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1 TIRES ARE GOOD FOR THE SOLES: PROCESS DOCUMENTATION OF UPCYLING TIRES FOR A MOBILE LIVELIHOOD PROJECT IN FOND BAYARD, HAITI ROSANNA KINGSTON A Field Practicum Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Sustainable Development Practice Degree at the University of Florida, in Gainesville, FL USA December 2017 Supervisory Committee: Dr. Sebastian Galindo G o n z a l e z Chair Dr. Jacl yn Kropp, Member
2 2017 Rosanna Kingston
3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and foremost, I would like to thank my Chair member Dr. Sebastian Galindo and my committee Dr. Jaclyn Kropp. I appreciate their guidance and feedback throughout the entire process, from selecting the project, through going to Haiti to implement it, to writing the final report. I would also like to show my deepest appreciation to the Masters Development Practice (MDP) Department Director Dr. Glenn Galloway and Program Coordinator Dr. Andrew Noss for their continuous support. Fo r all the times I came to them with a problem or questions about my the MDP program. I would also like to thank the University of Florida Latin American Studie s for awarding me the FLAS. Learning Haitian Creole was especially useful when I spent my five weeks in Haiti. I would also like to acknowledge my host organization, REBUILD Globally (RG), the Deux Main design team and all of the participants of th e Mobi le Livelihood Project at Fond Bayard. I thank them especially for the beautiful and memorable moments I experienced while I was in Haiti. I want to especially thank REBUILD Globally CEO Julie Colombino, for the opportunity and DM Director Sarah Sandsted who shared her home in Haiti with me. Also to my friend Mary Diaz, who housed me while I was doing the US part of my practicum in Orlando, FL. I want to thank my MDP Cohort 6 for listening and giving me support over the past two years. I feel blessed for their friendship. Most importantly, none of this could have happened without the support of my husband Laurence Kingston and my son Davin Kingston. We all moved to Gainesville, FL for me to attend graduate school. I am indebted to them for ceding their plans for the last two years and
4 was ready to walk away. This report and all my work are dedicated to both
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 3 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 8 LIST OF ACRONYMS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 10 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 12 Geographic, Socio Political and Economic Issues Background ................................ ............. 14 Education ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 15 Employment ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 15 Port Au Prince ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 16 Fond Bayard ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 18 2 THE ISSUES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 19 Refugees: Haitian and Dominicans of Haitian Descent ................................ ......................... 19 Business Development ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 21 Starting a Business: Requirements and Challenges ................................ ............................... 21 Business challenges for REBUILD Globally ................................ ................................ .. 25 Challenges for Women in Entrepreneurship ................................ ................................ ........... 27 Principal environmental concerns and issues ................................ ................................ ......... 29 3 CONTEXT STUDY ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 30 Social Enterprise ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 30 No universally accepted definition for social entrepreneurship yet exists. ............................ 30 Standardization of Business ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 33 The need for standardization at REBUILD Globally ................................ ...................... 33 4 PRACTICUM OBJECTIVES AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ................................ 39 Practicum Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 39 Conceptu al Framework ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 40 5 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 45 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 48 Unstructured and Semi Structured Interviews ................................ ................................ 48 Participatory and Direct Observations and Videography ................................ ................ 49
6 Semi Structured Focus Group Interviews ................................ ................................ ...... 51 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 53 Process Documentation and Standard Operating Procedure ................................ ........... 53 Validation and Verification ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 58 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 58 6 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 61 Data from Interview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 61 Main Theme (goal): Capacity Building ................................ ................................ ........... 62 Subtheme: equipment operation and maintenance ................................ ................... 62 Lessons learned: ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 63 Main theme (goal): Employment ................................ ................................ ..................... 63 Subthemes: administration, human resources, management ................................ .... 64 Main theme: Vulnerable Communities ................................ ................................ ........... 65 Main theme: Expansion of the Social Enterprise ................................ ............................ 66 Subtheme: partnerships ................................ ................................ ............................ 66 Lessons learned: ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 66 Interview quote: ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 66 Subtheme: banks ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 67 Lessons lear ned: ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 67 Interview quote: ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 67 Lesson learned ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 68 Data from Focus Group ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 68 Data from Observation ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 71 7 CROSS SCALE AND CROSS DISCIPLINARY CONSIDERATIONS ............................... 77 8 CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 78 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 79 APPENDIX: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ................................ ................................ .................... 82 BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 83
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 World Bank Requirments to start a business in Haiti ................................ ..................... 22 2 Word frequency of focus group interview ................................ ................................ ......... 71
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 Map of Haiti (Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 2017) ................................ .......................... 14 2 Map of Port Au Prince (United Nations St abilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH GIS) 2010) ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 16 3 From Motivation and passion to social entrepreneurship (Oumar & Daniel, 2016). ........ 32 4 REBUILD Globally organizational structure. ................................ ................................ ... 33 5 Conversion of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge (Ungan 2006). ........................... 36 6 Outlines the conceptual framework for my field Practicum with REBUILD Globally. ... 42 7 Practicum Methods Flowchart ................................ ................................ ........................... 47 8 Conversion from tacit to explicit knowledge. Towards a better understanding of process documenta tion (Ungan 2006). ................................ ................................ .............. 55 9 Planning Standard Operating Procedure (Stup, 2017) ................................ ....................... 56 10 Wordcloud of themes from focus group interview about quality control. ......................... 70 11 Communication Flow Chart ................................ ................................ ............................... 73
9 LIST OF ACRONYMS AM Adaptive Management DM Deux Main designs D.R. Dominican Republic FGI Focus Group Interview MLP Mobile Livelihood Project MOU Memorandum of Understanding PAP Port Au Prince : Capital city of Haiti QIP Quick Impact Project RG REBUILD globally SOP Standard Operating Procedure V&V Verified and V alidate
10 ABSTRACT On September 2013, the Dominican Republic passed a law that revoked the citizenship of those residents of Haitian descent or born without at least one Dominican parent. Without any real Haitian roots, many of those who are expelled have found th emselves in one of the six refugee camps that have sprung up along the border of the Dominican Republic. One of those camps is Fond Bayard. The most pressing problem in Fond Bayard is the lack of formal employment that pays a dignified wage. This is espe cially true for the many heads of households who are women. With money from a United Nation grant, REBUILD Globally set up a Mobile Livelihood Project in May 2016 (MLP) in Fond Bayard camp along the Haitian/Dominican Republic border to provide training an d employment to 35 refugees. This is sustainable employment in collecting, cutting and processing recycled tire rubber into the soles that will be used to make Au Prince. My field practicum was to write a Standard Operating P rocedure (SOP) manual, standardizing and documenting the procedures used in the Mobile Livelihood Project shop in Fond Bayard. The manual will promote more efficient operations and will enable standardiza tion of procedures. In order to accomplish this, I observed, documented and video recorded the various processes used at the MLP in Fond Bayard and in the Deux M ains shop in Port Au Prince. A set of informal and semi structured individual interviews were conducted (and audio recorded) with the 12 key people involved in this process. T wo focus group interview sessions were conducted with the managers of this project: one about quality and the other about training. A 68 page standard operating procedu re manual was created for the MLP, standardizing and documenting the various processes. This also includes a background summary of the development of these processes. Operational efficiency can be improved in several ways: improve communications between t he Port Au Prince Deux Mains shop and the Fond Bayard
11 MLP, standardize rubber quality and processing techniques, share and formalize knowledge among managers, and train managers to teach and convey the good understanding they have of the processes to the e mployees. My work is just a starting point. In the future, this Standard Operating Procedure is designed to be modified and adapted to new projects and situations. If REBUILD Globally w as to continue development of this project I w ould recommend that t hey add monitoring and evaluation and adaptive management plans to the SOP.
12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Haiti has the poorest people in the Americas, and the poorest people in Haiti live right along the Haitian/D ominican Republic border in refugee camps like Fond Bayard. These are former Haitians who have been in the Dominican Republic (D.R.) for up to five generations, but have recently had their citizenship revoked. The y are stateless people with no roots or r ights in either country. There are many hardships in these camps : l ack of food, water, medical care, education, etc. B ut by far the worst problem is almost complete unemployment. REBUILD globally was established after the 2010 Haiti earthquake and survived in its wake by embarking on a mission to provide a sustainable, entrepreneur driven solution for survivors. REBUILD Globally goal was to replace conventional methods of charitable aid with a thriving social entrepreneurial ecosystem. This progra m has been improving the lives of those deeply impacted by poverty and the earthq uake for seven years by establishing a comprehensive training program and subsequent employment opportunities through the creation of a fashion brand and Haitian business, Deu x Mains Designs. REBUILD G lobally has trained, equipped and empowered over 30 Haitians to become the trained leadership and craftsmen of Deux Mains Designs. Deux Mains located in Port Au Prince, produces fashionable, high quality sandals from up cycled (repurposed) tires for sale in the international market place I have known REBUILD Globally founder Julie Colombino since the early days of her Haiti project and have the greatest respect for what she is accomplishing there. It was important to me that m y field p racticum work be useful to them and not just an academic experience for me. Originally, I thought that my work wo uld be an evaluability assessment of REBUILD Globally but once I had face to face meetings with the REBUILD Globally team in Orlando Florida office, it was clear that there was a far more pressing need. They were having issues with training and quality control at their new MLP (mobile livelihood project) and we decided to aim my efforts there.
13 In 2015, REBUILD Globally applied for a grant with the U.N Minustah Quick Impact Project to fund a Mobile Livelihood Project in Fond Bayard. This MLP would take over some of the tire rubber recycling parts of the sandal making process that had been done up to that point at their Deux Mains shop in Port Au Prince. I n May of 2016 REBUILD Globally received this grant and immediately started work on this project. A year later in May of 2017 REBUILD Globally saw a need to docume nt and standardize the procedures in use at the MLP i nto SOP form and I took this on as my p racticum project The mobile livelihood project ( MLP ) was designed to bring the REBUILD Globally style of sustainable employment to the border refugee town of Fond Bayard. This project beg a n without the process of s tandardization which led to problems in training and quality control in the new shop. In order to improve this situation, we decided to limit the scope of my field practicum to standardizing the processes and procedures performed at the MLP and to put together a written manual which would function on two levels: first it would document the structure and procedures, and second, it would document how the manual itself was put together in order to be a useful guide for the construction of manuals to follow In the process of doing this I conducted 69 interviews (semi structured and informal) in which I identified the lessons learned. I led two focus groups in order to identify weaknesses in the existing training and processes. I recorded 159 video clips and used participatory observation to identify the steps of each of the ten processes of the MLP. W eaknesses were identified via communications between the MLP and the Deux Mains (DM) trainers I also realized that part of the problem was the trainers did not anticipat e the low level of existing skill among the trainees. Those in training positions often used rough estimates rather than exact measurements. I compiled my data, wrote an SOP, took it back to the organization and together we verified t he processes and revised any areas of disagreement.
14 What I accomplished during my field practicum was to formalize, standardize, and put into written form what had been up to that point a set of informal procedures and processes. This were stories about mistakes that had been made in the past, and suggestions on how to avoid them in the future. I also laid out a logic model which visually were, who it helped, etc .). Also I identif ied communication gap s between the DM and MLP and designed a communication flow chart. I recommend that Rebuild Globally use the SOP document that I gave them as a guide when designing and implementing new projects. The information and details will be different but the layout and formula f or documentation will work well for other processes and initiatives Geographic, Socio Political and Economic Issues Background Haiti is a western third of the island which also includes the Dominica n Republic as seen in Figure 1 It is the third largest country in the Caribbean following the Dominican Re public and Cuba (Haggerty, 1989) It about the size of Marylan d (28 0 00 square kilometers) and has a p opulation of about 10.6 million ( which is growing at a rate of 1.17 % per year) I t is the most densely populated country in the Caribbean. Most of the population lives along the coast (CIA Factbook, 2015). Its most notabl e geographic feature are its Northern and Southern peninsulas with a number of coastal towns and the island of Gonve between them. Figure 1 Map of Haiti ( Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 2017 )
15 Education The lack of educated, skilled labor is one of the serious impediments to economic growth (CIA Fact book 2017 ). L iteracy rat e in Haiti is 61% which is slightly higher for boys than it is for girls ( CIA Factbook, 2017 ). Since 1987, the Haitian C onstitution has guaranteed that does not have the resources needed to make this happen. In fact, 90% of all students are educated in international or church run schools (World Bank 2015). Thanks to this foreign and church run educational aid, there is an 88% primary school enrollment rate. At the secondary level, this falls off to 20%. The situation is worse than the above figures indicate because of the poor quality of most of these schools. Employment Unemployment in Haiti is a staggering 40.6%. Average per capita income is a mere $1,800. Employment is mostly found in the in formal marke t ( Ferguson et. Al, 2017). Only one third of the labor force work in the formal sector ( CIA Factbook, 2017 ) At least 80% of the population live s below the poverty line, and 54% are in extreme poverty (CIA Factbook, 2015). Approximately 65% of the population depend s on agriculture. Deforestation, erosion, nutrient depletion and competition with government subsidized farmi ng from the U S has made this reliance on agriculture difficult. Because of the cheap labor rates and freedom from import restrictions into the U S Haiti has attracted some final assembly manufacturing and a mostly low end apparel garment industry. La tely prices for these goods have been undercut by even cheaper international competition. Haiti has recently tried expanding into higher end manufacturing, making such things as Android tablets The potenti al for higher end manufacturing ( including h ighe r end textile manufacturing) is there, but raising capital for these ventures has been difficult. It is not hard to imagine a more economically successful Haiti. It has a young energetic labor force They could handle light manufacturing with proper training. Hait i is close to major markets There is a dynamic diaspora community throughout the Americas that are eager to
16 support the country of their heritage. Its geography gives it a large area of ocean frontage and that combined with its rich cultural and historical heritage which could revive its once thriving tourism Moder n agribusiness techniques could bring the depleted soil back to life and productivity ( Singh and Barton Dock 2015 ). In May of 2012, the government of Haiti issued a Strategic Development Plan ( Singh and Barton Dock 2015 ) This plan aims to build a new Haitian economy which is modern, inclusive, diversified, competitive and resilient: one that is environmentally sustainable and yet This plan is based on double digit growth from an expansion of tourism, a griculture, manuf acturing and construction. No, there has not yet been this kind of growth, but this is the goal Port Au Prince My field practicum took place in Port Au Prince (Figure 2 ) and in the small village of Fond Bayard. Port Au Prince is the capital, main port and commercial center of Haiti with a population of 2.44 million (Index Mundi, 2015). Port Au Prince replaced Cap Haitian as the capital of the French colony in 1770 and remained the capital after independence in 1804 (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017). Figure. 2 Map of Port Au Prince ( United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH GIS) 2010)
17 Port A u Prince is the largest city in Haiti. It is the center of economic, political, educational and cultural life. This is the home of the State University that was founded in 1920 (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017). Businesses such as food processing plants a nd factories operating exports of coffee and sugar leave from this port (Ballaro, 2017) Port A u Prince is also a city of economic inequality. The wealthiest area in the city is the level. The population is mostly light skinned or white. These are the elite: politicians, foreign businessmen, people from Intern ational non pro fits, etc. The area is gated and separated from the surrounding area with barbed wire fences A little further down the economic ladder are the small but important neighborhoods of middle class blacks. Below this group is everyone else. This is the poo r majority of the population. Most of these people live in slum or slum like conditions. One of these sites, Cit Soleil, is among the largest and worst slums in all the Americas ( Ballaro 2017). Many of the urban poor are former rural poor who came to the city looking for a better life. Most of the employment in the poor areas is informal, and thus economic estimates are highly speculative, but these people are among the poorest in the world. Port A u Prince was near the epicenter of the 2010 earthquake and has suffered considerable human and economic costs from that geologic event and the resulting general decline of the Haitian economy. In the past, Haiti exported manufactured goods such as shoes and baseballs. Now Haiti exports little (aside from some coffee and sugar), and imports almost everything ( Index Mundi, 2017 ). This decline in exports has led to a large trade deficit and l ittle of employment in the formal sector. The remaining employment in the informal sector is extremely low paid, and i s of little benefit to the overall economy. This has led to a widening gap between rich and poor. At one time, there was a thriving tourism industry in Port au Prince, but this declined to almost nothing after the 2010 earthquake. Cruise ships moved t o heavily guarded ports and beaches miles away where they could have a completely manufactured beach tourist experience (Lowry 2017). Recently some tourism has returned to the historic and wealthier areas of the city.
18 Fond Bayard Fonds Bayard is a rural v illage located near the border of Dominican Republic on the edge of the largest lake in Haiti, Lake Azuei. It is about one hour east of Port Au Prince It has been a refuge for displaced people deported from the Dominican Republic for the last 12 years. T he settlement was established in 2003 by local community organizers and various aid orga nizations as a means of providing refuge, shelter, and community for those who have been deported from the Dominican Republic. Many work ed in sugar, coffee and cocoa product ion, but increasing numbers also engaged throughout the country in construction, domestic work and the informal sector ( Minority Rights Group International 2008). These are people whose parents or grandparents left Hait i to escape poverty and find work in the Dominican Republic. Since the inception of Fonds Bayard, the government has donated 76 acres of land to a nonprofit organization to build 100 small houses home to an estimated 1000+ people. The village has no basic needs for shelter, there are no opportunities for formal employment within the community or nearby. The community school that was built to educate community children is understaffed and underfunded (REBUILD G loball y, n.d. ). The humanitarian situation is bleak and there is almost no employment. REBUILD G lobally has set up a facility to provide training and employment to 35 refugees who work cutting tires into soles f or Deux Mains sandals. A requirement for each of these jobs was that the employee be the head of a family household. Twenty eight of these employees are women. When the new wave mass deportation efforts of people of Haitian descent began in June of 201 5, hundreds of deportees flooded across the border and into this community, seeking asylum. While many of the refugees have since moved out of the community and into homes with relatives, the 34 remaining families have no living relatives in Haiti, and no way to start their lives over as Haitian citizens (REBUILD Globally, n.d.). REBUILD G lobally works in the community of Fonds Bayard. REBUILD G lobally provides heads of household (80% women) training and jobs (REBUILD G lobally n.d. ).
19 CHAPTER 2 THE IS SUES Refugees : Haitian and Dominicans of Haitian Descent Haiti and the Dominican Republic have a long history of tension and conflicts. When Haiti won independence from France in 1804, this did not extend to the Dominican Republic side of the Island of Hi spaniola (which was controlled by Spain rather than France). Haiti was strong at this time and worried about the possibility of Spain allowing France to land troops in the D.R. in order to mount anot her attack. This eventually le d to the Haitian military attacking and occupying the Dominican Republic from 1822 to 1844 (Minority Rights Gr oup International, 2008). During this period of occupation, Haiti executed orders such as disallowing the use of the Spanish language and taking land from D.R. farmers and granting it to Haitians. This fueled tensions between the two groups that likely had a role in later mistreatment of Haitians in the D.R. (Minority Rights Group International 2008). After the murder of Haitian dictator Vilbrun Guillaume Sam, the U.S. used the Monroe Doctrine to justify the invasion of the entire island of Hispaniola The U.S. occupation lasted from July 28, 1915 to August 1, 1934 (Hamlin 2011). During this time thousands of Haitians were brought into the Dominican Repub lic to work as cheap labor on the plantations. This led to a high number of Haitians living in the Dominican Republic, especially near the border. The government that the U.S. left in place in the D.R. was soon toppled and taken over by Rafael Trujillo in what was in essence a dictatorship despite having some of the trappings of a democracy. In 1937, in an attempt to rid the Dominican Republic of all these Haitians, Trujillo ordered the killing of about 15,000 Haitians in what has become known as the Reed, 2016 ). The incident got this name because the D.R. troops supposedly culled Haitians from dark skinned Dominicans by having them which is difficult for Creole speakers to pronounce Those who were killed ( Reed, 2016).
20 In more recent decades, many more Haitians have continued to migrate to the Dominican violence, enviro 2014). After the 2010 earthquake, the Dominican Republic put a halt to deportation and opened its doors to the Haitian me a sore Reed, 2016). From 1929 until 2009 the Dominican Republic granted citizenship to anyone who was born within the Dominican territory except children of diplomats and those who are i n transit (Hannam 2014). In 2010, a new Constitution was adopted that expressly made Dominicans redefined in 2004 to include people who are born to illegal resi dents ( Reed, 2016 .). Before 2010, the term transit referred to people traveling less than ten days. On September 23, 2013, the Constitutional Tribunal of the Dominican Republic retroactively revoked the citizenship of all persons born without at least on e Dominican parent since 1929. The decision affect ed approximately 200,000 people ( Reed, 2016 ). Since June 2015, about 70,000 Haitian fled the Dominican Republic out of fear of violence ( Reed, 2016 ). Many have left by force, only to find themselves in o ne of six refugee camps on the Haitian side of the border. These are people who no longer have citizenship or rights in either country; they are stateless. One of these six refugee camps is Fonds Bayard. There seems to be a global trend of refugee camps turning into long term permanent settlements and the refugees at Fond Bayard seem to be following this trend (Nathan, 2017) Rebuild globally originally thought the refugees would want to move out of the refugee camp to a more permanent place in Haiti onc e they have saved some money. This has turned out to not be the case. The refugees feel at home and have made friends. For the most part, they are happy in the town of Fond Bayard if they have employment.
21 Business Development Most employment in Haiti is in the informal sector. Only about a third of Haitians are formally employed and pay income taxes. Sixty percent of the Haitian population earns less than two dollars per day (Haiti Statistics World Bank, 2012). Of course, these low income levels stif le domestic spending (Export.gov, 2017). Another less obvious problem is that the formal work sector includes agriculture and industry, the types of work that bring money in from outside the country and thus improve the economy. Informal work encompas ses mostly service type jobs which do not create overall wealth. Informal work not only keeps individual s poor, it keeps the country poor as well (Watkins 2013). Haiti is ranked 181 out of 190 countries regarding the ease of starting a business, and 188t h overall for ease of starting a new business, behind only Venezuela (World Bank, 2017). To start a business, it takes 97 days, requires 12 procedures, costs 219.3% of average per capita annual income and requires a paid in minimum capital of 15.5% (World Bank 2017). These requirements are beyond the reach of most Haitians. The fees to start a business alone cost more than two years average salary. Since it is so costly and difficult to comply with bureaucratic hurdles, overcome constraints and outlays of time and money, many organization pay bribes to bypass the system and pass inspections, buy land or get permits (World Bank, 2014). This often means that paperwork is incomplete, which makes it difficult to get business loans which require properly docu with permit requirements was straightforward, easier to navigate, and not overly costly. Starting a Business: Requirements and Challenges Haiti is one of the Caribbean countries with the most open economies. Haitian legislation encourages foreign investment. Foreign and Haitian businesses are treated equally, with the same rights and privileges as long as they are legally registered and cu rrent with all required taxes and fees. The government has made recent efforts to draw in foreign investment by drafting a new legal framework and incentives. These include upgrading mining, insurance and labor codes, and a new set of construction permit regulations. They have established a new
22 public credit bureau. While these efforts are admirable, Haitian law and the permitting structure are still far from friendly to either local or foreign businesses. ( U. S. Department of State, 2015) As in the World Bank Doing Business 2014 : Haiti there are benefits for companies to benefits include access to legal and credit institutions, as well as new markets. There is an added advantage for registered limited liability business The financial risk of owners is only tied to the investment and not to their personal assets. The following chart is a summary of the procedures and fees to start a business in Haiti (World Bank 2017 pg. 23). Table 1 World Bank Requirements to start a business in Haiti Procedure Time to Complete Associated Cost 1. Prepare the company statutes (Articles and Memorandum of Association) Agency: L awyer The lawyer charges approximately HTG 30,000 for the drafting of the company statutes in the case of a Socit Anonyme. Prices can vary depending on the lawyer. 10 days HTG 30,000 2. Notarize the company deeds and articles of association Agency: Notary The notary public must hand write and notarize the documents at a fee of between HTG 15,000 and HTG 25,000 depending on the complexity of the service. 7 days HTG 15,000 HTG 25,000 3. Deposit the legally required initial capital in the Na tional Bank and obtain deposit evidence Agency: National Bank The lawyer deposits the legally required initial capital in the National Bank (Banque Nationale de Credit) and obtains proof of deposit. A certified check need s to be used to pay in the National Bank, where proof of payment is provided. 1 day No charge 4. Register the statutes with the Direction Gnrale des Impts (DGI) Agency: Direction Gnrale des Impts (DGI) The notary pays the registration fees at the Tax Office (DGI) and proof of payment is obtained. 1 day Included in the notary fees
23 5. Registration with the Commercial Registry at the Ministry of Commerce and Industry and obtain authorization of operations (Droit de fonctionnement) Agency: Ministry of Commerce and Industry and Le Moniteur (Journal Officiel) Lawyer submits the dossier for registration at the fonctionnement When the Ministry of Commerce has processed the application and registered the company, it forwards the file to the Moniteur for publication. Firms can begin operations before the publication, as soon as they receive authorization from the Ministry of Commerce. incorporation do not need to be approved by the Prime Minis be published in the Official Journal. This process takes about 60 days. The cost depends on the number of pages of the act of constitution: 2 to 9 pages: HTG 5,000 10 to 25 pages: HTG 20,000 26 to x pages: HT G 35,000. 78 days HTG 1,500 for registration + HTG 250 (frais de dossier) + HTG 25 (vignette bleue) + HTG 20,000 for publication in Le Moniteur (10 25 pages) fiscale NIF) from the Tax authorities (DGI) pay fees, and obtain certificate of patente Agency: DGI The company must file a form at the Tax Bureau (DGI) and provide an opening balance sheet on which corporate taxes will be based. A 2% tax is levied on a ally. A of 0.3% per share, which will be assessed each year, and a "right of operating" tax (droit de fonctionnement) of HTG 1500 payable annually, and HTG 1500 5 to obtain the professional identity car d 15 days (simultaneous with previous procedure) HTG 50 (tax ID card) + 2% of initial capital + 0.3% per share + HTG 102 (droit de fonctionnement) + HTG 5 (taxe carte professionelle)
24 the Ministry of Commerce Agency: Ministry of Commerce commercant all commercial entities are required to payment of fees at the DGI and obtaining the business permit ("certificat de patente"), the entrepreneur will Ministry of Commerce. 17 days on average (simultaneou s with previous procedure) cost included in procedure 5 8. Obtain special commercial books Agency: Commercial Registry The special commercial books are purchased and prepared by an accountant. 2 days (simultaneous with previous procedure) HTG 5,000 9. Notification to the Labor Ministry about hiring Agency: Labor Ministry Companies must submit a declaration on the hiring of personnel to the Labor Direction within 8 days of opening. 1 day (simultaneous with previous procedure) No charge 10. Legalize the commercial books Agency: Court Books are legalized by the Dean of the first instance court (Doyen du Tribunal). Each page must be sealed by the Dean of the civil court and the books must be sealed at the DGI (Direction Generale des Impots). 7 days (simultaneous with previous procedure) HTG 1,000 11. Register for social security (OFATMA) Agency: Insurance Office The company must register with the Insurance Office for Occupational Injury, Sickness, and Maternity (OFATMA) within 15 days of opening and provide the names of all its employees (up to 6% of monthly salary is contributed by the employer to social security). 1 day (simultaneous with previous procedure) No charge
25 12. Register for Retirement Insurance Office (ONA) Agency: Retirement Office The company must register with the Retirement Insurance Office (ONA) within 15 days of opening and provide the name of all its employees. 1day (simultaneous with previous procedure) No charge *(HTG Haitian Currency; 1 US Dollar = 63.2815 Haitian Gourdes as of September 25, 2017) Business challenges for REBUILD Globally Rebuild Globally is a registered business in Haiti as SA (Socit Anonym). This is the Haitian equivalent of a U.S limited liability company According to RG Country Director ach ieving this status was quite a feat. incorporate a business in two weeks. I think that that is just something they say to attract foreign invest ors. Maybe a big powerful company can come in with a lot of money and make it happen in two weeks because they are getting special treatment. The first step is to meet with a lawyer and negotiate a price because you really This is a tedious process. The lawyer starts with a template of the statutes and begins to fit the acts of incorporation and the constitution of your business into the form described by these statutes. He presents this to you and your future shareholder s and you discuss the structure of your business and the wording of the documents. How many shares are there? Who owns them? How often does the advisory committee convene? What happens if the business dissolves? Who gets what? Everything needed to be translated into both English and Haitian Creole and the both translations needed to be in precise legal language. Once the statutes are approved, they have to be notarized. Various investment sources have to be documented and put into a separate bank acc ount. At this point, you take your documentation to the Ministry of Commerce which reviews it to make sure everything is legal and in line with local expectations, and an announcement is printed in a legal journal called the Monitor which gets printed eve ry couple of weeks. that). and its ownership. This information is made public and they print a hard copy of your statutes for you. You still need to take a copy of your statutes to DGI which is the local tax office (like the IRS here). You s till need to get a permit which allows you to import and
26 export. All of these steps require a lot of paperwork, time and money. ( Director Rebuild Globally, personal interview, May 2017) In addition to navigating the incorporation process, businesses m ust deal with other issues (Export.gov 2017) : Weak, unreliable and inconsistent electricity supply Political instability Poor roads The impacts of widespread corruption that pose a constant challenge to doing business in Haiti particularly since some Haitian government officials view bribes as a normal part of doing business Land tenure issues Poor port entry, inefficient operations, excessive documentation required and high port fees Obstacles to getting approved for credit Labor laws, unskilled workers Land tenure problems are mostly the result of an inadequate system for keeping track of and verifying land titles (Fuller Wimbush et. al 2014, pg. 11). The results are frequent confusion and disputes over who owns what land. The property in which most Haitians live and work on is not legally own. There are several variations on how this works. Some work land that they have inherited without l egal title (Fuller Wimbush et al. 2014, pg. 12). These may be eligible for agriculture labor (Fuller Wimbush et. al 2014, pg. 12). These problems wit h ownership of property and clear property titles make it difficult for a company to buy land for private business. Surveying technology is underdeveloped. Private notaries and surveyors who handle land transacti ons can be corrupt. Multiple institutions handle land management, with i ndistinct and overlapping roles, which make s the system confusing and inefficient ( Fuller Wimbush et al., 2014 ). The land tenure issues have been exacerbated after the
27 2010 earthquake because of the loss of land title docume nts, deceased landowners and the massive number of internally displaced people (Maloney 2010). In addition to legitimate land tenure issues the business owner must worry about land grabbing. There are Haitians who make a living on land grabbing. Accordi ng to the Merriam Webster dictionary, the definition of land grab is usually swift acquisition of property (such as REBUILD Globally experienced an attempt at land grabbing first hand. It was my very firs t week at Rebuild Globally. A group of men stormed the site. They wanted us to leave so that they could tear down a dividing wall and make the point to our landlord that they were contesting his ownership of the property. The land has been in his family fo r over 100 years and there is no legitimate hey can hold onto a piece of land steal land. Often by the time a landowner goes to use a piece of land for a business, he will find out it is no longer his. Not everyone has the resources to protect their property (Director REBUILD Globally, Personal Interview, May 2017). C hallenges for Women in Entrepreneurship Globally, 23% 33% percent of businesses are run by women. The percentage is increasing despite several challenges that are unique to women. These challenges include less access to financial resources, cultural gender inequalities, home and family responsibilities, and more limited access to education and training. (World Bank 2013). Ninety three percent of the Haitians emp loyed at Deux Mains are women. This is important because statistics for female employment in Haiti are grim. Women are 20% more likely to be unemployed and 6% more likely to be employed in the informal sector if they do have a job. F or women who are employed, wages average 32% lower (Singh, 2015).
28 It is important to consider that in a developing country like Haiti with limited employment opportunities, most of the jobs that are available (especially the higher paid ones) go to men (W orld Bank 2013). This drives women into the informal sector where theoretically but realistically, most are just doing an extension of the domestic and agricultural work that they were already doing for their own husbands and fami lies. Unequal access to finance is one of the biggest problems facing women entrepreneurs in developing countries (Goyal 2015; Njoku et al. 2014). An important consideration here is that in the de veloping world, many people do not have access to financ ing through banks S tartup financing is usually done through friends and relatives. For cultural reasons, these informal sources of financing are far more likely to believe in and support a male entrepreneur. The situation is more difficult for women in rural areas where changes in culture are slower and where there is less demand for the types of services that women entrepreneurs might provide (Goyal 2015). Microfinance can be a bridge for women between the informal and formal sectors and in fact, acco rding to recent USAID census data, almost three quarters of microfinance clients are women. While this sounds positive, microcredits are short term loans for small amounts. This limits the possibilities for growth and development in the long run This al so helps explain things like why microfinance encourages low investment business ventures like retail sales and services rather than manufacturing and production (Mauconduit et al. 2013). The types of small retail businesses that are encouraged by microfi nance are often not enough to raise women out of poverty. Women are under represented at the higher levels of the business hierarchy. This will only improve when more of an investment is made in business training and education becomes more accessible to women. In Haiti, gender equality has progressed slowly and lagged far behind the rest of our hemisphere. To put this in perspective, consider the following two historical government decrees regarding the rights of women:
29 The Decree of January 11 th 1944 granted a working women permission to manage the portion of her salary that was not dedicated to household expenses. Before that, a woman More recently, the Decree of October 8th, 1982 raised the status of a woman from a minor to having the rights of an adult (Mauconduit et al. 2013). Progress has continued to be slow since then. In the formal sector, a 2005/2006 survey conducted by the Haitian In stitute for Children found that, of the employed women th ey queried only 8% worked in an executive or administrative professional field. Another 73% were in sales and service, 13% were in agriculture and 1% were manual workers (World Bank 2013). Women face cultural barriers to promotion that are deep ly rooted in Haitian culture. This drives women to the informal sector where the employment numbers are hard to quantify, and everyone looks like an entrepreneur regardless of how meager their livelihood (Mauconduit et al. 2013). Principal environmental concerns and issues Pollution and environmental damage significantly impact organization s and people in Haiti. Forests have been cleared for charcoal, and this has led to unrestrained flooding and soil erosion which has made land far less fertile for far ming especially on the mountainsides. Sediments from the runoff and overfishing have combined to damage coastal areas whic h now have far less fish and marine resources In urban areas, raw sewage and solid waste clog rivers leading to parasitic infections and the spread of waterborne diseases like cholera. Port au Prince is the largest city in the world without a sewer system (Knox 2012). In Haiti, an issue has occurred because of illegal dumping of old abandoned tires which are strewn throughout the country and collect pools of water where mosquitos can breed. These mosquitoes transmit diseases such as Zika, malaria, chikungunya and dengue (SWANA 2010). Tires are also burned during vandalism. By using th ese tires as raw material s Deux Mains provid es a positive environmental and health impact.
30 CHAPTER 3 CONTEXT STUDY Social Enterprise No universally accepted definition for social entrepreneurship yet exists. Social entrepreneurship is not just a response to the nonprofit organizations and businesses' unsolved problems but also a recovery of the government's failures in all sectors of sustainable development around the world. (Diallo and Daniel 2016, p.2) Socia l entrepreneurship fills in gaps left by government, businesses and non profit organizations. Governments need to work through legal bureaucracy that is often stalemated by conflicting interests and limited tax revenues. Businesses can only exist where t hey see an opportunity for profits. Non profits are limited by funding constraints and reporting re quirements. Zahra et al. 2009 undertaken to discover, define, and exploit opportunities in order t o enhance social wealth by creating new ventures or managing existing organizations in an innovative manner". Social entrepreneurship is a new concept in Haiti. One of the challenges is a misconception of what the label means. People often think that a social enterprise works like a nonprofit. They think of it as an organization that distributes handouts rather than one that is self sufficient and needs to run like a business to survive. The only real difference between a social enterprise and a regul ar business is that it is motivated by the desire to make a social impact on a community rather than to make a profit for the business owner. One reason for the confusion is that the Haitian government has not established social enterprise policies. Socia l enterprise has the potential to create employment, improve local economies and lead to social change within the affected communities. The Haitian government should embrace the potential of social entrepreneurship programs and put in place policies that encourage them ( Diallo and Daniel 2016, p.2)
31 The orientation of a business and a social entrepreneurship project are different. A business exists for the benefit of its owner or shareholders. It may supply a useful product or service, but what it is ge tting in return is primarily designed to benefit those in control of the business. A social enterprise has a different goal. Like a business, it provides something useful to its customers, but instead of benefitting a company owner or a set of shareholde rs, the benefits are shared by all the employees as well as the community in which the project exists. For a social enterprise, building trust and a good relationship with employees and its community is even more important to its success t han it would be i n a for profit business The employees must believe in the project. As Doerr (1997) states positions. It is not about our perks, our feelings, our egos, and our span of control. It is about the people for wh It took years for REBUILD Globally to build a relationship of trust with its employees. A number of these employees have fully embraced this goal and moved on to managerial positions. Unlike people moving upward for personal gain in a for profit company, these managers have Main Designs. Figure 4 summarizes the motives and passion for social entrepreneurship [ R1]. In this figure, Dial lo and Daniel (2009) linked different concepts about leadership and organizational management with social entrepreneurship. In explaining how they came up with this chart, they state the importance of enthusiasm, commitment and understanding between leader s and individuals who want to solve social problems collectively achieve social change. Leaders and individual work together not for personal gain but because they feel responsible for the peo ple with whom they work and serve It is this motivation and passion for innovation that will help the community that make s social entrepreneurship successful.
32 Figure 3 From Motivation and passion to social entrepreneurship (Oumar & Daniel 2016). When REBUILD Globally began in 2010, the goal was simple: to st art a functioning nonprofit that would employ a handful of people and use locally available materials ( discarded tires). Over time, the goal of the organization has been tweaked to better suit future growth. REBUILD Globally became a parent organization which would spin off various smaller social entrepreneurship projects, each of which would target improvements needed by those in the local community. Figure 5 illustrates the relationship between Deux Mains and its parent organization REBUILD Globally. REBUILD Globally looks for humanitarian issues and coordinates resources to implement sustainable enterprise solutions to these problems. Deux Mains is the first of these sustainable enterprises and is designed to continue its own without continued suppo rt from REBUILD Globally.
33 Figure 4 REBUILD Globally organizational structure. Standardization of Business The need f or stan dardization at REBUILD Globally REBUILD Globally has evolved informally over the past seven years. The result is that much of the knowledge and procedures in use were tacit rather than explicit. This knowledge was used and understood by the founder and key employees, but not written down or documented in any formal way that could be understood by anyone new to the program. This made training of new employees difficult, which became an issue as production by the employees at the MLP in Fond Bayard was integrated with the sandal making process in the De ux Mains shop in Port A u Prince. The thrust of this field practicum was to standardize the parts of the sandal making process that were being done in Fond Bayard. During my field practicum, I captured the information to standardize the procedures in use at the MLP, and the training that new employees would need to perform these tasks. I then organized this information and wrote it out in SOP
34 form. The final SOP was aimed at two groups. N ew employees at the MLP are trainers from Deux Mains. In his rese arch on process documentation, Ungan ( 2006 p 135 ) defined s tandardization a s the degree to which work rules, policies, and operating procedures are formalized and followed (Jang and Lee, 1998). With standardization, the production or service process beco mes routine with well defined tasks. Today, many corporations with worldwide operations are interested in standardization of their processes. Because of the many benefits of standardized products and processes, national and international organizations for standardization were established (e.g. ISO). Companies all over the world are spending significant amounts of time and money to register with them to improve their operations and increa se their business Figure 3 shows the standardization framework that I used as my guide as I worked on the REBUILD Globally MLP SOP. It is the framework presented in the Ungan (2006) paper which lays out a step by step the procedure to document a process. The first box is to identify each of the processes u sed. At the MLP in Fond Bayard, there are 34 employees, each with his/her own set of tasks and responsibilities. I organized this by looking at each employee and separating the various tasks that person did during the workday. The sec ond box is to identif y the people within the organization who have th e most knowledge of the task to be standardized These people are the principal masters of that process. In this case, these was the key employees from Deux Mains in Port Au Prince who had come to Fond Baya rd to work as trainers for the new employees from the refugee camp. The third box is to build a team. I decided that this team should include both the expert trainers from Port Au Prince and the recipients of this training in Fond Bayard. I used this approach because there had been communications issues during the previous training that I wanted to work out. The f ourth box is to break down the defined tasks of the process into a series of steps. At the MLP a task like selecting tires, the series of steps would include things like looking at the
35 type of tire, checking the condition, measuring the sidewall, checking for the type of metal belting, etc. The fifth box is to acquire the knowledge fo r each step. This includes both the easy to grasp explicit information and the more illusive tacit information that must converted into explicit information in order to be documented. An example of this would be the sorting of inner tube rubber which is used in a variety of end products depending upon its thickness, texture and flexibility. The more experienced employees at Deux Mains with experience could look at a given piece of rubber and immediately know where it could be best used, but this was base d upon experience rather than exact measurements and difficult for newly trained employees. This tacit knowledge had to be expressed in explicit form to be documented into written instructions within the new SOP. The sixth box is to codify this informatio n and verify it. What I did was to take my written SOP instructions back to both the masters from box two and the team from box three. We had sessions where they would go through the tasks by strictly following my written SOP instructions, checking for e rrors, inconsistencies and places where the instructions were unclear. The final seventh box was the assembly of the final document. In addition to the written SOP instructions, I included documentation of how these processes came to be, and asides that I
36 Figure 5 Conversion of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge (Ungan 2006). With the Mobile Livelihood Project in Fond B ayard, there were two pressing issues. One was the quality of the new employee training. The other was the quality of the products being produced at the project. My goal was to build procedures into the SOP that would positively address both the trainin g and quality control issues. This standardization will continue to benefit REBUILD Globally in a number of ways as it expands. Some of these are as follows: It will be easier to compile training materials. It will aid future expansion. It will reduce fut ure development costs. It will provide a better estimation of future costs. It will increase the quality of the affected labor pool. It will improve the quality of future training. It will exp and quality control at any place that uses this training program
37 It will establish a template/procedure for carrying out this type of analysis on other processes. During this standardization process, everything must be translated in t o Hait ian Creole U.S. and International standards may be the guide, but we will strive to make a version of these standards accessible to the needs and education level of the people we aim to help. For example, all training materials must assume low levels of literacy and pri or skill. As models, the pamphlets that show the proper way to exit a plane in case of a water landing. These are done with the assumption that passengers on a plane may be international and not fluent at reading English. Thus they are simply illustrat ed, and the crew explains the procedures using visual aids before the flight. The same perspective must be employed in the training materials and procedures for Deux Mains. Written materials must make use of clear illustrations rather than just written w ords, and training procedures must make use of visual aids rather than just verbal explanations. Technology translation, rather than transfer, suggests a more dialogical approach which artifacts will be translated, making artifacts supple enough to be readily modifiable within these, and finding ways to bolster the local innovation systems that will re invent and re link them into new relationships (Garb & Friedlander 2014). It is also important to value and make use of local knowledge and expertise. For example importing drip irrigation technology from Israel to Ethiopia and Senegal, faced challenged with sediment in the water clogging the drip nozzles with particles of sa nd an d debris. One local farmer figured out a way to unclog drip heads with fine blades of grass, but no system was in place for gathering or using this sort of local information Thus, the problem went unsolved even though a local solution was right ther e had anyone valued local input (Garb and Friedlander 2014). Local managers and employees need to be involved to avoid this sort of mistake.
38 The standardized SOP that I wrote during this field practicum will be used in future R G social enterprise proj ects in other vulnerable communities. In cases where the current MLP project is replicated, I expect this document to be used as it was written. In other instances, it will be used as a guide for writing out new SOPs with a different set of tasks and tra ining requirements.
39 CHAPTER 4 PRACTICUM OBJECTIVES AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Practicum Objectives The original plan for my field practicum for the summer of 2017 was quite broad. I was planning to observe and document the bulk of the Deux Mains Designs ma nufacturing processes. The plan was to place a (MLP). Over time, while discussing the particulars o f this project, it came to REBUILD Globally attention that things at the Mobile Livelihood Project were not going as smoothly as they had planned. There were many reasons for this. The staff from Port A u Prince had little instruction on how to train other workers. After a brief period of training, no one was left onsite to provide ongoing tra ining. There was no real standardization of the procedures, the tools, the measurements, etc. The workers at Fond Bayard were eager and willing to work, but they had never worked in formal job settings before. L ong term unemployment had diminished what skills they had. It became apparent that if the MLP was going to be continued, it would need a lot more attention. The documentation would need to be a lot more thorough. It would have to include details that fledgling trainers might not be sure about A very low level of prior skill among the trainees was assumed Nothing could be taken for granted. The plan for my practicum project changed. Instead of it being a broad but not too deep overview of all the process es involved in REBUILD Globally and Deux Mains, it would be much more useful to the organization to have a deeper and more thorough study and documentation of the processes needed to make the MLP a success. This became my new focus. The following are the revised narrowed down and more fo cused objectives. General Objective: To document and codify the model of the Mobile Livelihood Project to be able to replicate it in other vulnerable communities.
40 Objective #1: To document how the project started, the current practices, operating procedures and lesson s learned from the Mobile Livelihood Project. Objective # 2 : Provide a final deliverable that outlines the policies and procedures that set up Mobile Livelihood Project into a repeatable project complete with a SOP manual. Conceptual Fr amework As REBUILD Globally expanded their social enterprise from their home base in Port Au Prince into a satellite Mobile Livelihood Project in Fond Bayard, it became apparent to the organizers that processes they used existed mainly as knowledge and ski lls held by a small group of employees at the Port A u Prince shop. The processes in use were ones that this small group had figured out by trial and error since Rebuild Globally was established in 2010, and there was no standardization of either the metho ds or a way to teach them. Many processes were done without precise measurements. For example, h ow much bleach was used in a cleaning solution? How are pieces of rubber from tires or inner tubes sorted by thickness? The employees at the Port Au Prince shop would make these sorts of decisions without any precise measurements, and this worked out well on a small scale with a handful of experienced artisans. Meanwhile, marketing efforts were bearing fruit. A partnership with designer Kenneth Cole broug ht with it a large increase in demand and production needed to step up to meet this demand. Recently the government of the Dominican Republican has passed strict anti immigrant legislation that has stripped the rights of citizenship from people of Haiti an descent who entered the country anytime from 1924 on. Many of these unfortunate people have no real roots left in Haiti either, and quite a few of them are living in limbo in Haitian side of the Haiti/Dominican Repu blic border. There was little employment in these camps aside from cutting down trees to make charcoal. Rebuild Globally received a United Nations (UN) village called Fo nd Bayard. The goal of this project was to provide employment to adults living in this camp and give a boost to the struggling local economy.
41 REBUILD Globally is trying to bring the following together: 1) The increased demand for Deux Mains sandals and accessories brought on by successful U.S. marketing efforts such as the Kenneth Cole partnership. 2) The need to expand production beyond what the Port au Prince shop is able to produce in order to meet this demand 3) The need for a high level of sustaine d quality control in order to meet Kenneth Cole standards. 4) Th e high unemployment in the displaced persons camp at Fond Bayard If this project is successful, t he social impact will be important It will directly improve the lives of the 34 employees and t heir families It will indirectly improve their communities in Many things needed to happen in order for this project to be successful, but one of the most important was the standardization of the skills and p rocesses done by the artisans at the REBUILD Globally/Deux Mains shop into SOP manual form For my MDP practicum project, I have compiled and written an SOP manual for the portion of the REBUILD Globally/Deux Mains shoe making process that is being done a t the MLP at the Fond Bayard displaced persons camp. This portion of the process involves cutting and preparing the soles for the sandals out of recycled tires, and gathering, sorting and precutting inner tube rubber into sections that can be used in th e Port Au Prince shop. The finishing work is still done in Port Au Prince. I gathered information for putting together the SOP through several techniques. These included unstructured and semi structured recorded interviews, video taping processes, having the processes explained to me, and follow up observation (both directly and after the fact through watching the videos). I also went over the videos and my observations from the Fond
42 Bayard mobile livelihood project with staff (team leaders) from the Port Au Prince location. After I wrote up my SOP document, I went over it agai n at both the Fond Bayard and Port Au Prince locations. Figure 6. O utlines the conceptual framework for my field Practicum with REBUILD Globally. The conceptual framework is divided into the following sections: 1) The Mobile Livelihood Project clarification of the theory and process to establish standardization and the intended out come of my research ; 2) The creation of a tangible manual that can be used as a guide when replicating the REBUILD Globally/Deux Mains model in other vulnerable communities. Mobile Livelihood Project Capacity Building Income generation for Vulnerable Communities Expanding Social Enterprise Employment Clarificatio n of the program theory and process Contribution to the replication of REBUILD Globally model in other vulnerable communities Stakeholders : Rebuild Globally team members Deux Main Team members Mobile livelihood Participants
43 There were several goals for this SOP document: a. Consistent product quality. b. Cons istency and efficiency of training. c. Establishing safety standards to be used organization wide. d. Better organization of inventory for tools and materials. The stakeholders are: 1) The REBUILD Globally team. 2) The Deux Mains team. 3) The employees of the Mobile Livelihood Project at the Fonds Bayard displaced persons camp. These are people who would otherwise be unemployed or cutting down trees for charcoal. The Mobile Livelihood Project itself provides: 1) Employment in vulnerable communities, 2) Comprehensive t raining to produce tire soles and rubber products, 3) A formal employment alternative to cutting down the remaining local trees to create needed income. 4) The introduction of social enterprise into the Fond Bayard community (through the expansion of social ente rprise Deux Mains from the main shop to the displaced persons camp near the Haitian / Dominican Republic border village of Fond Bayard. My role was to clarify t he program theory and process through interviews, gray literature and observations. After clarifying the program theory and the process, I conducted an SOP evaluability assessment and developed an SOP manual. The SOP evaluability assessment framework was carried out through interviews, focus group interviews, observations, videotaping and gray literature These processes contributed to the start of standardizing and improv ing the REBUILD global model which could be replicate d elsewhere.
44 Before I traveled to Haiti, I intended to include an SOP evaluation plan and adaptive management plan into the field Practicum. T ime constraints, prevented me from completing this. Adding an evaluation plan and an adaptive management plan would be excellent additions to the SOP and I recommend that REBUILD Globally tackle these projects in the future. Mappi ng these processes could be tackled separately or together. My deliverable, the SOP (with its standardization of processes), is an important (but not the only) part of what is needed to replicate the REBUILD Globally/Deux Mains model in other vulnerable c ommunities.
45 CHAPTER 5 METHODOLOGY As I mentioned in the introduction, the plan of my practicum changed over time as we modified it to suit the needs of the organization. The focus of the project became documenting the procedures that were in place at the MLP at the Fond Bayard refugee camp. The problem was that since this was a new program with a number of training related issues, the implementation was far from perfect. Thus, I needed to document the processes as they should be rather than as they w ere. Figure 7 is a practicum flowchart which gives an overview of my workflow throughout the process. My methodology was based upon the flow of the Ungan 2006 paper on standardization that I referenced in chapter 3 of this document. I n phase I I used participatory observation to determine the processes and the masters of these processes. This participatory observation was done both directly and using video recording which I could later review. In phase II I was concerned with discerning and do cumenting each of the tasks used in the various processes. I used to the techniques of unstructured and semi structured interviews with administers and masters of these processes. These interviews were audio recorded and later transcribed. Phase III tackled the existing problems of inadequate training and poor quality control that were affecting the success of the MLP project. This was also an opportunity to incorporate some positive changes into the SOP which would combat these problems in the futur e. To do this, my technique was to use two focus groups with the masters of these processes. The first fo cus gro up centered upon training The second on issues related to quality control For Phase IV I took all the information I had gathered in the first three phases transcribed the interviews, wa tched the videos, organized the information, then wrote out my SOP document. the organization had come to its current form.
46 Phase V is whe re I returned to Port Au Prince and Fond Bayard to present what I had written and go through the process of verifying what I had done in Phase IV. I had leaders from Deux Mains and the MLP go through the processes in the SOP in real time in order to doubl e check the written instructions for accuracy and clarity.
47 Fi gure 7. Practicum Methods Flowchart Clarifying Program Theory of a Mobile Livelihood Project (MLP) Objectives 1) To document how the project started, current practices, operating procedures and lessons learned from the MLP. 2) Provide a final deliverable that outlines the policies and procedures that set up MMLP into a repeatable project comlete with a SOP manual. Phase I Participatory Observation 1) Identify the processes and masters of the process 2) Observe and video record the process Phase II Unstructured and semi structured Interview 1) Interviews with administrative staff and masters of performers of the process Phase III Focus Group Interview 1) Two focus groups with master of the processes 2) Focus on process and quality Phase VI Verify and Validate 1) Double check the written instructions for accuracy and clarity Standard Operating Procedure Manual and Guidelines
48 D ata Collection I compiled my set of primary sources from internal R G documents and additional governmental resources. The participatory research was conducted in the form of a series of unstructured and semi structured stakeholder interviews. Some of these were done with individuals and others were with focus groups. I used a portable audio recorder to record the interviews and the service s at trint.com to transcribe the interviews. In addition to the interviews, I both observed and participated in the process used at both the Port Au Prince shop and Fond Bayard MLP locations. I took still photographs and recorded video of work in progress to document my observations. Unstructured and Semi Structured Interviews I conducted seventeen individual interviews. Six at the Deux Mains shop in Port au Prince, ten at the Mobile Livelihood pro ject in Fond Bayard, and one at the Rebuild Globally office in Orlando Florida. In Port au Prince, two bilingual employees took turns translating between English and Creole for me. In Fond Bayard, I hired a translator. I conducted two types of interviews: unstructured and semi structured. I did this because I was coming into the project as an outsider and wanted to be able to adjust my questions as I went along, rather than be stuck with some predetermined rigid set which might not be relevant. U (Trevisan and Walser, 2015 p. 103) 146). Trevisan and Walser (2015 p 103 ) indicate that semi interview protocol, which usually includes broad que 103). When I prepared for the interviews, I outlined the topics that I wanted to cover. During early interviews, I wrote notes on other items mentioned by the participant not listed on the outline and asked later for more in depth information
49 In preliminary interviews, my goal was to get a better understanding of the subject and to identify what internal documentation to request and study in order to guide me as I prepared for further interviews and observation. At this stage, I asked a lot of open ended questions about the program. In the Port Au Prince shop there is a weekly meeting of all managers every Wednesday morning. During one of these meetings, the DM Global Operations Director introduced me to this group, explained what I was doing, and encouraged them to cooperate and participate in my interviews and help facilitate my observations. I scheduled a series of interviews which lasted up to one hour each. These interviews were collected during two trips to Fond Bayard which were spaced three weeks apart. Sometime before this, UN workers had come to the camp asking questions and shortly after that, UN money started flowing into the camp. On my first trip, the participants thought that I was another UN worker and spoke very highly of the program in hopes of bringing more money into the camp. By the second trip, they realized that my role was to improve t heir working conditions and rather than grant more mon ey. On this trip they were more honest with their answers. Participatory and Direct Observations and Videography observation is the foundation of ethnographic research, and is built from two familiar parts: observation and participation. Obs ervation of spatial phenomena has been a central method for geography from its very outset, whether it be observing movement of glacier Participant obser vation has strengths in describing the local process, practices, norms, values, reasoning, technologies and so on that constitute social and cultural 2016, p 170) I captured the various processes that I would document with a combination of observation, participation, and recording video and taking photographs. The photographs and video captured the processes not only as they were supposed to be done, but as they were actually being done by the various employees. This turned out to be useful later as key staff
50 and I discussed mistakes that were made in training, and the best wording to include in the SOP in order to avoid the most common mistakes. Before the MLP in Fond Bayard, the Deux Mains Port au Prince shop did everything from collecting and cutting the rubber from tires to assembling and finishing the final sandals The current arrangement is that the rubber is cut and prepared at the MLP in Fond Bayard and the assembly is done in the Port au Prince shop. I spent the first two weeks of my practicum at the Deux Mains shop in Port au Prince observing and capturing each step of the process of making shoes and accessories. The Operations Manager (who spoke fluent English) spent time with me going over each step and translating for the other employees at each station as they shared their expertise. This experience helped me realize how important the quality of rubber gathering and processing is before I visited the MLP in Fond Bayard. By the time I visited the M LP on the third week of my stay, I was aware of some of the quality issues that DM employees were having with the rubber pieces coming from the MLP as they were assembling the final products. I had a better idea how the pieces were being produced and for what purpose. While observing the MLP employees, I could identify some of the causes of the quality issues with the rubber pieces. One issue that came up was that employees did not know how to properly handle and maintain the equipment. I did not just ob serve. I also worked with them, performing each of the tasks, to get a better insight into the difficulties and challenges of performing each job at the station. Many of the performance issues I saw were related to inadequate training and supervision. I could see that as the training program was designed, R G had overestimated the level of skill of the refugees. Going forward, I could see that in designing training programs for people in refugee situations, it would be important to assume a low level of skill and prior knowledge. This would also be important as the program was expanded to other contexts and areas.
51 I also identified other concerns such as safety. I videotaped the processes and took notes to use later when I wrote the SOP. I could observ e not only the manufacturing processes, but the communication flow and the organizational hierarchy. I observed that while there were production issues related to quality, tool maintenance and safety, the MLP employees were grateful for the jobs and willi ng to cooperate to improve the process. Semi Structured Focus Group Interviews The focus group interview (FGI) is a structured process for interviewing a small group of individuals, usually between 8 and 12. The purpose is to obtain in depth views regard ing the topic of concern. This technique provides an opportunity for the probing and follow up that is common in individual interviews, but, in the focus group, participants can hear the views of others as we ll ( Witkin and Altschuld, 1995, p.171) When I arrived back in Port au Prince, I led two focus groups with the five DM lead managers. The goal was to understand how the managers perceived the processes of training, quality control and to understand communications between Deux Mains and the Mobile Livel ihood Project. Two hour long FGIs were scheduled the week after all five lead managers had been interviewed individually. The first FGI was about product quality, and the second was about the training and processes used at the MLP in Fond Bayard. I cond ucted the two focus group interview a using the two managers from within the group who spoke English as translators. These lead managers had been involved with training the MLP participants during a three month period. I was the moderator for the FGI an d had prepared ten questions to keep the conversation going throughout the focus group interview process. These questions found in the appendix covered topics such as determining the quality of rubber materials, the length of training time, the best train ing methods, the quality of tools, and what they believed would be the best ways to improve the training process and communications thereafter. With the permission of the participants, I recorded audio of the meeting.
52 The recording of interviews is an acc eptable practice (McNamara 1999). The interview was coded to ensure the privacy of the participants. The meetings were both in English and Haitian Creole. I selected a few ground rules as described by Witkin and Altschuld (1995). One of the tools I selecte d was having the moderator choose a few ground rules as described by Boohoo (2009) to sustain participation. These included: keep focused, maintain momentum and get closure to questions. meeting with a group activity. Before the meeting, I had resorted a selection of the types of inner tube rubber pieces the tasks that is done at the MLP at Fond Bay ard. It is typically done by feel and without any sort of caliper measurement. I asked the participants to confirm my sorting. As I expected, experiment to s egue into my first two introductory questions. 1. What challenges did you notice that led to poor quality production? 2. What are some of the ways that quality could be improved? From there we moved onto more in depth and open ended questions. My goal was to clarify and define the processes to make sure that practical and effective quality control measures would be built into the coming SOP document. After a question had been answered, it was imperative for the moderator to summarize to ensure tha t the information that had been gathered was precisely what was said. McNamara (1999) assigns this task to the co moderator. The second focus group interviews were about the processes used at the MLP and the training of the employees there. I started of f the meeting by showing the group videos that I had recorded of the people at work at Fond Bayard. As I went around the room asking for their feedback on what they had just witnessed in the videos, we transitioned into the discussion
53 period as a conversa tion started. I took notes but also audio recorded (and later transcribed) these meetings. Data Analysis Process Documentation and Standard Operating Procedure the re searcher to see through the mass of detail and repetition to the points that are most relevant to the research question(s) or objectives. It facilitates identification of similarities and I had chosen to do informal and semi structured interviews in order not to miss key points that might have been out of the scope of what I was expecting from the conversations. Some of what I captured turned out not to be particularly relevant to the proj ect. In order for me to reduce the quantity of content from my individual and focus group interviews, I searched for patterns or main points that aligned with the specific objectives of my work. From this extracted data, I used thematic analysis to iden tify themes and subthemes that analysis refers to the process of analyzing data according to commonalities, relationships and differences across a data set. The w Based on the proposed framework for standardization by Ungan (2006) as illustrated in the F igure 8 below, I drew a comparison between this process and other SOP to develo p frameworks. I compiled a literature review to better understand the best practices in developing a standard operating procedure. As I gathered the step by step information and observed the DM managers and MLP employees perform each process, I identifi ed the gaps in the procedures. These shortcomings helped me gain a deeper understanding of the processes and issues that affected product quality. I took notes and recorded in a journal to look back on when I drafted the SOP.
54 Document ability is an i ssue especially for know how rather than information and Ungan, 2006 p. 137 ). to be abl e to write these processes out in a way to enable documentation and larger scale training, this tacit knowledge needs to become explicit knowledge, but this process is also important for consistency and quality. For example: when I observed workers any of the detergents. They just knew how much soap to pour. The problem was that everyone used different amounts of detergent in the cleaning solution. This had an effect on the end product. In some cases, the product would end up having soap residue on it, and in others, it would end up not being entirely clean. Here is another example: I asked employees to explain the process of collecting tires. They would just point to a particular tire for the process without giving me any details about why that particular one was appropriate. This approach might work in a small shop with a handful of employees, but not if the business is expanding and hiring and training dozens of workers. Variations in quality may n ot be a problem when the goods are being sold in small shops, but they aren't acceptable when the products are being marketed by a well known brand like Kenneth Cole and sold to a broader market. The chart below illustrates the steps I used as a guideli ne to analyse the information using the conversion from tacit to explicit knowledge (Ungan, 2006).
55 Figure 8 : Conversion from tacit to explicit knowledge. Towards a better understanding of process documentation (Ungan 2006) When I was back from my first trip to Haiti, I began compiling my notes and writing my first draft of the SOP. As I wrote, I realized that the measuring tools would need to be incorporated into the process. I compiled a list, and on my sec ond trip to the island, I brought a measuring cup, a tape measure and a caliper type thickness gauge. The first SOP draft was divided into sixteen sections. The purpose of the SOP was to lay out a set of written and reproducible instructions on every asp ect of MLP product production.
56 Figure 9 illustrates the steps used as a guideline when planning the development of the SOP. Figure 9 Plannin g Standard Operating Procedure ( Stup 2017) This draft was divided into sixteen sections. These included: Introduction REBUILD Globally Contextual Background Communication Flow Chart and Organizational Chart Operational G uidel ines for Administration: H uman Resources and Management Equipment Operation and Maintenance Risk, Safety and Conflict Management Waste M anagement, Logistics and T ransportation, Order and R eceiving Data and Record Management Quality Control Evaluation Expectations and Process to Improve Performance Adaptive Management Validation and Verification I also included background information about the history and evolution of Rebuild Globally, Deux Mains, and MLP. The information included in the SOP was gathered through interviews, focus groups, reviewing gray literature, and observations.
57 During the planning stage, m y goal in writing the first draft of the SOP was to capture the work processes in use at the MLP in Fond Bayard as they were done by the tra iners (Deux Mains managers) and the MLP team leaders. I also noted any new techniques introduced by the MLP employees. All the while key points were stressed that related to product quality, process efficiency and safety. In preparation of the first dra ft, I reviewed my notes and watched the videotapes. I then drafted a detailed list of the steps in the order they were done. I choose a hierarchal step and photo format for the SOP layout. The hierarchical steps format (see Figure 5 ) allows the use of ea sy to read steps for experienced users while including more detailed sub steps as well. Experienced users may only refer to the sub steps when they need to, while beginners will use the detailed sub steps to help them learn the procedures (Stup 2017). Ano ther very useful format for SOPs is the photo format. This is especially useful for those producers with a workforce who speaks different languages. The concept is simply to combine photo images that illustrate each step with text that explains how to comp lete it. Not only does this help to overcome language barriers, but it also helps people who tend to be visual learners to understand the step. The photo format may include as much or as little detail as necessary. The explanatory text may be in simple or hierarchical format (Stup 2017). In Figure 9 follow my directions. Instead I had staff follow my directions as they were written and provide feedback. Steps 6 8 are the responsibility of REBUILD Globally as they implement the SOP.
58 Validation and Verification When I returned to Haiti for the second time, I had the first draft of all the process es written out. We set about d ouble checking the written processes at both locations by having the Deux Mains managers work through them in Port au Prince and having the MLP team leaders do the same in Fond Bayard. I spent two days with the leadership in eac h location. We did this do uble checking by having a translator read and translate each step, and then having the employees perform each step as it was written. I observed this process, asked for feedback and noted suggestions for needed changes and improvements from both groups. I reviewed these changes later and used them to write the SOP final draft. People are much more likely to accept and use the SOP if they feel a sense of ownership in it. Workers will feel ownership and commitment to a SOP if they believe that management used, or at least reasonably considered, their ideas during development. The chance of success is reduced when workers feel that management is imposing SOPs without regard to employee input (Stup 2017) Limitations Here are some observations about the limitations of the data in my work. Some of these were related to my own limitations. Others were related to obstacles I encountered in the field : Time: My initial g oals were overly ambitious and simply not enough time to meet all my stated objectives. As I look back on what I did, my initial set of objectives was a comprehensive list of what the organization needed to do in order to standardize processes in preparation for future expansion. While I only en ded up doing a portion of this complete process, nonetheless it will be useful to the Rebuild Globally/Deux Mains/Fond Bayard MLP to have this initial set of objectives as a guide so they can see and apply my work in the bigger picture as they standardize and expand. Going forward, in addition to my SOP, they should have plans for future evaluation and adaptive management of these processes This part of the documentation explains how my work fits into the larger picture. Lack of Interest: Not all DM emplo yees in the Port Au Prince workshop were motivated to participate in the two focus group interviews. The meetings were scheduled after lunch. The
59 place where the meeting was held was inside a refurbished container. It was hot and not well ventilated. There was a portable fan in the room. It was too noisy to hold the meeting outside. work. One way that I tried to gather more information was by providing each DM manager a notebook so they could write key points down. I did not get the participation with this that I was hoping for. Maybe it was asking too much of them. Very little information came from this exercise. All in all, I did get cooperation from the stakehol ders, just not as much as I would have liked. Access: The primary stakeholders such as the REBUILD Globally Founder and CEO had limited time to work with me. We met at the beginning to get the scope of the project at the retreat but had limited time beca use of the pac ked schedule and the last day when I presented the final SOP draft. We mentioned at the previous meeting that it would have been great if we had met more often during the time I did my field practicum with RG. In the last session, we bounced around lots of ideas, and I took notes to make some changes in the SOP. Language: I have had two semesters of Haitian Creole and a basic proficiency in the language, but am nowhere near fluent. The translators I had access to had better skills in English than I do in Creole, but there were limits there as well. Another issue was that at the border camp at Fond Bayard, some of the interviewees spoke a mixture of Creole and Spanish, which confused my translators who did not speak Spanish. Having audio rec ordings of all the interviews helped considerably as it gave me a chance to look things up during transcription. Lack of available and reliable data (especially in Fond Bayard): I seemed to get different versions of facts about the Fond Bayard enterprise every time I asked the MLP participants questions. I also suspected that my presence at the MLP might have affected the participant's response. There had been a previous U.N. Quick I mpact P roject grant which was a windfall for many there. Some of the p articipants assume d that I was there to collect data for another U N grant and I think this may have prodded them to give more positive responses than were actually warranted about the situations there. REBUILD Globally did explain that I was just a grad uate student and not there on behalf of the U N but not sure they really believed this.
60 Lack of access : I regret that I did not have the opportunity to interview the USAID contractor, Heinz (I never did learn his last name). Heinz was an outside exp ert with 40 years of shoe manufacturing experience in Germany. He had been contracted by USAID earlier in the year to observe the production process at the Port Au Prince shop and to make recommendations for how DM could make their manufacturing process m ore efficient. USAID plans to grant money to RG to help DM expand their social business and employ more people. I would have loved to interview this man and I think his insight might have helped my project.
61 C HAPTER 6 RESULTS Some of the primary resul ts are detailed in this section. T he full details are in the SOP which was delivered to the organization The results section explains the findings of the development and process through the interviews, focus groups interviews, and observations. Objective 1: To document how the project started, the current practices, operating procedures, and lesson learned about the Mobile Livelihood Project. Data from Interview The results are presented by themes lined with the four goals of the MLP in the conceptual fra mework and su bthemes as found in the SOP : 1) Main themes: Capacity building, Subtheme: Equipment Operation and Maintenance 2) Main theme: Employment Subtheme: Administration: Human Resources and Management 3) Main theme: Vulnerable communities Subtheme: Risk, Safety and Conflict Management 4) Main theme: Expansion of the social enterprise. Subtheme: Partnership Subtheme: Bank Subtheme: Access to Power stories about mistakes that were initially made when starting the MLP and explanations of the reasons why they were mistakes. These have been included to communicate to future vulnerable community projects how to avoid some likely pitfalls.
62 Main Theme (goal): Capacity Building Improving the situation in a town like Fond Bayard is all about enabling the people to better their own lives. No outside organizations are targeting them for aid. These are people that have been ostracized by both the Dominican Republic and Haiti. The residents are eager to work REBUILD Globally sees a young town full of people that are eager to work. What the town really needs in order to thrive is meaningful employment, but in order for that to happen, the people need to have the skills that make them employable. The MLP program is about capacity building through jobs and training. The goal goes beyond training and employing a handful of people. The goal is to build the capacity of the community. Subtheme : e quipment o peration and m aintenance Training people in equipment operation and maintenance is a big part of capacity building in a remote community. When equipment like a cutting press breaks down in Fond Bayard it is a really big problem. The nearest repair facility is miles away in Port Au Prince. Turn ar ound on a repair can take weeks or longer. Meanwhile, work will continue with improvised tools and solutions. If someone is injured because they are using tools improperly, the situation is even worse. There is no 911 to call. No emergency medics. No hospitals nearby. Only pickup trucks and long bumpy rides. This is why equipment operation and maintenance are such an important part of capacity building in this community. New employees need to be trained in proper equipment use and safety. The emplo yees that show natural ability in mechanicals things need to be identified and further trained in maintenance and repair. These skills will serve the people who receive this training beyond the specific MLP jobs and will make them (and their community) mo re attractive to other potential employers. This is capacity building in practice.
63 Lessons l earned: training period. DM assumed employees had developed all the bas ic skills and thought it would be an easy transition to a new process. However, that was not the case. They noticed after a or learning capacity is something to keep in mind when introducing new or changes in the process. Also, DM recommends investing in good, heavy duty quality scissors. Pieces of inner tubes are not always flat or smooth, therefore, they make it difficult t o cut. Interview q uote: So, we trained them two days in how to cut inner tube thinking that it wasn't something that needed this three month training because it was sort of simple. They already had some basic skills that they developed by now. How to hold things steady how to use a knife how to use patterns because they were using patterns to measure things. And we thought that cutting inner tube would be a great way for them to make some money a quick easy train. And it wasn't as easy as we found as w e originally thought. So, a lot of inner quality as they needed to be because we just bought them in country. They needed to be heavier duty, thicker and sharper. There's a way to hold s cissors right. There's a there's an art to it whether to put your thumb underneath it or on top of it or inside it it's just it's something that you and I can do just kinetically. We know how to hold a pair of scissors. We've learned this since we were a c hild by cutting cardboard paper when we were kids. Main theme (goal): Employment REBUILD Globally is all about giving jobs and generating income by increasing purchasing power and creating a more sustainable community.
64 Subtheme s: a dministration, h uman r esources, m anagement When REBUILD Globally began working with the Fond Bayard community, it did most of its communication through a community liaison. This liaison is a woman who is very well liked and connected throughout the co mmunity. Overall, the relationship has worked well, but there have been issues with her showing preference to friends and family when choosing who to include in this very much wanted program. This is understandable since she is being asked to only recomm end those for whom she could vouch for their character. As she faced mounting pressure to include more people, one issue was that people would prepared for the job. While the scope of this issue is beyond what I covered in my SOP, it is very much an issue that needs to be addressed in future projects. Codifying the rules and responsibilities of whoever fills the role of community liaison will help both in keeping acc ess to the projects fair, and in making sure that the jobs are held by people who have received the training. Lesson l earned: There is a need to establish an application and assessment process which will help the community liaison with the hiring process. The selection of trainers and the employees was done by the community liaison. Unfortunately, she hired mostly family and friends to work at the site during the three month training. Later, she was pressured to select workers from among the other residen three month training period. Interview q uote: charge. She is literally the boss of that. But with that comes an exorbitant amount of responsibility. And so, I really understand that she's under tremendous pressure to create opportunities for 34 people is a drop in the bucket compared to the thousands of people who live in the community. But I think fo r this to be a real business, space solution, the
65 next time around there will be an application process. That way she doesn't have to feel Main theme: V ulnerable Communities REBUILD Globally wants to transform aid dependent vulnerable communities (like the Fond Bayard) to self sustaining communities by providing jobs and bringing outside income into the community. Vulnerable communities face both economic and infrastructure challenges. Subtheme: r isk, s afety and c onflict m anagement Having lots of valuable supplies and equipment stored in the MLP exposes the community to theft and violence. Word of the stored valuables will find its way outside of the community, and outsiders can come to steal and put the community members in danger. There are no law enforcement or first responders nearb y. Even how signage is worded on the MLP site has to be carefully thought out in order to not attract crime. It not just theft and violence. Stockpiling tires will collect pools of water which will become breeding places for disease carrying mosquitos. L essons l earned: Stockpiling creates a risk for theft. During the three month training session, the tools, supplies and materials disappeared much more quickly than they were being used. RG implemented a policy where there were no spare tools or supplies. Unfortunately, this approach is necessary. We do not recommend storing quantities of expensive tools and raw materials on site. Interview q uote: To collect, you know, (to fill) a five gallon tank is 45 minutes to an hour away depending on the road cond itions, whether it's around the holidays, and all this to consider the logistics because it also takes time from their work time. But you know, one of the things that we considered is like stockpiling a bunch of gas stockpiling. Stockpiling a bunch of thin gs that they would surely need every day. One of the risk factors involved with that however, is stockpiling goods in a vulnerable community, theft. I mean, you
66 know, like outside theft and internal theft that I guess I would say somebody coming in and sa ying hey there's a big sign on this thing, there must be money here. Main theme: Expansion of the Social Enterprise REBUILD Globally hopes to expand social enterprises like Deux Main designs into other vulnerable communities in order to create employment in these places. They are not sure yet if these will be branches of Deux Mains or completely separate projects. The current MLP can only exist if Deux Main designs provides a sustainable outlet through the generation of sales. Deux Main designs represen ts a sustainable business and REBUILD Globally represent the innovation behind creating this type of social enterprise. Subtheme: p artnerships Partnerships between RG, DM designs and other organizations are essential to the success of the development of the MLP. Identifying and establishing a network of partners early in the planning stage can smooth the process of implementation. These partners can help with technical expertise, training, funding, in kind donation, logistics, cost sharing, knowledge of local laws, etc. The challenge is when an outside organization offers to help but takes a top down approach. Lessons l earned: After the 2016 Hurricane Mathews, a religious organization offered to build temporary shelter for the residents who lost their t ents and tarp s during the storm. The leaders of all groups, including RG, met and verbally agreed to work together. The religious group built the temporary shelters without the community input. The situation not only created frustration for the residents a nd community leaders but also jealousy among the residents. Once the religious group was done with the project and left, the residents took down all the temporary shelters. Interview q uote: said on numerous occasions this is too high. It's going to go down. We don't like it like this. They
67 were ignored. I got frustrated with the team. I said we really need to do it the way they want. It became a power struggle. We left. I came back a week lat er and they take down everything that the team put up and said, to me, you know in so many words, like why do Subtheme: b anks Lack of access to banking services is a challenge for rural communities. W ithout local banks, employees must be paid in cash, and with this cash come security and safety risks. Keeping cash on hand is risky, but so is traveling with cash on paydays. When replicating the project in other vulnerable communities it is important t o know what bank access is in the area. Lessons l earned: The lack of financial services near the refugee camp made it difficult for payroll. RG initially intended to provide bi weekly checks for the participants. Unfortunately, the bank branch in Fonds Parisian (the nearest major town) was under construction for the duration of this project. This forced the administration to provide cash stipends which was challenging, as accessing cash is a time consuming process. This had to be done with just the amou nts of cash needed since any reserve cash would open up the possibility of theft and violence. Interview quote: the bank would be more than 50 miles away. Now there is a bank Subtheme: a ccess to p ower Power is unreliable in Haiti. In Fond Bayard there is no electricity and the MLP relies on a generator for its power tools. It is important to take access to electricity or the distance to the nearest gasoline station into account when replicating the MLP.
68 Lesson l earned Electricity is used for the reciprocating saw, the press (when it is working), the belt/band sander, and some lighting. Power is supplied by a gas powered generator. The nearest gas station is approximately an hour away. Interview quot e: send someone a tap tap (a bus or pickup truck) all the way back to Croix des Bouquets. You see the distance is far to collect a five gallon tank of gas or whatever. Then br ing it back or I would bring it with me. So, the distance is 45 minutes to an hour depending on the road conditions, whether it's around these holidays and all this to consider the logistics because it also takes time from their work time. Right. It just s lows down the Data from Focus Group There were two themes presented at the focus group. One session was on quality and the other was on the process. The reason I choose these topics for the discussion group was that I noticed lots of confusion b etween the DM and MLP staff. There were five DM managers who participated in each of the sessions. The DM was selected because they were the masters of the process and trainers for the MLP. Each session started with an activity that led to open ended ques tions. As the weeks went by, I noticed there was confusion between how the DM and MLP staff categorized the thickness of the inner tubes. Even within the staff at either location, not everyone classified the thicknesses exactly the same way. I thought it would be a good idea to create a focus group about this topic (and consistency in general). what I had learned in both locations and applying my best judgement. Inner tu be rubber that is sorted this way is used to make accessories, jewelry and handbags. Inner tube rubber for these products is sorted into these three categories of thickness before being used for all
69 p roducts. Differences in thickness sorting makes a diff erence in the quality and consistency of the finished products. I asked the five DM focus group participants to double check my sorting. Of these, one agreed with my work and the other four did not. But more interestingly, these four did not consistently agree with each other. The point of the exercise was to open a conversation about challenges and ways to improve the process before the product arrives at the DM workshop in Port AU Prince. Here are a few responses from the participants: I didn't As result of this activity, a thickness gage and a cha rt were integrated into the process and logged into the SOP. The thickness gage will measure and standardize a thickness range for each of the categories for the inner tube. The chart displays the range for each of the three categories thickness and by ins pection. As illustrated in Figure 10 the words thickness, weight, pattern, and inner tube were often discussed to explore the challenges and ways to improve the quality process of the inner tube pieces.
70 Figure 1 0 : Wordcloud of themes from focus group i nterview about quality control The topic of cutting patterns on the inner tube also came up during the meeting. The DM managers have noticed some of the precut inner tube pieces cut by the MLP staff are smaller than the patterns. When everything is done by hand, there is a chance for mistakes and inconsistency in the production. Therefore, one of the managers explains to the group pattern ex actly. So, he said it needs to be the same size of the pattern but when you make mistakes would be a good idea to explore further. The second focus group interview ses sion topic was about training and the inner tube and tire sidewalls processes. The same five participants from the first focus group meeting participated in this session. I shared a few videos that I had recorded of the MLP employees completing the process es during my visit. After the participants watched the videos, I invited each one to share their assessments. Here are a couple of member responses: The way we gave them the training, they don't do it that way, because we never show them to put their feet in the tube to wash the inner tube. There might be something dangerous stuck on the inner tube. It is dangerous. Also, we never put the tire on the ground to trim.
71 They can pick one person, have them come to the PAP shop and get really trained well, so this person can go back and train the others. They can't even sharpen the knife. They need a lot of training. The topics brought up at the session most often were training, knife sharp ness, communication problem, and tires. The number of times the subjects were mentioned included: Table 2 Word frequency of focus group interview Subject Frequency Training 7 Communication problem 1 Process of tire trimming 6 Danger of the process as it is currently done 3 Challenges with using the knife 5 As a result, from this session, there were discussions about assessing the MLP skills before the training and having one of the MLP employee trai n for a longer period at the Port Au Prince workshop. There was also a feeling among the managers of forgiveness for the mistakes the MLP employees. They agreed that these employees would get better with time as they completed more of the process. They acknowledged that they had similar experiences when they first started the process. Data from Observation A good communication flow is vital between DM and the MLP. Through the interviews, casual conversations and observations, I noticed gaps in the communication flow between the DM and the MLP lead ership. I witnessed several DM employees bringing up issues of quality on pre cut pieces of rubber and inner tube. Among these encounters, one seamstress at the DM workshop complained about the pre cut inner tube which did not match the patterns used to s ew the final products, a manager orders another employee to wash the soap residue off pieces of inner tube and staff failed to deliver a complete order of supplies to restock the MLP.
72 As a result, I first developed a communication flow chart based on the information I had gathered. I asked each DM and MLP leader their roles in the communication flow between the two sites. Their feedback helped me revise the chart and recognize where the communication gaps are that eventually affect the process and quality of the product. For example, the quality managers from each site seem ed to never interact or communicate with each other, even though the quality of the pieces was problematic The comm unication and the inspection of the product was either between the DM VP and the Community Liaison or the DM quality manager and the C ommunity Liaison. Any request, suggestions or follow up communication is between the DM VP, DM Administration Manager and the Community L iaison in Figure 1 1 In Figure 11, the boxes in blue represent management positions held by DM employees and the thin blue lines represent the existing communication pathways between them The boxes in green represent management positions held by employees at the MLP and t he thin green lines represent the existing communication paths between these The heavy blue arrows show that all information from the MLP to DM is passed through the Fond Bayard community liaison to either the DM progra m coordinator or the DM administrative manager. The thin red lines are additional suggested lines of communication between the two organizations. These include communications between the quality control departments of both organizations and having the Fo nd Bayard community liaison also in direct communication with the DM operation manager and the DM quality control manager.
73 Figure 1 1 Communication Flow Chart
74 Objective 2 Provide a final deliverable that outlines the policies and procedures that set up the Mobile Livelihood Project into a repeatable project complete with a SOP manual. After reviewing several approaches for laying out the SOP, I came up with t he final layout to capture the process in a written format. The SOP has 16 chapters as described in the data analysis section. Rather than post the whole rather lengthy SOP here, I have included just one sample section in order to clarify the layout. Bel ow is a sample of the layout of one of the 10 process from one of the Operational Guidelines section found in the SOP Th e documentation for the other 9 processes follows the same layout. a. Subject: The title of the process is described with action words. For example: Cutting Inner Tube Pattern, Washing Tire Inner Tube, and Sorting Inner Tube by Thickness. b. Purpose: The purpose describes the tasks briefly within the process. For example: The goal of this section is to explain the process of washing tire inner tube pieces. These pieces are washed four times and rinsed as a fifth step. The first wash is with bleach only. The second is with both bleach and detergent. The third phase is water and bleach. The fourth is only rinse in the multi purpose disinfectant cleaner. Each of these washes (plus the final rinse) is done at a separate wash position. What follows is a more detailed description of each washing position c. Materials and E quipment: Developed a list of all the necessary supplies and materials needed for the process, including any personal protective and safety gear and equipmen t needed for the process. For example: Four 15 30 gallon rubber utility wash tubs Heavy duty Latex dishwashing gloves Powder laundry detergent Heavy duty household laundry brush Multi purpose disinfectant cleaner
75 Household bleach Rubber bands Heavy duty poly tarp Safety goggles Five gallon buckets Wood plank Chairs Measuring cup d. Safety first: I included any reference to precautionary safety warning for the process. To complete the procedure below, you will have to work a knife. Before you begin, You always c ut away from your hand e. Procedure: I developed a detailed description of the overall task. I included the preparation description, personal protective and safety gear, equipment, tools, and supplies. I also a dded photos of the process and what the finished product sh ould look. For example: First Step Washing the inner tube pieces (used for other products like purses, jewelry, and accessories). A. Preparation Fill 3/4 of the wash utility tub with clean water Pour in 1 cup of bleach Household laundry brush Wear heavy duty latex dishwashing gloves Rubber boots B. Procedure a. Place inner tube pieces inside the utility tub. b. Soak inner tube for 10 minutes. It helps loosen the dirt. c. Repeatedly stomp on the inner tube to release the dirt. C. L essons lea rned: I included any information that would be a lesson learned as a reminder for the organization not to repeat the same mistake when replicating the project in other vulnerable communities.
76 Make sure to fill of the utility tub with clean water at each step of the process. After the first washing training session, the Community Liaison noticed the tire soles were still dirty after being washed. She realized that the utility tube. They filled of the utility tube with clean water and rewashed all the tires soles. This time all the tire soles were cleaned D. Videos: Included codify video clips of the process.
77 C HAPTER 7 CROSS SCALE AND CROSS DISCIPLINARY CONSIDERATIONS On September 15th, 2015 at a UN meeting in Rio de Janeiro, 180 countries came together and agreed upon 17 sustainable development goals. This formalization of the goals of the development community has been useful in that it points out that the wide variety of seemingly unrelated projects and causes tha t people are working on around the world are pieces of the same overall plan to improve our planet. In its own small way, the SDGs that REBUILD Globally directly tackles are 1 (End poverty in all its forms everywhere), 5 (Achieve gender equality and empow er all women and girl), 8 (Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all) and 12 (Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns). It impacts poverty by providing fair paying e mployment. It tackles gender equality by hiring women. It promotes inclusive and sustainable economic growth by financing itself with sales rather than just donations. It ensures sustainable consumption and production by recycling trash rather than addi ng to it. These projects take the SDG ideas discussed in Rio at the macro level and put them into practice at micro level in Haiti. Like many proje cts, the REBUILD Globally efforts happen at a number of cross scale levels: from local and individual level these levels: The specific local level work includes the training and implementation of the MLP program. From a broader regional perspective this would be expanded to include the interaction between the Fond Bayard and Port Au Prince shops and the manufacturing that is done between these two locations. It would also include a variety of local partnerships and relationships (such as buying local leather). From a country wide perspective, it would inc lude planning for future Haitian social enterprise projects which will be strategically placed around the country in order to do the most good. From a larger world region perspective, it would include US product marketing and sales through such efforts as From an International perspective, this would include working with UN grants and passing on information that will be used to improve future International aid programs.
78 C HAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS Haiti has a long history of political strife, natural disasters, resource depletion and endless s lives. REBUILD Global continuous unemployment Their long term goal is to establish a network of social enterprises in high unemployment areas throughout Haiti. The first two of these proje cts are Deux Mains in Port au Prince (which was begun to help Haitians find employment after the 2010 earthquake) and the Mobile Livelihood Project in Fond Bayard (which was a response to the unemployment among people in refugee camps after being deported from the Dominican Republic). My work concentrated on documenting procedures and writing an SOP for the MLP at Fond Bayard, but it is important to view this project i n the larger context The documentation and SOP instructions need to go beyond their i mmediate function and also serve as a template for future social enterprise projects. This point of view is the reason for the introspective style of the documentation. Each issue is looked at in retrospect in order to provide decision makers of future p rojects background information that may aid them as they face their new choices. The following two conclusions are based on this introspective style. Originally REBUILD Globally thought that all 34 refugees who participated in the intensive training and earned income would want to move to Port Au Prince to work at Deux Main designs, but that was not the case. The participants seemed comfortable in Fond Bayard and have no desire to move from there They know their neighbors, the cost of living is low Standardization and documentation may not seem important in a small shop with a handful of employees and a small customer ba se, but it is very important even then. It facilitates expansion as a project grows It allows cross scale and cross disciplinary cooperation. It allow s a project to interact and coordinate with the myriad of other proje cts of various sizes that are going on in a country like Haiti and around the world. It allows organizations to pool resources in order to take on larger problems. It increases the value of employee and the quality of the
79 labor pool. It allows knowledge gained from one project to be used in another. Even the smallest organization or project should be thinking about standardization and documentation right from its inception. Recommendations Based on my work of developing an SOP, I have several recommendations for my host organization REBUILD Globally and for other similar initiatives. REBUILD Globally should reconsider whether the goal of the Mobile Livelihood Project is to transition people out of the camps and to employment elsewhere in Haiti or if the goal should be to improve the community near the camp. Perhaps a more permanent facility might be a better solution than the current mobile format (Nathan, 2017). The DM managers need to be trained to be trainers. They have the passion for tea ching, just not the skills. Along with the training, the DM managers need a small teaching kit. This training package should include samples of the tire rubber materials, tools like scissors and shears, gloves, safety glasses, a checklist, a guide to the setup of the training room, and the points that needed to be covered during each training session. The MLP employees need an intensive training in safety, process and proper equipment usage. Showing videos clip to the DM managers about how the process is currently done at the MLP is helpful. Not all the managers can visit the refugee camp, and by watching videos of how the process is done, they can help prepare to train the MLS participants in the particular areas that are most challenging. Manuals often confuse people and it is important to acknowledge this when creating an SOP. It is best to keep the instructions as simple as possible and to include photos along with the explanations. Various degrees of literacy are common in Haiti and other similar con texts. Including photos can reinforce written words. I recommend making training videos on the local language for the same reason.
80 Posters which illustrate good workplace safety, equipment care, and proper work processes could cover the now bare walls a nd reinforce the concepts the workers learned during their training. Key team leaders should be involved in the process of structuring the SOP. Training will be strongest if the written and verbal instructions match each other and reinforce the same mess age. These leaders should know that their input is valuable and be encouraged to share feedback. It is also important that they feel ownership of the whole training process. This SOP might need to be adapted when it is introduced to a new location with a different set of challenges. When adapting the SOP to a new context, keep in mind the local resources and infrastructure should be considered. Is there local electricity and running water? If electricity is a generator, how far away is the nearest gas station? What is the replacement time when supplies run low or equipment needs parts or service? Calculation of reordering and maintenance schedules will likely need to be adjusted based upon these factors, and these adjustments should be written into t he adapted SOP. Participatory mapping should be added to the needs assessment when RG replicates this model in other vulnerable communities. Participatory mapping is an exercise that helps people outside of a community see the area from a local perspectiv e. It fills in the social and cultural details that are missed by conventional cartography. It allows the community a chance to represent themselves spatially (IFAD 2009). It also empowers the community to have more input when cooperating with outside gr oups like RG. Currently no written partnership agreement is required. Often, it is a good idea to have at least a memorandum of understanding to clarify concerns (roles and responsibilities, fees, deadlines, etc.) and to give the partnership solid direct ion and an accurate expectation of what to expect. I recommend implementing a written agreement or application process even if it is not legally binding.
81 Communication flow gaps between DM managers and the MLP leadership lead to ongoing product quality problems. RG should encourage open communication between both locations (especially between quality control managers). When RG or other organizations are replicating this model in other vulnerable communities, they should use the UN QIP grant requirements as a benchmark. In one of the training sessions I showed the MLP employees a finished sandal and they were surprised. They had not seen the finished product before. I recommend that DM show the MLP employees the finished products regularly so that they can understand why quality is so important. I believe this will also help give them a sense of pride in their work. I recommend that RG and DM use this SOP during training. It is not perfect so they should feel free to fine tune it. In the long ru n, this documented approach will help make training and expansion easier. It will also help improve quality consistency. It will help them better integrate with other projects and larger efforts. It will only work if it is used however.
82 APPENDIX: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Focus group interview on training and process 1) What are of challenges of training at participants at the Mobile Livelihood Project? 2) What helpful tips can you share about the training process? 3) What tools do you use during the training sessions? 4) Did you assess the skill levels of the participants before the training? If so, what skill levels did you see? Had the trainees used those kinds of tools before? 5) How did you in troduce the techniques? Did you assume they knew how to use tools like shears and belt sanders before or were you introducing these concepts from scratch? Process 1) Which tools did the trainees find easiest to use? 2) Which tools were the most difficult ? 3) How much did you personally customize the training techniques? Why? Focus group on quality 1) What are some of the quality issues with the products produced at Mobile Livelihood Project? 2) How are the quality issues addressed now? 3) Do you have a ny suggestions on how to improve the quality issues? 4) What is the communication flow between Deux Main and Mobile livelihood Project?
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