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Coastal resource management within Placencia, Belize

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Title:
Coastal resource management within Placencia, Belize analysis of challenges and opportunities in Caribbean development
Creator:
Anderson, William Russell ( author )
Language:
English
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1 online resource (67 pages) : illustrations ;

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Subjects / Keywords:
Sustainable Development Practice field practicum final report, M.D.P
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
This student field practicum was conducted through the Masters of Sustainable Development Practice program (MDP), as facilitated through the Latin American and African Studies Departments at the University of Florida. The host organization Southern Environmental Association (S.E.A) is the nationally sponsored (district) conservation management authority in Belize and facilitates the collection of environmental data and the enforcement of federal regulations. Field research took place from May 16 to August 1 of 2016 within the terrestrial and marine ecological management zones surrounding Placencia Village, located in the Stann Creek District of Belize. This area includes the village of Placencia, Placencia Lagoon, and the Gladden Split Silk Caye Marine Reserve (G.S.S.C.M.R). Positioned at the tip of Belize's southern peninsula, Placencia provides important economic services for the region, facilitating commerce for industries that include fishing, tourism, hospitality, and real estate development. Over the past two decades, foreign investment and global exposure have improved economic outcomes and resource access for many residents, but also fostered social and environmental challenges. Coupled with semi-intensive extraction of biological resources, the impacts of development are resulting in a degradation of environmental quality that affects the same resources the region is reliant upon. As one of the nation's economic hubs, the village is rapidly developing through tourism and foreign real estate investment (travelbelize.org). In order to sustain their community, it is necessary for stakeholders to have a holistic understanding of the challenges associated with a future marked by economic, climate, and resource uncertainties. The critical habitat surrounding Placencia supports research that directly aids in national and international efforts to monitor ( , )
Abstract:
and manage spawning aggregation data for targeted pelagic species across the Caribbean, while also serving as the evaluation metric for seasonal commercial fishing limits. By collecting quantitative and qualitative data related to monitoring strategies, environmental conditions, and stakeholder-identified concerns, this practicum report seeks to provide a resource to area managers, investors, and residents. By sustainably developing social and environmental resources, stakeholders can increase the opportunity pathways for greater participation in current and future resource decision-making processes while promoting multi-stakeholder platforms and community-centered models in Caribbean coastal planning.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
The MDP Program is administered jointly by the Center for Latin American Studies and the Center for African Studies.
Statement of Responsibility:
William Russell Anderson.

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University of Florida
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Copyright William Russell Anderson. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
035776615 ( ALEPH )
Classification:
LD1780.1 2017 ( lcc )

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University of Florida Theses & Dissertations

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Coastal Resource Management within Placencia, Belize: Analysis of Challenges and Opportunities in Caribbean Development William Russell Anderson A Field Practicum Report submitted in partial fulfi llment of the requirements for the Master of Sustainable Development Practice Program University of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. U.S.A. 2017 Supervisory Committee Dr. Bette Loiselle, Chair Dr. Paul Monaghan, Member Dr. Sarah McKune, Member

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 2 Dedication and Acknowledgements This field practicum is dedi cated to all those who made the experience possible and to those working toward positive development s olutions within Belize the Ca rib b ean, and the world at large Special thanks are extended to the University of Florida Masters in Sustainable Development Program and the host organization, Southern Environme ntal Association. Gratitude and appreciations are extended to those Placencia community members that provided their tim e, insight, expertise and friendship during this experience This includes residents, fisher folk, business owners, industry personnel educators, and non governmental networks. I would like to thank to Dr. Glenn Galloway, Dr. Andrew Noss, and the members of the University of Florida MDP Cohort 6. I would also like to acknowledge those who have done the This includes, but is not limited to organizations such as Crocodile Research Coalition and the University of South Florida Reclaim and Partnership for Research and Education ( P.I.R.E ) program representatives Many re searchers have devoted years to improving conservation and management in this area voluntarily uprooting entire lives to see important work foster positive outcomes within the community. Without the dozens of people that contributed their time, energy, and expertise, this field practicum and the resulting publi cation(s) would have not been po ssible and these results would not be as informed. Recog nition and gratitude to S.E.A. s taff including Mrs. Arreini Palacio Morgan, Ms. Ruth Gutierrez, Ms. Deidra Mahler all the S.E.A. field rangers and office personnel. Mrs. Lydia Randy Tucker, Sean Sullivan, Wilbur Dubon, Diego Lozano of Four Hands Shrimp Farm, Martin Krediet of the Turtle Inn, Roni Martinez, Grecia Mendez, Celso Ca wich, Terry Tao, Mary Tao and members of The Placencia Producers Cooperative. Extended appreciation to Belize Audubon Society, The Nature Conservancy, Projects Abroad, Blue Ventures, Placencia Village Council, Friends of Placencia, World Wildlife Fund, U nited Nations Development Program, Crocodile Research Coalition, Fragments of Hope, The MAR Alliance, University of Belize, and the Caribbean Community Climate Change Center. The Masters in Sustainable Development Practice program at the University of Flo rida was a central pillar of support for this practicum. Appreciation to the Centers for Latin American and African Studies for the support they provide to the progr am and its students. T he insights provided by staff, professors, advisors, fellow students, and the department w as crucial in this researchers knowledge and capacities to perform the methods within this practicum. As an indirect stakeholder, the guiding principals within the MDP program r epresents a professional network of development practitioners, who can help contribute to a more resilient Caribbean and enrichment pathways across Latin America and beyond. With sincerest gratitude and the upmost appreciation. Thank you. W.R. Anderson, 2017

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 3 Table of Contents Dedication and Acknowledgments 2 Table of Contents 3 Abstract 5 Introduction 6 Practicum Objectives 8 Geographic Context 12 Stakeholder Analysis 18 Demographic and Socio Economic Data 22 Multi 26 Contextual Conceptual Framework 27 Preliminary Theory of Change 30 Methodology 32 Results and Discussion 38 Conclusions and Recommendations 54 Bibliography 5 6 Annex 6 0 National and Regional Man agement Plan s, Synthesis of Regulations and Legislation, etc. Appendices 6 1 Appendix 1: Research Position Description 61 Appendix 6: Contributing Organizations 65 Appendix 2: Interview Questionnaire 62 Appendix 7: Summary of Accomplishments 65 Appendix 3: Sustainable Pathways ( Info graphic ) 63 Appendix 8: Socioeconomic Monitoring Analysis 65 Appendix 4: Coastal Marine Plastic s Analysis 64 Appendix 9 : Field Practicum Logic Framework 66 Appendix 5: Stakeholder Presentation (Agenda) 65 Appendix 10: Practicum Word Frequency Map 67

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 4 Tables Page Table 1: Fi eld Practicum Objectives 9 Table 21 24 Table 4 32 Table 5 : Practicum 33 Table 6 : Stakeholder Interviews 34 Table 7 : Field Data Co 36 Table 8 37 Table 9 38 Table 10 40 Table 11 : Sustainab 4 1 Figures and Graphs Page Figure 1: National and District Boundaries 13 Figure 2: GSSCMR 17 Figure 3: S.E.A. Stakeholder Analysis 19 19 Figure 5: Demographic and Population Data 22 Figure 6: Production and Gross Domestic Products 24 Figure 7: Industries and Exports 25 Figure 8: Stakeholder Diagram 26 Figure 9: Contextual Conceptual Framework 27 Figure 10: Belize Development Contextual Map 29 Figure 11: Theory of Change .. 30 Figure 12: Methods Flow Chart 32 Figure 13: Coastal Managed Access Zone Map 42 Figure 14: Stakeholder Reported Threats to Sustainable Management 44 45 48 Keywords and Abbreviations The Belize Water Services Limited B.W.S.L. Gladden Spit and Silk Caye Marine Reserve G.S.S.C.M.R. Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan I.C.Z.M.P. Meso American M.A.R. Masters in Sustainable Development Practice (at University of Florida) M.D.P. Non Governmental Organization N.G.O. Southern Environmental Association Belize S.E.A. Spawning Aggregation Group Survey S.P.A.G.S. Socioeconomic Ma nual for Coral Reef Management SocMon Toledo Institute for Development and Environment T.I.D.E. Tri National Alliance for the Conservation of the Gulf of Honduras T.R.I.G.O.H. United Nations U.N.

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 5 Abstract This student field practicum was conducted through the Masters of Sustainable Development Practice program (MDP) as facilitated through the Latin American and African Studies Departments at the University of Florida. The host organization Southern Environmental Association (S.E.A) is the nationally sponsored (district) con servation management authority in Belize and facilitates the collection of environmental data and the enforcement of federal regulations. Field research took place from May 16 to August 1 of 2016 within the terrestrial and mari ne ecologica l management zones surrounding Placenc ia Village located in the Stann Creek District of Belize. This area includes the village of Placencia, Placencia Lagoon, and the Gladden Split Silk Caye Marine Reserve (G.S.S.C.M.R) Positioned at Placencia provides important economic ser vices for the region, facilitating commerce for industries that include fishing, tourism, hospitality, and real estate development Over the past two decades, foreign investment and global exposure have improved economic outc omes and resource access fo r many residents, but also foster ed social and environmental challenges C oupled with semi intensive extraction of biological resource s, the impacts of development are resulting in a degradation of environmental quality that affects the same reso urces the region is reliant upon As one of the nation s economic hub s, the village is rapidly devel oping through tourism and foreign real estate investment (travelbelize.org) In order to susta in their community, it is necessary for s takeholders to have a holistic u nderstanding of the challenges associated with a futur e marked by economic climate, and resource uncertainties. The critical habitat surrounding Placencia supports research that directly aid s in national and international efforts to monitor and manage spawning aggregation data for targeted pelagic species across the Caribbean while also serving as the evaluation metric f or seasonal commercial fishing limits. By collecti n g quantitative and qualita tive data related to monitoring strategies, environmental con ditions and stakeholder identified concerns, this practicum report seeks to provide a resource to area managers, investors, and residents By sustainably de veloping social and environmental resources stakeholders can increase the opportunity pathways for greater participation in current and future resource decision making processes while promoting multi stakeholder platforms and community centered models in Caribbean coastal planning

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 6 Introduction During the summer of 2016, this practicum supported conservation and development centered research activities within the village of Placencia Belize, Gladden Split Silk Caye Marine Reserve, and the Place ncia Lagoon Management Area. This research provided benefit to the (loc al district ) co managing authority Southern Environmental Association (S.E.A) by improving ( season al) volunteer research er capacity and providing a third party analysis to organizational initiatives Research activities related to collection of quantitative and qualitative data for coastal resource managers (C R Ms) as identified within this report In addition, S.E.A. received support in the form ( s ) of (br anded) media materials, review of socio environmental data and a quantified analysis of stakeholder perceptions surrounding devel opment impacts. The benefit of this holistic analysis can potentially lead to positive impacts on the ( present and future ) health of ecosystems and the cultivation of economic opportunities within the region (Pomeroy & Douvere 2008) Through interviews with stakeholders, immersion, observation, literature review and analysis of quantit ative natural resource data, this practicum hopes to increase user awareness of devel opment related impacts and the management challenges experienced by coastal Caribbean resource monitoring and enforcement personnel. Many people are eager to c while on this planet. Within western ideals that scenario may include a nice house located near a quiet beach accompanied by an ice cold drink This reality is often one where the dreamer is free to live out their days in a low cost tropical paradise. Within this context, Placencia Belize is an example of how one proverbial nightmare, playing out as a struggle to maintain a culture, while being led into an uncertain future. Like most developing nations, Belize is Placencia itse lf is a microcosm of the issues facing the rest of the world due to rapid development and shifting livelihoods (Young, 2008)

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 7 P ursuit of low cost beauty, coupled with limited perspective (by new interests and stakeholders alike) can potentially cause a failure to realize the underlying challenges subjective happiness may carry for those (culturally and historically established ) residents seeking sustainable socio ecological outcomes. A village elder, Mrs. Rosenda, once told me has been replaced by conc rete castles. We used to live on the bea ch, now the price is too much, most have moved from the village to Mango Creek. Those who stay efforts, stakeholders are made aware of qua litative and quantitative data related to conservation management activities and stakeholder perceptions of the development trajectory for Placencia This data will help community agencies understand current and emerging trends affecting conservation and management of the lagoon, the stakeholder groups and marine co n servation areas. Dissemination of this information to stakeholders may support a stronger foundation for adaptive management strategies that improve coordination between international, nationa l, regional, and community resources (Walters, 1986) Within Southern Belize, there is a demonstrated need to gather and present findings to community and national stakeholders on the quality of their coastal environmental systems ( Warner, 2001 ) The co mmunity is heavily reliant on marine products and services for nutrition, livelihoods, and is fundamental within the national framework s for tourism and economic growth ( Wells, 2014 ) For Placencia, these opportunities are most likely to take the form of ecotourism, conservatio n manag e ment, sports fishing, and the furthering of international investment efforts. This practicum utilized a trans disciplinary approach meaning a holistic assessment across a range of experience s motive s and perspective s Through the analysis of environmental data, participant observation, and stakeholder engagements, the research helps to highlight the interconnections between social and environmental impacts within this developing region. Within research agendas, it i whereby we focus our support within one or two arenas, related to specific populations or interactions. There is a web of consideration that may be missed in how these variables are influenced by other factors As development practitioners, we know that nothing happens in a vacuum. It is the amalgamation of interactions that influence the peninsula and its stakeholder populations (SaveOurPeninsula, 2015 )

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 8 Practicum Objectives The overall objective of this prac ticum was to improve information available to coastal resource managers, regarding stakeholder perception of social and environmental wellbeing, within the targeted management area s This information can serve as a reference for understanding environment al monitoring strategies within Southern Belize and improve local awarene ss about resource management, causal degradation pathways and their associated impacts. This effort provides recommendations for advancing conservation management strategies within the Placencia marine and terrestrial resource basins. Associated data attempt s to quantify developmen t trends within the research area This initiative may provide insights related to improving local engagement in resource planning efforts, including: greater comprehension of development trends, improved forecasting for future socio ecological challenges and the identification of localized strategies for mitigation. The field practi cum matrix (Table 1) is a framework for the analysis of practicum goals, highlighting the forecasted benefits to coastal resource management in their effort s to assess sustainable development strategies, challenges, and opportunities within this selected region. By providing an assessment of ecological health benchmarks and impact mitigation pathways, users can begin to interpret some of the development trends and subsequent challenges faced b y the local population. This research is based on (existing and collected) ecological data, ethnographic and immersive observation, as well as statements raised b y interviewed ( community and organizational) stakeholders. Through a clear understanding of the regional parallels and coalescing environmental and commercial networks, we are provided the context to the human and capital resources in use Comprehensive analysis of the se inputs impacts, and their limitations is paramount towards the goal of supp orting the sustainable development of coastal resources and conservation education initiatives within Southern Belize ( Williams, 2016 )

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 9 Objectives Matrix Objective Problems and or questions addressed Methods applied Analysis of the Information Targeted Results Overall Objective Improve the level and scope of socio environmental information available to Coastal Resource Managers Can the monitoring of environmental conditions and resource pressures help improve conservation management around Placencia Village, Placencia Lagoon, and the Marine reserve? Ethnographic Observation Literature Review Interviews Stakeholder meeting Synthesize and interpret the information, based on qualitative a nd quantitativ e data collected 1. Improved data availability for an increased level of informed resource management by conservation area managers and stakeholders 2. Improved foundation for community and stakeholder participation in resource management Objective Problems and or questions addressed Methods applied Analysis of the Information Targeted Results Specific Objective 1 Understand how stakeholders are using resources. a) What resources are used? b) Who uses what resources? c) Are there ( perceived ) inefficiencies in resource management? Ethnographic Observation Literature Review (including SocMon ) Interviews Compile information through the use of spreadsheets, documents, graphs, and other applicable methods Develop a report summary detailing in formation related to resources and resource users Specific Objective 2 Improve vis ibility of how stakeholders monitor manag e, and develop resources a) What environmental conditions and resources do stakeholders monitor? b) Who monitors what? c) How are results disseminated and to whom? d) What efforts are being made to address forecasted environmental impacts? Ethnographic Observation Literature Review (including SocMon ) Interviews Compile information through the use of spreadsheets, documents, g raphs, and other applicable methods Provide a report detailing information related to resources and resource users Specific Objective 3 Observe and support socio environmental data collection within management zone(s) a) What data are available on environmental conditions (including water quality, coral bleaching, marine invasives, and resource use) including commercial harvesting ? b ) Are data collection strategies sustainable and efficient ? Reviewed existing data on (2013 2016) water quality ; S.P.A.G.S, coral comm ercial harvests, invasive species pressure plastics pollution, and more Compare existing environmental and biological data with historic levels and describe observations within those trends Water quality data analysis, improved cross organizational understanding of affiliate datasets and summari es of experience made available to local resource managers Specific Objective 4 Review the Caribbean Socioeconomic Monitoring Report and provided an analysis of data results, v ia a public presentation to stakeholders and managers. a) How might we expect use and management to change over the near future? b) What important data are currently not being collected? c) What can be done to better coordinate monitoring of environme ntal conditions and of resource use, and dissemination of results? Ethnographic Observation Stakeholder meetings Focus Groups Literature Review Compile results of discussion, suggestions, recommendations Disseminate information to stakeholders a bout possible ch a llenges and next steps, including analysis of whom would be responsible for uptake and estimated projections for time frames Table 1 : Field Practicum Matrix Acknowledgement: Matrix Content ( Development al Support ) Provided by Dr. Andy Noss, University of Florida M asters in Sustainable D evelopment Practice Program. Spring 2016

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 10 Specific Objective 1: Understand how stakeholders are using resources Natur al resource managers can better understand how ecosystem(s) are being managed in practice through the use of ethnographic obse rvation, literature review, interdisciplinary immersion and interviews with local stakeholders and decision makers. Understanding who uses which resources, in what capacities will allow S.E.A. Belize and affiliates to compare and efficiently coordinate regional resource management strategies. O bjective ( 1 ) targets qualitative analysis, whereas objective ( 2 ) is more quantitative in its assessment. Specific Objective 2: Improve vi sibility of how stakeholders monitor, manage, and develop resources Visib ility and sharing of the data are important for improving awareness within stakeholder population s ( Warner, 2001 ) Transparency may be a catalyst towards greater accountability in how scientifically derived data are utilized. Improving transparency of data collection efforts and methodologies can foster positive outcomes for community education, volunteer acquisition, and stakeholder adoption of shared conservation principles (Williams, 2016) An a nalysis for addressing objective 2 includes determining : a) What are the key tradeoffs present ed between resource sustainability a nd economic growth ? b) H ow does the accelerated growth along the peninsula forecast development trajectories and future environmental managem ent considerations? This objective supports information gathering about environmental conditions stakeholders are monitoring, how they being monitored, and what may change within future monito ring efforts (Young, C. 2008) Direct participation within conservation management networks, provided an avenue to experience the tools and methods used in Caribbean resource monitoring. This objective also co nsiders how data are being shared and what effect dissemination has on determining seasonal (and species specific) commercial fishing quotas and the range of economic development opportunities available within a community.

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 11 Specific Objective 3: Observe and support socio environmen tal data collection within management zone( s ) Using ( existing and collected) data on water quality, coral bleaching, commercial fish harvests, Wh ale Shark sightings, Lionfish populations, etc. provide d a baseline representation of ecosystem services threats, and impediments around the Placencia Conservation Management Area s ( Sanchirico, 2009 ) Field sa mpling helped generate random control samples for comparison ( Syrbe 2012 ) and was primarily focused on bleached coral and marine p lastics The c ompilation and consolidation of observations related to data collection strategies seeks to raise awareness of organizational monitoring activities and capacities for managing invasive species, pollut ion, and climate vulnerability threats within the conservation areas ( Viehman, 2009 ; worldwildlife.org ) Specific Objective 4: Review the Caribbean Soci oeconomic Monitoring Report and provide an analysis of data results, via a public presentation to stakeholders and managers. B y collecting data from multiple sources (existing databases and on going monitoring activities ), this practicum encourage d the development of a more comprehensive reference base for natural resource managers. Detailed assessment of management strategies and considerations create stronger linkages that will improve planning for future challenges and opportunities. By sharing and ca pturing a broad base of community feedback, S.E.A Belize will have additional pathways for improved coordination of resource management initiatives. The semi structured interview data reflect a multi generational qualitative analysis of re source users and provides those who are unfamiliar with Placencia an opportunity to understand and anticipate the area s challenges. Results from the field practicum efforts culminated in the presentation of preliminary findings to S E A Belize a nd stakeholders from the local and regional conservation management communities. This presentation helped to disseminate initial observations and recommendations to the community in o rder to garner fee dback from those engaged in this research In comparison to current top down strategies, I attempted to promote trans disciplinary decisions making considerations and advocate for greater information sharing to foster pathways towards col laborative and adaptive management models. Information on Socioeconomic Mon itoring Analysis is found within Appendix 8.

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 12 Geographical Context Placencia Village; Belize, Central America Born from a geologic lifetime of continuous erosion and weathering of the limestone bedrock nests the choking humidity of the swamps and bewildering entanglement of the Belizean sub tropical rainforests (.9m) above sea level, making storm surge resiliency a challenge to its historic a nd future residents. From the village, you can see mountains creep towards the coast as mangroves meander o n to the lagoon and neighboring Mango Creek. Traveling North from the village across speed bump riddled roads you come to the village of San Beight an d onto the Upper Peninsula a s the rural coastal highway meander s past shrimp farms homestead cutouts, an d plantation groves leading to Belize City and beyond Geographically, Belize serves as a continental b oundary across a vast expanse of the Meso American Reef. Second in size only to the Great Barrier Reef, the Meso Am erican Reef spans over 600 miles (965km) and is bordered to the west by Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, and Mexico ( WorldWildlife.org ) Emergence of t his barrier reef systems results from the transition between a ( Coral.org ) Placencia is adjacent to the second most Southern conservation zone (Gladden), followed by Sapodilla Marine Reserve, just north to the Gulf of Hondur as. Much of the tourism and cultural resources within country are housed within these coastal biome s ( Nature.org) Due to internal and external pressures changes to the M.A.R. could eventually induce an alternative stable state unless there are sustainable interventions to these current and forecasted challenges ( Almada Villelea, 2002; Gibson, 1998; WorldWildlifeFund.org )

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 13 Weather, Climate, Topography and Environment Bound to the north by Mexico and the e ast by Guatemala (Figu re 1) Belize enjoys 174mi ( 280 km ) of coastline, dense swamps, sub tropical jungles, and rugged m ountains. The topographical relief of the southern regions is characterized by the Maya Mountains. To the n orth, er osion cut igneous ro ck stretch through dense jungles and weathered plateaus ac ross miles of horizon. Sloping hills and valleys stretch southwest to northeast comb their way bet ween the Caribbean Sea and the highest point 3687 ft. (1124m) of V ictoria Peak (GoB elize.com ) Bel ize has a diverse collection of terrains and topography beyond the coastal biome. There is a broad spectrum of biod iversity arising from pockets of unique isolation With a subtropical climate and well marked dry season, Belize annually receives up to (4.45m) o f rainfall in the South, near Punta Gorda, while Northern Beliz (1.9 m) annually ( GoB elize.com ) If one finds themselves in Belize during December, they are likely to be greeted by a beautiful day around 74 F/23 C During July, the well forested landmass historically averages about 84 F/28.8 C degrees ( GoB elize.com ) Placencia is no exception. The days are sun choked and bright with high humidity during the summer. While t he seas onal rains come as a blessing, they also herald the potential of the summer storms to come. (16.51 88.27 ) (16 ) Figure 1 : National and District Boundaries

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 14 Placencia Village Formerly a seasonal Mayan subsistence resource basin, Placencia Village has evolved over time, taking many forms. From 1500 BC 900 AD this area was a ( seasonally burgeoning ) Maya n Coastal Civilization. Between 900 AD to the early 1700s Maya n Creole, and Spanish communities used this area as seasonal fishing grounds ( Larubeya.com ) During an era of foreign settlement between the 17 th and 18 th c enturies, English and Scottish Puritan s formed colonies in the region (Sanchez, 2013) For a few decades, the area was a haven and tradin g outpost for pirates Eventually, it was formally designated and settled in the early 1800s as a fishing community ( p lacencia.com, 2016 ) From the1800s until (September 21) 1981, the area was under the rule of the English as a British c olony during which time Placencia was establish ed as a native fisher folk community (absolutebelize.com) Once o nly accessible by boat, it was no 2001, a category four hurricane (Hurricane Iris), damaged up to 80% of the structures on Placencia. The scale of damage that resulte d from the hurricane prompted an economic transition, leading to a period of shifting property values and foreign interests towards tourism and development on the peni nsula (Consejo .bz, 2009) With an estimated 3,458 full tim e residents (2015), this 16 mi (25km) expanse of coastline sees more than 60% of its revenues generated from tourism and fishing (Placencia .com 2016) Placencia Village is located within the Stan n Creek District of Belize, more than 60 mi (96km) south of Belize City and accessible by the southern highway, near the v illage s of Santa Rosa San Beight, and Mango Creek (Belize Tourism Industry Association 2016)

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 15 This region is an importa nt conservat ion management area due to its location at the southern most point of the p enin sula, proximity to Gladden Spit and Silk Caye Marine Reserves, and Laughing Bird Caye National Park (Bunce and Pomeroy, 2003) These areas provide essen tial ecosystem services and critical habitat for a variety of (migratory and domestic ) terrestrial and aquatic species (Sanchirico and Mumby 2009) Some of these species make up the basis for community subsistence, su ch as M ussels, S hrimp, L obster, S callop s, Jack s Snapper, and Spanish Mackerel ( Deidrich 2007 ; wwf.org ) While others are key items for sale to restaurants or as tourism sport fishing, such as Marlin, King F ish, Wahoo, Permit, Tuna, Conch, and more (Deidrich 2010) Invasive flora and fauna present significant challenge s to coastal biomes, such as the one encompassing Placencia. They degrade ecosystems, increase competition for resources, and negatively impac t native species and ecosystem services (Young, 2008 ) Due to changing marine environments, coastal biomes are at a greater risk for irreparable impacts by pest, pathogens, and human induc ed alterations ( Wilcox 2016 ; Shi elds, 2012; Sellers, 2015 ) Introduction of foreign species and pathogen s may result in potentially significant and disastrous impacts on individual and cumulative levels of environmental wellbeing (Reefresilience.org) Most notable is the Lionfish ( Pterois ), which is causing significant unmitigated damage to Caribbean reef system s This invader is an apex predator with a huge depth range, voracious appetite, and demonstrates a highly successful capacity for adaptation to new environments. Lionfish can reproduce at an ast onishing rate, with the capacity for each female to produce upwards of two million offspring, annually (Oceansupport.org, 2016)

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 16 Placencia Lagoon Anthropocentric activity has played a significant role in shaping the lagoon through th e introduction of pollution, waste and the removal of mangrove habitat ( Granek, 2007 ) H istoric examples of poor management of the lagoon environm ent include use as an effluent reposito ry for sewage and shrimp farms, although these practice s have been modified to be less obtrusive ( Ledwin, 2010; Pott, 2015; Aquaculture Stewardship Council, 2015) Use of garbage and mangrove s as back fill for development has not been effectively addressed as a resource damaging practice The ecological and economic services provided by this habitat are crucial to the long term stability of Placencia and its closest neighbor Independence/Mango Creek. A f ailure to designate the lagoon as a protected conservation management zone has impeded the allocation of NGO and/or governmental resources which serve as direct barriers to its sustainability Through the experience of this practicum, subsequent recommendations will emphasize th e need to designate the lagoon as part of the protected area. Gladden Split Marine Reserve Marine protected zones are designated areas whereby monitoring and restoration activities are federally mandated. Covering less than 10 % of total area, they provide judicial and regulatory protections against certain fishing methods and chemical inputs. This process is legislated by the national government by way of the Ministry of Env ironment and Natural Resources. P rotection status is based on site specific role (s) in providing regional services, relate d to ecologic and economic values as provided by the resource basin (s) Without a healthy and holistic approach to system management additional threats will be experienced with the G.S.S.C. marine reserve. Border ing the inland side of the village is the Placencia Lagoon. This ecosystem provides critical habitat for the Antillean Manatee, multiple species of dolphin, rays, and seasonal and migratory bird populations (Belize Audubon, 2014) The resources serves as calving grounds for a n ative Antillean (West Indian) Manatee population, acting as one of only two sites in Belize supporting this threatened species (Correa, E. 2016) The system also provides habitat for endangered American Crocodiles and freshwater Morlet populations (Kohlman, 2015) The lagoon plays an important role in spawning and habitat for game fish including Tarpon, Bonefish, and Permit (Steinberg, 2015)

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 17 P opulation growth, the impacts of diets, lifestyles, and expansion projects all have negative consequences for the reef ( Viehman, 2009 ; McClanahan, 2005 ) These challenge s include depleted fisheries, introduction of antibiotics into the system, and increased physical damage due to resource extraction and recreation activities ( Young, 2008 ) Other environmental challenges to the reef include species that have been introduced or migrat ed beyond their previous boundaries Figure 2 : GSSCMR Management Zone Designations American reef (MAR), the largest reef system in the western hemisphere (World Resource Institute 2015) Over half of the almost 1000km length is within Belizean waters. To the South, Gladden Split M arine Reserve is a critical resource basin protecting regional coastline s from storm surge, facilitating economic growth, and sustaining biodiversity (McCloskey and Keller 2009) The Gladden Split Marine Reserve serves as premier spawning ground s for species of Tuna (Thunnus), Grouper (Serranidae), and Snapper (Lutjanidae) ( Muhling 2013 ). These species help to sustain a commercial fishing industry and to meet the caloric needs of area stakeholders (Bunce et al. 2000, Heyman 2008) This nationally protected reef (figure 2) also supports popular and lucrative coastal recreation activities including sports fishing, scuba diving, sailing, migrant whale watching, and snorkeling (Key, 1994) These activities fuel a burgeoning hospitality and service sector ( Steinb erg 2015). The reef protect s an amalgamation of coral in cluding endangered Elkhorn and S taghorn.

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 18 Stakeholder Analysis Placencia has quickly become a premier destination for tourists, retirees, expats, and multi national entities such as Norwegian Cruise lines ( Ncl.org, B reakingbelizenews.com ). The rate of development in the region has been staggerin g, paving the way for threats that include rapidly changing cultures, diminishing resou rces, shifting biodiversity and species migratory patterns, increased pollution, and marginalized livelihood strategies ( Diedrich, 2007 ). V illage stakeholders have an amalgamation of logistical challenges before achieving sustainable long term development within the regional management zones (Figure 2) T his practicum effort engaged a network of environmental non governmental organizations and academic institutions w orking within Belize. The ab ility to reference the programs of these organizations and engage the coordinating representatives helped to paint a more complete picture of the challenges, opportunities, and attitudes of persons involved within environmental management. Their experience helped to guide research and to contextual ize understanding of perspectives related to anticipated long term outcomes of coas tal development trends Placencia Village has been rapidly transformed from a fishing village to premier tourism destination. With such humble beginnings, there are significant and justified concer ns emanating from the community regarding the cumulative impacts of growth on the local ecosystems (Theriault 2007 ; Sawe, 2015 ) Some of the environmental conditions and resource impacts are being monitored. However, information is not necessarily accessible to local stakeholder s, or may not be effectively utilized to guide conservation and management decisions. Other conditions and resources may not be adeq uately monitored due to limited funds scope, or capacities Based on this rate of development and despite its relatively small size, Belize has significant economic and ecologic importance to the Caribbean. This includes diplomatic linkages to foreign governments (i.e. China, Taiwan, Canada) and private interests. Therefore, S.E.A., Government of Belize, Ministry of E nvironment, and Belize Tourism Association are all considered to be regulatory stakeholders in the Placencia community. Southern Environmental Association (S.E.A.) serves as a regional conduit to community stakeholders (figure 3) to engage higher forms of national government.

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 19 Southern Environmental Association, Belize Figure 3 : S.E.A. Stakeholder Analysis This practicum was conducted under the supervision of Southern Environmental Association, Belize (S.E.A.) from May 16 August 1, 2016. a Belizean non to continuously work toward s improving stewardship and the environmental integrity of key marine areas in Southern Belize through effective, collaborative protected areas management, community involvement, and strategic partnerships for the benefit of all stakeholders (S.E.A. Beliz e, 2015 ). S.E.A. is the regional management authority designated by the Ministry of Environment and Department of Fisheries to monitor and execute enforcement of regulatory and environmental quality management activities within the Gladden Split Silk Cay e Marine Reserve (G.S.S.C.M.R). S.E.A. operates through a co management agreement with Belize governmental agencies (ref erenced above) and the principal management (funding) agency Protected Areas Conservation Trust (PACT). The trust facilitates transfer of capital to be made available from within the Belize Ministry of Environment (Figure 3) S.E.A. manages the Gladden Split Silk Caye Marine reserve, Laughing Bird Caye, Little Water Caye research station, and other pr otecte d areas around Placencia (Figure 4). Figure 4 : Management Reserve Protection Zones

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 20 S .E.A. emerged in 2008, from the unification integrated operations in 2007 to improve the level of community involvement, organizational capacities, and operational effi ciency These measures sought to strengthen management frameworks for natural resource education and leadership strategies within Southern Belize (S.E.A. Belize, 2015). The m anagement tasks of S.E.A. include facilitating visitor access, pro viding research authorization for scientifi c monitoring activities, and enforcing fishery regulations. Working in tandem with governmental agencies, N G O partners, and the University of Belize Environmental Research Institution, the organization works directly with regi onal and local community stakeholders to formulate policy recommendations and feedback for determining current and future management strategies (S.E.A. Belize, 2015 ) S.E.A. Belize is administered by a board of directors and is managed by an Executive Dir ector, who coordinates a group of program managers and enforcement agents. Program support staff support the program managers. The organization has a staff consisting of 10 12 positions. Volunteers from within the community and the service organi zation the basis for program volunteer support and project implementation. During this practicum, e fforts were coordinated under the Scientific Prog ram Manager Ruth Gutierrez, incoming ( Science ) Program Manage r Deidra Mahler, and the Di rector Arreini Palacio Morgan. 1. The review of (previously collected) environmental data. Practicum activities support ed the collection and analysis of strategic coastal resource s and socio economic variables including, but not limited to: community impact surveys, m arine plastic pollution mangrove habitat, coral bleaching and water quality. Species specific review included : Aves, Lepid optera, Chordates, Antillean Manatee, Crocodilians, Lionfish, Gastropods, Echinoderms, Whale Shark and other spawning pelagic(s). 2. The provision of a qualitative impact analysis for stakeholder groups. Practicum activities result in a public presentation of findings to members of the local stakeholder community held at the S.E.A. administrative office This included providing initial data as related to the 50 (formal) and 34 (informal) semi structured interviews (n=84) and the identification of eight key areas of impa ct. These community i dentified factors contribute to regional environmental and social uncertainty (see figure 12). 3. Provide recommendations for improving conservation and sustainable development practice within the management zones. P ractic um activities support the development of a holistic analysis for coastal resource managers (CRMs) and the local community stakeholders within the Placencia Lagoon conservation management area. The provision of a qualitative and quantitative analysis to col laborators helps to generate ideas about the ranges of resource utilization and impacts, related to the biome. Data can be utilized to help determine trends, anticipate challenges, and develop solutions to sustaining ecosystem services.

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 21 Southern Environmental Association (SEA) provided support in many form s, such as access to their grassroots networks of community stakeholders. This included the use of the organizations name and repu tation to lend credibility to my research initiative s, w hen attempting to engage organizations, institutions, business entities, individuals, cooperatives, and government agencies. The organization provided office space and the use of office equipment. S taff support was always available. Science Director, Ruth Gutierrez was the primary point of contact for questions and reference to local resources and grey literature. S.E.A Director Arreini Palacio Morgan maintained an open door policy and was instrument al in the provision of contacts, office resources, opportunities for stakeholder engagement, lodging and transportation to/from the research stations, and more. Other Stakeholders In addition to developing positive relationship with the host organization I engaged a network of environmental managers, non governmental organizations, and academic institutions working within Belize, all of which are considered to be stakeholders ( Table 2 ) The ability to draw data and experiential reference from the programs and projects of these entities was important in analyzing assumptions and checking on anecdotal claims made by oth er interviewees. N G O Affiliates Academic Affiliates Crocodile Research Coalition Fragments of Hope The Caribbean Community Climate Change Center Environmental Research Institute University of Belize Belize Audubon Society The Meso American Reef Alliance The Placencia Producers Cooperative Partners for International Research and Education: University of South Florida Blue Ventures World Wildlife Fund Placencia Village Council LBJ School For Public Affairs: U niversity of Texas Table 2 : Stakeholder Organizations and Institutions The governments and citizens of Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico are all considered tertiary stakeholders ( Perez, 2009; A lianzatrigoh.org ) This practicum experience was not able to engage decision makers and stakeholders at this level, but they are important to recognize. The success of the Meso American reef has direct implications on the fisher ies within each respective country ( Warner, 2001) Additionally, the regulations associated with marine ecosystem management within these nations have accountability concerns and limitations for the Caribbean essons learned from the Belize management zone could result in positive outcomes for countries reliant on the shared cro ss boundary eco system (Samuels, 2008 )

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 22 Demographic and Socioeconomic Data Belize is unique in historic regional and cultural divisions. The population of Belize has doubled since 1991 (Figure 5 ) and currently hos ts an estimated 340,000 people (MecoMeter, 2012) Belize was regionally separated between settlers from a gamut of backgrounds, all n aturalized to the foreign land. Many of these groups settled while seeking asylum from religious, cultural, or economic persecution. Migrations of Guatemalans, Hondurans, and M aya ns arrived during tim es of civil unrest, (The c ommo nwealth.org) Figure 5: Demographic and Population Data, Belize 2012 Mennonites began arriving in 1958 aft er traveling from Canada (by way of Pru ssia) to find isolated, (morally c onservative ) cultural development opportunities (Nichb elize.org) and to escape religious persecution. These communities have been allowed to settle in rural areas throughout the country ( Nichbelize.org ) Although this group makes up a small fraction of the population, its contribution to the Belizean economy, largely t hrough farming, has been significant. English speaking Creole, largely African and British ancestry, account s for nearly 25% of the population and predominate in the central coastal regions ( Travelbelize.org ) Several thousand Garifuna ( pl. Garinagu), descendants of the Carib Indians and Africans deported from Saint Vincent by the British to the Gulf of Honduras in 1798, live in communities along the south ern coast ( Griffith, 2015 ) The Garifuna are a proud people with a rich he ritage and a large re presentation of the population resides in San Beight Village. Unfortunately, they find themselves beholden to consumer driven transitions and limited access to natural, social, and governmental welfare resources While only a few kilometers up the peninsula the village faces significant economic in vestment challenges and limited opportunity compared to Placencia

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 23 People of European and Asian ancestry also call Belize home, including growing numbe rs of immigrants from China, Sout heast Asia, and the Middle East ( Archibald, 2012 ) Many Belizeans are of mixed ancestry and most are descendants of immigrants. Belizeans of mixed Mayan and Spanish heritage (Mestizos) (Figure 5 ) constitute the largest ethnic group ( 50%) of the population and predominate across the sparsely inhabited interior, along with the Maya The Yucatec Maya are primarily in the Northern territory. To the South and the borders of Guatemala and Honduras exist the Mopn and Kekch Maya, who accou nt for about 10% of the population (Travelbelize.org) Refugees from Guatemala Honduras, and El Salvador began migrating to Belize in th e 1980s to escape civil war and political unrest in their countries (Wikipedia.org ) Throughout the 1990s, these refugees made up the largest immigrant group in Belize. At the beginning of the 21st century, the number of these refugees significantly decrea sed, but their descendants account for about 80% of the total foreign born population in Belize ( Griffith, 2015 ). They are reflective of the populations found within the region surrounding Placencia. This agglomeration of interests and experiences makes Be lize a microcosm of great cultural variations and dissolving cross national borders. Production and Economics As a nation, Belize has a rapidly developing ecotourism sector (Table 3, Figure 6 ), exponentially expanding the population, foreign investment, and challenges with economic mobility. As an emerging economy, Belize has seen rapid growth, about 5 % per year (Majors 2014) and receives on average 18 25 % of GDP from tourism (Figure 7 ), account ing for about 28 % of total employment (Belize Tourism Board 2014) Notice the Be (Figure 7 a) : Tourism accounts for 50 % of earnings, marine products 6% and agriculture 22 %. Each industry has its own rates of impact s on to the reef and regional system at large (saveourpeninsula.org) Placencia is a premier economic driver for the country, accounting for more than 30% of tourism generated revenues (Belize Tourism Board 2014) The diversity rich waters adjacent to the village genera te a substantial portion of commercial fishing revenues for the areas, serving as both a capital and subsistence res ource for the village and its stakeholders Collectively, fishing, tourism, and hospitality are seminal industries that generate a majority of taxable private income. Without Placencia, the bulk of revenues for the nation would be generated in areas more regionally centric to Belize City, Ambergris Caye, and near metropolitan coastal spaces.

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 24 Figure 6 : Production and G ross D omestic P roducts ( 2013 ) Market Sectors Related Industries Labor Force (of total 120,500) GDP Composition Agriculture Cacao, Banana, Citrus, Sugar, Fish, Lumber, Shrimp 10.2% 13.1% Manufacturing and Production Garment production, Tourism, Agricultural/Aquaculture Processing, Construction, Petroleum 18.1% 16.1% General Services Hospitality, T ourism T ravel Food S ervice 71.1% 70.9% Table 3 : Belize Employment Data ( 2014 ) Placencia Village boasts more professional opportunities than its district counter parts, but is still limited in its avenues for upward mobility ( Roots and Reef, 2011 ). There are very real implications to the employment challenges in the village, especial ly when coupled with the (relatively recent) access to cable television and I nternet into the area. Ethnographic observation would indicate access has spurred a greater demand t owards consumerism. The resulting imports, means more packaging material, disposable/non renewable products, and plastics entering the waste stream. S hrimp farms and commercial fishing have been two of the principal industries (outside of tourism and hospitality) that have sustained the community. However, systemic occurrences of (McKenzie, 2015). Ultimately, this resulted in over $30 million in lost revenue, stagnating broad swa ths of the industry from 2013 to 2016. I ndustry recovery has been slow, but is progressing. Living Below Poverty Line 41% Unemployment Rate 12.2% average 2012 2014 ; (8% in 2016)

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 25 Figure 7 : Industries and Export s Belize ( 2010 ) The Belize Domestic Imports 2010 graph (Figure 7 b ) illustrates how dependent the commercial sector is on exports derived from marine products. Combined marine products and agric ultural commodities accounted for 72 % of the total exports. Extraction of marine products impacts resource recovery time within ecosystems. While showing environmental improvement, the i ntrusion of effluent from agricultur e, such as banana plantations, aquaculture, and other industries (Figure 6 ; Table 3 ) contribute s to the potential for chemical imbalances within the system. These events may result in fish kills, dead zones, and algae blooms ( comarbelize.org; w ater.epa.gov ) Within Placencia Village, observations and interviews su ggest that many of the bars, restaurants and markets are owned by foreign born persons, typically expatriates from the United States, Canada, China, and Europe. Retiring expats are granted a one time duty free exclusion in the import of personal goods into Belize, at the point of relocation into the country (Moreno, 2005) serving as incentive for development Foreign companies dominate the real estate markets and investment agencies have secur ed a majority of available tract s of land across the peninsula. Qualitative (stakeholder i dentified ) challenges related to employment include : Interest rates are disproportionately higher for locals, who may lack the collateral. Limited access or unfavorab le terms to loans and financing from banks to local persons. Contractors are often not fro m the district and hire a temporary Guatemalan labor force. Foreign construction crews and contractors (engaged during research) claim that local seem to reduce the level of investment in technical and educational development resources, subsequently impeding the development of a dynamic work force fro within the V illage of Placencia and surrounding co mmunities of San Beight and Mango Creek.

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 26 Multi Stakeholder Collaboration Figure 8 : Stakeholder Diagram Through the eleven week experience, I participated in environmental monitoring activities, while interviewing generations of community members, and reviewing data sets from within national and organizational databases related to factors of environmental health. Th rough an informed stakeholder base and (established) in formal local management network s S.E.A. is able to stay current on activities within their zone (s) These networks are primarily utilized during seasonal mobilizations such as scheduled community education events, monitoring activities, conferences, face to face meetings, and volunteer efforts between management and local allies Each of the stakeholders represented (Figure 8 ) within this program has an inherent need to address coastal development within Belize. They have their own experience and understandings of the practices and policies that impact social, biologic al, and ecological well being. By coordinating with in a mu lti stakeholder framework, the organizations and institutions engaged in collaboration s can proactively co ntribute to outcomes, while maximizing the efficiency of their hum an and financial resources Champions of business and government may welcome a cleaner world, but they do not create it alone nor is it a central function of their operational focus It takes the contributions of all sides (institution, organization, public, private) to successfully organize scalable solutions to collective problems. S.E.A. Belize garnered the assistance of this practicum to improve the level of information and secondary analysis available to coastal resource managers and to encourage its collective use. This type of collaboration within Placencia is a continuation of the hands on, volunteer centered management platform adopted by S.E.A. The multi stakeholder strategy en courages community participation in activities, trainings, and educational opportunities.

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 27 Contextual Conceptual Framework This conceptual framework (figure 9) was adapted from an exist ing model that seeks to integrate the different elements of social and ecological dynamics. Initially introduced in the 1970s, the Social Ecological model was formalized in t he 1980s by Urie Bronferbrenner, who in order to understand human development, the entire ecological system in which growth occurs needs to be taken into account (Bronferbrenner, 1994) To understand the role this field practicum serves and how it relates to development within the co mmunity serviced, f igure 9 highlight s areas engaged within the s ocio ecological framework and demonstrates how this field practicum fits into the broader context of sustainable coastal resource management in Placencia. Figure 9 : Contextual Conceptual Framework (Socio ecological Framework Credit: Urie Bronferbrenner, 1994) Font (Key) Description Bold + Underlined Realms within the socio ecological framework Bold Processes peripherally engaged Bold Green Processes directly engaged

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 28 Social Processes Livelihood Activities: Understanding how people support themselves and their families provides greater understanding of conservation and resource issues as well as pathways of community involvement in management. Technology and Innovation: Participa tion in data collection improves local reference to technologies available. This also includes the ability to assess limitations to technology access and potential logistical challenges with technical use and/or advancements. This would include determining equi pment repair capacities. Laws and Contracts: Understanding the written and stated (governance and management) agreements between local, corporate, private, gover nmental, intergovernmental, non governmental regional, and i nternational frameworks allows us t o anticipate the challenges, implications, and opportunities within the se agreements. Human Components Communities: Working with a small, but diverse population improves understand ing of local dynamics and experiences t hat shape the communities reliance on natural resources. Policies: Understanding how policies are disseminated and how relationships and culture can shape politic al and environmental outcomes. Governments: Challenges faced by small governments with limited fiscal capacity, including a spec trum of natural resource management and foreign economic pressures. Interactions Inputs and Investments: Understanding the levels of fiscal and physical contributions inserted into the community and management area provides context to the level of involve ment from foreign and domestic stakeholders. Consumption: Patterns of consumption improve awareness of the waste stream and economic drivers within the community. Through analysis of consumption, stakeholders can understand system inputs and ( local ly real ized) capital returns, compared to ecosystem service impacts related to the extraction of marine and coastal resources. Contamination: Pollution, waste, unmanaged biomass and other resource degrading inputs are primarily inserted into the system from hum an agents. This may be direct or passive due to industrial, agricultural, or resource extraction mechanisms. Management Practices: How (conservation and non conservation) areas are administratively supporte d and the challenges presented for administrators/stakeholders within the se zones help us to understand what physical, fiscal, political, and logistical issues are faced in the maintenance and preservation of this system. Ecological Components Population s: How the frequency and demand for resources impact endemic species. How ecosystems ch ange in response to development and how exploited human populations can work to cultivate sustainable development in their planning process Wild Communities: Mutual re liance of natural communities and human communities. Factors consider ed include remediation efforts by human communities and management strategies based on the impact trajectories and timelines for primary challenges Ecosystem: Exploring the dynamics and variability within the non human sy stem, through data collection, observation of species, and review of N.G.O. initiatives.

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 29 Ecological Processes Nutrient Cycling: Understanding the nutrient cy cle within this system and how use ( by local stakeholders, tourist s, and business/industrial actor s ) impact s the natural process. Disturbances: There are a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances that may be faced by thi s management area, each carries a different weight of impact based on frequency and context. Competition: Understanding the context of natural and human competition within this area for goods and services. The natural world is competitive between species and balance can be influenced by human activity. Anthropoge nic action can remove or alter settlements, nutrients, cultural practice and potentially result in gentrification or loss of livelihoods for certain sectors of stakeholders. Movement: The movement of biota products, services, and ecosystem services impact the systems in which they exist (see Figure 10 ) Climate Change: This coastal biome, regional rainfall patterns vulnerability to pathogens, invasive species, and the overall stability of ecological and biological diversity are all considered to at unknown risk based on shifting climate patterns. *Timelines related to effectively measuring the significance of these events are long term Figure 10 : Belize Development Contextual Map Figure 10 highlights some of the basic development considerations within Belize. The largest opportunities exist in a dvancing data collection and research monitoring. The motivations lie in sustaining environmental services and forecas ting climate pressures, thereby improving management capacities tow ards long term economic and environmental systemic stability.

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Preliminary Theory of Change: Climate and Ecological Degradation: Impacts in Belize Figure 11 : Preliminary Theory of Change: Belize

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In this Preliminary Theory of Change (Figure 11 ) b eginning with the resources categ ory, government acknowledgement {A} of (climatic and a nthropocentric) coastal impacts is represented by cooperative agreements b etween the Belize governm ent, district leaders and organizations The collaboration fosters local adaptation and mitigation efforts {C} Once cooperation agreements are established, community and governmental resources identify the issues impacting livelihoods along with the locations and service provide r s to address management of the challenge ( s ) in question. The strategy for resolution would require a set of assumptions, indicators, interventions, and rational e behind the recommendations When the issues, assumptions, and intervention indicators are established, resource agents can begin treatment towards sustainable resolution These efforts require ongoing monitoring and efficient adaptive management strategies ( Ruitenbeek, 2001) Coordination of communit y resources a nd external fiscal support {B} improve s long term outcomes to i dentified challenges. If intervention s and treatment s are successful, the resulting outcome should be a n increase in awareness of climate and coastal adaptation strategies coupled with an empowered stakeholder base Through implementation of adaptation and mitigation efforts, Belize could see an increase in economic opportunit ies and improved community extension services. Assuming the results and associated variables are bas ed on the proper assumptions, indicators, and rationale. Regarding this preliminary Theory of Change, i t will be important to evaluate assumptions and indicators and adjust interventions as necessary. The effects of adaptation, educat ional programs, pub lic private partnerships and co ordinated use of resources should result in a quantitatively measurable reduction in the displacement of ecological resources However, the TOC (Figure 11) may change depending on pressures and variables (oil exploration, st orm events foreign pathogens, invasive pressures etc.). Examples of measurable impacts could include, but are not limited to : 1. Improvements in the quality of professional outcomes for stakeholders. 2. Restoration of reefs, estuaries, and other near coastal fisheries 3. Lionfish reduction based on public private interventions 4. Reductions in coastline erosion and habitat degradation 5. Improvements in stocks for target/non target fish, crustacean, and mollusk species

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 32 Methodology Research methodology ( Figure 12; Table 4 ) was focused on qualitative and quantitative data from social and natural resources. The governing approach intended to be both observational and immersive Methods were intended to be avenues towards understanding collaborative and shared experien ces between resource agent s, N.G.O. administrators, public, and private institutions. Holistic analysis can improve operational efficiency and coor dination of: Capital resources grassroots networks and ( regional ly achievable) sustainable development targ ets. Figure 12 : Methods Flow Chart Methods uti lized during this Summer 2016 MDP Field P racticum Ethnographic Observation Literature Review Focus Groups Secondary data analysis Stakeholder Meetings Oral History Structured, Semi Structured, and informal interviews Field Sampling Table 4 : Field Practicum Methods Summary

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 33 Methods performed during this practicum experience (figure 12, table 4) included participation in a spectrum of social and environmental initiatives. Spawning Aggregation S urveys were conducted in tandem with the N.G.O. served as an opportunity to witness S.E.A. volunteer monitoring activities within Gladden Split Caye Marine Reserve. Witnessing t he Placencia Pr oducers Cooperative manageme nt of t he Seaweed Restoration Project at Little Water Caye Research Station was a chanc e to support ecological remediation activities coupled with sustainable intensification of economically viable commercial biotic resources. Avian monitoring activities were performed in tandem with Roni Martinez of the Belize Audubon Society and the Scarlet Six Bi o monitoring team. Participating in c hordate and a vian nesting training im proved understanding of how information on species emergence was captured and disseminated regionally Data collection provided during the annual Lionfish t ournament w as an opportunity to witness the scope of impact and quant ity of invasive predators in a single sector within the zone These activities contribu te d to monitoring across the management areas, draw ing attention to data capture techniques, limitations, and i ssues within the ecosystem. A review of organizational materials from those entities working on environmental and social issues within Belize provided context to management methodologies Mapping human impacts highlighted which local and region al ideologies contributed to successes ( and failures ) within area k nowledge of stakeholder experiences. This gray literature included the review of stakeholder program documents, past meeting minutes from stakeholder group activities, and topic relevant publications By combining a review of literature, first hand experie nce in sampling, scientific analysis of data related to key indices of environmental health, and sharing these with the stakeholder community, this research provided an opportunity to generate awareness and data for future use in the planning and implement ation of responsible management strategies. Ethnographic observati on and participatory engagement Primary Sites Field Sites Secondary Sites S.E.A. (host org.) office Little Water Caye Research Station Orange Walk, Belize Extended stay a ccommodation Buttonwood Caye Annual Lionfish Tournament Local centric eateries Regional tourist destinations Annual Lobster F est (2016) Tourist centric eateries Sarteneja, Belize Harvest Caye Table 5 : Practicum Field Sites

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 34 During ethnographic research activities, persons were observed ac ting and interacting within the Placencia conservation management areas and beyond (Table 5 ) These o bservation s took place over 96+ hours, across 12 Sites, with 75% time focused on 8 sites. Specific attention was placed on practices an d behaviors of tourists, fishers, hospitality agents, environmental manager s, non governmental agencies, ex patriat e s and non seasonal residents (Table 6 ) Documenting these experiences helped to understand the general practices and behaviors o f representatives within the populations displayed in Placencia, Belize. Observ ations took place through (both passive and active) engagements of stakeholders and the attendance of key stakeholder meetings and community events as described in Table 6 This method supports specific objective 1 Stakeholder Interviews Group 1: Belize Entities Group 2: Individuals Group 3: Presentation Attendees N.G.O. A ffiliates Local R esidents Community: Village Council Conservation Area Managers Fisher F olk Community: Real Estate Protected Areas Conservation Trust (staff) Hospitality Sector A ffiliates Community: Owners/Operators Ministry of Environment Tourism Sector A ffiliates Resource Managers Tourism Board Ex Patriots /Foreign Nationals Institutional Researchers Fishing Cooperative Development Sector Affiliates Semi str uctured and informal interviews NGOs 38 Long term Residents 15 Regulators 3 Business Personnel 14 Total n = 84 Real Estate 6 Others 8 Table 6 : Stakeholder Interviews Stakeholder M eetings The stakeholder meeting was a key moment to share information identified, compiled, and summarized during the field practicum experience. Through this space, stakeholder representatives, including fisheries management, tourism, recreation, and local indust ry p ersonnel had an opportunity to present departmental findings and discuss resource management considerations and its associated implications. This method supports specific objective 3 and 4. Improving information availability and awaren ess of coordina ted community stakeholder activities could lead to positive impacts on the present and future health of the ecosystems and economic opportunities within the area (Pomeroy & Douvere 2008) When participating in directorial and inter departmental meetings, d iscussions ranged across a spectrum of environmental quality

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 35 issues, regulations, and anticipated policy updates. The topics included fisheries health and management, terrestrial social/cultural impacts of development, an d species specific research support initiatives. The audience normally included local stakeholders, volunteers, and regional management agents, in varied combinations. Structured, semi structured, and informal interviews Stakeholder interviews represented a significant opportunity to learn from a varie ty of experiences. Many of the stakeholders participating were previously engaged by S.E.A. The makeup of these interview s was approximately 3: 4 (men : women). Per Institutional Review Board ( IRB ) protocol s, individual contributions re main anonymous within published and preliminary practicum documents. This method supports specific objective s 1 and 2. Interviews with community stakeholders were instrumental to this practicum to gain a more detailed understanding of the knowledge, perceptions, concerns, and the conservation centric motivations of local stakeholders. These stakeholders are present within the Placencia conservation management area. Some of these persons had previous en gagements with partner organizations. Interview data were coded and responses were assigned numeric representations. See Table #6 for list of stakeholders by category. Focus Groups (=3) Focus groups represented an opportunity to gather additional types of data, outside of wh at would be obtained during one on one interviews. Focus groups were utilized on three occasions The first was for a group of ( 5 ) fishermen on Button Wood Caye. Fishermen were native to Placencia, 2 nd 4 th generation fishermen, an d between 18 and 82 years of age. Each participant came with a range of personal experience that provided a unique perspective. The second was ( 3 ) S.E.A. Marine Enforcement Rangers. The rangers were male between 22 and 32 years of age. All were native Bel izeans and 2 nd generation conservationists. The third instan ce was a group of (4) local men, with an age range of 22 35 years. All local men engaged in the third focus group had children and grew up in Placencia. These persons were not directly engaged in any conservation centric activities in the region. T he answers obtained within the 3 focus groups helped to fill in some know ledge gaps, but also created new ones related to dualities across generational perceptions of sustainable management and resource development outcomes The qualitative data presented some rich results and re shaped e arly assumptions within the practicum. This method supports specific objective 2.

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 36 Oral History Informal and oral history experiences were an opportunity to: Compile testimonials as to how priorities change (and why) ( see appendix # 2 for questions ) Analyze how changes in relationships among stakeholders impact conservation Determine where management and monitoring do ( or do not ) align across stakeholders Unders tand what individuals within different cultures and subcultures hold as priorities Field Sampling Field sampling data collected, observed, and assessed included data related to: Coral (species composition and environmental health status) Seasonal c ommercial h arvests: Conch, Lobster, Snapper, Cucumber Seasonal p opulation d ata Conch, Lobster, Snapper, Cucumber Bleached c oral (coastal w ash up ) Commercial b y catch Whale Shark & Manatee Terrestrial and marine p lastics Lionfish p opulation data Crocodilians Table 7 : Field Data Collection Summary T hese field sampling variables (Table 7 ) directly correlate with local representations and assessments of environmental health. Species and data sampled reflect different arenas within coastal ecology and livelihood strategies. For example, (S.P.A.G.S.) data help to compare annual gain s or differences in spawning populations, since the last comprehensive SPAGS collection cycle (2006 ) The s e data help to determine the lengths of season for commercial harvest and hel p assess biodiversity health within each management zone. Field data efforts were primarily centered within the G S S C M R and Placencia Lagoon. Some data were provided with the support of the Univ ersity of Belize Calabash Caye R ese arch S tation, Southern Environmental Association, University of South Florida, Belize Tourism Asso ciation, a variety of NGOs and those deemed appropriate by the Scientific Research Pr ogram M anager for S.E.A. a nnual field data collection activities are also a princip al effort of S.E.A. volunteers and program managers. This method supports specific objective 3. Literature Review This practicum was focused on providing a holistic analysis of development challenges and opportunities within the Placencia management zone. That attempt requires as broad base of literature with underpinnings of social, ecologic, and biologic reference dimensions. Research was heavily reliant on pee r rev iewed and grey literature c entrally related to Belize and Caribbean Latin American communities The literature review section draws on a variety of sources, all primarily directed towards understanding coastal conservation in the context of

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 37 Central American management strategies, n amely those utilized by the Belize Ministry of the Environment. The s election of literature included over 300 documents such as national development plans /strategies information al news articles, peer reviewed publications and existing/pending legislation (s) Local literature from organizations or institutions helped to offer regional a perspective that was not as accessible with in scholarly or online platforms Literature Analysis Table 8 provides a basic summary of literature realms and bodies of work that were utilized during analysis of development pathways within southern Belize Due to the extreme difficulty of finding an assessment that comprehensively provides each of these dimensions, it wa s important to build a relationship amongst litera ture that focused within the b roader context of the research. As noted, r esearch materials were primarily through peer reviewed resources and local grey literature. However, local new s publications were par amount to understanding socio political dynamics stakeholder perspective and regional perception s of environmental challenges. A developed knowledge of oceanography, biolo gy, ecology, cultural and socio economic dynamics were essential to improving resear ch analysis and outcomes. A princip al source reference for the practicum was the Soc ioeconomic Monitoring (SocMon) Report for Coastal M anagers in the Caribbean (Bunce and Pomeroy 2003) NOAA, the World Commission for Protected Areas, and the Global Reef Coral Monitorin g Network developed this report. I t provides detailed information on the historic conte xt of Caribbean reef management. M ore importantly it proposes management and monitoring practices for the region while highlighting stakeholder percepti on across various socio ecologic issues This method supports specific objectives 1,2, and 4. Literature Groupings: Table 8 : Categorical Literature Grouping Group 1: Society Group 2: Economy Group 3: Environment Group 4: Dev. Admin Historical reference Ecological valuation Caribbean ecology Regulatory legislation Leadership development Belize import/e xport Environmental education Caribbean development Human waste streams Caribbean economic dev. Human d imensions of mgmt Coastal urban resources Cultural reference guides Tourism and h ospitality Marine p lastics Planning and d evelopment Regional (grey) literature Foreign economic relations Diseases of warm water fish Non profit administration National (grey) literature Oceanography

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 38 Re sults and Discussion Through my h ost organization ( S.E.A ) I gained access to administrators and field representatives across a variety of agencies (see appendix 7 ) Understanding t he challenges, opportunities, and attitudes of these environmental managers helped me to gain a more complete (and complex) picture of Belize conservation limitations and opportunities around Placencia Village, Placencia Lagoon, and the G.S.S.C.M.R. (see: Table 9, Appendix 9). What Key Resources Are Being Used? Who Uses These Resources? Are There Perceived Conflicts? Housing Residential: Short/Long Term Housing Rentals Land New Development, across sectors: Residential, Retail, and Commercial Aquaculture Intensification Plantation based Agricultural Intensification Solid Waste Deposition Local Residents Foreign born, Emerging Residents Small Business Owners Industrialists Domestic Real Estate Developers Foreign Development Investors Governmental Minimal Federal Intervention Limited Jurisdictional Oversight Limited Regulatory Enforcement Economic Gentrification Land Use Intensification Limited Labor Mobility Social Complacent Stakeholder Attitudes Limited Cross Stakeholder Dialogue Flora Red Seaweed ( Euchemia isiforme ) Fauna Over 25 Species, Across 4 Phylum Commercial Producers (Seaweed Farms) Individual Consumers Regional Distributors Commercial Scale Consumers (Food and Cosmetics) Governmental Minimal Federal Intervention Limited Enforcement Capacity Economic Marine Resource Intensification Poaching and Illegal Market Trade Social Limited Cross Stakeholder Dialogue Preparation Mangrove Restoration Initiatives Improving Conservation Programs Climate Adaptation Genetically Improved Coral ( Acropora sp.) Regional Managers Protected Area Rangers Organization Volunteers Conservation Scientists Governmental Limitations in Data Sharing Focus on Growth Over Sustainability Economic Limited Data Limited Capital to Address Future Challenges Imports Communication Technologies Low Nutritional Value Commodities Medicines Single use Plastics. Foreign Industrialists Regional Manufacturers Regional Distributors Small Business Owners Individual Consumers Governmental Minimal Federal Intervention Limited Jurisdictional Oversight Limited Enforcement Capacity Economic Limited Product Data (Pollution/Safety) Table 9 : Stakeholder Resource Use Summary

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 39 Specific Objective 1 : Understand how stakeholders are using resources. Placencia has quickly become a premier destination for tourists, retirees, expats, and multi national entities such as Norwegian Cruise lines (Little, 2010) The rate of development in the region has been staggering, which has paved the way for threats tha t include rapidly changing culture, diminishing resources, shifting biodiversity migratory patterns, increased pollution, and marginalized livelihood strategies (Sheppard, 2009) Placencia village has many logistical challenges regarding sustainabilit y and long term development within stakeholder use (Table 9 ) While external wealth brings opportunity it also inflates land values and cost of living. Many of these castles on the beach are seasonal homes that are occupied less than 4 months out of the yea r, often by expats from Canada an d the United States. Some (expatriated) stakeholders within the community limited /bound the village cou ncil capacities to levy municipal which were formerly collect ed on new housing deve lopment thereby limiting the value of foreign investment to the municipal government. These fees were utilized for education and infrastructural improvements resulting in loss of revenues and capacities to perform services. Fo reign commercial and re sidential property de velopment agencies have impact ed the market pric e for goods and services, causing inflation and making regional investment less accessible to local/low income populations (wttc.org) There are eminent concerns about lack of infrastructure on Placencia and Mango creek for cruise ship tourism influx ( i.e. no public bathrooms). Within the Stann Creek District, employment opportunities are limited, e specially outside of Placencia, as San Beight and Mango Creek lack any centralized economic drivers. Wages are lo w and living expenses are increasing P ersons who are eligible for employment may be limited to low level retail, hospitality, construction, fishing, and tourism centered positions (Theriault, 2007) For Belize, the problem of co astal sustainable development stems from issues related to limitations in: economic growth, management resources and regulatory accountability (Table 9 ) The topic of coastal sustainability in Belize is imp ortant because it provides the backbone for a majority of economic and ecological services within the country (Cisernos Montemayor, 2013). It is in the point of view of this author that coastal Belize has a spectrum of research data and internal capacities that can be utilized to improve long term development outcomes wit hin the region

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 40 Development has improved some elements of ec onomic mobility and opportunity within Placencia and Belize as a whole There is more seasonal income generated within households than was available in the preceding decades. However, the types of (seasonal) positions available lack the economic foundation s that would require any specialist training resources or would be conducive to technical servi ce industries. Tourism funds provide short term economic opportunities within the community, but fail to effectively support those withi n the sector during nor do they sustain a household throughout a full calendar year. Specific Objective 2: Improve visibility of ho w stakeholde rs monitor, manage, and develop resources. Table 10 (below) provides a summary of the resources being monitored and by which organizations and/or agencies. By understanding the role(s) each group supports, we can see how the (informally integrated) network s function overall. For collection (or pursuit) of any protected species, there are protocols. For example, m anagement of the G.S.S.C.M.R. include s a permitting process for commercial fisherman and tour operators. This is facilitated thr ough a decentralized monitoring system, which is primarily managed by the local co management partner within each zone (Dept. of Fisheries, 2016) Monitored Resource Monitoring Agent(s) How Are They Managing ? How Are They Developing ? What are the anticip ated Environmental Impacts ? Coral (Living) Fragments of Hope Quarterly evaluations and specific site restorations Improving genetics for more resilience in target species. Warming waters, resulting in Significant, long term degradation (>100 years) Coral ( Bleached ) No comprehensive or coordinated monitoring Data collection by U. of Belize and Fragments of Hope No Action Impacts are unabated. Continued Destabilization and loss of target species Plastics Pollution No comprehensive or coordinated monitoring Randomized Seasonal (volunteer) Cleanups No Action Impacts are unabated. Significant, long term degradation (>100 years) Seasonal Commercial Species Harvests Placencia Producers Cooperative Ministry of Fisheries and the Environment Annual evaluations by ministry Accelerated decline in all commercially harvested species Seasonal (species) Population Data S.E.A. Belize. Spawning Aggregation Data Collection No management. Observation and reporting only. Recommendations submitted to ministry by managing partner Migratory patterns will change with destabilizing weather and climate events Commercial by catch S.E.A. Belize and Dept. of Fisheries Case by case reporting, Penalty for illegal use of Gillnets Some legislative and local action, but mostly unabated By catch will continue to be a problem, esp. with illegal fishing. Aves Belize Audubon Society Volunteer birders and monitoring team Legislative protection and re introduction is limited to a few keystone species. Loss of habitat and caloric resource due to logging, pet trade, and anthropocentric development

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 41 Monitored Resource Monitoring Agent(s) How Are They Managing ? How Are They Developing ? What are the anticipated Environmental Impacts ? Chordates S.E.A Belize Observation of nesting sites Tracking nesting, legislative protection Sea turtles will continue to be protected, but impacted by boat injury as by catch, and anthropocentric development Crocodilians Crocodile Research Coalition Highly consistent audits/data collection Data collection and publications Research is better than ever, public perception and education need help Whale Shark S.E.A. Belize and Tourism operators Daily reporting into central database Data collection and publications Will continue to be of economic benefit, but migration patterns may change. Manatee S.E.A Belize, Sea to Shore Alliance Push for better habitat protection Community education and data collection Annual loss is greater than gain. Eventual collapse w/o protections. Lionfish S.E.A. Belize Annual management events only. Highly inconsistent progress Technologies are improving; management strategies are not. Eventual overtake of the system. Unabated apex predator. Table 10 : Regional Resource Monitoring Assessment Three key areas have been identified as foundational to influencing the sustainability of the Peninsula. These include factors related to environmental, regulatory, and economic limitations. It is important to recognize that each area is comprised of ( respective and overlapping ) ecological systems and inter dependent services Placencia Village, the Placencia Lagoon, and the Gladden Split Si lk Caye Marine Reserve comprise the basis for the biological stability, cultural traditions and economic drivers for the southern peninsular region Belize (w ri.org ) Limited awareness of the importance and inherent challenges within the capacity to manage these systems as a whole may have negative consequences for conservation managers seeking holistic and sustainable development outcomes for the district Challenges within cross scale and long term sustainable management in Belize Short term political cyc les versus coordination of long term environmental interventions Illegal logging, terrestrial and marine mining, and deforestation impacts Urbanization challenges resulting in increased illegal activity Illegal fishing and marine by catch Limited development of stakeholder pathways for intervention Significant coastal terrestrial development impacts to native flora, fauna, and topography Limited accountability to remediation of marine plastics and terrestrial waste impacts Limited availability of environmental management training and occupational mobility Table 11 : Sustainable Management Challenges

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 42 Monitoring Resources and Limitations The most recent tool for management is a nationally developed color cod ed delineated zone map (fig ure 13) This figure provide s visual context for a site specific permitted authorization for vessels, based on color and nation of origin. The new system hopes to curtail foreign exploitation of the management zones as well as improving the ability for enforcement personnel to effecti vely monitor their designated areas. Figure 13: Coastal Managed Access Zone Map T he majority of Belizean regulatory agencies appear to have small professional staff, limited budgets, and big caseloads. Agency f unding s trategies for management partners have evolved, but change is slow and the challenges are great. Even with developing legislation, there is little cross ministry (Tourism, Environment, Fisheries, Defense) communication towards collective ev aluation of regulations so l oopholes in policies will continue to be difficult to address. Much of the information garnered related to legislation and local issue s were derived from federal, gra y, and peer reviewed literature sources. However, there i s no central repository to obtain this and a few other private holdings The extractive use of domestic marine product s and services, taken from management zones and expo rted to foreign markets, raises lo cal prices and reduces a vailability in the local economy ( amandala.com ). This export process has resulted in annual reduction in the size, quantity, and distribution of commercial species such as grouper, tuna, lobster, conch, and sea cucumber

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 43 ( Spagsbelize.org ). In addition to th e above referenced monitoring challenges, illegal fishing and the use of gillnets have resulted in significant reductions in the species health and biological diversity within the G.S.S.M.R ( Chanona, 2015; Humes 2016 ; Channel5Belize ). Funds are limited for moni toring and surveillance However, t hrough the strategic implementation of technical solutions within educational t raining programs and community initiatives we can open source some of the most difficult aspects of operational planning & budgetary c onsiderations. Furthermore, there is a need for organizations to hold visiting researchers more accountable in sharing results and technical contributi ons when engaging communities There should be a greater emphasis on being proactive in external and netw ork (solutions oriented) strategies. Residents are burned out on the waves of white researchers Development of volunteer s via community mobilization initiatives and extension services will also help to improve education and sustainable pathways. The v illage should find mechanisms of accountability for national government engagement Major revenue streams have been removed from the village and capital inefficienc ies continue on the highest levels of national governments. Youth engagement is another central opportunity. Like the U.S. Boy scouts there can be would improve local level s of education, commitment, and capacity, as well as increasing grassroots power, action, and messaging. While arbitration, remediation, and conservation are all very expensive; they appear to be critical pieces in how to sustain Placencia management area s for future generations. O ne must realize the implications that un mitigated climate change may bring about Stakeholders should be prepared to face those challenges with the appropriate science, technology, and adaptive management strategies, if they are to avoid worst case scenarios of climate change wit hin managed systems. Specific Objective 3: Observe and support socio environmen tal data collection within management zone( s ) Figure 14 presents a summary of stakeholder responses during qualitative interviews related to perceived threats to sustainable management within the region. Interviews were

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 44 coded, analyzed, and categorized based on statements provided out of a maximum of 84 respondents (y axis) as associated with the frequency/rate subject matter was discussed Figure 14 : (Stakeholder Reported) Threats to Sustainable Management Environmental concerns were based i n degradation of the ecosystem, limited capacity of biodiversity to sustain pressures, and the forecasted challenges presented by climate c hange (bleaching, species loss, disease, parasites, invasive species encroachment, etc.). Economic limitations included the array of foreign pressures juxtaposed upon the c ountry and domestic populations, representing some of the challenges of global comme rcial market linkages, which create advanced levels of complexity regarding the countries long term economic success and ecological wellbeing ( 2001) Negative perception of foreign investment coupled with seasonal or part time low wage jobs for locals, is exacerbated by the construction of seasonal homes for moderate to significantly affluent foreign residents, whom tend to contribute very little to the financial well being of the local economy (Roe, 2008) The color coding in figure 15 (below) is based on the designation of 8 realms of concern into 3 principle arenas : environmental, regulatory, and economic limitations. The included graphics layered onto this chart provide visual representation of some principle challenges. The major ity of respondents (70) cite environmental stability as a major category of concern, but economic (55) and regulatory (30) constraints were also substa ntial, especially among stakeholders, within hospitality, tourism, and other service sectors.

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 45 Figure 1 5: Stakeholder Reported Challenges to Sustainable Development Related to socio economics, w ithin Placencia Village, observations and interviews su ggest many of the bars, hotels, restaurants and groceries are owned by foreign born persons, typically expatriates from the United States, Canada, China, and Europe. Foreign residents are granted a one time duty free exclusion in the import of personal goods, at the point of relocation into the country ( Moreno, 2005 ). Transnational companies dominate the real estate markets and investment agencies have secur ed a majority of available tract s of land across the peninsula. Foreign Government Influence s Present, but not immediately apparent are the political associ ations between the Belize Government, The Peoples Republic of China, and The Government of Taiwan. For example, Taiwan has recently (2016) made substantial governmental donations to wards development of Belize government facilities, including $3 million (us d) towards the construction of a new governmental building ( SanpedroSun.com, Channel5Belize ). Chinese goods are subsidized and imported duty free, which creates market advantages for imported goods that fiscally competitive over those goods available from local vendors ( Sanchez, 2016 ). These agreements reduce the net income potential and employment opportunities within Placencia and beyond. Agreements with the Chinese government have encouraged thousands of Chinese nationals into Belize. The Chinese gover nment has inve sted over 6.3 Billion Dollars

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 46 with Caribbean governments ( Archibold, 2012 ) and provide subsidized ( interest free ) five year loans to those ( Chinese Nationals ) willing to relocate ( Sutherland, 1998 ). Throughout Placencia and the country as a whole, you see the predominanc e of the Chinese groceries and m sub standard in factors related to quality and cleanliness. However, newer construction and storefront markets d emonstrate very westernized styles that are clean, enclosed, and have improved selections of goods. Interviews with Chinese born market owners suggest that f or those who came from rural areas of China, the ability to make money abroad in Belize is far grea ter than any opportunity they may have been provided back home. that resulted in the closing of many locally/Belizean owned grocers. Despite the significant growt h in the Chines e population, there is minimal strategic coordination, discussion of business matters, or the formation of associations within th ese communities/ demographic s The result is a thereby facilitating excess vendors into saturating market s. unfavorable. There is no love lost from the receiving end. One interviewed Chinese National, who owns grocery space on the Peninsula, many in the Chinese Belize community. Many of these storeowners send money back home every month, work 50 + hours per week and minimize interactions with other Chinese Nationals. Despite being the significant concentration of wealth within Placencia Village, the council and community relinquish the majority of funds to the state managing authorities (election s.gov.bz ) Government Facilitated Burdens For Placencia the loss of sovereign rights to manage their own water board resulted in tens of thousands of dollars being removed from community projects and programs annually. Expatriation of taxes delays critica l infrastructure projects, such as the construction of a sewage system ( saveourpeninsula.org ; fiwebelize.com ). T his management strategy has also removed the power to facilitate bidding for utilit y service development contracts, from the village council.

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 47 I management structures. A council governs each municipality type, but villages are not afforded the same protections or level of internal decision making as cities or towns ( Key, 1994 ). This has resulted in key funding mechanisms, such as the water board and a majority of taxes being removed from the community to be managed and used primarily by national and district government towards projects of their own discretion. These limitations impact investment in natural resource management and community development projects Qualita tive evidence obtained during informal interviews suggests that regulatory impact of government facilitated contracts onto the community causes significant fiscal a nd environmental inefficiencies within projects and stakehol der confidence at large. P roject s are ci ted as often running over cost due to exploitative contractors w hom may win bid s based in nepotistic or familiar relationships between firms and the governmental agents responsible for assigning contracts. Even without familiar relationships, cont ractors are criticized as bidding low and quickly running over budget. This often results in the partial completion of projects or significant funds being absorbed during the administrative process and reflects limits to accountability Impacts to Terres trial Flora For more than a decade, b uilt and pre construction lots have rapidly replaced a majority of non developed areas within the southern areas of the peninsula. Many of these lots are barren of native grasses, with vegetation replaced with Hibiscus and other ornamentals equating to an extent of >60% loss in vegetation across a 4.3mi (7 km) area. In tandem, the loss of mangroves or replacement of mangroves with rip rap and seaw alls has attributed to loss of sub aquatic flora (within impact zones) which may be reliant on stability of the local hydrology. From 2001 to the present, real estate development and foreign investment have compounded ecological pressures and tourism related impacts ( William s, 2016 ). Such significant and rapid economic development brings about environmental challenges and concerns. The ecosystem services contribute to almost every industry represented within Placencia (Sheppard, 2009) The biological significance of marine areas as spawning and breeding site s are under pressure due to the rapid expansion of (terrestrial) construction development, habitat removal, and reduction in

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 48 the quality and volume of services, due to the impacts of human and environmental degradation ( Sanchirico, 2009 ) Figure 16 reflects observed development s during the summer of 2016. Figure 16 : Residential and Commercial Construction, 2016 Impacts to Terrestrial Fauna a) Lepidoptera species, including (1) Cloudless Sulplur and (2) King Swallowtail seem to be prevalent. However, populations of (3) (5) and many natives have seen dramatic reduction in territory and native caloric resources ( Primack, 2013; Farnsworth, 1991 ) Quantitative analysis of these populations coupled with a historically parallel relationship with development lends to the hypothesis that migratory and non migratory populations are declining across the peninsula and beyond b) Anecdotal evidence provided by Belize Audubon and aquaculture facilities management suggests that avian populations a nd migration patterns have shifted significantly over the past 15 20 years into undisturbed territories and/or private aquaculture (shrimp) land holdings. c) P ersonal observations (20) witnessed strange bee behavior that includes disorientation, the los s of balance, flight capabilit y, and eventual death. Anecdotal evidence suggests the challenges with the bees should be attributed to use of herbicides, which are used to remove native grasses ( deemed ) out of lots. M ore research would need to be co mpleted in order to determine true causality. Loss of pollinators has long standing impacts on endemic vegetation.

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 49 d) Amphibian populations are signif icantly lower on the peninsula as compared to Mango Creek and other less developed areas. There are appr ox. 7 9 lots, occupying a combined < 14 hect ares that you can hear the calls of frogs and toads. This is total area within the lower 2.5 kilometers of the peninsula. At the rate of development, there will be a steady reduction in amphibians on the southern most poi nt of the peninsula. Endemic populations will have to shift North towards San Beight or face extirpation e) Manatee populations are relatively stable, compared to previous years, but with their long gestation and calf rearing cycles, coupled with the increasing boat impacts /fatalities and poaching, population morbidity is anticipated to go from 5 10 deaths annually to approximately 15 20 (Sea2shore.org) This is from a total national population of less than 6000. The forecasted result is a s ignificant challenge into the genetic diversity and stability within these populations. Specific Objective 4: Review the Caribbean Soci oeconomic Monitoring Report and provide an analysis of data results, via a public presentation, to stakeholders and managers. What is Socioeconomic Monitoring? their relationship to coastal and marine resources. Coordinated by the University of West Indies, socioeconomic training workshops are planned throughout the region for coastal managers to learn how to use SocMon. These workshops are followed by the development of SocMon Caribbean Socioeconomic Monitoring (SocMon) Reports proved useful in understanding the quantitative data that reflects coastal environmental health of certain key species. This resource is a central tool for coastal resource managers in Be lize. In Placencia, SPAGS surveys and SOCMON manuals are both pathways to engage volunteers in social and environmental awareness initiatives. The majority of biodiversity data reviewed on species of snapper and grouper which came from the database or from (individual) partners within the larger working group. See Appendix 7 for Full SocMon Report Summary SocMon resource users could benefit from online video tutorials and in person training events that are regionally specific. Use of these di gital and in person resources provide more intentional training and framew ork s for persons interested in conducting SocMon surveys. Educational p latform s for dissemination of (aggregated and nation specific) findings should be made available to regional, national, and international users of SocMon surveys in order to better asse ss broader impact analysis and contributing factors to challenges highlighted by participants Attendants of the capstone presentation identified logistical capacity gaps t hat require long term attention and a reas where the i nterpretation of the information may need more development such

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 50 as the focus on alternative industries and mechanisms of governmental/corporate accountability This meeting spa ce and information session was intended to foster a stronger foundation for meaningful community int eraction and participation in the decision making process related to resource use (present and future) ( Deidrich 2007 ). The stakeholder event included a presentation of quantitative and qualitative findings, as developed during the practicum. Discussion : G ood Governance Now and going into an uncertain future, good governance will play a critical role in facilitating long term positive outcomes for the region, its resources, and inhabitants. Like many coastal communities, the regional villages are heavily r eliant on the natural resource basins, but are limited by a negative feedback loop. The health and quality of ecosystems are sensitive to anthropogenic input and withdrawal. Extraction and impact is necessary for production. Placencia is by many accounts rate s of development and management attempts at coastal resource sustainability Regulations and best practices have in many ways taken a back seat to land grabbing and the maximization of personal /privatized utility. However, it is not unlike many other small coastal settlements that are facing similar issues across the globe (Theriault, 2007; Lopez Quiros, 2005; Lck & Kirstges, 2003 ) Belize has a great opportunity to foster collaboration and innovation towards sol utions to coastal threats, while maintaining economic gains and long term positive community development strategies. Despite a spectrum of chal lenges, the region is resilient. There are dozens of committed residents and environmental managers eager to fost er a vibrant Placencia. Much of the context within my analysis can be seen within goals 12 1 6 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Through responsible consumption and production ( 12 ), that gives consideration to changes within the climate ( 13 ), we can support a healthy ecosystem that

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 51 provides a high level of quality to life below water ( 14 ), which in turn supports a high quality of life (economically, socially, ecologically) on land ( 15 ), which starts with responsible consumption and productio n ( 12 ) Goal 16 is most related to the responsible governance of institutions and is a cornerstone of sustaining progress within the other goals emphasized within this practicum. Locating pathways to political will and accountability start with effective communication and coalition development. Organizing within the community goes a long way in addre ssing challenges, building stakeholder consensus, and increasing public pressures on elected representatives Some examples of that low hanging fruit include the Seaweed farms and sea grass/food waste composting efforts, both of which make use of an existing resource that can result in economic and ecologic benefits for the area. Other examples include the emerging development of nurseries related to building g rouper, sea cucumber, and shrimp populations, the commercialization of lionfish, consumer initiatives like the better bag challenge, and adoption of compostable/biodegradable cutlery and containers by restaurants, monetization of plastics debris etc. There are many opportunities to build markets. S.E.A. for example will be renting kayaks and hosting a gift shop on Laughing Bird Caye and there is a local school initiative to make sunscreen (Guleph, 2016; Ruitenbeek, 2001) More t han 40% of NGOS in Belize rely on the Protected Areas Conservation Trust (P.A.C.T.) for funding. Within the budgets of those enforcement partners receiving funding, 60% or more of monitoring associated expenses were often related to fuel and equipment maintenance St udents, volunte ers, and researchers provide fiscal offsets and much o f the needed capacity to the benefit of users and managers. S.E.A, P.A.C.T., and other managemen t organizations should work to expand funding sources and grants solicitation in order to better engage te chnical trainings and improved access to innovative monitoring solutions, such as stationary or remote surveillance One of the biggest approaches Belize could take for the long term health and sustainable outcomes of the Meso American Reef and Gladden S plit Silk Caye Marine Reserve: Let it rest! The resource is battered year after year, season after season, with no breaks. Across the world, we are beating our resource basins into extinction With certain exclusionary cl auses made available for locals, al beit with reduced catch limits, Belize and m ost other nations need to work

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 52 towards shifting livelihood strategies wherever possible to give the system a few generations to rest and recover If we want these amazing gifts to last, we must give back every on ce and again. Additionally, designation of key resource areas, including the Placencia Lagoon will foster better long term outcomes for the associated environments that already benefit from protection status. The community should be empowered by education al opportunities, related to how and why the biome functions the way it does and how they can help to conserve it. Within the same vein as sa fe and healthy infrastructure, c ities have to be smarter, efficient, a nd more sustainable. The impact of u rban activity on coastal biomes is gargantuan. By working to empower communities and improve the sustainab ility of urban and rural centers of production, we help to mitigate some of the burden s associated with climate change In turn facilitating responsib l e environmental governance, healthier ecosystems and more resilient biodiversity. Ultimately, we must give our resources some time to rest and recover from the decades of intensive extraction. Socio cultural challenges In the minds of some interviewed stakeholders, the value of bringing in foreign markets and illicit goods supersede the value of ecological stability. One interviewed man, a father of two in his mid e s tate agent suggested, encou ntered was soliciting foreigners towards the prostitution of his (female) cousin, whom was seemingly there under duress and not of her own free will. The mentalities demons trated by these perspectives have long term sociological implications. Degradation of communities through substance abuse, economic depression, limi ted mobility, influx of foreign goods all contribute to a heavier reliance on external sources of satisfaction and avenues of complacency Belize is a country that is still culturally engrained with many patriarchal attitudes regarding gender dynamics. Ob servations and qualitative interviews suggest that domestic violence and cultural presumptions of the capacities and roles of women in society are still challenging ideas of equality between genders. These attitudes may be changing, thank s to improved educ ation and empowerment opportunities available within the classroom, community, and professional realms

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 53 ectly reflect on the communities wellbeing and quality of future in teractions between stakeholders W ithin the Belize Tourism Board, the majority of local respondents favored overnight (small group and individual based) tourism activity for the region. However, Placencia is now slated to be a premier large scale cruise sh ip destination. This low economic input model fails to factor in local capacities for contending with the influx and frequency of foreign visitors. foreign and domestic entities. Within the thread of complacency, mobilization and the ability to maintain momentum within social moveme nts is difficult within Belize a s reflected by the absence of mainstream social and environmental justice initiatives. This field practicum served to support the unification of some of that data through the identification of potential measures to bolster stakeholder networks and highlight pitfalls that may be impeding development capacity Collaboration throughout conservation initiatives, co management frameworks, and local/regional community networks will prove fundamental in the sustainable use and conservation strategies withi n the M.A.R. ( seabelize.org ) By having reliable data on important resources, environmental conditions, and shared knowledge of best practices, stakeholders can come together to collaboratively recover and sustainably manage coastal systems ( Caddy 2007 ). Sustainable development and community centered management approaches will require better cooperation, volunteer driven dissemination of information, and improvement of the enforcement and fines structure in place.

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 54 Conclusions and Recommendations The overall objective of this practicum was to help improve the level of information available to Coastal Resource Managers (CRMs) and encourage its collective use. At conclusion, this practicum will have provided S.E.A. Belize and it s management partners with a report on key coastal resources and how they may be impacted over time. This synthesized report include s supporting documents on monitoring activities, analysis of water qua lity data, and a list of qualitative recommendations, derived from the stakeholder discussion s or personal immersion The principal differences between the results and the conclusions of this fiel d practicum relate to the scales and timelines by which certain things are being felt now versus what will be v isible to the public, in the decade s to come Re sults of this practicum and conclusions reflect social and biological trends as they are currently and forecasted into the near future, based on short term development and historical trends reflected within t he data. It is hoped that stakeholders will be made aware of and gain access to an increased level of data related to key conservation management areas around Placencia Vil lage. This data will help to disseminate current and emerging trends affecting con servation and to promote the management status of the Placencia lagoon as a designated marine protected area. Most importantly, dissemination of this information to stakeholders within the communities utilizing the resource may support a stronger foundatio n for community stakeholder participation Much of what is being experienced on the peninsula is symptomatic of caused by ra pid and unmitigated development Many of the challenges discuss ed have solutions in process, but progress is slow Some examples include a variety of legislation being proposed and implemented to address use of marine sys tems, forest products, etc. A sewer system will eventually get installed to replace the aging septic systems However, ther e are political and bureau cratic barriers to the rapid adoption of innovations, coupled with cultural limitations to grassroots mobilization. Foreign governments and agents have the capacity to make ( unanticipated ) modifications to the system and local populations by the fundamen tal nature and variables associated with rates of interventions imposed within policy frameworks, granting of extractive use access and other

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 55 economically driven demands. Well developed policy can have powerful effects on the future capacity of the regional ecosystem s to produce services as related to the human role in ecosystem management If further developed and properly dis seminated, the findings from this Belize based field practicum experience would have economic and legislative ( regulatory ) i mplications: 1) A recommendation to reduce season lengths, catch limits, and foreign export policy would have negative (short term) economic implications for the country and the fisher folk, while having positive (long term) environmental impacts, but coul d be further challenged by people acting illegally or outside the law to maximize personal fiscal and resource gains. 2) A recommendation to mitigate foreign impact through the increase (and localization) of property taxes, closing property sales from f oreign investors, and provision of exemptions to local persons seeking loans, properties, etc Each would have policy implications within na tional legislation. Dualistically it would also provide a basis for opposition fr om foreign private agents, result i ng in the potential losses for foreign businesses established on the peninsula, but would also prospectively empower locals to reclaim space s that many no longer feel they can call home. More effective zoning regulations may help create enforceable standar ds across interests. 3) A recommendation to improve monitoring of fisheries through advancements in technology, management capacities, and capital resource allocation would have positive implications with training services, allocations to annual budgets, capital inputs to manag ing agencies, increased logistical/administrative support, and technical resources for repai r of equipment. None of which is cheap or simple. Advancements in technological innovations and solutions will go a long way, but are likely not to be as rapidly adopted in Belize. Improving neighbor relations and advancing dialogue and communication pathways through volunteer service and shared visions will provide examples to static governments while also providing additional mechanisms of ac countability. Conclusions are deep and have implications across extended timelines. You can see changes in the population and ecosystem s but it is those secondary and tertiary connections that will play the biggest role in long term outcomes. The future reality of Placencia is one that must be cognizant of impacts related to t rade deals, foreign investment, access of services opportun ities for locals, forecasted climate variability limits to growth, shared accountability, and the development of a long term infrastructure that does no t have to be intensively maintained With knowledge, power, and adequate resources, a more sus tainable Placencia is possible!

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 56 Bibliography 1. Almada Villelea, Patricia; McField, Melanie, et al, 2002. Status of Cora l Reefs of MesoAmerica Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. 2002. https://www.researchgate.net/publicat ion/233612503_Coral_response_during_and_after_mass_bleaching_i n_Belize 2. Aquaculture Stewardship Council. Audit Report. Asc aqua.org. Accessed 12/6/16. http://www.asc aqua.org/upload/3_20150415_Belize%20Aquaculture_Belize%20Aquaculture%20Farm_FINAL.pdf 3. Archibold, Randal (4/7/12). China Buys Inroads in the Caribbean, Catching U.S. Notice. New York Times. Accessed 10/1/16. http://www.nytimes.com /2012/04/08/world/americas/us alert as chinas cash buys inroads in caribbean.html 4. Belize Audubon society 2015 Annual Report. http://www.belizeaudubon.org/wp content/uploads/2016/05/BAS2015AnnualReportFinalHQ_opt.pdf Belize Audubon society 2015 Annual Report. http://www.beliz eaudubon.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/05/BAS2015AnnualReportFinalHQ_opt.pdf 5. Belize Coastal Zone Management Map. Department of Fisheries, 2016. Accessed 12/1/16. https://www.coastalzonebelize.org/wp content/uploads/2015/08/BELIZE Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan.pdf 6. Belize economy continues to shrink. 11/3/16. Amandala.com.bz. Accessed 12/5/16. http://amandala.com.bz/news/belize economy continues shrink/ 7. Belize, Fisheries Management. Reefresilience.org. Accessed 12/5/16. http://www.reefresilience.org/case studies/belize fisheries management/ 8. Belize History. The Commonwealth. Accessed 12/1/16. http://thecommonwealth.org/our member coun tries/belize/history 9. Belize National Spawning Aggregation Working Group www. SPAGBelize.org Accessed 4/23/16, 9/9/16 10. Belize Population Density, 2012. Mecometer.com. Accessed 10/16/15. http://mecometer.com/whats/belize/population denisty/ 11. Belize Tourism Board. 2014. Tourism Statistics. www.Btb.travelbelize.org Accessed 4/3 /16 12. Belize Tourism Industry Association. Placencia. Location Details. Belize Tourism Industry Association. Placencia Chapter. Accessed 4/4/16. http://www.placencia.com/location/ 13. Belize. Village Councils Act. Chapter 88. Elections.gov.bz. Accessed 12/6/16. http://www.elections.gov.bz/modules/article_publish/files/files_4918ecf979134.pdf 14. Bronfenbrenner, Urie ( 1994). International Encyclopedia of Education Vol 3, 2nd Ed Oxford: Elsevier 15. Bunce, L., P. Townsley, R. Pomeroy and R. Pollinac. 2000. Socioeconomic manual for coral reef management. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network. Australian Instutite of Marine S cience. Townsville Australia. 16. Bunce, L. and B. Pomeroy. 2003. Socioeconomic monitoring guidelines for coastal managers in the Carribean. Socmon Carribean. World Commission on Protected Areas and Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia. 17. Caddy, J .F. 2007. Marine Habitat and cover: their importance for productive coastal fishery resources. Oceanographic methodology series, 2007. Accessed 4/4/16 18. Chanona, Janelle. 2/2015. Death of Rare Shark Highlights Need for Gillnet Ban. Press Release. Oceana Beli ze. Accessed 7/3/16. http://belize.oceana.org/press center/press releases/death rare shark highlights need gillnet ban 19. Cisneros Montemayor, A. M., Kirkwood, F. G., Harper, S., Zeller, D., & Sumaila, U. R. (2013). Economic use value of the Belize marine ecosystem: Potential risks and benefits from offshore oil exploration. Natural Resources Forum, 37 (4), 221 230. doi:10.1111/1477 8947.12023 20. Cli mate. GoBelize.com. Accessed 10/1/16. http://www.gobelize.com/climate.html 21. Climate Change Related Challenges: World Wildlife Fund. WorldWildlifeFund.org. Accessed 9/06/2015 http://www.worldwildlife.org/places/mesoamerican reef 22. Coral Ecology. Coral.org. Accessed 12/5/16. http://coral.or g/coral reefs 101/coral reef ecology/types of coral reef formations/ 23. Coral Network Ecomar Belize. Ecomarbelize.org. Accessed 6/28/17. www.ecomarbelize.org/coral network.html 24. Correa, E. Status of Antillean Manatees in Belize. Ministry of the Environment. Accessed 7/14/16. http://www.marfund.org/ManateeRegionalWorkshop/g)%20ECorrea_ForestDepartment_Bel.pdf

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 57 25. Diedrich, A. 2007. "The Impacts of Tourism on Coral Reef Conservation Awareness and Support in Coastal Communities in Belize." Coral Reefs 26 (4): 985 996. doi:10.1007/s00338 007 0224 z. 26. Diedrich, A. (2010). Cruise ship tourism in belize: The implications of developing cruise ship tourism in an ecotourism destination. Ocean and Coastal Management, 53 (5), 234 244. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.04.003 27. Economic Impact 2015. Belize. World Travel & Tourism Council. Accessed 12/1/16. https://www.wttc.org/ /media/files/reports/economic%20impact%20research/countries%202015/belize2015.pdf 28. Farnsworth, E. Patterns of Herbivory in Belizean Mangrove Sw amps. University of Vermont. Biotropica 23(4b):555 567.1991. www.harvard.edu Accessed 9/17/17. http://harvardforest.fas.harvard.edu/sites/harvardforest.fas.harvard.edu/files/ellison pubs/1991/farnsworth_and_ellison_1991.pdf 29. Gibson, J., M. McField, and S. Wells. 1998. Coral Reef Management in Belize: An Approach through Integ rated Coastal Zone Management. Ocean and Coastal Management 39(3): 229 244. doi:10.1016/S0964 5691(98)00007 6. 30. Government gives Norwegian Cruise Line 25 year exclusivity. 1/23/16. Breaking Belize News. Accessed 8/4/16. http://www.breakingbelizenews.com/2016/01/23/government norwegian cruise line 25 year exclusivity/ 31. Government of Taiwan Foots Bill for Villa Fiore. 7/12/16. Channel 5 News Beli ze. Accessed 7/13/16. http://edition.channel5belize.com/archives/131892 32. Guelph, Mercury. 2016. The killing game: Spear fishing in Belize; invasive lionfish are eating local species and diver s are encouraged to hunt. 33. Granek, E., & Ruttenberg, B. (2007). Protective capacity of mangroves during tropical storms: A case study from 'wilma' and 'gamma' in belize. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 343 101 105. doi:10.3354/meps07141 34. Griffith, William J. Belize. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 10/5/2015. http://www.britannica.com/place/Belize 35. Harvest Caye: Debuting November 2016. Norwegian Cruise Line. Accessed 7/1/16. https://www.ncl.com/harvest caye 36. Heyman, W. D., & Kjerfve, B. (2008). Characterization of transient multi species reef fish spawning aggregations at gladden spit, belize. Bulletin of Marine Science, 83 (3), 53 1 551. 37. History of Belize. Wikipedia.org. Accessed 11/1/16. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Belize 38. Humes, Aaron. 2/22/16. Oceana renews call for Gillnet Ban. Breaking News Belize. Acc essed 9/1/16. http://www.breakingbelizenews.com/2016/02/22/oceana renews call gill net ban/ 39. Hurricanes and Tropical Storms affecting Belize since 1930. Weather. 2009. Consejo.bz. Accessed 4/10/16. www.consejo.bz/weather/storms.html 40. Key, Carol Jane. 1994. "The Development of Underdevelopment: The Case of Placencia, Belize." Pro Quest Dissertations Publishing. 41. Kohlman, Marissa. 2015. Biodiversity Assessment. Crocodile research coalition.org Accessed 10/13/16. http://www.crocodileresearchcoalition.org/portfolio/dr tellez biodiversity assessment ambergris caye caye caulker placencia penninsula/ 42. Lack of Coast Guard Presence Gives Illegal Fishers Free Pass. News 5 Belize. 7/12/16. Accessed 7/13/16. http://edition.channel5belize.com/archives/131916 43. Ledwin, S. April, 2010. Assessments of the ecological impacts of two shrimp farms in southern Belize. University of Michigan. Accessed 12/6/2016. http://www.pcsdbelize.org/agriculture_aquaculture/shrimp farm impacts.pdf 44. Little, K. "Paradise from the Other Side of Nowhere: Troubling a Troubled Scene of Touris t Encounter in Belize." JOURNAL OF TOURISM AND CULTURAL CHANGE 8.1 2 (2010): 1 14. 45. Lionfish Expansion from 1985 to 2013. Ocean Support Foundation. Www.Oceansupport.org. Accessed 10/16/16. htt p://www.oceansupport.org/lionfish information 46. Lopez conservation and community benefits. 2005. Tropical Resources, Vol. 24, p. 42 48. Tropical Resources Institute. Acce ssed 10/4/16. 47. Lck, M., & Kirstges, T. (2003). Global ecotourism policies and case studies: Perspectives and constraints Clevedon; Buffalo: Channel View Publications. 48. Majors, B. 2014. Belize is booming and has the numbers to prove it. Travel Pulse. www.Travelpulse.com

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 59 75. S awe, N. and B. Knutson. 2015. "Neural Valuation of Environmental Resources." NeuroImage 122: 87 95. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.08.010. 76. Sellers, A. J., Ruiz, G. M., Leung, B., & Torchin, M. E. (2015). Regional variation in parasite species richness and a bundance in the introduced range of the invasive lionfish, pterois volitans: E0131075. PLoS One, 10 (6): doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131075. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC44768 00/ Accessed 3/22/16 77. September: Independence Day. AbsoluteBelize.com. Accessed 12/3/16. http://www.absolutebelize.com/abs guide/fiesta/belize independence/ 78. Sewage. Environ mental Threats and Challenges. Peninsula Citizens for Sustainable Development. Saveourpeninsula.org. Accessed. 7/5/16. http://www.saveourpeninsula.org/sewage.html 79. Sheppard, E., P.W. Porter, D.R. Faust and R. Nagar (2009). A World of Difference. Encountering and Contesting Development. 80. Shields, J. D. 2012. "The Impact of Pathogens on Exploited Populations of Decapod Crustaceans." Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 110 (2): 211 224. doi:10.1016/j.jip.2012.03.011. 81. Shrimp farms in Belize have joined forces to set the bar for sustainable seafood. Wwf.org. Accessed12/6/16. http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/how_we_work/our_global_goals/markets/better_produ ction_for_a_living_planet/farmed_shrimp.cfm 82. SocMon Report http://www.socmon.org/pdf/GCRMN_Manual.pdf 83. Southern Environmental Organization. About Us. Accessed 3/5/16, 4/4/16. www.SEABelize.org/Aboutus 84. Steinberg, Michael. K. (2015). A nationwide assessment of threats to bonefish, tarpon, and permit stocks and habitat in Belize. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 98 (11), 2277 2285. doi:10.1007/s10641 015 0429 85. Sutherland, Anne, 2008. The Making of Belize. Globalization in the Margins. Bergin and Garvey Publishing. 86. Syrbe, R. U. and U. Walz. 2012. "Spatial Indicators for the Assessment of Ecosystem Services: Providing, Benefiting and Connecting Areas and Landscape Metrics." Ecological Indicators 21: 80 88. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind. 2012.02.013. 87. Taiwan grants $3 Million for new MOFA headquarters. 7/16/16. The San Pedro Sun. Accessed 8/11/16. http://www.sanpedrosun.com/government/2016/07/16/taiwan grants 3million for new mofa headquarters/ 88. The History of Plancencia Belize. Larubeya.com. Accessed 12/1/16. http://larubeya.com/placencia belize travel/2013/02/18/the history of placencia belize / 89. The MesoAmerican Reef. Nature.org. Accessed 12/5/16. www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/centralamerica/belize/placesweprotect/ mesoamerican reef 1.xml 90. The Tri National Alliance for the Gulf of Honduras. Accessed 10/1/16. http://www.alianzatrigoh.org/en/about us/ 91. Theriault, Myriam. 2007. The Belizean Conundrum: Globalizati on, Tourism and Livelihoods in Placencia, 92. Viehman, Shay, Steven M. Thur, and Gregory A. Piniak. 2009. "Coral Reef Metrics and Habitat Equivalency Analysis." Ocean and Coastal Management 52 (3): 181 188. 93. Walters, C.J. 1986. Adaptive management of renewable resources. New York: Macmillan. 374 p 94. complexity theory to community based natural resource management. ODI Working Paper 146 95. Wells, Christian E.; Zarger, Rebecca K.; et. All. 8/2014. The impacts of tourism development on perceptions and practices of sustainable wastewater management on the Placencia Peninsula, Belize. Journal of Cleaner Production. Volume 11, Part B. January, 2016. Pages 430 431. Accessed 5/1/16. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652614008737 96. Wilcox, Christie. Changing Oceans Breed Disease. 7/1/16. TheScientist.com. Accessed 10/11/16. http://www.the scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/46386/title/Changing Oceans Breed Disease/ 97. Williams, K. W., & Tai, H. (2016). A multi tier social ecological system analysis of protected areas co management in belize. Sustainability, 8 (2), 104 104. doi:10.3390/su8020104 98. World Resource Institute www.Wri.org Beli ze Coastal Threat Atlas. Accessed 9/05/2015 http://pdf.wri.org/belize_threat_atlas.pdf 99. of Env ironmental Science, Galen University, Belize. Accessed 10/11/16. http://tropicalconservationscience.mongabay.com/content/v1/08 03 03 Young.htm

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 60 Annex A summary of (relevant) national and regional management plans, regulations, and legislation 1. A National Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan for Belize: http://www.coastalzonebelize.org/wp content/uploads/pdfs/ICZM_planning.pdf 2. Aquatic Living Resources Bill, 2012 http://collabora tions.wcs.org/Portals/91/Publications/Revised%20Fisheries%20Act_DRAFT_5_28_12%5B1%5D%5B1%5D.pdf 3. Belize Audubon Society 2015 Annual Report http://www .belizeaudubon.org/wp content/uploads/2016/05/BAS2015AnnualReportFinalHQ_opt.pdf 4. Belize Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan http://www.coastalzonebelize.org/wpcontent/uploads/2013/06/DRAFT%20BELIZE%20Integrated%20Coastal%20Zone%20Manage ment%20Plan%20_MAY%2020.pdf 5. InVEST Scenarios Case Study: Coastal Belize http://www.naturalcapitalproject.org/pubs/Belize_InVEST_scenarios_case_study.pdf 6. Coastal Zone Management Authority and Institute (CZMAI). 2016. South Central Region Coastal Zone Management Guidelines. Belize Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan. CZMAI, Belize City http://www.coastalzonebelize.org/wp content/uploads /2015/08/South Central Region Coastal Zone Management Guidelines.pdf 7. South West Central Belize Management Plan http://swcmr.org/download/SWC_MGMT_PLAN_FINAL.pdf 8. Characterization of a Tropical Estuarine System: The Placencia Lagoon http://www.coastalzonebelize.org/wpcontent/uploads/2010/04/Characteristics%20of%20P%20Lagoon %20.pdf 9. Feasibility Study for the Placencia Peninsula Pilot Wastewater Management System http://www.bws .bz/wpcontent/uploads/2013/07/Placencia%20WW%20Feasibility%20Study%20Vol%20I%20 %20Final%20Report%20 %20Public%20Copy.pdf 10. Peninsula 2020 Initiative: A Consensual Vision of the Future of the Placencia Peninsula http://www.pcsdbelize.org/peninsula 2020.pdf 11. Placencia Lagoon Management plan. 2015 2020. Wildtracks Belize. Accessed 7/1/16. http://ambergriscaye.com/art3/Placencia Lagoon Management Plan_draft 2.pdf 12. National Environmental and Natural Resources Management Research Agenda. University of Belize, Environmental Research Institute. https://static.wixstatic.com/media/c09ab2_64fb833bdcf94407ad852abe07fcc7b1~mv1.png/v1/fill/w_ 262,h_340,al_c,usm_0.66_1.00_ 0.01/c09ab2_64fb833bdcf94407ad852abe07fcc7b1~mv1.png 13. Socioeconomic Monitoring Report, 2003 http://www.socmon.org/pdf/GCRMN_Manual.pdf 14. Reef Fish Spawning Aggregation Monitoring Protocol for the Meso American Reef and the Wider Caribbean. 2004. Wildlife Conservation Society. Accessed 6/1/16. https://collaborations.wcs.org/Portals/3/PDFs/Spawning_Aggregation_Monitoring_Protocol_4_July_2004_%5B1%5D.pdf?ver=2007 10 05 081228 000

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 61 Appendices Appendix 1: Southern Environmental Associati on Belize

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 62 Appendix 2: IRB Approved Interview Questions Russell Anderson; M. D P Cohort 6 2016 Field Practicum, Belize Interview questions 1. How did you get into your field /occupation? 2. In your opinion, what makes this area special? 3. How would you describe stewardship? What about sustainability? 4. What most significantly impacts environmental quality in this area? 5. Have you observed any significant changes in the environment and/or wildlife since you first traveled to this area? 6. In your opinion, wh at will have the most impact on the health of the local area and reefs, in the future? 7. Can you share some examples or success stories of local (conservation) efforts? 8. Are there specific improvements that could be made in the management of local resource s? 9. Do you see any barriers to conservation in management areas? If so, what are the barriers? 10. Can you give an example of how do local stakeholders collaborate with regards to natural resource use / management? 11. In terms of environmental management and education programs, how would you describe the interactions between conservation groups and local community members? 12. If you had all the money, time, and resources at your disposal; How would you or your organization manage this area? 13. Are you optimistic to the future of this regions sustainability and productivity? Where do you see things in 10 years?

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 63 Appendix 3: Sustainable Pathways Infographic Appendix 4: Marine (non organic debris) Accumulation Analysis Placencia Belize

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 64 T esting between: Anda Di Hows Hostel, Jewfish Lane, Placencia and Fusion Beach Restaurant and Bar. Distance: 1.6 km. (or 5249 ft.) Testing sites: 5. Test site spacing: Approx. .27 Km apart. (or 1049.8 ft) Justification for site selection: Playa side of Peninsula. Most accumulation of plastics and seagrass are funneled into this site. *Sifting resource: wire, folder over rebar to create + *Strategy: 2 ft. x 60 ft. testi ng area. Scoop sifted. Contents deposited into individual bags for weight and analysis. Used to get an approximation of plastics debris accumulation. Results: (From the 5 sites tested) Micro 520g Compositional Analysis Plastic fragments, wax coated paper Fishing gear, trash bags, grocery bags,styrofoam Macro 480 g Straws, cigarettes, cans, beverage bottles Nylon rope, container lids, buckets, bottle caps Medicine bottles, hygiene products Shoes, sandals, toothbrushes, (and more) 1Kg Total. Est. 1.6 km Total: 692.87 Cu ft. or 5183 Gallons. *Analysis Limitations: Should be done monthly 2 times per month minimum for 2 years or more to get accurate assessment of annual plastics wash up. *Testing only Performed by: Russ Anderson, James Evans Analysis performed at: Tides: 3:04 PM CST/ 0.6 ft. Moon phase: Last Quarter

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 65 A ppendix 5: Stakeholder Presentation Agenda 1. Welcome, Discussion, and Closing by acting S.E.A. director Arreini Palacio Morgan 2. Discussion and advanced presentation by the science program manager Ruth Gutierrez 3. 4. Presentation of findings by Russ Anderson 5. Space for question, answer, and conversation session 6. Closing including a summary of main findings, next steps, and refreshments Appendi x 6 : Contributing Organizations Appendix 7: Summary of Accomplishments 1. 1 Field Practicum Report 2. 1 Proposal for a national plastics pollutions working group 3. 3 Organizationally branded promotional videos https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YBVTZVhdmnc&t=64s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_HbaDPwkvL0&t=63s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpwB_YGj0Bg&t=212s 4. Data analysis for water quality 5. Qualitative analysis o f Caribbean Socioeconomic Monitoring compliance 6. 84 structured, semi structured, and informal interviews 7. 300 sources of published and grey liter ature, reviewed and documented 8. 120+ hours volunteered in the field over 11 weeks. Appendix 8 : Socioeconomic Monitoring Analysis : https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Ihx9gDw5Enfgp52qFX7HqbLSJA0FYfI6QsNdCXi7CKM/edit?usp=sharing

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Appendix 9: Field Practicum Logic Framework Placencia Belize Narrative Summary Indicators Data Sources Assumptions Goal To build resilience capacity that allows for a reduction in negative development impact s on ecosystems within c oastal Bel ize, due to climate and anthropogenic pressures Annual increase in eco to urism revenues Annual increase in capital allocation fo r education and land management budgets Governmental budgets and budget portfolio of education and extension related services. Survey of private tourism related revenues. (Goal to Super goal) There is a need and willingness to apply funds against the threats of ecological impacts. Climate change and c oastal degradation are a threat large enough that government and organizational interests will find it efficient to invest in mitigation/adaptation. Purpose To avoid massive irreconcilable disruption of coastal ecologic stability. Impact: Reduced r ate of environmental loss and increase in adaptive management strategies. GIS map data. Federal and community land use planning maps (Purpose of Goal) Scaled systemic failure can be avoided with proper interve ntion s trategies, in advance of forecasted collapse. Sub purpose To mitigate impact s onto those communities with limited ability to suppor t additional carrying capacity or resource scarcity Less conflict and population movement from one area (of Belize) onto other(s). Census and migration data. Migration permit request data People will continue to settle in (or near) populated areas where they can maximize personal utility and growth. Outputs: Increased land management and ecological economic incentive programs and measures. Hi gher rate to extension services and more community worksh ops, based in sustainable management. Survey of extensi on service providers. Survey of educational and NGO resources. (Outputs to Purpose) Workshops can be an effe ctive source of information dissemination and volunteer / paid network developments. Inputs: Educational and economic development programs for community based ecological tourism and restoration activities Input s of Resources: Individual NGO staff/capital allocations. Local and Federal Government capital/regulatory allocations Budget allocation review by funder to grantors. Interagency review of local/federal budget allocations. (Activities of Outputs) Governmental and Interagency personnel w ill be informe d, obligated, and willing to share fiscal information as requested.

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Coas tal Resource Management within Placencia Belize 67 A ppendi x 10 : Field Practicum Word Frequency Map



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