... & Jaramillo, C. (2010). Amazonia through time: Andean uplift, climate change, landscape evolution, and biodiversity. Science, 330(6006), 927-931. Grubich, J. R. (2000). Crushing motor patterns in drum ( Teleostei : Sciaenidae): functional novelties associated with molluscivory Journal of Experimental Biology, 203(20), 3161-3176. Jacquemin S. J., Ebersole, J. A., Dickinson, W. C., & Ciampaglio, C. N. (2016). Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna fr om Bell Cave (site ACb-2) in Colbert County, Alabama, USA. PeerJ 4 e1648. Montes, C., Cardona, A., McFadden, R., Morn, S. E., Silva, C. A., Restrepo-Moreno, S., ... & Bayona, G. A. (2012). Evidence for middle Eocene and younger land emergence in central Panama: implications for Isthmus closure. Bulletin, 124(5-6), 780-799. Lo, P. C., Liu, S. H., Chao, N. L., Nunoo, F. K., Mok H. K., & Chen, W. J. (2015). A multi -gene dataset reveals a tropical New World origin and Early Miocene diversification of croakers (Perciformes : Sciaenidae ). Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 88, 132-143. Lundberg, J. G. (1967). Pleistocene fishes of the Good Creek formation, Texas. Copeia, 1967(2), 453-455. Lundberg, J. G., Marshall, L. G., Guerrero, J., Horton, B., Malabarba, M. C. S. L., & Wesselingh F. (1998). The stage for Neotropical fish diversification: a history of tropical South American rivers. Phylogeny and classification of Neotropical fishes, 27. Nolf D., & Aguilera, O. (1998). Fish otoliths from the Cantaure Formation (early Miocene of Venezuela). Bulletin de lInstitut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 68, 237-262. Phillips, G. E. (2006). Paleofaunistics of nonmammalian vertebrates from the late Pleistocene of the Mississippi -Alabama Black Prairie. Sasaki, K. (1989). Phylogeny of the family Sciaenidae with notes on its zoogeography ( Teleostei Perciformes ). Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University, 36(1-2), 1 -137. Takeuchi, G. T., & Huddleston, R. W. (2008). A new early Miocene species of Pogonias (Teleostei : Sciaenidae) based on otoliths from California. Bulletin, Southern California Academy of Sciences, 107(2), 68-80. Uyeno, T., & Miller, R. R. (1962). Late Pleistocene fishes from a Trinity River terrace, Texas. Copeia, 338-345. Background The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) of the Middle to Late Miocene was the migration of North America fauna southward and South American fauna northward after the formation of the Panama Isthmus that connects the two continents. However, the land mammals, the traditional lens though which GABI is examined, are limited in the information that they can provide about the state of the ecological state of the isthmus at the time of their migration.A freshwater fish genus such as Aplodinotus is much more limited in its method of migration and therefore can give a clearer idea of ecology. The genus Aplodinotus is represented by only one extant species, Aplodinotus grunniens the freshwater drum. A. grunniens has evolved to feed primarily on the thin shells of freshwater bivalves, decapods, and diphtheria (Grubich, 2000) (French, 1997). A. grunniens has a purely North and Central American range, however DNA studies indicates close relationships with South American drums (Lo et al., 2015). Establishing the time period during which the northward migration of Aplodinotus occurred will shed light on the ecological conditions of the Panama Isthmus and the Gulf Coast along with clarifying drum evolution. Methodology The morphological analysis was conducted through morphological comparisons of fossil specimens to extant taxa, particularly Aplodinotus grunniens and Pogonias cromis. In the absence of comparable fossil specimens of earlier Aplodinotus species, Pogonias was used due to the genus close evolutionary relationship with Aplodinotus (Lo et al., 2015) and the early appearance of its modern form (Takeuchi & Huddleston, 2008). I looked through the existing literature on Aplodinotus specimens and plotted the coordinates of the sites on a map and then compared location to the time period of origin. I added the time and localities of my own morphological research to the data and looked for trends. Hypothesis: The Aplodinotus genus migrated north from South America during the late Miocene using river systems. Further Research The discovery of older Aplodinotus specimens would narrow the time period for the migration. The presence, absence, and extent of the North to South migration of another fluvial taxon would shed further light on the Panama river system. Information on the Aplodinotus migration could be used to analyze changes in the fossil records of mollusks in and around the time period. Likewise, the Aplodinotus fossil record could be compared to that of possible predators, including other fish. These two suprapharyngeals from the McGehee Farm site, located a few miles north of Gainesville, appear to be possible ancestral variants to the Aplodinotus specimens from Montbrook Conclusion The Aplodinotus genus migrated north from South America before the late Miocene and it is likely that a larger aquatic biotic interchange occurred before the migration of terrestrial vertebrates. This migration provides evidence for an extensive fluvial system linking North and South America before the closure of the Panama Isthmus. Freshwater and brackish mollusks were established in central Florida in the late Miocene. A river system linked the North American Gulf Coast, allowing bidirectional East West Migration. Results from Analysis The small circular pharyngeal teeth and short pharyngeal establish the Aplodinotus as primarily a predator of fairly thin shelled mollusks. It is likely that the northward migration was enabled by the rivers systems of northern South America. The appearance of Aplodinotus in North America around the time of the closing of the Panama Isthmus 45 MYA suggests that fluvial systems that linked the two continents existed at the time. The presence of Aplodinotus in Florida specifically suggests that the entirety of the Gulf Coast was at one time connected by a large series of rivers Fused infrapharyngeals from Montbrook Aplodinotus sp. Sciaenidae 48% 145 Pogonias 13% 38 Aplodinotus 39% 119 Sciaenidae Vertebra in Montbrook site Jennifer Hoeflich and Bruce MacFadden Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Swimming up the Land Bridge: The Dispersal and Evolution of the Drum Aplodinotus Phylogenetic tree from Lo et al. (2015) 1 cm 1 cm 1 cm 1 cm 1 cm 1 cm