Citation
Survey of a selected number of women's organizaitons in Tampa, Florida and their contributions to education

Material Information

Title:
Survey of a selected number of women's organizaitons in Tampa, Florida and their contributions to education
Creator:
Berry, Frankye Almeda
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xi, 155 leaves. : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Women -- Societies and clubs ( lcsh )
Endowments -- Florida -- Tampa ( lcsh )
Curriculum and Instruction thesis Ed. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Curriculum and Instruction -- UF

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 151-153.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Frankye Almeda Berry.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact the RDS coordinator (ufdissertations@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
029437709 ( ALEPH )
14216955 ( OCLC )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
SURVEY OF A SELECTED NUMBER OF
WOMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS IN TAMPA, FLORIDA AND
THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATION
By
FRANKYE ALMEDA BERRY

A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1975




Copyright
by
Frankye A. Berry
1975




To my parents:
Lorenzo and Lauvinia Berry Who made it possible for me
to make this step.




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I acknowledge, with deep gratitude and with the extending of special thanks--the patience, kindness, guidance, and help of Dr. Arthur J. Lewis, Chairman of the Supervisory Committee and Chairman of the Division of Curriculum and Instruction of the College of Education.
Special mention, along with deep appreciation, must be given to the other committee members which include Dr. James L. Wattenbarger, Chairman, Department of Educational Administration and Supervision, and Director of the Institute of Higher Education; and Dr. Ralph B. Kimbrough, Professor, Educational Administration.
Sincere thanks and appreciation to Dr. Betty L. Siegel, Dean of
Academic Affairs for Continuing Education; Dr. Elroy J. Bolduc, Chairman, Secondary Education; and Dr. Charles A. Henderson, Associate Professor, College of Education.
Special thanks to Dr. Vynce A. Hines, Chairman, Foundations of
Education; and to Dr. M. L. Martinello, Associate Professor, Elementary Education, who gave so generously of their time.
Deep appreciation to Dr. William West, Department of Education, University of South Florida, for his help and encouragement.
Sincere appreciation to Mrs. Lisa Gorham, Public Relations Specialist, Tampa, Florida, and to the following Gainesville club leaders who served on a committee to pretest the questionnaire: Mrs. Gwendolyn Lewis, President-Elect, University Women's Club; Mrs. Charlotte Yates, Past President, American Association of University Women; Mrs. Louise Stone, Past President, University Women's Club; and Mrs. Doris Poole, President, University women's Club.




TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. .............. .. ..
LIST OF TABLES................. ..
ABSTRACT................... ..
CHAPTER I
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND NEED FOR STUDY.
Purpose of Study. ............ .. ..
Background for the Study...... .. .. ..
The Crusade. ............. ..
The First Woman's Club...... .. .. ..
The Suffrage Amendment........ .. .. ..
Early Activities of Women.... .. .. ..
Women's Liberation Movement.... .. ....
Women's Groups and Education... .. .. .. .
Cooperation of Women's Groups.... .. ..
Community Education and World-Mindedness.
Need for the Study. .. ........ .. ..

. . iv ...............................viii

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE................
First women's Organization in the United States

The General Federation... .. ..
The State Federations.... .. ..
Early Influence of Organizations.
Status of Women in 1965.....
Status of Women in 1971-1975...
Motivations for Club Attendance.
Women of Distinction... .. .. ..
women of the World... .. .. .. .
CHAPTER III
PROCEDURES. ........... .. .
Study Design..... ... .. .. ..
Definition of Terms.... .. ....
Selection of Sample.... .. ....
Delimitations;........ .. .. ..
Participants..... ... .. .. ..
Instrumentation.... .. .. ....
Data Collection.... .. .. ....
Data Treatment...... .. .. ..




Page

CHAPTER IV
RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA .. ..........52
Section 1 Characteristics of Respondents .. ...........52
section 2 Descriptions of Individual Organizations .. .....55
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority (Gamma Theta Omega Chapter) .. 57
Altrusa Club of Tampa.........................58
Amaryllis Garden Circle.... ..................61
American Association of University Women .. ...........62
Citizens Alert ...........................63
Davis Island Yacht Club Dinghy Dames. .............66
Delta Kappa Gamma Society ..................67
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. (Tampa Alumnae Chapter). -68 Girls Clubs of Tampa, Inc.. .................70
Hillsborough County Democratic Women's Club (Tampa Branch). 72 Insurance Women of Tampa. ....................73
Junior League of Tampa, Inc.. ..................74
League of Women Voters of Hillsborough County (Tampa Chapter) 76 Manhattan Elementary School Parent-Teachers Association .-79 National Council of Negro Women ..................81
National League of American Pen Women. .............82
National Organization for Women ..................83
Pilot Club of Tampa........................84
Seminole Business and Professional Club of Tampa .. ......86 Soroptimist Club of Tampa ....................88
Suncoast Girl Scout Council ...................89
Tampa Junior Woman's Club ....................91
Tampa Music Teachers Association. ...............94
Tampa Pharmaceutical Association. ...............95
Women's Equity Action League. ..................96
Women in Communications .....................97
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc.. ...................98
Section 3 Characteristics of Individual Organizations 100
Question 1 How important are the demographic factors
in determining participation in women's organizations? .100
Question 2 What is the character of the educational
reading engaged in by the respondents' ............101
Question 3 In which organizations do the respondents
hold membership? .....................102
Question 4 What official club experiences have the
respondents engaged in?'....................103
Question 5 Which women's organizations have been
most influential in solving county-wide problems? . . 104
Question 6 What are the most important educational
projects that have been resolved in the past or
that must be resolved in the future?'...........105
Question 7 How can organizations help to resolve
problems and issues? Are there plans for
resolvableness? ........................106
Question 8 What are the purposes of the organizations?. 108
Question 9 What kinds of educational experiences are
provided through the organizations?. .. .........108




Page

Question 10 Which organizational leaders have
influence with state leaders through whom they
can get work done? 109
Question 11 When were the organizations founded,
and How many local members do they have? . . . . 110 Question 12 What are the criteria for membership,
and Is the work in education done on a continuing basis? 111 Question 13 What are some of the organizational
publications? 112
Question 14 How is organizational effectiveness
evaluated? 112
Question 15 Is there a clearinghouse for women's
groups in the community? . . . . . . . . 113
Question 16 Do all segments of an organization
work together for common objectives, coordinate
activities, and cooperate for mutual benefit? . . . 113 Question 17 Which leaders have strong city-wide
influence? 114
Question 18 How are organizations structured to
promote educational improvement? . . . . . . 115
Question 19 Are interclub activities in existence
for uniting the community for peace, health, and
public affairs? 115
Question 20 Is there a platform sponsored equally
by all groups to present foremost authorities? . . 116

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . .
Summary of Educational Contributions of
Women's organizations in the Study . . .
Summary of Areas of Study . . . . . .
The sponsoring of scholarship and loan funds.
The conducting of educational programs . .
The studying of educational problems.
It The promoting of educational legislation . .
Analysis of Educational Activities . . . .
Implications ... .
Recommendations .
Conclusion .

. 117

117 127 127 127
128 129 129 129 131 133

APPENDIX A .
Letter to Club Leaders . . . . . . . .
Introduction to Questionnaire . . . . . .
Personal Characteristics and opinion Questionnaire.

APPENDIX B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Personal Background for Study . . . . . . . . 148
BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
ADDITIONAL READING . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . . . . . . 154




LIST OF TABLES

Page

TABLE 1 LENGTH OF RESPONDENTS' RESIDENCE IN TAMPA. TABLE 2 NUMBER OF OFFICES HELD BY RESPONDENTS IN
RELATION TO AGE . . . . . . .
TABLE 3 CHILDREN OF RESPONDENTS . . . . .
TABLE 4 NUMBER OF OFFICES HELD IN RELATION TO
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND . . . . TABLE 5 ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR AREAS OF
EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES . . . . .

. 53
* 53
* 54
* 54 130

viii




Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education
SURVEY OF A SELECTED NUMBER OF
WOMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS IN TAMPA, FLORIDA AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATION
By
Frankye Almeda Berry
March, 1975
Chairman: Dr. Arthur J. Lewis
Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction
Discriminations have hampered the progress of women since before the turn of the last century, and there are still many biases against women in higher education and in the job market which continue to operate during this century. Women, themselves, must make policies and plans to promote their own welfare, to make them more efficient, and to provide for them greater opportunities. In order to do this, they must work to develop their own potential and to be able to participate fully in American life. It is generally felt that association in club life and the involvement in club activities can do much to bring about such development. It was with these ideas in mind that this study wa$ made.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the current nature and extent of the contributions of women's organizations to education by studying twenty-seven such organizations in Tampa, Florida. The organizations were examined in order to discover the extent to which each shows an interest in one or more of the following areas:




(1) The sponsoring of scholarship and loan funds
(2) The conducting of educational programs
(3) The studying of educational problems
(4) The promoting of educational legislation.
Eight categories of club work are represented by the organizations selected for the investigation: Creative and Fine Arts, Business and Professional, Civic, School, Community, Public Service, Sports, and Human Rights.
A questionnaire, consisting of questions concerning demographic data, additional characteristics of the respondents, and characteristics of the organizations, was used. The instrument was administered in several meetings under the direct supervision of the writer.
Results from the questionnaires are recorded in narratives,
descriptions, and tables shown in three sections: (1) Characteristics of Respondents, (2) Descriptions of Individual Organizations, and (3) Characteristics of Individual Organizations. Eighty-seven percent of the women who responded have had some college training, sixty-one percent have been graduated from college while eighteen percent have completed the Master's degree. These women hold a total of 61 offices in their clubs.
Of the twenty-seven organizations studied, twenty-four reported that they conduct some type of educational program. Twelve clubs reported that they sponsor scholarship and loan funds. Eight clubs indicated they are involved in promoting educational legislation and seven clubs are engaged in the study of educational problems.
Based on the findings in the study the writer made the following recommendations:
(1) That more conferences and conventions involving clubwomen be




held periodically in order to make it convenient for women to
discuss their activities and exchange ideas.
(2) That interclub activities be encouraged through the use of
brochures used to describe the activities of each organization.
(3) That a clearinghouse be used by all organizations to facilitate
the coordination of activities and to enable various organizations to work in concert on common problems.
(4) That committees from the various clubs be appointed to work
with state and national groups to compile printed materials,
films, film strips and slides on the roles being played by club
organizations in the promoting of the work in education.
(5) That representatives from the school board and others in school
work be invited periodically to view such materials and to become acquainted with the educational work involving club
women.
This study may have significance for the members of women's organizations and for persons and groups interested in working with such organizations. It may serve to help women's organizations map their strategies for greater involvement in community activities, and at the same time to help individual women improve their self-concept. The study should serve, further, to make more clubwomen aware of the high purposes in education for which their organizations should exist.
Chairman




CHAPTER I
STATEMENT OF THE PFZOBLEM AND NEED FOR STUDY
This writer agrees with Mary Love Collins, author of the Foreword
in Public Services of Women's Organizations, who states that "the record of women's organizations provides hope and encouragement to women who take the spirit of intelligent activity to their interest in public service." This writer agrees, further, that Democracy begins with a person and continues to gain strength in the little groups that get together in towns and in cities; 2 therefore, her agreements and extensive experience with women's club organizations have led her to the belief that such organizations provide a number of educational opportunities within a community.
Purpose of Study
The purpose, then, of this study was to investigate the current nature and extent of the contributions of women 's organizations to education by studying a selected number of such organizations in Tampa, Florida. The organizations were examined in order to discover the extent to which each shows an interest in one or more of the following areas:
(1) The sponsoring of scholarship and loan funds
(2) The conducting of educational programs
1Valborg Fletty, Public Services of Women's Organizations (New York: George Banta Publishing Co., 1951), p. i.
2Dallas Johnson and Elizabeth Bass Golding, Don't Underestimate Woman Power (New York: Public Affairs Committee, Inc., 1951), p. 29.
3See Appendix B--Personal Background for Study.




(3) The studying of educational problems
(4) The promoting of educational legislation.
The findings are to be shared with various women's organizations, with the personnel in the Hillsborough County Schools, and with other groups desiring their use.
Background for the Study
The first step in associated life was taken by women when they protested the use and abuse of the power used by men. Women of rank fled to the desert and encountered unheard-of hardships rather than submit to the life to which they had been condemned by their fathers, brothers, and other men who exercised authority over them. The first church sisterhood grew out of such beginnings as these and gradually was sanctioned by the church. "Women in monasticism" shows how powerful the system of religious sisterhoods had become as early as the fifth century, and traces its growing strength and enlargement until its decline, which was coeval with the Reformation. 1
The oldest purely women's societies in the country were started for missionary and church work. The first of these was the "Female Charitable Society" of Baldwinsville, New York, which may still be in existence. The object of this society was "to obtain a more perfect view of the infinite excellence of the Christian religion in its own nature, to see the importance of making this religion the chief concern of our own hearts, and to see the necessity of promoting it in our own families, and of diffusing it among our fellow sinners." A further object was "to afford aid to religious institutions."2
1 Jane C. Croly, The History of the Woman's Club Movement in America (New York: H. G. Allen and Co., 1898), p. 2.
21bid., p. 8.




The Crusade
Down to the last quarter of the 19th century, there was little
sympathy with organizations of women not expressly religious, charitable, or intended to promote charitable objectives. History records that even in Germany, only societies that had a distinctly religious, educational, or charitable object were permitted. 1The cry of the woman, emerging from a darkened past, then, was "light, more light," and light was breaking. The demand and the opportunity for education, for intellectual freedom, for women as well as for men, for cultivation of gifts and faculties, came gradually. Therefore, the early half of the century was marked by a crusade, which stood for the cause of better education of women, comparable to the physical emancipation of the slave. 2
The First Woman's Club
Educational advance for women was struck by Emma Willard in 1821. There was an awakening of the communal spirit and the striking of a new note--the woman's club--which meant for the women--liberty, breadth, and unity.3
The woman's club was not an echo; it was not the mere
banding together for a social and economic purpose, like the clubs of men. It became at once, without deliberate
intention or concerted action, a light-giving and seedsowing centre of purely altruistic and democratic activity.
It had no leaders. It brought together qualities rather
than personages; and by a representation of all interests,
moral, intellectual, and social, a natural and equal
division of work and opportunity, created an ideal basis
of organization, where everyone had an equal right to whatever comes to the common centre; where the centre
1Croly, p. 9.
2History of Woman's Club Movement, p. 11.
3Croly, p. 12.




itself becomes a radiating medium for the diffusion of
the best of that which is brought to it, and into which,
all being freely given, no material considerations enter.1
The first woman' s club, "The Woman's League," was organized in 1868
with Alice Carey, the poet of American women, as its president. It was
felt that the club should be hospitable to women of different minds,
degrees, and habits of work and thought and that it should strive to
foster the cause of education. Valborg Fletty in Public Services of
women's organizations introduces the following thoughts on early educational activities of women:
It was not chance that led women's groups to stress
knowledge of government as a requisite for good
citizenship. As one writer said: "Education possesses
a major alternative to force in overcoming the injustices
of society." In the long struggle for social, economic, and political emancipation, women had come to depend on
knowing the facts to carry conviction. Mrs. Carrie
Chapman Catt, looking forward to the "success of democracy,"
at the St. Louis convention of the Women's Suffrage
Association in 1919, proposed "a league of women voters"
as "a living memorial" to those who had led the suffrage
movement and as a means of using effectively the right
of suffrage.
In February, 1920, Mrs. Catt's proposal was translated
into an organization, The National League of Women Voters, whose by-laws included the object: "to promote political
education through active participation of citizens in
government. "2
The Suffrage Amendment
Women's organizations took advantage of the responsibility and
opportunity that had come to them through the suffrage amendment. Many
of these groups studied the basic principles of voting, the structure
of government, the organizations of political parties, legislation and
1 Croly, p. 13.
2Valborg Fletty, Public Services of Women's organizations (New York: George Banta Publishing Co., 1951), pp. 5-6.




its processes and engaged in the practice of bringing candidates for office before the membership for the purpose of having them explain their stand on certain issues; however, the League of Women Voters was the first and only group that devoted its time to the improvement of government through education and citizenly participation. Early Activities of Women
In addition to voting, women's groups were represented in city
councils, legislatures and court sessions. These groups, all together, worked for improvements in weaknesses in governmental machinery, supported governmental budgets, bond issues, and reform measures. They worked for women to hold offices and for qualified personnel in government positions. 2
Because of the number of intangibles that help make for the
progress of a democratic society, it is neither possible to measure the achievements of organized women's groups in terms of a quantitative score nor to assess a definitive assignment of credit to any one group. Women's organizations did not desire to collect a record of victories nor to work separately from society as a whole. It is possible, however, to summarize their activities during the period between the two world wars and to pin-point some general trends and accomplishments. 3
Education was a major interest of women's organizations, and,
therefore, these groups upheld the maintaining and improvement of the standards of public education by demanding qualified teachers, adequate school plants, and attendance laws that were required. In order that
1 Ibid., p. 123.
2-Ibid., p. 124.
3Fletty, p. 123.




these demands might be realized, they actively supported budgets and tax laws. General national women's organizations brought into being libraries and provided volunteers to keep them open and funds for maintenance whenever public funds could not be provided.
Women's Liberation Movement
Although this study was not done to emphasize or underscore facets of the women's liberation movement, it is important that attention be called to this accent on social philosophy since any discussion about women's work can not be divorced from the thinking of society and its influences. It is, therefore, of inestimable value that our minds be focused toward this important issue within our culture, and that consideration be given to it.
Mrs. Karen DeCrow sheds light on this subject in her article
"Women' s Liberation":
"John Stuart mills wrote in 1869 that the American woman's status
was that of a slave and compared her to the black plantation man who was sometimes well cared for and sometimes not, and further describes this early woman as always being without the decision-making power to control her own life."2
Even though the American woman won the vote, conditions changed very little until a few years ago. Since that time, the mass press has given much coverage to the women's liberation movement, and the American woman's view of herself and of the place she should hold in society has been changed.3
lbid., p. 124.
2-Karen DeCrow, "Women's Liberation," Adult Leadership, Vol. 19 (May,
1970-April, 1971) 234.
31bid.




In April 1970, President Nixon organized a Task Force on the rights and responsibilities of Women and among many findings, it was revealed that black and white women in America occupy lower status than black men in social, political, and economic areas.1
The percentages of female doctors, lawyers, and Ph.D.'s in this country have steadily decreased since the 30's. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII, provides that there shall be no discrimination on the basis of sex in employment; however, there has been a steady widening of the wage differential between men and women since 1964. In addition, the holdings of women in political life are in a token fashion.2
DeCrow believes that the solution to second-class citizenship is in the hands of women. Women, she feels, are joining each other in order that they might force government agencies to bring an end to discrimination, in order that they might demand constitutional equality as well as make other demands significant to their own well being.3
The women's revolution has definite relevance to the educator. The education profession in America needs to be restructured in content and form. Social sciences must recognize the fact that teaching about the "special affective domain" of women goes back to the middle ages and the 60's and does not belong to the 70's. There must be a revision of the hierarchies of the educational structure to admit women to equal positions. If this is not done, the profession can not expect to teach justice to the young or adult student. 4
lbid.
2Tbid.
3bid.
4DeCrow, p. 234.




Dr. Emily Taylor, who has served as Dean of Women at the University of Kansas, and legislative chairman of the Kansas Governor' s Commission on the Status of Women, wrote "The Women's Movement--What It's All About." Her thinking, to show that the demands of the movement are just, follows:
"Frustrating clues to second-class citizenship of women in the
United States have been provided through inequities, undesirable working conditions, political neglect, and other distasteful practices. During the 50 years since the final passage of the women's suffrage amendment, an equal rights amendment has been introduced in Congress 47 times; however, attempts to establish the Constitutional principle of equality have been thwarted." 1
College women, mature women and working women are showing renewed interest now in the women's movement. Career women and women in executive positions have been made conscious of the need of their involvement because of their experiences. Many women who have never before expressed resentment of unfair practice are now finding satisfaction in
joining with other women in organizations. Such groups as the American Association of University women, the National Organization for Women, women's caucuses in professional organizations, the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, and others accept the joining of forces to make for improvement of political and economic conditions.2
Many women, who have turned away from the movement because of the extreme behavior of women's groups who want headline attention, agree with the goals of equal employment, equal educational opportunities, and
1Emily Taylor, "The women's Movement--What It's All About," American Vocational Journal, Vol. 45 (Dec., 1970), p. 16.
21bid.




equal pay for equivalent work as well as the elimination of discrimination
on the legal f ront.'1
Taylor gives her summnary of what the movement is all about:
Most women in the labor force work because of the
need to support themselves or contribute to the
support of their families. Their increasing resentment of economic injustice has spurred their efforts
toward the removal of legal barriers to full equality and the elimination of discrimination because of sex.
Those who are in this movement recognize that child care facilities, birth control clinics, and readily
available abortions are also essential to a truly
free choice of life styles for women.2
Dr. Elizabeth J. Simpson states that the whole matter of female lib isn't going away, and indicates that vocational education cannot afford to be sex blind. She points out, further, that there exists sex quotas in our professional schools which discriminate against women. Postsecondary technical schools have not set up regulations against women applicants but they do not put forth an effort to attract women students to any fields except those that they feel are designed for women. At the secondary level in the vocational programs, girls do not seek vocational training apart from courses in home economics, business and office occupations, health occupations, etc. They have been discouraged by counselors, parents, and instructors. 3
Norma K. Raffel pinpoints the impact of the women's movement on higher education:
"Important changes in society which are being reflected in higher education are being caused by three factors-- (1) the changing lifepatterns of women, (2) the recent legal basis for equal opportunity
1Emily Taylor, p. 16.
21bid., p. 17.
_Elizabeth J. Simpson, "Women's Lib Is Here to Stay," American Vocational Journal, Vol. 45 (Dec., 1970), pp. 17-20.




brought on by the Higher Education Act of 1972 which gave organizations
a new tool for effecting change, (3) the modification of sex roles due
to elimination of bias in elementary and secondary schools' 1
When there is some understanding of the women's movement in our
present society, she states well the impact it will have on programs
and policies in higher education:
The over-all direction of change will be one of
flexibility. No longer will higher education be
designed solely to fit men's life-style and
achievement goals, but it must consider also the
different needs of women, and provide educational opportunities for older persons--especially women
who will want to continue their education after
family responsibilities have lessened.
With the recent emphasis on career education,
and the increasing time women are spending in paid
employment, more and more women will be electing
programs which offer knowledge and skill directly
related to future employment. .. .When the realities
of employment opportunity are faced, there will
undoubtedly be an accelerated shift away from
teacher education and the humanities into community service programs, health related programs and even
engineering.
The Higher Education Act of 1972 will give the
impetus needed to admit students on the basis of
sex-neutral qualifications, and one would expect a
shift in the ratio of men and women students.
Perhaps the most striking and immediate impact of
the women's movement in higher education has been on
the hiring and promotion of qualified women.
As affirmative action programs are implemented and
more women are visible at all levels, young women
students will finally have highly important role
models in large enough numbers that they will come to feel that there really is a chance to become an
educator at the college level.2
As the writer of this study views the women's movement, she sees
continued progress in the work of the organizations surveyed. She
1Norma K. Raffel, "The Women's Movement and Its Impact on Higher Education," Liberal Education, Vol. 59 (May, 1973), 249.
2Raffel, pp. 250-253.




visualizes a continued reach for legislation -that will aid women in the movement in arriving at that point where fair play and justice to women will be rampant.
W. Fred Totten writes a very significant article which in the writer's opinion sets the stage for all of the work that should be done by women's organizations, the women's movement, as well as by other groups who are interested in Community Education.
"It is becoming increasingly clear," says he, "that if we are to
solve the critical problems of society and make a better world, humanistic progress must keep pace with scientific progress." He quotes John Gardner who says: "Nations decay; only citizens, critical and loving, can bring
them back to life." "Only citizens," Totten continues, "who reach for the loftiest aim in human life--unselfish service to others--can effect recovery." "It is time," he adds, "for all professions and serviceoriented groups to come forward with bold, new plans to help solve our pressing social problems." 1
Valborg Fletty, in the writer's opinion, directs attention to the
background for the rationale of this study when she underscores the idea that women's organizations are native to our soil and that eighty-seven organized associations listed in the World Almanac for 1949 are women's groups. Fletty supports this idea by reference to Matthew Arnold who helps us feel the coming impact of women's organizations when he indicates
that if the world ever experiences a time when women shall come together solely for the good and benefit of mankind, it will witness a power that
2
the world has never known.
1W. Fred Totten, "Community Education: The Feasible Reform," Phi Delta
KapanVol. LIV, No. 3 (Nov., 1972), 148.
7Valborg Fletty, Public Services of Women's Organizations (New York: George Banta Publishing Co., 1951), p. 1.




Women's Groups and Education
This writer believes, like Matthew Arnold, in the clubwoman. She believes that the time has come when this woman is showing her power in many areas and especially in education to help people in America learn better and live better.
Illustrative of this approach is The National League of Women Voters, organized in 1920. This organization uses sound principles in its educational program in that it adopted John Dewey's philosophy of learning to do by doing. The new voter learned how to use the new power that had come into her hands, and immigrants studied the federal Constitution to qualify for citizenship. 1Their laboratory approach, explained in a League publication, was an effective one:
There is more value in teaching one single citizen to take a first step in political activity than to teach a hundred citizens many things about government. There is also much merit in taking a woman through certain consecutive steps in government-like listening to a department head tell about his budget proposal, visiting a service included in it,
interviewing a representative for the purpose of
getting an appropriation, and following the process
of the cutting or passing of the appropriation.
When 'the woman has been led through all of this,
she has been given the feel of the way of democracy
and has been led through a process in education.2
Cooperation of Women's Groups
-Johnson and Golding write that the most important battles are won
1Valborg Fletty, Public Services of Women's Organizations (New York: George Banta Publishing Co., 1951), p. 6.
2Fletty, p. 7.




when clubwomen overcome their distaste for going outside their own group, and cooperate with other clubs toward a common goal. They state, further, that for every woman's club that has won an individual battle for civic betterment, that there are ten that have tried and failed because the opposition was too strong or they were too weak. Battles for better health, better housing, and better education, the writers contend, are often lost because a woman's club spearheading the attack tries to do it alone.1
Johnson and Golding use the following lines as proof of the
importance of cooperation between organizations:
This was proved time and again in the recent "Build A Better Community" contest sponsored by the Kroger Company for the General Federation of Women's Clubs,
in which 2,912 clubs competed for 125 cash prizes.
Almost without exception the winners enlisted the
help of other organizations in their campaigns for
local improvements. 2
Intergroup activity is more significant between different creeds and clubs of varied interests. "In Chicago, the women's Council for Fair Education Practices draws its members from a wide variety of organizations. Its president is a white Protestant, its vice-president Negro, its treasurer Catholic, and its secretary Jewish."3
In Atlanta, Georgia, one of the largest Jewish Women's organizations is B'nai B'rith, and it has been working with most of the Protestant church auxiliaries for more than five years on an Inter-Faith Prison Farm program to rehabilitate young offenders. Their program includes
lDallas Johnson and Elizabeth Bass Golding, Don't Underestimate Woman Power (New York: Public Affairs Committee, Inc., 1951), p. 2.
21biT.
31bid., p. 3.




counseling, craft classes, entertainment, and psychiatric and medical
1
care.
Community Education and World-Mindedness
Morris Mitchell, President emeritus and Provost, Friends World College, Clarksville, Georgia, and Robert Berridge, Director, Center for Community Education, Texas A and M University, have written companion articles on world mindedness. Mitchell asks the question--"Can Community Education Build World Mindedness" and Berridge gives the practitioner's reply--"Community Education--A Vehicle Toward World Mindedness."
Mitchell introduces the following concept:
World mindedness is an attitude which embraces a
love and concern for all humanity. It means caring
about the problems of our brothers and sisters in
all parts of the world and thinking of ourselves as
citizens of a World Community. If we are world
minded, we cannot help realizing that we are in a
period of crisis, and if we don't seek to eliminate
our pressing problems we may destroy ourselves.2
Mitchell states, further, that if we are to be considered responsible world citizens we must seek such emerging concepts as the youth movement, world colleges, and world education itself, and urge them on to produce a healthier and better world.3
Many people, he warns, think of yesterday or tomorrow and fail to think back in time or far into the future. He, therefore, advises as follows:
1Ibid.
2Morris Mitchell, "Can Community Education Build World Mindedness," Community Education Journal, Vol. II (February, 1972), 23.
3Ibid.




Those of us involved in World Education, however,
must constantly think, look and reach ahead toward building a new world. This does not mean escaping into an unrealistic dream world, but it does mean that our acti 'ons in the present reality of crisis
must be motivated toward solving problems and
realizing our dreams for humanity.1
There should be a change in emphasis in the curriculum. It should not emphasize schooling, but should concentrate on education and problem solving to produce a higher quality of life. The curriculum should stress living and show a futuristic concern for the problems and processes of life.2
Mitchell ends his article on a note similar to the one on which he begins: "If educators are asking if Community Education can build world consciousness, perhaps they are ready to accept their responsibility to the community in its broadest sense--world community--and therefore accept Community Education as World Community Education or more simply, World Education."
Robert Berridge, Director, Center for Community Education, Texas A and M University, has an answer to the question set forth by Morris Mitchell: "Can Community Education Build World Mindedness?"
Before taking a look at the reply by Berridge, let us look at a definition for Community Education. Maurice Seay in his book on Community Education has this to say:
Educators and laymen, faced with mounting problems and
irresponsible criticism, are feeling great pressure
to work together in solving societal problems. They
are making many attempts to coordinate the programs of
community agencies that have legitimate educational aims.
1 Mitchell, p. 24.
21bid.




Evaluative studies of community-centered education
made during the fifties and sixties in Michigan and
in the Appalachian states have led the writer to
believe that the community school concept has truly
evolved into a community education concept...--a
concept which can be expressed in the following brief
sentence: Community education is the process that
achieves a balance and a use of all institutional forces in the education of the people--all of the
people--of the community.1
Phillip A. Clark, Director, Center for Community Education, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, advises that we do everything
possible to help people view Community Education as an operational
philosophy of education. Community Education, he states, must be seen
and experienced as a philosophy that subscribes to the following:
(1) Maximal utilization of all human, physical and financial resources of a community in the providing
of learning experiences and services for community
members of all ages.
(2) Systematic involvement of representative
community members in the identification of
wants and needs and their involvement in suggesting
or implementing organizational structure to meet
these identified wants and needs.
(3) Maximal interagency coordination and cooperation.
Community Education is not solely the domain of the
public school system. Maximum utilization of the
concept itself will not be realized until it is
demonstrated that the concept is equally applicable
to all educational, governmental and service
institutions, organizations and agencies. It is a
philosophy which encourages them to work together
in providing the best possible learning experiences and services, and the best utilization of the taxpayers' dollars.2
iMaurice F. Seay, et al. Community Education: A Developing Concept (Midland, Michigan: Pendell Publishing Co., 1974), p. 10.
2Phillip A. Clark, "Can Basic Community Education Principles Be Included in the K-12 Program?" Community Education Journal, Vol. II (January-February, 1974), 33.




Now that we have concepts concerning a definition of Community
Education, we shall take a look at Robert Berridge's reply to Mitchell:
Dr. Mitchell has discussed love, concern for all human beings,
world community education, and world mindedness: "Is this the impossible
dream or can it become reality? It may well only be the dream of the
philosopher, the eternal optimist or the college professor. However,
it could very possibly come true. The 'temper of the times' seems to
be such that people are genuinely concerned with their community and
with lack of involvement; in effect, the pendulum of apathy seems to
have swung back--people are ready to become involved again."I
Dr. Berridge underscores in the lines that follow other ideas about
Community Education:
Community Education is the first step--the immediate
goal toward world mindedness. It is the process which
involves people with people in work, play, and learning
activities. As people become involved, a spirit develops
which leads toward interest and concern for others.
Cormunity Education is magical. It transforms the
sleeping community into an awake community, in that it changes attitudes, behaviors, and life styles of
participants and builds an atmosphere of understanding
and acceptance.
Community Education starts in a neighborhood and
spreads throughout the city and the state. At the
present time, it can be found in some 600 communities
throughout the United States.
Community Education has broad implications for
social change. Its most potent thrust is at the
individual and his relationships with others.2
Berridge states, further, that through involvement with other
individuals and with groups--people develop, grow, and are fulfilled.
iRobert Berridge, "Community Education--A Vehicle Toward World Mindedness," Community Education Journal, II, No. 1, (Feb., 1972), 25-26.
21bid., p. 25.




Need for the Study
The contribution that women's groups have made and can make to
community betterment has been described. There is a need to investigate the extent to which women's groups are achieving this potential. This study addresses itself to this need through the identification of the contributions to education of a selected number of women's organizations in Tampa, Florida.
The problem studied involves a four-fold categorical identification of the contributions to education which include: (1) organizations sponsoring scholarship and loan funds; (2) organizations conducting educational programs; (3) Organizations studying educational problems; and (4) organizations promoting educational legislation.
This study may have significance for the members of women's organizations and for individuals and groups interested in working with such organizations for educational purposes. It will serve to help women map their strategies for greater involvement in community activities, to help them improve their self-concept and focus greater attention on where they are going. "If you're not sure where you're going" advises an anonymous writer, "you're liable to end up someplace else."
In view of the advancement in education by women's organizations in the earlier years, it is important to make a study of women's organizations during this decade and to determine the progress that has been made.
This study is necessary in order to determine how today's woman has kept pace with earlier efforts to educate the public, and to provide hope and encouragement to women who are interested in public services.




The study will have a significance for the writer in that in her
own development it will enable "my love to grow in knowledge and insight and it will enable me to reach out for what is vital and important."
Finally, this study should serve to make more clubwomen aware of the high purposes in education for which their organizations should exist.

1Howard Thurman (Speech) Spelman College, Atlanta, Georgia.




CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The purpose of this chapter is to focus attention on women's club
life, and to present pertinent literature and research concerning their
educational activities.
The clubroom setting is a distinctive environment in which creative
and artistic minds are nurtured and in which the best kinds of experiences
and developments can be enjoyed. The thrust in such an atmosphere lies
in the projection of democratic attitudes, in the exhibiting of the
appreciation of the finer principles, and in the bringing to view of that
kind of awareness that makes for interest in personality development and
in education.
Elizabeth A. Greenleaf emphasizes the important role to be played
by women in education:
While there are major concerns for the role and status of women at every level of today's education, too few educated women are willing to become involved to bring about changes. Unless outstanding women educators in
every community and at every level of education do
become involved, no one else is going to be concerned
enough to stand up for women's equality, insist on
affirmative action, or maintain the advancements that
have been made in the past three years.
It is essential that every woman educator take stock
of her attitudes towards, and her involvement in, the women's movement of the 19701s. She must become concerned about the role of women in today's educational
world, must herself serve fully as an educator, and must challenge and encourage other women to work for self-learning and self-growth. In short, women must




be willing to assume the tasks necessary to provide
leadership in the educational world.1
Mrs. Jane C. Croly is the author of The History of the Woman's Club Movement in America, and she was thought to be the best qualified woman to write the early history because from the beginning of the movement she was one of the prominent promoters.2
Jane Croly wrote at the turn of the century that whenever the history of the nineteenth century is written, it will show women as leaders and organizers of movements among their own groups for the first time in the history of the world.
A significant statement from Mrs. L. R. Zerbe, a thoughtful writer,
is included in Mrs. Croly's discussion of "Women in Religious Organization:"
When Goethe made his discovery of the unity of structure
in organic life, he gave to the philosophers, who had
long taught the value, the "sovereignty" of the
individual, a physiological argument against oppression
and tyranny and put the whole of creation on an equal
footing.3
This new view, considered as a great advance of the moral and spiritual forces, had a great significance for women. It came as an awakening and as an emancipation of the soul, as freedom from tradition and prejudice, and as the acquiring of an intellectual outlook.4 First Women's Organization in the United States
The first women's organization grew out of an event in March 1868. The Press Club of New York offered to Mr. Charles Dickens a dinner,
lElizabeth A. Greenleaf, "The Role of Women in Education--Responsibility of Educated Women," Educational Horizons, Winter 1973-1974, Vol. 52, No. 2, p. 77.
2Jane C. Croly, The History of the Woman's Club Movement in America (New York: H. G. Allen and Co., 1898), p. ix.
31bid., p. 11.
4Ibid., p. 11.




which was to be given at the close of his reading tour in this country. Mrs. Croly and other ladies applied for a ticket to the dinner and received somewhat churlish treatment which suggested to Mrs. Croly the idea of a club, sponsored by women only, that should manage its own affairs, represent the active interest of women, and create a band of fellowship between them. Many men and women thought at that time that it would be impossible to establish such an organization.1
A meeting was called at the residence of Mrs. Croly on the first Monday in March 1868, and the following ladies, who had been contacted previously, were present: Mrs. C. B. Wilbour, Mrs. Botta, who was a professor, Mrs. H. M. Field, and Miss Kate Field.2
Mrs. Croly, on being asked to state the object in view, recounted briefly the facts in regard to the treatment of women members of the press by the New York Press Club, and said that her idea was to supply the want of unity and secular organization among women. It was stated, further, that many women including herself wanted a more intimate companionship with women, especially with those whose deeper natures had been roused to activity, who had been seized by the divine spirit of inquiry and aspiration, who were interested in the thought and progress of the age, and in what other women were thinking and doing.3
Mrs. Botta recommended calling the organization the "Blue Stocking Club." The group opposed this name because they felt that such a name would tend to make the organization too strictly literary. The ladies felt that the club must be homogeneous--hospitable to women of different
'History of the Woman's Club Movement, p. 15.
2Ibid.
3Croly, pp. 15-16.




minds and degrees of habits of work and thought--it must be representative of the whole woman, not of any special class of women, for the idea of clubs for women was to rid them of the system of exclusion and separation.1
Mrs. Croly refused to accept the presidency of the new club, which the women named Sorosis, because she wanted to find a president whose name would confer distinction upon the club. Alice Carey, the poet of American women, was Mrs. Croly's choice, and though Alice Carey was in feeble health, she accepted the position.2
At this time no one of those connected with the organization had
ever heard of a "woman's club," or of any secular organization composed entirely of women, whose purpose was to bring all kinds of women together
3
to work out their own objects in their own ways.
A second club named Sorosis was organized in Boston much later, and Mrs. Croly's group set aside this name and adopted as their new name, "The Women's League."4
The General Federation
Sorosis, the second club, issued an invitation to other clubs to form a General Federation which should embrace all the clubs of the country. The sympathy of the members was broad, and in many ways included various movements in education and philanthropy; however, the chief characteristic was self-improvement.5
Ibid.
Jane C. Croly, p. 18.
31bid.
4 bid., p. 19.
5Ibid.




Mrs. Croly writes that in 1894, a new formnof organization, the State Federation, appeared as an auxiliary to the General Federation. Maine, Iowa, Massachusetts, the Social Science Federation of Kansas, and Utah were the five states organized at this time. These five states, which were first to organize, represented no one section of the country, were widely separated, and proved that this organization was a general need and not one organized to favor any one special locality.
At the biennial, Mrs. Croly advises, which was held in Philadelphia in 1894, many persons expressed the feeling that the General Federation covered too large a territory, and would eventually represent too many interests to be satisfactory in such a form or organization. The delegates, representing the clubs, and who had been present at the first biennial, were in agreement that these meetings were provocative and inspiring, but had the feeling that only about one-half of the clubs in membership could possibly send delegates and that because of this, the General Federation would not be able to influence many groups. The State Federations
During the four years that Ellen M. Henrotin served as president
of the General Federation, twenty-three State Federations were organized including: New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, Nebraska, Colorado, Washington, and the District of Columbia. The State Federations of Texas, Alabama, and Florida did not join the General Federation at this time. 1
lbid.




The State Federations adopted immediately on their formation a
special line of work which was always educational in character and which embraced education from the kindergarten to the university and included public and traveling libraries, art interchanges, village and town improvement associations, and constructive legislation.1
These federations were built on reciprocity which implied the growing conviction that the giving and receiving are one, and that no one person should be placed on the constant giving end or the constant receiving end. In this way, the members preserved the harmony of life. The State Federation trained the clubs as citizens, and helped to create an interest in community life, while the General Federation underscored national life and helped to create harmony among the states. 2 Early Influence of Organizations
The Chautaugua, summer schools, night schools, university extensions, etc., are all manifestations of the woman's club movement, and this movement had a philosophy that was constructive and educational. Its method of work was non-aggressive and exemplified a positive, new spirit. The club movement represented the tendency to associated effort, and in association the individual discovers his personality and makes contributions for the good of all. 3
In the book, Don't Underestimate Woman Power, Johnson and Golding underscore women's work in national legislation as follows:
Today, women's groups are high among the organizations that influence national legislation. Not only do they
1History of the Woman's Club Movement, p. x.
2Croy, p. xi.
31bid., p. x.




have strength in numbers, but they also know how to use
their pressure where it counts--in a Congressman's
voting district. They have legislative chairmen, some
of whom are full-time paid employees and registered
lobbyists, to tell the nation's lawmakers what women want and to tell state and local chapters what their
Congressmen are doing.l
The League of Women Voters, composed of 720 groups and 90,000 members, is outstanding on the legislative front. This group spends full time on this job and plays an important role in everything from child care to civilian control of atomic energy. The American Association of University Women composed of 1,160 groups and 115,000 members have broad interests, with less accent on legislation. The National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., has 2,700 locals and 160,000 members. It is best known for what it has done to improve the status of women by creating more jobs and preparing women for high posts.2
Johnson and Golding list for the General Federation of Women's Clubs an estimated 14,500 clubs and nearly 775,000 members and give to these clubs the credit for having played an important role in legislative history. Other national organizations that have strongly influenced legislation are the American Home Economics Association, Young Women's Christian Association, the National Women's Trade Union League, the Associated Women of the American Farm Bureau Federation, the United Council of Church Women, the National Council of Jewish Women, the National Council of Catholic Women, the American Legion Auxiliary, and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union.3
1 Dallas Johnson and Elizabeth Bass Golding, Don't underestimate Woman Power (New York: Public Affairs Committee, Inc., 1951), p. 5.
2Ibi.
3Johnson and Golding, p. 5.




Johnson and Golding write, in addition, the following statements about major organizations:
It was not until suffrage was granted in 1920 that ten major organizations formalized their pressure front by
the creation of the Women's Joint Congressional Committee (WJCC). Their stated purpose is to serve as a "clearinghouse for the legislative work of national organizations engaged in promoting federal measures pertaining to the
general welfare".. .It provides a simple mechanism through which national women's organizations can get together in
joint lobbying activities.1
Education leads to action is another idea emphasized in the book,
Don't Underestimate Woman Power. It is revealed therein that more often than not members of women's groups learn by doing. If they decide they
want a playground and a community club house, for example, and they work for these things together, very soon they discover that the programs of other clubs have an appeal. It is at this time that they come to have a new concept of human relations. 2For example, a specific adult education program was set up in Nassau County to improve human relations, and education led to action. Women in the county who had never been aware of prejudice and discrimination began to see its effects for the first time and became interested in doing something about it. 3
S. P. Breckinridge in her book, women in the Twentieth Century,
draws attention to a number of women's organizations in order to emphasize the development of women's interests during the recent past. In her study she shares the following information:
Ilbid. p. 6.
Ibid., p. 23.
-'Ibid.




Women are joined together by a common purpose to secure
some object that seems to them of great social importance;
they are bound by common occupational interests; they
belong to lodges and benefit societies. They express, as
men do, an explicable pride in ancestry; they seek now
to obtain, by organization, many of the satisfactions
that were, in the earlier times, well nigh exclusively characteristic of family life. Costly club houses provide shelter and living conditions that are comfortable
and private
The nineties had seen local organizations federate
and consolidate into national groups, or had watched
entirely new groups begin their activities on a national basis. The beginning of the era of centralization left its mark on women's organizations no less plainly than
on the business of the country. Besides that, there were women whose horizons had been widened and whose sense of
public obligation found opportunity for expression.
There were innumerable homes where the children's
reading matter now included the books called for by the
art of industry departments of their mothers' clubs *2
Status of Women in 1965
W. Willard Wirts, while Secretary of Labor and Chairman of the
Interdepartmental Committee on the Status of Women, and Miss Margaret
Hickey, Senior Editor of the Ladies' Home Journal, and Chairman of the
Citizens' Advisory Council on the Status of Women submitted their second
annual joint report to Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the United States,
in 1965. In a letter to the President they made the following statement:
"The pace of progress in achieving 'full partnership' for American women
has been even swifter in 1965 than in 1964."3
The Interdepartmental Committee and the Citizens' Advisory Council
reaffirmed and carried forward goals that had been established earlier
by President Johnson's Commission on the Status of Women.4
1Sophonisba P. Breckinridge, women in the Twentieth Century (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1933), p. 11.
2bdp. 26.
3Report on Progress in 1965 on the Status of Women, W. Willard Wirts
and Margaret Hickey, Chairmen (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing office, 1965), p. iv.
41bid., p. 1.




The conference was held in July 1965 and boasted of participants from 49 States and Canada. The women benefited by the work done in education and volunteer groups showed nationwide commitment to President Johnson's goal of educational opportunity in its fullest extent for every
American.1
Women in Community Service, WIGS, formed by the National Council of Catholic Women, the National Council of Jewish Women, the National Council of Negro Women, and the United Church Women, helped to bring the government and the community closer together. This group screened girls for Job Corps centers and is now providing continuing community service for each girl who is interested in the Job Corps.2
other women's groups increased their efforts towards helping the disadvantaged. These organizations included the General Federation of Women's Clubs, the Young Women's Christian Association, the American Home Economics Association, the Board of Missions of the Methodist Church, the AFL-CIO Auxiliaries, the Campfire Girls, the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, the Girl Scouts, and the National
3
Extension Homemaker's Council.
Many goals were set by President Johnson's Commission on the Status of Women; however, the Report by the Interdepartmental Committee and the Citizens' Advisory Council sets forth the following significant statement concerning education:
lbid., p. 2-3.
2iReprt on Progress in 1965, p. 3.
3lIbid.




Unprecedented progress was made in the 89th Congress with the enactment of legislation touching on every recommendation in the area of education made by the
President's Commission on the Status of Women--raising
the level of educational opportunities for all, from
the preschooler to the retired, from the illiterate to
the graduate student. Recognizing education as the key to full participation in American life, the Commission gave first place to its recommendations on education.1
Some developments resulting from the first place position awarded to education follow: The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 brought about improvement of schools attended by children of very low income families; The Higher Education Act of 1965 was designed to strengthen the educational resources of colleges and universities ai~d to provide financial assistance for college students; The Economic Opportunity Act provided increased educational opportunities for disadvantaged girls and women; New approaches to counseling girls was the subject of two conferences; Resources for guidance counselors increased; and Most of more than a third of a million dollars of scholarship funds was earmarked for girls to study home economics or nursing.2
The Report on Progress in 1965 on the Status of Women-calls
attention to the activities of private organizations. This writer will, in this chapter, mention a few of these organizations and recount some of their work experiences in order to give an overview of early contributions to education and to shed light on any current progress that is being made in this direction.
The American Association of University Women used a grant from the Department of Labor to help mature women develop specialized techniques
1 bid. p. 5.
2:Ibid. pp. 5-9.




for counseling adult women. The American Nurses' Association supported equal educational opportunity by distributing to deans and directors of schools of nursing resource materials on equal opportunity which included information on Title VI of the Civil Rights Act and lists of audio-visual aids in the field of human relations. Delta Sigma Theta Sorority sponsored a conference for Counselors of Minority Youth at the University of North Carolina near the end of 1964. Among the aims of the conference was one to provide information to help interested persons improve their services to minority youth. In Savannah, Georgia, the sorority sponsored adult education classes for the city's illiterates, and since 1963, the sorority has sponsored the Delta Teen-Lift, which takes culturally deprived youth from the rural areas of the South on bus tours to visit educational and cultural institutions. The National Council of Negro Women held in the summer of 1964 an intensive six-weeks course in mathematics for ten Negro college girls who demonstrated exceptional mathematical ability. Phi Chi Theta is a professional sorority which promotes the cause of higher business education and training for women. This organization includes in its Journal, Iris, information on graduate programs, seminars, and special programs designed for mature women. The Girl Scouts of America conduct several special educational activities including special publicity about the facts of women's lives, special consultations on career opportunities, and special sessions on recruiting and training women for leadership. B'nai B'rith women's chapters have worked on enlargement of educational opportunities for deprived children. Their projects include tutoring deprived children, conducting remedial reading programs, collecting books for libraries, and working with parents. The Young Women's Christian Association has




been involved in the following activities furthering the education of women: Five cities, White Plains, New York; Asheville, North Carolina; Duluth, Minnesota; Seattle, Washington; and Phoenix, Arizona, staged a two-year pilot project to help the mature woman find her role in today's world, opened a job corps center for women in Los Angeles in June 1965, conducted pilot projects in literacy training for adult women, and the YWCA's of the United States and Canada conducted an international training institute.1
Status of Women in 1971-1975
An analysis of information from state directories of education for the years 1950, 1963, and 1972 sets forth the idea that a caste system exists in state departments of education throughout the United States.2
June Marr makes this report in "Women in State Departments of
Education" and states further that she focused on the number of women present in policy-making positions in five states: California, Georgia, Iowa, Massachusetts, and Nebraska. Policy-making positions included superintendents, assistant superintendents, associate superintendents, directors, chiefs or supervisors, and consultants or specialists. Montana was chosen because it had one of the few women superintendents in 1950 and the investigator wanted the opportunity to determine whether the woman superintendent's hiring stimulated the hiring of other women in that state. Her findings show that this has not been the case.3
iReport on Progress in 1965, pp. 9-14.
2June Marr, "Women in State Departments of Education," Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 55, (October, 1973), 142.
3Ibid.




In all states, the total percentage of women in policy-making
positions shows a decrease from an average of 14.5 percent in 1950 to an average of 6.8 percent in 1972. Male employees hold many more educational policy-making positions than the females. There have been laws to prevent discrimination, but the situation has deteriorated steadily since 1950.1
State departments of education need to make improvements in their policies on recruitment and hiring. This improvement should include the expanding of the range of positions so that career choices for women could be made broader.2
A state study of Indiana school board women was made in 1971 and only a minority of these women felt they have experienced sex prejudice in school board thinking and policy making. Those women who had six or more years experience did not agree that the superintendent exhibited a bias in favor of men; however, those women who had less experience on school boards believed that bias existed. 3
Included among the recommendations resulting from the findings are the following points:
1. It is highly recommended that superintendents take measures to become more sensitive to the problem of sex prejudice;
2. That superintendents be prepared to work in a frank and sincere manner with new women board members;
3. That superintendents who work with small systems take notice that sex prejudice may exist and may influence the thinking of its board members;
lbid. p. 143.
21bid.
3;W. Michael Morrissey, "Sexism and the School Board Member," Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 55 (October, 1973), 142.




4. That superintendents plan a seminar for their board members, stressing the interrelatedness of the varied aspects of the school operation.1
Catherine Lyon, consultant with the New York City Rand Institute, and Terry Saario, Program Officer, public education, Ford Foundation, give national statistics in their article, "Women in Public Education: Sexual Discrimination in Promotions."
These writers state that because education has been characterized as a woman's field that the public has been slow to realize that there is discrimination against women, and say, further, that even though most teachers are women, that more male teachers are selected for administrative positions.2 A national survey conducted in 1970-1971 points out that while 67 percent of all public school teachers are women, only 15 percent of principals and .6 percent of superintendents were female. Most of the women who are administrators are in the elementary schools. Nineteen
percent of the elementary principals and 34 percent of the elementary assistant principals were women in 1970-1971. The same survey showed that only 3.5 percent of the junior high and 3 percent of the senior high principals were women. At the district level, not only were there few women superintendents, but also only 7 percent of the deputy, associate, or assistant superintendents in 1970-1971 were women.3
In 1972 the Chief State School Officers surveyed all school districts in the U.S. and found that out of 16,653 operating districts, female superintendents were employed in 86 local operating districts and 131
lbid.
atherine Lyon and Terry Saario, "Women in Public Education: Sexual Discrimination in Promotions," Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 55 (October, 1973), 120.
31bid.




"intermediate districts." Only three state departments of education are headed by women Montana, Wisconsin, and Guam. 1
Recommendation 6, included among others, is that local school boards adopt affirmative action plans which are consonant with Executive Order No. 11246, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and the Equal Pay Act of 1963, all of which prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex in federally assisted programs.2
Community education leaders and clubwomen must recognize the need to improve the status of women and to take'a look at what is essential to bring about new developments. It is, therefore, necessary that the motives for club attendance be examined.
Motivations for Club Attendance
Cleo Hall did a study at the University of Chicago in order to
determine the status of the voluntary club as an educational force in the United States. According to Hall, educators would like to feel that club members are primarily interested in education; although she believes that the substance upon which to base such a claim is lacking. 3
The purpose of her study was "to determine whether members of voluntary organizations prize those organizations chiefly for their educational value or for other reasons." 14
An organization, Hall advises, can not successfully make a contribution to education unless its members have joined the organization with an interest in education:
lbid.
2Lyo and Saario, p. 122.
3Cleo Hall, "The Motivational Patterns of Women Engaged in Educational Activities of Voluntary Organizations" (Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Education, The University of Chicago, 1965), p. 1-2.
41bid.r p. 2.




Generally speaking, a person will seek out that
environment which he perceives as having the
potential for satisfying his needs. The questions
asked by this investigation are: From the viewpoint of the member of that distinctive form
called the voluntary association, is the educative
function the compelling force for him to belong?
If not, what is the compelling force and what is
its magnitude.1
Hall advises, further, that eighteen needs of women were suggested
by the literature as motives for women to attend educational club meetings,
and these have been refined by her to read as follows:
Pursuit of knowledge for individual general
intellectual growth,
Pursuit of knowledge for improving homemaking
competence,
Pursuit of knowledge for improving society,
Pursuit of esteem,
Pursuit of sociability
Pursuit of diversion, and
Fulfillment of social expectations.2
Cleo Hall's study on "The Motivational Patterns of Women Engaged in
Educational Activities" shows that the following hypotheses were examined
and that the findings were reported:
(1) Women attending home economics extension club
meetings differ in motivations for attending.3
(2) Rank order of home economics extension club
members' motivations for attending club meetings follow: (1) pursuit of knowledge for individual
general intellectual growth, (2) pursuit of
knowledge for improving homemaking competence,
pursuit of (3) sociability, (4) esteem, (5)
diversion, (6) knowledge for improving society,
and (7) fulfillment of social expectations.4
(3) Rank order of the county extension home economists'
objectives for the home economics extension club
program: pursuit of (1) knowledge by club members
for individual general intellectual growth, (2)
lbid.
idp. 35.
3id., p. 59.
41bid., p. 63.




37
knowledge by club members for improving homemaking
competence, (3) knowledge by club members for
improving society, (4) esteem, (5) sociability, (6) diversion, (7) fulfillment of social expectations.1
(4) Rank order of objectives of county extension home
economists differs from rank order of motivations of
home economics extension club members for attending
club meetings.2
(5) Rank order of objectives of county extension home
economists and rank order of motivations of most
highly satisfied home economics extension club
members are in greater agreement than rank order of motivations of the least satisfied and of the
most satisfied club members.3
(6) Women who attend meetings of home economics extension
clubs organized for less than twenty years differ
in rank order of motivations for attending club meetings from women of home economics extension
clubs organized for more than twenty years.4
Hypotheses one, two, and three were supported by the investigation.5
Hypotheses four, five, and six were not sustained.6
Hall found, in addition, that there are no statistically significant
relationships between the rank order of the selected motivations of this
study and demographic characteristics.7
She found, further, that county extension home economists agreed
that the major object of the club program was education, but did not
agree upon the importance of intellectual growth, learning to improve
homemaking competence, and learning to improve society.8
Women of Distinction
Today's club-woman must be conscious of her guidance role in
lIbid., p. 67.
21bid., p. 71.
3ibid., p. 73.
4Ibid., p. 76.
5mbid., p. 97.
6Ibid., p. 98.
71bid., p. 98.
81bid.




education and must realize that such a role transcends her duty as a mere instructor. She must be ever willing to commit herself to the task of seeking more ways and new ways to help society with the problem of education. In this connection, the following women of Florida, who were residents of Tampa in 1956, have gained distinction and therefore, have listed in this chapter some of their activities.
Information taken from Eloise N. Cozen's Florida Women of Distinction on educational activities of seven women have been included.
Emily Ayer Dickinson served as Director of Tampa's Family Service Association for 25 years, and is given credit for "guiding the lives of thousands of persons toward healthful adjustment to better lives."
Neva Byrd Graham's busy life includes work as instructor for
children and adults at Tampa Realistic Art Center, and lecturer of Art in public schools.
Frieda K. Greene is cited for her long-time efforts in the educational field, for promoting relationship among parents and teachers, and for her involvement in all facets of school work in an effort to contribute to the growth of student activities.
Mayme Sellers Leonetti served as President and Gallery Director of Tampa Art Institute; President, National League American Pen Women; and Drama Director, Bayshore Baptist Church.
Mary McNamara is outstanding in educational circles because of her philosophy:
Sunrise offers another opportunity to praise God, serve
my neighbor, seek knowledge, give love and evaluate self.
Sunset- contemplation on how well I've succeeded.
C. Bette Wimbish Muse, a Negro American and attorney, is listed as a teacher of note, and as an educator of wide experience, and a lady who has provided a special empathy with a variety of community endeavors.




Aleta Jonie Maschek has served for many years as Director of
Continuity for WFLA in Tampa. She uses her professional knowledge and abilities to assist others in her field.
Women of the World
Some educational interests of four Florida women, whose influence is unlimited by geographical boundaries, are reported in this section:
Mrs. E. D. Pearce, of Miami, Florida, has been considered a leader in 54 countries. She served as president of the 11 million-member General Federation of Women's Clubs and traveled all over the world to carry out her duties. She has participated in White House Conferences on education, children, and the aging, and has been involved in the work of the YWCA, the Amrerican Red Cross, and the Boys Clubs of America.
Jessie Ball DuPont, of Jacksonville, Florida, worked during the past to make Floridians aware of the tremendous needs that existed-primarily in education. She served as a member of the Board of Regents and in recognition of what she has done for education, she has received eleven degrees from colleges and universities.
Helen Krauss Leslie, as a past president of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., has been instrumental in the organization of Clubs in Latin America. She is particularly interested in work being done by members of the Costa Rica Club who are working with young women to help prepare them for business careers.
Dr. Frances L. Spain served as director of library services for
Central Florida Junior College in Ocala. She was one of seven librarians
lEloise N. Cozens, Florida Women of Distinction (published in the U.S.A.: Coronado Publishing Co., 1956), pp. 24-73.




who participated in the USA-USSR cultural exchange program. Mrs. Spain developed a program of library training in Chulalongkorn University in Thailand, under a Fulbright Grant in 1951-1952.1
Florida Women of Distinction and other women of the World have set the pace in "guiding the lives of thousands of persons toward adjustment to better lives" through club involvement and activity. Their club experiences have helped them to promote a growing relationship among school and community people and to learn through organization how to solve societal problems. Women can not cope with these problems if they remain detached. They can only reach their goals through togetherness that the club life affords.
Wilma C. Shafer, National President of Pi Lambda Theta Honor Society, expresses this idea as follows:
In her longing to be viewed as an individual
with abilities, needs, and choices, woman, separate
and unequal, has sought for centuries for a clear
sense of self-identity. Today her pursuit of identity
and equality becomes a conscious and constant goal as she actively opposes being regarded as one of a group treated as a minority, discriminated against,
and resisted as equal.
To have a real identity, Woman cannot be detached,
alone. The life she lives, the status she seeks, the
opportunities she needs--all exist in the midst of human beings inseparable from each other and from
the world.
All of this can come about through association found in club life.
1Women of the World," Florida Trend Magazine, Vol. II, No. 6, Oct., 1968, pp. 41-49.
2Wilma C. Shafer, "Woman: Detachment vs. Identity," Educational Horizons Magazine, Winter 1973-1974, Vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 100-101.




CHAPTER III
PROCEDURES
Study Design
This survey was designed to gather data from a relatively large
number of cases at a particular time. The study did not concern itself with characteristics of individuals as individuals but with the generalized statistics resulting from the abstraction of data from a number of individual cases.
The main purpose of the survey was to identify, through description, educational activities in various women's organizations, to interpret the significance of the descriptions, and thereby determine the nature and extent of the contributions of these organizations to education.
An additional object of the study was to provide answers to the following questions about women and twenty-seven organizations:
1. How important are the demographic factors in determining
participation in women's organizations?
2. What is the character of the educational reading engaged in
by the respondents?
3. In which organizations do the respondents hold membership?
4. What official club experience have the respondents engaged in?
5. Which women's organizations have been most influential in solving county-wide problems?
6. What are the most important educational projects that have been
resolved in the past or that must be resolved in the future?




7. How can organizations help to resolve problems and issues? Are
there plans for resolvableness?
8. What are the purposes of the organizations?
9. What kinds of educational experiences are provided through the
organizations?
10. Which organizational leaders have influence with state leaders
through whom they can get work done?
11. when were the organizations founded and how many local members
do they have?
12. What are the criteria for membership and is the work in education
done on a continuing basis?
13. What are some of the organizational publications?
14. How is organizational effectiveness evaluated?
15. is there a clearinghouse for women's groups in the community?
16. Do all segments of an organization work together for common
objectives, coordinate activities, and cooperate for mutual
benefit?
17. Which leaders have strong city-wide influence?
18. How are organizations structured to promote educational improvement?
19. Are interclub activities in existence for uniting the community
for peace, health, and public affairs?
20. Is there a platform sponsored equally by all groups to present
foremost authorities?
Definition of Terms
Survey--The survey method gathers data from a relatively large




number of cases at a particular time. It is concerned with
the generalized statistics that result when data are abstracted from a number of individual cases. It is
essentially cross-sectional, and the sampling is meant
to be characteristic of the whole.
Women's Organizations--In this study women's organizations refer
to those organizations that have women in official capacities
including all major offices, and whose memberships are
predominately women.
Contributions to Education--Organizations are considered as making
contributions to education when they help to promote the
growth or expansion of knowledge, wisdom, desirable
qualities of mind or character, or general competence
through the sponsoring of scholarship and loan funds; when they provide or assist in providing with knowledge or wisdom through conducting educational programs and studying educational problems; and when, through the promotion of
educational legislation, they condition people or persuade
them to feel, believe, or react in a particular way through
selective information or knowledge. Selection of Sample
A list of organizations, including more than two-hundred clubs for men and women in Tampa, Florida, was secured from the Tampa Chamber of Commerce. Three lists, including the Chamber list, one from a public relations specialist, and one from the researcher, were studied and sixty women's organizations were extracted from the master list and categorized according to criteria set up earlier for the survey. These criteria




embraced organizations that would have an educational intent and include representatives from groups involving women in business, in communications, in education, in politics, and in construction along with art clubs, garden clubs, and social clubs.
From this list twenty-seven organizations were selected by the writer. This selection was based on an application of the following additional criteria: clubs conducting educational programs, studying educational problems, sponsoring scholarship and loan funds, and promoting educational legislation. The writer was able to apply these criteria based on her knowledge of Tampa gained through living and working in the community for a number of years and through having a number of experiences in club work. Tampa clubwomen were consulted in helping to make the selection of organizations.
The writer used deliberate sample selection in that she invited, using specifically chosen organizations, twenty-seven groups to send a representative to designated meetings to give information about each club. The writer chose this method of selecting a sample because she has lived and worked in Tampa and is familiar with certain club backgrounds and experiences that she desired to include in the survey.
A letter explaining the nature of the survey was sent to each prospective participant, and a follow-up telephone call was made to determine the club-leader's willingness to participate in the survey.
A cover message, soliciting the help of each club representative, was included with each questionnaire.
The letter and the message are included with the questionnaire in this chapter.




Delimitations
The study is limited to 27 women's organizations in Tampa. It is
obvious, therefore, that the writer is not concerned with the accomplishments in education of all women's organizations in the United States unless such findings are generalizable, nor with the history of the women's club movement unless facets of that movement reflect an interest in education.
Participants
Mrs. Lisa Gorham, a public relations specialist in Tampa, Florida, assisted in contacting the Tampa Chamber of Commerce, the clubleaders, and provided meeting rooms in her home.
The Tampa Chamber of Commerce assisted the writer by providing a list of organizations and addresses of the presidents of the groups.
A selected number of Gainesville clubwomen were invited to meet
in the home of Mrs. Gwendolyn Lewis, an active clubleader in Gainesville, to work with the researcher in pretesting the questionnaire in order to
get the criticisms of qualified clubwomen before preparing the final form of the questionnaire. This group was able to help validate the data gathering instrument in terms of practical use, and to think of ways in which the Tampa group might respond, and in which they might interpret items in the questionnaire, and what complexities, if any, might arise from the reading of the questionnaire by the Tampa group.
This tryout resulted in slight revisions of the questionnaire. It was then made ready for twenty-three women (four women represented two organizations each) chosen to represent twenty-seven organizations
categorized as follows:




I. Creative and Fine Arts Organizations
A. Tampa Chapter, National League of American Pen Women
B. Tampa Music Teachers Association
C. Amaryllis Garden Club
Object: To promote interest in creative and educational activities in art, letters, and music.
II. Business and Professional organizations
A. Tampa Pharmaceutical Association
B. Women in Communications
C. Delta Kappa Gamma Society D. Soroptimist Club of Tampa
E. Seminole Business and Professional Club of Tampa
object: The elevation of the status of women in business and in the professions.
III. Civic Organizations
A. Tampa Branch, League of Women Voters of H-illsborough County
B. Tampa Branch, Hillsborough County Democratic Women's Club
C. Citizens Alert
D. Tampa Branch, American Association of University Women
Object: To promote active and informed citizen participation in government.
IV. School Organization--Tampa Branch, Parent Teacher Association
of Florida.
Object: To promote the welfare of children and youth in the home, school, and community.




V. Community Organizations
A. Tampa Junior Woman's Club
B. Junior League of Tampa
C. Girls Clubs of Tampa, Incorporated
D. Altrusa Club of Tampa
E. Suncoast Girl Scout Council
F. Zeta Phi Beta Sorority
Object: To use their knowledge to render better services to the co unity.
VI. Public Service Organizations
A. Insurance Women of Tampa
B. Pilot Club of Tampa
C. Tampa Alumnae Chapter, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority
D. Gamma Theta Omega Chapter, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority
Object: To promote high scholastic achievement and service to mankind.
VII. Sports Organization--Davis Island Yacht Club Dinghy Dames Object: To promote and encourage ability in recreation.
VIII. Human Rights Organizations
A. Tampa Branch, National Organization for Women
B. Tampa Chapter, Women's Equity Action League
C. Tampa Branch, National Council of Negro Women
Object: To work toward the integration of all people and the elimination of sex discrimination. Instrumentation
1
(1) The Questionnaire used for this study is divided into two
iSelected from mimeographed materials by Dr. Ralph Kimbrough in
Educational Leadership II and Dallas Johnson and Elizabeth Bass Golding, Don't Underestimate Woman Power (New York: Public Affairs Committee, Inc., 1951), p. 30.




parts: Part I seeks demographic information about the club leader or the respondent, in questions one through ten, in order that the investigator might study the kinds of educational work done by people in certain age brackets, what their interests are, whether or not the number and age of their children have any influence on their activities, the kind of reading that is done for educational purposes, the professional background as it relates to what they do or to how much they do, and the marital status and its relation to their club work.
Part II of the instrument, questions eleven through twenty-eight, seeks to obtain information about the organization that each respondent represented. In connection with the expressing of needs for this study, this writer has listed among them the desire to determine whether or not the organizations of today have kept pace with earlier progressive efforts of women in club activities. She, therefore, selected questions that she considers helpful in determining whether or not the barriers, if any, to achievement in education today have any relationship to those at the turn of the century.
Questions 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 21, and 23 deal with the educational program of the organization. These questions were asked because they take us back to the introduction of the history of the women's club movement in the United States, written by Ellen M. Henrotin:
The State Federations have in each case adopted, immediately
on their formation, a special line of work, always educational
in character, and embracing education from the kindergarten
to the university, as represented in the State systems--public
and traveling libraries, art interchanges, village and town
improvement associations, and constructive legislation.1
1Ellen M. Henrotin, The History of the Woman's Club Movement in
America, ed. by Jane Croly (New York: H. G. Allen and Co., 1898), p. x.




The investigator wishes to compare educational interests of today with the interests of the early period.
Question 13 was chosen in order to compare today's purposes with
the earlier purpose which sets forth the idea that in the main the clubs were for self-culture, yet the chief characteristic was self-improvement.
With these ideas in mind, comparisons can be made between today's groups and earlier groups to determine progress in club activity.
Questions 18, 19, 20, 22, 25, and 26 were chosen deliberately in an effort to obtain information fitting and proper to such a study-information that would help in the determination of how well the groups show togetherness and work in unity, of when the organization was founded, of what its structure is, of how it obtains its members, and what its publications are.
Question 27 points to an earlier desire by Sorosis, the first
organized club, to form a general federation of all clubs of the country. Such an organization was suggested for the purpose of uniting all clubs for better service.2
Question 28 was selected to determine if today's clubs have a philosophy or a set of beliefs to use as a guide. Here again, this writer goes back to Henrotin's remark: "No great organization can hold together without some definite philosophy put into action."'3
Henrotin continues her discussion in the introduction to Jane Croly's book with the thought that "In no place in the world can a woman so easily come to the front as in a large woman's club"; therefore, question 14
iIbid., p. ix.
2Henrotin, p. ix.
31bid., p. x.
4Ibid.




was included in order to determine which women have come to the forefront in women's groups of today.
Question 24 points to the planning of a clearinghouse by earlier groups. Henrotin again reminds that the State Federation trained the clubs as citizens, the General Federation emphasized the national life and brought the State together, while the biennials aimed to be a clearinghouse for national interests.1
Data Collection
Representatives of 27 women's organizations in Tampa, Florida met in small discussion groups with the researcher in the home of a clubleader (See Appendix A). These meetings were planned for the purpose of giving the women adequate information concerning the survey, of answering questions, of explaining the researcher's objectives, and of having the representatives fill a questionnaire.
This "Group Questionnaire Technique" involved meeting with invited club leaders at different periods of the day and having each member of each group fill a questionnaire at the same time.
The researcher distributed questionnaires, explained the purpose
of the investigation, answered questions about the study, and collected completed questionnaires at the end of each session. Data Treatment
The characteristics of respondents, along with other demographic
data, and information concerning general club organization are presented in Chapter IV.
lbid., p. xi.




Narrative and descriptive presentations are given for each of the
twenty-seven organizations in order that information might be made clear concerning pertinent information asked for in Part II of the Questionnaire which involves discussions of the purpose, structure, educational experiences provided by the organization, the founding date, active local members, criteria for membership, publications, evaluation, coordination of activities, group clearinghouse, and continuing education.
other characteristics of the organizations and an item summary of the responses by question conclude the data treatment.




CHAPTER IV
RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
The threefold purpose of this chapter is to, first, introduce the "Tampa 23," twenty-three clubwomen who represented twenty-seven Tampa organizations and responded to questionnaires submitted to them, second, to describe the individual organizations, and, third, to discuss and analyze the data secured from questionnaires completed by the respondents. This chapter, then, will consist of three sections: (1) Characteristics of Respondents, (2) Descriptions of Individual organizations, and (3) Characteristics of Individual organizations.
Section 1
Characteristics of Respondents
Participants for this survey include mature women and young adults, holders of advanced degrees, women representing minority and majority groups, and those from the affluent and the middle classes.
In regard to community and club services, these women hold varied positions showing service as civic, social, and publicity chairwomen, presidents of organizations and boards, members of directors' boards and the Club Presidents Round Table, legislative chairwomen, Basili and Anti-Basili of sororities, and members of the Mayor's Task Force.
included in this survey are several tables which display data on the respondents:
Table 1, Length of Respondents' Residence in Tampa, indicates that the twenty-three women lived in Tampa a number of years ranging from 9 52




years to 50 years and over. Thirty-one percent of the respondents have
lived in Tampa 50 or more years, twenty-two percent from 10 to 19 years,
and seventeen percent from 9 to 29 years.
TABLE 1
LENGTH OF RESPONDENTS' RESIDENCE IN TAMPA
Number of Years Number of Percentage of Respondents
Lived in Tampa Respondents Living in Tampa
50 and over 7 31
40 to 49 1 4
30 to 39 2 9
20 to 29 4 17
10 to 19 5 22
0 to 9 4 17
23
Table 2, Number of Offices Held in Relation to Age, indicates that
there are five persons in the group ranging in age from 36 to over age
50. This age group holds a total of 61 offices in the dlubs to which
they belong. The entire group holds a total of 90 offices.
TABLE 2
NUMBER OF OFFICES HELD BY RESPONDENTS IN RELATION TO AGE
Age Number of Percentage in Number of Total Number
Bracket Respondents Age Bracket Offices Held of offices Held
Over 60 5 22 1-3-4-4-7 19
56 60 3 13 2-2-5 9
51 55 1 4 4 4
46 50 5 22 3-3-3-3-4 16
41 45 1 4 2 2
36 40 5 22 3-3-4-7-9 26
31 35 1 4 4 4
26 30 2 9 4-6 10
3 90




Table 3, Number of Respondents with Children, shows that 17 members
of the group or 74 percent have children. Thirty-nine percent of the members have children currently in schools, ranging from nursery school to graduate school, and seventeen percent have children in public school (K-12).
TABLE 3
CHILDREN OF RESPONDENTS
Number of Respondents with Children 17 (74%)
Number of Respondents with Children
currently in school (nursery school
to graduate school) 9 (39%)
Number of Respondents with Children
currently in public school (K-12) 4 (17%)
Table 4, Number of Offices Held in Relation to Educational Background, points out that 87 percent of the women have had some college training, and that 61 percent were graduated from college, while 18 percent have completed the Master's degree. The persons involved in this group have held from 4 to 31 offices during their club life.
TABLE 4
NUMBER OF OFFICES HELD IN RELATION TO EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Last Percentage in Number of Total
Educational Number of Educational Offices Held by Number
Experience Respondents Experience Respondents offices Held

High School 3
Some College 6
Bachelor's Degree 4 Bachelor's Degree some credit towards Master's 6 Master's Degree 2

2-4-4
2-3-3-3-4-7
3-4-4-6
3-3-4-5-7-9
2-4




Last Percentage in Number of Total
Educational Number of Educational Offices Held by Number
Experience Respondents Experience Respondents offices Held
Master's Degree
some credit
toward Ph.D.
or Ed.D. 2 9 1-3 4
Ph.D. or Ed.D. 0 0
other data revealed by the questionnaires show that fifteen of the women are married, two are single and the other six are divorced or widowed.
The group consists of seven housewives, four retired workers,
three librarians, and one person each serving as follows: in TV production, as an administrative assistant, as an equal opportunity specialist, as a piano teacher, as a clerk typist, as a public relations representative, as a property manager, as a business manager, and as a travel consultant.
Section 2
Descriptions of Individual Organizations
Twenty-seven organizations are described in this section in an effort to show the work in education that is done by each club. The following questions, whenever applicable to an organization, have been extracted from the questionnaire along with appropriate data and answered in the narrative:
(1) What is the purpose of your organization?

TABLE 4 Continued




(2) How is your organization structured to promote educational improvement?
(3) What kinds of educational experiences are provided through your organization?
(4) What is the approximate date of the founding of your organization?
(5) How many active local members do you have?
(6) What are the criteria for membership?
(7) Is your work in education done on a continuing basis?
Explain.
(8) List the publications of your organization?
(9) What procedures do you have for evaluating the effectiveness of your educational program?
(10) Do you have a clearinghouse for women's groups in your
community?
(11) Do all segments of your organization work together for common
objectives?
(12) Do all segments of your organization coordinate their activities
and cooperate for their mutual benefit, eliminating competing
and unnecessary duplication?
(13) Do you have interclub educational activities to unite the
community for peace, health, public affairs, and better human relations in order to strengthen our democracy? Please list
these activities.
(14) Does your organization have a platform sponsored equally by
all groups to present foremost authorities on vital subjects,
presenting all sides of controversial issues to develop enlightened public opinion?




Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority (Gamma Theta Omega Chapter)
The Gamma Theta Omega Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority was
chartered as a local Tampa organization in 1940 and now has 71 members. A representative from this organization responded by pointing to these facts:
Alpha Kappa Alpha's purpose is to promote high scholastic achievement, to give service to mankind through health programs, and better housing facilities--through personal involvement and scholarships.
The organization promotes educational improvement through providing scholarships to deserving students in the Tampa high schools. The deans of the local schools are consulted concerning needed information about girls, and afterwards, these girls are interviewed, administered tests, and awarded scholarships based upon their achievement and need, and their interest in pursuing a college career.
Educational experiences provided by this organization take the form of tutorial sessions, visits to places having educational interest, and counseling and joint meetings with undergraduates at the University of South Florida. This sorority has applied for a Federal Grant to further the study of the arts in the Tampa community.
In order to become a member of the organization, one must satisfy two requirements: (1) A person must pursue a four-year college course and (2) have an average of 2.5 or above.
The work in education is done on a continuing basis in that the majority of the members are teachers and regular educational work is engaged in.
The plan for evaluating the effectiveness of the educational program involves studying the needs of the community, formulating a plan




for meeting these needs, and testing what has been done by use of a questionnaire designed by the group.
Interclub educational activities include service as Heart Fund captains, solicitors, volunteer workers for the Y.W.C.A., with the Council of Negro Women, and the Urban League.
Further help from the organization provides assistance to needy children including supplying them with eyeglasses, to people who need to be taken to and from the polls, and to churches who need speakers to urge people to vote.
Altrusa Club of Tampa
The purpose of the Altrusa Club of Tampa is to join women in
executive positions to use their knowledge for better service to the community. The organization was founded on April 11, 1917, and has 40 active local members.
Educational experiences provided by this group take the form of
(1) A Grants-in-Aid program which provides graduate scholarships for women in foreign countries, (2) Founders Fund Vocational Aid which helps women acquire or improve a skill, and (3) Bimonthly club programs.
Helen Hilton, Chairman of the Grants-in-Aid Committee, reports that 63 young women from twenty-four countries were awarded grants-in-aid during the year 1972-1973, and that eight recipients were from Africa, forty-three from Asia, seven from Latin America, and five from the Middle East.
Miss Hilton states, further, that twenty-seven were considered for grants for summer school and/or for the fall of 1975 to be paid from the 1973-1974 budget.




The Founders Fund Vocational Aid Committee makes the following report for 1972-1973:
Applications Received 221
Awards Approved 166
Number of Awards 166
Amount Awarded $48,625
Range of Awards Granted Number
$50-$99 2
100-149 11
150-199 9
200-249 12
250-299 20
300-349 14
350 98
The awards were used for providing education in health service
fields wherein money was allocated for persons interested in becoming licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, dental assistants, and nurse's aides; in business education fields in which funds were given to train persons wanting to serve as secretaries, clerical workers, accountants, and computer programmers. Provision was also made for persons interested in cosmetology. other educational programs receiving help included teacher certification, floral design, fashion, and photography. In the special needs area, funds were assigned for driver education.
The organization is structured to promote educational improvement through the Vocational Services and Community Services Committees.
Altrusa is a classified club for executive women in professions or




business. A member must supervise at least five persons or be involved in a profession. A nurse, who is a member, must be a supervisor, and an educator must be a supervisor or department head. Only 10% of the club can be in the same major occupation.
The work in education is done on a continuing basis through cooperation in a structured program prepared by the international office and sent to local clubs to adopt and develop according to need.
Evaluation is done once a year through the issuing of a questionnaire to officers and members by the program coordinator. The Presidents Round Table serves as the clearinghouse for the group.
Mina Egdorf, Chairman of the Founders Fund Vocational Aid Committee for 1973-1975, writes in the International Altrusan, 1974, on the subject "A Womans Place is Everywhere," and gives valuable information about women as follows:
She believes that there is no limit to where the young women and older women of today can go in the working world. "Altrusa;' she states, continuess to take the leadership role in helping women to discover unlimited horizons." She writes, further, that:
When the Founders Fund Vocational Aid project was adopted
22 years ago, conditions and opportunities for employment of women were far different than they were in 1917.
But needs were still present. In 1974, the vocational
needs of women are different than in 1952, but needs
exist and are the conditions that make this project vital.
Just as the organization has kept pace with the times and has maintained a program that is not only timely but also
visionary, so the FFVA Project reflects the needs of
women today and tomorrow.
The Fund provides outright awards for:
-Training or retraining that will qualify a woman for
employment;
-Upgrading training that will enable a woman to move
from a low-level to a higher-level skill job;
-Purchase of equipment required for self-employment;




-Personal rehabilitation necessary to become
employable.1
Amaryllis Garden Circle
Eighty women grace the membership of the Amaryllis Garden Circle
which was organized in 1933. This group was formed to promote an interest in home and civic beautification and to cooperate in the protection of wild flowers and native plants.
The organization is structured to promote educational improvement
in that the important and specific duties are divided among the following chairmen: The Horticulture chairman,whose duty it is to direct the science and art of cultivating flowers, fruits, vegetables, or ornamental plants. This chairman gives a periodic report to the group after her attendance at the Federation of Garden Clubs Meeting where she listens to speakers on various garden topics. She discusses what members should be doing in the yard during a current month in reference to cutting back the flowers, planting, and spraying; The Junior Gardening Chairman teaches young people gardening principles; and the Visiting Gardens Chairman promotes the philosophy among the members of learning gardening by seeing or by engaging in a visitation program; the Anti-Litter and Anti-Pollution Chairmen call attention to pollution and litter and urge work of a corrective nature in this direction.
one may become a member of the Amaryllis Garden Circle after she has lived for at least one year in the New Suburb Beautiful, an exclusive residential section in Tampa.
1 Mina Egdorf, "A Woman's Place Is Everywhere," The International Altrusan Magazine, Vol. 51, No. 8, April, 1974, p. 10.




The club publishes the Forget-Me-Not magazine locally and contributes
to the state publication, Florida Gardening.
The effectiveness of their program is evaluated through visits to
all sections of the area for the purpose of determining whether or not
progress is being shown in the development of beauty of surroundings and
in the increasing of happiness on the part of the residents. It is of
importance to them that the name of the area, New Suburb Beautiful, be
maintained by continued work in beautification.
A clearinghouse is provided through the Federation of Garden Clubs
whose duty it is to aid in the avoidance of garden clubs duplicating
activities unnecessarily. The Federation acts also as a liaison body
and helps to settle mutual claims.
American Association of University Women
The local organization of the American Association of University
Women was founded in 1924 and has 210 active local mem~bers.
The purpose of this branch is to unite the alumnae of colleges and universities which are on the AAUW list
of qualified institutions for practical educational
work; to concentrate and increase their effectiveness in the community for the solution of social and civic
problems; to participate in the development and promotion
of the policies and programs of the American Association
of University Women; to contribute to its growth and
advancement; and to cooperate in its state, division and
regional work.1
Two main committees form the structure of the
organization to promote educational improvement: (1)
The Program Development Committee which includes a
representative of each of the four areas of interest
in the Association program: Community, Cultural interests,
Education, and International Relations. The Program
Development Committee shall consider the program topics
of the Association and recommend to the branch the
1Article III, Charter and Bylaws of AAUW (provided by respondent).




selection of topics to be implemented. It shall provide policy guidelines for the continuing program concerns of
the branch. (2) There shall be at least one Topic
Committee and such others as the branch shall require
to implement the Association program topic or topics
of the branch selected for study. The chairmen of these
committees shall serve as the branch Board of Directors.1
Educational experiences provided through the organization include study groups, presentation of speakers at the monthly luncheon meetings, special projects such as participation in the Equal Rights Coalition, special seminars which deal with such topics as criminal justice, and area workshops. Scholarship money is contributed to two Tampa universities.
If a woman holds a baccalaureate or higher degree from an institution on the AAUW's list of qualified institutions, or a degree from a foreign institution that is recognized by the International Federation of University Women, she is eligible for membership in the association. 2
The Tampa branch of AAUW cooperates with the national body in publishing the AAUW Journal.
The Presidents Round Table serves as the clearinghouse for this group and presents programs on vital issues.
Emerging vital issues can be sent to the National Association by any member of an AAUW organization and from these suggestions study topics are selected every two years.
Citizens Alert
The purpose of Citizens Alert, Incorporated, is to make Hillsborough County a better and safer place in which to live by engaging in the following seven-point program:
1Charter and Bylaws of AAUW (provided by respondent).
2Article IV, Section 1, Charter and Bylaws (provided by respondent).




(1) Supporting law enforcement agencies and seeing that their
needs are met;
(2) Bridging the gap in understanding between the law enforcement
officer and the citizen so that they can work together in the
war against crime;
(3) Promoting respect for law and order and those who enforce it; (4) Attacking the roots of crime--public apathy, ignorance, dirt,
and neglect;
(5) offering a plan of action for the community so that all
citizens can participate;
(6) Coordinating programs, with other agencies or organizations
so that the most benefit is derived for the comunity from
the efforts expended;
(7) Providing needed information for the public.
Citizens Alert was founded approximately seven years ago and has nearly 30 active members. The respondent reported, further, that even though men participate and help to finance the organization that the women hold major offices, do the work, and outnumber the men in membership.
The organization promotes educational improvement through such
standing committees as Community Affairs, Court Observers, Enrichment Bus Tours, Help Stop Crime, Hospitality, Junior League Representative, Law Enforcement Appreciation Dinner, Membership, Rehabilitation, and
Stay-in-School.
The Community Affairs Committee keeps citizens informed of projects in the community in which Citizens Alert might be of assistance.




Six Court Observers are provided by the Court observers Committee to meet on Tuesdays in the Criminal Division of the Circuit Court. The judges, the State Attorney, members of the Tampa Police Department, and the Hillsborough County Sheriff's office help determine what information the observers should seek.
The Enrichment Bus Tours Committee provides a tour of the Police
Department and Sheriff's office and a visit to the Criminal Division of the Circuit Court to help young people become aware of the many facets of the court system.
The Help Stop Crime Committee provides seminars on residential burglary, commerical burglary, and rape.
The Hospitality Committee introduces club officers and programs to the community, provides displays, and makes members of the board available to answer questions.
The Stay-in-School Committee meets weekly with 10 girls from Madison Junior High School who are potential drop-outs and tries to give them a sense of their worth and encourage them to continue in their school courses. These girls are taken on field trips for the purpose of showing them their community and what it has to offer them. The Dean of Girls at Madison says, "Because of this program, many of the girls have made social and school adjustment one would not have thought possible at the beginning of the school year. Without this sort of program in our schools, we would be reaching fewer young girls than we would otherwise. please, we need this type of program.
Individuals, families, business or professional firms, civic,
cultural, educational, social, and religious organizations which subscribe to the purpose and program of this organization may become members upon payment of dues.




The work in education is done on a continuing basis and the Presidents Pound Table serves as the clearinghouse.
All segments of the organization coordinate their activities, and interclub educational activity is shown through the cooperation of Citizens Alert with the Junior League, the Chamber of Commerce, and the National Conference of Christians and Jews. Davis Island Yacht Club Dinghy Dames
Twenty-five active local members make up the Davis Island Yacht Club Dinghy Dames of Tampa. The purpose of this organization is to promote sailing interest and sailing ability among its members.
The course outline for the teaching of sailing includes: the
Language of Sailing, Sailing the Optimist Pram, Running Rigging, the Circle Diagram, the Daggerboard, What Makes a Sailboat Go?, Sailing Into the Wind, Running, Reaching, Tacking, Tacking Diagram, Jibing, Jibing Diagram, Going sailing, Seamanship, Capsizing, Right of Way Rules, Racing, The Start, Racing to Windward, Downwind, Rounding the Mark, and Reaching and Tuning for Racing.
Sailing clinics are held in the fall and spring and involve instruction in how to sail, in how to race the boats, and in racing rules and regulations.
Two to four races are held on Monday of each week and at the end of a six-week period, girls are awarded prizes if they are the highest point winners for that period.
Competition is engaged in throughout the year with such women's sail groups as: the Mainstreet Mamas of Tampa, the Salty Sisters of St. Petersburg, the Sarasota Sailing and Sinking Society, the Luf fin Lasses, and the Barnacle Belles.




The Dinghy Dames group was founded in the fall of 1970 and membership is confined to persons who are affiliated with the Davis Island Yacht Club.
The effectiveness of the. Dinghy Dames educational program is
evaluated according to the number of sail boat races that are won on a weekly and annual basis.
The Florida Sailing Women's Association serves as the clearinghouse for the organization.
Delta Kappa Gamma Society
Delta Kappa Gamma was founded in the spring of 1959 and has approximately 65 members. The purposes of the organization are:
(1) To unite women educators in a genuine spiritual fellowship.
(2) To honor women who have given distinctive service in education.
(3) To advance professional interests and the position of women
in education.
(4) To sponsor and support desirable legislation.
(5) To endow scholarships to aid outstanding women educators.
(6) To stimulate the personal and professional growth of members
pursuing graduate study.
(7) To inform the membership of current economic, social, political,
or educational issues to the end that they may become intelligent, functioning members of a world society.
The organization is structured through committee formation and sales projects to promote educational improvement, and works with the International organization to provide scholarships, to assist students from abroad, to work with Navaho Indians, and to provide students with books and learning materials.




Criteria for membership include having professional preparation; having experience as an educator in the Chapter area; being skillful, alert, and resourceful; participating in community life; having an attractive, personal appearance; and having initiative and enthusiasm.
The educational work is done on a continuing basis as the group
continues to study trends and programs in education, to evaluate conditions, and to endeavor to understand new themes and programs, and to study value patterns as they affect our culture.
This group does not engage in evaluative procedures but hopes that their scholarship students, who are carefully chosen, are ambassadors of good will.
Interclub activities include fall workshops and Founder's Day luncheons.
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, incorporated (Tampa Alumnae Chapter)
In the Queen of Hearts magazine, Vol. 1, No. XX, published by the Tampa Alumnae Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Incorporated, and submitted by the respondent, the Historical Sketch provides the following facts concerning the organization and projects undertaken by the Sorority.
The chapter was organized in Tampa during the spring of 1947 with seven members present. The sketch reveals that the sorority serves a noble purpose--improvement of the health and welfare of the community. There are 64 active local members and an additional 25 members who participate only in Delta projects.
Chief among its projects is the awarding of scholarships to girls in the Tampa Bay Area to attend colleges of their choice on the basis of scholarship, personality and character. The first winner was a graduate of Don Thompson Vocational High School, Tampa, in 1950.




The respondent, in her questionnaire, enumerates other purposes of the Sorority as follows: To establish, maintain, and encourage high, cultural, intellectual and moral standards among its members and within the community in which they live; to engage in public service programs and to promote and encourage achievement in education by granting scholarships and other assistance to worthy and deserving persons.
She points, further, to other facets of the organization which are included in the remaining sections:
The group has a five-point program which promotes educational improvement in the areas of health, education, social action, international relations and housing. Each year, the local Social Action Committee selects a project from the program for major concentration.
Public presentations provide educational experiences which may be illustrated by the following past performances including: (1) Presentation of Voices, Inc., a black repertoire presented by a group that depicts the history of the Negro American through professional song and dance; (2) Presentation of Dorothy Devault, first woman president of the Florida Education Association; (3) Presentation of The Honorable Shirley Chisholm, Negro American, who ran for the office of President of the United States.
There are four criteria for membership: (1) The organization accepts a college graduate who has had Delta initiation; (2) A college graduate who fulfills requirements for initiation designed by the local or national chapter; (3) An outstanding community leader who has made significant contributions; (4) A person of high moral and educational standards.
The work by Delta in education is done on a continuing basis in that local scholarships have been given to outstanding high school graduates




since 1950, and presently, three area scholarships are awarded each year. In addition, the daughter of a Delta receives a special cash award when she is graduated from high school.
Four educational publications are produced by Delta: The Delta
Journal; The Delta Newsletter; The Delta Handbook; and the Delta Ritual.
The effectiveness of the educational program of the Sorority is
evaluated through the submission of an annual corporate accountability form which must be submitted each fiscal year to the National Scholarship and Standards Committee prior to approval for continued operation of the Sorority.
Because of its philosophy of sisterhood, all activities are conducted with unity and cooperation, and coordination is carried on by the chapter's Executive Board which approves all program planning.
Girls Clubs of Tampa, Incorporated
Girls Clubs of Tampa, Incorporated, a publication of the Girls Clubs of Tampa, was made possible through the Ensslin Advertising Agency, Inc., Rinaldi Printing Company and others, and gives information about the Tampa units of Girls Clubs. This publication was presented by the respondent to supplement the information presented in the questionnaire:
At the Girls Clubs of Tampa, we see every girl as a promise
--a promise of the individual she can grow to be. In simple,
personal ways, we try to help each girl see her own future
in that optimistic light....
Tampa's first Girls Club opened at 1519 27th Avenue in
September, 1958, with a membership of some 200 girls. By
1972, that one location was serving 500 girls .... Today,
more than 1600 school-aged girls are attracted to programs
and activities at six Tampa Girls Clubs ....
Thepurpose of Girls Clubs is to help girls of all backgrounds to
grow and work together in a climate of freedom and harmony; to help girls




find their own identity, develop their potential, and achieve a sense of responsibility to self, family, community, country and world; and to help all girls of all racial, religious, and economic backgrounds to live and develop creatively in a democratic society in a changing world.
Girls Clubs, Inc. lists the educational experiences provided through the organization as cooking, sewing, arts and crafts, music and dance, charm, and personal health care. The program also includes field trips throughout the community, ballet, and counseling in family life, career interests, sex education, drug abuse prevention, and social relationships.
This organization, governed by a board of 36 women and some men, has an active local membership of 3000 girls in five clubs--the Molly Ferrara Girls Club; the Robles Park Girls Club; the Chestnut Street Girls Club; the Habana Avenue Girls Club; and the Central Park Girls Club. These clubs were made possible by a grant from the City of Tampa's Metropolitan Development Agency to supplement operating income from local civic groups, foundations, individuals, and the United Fund.
The criteria for membership states that girls between the ages of 6 to 18 and who are still in school are welcomed by Girls Clubs without regard for race, religion, and economic background.
The work of this organization is done on a continuing basis in that the clubs are open for training after school hours and during vacation time.
Girls clubs cooperate with their regional and national organizations of Girls Clubs in publishing news letters and brochures.
An evaluation form is used to measure the effectiveness of the
educational program. The Presidents Round Table, made up of Presidents




of all women's organizations, serves as the clearinghouse, and all segments of the clubs work together for common objectives through the following committees: Nominating, Finance, Program and Volunteers, House, Public Relations, and Endowments and Contributions. The activities are coordinated through planning meetings and workshops.
Girls Clubs provide interclub and intergroup activities by working with other groups who work with children and through cooperation with the Public Health Department, Public Schools, Police Department and Drug Abuse.
Hillsborough County Democratic Women's Club (Tampa Branch)
The Tampa Branch of the Hillsborough County Democratic Women's Club, Incorporated, was founded in 1963 and is composed of 25 active local members. The purpose of the organization is to promote the principles and candidates of the Democratic party.
Educational experiences provided through the organization comprise informative and instructive programs, seminars in campaign skills and work on environmental problems. The Presidents Round Table serves as the clearinghouse.
The usual promotional format consists of studying issues, presenting major points-of-view, and then taking a stand. The program and legislative committees work together on the selection of the best methods of presenting information from study groups. The effectiveness of this educational program is measured by the voting of the legislative delegation.
A woman is eligible for membership in this club if she is a member of the Democratic Party.




Interclub educational activities are confined to the Regional group with whom the Tampa Branch of the Hillsborough County Democratic Women's Club, at sometimes, acts in concert.
Insurance Women of Tampa
The Insurance Women of Tampa is an organization that encourages and fosters practical and coordinated educational programs designed to broaden the knowledge of its members concerning the business of insurance; to cultivate and promote good fellowship and loyalty among its members, and to make its members more responsive to the business requirements and necessities of their associates.
The organization was founded in 1941 and reports 48 active local
members who are provided with insurance education as a principal educational experience.
Any woman engaged independently or through employment in any office selling or serving insurance of any type is eligible for active membership.
The work in education is done on a continuing basis in that the
woman starts her work with a beginning course which leads to a C.P.I.W. designation (Certified Professional Insurance Woman) and then on to a C.P.C.U. designation (Certified Property Casualty Underwriter).
Today's Insurance women is the title of the educational publication by this group.
Evaluation procedures are directed by the Local Board and/or the National Chairman of the Educational Board.
Insurance Women of Tampa use the Presidents Round Table as a clearinghouse, and their interclub educational activities take the




form of a celebration during their National Insurance Women's Week, and include joint meetings with surrounding clubs, and regional and national conferences.
Junior League of Tampa, Incorporated
The Junior League of Tampa, Incorporated, was founded in April, 1926, and has approximately 225 active local members.
The purpose of the Junior League of Tampa, Incorporated, is exclusively educational and charitable and is designed to promote voluntarism, to develop the potential of its members for voluntary participation in community affairs, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of trained volunteers.
Seven committees designed to promote educational improvement, form the structure of the club:
(1) The Project Research Committee researches needs in the
community and suggests possible League action.
(2) The Education Committee presents educational programs to the
membership at monthly meetings, and sponsors workshops and
seminars.
(3) The Environment Committee studies the environment and reports
any action taken.
(4) The Provisional Education Committee suggests ways and means
for improvement in education.
(5) The Public Affairs Committee plans specific presentations for
the public.
(6) The Community Affairs Committee studies pertinent community
affairs and reports its findings.




(7) The Community Arts Committee keeps abreast of cultural projects
and investigates the cultural climate of the community.
Educational experiences are provided by the League through financial and volunteer support in connection with the following organizations and efforts: Arts Council of Tampa, Citizens Alert, Community Coordinating Coi~icil, The Door, Drug Abuse film program in schools,(shown to 3rd grade classes), Florida Gulf Coast Symphony, Guidance Center, MacDonald Training Center, SERVe (School Enrichment Resource Volunteers), Tampa Bay Art Center, Tampa Junior Museum, WEDU Education Television Station, and Child Abuse.
Tampa--A Town.-on Its Way is a book on the history of Tampa and it is made available to every child in school at a discount.
The Community Arts Committee makes a study of the cultural areas
of the community which is accomplished through board representation with the various cultural agencies; through participation in the Gasparilla Sidewalk Art Show; through educational programs ("Art and Man" lecture, a new slide presentation); and through a tour of Centro-Asturiano Theatre.
The Education Committee has as its goal the involvement of League
members in varied areas of interest. Speakers at the General Membership Meetings cover topics ranging from U.S. Foreign Policy to Women's Rights. Members receive first-hard information from informed individuals in the Food and Drug Administration, Tampa Drug Programs, and the Arts Council of Tampa. In addition, the committee sponsors an "Evening at Asolo" to acquaint members with their excellent State theater.
The Environment Committee presents "Tampa's Pollution Picture" to 30 schools and 104 classes. At least 3,015 children see the show along with five large adult groups and one teacher's group. The slides are




currently being updated to show what progress or changes have been made in Tampa's pollution problems.
The League cooperates with the Children's Theatre and the Asolo State Theater in making it possible for approximately 3,750 children to see in their schools the play, "Brave Little Tailor."
Criteria for membership is based upon character, leadership,
responsibility, congeniality, background, present and potential capabilities and a belief in promoting the Junior League purpose.
The work of the organization is done on a continuing basis through research committees and work on projects. Questionnaires are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the tasks performed.
Three publications by the Junior League of Tampa, Incorporated, help to stress their activities:
(1) The Sandspur (Published monthly, October through June)
(2) Tampa--A Town on Its Way (Published and used by the Junior
League of Tampa, Incorporated, to finance its educational,
cultural, health, and welfare projects in the community)
(3) The Gasparilla Cookbook.
League of Women Voters of Hillsborough County (Tampa Chapter)
Full membership is offered by the League of Women Voters of Hillsborough County, Tampa Branch, to any woman 18 years of age and over who is a citizen of the United States, and an associate membership is offered to persons under 18, to men, and to non-citizens.
The purpose and platform of the League, founded in 1920, is to
promote active and informed citizen participation in government. This group includes 196 members in Tampa, Hillsborough County ,who study, educate themselves, and educate the public at the local, state and




national levels. They share their findings with government officials
and lobby at all levels to attain their goals.
Election Laws, a pamphlet submitted by the respondent representing
this group, carries the League Position as of January 1974:
The League of Voters of Florida believes that democratic government depends upon the informed and active participation of its citizens. Fundamental to this participation is the citizen's right to vote. In order to increase participation, the League believes that elections officials have the responsibility for encouraging the exercise of the vote, for promoting citizen confidence in and understanding of the electoral process, and for providing equal access to
the ballot. To implement these programs, the League supports
the following proposals:
1. To facilitate registration:
- provide well-identified and publicized registration
locations.
- display registration qualifications prominently.
- set registration hours to meet community needs.
2. To facilitate voting:
- provide convenient and accessible write-in space
on voting machines.
- provide a writing implement for write-in votes.
3. To promote an informed electorate:
- provide for wording of ballot issues in layman's
language.
- provide bilingual personnel where appropriate.
4. To increase confidence:
- standardize elections procedures.
- provide well-trained, impartial elections personnel.
- shorten the campaign period.
5. To provide equal access to the ballot:
- extend election hours.
- allow physically confined citizens to register and
vote.
(Note: The above list includes only a few of the proposals.)
The work of this group is done on a continuing basis and provides
such educational experiences as study programs involving action groups,
seminars and workshops including professional academic meetings, Go-See
trips, and observer Corps on a long-term basis, which among other

activities involves monitoring school board meetings.




There is close association with the state and national bodies.
In this connection, the Tampa group stands with the Florida League in support of education in Florida which is shown through the leaflet-League of Women voters of Florida--Here We Stand, submitted by the respondent and presented here in part:
"This League believes in a free public school sys tem with equality of opportunity for all and in state funding (K-12); in district funding, (K-12); in state structure of education involving a coordinating board for all components of public education--K-12; vocational technical, junior college and higher education; and in a district structure involving appointment of district school superintendents by district boards."
Publications include a Guide to the Government of Hillsborough County and an Environmental Handbook.
Procedures used to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational program follow:
(1) Dialog with elected officials on local, state and national
levels.
(2) Periodic questionnaires.
(3) Measuring goals achieved, area by area, against scope of
program as detailed in the platform of the League.
(4) Keeping and observing records of legislation passed which
furthers the accomplishment of the goals.
The respondent reports, further, that all local, state, and national leagues work together from adopted programs agreed upon in scope and goals, and that the Tampa League is carefully structured to pursue common goals with a minimum of duplicating effort.




Interclub educational activities take the form of assigning liaison people to many community organizations; of joining coalitions of likeintended groups such as administration of justice, environmental and conservation organizations, civic organizations, tax-payer groups, and committees formed for implementing social programs involving housing, task forces, stop-rape groups, and educational reform. Participants from other organizations are invited to the League's seminars and workshops.
Manhattan Elementary School Parent-Teachers Association
The Manhattan Elementary School Parent-Teacher Association of Tampa has objects in common with the Florida Congress of PTA's and the National PTA as follows: (1) To promote the welfare of children and youth in home, school, church, and community; (2) To raise the standards of home life; (3) To secure adequate laws for the care and protection of children and youth; (4) To bring into closer relation the home and the school-that parents and teachers may cooperate intelligently in the education of children and youth; (5) To develop between educators and the general public such united efforts as will secure for all children and youth the highest advantages in physical, mental, social, and spiritual education.
The respondent for this organization indicates that the organization is structured to involve work with teachers in study groups and special meetings at the local level for the purpose of discussing problem areas that need improvement. Additionally, the organization has members on the newly formed advisory group which works closely with the School Board.
In reference to educational experiences, this association encourages parents to tutor students at school on a one-to-one basis; school personnel are invited to explain the educational changes to parents;




forums and study courses are held with teachers who show new methods
and materials to clubwomen; educators are invited to speak to parents,
and area supervisors are invited to share school materials with parents
and other community leaders.
If one is interested in working for children and for growth, and
pays a small membership fee, he satisfies the criteria for membership.
The National PTA Bulletin is the official educational publication
and consists of articles from educators, parents, and interested citizens.
Evaluations of the programs are done in special sessions at the
beginning and end of each year.
Interclub educational activities include cooperation with the
Florida PTA Association. Seven items for legislation, adopted by the
Florida 1973 Convention, are among the Manhattan PTA's priority items
for 1973-1974:
Because we feel that children and youth are a priceless
resource of our state and nation, and because we are guided by our continuing concern for the welfare of
children and youth, we pledge our efforts in their
behalf by urging legislation for:
1. The establishment of state standards and licensing
for child care facilities, including individuals in private residences also engaged in daily child care
service and accepting a fee for said services.
2. Special licensing consisting of written and driving
tests supervised by the state for the operators of
two-wheel motor vehicles.
3. Long-range planning for education by revising the
schedules for legislative appropriations and for
certification of tax rolls.
4. A fully developed, adequately funded and staffed,
statewide, comprehensive program of school health
services.
5. A privileged communication act for pupil personnel
workers and principals.
6. Comprehensive statewide services for the mentally
and emotionally disturbed child. 1
7. Appropriations for special education.1
1June S. Gholdston, ed., "Priority Items for 1973-1974," Florida PTA Bulletin, Vol. XLIV, No. 5 (Jan.-Feb., 1974), p. 4.




National Council of Negro Women
The Tampa branch of the National Council of Negro Women works closely with the national body which has its headquarters in Washington, D.C. The Tampa branch, in addition to setting up its own program to meet specific needs in the local community, joins hands with National in helping to meet the critical needs of the black community and to underscore the power of united women.
In Black Womans Voice, a National publication, there is an indication of some ways in which community needs are met:
The National Council of Negro Women developed and
maintains a residential educational center for deprived
teenage mothers, complete with day care center facilities
for their children.
NCNW provides consumer education and protection for low
income families.
NCNW provides a center for Career Advancement to upgrade
the skills of clerical personnel.1
The respondent for the Tampa branch states that the purpose of the local organization is to cherish and enrich the heritage of freedom and progress by working for the integration of all people without regard for race, creed, color or national origin, that all may enjoy the spiritual, social, cultural, and civic life, thus aiding the citizens of America to achieve the glorious destiny of a true and unfettered democracy.
The local organization has 85 adult members and 56 youth council
members who are committed to the Hillsborough County Consumers Education League, to the Safety Action program, to the Job Corps for underprivileged, and to school drop-outs and un-wed mothers. The group makes contributions to Sesame Street, a program for pre-schoolers, and to youth groups seeking political experience through trips to governmental headquarters.
lEditorial, Black Womans Voice, Vol. 3, No. 1, March, 1974, p. 2.




A morally, responsible woman who is willing to help keep alive the theme of the Council--"We are one in spirit and united for action" and whose ideals and ambitions coincide with the purpose of the organization is admitted to membership.
The work in education is done on a continuing basis through financial contributions and volunteer service.
National League of American Pen Women
The object of the Tampa Chapter of the National League of American Pen Women is to promote creative and educational activities in art, letters, and music. This organization is composed of 24 members whose continued work-shop structure enables them to promote educational improvement. Work-shop sessions are held every other month and educational speakers are presented between work-shop periods.
Educational experiences provided through this organization include learning to write, to paint, and to compose music with the aid of professional teachers.
Criteria for membership involves being born or naturalized in the United States of America; having for three years preceding application received pay in the open commerical market for original work of professional standard in any of the classifications of Arts, Letters, or Music, and having approval of the Branch Membership Committee and the National Board.
The educational work is done on a continuing basis in that some activity of an educational nature is presented monthly.
Many of the members are book writers and one member writes textbooks for universities.




The effectiveness of the educational program is evaluated by judges and a panel of evaluators, each one being a professional in his field.
A clearinghouse, the Presidents Round Table, is provided for women's groups in the community and is used by this organization.
Interclub activities, designed to unite the community for peace, public affairs, and better human relations, constitute free Art Shows, the Tampa Book Fair, and an end of the year Achievement Day. National Organization for Women
The National Organization for Women (NOW), Tampa Branch, was founded in 1971, and has 200 active local members whose purpose is the elimination of sex discrimination.
Group arrangements, separate task forces for education, media, and sex discrimination in employment, and a speakers bureau constitute the structure to promote educational improvement.
Educational experiences include the sponsoring of law enforcement seminars during which speakers read and interpret the laws to employers, organizations, clubs, etc.; the writing of letters to local and federal government officials and legislators promoting passage of legislation to eliminate sex discrimination; the working with other local organizations to promote the Equal Rights Amendment, and the sponsoring of a monthly newsletter.
The organization is open to all interested women and does its work in education on a continuing basis. It uses the Presidents Round Table as its clearinghouse.
NOVI has made contact with the Mayor of Tampa and Hillsborough
County concerning their obligations as a federal contractor in regards




to Title VII, and with the Hillsborough Community College, Board of Trustees, concerning their obligations regarding Title ix.
Pilot Club of Tampa
The major objective of all Pilot Clubs is to promote active participation in any activity which will improve the civic, social, industrial, and commercial welfare of the community.1
Pilot is one of the five international classified civic-service
organizations for executive and professional women. Its basic principles are friendship and service. Pilot also sponsors Anchor Clubs for high school girls and Compass Clubs for college women. Through service to school and community, these young people are receiving valuable training in citizenship.2
In keeping with the basic principles of Pilot International, the Pilot Club of Tampa states that its purpose is to render service to the community in which its members live--wherever they find that a need exists. The Tampa Club was founded in 1934 and has 54 active members.
If an educational need is presented to the club by a member who feels that the club is able to do something constructive to help meet this need, the organization might accept the suggestion as a project for club participation.
Specifically, the major project is to help hard-of-hearing children whose parents can not afford the expense of a hearing-aid. A second project involves contributing to the Ruby Newhall Scholarship Fund for foreign students desiring to study in the United States of America, but
1Brochure, Pilot Is, Pilot International Headquarters, Macon, Georgia, 1973, p. 2.
21bid.




intending to share for at least three years afterwards their knowledge and observations in the United States with their own countrymen by teaching or working in their college field of study. The Scholarship Fund is administered by Pilot International in Macon, Georgia, and the Tampa Club contributes approximately $100 per year to the fund.
Ruby Newhall was a Gainesville, Florida resident and was connected with the University of Florida. It was her aim to have a scholarship for foreign students to study in the United States. She died around 1950 and in her memory all Pilot Clubs in the United States started the fund. There are now 10 or 12 foreign students receiving help.
The Tampa Pilot Club endeavors to encourage its members, who are all working women in executive and professional positions, to continue their own education. Programs are provided throughout the year to assist them in this direction.
One business meeting and one program meeting are held each month. The program meeting provides guest speakers who put forth an effort to inform and enlighten the members.
Business women in executive or professional positions meet the criteria for membership and are invited to become club members and represent their particular type of business or profession.
Work in education is done on a continuing basis with school children; however, the work of individual members with children needing help in reading is done on a volunteer basis and varies from year to year.
The publications are limited to small bulletins, issued to inform members about committee work, and the "Pilot Log," a quarterly, which indicates members in the club work who wish to render service to the community.




Interclub educational activities involve work with other clubs to
develop "Girls Clubs" which give young girls (ages 8-18) a better foundation for good citizenship through training classes in their fields of interest.
Seminole Business and Professional Club of Tampa
The Seminole Business and Professional Women's Club of Tampa combines its efforts, to promote educational improvement, with the Florida Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Incorporated, and the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Incorporated. It has approximately 60 active local members and was founded in March, 1954.
Membership is open to women who are interested in the objectives of the club and who are actively and gainfully employed.
The local organization has the following purposes:
(1) To elevate the status of women in business and professions
(2) To promote cooperation among business and professional women
(3) To provide opportunity through scholarships and grants.
All local clubs, including the Seminole branch, support state and national projects through the paying of dues.
The Seminole branch is working on the CAP Project (Career Awareness Project) in cooperation with the Tampa Public Library. Work on this project involves setting up a resource center as explained in CAP published by the Business and Professional women's Federation in Washington, D.C. and submitted by the respondent:
The Career Awareness Project provides the opportunity for schools and community groups to join hands in the
development of activities which will foster the career
exploration of individual students across the nation.
CAP calls for close school-community cooperation in




guidance program development to ensure the greatest utilization of the resources which exist within the
educational system and in the lay community.
To further implement its research and education
projects, each year, the National Federation of
Business and Professional Women awards various
scholarships with the help of local clubs. The
Career Advancement Scholarship is the newest one.
It permits women to continue their education or
training so they will be eligible for employment or will be prepared for advancement in a business
or profession.
Other awards by the Federation include the Lena Lake Forrest Fellowship which is designed for persons at the doctoral level to do graduate research on some subject concerning women who work, and the Sally Butler International Scholarship which is offered to a Latin American woman to do graduate study in the United States. This last award ranges from $500 to $2000 per year and is made only when funds are available.
The Seminole branch of the Business and Professional Women's Foundation works with the National Foundation in many areas of service which include training conferences, scholarships, research, publications, library area, and historical collections. These services are devoted exclusively to employed women in business and in the professions.
In the library area, there is an intensive search for materials-books, pamphlets, clippings, and others which have current and particular relevance to employed women.
Grants for research in subjects affecting business and professional women are made at certain periods by the board of trustees upon recommendation of the research and education committee.
In order to help talented women who desire to hold executive positions in their careers, the Foundation, assisted by the branch clubs, designed a three-year program of training conferences in which, during two-day sessions, leadership and management techniques are taught.




The Seminole Business and Professional Women's Club evaluates the
effectiveness of its educational program at an End of the Year Evaluation Meeting which is preceeded by a session in which goals are set for the coming year.
This group uses the Presidents Round Table as its clearinghouse which is designed to coordinate efforts and projects and to prevent duplication of efforts.
It is most difficult, advises the respondent, to separate the work of the local unit, the Florida Federation, and the National Federation because each of these segments works with the other to achieve common goals.
This organization is involved in interclub activities in that it is a part of the County Coalition for legislation which was formed to unite for the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment.
Soroptimist Club of Tampa
The Soroptimist Club of Tampa boasts of an international flavor for its organization in that the International Soroptimist Club has a member seated with the United Nations.
Soroptimist of Tampa was founded in 1956 and has 25 active local
members. The purpose of the club is to bring about community betterment and understanding, to promote high standards in business and professional life, and to advance international understanding, goodwill, and peace.
Local clubs, including the Tampa unit, have helped to establish the Soroptimist Foundations "for charitable, scientific, literary or educational purposes, all for the public welfare."
Fellowships of $2,500 are granted to women for graduate study in a




university, and Grants-in-aid include varying amounts to women for advanced research, study or travel.
The Tampa Club helps to sponsor a youth citizenship annual award which includes seventeen $1,000 awards on the regional level and $1,500 to the finalist.
Criteria for Tampa membership indicates that a wom an must have
executive status, must be the owner or co-owner of a business, and/or a professional.
The local unit helps to publish the American Soroptimist Magazine and uses the Chamber of Commerce and the Presidents Round Table as clearinghouses.
Suncoast Girl Scout Council
The Suncoast Girl Scout Council was founded in March, 1912, and boasts of 6000 members in the Tampa branch.
Four emphases that are interrelated make up the broad objectives, the scope, and the focus of the Girl Scout program. These emphases include helping the girl: (1) to deepen her awareness of self as a unique person of worth; (2) to relate to others with increasing skill, maturity and satisfaction; (3) to develop values which will give meaning and direction to her life; and (4) to contribute to her society through her own talents, and in cooperative effort with others. The four emphases offer for each girl opportunities for growth that are rich and varied and play a meaningful role in the lives of girls and women in our society.1
1 Suncoast Girl Scout Council, Tampa Chapter, "Today's Vision-Tomorrow's World," Tampa, 1973, p. 1 (Mimeographed.)




Full Text

PAGE 1

SURVEY OF A SELECTED NUMBER OF WOMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS IN TA.. MP A FLORIDA AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATION By FRANKYE ALMEDA BERRY A DISSER'I'ATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUA'rE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1975

PAGE 2

Copyright by Frankye A Berry 1975

PAGE 3

To my parents: Lor enzo and Lauvinia Berry Who m a de it possib l e f or me to make this step.

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I acknowledge, with deep gratitude and with the extending of special thanks--the patience, kindness, guidance, and help of Dr. Arthur J. Lewis, Chairman of the Supervisory Committee and Chairman of the Division of Curriculum and Instruction of the College of Education. Special mention, along with deep appreciation, must be given to the other committee members which include Dr. James L. Wattenbarger, Chairman, Department of Educational Administration and Supervision, and Director of the Institute of Higher Education; and Dr. Ralph B. Kimbrough, Professor, Educational Administration Sincere thanks and appreciation to Dr. Betty L. Siegel, Dean of Academic Affairs for Continuing Education; Dr. Elroy J. Bolduc, Chairman, Secondary Education; and Dr. Charles A. Henderson, Associate Professor, College of Education. Special thanks to Dr. Vynce A. Hines, Chairman, Foundations of Education; and to Dr. M. L. Martinello, Associate Professor, Elementary Education, who gave so generously of their time. Deep appreciation to Dr. William West, Department of Education, University of South Florida, for his help and encouragement. Sincere appreciation to Mrs. Lisa Gorham, Public Relations Specialist, Tampa, Florida, and to the following Gainesville club leaders who served on a committee to pretest the questionnaire: Mrs. Gwendolyn Lewis, President-Elect, University Women's Club; Mrs. Charlotte Yates, Past President, American Association of University Women; Mrs. Louise Stone, Past President, University Women's Club; and Mrs. Doris Poole, President, University Women's Club. iv

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. LIST OF TABLES ABSTRACT. CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND NEED FOR STUDY. Purpose of Study Background for the study. The Crusade The First Woman's Club The Suffrage Amendment Early Activities of Women Women's Liberation Movement. Women's Groups and Education. Cooperation of Women's Groups Community Education and World-Mindedness Need for the Study CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE ..... First Women's Organization in the United States The General Federation ... The state Federations. Early Influence of Organizations Status of Women in 1965 Status of Women in 1971-1975 Motivations for Club Attendance Women of Distinction. Women of the World ..... CHAPTER III PROCEDURES Study Design. Definition of Terms. Selection of Sample. Delimitations Participants Instrumentation. Data Collection. Data Treatment V Page iv viii ix 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 12 ._/ 12 14 18 20 21 23 24 25 28 32 35 37 39 41 41 42 43 45 45 47 50 50

PAGE 6

Page CHAPTER IV RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA. 52 Section 1 Characteristics of Respondents. 52 Section 2 Descriptions of Individual Organizations. 55 Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority (Gamma Theta Omega Chapter). 57 Altrusa Club of Tampa. 58 Amaryllis Garden Circle . 61 American Association of University Women. 62 Citizens Alert. . . 63 Davis Island Yacht Club Dinghy Dames. 66 Delta Kappa Gamma Society. . 67 Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. (Tampa Alumnae Chapter) 68 Girls Clubs of Tampa, Inc.. . 70 Hillsborough County Democratic Women's Club (Tampa Branch). 72 Insurance Women of Tampa 73 Junior League of Tampa, Inc ........... 74 League of Women Voters of Hillsborough County (Tampa Chapter)76 Manhattan Elementary School Parent-Teachers Association 79 National Council of Negro Women 81 National League of American Pen Women. 82 National Organization for Women. 83 Pilot Club of Tampa. 84 Seminole Business and Professional Club of Tampa. 86 Soroptimist Club of Tampa. . 88 Suncoast Girl Scout Council . 89 Tampa Junior Woman's Club 91 Tampa Music Teachers Association. 94 Tampa Pharmaceutical Association. 95 Women's Equity Action League. 96 Women in Communications . 97 Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc.. 98 Section 3 Characteristics of Individual Organizations 100 Question l How important are the demographic factors in determining participation in women's organizations? 100 Question 2 What is the character of the educational reading engaged in by the respondents? . 101 Question 3 In which organizations do the respondents hold membership? . . . 102 Question 4 What official club experiences have the respondents engaged in? ........... 103 Question 5 Which women's organizations have been most influential in solving county-wide problems?. 104 Question 6 What are the most important educational projects that have been resolved in the past or that must be resolved in the future? 105 Question 7 How can organizations help to resolve problems and issues? Are there plans for resolvableness?. . . 106 Question 8 What are the purposes of the organizations? 108 Question 9 What kinds of educational experiences are provided through the organizations? 108 vi

PAGE 7

Question 10 Which organizational leaders have i nfluence with state leaders through whom they Page can get work done? 109 Question 11 When were the organizations founded, and How many local members do they have? 110 Question 12 What are the criteria for membership, and Is the work in education done on a continuing basis? 111 Question 13 What are some of the organizational publications?. 112 Question 14 How is organizational effectiveness evaluated? 112 Question 15 Is there a clearinghouse for women's groups in the community? 113 Question 16 Do all segments of an organization work together for common objectives, coordinate activities, and cooperate for mutual benefit?. 113 Question 17 Which leaders have strong city-wide influence? 114 Question 18 How are organizations structured to promote educational improvement? 115 Question 19 Are interclub activities in existence for uniting the community for peace, health, and public affairs?. 115 Question 20 Is there a platform sponsored equally by all groups to present foremost authorities? 116 CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. Summary of Educational Contributions of Women's Organizations in the Study Summary of Areas of Study The sponsoring of scholarship and loan funds The conducting of educational programs The studying of educational problems The promoting of educational legislation. Analysis of Educational Activities Implications. Recommendations. Conclusion. . APPENDIX A Letter to Club Leaders. Introduction to Questionnaire. Personal Characteristics and Opinion Questionnaire APPENDIX B Personal Background for Study. BIBLIOGRAPHY ADDITIONAL READING. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. vii 117 117 127 127 127 128 129 129 129 131 133 135 136 137 138 147 148 151 153 154

PAGE 8

LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 LENGTH OF RESPONDENTS' RESIDENCE IN TAMPA. TABLE 2 NUMBER OF OFFICES HELD BY RESPONDENTS IN RELATION TO AGE TABLE 3 CHILDREN OF RESPONDENTS. Page 53 53 54 TABLE 4 NUMBER OF OFFICES HELD IN RELATION TO EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND 54 TABLE 5 ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR AREAS OF EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES 130 viii

PAGE 9

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education SURVEY OF A SELECTED NUMBER OF WOMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS IN TAMPA, FLORIDA AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATION By Frankye Almeda Berry March, 1975 Chairman: Dr. Arthur J. Lewis Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction Discriminations have hampered the progress of women since before the turn of the last century, and there are still many biases against women in higher education and in the job market which continue to operate during this century. Women, themselves, must make policies and plans to promote their own welfare, to make them more efficient, and to provide for them greater opportunities. In order to do this, they must work to develop their own potential and to be able to participate fully in American life. It is generally felt that association in club life and the involvement in club activities can do much to bring about such development. It was with these ideas in mind that this study wa~ made. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current nature and extent of the contributions of women's organizations to education by studying twenty-seven such organizations in Tampa, Florida. The organizations were examined in order to discover the extent to which each shows an interest in one or more of the following areas: ix

PAGE 10

(1) The sponsoring of scholarship and loan funds (2) The conducting of educational programs (3) The studying of educational problems (4) The promoting of educational legislation. Eight categories of club work are represented by the organizations selected for the investigation: Creative and Fine Arts, Business and Professional, Civic, School, Community, Public Service, Sports, and Human Rights. A questionnaire, consisting of questions concerning demographic data, additional characteristics of the respondents, and characteristics of the organizations, was used. The instrument was administered in several meetings under the direct supervision of the writer. Results from the questionnaires are recorded in narratives, descriptions, and tables shown in three sections: (1) Characteristics of Respondents, (2) Descriptions of Individual Organizations, and (3) Characteristics of Individual Organizations. Eighty-seven percent of the women who responded have had some college training, sixty-one percent have been graduated from college while eighteen percent have completed the Master's degree. These women hold a total of 61 offices in their clubs. Of the twenty-seven organizations studied, twenty-four reported that they conduct some type of educational program. Twelve clubs reported that they sponsor scholarship and loan funds. Eight clubs indicated they are involved in promoting educational legislation and seven clubs are engaged in the study of educational problems. Based on the findings in the study the writer made the following recommendations: (1) That more conferences and conventions involving clubwornen be X

PAGE 11

held periodically in order to make it convenient for women to discuss their activities and exchange ideas. (2) That interclub activities be encouraged through the use of brochures used to describe the activities of each organization. (3) That a clearinghouse be used by all organizations to facilitate the coordination of activities and to enable various organiza tions to work in concert on common problems. (4) That committees from the various clubs be appointed to work with state and national groups to compile printed materials, films, film strips and slides on the roles being played by club organizations in the promoting of the work in education. (5) That representatives from the school board and others in school work be invited periodically to view such materials and to become acquainted with the educational work involving club women. This study may have significance for the members of women's organi zations and for persons and groups interested in working with such organi zations. It may serve to help women's organizations map their strategies for greater involvement in community activities, and at the same time to help individual women improve their self-concept. The study should serve, further, to make more clubwomen aware of the high purposes in education for which their organizations should exist. xi

PAGE 12

Cl!APTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND NEED FOR STUDY This writer agrees with Mary Love Collins, author of the Foreword in Public Services of Women's Organizations, who states that "the record of women's organizations provides hope and encouragement to women who take the spirit of intelligent activity to their interest in public service. 111 This writer agrees, further, that Democracy begins with a person and continues to gain strength in the little groups that get to gether in towns and in cities; 2 therefore, her agreements and extensive experience with women's club organizations 3 have led her to the belief that such organizations provide a number of educational opportunities within a community. Purpose of Study The purpose, then, of this study was to investigate the current nature and extent of the contributions of women's organizations to education by studying a selected number of such organizations in Tampa, Florida. The organizations were examined in order to discover the extent to which each shows an interest in one or more of the following areas: (1) The sponsoring of scholarship and loan funds (2) The conducting of educational programs 1 valborg Fletty, Public Services of Women's Organizations (New York: George Banta Publishing Co., 1951), p. i. 2 Dallas Johnson and Elizabeth Bass Golding, Don't Underestimate Woman Power (New York: Public Affairs Corrmittee, Inc., 1951), p. 29. 3see Appendix B--Personal Background for Study. 1

PAGE 13

2 (3) The studying of educational problems (4) The promoting of educational legislation. The findings are to be shared with various women's organizations, with the personnel in the Hillsborough County Schools, and with other groups desiring their use. Background for the Study The first step in associated life was taken by women when they pro tested the use and abuse of the power used by men. Women of rank fled to the desert and encountered unheard-of hardships rather than submit to the life to which they had been condemned by their fathers, brothers, and other men who exercised authority over them. The first church sisterhood grew out of such beginnings as these and gradually was sanctioned by the church. "Women in Monasticism" shows how powerful the system of religious sisterhoods had become as early as the fifth century, and traces its growing strength and enlargement until its decline, which was coeval with the Reforrnation. 1 The oldest purely women's societies in the country were started for missionary and church work. The first of these was the "Female Charitable Society" of Baldwinsville, New York, which may still be in existence. The object of this society was "to obtain a more perfect view of the infinite excellence of the Christian religion in its own nature, to see the importance of making this religion the chief concern of our own hearts, and to see the necessity of promoting it in our own families, and of diffusing it among our fellow sinners." A further object was "to afford aid to religious institutions. 112 1 Jane C. Croly, The History of the Woman's Club Movement in America (New York: H. G. Allen and Co., 1898), p. 2. 2rbid., p. 8.

PAGE 14

3 The Crusade Down to the last quarter of the 19th century, there was little sympathy with organizations of women not expressly religious, charitable, or intended to promote charitable objectives. History records that even in Germany, only societies that had a distinctly religious, educational, or charitable object were permitted. 1 The cry of the woman, emerging from a darkened past, then, was "light, more light," and light was breaking. The demand and the opportunity for education, for intellectual freedom, for women as well as for men, for cultivation of gifts and faculties, came gradually. Therefore, the early half of the century was marked by a crusade, which stood for the cause of better education of women, comparable to the physical emancipation of the slave. 2 The First Woman's Club Educational advance for women was struck by Emma Willard in 1821. There was an awakening of the communal spirit and the striking of a new note--the woman's club--which meant for the women--liberty, breadth, and 't 3 uni y. 1 The woman's club was not an echo; it was not the mere banding together for a social and economic purpose, like the clubs of men. It became at once, without deliberate intention or concerted action, a light-giving and seed sowing centre of purely altruistic and democratic activity. It had no leaders. It brought together qualities rather than personages; and by a representation of all interests, moral, intellectual, and social, a natural and equal division of work and opportunity, created an ideal basis of organization, where everyone had an equal right to whatever comes to the corranon centre; where the centre Croly, p. 9. 2History of Woman's Club Movement, p. 11. 3croly, p. 12.

PAGE 15

4 itself becomes a radiating medium for the diffusion of the best of that which is brought to it, and into which, all being freely given, no material considerations enter. 1 The first woman's club, "The Woman's League," was organized in 1868 with Alice Carey, the poet of American women, as its president. It was felt that the club should be hospitable to women of different minds, degrees, and habits of work and thought and that it should strive to foster the cause of education. Valborg Fletty in Public Services of Women's Organizations introduces the following thoughts on early edu cational activities of women: It was not chance t...~at led women's groups to stress knowledge of government as a requisite for good citizenship. As one writer said: "Education possesses a major alternative to force in overcoming the injustices of society." In the long struggle for social, economic, and political emancipation, women had come to depend on knowing the facts to carry conviction. Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, looking forward to the "success of democracy," at the St. Louis convention of the Women's Suffrage Association in 1919, proposed "a league of women voters" as "a living ~ernorial" to those who had led the suffrage movement and as a means of using effectively the right of suffrage. In February, 1920, Mrs. Catt's proposal was translated into an organization, The National League of Women Voters, whose by-laws included the object: "to promote political education through active participation of citizens in government. 11 2 The Suffrage Amendment Women's organizations took advantage of the responsibility and opportunity that had come to them through the suffrage amendment. Many of these groups studied the basic principles of voting, the structure of government, the organizations of political parties, legislation and 1 Croly, p. 13. 2valborg Fletty, Public Services of Women's Organizations (New York: George Banta Publishing Co., 1951), pp. 5-6.

PAGE 16

5 its processes and engaged in the practice of bringing candidates for office before the membership for the purpose of having them explain their stand on certain issues; however, the League of Women Voters was the first and only group that devoted its time to the improvement of government through education and citizenly participation. 1 Early Activities of Women In addition to voting, women's groups were represented in city councils, legislatures and court sessions. These groups, all together, worked for improvements in weaknesses in governmental machinery, supported governmental budgets, bond issues, and reform measures. They worked for women to hold offices and for qualified personnel in t 't' 2 governmen posi ions. Because of the number of intangibles that help make for the progress of a democratic society, it is neither possible to measure the achievements of organized women's groups in terms of a quantitative score nor to assess a definitive assignment of credit to any one group. Women's organizations did not desire to collect a record of victories nor to work separately from society as a whole. It is possible, however, to summarize their activities during the period between the two world wars and to pin-point some general trends and accomplishments. 3 Education was a major interest of women's organizations, and, therefore, these groups upheld the maintaining and improvement of the standards of public education by demanding qualified teachers, adequate school plants, and attendance laws that were required. In order that 1 Ibid., p. 123. 2-Ibid., p. 124. 3pletty, p. 123.

PAGE 17

6 these demands might be realized, they actively supported budgets and tax laws. General national women's organizations brought into bein3 libraries and provided volunteers to keep them open and funds for maintenance whenever public funds could not be provided. 1 Women's Liberation Movement Although this study was not done to emphasize or underscore facets of the women's liberation movement, it is important that attention be called to this accent on social philosophy since any discussion about women's work can not be divorced from the thinking of society and its influences. It is, therefore, of inestimable value that our minds be focused toward this important issue within our culture, and that consid eration be given to it. Mrs. Karen DeCrow sheds light on this subject in her article "Women's Liberation": "John Stuart Mills wrote in 1869 that the American woman's status was that of a slave and compared her to the black plantation man who was sometimes well cared for and sometimes not, and further describes this early woman as always being without the decision-making power to control her own life. 112 Even though the American woman won the vote, conditions changed very little until a few years ago. Since that time, the mass press has given much coverage to the women's liberation movement, and the American woman's view of herself and of the place she should hold in society has been changed. 3 1 rbid. p. 124. 2 Karen DeCrow, "Women's Liberation," Adult Leadership, Vol. 19 (May, 1970-April, 1971), 234. 3Ibid.

PAGE 18

7 In April 1970, President Nixon organized a Task Force on the rights and responsibilities of Women and among many findings, it was revealed that black and white women in America occupy lower status than black men in social, political, and economic areas. 1 The percent~ges of female doctors, lawyers, and Ph.D.'s in this country have steadily decreased since the 30's. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII, provides that there shall be no discrimination on the basis of sex in employment; however, there has been a steady widening of the wage differential between men and women since 1964. In addition, the holdings of women in political life are in a token fashion. 2 DeCrow believes that the solution to second-class citizenship is in the hands of women. Women, she feels, are joining each other in order that they might force government agencies to bring an end to discrimination, in order that they might demand constitutional equality as well as make other demands significant to their own well being. 3 The women's revolution has definite relevance to the educator. The education profession in America needs to be restructured in content and form. Social sciences must recognize the fact that teaching about the "special affective domain" of women goes back to the middle ages and the 60's and does not belong to the 70's. There must be a revision of the hierarchies of the educational structure to admit women to equal positions. If this is not done, the profession can not expect to teach justice to the young or adult student. 4 1 Ibid. 2 Ibid. 3Ibid. 4oecrow, p. 234.

PAGE 19

8 Dr. Emily Taylor, who has served as Dean of Women at the University of Kansas, and legislative chairman of the Kansas Governor's Commission on the Status of Women, wrote "The Women's Movement--What It's All About." Her thinking, to show that the demands of the movement are just, follows: "Frustrating clues to second-class citizenship of women in the United States have been prov:i.ded through inequities, undesirable working conditions, political neglect, and other distasteful practices. During the 50 years since the final passage of the women's suffrage amendment, an equal rights amendment has been introduced in Congress 47 times; however, attempts to establish the Constitutional principle of equality 1 have been thwarted." College women, mature women and working women are showing renewed interest now in the women's movement. Career women and women in executive positions have been made conscious of the need of their involve ment because of their experiences. Many women who have never before expressed resentment of unfair practice are now finding satisfaction in joining with other women in organizations. Such groups as the American Association of University Women, the National Organization for Women, women's caucuses in professional organizations, the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, and others accept the joining of forces to make for improvement of political and economic conditions. 2 Many women, who have turned away from the movement because of the extreme behavior of women's groups who want headline attention, agree with the goals of equal employment, equal educational opportunities, and 1 Emily Taylor, "The Women's Movement--What It's All About," American Vocational Journal, Vol. 45 (Dec., 1970), p. 16. 2Ibid.

PAGE 20

9 equal pay for equivalent work as well as the elimination of discrimination on the legal front. 1 Taylor gives her summary of what the movement is all about: Most women in the labor force work because of the need to support themselves or contribute to the support of their families. Their increasing resent ment of economic injustice has spurred their efforts toward the removal of legal barriers to full equality and the elimination of discrimination because of sex. Those who are in this movement recognize that child care facilities, birth control clinics, and readily available abortions are also essential to a truly free choice of life styles for women. 2 Dr. Elizabeth J. Simpson states that the whole matter of female lib isn't going away, and indicates that vocational education cannot afford to be sex blind. She points out, further, that there exists sex quotas in our professional schools which discriminate against women. Postsecondary technical schools have not set up regulations against women applicants but they do not put forth an effort to attract women students to any fields except those that they feel are designed for women. At the secondary level in the vocational programs, girls do not seek vocational training apart from courses in home economics, business and office occupations, health occupations, etc. They have been discouraged by counselors, parents, and instructors. 3 Norma K. Raffel pinpoints the impact of the women's movement on higher education: "Important changes in society which are being reflected in higher education are being caused by three factors--(1) the changing life patterns of women, (2) the recent legal basis for equal opportunity 1 Emily Taylor, p. 16. 2Ibid., p. 17. 3Elizabeth J. Simpson, "Women's Lib Is Here to Stay," American Vocational Journal, Vol. 45 (Dec., 1970), pp. 17-20.

PAGE 21

10 brought on by the Higher Education Act of 1972 which gave organizations a new tool for effecting change, (3) the modification of sex roles due 1 to elimination of bias in elementary and secondary schools!' When there is some understanding of the women's movement in our present society, she states well and policies in higher education: the impact it will have on programs The over-all direction of change will be one of flexibility. No longer will higher education be designed solely to fit men's life-style and achievement goals, but it must consider also the different needs of women, and provide educational opportunities for older persons--especially women who will want to continue their education after family responsibilities have lessened. With the recent emphasis on career education, and the increasing time women are spending in paid employment, more and more women will be electing programs which offer knowledge and skill directly related to future employment ... When the realities of employment opportunity are faced, there will undoubtedly be an accelerated shift away from teacher education and the humanities into community service programs, health related programs and even engineering. The Higher Education Act of 1972 will give the impetus needed to admit students on the basis of sex-neutral qualifications, and one would expect a shift in the ratio of men and women students. Perhaps the most striking and immediate impact of the women's movement in higher education has been on the hiring and promotion of qualified women. As affirmative action programs are implemented and more women are visible at all levels, young women students will finally have highly important role models in large enough numbers that they will come to feel that there really is a chance to become an educator at the college level.2 As the writer of this study views the women's movement, she sees continued progress in the work of the organizations surveyed. She 1 Norma K. Raffel, "The Women's Movement and Its Impact on Higher Education," Liberal Education, Vol. 59 (May, 1973), 249. 2Raffel, pp. 250-253.

PAGE 22

11 visualizes a continued reach for legislation that will aid women in the movement in arriving at that point where fair play and justice to women will be rampant. w. Fred Totten writes a very significant article which in the writer's opinion sets the stage for all of the work that should be done by women's organizations, the women's movement, as well as by other groups who are interested in Community Education. "It is becoming increasingly clear," says he, "that if we are to solve the critical problems of society and make a better world, humanistic progress must keep pace with scientific progress." He quotes John Gardner who says: "Nations decay; only citizens, critical and loving, can bring them back to life." "Only citizens," Totten continues, "who reach for the loftiest aim in human life--unselfish service to others--can effect recovery." "It is time," he adds, "for all professions and serviceoriented groups to come forward with bold, new plans to help solve our 1 pressing social problems." Valborg Fletty, in the writer's opinion, directs attention to the background for the rationale of this study when she underscores the idea that women's organizations are native to our soil and that eighty-seven organized associations listed in the World Almanac for 1949 are women's groups. Fletty supports this idea by reference to Matthew Arnold who helps us feel the coming impact of women's organizations when he indicates that if the world ever experiences a time when women shall come together solely for the good and benefit of mankind, it will witness a power that 2 the world has never known. 1 w. Fred Totten, "Community Education: The Feasible Reform," Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. LIV, No. 3 (Nov., 1972), 148. 2 valborg Fletty, Public Services of Women's Organizations (New York: George Banta Publishing Co., 1951), p. 1.

PAGE 23

12 Women' s Groups and Education This writer believes, like Matthew Arnold, in the clubwoman. She believes that the time has come when this woman is showing her power in many areas and especially in education to help people in America learn better and live better. Illustrative of this approach is The National League of Women Voters, organized in 1920. This organization uses sound principles in its educational program in that it adopted John Dewey's philosophy of learning to do by doing. The new voter learned how to use the new power that had come into her hands, and immigrants studied the federal Constitution to qualify for citizenship. 1 Their laboratory approach, explained in a League publication, was an effective one: There is more value in teaching one single citizen to take a first step in political activity than to teach a hundred citizens many things about govern ment. There is also much merit in taking a woman through certain consecutive steps in governmentlike listening to a department head tell about his budget proposal, visiting a service included in it, interviewing a representative for the purpose of getting an appropriation, and following the process of the cutting or passing of the appropriation. When the woman has been led through all of this, she has been given the feel of the way of democracy and has been led through a process in education. 2 Cooperation of Women's Groups Johnson and Golding write that the most important battles are won 1 valborg Fletty, Public Services of Women's Organizations (New York: George Banta Publishing Co., 1951), p. 6. 2pletty, p. 7.

PAGE 24

13 when clubwomen overcome their distaste for going outside their own group, and cooperate with other clubs toward a common goal. They state, further, that for every woman's club that has won an individual battle for civic betterment, that there are ten that have tried and failed because the opposition was too strong or they were too weak. Battles for better health, better housing, and better education, the writers contend, are often lost because a woman's club spearheading the attack tries to do it alone. 1 Johnson and Golding use the following lines as proof of the importance of cooperation between organizations: This was proved time and again in the recent "Build A Better Community" contest sponsored by the Kroger Company for the General Federation of Women's Clubs, in which 2,912 clubs competed for 125 cash prizes. Almost without exception the winners enlisted the help of other organizations in their campaigns for local improvements.2 Intergroup activity is more significant between different creeds and clubs of varied interests. "In Chicago, the Women's Council for Fair Education Practices draws its members from a wide variety of organiza tions. Its president is a white Protestant, its vice-president Negro, its treasurer Catholic, and its secretary Jewish. 113 In Atlanta, Georgia, one of the largest Jewish Women's organizations is B'nai B'rith, and it has been working with most of the Protestant church auxiliaries for more than five years on an Inter-Faith Prison Farm program to rehabilitate young offenders. Their program includes loallas Johnson and Elizabeth Bass Golding, Don't Underestimate Woman Power (New York: Public Affairs Committee, Inc., 1951), p. 2. 2Ibid. 3-Ibid., p. 3.

PAGE 25

14 counseling, craft classes, entertainment, and psychiatric and medical 1 care. Community Education and World-Mindedness Morris t,.tchell, President emeritus and Provost, Friends World College, Clarksville, Georgia, and Robert Berridge, Director, Center for Community Education, Texas A and M University, have written companion articles on world mindedness. Mitchell asks the question--"Can Corrmunity Education Build world Mindedness" and Berridge gives the practitioner's reply--"Community Education--A Vehicle Toward World Mindedness." Mitchell introduces the following concept: World mindedness is an attitude which embraces a love a n d concern for all humanity. It means caring about the problems of our brothers and sisters in all parts of the world and thinking of ourselves as citizens of a World Community. If we are w orld minded, we cannot help realizing that we are in a period of crisis, and if we don't seek to eliminate our pressing problems we may destroy ourselves.2 Mitchell states, further, that if we are to be considered responsible world citizens we must seek such emerging concepts as the youth movement, world colleges, and world education itself, and urge them on to produce a healthier and better world. 3 Many people, he warns, think of yesterday or tomorrow and fail to think back in time or far into the future. He, therefore, advises as follows: 1 Ibid. 2Morris Mitchell, "Can Community Education Build World Mindedness," Community Education Journal, Vol. II (February, 1972), 23. 3Ibid.

PAGE 26

15 Those of us involved in World Education, however, must constantly think, look and reach ahead toward building a new world. This does not mean escaping into an unrealistic dream world, but it does mean that our acti ons in the present reality of crisis must be motivated toward solving problems and realizing our dreams for humanity.l There should be a change in emphasis in the curriculum. It should not emphasize schooling, but should concentrate on education and problem solving to produce a higher quality of life. The curriculum should stress living and show a futuristic concern for the problems and processes of life. 2 Mitchell ends his article on a note similar to the one on which he begins: "If educators are asking if Comnunity Education can build world consciousness, perhaps they are ready to accept their responsibility to the community in its broadest sense--world community--and therefore accept Community Education as World Community Education or more simply, world Education." Robert Berridge, Director, Cen~er fo r Community Education, Texas A and M University, has an answer to the question set forth by Morris Mitchell: "Can Community Education Build World Mindedness?" Before taking a look at the reply by Berridge, let us look at a definition for Community Education. Maurice Seay in his book on Com munity Education has this to say: Educators and laymen, faced with mounting problems and irresponsible criticism, are feeling great pressure to work together in solving societal problems. They are making many attempts to coordinate the programs of community agencies that have legitimate educational aims. 1 Mitchell, p. 24. 2Ibid.

PAGE 27

16 Evaluative studies of conununity-centered education made during the fifties and sixties in M ichigan and in the A ppalachian states have led the writer to believe that the conununity school concept has truly evolved into a conununity education concept .. --a concept which can be expressed in the following brief sentence: Conununity education is the process that achieves a balance and a use of all institutional forces in the education of the people--all of the people--of the community.l Phillip A. Clark, Director, Center for Community Education, Univer sity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, advises that we do everything possible to help people view Conununity Education as an operational philosophy of education. Community Education, he states, must be seen and experienced as a philosophy that subscribes to the following: (1) Maximal utilization of all human, physical and financial resources of a community in the providing of learning experiences and services for conununity members of all ages. (2) Systematic involvement of representative community members in the identification of wants and needs and their involvement in suggesting or implementing organizational structure to meet these identified wants and needs. (3) Maximal interagency coordination and cooperation. Conununity Education is not solely the domain of the public school system. Maximum utilization of the concept itself will not be realized until it is demonstrated that the concept is equally applicable to all educational, governmental and service institut i ons, organizations and agencies. It is a philosophy which encourages them to work toget h er in providing the best possible learning experiences and services, and the best utilization of the tax payers' dollars. 2 1 Maurice F. Seay, et al. Community Education: A Developing Concept (Midland, Michigan: Pendell Publishing Co., 1974), p. 10. 2phillip A. Clark, "Can Basic Conununity Education Principles Be Included in the K-12 Program?" Comnunity Education Journal, Vol. II (January-February, 1974), 33.

PAGE 28

17 Now that we have concepts concerning a definition of Conmunity Education, we shall take a look at Robert Berridge's reply to Mitchell: Dr. Mitchell has discussed love, concern for all human beings, world community education, and world mindedness: "Is this the impossible dream or can it become reality? It may well only be the dream of the philosopher, the eternal optimist or the college professor. However, it could very possibly come true. The 'te m per of the times' seems to be such that people are genuinely concerned with their community and with lack of involvement; in effect, the pendulum of apathy seems to have swung back--people are ready to become involved again. 111 Dr. Berridge underscores in the lines that follow other ideas about Community Education: Community Education is the first step--the immediate goal toward world mindedness. It is the process which involves people with people in work, play, and learning activities. As people become involved, a spirit develops which leads toward interest and concern for others. Community Education is magical. It transforms the sleeping community into a n awake community, in that it changes attitudes, beh a viors, and life styles of participants and builds an atmosphere of understanding and acceptance. Community Education starts in a neighborhood and spreads throughout the city and the state. At the present time, it can be found in some 600 communities throughout the United States. Conmunity Education has broad implications for social change. It s most potent thrust i s at the individual and his relationships with others. 2 Berridge states, further, that through involvement with other individuals and with groups--people develop, grow, and are fulfilled. 1 Robert Berridge, "Community Education--A Vehicle Toward World Mindedness," Community Education Journal, II, No. 1, (Feb., 1972), 25-26. 2Ibid. p. 25.

PAGE 29

18 Need for the Study The contribution that women's groups have made and can make to community betterment has been described. There is a need to investigate the extent to which women's groups are achieving this potential. This study addresses itself to this need through the identification of the contributions to education of a selected number of women's organizations in Tampa, Florida. The problem studied involves a four-fold categorical identification of the contributions to education which include: (1) Organizations sponsoring scholarship and loan funds; (2) Organizations conducting educational programs; (3) Organizations studying educational problems; and (4) Organizations promoting educational legislation. This study may have significance for the members of women's organi zations and for individuals and groups interested in working with such organizations for educational purposes. It will serve to help women map their strategies for greater involvement in cormnunity activities, to help them improve their self-concept and focus greater attention on where they are going. "If you're not sure where you're going" advises an anonymous writer, "you're liable to end up someplace else." In view of the advancement in education by women's organizations in the earlier years, it is important to make a study of women's organizations during this decade and to determine the progress that has been made. This study is necessary in order to determine how today's woman has kept pace with earlier efforts to educate the public, and to provide hope and encouragement to women who are interested in public services.

PAGE 30

19 The study will have a significance for the writer in that in her own development it will enable "my love to grow in knowledge and insight and it will enable me to reach out for what is vital and important. 111 Finally, this study should serve to make more clubwomen aware of the high purposes in education for which their organizations should exist. 1 Howard Thurman (Speech) Spelman College, Atlanta, Georgia.

PAGE 31

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE The purpose of this chapter is to focus attention on women's club life, and to present pertinent literature and research concerning their educational activities. The clubroom setting is a distinctive environment in which creative and artistic minds are nurtured and in which the best kinds of experiences and developments can be enjoyed. The thrust in such an atmosphere lies in the projection of democratic attitudes, in the exhibiting of the appreciation of the finer principles, and in the bringing to view of that kind of awareness that makes for interest in personality development and in education. Elizabeth A. Greenleaf emphasizes the important role to be played by women in education: While there are major concerns for the role and status of women at every level of today's education, too few educated women are willing to become involved to bring about changes. Unless outstanding women educators in every community and at every level of education do become involved, no one else is going to be concerned enough to stand up for women's equality, insist on affirmative action, or maintain the advancements that have been made in the past three years. It is essential that every woman educator take stock of her attitudes towards, and her involvement in, the women's movement of the 1970's. She must become con cerned about the role of women in today's educational world, must herself serve fully as an educator, and must challenge and encourage other women to work for self-learning and self-growth. In short, women must 20

PAGE 32

21 be willing to assume the tasks necessary to provide leadership in the educational world. 1 Mrs. Jane C. Croly is the author of The History of the Woman's Club Movement in America, and she was thought to be the best qualified woman to write the early history because from the beginning of the movement she was one of the prominent promoters. 2 Jane Croly wrote at the turn of the century that whenever the history of the nineteenth century is written, it will show women as leaders and organizers of movements among their own groups for the first time in the history of the world. A significant statement from Mrs. L. R. Zerbe, a thoughtful writer, is included in Mrs. Croly's discussion of "Women in Religious Organization:" When Goethe made his discovery of the unity of structure in organic life, he gave to the philosophers, who had long taught the value, the "sovereignty" of the individual, a physiological argument against oppression and tyranny and put the whole of creation on an equal footing. 3 This new view, considered as a great advance of the moral and spiritual forces, had a great significance for women. It came as an awakening and as an emancipation of the soul, as freedom from tradition and prejudice, and as the acquiring of an intellectual outlook. 4 First Women's Organization in the United States The first women's organization grew out of an event in March 1868. The Press Club of New York offered to Mr. Charles Dickens a dinner, lElizabeth A. Greenleaf, "The Role of Women in Education--Respon sibility of Educated Women," Educational Horizons, Winter 1973-1974, Vol. 52, No. 2, p. 77. 2Jane C. Croly, The History of the Woman's Club Movement in America (New York: H. G. Allen and Co., 1898), p. ix. 3rbid., p. 11. 4-Ibid., p. 11.

PAGE 33

22 which was to be given at the close of his reading tour in this country. Mrs. Croly and other ladies applied for a ticket to the dinner and received somewhat churlish treatment which suggested to Mrs. Croly the idea of a club, sponsored by women only, that should manage its own affairs, represent the active interest of women, and create a band of fellowship between them. Many men and women thought at that time that it would be impossible to establish such an organization. 1 A meeting was called at the residence of Mrs. Croly on the first Monday in March 1868, and the following ladies, who had been contacted previously, were present: Mrs. c. B. Wilbour, Mrs. Botta, who was a professor, Mrs. H. M. Field, and Miss Kate Field. 2 Mrs. Croly, on being asked to state the object in view, recounted briefly the facts in regard to the treatment of women members of the press by the New York Press Club, and said that her idea was to supply the want of unity and secular organization among women. It was stated, further, that many women including herself wanted a more intimate com panionship with women, especially with those whose deeper natures had been roused to activity, who had been seized by the divine spirit of inquiry and aspiration, who were interested in the thought and progress of the age, and in what other women were thinking and doing. 3 Mrs. Botta recommended calling the organization the "Blue Stocking Club." The group opposed this name because they felt that such a name would tend to make the organization too strictly literary. The ladies felt that the club must be homogeneous--hospitable to women of different 1ttistory of the Woman's Club Movement, p. 15. 2rbid. 3croly, pp. 15-16.

PAGE 34

23 minds and degrees of habits of work and thought--it must be representative of the whole woman, not of any special class of women, for the idea of clubs for women was to rid them of the system of exclusion and t 1 separa ion. Mrs. Croly refused to accept the presidency of the new club, which the women named Sorosis, because she wanted to find a president whose name would confer distinction upon th e club. Alice Carey, the poet of American women, was Mrs. Croly's choice, and though Alice Carey was in feeble health, she accepted the position. 2 At this time no one of those connected with the organization had ever heard of a "woman's club," or of any secular organization composed entirely of women, whose purpose was to bring all kinds of women together to work out their own objects in their own ways. 3 A second club named Sorosis was organized in Boston much later, and Mrs. Croly's group set aside this name and adopted as their new name, "The Women's League ... 4 The General Federation Sorosis, the second club, issued an invitation to other clubs to form a General Federation which should embrace all the clubs of the country. The sympathy of the members was broad, and in many ways included various movements in education and philanthropy; however, the chief characteristic was self-improvement. 5 1 rbid. 2 Jane C. Croly, p. 18. 3 rbid. 4-Ibid., p. 19. Srbid.

PAGE 35

24 Mrs. Croly writes that in 1894, a new formoforganization, the State Federation, appeared as an auxiliary to the General Federation. Maine, Iowa, Massachusetts, the Social Science Federation of Kansas, and Utah were the five states organized at this time. These five states, which were first to organize, represented no one section of the country, were widely separated, and proved that this organization was a general need and not one organized to favor any one special locality. At the biennial, Mrs. Croly advises, which was held in Philadelphia in 1894, many persons expressed the feeling that the General Federation covered too large a territory, and would eventually represent too many interests to be satisfactory in such a form or organization. The delegates, representing the clubs, and who had been present at the first biennial, were in agreement that these meetings we r e provocative and inspiring, but had the feeling that only about one-half of the clubs in membership could possibly send delegates and that because of this, the General Federation would not be able to influence many groups. The State Federations During the four years that Ellen M. Henrotin served as president of the General Federation, twenty-three State Federations were organized including: New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, Nebraska, Colorado, Washington, and the District of Columbia. The State Federations of Texas, Alabama, and Florida did not join the 1 d th' t' l Genera Fe eration at is irne. 1 Ibid.

PAGE 36

25 The State Federations adopted imm e diat e ly on their formation a special line of work which was always educational in character and which embraced education from the kindergarten to the university and included public and traveling libraries, art interchanges, village and town improvement associations, and constructive legislation. 1 These federations were built on reciprocity which implied the growing conviction that the giving and receiving are one, and that no one person should be placed on the constant giving end or the constant receiving end. In this way, the members preserved the harmony of life. The State Federa tion trained the clubs as citizens, and helped to cr e ate an interest in community life, while the General Federation underscored national life and helped to create harmony among the states. 2 Early In f luence of Organizations The Chautaugua, summer schools, night schools, university extensions, etc., are all manifestations of the woman's club movement, and this movement had a philosophy that was constructive and educational. Its method of work was non-aggressive and exemplified a positive, new spirit. The club movement represented the tendency to associated effort, and in association the individual discovers his personality and makes contribu3 tions for the good of all. In the book, Don't Underestimate Woman Power, Johnson and Golding underscore women's work in national legislation as follows: Today, women's groups are high among the organizations that influence national legislation. Not only do they 1 History of the Woman's Club Movement, p. x. 2 croly, p. xi. 3Ibid., p. x.

PAGE 37

26 have strength in numbers, but they also know how to use their pr e ssure where it counts--in a Congressman's voting district. They have legislative chairmen, some of whom are full-time paid employees and registered lobbyists, to tell the nation's lawma k ers what women want and to tell state and local chapters what their Congressmen are doing.l The League of Women Voters, composed of 720 groups and 90,000 mem bers, is outstanding on the legislative front. This group spends full time on this job and plays an important role in everything from child care to civilian control of atomic energy. The Am erican Association of University Women composed of 1,160 groups and 115,000 members have broad interests, with less accent on legislation. The National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., has 2,700 locals and 160,000 members. It is best known for what it has done to improve the 2 status of women by creating more jobs and preparing women for h igh posts. Johnson and Golding list for the General Federation of Women's Clubs an estimated 14,500 clubs and nearly 775,000 members and give to these clubs the credit for having played an important role in legislative his tory. Other national organizations that have strongly influenced legislation are the American Home Economics Association, Y o ung Women's Christian Association, the National Women's Trade Union League, the Associated Women of the American Farm Bureau Federation, the United Council of Church Women, the National Council of Jewish Women, the National Council of Catholic Women, the American Legion Auxiliary, and the Woman's Christian Temperance 3 Union. 1 Dallas Johnson and Elizabeth Bass Golding, Don't Underestimate Woman Power (New York: Public Affairs Corranittee, Inc., 1951), p. 5. 2Ibid. 3 Johnson and Golding, p. 5.

PAGE 38

27 Johnson and Golding write, in addition, the following statements about major organizations: It was not until suffrage was granted in 1920 that ten major organizations formalized their pressure front by the creation of the Women's Joint Congressional Committee (WJCC). Their stated purpose is to serve as a "clearing house for the legislative work of national organizations engaged in promoting federal measures pertaining to the general wel fa re" ... It provides a simple mechanism through which national women's organizations can get together in joint lobbying activities.l Education leads to action is another idea emphasized in the book, Don't Underestimate Woman Power. It is revealed therein that more often than not members of women's groups learn by doing. If they decide they want a playground and a community club house, for example, and they work for these things together, very soon they discover that the programs of other clubs have an appeal. It is at this time that they come to have a new concept of human relations. 2 For example, a specific adult education program was set up in N assau County to improve human relations, and education led to action. Women in the county who had never been aware of prejudice and discrimination began to see its effects for the first time and became interested in doing something about it. 3 S. P. Breckinridge in her book, Women in the Twentieth Century, draws attention to a number of women's organizations in order to emphasize the development of women's interests during the recent past. In her study she shares the following information: 1 Ibid., p. 6. 2 Ibid., p. 23. 3 Ibid.

PAGE 39

28 Women are joined together by a common purpose to secure some object that seems to them of great social importance; they are bound by common occupational interests; they belong to lodges and benefit societies. They express, as men do, an explicable pride in ancestry; they seek now to obtain, by organization, many of the satisfactions that were, in the earlier times, well nigh exclusively characteristic of family life. Costly club houses pro vide shelter and living conditions that are comfortable and private 1 The nineties had seen local organizations federate and consolidate into national groups, or had watched entirely new groups begin their activities on a national basis. The beginning of the era of centralization left its mark on women's organizations no less plainly than on the business of the country. Besides that, there were women whose horizons had been widened and whose sense of public o b ligation found opportunity for expression. There w er e innumerable homes where the children's reading matter now included the books call e d for by the art of industry deparbnents of their mothers' clubs.2 Status of Women in 1965 w. Willard Wirts, while Secretary of Labor and Chairman of the Interdepartmental Committee on the Status of Women, and Miss Margaret Hickey, Senior Editor of the Ladies' Home Journal, and Chairman of the Citizens' Advisory Council on the Status of Women submitted their second annual joint report to Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the United States, in 1965. In a letter to the President they made the following statement: "The pace of progress in achieving 'full partnership' for American women has been even swifter in 1965 than in 1964. 113 The Interdepartmental Committee and the Citizens' Advisory Council reaffirmed and carried forward goals that had been established earlier by President Johnson's Commission on the Status of Women. 4 1 sophonisba P. Breckinridge, Women in the Twentieth Century (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1933), p. 11. 2 I bid., p. 26. 3Rej;mrt on Progress in 1965 on the Status of Women, w. Willard Wirts and Margaret Hickey, Chairmen (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1965) p. iv. 4 Ibid., p. 1.

PAGE 40

29 The conference was held in July 1965 and boasted of participants from 49 States and Canada. The women benefited by the work done in education and volunteer groups showed nationwide commitment to President Johnson's goal of educational opportunity in its fullest extent for every l American. Women in Community Service, WICS, formed by the National Council of Catholic Women, the National Council of Jewish Women, the National Council of Negro Women, and the United Church Women, helped to bring the government and the community closer together. This group screened girls for Job Corps centers and is now providing continuing community service for each girl who is interested in the Job Corps. 2 Other women's grou p s increased their efforts towards he l ping the disadvantaged. These organization s included the General Federation of Women's Clubs, the Young Women's Christian Association, the American Home Economics Association, the Board of Missions of the Methodist Church, the AFL-CIO Auxiliaries, the Campfire Girls, the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, the Girl Scouts, and the National 3 Extension Homemaker's Council. Many goals were set by President Johnson's Cormnission on the Status of Women; however, the Report by the Interdepartmental Committee and the Citizens' Advisory Council sets forth the following significant statement concerning education: 1 rbid., p. 2-3. 2Report on Progress in 1965, p. 3. 3 rbid.

PAGE 41

30 Unprecedented progress was made in the 89th Congress with the enactment of legislation touching on every recommendation in the area of education made by the President's Commission on the Status of Women--raising the level of educational opportunities for all, from the preschooler to the retired, from the illitera t e to the graduate student. Recognizing education as the key to full participation in American life, the Commission gave first place to its recommendations on educat i on. 1 Some developments resulting from the first place position awarded to education follow: The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 brought about improvement of schools attended by children of very low income families; The Higher Education Act of 1965 was designed to strengthen the educational resources of colleges and universities and to provide financial assistance for college students; The Economic Opportunity Act provided increased educational opportunities for disadvantaged girls and women; New approaches to counseling girls was the subject of two conferences; Resources for guidance counselors increased; and Most of more than a third of a million dollars of schola r ship funds was earmarked for girls to study home economics or nursing. 2 The Report on Progress in 1965 on the Status of Women calls attention to the activities of private organizations. This writer will, in this chapter, mention a few of these organizations and recount some of their work experiences in order to give an overview of early contributions to education and to shed light on any current progress that is being made in this direction. The American Association of University Women used a grant from the Department of Labor to help mature women develop specialized techniques 1 Ibid. p. 5. 2-Ibid., pp. 5-9.

PAGE 42

31 for counseling adult women. The American Nurses' Association supported equal educational opportunity by distributing to deans and directors of schools of nursing resource materials on equal opportunity which included information on Title VI of the Civil Rights Act and lists of audio-visual aids in the field of human relations. Delta Sigma Theta Sorority sponsored a conference for Counselors of Minority Youth at the University of North Carolina near the end of 1964. Among the aims of the conference was one to provide information to help interested persons improve their services to minority youth. In Savannah, Georgia, the sorority sponsored adult education classes for the city's illiterates, and since 1963, the sorority has sponsored the Delta Teen-Lift, which takes culturally deprived youth from the rural areas of the South on bus tours to visit educational and cultural institutions. The National Council of Negro Women held in the summer of 1964 an intensive six-weeks course in mathematics for ten Negro college girls who demonstrated ex ceptional mathematical ability. Phi Chi Theta is a professional sorority which promotes the cause of higher business education and training for women. This organization includes in its Journal, Iris, information on graduate pr o gr a ms, s e m inars, and special programs designed for mature women. The Girl S cou t s of America conduct several special educational activiti e s including special publicity about the facts of women's lives, special consultations on career opportunities, and special sessions on recruiting and training women for leadership. B'nai B'rith women's chapters have worked on enlargement of educational opportunities for deprived children. Their projects include tuto r ing deprived children, conducting remedial reading programs, collecting books for libraries, and working with parents. The Young Women's Christian Association has

PAGE 43

32 been involved in the following activities furthering the education of women: Five cities, White Plains, New York; Asheville, Nort h Carolina; Duluth, Minnesota; Seattle, Washington; and Phoenix, Arizona, staged a two-year pilot project to help the mature woman find her role in today's world, opened a job corps center for women in Los Angeles in June 1965, conducted pilot projects in literacy training for ad u lt wome n and the YWCA's of the United States and Canada conducted an international training institute. 1 Status of Women in 1971-1975 An analysis of information from state directories of education for the years 1950, 1963, and 1972 sets forth the idea that a caste system exists in state departments of education throughout the United States. 2 June Marr makes this report in "Women in State Departme n ts of Education" and states further that she focused on the number of women present in policy-making positions in five states: California, Georgia, Iowa, Massachusett s and Nebraska. Policy-making positions included superintendents, assistant superintendents, associate superintendents, directors, chiefs or supervisors, and consulta n ts or specialists. Montana was chosen because it had one of the few women superintenden t s in 1950 and the investigator wanted the opportunity to determine whether the woman superintendent's hiring stimulated the hiring of other women in that state. Her findings show that this has not been the c ase. 3 1 Report on Progress in 1965, pp. 9~14. 2 June Marr, "Women in State Departments of Education," Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 55, (October, 1973), 142. 3rbid

PAGE 44

33 In all states, the total percentage of women in policy-making positions shows a decrease from an average of 14.5 percent in 1950 to an average of 6.8 percent in 1972. Male employees hold many more educational policy-making positions than the females. There have been laws to prevent discrimination, but the situation has deteriorated steadily since 1950. 1 State departments of education need to make improvements in their policies on recruitment and hiring. This improvement should include the expanding of the range of positions so that career choices for women could be made broader. 2 A state study of Indiana school board women was made in 1971 and only a minority of these women felt they have experienced sex prejudice in school board thinking and policy making. Those women who had six or more years experience did not agree that the superintendent exhibited a bi a s in favor of men; however, those women who had less experience on school boards believed that bias existed. 3 Included among t h e r e commendations resulting from the findi n gs are the follo w ing points : 1. It is highly rec o mme n d e d that sup e rint e ndent s t ak e measures to become more sensitive to the problem of sex prejudice; 2. That superintendents be prepared to work in a frank and sincere manner with new women board members; 3. That superintendents who work with small systems take notice that sex prejudice may exist and may influence the thinking of its board members; 1 rbid., p. 143. 2rbid. 3w. Michael Morrissey, "Sexism and the School Board Member," P h i Delta Kappan, Vo l 55 (October, 1973), 142.

PAGE 45

34 4. That superintendents plan a seminar for their board members, stressing the interrelatedness of the varied aspects of the school 1 operation. Catherine Lyon, consultant with the New York City Rand Institute, and Terry Saario, Program Officer, public education, Ford Foundation, give national statistics in their article, "Women in Public Education: Sexual Discrimination in Promotions." These writers state that because education has been characterized as a woman's field that the public has been slow to realize that there is discrimination against women, and say, further, that even though most teachers are women, that more male teachers are selected for administra tive positions. 2 A national survey conducted in 1970-1971 points out that while 67 percent of all public school teachers are women, only 15 percent of principals and .6 percent of superintendents were female. Most of the women who are administrators are in the elementary schools. Nin e teen percent of the elementary principals and 34 percent of the elementary assistant principals were women in 1970-1971. The same survey showed that only 3.5 percen t of the junior high and 3 percent of the senior high principals were women. At the district level, not only were there few women superintendents, but also only 7 percent of the deputy, associate, or assistant superinte n dents in 1970-1971 were women. 3 In 1972 the Chief State School Officers surveyed all school districts in the U.S. and found that out of 16,653 operating districts, female superintendents were employed in 86 local operating districts and 131 1 Ibid. 2catherine Lyon and Terry Saario, "Women in Public Education: Sexual Discrimination in Promotions," Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 55 (October, 1973), 120. 3 Ibid.

PAGE 46

35 "intermediate districts." Only three state departments of education are headed by women Montana, Wisconsin, and Guam. 1 Recommendation 6, included among others, is that local school boards adopt affirmative action plans which are consonant with Executive Order No. 11246, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and the Equal Pay Act of 1963, all of which prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex in federally assisted programs. 2 Community education leaders and clubwomen must recognize the need to improve the status of women and to take a look at what is essential to bring about new developments. It is, therefore, necessary that the motives for club attendance be examined. Motivations for Club Attendance Cleo Hall did a study at the University of Chicago in order to determine the status of the voluntary club as an educational force in the United States. According to Hall, educators would like to feel that club members are primarily interested in education; although she believes that the substance upon which to base such a claim is lacking. 3 The purpose of her study was "to determine whether members of vol untary organizations prize those organizations chiefly for their educa tional value or for other reasons. 114 An organization, Hall advises, can not successfully make a contri bution to education unless its members have joined the organization with an int e rest in education: 1 rbid. 2 L yon and Saario, p. 122. 3 cleo Hall, "The Motivational Patterns of Women Engaged i n Educa tional Activities of Voluntary Organizations" (Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Education, The University of Chicago, 1965), p. 1-2. 4 I bid. p. 2.

PAGE 47

36 Generally speaking, a person will seek out that environment which he perceives as having the potential for satisfying his needs. The questions asked by this inv e stigation are: From the view point of the member of that distinctive form called the voluntary association, is the educative function the compelling force for him to belong? If not, what is the compelling force and what is its magnitude.l Hall advises, further, that eighteen needs of women w ere suggested by the literature as motives for women to attend educational club meetings, and these have been refined by her to read as follows: Pursuit of knowledge for individual general intellectual growth, Pursuit of knowledge for improving homemaking competence, Pursuit of knowledge for improving society, Pursuit of esteem, Pursuit of sociability Pursuit of diversion, and Fulfillment of social expectations. 2 Cleo Hall's study on "The Motivational Patterns of Women Engaged in Educational Activities" shows that the following hypotheses were examined and that the findings were reported: (1) Women attending home economics extension club meetings differ in motivations for attending. 3 (2) Rank order of home e conomics e x tension club members' motivations for a tten d ing club meetings follow: (1) pursuit of knowle d g e for individual general intellectual growth, (2) pursuit of knowledge for improving homemaking competence, pursuit of (3) sociability, (4) esteem, (5) diversion, (6) knowledge for improving society, and (7) fulfillment of social expectations. 4 (3) Rank order of the county extension home economists' objectives for the home economics extension club program: pursuit of (1) knowledge by club members for individual general intellectual growth, (2) 1 Ibid. 2-Ibid., p. 35. 3-Ibid. p. 59. 4-Ibid. p. 63.

PAGE 48

37 knowledge by club members for improving homemaking competence, (3) knowledge by club members for improving society, (4) esteem, (5) sociability, (6) diversion, (7) fulfillment of social expectations. 1 (4) Rank order of objectives of county extension home economists differs from rank order of motivations of home economics extension club members for attending club meetings.2 (5) Rank order of objectives of county extension home economists and rank order of motivations of most highly satisfied home economics extension club members are in greater agreement than rank order of motivations of the least satisfied and of the most satisfied club members.3 (6) Women who attend meetings of home economics extension clubs organized for less than twenty years differ in rank order of motivations for attending club meetings from wome n of home economics extension clubs organized for more than twenty years. 4 Hypotheses one, two, and three were supported by the investigation. 5 Hypotheses four, five, and six were not sustained. 6 Hall found, in addition, that there are no statistically significant relationships between the rank order of the selected motivat i ons of this study and demographic characteristics. 7 She found, further, that county extension home economis t s agreed that the major object of the club program was education, but did not agree upon the importance of intellectual growth, learning to improve homemaking competence, and learning to improve society. 8 Women of Distinction Today's club-woman must be conscious of her guidance role in libid. p. 67. 2-71. Ibid., p. 3-73. Ibid., p. 4-Ibid., p. 76. s-Ibid., p. 97. 6Ibid., p. 98. 7-Ibid., p. 98. Bibid.

PAGE 49

38 education and must realize that such a role transcends her duty as a mere instructor. She must be ever willing to commit herself to the task of seeking more ways and new ways to help society with the problem of education. In this connection, the following women of Florida, who were residents of Tampa in 1956, have gained distinction and therefore, have listed in this chapter some of their activities. Information taken from Eloise N. Cozen's Florida Women of Distinction on educational activities of seven women have been included. Emily Ayer Dickinson served as Director of Tampa's Family Service Association for 25 years, and is given credit for "guiding the lives of thousands of persons toward healthful adjustment to better lives." Neva Byrd Graham's busy life includes work as instructor for children and adults at Tampa Realistic Art Center, and lecturer of Art in public schools. Frieda K. Greene is cited for her long-time efforts in the educa tional field, for promoting relationship among parents and teachers, and for her involvement in all facets of school work in an effort to contribute to the growth of student activities. Mayme Sellers Leonetti served as President and Gallery Director of Tampa Art Institute; President, National League American Pen Women; and Drama Director, Bayshore Baptist Church. Mary McNamara is outstanding in educational circles because of her philosophy: Sunrise offers another opportunity to praise God, serve my neighbor, seek knowledge, give love and evaluate self. Sunsetcontemplation on how well I've succeeded. C. Bette Wimbish Muse, a Negro American and attorney, is listed as a teacher of note, and as an educator of wide experience, and a lady who has provided a special empathy with a variety of community endeavors.

PAGE 50

39 Aleta Jonie Maschek has served for many years as Director of Continuity for WFLA in Tampa. She uses her professional knowledge and abilities to assist others in her field. 1 Women of the World Some educational interests of four Florida women, whose influence is unlimited by geographical boundaries, are reported in this section: Mrs. E. D. Pearce, of Miami, Florida, has been considered a leader in 54 countries. She served as president of the 11 million-member General Federation of Women's Clubs and traveled all over the world to carry out her duties. She has participated in White House Conferences on education, children, and the aging, and has been involv e d in the work of the YWCA, the American Red Cross, and the Boys clubs of America. Jessie Ball DuPont, of Jacksonville, Florida, worked during the past to make Floridians aware of the tremendous needs that existedprimarily in education. She served as a member of the Board of Regents and in recognition of what she has done for education, she has received eleven degrees from colleges and universities. Helen Krauss Leslie, as a past president of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., has been instrumental in the organization of Clubs in Latin America. She is particularly interested in work being done by members of the Costa Rica Club who are working with young women to help prepare them for business careers. Dr. Frances L. Spain served as director of library services for Central Florida Junior College in Ocala. She was one of seven librarians lEloise N. Cozens, Florida Women of Distinction (published in the U.S.A.: Coronado Publishing Co., 1956), pp. 24-73.

PAGE 51

40 who participated in the USA-USSR cultural exchange program. Mrs. Spain developed a program of library training in Chulalongkorn University in Thailand, under a Fulbright Grant in 1951-1952. 1 Florida Women of Distinction and other women of the World have set the pace in "guiding the lives of thousands of persons toward adjustment to better lives" through club involvement and activity. Their club experiences have helped them to promote a growing relationship among school and community people and to learn through organization how to solve societal problems. Women can not cope with these problems if they remain detached. They can only reach their goals through togetherness that the club life affords. Wilma C. Shafer, National President of Pi Lambda Theta Honor Society, expresses this idea as follows: In her longing to be viewed as an individual with abilities, needs, and choices, woman, separate and unequal, has sought for centuries for a clear sense of self-identity. Today her p ursuit of identity and equality becomes a conscious an d constant goal as she actively opposes being regarded as one of a group treated as a minority, discriminated against, and resisted as equal. To hav e a real identity, Woman cannot be detached, alone. The life she lives, the status she seeks, the opportunities she needs--all exist in the midst of hwnan beings inseparable from each other and from the world. 2 All of this can come about through association found in club life. 111 women of the World," Florida Trend Magazine, Vol. II, No. 6, Oct., 1968, pp. 41-49. 2wilma C. Shafer, "Woman: Detachment vs. Identity," Educational Horizons Magazine, Winter 1973-1974, Vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 100-101.

PAGE 52

Study Design CHAPTER III PROCEDURES This survey was designed to gather data from a relatively large number of cases at a particular time. The study did not concern itself with characteristics of individuals as individuals but with the generalized statistics resulting from the abstraction of data from a number of individual cases. The main purpose of the survey was to identify, through description, educational activities in various women's organizations, to interpret the significance of the descriptions, and thereby determine the nature and extent of the contributions of these organizations to education. An additional object of the study was to provide answers to the following questions about women and twenty-seven organizations: 1. How important are the demographic factors in determining participation in women's organizations? 2. What is the character of the educational reading engaged in by the respondents? 3. In which organizations do the respondents hold membership? 4. What official club experience have the respondents engaged in? 5. Which women's organizations have been most influential in sol ving county-wide problems? 6. What are the most important educational projects that have been resolved in the past or that must be resolved in the future? 41

PAGE 53

42 7. How can organizations help to resolve problems and issues? Are there plans for resolvableness? 8. What are the purposes of the organizations? 9. What kinds of educational experiences are provided through the organizations? 10. Which organizational leaders have influence with state leaders through whom they can get work done? 11. When were the organizations founded and how many local members do they have? 12. What are the criteria for membership and is the work in education done on a continuing basis? 13. What are some of the organizational publications? 14. How is organizational effectiveness evaluated? 15. Is there a clearinghouse for women's groups in the community? 16. Do all segm e nts of an organization work together for common objectives, coordinate activities, and cooperate for mutual bene f it? 17. Which leaders have strong city-wide influence? 18. How are organizations structured to promote educational improve ment? 19. Are interclub activities in existence for uniting the community for peace, health, and public affairs? 20. Is there a platform sponsored equally by all groups to present foremost authorities? Definition of Terms Survey--The survey method gathers data from a relatively large

PAGE 54

43 number of cases at a particular time. It is concerned with the generalized statistics that result when data are abstracted from a number of individual cases. It is essentially cross-sectional, and the sampling is meant to be characteristic of the whole. Women's Organizations--In this study women's organizations refer to those organizations that have women in official capacities including all major offices, and whose memberships are predominately women. Contributions to Education--Organizations are considered as making contributions to education when they help to promote the growth or expansion of kno w ledge, wisdom, desirabl e qualities of mind or character, or ge n eral compet e nce through the sponsoring of scholarship and loan funds; when they provide or assist in providing with knowledge or wis dom through conducting educational programs and studying educational problems; and when, through the promotion of educational legislation, they condition people or persuade them to feel, believe, or react in a particular way through selective information or knowledge. Selection of Sample A list of organizations, including more than two-hundred clubs for men and women in Tampa, Florida, was secured from the Tampa Chamber of Commerce. Three lists, including the Chamber list, one from a public rlations specialist, and one from the researcher, were studied and sixty women's organizations were extracted from the master list and categorized according to criteria set up earlier for the survey. These criteria

PAGE 55

44 embraced organizations that would have an educational intent and include representatives from groups involving women in business, in communications, in education, in politics, and in construction along with art clubs, gar den clubs, and social clubs. From this list twenty-seven organizations were selected by the writer. This selection was based on an application of the following additional criteria: clubs conducting educational programs, studying educational problems, sponsoring scholarship and loan funds, and pro moting educational legislation. The writer was able to apply these criteria based on her knowledge of Tampa gained through living and working in the community for a number of years and through having a number of experiences in club work. Tampa clubwomen were consulted in helping to make the selection of organizations. The writer us ed deliberate sample selection in that she invited, using specifically chosen organizations, twenty-seven groups to send a representative to designated meetings to give information about each club. The writer chose this method of selecting a sample because she has lived and worked in Tampa and is familiar with certain club back grounds and experiences that she desired to include in the survey. A letter explaining the nature of the survey was sent to each prospective participant, and a follow-up telephone call was made to determine the club-leader's willingness to participate in the survey. A cover message, soliciting the help of each club representative, was included with each questionnaire. The letter and the message are included with the questionnaire in this chapter.

PAGE 56

45 Delimitations The study is limited to 27 women's organizations in Tampa. It is obvious, therefore, that the writer is not concerned with the accomplish ments in education of all women's organizations in the United States un less such findings are generalizable, nor with the history of the women's cli;ib movement unless facets of that movement reflect an interest in education. Participants Mrs. Lisa Gorham, a public relations specialist in Tampa, Florida, assisted in contacting the Tampa Chamber of Commerce, the clubleaders, and provided meeting rooms in her home. The Tampa Chamber of Commerce assisted the writer by providing a list of organizations and addresses of the presidents of the groups. A selected number of Gainesville clubwomen were invited to meet in the hom e of Mrs. Gwendolyn Lewis, an active clubl e ader in Gainesville, to work with the researcher in pretesting the questionnaire in order to get the criticisms of qualified clubwomen before preparing the final form of the questionnaire. This group was able to help validate the data gathering instrument in terms of practic a l use, and to think of ways in which the Tampa group might respond, and in which they might interpret items in the questionnaire, and what complexities, if any, might arise from the reading of the questionnaire by the Tampa group. This tryout resulted in slight revisions of the questionnaire. It was then made ready for twenty-three women (four women represented two organizations each) chosen to represent twenty-seven organizations categorized as follows:

PAGE 57

46 I. Creative and Fine Arts Organizations A. Tampa Chapter, National League of American Pen Women B. Tampa Music Teachers Association C. Amaryllis Garden Club Object: To promote interest in creative and educational activities in art, letters, and music. II. Business and Professional Organizations A. Tampa Pharmaceutical Association B. Women in Communications C. Delta Kappa Gamma Society D. Soroptimist Club of Tampa E. Seminole Business and Professional Club of Tampa Object: The elevation of the status of women in business and in the professions. III. Civic Organizations A. Tampa Branch, League of Women Voters of Hillsbo r ough County B. Tampa Branch, Hillsborough County Democratic Women's Club C. Citizens Alert D. Tampa Branch, American Association of University Women Object: To promote active and informed citizen participation in govern ment. IV. School Organization--Tampa Branch, Parent Teacher Association of Florida. Object: To promote the welfare of children and youth in the home, school, and community.

PAGE 58

47 V. Community Organizations A. Tampa Junior Woman's Club B. Junior League of Tampa C. Girls Clubs of Tampa, Incorporated D. Al trusa Club of Tampa E. Suncoast Girl Scout Council F. Zeta Phi Beta Sorority Object: To use their knowledge to render better services to the community. VI. Public Service Organizations A. Insurance Women of Tampa B. Pilot Club of Tampa C. Tampa Alumnae Chapter, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority D. Gamma Theta Omega Chapter, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority Object: To promote high scholastic achievement and service to mankind. VII. Sports Organization--Davis Island Yacht Club Dinghy Dames Object: To promote and encourage ability in recreation. VIII. Human Rights Organizations A. Tampa Branch, National Organization for Women B. Tampa Chapter, Women's Equity Action League C. Tampa Branch, National Council of Negro Women Object: To work toward the integration of all people and the elimination of sex discrimination. Instrumentation (1) The Questionnaire 1 used for this study is divided into two 1 selected from mimeographed materials by Dr. Ralph Kimbrough in Educational Leadership II and Dallas Johnson and Elizabeth Bass Golding, Don't Underestimate Woman Power (New York: Public Affairs Committee, Inc., 1951) p. 30.

PAGE 59

48 parts: Part I seeks demographic information about the club leader or the respondent, in questions one through ten, in order that t he investi gator might study the kinds of educational work done by people in certain age brackets, what their interests are, whether or not th e number and age of their children have any influence on their activities, the kind of reading that is done for educational purposes, the professional back ground as it relates to what they do or to how m uch they do, and the marital status and its relation to their club wor k Part II of the instrument, questions eleven through twenty-eight, seeks to obtain information about the organization that each respondent represented. In connection with the expressing of needs for this study, this writer has listed among them the desire to determine whether or not the organizations of today have kept pace with earlier progressive efforts of women in club activities. She, therefore, selected quest i ons that she considers helpful in determining whether or not the barriers if any, to achievement in education today have any relationship to those at the turn of the century. Questions 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 21, and 23 deal with the educational program of the organization. These questions were asked because they take us back to the introduction of the history of the women s club movement in the United States, written by Ellen M. Henrotin: The State Federations have in each case adopted, immediately on their formation, a special line of work, always educational in character, and embracing education from the kind e rgarten to the un i versity, as represented in the State systems--public and traveling libraries, art interchanges, village and town improvement associations, and constructive legislation. 1 1 Ell e n M. Henrotin, The History of the Woman's Clul:;> Mov e m e nt in America, ed. by Jane Croly (New York: H. G. Allen and Co., 1 89 8), p. x.

PAGE 60

49 The investigator wishes to compare educational interests of today with the interests of the early period. Question 13 was chosen in order to compare today's purposes with the earlier purpose which sets forth the idea that in the main the clubs were for self-culture, yet the chief characteristic was self-improvement. 1 With these ideas in mind, comparisons can be made between today's groups and earlier groups to determine progress in club activity. Questions 18, 19, 20, 22, 25, and 26 were chosen delibe r ately in an effort to obtain information fitting and proper to such a studyinformation that would help in the determination of how well the groups show togetherness and work in unity, of when the organization was founded, of what its structure is, of how it obtains its members, and what its publications are. Question 27 points to an earlier desire by Sorosis, the first organized club, to form a general federation of all clubs of the country. Such an organization was suggested for the purpose of uniting all clubs for better service. 2 Question 28 was selected to determine if today's clubs have a philosophy or a set of beliefs to use as a guide. Here again, this writer goes back to Henrotin's remark: "No great organization can hold together without some definite philosophy put into action. 113 Henrotin continues her discussion in the introduction to Jane Croly's book with the thought that "In no place in the world can a woman so easily come to the front as in a large woman's club"; therefore, question 14 1 rbid., p. ix. 2Henrotin, p. ix. 3 rbid., p. x. 4 rbid.

PAGE 61

50 was included in order to determine which women have come to the forefront in women's groups of today. Question 24 points to the planning of a clearinghouse by earlier groups. Henrotin again reminds that the State Federation trained the clubs as citizens, the General Federation empha s ized the national life and brought th e State together, while the biennials aimed to be a clearinghouse for national interests. 1 Data Collection Representatives of 27 women's organizations in Tampa, Florida met in small discussion groups with the researcher in the home of a clubleader (See Appendix A). These meetings were planned for the purpose of giving the women adequate information concerning the survey, of answerin g questions, of explaining the researcher's objectives, and of having the representatives fill a questionnaire. This "Group Questionnaire Technique" involved meeting w i th invited club leaders at different p e riods of the day and having each member of each group fill a questionnaire at the same time. The researcher distributed questionnaires, explained the purpose of the investigation, answered questions about the study, and collected completed questionnair e s at the end of each session. Data Treatment The characteristics of respondents, along with other demographic data, and information concerning general club organization are presented in Chapter IV. 1 rbid., p. xi.

PAGE 62

51 Narrative and descriptive presentations are given for each of the twenty-seven organizations in order that information might be made clear concerning pertinent information asked for in Part II of the Question naire which involves discussions of the purpose, structure, educational experiences provided by the organization, the founding date, active local members, criteria for membership, publications, evaluation, coordination of activities, group clearinghouse, and continuing education. Other characteristics of the organizations and an item summary of the responses by question conclude the data treatment.

PAGE 63

CHAPTER IV RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA .. The threefold purpose of this chapter is to, first, introduce the "Tampa 23," twenty-three clubwomen who represented twenty-seven Tampa organizations and responded to questionnaires submitted to them, second, to describe the individual organizations, and, third, to discuss and analyze the data secured from questionnaires completed by the respondents. This chapter, then, will consist of three sections: (1) Characteristics of Respondents, (2) Descriptions of Individual Organizations, and (3) Characteristics of Individual Organizations. Section 1 Characteristics of Respondents Participants for this survey include mature women and young adults, holders of advanced degrees, women representing minority and majority groups, and those from the affluent and the middle classes. In regard to community and club services, these women hold varied positions showing service as civic, social, and publicity chairwomen, presidents of organizations and boards, members of directors' boards and the Club Presidents Round Table, legislative chairwomen, Basili and Anti-Basili of sororities, and members of the Mayor's Task Force. Included in this survey are several tables which display data on the respondents: Table 1, Length of Respondents' Residence in Tampa, indicates that the twenty-three women lived in Tampa a number of years ranging from 9 52

PAGE 64

53 years to 50 years and over. Thirty-one percent of the respond en ts ha ve lived in Tampa 50 or more years, twenty-two percent from 10 to 19 years, and seventeen percent from 9 to 29 years. TABLE 1 LENGTH OF RESPONDENTS' RESIDENCE IN TA MPA Number of Years Number of Percentage of Respondents Lived in Tampa Respondents Living in Tampa 50 and over 7 31 40 to 49 1 4 30 to 39 2 9 20 to 29 4 17 10 to 19 5 22 0 to 9 4 17 23 Table 2, Number of Offices Held in Relation to Age, indicates that there are five persons in the group ranging in age from 36 to over age 50. This age group holds a total of 61 offices in the clubs to which they belong. The entire group holds a total of 90 offices. TABLE 2 NUMBER OF O FFICES HELD BY RESPONDENTS IN RELATION TO AGE Age Number of Percentage in Number of Total Number Bracket Respondents Age Bracket Offices Held of Offices Held Over 60 5 22 1-3-4-4-7 19 56 60 3 13 2-2-5 9 51 55 1 4 4 4 46 50 5 22 3-3-3-3-4 16 41 45 1 4 2 2 36 40 5 22 3-3-4-7-9 26 31 35 l 4 4 4 26 30 2 9 4-6 10 23 90

PAGE 65

54 Table 3, Number of Respondents with Children, shows that 17 members of the group or 74 percent have children. Thirty-nine percent of the members have children currently in schools, ranging from nursery school to graduate school, and seventeen percent have children in public school (K-12) Number of Respondents Number of Respondents currently in school to graduate school) Number of Respondents currently in public with with TABLE 3 CHILDREN OF RESPONDENTS Children Children (nursery school with Children school (K-12) 17 (74%) 9 ( 39%) 4 (17%) Table 4, Number o f Offices Held in Relation to Educational Back ground, points out that 87 percent of the women have had some college training, and that 61 percent were graduated from college, while 18 percent have completed the Master's degree. The persons involved in this group have held from 4 to 31 offices during their club life. TABLE 4 NUMBER OF OFFICES HELD IN RELATION TO EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Last Percentage in Number of Total Educational Number of Educational Offices Held by Number Experience Respondents Experience Respondents Offices Held High School 3 13 2-4-4 10 Some College 6 26 2-3-3-3-4-7 22 Bachelor's Degree 4 17 3-4-4-6 17 Bachelor's Degree some credit towards Master's 6 26 3-3-4-5-7-9 31 Master's Degree 2 9 2-4 6

PAGE 66

55 TABLE 4 Continued Last Percentage in Number of Total Educational Number of Educational Offices Held by Number Experience Respondents Experience Respondents Offices Held Master's Degree some credit toward Ph.D. or Ed.D. 2 9 1-3 4 Ph.D. or Ed.D. 0 0 Other data revealed by the questionnaires show that fifteen of the women are married, two are single and the other six are divorced or widowed. The group consists of seven housewives, four retired workers, three librarians, and one person each serving as follows: in TV production, as an administrative assistant, as an equal opportunity sp e cialist, as a piano teacher, as a clerk typist, as a public relations representative, as a property manager, as a business manager, and as a travel consultant. Section 2 Descriptions of Individual Organizations Twenty-seven organizations are oescribed in this section in an effort to show the work in education that is done by each club. The following questions, whenever applicable to an organization, have been extracted from the questionnaire along with appropriate data and answered in the narrative: (1) What is the purpose of your organization?

PAGE 67

56 (2) How is your organization structured to promote educational improvement? (3) What kinds of educational experiences are provided through your organization? (4) What is the approximate date of the founding of your organization? (5) How many active local members do you have? (6) What are the criteria for membership? (7) Is your work in education done on a continuing basis? Explain. (8) List the publications of your organization? (9) What procedures do you have for evaluating the effectiveness of your educational program? (10) Do you have a clearin g house for women's groups in your community? (11) Do all segments of your organization work together for comm o n objectives? (12) Do all segments of your organization coordinate their activities and cooperate for their mutual benefit, eliminating competing and unnecessary duplication? (13) Do you have interclub educational activities to unite the community for peace, health, public affairs, and better human relations in order to strengthen our democracy? Please list these activities. (14) Does your organization have a platform sponsored equally by all groups to present foremost authorities on vital subjects, presenting all sides of controversial issues to develop en lightened public opinion?

PAGE 68

57 Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority (Gamma Theta Omega Chapter) The Gamma Theta Omega Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority was chartered as a local Tampa organization in 1940 and now has 71 members. A representative from this organization responded by pointing to these facts: Alpha Kappa Alpha's purpose is to promote high scholastic achieve ment, to give service to mankind through health programs, and better housing facilities--through personal involvement and scholarships. The organization promotes e d ucational im p rovement through providing scholarships to deserving students in the Tampa high schools. The deans of the local schools are consulted concerning n e eded information about girls, and afterwards, these girls are interviewed, administered tests, and awarded scholarships based upon their achievement and need, and their interest in pursuing a college career. Educational experiences provided by this organization take the form of tutorial sessions, visits to places having educational interest, and counseling and joint meetings with undergraduates at the University of South Florida. This sorority has applied for a Federal Grant to further the study of the arts in the Tampa community. In order to become a member of the organization, one must satisfy two requirements: (1) A person must pursue a four-year college course and (2) have an average of 2.5 or above. The work in education is done on a continuing basis in that the majority of the members are teachers and regular educational work is engaged in. The plan for evaluating the effectiveness of the educational pro gram involves studying the needs of the community, formulating a plan

PAGE 69

58 for meeting these needs, and testing what has been done by use of a questionnaire designed by the group. Interclub educational activities include service as Heart Fund captains, solicitors, volunteer w orkers for the Y.W.C.A., with the Council of Negro Women, and the Urban League. Further help from the organization provides assistance to needy children including supplying them with eyeglasses, to people who need to be taken to and from the polls, and to church e s who need speakers to urge people to vote. Altrusa Club of Tam p a The purpose of the Altrusa Club of Tampa is to join women in executive positions to use their knowledge for b e tter service to the community. The organization was founded on April 11, 1917, and has 40 active local members. Educational ex periences provi d ed by this group take the form of (1) A Grants-in-Aid program which provides graduate scholarships for women in foreign countri e s, (2) Founders Fund Vocational Aid which helps women acquire or im p rove a skill, and (3) Bimonthly club programs. Helen Hilton, Chairman of the Grants-in-Aid Committee, reports that 63 young women from twenty-four countries were awarded grants-in-aid during the year 1972-1973, and th a t eight recipients were from Africa, forty-three from Asia, seven from Latin America, and five from the Middle East. Miss Hilton states, further, that twenty-seven were consid e red for grants for summer school and/or for the fall of 1975 to be paid from the 1973-1974 budget.

PAGE 70

59 The Founders Fund Vocational Aid Committee makes the following report for 1972-1973: Applications Received Awards Approved Number of Awards Amount Awarded Range of Awards Granted $50-$99 100-149 150-199 200-249 250-299 300-349 350 221 166 166 $48,625 Numb e r 2 11 9 12 20 14 98 The awards were used for providing education in health service fields wherein money was allocated for persons interested in becoming licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, d e ntal assistants, and nurse's aides; in bu s iness education fields in which funds were given to train persons wanting to serve as secretaries, clerical workers, accountants, and computer programmers. Provision was also made for persons int e rested in cosmetology. Other educational programs receiving help included teacher c e rtification, floral design, fashion, and photography. In the special needs area, funds were assigned for driver education. The organization is structured to promote educational improvement through the Vocational Services and Community Services Committees. Altrusa is a classified club for executive women in professions or

PAGE 71

60 business. A member must supervise at least five persons or be involved in a profession. A nurse, who is a member, must be a supervisor, and an educator must be a supervisor or department head. Only 10 % of the club can be in the same major occupation. The work in education is done on a continuing basis through cooperation in a structured program prepared by the international office and sent to local clubs to adopt and develop according to need. Evaluation is done once a year through the issuing of a question naire to officers and members by the program coordin a tor. The Presid e nts Round Table serv e s as the clearinghouse for the group. M i na Egdorf, Chairman of the Founders Fund Vocational Aid Conmittee for 1973-1975, writes in the International Altru sa n, 1974, on the sub' ject "A Womans Place is Everywhere," and gives valuable information about women as follo w s: She believes that there is no limit to where the young women and older women of tod a y can go in the working world. "Al tru s a ; she stat e s, "continues to tak e the leadership role in helping wom e n to discover un limited horizons; She writes, further, that: When the F oun d ers F und V ocational Ai d pr oj ec t w as a do p ted 22 year s ago, conditions and opportunities for e mploy ment of women were fa r different than they w e r e in 191 7 But needs were still p resent. In 197 4 the voc at ional needs of women ar e di f ferent than in 1952, but needs exist and are th e conditions that mak e this project vital. Just a s the or ga nization has kept pace with the tim e s and has maintained a program that is not only tim e ly but also visionary, so the FFVA Project reflects the needs of women today and to m orrow. The Fund provid e s outright awards for: -Training or retraining that will qualify a woman for employment; -Upgrading training that will enable a woman to move from a low-lev e l to a higher-level skill job; -Purchase of equipment required for self-employm e nt;

PAGE 72

61 -Personal rehabilitation necessary to become employable. 1 Amaryllis Garden Circle Eighty women grace the membership of the Amaryllis Garden Circle which was organized in 1933. This group was formed to promote an interest in home and civic beautification and to cooperate in the protection of wild flowers and native plants. The organization is structured to promote educational improvement in that the important and specific duties are divided among the following chairmen: The Horticulture chairman,whose duty it is to direct the science and art of cultivating flowers, fruits, vegetables, or ornamental plants. This chairman gives a periodic report to the group after her attendance at the Federation of Garden Clubs Meeting where she listens to speakers on various garden topics. She discusses what members should be doing in the yard during a current month in reference to cutting back the flowers, planting, and spraying; The Junior Gardening Chairman teaches young people gardening principles; and the Visiting Gardens Chairman promotes the philosophy among the members of learning gardening by seeing or by engaging in a visitation program; the Anti-Litter and Anti-Pollu tion Chairmen call attention to pollution and litter and urge work of a corrective nature in this direction. One may become a member of the Amaryllis Garden Circle after she has lived for at least one year in the New Suburb Beautiful, an exclu sive residential section in Tampa. 1 Mina Egdorf, "A Woman's Place Is Everywhere," The International Altrusan Hagazine, Vol. 51, No. 8, April, 1974, p. 10.

PAGE 73

62 The club publishes the Forget-Me-Not magazine locally and contributes to the state publication, Florida Gardening. The effectiveness of their program is evaluated through visits to all sections of the area for the purpose of determining whether or not progress is being shown in the development of beauty of surroundings and in the increasing of happiness on the part of the residents. It is of importance to them that the name of the area, New Suburb Beautiful, be maintained by continued work in beautification. A clearinghouse is provid e d through the Federation of Garden Clubs whose duty it is to aid in the avoidance of garden clubs duplicating activities unnecessarily. The Federation acts also as a liaison body and helps to settle mutual claims. American Association of Univ e rsity Women The local organization of the Am e rican A ssociation of University Women was found e d in 1924 an d has 210 active local members. The purp os e of this branch is to unite the alumn ae of colleges and universities which are on the M UW list of qualified institutions for practic a l e du c ational work; to conc e ntrate and increase th e ir effectiveness in the community for the solution of soci a l and c i vic problems; to participate in the d eve lo p m e nt and promotion of the policies and programs of the Am erican As sociation of University W omen; to contribute to its gro w th and advancem e nt; a nd to cooperate in its state, division and regional wor k .l Two main committees form the structure of the organization to pro m ote educational improv e m e nt: (1) The Program D e velop m ent Committee which includes a representative of each of the four areas of interest in the Association program: Community, Cultu r al interests, Education, and I nt e rnational Re lations. The Pr o gram Development Committ ee shall consid e r the program topics of the Association and recommend to the branch the 1 Article III, Charter and Bylaws of MUW (provid e d by respondent).

PAGE 74

63 selection of topics to be implemented. It shall provide policy guidelines for the continuing program concerns of the branch. (2) There shall be at least on e Topic Committee and such others as the branch shall require to implement the Association program to p ic or topics of the branch selected for study. The chairm e n of these committees shall serve as the branch Board of Directors. 1 Educational experiences provided through the organization include study groups, presentation of speakers at the monthly luncheon meetings, special projects such as participation in the Equ a l Rights Coalition, special seminars which deal with such topics as criminal justice, and area workshops. Scholarship money is contributed to two Tampa universities. If a woman holds a baccalaureate or high e r degree from an institution on the AAUW's list of qualified institutions, or a degree from a foreign institution that is recognized by the Internation a l Federation of University W o me n she is eligible for membership in the association. 2 The Tampa branch of AAUW cooper a tes with the national body in pub lishing the AAUW Journal. The Presidents Round Table serves as the clearinghouse for this group and pr e sents programs on vital issues. Emerging vital issues can be sent to the National Association by any member of an AAUW organization and from these suggestions study topics are selected every two years. Citizens Alert The purpose of Citizens Alert, Incorporated, is to make Hillsborough County a better and safer place in which to live by engaging in the following seven-point program: 1 charter and Bylaws of AAUW (provided by respondent). 2Article IV, Section 1, Charter and Bylaws (provided by respondent).

PAGE 75

64 (1) Supporting law enforcement agencies and seeing that their needs are met; (2) Bridging the gap in understanding between the law enforcement officer and the citizen so that they can work together in the war against crime; (3) Promoting respect for law and order and those who enforce it; (4) Attacking the roots of crime--public apathy, ignorance, dirt, and neglect; (5) Offering a plan of action for the community so that all citizens can participate; (6) Coordinating programs, with other agencies or organizations so that the most benefit is derived for the corrmunity from the efforts expended; (7) Providing needed information for the public. Citizens Alert was founded approximately seven years ago and has nearly 30 active members. The respondent reported, further, that even though men participate and help to finance the organization that the women hold major offices, do the work, and outnumber the men in member ship. The organization promotes educational improvement through such standing committees as Community Aff&irs, Court Observers, Enrichment Bus Tours, Help Stop Crime, Hospitality, Junior League Representative, Law Enforcement Appreciation Dinner, Membership, Rehabilitation, and Stay-in-School. The Community Affairs Cornmitt~e keeps citizens informed of projects in the community in which Citizens Alert might be of assistance.

PAGE 76

65 Six Court Observers are provided by the Court O b servers Committee to meet on Tuesdays in the Criminal Division of the Circuit Court. The judges, the State Attorney, members of the Tam p a Police Department, and the Hillsborough County Sheriff's office help determine what inform a tion the observers should seek. The Enrichment Bus Tours Committee provides a tour o f th e P olice Department and Sh e riff's office and a visit to the Crimin a l D i vision of the Circuit Court to help young p e ople become aware of the many facets o f the court sy s tem. The Help S top Crime Committ e e provid e s s e minars on residential burglary, commerical burglary, and rape. The Hospitality Committee introduces club offic e rs and programs to the community, provides displays, and makes m e mbers of the board available to answer questions. The Stay-in-School Corranittee meets weekly with 10 g i rls from Madison Junior High School w ho are potential drop-out s a n d tries to give them a sense of their worth and encourage them to continue in their school courses. These girls are taken on field trips for the purpose of showing them their community and what it has to off e r th e m. The Dean of Girls at Madison says, "Because of this program, many of the girls have made soci a l and school adjustment one would not h a ve thought possible at the beginning of the school yea r Without this sort of program in our schools, we would b e reaching fewer young girls than we would otherwise pleas e w e need this type of program. II Individuals, families, business or professional firms, civic, cultural, educational, social, and religious organizations which sub scribe to the purpose and program of this organization may become members upon payment of dues.

PAGE 77

66 The work in education is done on a continuing basis and the Presidents Round Table serves as the clearinghouse. All segments of the organization coordinate their activities, and interclub educational activity is shown through the coop e ration of Citizens Alert with the Junior League, the Chamber of Commerce, and the National Conference of Christians and Jews. Davis Island Yacht Club Dinghy Dames Twenty-five active local members make up the Davis Island Yacht Club Dinghy Dames of Tampa. The purpose of this organiza t ion is to promote sailing interest and sailing ability among its memb e rs. The course outline f~r the teaching of sailing includes: the Language of Sailing, Sailing the Optimist Pram, R un ning Rigging, the Circle Diagram, the Daggerboard, What Makes a Sailboat Go?, Sailing Into the Wind, Running, Reaching, Tacking, Tacking Diagram, Jibing, Jibing Diagram, Going S a iling, Seamanship, Capsizing, Right of Way Rules, Racing, The Start, Racing to Windward, Downwind, Rounding the Mark, and Reaching and Tuning for Racing. Sailing clinics are held in the fall and spring and involve instruc tion in how to sail, in how to race the boats, and in racing rules and regulations. Two to four races are held on Monday of each w e ek and at the end of a six-week period, girls are awarded prizes if they are the highest point winners for that period. Competition is engaged in throughout the year with such women's sail groups as: the Mainstreet Mamas of Tampa, the Salty Sisters of St. Petersburg, the Sarasota Sailing and Sinking Society, the Luffin Lasses, and the Barnacle Belles.

PAGE 78

67 The Dinghy Dames group was founded in the fall of 1970 and member ship is confined to persons who are affiliated with the Davis Island Yacht Club. The effectiveness of the Dinghy Dames educational program is evaluated according to the number of sail boat races that are won on a weekly and annual basis. The Florida Sailing Women's Association serves as the clearing house for the organization. Delta Kappa Gamma Society Delta Kappa Gamma was founded in the spring of 1959 and has approximately 65 members. The purposes of the organization are: (1) To unite women educators in a genuine spiritual fellowship. (2) To honor women who have given distinctive service in education. (3) To advance professional interests and the position of women in education. (4) To sponsor and support desirable legislation. (5) To endow scholarships to aid outstanding women educators. (6) To stimulate the personal and professional growth of members pursuing graduate study. (7) To inform the membership of current economic, social, political, or educational issues to the end that they may become intelli gent, functioning members of a world society. The organization is structured through committee formation and sales projects to promote educational improvement, and works with the International organization to provide scholarships, to assist students from abroad, to work with Navaho Indians, and to provide students with books and learning materials.

PAGE 79

68 Criteria for membership include having professional preparation; having experience as an educator in the Chapter area; being skillful, alert, and resourceful; participating in community life; having an attractive, personal appearance; and having initiative and enthusiasm. The educational work is done on a continuing basis as the group continues to study trends and programs in education, to evaluate condi tions, and to endeavor to understand new themes and programs, and to study value patterns as they affect our culture. This group does not engage in evaluative procedures but hopes that their scholarship students, who are carefully chosen, are ambassadors of good will. Interclub activities include fall workshops and Founder's Day luncheons. Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Incorporated (Tampa Alumnae Chapter) In the Queen of Hearts magazine, Vol. 1, No. XX, published by the Tampa Alumnae Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Incorporated, and submitted by the respondent, the Historical Sketch provides the following facts concerning the organization and projects undertaken by the Sorority. The chapter was organized in Tampa during the spring of 1947 with seven members present. The sketch reveals that the sorority serves a noble purpose--improvement of the health and welfare of the community. There are 64 active local members and an additional 25 members who participate only in Delta projects. Chief among its projects is the awarding of scholarships to girls in the Tampa Bay Area to attend colleges of their choice on the basis of scholarship, personality and character. The first winner was a graduate of Don Thompson Vocational High School, Tampa, in 1950.

PAGE 80

69 The respondent, in her questionnaire, enumerates other purposes of the Sorority as follows: To establish, maintain, and encourage high, cultural, intellectual and moral standards among its members and within the community in which they live; to engage in public service programs and to promote and encourage achievement in education by granting scholar ships and other assistance to worthy and deserving persons. She points, further, to other facets of the organization which are included in the remaining sections: The group has a five-point program which promotes educational im provement in the areas of health, education, social action, international relations and housing. Each year, the local Social Action Committee selects a project from the program for major concentration. Public presentations provide educational experiences which may be illustrated by the following past performances including: (1) Presen tation of Voices, Inc., a black repertoire presented by a group that depicts the history of the Negro American through professional song and dance; (2) Presentation of Dorothy Devault, first woman president of the Florida Education Association; (3) Presentation of The Honorable Shirley Chisholm, Negro American, who ran for the office of President of the United States. There are four criteria for membership: (1) The organization accepts a college graduate who has had Delta initiation; (2) A college graduate who fulfills requirements for initiation designed by the local or national chapter; (3) An outstanding community leader who has made significant contributions; (4) A person of high moral and educational standards. The work by Delta in education is done on a continuing basis in that local scholarships have been given to outstanding high school graduates

PAGE 81

70 since 1950, and presently, three area scholarships are aw a rded each year In addition, the daughter of a Delta receives a special cash award when she is graduated from high school. Four educational publications are produced by Delta: The Delta Journal; The Delta Newsletter; The Delta Handbook; a nd th e Delta Ritual. The effectiveness of the educational program of the S orority is evaluated throu g h the submission of an annual corporate accountability form which must be submitted each fiscal year to the National Scholarship and Standards Committ e e prior to approval for continu e d oper a tion of the Sorority. Because of its philosophy of sisterhood, all activities are conducted with unity and cooperation, and coordination is carried on by the chapter's Executive Board which approves all pro g ram planning. Girls Clubs of Tampa, Incor p orated Girls Clubs of Tam p a, Incorpor a t e d, a publication of the Girls Clubs of Tampa, was made possible through the Ensslin Ad v ertising Agency, Inc., Rinaldi Printing Company and others, and giv e s information about the Tampa units of Girls Clubs. This publication was present e d by the respond e nt to supplem e nt the information present e d in the qu e stionnaire: At the Girls Clubs of Tampa, we see every girl as a promise --a promis e of the individual she can grow to be. In simple, personal wa y s, we try to help each girl s e e her own future in that optimistic light ... Tampa's first Girls Club opened at 1519 27th Avenue in September, 1958, with a memb e rship of some 200 girls. By 1972, that one location was servin g 500 girls .... Today, more than 1 6 00 school-ag e d girls ar e attr a cted to programs and activities at six Tampa Girls Clubs .... The purpose of Girls Clubs is to help girls of all backgrounds to grow and work together in a climate of freedom and harmony; to help girls

PAGE 82

71 find their own identity, develop their potential, and achieve a sense of responsibility to self, family, community, country and world; and to help all girls of all racial, religious, and economic backgrounds to live and develop creatively in a democratic society in a changing world. Girls Clubs, Inc. lists the educational experiences provided through the organi zation as cooking, sewing, arts and crafts, music and dance, charm, and personal health care. The program also includes field trips throughout the community, ballet, and counseling in family life, career interests, sex education, drug abuse prevention, and social relationships. This organization, governed by a board of 36 women and some men, has an active local membership of 3000 girls in five clubs--the Molly Ferrara Girls Club; the Robles Park Girls Club; the Chestnut Street Girls Club; the Habana Avenue Girls Club; and the Central Park Girls Club These clubs were made possible by a gran t from the City of Tampa's Metropolitan Development Agency to supplement operating income from local civic groups, foundations, individuals, and the United Fund. The criteria for membership states that girls between the ages of 6 to 18 and who are still in school are welcomed by Girls Clubs without regard for race, religion, and economic background. The work of this organization is done on a continuing basis in that the clubs are open for training after school hours and during vacation time. Girls clubs cooperate with their regional and national organiza tions of Girls Clubs in publishing news letters and brochures. An evaluation form is used to measure the effectiveness of the educational program. The Presidents Round Table, made up of Presidents

PAGE 83

72 of all women's organizations, serves as the clearinghouse, and all seg ments of the clubs work together for common objecti ve s through the following committees: Nominating, Finance, Program and V olunt e ers, House, Public Relations, and Endowments and Contri b utions. Th e activities are coordinated through planning meetings and worksho ps Girls Clubs provide interclub and interg r oup activities by working with other grou p s who work with children and through cooperation with the Public Health Department, Public Schools, Police D e partm e nt and Drug Abuse. Hillsborough County D em ocratic W om e n's Club ( T a mp a Br a nch) The Tampa Br a nch of the Hillsborough County D em o c ratic Wom e n's Club, Incorporated, was founded in 1963 and is compo se d of 25 active local members. The purpose of the organization is to promote the principles and candidates of the D e mocratic party. Educational experiences provid e d through the org a nization compri s e informative and instructive programs, seminars in c am paign s kills and work on environmental problems. The Presidents Round Table s e rv e s as the clearinghou s e. The usual promotional form a t consists of studying issues, presenting major points-of-view, and then taking a stand. The program a nd legis lative committees work together on the selection of th e best methods of presenting information from study groups. The effectiven e ss of this educational program is measured by the voting of the legislative delega tion. A woman is eligible for membership in this club if she is a m e mber of the Democratic Party.

PAGE 84

73 Interclub educational activities are confined to the Regional group with whom the Tampa Branch of the Hillsborough County Democratic Women's Club, at sometimes, acts in concert. Insurance Women of Tampa The Insurance Women of Tampa is an organization that encourages and fosters practical and coordinated educational programs designed to broaden the knowledge of its members concerning the business of insurance; to cultivate and promote good fellowship and loyalty among its members, and to make its members more responsive to the business requirements and necessities of their associates. The organization was founded in 1941 and reports 48 active local members who are provided with insurance education as a principal educa tional experience. Any woman engaged independently or through employment in any office selling or serving insurance of any type is eligible for active member ship. The work in education is done on a continuing basis in that the woman starts her work with a beginning course which leads to a C.P.I.W. designation (Certified Professional Insurance Woman) and then on to a C.P.C.U. designation (Certified Property Casualty Underwriter). Today's Insurance Women is the title of the educational publication by this group. Evaluation procedures are directed by the Local Board and/or the National Chairman of the Educational Board. Insurance Women of Tampa use the Presidents Round Table as a clearinghouse, and their interclub educational activities take the

PAGE 85

74 form of a celebration during their National Insurance Women's Week, and include joint meetings with surrounding clubs, and regional and national conferences. Junior League of Tampa, Incorporated The Junior League of Tampa, Incorporated, was founded in April 1926, and has approximately 225 active local members. The purpose of the Junior League of Tampa, Incorporated, is exclusively educational and charitable and i s design e d to promote voluntarism, to develop the potential of its members for voluntary participation in community affairs, and to demonstrate the effective ness of trained volunteers. Seven committees designed to promote educational improvement, form the structure of the club: (1} The Project Research Committee researches needs in the community and suggests possible League action. (2) The Education Committee presents educational programs to the membership at monthly meetings, and sponsors workshops and seminars. (3) The Env ironment Committee studies the environment and reports any action t ake n. (4) The Provisional Education Committee suggests ways and means for improvement in education. (5) The Public Affairs Committee plans specific presentations for the public. (6) The Community Affairs Committee studies pertinent community affairs and reports its findings.

PAGE 86

75 (7) The Community Arts Committee keeps abreast of cultural projects and investigates the cultural climate of the community. Educational experiences are provided by the Lea g ue through financial and volunteer support in connection with the follo wi ng organizations and efforts: Arts Council of Tampa, Citizens Alert, Community Coordinating Co1J.I1cil, The Door, Drug Abuse film program in schools (sho wn to 3rd grade classes), Florida Gulf Coast Symphony, Guidance Center, MacDonald Training Center, SERVe (School Enrichment Resource Volunteers), Tampa Bay Art Center, Tampa Junior Museum, WEDU Education Tel e vision Station, and Child Abuse. Tampa--A Town on Its Way is a book on the history of Tampa and it is made available to every child in school at a discount. The Community Arts Committee makes a study of the cultural areas of the community which is accomplish e d through boa rd r ep resentation with the various cultural agencies; through participation in the Gasparilla Sidewalk Art Show; through educational programs ("Art and Man" lecture, a new slide presentation); and through a tour of Centro-Asturiano Th e atre. The Education Committee has as its goal the involvement of League members in varied areas of interest. Speak e rs at the Gener a l Membe rship Meetings cover topics ranging from U.S. Foreign Policy to Women's Rights. Members receive first-hard information from informed individuals in the Food and Drug Administration, Tam p a Drug Programs, and the Arts Council of Tampa. In addition, the committee sponsors an "Evening at Asolo" to acquaint members with their excellent State theater. The Environment Committee presents "Tampa's Pollution Picture" to 30 schools and 104 classes. At least 3,015 children s e e the show along with five large adult groups and one teacher's group. The slides are

PAGE 87

76 currently being updated to show what progress or changes hav e been m a de in Tampa's pollution problems. The League cooperates with the Children' s Theat r e and the Asolo State Theater in making it possible for approximately 3,750 children to see in their schools the play, "Brav e Little Tailor." Criteria for membership is based upon character, leader s hip, responsibility, con g eniality, background, pres e nt and potential capa bilities and a b e lief in promoting the Junior L e ague purpose. The work of the organization is done on a continuing basis through research committ e es and work on projects. Questio n n a ir e s are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the tasks perform e d. Three publications by the Junior League of Tampa, Incorporated, help to stress their activities: (1) The Sandspur (Published monthly, October through June) (2) Tampa--A Town on Its Way (Publish e d and us e d by the Junior League of Tampa, Incorporated, to finance its education a l, cultural, health, and welfare projects in the community) (3) The Gas p arilla Cookbook. League of Wom e n Voters of Hillsborough County (Tam p a Cha p ter) Full membership is offered by the League of Wom e n Voters of Hills borough County, Tampa Branch, to any woman 18 years of age and over who is a citizen of the United States, and an associate membership is offered to persons under 18, to men, and to non-citizens. The purpose and platform of the League, founded in 1920, is to promote active and informed citizen participation in government. This group include s 196 members in Tampa, Hillsborough County ,who study, educate themselves, and educate the public at the local, state and

PAGE 88

77 national levels. They share their findings with government officials and lobby at all levels to attain their goals. Election Laws, a pamphlet submitted by the respondent representing this group, carries the League Position as of January 1974: The League of Voters of Florida beli eves that democratic government depends upon the informed and active partici pation of its citizens. Fundamental to this participation is the citizen's right to vote. In o rder to incr ea se participation, the L eag ue believes that elections officials have the res ponsib il i ty for encouraging th e exercise of the vote, for prom oti ng citizen confidence in and understanding of the electoral process, and for providing equa l access to the ballot. To implement these programs, th e L eague supports the following proposals: 1. To facilitate registration: provide we ll-identified and publicized registration locations. display registration qualifications prominen tly. set regi stra tion hours to meet community needs. 2. To facilitate voting: provide conveni e nt and accessible write-in space on v o ting machin e s. provide a writing impl e ment for write-in votes. 3. To promote an inform ed electorat e : provide for wording of ballot issues in layman's languag e provide bilingu a l personnel where appropriate. 4. To increa se confidence: standa rdize elections procedures. provide well-trained, im par tial elections personnel. shorten the cam p aign period. 5. To provide equal ac cess to the ballot: extend election hours. allow physically confined citizens to register and vote. (Note: The above list includ es only a few of the proposals.) The work of this group is done on a continuing ba s is and provides such educational experiences as study programs involving action groups, seminars and workshops including professional academic meetings, Go-See trips, and Observer Corps on a long-term basis, which among other activities involves monitoring school board meetings.

PAGE 89

78 There is close association with the state and national bodies. In this connection, the Tampa group stands with the Florida League in support of education in Florida which is shown through the leafletLeague of Women Voters of Florida--Here We Stand, submitted by the respondent and presented here in part: "This League believes in a free public school system with equality of opportunity for all and in state funding (K-12); in district funding, (K-12); in state structure of education involving a coordinating board for all components of public education--K-12; vocational technical, junior college and higher education; and in a district structure invol ving appointment of district school superintendents by district boards." Publications include a Guide to the Governm e nt of Hillsborough County and an Environmental Handbook. Procedures used to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational program follow: (1) Dialog with elected officials on local, state and national levels. (2) Periodic questionnaires. (3) Measuring goals achieved, area by area, against scope of program as detailed in the platform of the League. (4) Keeping and observing records of legislation passed which furthers the accomplishment of the goals. The respondent reports, further, that all local, state, and national leagues work together from adopted programs agreed upon in scope and goals, and that the Tampa League is carefully structured to pursue common goals with a minimum of duplicating effort.

PAGE 90

79 Interclub educational activities take the form of assigning liaison people to many community organizations; of joining coalitions of like intended groups such as administr a tion of justic e environm e ntal and conservation organizations, civic organization s ta x -pay e r groups, and committees form e d for implementing social prog r ams involving hou s ing, task forces, stop-r a pe groups, and educational r e form. Participants from other organizations are invi t ed to the L e agu e 's semin a rs and workshops. Manhattan Ele me nt a r y S chool Parent-T e achers A ssoci a tion The Manhattan Elem e ntary School Parent-Teach e r Associ a tion of Tampa has obj e cts in common with the Florida Congress of PTA's and the National PTA as follows: (1) To promote the welfare of children and youth in home, school, church, and community; (2) To rais e the standards of home life; (3) To secure adequate laws for the care and protection of children and youth; (4) To bring into closer relation the home and the schoolthat parents and teachers may cooperate intelligently in the education of children and youth; (5) To develop between edu c ators and the general public such unit e d efforts as will secure for all childr e n and youth the highest advantages in physical, mental, social, and spiritual education. The respondent for this organization indicates that th e organization is structured to involve work with teachers in study groups and special meetings at the local level for the purpose of discussing problem areas that need improvement. Additionally, the organization has members on the newly formed advisory group which works closely with the School Board. In reference to educational experiences, this association encourages parents to tutor students at school on a one-to-one basis; school personnel are invited to explain the educational changes to parents;

PAGE 91

80 forums and study courses are held with teachers who show new methods and materials to clubwomen; educators are invited to speak to parents, and area supervisors are invited to share school materials with parents and other community leaders. If one is interested in working for children and for growth, and pays a small membership fee, he satisfies the criteria for membership. The National PTA Bulletin is the official educational publication and consists of articles from educators, parents, and interested citizens. Evaluations of the programs are done in special sessions at the beginning and end of each year. Interclub educational activities include cooperation with the Florida PTA Association. Seven items for legislation, adopted by the Florida 1973 Convention, are among the Manhattan PTA's priority items for 1973-1974: Because we feel that children and youth are a priceless resource of our state and nation, and because we are guided by our continuing concern for the welfare of children and youth, we pledge our efforts in their behalf by urging legislation for: 1. The establishment of state standards and licensing for child care facilities, including individuals in private residences also engaged in daily child care service and accepting a fee for said services. 2. Special licensing consisting of written and driving tests supervised by the state for the operators of two-wheel motor vehicles. 3. Long-range planning for education by revising the schedules for legislative appropriations and for certification of tax rolls. 4. A fully developed, adequately funded and staffed, statewide, comprehensive program of school health services. 5. A privileged communication act for pupil personnel workers and principals. 6. Comprehensive statewide services for the mentally and emotionally disturbed child. 7. Appropriations for special education. 1 1 June S. Gholdston, ed., "Priority Items for 1973-1974," Florida PTA Bulletin, Vol. XLIV, No. 5 (Jan.-Feb., 1974), p. 4.

PAGE 92

81 National Council of Negro Women The Tampa branch of the National Council of Negro Women works closely with the national body which has its headquarters in Washington, D.C. The Tampa branch, in addition to setting up its own program to meet specific needs in the local community, joins hands with National in helping to meet the critical needs of the black community and to underscore the power of united wom e n. In Black Womans Voice, a National publication, there is an indication of some ways in which community needs are met: The National Council of Negro Women develop ed and maintains a residential educational center for d ep rived teenage mothers, complete with day care center facilities for their children. NCNW provides consumer education and protection for low income families. NCNW provides a center for Career Advancement to upgrade the skills of clerical per s onnel. 1 The respondent for the Tampa branch states that the purpose of the local organization is to cherish and enrich the heritage of freedom and progress by working for the integration of all people without regard for race, creed, color or national origin, that all may enjoy the spiritual, social, cultural, and civic life, thus aiding the citizens of America to achieve the glorious destiny of a true and unfettered democracy. The local organization has 85 adult members and 56 youth council members who are committed to the Hillsborough County Consumers Education League, to the Safety Action program, to the Job Corps for underprivileged, and to school drop-outs and un-wed mothers. The group makes contributions to Sesame Street, a program for pre-schoolers, and to youth groups seeking political experience through trips to governmental headquarters. 1 Editorial, Black Womans Voice, Vol. 3, No. 1, March, 1974, p. 2.

PAGE 93

82 A morally, responsible woman who is willin g to help keep alive the theme of the Council--"We are on e in spirit and united for action" and whose ideals and ambitions coincide with the purpose of the organization is admitted to membership. The work in education is done on a continuing basis through financial contributions and volunteer service. National Lea g ue of American Pen Women The object of the Tampa Chapter of the National League of American Pen Women is to promote creativ e and educational activities in art, letters, and music. This organization is compos e d of 24 members whose continued work-shop structure enables them to promote educational im provement. Work-shop sessions are held every o th er month and educational speakers are pres e nted bet w een w ork-shop p e rio d s. Educational e x periences provided through this organization include learning to writ e to paint, and to compose music with the aid of pro fessional teachers. Criteria for membership involves b e ing born or naturaliz e d in the United States of America; having for thr e e years preceding application received pay in the open commerical marke t for original work of profes sional standard in any of the classifications of Arts, Letter s or Music, and having approval of the Branch M embership Committee and the Nation a l Board. The educational work is done on a continuing basis in that some activity of an educational nature is pres e nted monthly. Many of the members are book writers and one member writes text books for universities.

PAGE 94

83 The effectiven ess of the educational program is evaluated by judges and a panel of evaluators, each one being a professional in his field. A clearinghouse, the Presidents Round Table, is provid ed for women's groups in th e community and is used by this organization. Interclub activities, designed to unite the community for peace, public affairs, and better human relations, constitute free Art Shows, the Tampa Book Fair, and an end of the year Achievement Day. National Organization for Women The National Organization for Women (NO W ), Tam pa Bra nch, was founded in 1971, and has 200 active local members whose purpose is the elimina tion of sex discrimination. Group arrang emen ts, separate task forces for education, media, and sex discrimination in employment, and a speakers bureau constitute the structure to promote educational impr ovement. Educational experiences include the sponsoring of law enforcement seminars during which speakers read and interpret the laws to employers, organizations, clubs, etc.; the writing of letters to local and federal government officials and legislators promoting passage of legislation to eliminate s ex discrimination; the working with oth er local organiza tions to promot e the Equal Rights Amendment, and the sponsoring of a monthly newsletter. The organization is open to all interested women and does its work in education on a continuing basis. It uses the Presidents Round Table as its clearinghouse. NOW has made contact with the Mayor of Tampa and Hillsborough County concerning their obligations as a federal contractor in regards

PAGE 95

84 to Title VII, and with the Hillsborough Community College, Board of Trustees, concerning their obligations regarding Title IX. Pilot Club of Tampa The major objective of all Pilot Clubs is to promote active participation in any activity which will improve the civic, social, industrial, and commercial welfare of the community. 1 Pilot is one of the five international classified civic-service organizations for executive and professional women. Its basic principles are friendship and service. Pilot also sponsors Anchor Clubs for high school girls and Compass Clubs for college women. Through service to school and community, these young people are receiving valuable training in citizenship. 2 In keeping with the basic principles of Pilot International, the Pilot Club of Tampa states that its purpose is to render service to the community in which its members live--wherever they find that a need exists. The T ampa Club was founded in 1934 and has 54 active m e mbers. If an educational need is presented to the club by a member who feels that the club is able to do something constructive to help meet this need, the organization might accept the suggestion as a project for club participation. Specifically, the major project is to help hard-of-hearing children whose parents can not afford the expense of a hearing-aid. A second proj ect involves contributing to the Ruby Newhall Scholarship Fund for foreign students desiring to study in the United States of America, but 1 Brochure, Pilot Is, Pilot International Headquarters, Macon, Georgia, 1973, p. 2. 2Ibid.

PAGE 96

85 intending to share for at least three years afterwards their knowledge and observations in the United States with their own countrymen by teaching or working in their college field of study. The Scholarship Fund is administered by Pilot International in Macon, Georgia, and the Tampa Club contributes approximately $100 per year to the fund. Ruby Newhall was a Gainesville, Florida resident and was connected with the University of Florida. It was her aim to have a scholarship for foreign students to study in the United States. She died around 1950 and in her memory all Pilot Clubs in the United States started the fund. There are now 10 or 12 foreign students receiving help. The Tampa Pilot Club endeavors to encourage its members, who are all working wom e n in executi v e and professional positions, to continue their own education. Programs are provided throughout the year to assist them in this direction. One business meeting and one program meeting are held each month. The program meeting provides guest speakers who put forth an effort to inform and enlighten the members. Business women in executive or professional positions meet the criteria for membership and are invited to become club members and represent their particular type of business or profession. Work in education is done on a continuing basis with school chil dren; however, the work of individual members with children needing help in reading is done on a volunteer basis and varies from year to year. The publications are limited to small bulletins, issued to inform members about committee work, and the "Pilot Log," a quarterly, which indicates members in the club work who wish to render service to the community.

PAGE 97

86 Interclub educational activities involve work with other clubs to develop "Girls Clubs" which giv e young girls (ages 8-18) a better foundation for good citizenship through training clas ses in their fields of interest. Seminole Business and Professional Club of Tam pa The Seminole Business and Professional Women's Club of Tampa com bines its efforts, to promote educational improvement, with th e Florida Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Incorporated, and the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Incorporat e d. It has approximately 60 active local members and was founded in March, 1 95 4. Membership is open to women who are interest ed in the objectives of the club and who are actively and gainfully employed. The local organiz a tion has th e following purposes: (1) To elevate th e status of women in business and professions (2) To promote cooperation among business and professional women (3) To provide opportunity through scholarships and grants. All local clubs, including the Seminole branch, support state and national projects through the paying of dues. The Seminole branch is working on the CAP Project (Career Awareness Project) in cooperation with the Tampa Public Library. Work on this project involves setting up a resource center as exp laine d in CAP published by the Business and Professional Women's Federation in Washington, D.C. and submitted by the respondent: The Career Awareness Pr oject provides the opportunity for schools and commun i ty groups to join h ands in the development of activities which will foster the career exploration of individual students across the nation. CAP call s for close school-community cooperation in

PAGE 98

87 guidance program development to ensure the greatest utilization of the resources which exist within the educational system and in the lay community. To further implement its research and education projects, each y e ar, the National Fed e ration of Business and Professional Women awards various scholarships with the help of local clubs. The Career Advancement Scholarship is the newest one. It permits women to continue their education or training so they will be eligible for employment or will be prepared for advancement in a business or profession. Other awards by the Federation include the Lena Lake Forrest Fellowship which is designed for persons at the doctoral level to do graduate research on some subject concerning women who work, and the Sally Butler International Scholarship which is offered to a Latin American woman to do graduate study in the United States. This last award ranges from $500 to $2000 per year and is made only when funds are available. The Seminole branch of the Business and Professional Women's Foundation works with the National Foundation in many areas of service which include training conferences, scholarships, research, publications, library area, and historical collections. These services are devoted exclusively to employed women in business and in the professions. In the library area, there is an intensive search for materials-books, pamphlets, clippings, and others which have current and particular relevance to employed women. Grants for research in subjects affecting business and professional women are made at certain periods by the board of trustees upon recommendation of the research and education committee. In order to help talented women who desire to hold executive posi tions in their careers, the Foundation, assisted by the branch clubs, designed a three-year program of training conferences in which, during two-day sessions, leadership and management techniques are taught.

PAGE 99

88 The Seminole Business and Professional Women's Club evaluates the effectiveness of its educational program at an End of the Year Evaluation Meeting which is preceeded by a session in which goals are set for the coming year. This group us e s the Presidents Round Table as its clearinghouse which is design e d to coordinate efforts and projects and to prevent duplication of efforts. It is most difficult, advises the respondent, to separate the work of the local unit, the Florida Federation, and the National Federation because each of these segments works with the other to achieve common goals. This organization is involved in interclub activities in that it is a part of the County Coalition for legislation which was formed to unite for the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment. ~timist Club of Tampa The Soroptimist Club of Tampa boasts of an international flavor for its organization in that the International Soroptimist Club has a member seated with the United Nations. Soroptimist of Tampa was founded in 1956 and has 25 active local members. The purpose of the club is to bring about community betterment and understanding, to promote high standards in business and professional life, and to advance international understanding, goodwill, and peace. Local clubs, including the Tampa unit, have helped to establish the Soroptimist Foundations "for charitable, scientific, literary or educa tional purposes, all for the public welfare." Fellowships of $2,500 are granted to women for graduate study in a

PAGE 100

89 university, and Grants-in-aid include varying amounts to women for advanced research, study or travel. The Tampa Club helps to sponsor a youth citizenship annual award which includes seventeen $1,000 awards on the regional level and $1,500 to the finalist. Criteria for Tampa memb e rship indicates that a woman must have executive status, must be the owner or co-owner of a business, and/or a professional. The local unit helps to publish the American Soroptimist Magazine and uses the Chamber of Commerce and the Presid e nts Round Table as clearinghouses. Suncoast Girl Scout Counci l The Suncoast Girl Scout Council was founded in March, 1912, and boasts of 6000 m e mb e rs in the Tampa branch. Four emphases that are interrelated make up the broad objectives, the scope, and the focus of the Girl Scout program. These emphases include helping the girl: (1) to deepen her awareness of self as a unique person of worth; (2) to relate to others with increasing skill, maturity and satisfaction; (3) to develop values which will give meaning and direction to her life; and (4) to contribute to her society through her own talents, and in cooperative effort with others. The four emphases offer for each girl opportunities for growth that are rich and varied and play a meaningful role in the lives of girls and women in our society.l 1 suncoast Girl Scout Council, Tampa Chapter, "Today's VisionTomorrow's World," Tampa, 1973, p. 1 (Mimeographed.)

PAGE 101

90 An underlying factor of the Girl Scout program is that it is an informal education program designed to meet the needs of individual girls and adults which will supplement formalized instruction in the h 1 h d t 1 sc oo ome, an comrnuni y. The Girl Scout Council Bulletin states, among its beliefs, the following: "W e also believe .. our plan for helping adults should make it possible for each one to learn what she needs and when she needs it, without wasting time on things she already kno ws 112 The organization's structure embraces Adult Services, a standing board committee which deals with training volunteers, the troop, the basis of girl involvement, which deals with her educational experience, and the Council, which i s responsible for the learning and sharing for adults as well as for girls. Experiences provided by the Council include basic troop leadership courses, advanced leader s hip courses, roundtables, program and activity workshops, basic troop camping, experienced camping and workshops, advanced outdoor skills, aquatic courses, and admini s trative courses. Many opportunities of learning are provided for the adult and what ever she chooses to follow may be personalized for her. 3 Camperships are made available for girls who need assistance in attending summ er camp programs. There are aiso wider opportunities directed toward broadening the educational horizon which girls may apply for on the national and international levels. 1 suncoast Girl Scout Council, Tampa Chapter, "Educating in Girl Scouting," Tampa, 1973, p. 1. (Mimeographed) 2rbid. 3 rbid.

PAGE 102

91 Membership is open to all girls, beginning at age 6, and to women and men who serve as volunteers, and the work in e ducation is done on a continuing basis in that the troops meet during th e entire school year and the Council camps operate during the summer. R e gional and national training ev e nts are held year-round for adults. The evaluation syst e m is on-going in that events, courses, and work of troops are e valuated at the close of each, and an effort is underway, as a result of a man a gem e nt review, to improve coordin a tion of activities, and to impl e m e nt recommendations from a co mm itte e on structure. Interclub educational activities show work of the Suncoast Girl Scout Council with nine groups: (1) The National Conference of Christians and Jews co-sponsors workshops; (2) The Tampa Fed e ration of Garden Clubs co-sponsors troo p s; (3) The Kiw a nis Club work s at c a m ps; (4) The League of Wom e n Voters instructs the tr o ops in gove r nm e nt; (5) The Audobon, Sierra and Save-our-Bay instruct the troops on envi r onment; (6) The Community Coordinating Council of the United Fund cooperat e s in planning; (7) The Boy Scouts co-sponsor activities; (8) The Churches sponsor troops; and the schools provide meeting plac e s for troops. The Suncoast Girl Scout Council is now beginning to present for e most authoriti es on vital subj e cts in order to share an equally sponsored platform. Two subjects under consideration are the Equal Rights Am e nd ment and water quality. Tampa Junior Wo m an's Club The Tampa Junior Woman's Club, founded in 1955, consist s of approxi mately 60 active young women who are wives, mothers, and career girls of diverse talents, and who are bound together by a common interest in

PAGE 103

92 serving others. Two purposes underlie the specific endeavors of this group: (1) Helping the community as a whole; (2) Helping th e youth, who are tomorrow's citizens, by enriching their lives in a variety of ways. Educational experiences provided by this organization consist of a program involving speakers at each monthly meeting, fil ms panel dis cussions, and/or field trip excursions. Some workshops are conducted for members only and others for the general public. These shops, becau se of the club's interest and support, have included information on Self-Protection for Women, Defensiv e Driving, Drug Abuse, Arts and Crafts, Theater Arts, and Environmental Protection. The group has made presentations for SE RVe an organiz ation de si gned to help the public schools by providing talented and experienced speakers and craftsmen, and has also operated cameras for Television Station WEDU. Tampa Junior Woman's Club, which is designed to promote educational improvem e nts, supports the Ashwood Cottage at the Sun land Training Center in Gainesville, Florida, and has won awards as follo ws : (1) The Shell Oil Award for Education for six consecutive years, and in 1969 was selected the club with th e most outstanding education program in the nation. (2) The Shell Oil Second Place Award in 1970 for outstanding work in education. (3) The Sears Foundation Improvement Program second place award for work in education. (4) In two years, the club won $ 9 ,800 for their educational en deavor with the Juvenile Homes. All of this money was put back to work for education in the community.

PAGE 104

93 This club provides scholarships for the Tampa Oral School for the Deaf, founded by this organization and was the sole means of support until Federal funds were obtained. The organization founded the Hillsborough County Juvenile Homes Volunteer Auxiliary and contributed several thousand dollars and thousands of volunteer hours to the Hillsborough County Juvenile Homes. In connection with the Juvenile Home work, Tampa Junior Woman's Club raised the money to build the Edith Fichter Chapel at Lake Magdalene Juvenile Home and because of the Chapel's interest and support, a full time coordinator was hired by the division of Children's Services Taropa Junior Woman's Club gives the Smoky Bear conservation and safety education program for pre-school children, which is an annual event seen by over 7000 four and five year olds each fall. The club originated "Just for Juniors," a concert given by the Gulf Coast Symphony for all junior high school students. Tampa Junior Woman's Club works the cam e ras for WEDU one day a week and supports this station financially. Study Action Groups and the use of lecturers constitute the main structure of the club to promote educational improvements. Specifically, six departments--Conservation, Home Life, Education, Fin e Arts, Public Affairs, and International Affairs--cover all phases of educatio n and aid the members in getting the work in education done. In addition to work in the departments, members work on main projects in addition to working in special interest areas. Young women between the ages of 18 and 35 may be sponsored for membership. A candidate for membership must be a registered voter and a resident of Greater Tampa for one year prior to admission into the club. A member must resign at the end of the club year when she reaches age 40.

PAGE 105

94 The projects selected by the club determine whether or not the work will be done on a continuing basis; however, some work in education is engaged in at al l times. The program is evaluated at the end of each year by the general membership and the executive board. This club is a member of the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs and all members of this group work together throu gh out th e state. This sort of association enables the organization to carry on interclub edu cational activities. Tampa Music T eac hers Association The Tampa Music Teachers Association was founded in 1920 and has approximately 25 to 30 members who express the purpose of the organiza tion by working with the youth of Tampa in order to guide them through th e "various chann e ls of music" and to teach them concert appearance poise, leadership and sportsmanship in contests In addition, the group sponsors scholarships and helps support a Korean o rp hanage. Educational improv e ment is promoted through maintaining and raising teaching standards by sponsoring and attending workshops with well-known teachers and lecturers. Experiences in education are provided through opportunities for stu dents to appear on the concert stage, to serve as leaders in official capacities in the Junior Friday Morning Musicale, to engage in private recitals, to engage in District and State music contests, and to parti cipate in ju nior and senior high school music contests. Criteri a for membership involves being a member of the Florida Music Teachers Association, being a resident of Tampa, and an active music teacher for several years.

PAGE 106

95 The work in education continues throughout the year and includes two publications: (1) The Tampa Music Teach e rs Association Yearbook (2) The Membership Directory. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the educational program is done by Adjudicators from the National Guild of Piano Teachers and by District and State presidents and directors of music associations. Noteworthy guest speakers are invited to periodic lunch e on meetings and present information on vital subjects in music education. Tampa Pharmaceutical Association The Tampa Pharmaceutical Association is an organization which unites and improves the profession of Pharmacy and which helps to educate about pharmacy and promote it in the community. This organization works closely with the Florida Pharmaceutical Association whose President made recently th e following statement: Our Association is a pow erf ul f o rce in guiding th e proper deliv ery of drugs to the citizens of Florida. Time and again, we have successfully altered the direction of policy making decisions when we found they were not in keeping with the existing needs. Our influ ence is deriv ed from a vast expe rience and knowledge that we hold and are prepared to offer when it is needed. What a privil ege to be a part of this profession which is dedicated to better health for all. What a privilege to take part in assuring ourselves and our nation of a better way of life.l Educational experiences provided by this organization and set forth by the respondent include the making of leaflets on poison centers; the making of antivenin lists; the sponsoring of Poison Prevention Campaigns 1 John Davies, "The President Speaks," Florida Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol. 38, No. 5 (May, 1974), p. 2.

PAGE 107

96 in the schools; the making of pois on center directories for mothers; the sponsoring of a methadone center for work with addicts designed to teach them what not to do; the sponsoring of a student loan fund; the sponsoring of a scholarship fund for college students; and the sponsoring of four high school students annually at the University of Florida College of Pharmacy. The Tampa organization was founded in 1934 and has 47 members. Any woman engaged in the pharmaceutical profession or who has a husband in the field is admitted to membership. All work in education is done on a continuing basis and includes the dissemination of helpful health materials, the presentation of puppet shows which tell stories about poison to children, and which give them warnings regarding playing with medicinal products. Work in evaluation is done through the taking of a poll in the city schools to determine the number of persons who have benefited from th e program. Women's Equity Action League The Women's Equity Action League, Tampa Chapter of the Florida Division, has 50 local active members and was founded in 1971. In carrying out its purpose, elimination of sex discrimination, WEAL has filed charges against local employers who have been accused of practicing sex discrimination, has written lette rs to local and federal government offici als and legislators pr omoting passage of legislation to e liminate sex discrimination, an d has sent lobbyists to Tallahassee and Washington. The organization selects speakers who read and interpret Federal

PAGE 108

97 and State laws pertaining to sex discrimination to employers organiza tions, and other groups. WEAL publishes a monthly newsletter, works on a continuing basis, and welcomes to membership any woman who is interested in the purpose of the organization. This group works with other women's organizations to promote the Equal Rights Amendm e nt. Women in Communications According to the respondent, the purpose of the organization--Women in Communications is to bring together professional persons in the com munications fieldstelevision, radio, public relations, and jou rnalism The local unit in Tampa is composed of 60 members who work with the regional and national groups in communications and who provide educational experiences through promoting a speakers' bur ea u for students, giving scholar ships to college students, joining coalitions, and endorsing legis lation. This organization was founded in 1964 and accepts members who have to their credit two years of professional work in communications or who were affiliated with a communications program during their college career. The group presents speakers on important issues regularly for nine months each year and provides annual scholarships. Contributions are made to Matrix, the national professional magazine, and the Presi d ents Round Table serves as their clearinghouse. The interclub activities designed to unite the community for peace, health, public affairs, and better human relations include an annual celebrity luncheon, during which outstanding speakers in journalism are

PAGE 109

98 presented, money is raised for the scholarship program, and awards are given to outstanding women in the Tampa area. The group has joined the ERA (Equal Rights Amendment) Coalition in order to cooperate in getting legislation passed. zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Incorporat e d The respondent for the Tampa organization of Z e ta Phi Beta Sorority introduces concepts in the details of her questionnaire that serve as a framework of a way of life that will be of value to all people. The purpose of the organization is to promote the cause of education by: encouraging the highest standards of scholarship, uplifting worth while projects on college campuses and within the community, and f ostering "Finer Womanhood." Zeta Phi Beta was founded in 1920 and there are 50 active local mem bers who help to promote such educational exp e rience s as the awarding of scholarships and the promotion of educational workshops and seminars; educational exhibits from colleges and universities; tutorial programs; and cultural programs along with the dissemination of educational literature. The organization is structured to promote educational improvement in that it delegates to the National Second Vice-President the responsi bility for disseminating guidelines which will aid all chapters in promoting educational improvement projects and programs in their communities. This work is done through newsletters, workshops, speakers, and committees. Criteria for membership, that opens the door to Zeta Phi Beta, admit undergraduate women students matriculating in an accredited college or university, graduate women who have been initiated during undergraduate

PAGE 110

99 study, or who are graduates of an accredited college or university, and who maintain a "B" average or above. Educational ser vices along with scholarship and fellowship programs are continuous in that th is work is done on an annual basis. An evaluative study of the Zeta Scholarship and Educational Services program is done through a questionnaire which is sent to all chapters annually and which requests a follow-up study of all recipients of schol arshi p and fellowship awards Handbooks published by the org an ization enable a ll segments to work together for conmon o bjec tiv e s--scholarship, finer w omanhood, and edu cational services. The Zeta Phi Beta Sorori ty feels that it can best obt ai n its goals through affiliating wi th organizations with similar objectives. To this end, Zeta participates with other or gan izations in such ac tivities as the March of Dim es the United Fund, and the Me ntal Health Drives. The Zeta platform provides for a Human and Civil Rights Committee that presents foremost authorities on vital subjects to dev e lop enlightened public opinion. Members of the Epsilon Beta Z e ta Chapter of zeta Phi Beta Sorority held a scholarship workshop in Plant City, Florida, in May, 1974, at the Haines Street Recreation Cent e r. The second Anti-Basilus of Zeta, Tam pa Florida, served as Workshop Director and was assisted by consultants and hostesses numbering 28 persons attending from Bethune Cookman College, Daytona Beach, Florida; University of South Florida, Tampa; Florida State University, Tallahassee; Hillsborough Community College, Ta mpa ; and Plant City High School. 1 1 Article in a Newspaper, Florida Sentinel Bulletin, May 4, 1974, p. 7.

PAGE 111

100 The Communicator, a publication sent out periodically from the office of the Second Anti-Basilus, Zeta Phi Beta Tampa, Florida, disseminates information concerning educational services, scholarship awards, and financial aid. Section 3 Characteristics of Individual Organizations This section is designed to discuss and analyze the data that will serve to answer the twenty questions asked in Chapter III. Answers to these questions will help to underscore the contributions that are being made to education by twenty-seven women's organizations and to emphasize the work of these groups in relation to their goals and to show how the women have combined community service with active involvement and leadership in club work. Question l How important are the demographic factors in determining participation in women's organizations? Alice Rossi, professor of sociology at Goucher College, Baltimore, Maryland, in her article on "Discrimination and Demography Restrict Opportunities for Academic Women," has written as follows: Much of the great increase in the numbers of older married women in the labor force over the last 20 years is rooted in the peculiarities of the demographic structure of the American population during these particular years. Up to 1 940 the traditional source of the female labor force had been young unmarried women. During the 1950s and early 1960s, a pattern of earlier marriages developed and schooling was extended, thus shrinking the size of the available labor pool of unmarried women It would be comforting to believe that the shift in women's emp lo yment over the past 25 years with an increasingly

PAGE 112

101 large proportion of married older women in the work force, was essentially due to changes on the supply side of the economic equation, with women pressing for entry and seeking wider horizons than those provided b y the home and family. 1 The writer believes that demographic factors today have very little meaning in determining participation in women's organizations and that there is little relationship, if any, between these factors in club life and those in the labor force as expressed by Rossi. Clubwomen today appear not to be restricted in their club activities by age, education, marriage, or by children. Earlier in this chapter the reader was referred to tables which indicate that in re f erence to the respondents for this survey that 74 percent of the group have children, that 90 offices represent the total number held by the group, that educational experience ranges from the high school level to the master's level, and that persons in the group ranging in age from 26 to over 60 hold offices. Question 2 What is the character of the educational reading engaged in by the respondents? Reading interests of respondents show that the average number of reading materials reported by respondents is 4.09. Two or more members of the group report the following materials on their reading lists: (1) American Association of University Women's Journal (2) Biographies 1 Alice Rossi, "Discrimination and Demography Restrict Opportunities for Academic Women," College and University Business, Vol. 48, No. 2, (Feb., 1970), pp. 75-76.

PAGE 113

(3) Booklist (4) Consumer's Guide (5) Daily Newspapers 102 (6) Delta Kappa Gamma Periodicals and Papers (7) Forbes (8) Horn Book (9) Library Journal (10) National Geographic Magazine (11) News Magazines (12) Newsweek (13) Professional Journals (14) Psychology Today ( 15) Reader's Digest (16) Tampa Tribune (17) Time Magazine ( 18) Wall Street Journal The list emphasizes reading of Club Journals, Special Interest Books, News Magazines and papers, and Professional Books. Question 3 In which organizations do the respondents hold membership? Two or more of the respondents belong to the following organizations: (1) American Association of University Women (2) Audobon Society (3) National Council of Negr o Women (4) Business and Professional Women's Club (5) Classroom Teachers Association

PAGE 114

103 (6) Delta Kappa Gamma (7) League of Women Voters (8) National Education Association (9) School Enrichment Resource Volunteers (SERVe) In addition to those organizations mentioned above the following were mentioned by other respondents and deserve special mention because of the nature of the work of each of the following club groups: (1) Association for Children with Learning Disabilities (2) Citizens Alert (3) Elementary Librarian's Association (4) Florida Association of Media Experts (5) Florida Conservation Coalition (6) Florida Education Association (7) Florida Library Association (8) Florida Retired Teachers Association (9) Florida State Music Teachers Association (10) Friends of the Library (11) Hillsborough County Federation of Women's Clubs (12) Ins urance Women of Tampa (13) National Association o f Human Rights Workers (14) National Organization for Women (15) Tampa Urban League (16) Women's Equity Action League (17) Young Women's Christian Association Qu estion 4 What official club experiences have the respondents engaged in?

PAGE 115

104 Table 2 indicates that twenty-two percent of the respondents, ranging in age from 36 to over 60, have held or are holding a total of 61 offices in community organizations. Table 4 shows that 87 percent of the women have had some college training and that 61 percent were graduated from college, while 18 percent have completed the Master's d e gree. This group has held or is holding a total of 80 offices. Question 5 Which women's organizations have been most influential in solving county-wide problems? Women's organizations voted most influential by "Tampa 23": (1) Tampa Branch Parent-Teacher Association of Florida (2} League of Women Voters (3) American Association of University Women (4) Junior League of Tampa (5) Tampa Junior Woman's Club (6) National Organization for Women (7) Women's Equity Action League (8} Delta Sigma Theta Sorority (9) Tampa Music Teachers Association (10) Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority (11) Delta Kappa Gamma Society (12) Zeta Phi Beta Sorority Number of Votes 13 9 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

PAGE 116

105 Question 6 What ar e the most important educational projects that have been resolved in the past or that must be resolved in the future? The follo wing projects were identified by the respondents: (1) Working with drug addicts (2) School desegregation (3) Establishment of state standards for child care faciliti e s (4) Comprehensiv e servi c es for the mentally and emotionally distur b e d child (5) Incre ased services for special education for exceptional st udents (6) More couns e lors in elementary schools (7) Busing (8) The closing of Mississippi Ave nu e in Tampa (9) The preservation and beautification of "New Suburb Beautiful" (A residential section in Tampa) (10) Instilling in youn gsters an awareness of the Number o f Votes 1 4 1 1 1 2 5 1 1 importance of participation in their governm e nt 1 (11) The cutting back of the social studies programs in the high school system (The respondent objects to this plan.) 1 (12) Seeing that each child is receiving tl1e best education possible regardless of race, color, or creed 1

PAGE 117

106 (13) Career awareness and information for male and female students (14) Sex bias in grammar school books (15) Testing procedures and grading (16) Pollution (17) Consolidation (18) Prison Reform (19) Age and sex discrimination (20) Utilization of school buildings (21) Discipline in the schools (22) Increasing proficiency in the basic educational areas (23) Placing qualified people in all positions regardless of race, creed, or color (24) Collective bargaining (25) Encouragement of better law enforcement (26) Equal Rights Amendment (27) Early admission to college (28) Length of school term Question 7 Number of Votes 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 How can organizations help to resolve problems and issues? Are there plans for resolvableness? The following work is being done by the twenty-seven Tampa organizations to help resolve problems:

PAGE 118

107 (1) "We work on all drug problems that enter the Tampa Bay area." "We operate 'Th e Door' for people hooked on drugs." (This is a place that lends help to addicts .) (2) "We educate the public on poison and old pills or prescriptions in medicine cabinets." (3) "We work with school boards and state and national legislators to promote better schools. "We urge all individual PTA's to work within their communities toward our goals." (4) "We try to instill in youngsters an awareness of the importance of participation in their government. "We plan a series of Cassette films, produced in conjunction with the school system to meet the above named need." (5) "We have various monthly speakers who keep us advised on subjects of interest." (6) "Our organization is working on career counseling and guidance. "We are setting up a resource center in the library and are hoping to work with counselors in schools." (7) "We are going to continue being a part of the dissenting public and seek proper support from the citizenry of legislation that will help to alleviate issues of community concern." (8) "We have filed charges against local employers who have been accused of practicing sex discrimination. "We write letters to local and governmental officials and legislators promoting passage of legislation to eliminate sex discrimination." "We send lobbyists to Tallahassee and Washington for the above purpose."

PAGE 119

108 (9) "We can help by helping the public to understand the problems and ther e by gain sup p ort for legislation." (10) "We sponsor a tutorial program." Question 8 What are the purpos e s of the organ i za t ions? In Secti o n 2 o f this Chapt e r, the purpose of ea ch organiz a tion is given in a narr a tive account of the work of that organization. This section will mention especially a few of those in order to emphasiz e the high purposes for which these organizations stand. (1) "The purpose is to cherish an d enrich the h e ritag e of freedom and progress b y workin g for the integration of all people." (2) "To promote d e mocratic principles of candidates." (3) "To promote an interest in home and civic beautification." (4) "To pr om ote creative and educational activities in Art, Letters, and .Music." (5) "To promote active and informed citizen participation in governm e nt." (6) "To promote the elimination of sex discrimination." (7) "To elevate the status of women in busin e ss and in the professions." (8) "To join women in ex e cutive positions to use their knowledge for better services to the community." (9) "To promote the welfare of children and youth." (10) "To promote high scholastic achievement." Question 9 What kinds of educational experiences are pr o vid e d through the organizations?

PAGE 120

109 This question is answered in detail in Section 2. The writer will review some of these experiences in this section: (1) The sponsoring of Study Groups (2) The making of Scholarship Awards ( 3) The promotion of spea k ers bure a us ( 4) The sp onsori ng of concert appearances for individual (5) The sponsoring of District and State Music Contests ( 6) The sponsoring of poison prevention cam pa igns ( 7) The spons or ing of seminars and works hops ( 8) The sponsoring of "Go See" trip s ( 9 ) The monitoring of school board meetings (10) The spon sori ng of loans and grants programs students (11) The sponsoring of female students on th e Florida State University campus in cooperation with the Southern Scholar shi p and Research Foundation (12) The sponsoring of grants, loans and fellowships through work with a Nationa l Foundation Question 1 0 Which organizational l eade rs have influence with state leaders through whom they can get work done? (1) C. Bette Wimbish M use, a ranking Negro officer in state gov e rnm e nt who has worked to get funded a clerical consortium designed to train entry l e vel cler ic al personnel. It is known as Project Delta (D e veloping Exce ll ence Leadership, Talent, and Abilities)

PAGE 121

110 ( 2 ) Attorney Doris Dudney who is responsible for getting Federal funds for establishing c lubs for girls. (3) Evelyn Allgood, Chairman o f the Legislative Co mmittee and who attends workshops, initi ates movements by which m embe rs write legislators for the purpose of having th em endorse certain bills for the improvement of educat io nal procedures. (4) Juanita Goodbread library supervisor, who organized the li brarians in Hill sb orough County. (5) Mrs Karl King, president of the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs. Qu estio n 11 When were the organizations fo u nded and H o w many l ocal members do they have? Year and Number of Local Organizations Founded 1 912 1 1947 1 1917 1 1954 1 1920 3 1956 1 1924 1 1958 1 1926 1 1959 1 1 934 1 1963 1 1 935 1 1964 1 1 940 1 1970 1 1941 1 1971 2 The loc al organizations have memberships ranging from 24 to 6,000 memb er s. Section 2 gives in each narrative the founding year and the number of members in each group.

PAGE 122

111 Question 12 What are the criteria for membership, and Is the work in education done on a continuing basis? See Section 2 for complete answers to this question for each org anization. This section will give an overview of the criteria and a summary statement regarding how the work in education is done. Criteria for membership: (1) "A morally responsible woman whose ideals and ambitions coin cid e wi t h the purpose of the organization." (2) "Any woman engaged independently or through employment in any office selling or serving insurance of any type shall be eligible for active membership. (3) "A woman holding a baccalaureate or higher degree from an institution on the American Association of University Women's list of qualified institutions, or a degree from a foreign institution recognized by the International Federation of Univ ers ity Women." (4) "Full membership is open to any woman 18 years of age or over, and who is a citizen of the United States." (5) "Full membership is open to a woman of executive status who owns or co-owns a business." (6) "A person seeking membership must pursue a four year college course and have an average of 2.5 or above." (7) "The person seeking membership must be a member of the Davis Island Yacht Club."

PAGE 123

112 (8) "Membership is open to all girls, beginning at age 6." Twenty-four respondents report th a t the work of their organization is done on a continuing basis. Question 13 What are some of th e organization al publications? Section 2 assigns the publications to each organization. This section will give a general statement about publications and list a few for general information. The respondents report 26 publications that are d o ne at the local l e vel. The following are extracted from the list: (1) Th e Negro Heritage Series (2) Newsletters (3) D elta Ka ppa Gamma Bu ll etin (4) American Asso ciation of U niversi ty Women's Journal (5) Delta Journal (6) Today's Insurance Wom e n (7) A Guide to the Government of Hillsborough County (8) Sandspur (9) Tampa, A Town on Its Way (10) The Gasparilla Cook Book Question 14 How is organizational effectiveness evaluated? (1) "Our program is evaluated at the end of each year by our general membership and our executive board."

PAGE 124

113 (2) "The program coordinator has a written questionnaire for evaluation." (3) "We use a panel of evaluators who are all professionals in their field." (4) "A questionnaire is sent to all chapters, regions, and states. "This questionnaire requests a follow-up study of all recipients of scholarship or fellowship awards." (5) We have an on-going evaluation system." (6) "We have an end of the year evaluation meeting ." (7) "We evaluate according to the way our legislative delegation votes." (8) "Our evaluation is done by ad judic ators from the Nati onal Guild of Piano Teachers." Question 15 Is there a clearinghouse for women's groups in the community? Fourteen respondents report that their organization s use the Presidents Round Table as a clearinghouse. One organization uses the Florida Sailing Women's Association, and one other uses the Federation of Gard e n Clubs. Question 16 Do all segments of an organization work togeth e r for common obj ectives coordinate activities, and cooperate for mutual benefit? Reports on twenty-five organizations were in the affirmative.

PAGE 125

114 Question 17 Which leaders have strong city-wide influence? Number Votes Received (1) Elfa Ruffin, Basilus, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority 1 (2) Fran Davin, Representative for Equal Rights Amendment 5 (3) Anita Berry, Presidents Round Table 2 (4) Marian Boss, Credit Women of Tampa 1 (5) Lee de Cesare, National O rganiza tion for Women 4 (6) Mia Hardcastle, Environmentalist 3 (7) Jan Platt, Citizens Alert 1 (8) Cecile Essrig, Chairman, School Board 4 (9) Lisa Gorham, American Association of University Women 2 (10) Jessie L. Artest, Vice-Grand Basilus, Zeta Sorority 1 (11) Ellen H. Gr e en, National Council of Negro Women 1 (12) Altamese Hamilton, Hillsborough Community College 1 (13) Von Kerick, National Organization for Women 4 (14) Pat Frank, School Board Member 2 (15) Doris Dudney, Attorney 3 (16) Mrs. Karl King, Florida Federation of Women's Clubs 2 (17) Mrs. G. M. Nye, Tampa Civic Association 1 (18) Mrs. W. F. Hunter, Tampa Civic Association 1 (19) Mogul Dupree, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority 2 (20) Evelyn Allgood, Retired Teachers of Hillsborough County 1

PAGE 126

115 Question 18 How are organizations structured to promote edu cational improve ment? (1) "We have a continuous five-point program which promotes educational improvement in the areas of health, education, social action, internati ona l relations and housing." (2) "Our work is done through five chairmen: Horticulture, Junio r Gardening, Visiting Gardens; Anti-Litter and Anti-Pollution." (3) "We study, educate ourselves, educate the public, share our findings with pertinent governm en t officials and lobby at local, state, and national level s to attain our goals." (4) "We send students to college through scholarships, we have a student loan fund, and sponsor four high school students at the University of Florida College of Pharmacy ." (5) "Our org aniza tion is structured throu gh the following committees: Project Research Committee, Education Corrrrnittee, Environment Committ ee Provisional Education Committ ee, and the Public Affairs Committee." Question 19 Are interclub activities in existence for uniting the community for peace, health, and public affairs? (1) "We work with other clubs to de ve lop 'Girls clubs' which give young girls (ages 8-18) a better foundation for good citizen ship.

PAGE 127

116 (2) "We affiliate with other organizations with similar objectives." (3) "We work with the National Council of Chri s tians and Jews, the Tampa F ed9r ation of Garden Clubs, the Kiwanis Club of Tampa, the L eag ue of Women Voters, and others." (4) "W e cooperate with the Public Health D epartm ent, the public schools, the Police Department, Drug Abuse, and all other groups who work with children." Question 20 Is ther e a platform sponsored equally by all groups to present foremost authorities? In answer to this question, thirteen voted~ and 9 vo t ed no. One r espondent answered that the question do es not apply.

PAGE 128

CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of this studywas to inv e stigate the curr en t natu re and extent of the contribution s of women's org aniza tio ns to education by studying a sel e cted number of such organiz a tions in Tampa, Florida. The organizations were examined in order to disco ve r the extent to which each shows an interest in one or more of the follo w ing areas: (1) The spo nsoring of scholarship and loan funds (2) The conducting of educational progr ams (3) The studying of educational problems (4) The promoting of educational legisl ation Summary of Educa tional Contributions o f Women's Organizations in the study The educational contributions of twenty-s eve n women's organizations in Tampa, Florida, were determined through questionnaires completed by representative s of the organizations. Official publications of the organizations were also used to determine educational contributions. These educational activities are summarized below: Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority (G amma Theta Omega Chapte r ) (1) Conducts visits to places having educational interest. (2) Holds joint meetings with under-graduates at the University of South Florida. 117

PAGE 129

118 (3) Promotes counseling. (4) Holds tutorial s es sions. Altrusa C lub of Tampa (1) Provides graduate scholarships for foreign women. (2) Provides financial help to local women w ho need help in acquiring or improving a skill. Amaryllis Garden Circle (1) Teach es gardening principles to youn g people. (2) Presents the Horticulture chairman in a monthly lecture to the membership on what to plant, when to plant, when to cut back, and when to spray. American Association of University Wom e n This organization supports measures that provide for: (1) Childr e n, everywhere, the opportunities and facilities to enable them to develop physically, mentally, morally, and soci a lly. (2) Elimination of discrimina tion (3) Cooperation with the Florida Commis si on on the Status of Women. (4) Finan c ial aid for resources a nd community programs in early childhood education and dev e lopment. (5) Assistance to the educationally depriv e d. (6) Develo pmen t of programs to solve educational needs. (7) Funding of programs for vocational, technical and continuing education. (8) Funding of educational programs.

PAGE 130

119 (9) Orderly establishment of new institution s of high er learning. (10) Measures to extend and improve library f ac iliti es (11) The increase of cultural and educational us e of T.V., radio, film and othe~ media of communication. (12) Scholarship aid. Citizens Alert (1) Directs six court observers selected from the org an ization. (2) Dir e cts bus tours which include the Police Department, th e Sheriff's Office, and the Criminal division of the Circuit Court. (3) Directs Bi-Ra c ial Committees of the Junior and Senior high schools of H illsborough County. (4) Dir ects work with the Help Stop Crim e Committee. (5) Conducts seminars on residential burglary, commercial burglary, and rape. (6) Participates in the Law Enforcement Appreciation Dinn e r. (Design e d to show appreciation for the work and d e dication of the law enforcem en t personnel.) (7) Participates in the Tampa Bay Institute on Criminal Justice sponsored by the National Conference of Christians and Jews. (8) Organizes hand gun safety classes that are held weekly at the Police Pistol Range. (9) Holds weekly meetings with 10 girls from Madison Junior High School who are potential drop-outs. (Th ese meetings are designed to give these girls a sens e of their worth and encourage them to continue in their school courses.)

PAGE 131

120 (10) Attends the recruitment orientation sessions at the University of South Florida. Davis Island Yacht Club Dinghy Dam es Conducts sailing clinics design e d to t each persons how to sail and race, and ho w to interpr e t racing rules and regulations. Delt a Kappa Gamma Soc iety (1) Provides schol a rships. (2) Establishes e ndo wme nts for schola rs hip s (3) Provides teachers for the college of the Navah o Indians throu gh the International Organization with which Delta Kappa Gamma works. ( 4 ) Sponsors desirable le gislation. (5) Informs membership of current issues. Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, In c or por ated (Tampa A lu mnae Chapter) (1) Promotes and encourages achievement in education by granting scholarships and other assistance to worthy and deserving person s. (2) Presents Voices, Inc., a Negro group which depicts the history of the Negro American thr ough profes s ional song and danc e (3) Promotes educational improve men t in the areas of health, education, and s ocia l action. Girls Clubs of Tam p a, Incorporated The group is involved in: (1) Cooking. (2) Sewing.

PAGE 132

(3) Arts and Crafts. (4) Music and dance. (5) Charm. (6) Personal health care. 121 (7) Field trips throughout the community. (8) Counseling in family life. (9) Career interests. (10) Sex education. (11) Drug abuse prevention. (12) Social relationships. Hillsborou gh County D emoc r a ti c Wom e n' s Club ( T ampa Branch ) (1) Studies community issu es presents ma jor view points and hen takes a stand. (2) Cooperates with the program and legi slative committees who work to gethe r to d eterm ine the best methods of presenting information from study group s. (3) Condu c ts s e minars in campaign skills. (4) Expresses strong int ere st in envir o n men tal problems. (5) Expresses intere s t in in f or ma tiv e a nd in s tru c ti ve pro grams In s urance Women o f Tampa Encourages and fost e rs practica l a nd c o or d in a t e d ed u ca tional programs designed to broad e n t he k no wl ed ge o f its m e mb ers concerning the business of insurance. Junior Lea g u e of Tampa, Incorporat ed (1) Schedules speakers for career days at three sixth grade centers.

PAGE 133

122 (2) Schedules an art day involving volunteers in all cla sse s at an elem e ntary school. (3) Operates a SERVe booth at the Junior Museu m Spring Art Festival. (SE RVe School Enrichment Resource Volunt e er) (4) Honors SER V e volunteers and the Vo lunte er of the Year at a reception given by the Tampa Junior Woman's Club. League of Women Voters of Hillsborough County ( Tampa Chapt e r) (1) Supports study programs/Action groups. (2) Provides seminars workshops, and professional academic meetings. (3) Provides Go-See trips to inform membership. (4) Provides an observer corps on long-term basis. monitoring of school board me e tings.) (Th is in v olve s (5) Supports measures which encourage exc e llence in teaching. (6) Offers incr eased appropriations to vocational-technical programs. (7) Provides a coordinating board for all components of public education--K-12, vocational-technical, junior college and higher education. (8) Prov ides for an informed and active p articipation of citizens in governm e nt. (9) Presents casse tt e films to increase intere s t in social studies programs. Manhattan Elementary School Parent -T eachers A s s ociation (1) Works with school b oards, and s ta te and nationa l l e gislators to promote better schools.

PAGE 134

123 (2) Encourages parents to tutor students at school on a one to one basis. (3) Conducts Forums and Study Courses to acquaint parents and teachers with new methods. National Council of Negro Women The group provides: (1) Volunteer servic e to the job corps for the under pr ivil eged school drop-outs, and un-wed mothers. (2) Contribution s to Sesame Street, a program for pre-schoolers. (3) Contr ibut ions to youth groups seeking po liti ca l experience throu gh trips to state and national governmen ts. National League of America n Pen Women This group teaches people to write, paint, and to compose music through workshops with professional teachers. National Organ izat io n for Women (1) Sponsors law enforcement seminars. (2) Sponsors speakers who read and int erpret Federal and Sta te laws per taining to se x discri mination to employers, orga nizat ions, clubs, and others. (3) Writes lett er s to govern m ent officials and legislators promoting passag e of leg i slation to eliminate sex discrimina tion. Pilot Club of Ta mpa (1) Encourages i ts members to continue their o wn e duc ation and provides programs to assist them throughout the year.

PAGE 135

124 (2) Renders aid to hard-of-hearing children w h ose parents can not afford the expen s e of a hearing aid. (3) Makes contributions to the Ruby Newh a ll Scholarship Fund for foreign students to study in the United States. Seminole Business and Professional Club of Tampa (1) Started Career Advancem e nt Scholarships in 1969 to assist working women who needed additional training to qualify for a promotion, enter a new career field, or to obtain a job. (2) Awards Lena Lake Forrest Fellowships and Foundation Fellowships for graduat e research at the doctoral level on a subject concerning the interests of women who work. (3) Awards the Sally Butler International Scholarship to a Latin American Woman for graduate study in the United S t ates in a field which will benefit her home country. (4) Makes l oans and awards g r ants for research. (5) Conducts a thr ee-year program of training conf e rences designed to teach leadership and management techniques. Soroptimist Club of Tampa (1) Awards Fellowships. (Gran ts of $2,500 to women for g raduate study in a university.) (2) Awards Grants-i n-aid (Grants in varying amounts to women for advanced research, study, or travel.) (3) Sponsors the Youth Citizenship Annual Awa r d. (This aw a rd consists of seventeen $1,000 awards on th e Regional level and $1,500 to the finalist.)

PAGE 136

125 Suncoast Girl Scout Council This group is involved in: (1) Casting nets and fishing. (2) Laying trails drawing maps, playing gam es with girls. (3 ) Singing song s (4) Leading songs and games. (5 ) Developing values. ( 6) Teaching today's dances ( 7 ) Having fun with tape r e corders ( 8 ) P laying with puppets. (9) Teaching sailing. (10) Teaching guitar for beginners ( 11 ) Teaching bridge for beginner s (12) Teaching Yoga. ( 13 ) Camping in the Suncoast. ( 14 ) Studying indian lore (1 5 ) Teaching canoeing. Tampa Junior Woman's Club (1) Sponsors workshops on Defensive Driving Drug Abuse the Theater, Arts and Crafts Environmental Pr otection, and operates cameras for WEDU. ( 2 ) Supports Tampa J u nior Museum. ( 3 ) Provides scholarships for Tampa Oral School for the Deaf. ( 4) W o rks with Tampa Juvenile Homes. ( 5 ) Promotes Smokey Bear Conservation and Safety Education program for pre schoolers. ( 6 ) Sponsors "Just for Juniors" concert given by the Gulf Coast Symphony f o r all jun i or hi g h school students.

PAGE 137

126 Tampa Music Teachers Associa t io n (1) Provides appearances and training on th e conc er t stage for music students. (2) Provides l eadership training thro ugh giving Ju nio r Friday Mo rn ing M u s icale stud ents an o ppor tunit y t o serve as officers. (3) Provides training for private recitals an d music contests. Tamp a Pharma ce utical Ass ociation (1) Make s antiv eni n lists. (2) Makes l ea flets on poison centers. (3) Sp on s ors poiso n prevention c ampaigns in the schools. (4) Makes p oison center directori es for mothers (5) Sponsors a me th adone center fo r wor k with drug ad dicts. (6) Spon sors a stud e nt lo an fund. (7) Sponsors a scholarship fund for col l ege students. (8) Sponsors four high sc ho o l stud e nts annually at the Un ive rsity of Florida Coll ege of Pharmacy Women's Equity Action L eag u e E ducational experiences pr ov id ed are the same as for th e Nationa l Organization for Women. Wom e n in Communications (1) Promotes Speakers' Bureau for stude nts. (2) Giv e s scholarship s to coll ege students. ( 3 ) Join s coalition s (4) Endorses legislation.

PAGE 138

127 zeta Phi Bet a S orority, Incorpo rated ( 1) Conducts cultural and tutorial programs. ( 2) Disseminates literature. ( 3 ) Sponsors educational workshops and seminars. ( 4) Presents educ ati onal exhibits. (5) Awards scholarships. Summ ar y of Areas of Study The wom en 's organizations engaged in each of the four areas of educa t ional activities identified in this stu dy are list ed below: Area 1 The sponsoring of scholarship and loan funds ( 1 ) American Association of University Women (2) A l trusa Club (3) Delta Kappa Gamma ( 4 ) Delta Sigma Theta Sorority (5 ) League of Women Voters (6) Pilot Club of Tampa ( 7) S em inole Business and Professional Women's Club (8) Soroptimist Club (9) Tampa Junior Woman s Club (10) Tampa Ph a rm ac e utical Associati o n (11) Wo me n in Communications (12) Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Incorporated. Area 2 The conducting of educational programs ( 1 ) Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority (2) Amaryllis Garden Circle (3) American Association of University Women

PAGE 139

128 (4) Citizens Alert (5) Davis Island Yacht Club Din g hy Dames (6) Delta Kappa Gamma (7) Delta Sigma Theta Sorority (8) Hillsborough County Democratic Women's Club (9) Insurance Women of Tampa (10) Junior League of Tamp a (11) Leagu e of Women Vot e rs (12) Manhattan El e mentary School Parent-T e achers Association (13) Nation a l Council of N e gro Wo m e n (14) National League of Am e rican P e n Wom e n (15) National Organization for Wom e n (16) Pilot Club of Ta m p a (17) Seminole Busin e ss and Profe ss ion a l W ome n' s Club (18) Suncoa s t Girl Scout Council (19) T am pa Junior Woman's Club (20) Tampa Music Teachers' Association (21) Tampa Pharmaceutical A s s ociation (22) Women's Equity Action Leagu e (23) Women in Communications (24) Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc. Area 3 Th e studying of e d uc a tio n al problems (1) American Association of University Wom e n (2) Citizens Alert (3) Girls Clubs of Tampa, Inc. (4) Hillsborough County D e mocratic Women's Club (5) League of Women Voters

PAGE 140

129 ( 6) National Council of Negro Women (7) Tampa Pharmaceutical Association Area 4 The promoting of educational l eg isl a tion (1) American Association of University Wome n (2) Delta K appa Gamma (3) Hillsborough County Democratic Wom e n's Clw ) (4) Leagu e of Women Voters (5) Manhattan Elementary School Parent-Teachers A s s ociation (6) Nat io nal Organization for Women (7) Wom en 's E quity Action League (8) Wom e n in Co rrrrn unications Anal ysis o f Educational Activi ti es From the summary it can be seen that the most frequent or ga niz ati o n al activities a re as sociated with the conductin g of educational p rog rams (24). The second most freque n t is the spon s oring of scho lar s hip and loa n fund s (12), with the prom o ting of educational l eg isl a tion ( 8 ) and the s t u dyi ng of e ducati o nal prob le ms (7) receiving l e ss emph as i s Table 5 summarizes the organizations and the type of educational activities in which they are engaged Impl icat ions In view of the analyses mad e of data submitted by the 23 respond ents for 27 organizations regarding educational contributions, in Tam pa Florida, it is apparent that these groups are making an imp o rtant contri bution to education. It appears from the r e ports th a t the ac t i v ities of these clubwomen have been deeply rewardin g and enlightening to t he involved pe rs on s i n the Tampa Co mm unity.

PAGE 141

130 TABLE 5 ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR AREAS OF EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES Organizations Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority Altrusa Club of Tampa Amaryllis Garden Circle 1 X American Association of University Women X Citizens Alert Davis Island Yacht Club Dinghy Dames Delta Kappa Gamma Society X Delta Sigma Th e t a Sorority Inc. X Girls Clubs o f Tampa, Inc. Hillsborou gh County Democra tic Wom e n's Club (Tampa Chapter) Insurance Women of Tampa Junior League of Tamp a, Inc Leagu e of Women Voter s o f Hillsborough County Manhattan E l e mentary School Parent -T eachers Associ a tion National Council of N eg ro Women Nation a l League of American Pen Women NationaJ Organizati o n for Women Pilot C. 1. ub of T ampa Semi no l e Business an d Profe s sional C lub of Tampa Soroptimist Club of Tampa Suncoast Girl Scout Council Tampa Junior Woman's Club Tampa M u sic Teachers Association Tampa P ha rmaceutica l Ass o c i at ion Women's Equity Action L e ague Women in Co mmunicati o ns Zeta Fhi Beta Sorority, Inc Area 1 The Area 2 The Area 3 The Area 4 The sponsoring of scholarship and loan fu nd s conducting of educat ional program s studying of educational problems pro mot ing of educational legislation X X X X X X X X Areas 2 3 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 4 X X X X X X X X

PAGE 142

131 The observations made by the writer throu g h this study of club activities have brought to light certain accomplishments of th ese women's organizations as indicated in the follo wi ng list: (1) Programs to aid in participation in the Arts by the schools and the community. (2) Increased educational use of T.V., radio, film and other media of communication. (3) Incre ased study and work to improve th e status of women (4) Funding of educational programs. (5) Awarding of scholarships, fellowships, and gr a nts including loans to deserving persons. (6) Cooperation in the establishment of institutions o f higher learning. (7) Fund ing of p ro s; ra m s for vocationa l te ch nical and continuing education. (8) Continued work to solve educational problems (9) The rende r ing of assistance t o th e educationally deprived. (10) The supporting of measures to i mpr ove the quality of ju s tice and to reduce crime. Recommen da t ions The writer, in this study, has observed from the responses of Tampa Clubwom e n a desire on their part to make the work of th e ir organizations more effective and more visible in the community. The following recom mendations are made in order to aid clubwom e n in th e planning of strategy and futur e activities and in order to challenge them to continue their work in the proud tradition.

PAGE 143

132 It is easily perceived from the r epo rts given by the respondents that mechanisms for greater coordination of activities betw e en org an izatio n s need to be established and that more organi zations should become involved in interclub activitie s It is recommended that: (1) More conferences and conventions involving clubwomen be h e ld periodically in ord e r to make it convenient for women to dis cuss their activities and exchange ideas. S uch conf erences should involve club w o me n and oth er intere sted people in the community. Summer seminars could b e promoted for the pur pose of chan g ing attitudes of clubwom e n and of r ef o rming the process of education. (2) Interclub activities be encouraged thr ough the use of brochures used to describe th e activities of each org an i za tion and to encour age clo ser relationship bet ween gr ou ps (3) A clearinghous e b e used by all organiz a tions to fac i lit a t e the coordination of activities a n d to e n ab l e various o r ~J ani zat i ons to work in conce r t on c o mmon problems. If t he ex i s ting Presidents Round Table does not meet the ne ed of all organiza tions, consid er ation should be given to establishing some other type of clearinghouse for Hillsborou gh County. Such an organi zation could include members from clubs working on educational activities, from the school system, from the community in general, and from various church groups. It is a ppa rent that the scho ol board and other people involved in school work are not all familiar with the contributions that clubwomen are making to education. In order to eliminate this condition, the following recommendations are made:

PAGE 144

133 (4) That committees from the various clubs be appointed to work with state and national groups to co mp ile printed materials films, film strips and slides on the roles b e ing played by club o rga niz ations in the promoting of the work in education. (5) That representatives from th e school board an d others in school work be invited periodically t o vi ew such ma te r i als and to become acquainted w ith the education a l w ork involving clubwomen. Several respondents reported that their org a niz a tion s do n o t en ga ge in evaluative proc e dures. In order to improve the effectiveness of women's organizations it is recommended that: (6) A wom e n's lead er ship conference be held for members of the Preside nt s Round Tabl e and all officers of e a ch organi z ation for the purpose of sharing evaluation plans us e d by various groups and studying procedure s that will lead t o more effective evaluat i ons. Participants in the l e 0 der ship conference coul d pre.r a r e pamp h lets describing me th od s of e v alua t ion in use and guidelines to b e used in designing other ev a l ua tive procedures. Conclu sion Aft e r re viewing the data regarding the work of twenty-s e ven organi zations in Tampa, the writer has reach e d certain conclusions regarding the clubwomen and the organizations. 'she believes, first, th at the respondents are not limited in their activities by the length of time that they have liv ed in Tampa, by age, by education, by marital status, by occupation, nor by the number of children in the family. Each woman, regardle ss of these factors, appears to be able to give the time needed to serve well as a club leader in the Tampa Community.

PAGE 145

134 Each organization shows significant efforts in working with societal problems and is able to boast of a structure that enables it to plan and work well in making its contributions to education. The writer believes, further, that the work that these organizations are doing with American women will be a dynamic influ e nce in helping to create a better educational life for all citizens.

PAGE 146

APPENDIX A Letter to Club L eade rs Introduction to Q uestionn a i re Personal Charact e ri stics and Opinion Quest ionn aire

PAGE 147

13 6 Dear Cl ub Lead e r: Univ ersity of Florida Gain esville Flor i da 32611 April 29, 1 974 As a part of my res ear ch a t the Uni ve r sit y of Flori da I am m a king a study of the work o f women s organizations i n T ampa Florida To d o this, I need some in form a tion from you, as you ar e a ctiv e a nd informed about th e affai r s and or ganiza ti o n of yo ur club. I need your frank o p inion abo ut le adership in your gro u p and ab out it s contributions to e d u c ation. I realize th at many org a n iz a tions are in volved in varied ac t ivities ; ho wever I am int er ested only in th e contribution s th a t your or ganizati on makes to ed u ca tion. In th is conn e c tion, I w i sh to in vite yo u to atten d a mee t ing o f Tamp a c lub women at t he h ome of .Mrs Lis a G o rham 2610 Morri son A ve n u e in Tam pa according to th e sched u l e inclu ded in thi s l ett e r The purpose of thi s meeting will be t o brin g club l eade r s to ge th er so th at th ey may explain the nat u re and educational fun c tions of their clubs by fi llin g out a qu es tionn a ire t hat wi ll gi ve p e r t in en t in forma tion about th e ir club activiti es If a t all possible, p l ease bring to th e m ee ting copies of ed uc a tional pam ph let s a nd journals pub li shed by your group and any an n ua l reports that you think would b e helpful in i nterpreting your e d ucation a l role in the Tampa community. Mond a y, May 6 Tuesd ay May 7 W e dnesday, M ay 8 Sch e dul e of Me eti ngs 10-1 2 a m.; 35 p.m.; 7 : 3 0 -9:30 p.m. Same a s abov e Sam e as abo v e T h e two -ho ur sc h edule has been set up in or der to make a t tenda n c e convenien t for the r ep r e se ntati ves of the o rga niz a tion s It wil l not be neces sary for these repre se ntatives to remain in the m ee ting for a t wo hour period. To aid u s in prep a ring t h e r efreshments p l e ase call Mrs. Lisa Gorham at 253-3837 to t e ll u s th e day and tim e that will be conv e ni e nt for yo u to attend th e me e ting. I look f orward to s eei ng you at one of th e meetings and wish to thank you for your coop e ration. Very truly yo ur s (Miss) Frankye A. B e rry

PAGE 148

137 INTRODUCTI ON TO Q U E S T IONNAIRE As a par t of my work h e re at th e Univer sity of F lor ida I a m making a stud y of the work of w o m en s organiz at ions in Tampa, Florida. To do this, some information is ne eded from a number o f people like you who are actively info rme d abo ut the affairs and organizational li fe of clubs in Tampa. I n e e d y our frank opinion about l ead e rship in org aniza tions a n d about th e co n tribution s of thes e or ga ni zat i on s to educa ti o n. I r ea liz e th a t many of your organiz a tio ns ar e in v o lv e d in v aried activities; h ow ever, I am i nter es t e d o nl y in the c o ntri bu tion s th a t your org an izati o n m akes to e ducation. In thi s conn ec tion, will you please fill the questionnaire as compl ete ly an d acc ur a t e ly as p o s sibl e? I shall be grat e ful for your h e lp. Sincerely,

PAGE 149

138 A SURVEY STUDY OF A SELECTED GROUP of WOMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS IN TAMPA, F L ORI DA and THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATION Definition of Terms Survey--The survey method gathers data from a relatively large number of case s at a particular time It is conc erne d with the g en eralized statistics that result when data are abstracted from a number of individual ca ses It is essentially cross-sectional, and the sampling is meant to be char ac teristic of the whole. Wom e n's Organizations--In this study wom en s organizations will refer to those o rga nizations that have wome n in o f fi cial capacities in c luding all major offices, and whose memberships are predominately women. Contributions to Education--Organizations will be considered as making contributions to ed ucation when they help to promote the growth or expansion of knowledge, wisdom, desirable qualities of mind or character, or general competence through the sponsoring of scholarship and loan funds; when they provid e o r ass ist in pro v iding with knowledge or wisdom throu gh conduct ing educat io nal programs and studying educational problems; and w he n through the promotion of educational l e gi s lation, th ey condition people or persuade them to feel, believe, or react in a particular way through selective i n formation or knowle d ge. Types of organizations to be examined will in c lude the follo wi ng: (1) Organizations sponsoring scholarship and loan funds (2) Organizations conducting educational programs (3) Organizations studying educational problems (4) Organizations promoting educational legislation.

PAGE 150

139 Univ ers i t y of Flori da College of Education Cur ric ulum and In s truction Division P ERSONAL C HARACTERIST IC S AND OPINION QUESTIONNA I RE Your Com p l e te Name ------------------------------Name of Organization ----------------------------City State --------------------------------D a te -------------------Dir e ction s : Answer each question accurately and frankly. Do not spend too much time on any one question. Place an "X" at the le f t of an it em to i ndica te your ans we r. All answ ers are confidential. Please a dd explanatory comm e nts to~ and n o a n s wers t ha t need clarifi ca tion.

PAGE 151

140 1. How long have you liv e d in Tampa l. ______________ Hillsborou gh Count y F lo r i da? 2. Please indicate y o u r age bracket. 2. 25 or under 26 30 31 35 36 40 4 1 45 4 6 5 0 51 55 56 60 Over 60 3. Do you h ave children? Give number, 3. --------------sex, and ages. 4. N ame th e schools now attended b y 4. --------------your c h ildr e n. 5. Amount of education co mp l e t ed by 5. High Schoo l you. Some Co ll ege Bachelor' s Degree Bache l or s Degre e some credit t o w ard Mas ter's Master's D eg r ee Master 's Degree, some credit toward P h.D. or Ed.D. P h.D. or Ed.D. 6. Marital Status 6. Single Married O th er 7 ( a) Occupation 7. ( a) {b) Profession a l bac k ground (b) 8. List some educational mat e rials 8. that you read.

PAGE 152

141 9. List educational organizations 9. ---------------to which you belong. 10. Are you s e rving presently as an officer or a me m ber of the board of an org c:, nization? P l e as 3 name the offices that you hold now or that you h a ve held duri ng t he p a st thr ee years. 11. Which wo men s organizations, in your opinion, because of th e ir educational activities have been most influ e ntial in solving or in h e lping to solve county-side educational probl e ms? 12. What, in your o p inion, are the most important issues, problems, or educational projects of general concern that have been resolved within the past several years, or that may have to be resolved in th e near future in Tampa ? How can your organization h e lp? Are there plans by your organization for h e lp in this direction? (Us e reverse side of sheet if you need additional space.)

PAGE 153

142 13. What is the purpo se of your org a nization? 14. Name some l eaders of wom e n's organization s th at have excep tion a lly strong city-wide influence. 15. How is your or gan ization structured to promote educational improv emen t? 16. What kinds of educational expe riences are provid e d through your organization? Please list.

PAGE 154

1 4 3 17. Which l eaders in o rgan i zations that you belong to h av e influ e n c e with state l eade rs th roug h whom they can get educational work do n e? What educat io na l work has been done through these l e aders? 1 8 Wha t i s the a pp roximate date of the founding of your organization? 19. How many active local members do you have?

PAGE 155

144 20 What are the criteria for membership? 21. Is your work i n edu c ation done on a continuing basis? Explain 22 List the publications ( e ducational) of your organization. 23. What procedures do you have for evaluating the eff e ctivene s s of your educational program?

PAGE 156

145 24. Do you have a cl e aringhouse for women's grou p s in your community? 25. Do all segments of your organization work to g eth e r for common obj ectives? 26. Do all se gm ents of y our organ i za t i o n c o or d i na te th e i r activities and coo p erat e for their mutu a l ben e fit, eli m inating comp e ting and unnecessary duplication?

PAGE 157

146 27. Do you hav e interclub educational activities to unite th e community for peac e h e alth, publi c affa i rs, bett er human relations in order to strengthen our democracy? Please li s t th ese activities. 28. Does your organiz ati on hav e a platform spo n sore d equally by all groups to pr ese nt foremost aut hori ti e s on vital subjects, presenting all sides of controversial issues to d eve lop enligh tened public opinion?

PAGE 158

APPENDIX B P e rso n al Ba c kground for Study

PAGE 159

148 PERSONAL BAC KGROUND FOR STUDY How did I become inter e sted in club life, in club organiz a tion and club work? .!_ cannot count the ways I became int ereste d in organization, first, during my jun ior high school days in Atlanta, Georgia. It was at this period of my life that I experienced th e first touch and feeling of what it meant to be a memb e r and an offic er of a club. It was then that I became attached to an art club, a r eading club, and a d a nce club and that I began to experience a period in which I felt a sense of joy, a feeling of belonging, and a sense of well being. I was learnin g participatin g and contributing. There was fellowship among t he c l ub members and a deep feeling of satisfaction that came from l ea rning t he group process and from planning to share id eas wi th others and to make public presentations to the community. This i nt e re s t in club life followed me to Spelman College, Atlanta, Georgia, where I completed my senior high school and coll ege work. I lived on the c ampus d u ring much o f m y time at Spelman, and, therefore, had much time to work with hallmates and schoolmates in club activities. I was very fortunate here to have instructors who guid e d me in organiz a tion and who told of the advantages of group life. It was at Spelman that I belonged to an organiz e d Sunday school group, to a literary society, to a debating club, to the Y.W.C.A., to a dram a club, and t o a printing club. Membership in these groups gave me a greater desire to share a nd to plan for community members, to look forward to meetings and to engage in public presentations. I began to enjoy club life with eve ry fib er

PAGE 160

149 within me. I was pleased to have learning experiences grow out of my affiliation with the following organizations: from the Sunday school organization, the privilege of participating in and winning the Scripture Reading Contest; from the drama club, the privilege of learning more about the principles of acting and directing, and the joy of belonging to the cast for "The Passing of the Third-Floor Back" by Jerome K. Jerome; from the printing club, the distinction of becoming Editor-in-chief of the campus newspaper; from other organizations, the satisfaction of learning more about working with oth er s and about planning educational programs. Then there came into the lives of many of us on the Spelman College and Morehouse College campuses, Howard Thurman, a very scholarly pro fessor who organi zed interested peo pl e into a Candlelight Club designed for the purpose of having us read fr om the best poets and engage in di s cussions of their poetry. We were able to understand more because of the blending of minds in the club approach. After I was graduated from Spelman College, I became involved with a sorority, Al p ha Pi Chi. Here again, I was joined with an organization which had as its purpose the rendering of service to the community and the sponsoring of educational programs. My experiences here were many: my behaviors becam e detached from original goals in that I joined wholeh e artedly with my sorores in hel pi ng to plan for others; I e xperienced new combinations and novelty; orderlin e ss appeared to be developi n g in my world and my love for club activity was soaring. Ida Franklin Henderso n my l a te maternal aunt, w a s v e ry active in cl ubs and held membership in ch urch, civic, health-related, educationa l, social and federated clubs. These included local, state and national

PAGE 161

150 organization s I became involved with her in church civic, and educational organizations, and I was ha ppy to have this kind of work domin ate my activities. I served for many years as Director of the National Training Union Congress of the National Baptist Convention of America and traveled extensively to hold these meetings and to help educate the Baptist public concerning Training Union technique s My lat e mother Lauvinia Franklin Berry, also active in church groups and my late aunt worked to g ether to help me build a fra me work for the descriptive analysis of club work Together, th e y helped me to enjoy club life and to und erstand the club world by analyzing how clubs work and what they can do. During my work at the doctoral level at the University of Florida, I was fortunate to study a course in Educational Lead e rship II with Dr. Ralph Kimbrough, a scholar and writer. It was necessary for each st dent to select a topic for culminating a project to be developed for this course. Dr. Kimbrough made many excellent s uggestions to help us with our selection and among his suggestions was a topic concerning Women's Organizations. I did my pro ject in that class on this topic and became more and more fascinated by the topic. I shall always be grateful to Dr. Kimbrough for helping me to create a unique response to a famili ar situation and for helping me to underscore an interest.

PAGE 162

BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Breckinridge, Sophonisba. Women in the Twentieth Century: A Study of their Political, Social, and Economic Act iviti es New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1933. Cozens, Eloise N. Florida Women of Distinction. Published in the U.S.A.: Coronado Publishing Co., 1956. Croly, Jane C. The History of the Woman's Club M ov eme nt in Amer ica. New York: H. G. Allen and Co., 1898. Fletty, Va]borg. Public Services of Wom e n's Organizations. (Part of a Study made at the University of Syracuse) New York: George Banta Publishing Company, 1951. Hall, C le o. "The Motivational Patterns of Wom en Engaged in Educational Activities of Voluntary Organizations." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of C hi cago, 1965. Henrotin, Ellen. (from her introduction) in The History of th ~ Woman's Club Movement in America. Ed. by Jane C r ol y New York: 8 G Al len and Co., 1898. Johnson, Dallas and Elizabeth B. Golding. Don't Underestimate Woman Power. New York: Public Affairs Committee, Inc., 1951. Seay, Maurice F. and Associates. Community Education: A Developing Concept. Midland, Michigan: Pendell Publishing Co., 1974. Periodicals Berridge, Robert. "Community Education--A Vehicle Toward World Minded ness." Commun i ty Education Journal, II, No. 1 (Feb., 1972), 25-26. Black Womans Voice, Vol. 3, No. 1, M a rch, 1974, p. 2. Clark, Philip A. "Can Basic Community Education Principles Be Included in the K-12 Program?" Community Education Journal, Vol. II (Jan. Feb. 19 7 4) 3 3. Davies, John. "The President Speaks." Florida Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol. 38, No. 5, May, 1975, p. 2. DeCrow, Karen. "Women's Liberation." Adult Leadership, Vol. 19 (May, 1970-April, 1971), 234. 151

PAGE 163

152 Egdorf, Mina "A Woman's Place Is Everywhere." The International Altrusan Magaz in e Vol. 51, N o. 8 April, 1974, p. 10. "Florida's Women of the World." Florida Trend M agazine, Vol. II, No. 6, Oct., 1968, pp. 41-49. Gholdston, June S. "Prior ity Items for 1973-1 974 ." Florida PTA Bulletin, Vol. XLIV, No. 5 (Ja n.-Feb ., 1974), p. 4. Greenle af Eli z abeth A. of Educat ed Women." 52, N o. 2, 77. "The Role of Women in Education--Responsibility Educationa l Horizons (Winter 1973-1974), Vol. Lyon, Catherine and Saario, Terry. Discrimination in Promotions ." 1973) 120. "Women in Public Education: Sex ual Phi Delta Kappan Vol. 55 ( O c t ., Marr, June. "Wom en in State D e partm e nts o f Education." Phi D el t a Kappan Vol. 55 ( Oc t., 1973), 142. Mitchell, Morris. "C an Community Educ a tion Build World Mindedne ss?" Co mmunity Education Journal Vol. II (Feb 1972), 23. Morrissey, W Michae l. "Se x ism a nd the Scho ol Board Member. Phi Delta Kapp an, Vol. 55 (Oct., 1 9 73), 142. Raffel, Norma K. "The Women's Movement and Its Impact on Higher Education." L iberal Education, Vol. 59 ( May 1973), 249. Rossi, Alice. "Discri minati on and D e mography Restrict Opportunities for A c ademic Women." College and University Bus in ess F e b., 1970, p. 74. Simpson, Elizabeth J. "Women's Lib Is Here to Stay." American Vocational Jour nal Vol. 45 (D ec. 1970) pp. 17-20. Shafer, Wil m a C. "Woman: Detachment vs. Identity." Educational Horizo n s (Winter 1973-1974), Vol. 52, No. 2, 100-101. Suncoast Girl Scout Council, Tampa Cha pter. "Today' s Vision--Tomorrow' s World," Tampa, 1973. (Mim e ographed.) Taylor, Emily. "The Women's Movement -What It's A ll About." A m e ri can Voc ati on a l Journal, Vol. 45 (D ec ., 1970), p. 1 6 Totten, W. Fred. "Community Education: The Feasible Reform." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. LIV, No. 3 (Nov., 1972), 148. Thurman, Howard. 1930. Speech "My Prayer to God." Spelman College, Atlanta, Georgia, Report Report on Progr e ss in 1965 on the Status of Women. w. Willard Wirts and Margaret Hickey Chairmen. Washington, D.C.: Governm e nt Print ing Office, 19 65

PAGE 164

ADDITIONAL READING Books Blackman, Lucy W. The Women of Florida. Jacksonville, Florida: The Southern Historical Publishing Co., 1940. Bla ckman Lucy w. The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, 18 95-1939 Jacksonville, Florida: The Southern Historical Publishing Co., 1939. Bomar, Willie M. The E ducation of Homemakers for Community Activities. New York City: Teachers Col le ge, Columbia University, 1931. Butts, R. Freeman and Lawrence A. Cremin. A History of Education in American Culture. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1 9 53. Ely, Mary L. and Eve Chappell. Women in Two Worlds New York: American Association for Adult Education, 1938. Henry, Elizabeth G. Helps for Club Program Makers. New York : Public Affairs Pamphlets, 1951. Koontz, Elizabeth Duncan. The Best Kept Secret of the Past 5,000 Years: Women Are Ready for Leadership in Education Bloomington, Indiana: The Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, 1972. Monro, Kate M. and Isabel Monro. The Clubwoman's Manual. New York: McMillan, 1957. Perkins, Ruth. Program Making and Record Keeping: Collected Illustra tions of Ap pl ied Educational Pri ncip l es and Sug g e st ed Tools. (Part 4). New York: The Woman's Press, 1931. Waldo, Edna La Moore. Leadership for Today's Club woman. New York: Rugby House, 1939. 153

PAGE 165

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETGI Frankye Almeda Berry was born and r ea red in Atlanta, Georgia, and att en ded A tlanta schools. Her elementary work wa s done at Yonge Street Elementary School, and the junior high program was completed at the Gate City School. She e ntered the Spelman College Laboratory High School and upon completion of th e work the re was a dmitted to Spelman Col lege where she earn e d the Bachelor of Arts degree in English. Miss Berry was the n employed by the Hillsborough County School Board and served as a m e mb 8 r of t he E n g lish Departm e nt in th e Booke r T. Washin g ton High School. In Janua ry of the n ext year, she was promoted in the d epartme nt an d transferred to the new Midd le to n Hig h School. Miss Berry spent one summer at Northwestern U niversi ty, Evanston, Illinois, and several summers and a semester at Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia, where s he was awarded a language arts sch olarship to study English in a summer workshop. After several years of work in the .M iddleton High Sch ool, she became head of the Department of English and served in this position until it became necessary durin g her last year of work in Ta mp a to be transferred to Hillsborough High School in an effort to maintain racial balance. Miss Berry received the Mas ter of Education degree from the University of F lo rida in 1969. Additional activities and experiences while in Tampa include the teaching of advanc e d composition at the University of Tampa during the 154

PAGE 166

155 1971-1972 Spring Quarter; the teaching of English and the direct ing of twenty-one girls for the U pward Bound Program at the University of South Florida; the directing of American Education week programs for Middleton and Hillsborough High Schools; org anizer of the first English Council for Hillsborough C ounty; Teacher o f the first spee c h class in Middleton High School; Director of dramatics activities for Middleton High School; Liaison officer for the Hillsborough County Council of English Teachers and th e National Council of the Teachers of English, and Director of Tampa Negro American women for the United Fund campaign. Miss Berry is a Baptist and served as director of the Nati onal Baptist Training Union Congress of the National Baptist Convention for many years. In 1960 she was invited by the late Dwight D. Eisenhower to represent Florida at the White House Conference on Children and Youth. She holds membership in the National Council of the Teachers o f English, ~1e Florida Council of Teachers of English, the American Association of University Women, and the Alpha Pi Chi Sorority. During the period of recent study at the University of Florida, she became a Universit y Fellow and was invited into Pi Delta Chi, Pi Lambda Theta, and Phi Delta Kappa Honorary S ocieties.

PAGE 167

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education. Arthur J. Lew~, chairman Professor of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education. Ralph Ji. Kimbrough /' Professor of Educational Administration I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarl y presentation a nd is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education. Wattenbarger d Professor of Educational Administration This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education. March, 1975 Dean, College ~cation Dean, Graduate School