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Notes on the life and works of Bernard Romans

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Title:
Notes on the life and works of Bernard Romans
Series Title:
The Florida and the Caribbean Open Books Series
Creator:
Phillips, Philip Lee, 1857-1924 ( author )
Ware, John D., 1913-1973 ( author )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville
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University Presses of Florida
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English
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1 online resource (262 pages) : illustrations, maps. ;

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Maps ( fast )
Travel ( fast )
Description and travel -- Florida ( lcsh )
Maps -- Bibliography -- United States ( lcsh )
Florida ( fast )
United States ( fast )
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Bibliography. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
individual biography ( marcgt )
Bibliography ( fast )

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System requirements: Internet connectivity; Web browser software.
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Funded through the Humanities Open Book, which is jointly sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
Statement of Responsibility:
by P. Lee Phillips.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivative License. This license allows others to download this work and share them with others as long as they mention the author and link back to the author, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.
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1019906290 ( OCLC )
9781947372597 ( ISBN )
035839755 ( ALEPH )

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Notes on the Life and Works of Bernard Romans

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Notes on the Life and Works of Bernard Romans. LibraryPress@UF,

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Reissued rf by LibraryPress@UF on behalf of the University of Florida is work is licensed under anCreative Commons Attribution-NoncommercialNo Derivative Worksnt. Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visitnhttps:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/t./.nYou are free to electronically copy, dis tribute, and transmit this work if you attribute authorship.nPlease contactnthe University Press of Florida (http://upress.ub.edu)nto purchase printneditions of the work. You must attribute the work in the manner specied by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). For any reuse or distribu tion, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of the above conditions can be waived if younreceivenpermission from the UniversitynPress of Florida. Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the authors moral rights. ISBN f-r-tff-(pbk.) ISBN f-r-tff--f (ePub) LibraryPress@UF is an imprint of the University of Florida Press. University of Florida Press r Northwest rth Street Gainesville, FL rr-f http://upress.ub.edu Cover : Map of the West Indies, published in Philadelphia, r. From the Caribbean Maps collection in the University of Florida Digital Collections at the George A. Smathers Libraries.

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The Florida and the Caribbean Open Books SeriesIn r, the University Press of Florida, in collaboration with the George A. Smathers Libraries of the University of Florida, received a grant from the Na tional Endowment for the Humanities and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, under the Humanities Open Books program, to republish books related to Flor ida and the Caribbean and to make them freely available through an open ac cess platform. e resulting list of books is the Florida and the Caribbean Open Books Series published by the LibraryPress@UF in collaboration with the Uni versity of Florida Press, an imprint of the University Press of Florida. A panel of distinguished scholars has selected the series titles from the UPF list, identied as essential reading for scholars and students. e series is composed of titles that showcase a long, distinguished history of publishing works of Latin American and Caribbean scholarship that con nect through generations and places. e breadth and depth of the list dem onstrates Floridas commitment to transnational history and regional studies. Selected reprints include Daniel Brintons A Guide-Book of Florida and the South (r), Cornelis Goslingas e Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, (rf), and Nelson Blakes L and into WaterWater into Land (r). Al so of note are titles from the Bicentennial Floridiana Facsimile Series. e series, published in rf in commemoration of Americas bicentenary, comprises twenty-ve books regarded as classics, out-of-print works that needed to be in more libraries and readers bookcases, including Sidney Laniers Florida: Its Scenery, Climate, and History (rf) and Silvia Sunshines Pe tals Plucked from Sunn y Climes (r). Todays readers will benet from having free and open access to these works, as they provide unique perspectives on the historical scholarship on Florida and the Caribbean and serve as a foundation upon which todays researchers can build.

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Visit LibraryPress@UF and the Florida and the Caribbean Open Books Series at http://ufdc.ub.edu/librarypress Florida and the Caribbean Open Books Series Project Members@ Judith C. Russell Laurie N. Taylor Brian W. Keith Chelsea Dinsmore Haven Hawley r Gary R. Mormino David Colburn Patrick J. Reakes f Meredith M. Babb Linda Bathgate Michele Fiyak-Burkley Romi Gutierrez Larry Leshan Anja Jimenez Marisol Amador Valerie Melina Jane Pollack Danny Duy Nichole Manosh Erika Stevens

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is book is reissued as part of the Humanities Open Books program, funded by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

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BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION OF FLORIDA Governor Reubin O'D. Askew, Honorary Chairman Lieutenant Governor Tom Adams, Chairman Pat Dodson, Vice Chairman Shelton Kemp, Executive Secretary George I, Baumgartner, North Miami Beach Wyon D. Childers, Pensacola Johnnie Ruth Clarke, St. Petersburg A. H. Craig, St. Augustine Dorothy Glisson, Tallahassee James A. Glisson, Tavares Jack D. Gordon, Miami Beach Richard S. Hodes, Tampa Joe Lang Kershaw, Miami Ney C. Landrum, Tallahassee Mrs. Raymond Mason, Jacksonville Mrs. E. D. Pearce, Coral Gables Charles E. Perry, Miami W. E. Potter, Orlando Samuel Proctor, Gainesville Ted Randell, Fort Myers F. Blair Reeves, Gainesville George E. Saunders, Winter Park Don Shoemaker, Miami Don L. Spicer, Tallahassee Harold W. Stayman, Jr., Tampa Alan Trask, Fort Meade Ralph Turlington, Tallahassee W. Robert Williams, Tallahassee Lori Wilson, Merritt Island

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GENERAL EDITOR'S PREFACE

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GENERAL EDITOR'S PREFACE Scholars have long regarded Bernard Romans as "a remark able man ... a universal genius," while still recognizing his prejudices and his errors of judgment. His books, drawings, and maps are cited as primary sources for eighteenth-century Amer ica and are considered great prizes by collectors of rare Ameri cana. His book, A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida, published in 1775, was the best written and most com plete account of the two Florida colonies ceded to Britain by Spain at the conclusion of the French and Indian War. P. Lee Phillips, himself a writer and scholar of distinction and author of this facsimile, stated that Romans' "writings will always be of value and interest, not only from their own merit, but as pioneer information gained from personal research." Bernard Romans was writing about Florida on the eve of the American Revolution whose Bicentennial the nation is now pre paring to commemorate. He was in East Florida as early as the 1760s, and for two years he was employed by William Gerard De Brahm, the Surveyor General of East Florida, as "draughts man, mathematician, navigator." In 1766 Romans began work on his best-known map, "Part of the Province of East Florida," and surveyed the coast south to the Keys and perhaps even the north ern shore of Cuba. In 1769 he spent more than six weeks survey ing Tampa Bay, and in the summer of that year he traveled overland with an Indian guide and horses to St. Augustine. In September 1770 he launched a self-financed one-year surveying voyage, and spent almost six months exploring the west coast of Florida as far as Apalachee. When he arrived in Pensacola in mid-August 1771, John Stuart, superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southern District, directed him to survey the western

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X GENERAL EDITOR'S PREFACE part of the province. He mapped the rivers and territories north and east of Pensacola for Governor Peter Chester. His compre hensive "A General Map of West Florida" is one of the major contributions to eighteenth-century American cartography. While Romans is best known for his maps and writings, he was also a naturalist and a botanist, and he tried to interest Lon don officials in the botanical possibilities of Florida. Along with his surveying, he gathered plants, seeds, and specimens, classify ing and drawing sketches of many of them. Governor Chester and Britain's secretary of state, Lord Dartmouth, were so im pressed with Romans' scientific ability that they authorized him fifty pounds "for his care and Skill in the Collection of rare and useful Productions in Physick & Botany." Completing his work in West Florida, Romans left the prov ince for Charleston in 1773. Later, he moved to New York. His Concise History appeared in 1775, about the time of the first Revolutionary skirmishes at Lexington and Concord. Romans was not English-born, and his loyalty to the Crown may well have been sustained more by expediency than rooted in deep con viction. Whatever, he quickly decided to cast his lot with the Pa triot cause, and he became involved with the poorly organized but successful mission to take possession of "Ticonderoga and its dependencies." Associated with him in this adventure were Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen, the self-appointed leader of the "Green Mountain Boys." Romans' activities during the American Revolution were not outstanding. He was employed for a time as a military engineer in New York. For two years, 1776-1778, he held the rank of cap tain in a company of "matrosses" authorized by the Committee of Safety of Pennsylvania. There is reason to believe that he was captured by the British during the war and held as prisoner. Al though much of his later life is shrouded in mystery because of a lack of records, it is known that he continued his intellectual

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GENERAL EDITOR'S PREFACE XI pursuits, producing several cartographic and literary works. If the records on the closing of Romans' life are sparse, it is yet pos sible to assess his skills. P. Lee Phillips, who for many years was superintendent of the Hall of Maps and Charts of the Library of Congress, has described him as "a universal genius ... a botanist, engineer, mathematician, artist, surveyor, engraver, writer, cartographer, linguist, soldier, seaman, and he possessed many other talents, any one of which would have given distinction." Mr. Phillips was a noted authority on maps and charts. Under his supervision, a remarkable library of notable maps, predomi nantly American, was assembled at the Library of Congress. His A List of Maps of America in the Library of Congress has long been considered an invaluable reference work in libraries throughout the world. The Woodbury Lowery Collection, which came to the Library of Congress in 1906, held a special interest for Phillips. The greatest single part of the Lowery Col lection related to Florida. This notable collection is described in A Descriptive List of Maps of the Spanish Possessions within the present limits of the United States, 1502-1820. Phillips mod estly credited himself only with editing and annotating the work, published in 1912. It was because of Phillips' long service with the Library of Congress, his pre-eminence in the field of cartobibliography and the history of cartography, that the publi cations committee of the Florida State Historical Society invited him to write this volume about Bernard Romans. This society had been founded in DeLand, Florida, in 1921 by John B. Stetson, Jr., and Phillips' book was its second publication. Dr. James A. Robertson, another outstanding scholar of Florida his tory, was associated with Phillips' Notes, and served as editor for the book. Professor Robertson was on the faculty of Stetson University and was executive secretary of the Florida State His torical Society. This was truly a joining of great talents to pro-

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Xll GENERAL EDITOR'S PREFACE duce a biographical account of one of the major personalities who lived and worked in Florida at the time of the American Revolution. This facsimile of Phillips' Notes is one of the volumes in the Bicentennial Floridiana Facsimile Series published by the Flor ida Bicentennial Commission. The twenty-five facsimile editions will make a substantial contribution to the scholarship of Flor ida history. Scholars with a special interest and knowledge of Florida history are editing the volumes, which were selected to represent the whole spectrum of Florida's rich and exciting his tory. Each volume carries an introduction and an index. The Florida Bicentennial Commission was created by the Florida Legislature to plan the state's role and involvement in the national celebration. Besides the ten members representing the legislative branch of government and seven ex-officio members, there are ten public members appointed by Florida's chief executive. Governor Reubin O'D. Askew serves as honorary chairman of the Commission. The Bicentennial offices are in Tal lahassee. Besides the facsimiles, the Florida Bicentennial Commission is publishing a series of monographs, pamphlets, and books on Florida for the use and enjoyment of its own citizens and people everywhere. The commission's publications are supervised by its Committee on Publications and Research. The late Captain John D. Ware, an authority on the Spanish and English colonial periods in Florida, edited Phillips' Notes on the Life and Works of Bernard Romans and wrote the exten sive Introduction. A native of St. Andrews, Florida, Captain Ware was a seafarer and ship-master. He held a license as mas ter of steam and motor vessels and piloted ships along the Flor ida and Gulf coasts, the Mississippi River, and bays and harbors on the east coast of North America from Miami north to Canada. His research and writings on eighteenth-century Florida were

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GENERAL EDITOR'S PREFACE Xlll widely recognized. Several of his articles were published in the Florida Historical Quarterly, Tequesta/the journal of the His torical Association of Southern Florida, and El Escribano, the St. Augustine Historical Society's journal. Captain Ware's re search on Romans and Phillips,, had carried him into libraries and archives throughout the United States and Spain. At the time of his death, January 21, 1974, be was working on a defini tive biography of George Gauld, theeighteenth-century British Admiralty coastal surveyor and cartographer who examined and charted much of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. SAMUEL PROCTOR General Editor of the BICENTENNIAL FLORIDIANA University of Florida FACSIMILE SERIES

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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION It is ironic but in a way understandable that Florida, with the longest history of any of the fifty states of the Union, should have lagged far behind many others in seeing the events of her colorful and often turbulent past recorded for posterity. First discovered in 1513, Florida flew the banners of Spain, France, and England at different times until 1821, when it was acquired through nego tiation by the burgeoning United States. Reunited as a single ter ritory, Florida took her place as the twenty-seventh of the United States on July 4, 1845. Thus, for more than three centuries, unlike the other states of the Atlantic seaboard, "La Florida" lacked the continuity of culture and heritage which so often in spired the recording of their historic past. While it is true that from the time of Florida's discovery each period has had its chroniclers, and as indispensible as their ac counts have been, little of a definitive nature was written about the events of her past until relatively modern times. P. Lee Phillips' Notes on the Life and Works of Bernard Romans and the accompanying reproduction of Romans' rare map of Florida, published by the Florida State Historical Society in 1924, to gether constitute one of a series of eleven works directed toward this end. This series represents the first successful attempt by any such organization in the state to achieve its publication goals, if only in part. A brief review of the activities of the less fortunate predecessor groups places them all in perspective. The earliest of these, the Historical Society of Florida, was organized in St. Augustine in 1856 with fifty charter members, including officers, and twenty-four honorary members. Within these two classifications were individuals distinguished in vari ous fields, including historians, certain of whom had already

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XVlll INTRODUCTION published noteworthy works, and others who would leave an in delible mark on the written history of Florida. The society's con stitution, which limited membership to residents of Florida, pro vided for, among other things, "the collection and preservation of documents and records bearing upon the history of Florida, from the earliest dates." Its by-laws required that its funds, after payment of expenses and library acquisitions, would be used for "the publication of manuscript works, or valuable translations, illustrating the history of Florida." Presumably there was no residency requirement for honorary members, as many of these were from out-of-state.1 The following year, the second and last publication of the so ciety appeared, entitled "The Early History of Florida," an in troductory lecture by George R. Fairbanks. This pamphlet noted a significant increase in membership to more than 100 honorary and 134 resident members, the latter list including many promi nent Floridians. With this publication, the society and its subse quent activities, if any, disappeared from view, probably sus pended because of preoccupation with the impending Civil War and the impoverished circumstances of the populace thereafter.2 Reorganized in 1902 under the leadership of George R. Fair banks as the Florida Historical Society, it was incorporated three years later. The objectives set out in the charter were more sweep ing in scope, but were only partially realized under its next presi dent, Governor Francis P. Fleming. For a while membership increased, historical material was acquired, and its official "mag azine," the Quarterly, was published. With the last of its six issues, dated July 1909, the year after Governor Fleming's death, publication of the Quarterly was suspended for lack of funds. Realizing the great need for a journal as the medium of commu nication between members and to bring the work of the society to public attention, a revitalized leadership authorized resump tion of publication of the Quarterly in 1924.3 This publication

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INTRODUCTION XIX and the activities of the Florida Historical Society have con tinued without interruption to the present time. The issues of the Quarterly contain the greatest single collection of Florida his tory extant today. If the hopes and objectives of the earlier groups were unre alized, the same was less true of the Florida State Historical Society. It was founded in DeLand, December 1, 1921, "by some citizens of the State of Florida and northerners who were in terested in the history of the State." These individuals considered that it would be desirable "to form a society of a different char acter from that of any already existing in the State, having for its object study and research in history that has a direct bearing on Florida." It was also considered that a close association with an institution of higher learning would assist materially in ac complishing the purposes of the society. It accordingly worked in close harmony with John B. Stetson University, yet had no ties as an organization. Similarly, there was no connection with the older Florida Historical Society, although there was full co operation between the two groups.4 To achieve its initial goal it was considered essential to enroll 250 sustaining members who would subscribe to the publica tions of the society as they were issued, at approximately the cost of production. Although a limitation of 300 copies of each publi cation was at first decided upon, this figure was later increased in modest but varying numbers in virtually every instance. Thus, copies of these limited editions have become collector's items, highly-prized and eagerly sought by bibliophiles and scholars alike. The first edition of this monograph and the accompanying Romans map were the second in the series. Many other works re lating to Florida history were planned, but it appears that with the eleventh publication in 1933, the society and its future plans fell victim to the Great Depression.5 John B. Stetson, Jr., chairman, and Jeannette Thurber Connor, who both did so much for

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INTRODUCTION the society and for Florida history, along with two other members, comprised the publications committee which produced this monograph. Stetson was the first and only chairman of this com mittee and Mrs. Connor served from its inception until her death, June 9, 1927.6 One need look no further than the first page of the foreword of this volume to find the reasons the committee selected P. Lee Phillips to write about Romans and to assemble the material contained herein on this remarkable man of many talents. The members were aware of Phillips' long service with the Library of Congress and his knowledge of the subject gleaned from the many notes he had gathered over the years. In recognizing his pre-eminence in the field of cartobibliography and the history of cartography, they rightly credited him with the "persistence, in tuition and energy" which contributed so much to the dominant position of this national repository with respect to cartographic knowledge of the United States. Moreover, the committee itself deserves much credit for having certain of Romans' works re produced in extenso, thus allowing a deeper insight into the char acter of the man and enhancing this volume as a research tool.7 As perceptive and judicious as the publications committee was in its choice, it is probable that its members knew little or nothing of Phillips the man or his truly impressive list of publications. Over a period of thirty-six years, some forty-four of his works were published, including books, monographs, and articles. Moreover, he left eight unpublished manuscripts, seven of which are preserved in the Library of Congress. Almost all of his pub lications deal with cartography or cartobibliography, and a glance at the list of titles offers ample evidence of the wide geo graphic range of his interests. His cartobibliographies are stand ard reference works in libraries throughout the world, and items listed in dealers' catalogs as "not in Phillips" may claim a special degree of rarity and probable value which otherwise might be lacking.8

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INTRODUCTION t\ i\ V Phillips "Notes" and the "Two Whole Sheet Maps" "The second publication of the Florida State Historical So ciety places in the libraries of its members and through them within the reach of students, the document upon which all the detailed geographical knowledge of the Florida Peninsula is based." 9 This reference by the publications committee to the rare Romans map, like many generalities, might well be chal lenged in certain particulars. It is nevertheless undeniable that Phillips' Notes and the accompanying reproduction of the map constitute significant milestones in the historiography and geog raphy of British East and West Florida. Furthermore, the mon ograph contains important documents and references to Romans' participation in certain events prior to and during the American Revolution. A study of the more than fifty reference cards relating to Ro mans in the Bibliography and Cartography catalog of the Li brary of Congress, together with the final unedited draft of Phillips' monograph, indicates that he relied largely on these and standard reference works held by that institution in the prepara tion of his manuscript. Not surprisingly, certain of these cards are in Phillips' own distinctive hand. These sources represent by far the greatest single collection of information on Romans, but by no means all. Further research in smaller and widely scattered repositories discloses other significant source material, thus sug gesting that Phillips was unaware of its existence or neglected to avail himself of their resources. Yet even with this additional source material in hand, the record is far from complete on the life of Bernard Romans.10 There are two versions of Phillips' monograph: his final type script draft, and the freely edited and amended but improved version, published posthumously. The first merits certain com ment if for no other reason than to place the latter in proper con-

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l\l\ If r INTRODUCTION text. Phillips' final draft was titled Bernard Romans, His Bi ography and Bibliography With a Reproduction of the "Two Whole Sheet Maps" of Florida 1774. The title aptly described the topics into which Phillips divided his work, except that he also included a section of twenty-five pages called "A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida," half of which con sisted of excerpts from Romans' work which Phillips considered might be of particular reader interest. He quoted many valuable sources in his biographical "chapter" of Romans but fell short of placing his subject in historical perspective.11 Existing correspondence between John B. Stetson, Jr. and members of the publications committee suggests that Phillips was initially given a free hand in his treatment of the subject, even to the editing and final proofreading. Phillips, however, was suffering from a debilitating illness, and these duties were then assumed for a time by Stetson with only indifferent and mi nor assistance from two other members of the committee. Al though Phillips returned to work briefly and even corresponded with Stetson, he did not live to see the published version of his work. During this interval, two nearly identical chorographical maps of the "Northern Department of North America" came to light. Fortunately, Stetson was able to obtain the description of each, thus permitting authentication from the originals of Phillips' earlier bibliographical entries from secondary sources. This entailed last-minute changes in the text before the work went to press.12 Although his name does not appear in Phillips' Notes, the final editing fell to James A. Robertson, who joined the faculty of Stetson University on May 1, 1923, and was named corre sponding secretary and later executive secretary of the Florida State Historical Society. In addition to proofreading and rou tinely editing Phillips' draft, Robertson shortened the title to its present form and provided annotations and the appendix. Stet-

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INTRODUCTION I\I\ VW son himself had earlier decided to delete most of the section Phil lips had devoted to the bibliography of "A Concise Natural His tory of East and West Florida," along with all of the excerpts from Romans' book, since the society had plans for republishing the book. Noting that Phillips and other sources accepted Romans' criticism of Dr. Andrew Turnbull at face value, Robert son attempted to provide a more balanced view by including in his annotations both the relevant passage from Romans' book and Turnbull's published "refutation." Robertson also subdivided certain of Phillips' four general categories, thus creating an even more topical treatment of the work as a whole. In this respect he drifted even further from placing Romans in historical perspec tive than did Phillips. Why Robertson, a professional historian, failed to write a short biographical sketch of Romans directed toward this end can only be surmised. The work is therefore more source than biografJhy, but nevertheless remains an invalu able research work for history and geography scholars in general and specialists of Florida in particular.13 Naturally, all comments and references hereafter are to the published version of P. Lee Phillips, Notes on the Life and Works of Bernard Romans. The first part of Phillips' monograph is devoted to a study of Romans' map, "Part of the Province of East Florida." Herein are presented documents which substantiate in considerable de tail the provenance, engraving, and publication of the map. In writing of its origin, Phillips noted that only one copy was known to exist, and concluded that its very large size was responsible for its rarity. His monograph assures the scholar that the map and Romans' A Concise Natural History of East and West Flor ida were produced as companion works, each to accompany and supplement the other. In pointing out the geographic deficiencies implicit in the title of Romans' map, Phillips neglected to men tion that it also included part of Spanish Louisiana. And with

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XXIV INTRODUCTION respect to publication of the map, Phillips introduced documents which demonstrate that Paul Revere and Abel Buell, the latter an engraver and cartographer of some note, assisted Romans in the preparation of the copper plates. Certain of these documents give some indication of the complexity of producing this map. Phillips also included news items and "advertisements" in serted by Romans and others which are remarkably revealing of the subject, certain of which are indispensable in tracing his activities. Most of Romans' notices were to report on the progress of his publications and to urge the reading public to purchase copies. Two notable exceptions were included: the previously mentioned accounts of Turnbull and his New Smyrna colony, and Romans' defense against the accusation of "pirating" the work of others, especially that of George Gauld. Phillips made no attempt to analyze the relationships among Romans, Gauld, and Dr. John Lorimer, all rather arffbiguously referred to in Romans' "advertisement." The distinction between a map and a chart may be important only to the seafarer, and Romans, a master mariner himself, used both terms in referring to his cartographic masterpiece, "Part of the Province of East Florida." Unquestionably, he had the navigator and shipmaster in mind when he produced this work. This is evidenced in certain writings and features em bodied in the chart itself. In an early "advertisement" of his work he noted that "ample directions to Navigators will be given, and extensive soundings on the Coast, pointed out, so as to render the whole as desirable for the Sage in his cabinet as for the Mariner in his ship." 14 And in the three dedicatory car touches, one to the Marine Society of New York, another "To all Commanders of vessels round the Globe," and still another "To the Honble. the Planters in Jamaica and all Marchants [sic~\ Concerned in the trade to that Island," Romans character ized his work as a "chart." True to his word, he included numer-

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INTRODUCTION XXV ous compass roses, distance scales of English, French, and Dutch derivation, latitude and longitude scales along the margins, and numerous soundings, bottom characteristics, and current "darts." As a further aid to the navigator he inserted written notices in appropriate places. He also featured profile views of "Fort St. Marks at Apalache" [sic], the entrance to St. Marys River, and the mountains of the north shore of Cuba. Romans' appeal to the seafaring community is therefore unmistakable. That this appeal had the desired effect seems equally clear. An examination of the list of somewhat more than two hun dred subscribers to Romans' book and the "Two Whole Sheet Maps" discloses that fifty-four were captains and four were naval officers. This excludes two military officers of that rank whose identification as such suggests that all other captains were com manders of vessels. If so, of the total orders placed by these sub scribers, about one-fourth went to members of the seafaring pro fession. In addition, the Marine Societies of New York, Salem, Newbury-Port, and Boston were also subscribers.15 Orders were placed by six members of the last-named society.16 Aboard ship, charts have always been considered expendable items, and just how many of Romans' limited printing of his "Two Whole Sheet Maps" subsequently were used as naviga tional aids can never be known. Those that served as such, how ever, would have been taken aboard the merchant vessels, armed privateers, and warships of the Revolutionary period by their commanding officers. Here they would have been exposed to the ever-present dampness of the wooden vessels of that era and to the wear and tear of parallel rulers, dividers, and erasures, all incidental to plotting courses and positions in "Florida waters," until they were finally discarded as worthless. Thus, while Phillips' claim that "the size is responsible for the rarity of the map" and "that the larger the map the more destructible it becomes" remains as valid as ever, the probable use of some one-fourth of

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XXVI INTRODUCTION this now-rarest of cartographic documents may also be consid ered as a reason for its scarcity.17 The ninety-two page appendix of Romans' Concise Natural History consists almost entirely of sailing directions for the waters leading to or embraced by his chart. Numerous references are made to this document, and three important plates are included: "Entrances of Tampa Bay," "Pensacola Bar," and "Mobile Bar." Many copies of this book may also have been taken aboard ship, there to suffer the same fate as the charts, albeit through different usage. In discussing Romans' "Account of Florida," Phillips once again touches upon the rarity of the book and map, comparing them with other little-known works. He concludes that the printer of both editions of the book is unknown^ and views both Romans' engravings and writing kindly. He reminds the reader that the author "was a foreigner wrestling with the intricacies of a foreign language" who, moreover, succeeded in bringing his works to publication against almost insurmountable difficulties. Slightly more than half of the remainder of Phillips' Notes is concerned with the introduction and brief comment on docu ments and early news accounts touching on Romans' life in Georgia and the Floridas, his services in the American Revolution, and his marriage to Elizabeth Whiting in Connecticut. From his monograph, from certain information contained in Romans' Concise Natural History, and from material only re cently brought to light, one may reconstruct an accurate though at times sketchy account up to the closing years of Romans' life in the American colonies. The nature of Phillips' monograph is best described by the first word of its title: "Notes." Though the distinction may seem fine, the work is more collection than synthesis. Yet it cannot be denied that its objective has been served, for it still remains a valuable research source for the two academic disciplines of his tory and geography.

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INTRODUCTION XXVll Philip Lee Phillips Philip Lee Phillips was born in Washington, D.C., March 1, 1856. His father, Philip Phillips, a native of Charleston, South Carolina, was the son of German-Jewish immigrants, and his mother, Eugenia Levy Phillips, was born in Savannah, Georgia. The son, who later indicated a preference for the name "P. Lee Phillips," perhaps to distinguish his name from that of his fa ther, is thought to have been the youngest of the nine children, at least two others of whom were boys.18 Lee's father began the practice of law in Cheraw, South Carolina, and served in the state legislature for two years. Moving to Mobile, Alabama, he was elected to the legislature there, and went on to serve as repre sentative to the thirty-third Congress of the United States. He declined renomination in 1855, choosing instead to remain in the nation's capital where he engaged in a successful law practice. Here, the following year, P. Lee Phillips was born. As the Civil War loomed, Philip Phillips opposed secession, yet his sympathies were with the South. The outspoken state ments of his wife, Eugenia, and their two eldest daughters in support of the Confederacy led to the house arrest of the entire family. Through the help of influential friends in government, however, they were soon released and were sent south under a flag of truce, eventually making their way to New Orleans. This city, however, was occupied some months later by enemy troops, and the outspoken Eugenia was once again arrested and impris oned for three months in a squalid hut on Ship Island. After her release in October 1862, Phillips moved his family to LaGrange, Georgia, where the six-year-old Lee began school under private tutors. Hoping to return to Washington when the war ended, Phil lips found he was unable to obtain a license to practice law there

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XXVlll INTRODUCTION because he could not in good conscience swear that he had not aided anyone opposed to the Union government. He therefore returned with his family to New Orleans for two years. When the Supreme Court nullified the requirement of the test oath in 1866, Phillips moved to Washington and once again began the practice of law. Lee resumed his education in the public schools there and entered Columbia College Law School in 1874. Un like his older brother, who had joined his father's law firm, Lee evinced little interest in the legal profession. The result was that he left school in 1875 to join the staff of the Library of Congress. His father, as a former congressman and a prominent attorney, may have used his influence to secure the position for his son. Suggestive of this is the fact that for almost four years he paid Lee's salary without his son's knowledge. The records show that it was not until July 1, 1879, that P. Lee Phillips became an offi cial employee of the Library of Congress as a cataloger at an annual salary of $1,200. Lee's family background and his own genial personality earned for him a niche in the inner circles of Washington so ciety, a position he apparently enjoyed. Since he remained un married until his early forties, he led the annual bachelor's cotil lion for a number of years. His unwedded state came to an end in 1899 when he married Imogen D. Hutchins, the daughter of a local merchant. He was then forty-three years old and his bride was some twenty years younger. Their only child, a daughter, Mary Lee, also came rather late in life for Phillips: she was born about 1914, when her father was fifty-eight years of age. It is probable that the additional expense of a family imposed a financial hardship on him and his wife, since he was never highly paid. As chief of the map department his annual salary was raised to $2,500 in 1902, and to $3,000 some years later. De spite vigorous protest from Phillips, the last in 1920, the figure remained at this level until his death.

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INTRODUCTION *^iAr I-AA* By 1913, Phillips had many publications to his credit, and he had just completed reading the galley proofs of volume three of his atlas list when he suffered a nervous breakdown. In August of this same year, he was taken to the home of a sister in Pitts burgh, and in his depressed state of mind, on September 27, he sent a letter of resignation to the librarian. Phillips had not prac ticed the Jewish faith of his parents for years but had associated with the Episcopal Church after his marriage. In the home of his sister, however, he turned to Christian Science as a way out of his severe depression. His improvement under this treatment prompted his nephew, without his uncle's knowledge, to write to Dr. Herbert Putnam, librarian of Congress, informing him of this fact and asking him not to accept the resignation. Accord ingly, on October 1, Putnam wrote Lee Phillips: "You cannot get away from us so easily; nor can I consent to let you go. Con tinue your experiments towards a cure and give no thought to an obligatory date at present for your return. That you will re turn and render many more years of useful and distinguished service to the Government and the science of cartography, I feel confident." Phillips did indeed return to the Library on May 4, 1914, where he continued to work for another decade. The Library of Congress had stored its maps, uncataloged, in odd nooks and corners of its quarters in the Capitol building since 1801. Noting the chaotic condition of these valuable records, Phillips began to organize and catalog them as he found time from his regular duties, although probably without specific orders. When and for what reasons he developed an interest in maps, cartography, and cartobibliography is not known. He re ceived a good classical education befitting the son in a well-to-do nineteenth-century family, and no doubt read extensively from a well stocked home library. This library may well have included books on geography and maps, as Lee's father was a member of the Congressional Committee on Territories. Earlier the elder

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l\ l\ l\ INTRODUCTION Phillips had been president of an internal improvement com pany concerned with building a north-south railroad across Ala bama. In any event, by 1878 Lee Phillips began a catalog of American maps held by the library. This catalog, many of the cards in Phillips' own hand, is still preserved in the Geography and Map Division, and is arranged alphabetically by authors. For the next twenty years he continued to add relevant descrip tions to both the author and area lists. The result was that in 1897, upon his appointment as superintendent of the Hall of Maps and Charts in the newly-constructed building, he recommended to the librarian that "Congress be requested to make an appropri ation for publication of a monograph entitled 'Maps of Amer ica,' a bibliography of American cartography in the Library of Congress." Support for this publication was not immediately forthcoming, but on October 4, 1900, Phillips reported that "a large volume relating to maps of America principally found in books and magazines, is now with the committee of printing of the House of Representatives with prospects of being published during the next season." Phillips' optimism in this instance was well placed, for the following year his A List of Maps of America in the Library of Congress was published and soon found acceptance as an in valuable reference work in libraries throughout the world. In pointing out the historical and bibliographical value of such monographs, Phillips stated that "this list made at intervals in connection with other work in the old library at the Capitol, comprises about fifteen thousand titles. ... It is the product of twenty years of hard labor in the old library ransacking through hidden sources, a work which is original in its idea and which will be a valuable assistance to the Library and to the student." Phillips noted in the introduction to this volume: "This list only includes such maps as were in the Library at the time of the opening of the new building in November 1897. The large in-

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INTRODUCTION I\I\ i\ V crease since then will eventually result in a supplemental vol ume. Some important titles of recent date, however, have been inserted." 19 Arranged alphabetically by geographic and politi cal entities, maps of the Americas from Alaska to Chile's tempestous and forbidding Cape Horn are included. Some fortyfive pages of world map titles are also included.20 Originally offered for sale at $1.25 per soft-covered copy, two reprint edi tions published in 1967 sell for $35.00 and $40.00 respectively. Mindful of the difficulties attendant in securing appropria tions from Congress, even for publications emanating from their own library, Phillips included as an eighty-page preface to the List of Maps of America another catalog which he had com piled during his years in the old library. Entitled "A Bibliog raphy of Cartography," it consisted of a list of references re lating to maps, map makers, and the history of cartography. Certain of these works were not in the Library of Congress and therefore must have entailed considerable outside research by Phillips.21 His expressed hope was "to add to and improve the 'Bibliography of Cartography' and to make of it a work of more extensive scope." Over a period of some twenty years Phillips and his staff added to his original catalog, so that by 1922 he reported that the work had grown to "6528 typewritten leaves, 30,464 estimated titles." His periodic recommendations to publish "Bibliography of Cartography" went unheeded during his lifetime; nor has it yet been published. The fourteen-volume typescript, with addi tions through 1923, is preserved in the Geography and Map Di vision of the Library of Congress. The original catalog, with many of the cards still in Phillips' distinctive hand, has been augmented through the years, and it is still one of the invaluable research tools of the division. Although Phillips joined the staff of the Library of Congress as a cataloger, he also withdrew books and perhaps maps for li-

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l\ i\ <\ If V INTRODUCTION brary patrons. Catalog cards of American maps in Phillips' handwriting as early as 1878 suggest that his interest and atten tion to the cartographic collection took tangible form at this point. The care of this material was gradually assumed by Phillips, and by 1895 it was receiving most of his attention. His sal ary had been increased to $1,800 per annum. As much as he contributed to cartography and cartobibliography, Phillips en gaged also in other activities, one of which led to his first publi cation. He was a member of the exclusive Metropolitan Club and served as its librarian. During off-hours from his job he compiled a catalog of its library collection, which was published in 1890. The first two decades of Phillips' service with the Library of Congress were busy and eventful. His first cartographic publication, an eighty-five page booklet entitled Virginia Cartography: a bibliographical description, appeared in 1896. Two papers im mediately followed, both of which were published the same year in the Annual Report of the American Historical Association. In the second article, "The value of maps in boundary disputes," Phillips asserted that "the importance of maps and a correct bib liographical knowledge of them is of vast interest, especially as to those relating to this country, for what with State boundary disputes and the immense supervision which we have assumed over the affairs of this continent, questions will arise requiring, at short notice, that all maps of America should be well known and accessible." It is thought that Phillips wrote this paper as the result of his earlier participation in compiling a list of maps relating to the boundary dispute between Venezuela and British Guinea, a contribution for which he was subsequently awarded the Order of Bolivar by the government of Venezuela. His list of maps of the two disputant nations also appeared in the An nual Report of the American Historical Association. Phillips' reputation as an expert in the field of cartography re-

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INTRODUCTION I\J\I J\ LL Ir suited in another call for help, this time in connection with the Alaskan-Canadian boundary dispute. From his work on this problem he compiled a list entitled "Alaska and the northwest part of North America, 1588-1898, maps in the Library of Congress," which was published in 1898. This same year the Span ish-American War and events preceding it brought forth a bib liography of the maps of Cuba which was included in A. P. C. Griffin, List of Books relating to Cuba. Over the years the Library of Congress had outgrown its quar ters in the Capitol building. This condition reached a climax in 1870 when a law was passed requiring the deposit in the library of two copies of every copyrighted publication. Yet, it was not until 1886 that a new building was authorized, and another eleven years would go by before it would be occupied. Before completion of the building, Congress recognized the need for re organization and accordingly passed legislation which, among other things, provided for several new administrative units, in cluding a Hall of Maps and Charts. Phillips hoped to be the new superintendent of this division; it is probable that his sev eral publications were intended to strengthen his application for the position. In fact, in the closing paragraph of one of his arti cles he gave himself credit, not undeservedly, for the vast amount of work he had put forth "at odd moments spared from other duties" to catalog the collection of over fifteen thousand items. Although a new Librarian of Congress apparently fa vored another candidate for the job, Phillips was appointed the first Superintendent of the Hall of Maps, effective September 1, 1897. He won out no doubt because of his knowledge and past experience, and possibly with some help from influential per sonal and family friends. Because of the demands made on his time and energies inci dental to the transfer to their new quarters, Phillips was able to do but little cartographic work during the first year or so after

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XXXIV INTRODUCTION his appointment. The magnitude of the problem with respect to his own division is indicated in his report to the librarian after one year of operation. Phillips wrote that in the Capitol "maps were deposited with the old paper in corners of the old library and in cellars too dark, damp, and dusty for examination. From these nooks and corners were collected a mountain of maps which were deposited in a mass in the room assigned them in the new library. Out of this chaos much time was needed to systema tize and geographically arrange, so that in a few moments such maps as were wanted by the student would be found without difficulty." Phillips visited the few map libraries then established in America, which he found "in a very primitive condition in re gard to their maps and awaiting this Library to take the initia tive." With no guidelines to follow he devised his own cata loging and storage techniques, the preliminary procedures of which were first published in the New York Tribune, Novem ber 26, 1899, entitled, "Preservation of maps. How they are clas sified, preserved and catalogued. The method employed in the Library of Congress." This article was reprinted the following year in the January issue of the Library Journal. Phillips' con cern with procedural problems in map libraries and his desire to pass along to others the benefit of his experiences and prac tices led him to write a short section on "Maps and atlases" for Charles A. Cutter's Rules for a dictionary catalog. Under the title Notes on the cataloging, care and classification of maps and atlases, this same section in a revised and amplified form was separately published in 1915 and again in 1921. The organization of the material in his division completed, Phillips once again was able to direct his attentions to the compilation of cartobibliographies for publication. His earlier works for Guinea, Venezuela, and Cuba, and the relationships he had established in the Bureau of American Republics re-

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INTRODUCTION XXXV suited in requests from other Latin American countries. Thus, for the next three years from the turn of the century, cartobibliographies were published for Mexico, Brazil, Central America, and Chile. In 1903, Phillips' "Chronological list of Maps [of the Philippine Islands] in the Library of Congress" appeared in Griffin's A List of books {with reference to periodicals) on the Philippine Islands in the Library of Congress, both of which re lated to the acquisition of the islands by the United States after the Spanish-American War. Subsequent additional material on Cuba resulted in a list of maps some five times greater in number than the one earlier published in Griffin's List of books relating to Cuba. This enlarged version was published in International Bureau of the American Republics in 1905. These were by no means all of Phillips' accomplishments dur ing this period. Among his publication credits was a "List of plans of Quebec, 1660-1851," which appeared in 1901 in A. G. Doughty and G. W. Parmelee, The siege of Quebec.22 For the occasion of the centennial of the city of Washington he prepared a List of Maps and views of Washington and District of Colum bia in the Library of Congress which was published in 1900. Three years later, at his urging, the famous Kohl collection of reproductions of original maps in European archives relating to the discovery of America was transferred from the Department of State to the Library of Congress. He was instrumental in having Justin Winsor's bibliographical study of this collection reprinted, and to this edition he contributed a brief introduction and an index. In 1905, Phillips' Check List of large scale maps published by foreign governments {Great Britain excepted) in the Library of Congress appeared, inspired perhaps by the Eighth International Geographical Congress, which convened in Washington in September 1904, and perhaps with the hope also of encouraging gifts to the library of other foreign maps not preserved in its collection. There is some suggestion that publi-

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i\I\I\ VIt INTRODUCTION cation of the foreign map list may have been the idea of Assistant Chief Oswald Welti, a native of Switzerland. Phillips relied upon the help of his assistant chief and other capable members of his staff in the preparation of several of his cartobibliogra-phies. Shortly after Phillips assumed direction of the map division, he began what was to become his most significant cartobibliographical work, the List of geographical atlases in the Library of Congress. Despite his initial optimism about the time re quired to complete this work, it was 1908 before the atlas list was sent to press. Even then he expressed dissatisfaction with the progress of the printer. Finally, in his 1909 report he announced publication and offered the opinion that the two-volume work "will be the means of an immense saving of labor to the Map Division and considerable assistance to the Library proper. To the student it will be useful for reference purposes and often to libraries as a means of identifying their material." His work with the list of atlases, however, was far from finished. The as tonishing number of later acquisitions by the map division neces sitated a third volume, published in 1914, and a fourth in 1920.23 Rounding out his work of the first decade of the twentieth cen tury was Phillips' "Some early maps of Virginia and their makers, including plates relating to the first settlement of James town," an article which appeared in the July 1907 issue of the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. This was one of his few contributions to professional journals. The following year W. H. Lowdermilk and Company published an edition limited to 200 copies for sale of Phillips' descriptive essay, The First map of Kentucky by John Filson; a bibliographical ac count with facsimile reproduction from the copy in the Library of Congress. Phillips had acquired this map in 1907 on one of his three trips to Europe, made at his own expense, to purchase rare maps and atlases for the Library of Congress. In 1910, a

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INTRODUCTION xxxvii Spanish language version of his "Maps of Cuba, Porto Rico, and the West Indies" appeared as "Cartografia Gubano" in the January-February issue of Revista Bimestre Gubano. In addition to certain of Phillips' previously mentioned works, he wrote descriptive monographs on other rare maps: Augustine Herrman's Map of Virginia and Maryland, 1673 (1911), John Fitch's Map of the Northwest, 1785 (1916), and Manasseh Cutler's Ohio, 1787 (1918). These monographs and the corresponding facsimiles of the maps were also published by Lowdermilk in editions limited to 200 copies for sale. His study on General Daniel Smith and his map of Tennessee was never published, and the typescript has not been located. A certain di versity of interest is evident in the titles of five of Phillips' arti cles which appeared in the Magazine of the Daughters of the American Revolution. His "The Jefferson States," "A rare cari cature of Bunker Hill," "Some peculiar maps," and "Some old time directories" appeared in 1918 issues of the Magazine, and the fifth, "Washington as surveyor and map-maker," was pub lished in the March 1921 issue. Phillips' professional affiliations were limited to membership in the Royal Geographical Society and the Columbian Histori cal Society of Washington. He proudly acknowledged his mem bership in the former by adding the initials "F.R.G.S." to his signature. It appears that his brief note on "Captain Thomas Pound and his 1691 map of New England" was his only contri bution to the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society. This appeared in the July 1916 issue. The following year the Records of the Columbian Historical Society carried his article on "The negro, Benjamin Banneker, astronomer and mathematician." 24 In 1917, Phillips published privately an edition limited to 600 copies of a small booklet entitled The beginnings of Washington, as described in books, maps and views. Expanding geo graphically on this work, he reported to the Librarian of Con-

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t\ t\ >\ \J v V V INTRODUCTION gress the following year that "a descriptive list of maps and views of Washington and District of Columbia, including Mount Vernon," containing some seventeen hundred entries, was ready to go to press. Although he recommended this work for publication in subsequent years as late as 1922, it was never published but is still preserved in typescript as a reference work in the Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress. Other works by Phillips were destined also to remain unpub lished, including cartographic lists of California and San Francisco, New York City, and Boston. These, too, are preserved in the division, along with his five-volume "Initials and Pseudo nyms not in Cushing," and his ten-sheet "Bladenburg and the British peerage and how it happened." In 1926, Phillips' A De scriptive list of maps and views of Philadelphia in the Library of Congress, 1683-1865, was published posthumously with per mission of the library by the Geographical Society of Philadel phia. The effects of World War I were reflected in a reduction of publication funds for the library, a condition, however, that did not prevent the publication in 1918 of Phillips' A list of atlases and maps applicable to the World War. The late publication date limited the use of this volume, and despite Phillips' opti mistic report the following year, it was not a notable success. Phillips' interest in "The Lowery Collection" resulted in a volume which is considered the standard reference work in its field. Over a period of years, Woodbury Lowery, the "scholarly investigator and historian of the early Spanish settlements in this hemisphere," assembled volumes of manuscripts and many rare maps and books. All of this material, including his own unpub lished work, was left to the Library of Congress by Lowery upon his death in 1906. Additionally, under the provisions of his will, certain books from his library which were not in the Library of Congress at the time were to be selected by the librarian for its

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INTRODUCTION i\
PAGE 46

xl INTRODUCTION List of Atlases is now in circulation and is so [sic] useful in labor saving as the volumes previously published. Our re viewers, who have shown general appreciation are only found in Europe." This oversight in the meantime has been corrected, as evidenced by the general acceptance of P. Lee Phillips' cartobibliographies as major reference aids in libraries the world over for more than half a century. It is indeed fortunate that as this is written it is possible to add a personal postscript to Phillips' life, based on the recollections of one who knew and worked with him for the last nine years of his life. This surviving, active staff member, who began work in the map division under Phillips' direction in November 1915, remembers him almost half a century later "as a very kind person, a Southern gentleman in every respect, who remarked more than once that he never worked more than four hours a day in accomplishing all he did. He had a phenomenal memory for the maps in the Library of Congress collections, and, so far as funds were available, built up a remarkable library of notable maps, predominantly American." 27 P. Lee Phillips was stricken with a cancer which began to sap his strength some two years before his death, and during this time his absences from his job were more frequent. He died in Washington, January 4, 1924, after serving the Library of Con gress for almost half a century.28 Bernard Romans Apart from the knowledge that Bernard Romans was born in Holland about 1720 and that he migrated to England where he received training as an engineer, little else is known of his early life.29 Implicit in what may have been his last literary work, along with certain of his statements, is the suggestion that he re-

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INTRODUCTION xli ceived much of his education in his native country and that his removal to England came as a youth or young adult. Annals of the Troubles of the Netherlands, a collection of Dutch works which he translated into English during his later years in Con necticut, implies a familiarity with both native and adopted tongues normally associated with advanced studies of each. In the preface of volume one, Romans admitted his shortcomings in the English language when he wrote: "As a foreigner, it cannot be expected that I should excel in elegance of composition, or correction of language; especially in a tongue, whose idiom, or thography, connexion [sic~] and pronunciation are, of all others, the most difficult and uncouth to the ear and powers of articula tion in strangers." 30 In another work Romans warned his readers that "no elegance of style, nor flowers of rhetoric, must be ex pected from a person who is conscious that he is not sufficiently acquainted with the language to write in such a manner as will please a critical reader, and if he has wrote [sic^] so as to be in telligible, he hopes the candid will excuse such inaccuracies in composition as it is difficult for a foreigner to avoid." 31 It is therefore likely that his pattern of speech and writing was rather firmly established by the time of his arrival in his adopted coun try. Romans' manifest knowledge in such diverse academic disci plines as botany, mathematics, and languages suggests the wide range of his scholarly interests, leading one to believe that he studied much more than civil engineering in his adult years. On the other hand, it is known that he learned much from observa tion and experience, as evidenced by his familiarity with the na tive tribes of the New World between Labrador and Panama, a familiarity he acquired by traveling among them. Moreover, this indicates that he ranged the coasts of North and Central America and therefore must have acquired a geographic knowl edge of the littoral as well, all before his late thirties.32 From an-

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xlii INTRODUCTION other hitherto obscure source it is learned that his travels took him at least as far south as present Colombia in South America, and that he was familiar with certain of the flora of that area.33 His activities thereafter until near the end of the American Revolution are fairly well documented. About 1757 Romans was sent to North America either as an engineer or on some other type of professional work.34 In his Concise Natural History, first published in 1775, Romans stated that he had "been acquainted with the continent" eighteen years. In another source he related: "for fourteen years back I have been sometimes employed as a commodore in the King's service, sometimes at the head of a large body of men in the woods, and, at the worst of times, I have been master of a merchantman, fitted in a warlike manner." 35 The first two assignments were ob vious references to his surveying activities, and despite his often flamboyant language, much can be learned of his life and work from his accounts.36 The earliest record of Romans is found in William Gerard De Brahm's Report of the General Survey in the Southern District of North America. His "A List of the Inhabitants of East Flor ida from 1763 to 1771" recorded Romans as "Draughtsman, Mathematician, Navigator," employed by the surveyor general, De Brahm himself. But this list is misleading, as the author made no attempt to provide dates of arrival, departure, or employment of the inhabitants of East Florida. Thus he leaves the erroneous impression that Romans was employed the entire eight years by him, when in fact he was De Brahm's assist ant less than two years.37 Romans began work on his now best-known but perhaps rarest map, "Part of the Province of East Florida," in 1766. This same year, while surveying the southern extremity of the peninsula and perhaps the north shore of Cuba, he had the minor misfor tune of running his vessel aground on the southern part of the

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INTRODUCTION xliii Dry Tortugas bank.38 On September 27, he arrived in Savannah, Georgia, from Cuba in his sloop, Mary.39 Losing little time, he set out on a second voyage which ended in near-disaster with the loss of his vessel and property valued at about 500 pounds ster ling.40 With reference to the loss of this vessel he wrote: "I re ceived a wound in my circumstances which is as yet far from healed." 41 Although the reference to "circumstances" suggests that he was writing of his monetary loss in a figurative sense, it can not be known with certainty that he did not in fact sustain an actual "wound" which may have plagued him for many years. From the foregoing, it is reasonable to assume that Romans' sur veying activities along the coast of East Florida had been in progress for some years, perhaps as early as 1763.42 After the loss of his vessel, Romans returned to Georgia, where he managed to secure appointment as deputy to Henry Yonge, surveyor general of Georgia.43 On January 6, 1768, Ro mans announced through an advertisement in Savannah's Geor gia Gazette that he was settling his affairs by the end of March and that all of his debtors should "make immediate payment on pain of finding their accounts in the hands of an attorney at law." He also informed his friends that he would perform no further private surveys except under certain stipulated conditions.44 Apparently Romans experienced unforeseen delays, for in July of the same year he placed another advertisement in the Gazette advising the readers that "The Subscriber intending to leave the province for some time, gives this publick notice, that he is ready to settle all his affairs, and give bail to any suit or ac tion that may be brought against him, agreeable to the attach ment law of this province." 45 Thus, Romans' tenure as deputy surveyor for Georgia was relatively brief, extending probably from the latter part of 1766 to midyear 1768in all, perhaps slightly more than one year and a half. Tending to confirm in general his probable time of departure from Georgia and his

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xliv INTRODUCTION later appointment as "Principal Deputy Surveyor for the South ern district, and first commander of the vessels on that service" is a news item which appeared in the Georgia Gazette, April 12, 1769: "On Sunday last put in here [Savannah] to refit, the schooner Betsey, having on board Mr. Bernard Romans, with proper assistants, employed for a considerable time past to sur vey the coasts, under the direction of William G. de Brahm, Esq. Surveyor-General of the southern district of North-America." During his relatively short term as deputy surveyor of Geor gia, Romans applied for substantial land grants in that colony. His first petition, read May 5, 1767 in a meeting of the governor and council, was for 100 acres divided into lots numbered ten and eleven in Highgate, parish of Christ Church. When one of these tracts was later found to have been granted previously to another individual, Romans petitioned for a grant of 57 acres some ten months later in the same parish. He allowed his claim to this tract to lapse, and it was granted to Charles Watson in May 1769.47 His second petition was for the purchase of 500 acres on the Ogeechee River. This was approved on the condi tion that he take out a grant for the land and register it within seven months. He did not purchase this tract, nor did he even survey it. He instead petitioned for an adjoining tract of 300 acres, 150 of which he sought on family right by virtue of owner ship of three slaves and the remaining 150 on purchase. These tracts were also granted, subject to the usual time and registra tion conditions. But they, too, like the adjoining 500 acres, were lost by default because of Romans' failure to take out the grants within the allotted time. On December 5, 1769, they were granted to Henry Yonge, Jr., probably the son of the surveyor general of Georgia and by then Romans' former employer.48 Thus, of the hundreds of acres of crown property in Georgia sought by Romans, it appears that the fifty-acre lot of his initial grant was the only tract which he may ever have owned.

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INTRODUCTION xlv In the acquisition of town lots, if not in any tangible benefits derived therefrom, Romans was more fortunate. He was the owner of four lots in Sunbury, numbered 189 through 192.49 In what manner he acquired these is not known. On October 13, 1783, John Dollar, sheriff of Liberty County in the then recently created state of Georgia, attached these lots by court order and published a notice advising claimants to appear "to shew cause why the said lots should not be adjudged the property of and be longing to the said Bernard Romans, the absent debtor." 50 In a subsequent suit filed in Superior Court by George Rolfes, Ro mans was ordered to appear and "plead within a year and a day, otherwise judgment by default." The last notice was published February 10, 1785, but by this time the defendant was deceased.51 The way was thus cleared for Rolfes to acquire these lots, prob ably by the payment of outstanding indebtedness and court costs. It was also during his term as deputy surveyor of Georgia that Romans was employed by John Percival, the second earl of Egmont, to survey and divide his estates on Amelia Island and on the St. Johns River. According to Romans, it was Egmont who "introduced [him] into East Florida." 52 From his observations on these surveys he obtained a knowledge of the northern parts of the newly-acquired province which he wrote about in his Concise Natural History and which provided a beginning for his chart, "Part of the Province of East Florida." And although it appears that he was still a resident of Georgia on January 12, 1767, Romans nevertheless petitioned for 200 acres of land in East Florida. A survey and grant for this amount were approved some two years later, and the grant was signed September 19, 1769. Less than four months later Romans sold his tract of 200 acres on the Nassau River to John Moore for twenty-seven pounds.53 By the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1763, England acquired Canada, Florida, and all lands east of the Mississippi River ex-

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xlvi INTRODUCTION cept New Orleans. Additional knowledge of these vast new ter ritories was of vital importance. Extensive surveys, both coastal and inland, were therefore ordered, not only for much of the original thirteen colonies, but for the newly-created "fourteenth and fifteenth" colonies of East and West Florida as well. An im portant part of this plan was the appointment of surveyors gen eral, one each for the northern and southern districts of North America.54 Named to the latter post in 1764 was William Gerard De Brahm, an eccentric German, who earlier had led a group of European Lutherans who settled Bethany near Ebenezer, Geor gia. He, like Romans, was a learned individual possessing many talents as "a surveyor, engineer, botanist, astronomer, meterologist, student of ocean currents, alchemist, sociologist, historian, and mystical philosopher." For the general survey he received an annual allowance, which he was expected not to exceed, but no salary. However, as provincial surveyor general of East Flor ida, a position he held concurrently with the other, he received an annual stipend of 0 with a 0 allowance for an assistant an allowance which he also regarded as his own. Furthermore, he and his deputies were allowed to survey provincial land grants and charge fees for this service. Moving from Georgia to St. Augustine in January 1765, De Brahm complied with the initial priority placed on him by the Board of Trade when he surveyed "that part of the Province of East Florida which lyes to the south of St. Augustine, as far as the Cape of Florida, par ticularly of the lands lying near the sea Coast of the great prom ontory." His eventual insistence on performing the lion's share of the provincial surveying himself led to charges that the gen eral survey suffered as a result, that settlement of the province was being impeded, and that land grantees were being over charged.55 Romans' appointment by De Brahm in 1769 to the position the former impressively described as "Principal Deputy Surveyor

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INTRODUCTION xlvii for the Southern district, and first commander of the vessels on that service," inevitably implicated him in this controversy.56 Though of different national origins, De Brahm and Romans shared a common Teutonic heritage which may have done more to exacerbate than to harmonize the personal and professional relationship of these two strong-willed and contentious individuals. In any event, on April 16, 1770, numerous charges were lodged against De Brahm, two of which involved Romans' work as deputy surveyor. On a "precept from the Surveyor General's office directed to any lawful deputy," De Brahm refused to cer tify the survey of 2,000 acres on Carlos Island performed by Ro mans for one William Haven for a fee of 5 9s. According to Haven, the surveyor general demanded additional fees for his office, yet refused "to certify the platts" [sic~]. A further deterio ration of the relationship between the surveyor general and his "principal deputy" is suggested by De Brahm's action some five months later. The latter issued a precept on a warrant of survey dated February 10, 1770, for 500 acres granted to John Heard. This too was issued "to any Lawful deputy," but later was re called by De Brahm and another issued "to any Lawful Deputy except Bernard Romans." This in effect amounted to the suspen sion of his deputy. These and other charges were transmitted to Lord Hillsborough by Governor James Grant, who, on October 4, 1770, with Council concurrence, finally suspended De Brahm as provincial surveyor.57 Romans' first surveys as "principal deputy" took him to the west coast of the Florida peninsula and through the central part of the interior, the examination of both of which he completed in 1769-70. Just how much of the thirty pound annual allowance for an assistant De Brahm intended to pay Romans can not be known. But the matter became academic with the suspension of the surveyor general, as Romans had to sue him to recover only one-fourth of what he considered was owed him.58 During the first year of this work Romans spent more than six

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xlviii INTRODUCTION weeks surveying Tampa Bay and at least one of its tributaries. He praised the body of water as a harbor and provided detailed sailing directions for safely entering any one of its three passages. Upon completion of his surveys he sank his small boat in a river he called the "Manatee," which from his description must surely have been the present Hillsborough. Departing in June, he traveled overland with an Indian guide and horses to St. Au gustine, where he arrived September 1769. He examined the "ridge country" of central Florida, later commenting on the bar ren sand hills he encountered en route.59 Romans wrote knowingly and with feeling of Dr. Andrew Turnbull and his ill-fated colony of New Smyrna, although, as previously mentioned, in a manner leaving some doubt as to his fairness and objectivity in the matter. On his return to St. Au gustine he sat for fifteen days as a member of the grand jury which investigated and returned indictments against certain of the leaders of the insurrection within the colony. He was present and witnessed fulfillment of the bizarre judgment of the court, which ruled that two of the guilty men should be executed by a third whose life was thereby spared.60 In September 1770, Romans left St. Augustine on a one-year surveying voyage financed at his own expense. Funds for this voyage could only have come from his fees as deputy provincial surveyor, controversial and uncertain as they were, since the sale of his 200-acre tract on the Nassau River was not consummated until January of the following year. He completed the unsurveyed areas of the "Florida and Bahama Banks," and spent the last seven months exploring the west coast of the peninsula as far as Apalachee. From there he followed the coast, obtaining soundings along the way, until his arrival in Pensacola in midAugust of 1771. On this voyage he stopped briefly at the south ern extremity of the peninsula to survey a 2,000-acre tract for one Samuel Touchet. He was to have received seventy pounds

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INTRODUCTION xlix for this survey, but it was declared "irregular" by George Mulcaster, who had replaced the suspended De Brahm, his fatherin-law. Thus, he did not receive "one farthing of this pittance, which would have scarcely paid for provisions," according to Romans.61 Upon his arrival in Pensacola about August IS, 1771, Romans was immediately employed by John Stuart, superintendent of Indian affairs for the southern district, to survey the western part of the province.62 Remaining in Pensacola and Mobile long enough only to survey and chart their bays,63 he left the latter on September 20 on a four-month journey which took him through the Indian nations north and west of his point of departure. By January 19, 1772, he had completed this phase of his survey and was back in Mobile, just missing the week-long Choctaw Con gress which had adjourned thirteen days earlier.64 Returning to Pensacola, Romans consolidated his field notes and began a sketch of the province, utilizing in addition to his own work the coastal surveys of George Gauld and those of the interior by David Taitt.65 Gauld was then in Jamaica surveying the Kings ton-Port Royal harbor area by order of Admiral Sir George Rodney, commander in chief of the Red Squadron stationed there.66 Gauld's work was therefore made available to Romans by their mutual friend, Dr. John Lorimer, and by John Stuart, Romans' employer. The small part of Spanish Louisiana west of the Mississippi depicted on Romans' map came from earlier French manuscript drafts.67 There is no reason to doubt Romans' allegations that Lorimer was the intermediary for exchange of survey work between Ro mans and Gauld. As mentioned earlier, this arrangement led to the insinuation that Romans "pirated" George Gauld's work. Quick to take offense, Romans published vehement disavowals in which he acknowledged his debt to Gauld for his work and to Lorimer for providing it. He noted that he, too, had made avail-

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/ INTRODUCTION able part of his work to Gauld at the desire of Lorimer. Romans' denunciation of his accusers bordered on the libelous and, in the case of one individual, had to be retracted when it was discov ered that he was innocent.68 Despite the frequency with which Gauld's name appears in connection with Romans and his work, it is doubtful that they ever met. During the period of a year and a half that Romans ranged West Florida, Gauld was in Pensacola only two weeks December 11-24, 1772.69 Apart from this interval, the prob ability of a chance encounter while each was on survey trips was remote if not impossible, as Gauld was either surveying the west coast of the Florida peninsula, Jamaica, or working along the Florida Keys, while Romans' activity was confined exclu sively to West Florida after his arrival in Pensacola in August 1771.70 Peter Chester, governor of West Florida, was also favorably impressed with Romans and his work. He employed the sur veyor to examine and map the rivers and territories north and east of Pensacola. Romans spent the three-month period of May, June, and July of 1772 on this survey and quickly delivered a draft of his map of this area to Chester.71 In his letter of trans mittal to the earl of Hillsborough, the governor characterized this as a "Map of the Eastern parts of this Province which had not hitherto been explored." He added that he thought Romans very capable of performing such surveys, and since much was yet to be learned of that part of the province, he would continue to employ him in this service.72 Apart from Governor Chester's reference, nothing else has come to light of such a map of West Florida based on Romans' three-month survey. Nor does there appear to be extant a copy of any such described work, although it was unquestionably in corporated in his larger maps. In a letter to George Gauld, who was then in Jamaica, John Lorimer alluded to this particular

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INTRODUCTION li survey by Romans and his drawings of the rivers flowing into Pensacola Bay. Lorimer also enclosed sketches by Thomas Hutchins of the same area, and indicated that "Romans' Yellow Water [Chester River] seems to be more accurately done." This letter offers further evidence that Lorimer was the mutual con tact for exchange of cartographic information between Romans and Gauld during the relatively short sojourn of the former in West Florida. Enclosed in this same letter were some roots of the "real jalap" discovered by Romans on the Chester River. Dr. Lorimer was able to authenticate the herb and speak with au thority on its efficacy, since he was a physician and had tested it on himself.73 Less than three weeks after transmittal by the governor of his "Eastern part of the Province," Romans had completed his com prehensive "A General Map of West Florida."74 Styled by Chester as "A Map of the Province of West Florida," it was dispatched within a matter of days to the earl of Dartmouth, who succeeded Hillsborough as secretary of state for American af fairs in 1772. This map was also completed at his direction, ac cording to Chester, who noted in his letter that he believed it "to be more perfect and compleat [sic] than any hitherto trans mitted from hence." He further noted, as did Romans in another source, that this map was a compilation: the seacoast from Gauld's surveys; some parts of the work from [Elias] Durnford's surveys; but the eastern and interior parts of the province were "laid down from Survey's [sic] made by Mr. Romans." 75 Romans himself credited Gauld with the seacoast, making no reference to the use of any of Durnford's work, but instead giving credit for part of the interior to David Taitt, sometime deputy surveyor and Indian commissioner. Combining this work with his own surveys, he noted that "the Whole [was] Examined and Carefully Connected at Pensacola the Thirty first day of August one thousand Seven hundred and Seventy two by the

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Hi INTRODUCTION Same Bernard Romans." He attested to the accuracy of this map when he stated that the inland parts were often corrected by the latitude. Inviting particular attention of the seafarer, he further declared that all the latitudes of the seacoast could be depended upon with certainty, and that "The Longitude of the Entrance of Pensacola Harbour upon which all the Rest Depend [sic] was taken from Observations of the Eclipses of Jupiters [sic] Satel lites in one thousand Seven hundred and Sixty Six by John Lorimer, Esqr. M D [sic] and makes New Orleans in West Long. 90 which very nearly Agrees with the Observations of M. Baron of the french Academy and may be Sufficiently De pended upon for all the Purposes of Navigation." 76 Transmittal of all dispatches between America and England was always slow and often uncertain. Romans' map and Ches ter's covering letter were placed in the personal care of one Cap tain Chadwick of the 16th Regiment, who promised the gover nor to deliver them safely into the hands of Lord Hillsborough. But H. M. S. Planter, bearing Chadwick and his important mis sive, put into Ireland in distress and there was condemned as unseaworthy. Thus it was that Romans' handiwork was delayed many months in reaching its final destination.77 Romans spent his final months in West Florida employed by John Stuart, surveying the seacoast between Pensacola and the mouths of the Mississippi River, including the intervening islands, lakes, bays, and sounds. The cartographic: records of this work, a finished pen and ink chart, delineating as well the Span ish Island of Orleans and the river more than fifty miles above the town, reflected his surveys between June 1772 and January of the following year. At Stuart's request this and another larger map were inscribed to General Thomas Gage, commander-inchief of forces in North America, and subsequently delivered to him in New York by Romans.78 It was during Romans' sojourn in Pensacola while working on

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INTRODUCTION Ha his maps that he applied for land grants in West Florida. On August 4, 1772, his two petitions for 100 acres each were read before a meeting of the governor and council. He sought the first tract as part of his "Family Rights/' no doubt referring to his slaves, as he had done years earlier in his petition for a similar family grant in Georgia. The tracts were situated on the "East part of Pensacola Bay near to a place where John Simpson hath lately made a Hutt," according to the language of the petition. The second of these, sought in his own right, was forty or fifty chains more or less to the southeast of the first. Both petitions were rejected immediately as "being within the Indian Line." 79 In a meeting of September 1, however, his petitions were once again read, along with a surveyor's certificate signed by Elias Durnford. The certificate attested to the fact that the tracts were vacant and appeared to be within the Indian boundary line. Nevertheless, the governor and council reconsidered and "ad vised that the two Tracts be Granted of Vacant and within the Indian Cession." 80 Thus Romans became the owner of these tracts even though he was to face a challenge from his neighbor, Simpson. Simpson's objection took the form of a petition read before the governor and council October 7, and a caveat against granting the land to Romans. In his petition Simpson alleged that he had "a long time since settled on a Tract of Land up the Middle River on the Bay of Pensacola where he built a Hut for the ac commodation of the Creek Indians." He went on to relate that he had cleared a great part of the land to raise corn and that he had informed Romans he intended to apply for the land when it was ceded by the Indians. Although a squatter himself, he in ef fect accused Romans of acting in bad faith and in "an under handed manner kept it a secret from your Petitioner untill [sic] he had the Same Land advised to be Granted to him in Council." And despite the caveat, Romans had applied for a warrant of

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liv INTRODUCTION survey. Simpson ended his petition by advising that he had never had any lands granted to him in any part of America. He there fore prayed that the circumstances be maturely considered and that "Your Petitioner may have a Grant of the two hundred Acres of Land in two Tracts in preference to the Said Romans in part of his Family Right having a Wife and four Children." The governor and council postponed the matter until next "Land day." 81 The final outcome of this controversy is not clear from the record, but it is unlikely that Romans pressed his claim, since he left the province some four months later. It is also prob able that Romans bore no malice toward his neighbor then or later, as he subsequently referred to a "Mr. Simpson, the inter preter for the savages and a man of veracity." 82 Presum ably this was the same individual who took legal action to block Romans' land grants. After one year of surveying and drafting maps of the western part of West Florida for Governor Chester and John Stuart, Romans no doubt could see an end to work for him in the prov ince. He therefore made a concentrated personal effort in Pensacola and at the same time wrote to London to interest one highlyplaced official in the botanical possibilities of the country. In so doing, he revealed yet another facet of his many-sided storehouse of knowledge. Even as he continued his surveying he gathered plants, seeds, and specimens, classifying and drawing sketches of certain of these. He submitted botanical sketches and a specimen of "Jalap" to Governor Chester for transmittal with his map. One may assume that Romans did an effective job of selling him self and his ideas, since the governor was prompted to comment that "As this Mr. Romans appears to be an ingenious man, and both naturalist and BotanistI think him worthy of some En couragement." Chester suggested to Hillsborough that an an nual salary of fifty or sixty pounds might well be sufficient inducement for Romans to remain and take up the duties of pro-

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INTRODUCTION lv vincial botanist83 The governor's dispatch praising Romans and his work was "laid before the King," who approved the pro posal. Accordingly, Lord Dartmouth, by now secretary of state, authorized the salary in the closing month of 1772. Thus there was included in the budget for the fiscal year June 24, 1773-74, "an allowance to Mr. Romans for his care and Skill in the Col lection of rare and useful Productions in Physick & Botany" in the amount of fifty pounds. But Romans' salary, if not too little, was at least too late to achieve its stated purpose, for by then he had departed the province.84 Romans' initial attempt to interest the colonial home office in his botanical proposals is evidenced in two dispatches to John Ellis, fiscal agent for West Florida. Born in Ireland about 1710, Ellis lived to become, in the words of Carl Linnaeus, "a bright star of natural history [and] the main support of natural history in England." At forty-four years of age he became a fellow of the Royal Society and subsequently had numbers of publications to his credit, one of which was translated into the French lan guage. Ellis was engaged in business as a merchant in London with but little success until his appointment in 1764 as agent for West Florida. Six years later he received as well the agency for Dominica. With these appointments came many correspondents, including Romans, and the opportunity to import various Amer ican seeds. It was to a man who had distinguished himself in the diverse fields of business, politics, and natural history that Ro mans therefore directed his attentions in London.85 The fact that the fiscal agent for West Florida was also a natu ralist of international renown could only have been regarded by Romans as a stroke of good fortune. This fortuitous circum stance, he rightly guessed, would assure that Ellis the botanist would view his proposals with kindly and discerning eyes, while Ellis the fiscal agent, he hoped, would use his influence to im plement them. Penned in the precise hand of the master drafts-

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Ivi INTRODUCTION man over a signature adorned with flourishes, two dispatches were sent by Romans to Ellis at Gray's Inn, London, on the same dateAugust 13, 1772. One of these was titled "Some Observa tions on a Catalogue of Plants publishes [published] by John Ellis, Esqre., F.R.S." In this he listed and commented on some twenty genera of plants indigenous to Carolina, Georgia, the Floridas, and one which grew "on an uninhabited island in the West Indies." As its title implies, all were found in Ellis' cata log. Though Romans' "observations" unquestionably contrib uted to the knowledge of botany in West Florida, they also con stituted a rare and subtle form of flattery. Ellis could not have failed to note that his work was read and understood even in the wilds of this frontier province.86 Accompanying the dispatches was Romans' "Scheme for a Botannical Garden in West Florida." He proposed a nursery near Pensacola to transplant and observe curious or unclassified plants which might be discovered in "any distant part of this country" from the time of its flowering, through the fruit-bear ing and seed-producing periods, to final propagation. He ob served that this could be very tedious and "sometimes be even liable to the disappointment of years." Clearly, Romans envi sioned long-range planning for his proposal. He suggested a lo cation with a northern and southern exposure which would in clude moist and swampy ground as well as dry and sandy soil with some oak lands. The preparation of the soil with clay, sea weed, and manure would, he thought, produce a greater variety of plants than far richer soil, including every plant that "Grows from the Capes of Florida to Canada." Even certain of the West India plants of Jamaica and Cuba might be brought more easily to this garden than to any other part of the continent. The vari ety of curious and useful plants growing along the coast from the Mississippi to the Tortugas, and especially along the banks of the rivers of West Florida and the high land toward the Indian

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INTRODUCTION Ivii nations, was immense. And apart from being the most centrally located, Pensacola was the only place which afforded frequent opportunities for sending growing plants to England, Romans concluded.87 In preparing his estimate in [Spanish milled] dollars and reals of the cost of this "Botanical Garden," Romans included the cost of a house and fencing at $500, to be amortized at an annual cost of $50 for ten years, further indication of the long range im plications of his plans. "Wages for two hands constantly em ployed in the Gardens" he set at $96 and provisions for them at $72. Tools, utensils, and frames and glass for the protection of tender tropical plants brought the total to $250. He shrewdly omitted the salary and traveling expenses of the botanist, nor did he total the estimate, perhaps hoping thereby to encourage Ellis to insert a more generous sum than he himself would have dared. Unquestionably, Romans wanted the assignment as botanist and was leaving the door open for salary and expenses. As previously mentioned, Romans was belatedly named botanist for West Flor ida, but just what part Ellis played in his appointment, if any, is not known. On the basis of subsequent letters it is evident, how ever, that Romans came to regard the famous naturalist as his benefactor. One need wonder no longer why his Concise Natural History was dedicated "To John Ellis, Esq., Fellow of the Royal Societys [c] of London and Upsal" [Upsala].88 In February 1773, Romans was in New Orleans after con cluding the surveys and maps for Stuart and Chester. His knowledge of the country thereabouts, gained on this or a pre vious trip, led him later to write movingly and prophetically "upon the fatal mistake of leaving the isle of New-Orleans in the hands of the French and consequently of the Spaniards!" They were using the unsurpassed timber for the building of fine frigates, he noted. But worse yet, the Spaniards were leaving their own trees standing and despoiling the English side of the

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Iviii INTRODUCTION lake of its valuable timber. "Might not England herself in finitely rather build ships of war, and sell them to her enemies, and so make profits of them, than to be obliged to behold this with supineness?" he moralized.89 Romans by now must have viewed his surveys and cartogra phy of West Florida as largely completed. And since he had not heard from John Ellis, nor could he have had any inkling that he would be named botanist of West Florida, he accepted an offer of employment in Carolina from John Stuart, with the promise of a salary of 0 annually. Engaging passage on the schooner Liberty, Captain John Hunt commanding, he departed in February 1773. While proceeding northbound in the Gulf Stream along the lower east coast of the Florida peninsula, the vessel was swept over on her beam-ends, no doubt by a sudden and unexpected squall. Their boats and "caboose," as their small on-deck galley was termed, were lost, and the vessel sus tained serious damage.90 His prior knowledge of the coast was used to good advantage by Captain Hunt and the crew when Romans conducted the crippled vessel to a nearby deep-water refuge where emergency repairs were made. Here a man and a boy were sent ashore on a makeshift raft to secure sand for a "kind of caboose" and no doubt to replenish their supply of firewood and fresh water, thereby enabling them to continue their voyage.91 The capsize or "over-set" of the schooner Liberty, as Romans termed the casualty, was a near disaster for all on board, but was perhaps more serious in its consequences for him than for the others. His irreplaceable collection of seeds and dry specimens of plants "gathered in the Western parts of America" [West Florida], with the exception of a few of the former, were also lost. The few seeds he managed to save he gave to a "Dr. Gardner at Charlestown" [V], but he feared that they were "in a State past vegetation." Having thus advised John Ellis of this

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INTRODUCTION lix loss, he assured him: "I shall continue to send some more draw ings of curious plants & employ myself as regularly as my present situation will permit to make a Collection of what Ever comes under my observation & is rare, in order to Send to Europe." 92 There is little doubt that had this collection been saved from the perils of the sea Romans would have sent it on to Ellis. Notwithstanding this and their other losses, the casualty was not the tragedy it might have been. Their lives were spared, and the subsequent publication of Romans' numerous works offers mute testimony that he was able to save at least part of his copious notes, journals, and drawings from which the final drafts of certain of these emerged. Romans' arrival in Charleston was not a happy occasion for him. For some undisclosed reason Stuart refused to employ him, leading to the statement by Romans that he had been deluded by the superintendent. Romans viewed this alleged deception as later justification for him to publish without permission that part of his work done under Stuart's direction. From the stand point of his own personal finances, leaving West Florida was even more critical than his earlier departure from East Florida, where he had been able, at least for a time, to earn fees as deputy provincial surveyor. Thus he arrived in Charleston after a trying and perilous voyage, probably short on funds if not destitute. He could ill afford to remain there without employment, and he therefore proceeded to New York, where he set about capitaliz ing on the only thing of value he possessedhis observations on East and West Florida.93 Before Romans departed Charleston, Stuart had one final as signment for him, although minor in nature and perhaps gratuitous. He entrusted to Romans' care the two maps which he had earlier authorized the bearer to draft, with instructions to deliver them personally to General Thomas Gage, commander of His Majesty's forces in North America. In his letter of April

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Ix INTRODUCTION 22, 1773, from Charleston, which suggests as well the approxi mate date of Romans' departure for New York, Stuart referred to the first of these as a "Map of West Florida containing Mr. Romans and Mr. Taitts [sic] observations and the different es tablished boundary lines." Stuart advised the general of certain errors introduced into the map by Taitt and Romans, particu larly with reference to the course of the road "as laid down" by the former, and the misplaced Chickasaw Nation drawn in by the latter. Stuart expressed regret for sending the uncorrected map but wanted Gage to have it before his imminent departure for England. Besides, he wrote, if your Excellency should think proper to ask him any Questions [Romans] will Account (he says) for this Blunder." Stuart added that he had "employed Mr. Romans to take a Survey of the Sea Coast [sic] between Pensacola & the Mouths of the Mississippi with the Bays & lakes of which I also Submit a Copy, and Hope the whole will be Acceptable." M Stuart's thoughtfulness in providing Gage with these two maps and his foresight in having Romans inscribe them to him as commander-in-chief could only have pleased the general. Upon his arrival in New York about June 1, 1773, Romans was ushered into the presence of General Gage who received the maps and listened attentively to his explanation of the "blun der." Gage evinced his appreciation to the superintendent when he wrote: "Mr. Romans delivered me the Map of West Florida for which I have many Thanks to give you. He cleared up the Error you take Notice of and upon the whole I have a much better Idea of all that Country than I ever conceived before." 95 It was in New York that Romans learned of his appointment as botanist of West Florida and his fifty-pound annual grant, information which he transmitted to John Ellis, perhaps un necessarily. Romans had begun work on his publications and desperately needed the money, but there was one hitch: he had

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INTRODUCTION Ixi had no opportunity to obtain Governor Chester's "Certificate" for payment. In these circumstances he took what he considered to be an unusual measure; he procured a "Certificate of my Ex istence under the Seal of the Mayoralty [sic] of this City," and drew on John Ellis for the entire -fifty pounds in favor of E[nn]-is Graham. Romans admitted to the possible irregularity of this method, but in justification wrote Ellis: "as I am at present much streightened [sic] for want of cash I have been obliged to take this step. I hope therefore you will be so kind as to honour my Draught." Romans' reference almost five months later to a "beneficence" unrelated to the "draught" leaves no doubt that the naturalist had befriended Romans in an extraor dinary manner. Whether this reference was to possible influence exerted in London by the fiscal agent to secure Romans' appoint ment as botanist with its fifty pound annual salary cannot be known in the absence of Ellis' letters.96 Romans' lack of funds later reached such a critical state that he again wrote Ellis asking that he use his influence and recom mend him "to some place or business." He assured his bene factor that "be it never so trifling, I will strive to shew my gratitude by close application to duty." As in an earlier letter he once more suggested that he be granted an exclusive patent for the "curing and vending of Jalap in West Florida," noting that it would be of great service to him. The quality was very good, he observed, and he had no doubt that he could "so increase the quantity, that Britain might be Supplied with this article from the Province, but without Such a privilege for Some Years at least I think it would hardly be any persons [sic] while," he con cluded.97 The coming months brought no noticeable improvement in Romans' finances, depleted no doubt by the constant demand for funds to complete his publications. He was therefore compelled to take extraordinary measures to provide at least one of the

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Ixii INTRODUCTION luxuries, if not the necessities, of life. On August 10, 1774, he signed a note payable three months later to one Benjamin Hildreth in the amount of 7 5s Id for two hogsheads of rum. To secure this note in case of his death he pledged all his effects, "especially the Copperplates of his work." One can only specu late on the acquisition of such an inordinate quantity of rum at a cost of more than half a year's salary by an individual who had written on its evils in a book he was even then publishing.98 Con ceivably, his personal habits were at some variance with his ad vice to others. In New York Romans began a period of activity marked by some two years of writing and appearances before learned societies seeking support and subscribers for his forthcoming publications. His various "advertisements" in the colonial peri odicals from time to time attested to the progress of his work and also were calculated to encourage subscribers. He was ad mitted to membership in the Marine Society of New York on August 2, 1773, and eighteen days later was in Philadelphia where he attended a meeting of the American Philosophical Society. He deposited with this distinguished group a description of two nondescript West Florida plants, a paper on the improve ment of the mariner's compass, and exhibited "A Chart of the Navigation to, & in, the New Ceeded Countries." The chart was referred to a select committee "to compare it with Mr. Gauld's account of the same country; also to consider their opinion of the Paper on the Compass." Romans later mailed to the Society a drawing of the previously described specimens and a drawing and description of another. On January 21, 1774, Romans, John Ellis, and George Gauld, among others, were honored by elec tion to membership in the SocietyGauld, oddly enough, for a second time. Although never a member of the Boston Marine Society, Romans probably appeared before this group. A terse notation in their records indicated their thought "that Mr.

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INTRODUCTION Ixiii Romans [sic] draught to the southwd [sic] is worthy of recom mendation." These pursuits did not entirely occupy his time or energies. During the early months of 1774 he submitted three articles for publication in the Royal American Magazine?9 Some idea of the depth of Romans' inquiring mind is sug gested by his visits with Ezra Stiles, one of the outstanding intel lectuals of the day and later president of the then struggling Yale College. On a trip to Newport, Rhode Island, in March 1775, Romans met with Stiles on three different days during which they discussed the former's forthcoming publications and his knowledge of the native tribes of the New World based on his travels among them from Labrador to Panama. Stiles in turn allowed Romans to examine Plato's Critias and Diodorus Siculus "for the history of the island of Atlas" [Atlantis].100 That Romans was also a man of vision and imagination seems equally clear. His earlier proposal to Lord Dartmouth, years ahead of its time and obliquely mentioned in his Concise Nat ural History, would have involved a "journey through America to Asia." Naturally, he hoped to lead such an expedition, but by May 1774, he noted that the "present troubles in America" left him with little hope that it might be undertaken. This "grieves me much," he wrote to Ellis, "as I live in a part of the World where the Study of Nature and its votaries is in a most unac countable manner Neglected & I have but Little Else to recom mend me to the attention of mankind."101 Quite apart from his literary efforts and public appearances, Romans had to attend to certain purely technical details before he would finally see his work in print. Presumably these, too, entailed travels from New York to Philadelphia, where special paper had been manufactured for the maps; to New Haven to secure the expert services of his fellow surveyor and engraver, Abel Buell; and thence to Boston where the master coppersmith, Paul Revere, completed the plates and finally delivered the first

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Ixiv INTRODUCTION of these to Providence. His optimistic publication date of Janu ary 1, 1775, was delayed by some four months because of the "struggle with the art and mystery of Copper-plate print ing." Thus it was near the end of April before he was able to advertise that his published work was ready for delivery. Romans was pleased with the number of subscribers and pub licly acknowledged his thanks for their favors. He hoped, how ever, that their orders and payments would be forthcoming im mediately, as the expense had greatly exceeded his expectations. He added that the book could not be spared separately, but that a few complete copies were yet available to non-subscribers at sixteen dollars each.102 The growing unrest in the American colonies erupted in April 1775 with the skirmishes at Lexington and Concord. The pre occupation with the impending revolution, coming at the same time that Romans was advertising his publications, could not have been a propitious time for their sale. If the record of his earlier financial condition is any indication, he must have been so deeply in debt that his fifty-pound stipend as botanist of West Florida would have been inadequate for his needs. Nor had his friend and benefactor, John Ellis, been able to provide further help. Indeed, his death the following year severed Romans' final link with the home government. In an earlier plea to Ellis, he succinctly summed up his position when he wrote: "I lead a very neglected life and am very hard put to it to maintain my self and I have no [other] friend in Europe to whom to ap ply."103 Most of Romans' work in the American colonies had been performed for officials of the British crown. But the relatively short tenure of each assignment suggests a degree of dissatisfac tion on the part of certain of his employers, on his own part, or both. His acknowledged displeasure with De Brahm and Stuart suggests that he felt aggrieved by them. Moreover, Romans

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INTRODUCTION Ixv was not English-born, nor did he have anyone to consider but himself. Thus his loyalty to the crown may well have been more sustained by expediency than rooted in deep conviction. The only thing he stood to lose was his fifty pound grant as botanist of West Florida, and he could not reasonably expect this to continue indefinitely, since he had done nothing to earn it since his appointment. His decision to join the American patriots was therefore probably not difficult. Knowledge of Romans' defection eventually reached Gov ernor Chester in West Florida, who notified Lord Dartmouth that the surveyor had left the province in 1773 and had not re turned. He therefore recommended that Dr. John Lorimer be appointed botanist in Romans' place and receive the same fifty-pound salary. Dartmouth's successor, Lord George Ger main, approved the proposal and noted in his letter to Chester: "I am sorry that Mr. Romans has made so ill a return to the kindness shown him by Government. But as he has proved himself to be an unfaithful subject of his Majesty, he no longer deserves countenance or protection; and I have accordingly given orders to the agent to refuse payment of his bills for such part of the former grants as remains in his hands." Romans' sinecure, for which he received payment for no more than two fiscal years, thus passed to his friend and former associate in West Florida, John Lorimer.104 It was in 1775, while Romans was in Hartford, that he was caught up in the initial enthusiasm of the patriots' cause. Their action at this time consisted of a poorly organized but success ful mission to take possession of "Ticonderoga and its depend encies," the ordnance of which was considered to be of great strategic value. Since the proposal was first suggested by Captain Edward Mott, he was placed in charge of the operation. Romans, named a member of the "committee," was, he thought, qualified for a leadership role by virtue of his training as an

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Ixvi INTRODUCTION engineer. As the expedition gathered momentumand followers the question of command became the most troublesome of all. Setting out from Hartford a day early, Romans and his com panion, Noah Phelps, were soon joined by Mott and a small contingent. Their mission was perhaps the poorest kept secret of the American Revolution: all the leading "windbags" of Con necticut knew about it and were anxious to make their mark by actively participating in it, including Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen, the self-appointed leader of the "Green Mountain Boys" who even then had a fifty-pound price on his head as a "rioter" for participating in "sundry violent outrages on the person of one of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace."105 When Mott, Romans, and the others reached Pittsfield, the plan was revealed to James Easton, a local tavern owner. He, too, was anxious to share the glory and summoned John Brown, a local lawyer, to whom the details were also confided. Together they scoured the countryside "rousing the militia and gathering provisions with the utmost secrecy." Their arrival in Bennington at the Catamount Tavern, Ethan Allen's "headquarters," was the signal for him to take command of his "boys." His sub ordinates would be Easton and Seth Warner, a latecomer pos sessed of "poise and good sense." 106 When Benedict Arnold learned that the Allen-Mott expedi tion was well along in its plans and proceeding without him, he sped toward Castleton on the Vermont side of Lake Champlain, where the group had assembled prior to the attack. "Send for ward as many men to join the Army as you can posably [sic] spare," he wrote, sensing that he might otherwise be short on troops in the midst of Allen's "army" of exuberant highlanders. It was into an expedition already top-heavy with self-appointed leadership that Colonel Arnold rode, brandishing his commis sion and demanding to take command. Though the colonel had not a single man, his duly authenticated commission and his

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INTRODUCTION Ixvii persistence won for him co-leadership of the hastily recruited militia. Thus Arnold and Allen marched side by side to victory over a surprised and sleeping garrison, accepting jointly the "capitulation" of Fort Ticonderoga"Sounding Water"from a captain still in his night clothes at dawn of May 10, 177S.107 By the time the expedition reached Bennington, Romans had seen more than enough of self-appointed leaders. Indeed, he was no doubt overwhelmed by them, despite his protestations that he, too, had been assigned a leadership role. He therefore left the group and proceeded to the head of the lake and took possession "of what time and weather had left of Fort George." Romans' discontent with the manner in which the expedition was being conducted was indicated by Mott's comment: "Mr. Romans left us and joined us no more; we were all glad, as he had been a trouble to us, all the time he was with us." Romans' only "prisoner" was one John Nordberg, who informed Romans that he did not belong to the army but "may be considered a half pay officer invalid." Romans accordingly issued him a "passport to go to New London" to recover his health, adding that because of his age he might go wherever he pleased.108 Romans could claim no outstanding credit for the "capture" of Fort George, nor did he attempt to do so. He returned quietly to Ticonderoga where he assisted Arnold in making an inven tory of the captured cannon and ordnance stores taken with the fort. Romans further assisted Arnold at Fort George where they prepared the serviceable cannon for shipment to Albany for use of the patriot army at Cambridge. Romans journeyed to Albany in this connection and was of such service to Arnold that he wrote to the Massachusetts Committee of Safety in praise of Romans: "I think him a very spirited, judicious gentleman, who has the service of his country much at heart, and hope he will meet proper encouragement." 109 Having failed in his preemptive bid to become the sole com-

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Ixviii INTRODUCTION mander of the expedition, Arnold at least shared in the glory of capture and now seemed disinclined to remain on the scene, even as commander. One may suspect that he hoped to move on im mediately to even greater triumphs. In any event, the day after the fall of Ticonderoga he wrote the Massachusetts Committee of Safety apprising it of the capture and the undisciplined and chaotic situation created by Allen and "his own wild people." He added that he would be "extremely glad" to be relieved by a proper person but vowed to stay on until he had received further advice and orders. Three days later he wrote again, ad vising, among other things, that he had about one hundred men with more to be expected "every minute," noting that the dispute between him and Allen was "subsiding." Romans was quoted as "representing the garrison at Ticonderoga in a feeble state, both as to men and provisions." Less than a week later Arnold once again wrote that he would be "extremely glad" to be superseded in his command, and added discouragingly that it would be "next to impossible to repair the old fort at Ticonderoga" and that he was not qualified to build a new one. "I am really of opinion it will be necessary to employ one thousand or fifteen hundred men here this summer, in which I have the pleasure of being joined in sentiment by Mr. Romans, who is esteemed an able engineer," Arnold wrote in further praise of his associate and in support of his own judgment.110 Only a few months after the capture of "Ticonderoga and its dependencies," the Provincial Congress of New York, at the urging of General Phillip Schuyler, recognized the necessity of securing the Hudson River for patriot use and thus closing this vitally important waterway to the British. The suggestion that fortifications be built at the Highlands opposite West Point was made to the Continental Congress, which in turn approved the plan and authorized the provincial body to proceed accordingly. To implement this plan they appointed five commissioners, "any

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INTRODUCTION l> <\ V<\ three or more of them empowered to act, manage and direct the building and finishing thereof.*' During the recess of the New York Provincial Congress, the Committee of Safety of that colony held a conference with Romans and engaged him as engineer to build this fortification. Romans remonstrated that he might lose his fifty-pound "pension" as botanist of West Florida when this fact became known. He therefore hoped that he would be employed as an engineer in the Continental service in effect, a permanent assignment. The committee was unable to grant that request, but it promised a temporary salary of $50 a month "and informed him that it was probable his services would be wanted." Though the committee earlier had intended to have a conference with the commissioners and the engineer who was expected from Philadelphia before issuing instructions, the record is not clear that any such meeting occurred. Romans later wrote that "said gentlemen gave me their words that I should be appointed principal Engineer for the Province, with the rank and pay of Colonel." With this division of authority and responsibility the seeds of a full-scale controversy were thus sown. That the "Commissioners at the Fortifications in the Highlands" later resented Romans and that he regarded their authority over him lightly if at all is apparent from the record of their subsequent altercation.111 With characteristic dispatch, Romans began work on the project August 29 and in less than three weeks had prepared cost estimates and plans for what he considered adequate de fenses at the Highlands. These he submitted not to his nominal superiors, the commissioners, but to the Committee of Safety, which in turn forwarded them to the Continental Congress. In his accompanying signed report, dated "North River, Martelaar's Rock, or Martyr's Reach, September 14, 1775," Romans explained in some detail the terrain, the batteries, blockhouses, and the suggested armament for each. In apologizing for his

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INTRODUCTION draftsmanship he wrote: "I must beg the Honourable House to pardon the coarseness of the drawings, they being done in an inconvenient place, and at a distance from my instruments." 112 John Berrien, one of the commissioners and commissary for the group, was able to give first-hand information of these developments when he write from New York to "Constitutional Fort," probably to his three colleagues at the Highlands: "Mr. Romans arrived here Last Sunday; on Monday I went with him to the Committee of Safety, where he Exhibited his plan of the works to them & the next day the Estimates of Expences; on the Whole they seem Pleased with them & I must Confess to you I have a high Opinion of the Plan & of his Abilitiesthe Committee sent off an Express with the plan & Expences; to the Continental Congress the Same day he gave the last in. Yesterday Morning he Set off for New Haven, to be back in Six days & as soon as he Returns here I Expect he will be Dispatched to you." Despite the presence of their colleague with Romans, the three commissioners apparently viewed his ap pearance before the Committee of Safety before consultation with them as insubordination and a slight to their responsibility and authority. Thus, on September 25, they dispatched a letter advising this body: "We should have esteemed ourselves happy, had we been consulted on this subject before it had been sent forward. We conceive that an operation of this kind is in tended for the defence of the Colony, and for the advantage of America in general. If we are right in our conjecture, Mr. Romans's plan is not sufficient; it will be only a temporary ex pedient, to prevent vessels going up the river; and should the fortification fall into the hands of the Ministerial Troops, it will prove the ruin of the Province." The three commissioners con tinued by questioning Romans' estimate of the cost of the de fenses and emphasized their position when they added: "As we will not be answerable for measures we cannot conduct, there fore request the favour of you, gentlemen, to inform us whether

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INTRODUCTION i/1\ i\ if we are under Mr. Roman's direction, or whether he is obliged to consult with us upon the measures to be pursued. You cannot blame us for this request, as the safety, honour, and interest of our Country, and its future welfare, depend upon this important post." 113 How the commissioners were able to prejudge Romans' plans without seeing them is not clear. This letter apparently was not without effect. On September 9, Romans once again appeared before the Committee of Safety and delivered what amounted to a contract to erect the fortifica tions at the Highlands. He offered to complete the entire project, only ordnance excepted, for ,000, a figure some 0 greater than his earlier itemized estimate. He proposed that the whole management be under his direction and "that the commissioners only have the trouble of supervising my execution, and answer ing the orders I draw from time to time in favour of the work men and furnishers of material." In effect, he suggested that they rubber-stamp his work and meet current expenses. The other stipulations were relatively minor in nature. Consideration of the entire proposal was postponed until the following day.114 The decisions made by the Committee of Safety in answer to the requests of Romans and the commissioners could not have pleased either. After conferring the next morning they rejected his proposal to contract the construction of the fortifications, agreeing only to pay him for his services as an engineer. Nor would they designate him as [colonial] engineer or agree on his suggested salary of twenty shillings per day for his services, hinting instead that twelve shillings would be more appropriate. During the same meeting the Committee agreed to a letter which was transmitted to the three complaining commissioners remind ing them "that Mr. Romans was brought to assist in planning and directing the fortifications by your advice and request." They added that "Mr. Romans is now to proceed to you and give you his best advice and assistance as an engineer."115 The New York Provincial Congress was equally indifferent

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V i\ i\ V 1/ INTRODUCTION to the smoldering controversy when, on October 12, 1775, in compliance with a resolution received from the Continental Congress, it ordered the commissioners to journey to the High lands and several other places along the Hudson, and with Romans' assistance, render their "opinions as to the fortifications necessary to be built at these [other] places, with an estimate of the expenses." 116 The report of this tour of inspection, dated October 16, was written by Romans and enclosed in a letter from the commis sioners to the Provincial Congress. The report gave an optimistic view of the progress of the work at the Highlands, considering the late seasonal start and the shortage of timber. He thought that in three weeks time the fortifications would be of sufficient strength to withstand "the brunt of as large a ship of rank as can come here, and two or three small fry." He listed the need for cannon and urged more workmen, especially masons. He con sidered that a battery at Moore's House, about one mile upriver from West Point, "seems, at present entirely useless." He promised, however, to examine the matter further. Romans wrote discouragingly of the idea of works on the west side of the river above Verplanck's Point, but "at Pooploop's Kill, opposite to Anthony's nose, it is a very important pass; the river [is] narrow, commanded a great ways up and down, full of counter currents, and subject to constant fall winds; nor is there any anchorage at all, except close under the works to be erected." He gave other reasons for the suitability of this location for defense works and ended his "Remarks" by noting: "I understand that it will be an easy matter to obstruct the navigation of the river, so as to confine it to 12 or 14 feet; and in that case it remains large enough [i.e., deep enough] for our use, and without new inventions and construction the enemy can do us very little hurt." Considering their earlier disagreements, it is noteworthy that two of the dissident commissioners agreed with Romans when

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INTRODUCTION l> >\ iA> 1/1/1/ they endorsed his report, writing: "We have considered the above remarks and fully concur in opinion with the engineer." 11T On the same day the New York Provincial Congress issued orders for the tour of inspection, Romans wrote that body from the Highlands, by now called Fort Constitution, reminding its members of their promise that he would be appointed principal engineer for the province with the rank and pay of colonel. He further pointed out that he had been engaged in the work at the fort since August 29 and prayed that his "commission may be made out and sent." Indulging in a degree of hyperbole on the one hand, yet viewing his benefits from the crown with the ut most realism on the other, he concluded: "I have left the pursuit of my own business, which was very considerable, and en dangered my pension with the Crown, by engaging in our great common cause. These matters considered, I hope my request will be thought reasonable, and therefore complied with." Con sideration on his request was deferred until the appropriate committee report was read. Though his subsequent petition and memorial to the New York Provincial Congress leaves no doubt that he considered that he had been appointed provincial en gineer with the rank and pay of colonel, there is no record that any such commission was ever issued.118 Despite the disappointment of not receiving his commission, Romans continued work on Fort Constitution under conditions which he considered far from satisfactory. In a long letter to the commissioners he first of all criticized the plan he was obliged to pursue as "a very lame one." He expressed his dis satisfaction with the inadequate number of attendants for the twenty-seven masons, blaming their slow progress on this shortage. He pointed out the unavailability of timber on the island and the necessity for delivery from other areas. He found fault with the carpenters and their work, preferring, however, the country carpenter over his counterpart from the city. He strenu-

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Ixxiv INTRODUCTION ously recommended that oxen be procured, and pointed out the savings which would thereby result. He admitted his own error in misjudging the roughness of the terrain and the shortage of timber, which occasioned a corresponding error in the number of tools he had ordered. Blasting powder for the miners [quarreymen] was also needed, the use of which he felt would result in a substantial saving. He found fault with the accounting of the steward and pointed out the need for a tool clerk whose duties, he thought, could be performed by the steward without adding greatly to his labors. His final complaint involved un authorized visitors, of which he wrote: "The number of stran gers who come, nolens volens, to visit us, is a gross grievance. A rascal, who does not vouchsafe to lift his hat to us, nor even avoids to insult us, comes into our innermost recess, and inter rupts us, perhaps at a time when we are consulting the welfare of the community." Throughout this long letter he supported his conclusions of a technical nature with appropriate figures and estimated savings.119 The commissioners, who obviously regarded Romans' letter of complaint as an attack on their own judgment, were quick to respond. They categorically answered each complaint, disagree ing with many of his conclusions, defending their own actions for the most part, and giving grudging support only in minor degree on certain technical matters. Their "ninthly" touched an unusually sensitive area with Romans. They accused him of in terfering with the steward's office and the accounting of victuals expended, inferring that he was also requesting an assistant when in fact he suggested only that the steward assume the duties of tool clerk. Moreover, the commissioners insisted that Romans dismiss his Negro servant as they alleged they had previously ordered. According to them he was "a nuisance, and has caused more dissatisfaction amongst the people than ever we could learn from any particular favours shown to the country carpenters." 12

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INTRODUCTION Ixxv Determined to have the last word in his controversy with the commissioners, Romans appeared equally resolute in his desire to overwhelm them with logic. He therefore proceeded to re fute, also categorically and in virtually every particular, the items contained in their answer to his earlier letter of complaint. Romans wrote in part: "As I am a great hater of epistolary al tercation, I was not willing to answer your long starter of diffi culties, which seems to me a declared commencement of a paper war, instead of an answer to my reasonable remonstrances but as I am determined that you should not think yourselves unanswerable, I resolved, this morning, to honour your long answer with as short a reply as the nature of things will allow; at the same time assuring you that this will be the last paper I shall blacken on this head, and that I will take care that my pen shall proclaim the voice of truth." His "short reply" ran on for several pages, but did in fact appear to end the "paper war" if not the actual controversy. He was adamant on the matter of his Negro servant, as he continued: "It is hard indeed, that I, who in my private station have for many years past never been with out a servant, or even two or three, should be raised to a publick one to be debarred that privilege. While I was in the service of the King my pay was greater, and I had sundry rations allowed, although my servants were in pay, and drew provisions besides." Concluding his long letter, he reminded the commissioners: "I interrupt none of your powers. I meddle with none; but you have hindered me from having as much again work done; and till I am sole director of my plans, things cannot go well. None can be more happy in the union you mention; but if I must be cap in hand, gentlemen, to be an overseer under you, it will not do, depend on it. I have too much blood in me for so mean an action, and you must seek such submissive engineers else where." 121 Interestingly, when this exchange of correspondence occurred, Romans and the commissioners were at the same site, suggesting that their relationship had deteriorated beyond the

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Ixxvi INTRODUCTION point of oral communication or that they were anxious to make their respective positions a matter of written record. The work continued despite the inclement winter weather and the impasse between Romans and the three commissioners at the site. Money was advanced by the New York Provincial Con gress to the former for his wages and to the latter through John Berrien to meet the costs of construction. Clearly, however, there was a need to resolve the controversy if the fortifications were ever to be completed. Accordingly, the New York Congress or dered Berrien to accompany an investigating committee com posed of three legislators, Thomas Palmer and Colonels Francis Nicoll and Joseph Drake, authorized to journey to the fortifi cations and report on the entire situation. It was represented to the Congress that Berrien knew of the controversy but was dis interested and, moreover, had some influence with the engineer and the other commissioners.122 The committee report was not at all favorable to Romans, either as to the military value of his plans or as to his relation ship with the commissioners. Of the latter the committee re ported in part, "that after examining into the matters of com plaint from both parties, they are of opinion that Mr. Romans must either have mistaken the charge committed to him by the honourable Committee of Safety, by request of the Commis sioners, or, as appears from his conduct, has assumed powers with which he knew he was not entrusted [and] that Mr. Romans was to blame in refusing to consult the Commissioners on every matter of importance, before he attempted to carry it into execution." The report continued by finding fault from a military point of view with virtually everything that Romans thus far had done or had planned for continued construction. The committee instead recommended alternative plans for the site and offered the opinion that Pooploop's Kill was "by far the most advantageous situation in the Highlands for a fortification." 123

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INTRODUCTION Ixxvii On the following day Palmer delivered a short supplemental report to the New York Congress in which he and his two mili tary colleagues agreed that the fortifications already erected and proposed would be insufficient because of two large eminences [West Point and beyond] overlooking the works. They there fore recommended that these be fortified. And as if to complete their indictment of the engineer, they ended their report by stating "that the Committee were [sic'] further agreed in opinion, that it was the indispensable duty of Mr. Romans accurately to have observed those matters in his first report to th.e Continen tal and Provincial Congresses, which the Committee told him when there on the places, to which Mr. Romans answered, he had pointed out the necessity of the one, and the other he had but lately thought of." The next dayDecember 20, 1775the New York lawmakers approved a letter for delivery to the Continental Congress with the reports. To what extent, if any, John Berrien influenced the provincial congressmen in drafting their reports is not known.124 Earlier concern by the Continental Congress over the state of defenses on the Hudson River is evident in the report of a committee sent to confer with General Schuyler at Ticonderoga, to survey and report on the fortifications at the Highlands, and to confer with the Canadians on the possibility of joining forces with the American colonies. Arriving at the fort November 17, 1775, their subsequent report, read more than a month later to the Continental Congress, could have held no comfort for Romans. Their consensus was "that the fortress now erecting will by no means be sufficient to secure Hudson's river [sic~] if it should be attacked by any considerable force. They did, how ever, "hint at the propriety of obstructing the channel, at least lessening the depth of water," a scheme which Romans had earlier suggested.125 In a separate letter to John Hancock, presi dent of the Continental Congress, the committee quoted Romans on certain matters, avoiding any personal criticism of him or his

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Ixxviii INTRODUCTION work, but nevertheless reported: "We must own that we found the fort in a less defensible situation than we had reason to ex pect, owing chiefly to an injudicious disposition of the la bour."126 Both statements suggest that Romans had conversed with the congressmen. The New York Committee of Safety also shared the concern of the Continental Congress that everything possible should be done to secure and fortify the Hudson River. Since they had appointed Romans in the first instance, they obviously felt a keen sense of responsibility for the turn of events. They there fore summoned him to produce his plans for the fortifications at the Highlands. These, together with his explanations, con vinced the Committee that he should make a similar appearance before the Continental Congress. Accordingly, they wrote Han cock that Romans was prepared to journey to Philadelphia and lay his plans before that body and provide any other necessary information. The unpleasant position in which Romans had found himself for some time was now mitigated in part when the Committee of Safety pointed out in their letter that the site [of Fort Constitution] was decided upon before he was employed. Moreover, he had offered the opinion that it could not be adequately fortified or rendered secure for troops within the cost thought prudent by the commissioners. The Committee acknowledged the earlier efforts of the provincial investigators to resolve the difficulties between Romans and the commissioners. They noted that Palmer, one of this group, "has, doubtless pointed out to Congress certain places on the river which would better answer the purpose of a temporary defence, and at much less expense than will necessarily attend the execution of Mr. Romans' scheme." They requested Congress to consider to what extent present construction should continue, either under Romans' plans or under Palmer's proposals. They hoped their letter would not be construed as a disadvantage to Palmer while

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INTRODUCTION V J\i\ Vi\ attending Congress, adding further that had the engineer been present with his plans, they would have required him to accom pany Palmer. Concluding, the Committee of Safety wrote: "As there is some prospect that Mr. Romans may reach Philadelphia before the plan of fortification is finally determined by Congress, we should think ourselves inexcusable in withholding from them any means for enabling them to determine so important a matter, on the best lights in our power to furnish." Romans was ad vanced fifty dollars and sent on his way.127 Romans was not accorded the privilege of defending his position before the Continental Congress. Instead, this body ap pointed a committee of five to consider the letter, to confer with Romans, and to render a report. Some days later an additional member was appointed to the committee. After consideration of the committee report, Congress passed resolutions which pro vided: "That no further Works be erected on Martelaer's Rock, but that those already erected be supported and garrisoned. That it be recommended to the Convention, or Committee of Safety of New York, to forward the Battery at Pooploopen's Kill \jic\. That such of the Continental Troops as are or may be stationed at the aforesaid places be employed in erecting these Works and Batteries under the direction of the Engineer." Congress thus offered no criticism of Romans, a fact later con firmed in his petition to the Committee of Safety when he wrote "that your humble Petitioner was some time since at Philadel phia, with the honourable the Continental Congress, upon the business of his then office, and that he then and there had the pleasure to meet with an entire approbation of his conduct." But the New York governing bodies had had enough bickering. The Provincial Congress therefore appointed Thomas Palmer as an additional commissioner to superintend the erection of the addi tional fortifications, with instructions to seek [another] engineer. Romans therefore did not return to his assignment, and another

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* l\ J\ l\ INTRODUCTION short-lived phase of his life came to an end, marked throughout by almost continuous controversy.128 Although his letter was written months after the decision in volving Romans and his employment at Fort Constitution and thus could have had no effect on the final outcome, Lord Ster ling's report to General Washington regarding the fortifications along the Hudson contained, among other things, a description of Romans' work which was highly critical of his abilities as an engineer. Sterling summed up his opinion when he wrote: "Upon the whole, Mr. Romans has displayed his genius at a very great expense and to very little publick advantage." 129 Romans, no doubt sensing that all was not going well for him, accepted meanwhile a commission as captain of a newly formed company of "matrosses," effective February 8, 1776. This unit was authorized by the Committee of Safety of Pennsylvania for service in Canada.130 Only one thing remained to conclude his previous assignment: collection of his back pay. His petition to the Continental Congress, considered one week later, resulted in a resolution in which that body "recommended to the Convention of New York to pay Mr. Bernard Romans up to the 9th day of this month." The "Convention of New York" (Provincial Con gress) was not unquestioning in their deliberations. Some two weeks later they decided to defer consideration "until B. Romans is called in, and interrogated as to the reasons of his so long ab sence from the Fortifications at different times." Romans ap peared before the New York Committee of Safety rather than the Provincial Congress, and on March 18 explained the reasons for his absences from the job and defended his right to back pay. In his previously mentioned petition of the same date he made known his desperate need for funds when he wrote: "The time is now expired in which your humble Petitioner was to have ap peared at the head of his company and want of money prevents. Your humble Petitioner therefore prays an order may be

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INTRODUCTION V
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fr t\ J\ t\ 1/ If INTRODUCTION mission that instant it is out of my power to Carry Command & to maintain discipline." 133 The reaction of the populace in general was unquestionably due to the undisciplined behavior of certain elements of the poorly-trained and ill-equipped troops. Schuyler commented on this to General Washington in a letter from Albany, dated May 10, 1776, reporting on, among other things, the difficulties of procuring supplies, noting that "the licentiousness of some of the troops has been such that few of the inhabitants have escaped abuse." He added, "I have done all in my power to pre vent this disgraceful conduct of the Army; but Court-Martials are vain where officers connive at the depredations of the men. I have ordered Captain Romans to be sent from Canada for trial here, as a string of complaints are lodged against him." Benedict Arnold, by then a general, wrote from Sorel, Canada, comment ing that "Mr. Romans's conduct, by all accounts, has been very extraordinary." Apparently Romans was cleared of all charges, since he returned to his company and resumed command. On July 21 his unit was ordered to encamp with the Fourth Brigade and to man certain artillery which had been placed in "the Old French lines." 134 The trouble-free days of the company commander were des tined to be few in number. On July 23 a military court was con vened to inquire into Romans' conduct involving a dispute be tween him and his recently-promoted lieutenant, John Dewitt, or Druit as his name was also recorded. In a letter to Major General Gates thanking him for granting the court of inquiry, DeWitt explained that Romans had later intentionally dropped his name from the company returns. The subaltern left no doubt of his opinion of Romans or of his own probable future in the army when he wrote: "He has neither honour, honesty, nor true valour in him. If I am to receive no further satisfaction for the injury done me, I would most ardently request your Honour's

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INTRODUCTION l> l\ l\ l\ Vi/V leave to resign and quit the service." DeWitt was in fact dis missed the day after he wrote General Gates.135 Even with this, the company commander was not entirely free of the DeWitt af fair; the journal of the Continental Congress later records that Romans was charged with the sum of sixteen dollars which he apparently had advanced his erstwhile lieutenant.136 As for Captain Romans, the findings of the court are un known, but it appears that he was honorably acquitted of any and all charges. The past record of complaints against him, his problems with military discipline, together with meager subse quent information, all suggest that he did not return to command of his company. Instead, it appears that he was assigned to other duties wherein leadership qualities were less important than uti lization of certain of his other specialized talents.137 On November 8 Romans submitted a detailed and lucid re port on his surveys with drawings, all of Fort Anne (Cheshire) and Skenesborough, made at the request of General Gates. For the most part he praised the defenses at Fort Anne, noting that the woods should be cleared around the blockhouse if it was to be effective in defense of the nearby sawmill. He acknowledged the suitability of the location of the defenses at Skenesborough, "but the thing called a fort baffles all description: It is an ir regular polygon; irregular indeed; and by its form, indefensible with a vengeance," he wrote. He then proceeded to describe its faults in detail. Some two weeks later the Pennsylvania Council of Safety passed a resolution to "furnish Mr. Romans, Engineer with such materials as he may require to perform an experiment, in order to give a specimen of his skill in destroying distant ob jects by fire." The results of this experiment are not known, but the reference in the resolution and his previous assignment sug gest that he had in fact been returned to engineering duties. No subsequent records have come to light indicating his activities in military service until he resigned his commission July 1, 1778.138

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V tAf L\ *A* V \J INTRODUCTION Romans found time to continue his intellectual pursuits after the publication of his Concise Natural History and his maps of the Floridas despite his some three years of direct or indirect in volvement with the Continental military service. Indicative of this are the cartographic and literary works which he produced during this period. Upon viewing this impressive list one may well wonder when he was able to perform his official military duties. These works do not include certain of his maps, charts, and sailing directions based on his own earlier surveys in south ern waters and those developed in combination with the bor rowed work of others, all published posthumously.139 From advertisements which appeared in two colonial news papers it is known that he moved to Wethersfield, Connecticut, after leaving the army. He advertised that on or about August 18, 1778, he had lost a sum of money amounting to 370 or 390 Conti nental dollars between New Haven and Wethersfield. Although he offered a reward of thirty dollars in his first advertisement and one-tenth part of the cash in the second for the return of the money to him or to Timothy Green, the printer for whom it was intended, there is no record that it was ever found or returned.140 It was during these years in Connecticut that he published his final literary work, Annals of the Troubles of the Netherlands. He described it as "Collected and Translated from the most Approved Historians in the Native Tongue." Volume one was first advertised for sale in two Connecticut periodicals on Janu ary 5, 1779. In an apparent attempt to attract buyers he appended the following to his advertisement: "The second volume (much more interesting than the first) is ready for the press; with it the Author will endeavour to publish a map of the Country." This public notice, dated Hartford, November 27, 1778, over Romans' name, appears to be the last known reliable record indicat ing his activities or whereabouts. The map did not appear with volume two. Despite his optimistic announcement, it was not un-

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INTRODUCTION lr l\ J\) l\ U til February 11, 1783, that the second volume was advertised for sale by the printers. By then Romans was purportedly a captive of the British, which could have accounted for the absence of the map and the prolonged delay in publication.141 Confirming the fact of his residence in the Connecticut town is the record of his marriage to Elizabeth Whiting on Janu ary 28, 1779, in Wethersfield, Hartford County. Romans was then almost sixty years of age and his bride only twenty, and ac cording to certain unconfirmed sources they were introduced by George Washington. Less than a year after their marriage they were blessed with a son whom they christened Hubertus, proba bly named for Romans' brother who had remained in Holland. Elizabeth survived her husband by some sixty-four years, and less than two years before her death on May 12, 1848, she ap plied for a pension which, oddly enough, in view of Romans' record, was denied on the ground that his services were not mili tary in nature.142 Two versions exist recounting the final years of Romans' life, each at variance with the other and both inconsonant with logic. In her application for a pension, submitted more than three score years after her husband's death and therefore subject to the vagaries and uncertainties of advanced years, Elizabeth Romans stated that he had remained in military service until 1780, and that about a year and a half after their marriage he had set sail from New Haven or New London for South Carolina, where he was ordered to join the Southern Continental army. His vessel was captured by the British and he was taken as a prisoner of war to Montego Bay, Jamaica, where he remained until 1783. In the meantime, application for his return to America under the terms of an exchange of prisoners was refused by the British because of his "ability to do so much injury to the British interests." And finally, she stated that she was informed and believed that he was shipped under the pretext of sending him to some

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if Jx A* *\ \J V INTRODUCTION port of the United States, and on the voyage he was wilfully murdered.143 According to British historians, Romans was captured in 1779, probably at Stoney Point on the Hudson, and sent to England. His exchange as a prisoner of war was refused, and when peace came he practiced in England as an engineer. In 1784, he em barked on a vessel bound for New York, carrying with him a large sum of money. He was never heard from again and was presumed to have been murdered for his money.144 The differences between the two accounts are at once appar ent; there is, as well, certain documentation which cannot be reconciled logically with either. Romans left military service June 1, 1778, well before the capture and internment as a pris oner of war alleged by the two accounts. There is no known rec ord that he rejoined the Continental forces after he resigned his commission, nor does it appear likely that as a civilian he would have been taken prisoner and sent from the colonies. The pre sumption, therefore, is that neither account is entirely correct, and that the closing years of Romans' life must remain shrouded in uncertainty unless or until additional records are brought to light. Elsewhere in this volume, P. Lee Phillips referred to Bernard Romans as "a universal genius ... a botanist, engineer, mathe matician, artist, surveyor, engraver, writer, cartographer, lin guist, soldier, seaman, and he possessed many other talents, any one of which would have given distinction." This is a fair assess ment of Romans' skills, but what of Romans the man? One can only partially judge his character and personality vicariously from his known achievements and the incomplete records available. From these one must conclude that he was quarrelsome, im patient, and quick to take offense; almost without exception, he had difficulty in getting along with others. Perhaps because of

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INTRODUCTION Ixxxvii this or possibly impelled by an insatiable wanderlust, he went from one job to another, ever heeding the beat of distant drums. Yet throughout, he demonstrated a singleness of purpose which more often than not resulted in success, not because of his less desirable qualities but in spite of them. His maps, books, and other publications, little known outside scholastic circles, shall remain as a monument to his abilities and determination. Tampa, Florida JOHN D. WARE

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Notes 1. Historical Society of Florida (New York, 1856), 4, 9-11. Only a few copies are known to exist of this small, 11-page pamphlet which contains the roster of officers, com mittees, constitution, by-laws, and a list of honorary and charter members. The cited information was taken from the copy in the library of William M. Goza, with his kind permission. Among the honorary members were Peter Force, George Bancroft, and William H. Prescott. The noted Florida historian George R. Fairbanks was a vice president, and the Hispanophile Buckingham Smith was a charter member, as were Dr. W. H. Simmons and John Lee Williams, the two men who recommended the site of the present capital of Florida. 2. George R. Fairbanks, The Early History of Florida: An Introductory Lecture (St. Augustine, 1857), 3-24, 29-31, a copy of which is also preserved in the library of William M. Goza. See also Julien C. Yonge, "Minutes of Organization in 1856 and List of Members," Florida Historical Quarterly, 3 (July 1924) : 6-8. 3. Yonge, "Minutes of Organization in 1856," Florida Historical Quarterly 1 (April 1908), 3-4; "Report of President F. P. Fleming to the Annual Meeting of the Florida Historical Society, Held November 19th, 1907," Florida Historical Quarterly 1 (April 1908: 7-10. The straitened financial condition of the society and Governor Fleming's un successful attempt to secure a modest state grant is touched upon in his report. A verbatim copy of this bill, requesting an annual appropriation of $1,200, is contained in "An Ap peal for Legislative Aid," Florida Historical Quarterly 2 (April 1909) : 49-50. The reasons for the suspension of publication of the quarterly and the resumption of same are stated in "Report of Arthur T. Williams, President, to the Annual Meeting of the Florida Historical Society, Tallahassee, November 13, 1924," Florida Historical Quarterly 3 (January 1925): 43. 4. The Florida State Historical Society, Prospectus, in a bundle of uncataloged material (FA H674) in the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History, University of Florida, Gainesville. See also Florida Historical Quarterly 4 (January 1926) : 156. 5. Florida State Historical Society, Prospectus, supra. See also "Report of the Executive Secretary of the Florida State Historical Society for the year ending January 31, 1931 submitted by James A. Robertson," typescript, FA H674, P. K. Yonge Library. The elev enth and last of the series was the 2-volume facsimile with foreword and preface, the latter by James A. Robertson, of True Relation of the Fidalgo of Elvas, 1557 (DeLand, 1932), and Robertson's translation with preface (DeLand, 1933). 6. The name of John B. Stetson, Jr., as chairman of the publications committee appears in all eleven of the series; Mrs. Connor's name last appears as a member of the com mittee in number eight of the series, published in 1928. Correspondence of Stetson between January, 1922, and October, 1923, relative to the Florida State Historical Society is preserved in the P. K. Yonge Library, manuscript collection, Box 55. Certain of this correspondence touches upon this monograph and is between Stetson and P. Lee Phillips, J. Franklin Jameson (director, Department of Historical Research, Carnegie Institution of Washington), George Parker Winship (Harvard College Library), and others. The last two named individuals were also members of the publications committee. 7. P. Lee Phillips, Notes on the Life and Works of Bernard Romans (Deland, Fla.: Florida State Historical Society, 1924) [11-12]. 8. Walter W. Ristow, "Philip Lee Phillips, Cartobibliographer," Kartensammlung und

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xc INTRODUCTION Kartendokumentation. Festgabe fur Heinrich Kamm zur Vollendung seines 65. Lebensjahres [1971], 95-109, with Bibliography of Philip Lee Phillips. The present writer is indebted to Dr. Ristow, chief, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress, for copies of this article. It has been reprinted with permission in Surveying and Mapping 32, no. 3 (September 1972). 9. Phillips, Notes, Foreword [11]. This work is devoted to source material on Romans, cited and quoted, sometimes in part and often in full. In order to avoid needless repeti tion, this work will be cited when appropriate and will be intended to refer as well to the sources contained therein unless otherwise noted. 10. Cf. cards on Bernard Romans in Bibliography and Cartography catalogue, Library of Congress. Phillips and the editor failed to cite certain original source material pre served in the William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; the Georgia Historical Society, Savannah; the Public Record Office and the Linnean Society, both of London, England, all of which sources will be cited hereafter. 11. A bound carbon copy of Phillip's final typescript draft is preserved in the Geogra phy and Map Division of the Library of Congress. A copy with comments, comparative analysis, and notes by John D. Ware is also held by the P. K. Yonge Library. 12. See relevant letters in John B. Stetson correspondence from July 7, 1922 through September 24, 1923, P. K. Yonge Library. The two maps were "discovered" by Henry Stevens in a Boston bookstore. See Phillips, Notes, 88-91 for their title and description. 13. Stetson to G. P. Winship, April 5, 1923; Stetson to G. Prentice Carson, Stetson University, April 6, 1923; LeGear to Ware, November 7, 1972; Ristow, "Philip Lee Phillips," 109. See also Phillips' final unedited draft, and Phillips, Notes, edited for publication by Stetson and Robertson. Editorial and proofreader's notes in Robertson's own hand appear in the final draft by Phillips. For a description of the Romans' map added to the bibliography by Robertson or Stetson, see Phillips, Notes, 75. 14. Phillips, Notes, 25-26, quoting Romans' advertisement in the Boston Gazette, Janu ary 10, 1774, no. 979. Other passages therein also suggest its utility to the mariner. 15. Bernard Romans, A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida (New York: Printed for the Author, 1775), "List of Subscribers" (i-viii), Appendix, "A List of Subscribers, whose Names came too late to be prefixed to this Work"; cited hereafter as Romans, Concise Natural History. 16. William A. Baker, A History of the Boston Marine Society, 1742-1967 (Boston: Boston Marine Society, 1968), Appendix, 8: 318-61, passim. 17. Phillips, Notes [15], 35. 18. Unless otherwise noted, all information on Phillips and his work, including quota tions which were taken from typescript administrative records of the Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress, is from Ristow, "Philip Lee Phillips." 19. P. Lee Phillips, A List of Maps of America in the Library of Congress (Washing ton: Library of Congress, 1901), "Introduction," 3. 20. Ibid., 94-96, 233-35, 1083-1127. 21. Ibid., 5-90. 22. Phillips' publications herein cited which do not appear in the text of Ristow, "Philip Lee Phillips," may be found in the bibliography, pp. 106-9. 23. Ristow, "Philip Lee Phillips," 104. In the "Prefatory Note" to vol. 3 of the atlas list, Phillips generously credited Oswald Welti, acting chief of the division during Phillips' illness, and others with preparation of the index. The List of Geographical Atlases has since been supplemented by vol. 5 (1958), vol. 6 (1963), and vol. 7 (in press), compiled by Mrs. Clara Egli LeGear, who was a member of the staff during Phillips' last nine years with the library and presently serves as honorary consultant in Historical Cartography.

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INTRODUCTION XCl 24. Banneker assisted Andrew Ellicott in the survey of Washington D.C., in 1792; Ristow, "Philip Lee Phillips," 105. 25. Ibid., 104; Woodbury Lowery, A Descriptive List of Maps of the Spanish Possessions within the Present Limits of the United States, 1502-1820, edited by P. Lee Phillips (Washington: Library of Congress, 1912), iii-iv. 26. Ibid., title page and iii-x; Ristow, "Philip Lee Phillips," 104. 27. The present writer is indebted to Mrs. Clara Egli LeGear for her letter dated Washington, November 7, 1972, upon which this paragraph is based. 28. Ibid.; the date and place of Phillips' death are confirmed in a letter, Ristow to Ware, July 12, 1972. 29. Dictionary of National Biography (London: Oxford University Press, 1968.) For a more comprehensive and somewhat different version of Romans' life see Rembert W. Patrick's introduction to the facsimile edition of Romans, A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1962), ix-xxx. 30. Phillips, Notes, 94. 31. Romans, Concise Natural History, Introduction. 32. Phillips, Notes, 51. 33. Romans to John Ellis, king's agent for West Florida, Pensacola, August 13, 1772, in which Romans noted seeing the genus Smilax "in plenty in South America about two degrees Southward of the City of Carthagena [sic]" Cartagena is in the present re public of Colombia. The original of this and other letters from Romans to Ellis are preserved in the Linnean Society of London. (The letters are cited hereafter as Romans-Ellis Letters.) Regrettably, the society does not have the letters from Ellis to Romans. Like other Romans materials they are feared lost. See Whitfield J. Bell, Jr., and Mur phy D. Smith (compilers), Archives and Manuscript collections of the American Philosophical Society (Philadelphia, 1966), 81, "415, Linnean Society of London." 34. See DNB; Dictionary of American Biography (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1963). These two works are not in agreement on Romans' year of arrival and the nature of his work. 35. Romans, Concise Natural History, 116; Phillips, Notes, 59. This excerpt from Romans to Commissioners for Fortifications, Martelaer's Rock, November 16, 1775, is found in Peter Force, American Archives (Washington: M. St. Clair and Peter Force, 1840), 4th series, 3: 1367; and William Bell Clark (ed.), Naval Documents of the Ameri can Revolution (Washington: U.S. Navy Department, 1964), 2: 1049. Other documents by Romans, or relating to him, which are included in these multi-volume works will be cited therefrom only when necessary to supplement excerpts contained in Phillips, Notes, or when they are not included in the last-named work. 36. Phillips, Notes, 29. 37. Ibid. Romans was appointed "principal Deputy Surveyor" in 1769 by De Brahm, who himself was suspended from office October 4, 1770. See Louis De Vorsey, Jr. (ed.), De Brahm*s Report of the General Survey in the Southern District (Columbia: Univer sity of South Carolina Press, 1971), 43, 48, 180-86. 38. Phillips, Notes, 29; Romans, Concise Natural History, Appendix, i. 39. Savannah Georgia Gazette, October 1, 1766, in Records of the States of the United States, Georgia, Na, Reel 1, 1763-68; cited hereafter as RSUS. 40. Phillips, Notes, 29; Romans, Concise Natural History, Appendix, i. 41. Romans, Concise Natural History, Appendix, i. 42. DNB states that between 1760 and 1771 Romans was living near the town of St. Augustine in East Florida. It should be noted that Romans was then a British subject, and Florida was Spanish until 1763. Furthermore, East Florida as such did not come into being until it was created by proclamation October 7, 1763. Wilbur H. Siebert, Loyalists

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XCll INTRODUCTION in East Florida, 1774 to 1785 (DeLand: Florida State Historical Society, 1929), 2: 342, relates that Romans lived in East Florida from 1763 to 1766. Romans himself credits Lord Egmont with introducing him into East Florida shortly after 1766. See Phillips, Notes, 29. 43. Phillips, Notes, 29; Allen D. Candler (compiler), The Colonial Records of the State of Georgia (Atlanta: Franklin-Turner, 1907), 10: 489. 44. Savannah Georgia Gazette, January 6, 1768, in RSUS. 45. Ibid., July 13, 1768. 46. Ibid., April 12, 1769; Phillips, Notes, 29. 47. Candler, Colonial Records of Georgia, 10: 171, 352, 414, 765-66, certain of which are quoted in Phillips, Notes, 45-46, though page 414 is erroneously cited for page 501 in Candler. 48. Candler, Colonial Records of Georgia, 10: 338, 501, 974; 11: 364; certain of these are also quoted in Phillips, Notes, though page 501 is erroneously cited for page 414 in Candler. 49. Located on a bluff near the mouth of the Midway River near present Dorchester, Georgia, Sunbury once ranked second only to Savannah in importance as a seaport. After the Revolutionary War, it was made the county seat of Liberty County, but as its com merce moved elsewhere, its commercial importance declined and the county seat was moved. By the 1860s Sunbury had ceased to exist, and today only the cemetery remains. See Brunette Vanstory, Georgia's Land of the Golden Isles (Athens: University of Geor gia Press, 1970), 28, 31, 34-37, 40-41. 50. Savannah Georgia Gazette, October 16, 1783. 51. Ibid., August 19, 1784, February 10, 1785. 52. Phillips, Notes, 29; Siebert, Loyalists in East Florida, 2: 3-4, n2. 53. Statement of Mrs. Dorothy Moore, Claimant, in Siebert, Loyalists in East Florida, 2: 116-17, n87, wherein it is noted that her husband bought this property from Romans, January 8, 1771. See also the Claim of Mrs. Dorothy Moore and Mr. Robert Payne, De cember 15, 1786, ibid., 120. The date of the signing of the grant as claimed in Mrs. Moore's statement in Siebert was September 14, 1769, while September 19 was recorded in Minutes of Council of latter date and year in PRO, CO 5/571, f. 21. See also PRO, AO 12/3, p. 193, for further reference to this tract. 54. Lord Colvill to captains under his command, October 15, 1763, PRO, ADM 1/482, 308-9; De Vorsey, De Brahm* s Report, 3-7, 33. 55. Charles L. Mowat, "That 'Odd Being,' De Brahm," Florida Historical Quarterly, 20 (April 1942): 323-24, 326-27, 330-34; De Vorsey, De Brahm's Report, 8-9, 33-43. De Vorsey notes that De Brahm was German rather than Dutch as claimed by other sources. The "Salary of the Surveyor of Lands" and "Allowance for an Assistant" are documented in "Estimate of the Civil Establishment of'His Majesty's Province of East Florida ." from 1764 through 1772, PRO, CO 5/563. 56. Phillips, Notes, 29; see also p. 59 for a somewhat different version of his assign ment. The first known evidence of Romans' work as deputy surveyor for the southern district is reflected in a drawing showing part of the terrain from the Okefenokee Swamp northward past the Ogeechee River, with the "Indian Hunting Grounds" to the westward thereof. He certified this March 31, 1769, as being a true copy from the original by Samual Savory, deputy surveyor for lands in Georgia. The original is preserved in the Public Records Office, London, as MPG/337. 57. Mowat, "That 'Odd Being,' De Brahm," 333-34; Extract from Minutes of the Jour nals of Council, April 16-17, in Grant's letter (no. 36) of April 23, 1770, to Lord Hills borough, PRO, CO 5/551, pp. 65-71. 58. Phillips, Notes, 29.

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INTRODUCTION XClll 59. Ibid.; Romans, Concise Natural History, 35-36, 227, 275, 287-88, Appendix, lxxixlxxxii. Romans' reference to a "waterfall" could only be applicable to the present Hills borough River. 60. Romans, Concise Natural History, 268s-73; Carita Doggett, Dr. Andrew Turnbull and the New Smyrna Colony of Florida (Jacksonville, Fla.: Drew Press, 1919), 59-61. 61. Phillips, Notes, 29, 30. 62. Ibid., 30. 63. The tangible results of the surveys of these two bodies of water were published as "A Plan of Mobile Bar [and] Plan of the Harbour of Pensacola ." in Thomas Jeffreys, The West India Atlas 1818, cited in Lowery, Descriptive List of Maps, 362. 64. Romans, Concise Natural History, 304-34, passim; Cecil Johnson, British West Florida, 1763-1783 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1942), 81. 65. George Gauld (1732-82) was a Scottish coastal surveyor and hydrographer em ployed by the British Admiralty to survey and chart the coast of the Floridas. He arrived in Pensacola in August, 1764, and was repatriated to England after the capitulation of West Florida to Bernardo Galvez, May 9, 1781. Gauld died in London June 8, 1782. See William Faden, An Account of the Surveys of Florida, Etc. (London: W. Faden, 1790), 4, 27. David Taitt was employed by John Stuart as his deputy, and on January 30, 1772, Taitt set out on a mission to the Creek Nations to ,gain certain land concessions and to promote more amicable relations between the Upper and Lower Creeks and the British in West Florida. His efforts in this regard did not meet with marked success. Addition ally, Taitt, who was credited by Stuart as being "a good surveyor," was instructed to examine and chart the important geographic elements of the territory over which he traveled. Romans utilized this work in his chart. See "Journals of David Taitt's Travels from Pensacola, West Florida to and through the Country of the Upper and Lower Creeks, 1772," in Newton D. Mereness (ed.), Travels in the American Colonies (New York: Antiquarian Press, 1961), 493-96. 66. Rodney to Philip Stephens, secretary to the Admiralty, Port Royal, January 29, 1772, PRO, ADM 1/239. 67. Phillips, Notes, 27, 74-75, 119, 127-28; Romans, Concise Natural History, Appendix, ii; Faden, Account of the Surveys of Florida, 4-5. For information on Lorimer and his work see Robert R. Rea and Jack D. L. Holmes, "Dr. John Lorimer and the Natural Sciences," Southern Humanities Review (Fall 1970). 68. Phillips, Notes, 28. 69. Muster Table of H.M.S. sloop Earl of Northampton attesting to Gauld's assignment aboard this vessel from June 15, 1771, until January 18, 1774, PRO, ADM 36/8519, and logbook detailing the travels of the vessel for this period, PRO, ADM 51/4178. 70. Ibid.; Phillips, Notes, 30, 127-28. 71. Phillips, Notes, 127-28. 72. Ibid., 47. 73. "Extract of a letter from Doctor Lorimer at Pensacola dated the 13th of August 1772 to Mr. Gauld at Port Royal, Jamaica," and "Hutchins' Sketch of Middle & Yellow Rivers, West Florida, A3." These documents are preserved and filed with Gauld's "A General Description of the Seacoasts, Harbours, Lakes, Rivers, etc. of the Province of West Florida, 1769" as document Mss 91759: G23 in archives of the American Philosophi cal Society, Philadelphia, with copies in P. K. Yonge Library. See also Bell and Smith, Archives and Manuscript Collections, no. 281, 58-59. Webster's New Twentieth Century Dictionary (1953) describes jalap as the root of the climbing plant Ipomaea purga. Its name was derived from Jalapa, a city in Mexico from which the herb was, and still is, exported. 74. Phillips, Notes, 74, 119-28.

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XCIV INTRODUCTION 75. Ibid., 47-48; see also PRO, CO 5/579, f. 297; Mowat, "That 'Odd Being,' De Brahm," 335. 76. Phillips, Notes, 127-28. 77. Chester to Dartmouth, Duplicate no. 60, October 7, 1772, PRO, CO 5/579, f. 297; same to same, Duplicate no. 12, August 27, 1773, ibid., f. 381. 78. Phillips, Notes, 30; Stuart to Gage, Charles Town, April 22, 1773; "A Map of Part of West Florida Surveyed & Drawn by Bernard Romans between the Months of June 1772 and January 1773," cited and described in Christian Brun (compiler), Guide to the Manuscript Maps in the William L. Clements Library (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1959), 160-61 and plate between. The other and larger of the two maps is titled in part: "A Map of West Florida [and] Part of Et: Florida. Georgia [and] Part of So: Carolina [1773]. By Bernard Romans, David Taitt, and George Gauld." These maps are also described in William P. Cumming, The Southeast in Early Maps (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1958), 252-53. The originals are in the Gage Papers, William L. Clements Library, and are not cited in Phillips, Notes. 79. "Minutes of the Governor in Council, August 4, 1772," in RSUS, Fla., W. A, 7, E.l (PRO, CO 5/634). Hutchins, "Sketch of Middle & Yellow River," cited in note 73, supra, depicts "A Hut of Simson's [J*V]" near the head of present Escambia Bay. U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Chart 1265, Pensacola Bay and Approaches, shows "Simpson's River" in the same general area. 80. "Minutes of the Governor in Council, September 1, 1772," in West Florida Papers, reel 4 (PRO, CO 5/630) ; original in Library of Congress. 81. "Minutes of the Governor in Council, October 7, 1772," RSUS, Fla. W. A, 7, E.l (PRO, CO 5/634). 82. Romans, Concise Natural History, 301-2. 83. Phillips, Notes, 47; Chester to Hillsborough, Pensacola, August 14, 1772, PRO, CO 5/579, p. 229; duplicate ibid., 5/589, p. 457; Romans to Ellis, "Some Observations on a Catalogue of Plants ." and "Scheme for a Botanical Garden in West Florida," both dated Pensacola, August 13, 1772, Romans-Ellis Letters. 84. Lord Dartmouth to Chester, no. 2, Whitehall, December 9, 1772, in "Secretary of State's Letter Book 'A,'" p. 224; copy in PRO, CO 5/589, p. 465; also cited in part in Phillips, Notes, 48. See also "Estimate of the Civil Establishment of His Majesty's Prov ince of West Florida from 24th June 1773 to the 24th June 1774," PRO, CO 5/591, p. 127. 85. DNB; Johnson, British West Florida, 97-98, n29. 86. Romans to Ellis, "Some Observations on a Catalogue of Plants ." Pensacola, August 13, 1772, Romans-Ellis Letters. Cf. "A Catalogue of Such Foreign Plants, as are Worthy of Being Encouraged in Our American Colonies, for the Purposes of Medicine, Agriculture and Commerce," from a pamphlet by John Ellis, F.R.S., presented by Thomas Penn, Esq., to the American Philosophical Society, through the hands of Samuel Powell, Esq., in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (Philadelphia: Printed by William and Thomas Bradford, 1771), 1: 255-71. 87. Romans to Ellis, "Scheme for a Botanical Garden in West Florida," Pensacola, August 13, 1772, Romans-Ellis Letters. 88. Ibid. The Spanish milled dollar, or piece of eight, was a standard monetary unit used throughout the colonial period. One real equaled twelve and one-half cents of the later U.S. dollar and was known as a "bit." See R. S. Yeoman, A Guide Book to United States Coins (Racine, Wis.: Whitman Publishing Co., 1966), 2, 5; Romans, Concise Natu ral History, dedicatory page. 89. Romans, Concise Natural History, 150, 182-83;' Phillips, Notes, 30. 90. The Oxford English Dictionery gives the following as one of the several definitions

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INTRODUCTION xcv for caboose: "The cook-room or kitchen of merchantmen on deck; a diminuitive substi tute for the galley of a man-of-war. It is generally furnished with cast-iron apparatus for cooking" (Smyth Sailor's Work-bk). 91. Phillips, Notes, 30. Romans, Concise Natural History, Appendix, vi-vii, wherein he noted the bold deep water of "7 fathoms at the very beach" between latitudes 26 and 26 50', and the availability of fresh water. It was to a position along this stretch be tween the vicinities of present Fort Lauderdale and Palm Beach that Romans conducted the partially disabled vessel. An examination of a modern U.S. Coast and Geodetic Sur vey, Chart 1248, Jupiter Inlet to Fozvey Rocks, confirms that deep water extends close to shore, with seven fathoms as near as three-tenths of a mile in places. See also Romans to Ellis, New York, March 1, 1774, Romans-Ellis Letters. $ 92. Romans to Ellis, New York, March 1, 1774. Romans' "Dr. Gardner" was probably Alexander Garden, who practiced in Charleston from 1752 until near the end of the American Revolution. Dr. Garden was a friend of John Bartram, and his interest in botany and zoology also resulted in voluminous correspondence with John Ellis and Carl Linnaeus. See Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (Philadelphia, 1942), New Series, 33, part I: 6, 8, 13, 56, 62. 93. Romans to Ellis, May 14, 1774; Phillips, Notes, 30. 94. Stuart to Gage, Charles Town, April 22, 1773; original in Gage Papers, William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. See also Christian Brun, Guide to Manuscript Maps in William Clements Library, 160-61. 95. Gage to Stuart, New York, June 3, 1773, Clements Library. 96. Romans to Ellis, New York, November 6, 1773; same to same, March 1, 1774. The Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of the Linnean Society of London, Calendar of the Ellis Manuscripts, does not list Ellis' letters to Romans, a fact confirmed in a letter from Gavin Bridson, librarian, London, January 2, 1973, to the present writer. 97. Romans to Ellis, New York, March 1, May 14, 1774, Romans-Ellis Letters. 98. Phillips, Notes, 50; Romans, Concise Natural History, 13, 77, 81, 93. 99. Phillips, Notes, 24-26, 31, 37, 48-50, 76-80, 103, n4; Early Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (Philadelphia: McCalla & Stavely, 1884), 48, 82, 87, 90; Baker, A History of the Boston Marine Societyan appendix contains a complete roster of members from its inception but does not list Romans. Phillips suggests (p. 50) that Romans' "draught to the southwd" was "probably of this coast southward from here [Boston]," thus implying that Romans made hydrographic surveys of this area. No chart or other documentation thus far has come to light to support Phillips' suggestions or impli cation. It is thought rather that the notation was referring to Romans' chart of the waters adjacent to East and West Florida. 100. Phillips, Notes, 51; DAB. Atlantis as referred to in Plato, Critias, is discussed briefly in Encyclopedia Britannica (1965), as are the life and works of Diodorus Siculus, the Greek historian. 101. Romans to Ellis, New York, May 14, 1774, Romans-Ellis Letters; Romans, Concise Natural History, 53. 102. Phillips, Notes, 24. 103. Ibid.; Romans to Ellis, New York, May 14, 1774, Romans-Ellis Letters; DNB. 104. Chester to Dartmouth, Pensacola, April 10, 1776; George Germain to Chester, Whitehall, August 7, 1776, PRO, CO 5/592, pp. 229, 303; Chester to Germain, Pensacola, December 27, 1776, PRO, CO 5/593, p. 121. The allowance for Romans' salary for 1774-75 appears in "Estimate of the Civil Establishment ... of West Florida," in Peter Force, American Archives, 4th series (Washington: M. St. Clair and Peter Force, 1837), 1:1711. See also Rea and Holmes, "Dr. John Lorimer and the National Sciences," 366-67. 105. Phillips, Notes, 52: Force, American Archives, 4th series, 1:1323; Edward Mott to

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XCVl INTRODUCTION the Massachusetts Congress, Shoreham, May 11, 1775, ibid., 2:557-60; Malcolm Decker, Benedict Arnold: Son of the Heavens (Tarrytown, N.Y.: William Abbat, 1932), 50-51, 53-56. Many of the citations in Force are also in William Bell Clark, Naval Documents of the American Revolution (Washington, 1964-72), in the first 4 of the 6-volume series; but for the sake of brevity they are not cited herein unless otherwise indicated. 106. Force, American Archives, 4th series (1839), 2: 557-60; Decker, Benedict Arnold, 53-54. 107. Ibid.; Allen to the Albany Committee, Ticonderoga, May 11, 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th series (1839), 2:606. 108. Phillips, Notes, 52-53. 109. Ibid., 53-54. ^ 110. Arnold to Massachusetts Committee of Safety, May 11, 14, 19, 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th series (1839), 2: 557, 584-85, 645-46; Jesse Root to Silas Deane, Hart ford, May 25, 1775, Collections of the Connecticut Historical Society (Hartford: Published for the Society, 1870), 2: 237. 111. Schuyler to John Hancock, president of Continental Congress, Ticonderoga, Octo ber, 14, 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th series (1840), 3: 1065-66; New York Pro vincial Congress to Hancock, New York, October 27, 1775, in their journal of same date, ibid., 1306; Minutes of the New York Committee of Safety, September 7, 1775, ibid., 882-83; Romans to New York Provincial Congress, October 12, 1775, ibid., 1284-85; Phillips, Notes, 54, quoting Benson J. Lossing, The Pictorial Field-Bo ok of the Revolution, 2 vols. (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1859-60), 1: 703. Phillips infers, without benefit of documentation, that Washington recommended Romans for the job, and Lossing simi larly notes that Romans was then holding the same office (engineer) in the British army. Thus far no record has appeared to substantiate either statement. 112. Phillips, Notes, 55; New York Committee of Safety to the Continental Congress containing Romans' estimates and plans, New York, September 19, 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th series (1840), 3: 732-37, 902. 113. Commissioners to New York Committee of Safety, Constitution Fort, September 25, 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th series (1840), 3: 795-96; also quoted in part in Phillips,iV0/\f, 55; John Berrien to unknown addressees, New York, September 21, 1775, cited in Phillips, Notes, 112, n9. Most of the address of the original, preserved in the files of the New York Historical Society, was torn away, the only legible parts remaining are "Mist," "H," and "Constitutional Fort." This, together with the other citation in this note, suggests that Berrien was writing to his three fellow commissioners, Samuel Bayard, William Bedlow, and John Hanson, the wife of the latter of whom Berrien mentioned in his postcript. 114. Minutes of New York Committee of Safety, September 29, 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th series (1840), 3: 917; also quoted in part in Phillips, Notes, 56. 115. Minutes of New York Committee of Safety, September 30, 1775, 918-20; Romans' Estimate to New York Committee of Safety, October 2, 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th series (1840), 3: 1358-59. 116. Journal of New York Provincial Congress, October 12, 1775, ibid., 1283; also quoted in part in Phillips, Notes, 56 117. Remarks by Bernard Romans, Highlands, October 16, 1775, endorsed by Samuel Bayard and William Bedlow, Force, American Archives, 4th series (1840), 3: 1293-94. 118. Romans to New York Provincial Congress, October 12, 1775, ibid., 1284-85; Peti tion and Memorial of Bernard Romans, Highlands, November 15, 1775, ibid., 1363-64. 119. Colonel Romans to Commissioners, Fort Constitution, November 8, 1775, ibid., 1355-58; quoted in part in Phillips, Notes, 56-57. 120. Commissioners to Colonel Romans, Martelaer's Rock, November 10, 1775, Force,

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INTRODUCTION XCVlt American Archives, 4th series (1840), 3: 1359-62; quoted in part in Phillips, Notes, S7. 121. Romans to the Commissioners for Fortifications, Martelaer's Rock, November 16, 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th series (1840), 3: 1364; quoted in part in Phillips, Notes, 57-60. 122. Berrien to New York Provincial Congress, New York, October 27, 1775, Force, American Archives, 4th series (1840), 3: 1307; Journal of New York Provincial Congress, ibid. (1843), 4: 390-91, 393-94, 425, 429. 123. Journal of the Newr York Provincial Congress, Force, American Archives, 4th series (1843), 4: 420-22. 124. Ibid., 425, 429. 125. Ibid., 442. 126. Robert R. Livingston, Jr., Robert Treat Paine, and John Langdon to John Han cock, Albany, November 23, 1775, Clark (ed.), Naval Documents of the American Revo lution (1966), 2: 1108-9. 127. New York Committee of Safety to John Hancock, New York, January 3, 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th series (1843), 4: 562, 1019-20. 128. Journal of Continental Congress, Philadelphia, January 13, 17, 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th series (1843), 4: 1634, 1641, 1645, 1672; Journal of New York Provin cial Congress, ibid. (1844), 5: 297-99, 405; Phillips, Notes, 62. 129. Phillips, Notes, 60. 130. Ibid., 61. For a definition of "matross" see ibid., 112, nlO. 131. Ibid., 62; Journal of Continental Congress, February 13, 1776, Force, American Archives, 4th series (1843), 4: 1670; New York Committee of Safety, March 18, 1776, ibid. (1844), 5: 306, 406, 1368. 132. Phillips, Notes, 64-66, 112-13, nil; Force, American Archives, 4th series, (1844), 5: 1654. 133. Phillips, Notes, 65-66. 134. Ibid., 62-63; Force, American Archives, 4th series (1846), 6: 412-13, 580-81. 135. Phillips, Notes, 63-64. 136. Journal of Continental Congress, October 21, 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th series (1851), 2: 1407. 137. Phillips, Notes, 64. 138. Journal of Pennsylvania Council of Safety, November 23, 1776, Force, American Archives, 5th series (1853), 3: 194; Romans to Gates, Skenesborough, November 6, 1776, ibid., 606; quoted in part in Phillips, Notes, 66. 139. All of Romans' known works except those cited elsewhere herein by the present writer are listed and described in Phillips, Notes, 74. 140. Phillips, Notes, 67. 141. Ibid., 92-96. 142. Ibid., 67-68. 143. Ibid., 68-69. 144. DNB.

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Publications of the Florida State Historical Society Number Two Deland, Florida: Printed for the Sustaining Members of the Society 1924

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Publications of the Florida State Historical Society NOTES ON THE LIFE AND WORKS OF BERNARD ROMANS BY P. LEE PHILLIPS CUSTODIAN OF MAPS IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON, D. C. DELAND FLORIDA The Florida State Historical Society 1924

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This edition consists of three hundred and twenty-five copies, of which this is

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CONTENTS

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LIFE AND WORKS OF BERNARD ROMANS CONTENTS FAG* Provenance of the Roman Map 15 The "Two Whole Sheet Maps" 18 The Publication of the Maps 24 Abel Buell of New Haven 31 The Account of Florida 35 The Printer of the Book 38 The Account of New Smyrna 40 Biographical 45 Revolutionary Services 52 Life in Connecticut 67 His Achievement 71 Bibliography 74 Notes 103

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FOREWORD The second publication of the Florida State Historical Society places in the libraries of its members, and through them within the reach of students, the document upon which all the detailed geographical knowledge of the Florida Peninsula is based. The general shape and position of the Peninsula had been known, and represented on maps, for two and three-quarter centuries before Bernard Romans completed for publication his "Two Whole Sheet Maps." Until these appeared, however, there had not been any adequate cartographical portrayal of the entire coast line, based on scientific observations and deliberate exploration. Since that date there have been many corrections introduced by subsequent and more careful or better equipped surveyors, but these are all corrections or additions, not fundamentally new work. A comparison with the latest charts issued by the National Government demon strates, after making due allowances for the progress of a hun dred and fifty years, the basic character of Romans's work. The map is accompanied by a monograph containing an account of Bernard Romans, and of his various publications. This consists of the notes gathered over a period of many years by P. Lee Phillips, of the Library of Congress, to whose per sistence, intuition and energy the dominating position of the National Library in all that concerns knowledge of the cartog raphy of the United States is chiefly due. With a view to making the book more useful, the Committee has caused some of the writings of Romans referred to by Mr. Phillips to be reproduced in extensoy and has been able also to add a few addi tional data and comments. For the furnishing of the new data, as well as for other helpful suggestions, the Committee desires

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to record its deep appreciation of the assistance so generously afforded by many persons, especially by Albert Carlos Bates of the Connecticut Historical Society, by Alexander J. Wall of the New York Historical Society, by Clarence Saunders Brigham of the American Antiquarian Society, and by Henry Newton Stevens of London. JOHN B. STETSON, JR., Chairman JEANNETTE THURBER CONNOR GEORGE PARKER WINSHIP J. FRANKLIN JAMESON Committee on Publications

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PROVENANCE OF THE ROMANS MAP THE interest in recent years relating to all literary material pertaining to the early history of Florida, has brought into prominence the pioneer describer of that state, Captain Bernard Romans. On account of its scarcity, his work entitled: A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida, with the "two whole sheet maps," is little known outside of some collections of rare Americana or to the student of early Florida history. While various copies of the text are known, the map is so rare that bibliographers have doubted its exist ence. Of the map only the copy in the Library of Congress published in 1774 has come to light, and is here reproduced in full. It is one of the rarest of all the early maps published in this country and is of special interest because it should accom pany and make complete the text of the printed volume. Its great size has given reason for doubt as to the connection with the book, but we have the author's own statement that one was to accompany the other. There is no doubt that the size is responsible for the rarity of the map, as many copies were originally published and subscribed for. All the large maps, what are known as "wall maps," made previous to 1800, are either very scarce or wholly lost, showing that the larger the map, the more destructible it becomes. The copy of the book and also that of the map in the Library of Congress came with the purchase of Peter Force's library by the Government. They are referred to in a "Report of Buck ingham Smith, Esq., June 1, 1848," in Senate Document, 30th Congress, 1st Session, Rep. Com. No. 242, August 12, 1848. "To accompany bill S. no. 338" relating to "the Ever Glades."

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16 LIFE AND WORKS [Reports of Committees Printed by Order of The Senate of The United States. Washington, 1847], as follows: "During the twenty-one years that Florida was a British province, from 1763 to 1784, surveys of the eastern coast were made by William Gerard De Brahm, esq., an engineer officer of reputation in the service of that government, and who was its 'surveyor general for the southern district of North America.' The official reports of these surveys, and others of Georgia and Carolina, have never been fully published, and, indeed, it has not been generally known in this country how far they had been perfected. De Brahm's observations alluded to in the book printed in 1775, on the Floridas, by Bernard Romans, induced inquiries for information to aid me, and as to documents in the British colonial archives, but no complete official reports were found. Some of the maps of his surveys, in manuscript, with notes of great interest and value, have been obtained recently by Peter Force, esq., of this city, who has per mitted copies to be taken of those relating to the lower end of the pen insula, for my use. He has also in his unequalled library of American history, the very rare copper-plate charts of Romans, published to ac company the work before mentioned. Further investigation resulted in ascertaining that materials in the handwriting of De Brahm, chiefly 'historiographical and hydrographical/ from which his reports were made, were in the possession of individuals in England; and within a few weeks past, they have been purchased by Harvard University, and now belong to the institution. The Hon. Mr. Westcott, of the Senate, sought to obtain the manuscripts for a short time from the University for the use of the library of Congress, and for reference by me; and a request being made by the Treasury Department, the corporation of the Uni versity, with great liberality, permitted them to be brought to Washington. They can be copied for the use of the government,'' under the stipulation that they shall not be published without the permission of the University. "It will be found they contain useful information relating to South Carolina, Georgia, and the Floridas, at the period they were written; and it is believed a map made by him, upon an official survey, of the sources of the Saint Mary's river, (which he refers to in his work,) if it can be procured, will conclusively settle the disputed question between the United States and the State of Florida, on the one side, and the State of Georgia on the other, as to the eastern terminus of the boundary line between these States."1 To remove any doubts that may be in the mind of the stu dent, as to whether the map and the book were made one for the other, the following may be noted. The title-page of A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida mentions the

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 17 work as "Illustrated with twelve copper plates, and two whole sheet maps": pages i-vii give a "List of subscribers to this work," and page viii, "Subscribers for the book only," which means the former had the complete work with the "two whole sheet maps," while the latter subscribers wanted the "book only."

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18 LIFE AND WORKS THE "TWO WHOLE SHEET MAPS" The following is a description of the map which brings out most of the interesting features. The title is: "Part of the Province of East Florida." Scale: English & French leagues 20 to a degree. British statute miles 69y to a degree. Dutch miles IS to a degree. 1 map on 2 sheets. 24> x 87, and S7$4 66>. Both East and West Florida are shown on the map, although the latter is not indicated in the title. The dedication on the first sheet reads: "To the Marine Society of the City of New York in the Province of New York in North America this Chart is Humbly inscribed by their most Obedt Servant, B. Romans." This dedication is in a cartouche formed by the seal of the Marine Society, a symbolical figure of war and one representing civilization enlightening savagery. Beneath the cartouche are the words,"B. Romans inv. delin: & in ./Ere incidit." There are two inset views on this sheet, one a "View of the Entrance of S* Mary's River/' and the other a "View of Fort Sr Marks, at Apalache seen from the Southward." The east coast is shown from "River S* Mary" to "Musketo Inlet." At "River S* Mary," "Part of Cumberland Island" is marked and to the south, "Amelia I.", "Rr Nassau," "Sawpit Bluff," "Cedar P.," "Talbot L," "P* George," "R: & John," "General3 Mount," "Pablo R.," "Horse Guards," "North River," "St Augustine," "Is. Anastatius," "R? St Sebastian," "S. Nicholas R.," "S? Cecilia," "North West River," "Ft Matanca," "Penon," "Spanish Hawl Over," "Musketo North Lagoon," with "Tomoke River" and "Spruce Creek" emptying into it.

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 19 On the western side along the Gulf of Mexico two notes are made, one reading, "All this Part of the Coast has a Very Broken Appearance," the other, "This Coast is Scarcely to be approached Even in a Canoe, and it must Blow very hard before the Water begins to be too Rough for a Small Moses, no Beach is to be seen excepting at two high Cedar Keys marked a & b thus, thay (sic) may be Easily known their Beach is very White, at c is Good Watering at Low Water, & d is a Gravel Bank." Along the coast reading from the south to the northwest no names are given until "Hig (sic) Pine Island" appears, then "River Sf Juan de Guacara vulgo Little Seguana," "Cabbage Tree Coast," "Hitten Hatcha or Deadmans Bay," beyond "Marshes" are marked and four creeks, "Hatcha Hallowaggy," "Little Stoney Creek," "Aikanfmna," "Affilly," then "R. Apalacha," with "F< S< Marks," and a creek called "Tagabona." "R. Apalacha" empties into the "Bay of Apalacha," and the coast along here is marked "Very Strong Westerly Winds prevail here constantly in June July & August." Soundings are given, also the character of the bottom, such as "Fine Muddy Sand," "Manatee Grass & Rocks," "Fine White Sand," "Dark Grey Sand & Shells," "Blue Water," and "Very clear Water see Spunges small Coral & Grass on a Sandy Bottom," etc. Along the coast further to the west are found, "Georgo's Island," "Georges Sound," with the "River Apalachicola" emptying into it; "Cape Bias," "S* Josephs Bay," "S< Andrew's Bay," "Santa Rosa Bay," into which empties "River Chatto Hatcha," the "Santa Rosa Sound" and island, reading from the bay to "Pensacola Bay," into which empties "East Bay," "Ches ter River," "Middle River," "Little Cold Wat," "River Escambe," with others. "Pensacola" is marked and "New Au gusta," "Perdido River," with many tributaries, emptying into the Gulf, and then "Bay of Mobile." The "Tombeachbe River" and the "Coosa or Taensa River" empty into the bay and up

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20 LIFE AND WORKS the "Tombeachbe," "Old Mobile" appears with "Plantations" beyond, and "MF Lizars" nearer the bay. On the east side of the bay is "Mullet P<," "Crofton F<" and "Village," with: "Mobile" and "Roebuck" on the opposite side. In the bay and gulf the soundings are given, and a line in the gulf from here running the full length of the shore described is marked, "This Hatched Line shows the distance Where I could just see ye Land from a small Schooner's Mast Head." Passing on westward the "River Pasca Oocoolo" empties into its bay, which is not named. On this bay a place called "Krebs" is shown and a point is marked "1 Family," while on "Cedar Bay," which empties into the river, another place is marked "2 Families." The following note concerning the river is given: "The River Pasca Oocoolo is that on which the Chactaw Nation is Seated & is Navigable up to Chicashay, the Second Town abl. 140 Miles in a direct Line from the Sea. at this place was (A D 1770) a Vessel built of 30 Tons burthen, & came down loaden with Corn, & deer Skins without difficulty altho' the River is very Crooked." At the mouth of the "Pearl River," the islands are all named, and a note concerning the river reads as follows: "the two Branches of Pearl River unite about 10 miles higher up, & then the River often forming Lakes continues Navigable for about 200 Miles more, after that it Surrounds the W & N part of the Chactaw Nation & the Heads of the Pasca Oocoolo River & interlocks with the Waters of the Tomhechbe, or Mobile River, there is a Scandalous illicit Trade Carried on between the inhabitants (of the Country between Tangippaho & the bay of S\ Louis) & the Spanjards at Orleans the former (of which many have taken the Oath of allegiance to & hold Estates under both Governments) Supplying the latter with Pitch, Tarr, Charcoal, Live Oak & Cattle, by way of & Johns Creek." From a stream called "Passe du Chef Menteur," connecting "Lake Borgne" with "Lake Ponchartrain," "a Good Cart Road" runs to "Orleans." Along the Mississippi River the following places and notes are found, "English Reach," "M?Carty," "Fine Plantations on

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 21 Both Sides," "Hermitage a noted Settlements," "Very Fine Plantations," "Church," "German Settlement called Carlstein," "Church," "Pretty Well improved Plant? on both Sides, chiefly Acadians," "Span!1 Post," "Acadians," "Germans from Mary land," "Manchac River," "Fitz Patrick," "Ruins of Fort Bute," "Baton Rouge." On the map, the "Manchac" connects the Mississippi and "Salt Lake" and the "Iberville River," which connects with the "Amite River," which in turn makes the connection with "Lake Maurepas." There are two notes concerning the "Amite River," one of which reads as follows: "The Amite being a verey rapid torrent rather than a River, is navigable only for a Little way above its Junction with the Iberville, it rises violently & suddenly; & in the winter of 1772/3 I saw an instance of its Sending the force of its Current W. ward up the Iberville as well as E. ward to the Lakes in so much that had the rising of Mississippi into Manchac been retarded 24 hours longer the Amite would have discharged itself into the Mississippi." Above Baton Rouge the places along the Mississippi noted are "Milk Cliffs," "Urquhart," "Loftus's Clifs Where the 22<* Rig? was Repulsed by the Tonicas, 1764," and "Natchez." The second sheet of the map has two dedications in car touches, one reading: "To all Commanders of Vessels round the Globe, this Chart is respectfully dedicated; by their very humble Servant B. Romans." Beneath this is the inscription "B. Romans Inv! et sculp! 1774." The other dedication reads: "To the Honb.le the Planters in Jamaica and all Marchants Concerned in the trade of that Island being the two Societies chiefly interested in the Navigation herein explained this Chart is most respectfully dedicated by their very hble Servt B. Romans." The cartouches are elaborate but rather crudely executed. On the second sheet, soundings with a few notes as to char acter of the bottom are given, and the places along the coast

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22 LIFE AND WORKS reading from the northwest to the south are as follows: "Cayo Anclote," "R. Amaxura," "Spirito Santo or Tampe Bay," around which are "Fishermans P?," "Sirclo or BufFaloe P* ," "Manatee River," and "Grant P." In the mouth of the bay are "Castor Key," and "Pollux K." Below the bay are "Boca Soca," "Palm Sound," "Palm Island," "Boca Sarazota," "Clam Island," "Rock P<," "Rockey River," "Hawl Over," "Boca Gasparilla," and "Boca Grand," the entrance into "Charlotte Harbour." Empty ing into this harbor is a "Large River discovered by the Author," also "Creek discovered by the Author." Following the shore line come "Boca Captivo," "Boca Seco," "China K.," "I. Sanybel," "Coloosahatchee R.," "Bay Carlos," "Carlos Hart* ," "Pine Lands," "Caximbo Espanola," "Cape Roman or Punta Larga" at the northern end of "Juan Ponce de Leon Bay," on which keys and emptying streams are given, and the lower end of which is marked by "Dry River" and "Shark R'". Around the southern end of Florida, many of the keys are shown with names and soundings given. On the east coast of Florida, beginning where the first sheet left off, the soundings are given and the character of the ocean bottom. Only a few places are marked; they read as follows, "Wreck 1769," "Mount Tucker," "Heads of Indian River," "Most southern Heads of Ylacco or S* Johns," "Wreck 1768," "Cape Canaveral & its shoals," "R. Sf Sebastain," with a note "Opposite this River, perished the Admiral, commanding the Plate Flee[t] 1715, the rest of the Fleet 14 in number, between this and y[e] Bleech Yard," "el Palmar," "Tortolas," "River & Lucia," marked "Up to here there is in this River at least 6 foot water," "Bleech Y<," "Groopshill," "Spunginye Rocks," "Lake visible at Sea," "Rio Seco," "Rio Nuevo," "Rio Ratones," marked "Fresh," "Grand Marsh," below this is marked "all these Rivulets are Fine Fresh Water," and from this point down keys are shown.

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 23 The map also covers the Bahama Islands and the northern coast of Cuba. The Bahamas are shown with many soundings and the surrounding islands and keys. On the interior of the map of Cuba, sketches of various elevations are given, and along the western end of the island many reefs are shown.

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24 LIFE AND WORKS THE PUBLICATION OF THE MAPS In Rivington's New-York Gazetteer, of October 20, 1774, no. 79, and of April 27, 1775, no. 106, are two advertisements show ing the progress made in the publication: "MR. BERNARD ROMANS begs leave to inform the public, that his maps are now ready for publication, the copper-plates being all done, and the paper which he was obliged to get manufactured on purpose, is likewise finished, but not yet received from Philadelphia, or else at least a great part would have been delivered before now: The subscribers may rest assured of receiving the copies within the time prescribed, which is the first day of January next. "As his edition is small, it is requested that such Gentlemen who incline to have copies may subscribe, as after publication none will be to be had for less than 16 Dollars." RivingtorCs New-York Gazetteer, October 20,1774, no. 79. "MR. B. ROMANS has now finished his publication; and though every thing was ready according to promise before the 1st of January last, yet a struggle of above 4 months with the art and mystery of Copper-plate printing has occasioned delays until now; but he succeeds now in that last operation: As the expence of this work has much ex ceeded his expectation, he begs the subscribers will immediately send orders where they are to be delivered, and as it is very necessary he should after so great a drain of money, at last receive the returns for his labour, he hopes no demur will be made in payments. He returns thanks to his subscribers, whose favours have much exceeded his hopes, they are so numerous, for the whole work, that the book cannot be spared sep arately. A few complete copies are left to non-subscribers, at 16 dollars each." RivingtorCs New-York Gazetteer, April 27,1775, no. 107. The first advertisement is also found in the Massachusetts Gazette and the Boston Post-Boy and Advertiser, October 3 and 10, 1774, no. 894. The following extract, copied by Clarence S. Brigham, libra rian of the American Antiquarian Society, is from the original

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OF TBERNARD ROMANS 25 account-books owned by a descendant of Paul Revere, which he has kindly called to the attention of the writer. "1774 May 4, Capt. Bernard Romans Dr. To Cash paid for letter 0-1-1^ To Engraving a Plate for a Map of East Florida 1Q-CM3 To the Copper for Plate 2-2-8 To preparing plate for Engraving 1-0-0 To a wooden Case 1/6 Cartige to Providenc 1/6 0-3-0 1774 July 9 Capt. Bernard Romans Dr. To Engraving a Copper Plate for part of a map of Florida 7-0-0 To smoothing plate 1-0-0 To Cash paid for two letters 0-2-3 To Cash paid for bring plate from Providence [no entry] To Dito for carrying it to Salem 1-4 1774 Oct. 21 Capt. Bernard Romans Dr. To prepairing a Copper plate for Engraving & Engraving 2-8-0 To Cash paid for 4 letters 0-6-0" In 1774 Romans journeyed to Boston, ostensibly to procure sub scriptions. In an advertisement published in the Boston Gazette, of Monday, January 10, 1774, no. 979, in which he says "He has for these eight Years past done it at his own Cost," he calls attention to the fact that "there is added to the Maps a book of 500 pages, in octavo," and "the elegance of the Map added to its large size, of twelve feet by seven, will likewise render it an orna mental Piece of Furniture." The advertisement in full reads: "THE Subscriber having compleated a very large and extensive Survey of the New Ceded Countries to the Southward, which long wanted Discovery he has attained, at a vast Expence and bodily Fatigue, and now offers to the Public. "The Navigation through the Gulph Stream, over the Bahama Bank and in the Gulph of Mexico, is more particularly laid down therein than

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26 LIFE AND WORKS was ever done before, or than any Map Compiler has ever had an Oppor tunity to do* And as every Trader from North-America, especially the Merchants who trade to Jamaica, Hispaniola, and to the two Floridas, are more particularly interested in this necessary Work, he addresses himself more immediately to them; and begs Leave to direct them to his p[r]inted Proposals, which have been put up & distributed through this Town. "He has come here to procure if possible, the Assistance of some Gentlemen (Lovers and Encouragers of American Literature) towards the Publication of this Work. He has for these eight Years past done it at his own Cost, but being now very near the Close of it, he finds the Expence to outrun his Expectation, and therefore thus throws himself on the generous Public.New-York, Philadelphia and South-Carolina have given him Encouragement; he hopes therefore Boston will not withhold her helping Hand. "A great Part of the Work is already printed, for that Reason he presumes the ordinary Thought of its falling through will not so much as be suspected, especially as our most esteemed Societies have thought it worthy of recommendation as beneficial to Mankind. "There is added to the Maps a Book of 500 Pages, in octavo, which will, no doubt, amuse the studious and learned, especially such as are Enquirers into the Wonders of the three Kingdoms of Nature, Botany more particularly; the inland Country is very minutely described, and the Maps will explain even the Land laid out on the river Mississippi; plain aad [sic] ample directions to Navigators will likewise be given, and extensive Soundings on the Coast, pointed out, so as to render the Whole as desirable for the Sage in his Cabinet as for the Mariner in his Ship. "The elegance of the Map added to its large Size, of twelve Feet by seven, will likewise render it an ornamental Piece of Furniture. "In this exceeding difficult and dangerous Navigation are a great many watering Places not hitherto known, which will be described and directed to, and by which Means it is hoped many a poor distressed Crew will be saved from Ruin, even when they perhaps despair of Life. "His Stay will be short in Boston, therefore he begs the Well-wishers of American Science and Navigation to give their Names soon, in order that he may return to the compleating of the Work with redoubled Ardour. "About July, 1774, it is thought the Work will be compleated, and the Public may rest assured, that the Favours will be amply recompensed not only by this Work, but by one of much more extensive Nature, which he has now in Contemplation, he having devoted his Life to Pursuits of this Kind. "***He may be heard of at Mess. Cox and Berry's; Mr. Knox's, Mr. Joshua Bracken's, Mr. Joseph Ingersoll's, and the Printers of this Paper. B. ROMANS."

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 27 When Romans says "there is added to the Maps a book of 500 pages, in octavo/' it looks as if the book was to accompany the map and not the map to accompany the book. In Rivington's New-York Gazetteer, for February 10,1774, no. 43, is a signed notice by Bernard Romans, who is defending him self vehemently against an accusation of piracy.2 The biograph ical information it contains is sufficient to warrant publishing it: "HAVING been informed that David Ross and John Scott, had on their passage home insinuated to Capt. Wynn, that the work I have now in hand, is a piracy obtained at Pensacola by the help of Dr. John Lorimer, and that the latter insisted even on Capt. Wynnes mentioning it to the Marine Society, who have been my kindest patrons here; I now in this open and plain manner declare in vindication of my honour in this affair, that Ross is little known to me, and that Scott, living under the same roof with me, though never my particular friend, yet he never had reason to be my particular enemy in so scandalous a manner; I therefore in sure and certain hopes of his seeing this paper, declare him a SCOUNDREL, who has seen me here, and then knew better than to mention this vile inuendo, but defamation always finds some rascally conduct, through which, like a vile cur, to bark at innocence. Capt. Talbot gave some hints of this kind at Boston. I hesitated not a moment to take Mr. Hicks, the Printer, with me, (the business unknown to him) and wait on him, at his house in Charlestown, and justified myself; I therefore hesitate not a moment to do what I do now. "First then, I have sent a copy of above two thirds of my works to the Marine Society here, two years before I knew Pensacola, or had the honour of Dr. Lorimer9 s inestimable acquaintance. "Secondly, I have, while I was at Pensacola, sent an extempore sketch of the coast of Florida at the desire of Dr. Lorimer, to Mr. Gauld, then at Jamaica, for his information when intended to go to that coast. "Thirdly, I have sent part of the identical copy that had remained here with the Society at the same desire, about three months ago to Pensacola. "This advertisement is already grown too long, but in justification of Dr. Lorimer, who with Mr. Gauld, at present makes the most strict, honourable and tender knot of friendship, perhaps existing on our globe, and whose acquaintance I esteem a valuable jewel: I will next week take the liberty for our common vindication, to publish a part of the Doctor's last letter to me, and my answer thereto. "Neither of these two gentlemen pretend to be in the least acquainted with the science of Botany, nor do they know a tittle of my manuscript. I therefore appeal to Mr. Rivington, and Mr. Hazard, being the only

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28 LIFE AND WORKS persons on earth, who have with my knowledge seen any part thereof, and whose acquaintances with authors entitle them to be competent judges of books, whether they know of any one from whom I have printed one paragraph. B. ROMANS." "New York, Feb. 3, 1774. "Mr. RIVINGTON, "Capt. Winn has informed me that I was wrong in mentioning Mr. Ross, for that Scott was the busy body alone, and that he not only in sinuated, but affirmed the matter, while Mr. Ross said that he believed it impossible, because that he knew the Doctor to be a man of more prin ciple, and too great a friend to Mr. Gauld, as this is the case, I beg Mr. Ross's pardon, and according to last week's promise, I now publish the following "Extracts of Dr. LORIMER'S Letters to me, 'Pensacola, June 1773. 'YOUR talk of coming here again seems to be rather in the doubtful gender. QUERY? Shall I ever have half the plans you promised me?' 'October 8, 1773. 'Mr. GAULD I expect to see the beginning of next month, by which time he will have finished all the West coast of East Florida, and the islands as far as Key West, as it is commonly called; the Tortugas he has now just finished, as he informs me by this very vessel; you should confine yourself for the present entirely to East Florida, and give as much as you can of the Bahama banks in your first publication, and if it succeeds, which by this time you can give some guess of, I shall ask Mr. GAULD what he can spare you for your better information relative to West-Florida; *pray could you with propriety take in what you surveyed for Mr. Stuart!9 "MY ANSWERS. 'New-York, Sept. 17, 1773. 'ALONG with this I send you a rough draught of East-Florida, it may be depended upon, except at the Tortugas only; I also inclose you a list of my subscribers, and other copies of my proposals for fear that those by Beekman should miscarry.' 'Per Capt. Offut.' 'New-York, Nov. 18, 1774. 'YOURS of October 8, together with the bundle I have received last Saturday, I am extremely obliged to you for your kind care, I hope mine of the 3d and 17th of September per Beekman and Offut, have reached *"This alludes to Mr. Gauld having had infinitely better opportunity between Cape St. Bias and Pensacola, than myself"

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 29 you before now, the last had a rough sketch of my draught of EastFlorida with it for Mr. Gaul(Ts inspection, and both carried copies of my proposals for you. 'I have taken upon me, by Mr. John Stuarts leave, to publish West of Pensacola, but as from these East I have only some soundings of my own, till I come to Apalache, I should be glad if you could obtain some assistance for that part of the coast, as also for the Tortugas, which will spare me a voyage to the last, which is almost resolved upon, and con sequently much time and expence. My Bahama banks have been so much approved of by the best pilots over them, who by appointment of the committee of our society examined them, that it makes me not a little proud, there is now no doubt of my publication's succeeding. 'Per Capt. Thomas King.9 "By the above account the reader will see that only a very small part of the whole work is in some degree in a state of imperfection, and that instead of pirating from others, I have been freely communicative of my work be it of use or not, and made honest applications for assistance where I wanted it, to the only person capable of giving it; and where there was a doubt of the propriety of publishing my-own observations without leave, I have first obtained that leave. "This present circumstance induces me to anticipate a word or two of what was my intention to say at the time of publishing; my first beginning of this work was in 1766, when I unluckily ran my vessel on shore on the Tortugas, and in a second voyage I lost her near Cape Florida, with about 500 1. sterl. property in her. I then got to be appointed Deputy Sur veyor for Georgia, and shortly after, the late Lord Egmont introduced me into East-Florida, to survey and divide the estates he had there, by these means I obtained the most perfect observations in the Northern parts of Florida; the middle was now chiefly wanting, this I compleated, and likewise the Western side in the year 1769 and 1770, when I had the honour to be appointed Principal Deputy Surveyor for the Southern dis trict, and first commander of the vessels on that service, by Mr. De Brahm, but he quarrelling with Governor Grant, was streightened in his circumstances, and then was not honest enough to pay me; I was obliged to sue him, and thereby lost above three fourths of what I ought to have had, thus I think myself absolutely at liberty to make use of the obser vations I had acquired during that time; I next undertook a voyage again entirely at my own expence, and was from September 1770 to the middle of August 1771 on that voyage, without even hopes of pecuniary assistance, except a survey of 2000 acres to lay near tj|b Cape, for Samuel Touchet, Esq; which I faithfully executed, and ougftt to have 70 1. ster. for, but as I sent the return to St. Augustine, and came not in person, Mr. Mulcaster thought fit to pretend, that my return was irregular, and thus I never had one farthing of this pittance, which would have scarcely paid for provisions. During this long and tedious voyage I compleated

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30 LIFE AND WORKS what was wanting in my work of the Florida and Bahama banks, and the last seven months of that time I spent on the Western side to explore that coast as far as Apalache, and then coasted along the South shore of West-Florida, obtaining the soundings on that coast as far as Pensacola, where I arrived in August aforesaid, I was immediately employed by John Stuart, Esq; to survey the Western part of the province, and was con stantly at this time between Pensacola, Manchac, Orleans, the rivers Amite, the lakes Chandeleurs, and other islands and rivers, doing at the same time some small affairs for Governor Chester, till February 1773, when being deluded by John Stuart, Esqr's promise of giving me ISO 1. per annum, I left that to go to Carolina, on the passage we over-set at sea, and Mr. John Stuart told me on my arrival, that he had no occasion for me, nor could employ me, thus if I had not had his leave I think myself intitled to publish the observations made by me during that service; I now declare that I have not pilfered nor pirated from any man living, the actual survey of Providence I have by assistance from Parr Ross, Esq; the mouths of Missisippi are exactly taken by Mr. Gauld, and inserted in my work by his permission, and I am now in expectation of that gentleman's assistance for the East part of West-Florida, which shall be duly-acknowledged by me, and thus all stain or imputation of imposition I think is clearly removed from "New-York, Feb. 10,1774. B. ROMANS."

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 31 ABEL BUELL OF NEW HAVEN Besides Paul Revere, who has already been noted as assisting Romans in the engraving of his maps, references are often made to the assistance rendered by Abel Buell. Stauffer in his Ameri can Engravers upon Copper and Steely part 1, pp. 34-35, in a notice of Abel Buell says: "He removed to Springfield, Mass., and then to New Haven, about 1774-5, and at the latter place he was employed by Bernard Romans in constructing a map of North America. Buell is credited with having made the survey of the coast about Pensacola for Romans, and with having engraved some of the maps of Florida in Romans' 'Natural His tory of Florida/ published in New York in 1775. He may also have engraved the plan of Boston published by Romans in 1775." The map referred to in the above quotation is probably the one mentioned in Rivington's New-York Gazeteer, for August 31, 1775, where there is an advertisement to this effect: "BOSTON. ROMAN'S MAP is just printed, will in a few days be published, and SOLD, by JAMES RIVINGTON, and Messrs. NOEL and HAZARD. This Map of Boston, &c. is one of the most correct that has ever been published. The draught was taken by the most skillful draughtsman in all America, and who was on the spot at the engagements of LEXINGTON and BUNKER'S HILL." A very interesting sketch of Buell is found in John Warner Barber's Connecticut Historical Collections. 2d ed. New Haven 1836, pp. 531-532, in which is the same statement as to the help given Romans in the engraving of his maps. As Romans him self was an engraver and so signed his maps and plates, it looks as if some error has here crept in. The reader may see for him self in this notice: "Abel Buell, an uncommonly ingenious mechanic, was a native of this town: he was apprenticed to Ebenezer Chittenden, a gold and silver smith in this place, previous to the Revolution. Buell was married at

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32 LIFE AND WORKS the age of nineteen years, and at the age of twenty, altered a five shilling colony note to five pounds. His neighbors had suspected that something was going on in his house which was wrong, as a light had been seen in his chamber at unusual hours of the night. He was discovered by some person, who, mounting a ladder, looked in at the window, and saw him in the act of altering the bills. So ingeniously was it done, that it could only be discovered by comparing the stumps of the letters with those left in the book from which all the colony bills were issued. Matthew Griswold, the king's attorney, afterwards governor, conducted the prosecution against BuelL As it was his first offence, and he otherwise sustained a good character, Mr. Griswold granted him every indulgence which he could consistently with his duty as a public officer. Buell's punishment appears to have consisted of imprisonment, cropping and branding. The tip only of Buell's ear was cropped off: it was held on his tongue to keep it warm till it was put on the ear again, where it grew on. He was branded on the forehead as high up as possible. This was usually done by a hot iron, in the form of a letter designating the crime, which was held on the forehead of the criminal till he could say the words 'God save the king/ "Mr. Buell was at the first imprisoned at Norwich; afterwards, through the influence of his family and friends, he was removed back to Killingworth. About this time he constructed a lapidary machine, the first, it is believed, that was used in this country. With this he was enabled to make a very curious ring; a large, beautiful stone being set in the centre, surrounded by those of a smaller size, all of which were wrought in a curious and workmanlike manner. This ring he presented to Mr. Griswold, the king's attorney, and through his influence a pardon was obtained. Afterwards, about the year 1770, Mr. Buell removed to New Haven. About this period, Bernard, Romans was constructing a map of North America. As the coast of Pensacola was but little known, Buell was employed by him to make a survey of the coast. While at Pensacola, a person, knowing him to be an ingenious man, inquired if he could break the governor's seal, and open a letter and seal it up again, so that it could not be discovered that the letter had been opened. Mr. Buell was able to show his employer that it could be done in a perfect manner. He was, however, arrested for making the attempt, although it is believed that the governor employed the person who came to Buell. He was confined to the island, but he soon found means to escape, by a boat of his construction: he was accompanied by a boy who wished to leave the place; they put out into the open sea, and were three days out of sight of land. They, however, were able to get into some of our southern ports, and from thence Buell returned home. "The map mentioned above was published during the Revolutionary war, and it is believed to be the first map engraved and published in this country. In engraving it, Mr. Buell was assisted by Mr. Amos Doolittle,

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 33 of New Haven. During the Revolution it was extremely difficult to procure types for printing, except French types. Mr. Buell, turning his attention to this subject, soon constructed a type foundry, and employed IS or 20 boys in making types. The building used for the foundery was the Sandemanian meeting house, situated in Gregson street. The legis lature of the state, impressed with a sense of the service he rendered the public, restored to him his civil rights. Upon the conclusion of the Revolutionary war, Mr. Buell and some others were employed by the state in coining coppers. Mr. Buell constructed all the apparatus for this purpose, and to such perfection did he bring it, that he was able to coin 120 in a minute. Soon after, he went to England, for the ostensible purpose of procuring copper for coining, but in reality to gain some knowledge of the machinery used for the manufacturing of cloths of various kinds. "While in England, he was passing through a town where they were constructing an iron bridge; through some error or defect in the con struction, the builders could not make their bridge answer any useful purpose. Such was Mr. Buell's knowledge and ingenuity on subjects of this nature, that he was able in a short time to direct them how to con struct their bridge in a proper manner. So highly were his services con sidered, that he was presented with a hundred guineas. Mr. Buell re turned to this country, and brought a Scotchman by the name of M'Intosh. They erected a cotton factory in Westville, in New Haven, one of the first erected in this country. He afterwards removed to Hart ford, and from thence to Stockbridge, Mass., where he made a profession of religion after he was seventy years of age. About the year 1825, he returned to New Haven, where he died in the alms house soon after his return." Buell made a map of the United States, measuring 41 x 46> inches, which was advertised for sale in the Connecticut Journal of March 31, 1784. This antedates William McMurray's map, which was issued to subscribers December 17, 1784, although in the Pennsylvania Packet^ of August 9, 1783, he advertised "Pro posals for Publishing by Subscription, A Map of the UnitedStates"; but it was still in manuscript. Therefore Buell's map, as far as the actual printing is concerned, comes before that of McMurray by several months. The only copy of this map by Buell which has come to the notice of the writer is found in rather bad condition in the American Geographical Society Library of New York. The car-

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34 LIFE AND WORKS touche containing the title has over it the first flag of the United States, published in a map by an American. To the left of the flag is a figure of an angel blowing the trumpet of victory; to the right is the sun sending its rays in all directions. Below the flag are the arms of the state of Connecticut, to whose Governor the map is dedicated. To the right of the title is the figure of a woman seated under a tree; in her right hand she is holding a staff at the end of which is a liberty cap. To the left is a large acanthus leaf. While this map has no date, the above mentioned newspaper advertisement gives 1784.

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 35 THE ACCOUNT OF FLORIDA3 The student of American history may find among the rare and prized items in the various libraries throughout the coun try such pioneer histories as Capt. John Smith's books on Vir ginia and New England, Thomas Hutchins' Topographical description of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland and North Carolina, Manasseh Cutler's Ohio, John Filson's Kentucky, Gen eral Daniel Smith's Tennessee, and many others too numerous to mention; but none of these compare in rarity to the complete Romans' Florida, map and book. Not only is the work rare, but the variety of natural, aboriginal, historic, and miscel laneous information which it so graphically gives is far more original than that in the above-mentioned books. Its extreme rarity makes it comparatively unknown, and if it were repub lished, this early description of Florida would be universally read. The date of its publication, 1775, when the whole coun try was going through an upheaval, may offer an explanation why more copies were not preserved. In the list of subscribers numbering one hundred and ninety-eight, we read many distin guished names, such as John Ellis, F. R. S. naturalist, to whom the work is dedicated, Hon. John Hancock, Samuel Holland, Surveyor General of the Northern District, Capt. John Montressor, Mr. Hybertus Romans, of Amsterdam, Gov. Wm. Tryon, of New York, Henry Pelham, of New York, Capt. Rufus Put nam, Gov. Peter Chester, of West Florida, the right Noble Gronovius, of Leyden, and many more. There is a very complete bibliographical description of Romans' book by George Watson Cole in the Church Catalogue. From it we learn that there are besides the text eight copper

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36 LIFE AND WORKS plate engravings, three maps and one folding table. Rarely does one find a copy which contains all of these extra sheets. The following interesting appreciation of the book will be found in Sabin's Bibliotheca Americana: A rare and important work. "No copy has ever been found with either of the whole-sheet Maps and all are more or less deficient in the number of plates referred to in the title page. From the arrangement and tenor of the title, as well as from the sense of the 'advertisement' in the end of the volume, we are clearly of opinion, that it was the author's design to distribute the 'twelve copper plates and two wholesheet maps' throughout the two volumes into which he intended to divide the work. The work was issued in the following year with an abridged title, less preliminary matter, and without the Appendix, but the text in the body of the work is the same in both editions. In the 'adver tisement' above referred to the author announces his intention to issue a second volume, to be accompanied by maps, adding, that 'it is now in the press.' It does not appear however that it ever was published. The plates are curious specimens of early continental engravings, they were drawn and etched by Romans himself, who throughout the book uses a small T for the personal pronoun." In a note in his American Bibliography Charles Evans states: "The two maps missing from all copies of the work were afterwards engraved by John Lodge, and published in London May 31, 1781, and copies are sometimes found with these maps inserted." The maps mentioned above as being engraved by Lodge are probably the two maps of Florida to be found in the Ives copy in the New York Public Library. One of them is entitled "A Map of East and West Florida .... J? Lodge sculp. London, May 31, 1781." It is from Political Magazine. The other is entitled "A Map of West Florida ... J. Lodge sculp.," and is from Gentleman's Magazine > February 1772. As has been shown, sufficient evidence has come to hand from Romans' own statements to connect the map and book, as one complete whole. A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida was advertised in the Massachusetts Gazette and the

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 37 Boston Weekly News-Letter, for Thursday, January 27th, 1774, as follows: "PROPOSALS for PRINTING by SUBSCRIPTION, A Concise NATURAL HISTORY of East and West FLORIDA. CONTAINING, An Account of the natural Produce of all the Southern Part of BRITISH AMERICA, in the three Kingdoms of Nature, particularly the Animal and Vegetable. LIKEWISE, The artificial Produce now raised, or possible to be raised, and manufactured there, with some commercial and political Observations in that Part of the World; and a chorographical Account of the same. To which is added, by Way of Appendix, Plain and easy Directions to Navigators over the Bank of Bahama, the Coast of the two Floridas, the North of Cuba, and the dangerous Gulph Passage. Noting also, the hitherto unknown watering Places in that Part of America, intended principally for the Use of such Vessels as may be so unfortunate as to be distressed by Weather in that difficult Part of the World. By Capt. BERNARD ROMANS. Illustrated with twelve COPPER PLATES, and Two whole Sheet MAPS. CONDITIONS. I. The Book will be in two Volumes, each 300 Pages Crown Octavo, printed with a new Type, on a very good Paper. II. To be delivered about June next. III. Price sewed Six Shillings Sterling. N. B. About ISO Pages are already printed. Subscriptions taken in for the above Book for Messrs. Cox and Berry and Henry Knox% Boston"

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38 LIFE AND WORKS THE PRINTER OF THE BOOK There has been much doubt and interest as to the printer of this work, as the title-page only states, "Printed for the Author." Charles R. Hildeburn, in his Sketches of Printers and Printing in Colonial New York, p. 119, gives James Rivington and says: "The last-mentioned nugget, like the Wilmington edition of Filson's 'Kentucky/ is always found without the two large maps promised on the title-page. The maps were engraved by some one who resided far up the Hudson, were printed on paper made at Wilcox's mills near Philadelphia, and their completion was announced on May 4, 1775, in Rivington's newspaper. At present but a single copy of each is known, both of which are in the collection of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania." This last statement, as has been shown, is incorrect, and the assertion as to the printer is questionable. In the Bradford Exhibition, Grolier Club, Catalogue of books printed by William Bradford and other printers in the middle colonies, it is not attributed to any specific printer, but is titled no. 173 among "Books printed in New-York without printers' names." The second impression has on the title-page, "New York, Printed: Sold by R. Aitken, Bookseller opposite the London Coffee House, Front Street, 1776." This does not help us in the matter, as Aitken was a publisher, printer and engraver4 in Phil adelphia. Considerable prominence has been given by various writers to the generous use made of the small personal pronoun "i" in Romans' book. In a careful examination of his work on the Netherlands and various magazine articles, no such peculiarity is noted. We may conclude that it was neither Romans nor the printer, Rivington, but the unknown printer of the work, whose capital "I" in his font possibly gave out at the wrong time.

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 39 The engravings in the work have been severely criticised, but when we compare them with those of his co-workers in several undertakings, Paul Revere and others of the day, they may be regarded with more leniency. The allegorical frontispiece is the most elaborate of the engravings. Duyckinck in The Cyclopaedia ofAmerican Literature, pp. 317-318, has a short notice of Romans and says: "The allegorical frontispiece is very curious. It contains a shield on which are inscribed the letters S. P. Q. A. This is placed beside a seated female figure, having in one hand a rod on the end of which is a liberty cap. She wears a helmet, and smiles benignantly at an Indian who is unrolling a map at her feet. Beside him is a water god pouring copious streams from a jar on each side of him, one of which is iabelled Mississippi. The remaining space is dry land, upon which a chunky cherub is measuring off distances with a compass on an outspread map." Critics have found peculiarities in Romans' style. They ac cuse it of being "grandiloquent'* and "bombastic/' and charge the author with holding "peculiar" and "bold" opinions. Mod ern critics are likely to underrate the great intellects of the past, using present-day standards as criteria for their opinions. It seems to be forgotten that Romans was a foreigner wrestling with the intricacies of the English language. When we consider the difficulties which the pioneer "Adventurer" had to surmount to accomplish his work, the wonder grows at the reading. The title-page of A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida explains very fully the nature of the work. The first published review is found in the Pennsylvania Magazine, January, 1776, p. 33. This says, "This Work abounds with very curious observations on the animal, vegetable, and marine kingdoms of the two Florida's [sic]. The Author gives us particular descriptions of the several nations of Indians, natives of that country; and he informs us, that what he relates is the result of his own observation and experience, during his residence among them." Then follows a quotation from the book giving an account of the Creek Indians.

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40 LIFE AND WORKS THE ACCOUNT OF NEW SMYRNA Romans brought a considerable post-mortem criticism on himself, on account of some statements made in his book about the condition of the town of New Smyrna, founded by Dr. Andrew Turnbull, for Sir William Duncan, and so named by Turnbull after the place of his wife's nativity. This account, found on page 268, was reprinted in the Columbian Magazine, for August, 1788, pp. 440-443, without any statement as to whence it was taken, and without the author's name, and was entitled, "An account of the Foundation of New Smyrna in Florida, and of a remarkable Insurrection in that Settlement." Dr. Turnbull evidently resented this article; not knowing the author and re garding it as an original production, he wrote a "Refutation" which elicited in the November number of the same year, the following, inserted after the title: "TO CORRESPONDENTS. "We regret that Dr. TurnbuWs refutation of the account of New Smyrna published in our Magazine for August last, arrived too late to be inserted in the present number; but it will certainly appear in that for the ensuing month. Had we known the Doctor's amiable character, or even that the person alluded to, in the account of New Smyrna, was at this time a citizen of the United States, we should not, certainly, have consented to give him a moment's pain; but for our justification, we now inform that gentleman, that the paper in the Magazine was not the production of an anonymous pen, but an extract from 'An Account of East and West Florida,' written and published in octavo, by Mr. Romaine in the state of New-York, the author's name being prefixed to the work." Dr. Turnbull's "amiable character" is shown in the "Refutation," which he published in the December issue, pp. 683-688. The article is prefaced with a note, "To the Editor of the Co lumbian Magazine," as follows: "Sir, "The man who has attempted to traduce my character, in an anonymous paper in your Magazine for August last, is guilty of asserting a greater num-

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 41 ber of malicious and improbable falsehoods, than, I believe, ever disgraced such a publication as yours: but as an anonymous calumniator, is justly regarded as an assassin, who stabs in the dark, I cannot, under that cir cumstance, put myself on a level with him, by answering his malicious libel: a respect, however, and a regard for the public opinion, added to a wish to be thought well of, induce me to request your publishing this letter, with the inclosed answer, in your Columbian Magazine; for, as this attempt against my character is made through you, sir, I dare say, that this trivial reparation will not be refused, and that you will do me the favour to acquaint me with the author's name and address.Direct to Dr. Turnbull, Charleston, South-Carolina. I am, Sir, Your most obedient and Humble servant, A. Turnbull. "Charleston, South-Carolina, October 26, 1788." Here follows the "Refutation."5 It seems strange that so many years after the publication of Romans' work it was at last brought to the attention of Turnbull. If Romans had seen the "Refutation," both his mental and militant efforts would have come into evidence. Some interesting references are made both in the article and in the "Refutation" to Joseph Purcell, of Charleston, S. C, the maker of various early maps of the states. That Romans had considerable reason for his criticism as to the manner in which New Smyrna was governed, may be seen from an account in George R. Fairbanks' History of Florida, 1871, pp. 220-222, and the following interesting notice copied from Harrison Garfield Rhodes and Mary Wolfe Dumont's A Guide to Florida, 1912, pp. 143-146, which is used by permission of Dodd, Mead & Co. "New Smyrna (125 m., pop. 1,121) is one of the oldest settlements in Florida; it is occasionally claimed for itindeed the legend is never quite discreditedthat it is even older than St. Augustine. But of that earlier Spanish period little can be discovered in any authentic records, almost as little as of the previous settlements of the Indians, though the region has many shell mounds yielding to the excavator pottery and weapons and other traces of barbaric life. "However a very interesting chapter of Florida history began at New Smyrna in 1767, four years after the cession of the provinces to England by Spain. A certain Dr. Andrew Turnbull, an English physician and gentleman of fortune, headed a company which secured a grant from

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42 LIFE AND WORKS the Governor of Florida of 60,000 acres of rich hammock land near New Smyrna, on condition that certain agricultural improvements should jbe made within a specified time. He then sailed for the Mediterranean, a region which must have already been familiar to him, as his wife was of Greek origin and had been born at Smyrna, in Asia Minor, a circumstance which gave its present odd name to the Florida town. "By a payment of 0 to the authorities, he obtained a permit to transport to Florida families of Greeks, recruited mostly from the Pelo ponnesus. On the westward voyage he obtained further emigrants for his enterprise at the Balearic Islands, mostly in Minorca. Altogether fifteen hundred men, women and children set sail for Florida. Sir William Duncan and Dr. Turnbull, the heads of the company, expended one hundred and sixty-six thousand dollars in this emigration. The new settlers were indentured under articles, which guaranteed them trans portation, clothing and support. Any dissatisfied after six months were to be sent back home. Those remaining were to give their labor for three years, but, at the end of that time, were to receive fifty acres of land for each family and twenty-five for each child. "The voyage was a hard and long one, and many of the emigrants died during it. Nevertheless the colony began auspiciously. The land was rich, and needed only the drainage operations which Turnbull started at once in a most scientific manner. His canals still remain and various ruins which remind the tourist of this chapter of history. In the ham mocks behind the town can still be found the faint traces of ridges and furrows said to be those of the indigo culture. The produce of the colony began to be valuable. By 1772 three thousand acres were under culti vation and the net value of the crop was ,174. But unfortunately little regard was paid to the promises made the laborers. "Definite information is hard to secure^ but the fact seems that the Minorcansas all the colonists had come to be calledwere reduced to a condition of actual slavery, of an extremely oppressive and cruel char acter. In 1769 an insurrection took place among them but was put down, the leaders being brought to St. Augustine for trial. Five were con demned to death. Of these two were pardoned, and another released on the condition that he become the executioner of the remaining two. By 1776 conditions were no better, and only six hundred of the colonists were left, but these were again ready for revolt. "Three of the leaders escaped along the coast, swam the Matanzas inlet and appealed to Governor Tonyn at St. Augustine. Encouraged by him they returned by New Smyrna, and armed with rude weapons and carrying such provisions as they could the entire colony suddenly and secretly started on a march to St. Augustine, under the leadership of a certain Palliciera name still common in the region. At the colonial capital legal proceedings were successfully begun and successfully carried through freeing the Minorcans from any further demands upon their

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 43 services. Lands were allotted to them in the northern part of the city, where their descendants may still be found. Certain of them returned to New Smyrna or its vicinity upon assurances that there was no danger of their re-enslavement, and Minorcan names are still found at New Smyrna, Ponce Park, and Daytona. The Turnbull history is a curious one; it has been made even more highly colored and sensational in the hands of a widely read novelist, the late Archibald Clavering Gunter, who concocted from it, with liberal and inaccurate imaginative additions, his volumes 'Susan Turnbuir and 'Bally-Ho Bey.' "The English promoter of the colony must have lost enormously by it, as it was necessarily abandoned just as it was becoming prosperous. Dr. Turnbull had been an important and respected man in the com munity, a member of the colonial privy council, and at one time a pros pective appointee as Governor. It may be something to redeem his credit that at the time of the Revolutionary War he forfeited his estates owing to his adherence to the cause of the colonies. His son, Robert James Turnbull, born at New Smyrna a year before the Minorcan revolt, was educated in England and studied law in Charleston, S. C. (to which city his father had removed), and at Philadelphia. He practiced law in Charleston, and became a leading writer on political subjects, advocating strongly 'nullification.' A monument to his memory was erected in Charleston by his political admirers and friends. His name is in all dictionaries of American biography. "After the Minorcan rebellion New Smyrna was deserted until early in the nineteenth century when it was again cultivated until the Seminole War forced its abandonment. "The Civil War again brought it into some slight prominence. Block ade runners made frequent use of the Mosquito Inlet. Finally two United States gunboats, the 'Penguin* and the 'Henry Andrew/ passed the inlet and attacked the town, which had fired on them. Every building or wharf which could aid the blockade runners was burned. To this day there is a legend of hulks containing treasure which lie somewhere at the bottom of Spruce Creek, where they were sunk to escape capture by the Yankees. "New Smyrna in these days is a pleasant river-side town at the be ginning of the Hillsboro river. It was for a long time chiefly a resort of those who came for the shooting and fishing of the region. Nowadays, however, it is participating in the new wave of Florida prosperity. Neat houses and gardens are springing up everywhere and it is becoming one of the pleasantest towns of the East Coast." John Lee Williams, in his The Territory of Florida, 1837, p. 189, says, "Turnbull, however, did not fulfill his agreements, with these people, his avarice seemed to increase with his pros-

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44 LIFE AND WORKS perity. He selected a few Italians, and made them overseers and drivers. The rest, men, women, and children, were reduced to the most abject slavery...." Further extracts from the above work, which describe unheard-of cruelty, are not neces sary, as Romans' criticism is amply proved.6 The text of Romans' Description, together with the "Refutation" in full, are printed in the Notes at the end of this volume.

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 45 BIOGRAPHICAL No information has come to light relating to Bernard Romans while in Holland and England, previous to his coming to America. In the various short and sketchy notices of his life, the date of his birth is given as about 1720, andN:he place of his nativity as Holland. Accepting this date for want of more definite information, and according to the pension claim of his widow, which will be published in full, and the well-known date of his marriage in January, 1779, he must have been in that year, fifty-nine years of age; fifty-five when he joined the army in 1775, and sixty-four at the supposed time of his death in 1784. The earliest information relating to Romans is given by John Gerar William De Brahm, of whom a notice has already been given, who mentions in his manuscript journal, found in Harvard University Library, in a "List of Inhabitants of East Florida, their Employs, Business and Qualifications from 1763 to 1771," "Romans, Bernard, Draughts Mathem? Navigate in Em ploy." In 1766, he was appointed Deputy Surveyor for Georgia, and in 1769-1770, "Principal Deputy Surveyor for the Southern district, and first commander of the vessels on that service, by Mr. De Brahm, but he quarrelling with Governor Grant, was streightened in his circumstances, and then was not honest enough to pay me; I was obliged to sue him." This extract is from a defence which he made, signed New York, Feb. 10, 1774, and published in Rivington's New-York Gazetteer, which has already been printed in full in these notes. In The Colonial Records of the State of Georgia. Compiled by A. D. Candler, there are to be found the following entries refer ring to Bernard Romans under the years 1767 and 1768: "Read a petition of Bernard Romans setting forth that he was Settled in the Province and was desirous to Obtain Land therein There-

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46 LIFE AND WORKS fore praying One hundred Acres being two lots in Highgate known by Numbers ten and eleven in the Parish of Christ Church. "Resolved That on Condition only that the Petitioner doth take out a Grant for the 6aid Land within Seven Months from this date and that he doth also register the said Grant in the Register's Office of the said Province within Six Months from the date thereof that his Majesty may not be defrauded of his quit Rents the prayer of the said Petition is granted." p. 171. "The Governor signed the grant." p. 352. "Read a Petition of Barnard Romans setting forth that he was set tled in the Province and was desirous to Obtain Land for Cultivation Therefore praying for on Purchase five hundred Acres upon Ogechee near Land there ordered Isaac young. "Resolved. That on Condition only that the Petitioner doth take out a Grant for the said Land within seven Months from this Date and that he doth also register the said Grant in the Register's Office of the said Province within Six Months from the Date thereof that his Majesty may not be defrauded of his Quit Rents the Prayer of the said Petition is granted the Petitioner Complying with the Order of Council touching Lands granted on Purchase." p. 338. "Read a Petition of Barnard Romans setting forth that he had lately ordered him a fifty Acre Lot in Highgate which afterwards proved to have been granted James Jansacke, and was desirous to Obtain other Land in lieu thereof Therefore praying for fifty Seven Acres in Christ Church Parish heretofore ordered and laid out for John Barrell since deceased and for which no Grant had passed. "Resolved That on Condition only that the Petitioner doth take out a Grant for the said Land within Seven Months from this date and that he doth also register the said Grant in the Register's Office of the said Province within Six Months from the date thereof that his Majesty may not be defrauded of his quit Rents the prayer of the said Petition is granted." p. 501. "Read a Petition of Barnard Romans setting forth that he had lately ordered five hundred Acres of Land on Purchase at Ogechee which he had not surveyed and desired to resign That he had three Negroes for whom he had obtained no land Therefore praying for One hundred and fifty Acres in Family right and One hundred and fifty Acres adjoin ing on Purchase at Ogechee aforesaid at the Place where he had the five hundred Acres ordered him. "Resolved That on Condition only that the Petitioner doth take out Grants for the said Land within Seven Months from this date and that he doth also register the said Grants in the Register's Office of the said Province within Six Months from the date thereof that his Majesty may not be defrauded of his quit Rents the prayer of the said Petition is granted." p. 414.

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 47 On page 116 of his Florida published in 1775, he speaks of "eighteen years that i have been acquainted with the continent," which would make his arrival in America about 1756-7. In the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress are the following letters, which have never before been published, found in the "Secretary of State's Letter book A, Commencing the 14*h April 1770. Ending the 23r? September 1774." Florida MSS. pp. 176-177, 190-191, 224. These prove that his pension of 0 was given to him after his arrival in this country. The Earl of Hillsborough and Earl of Dartmouth, to whom the letters were addressed by the Governor of East Florida, Peter Chester, were Secretaries of State. "To the Earl of Hillsborough. Pensacola 14th August 1772 "My Lord, "I herewith transmit to your Lordship a Map of the Eastern parts of this Province which had not hitherto been exploredThis Map was executed by Mr Bernardus Romans a Surveyorin Consequence of my directions who I think very Capable of performing business of this kind, and as many other of the Eastern parts of the Province are still entirely unknown to usI shall Continue to Employ this Man in services of the like Nature which I think will prove of any public Utility. "I also herewith transmit to Your Lordship some of Mr Roman's draughts of Flowers &cand a specimen of the Jalap of this Country which has been lately discovered within the Province by Mr Romans But I cannot take upon me to Say whether it may prove to be the real Jalap or not. As this Mr Romans appears to me to be an ingenious man & both a Naturalist & BotanistI think him worthy of some Encouragement, and Submit to your Lordship whether it would be im proper to give him a small [sum] of 0 or 0 p Ann. added to the Estimate or otherwise in order to induce him to Continue in this Colony to make discoveries & Observations in Botany, Some of which may probably hereafter be of Use to the Public. "I have the honor to be with the greatest Respect &c P; Chester." "To the Earl of Hillsborough. Pensacola 7th October 1772. "My Lord, "I herewith transmit to your Lordship a Map of the Province of West Florida which I believe to be more perfect and compleat than any hitherto

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48 LIFE AND WORKS transmitted from hence. Most of the materials from which it is Composed are from actual Survey's. The Sea Coast is taken from Surveys of Mr George Gauld, who has been some time Since Employed upon that Service by the Lords of the Admiralty, and Some parts of the work are taken from Mr Dumford's Surveys but the Eastern and some of the interior parts of the Province, which were hitherto almost unknown are laid down from Surveys made by Mr Roman's who has Compleated this Map by my Directions. "I shall give the Same in Charge to Captain Chadwick of His Majesty's 16th Regiment who goes to England by this Conveyance, and to prevent accidents has promised me to deliver it safe to your Lordship's hands "I have the honor to be with the greatest Respect &c P' Chester" The map referred to in the last letter is undoubtedly the manuscript found in the British Colonial Office. Maps. Florida. No. 52, entitled: "A General Map of West Florida, by Bernard Romans. With 'An Attempt towards a Short De scription of West Florida.' About 4 miles to 1 inch. [1775?]" As is seen from the date of the above letter, October 7, 1772, the bracketed date 1775 is erroneous. A photographic repro duction is in the Library of Congress and is described below as the first title of the "Bibliography." "From the Earl of Dartmouth Whitehall December 9th 1772. * * "Mr Romans appears, by the Examples You have transmitted of his Ingenuity to be very well qualified for the useful Business in which you have Employed him and I do not See any objection at present to making that provision for him upon the Estimate which you recommend "I am, Sir, Your most obedient humble Servant, Dartmouth" In the Marine Society of the City of New York, Names of members... .with dates of admission, page 61, is "Certificate no. 485, Bernard Romans... .August 2, 1773." In the Early Pro ceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Manuscript Minutes. Philadelphia, 1884, p. 82, for August 20, 1773, is the following:

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 49 "Mr. Bernard Romans attended the Society and promised to leave with the Secretaries a drawing of two Nondescript Plants, natives of Florida, one of which he has denominated the Kalmia Floridiana, the other the Lupinus Emiticus seu L. foliisternatis, a description of which was now communicated. Also a paper containing an improvement on the Mariner's Compass. 'A chart of the Navigation to, & in, the New Ceeded Countries/ was exhibited by him, & Lukens, Rittenhouse, Wells, Clarkson, and T. Fisher were appointed to compare it with Mr. Gauld's account of the same country; also to consider their opinion of the Paper on the Compass." Under date of February 18, 1774, appears this notice: "Owen Biddle read Bernard Romans' letter with a figure of a new species of Floridan Kalmia, & a figure & description of the Semen Badiananisam Stellatum, or Illicium Floridianum." And not'much later, p. 203, we find the following: "Thanks to Mr. Aitken for his gift of Newton's Principia and Ber nard Romans E. and W. Florida." In the Pennsylvania Gazette, January 26, 1774, announce ment was made of his election as a member of the society, as follows: "At a Meeting of the American Philosophical Society, On Friday, the 21st Instant, the following new Members were elected, viz. The Right Hon. The Earl of Stanhope, The Right Hon. Lord Mahon, Samuel Moore, Esq; of London;The Hon. John Ellis, The Hon. Bryan Edwards, Esquires, Dr. William Wright, of Jamaica; Bernard Roman [sic], George Gauld, Esquires, of Pensacola; Dr. James M'Clurg, Dr. Walter Jones, of Vir ginia; John Jones, Esq; of Maryland; Dr. William Bryan, Dr. Jonathan Elmer, of New-Jersey; Dr. John Perkins, of Boston; Messrs. James Bringhurst, Benjamin Morgan, Sharp Delany, and Dr. Thomas Park, of Philadelphia."? George Gauld, included in this list, is on many occasions mentioned in connection with Romans. A reference to his life and works is found in title 492 of Lowery-Phillips, A Descriptive List of Maps of the Spanish Possessions. 1502-1820, Washington, 1912. In Gleanings from the Records of the Boston Marine Society. Comp. by NathH Spooner, Boston, 1879, p. 22, in December

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50 LIFE AND WORKS 7th, 1773, is the following, "That Mr. Romans draught to the Southwd"probably of this coast southward from here "is worthy of recommendation." Romans in his Memorial to the Com missioners for Fortifications, November 16, 1775, has this bit of biography, "The Congress appointed me to a rank I esteem more honourable than any I ever held. Yet, for fourteen years back, I have been sometimes employed as a commodore in the King's service, sometimes at the head of large bodies of men in the woods, and, at the worst of times, I have been master of a merchantman, fitted in a warlike manner." Only two specimens of Romans' handwriting have come to the attention of the author. One reproduced here, from the New York Historical Society; the other copied further on from the New York Public Library. "New York 10 Augt 1774. "I promise to pay or cause to be paid to Mr Benjn. Hildreth or to his order the Sum of Twenty Seven Pounds five Shillings & one Penny for two Hogsheads of Rum by me received, the said payment to be made on or before the first day of november next, and I further allow this Note to be good in Law as a Bill of Sale of all and every my Effects especially the Copperplates of my work in Case my death Should intervene to pre vent my paying said Sum of money in Witness whereof I have hereunto Set my hand & Seal the Day & Year above written. B. Romans. "Witness Joseph Mead" In Hawkesworth's A New Voyage Round the World, 1768-1771, by Captain James Cooke [See Note under Hawkesworth on page 71] New York, J. Rivington, 1774, in the "List of Subscribers'' is given "Mr. Bernard Romans, Botanist to his Majesty in West-Florida." Of the three articles by Romans, published in the Royal American Magazine and described in full in the "Bibliography" to this work, the first is signed from "Boston, January 15, 1774,"

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Specimen of the handwriting of Bernard Romans

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 51 the second has no place given, and the third is from "New York, March 31, 1774." Ezra Stiles in his Literary Diary, vol. 1, pp. 524-525, has the following entries, from Newport, R. I. "[March] 9, [1775]. In Compa with Capt Romans who is publishing a Volume of American Natural Histy with Charts. 10. Capt Romans visited me. Conversed largely on the Indians, their Origin, and Customs. Examined Plato's Critias, Diodorus Siculus, &c for the History of the Isld of Atlas. He has travelled among all the Indians from Labradore to Panama. The Indian Tribes in New Spain are most numerous; but he saw none that he estimated to have above Ten to Twenty Thousd Men. He estimated the Total of Souls Indians be tween Mississippi & the Atlantic, & from Florida to the Poles to be fewer than One hundred Thousd Souls. Cherokees 1000 fencible Men Chauktaws 5000 Creeks lower 1160 Do upper 1200 Chickesaws 250 Catawbas 50 13. Mr Romans visited me. He tells me the Esquimaux or Labradore Indians differ from others in 1. Their Complexion being whiter than others. 2. Their Hair not strait & black, but somewhat curled & of a dusky or reddish Hue. 3. They have Beards & these pretty large."

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52 LIFE AND WORKS REVOLUTIONARY SERVICES While he was a resident in Hartford, Conn., Romans was appointed in April, 1775, a member of the Connecticut Committee to take possession of Ticonderoga. In Capt. Edward Mott's Journal, relating to this expedition, published in the Connecticut Historical Society Collections, vol. I, there are several references to Romans, one mentioning his departure from Hartford (page 166), and another (page 169) in which he says, "Mr. Romans left us and joined no more; we were all glad, as he had been a trouble to us, all the time he was with us." An editorial note to page 166 says, "It appears from Capt. Mott's narrative that Romans separated from the party at Bennington, and was not at the taking of the fort. He was at Ticonderoga soon after wards, where he made himself useful in providing for the removal of the ordnance, &c. and was commended by Arnold as an 'able engineer* and 'a very spirited, judicious gentleman.' On page 167 of the same work in a note there is a list of the Connecticut men in the expedition, among them "Bernard Romans, of Hart ford." B. F. De Costa, in his A Narrative of Events at Lake George, 1868, pp. 50-51, says: "The person who took this responsibility was Captain Bernard Romans, a member of the Connecticut Committee appointed to take possession of 'Ticonderoga and its dependencies.' "Several writers, in giving an account of the action of the Connecticut Committee, state that Romans left his associates at Bennington, and did not appear until he came to Ticonderoga, May 14. Mott says in his journal: 'Mr. Romans left us and joined us no more; we were all glad, as he had been a trouble to us, all the time he was with us.' "It appears that Romans, finding it impossible to manage the other members of the Committee, with reference to the surprise of Ticonderoga decided to seize Fort George on his own account. This was certainly

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 53 included in the instructions of the Committee, and it was the only thing left him to do, as the surprise of Skenesborough was already provided for. Therefore, without consulting any one, he went to the head of the lake, took possession of what time and weather had left of Fort George, and sent away Mr. Nordberg to New Lebanon. "Romans felt that the capture of an abandoned fort was not a thing to boast of, and therefore gave no publicity to his action. It has never even been mentioned in connection with the capture of Ticonderoga. "Daniel Parks may have followed in the train of Captain Romans, and may also have been a member of the garrison, when it was soon after found necessary to maintain a small force at this point; but that he raised troops for the capture of what he knew to be a ruinous and deserted work, is not to be supposed for a moment. Mott says in his Journal, that they sent men 'to waylay the roads' leading to 'Fort Edward and Lake George/ for the express purpose of preventing alarm in what was, on the whole, a Tory neighborhood. Indeed, it has not been proved that Parks was on the ground at the time in any capacity. Still, there is a monument in the burying-ground at Sandy Hill which states that he was the man to whom the British officer surrendered Fort George. But, as shown from the above account, the fort had neither garrison nor commander. The story is a myth. "From a document never before published, we learn the outside cost of the work of Captain Romans, which probably was less than thirty shillings. The document is also of value, in showing what disposition was made of the British prisoners taken at Ticonderoga." A notice of John Nordberg is found in a note in the same work, page 49, where he is mentioned as "Governor of Lake George," and in "Appendix 11" is his "Petition" to "The Most Respectable Gentlemen, Provincial Congress in New York," in which he says, "The 12 of May last Mr. Romans came & took possession of Fort George, Mr. Romans behaved very genteel and civil to me. I told him that I did not belong to the army and may be considered as a half pay officer invalid, and convinced him that I was pleagd with Gravell, Mr. Romans gave me his passport to go to New London for to recover my health, & he told me that in regard to my age, I may go where I please." The "Appendix" contains "Account of Bernard Romans." Mss. in Connecticut State Library. Revolutionary War. Vol. iii, p. 26.8 In a letter signed Benedict Arnold, Ticonderoga, May 14, 1775, published in American Archives, 4th series, vol. 2, pp. 584-

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54 LIFE AND WORKS 585, to the Massachusetts Committee of Safety, he says, "I am, with the assistance of Mr. Bernard Romans, making preparation at Fort George for transporting to Albany those cannon that will be serviceable to our Army at Cambridge.... P. S. Since writing the above, Mr. Romans concludes going to Albany to forward carriages for the cannon, &c, and provisions, which will be soon wanted. I beg leave to observe he has been of great service here, and I think him a very spirited, judicious gentleman, who has the service of the country much at heart, and hope he will meet proper encouragement." And again in the same work, page 645, in a letter from the same person, dated Crown Point, May 19,1775, he further states, "I wrote you, gentlemen, in my former letters, that I should be extremely glad to be superseded in my command here, as I find it next to impossible to repair the old fort at Ticonderoga, and am not qualified to direct in building a new one. I am really of opinion it will be necessary to employ one thousand or fifteen hundred men here this summer, in which I have the pleasure of being joined in sentiment by Mr. Romans, who is esteemed an able engineer It is said that at the recommendation of Washington, Romans was appointed in 1775 to report on constructing fortifications at Fort Constitution, opposite West Point. Benson J. Lossing, in his The Pictorial Field-book of the Revolution, 1859-60y vol. 1, p. 703, states, "On the 18th of August, a committee was appointed to superintend the erection of forts and batteries in the vicinity of West Point. They employed Bernard Romans, an English engineer (who, at that time, held the same office in the British army), to construct the works; and Martelaer's Rock (now Constitution Island), opposite West Point, was the chosen spot for the principal fortification. Romans commenced opera tions on the 29th of August, and on the 12th of October he applied to Congress for a commission, with the rank and pay of colonel. It was this application which caused the action of Congress on the 18th of November. In the mean while, Romans and his employers quarreled,

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 55 and the commission was never granted; the work was soon afterward completed by others. The fort was named Constitution, and the island has since borne that title." This statement is illustrated with the autograph of B. Romans, which would do honor to an expert parapher in the web of flourishes. Peter Force's American Archives, 4th series, 1775-1776, vol. 3-4, contain the various reports on these fortifications, from which extracts will be made, since they include some personal biography. Attention is first called to the five plans of West Point, N. Y., the second having the title, "Sketch of a Map showing the present situation of the fortifications already erected and to be erected," 1775, to accompany "Report to the Honour able the Committee of Safety at New-York, on the intended Fortifications in the Highlands." This is signed by B. Romans, from "North River, Martelaar's Rock, or Martyr's Reach, September 14,1775," and in it he says, "I must beg this honour able House to pardon the coarseness of the drawings, they being done in an inconvenient place, and at a distance from my in struments."9 The 4th series, 1775, vol. 3, pp. 732-733, contains the report relating to building the fortifications and Romans' "Estimates and Expenses of erecting the Fortifications of Hudson's River, in the Highlands, in the Colony of New-York. New-York, Sep tember 18, 1775." "Report ... on the intended Fortifications in the Highlands." With four maps. Page 735. Commissioners' report dated, "Constitution Fort, Monday, September 13, 1775," in which they say, "If we are right in our conjecture, Mr. Romans'}s plan is not sufficient; it will be only a temporary expedient.... As we will not be answerable for measures we cannot conduct, therefore request the favour of you, gentlemen, to inform us whether we are under Mr. Romans's direction, or whether he is obliged to consult with us upon the measures to be pursued. You cannot blame us for this request, as the safety, honour, and interest of our Country, and its future welfare, depend upon this important post." Page 795.

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56 LIFE AND WORKS "Mr. Bernard Romans, attending at the door, was admitted. He delivered in Proposals to contract for erecting the Fortifications begun on the banks of Hudson9s River...." Page 917. A draught of a Letter to the Commissioners at the Fortifications in the Highlands. ... In Provincial Congress, New-York, October 12, 1775. "You will take Mr. Romans to your assistance, and use all possible dispatch in making your report to this Congress." Page 1283. A letter fron\ B. Romans, dated 12th instant, was read ajid filed, and is in the words following, to wit: "Fort Constitution, October 12, 1775. "Honourable Gentlemen: By order from the Committee of Safety, I am up here for the purpose of constructing this fort; said gentlemen gave me their words that I should be appointed principal Engineer for this Province, with the rank and pay of Colonel. As I have been now actually engaged in this work since the 29th of August last, I should be glad to know the certainty of my appointment, and therefore humbly pray that my commission may be made out and sent. I have left the pursuit of my own business, which was very considerable, and endangered my pensfoa from the Crown, by engaging in our great and common cause. These matters considered, I hope my request will be thought reasonable, and therefore complied with. "I remain, with the utmost respect, honourable Gentlemen, your most obedient humble servant, B. Romans/' Pages 1284-1285. Letter from Romans to Commissioners for Fortifications dated Fort Consti tution, November 8, 1775, commencing, "Gentlemen: Considering myself placed by the Congress in a very con spicuous rank, which requires it of me that I should watch the interests of America, as far as in my power lies, and having frequently observed that the plan we at present pursue is a very lame one, for the remedying of which I have often offered my discourse, but as we are momentarily interrupted by our discontented gentry, I resolved to pen down and lay before you the following considerations, in our present situation at the post of Martelaer's Rock, in the Highlands." Here follows a very detailed statement in several columns, which shows that he had many difficulties to contend with. He ends this report in the following manner: "The number of strangers who come, nolens volens, to visit us, is a gross grievance. A rascal, who does not vouchsafe to lift his hat to us, nor even avoids to insult us, comes into our innermost recess, and inter rupts us, perhaps at a time when we are consulting the welfare of the community.

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 57 "By noticing the above mistakes, and properly amending them, I make no doubt but we will, in this day of need, save a great sum of money for our country. "I entreat you, therefore, to endeavour the making of the necessary alterations, in which I am highly interested, by reason that the rank I hold endangers me of being made the butt against which all resentment may break; because, if the present measures continue, my calculations will prove erroneous; but if these mistakes in proceedings are altered, as I propose, my estimate must prove true, or nearly so. The power lies with you, gentlemen. I have never received any kind of instructions from the Congress or Committee, that may serve me as a line for the regulation of my conduct, except that I understood their intentions were, that I should give you my advice, and therefore consider myself in duty bound to be content under your direction of affairs in every particular; but I could not forbear taking this liberty, in telling you what I think the most eligible path to pursue. CT am, with the greatest respect, Gentlemen, your most obedient humble servant, B. Romans." Pages 1355-1362. As an appendix, "Estimate of the Expense" is added. Fol lowing this is a letter from the Commissioners for Fortifications to Colonel Romans, dated Martelaer's Rock, November 10,1775, wJiich commences: "Sir: Your considerations on the conspicuous light you have been placed in at this post, your watchfulness for the interests of America, as far as in your power lies, (suppose you mean in the expense that must attend our present works,) with the many et ceteras therein, we beg leave to make the following reply to Reading this answer of several columns, one cannot help being convinced that there was considerable uncalled-for acerbity in the reply of the Commissioners, and according to present day ideas Romans had many reasons for future irritation. "Colonel Romans to the Commissioners for Fortifications. Martelaer's Rock, November 16, 1775," which commences: "Gentlemen: As I am a great hater of epistolary altercation, I was not willing to answer your long starter of difficulties, which seems to me a declared commencement of a paper war, instead of an answer to my reasonable remonstrances of the 2d inst.; but as I am determined that you should not think yourselves unanswerable, I resolved, this morning, to

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58 LIFE AND WORKS honour your long answer with as short a reply as the nature of things will allow; at the same time assuring you that this is the last paper I shall blacken on this head, and that I will take care that my pen shall proclaim the voice of truth. "Your introduction seems intended to be of the humourous kind. You play on my words, and call a conspicuous light what I called a rank. I will do no more than think as I did then; and as in a private station I have more than once exerted myself for America, you may rely on it that I will do no less now I am honoured with the post and rank the Congress has conferred on me, the dignity of which commission I shall try to preserve with military vigilance and spirit. .. ." Pages 1364-1367. Here in several columns he defends his actions against the statements of the commissioners, in their letter of November 10, 1775. He makes a point in his "Sixthly" statement: "In your seventh, you catch at my word 'superficial,' as drowning people do at straws. I will tell you something, perhaps, to you, extra ordinary. What I call a superficial view, was such as most other surveyors would call a perfect survey. I am, from long experience, enabled to take more exact surveys of places, with a piece of paper and pencil, than perhaps ninety-nine besides me can, with all the circum stantial apparatus generally used." Further on he gives some personal biography which is worth noticing in detail: "To the beginning of your ninth: I have, perhaps, gone a little below the dignity of my office. This proceeded, chiefly, because I found that many of our gentry took the advantage of drawing their provisions, when they intended to decamp the very next morning. But what I mentioned about tools in this article is what you ought to have answered. Here I spoke in my proper sphere; but this you waived, to proceed to a matter which, had I not been convinced of the integrity of your transcriber, I could never have thought would have proceeded from you, it looks so much like the little vengeance of disappointed scolds. I deny your ever having requested me to send my negro away. Mr. Bedlow once told me this: 'Mr. Romans, you had better get a place for your negro'; but I could not construe this into a request, much less an order from men who have no manner of authority over me. The negro is more rogue than fool; but he is so harmless, that while people let him alone, he will be quiet. He is a new negro, and by his actions he sometimes diverts your people; but I defy you to point out a single instance of dissatisfaction on that score. Once, indeed, there was a complaint against him, for which I gave him a severe chastisement; and you know that I had reason to be

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 59 sorry when, almost immediately after, his innocence appeared. But, gentlemen, he never cost you nor the Country anything, as there was never an ounce of provision served out for him. He has lived on scraps from others; and he must be a sorry dog, indeed, that does not deserve the crumbs from his master's table. He might at least serve me to fetch wood and water. I have provided a place for him, but not in obedience to you. "It is hard, indeed, that I, who in my private station have for many years past never been without a servant, or even two or three, should be raised to a publick one to be debarred that privilege. I know no place where so cruel a prohibition would take place. While I was in the service of the King, my pay was greater, and I had sundry rations allowed, although my servants were in pay, and drew provisions besides. Since I arrived last to the northward, now near three years ago, I have always maintained and fed a number of people, seldom less than six, at high wages, and now not to be allowed any attendance at all is surely never meant. People whose duty it was to ask me whether I was in want of any thing, have been reprimanded for coming to the block-house. But your mention of Mr. Adams astonished me beyond everything. Was it necessary, my copy-book would show you his handwriting, to make it appear that he has for years back transacted my business. He is a gentle man in whose fortunes I am interested, and I will assist him with all my means. You say he is an officer you can by no means allow of. Sure I want him not to be your officer. If he is mine, it is enough. And to it you add, 'If you retain him, pay and procure provision for him.' How mean the innuendo. I have often done it. It is true it was said Mr. Vandome was to assist me. He came up to be the clerk of the check, and as such you retained him; but since I saw him employed as commissary of stores, and as clerk to the Commissioners, as well as clerk of the check, I thought it cruel to ask assistance from him. My business, well fol lowed, is three men's work. Perhaps you think me your officer too. Softly, gentlemen; that will never do. The Congress appointed me to a rank I esteem more honourable than any I ever held. Yet, for fourteen years back, I have been sometimes employed as a commodore in the King's service, sometimes at the head of large bodies of men in the woods, and, at the worst of times, I have been master of a merchantman, fitted in a warlike manner. I will, in future, draw the provisions the Congress will allow me, and that will maintain us both. "To your tenth, I have nothing to reply. "But your lastly is too important to let pass unnoticed. The neces sary alterations must be made before the work goes on well; and as for seasons, such business as this waits none. If we keep not the work going, we will, in spring, again be new beginners. I interrupt none of your powers. I meddle with none; but you have hindered me from having as much again work done; and till I am sole director of my plan, things cannot go well. None can be more happy in the union you mention;

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60 LIFE AND WORKS but if I must be cap in hand, gentlemen, to be an overseer under you, it will not do, depend upon it. 'I have too much blood in me for so mean an action, and you must seek such submissive engineers elsewhere. If I execute my plan, which is approved of, I have no business to consult you any further than that you must find me people and pay them. If, in that case, I do not comply with my enterprise, then is your time to dis approve and complain, but not before. "I am, Gentlemen, your most obedient humble servant, B. Romans." The above letter is also found in the Journal of the Provincial Congress.... of the State of New-York, 1775-1777, vol. 2, pp. 104-106, with this additional: "Martler's Rock, 16/A Nov. 1775. "To the Commissioners for the fortifications in the Highlands. "GENTN.I forebore to make use of the many polite appellations, such as scoundrel, villain &c, with which Mr. Bedlow was pleased last night, so copiously to honour me in public. B. ROMANS." Only one more reference, and that not a pleasant one, to Romans, is found in the American Archives. 4th series. 1776, vol. 6, p. 673, in a letter from Lord Stirling to General Wash ington : "The works here consist of four open lines or batteries, fronting the river; the two easternmost command the approach up the river very well; the next, or middle line, commands the approach from West Point up wards; the westernmost battery is a straight line constructed by Mr. Romans, a a very great expense; it has fifteen embrasures, which face the river at a right angle, and can only annoy a ship in going past; the embrasures are within twelve feet of each other; the merlons on the out side are but about two feet in the face, and about seven feet deep, made of square timber covered with plank, and look very neat; he also built a log house or tower on the highest cliff, near the water, mounted with eight cannon, (four-pounders,) pointed out of the garret windows, and looks very picturesque. Upon the whole, Mr. Romans has displayed his genius at a very great expense and to very little publick advantage." Further reports of Romans' plans are found in American Archives. 4th series. 1775-1776, vol. 4, pp. 419-420, 1019-1020, and vol. 1 of the Journal of the Provincial Congress.... of the State of New-York, 1775-1777.

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 61 On the 8th of February, 1776, Romans was commissioned Captain of a Company of Pennsylvania artillery, destined to the invasion of Canada as a part of the northern army. In W. T. R. Saffell's Records of the Revolutionary War, pp. 178-181, is a list of "Names, Rank, Dates of Commissions, and Time of Enlistment of the Officers and Privates of Capt. Bernard Romans' Pennsylvania Artillery, from Feb. 8, 1776 to Nov. 28, 1776, when encamped at Ticonderoga." At the head is, "Bernard Romans, Captain. Commissioned February 8, 1776." In the Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania, vol. 10, p. 470, January 29, 1776, it was, "Resolved, That this Board will, on Monday the fifth day of February next, appoint officers for a Company of Matrosses,10 to be immediately raised in this province for the service of Canada," and in the same work, page 479, February 8, 1776: "Agreeable to a Resolve of Congress, this Board went into the choice of a proper Person to be ap pointed Captain of the Company of Matrosses to be raised in this Province for the service of the united Colonies, when they made choice of Mr. Bernard Romans; therefore, Resolved, That the said Bernard Romans be appointed Captain of the said Com pany of Matrosses." In the Pennsylvania Archives, 5th series, vol. 3, p. 953, is the following statement: "Capt. Bernard Romans' Company. "This company of matrosses as it was called, was raised in the Prov ince of Pennsylvania, under the authority of a resolution of Congress, for the service of the United States in Canada, (Minutes of Council of Safety, January 29, 1776, Col. Records, vol. x, page 470), and its officers appointed by the Council, ibid., 479. It afterwards went by the name of Gibbs Jones' company, but no records of it have been found except the roll hereafter printed, which seems to have been furnished the Council, in pursuance of a resolution of March 21, 1780, ibid., vol. xii, page 286, which embraced, of course, only the names of the officers and men at the latter date."

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62 LIFE AND WORKS On March 18, 1776, Romans forwarded the following com munication to the Committee of Safety at New York: To the Honourable the Committee of Safety at New-York. The Humble Petition of Bernard Romans, showeth: "That your humble Petitioner was some time since at Philadelphia, with the honourable the Continental Congress, upon the business of his then office, and that he then and there had the pleasure to meet with an entire approbation of his conduct. "Whereupon said honourable Congress passed a vote that it was reasonable your humble Petitioner should be paid up to the date of his new commission. In consequence of which, a resolve was made, which your humble Petitioner has brought here, and which has been laid before your honourable Board. The time is now expired in which your humble Petitioner was to have appeared at the head of his company, and want of money prevents. "Your humble Petitioner therefore prays an order may be granted him, pursuant to the said resolves of Congress, that he may be enabled to proceed, and save his honour. "And your Petitioner shall ever pray, &c. B. Romans"New-York, March 18, 1776. [American Archives. 4th series. Vol. 5, p. 405.] In a letter from General Philip Schuyler, to General Wash ington, dated "Albany, Friday, May 10, 1776," he speaks of "the licentiousness of some of the troops that are gone on has been such that few of the inhabitants have escaped abuse, either in their persons or property, and fewer still of the wagoners and batteaumen employed in the service, many of whom have left us, and the whole threaten to do it unless the future conduct of the troops is more becoming. I have done all in my power to prevent this disgraceful conduct of the Army; but Court-Martials are vain where officers connive at the depredations of the men. I have ordered Captain Romans to be sent from Canada for trial here, as a string of complaints are lodged against him; and since my return from Fort George, have issued the most pointed orders." [American Archives. 4th series. Vol. d, p. 413] Page 581 of the same contains a letter from General Benedict Arnold to Samuel Chase, dated "Sorel, May 15, 1776," in which he says, "Mr. Romans}s conduct, by all accounts, has been very extraordinary."

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 63 In American Archives, 5th series, 1776, vol. 1, p. 656, under "Head-Quarters. July 21, 1776," "Captain Romans's Company will encamp with the Fourth Brigade, commanded by Colonel St. Clair. Major Badlam will order two twelve and two fourpounders from the guns already mounted in the fort, to be placed in the old French lines, under the care and command of Captain Romans. Colonel St. Clair will order the ground to be marked for Captain Romans's Company...." Page 657 (of the same) "Head-Quarters, July 23, 1776." "A court of Inquiry to sit to-morrow morning, ten o'clock, to inquire into the conduct of Captain Romans, of the Train of Artillery, in a dispute between him and his Lieutenant." In the same vol ume, page 658, is a letter to General Gates, dated July 29,1776, signed John Dewitt, who no doubt is "his lieutenant" mentioned above. The letter is outspoken to a point which certainly seems extreme: "JOHN DEWITT TO GENERAL GATES. Ticonderoga, July 29, 1776. "HONOURED SIR: I make bold to return your Honour my most grate ful thanks for your goodness in granting me a Court of Inquiry. "Captain Romans, in his return of the company to the Brigade-Major, the 26th instant, has entirely left 'me out. I inquired of the Conductor, who draws the return, the reason of the omission; who told me he had positive orders from Captain Romans so to do. This I thought my duty to inform your Honour of. "Although a stranger to your Honour, I flatter myself were you to know the man I had to deal with, you would not disapprove my con duct. He has neither honour, honesty, nor true valor in him. "If I am to receive no further satisfaction for the injury done me, I would most ardently request your Honour's leave to resign and quit the service; and that your Honour will order me to be paid off and give me a pass for that purpose. "I assure your Honour I sacrificed everything that was pleasing to me for the sake of serving my country, and now would cheerfully undergo the greatest hardships for sake of the same, were I to be used with common decency.

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64 LIFE AND WORKS "All which is most humbly submitted to,your Honour by him, who, with the greatest respect, begs leave to subscribe himself, honoured sir, your Honour's most obedient, humble servant, JOHN DEWITT." John Dewitt who signs this note is evidently John Druitt, third-lieutenant, promoted to lieutenant, May 15, 1776, and dis missed July 30, 1776, a day after t\\e sending of the letter. E. M. Ruttenber, in his Obstructions to the Navigation of Hudson''s River, p. 9, has a foot-note, relating to Romans, in which he says: "The Result of these Trials does not appear, but it is inferred that he was honourably acquitted; for he continued in the Service, and early in November was deputed, by Gen. Gates, to inspect the Works at Fort Anne and Skenesborough, the Condition of which he reported with much Abil ity; and in the same Month, the Pennsylvania Council of Safety directed that he should be furnished with such Materials as he might require to perform an Experiment, in Order to give a Specimen of his Skill in destroying distant Objects by Fire. Unfortunately we do not find the Result of this Experiment." [American Archives. 5th series, 1776. Vol. 3, p. 194] The following holograph letter which is in the New York Public Library, explains conditions which Romans had to deal with in this expedition.11 "Honorable Sir "I am very sorry that I missed the honor of an Interview with you, to deliver the Inclosed which I promised Mr Hancock that I would do propria persona. "I arrived here Last Night being the 17$ day Since we Left the City of Philadelphia, with a Company of Artillery under my command, every where acknowledged to be a fine set of men, and I have the pleasure to say already tolerably expert in the use of ArtilleryWe are not fully supplied with arms, Mr. Hancock told me that from you I was to expect the remainder'this is the only difficulty I now Labor under. "Urged by the strict injunction I received to expedite my march, I have made it in the short time mentioned & humbly apprehend that I need not wait farther orders to proceed to QuebecIn the mean time if your honor would be pleased to write a word or two in my favor to the Commanding officer, with respect of my being employed as Engineer, it

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 65 will do me an immense favor, I have a right to expect this from Mr. Hancock's promises, and therefore taken pains to have a Capt* Lieu tenant who is well experienced and much used to CommandBut all this I humbly submit to your pleasure. "I am now to enter on a subject very disagreeable to me, I appeal to every housekeeper who entertained us on the march for a character of our people, yet the people on this side of Albany have been cause of vast trouble to me, nor have I Lost a man on the whole route till I came on this side of that city; in revenge for my preventing the tippling houses to sell their infernal rum to my people, they encouraged them to desert, whereby I lost four of my men; the day before yesterday as we came along by one Graeme or Graham, I was suddenly surprized by the officer in the Center calling aloud that the rear was in disorder, this being the first instance of our Line being broke on the march, I flew to the spot; when I had appeased the ferment I enquired the Cause & found that some of the men had asked a drink of water & were refused, the Consequence was a general cry of a Tory! a Tory! & had we not had the strict command we carry, I hardly believe the fellows house would have stood five minutes, among other mischief done a Turkey was killed, I offered every satis faction in my power & Mr. Jones my Captn Lieutenant spent near half an hour to persuade Graham to take pecuniary satisfaction for what he suffered, But all to no purpose he said he would complain & I should pay dear for it. "Again at Wing's while we took a morsel of dinner a complaint came that our men had killed his fowls. I flew up in a rage, & called the men together & found none missing, I sent the third Lieutenant & two ser geants to see what was the matter, & found that the whole had arisen from two men withdrawing behind the barn, & they had been mistrusted by some people who were placed to watch themat length the whole family acknowledged that not a fowl had been touchedthe affair as I thought was settled. But I was scarcely seated before I heard another alarm & was told one of the men had struck the Landlord, the fellow ex cused himself by saying that the family had joined abuse of the officers to a false accusation, I then gave him a most severe bastinade & offered further satisfaction. But to no purpose he again would complain& I suppose Both these Complaints have ere now reached your honor. "I dwelt thus Long upon this disagreeable subject that you might be truly informed of the circumstances, & that misrepresentation might not prejudice you against me, the facts as here related are upon my honor true. Give me Leave to assure your honor that I would sooner be guilty of a crime of a Black dye than to be at the head of a gang of ruffian marauders& that I will break my Sword & give up my Commission that instant it is out of my power to Carry Command & to maintain discipline; the people may have been ill-treated by the first Comers, But if they carry suspicion against all in the manner they did against us, it will be impossible at some times to prevent ill Blood in the troopsI

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66 LIFE AND WORKS have the satisfaction to know that the good order of my Company had every where else high encomiums bestowed on it, & your honor's Sec retary can inform you how he has seen me handle one for being refractory. "Excuse this taking up so much of your time & permit me to assure your honor of my strictest regard & most humble respect. "I am Honored Sir Your honor's most obedient & very humble servant, B. Romans "Ticonderoga Landing the 25th april 1776" Romans in a letter to General Gates, dated Skene's Borough, November 8, 1776, published in the above {American Archives, 5th series. 1776, vol. 3) pp. 606-607, says, "Agreeable to the instructions you were pleased to honour me with, I have repaired to this place." He then goes on to describe very minutely his plans. David McNeely Stauffer in his American Engravers, part 1, p. 227, gives a short notice of Romans and states, "the official records say that he resigned on June 1, 1778," as captain of the Pennsylvania artillery company. This statement is veri fied in Heitman's Historical Register oj Officers oj the Continental Army.

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 67 LIFE IN CONNECTICUT Romans' wife, Elizabeth, in her petition for a pension, dated October IS, 1846, says, "And he so continued in the line of his duty as an officer until 1780, about eighteen months after the marriage of said Romans to this de ponent, according to her best recollection, when he was ordered to go to the State of South Carolina, there to join the Southern Army, and shortly thereafter he sailed from New-Haven or New-London, in the State of Connecticut, for the place of his destination, and who, together with the vessel and crew with which he embarked, were shortly there after, while on their passage, captured by the British, and her said hus band was carried a prisoner of war to Montego Bay, Island of Jamaica, where he was held in captivity until the close of the war in 1783." That he was living in Wethersfield, Conn., is known from an advertisement which appears in the Connecticut Courant, of Tuesday, September 15, 1778, signed, Bernard Romans.12 "LOST, on the road from New Haven to Wethersfield, a sum of money wrapped up in a letter from Mr. Timothy Green, to the subscriber; it amounts to either 370 or 390 dollars mostly large bills. Whoever finds it, and will be honest enough to carry it to the Printers or to the sub scriber, shall receive one tenth part of the cash for his trouble." Also in the Connecticut Journal for Wednesday, September 2, 1778, is the following: "LOST between New Haven and Wethersfield, about a Week ago, 370 or 390 Continental Dollars, wrap'd in a Letter from Mr. Timothy Green, to Bernard Romans. Whoever will return the Cash to the Subscriber in Wethersfield, or the Printers in New Haven, shall receive Thirty Dollars Reward. BERNARD ROMANS. "New Haven, August 25, 1778." According to the notice of Romans in the English Dictionary of National Biography, and also in Allibone, he was introduced by Washington' to Elizabeth Whiting, who afterwards became his wife. In Frederic W. Bailey's Early Connecticut Marriages

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68 LIFE AND WORKS .prior to 1800. 3d book. New Haven, 1898, p. 16, is the entry, under "Wethersfield, Hartford County": "Bernard Romans (a native of Holland) & Elizabeth Whiting, Jan. 28, 1779." Ruttenber, in his notice already mentioned, states, "Her Miniature, beautifully painted by Romans, is still preserved in the Family." At the same place (Wethersfield) October 23, 1779, was born a son, Hubertus Romans, who was baptised May 28, 1780. (Cf. "Records of Wethersfield, Conn.," in New England Historical and Genealogical Register, vol. 20, p. 124). In the New-York Daily Tribune, Saturday, May 13, 1848, is the following notice: "On the 12th instant, Mrs. Elizabeth Romans, relict of Capt. Bernard Romans, aged 89 years. "Her relatives and acquaintance, and of her grandson, B. H. Romans, are respectfully invited to attend her funeral on Sunday, the 14th in stant, at 5 o'clock P.M. No. 25 Bayard-st." A short time before her death she made application for a pension, which was rejected on the ground that the services ren dered by Bernard Romans, however meritorious, were not mili tary, and therefore not provided for in the pension laws. The application is here copied in full; while it is of interest, in various ways, it adds very little to what we already know of her dis tinguished husband. "State of New-York, City and County of New-York ss. "On this fifteenth day of October A.D. 1846, personally appeared be fore me, Charles J. Dodge, Aid. 11th Ward and Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, Mrs. Elizabeth Romans, a resident of the City, County, and State aforesaid, who being first duly sworn according to law, doth on oath depose and say, that she is now eighty-six years of age, past, and is the widow of Captain Bernard Romans, deceased, who was an officer in the Engineer Department in the Revolutionary War, and attached to the American Army. And she further saith, that she was married to the

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 69 said Bernard Romans in the month of January, 1779, and she now makes the following Declaration in order to obtain her pension under the Act of Congress passed A.D. 1832, having retrospective effect to 1831, which law grants pensions to the widows of Revolutionary soldiers and officers who were married prior to the expiration of the last term of service of their respective husbands. And she further saith, that she believes that her said husband engaged in the American service in the defence of the liberties of these United States at a great personal sacrifice, being at that time a pensioner under the crown of Great Britain, for extraordinary services rendered that government. And also was at that time a salaried surveyor in her then Colonial Provinces, and for further proof of the facts herein set forth she respectfully refers to the writings and books published by her said husband at or about the time of the American Revolution, and also to other historical works of that day. And she further saith, that her said husband, as she was informed and believes, engaged first as Captain or chief in command of a company or corps of engineers formed in the State of New-York in the early part of the year 1775, as by the records of that day will more fully appear, and that he planned, laid out, and superintended the structure of some of the fortifications in the state of New-York at that time. And was also sent on a northern expedition, but how long he was on that expedition she does not know, but believes he was subsequently ordered westward to Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, and other of the Southern and frontier States, and was under the immediate command and direction of the Commander in Chief of the American forces, and of the authority of the Provincial Congress, as by reference to the records of that day will more fully appear. And he so continued in the line of his duty as an officer until 1780, about eighteen months after the marriage of said Romans to this deponent, ac cording to her best recollection, when he was ordered to go to the State of South Carolina, there to join the Southern Army, and shortly there after he sailed from New-Haven or New-London, in the State of Con necticut, for the place of his destination, and who, together with the vessel and crew with which he embarked, were shortly thereafter, while on their passage, captured by the British, and her said husband was carried a prisoner of war to Montego Bay, Island of Jamaica, where he was held in captivity until the close of the war in 1783. The British authorities, in the mean time, were applied to, to deliver him up by exchange for their own men then held as prisoners of war by this government, which exchange they refused to make, on account of his, the said Romans, ability to do so much injury to the British interests. And she further saith, that her said husband, as she was informed and believes, was shipped by the British authorities under the pretext of sending him thence to some port in the United States, and he was said to have died on his passage, though from circumstances attending his demise his friends had good reason to believe him to have been wilfully murdered. And she now claims the seven years half-pay which she was then entitled

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70 LIFE AND WORKS to, according to the provisions of the law made for the benefit of the widows and orphans of revolutionary soldiers and officers who died in the service at that time, the benefits of which law she has never before claimed or received. And she now asserts her claim for her pension, being the amount paid her said husband per annum, and officers of his grade, and also for the half-pay as aforesaid, to which she believes and is advised she is entitled. And she does hereby empower, constitute, and appoint Wm. K. Hoyt, of New-York, as her lawful Attorney, and Agent, to act in her name, place, and stead, in asserting and sustaining her claims according to law, with full powers of substitution or revocation, and to do every act or thing that he may conceive to be lawful and expedient to do on her behalf, in or appertaining to the claims herein asserted. (Signed) Elizabeth Romans "Sworn to and subscribed on the day and year first above written (Signed) Charles J. Dodge, Aid lltbWard& Judge of the Court of Common Pleas."

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 71 HIS ACHIEVEMENT Efforts have been made in these notes to collect all the known information relating to the life of Bernard Romans. The great portion of the material has been culled from his own writings. If his journal, which he is supposed to have left, could be traced, many unsettled questions would be satisfactorily an swered. That he was one of the remarkable men who helped build up this country in colonial times has been proved in various ways. Romans may be called a universal genius; he was a botanist, engineer, mathematician, artist, surveyor, engraver, writer, cartographer, linguist, soldier, seaman, and he possessed many other talents, any one of which would have given dis tinction. His writings and maps have been consulted by many dis tinguished writers, and are sought by the collectors of rare Americana. The celebrated Volney in his Tableau du climat et du sol des Etats-Unis, 1803, repeatedly quotes him and calls him the "distinguished scientist." The English translator of this work has additional praise and extracts from his A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida. The American trans lation, by C. B. Brown, published in Philadelphia, 1804, says in a note, page 316: "We may also express regret that it has not been republished in its native language. The vicinity of Florida to the United States, and the probability of its being incorporated with our territory, in a little time, would render its contents uncommonly interesting to the present, and still more so to the next generation.Trans." Henry S. Tanner in his New American Atlas, 1823, William Derby in his Memoirs on Geography of East and West Florida, and C. B. Vignoles in Observations upon the Floridas, are some

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72 LIFE AND WORKS of the early writers who have consulted Romans' work, and shown appreciation by various quotations and criticisms. Daniel G. Brinton, in his Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, Philadelphia, 1859, p. 57, says: "A very interesting natural history of the country is that written by Bernard Romans. This author, in his capacity of engineer in the British service, lived a number of years in the territory, traversing it in various directions, observing and noting with care both its natural features and the manners and customs of the native tribes. On the latter he is quite copious and is one of our standard authors. His style is dis cursive and original though occasionally bombastic, and many of his opinions are peculiar and bold. Extensive quotations from him are inserted by the American translator in the Appendix to Volney's View of the United States. He wrote various other works, bearing principally on the war of independence. A point of interest to the bookworm in his History is that the personal pronoun I, is printed throughout as a small letter." In the letters which passed between Jeremy Belknap and Ebenezer Hazard, published in the Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 5th series, vol. 2, p. 417, in which many people and things came in for somewhat snappy criticism, Hazard in March 9, 1785, says, "Romans, in his History of Florida (which, by the bye, is a paltry performance), says that the Creeks or Choctaws, I forget which, shew you a fissure in the earth, through which they say their nation rose into existence at once, and frightened the preoccupants of the country almost to death by their sudden and extraordinary appearance." In a letter from the same writer, dated "New York, August 7, 1788," vol. 3, p. 57, he states, "Bernard Romans published a chart of the coast of Florida, and the 1st Vol. (12mo.) of the History. I esteem both catchpenny performances, and, from a personal acquaintance with the man, had not confidence enough in his information to think his History worth reading. I have it; and, if you choose to read it, I will send it." This copy from his library, which Ebenezer Hazard seemed so desirous to lend to his friend, Jeremy Belknap, is described in

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 73 Robert H. Dodd's America..,. Catalogue', no. 24, 1917', and was sold for 3610. The earliest publication is the one in the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 1786, entitled: *'Extract of a letter from Bernard Romans, of Pensacola, dated August 20, 1773." Although he probably had been in this country some ten years previous, he was little known outside of Georgia and Florida. From then on to the time of his capture by the British in 1780, is included all of his literary and military life. Unfortunately many of his literary productions are lost and the ones known are so scarce as to be almost inaccessible. In summing up this notice of the life of Bernard Romans, especially in an estimate of his character, we have to draw our conclusions almost entirely from his deeds and writings. Little contemporaneous biographical information is extant, probably the result of his roving life. Before his coming to America, prac tically nothing is known about him, and our knowledge of him in this country is only between the years 1763 and 1780. In looking through the books and papers of the day, we wonder at the outspoken denunciation for seemingly trivial subjects. In noting therefore the contentions which Bernard Romans had throughout his military and literary life, we must consider the source and the time, for opinions expressed which were often trivial in themselves. Notwithstanding his foreign birth, he was a staunch American, and on many occasions in actions and speech showed patriotism of a high degree, at a time when the country needed all the uplift it could get. His writings will always be of value and interest, not only from their own merit, but as pioneer information gained from personal research.

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74 LIFE AND WORKS BIBLIOGRAPHY Romans is supposed to have left a Journal of his life and the manuscript of the second volume of his History of Florida. The writer of these notes has made fruitless efforts to locate these valuable works. Should this publication excite sufficient inter est, it may be possible to locate material which would go far to enrich our information about a most interesting period of our history. His map of Florida and the Concise Natural History of East and West Florida have already been described in detail. His other works so far as they are known will be titled in chron ological order. 1. A general map of West Florida by B: Romans. Scale of English statute miles 23 [to SH in.] 53^ x 108A. [1772] The original manuscript is in the British Colonial office (Maps. Florida, no. 52) in London. A photographic copy is in the Library of Congress. The map extends from the Mississippi river at the junction of the Red river to the "Mouth of the River Apalachicola" and "Sound of Sl. George," and to the north to the River Yazoo and to "Sucta Hatta" on the Alabama river. The map shows river, towns, islands, Indian villages, settlements, roads and other features. In the lower right portion of the map is a detailed description of the country, with the title, "An attempt toward a short description of West Florida," in which Romans gives an account of the natural produce, the condition of the soil, its fertility, and states that this province "certainly bids fair to become in a small space of time as flourishing a country as any America can boast of." He also describes the customs and usages of the savages, the rivers, the various fishes, medicinal plants and minerals. In a "N.B." Romans adds "The co. .. of the coast and shape of the bays in this map were taken from the accurate surveys of George Gauld

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 75 esqure, Chester river.... and most part of the Scambe, the Wyocca &ca with their branches and adjacent parts of the country were surveyed in the months of May, June and July one thousand seven hundred and seventy-two by Bernard Romans employed by his excellency governor Chester.... above and the land between it and the river Tombeche were taken in one thousand seven hundred and seventy one by order of the honorable John Stuart esq by Mr. David Taitt.... and the whole examined and carefully corrected at Pensacola, the thirty-first day of August, one thousand seven hundred and seventy two by the same Bernard Romans." A notice of the transmission of this original manuscript to the Brit ish Colonial Office in a letter by Chester is referred to under the head ing "Biographical." 2. Bernard Romans' Map of 1772. By H. S. Halbert. [In Mississippi Historical Society. Publications. 8. Oxford, Miss., for the Society, 1902. Vol. 6, pp. 415-439. 1 map] This map is copied from a manuscript drawn by Bernard Romans in 1772, and owned by Dr. Albert S. Gatschet, of Washington, D. C. Measures about 13 x 11 inches. The descriptive text by H. S. Halbert gives an analytic commentary on the various Indian locations, of "the extensive region now embraced in the present States of Mississippi and Alabama." The territory in this map is that bounded on the east by the Tombigbee River. The territory now included in Neshoba, Kemper, Newton, Lauderdale and Clark Counties, Mississippi, is drawn with great detail. A small reproduction of the map is found in Dr. Franklin L. Riley's School History of Mississippi, p. 16. Efforts have been made through the widow of Dr. Gatschet to find the original manuscript, without success. 3. Extract of a Letter from Bernard Romans, of Pensacola, dated August 20, 1773, on an improved sea-compass.1J [In American Philosophical Society. Transactions. 4. Philadelphia, R. Aitken, 1786. Vol. 2, pp. 396-399] In this letter dated Pensacola, August 20, 1775, he says, "My stay is so short here, as not to allow me time to have one made [i.e. Compass]." This article was reprinted in The Annual Register, or a View of the History, Politics, and Literature, for the Year 1787. 8. London, for /. Dodsley, 1789. Vol. 29 [Natural history] pp. 83-85; and curiously enough reprinted with the omission of twelve lines at the end, in the same work for 1796, vol. 38, pp. 448-449.

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76 LIFE AND WORKS 4. A Map of the whole Navigation. Showing "Lieut. Cook's tracks." Protracted by B. Romans. 7^ x 18. [In Hawkesworth, John. A New Voyage Round the World, in the Years 1768, 1769, 1770, and 1771.... Performed by, Captain James Cooke [sic] in the ship Endeavour.... 2 vols. 12. New York, J. Rivington, 1774. Vol. 1] This work, one of the best advertised books of the day, was re printed from the large London quarto edition of 1773. Error in the spelling of Cook's name with an e at end as seen above. [In the New York Public Library, Volume 1 has Cook, without the additional e; only the second volume has Cooke.] This work is very scarce and much sought after by collectors on account of the engravings by Paul Revere and the map by Romans. His name engraved on the map is similar to his autograph without the flourishes. William Loring Andrews, in his Paul Revere and his Engravings, describes this work in detail and gives a biographical notice of Romans. In the Historical Magazine, for Feb ruary, 1864, vol. 8, pp. 80-82, is an article devoted to the work entitled: "Patrons of Literary Enterprises in New York, etc., about One Hundred Years ago," which says, "There is further evidence that Mr. Rivington was pretty well patron ized in the undertaking, for his list of patrons' names, published imme diately after the title-page, occupies seventeen pages." The first four pages give the names of the 156 subscribers "living in the city and vicinities of New York, and in New Jersey." Among these is "Mr. Bernard Romans." The Boston Evening Post, of March 14, 1774, has a whole sheet sup plement devoted to advertising this work. Copy in the Library of Congress. 5. [The Cultivation of Indigo in this Province.] To the Editor of the Royal American Magazine. Boston, January 15, 1774. Sir, If the following attempt to a plain and familiar narrative be thought worth inserting in the American Magazine, you may hear occasionally from, Sir, Your most humble servant, BERNARD ROMANS.

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 77 [In The Royal American Magazine. January 1774. 8. Boston, I. Thomas, [1774] vol. 1, pp. 12-13] Title in brackets above from table of contents on title-page. Differs from pages on the same subject in his Concise History of Florida. 6. [Description of America.] To the Editor of the Royal Amer ican Magazine. Sir, The following piece, shewing that its author had a true idea of the Worth of AMERICA, I submit to your judgment, whether proper for the American Magazine, or not, if so, by inserting it you will oblige, Sir, Your humble Servant, BERNARD ROMANS. [In The Royal American Magazine. January, 1774. 8. Boston, I. Thomas, [1774] vol. 1, pp. 32-33] Title in brackets above from table of contents on title-page. This being the only poem by Romans which has come to light, and showing a keen insight into the future grandeur of America, is inserted in full.14 MY muse, A new world found, extend thy daring wings. Be thou the first of the harmonious Nine From high Parnassus, the unweary'd toil Of industry and valour, in that world Triumphant, to reward with tuneful song. Happy the voyage, o'er the Atlantic brine, By active Raleigh made, and great the joy, When he discern'd, above the foamy surge, A rising coast, for future colonies, Op'ning her bays, and figuring her capes, Ev'n from the nothern [!] tropic to the pole. No land gives more employment to the loom, Or kindlier feeds the indigent; no land With more variety of wealth rewards The hand of labour: thither, from the wrongs Of lawless rule, the free-born spirit flies; Thither affliction, thither poverty, And arts and sciences: thrice happy clime,

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78 LIFE AND WORKS Which Britain makes th' asylum of mankind. But joy superior far his bosom warms, Who views thy shores in ev'ry culture dress'd; With habitations gay, and num'rous towns, On hill and valley; and his countrymen Form'd into various states, pow'rful and rich, In regions far remote: who from our looms Take largely for themselves, and for those tribes Of Indians, ancient tenants of the land, In amity conjoin'd, of civil life The comforts taste, and various new desires, Which kindle arts to occupy the poor, And spread Britannia's flocks o'er ev'ry dale. Ye, who the shuttle cast along the loom, The silkworm's thread inweaving with the fleece, Pray for the culture of the Georgian tract, Nor slight the green savannahs, and the plains Of Carolina, where thick woods arise Of mulberries, and in whose water'd fields Up springs the verdant blade of thirsty rice. Where are the happy regions, which afford More implements of commerce, and of wealth? Fertile Virginia, like a vig'rous bough, Which overshades some crystal river, spreads Her wealthy cultivations wide around, And, more than many a spacious realm, rewards The fleecy shuttle: to her growing marts The Iroquese, Cheroques, and Oubaks, come For woolly garments; and the cheers of life, The cheers, but not the vices, learn to taste. Blush, Europeans, whom the circling cup Of luxury intoxicates; ye routs, Who for your crimes, have fled your native land; And ye voluptuous idle, who, in vain, Seek easy habitations, void of care: The sons of nature, with astonishment, And detestation, mark your evil deeds; And view, no longer aw'd, your nerveless arms, Unfit to cultivate Ohio's banks. See the bold emigrants of Accadie, And Massachuset, happy in those arts, That join the politics of trade and war, Bearing the palm in either, they appear Better exemplars; and that hardy crew, Who, on the frozen beech of Newfoundland, Hang their white fish amid the parching winds.

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 79 The kindly fleece, in webbs of Duffield woof, Their limbs benumb'd, enfolds with cheerly warmth, And frize of Cambria, worn by those who seek, Thro' gulphs and dales of Hudson's winding Bay, The beaver's fur, though oft they seek in vain While winters frosty rigour checks approach, Ev'n in the fiftieth latitude. Say why (If ye, the travePd sons of commerce, know) Wherefore lie bound their rivers, lakes, and dales, Half the sun's annual course, in chains of ice; While the Rhine's fertile shore, and Gallic realms, By the same zone encircled, long enjoy Warm beams of Phoebus, and, supine, behold Their plains and hillocks blush with clustring vines, Must it be ever thus? or may the hand Of mighty labour drain their gusty lakes, Enlarge the bright'ning sky, and, peopling, warm The op'ning vallies, and the yellowing plains, Or rather shall we burst strong Darien's chain, Steer our bold fleets between the cloven rocks, And thro' the great Pacific ev'ry joy Of civil life diffuse! Are not her isles Numerous and large; have they not harbours calm, Inhabitants, and manners? haply, too, Peculiar sciences, and other forms Of trade, and useful products, to exchange For woolly vestures. 'Tis a tedious course By the Atlantic circle; now beyond Those sea-wrapt gardens of the Dulcid reed; Bahama and Caribbee, may be found Safe mole or harbour, till on Falkland's isle The standard of Britannia shall arise, Proud Buenos Ayres, low couched Paraguay, And rough Corrientes, mark with hostile eye The lab'ring vessel; neither may we trust The dreary naked Patagonian land, Which darkens in the wind. No traffic there, No barter for the fleece. There angry storms Bend their black brows, and raging, hurl around Their thunders. Ye advent'rous mariners Be firm take courage from the brave. ****** Ye too rejoice, ye swains; Increasing commerce shall reward your cares. A day will come, if not too deep we drink The cup, which luxury on careless wealth

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80 LIFE AND WORKS Pernicious gift, bestows; a day will come, When through new channels sailing, we shall clothe The California coast, and all the realms That stretch from Anian's Streights to proud Japan; And the green isles, which on the left arise Upon the glassy brine; whose various capes Not yet are figur'd on the sailors chart: Then ev'ry variation shall be told Of the magnetic steel; and currents mark'd, Which drive the heedless vessel from her coast." 7. On the Cultivation of Madder. To the Editor of the Royal American Magazine. Sir, If you think the following Extract, from my History of the Floridas, now publishing here, will gratify your readers, you will lay it before them. I am, &c. B. ROMANS. New-York, March 31, 1774. [In The Royal American Magazine. April, 1774. 8. Boston, I. Thomas, [1774] vol. 1, pp. 138-140] This is found in pages 158-163 of his A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida. New York, 1774. The Magazine in which the three above noted articles are published is by far the scarcest and most interesting of all the early American periodicals. Paul Revere and Bernard Romans are again co-workers. Various engravings are by the former. It is very difficult to locate a perfect copy. William Loring Andrews in his Paul Revere and his Engravings, states that the Yale University has an uncut copy, which lacks one or two plates and some pages. He gives a "Collation of the engravings." The Library of Congress copy lacks the Boston view by Revere and also several engravings and pages. It evidently was the property of Isaiah Thomas, as it has the following manuscript note: "This work was first published Jan. 1774, and ended March 1775, on account of the com mencement of the Revolutionary War. Most of my personal property being left in Boston, 1775, was taken or destroyed by the British Soldiers among which were a few complete sets of this Mag." The copy in the American Antiquarian Society is the only known complete set, with covers, all the engravings, etc. (See Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society for October, 1919, p. 210.)

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 81 8. Five plans to accompany Bernard Romans' Report to the Honourable the Committee of Safety at New-York, on the In tended Fortifications in the Highlands. [Opposite West Point] [In American Archives. 4th series. 1775. By Peter Force, fol. Washington, M. St. Clair Clark & P. Force, 1840. Vol. 3, bet. pp. 736-737] The second map has title of "Sketch of a map showing the present sit uation of the fortifications already erected and to be erected." The fifth map is a plan of Fort Constitution, a small facsimile of which is in B. J. Lossing's The Pictorial Field-book of the Revolution. Vol. 1, p. 135, with explanation. 9. To the Hon1. Jn? Hancock Esqre President of y* Continental Congress. This Map of the Seat of Civil War in America, is Respectfully inscribed By his Most Obedient Humble Servant B. Romans. \6}4 x \7$4 inches. This is evidently the map advertised in Rivington's New-York Gazet teer for August 3, 1775, etc. as follows: I "Philadelphia, July 12, 1775. I "IT is PROPOSED TO PRINT, And in a few days will be published, A COMPLETE and ELEGANT MAP, from BOSTON to WORCESTER, PROVIDENCE, and SALEM. Shew ing the SEAT of the present unhappy CIVIL WAR in NORTH-AMERICA. AUTHOR, BERNARD ROMANS. "CONDITIONS. I. That it shall be printed on a good paper and large scale in fourteen days. II. That all the places where any remarkable event has hitherto occurred, and the provincial lines, &c. shall be particularly pointed out. III. The price will be five shillings, payable on the delivery, and if I colouring be required, the ad-|

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82 LIFE AND WORKS ditional expence thereof must be paid by the encouragers. "Hail, 0 Liberty! thou glorious,thou inestimable blessing: Banished from almost every part of the old world, America, thy darling, received thee as her beloved: Her arms shall protect thee,her sons will cherish thee! "Gentlemen inclining to have this work, are requested to subscribe their names, specifying whether they be re quired plain or coloured. "Subscriptions are taken in by J. Rivington, Noel and Hazard, and S. Loudon, in New-York." No place of publication or date is given. Colored copy. The unmis takable signature of B. Romans without flourishes. Two insets, one en titled, "Plan of Boston and its Environs. 1775." 3j^ x 3% in. The other, "A View of the Lines thrown upon Boston Neck by the Minis terial Army." 1*4 x 9 inches, with "References." The lettered refer ences A-Z at top of map refer only to locations in Boston harbour. At the left hand side is a "General Scale of Statute Miles." The map in the Pennsylvania Magazine, for July, 1775, entitled, "A new and correct Plan of the Town of Boston and Provincial Camp. Aitken sculp." with an inset, resembles it in some respects, and may have been made by Romans. A copy of the magazine containing the plan is in the Library of Congress. The Pennsylvania Gazette, for November 1, 1775, advertises: "Also an accurate MAP of the pres ent Seat of Civil War, taken by an able Draughtsman, who was on the Spot at the late Engagements; a new Impression, with useful Additions, Price 5J. plain, or 6s 6d coloured." There are copies in the Library of Congress, and the Pennsylvania Historical Society has two, one colored and one plain. 10. In Rivington's New-York Gazetteer for August 31, 1775, and repeated in various issues, is the following: "August 18th. "BOSTON. ROMANS' MAP is just printed, will in a few days be published,

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 83 I and SOLD by JAMES RIVINGTON, and I Messrs. NOEL and HAZARD. THIS Map of Boston, &c. is one of the most cor rect that has ever been published. The draught was taken by the most skillful draughtsman in all America, and who was on the spot at the engagements of LEXINGTON and BUN-I KER'S HILL." | This may refer to map described in No. 9. 11. An Exact View of The Late Battle at Charlestown, June 17th, 1775. In which an advanced party of about 700 Pro vincials stood an Attack made by 11 Regiments & a Train of Artillery & after an Engagement of two hours Retreated to their Main body at Cambridge Leaving Eleven Hundred of the enemy Killed and Wounded upon the field. B. Romans in dEre incidit. No place of publication or date. Samuel Abbott Green, in his Ten Facsimile Reproductions Relating to Various Stibjects. Boston, 1903, has a reproduction of this view to accompany chapter on "The Battle of Bunker Hill," which he says "is the earliest print of the engagement extant, and now one of great rarity." The reproduction is slightly reduced in size. StaufFer in his American Engravers, part 2, p. 451, gives the descrip tion and measurement as 11.1 x 16.3. He also mentions an English impression, which "is much better engraved," measuring 10.13 x 15.12. "London. Printed for Messr. Wallis & Stonehouse. No. 16 Ludgate Street, as the Act directs." A reduced and somewhat altered impression of this view, with the name Romans omitted, entitled: "A Correct View of Late Battle at Charlestown. June 17th 1775. Aitken sculp.," without marginal references, measuring 8}4 x 12^, with margin, was published in the Pennsylvania Magazine, for September, 1775, Philadelphia, R. Aitken. The Library of Congress has a copy of this impression. Both of these impressions were advertised in the Pennsylvania Gazette, for September 20, 1775, and curious as it may seem, the magazine copy engraved by Aitken, is announced as published, and the one bearing Romans' name is announced as follows: I "Philadelphia, September 13,1775. I "IT IS PROPOSED TO PRINT An exact VIEW of the late Battle at Charlestown, June 17, 1775. I "In which an advanced party of seven I

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LIFE AND WORKS [hundred provincials stood an attack made by eleven regiments, and a train of artillery, of the ministerial forces, I and after an engagement of two hours retreated to their main body at Cam bridge, leaving eleven hundred of the regulars killed and wounded on the field; with a View of General Putnam, a part of Boston, Charlestown in flames, Breeds hill, provincial breast work, a broken officer, and the Som erset man of war and a frigate firing upon Charlestown: It shall be printed on a good crown imperial paper, and to be delivered to the subscribers in about ten days: The price to subscrib ers is 5/. plain, and if coloured 7s. 6. Subscriptions are taken by Messieurs W. and T. Bradford, James Humphreys, junior, John Dunlap, Hall and Sellers, and by Nicholas Brooks, printer of said view; also by Charles Young, merchant, in Baltimore; F. Battle, at Dover; W. Skillington, at the Cross-roads, DuckCreek; Hugh Gaine, and R. Sause, NewYork; Capt. J. Tatlow, New-Castle; F. Overly, Bethlehem; /. Borden, Esq; Bordentown; /. Emerson, Trenton; G. Bickham, Lancaster; /. Martin, Snowhill, Maryland; A. Outtan, Accomack; A. Rose, Reading; and Samuel Calvert, Norfolk, Virginia. "Frames and Glass may be had at the abovesaid N. Brooks's." "TO THE PUBLIC. "Now engraving for the Pennsylvania Magazine, or American Monthly Museum, a neat and correct VIEW of the late BATTLE at CHARLES TOWN, not inferior to any hitherto j proposed, and shall be printed in a size proper for the Magazine or a Family piece, Nonsubscribers are to pay for this Number of the Magazine One Shilling and Sixpence, on account of the great expence of the engraving; |

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 85 [those Gentlemen who incline to pur-l chase this View of the Battle, may be furnished with it at the moderate price of Sixpence.The Magazine will be published the first Wednesday of the Month as usual, and will contain sev eral useful, curious and interesting orig inal pieces, both in prose and verse. "Any Gentlemen inclining to have complete Setts of the Pennsylvania Magazine from the beginning, may be served by R. AITKEN, the Publisher, opposite the London Coffee-house, Front-street, where Subscriptions are I daily taken in." | William Loring Andrews, in his Fragments of American History, pp. 50-51, has reproduced the Aitken impression from the Pennsylvania Mag azine, September 1775, without reference to Romans. In the advertisement above copied, the name of "Nicholas Brooks, printer of said view," may be noted. One would infer from these advertisements that the Romans impression was published afte/ the small one, engraved by Aitken, in the Pennsylvania Magazine. It was not announced as published, by the Pennsylvania Gazette, until November 1, 1775. 12. A General Map of the Southern British Colonies, in America, comprehending North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, with the Neighbouring Indian Countries. From the Modern Surveys of Engineer de Brahm, Capt. Collet, Mouzon & Others; and from the Large Hydrographical Survey of the Coasts of East and West Florida. By B. Romans, 1776. Scale, British Statute Miles 69}4 to a Degree; Nautic Leagues 20 to a Degree. 21^ x 26, including border. London, Printed for R. Sayer and J. Bennett, Map, Chart and Printsellers No. S3 Fleet Street, as the Act directs, 15th Octr. 1776. [In The American Military Pocket Atlas; being an approved Collection of Correct Maps, both general and particular, of the British Colonies; especially those which now are, or probably may be the Theatre of War: taken principally from the actual Surveys and judicious Observations of Engineers De Brahm and Romans;

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86 LIFE AND WORKS Cook, Jackson, and Collet; Maj. Holland, and other Officers, employed in His Majesty's Fleets and Armies. 8. London, Printed for R. Sayer and J. Bennet [sic], [1776]. No. 5] Running border title: The Seat of War, in the Southern British Colonies, comprehending North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, &ca. Insets: Plan of Charlestown. Scale of feet, 2100 to 1}/$ in. 3}4 4. "References." a. State House b. Church c. Beef Market d. Watch House e. St. Philips Church f. Exchange g. Work House Plan of St. Augustine. Scale, 2 furlongs to 1 in. 3% x 4. "References." a. Fort St Mark b. Governor's House c. Parade d. a Church e. Guard House f. Parish Church g. Franciscan Fryars h. Dutch Church This atlas is evidently a compilation made by the well known London firm of map publishers, Robert Sayer and John Bennett. It was known as the "Holster atlas," owing to its being made for the use of the mounted British officers, in the Revolutionary war. It is dedicated to Governor Thomas Pownall. In the "Advertisement," after giving the names of the various authorities consulted, it states that, "The Coasts of East and West Florida, and the Gulf of Florida, are adjusted by the very curious Nautical Surveys of Engineer ROMANS. This Map will be found to have a very particular Degree of Geographical and Topographical Merit." 13. Connecticut and parts adjacent. 20^ x 23^ inches. Romans' name is not mentioned, and no place of publication or date is given. This is almost certainly the map described, from an adver tisement, in Charles Evans* American Bibliography, Vol. 5, p. 348, as: "Romans' Map of the State of Connecticut, with the parts of New-

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 87 York, New Jersey, and Islands adjacent, that has been the seat of war for some time past. Norwich: Sold by Nathaniel Townsend, 1777. 'Just published and to be sold by Nathaniel Townsend, in Norwich. Price, two dollars.'" The Connecticut Gazette, and the Universal Intelligencer, October 31, 1777, advertises: I "Just published, and to be sold by I T. GREEN. [PRICE TWO DOLLARS] ROMAN'sfricJMAP Of the State of Connecticut, with the Parts of New-York, New-Jersey, and Islands adjacent, that has been the I late Seat of War." | This map was also extensively advertised without Romans* name. The following two are interesting extracts: I "PROPOSALS For PRINTING I "A New MAP of the STATE of CONNECTICUT, with some of the adjacent Parts of the States of New-York, NewJersey, and Rhode-Island; collected from the best and latest Surveys. "CONDITIONS. 1. The Plate will be 24 Inches, by 16 in Size. 2. The Price to Subscribers to be One Dollar plain, or Ten Shillings prop erly coloured. 3. It will not be delivered to Non-Sub scribers under Eight Shillings plain, or Twelve colour'd. 4. It will be published in about four Weeks from this Date. 5. Those who subscribe for six Sets shall have one gratis. "N.B. If this Work meets due Encouragement, the Author intends publishing other useful Maps. "Subscriptions are taken in by the Printer hereof. I "New Haven, April 21, 1777." \ [From the Boston Gazette, and Country Journal, May 19,1777]

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88 LIFE AND WORKS I New-Haven, June 11, 1777. I "Just Published, and to be sold byMessrs. Elias Beers, 13 Zina Dennison, in this Town; A NEW MAP of the State of CONNECTICUT. The Gentlemen who have taken in Subscriptions, are re quested to forward the Lists to the Author, that the Subscribers may be supplied.The Printers of the Hart ford, New London and Fish Kill papers, are requested to print this Advertise ment, a Number will be forwarded to each of them soon. The Work is ele gant, well printed, and well colour'd, on a good white paper, and the whole is the Manufacture of this town. Price 8s. plain, 12s. colour'd, 20s. folding on cloth, for the Pocket, 16s. framed, 18s. on rollers or in black and gilt Frames. Subscribers are desired to call on the Author, for their maps. Soon will be published, a Map of the Northern Lakes and the Country about Albany, from actual Surveys, on the same Scale I as this present one." | [From the Connecticut Journal, New Haven, Wednesday, June 11,1777] The only copy known belongs to Henry N. Stevens, of London. A map entitled, "Connecticut, and parts adjacent. 23 % x 20f inches. H. Klockhoff, sculp. 1780. At Amsterdam, by Covens and Mortier, and Covens junior," is a copy of the above map. Copies of the 1780 map are in the Library of Congress and at Harvard. 14. [A Chorographical Map of the Northern Department of North America. Drawn from the Latest and most accurate Observations. A Scale of Miles, 60 to 5 in. 24% x 20^, to outer border. Engraved, Printed and Sold at New Haven, 1778.] Romans' name not mentioned, and no place of publication or date is given. The title given above does not appear on the only known copy, which belongs to Henry N. Stevens, of London. As it is given on the facsimile noted below, and on the Amsterdam re-engraved copy, it has probably been cut off this copy. The descriptive text at the top left corner within a border has all the earmarks of Romans.

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 89 "The Townships, or Grants East of Lake CHAM PLAIN are laid down as granted by the State of NEW HAMPSHIRE, Except those that are marked Y. Which were Granted by the State of NEW YORK on un-located Ground, where they do not interfere with the Hampshire Grants; the Spurious New York grants that interfere with the Older ones are marked with dotted Lines, and as they are mostly granted to Officers in the Regular army except a few which have the names WALLIS, KEMP, and some such other favourites of these Princes of Land Jobbers, MOORE, DUNMORE, COLDEN, and TRYON, stamped on them, it was not thought worth while to note them: Especially as the Inhabitants of the State of Vermont now hold them by triple title of honest purchase of Industry in settling; and now lately that of Conquest." The finished map was first advertised in the New-London Gazette, June 5, 1778. In the Boston Gazette, and Country Journal, November 17, 1777, it is advertised as follows: "PROPOSALS for printing by SUB-1 [SCRIPTION, A new MAP of the Northern Department, Containing the country from Red-Hook on the North River (the place where the late Map of Connecticut left of [!]) to ThreeRivers, in Canada and from the Heads of Merrimack-River, in Hampshire, to | the Heads of Delaware and Susquehannah, Westward, including FortSchuyler, and the Oneyda Lake, with | I Part of Ontario. "CONDITIONS. 1. The plate is in size 26 inches by 22. 2. The price to Subscribers, colourd fifteen Shillings, or plain twelve Shillings. 3. After the Subscriptions are closed, they will be sold at eighteen Shil lings colourd, or fifteen Shillings plain. 4. Subscribers for twelve, and upwards, shall have one gratis. 5. Shopkeepers who take SO and upwards, shall have a plain map gratis, to every six they subscribe for. 6. It is meant to be public in about four weeks time. "The whole is taken from real sur-

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90 LIFE AND WORKS I veys, performed by the Publisher him-1 self, communicated by his friends, or collected from the Secretary's office in New-York; and in every part where those fail, the work is founded on the best maps, corrected by the publisher, from observations and remarks, made during his frequent travels in every part of America. "New-Haven, Oct. 13, 1777. "Gentlemen, who subscribe, are requested to mention their places of abode. "Subscriptions taken in by the I Printer hereof." | Also the following in the same paper for July 6, 1778: "Just come to Hand, and are ready to \be delivered to the Subscribers, A New MAP of the Northern Department, con taining the Country from Red Hook, on the North-River, (the place where the late Map of Connecticut left off) to Three-Rivers, in Canada, and from the Heads of Merrimack River, in Hamp shire, to the Heads of Delaware and Susquehannah, Westward, including Fort-Schuyler, and the Oneyda Lake, with Part of Ontario. The whole is taken from real surveys, performed by the Publisher himself, communicated by his friends, or collected from the secretary's office in New York, and in every part where these fail, the work is founded on the best maps, corrected by the publisher, from observations and remarks, made during his frequent travels in every part of America." That the subscribers were backward is evidenced from the following notice in the Connecticut Journal, for January 14, 1778: I "THE Gentlemen who have sub-l scribed for the Map of the NORTHERN DEPARTMENT of North-America, and are really Lovers and Encouragers of I the Geographical Science, are requested I

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 91 I to call for their Maps. Those who have I only wrote their Names, with a view to shine in a Subscription Paper, maysave themselves the Trouble, as there are none printed for such. "A few Copies are for Sale, at Mess. I BEERS'S, at 18s." | In the Documentary History of the State of New York. By E. B. O'Cal-laghan, 1851. Vol. 4, is a reduced reproduction within the border outside the title, 10x \2%, copied from the original in the office of the New York State Engineer and Surveyor. This copy is reported lost. The map was used in the "Controversy between New York and New Hampshire, re specting the territory now the state of Vermont." This copy was again reproduced in the Records of the Governor and Council of the State of Ver mont. 1880. Vol. 8. The following statement is made on page 435: "This map will be quite interesting to Vermonters for reasons not necessary to be named, since the map bears upon its face ample and unique explanations." A reproduction is also found in Pouchot's Memoir upon the Late War in North America. 1755-60. 1866. Vol. 2, bet. pp. 68-69. An early impression of the map is entitled: "A Chorographical Map of the Northern Department of North-America, Drawn from the Latest and most accurate Observations, at Amsterdam, by Covens and Mortier and Covens, Junior." On the right lower corner, below the border, is inscribed "H. Klockhoif, sculp. 1780." It measures within the border 20 x 24^. Running title at top over border line. Copies of this map are found in the Library of Congress, Harvard University Library, New York Public Library and British Museum. IS. A chorographical Map of the Country round Philadelphia by B. Romans. No place of publication or date. The original engraved map is in the Connecticut Historical Society, and there is another copy in private hands. The Library of Congress has a map, entitled: "A chorographi cal Map, of the country round PhiladelphiaCarte particuliere des environs de Philadelphie. 12> x 13 inches. H. Klockhoff sculps. A. Amsterdam, Chez Covens et Mortier, et Covens, junior," without Romans' name and without date, but probably of the same year (1780), as the Connecticut map described above engraved by the same engraver. This impression differs in a few particulars. It shows Valley Forge Grand American Winter Camp. Wed. Jan. 1778, also Genl. Howe's Track and Genl. Washingtn. Track. The peculiar spelling of "Chesopeke Bay" is

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92 LIFE AND WORKS in both editions. In the Connecticut Courant, for Tuesday, June 2, 1778, is the following: I "JUST PUBLISHED, (at New! Haven) And to be Sold by WENSLEY HOBBY at Middletown, and by the PRINTERS hereof, A Corographical [sic] MAP of the Country round Philadel phia." I 16. Annals of the Troubles in the Netherlands. From the Accession of Charles V., Emperor of Germany. In Four Parts. A proper and seasonable Mirror for the present Americans. Collected and Translated from the most Approved Historians in the Native Tongue. By Bernard Romans. Volume 1. (8), cxx, 160 pp. 12. Hartford, printed by Watson & Goodwin, for the Author, M.DCC.LXXVIIL Both volumes are in the Library of Congress. Title of volume 1 is in red and black. The whole work extends to 1629. The dedication is as follows: "To his excellency Jonathan Trumbull, Esq.: governor and com mander in chief in and over the state of Connecticut and its depen dencies; captain-general, and admiral of the same, &c. &c. &c. This work, is, (by Permission) most humbly dedicated." Trumbull, quoted in Sabin, says, "The First volume of this work is believed to have been the first book printed in Hartford, of more than a hundred pages. The Second vol. is of Excessive Rarity."15 Duyckinck, in The Cyclopaedia of American Literature, Vol. 1, p. 319, was ignorant of the publication of the second volume and says, "The Captain does not appear to have got beyond one volume." The following announcement appeared in the Connecticut Courant^ and the Weekly Intelligencer, for January 5 & 19, 1779: I "THIS DAY IS PUBLISHED, i (Price Four Dollars) And to be Sold at Mr. Patten's, Mr. Hopkins's and Mr. Blakeley's, in Hart ford; also, at Mr. Elias Beers's and Mr. I Abel Buel's, in New-Haven; |

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OF BERNARD ROMANS ANNALS of the TROUBLES of the NETHERLANDS. VOLUME I. This Book is wit>te to evince the great hardships and amazing success of a vassal people who extricated them selves from the tyranny of the most exorbitant power in Europe, and in the end ruined that power while the ocean was covered with its navy, and the earth with its armies, both under the direction of commanders as famous as any recorded in history; who had the advantage of marching those armies by land into the very heart of those re volted states. This overgrown monarchy had a view to oppress an innooent [!] and complying people, who had neither troops nor ships to defend themselves. A small spot of ground, scarcely equal to the least of our United States, with only a moderate share of public virtue, proved sufficient to bring ruin on the then most formidable kingdom on our globe! I am vain enough to believe that the small assemblage of politics con tained in this book, will afford enter tainment to our statesmen, The soldier will find amusement in the relation of military events. The merchant will be reminded, that our commercial difficulties are to be overcome by patience. The clergy may ponder on the con sequences of polemical disputes. And the farmer will see, that the present time is not the first when it was difficult to introduce foreign neces saries. The public in general, are requested to take it for granted, that the work is meant to be useful.

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94 LIFE AND WORKS I I cannot but express my gratitude for the very large subscription ob tained for this work. During the regulation of prices of every thing, I promised about 500 pages for Four Dollars; I now publish 288 pages for Three Dollars and a Half to the Subscribers, and Four Dollars to non subscribers. I dare be assured, that considering the difference in price of all necessaries of life, this book will be thought a very cheap publication, especially when it is considered, that such a volume would have sold at One Dollar in time of peace. Subscribers are therefore requested speedily to call for their books at Mr. Patten's, in this town, that I may be encouraged to go on vigorously with the second volume. A handsome allowance will be made to such as buy a quantity, from fifty upwards. BERNARD ROMANS. Hartford, Nov. 23, 1778. The second volume (much more in teresting than the first) is ready for the press; with it the Author will endeav-I our to publish a map of the country." In the Preface of Volume I, the Author says, "TO this my second attempt to appear as an author, I am encouraged by the apt circumstances of time. "I HAVE not vanity enough to rank myself in the eminent dignity of an HISTORIAN: NO; Candid Reader, I only beg of you to regard me as a diligent Compiler, and faithful Translator. "AS a foreigner, it cannot be expected that I should excel in ele gance of composition, or correctness of language; especially in a tongue, whose idiom, orthography, connexion and pronunciation are, of all others, the most difficult and uncouth to the ear and powers of articulation in strangers; I therefore request the critics not to cast too severe a censure on tire garb in which this work is clothed. "THIS petition will, I hope, be the more readily granted, when I

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 95 assure the public, that not the least assistance whatever has been given me. "MY Introduction has insensibly grown lengthy; but as it was in a great measure necessary to show the origin of a people, who so desper ately asserted their rights, the prolixity became unavoidable. "THE latter part of that introduction will likewise shew, that the seeds of this great revolution were sown much earlier than is com monly thought; ever since the usurpation of the Burgundian dukes, that house attempted (by gentle encroachments) to make the yoke imper ceptible May the dreary examples through which I lead you be a comfort to you (respected Americans) who are so highly favored by Prov idence, as in all appearance to obtain the glorious blessings contended for, with infinite less trouble and hardships, than fell to the lot of those heroes, whose sufferings in freedom's cause are exhibited in this work: And if any lesson (however small) is afforded by it, my satisfaction will be immense. "MAY Heaven smile on your virtuous struggles, and give you a lasting and glorious name among the nations, is the very sincere prayer of The AUTHOR "Hartford, Sept. 30, 1778." 17. Annals of the Troubles in the Netherlands, From the accession of Charles V. Emperor of Germany. A proper and seasonable Mirror for the present Americans. Collected and Translated from the most approved Historians in the Native Tongue. By Bernard Romans. Volume II. 243 pp. 12. Hart ford, printed by Watson & Goodwin, 1782.16 A copy is in the Library of Congress. Consult also note to title IS. The advertisement to volume 1, printed above, ends with, "The second volume (much more interesting than the first) is ready for the press; with it the Author will endeavour to publish a map of the country." No copy of the map has come to light. As Romans was a prisoner in the hands of the British, during the year in which the second volume was published, it must have gone through the press without his revision, although the advertisement given above, says, "it is ready for the press."

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96 LIFE AND WORKS The following advertisement appeared in the Connecticut Courant, and the Weekly Intelligencer, for February 11 and 18, 1783: j "JUST PUBLISHED, I And now Selling by the Printers hereof, ANNALS Of the Troubles in the NETHERLANDS, From the accession of Charles V. Emperor of Germany. A proper and seasonable Mirror for present Americans. Collected and Translated from the most approved Historians in the Native Tongue. By BERNARD ROMANS. VOLUME II. This Book is wrote to evince the great hardships and amazing success of a vas sal people who extricated themselves from the tyranny of the most exorbitant power in Europe, and in the end ruined that power while the ocean was cov ered with its navy, and the earth with its armies, both under the direction of commanders as famous as any recorded in history; who had the advantage of marching those armies by land into the very heart of those revolted states. This overgrown monarchy had a view to oppress an innocent and com plying people, who had neither troops I nor ships to defend themselves. A small spot of ground, scarcely equal to the least of our United States, with only a moderate share of public virtue, proved sufficient to bring ruin on the then most formidable kingdom on our globe! The writer is vain enough to be lieve, that the small assemblage of politics contained in this book, will af ford entertainment to our statesmen.

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 97 I The soldier will find amusement in I the relation of military events. The merchant will be reminded, that our commercial difficulties are to be overcome by patience. The clergy may ponder on the con sequences of polemical disputes. And, The Farmer will see, that the present time is not the first when it was difficult I to introduce foreign necessaries." | 18. A plan of Mobile Bay, surveyed by B. Romans, 1771. Plan of the Harbour of Pensacola. By B. Romans, 1771. London, printed for Robert Sayer, 1788. [In Jefferys, Thomas. The West-India Atlas.... fol. London, for R. Sayer, 1794. No. 33] This is the earliest edition of the atlas in the Library of Congress, in which the above maps are found. Also in the edition published by J. Whittle & R. H. Laurie, in 1818. They are enlarged and somewhat changed in form from "Mobile Bar" and "Pensacola Bar" found in the "Appendix" to Romans' A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida, 1775. They are not given in Jefferys' West-India Atlas, 1775. The two plans are on one sheet, the first measuring within the border, lyi x 9 inches, and the second 7% x 10/^ inches. While it is known that Romans was in Florida, at this time (1771), no printed map of such an early date has come to light. It appears to have been known previous to 1775, and Romans republished the plans as above mentioned in his history. 19. A plan of thie entrance of Tampa Bay, on the West Coast of East Florida. 7}4 x 9^. London, Printed for Robert Sayer, 1788. [In Jefferys, Thomas. The West-India Atlas.... fol. London, for R. Sayer, 1794. No. 34] Also found in the J. Whittle & R. H. Laurie edition of 1818. Not in Jefferys' West-India Atlas, 1775. The above map has no author's name attached, but is the same, though somewhat enlarged, as "Entrance of Tampa Bay" found in the "Appendix" to Romans' A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida, 1775.

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98 LIFE AND WORKS 20. The Complete Pilot for the Gulf Passage; or, Directions for Sailing through the Gulf of Florida, named also New Bahama Channel, and the Neighbouring Parts. By Capt. Bernard Romans, Capt. W. Gerrard de Brahm, Surveyor-General for the Southern District of North America; George Gauld, Esq. Sur veyor of the Florida Coasts; Capt. Bishop, Capt. Hester, Capt. Archibald Dalzel, and several other Gentlemen experienced in the Navigation of that Passage. 1 p.l., 74 pp., No. 11. 8. London, Printed for Robert Sayer, 1789. "These Directions are sold only with the Charts." They are com pilations from the various authors noted, made by the well known map publisher, Robert Sayer. The work is taken in great part from the "Appendix" to Romans' A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida, 177J, various parts being arranged in different order. Some portions have been eliminated and much new material added. A copy is in the Library of Congress. 21. A new and enlarged book of sailing directions for Capt^ B. Romans, &c. &c. Gulf and Windward pilot; containing full instructions for sailing through the Gulf of Florida; or, the old and new Channels of Bahama: together with directions for the Windward Passage, &c. &c. With the additions of Captains W. G. Debraham [De Brahm], Bishop, Hester, Archibald Dalzel, Esq* George Gauld, Esq. Lieut. Woodriffe, and other experienced navigators. 74 pp. 8. London, Printed for Robert Laurie and James Whittle, 1794. Only differs from no. 20 in title-page. A copy is in the Library of Congress. 22. A new book of sailing directions for Capt. B. Romans' survey of the Gulf of Florida; or the old and new Channels of Bahama and neighbouring parts. With many additions by Captains W. G. De Braham [De Brahm], Bishop, Hester, Archi bald Dalzel, Esq., George Gauld, Esq., Lieutenant Woodriffe, and other experienced navigators. 74 pp. 8. London, Printed for Robert Laurie & J. Whittle, 1797. Only differs from nos. 20 and 21 in title-page. A copy is in the Library of Congress.

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 99 23. A new book of directions to accompany the charts of the Windward Passage; or instructions for sailing through the several Passages to the eastward of Jamaica, &c. By Captain Bishop, Captain Hester, B. Romans, Lieut. Woodriffe, and other experienced navigators. To which are added The reports and descriptive instructions of the commanders sent by the French Government to explore the Windward Passages. Now trans lated from the French of Monsieur [Antoine Hyacinthe Anne de Chastenet, comte de] Puysegur. viii, 131 pp. 8. London, printed for Robert Laurie & James Whittle, 1794, Based upon The Complete Pilot for the Windward Passage By Captain [Robert] Bishops Captain Hester> and several other experienced Navigators. .. London, for Robert Sayer, 1789. No reference is made to Romans in this work. A copy is in the Library of Congress. The new edition, printed in 1800, also by Laurie & Whittle, is in the Library of Congress.

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 103 NOTES 1. It is interesting to remark that the first two cartographers of the prov inces of the Floridas under English rule were both of Dutch origin. Bernard Romans went to the Floridas in behalf of the Marine Society of New York and on his own account. John William Gerard de Brahm, who had been asso ciated with the Salzburger Colony in Georgia, where he practised his pro fession of civil engineer, was appointed by the British Government Surveyor General pf the Southern Colonies in North America. He entered upon his duties shortly after the treaty of Versailles, 1763, and personally surveyed the east coast of Florida in great detail as far south as Cape Canaveral. Most of his maps have not been published and it is the expectation of the Florida State Historical Society to publish them and edit his description of Florida in the near future. Romans' name appears on de Brahm's list of inhabitants of St. Augustine. Apparently jealousies sprang up between the two compatriots. The exact nature of their difficulties will probably become apparent as the prep aration of the memoir on de Brahm progresses. 2. Romans' defense also appeared in the issues of February 3 and 10, 1774, of Holt's The New-York Journal; or the General Advertiser. There are slight textual variations between the two advertisements. In the last line Holt's text reads "pirated" for "printed," "20.000 acres" for "2,000 acres," etc. 3. It is the intention of the Florida State Historical Society to reprint the Romans "A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida." If any one should, however, wish to consult a copy of the original text, he will find copies in the following libraries: the Boston Athenaeum, Boston, Mass.; the John Carter Brown Library, Providence, Rhode Island; the New York Historical Society and the New York Public Library, New York City; the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.; the Library of Congress, Washington, D. C; the Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois. So far as it can be ascertained there is no copy of the first edition in Florida. 4. See StaufFerAmerican Engravers Upon Copper and Steely New York, 1907, vol. I., page 4. 5. This is the passage from Romans' book which drew from Dr. Turnbull the "Refutation:" AN ACCOUNT OF THE FOUNDATION OF NEW SMYRNA IN FLORIDA, AND OF A REMARKABLE INSURRECTION IN THAT SETTLEMENT At a few miles from the bar is the situation of the town or settlement made by Dr. Turnbull for Sir William Duncan, himself, and perhaps more

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104 LIFE AND WORKS associates; this town is called New Smyrna, from the place of the Doctor's lady's nativity. The settlements round this famous town extend consider ably along the banks of the lagoon, and large quantities of very good indigo have been made here. If my reader is inquisitive to know why I call this famous, I answer on account of the cruel methods used in settling it, which made it the daily topic of conversation for a long time in this and the neigh boring provinces. About 1500 people, men, women and children were deluded away from their native country, where they lived at home in the plentiful cornfields and vineyards of Greece and Italy, to this place, where instead of plenty they found want in its last degree; instead of promised fields, a dreary wilderness; instead of a grateful fertile soil, a barren arid land; and in addition to their misery, were obliged to indent themselves, their wives, and children for many years, to a man who had the most sanguine expectations of trans planting Bashawship from the Levant. The better to effect his purpose, he granted them a pitiful portion of land for ten years, upon the plan of the feodal system: this being improved and just rendered fit for cultivation, at the end of that term it again reverts to the original grantor, and the grantee, may, if he chuses, begin a new state of vassalage for ten years more. Many were denied even such grants as these, and were obliged to work, in the manner of negroes, a task in the field; their provisions were at the best of times only a quart of maize per day, and two ounces of pork per week; this might have sufficed with the help of fish which abounds in the lagoon, but they were denied the liberty of fishing, and lest they should not labour enough, inhuman task-masters were set over them, and instead of allowing each family to do with their homely fare as they pleased, they were forced to join all together in one mess, and at the beat of a vile drum, to come to one common copper, from whence their homany was laded out to them; even this coarse, and scanty meal was through careless management rendered still more coarse, and through the knavery of a proveditor, and the pilfering of a hungry cook, still more scant. Masters of vessels were forewarned from giving any of them a piece of bread or meat. Imagine to yourself an African (an expert hunter) who had been long the favourite of his master, through the importunities of this petty tyrant sold to him,imagine to yourself one of a class of men, whose hearts are generally callous against the softer feelings, melted with the wants of some of these wretches, giving them a piece of his venison, of which he caught what he pleased, and for his charitable act dis graced, whipped, and in course of time used so severely that the unusual servitude soon released him to a happier state; again, behold a man obliged to whip his own wife in public, for pilfering bread to relieve her helpless family; then think of a time when the above small allowance was reduced to half, and see some brave generous seamen charitably sharing their own allowance with some of these wretches, the merciful tars suffering abuse for their generosity, and the miserable objects of their ill-timed pity, under going bodily punishment, for satisfying the cravings of a long disappointed appetite, and you may form some judgment of the manner in which New

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 105 Smyrna was settled. Mr. Joseph Purcell, an excellent young man, who was draughtsman to our department, a Minorquin, who with his family came over at the same time with these people, but happily withdrew from the yoke, could never speak of this without tears: he had been several times an eye-witness to this distress, and told me that he knew many among the unhappy sufferers who were comfortably established in Europe, but by great promises deluded away; and O Florida! were this the only instance of similar barbarity which thou hast seen, we might draw a veil over these scenes of horror; but Rolles Town, Mount Royal, and three or four others of less note, have seen too many wretches fall victims to hunger and ill usage, and that at a period of life when health and strength generally maintain the human frame in its greatest vigour, and seem to ensure longevity. RollesTown in particular has been the sepulchre of above four hundred such victims. Before I leave this subject, I will relate the insurrection to which those unhappy people at New Smyrna were obliged to have recourse, and which the great ones stiled rebellion. In the year 1769, a time when the unparalleled severities of their taskmasters, particularly one Cutter (who had been made a justice of the peace, with no other view than to enable him to execute his barbarities, in a larger extent, and with the greater appearance of authority) had drove these wretches to despair, they resolved to escape to the Havannah; to execute this they broke into the provision stores, and seized on some craft lying in the harbour, but were prevented from taking others by the care of the masters. Destitute of any man fit for the important post of a leader, their proceedings were all confusion, and an Italian of very bad principles, who was accused of a rape on a very young girl, but of so much note, that he had formerly been admitted to the overseer's table, assumed a kind of command; they thought themselves secure where they were, and this occa sioned a delay, 'till a detachment of the ninth regiment had time to arrive, to whom they submitted, except one boat full, which escaped to the Florida Keys; but was taken up by a Providenceman: many were the victims destined to punishment; as I was one of the grand jury which sat fifteen days on this business, I had an opportunity of canvassing it well, but the accusations were of so small account that we found only five bills; one of these was against a man for maiming the above said Cutter, whom, it seems, they had pitched upon as the principal object of their resentment, and cur tailed his ear and two of his fingers;another for shooting a cow, which being a capital crime in England, the law making it such was here extended to this province; the others were against the leader, and three more, for the burglary committed on the provision store; the distresses of the sufferers touched us so, that we almost unanimously wished for some happy circum stances that might justify our rejecting all the bills, except that against the chief, who was a villain. One man was brought before us three or four times, and at last was joined in one accusation with the person who maimed Cutter; yet no evidence of weight appearing against him, I had an opportunity to remark by the appearance of some faces in court, that he had oeen marked, and that the grand jury disappointed the expectations of more than one

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106 LIFE AND WORKS reat man. Governor Grant pardoned two, and a third who was obliged to e the executioner of the remaining two. On this occasion I saw one of the most moving scenes I ever experienced; long and obstinate was the struggle of this man's mind, who repeatedly called out, that he chose to die rather than be the executioner of his friends in distress: this not a little perplexed Mr. Woolridge, the sheriff, till at last the entreaties of the victims themselves, put an end to the conflict in his breast, by encouraging him to the act. Now we beheld a man thus compelled to mount the ladder, take leave of his friends in the most moving manner, kissing them the moment before he committed them to an ignominious death. I have dwelt the longer ori this subject, because the native prejudice of vulgar Englishmen, has represented the misfortunes of these wretches in too black a light. It is said that Dr. Stork, who was near the spot when the insurrection happened, died with the fright, and Cutter some time after died a lingering death, having experienced, besides his wounds, the terrors of a coward in power, overtaken by vengeance. Here follows the text of the "Refutation": To the EDITOR of the COLUMBIAN MAGAZINE. Sir, The man who has attempted to traduce my character, in an anonymous paper* in your magazine for August last, is guilty of asserting a greater number of malicious and improbable falsehoods, than, I believe, ever dis graced such a publication as yours: but as an anonymous calumniator, is justly regarded as an assassin, who stabs in the dark, I cannot, under that circum stance, put myself on a level with him, by answering his malicious libel: a respect, however, and a regard for the public opinion, added to a wish to be thought well of, induce me to request your publishing this letter, with the inclosed answer, in your Columbian Magazine; for as this attempt against my character is made through you, sir, I dare say, that this trivial reparation will not be refused, and that you will do me the favour to acquaint me with the author's name and address.Direct to Dr. Turnbull, Charleston, SouthCarolina. I am, Sir, Your most obedient and Humble servant, Charleston, South-Carolina, October 26, 1788. A. TURNBULL. An Answer to a Publication in the Columbian Magazine for August 1788, in which an attempt is made to calumniate Dr. Turnbull's character. The calumniator begins, continues, and ends his malicious tale in as serting very improbable falsehoods through the whole of his long narrative; *In our last magazine we informed Dr. Turnbull, from what quarter we derived the information complained of, respecting New Smyrna. We now express our sincere regret of having innocently wounded the feelings of so re spectable a character.

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 107 he first asserts that Dr. Turnbull deluded the people he carried to East Florida from the plentiful cornfields and vineyards of Greece and Italy; which is so far from the truth, that it is the reverse in every circumstance; for instead of deluding them, he was most earnestly solicited by the Greeks to find a retreat for them, and their families, being reduced to the most wretched con dition of indigence by the oppression and galling yoke of the Turkish govern ment: they declared to him, when travelling in their country, that it was cruel tyranny and the most pinching poverty that made them wish to fly from such complicated distress; otherwise they would not have emigrated, for there is not a nation on earth more prejudiced in favour of their own country than the Greeks, and indeed with reason. As to the Italians, who this false narrator also says were deluded from their plentiful cornfields and vineyards, the truth is that the doctor engaged one hundred of them, all unmarried men, who he found strangers, or rather vagabonds, in the streets of Leghorn, and who the governor, the count Bourbondel Monte, intended to banish from that city and state, their idleness and wretchedness making them a nuisance. The governor mentioned this to Mr. Rutherford, (then acting consul for the British in that city) and to the doctor, who engaged not to carry off any of the subjects of that state; it was on that condition that he had leave from the governor to take as many of these strangers as he wished, from which it may be concluded that, except the cornfields and vineyards were in the streets of Leghorn, these people could not be on any other when the doctor engaged them; and instead of being in plenty, they were most miserably poor, almost naked, and in very distress ing circumstances, one man excepted: some of them were in such a starving condition; that they offered to serve the doctor any number of years he pleased for their food and one zequin, (ten shillings sterling) a yearthe doctor did not bind them to such hard conditions. In regard to the families he carried from the island of Minorca, they were also very poor and in miserable circumstances, two or three families excepted, for provisions were so scarce that year in Minorca, that many families were almost starved; some of the men that the doctor engaged often declared, that if he had not relieved them they must have perished for want of food; it was only the indigent that he wished to engage, and to take such as could not have any reason to look back, nor regret leaving their own country. The malicious calumniator also says that "instead of plenty they found want in its last degree; instead of promised fields, a dreary wilderness; instead of a grateful and fertile soil, a barren arid sand; and in addition to their misery they were obliged to indent themselves, their wives, and children for many years, and that after ten years, they would be obliged to begin a new vassalage:" this is so contrary to all truth, that these people were all en gaged as farmers before they left Europe, though this narrator says that after they found desarts and barren soil, they were obliged to indent them selves as an addition to their misery. As to their being constrained to cul tivate another tract as is said, that is equally false, for the doctor offered them leases for ninety nine years, wishing to fix them and their children,

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108 LIFE AND WORKS though the terms were more advantageous to them than to the doctor; the agreement or farming lease (signed by him and them in Europe) being that the whole of the expence after their landing in East-Florida, should be paid out of the first produce; that they were to cultivate the same lands for ten years more on shares with the proprietor; that is, they were to share the neat Eroduce equally, the proprietor's share being to reimburse the expences of ringing them to America; the whole, however, of the expence of maintaining the farmer and his family was first to be taken from the gross produce, before the division mentioned was made, so that the farmer's share, for the most part, could not be less than two-thirds, even from good crops, but in a bad sea son, these expences would take the whole, which actually happened to the lasy and indolent: by this agreement the farmer was always certain of a living, for even in a total failure of a crop, the proprietor could not suffer the farmer to starve; these conditions were much more advantageous to them than those in their own country, where farms are on shares, for according to the agree ment with Dr. TurnbuU, the farmer had double advantages in comparison of those they had been accustomed to farm at; in those parts of Europe from whence these people came, the general terms are, that the proprietor and farmer are to have equal shares of the gross produce, but the farmer is not only obliged to maintain himself and his family from his share, but he is also obliged to give five per cent more to the proprietor, for what may have been wasted by his family; from which it is easy to see, that they were on a much better footing with Dr. TurnbuU than in their own country, and without being obliged to advance one shilling. This detractor also says, that the people had a scanty allowance, which, however, he admits, would have been sufficient if they had not been prohib ited from fishing. This is so contrary to what was the fact and truth, that every encouragement and assistance was given to them for fishing, in which they became so dextrous and successful that many families had for the most part great quantities of dried fish in their houses; fish being so plenty in the river, on the banks of which their houses were built, that one man could generally catch as much in one hour, as would serve his family twenty-four, almost all having small canoes for that purpose: besides this wholesome and agreeable part of food, every family had the conveniences for breeding as much poultry as they wished, in which they had such success, that they frequently sold great numbers for the St. Augustine market. A captain Brown once pur chased above twelve hundred poultry at one time, and above eight hundred in another trip with his schooner, for which he gave tobacco, sugar, and such little articles of luxury, from which it may be inferred, that if they had been pinched for provisions, they would not have parted with their poultry for such things as are mentioned: every family had also as much garden-ground as they pleased, on which they raised great quantities of vegetables: but can it be supposed that Dr. TurnbuU, who had been at much expence and trouble in bringing these people from Europe, would not be anxious to preserve them by assisting them in procuring fish, vegetables, &c. and the more so, as they were intended for a beginning of a great settlement. The assertion of their

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 109 victuals being all cooked together, is not only false, but it was impossible, for as their houses were on the sides of the river and extended nigh eight miles, being at equal distances one from another, they would not be called together at meal times by the beat of a bad drum as this narrator says; the truth is, that each family had such provisions as were necessary to be stored, to pre vent waste, served out to them once a week, which they dressed as they pleased. Among other falsehoods, it is said, that the African hunter died in consequence of a whipping, for selling of venison or giving it away; it is cer tain that such a punishment was never inflicted for such a cause; it is need less however to contradict this in any other way than by mentioning that the only hunter the doctor ever had was the African London, who died two years ago on Mr. Ross's Plantation nigh Camden in this state, being then above twenty years of age. The plantations of Mount Royal and Rollestown are also brought into this narrative in such a way as to induce a belief that Dr. Turnbull was concerned in them: both these plantations were above a hundred miles from the doc tor's residence, and he never was concerned in either of them in any way whatever. This fabricator of falsehoods says also that a husband was obliged to beat his wife for having stolen some bread for her children; to which the doctor answers, that he never ordered any woman to be punished either publicly or privately, but he was often obliged to interfere in order to keep peace par ticularly between man and wife, for the women at times provoked their hus bands to use them harshly; and so far was it from his disposition to use severities, that he discouraged every thing of that tendency, and discharged his managers when he found them inclined to severity. It is remarkable that the curse of falsehood should have taken such a strong gripe and full possession of the mind of this narrator, that even in trivial matters he cannot speak truth; for in regard to the Joseph Purcel he mentions, and who he says, withdrew from the yoke in time, that cir cumstance being false as all the rest. Joseph Purcel never was in the yoke, as he calls it, nor ever was engaged in any mode whatsoever with the doctor; the truth is that the father of Joseph Purcel was a house carpenter in Minorca, and was employed by the doctor to do some work there in a ship he had freighted, which gave Purcel the father an opportunity of laying his distresses before the doctor, and of requesting him for a passage to St. Augustine for him and his family, to which the doctor assented, and landed them in St. Augustine. The Joseph Rurcel mentioned, was one of his sons then fifteen or sixteen years of age, for whom the doctor solicited Mr. De Brahan the surveyor general of East Florida to take him as an apprentice, which he did, and the doctor was security for his good behaviour; thinking himself lucky in relieving the father from a part of the burden of his family, he never had any reason to repent this service and others to the father; he cannot say so in regard to the son; but however, that is, he repeats that neither the father, his son Joseph, nor any one of the family were engaged to him even for one hour, nor ever intended as one of his settlers; notwithstanding this fabricator

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110 LIFE AND WORKS of falsehoods says, that Joseph Purcel withdrew from the yoke. He also says that the doctor had sanguine hopes of setting up a bashawship as he calls it; if the doctor had intended any thing of that sort,he would not have taken his ground for such a plan under a British government. This calumniator says that it was the cruelty of the task-masters which drove these people to endeavour an escape to the Havannah; this was so far from being the case, that it was a few days only after their landing at Smyrna, and before any work was begun or assigned, that one Carlo Forni persuaded sixteen resolute men to join him in order to carry off linens, cloathing &c. then landed for the people to the amount of about two thousand pounds, and they actually filled a schooner with about thirteen hundred pounds worth of these goods; and they would have carried off the goods in that schooner, which they had piratically seized in the river, if the little water on the bar had not prevented it; the goods however were all lost, for they threw them overboard to lighten the schooner when on the bar; but as at the time of the meeting no work had been assigned, consequently no cruelties from task-masters could give cause of complaint or mutiny; the more so as the whole of the men concerned with Fomi had not been forty-eight hours on the settlement. Fomi had been there some days, and was the first man ager under Mr. Culler, consequently a task-master himself, he imagined that the goods in store were more valuable than they really were, and it was that bait, and the hope of plunder, by which he engaged the others to join him. This calumniator also insinuates, that, the people condemned were accused only of slight things. This is a very extraordinary insinuation, for the men tried and condemned had been guilty of piracy, of breaking open a store and taking goods out of it to a considerable amount, added to a murder committed, to which they were all accessaries; and that that murder was of a good benevolent man, walking about with an umbrella in his hand, with which he warded the blows aimed at his head, till he received a mortal stab in the groin; besides the trial was before chief justice Drayton, whose integrity, abilities, and conduct, in the impartial administration of justice, during the many years he presided the bench in that province, gained him the applause and esteem of all ranks of men under that government. Though that heavy loss fell on the doctor, he solicited the governor to pardon as many of these criminals as he could, his lenity added to security being given by the doctor for twelve of the deluded accessaries, threw the punishment on Fomi the contriver and leader of the mutiny, and on the man who stabbed Mr. Cutler. As to severities, they were so far from being adopted, or a part of the doctor's plan, that it was his wish to make these people as easy and as happy as he could, and they were so much so, that when the doctor went to England, in the year 1769, and staid almost one year, he left the settlement and people under the cafe of Mrs. Turnbull and his nephew, not twenty years of age at that time; if the doctor had been conscious of being a cruel master, he would not have left his wife, with a family of small children among them, especially as they were such foreigners as generally revenge injuries by murder, which they could have committed without the least risk, as they could have escaped

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 111 to the Havannah, either in some of the large craft in the river, or in their canoes, if ill treatment or any other reason had induced them to go away; though this mode of escape was always in their power, he never lost one by desertion from the time of the mutiny, which was immediately after their landing in 1768, till the settlement was broken up in the year 1777. It is said in the pseudo narration that the land these people were put to cultivate was a dreary wilderness and a barren arid sand, though he says that large quantities of very good indigo had been made there, which is a contradic tion, for if large quantities of indigo have been made, as he says, it could not be barren; the truth is, that the first land the doctor cleared was high, and on the sides of the river, in order to build the houses in a wholesome and airy situation, but even that land bore indigo and corn at the same time, and both of the best kind. The land however, to which the doctor gave atten tion, and which he chiefly cleared, drained, and planted, was what is called high swamp; the soil of which was even strong enough for sugar canes, and it is well known that the doctor sold above five-thousand bushels of corn from that soil in one year, being the overplus of what was necessary for the settle ment, and all from the barren arid sand that this man mentions. A respect and deference to the public opinion, and a wish to be thought well of by all good men, have engaged me to say so much in answer to the many falsehoods asserted by this secret calumniator, though it may seem unnecessary, as most of his assertions do not even carry a probability with them. A. TURNBULL. Charleston, Oct. 28, 1788. We have received another letter from a friend of Dr. TURNBULL'S, under the signature of Veritas, in which the writer reprobates with great warmth the unjust attack upon the doctor's character; refutes the assertions con tained in the narrative referred to, bears testimony to the virtues of his friend (who is at the head of his profession in skill and humanity) and quotes an elegant passage from the ninth volume of the Abbe Raynal's polit ical and philosophical history, &c. in which the doctor's conduct, and the foundation of New Smyrna, are placed in a proper light. 6. It is plain that Mr. Phillips accepts Romans' criticism of Dr. Turnbull at its face value. The authors whom he quotes above have done the same thing. It has remained for Miss Carita Doggett to investigate the conditions in the Turnbull Colony in original source material. Her book entitled Dr. Andrew Turnbull and the New Smyrna Colony y Jacksonville 1921, goes a long way toward showing that Romans' criticism was unwarranted. 7. Romans was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society on January 21, 1774. 8. There are references to Romans' works upon the Hudson in the MSS. of the Connecticut State Library, Hartford, Connecticut, pertaining to the Revolutionary War. These references will be found in Vol. Ill, pages 25, 26,

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112 LIFE AND WORKS 26a, 28a, 47, 633a, and vol. 32, page 225d. The document in vol. III., page 26a, is in the original handwriting of Romans with his signature at the end, and is the one referred to in the text. 9. In this connection Mr. Alexander J. Wall of the New York Historical Society has kindly brought to our attention a letter referring to Romans, which is in their collection. The letter is here reproduced in full: "Newyork Septr. 2i8t.i775 "Dear Sirs, "I have Just this Instant Rec^ yours of the 10th & an Opertunity by a Gentl who Resides near you now offering I must answer in great haste the Orders Contained in yours I shall Endeavour to fulfill & send you by the Sloop wh Brings the shingles, With the Other things Ordered in your Last. I hope the shingles will be Dressed & Ready to ship you On SatterdayI have Engaged the Sloop to begin to Take On board tomorrow afternoonMr. Romans arived here Last Sunday; on Monday I went with him to the Com mittee of Safety, where he Exhibited his plan of the works to them & the Next day the Estimates of Expences; on the Whole they Seem Pleased with them & I must Confess to you I have a high Opinion of the Plan & of his Abilitiesthe Committee sent off an Express with the plan & Expences; to the Continental Congress, the Same day he gave the Last in. Yesterday Morning he Set off for New Haven, to be back in Six days & as soon as he Returns here I Expect he will be Dispatched to youJust before he Left this he desired me by first Oportunity to Convey the Contents of the Enclosed Memorandon but as I have not time to say much on the Direction Given me I Send you the Original which no doubt you'l understand better than I can Explain it. with respect to Woosten troops I am not able to write any thing with Certainty but Refer you to my next when I hope to be fully Inform'd, his motions are so slow that Like the hand of a Clock though it moves the Eye Cannot Discover itI am with Esteem & Great Affec tion your Assured friend & Humb1 ServS "John Berrien. "P. S the Affair of the fire ships & floating Battery will Certainly take wind he can be Expeditious in their equipmentthat you may make use of the first Northwardly windyour families are well had not time to Let them Know of this OpertunityExcept Mrs. Hanson who sends a package Capt Greenhil is weak yet ." It is not known to whom this letter was addressed. 10. In the Century Dictionary, "Matross" is defined as follows: Formerly, one of the soldiers in a train of artillery who were next to the gunners, and assisted them in loading, firing, and sponging the guns. They carried firelocks, and marched with the store-wagons as guards and assistants/' 11. It is listed in the Calendar of the Emmet Collection of Manuscripts, etc., relating to American History. Presented to the New York Public Library by John S. Kennedy. New York, 1900, with the note (To Philip Schuyler)orig-

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 113 inally queried, but the interrogation mark has been struck out. It also appears in the MS, Calendar of Letters to Gen. Philip Schuyler, 1761-1802, made hy M. E. A(Uison ?) in 185 f. 12. See StilesHistory of Wethersfield, vol. I., page 811, where it is stated that Elizabeth Romans was a member of the church in Newington, Jan uary 6, 1805. Vol. II., page 587, a short sketch of Bernard Romans. 13. The letter is here given in full: Extract of a Letter from BERNARD ROMANS of Pensacola, dated August 20, 1773. The common mariners compass has always appeared to accurate ob servers as an imperfect instrument, but in nothing has it proved to be more defective than in its use in storms, the heaviest brass compasses now in use are by no means to be relied on in a hollow or high sea. This is owing to the box hanging in two brass rings confining it to only two motions both vertical, and at right angles with each other, by which confinement of the box upon any succussion, more especially sudden ones, the card is always put into too much agitation, and before it can well recover itself, another jerk again pre vents its pointing to the pole, nor is it an extraordinary thing to see the card unshipped by the violence of the ship's pitching. All these inconveniences are remedied to the full by giving the-box a vertical motion at every degree and minute of the circle, and to compound these motions with a horizontal one, of the box, as well as of the card. By this unconfined disposition of the box the effects of the jerks on the card are avoided, and it will always very steadily point to the pole. Experience has taught me, that the card not only is not in the smallest degree affected by the hollow sea, but even in all the violent shocks and whirlings the box can receive, the card lies as still as if in a room unaffected by the least motion. Lately a compass was invented and made in Holland, which has all these motions. It is of the size of the common brass compasses, the bottom of the brass box instead of being like a bowl, must be raised into a hollow cone, like the bottom of a common glass bottle; the vertex of the cone must be raised so high as to leave but one inch between the card and the glass; the box must be of the ordinary depth, and a quantity of lead must be poured in the bottom of the box round the base of the cone, this secures it on the style whereon it traverses. This style is firmly fixed in the center of a square wooden box, like the common compass, except that it requires a thicker bottom. The style must be of brass about six inches long, round and of the thickness of one-third of an inch, its head blunt, like the head of a sewing thimble but of good polish; the style must stand perpendicular, the inner vertex of the cone must also be well polished; the vertical part of the cone ought to be thick enough to admit of a well polished cavity sufficient to admit a short style proceeding from the center of the card whereon it traverses. The compass I saw was so con-

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114 LIFE AND WORKS structed, but I see no reason why the style might not proceed from the center of the vertex of the cone, and so be received by the card the common way. The needle must be a magnetic bar blunt at each end; the glass and cover is put on in the common way. A compass of this kind was given by the captain of a Dutch man of war to Capt. Burnaby of the Zephyr sloop; this gentleman gave it to me to examine, and was very profuse in his encomiums thereon, saying that in a very hard gale, which lasted some days, there was not a compass but it of any service at all. Indeed to me it appears to deserve all the praise he gave it. My stay is too short here, as not to allow me time to have one made; but I intend to have one made for my own use, and shall offer it to the society for inspec tion. I hope that this useful instrument may become universal, as naviga tion certainly will be rendered more safe through its means; and I shall think myself highly honoured, if through the channel of this society it be comes public. 14. There is nothing in the letter of transmittal to indicate that Romans was the writer of this poem. Positive knowledge of this fact is still wanting although from the little we know of Romans he was quite capable of writing it. Until definite proof be forthcoming, the ascription of authorship to Ro mans must be accepted with reservations. 15. The statement that this volume is the first book of over one hundred pages printed in Hartford has been accepted by all bibliographers. Mr. Albert C. Bates of the Connecticut Historical Society has, however, brought to our attention the following interesting bibliographical discovery: While compar ing a copy of Ebenezer Frothingham's A Key, to unlock the Door, that leads in, to take a Fair View of the Religious Constitution, established by Law, in the Colony of Connecticut, with the contemporary newspaper printed in Hartford, he found that on page 43 of the book there was a capital letter enclosed in a border made up of printer's ornaments, which exhibited asymmetrical pe culiarities in design identical with a border about a capital letter in the Connecticut Courant for February 7, 1767, printed by Thomas Green. The same printer's ornaments were used for the two borders and the same asymmetry is noted. This fact establishes the year 1767 as the date in which Frothing ham's book was printed. As this book contains considerably more than one hundred pages and precedes Romans' volume by eleven years, the obser vations hitherto made regarding the priority of Romans' book must be with drawn. 16. The rarity of the second volume of the Annals of the Troubles in the Netherlands is beyond question. There is one in the collection of the New York Historical Society, one in the Library of Congress; and Mr. Bates of the Connecticut Historical Society has one. If a census of them were taken, considerably fewer copies of it would be found than can be found of the first volume.

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APPENDIX

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APPENDIX We reproduce below the description of West Florida written by Romans on the earliest one of his maps, that of 1772, the original of which is in the Colonial Office, London. AN ATTEMPT TOWARDS A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF WEST FLORIDA Whether this Province be Considered only as a Settlement for the Cultivation of the Necessaries of Life, or for its Natural Produce, that is Already known, or for its Excellent Situation, Either for Commerce as well as For key to the Gulph of Mexico; (for which last Purpose it is Peculiarly Adapted thro' the Excellence of its Ports;) or again as to its Connexions with, and Proximity to the Southern Tribes of Indians, in General, it Certainly Bids fair to Become in a Small Space of Time as Flourishing a Country as any AMERICA can Boast of. For the first Article Viz: the Tillage of the Ground; not to Speak of the Mississippi, About which there hath been Lately so much said that I Judge whatever Could now be Mentioned con cerning that Father of Rivers would only be Needless RepetitionI shall therefore Begin with the Next Considerable River to the Eastward of it, I mean the Pearl River; I have seen its Sources which Encircle together with the Branches of the Tombechbe the whole Chactaw Nation and the Sources of Pasca Oocoloo: in these its Upper Regions it Certainly Yields to none in Fertile Grounds; its Northermost Branch rises about Two hundred and Sixty Miles (in a Direct Line) North of the Gulph of Mexico; it is Said that it Abounds all the Length of its Course in an Equally Good Soil, as that which we See where it first Springs But as we are as Yet unluckily in Such darkness Concerning its Hydrography, we Can only take these Vague Accounts from the Hunters Reports. Certain it is that the two or three Family's Living near its Mouth are Faithfully paid for their Honest Labours, which they bestow on the Grateful Earth, and for its Navigation it is known to be Capable of Admitting very Considerable Crafts. The next to the Eastward is the Bogue Pasca Oocoloo, [illegible: This (is)]? the River of the Na tion of Bread, it had this Name from a Tribe of that Name who lived near its Mouth and by their Industrious Tilling of its fertile Grounds were Enabled to Supply their Neighbours with that Staff of Life. I have traced it from its first Original Spring, down to its Confluence with the Bogue Aithee Tanne, Vulgarly Called Backatanne, which after receiving another not at all Inconsiderable Branch Called Bogue Chitte, running Between the Pasca Oocoloo and said Bogue Aithee Tanne, and Neither Yielding to the first in Fertility, Joins the Pasca Oocoloo below the Chactaw Nation About One hundred and Seventy Miles directly North from the said Gulph their Heads

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120 LIFE AND WORKS are all About two hundred and thirty five Miles in a North Line from the Same, its present Masters who Inhabit the Banks from this Confluence upwards are the Chactaws (Already Sufficiently described in one of my former Maps) I shall therefore only observe that they well deserve the Above named Epithet Viz. the Nation of Bread as they Yearly Supply many of their Neighbours with that Necessary Article. I have seen in their Country Several Sorts of Legaminous Plants Entirely before Unknown to me. Con cerning the Navigation of this River I shall only Say that it is better than the Pearl River, in that Article, and Anno One thousand Seven hundred and Seventy, there was a Vessel Built at Chicasatray, two hundred Miles from the Sea if Measured in a Streight line, which Vessel brought down to the Sea Six hundred Bushells of Corn besides a Considerable Quantity of Deer Skins. The Next River is the Tombechbe Certainly the first in North America after the Mississippi and St. Lawrens, Whether it be Considered for its Extensive Navigation which Begins in Latitude 350: 20 and after Receiving the Yaneka, Swangelo, Oaka Tibohaw, Oaka Nokshaba, Sookan Catcha, and Many Others of Lesser Note into its Western side, And the Rivers Called Twenty Seven Mile Creek, Last River, two Archers Rivers, the Sispe, Potocahatcha, or Triscaloosa, all very Considerable, and Last of all the Great River of the Alibamas, on its Eastern side which Last Confluence is in Latitc. 310: 12 and Glides Gently thro* Innumerable Islands, as in this draught Expressed, and at Mobile the Islands Ending it becomes Above Eight Miles Wide, and then Assuming the Name of Mobile Bay, Disembogues itself into the Gulph of Mexico in Latc: 300: 11 I myself Came down its Stream Above Six hundred Miles. This River also Abounds in very Fertile Soil, I Cut a Cane on its Banks which Measured Forty Seven Feet from the third Joint, to its Extremity, thirteen of its Joints I brought down to Mobile and Presented to the Honorable John Stuart Esquire in January of this Instant Year One thousand Seven hundred and Seventy two, which each of them were in Length Above Twenty Inches, and Above five Inches Circumference, nor was this an Extraordinary Case, for I might [have] brought Several Thousands of that Size had it been worth While. Nay it was the first Come to, for I sent my Servant to Cut the first Large Cane he Could find, which proved the One Mentioned, This River in Process of time must Indubitably become a fine Settlement not Inferior by itself to any Province now known. By Means of this River Mobile will One Day become the only Mart, for the Skin Trade from the Chactaw, Chickesaw, and Upper Creek Nations. From here Eastward the Land diminishes in Goodness. The next River is the Perdido of Inconsider able Note either for Navigation, or Plantable Lands, it rises in Latitude 31.0 io', and this makes but a Short Course. But it together with the Styx, Roche Blave, and all its other heads, are invaluable on Account of the Incom parable pasture it Affords, it even now Maintains between it and the Taenso Branch of the Mobile Above Ten Thousand Cattle and Horses, The Three Rivers Viz. The Scambe Middle River and Chester are of the Utmost Con sequence to the Town of Pensacola and will Undoubtedly prove One of the

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 121 Sources of its future Wealth. On Chester River and the Scambe there are Abundance of Valuable Rice Lands, such as have enriched the Planters in Carolina, and Georgia. On the Scambe the Swamps being higher and easier drained, they are upon that Account at Present more Valuable to a Colony where Working hands are as yet Scarce, and Where Labour is for that Reason Expensive, but when the Country comes to be better Peopled the Rice Lands on Chester River may be made Equal to any in America. The Middle River has few or no rich Swamps upon it, only in some places there are Boggs Overgrown with that Species of Hypericum, which is here Called the Loblolly Bay, and even the Want of Swamps upon this River is an Advantage, for by the Number of Landing places, which it Affords, the Town of Pensacola can always be Supplied with Various kinds of Excellent Timber, with which the Country Adjacent to the Middle River Abounds, tho' it Already begins to be Scarce below the Swamps on the Scambe and Chester Rivers, will prevent the making of Roads there except at a very Great Expence. On the East and the North East of Scamb6 these Swamps and Bogs, I found so Extensive as to render it impossible for me to Examine these parts more particularly this Wet Season. On the West side of the Scambe, and about the Weeocca, there are likewise a great Many Boggs, so that I found it Difficult to pass there with Light Loads, even in the Dryest Season of the Year. The Present Road to the Upper Creek Nation however is by this Route, and from the reason Already Mentioned the Difficulty in Crossing Several of the Creeks and Branches which fall into Coosa or Alibama River, as well as from the Winding of the Path, and the Obstructions to be met with from the Logs and light Wood, thrown down by Hurricanes it is but a very Indifferent One. On Chester River the Swamps are also very Wide but not Boggy. The Lands upon and about the Two Large Creeks Marked A and B are the finest Imaginable and particularly those next to the Latter. I would humbly presume to Recommend the Reservation of a Small Township or Village by the Name of New Augusta, at C: a Spot which has already been Pointed out by the Indians themselves as the most Convenient Situation for that Trade, there is even now a very good Road from the Upper Creek Nation to the Point B which is About four Indian Days Journey, or One hundred Miles Distance and from thence they divide themselves into Small Parties for the Conveniency of hunting in the Lower Grounds. To make a Road from C to B all that seems to be wanting is the Blazing of the Trees, and the Passage of about one hundred Pack horses | a Number not much exceeding what the Traders now bring to Pensacola at one time \ the Distance is about Six Days Journey, and a high and dry Ridge of Land all the Day. But upon Account of Water the Road Ought not to be Carried too far from the Banks of Middle River. I should also Imagine that if ever a Post road to the Northward be undertaken, it must go along the Edge of this Ridge. From C there is also a road to the Lower Creeks, tho' it has not been much used of late. But I need say no more concerning the Advantages of this Situation only that Seven or Eight feet Water may be depended upon from Pensacola to it: There is a very Excellent

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122 LIFE AND WORKS Bason to receive Such Vessels as Can go in there and they are Well Sheltered from every Wind that Can blow. The Tide flows About two and a half feet, Most of the high Lands which I have Examined from the Tensa or Coosa River to Chester River, are Inferior to few in America, either for Summer or Winter Food for Cattle, in many places it is Gravelly, not Sandy, and a kind of Clay or Marl is often found near the Surface, When the People therefore are Convinced that a Mixture of Clay or Marl with Lands makes these Lands fertile, they may do it at a very Moderate Expence. This part of the Country Abounds in Iron Mines. As to the Boundary Line with the Upper Creek Nation that is a Difficult Matter to be Properly adjusted, but I am humbly of Opinion that to have any Conveniency for Planting or a Tolerable Range for Cattle it ought to begin at the Creek Marked D where it is said to fall into the Alabama River, near to the Bayouc Cononga or Hesia, and to go Along the said Creek to its Source, from thence to go Across the Path from Mobile to the Upper Creek Nation, to a Cane Branch which falls into the Weeocca and down the Weeocca to its Confluence with the River Scambe and so down the Scambe to the turn Marked E, and from thence in a Line drawn nearly East to a Remarkable Raft in the Middle River Marked F, and from this Raft in a line drawn South Easterly, to the first Raft in the Yellow Water or Chester River, near to the Hutt now Possessed by the Indian Called Johny Watts, and so in an Easterly Direction to the Chattowhatchee, where the Lower Creek Line begins. This Boundary would nearly Include all the Rivers which fall into the Bay of Pensacola as far as they are Navigable at present, and Nothing but mere Jealousy Could prevent the Indians from Granting it, as there is Scarce a hunting Camp to be Seen below this Line, and very few near to it, that are of any Consequence. It was on the Seventh day of July Anno Domini One Thousand Seven hundred and Seventy two that I Surveyed the Weewa Lane up to the place marked G and I Could not Proceed any farther not being provided with any Tools, to Clear the River, of the Rafts a little higher up, and my Boat drew Eighteen Inches Water so Could not go over the Gaps Cut for Canoes. I Viewed the River higher up by Land and saw that it was Still Wide and Navigable, it Certainly Comes a Great Way. There was a Land flood in the Rivers therefore I Could not Observe the Limits of the flowing of the Tides very Exactly, but in the Lakes H and I it flows about Sixteen Inches, Next Eastward we find the Chatto Hatcha Emptying into Sta Rosa Bay, but we know only that it receives the Talako Hatche, and runs a good Length and Emptys as Above. The next is the Apalachicola which is the Boundary of the Province. ^ But all we know of this is that it is Large, Plentiful in Fish, and its Adjoining Country fertile, so that we must Content ourselves till further Examinations will make us better Acquainted with the Geography of that Part of the Country, besides these there are many of Inferior Note, the Principal of which are, the Iberville, Amit, Fangippoha, and Chafuncto, all now beginning to be Inhabited and not without much Reason their fertility is much boasted of. But as they are of Short Course and never yet Examined, I shall for the present say no more of them. Next

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 123 as to its Natural Produce it Abounds in Useful Plants Among which I think the Indigo deserves the first Rank, this we find in a very great Abundance and such as is known to be an Excellent Sort. Next the great Variety of Wild Pulse for feeding Cattle of all kinds, in Timber no Country on Earth Can Surpass it, either in Quantity, Quality, or Variety, the Quantity is such as makes it Absolutely impossible to Describe, to an European who has not seen the Like and indeed it is beyond the Conception of an Inhabitant of any part of that Quarter of the World, where such Vast and Continued forests, and Desarts are Utterly unknown every where. Yet the most remote of this so Valuable Article, [is] easy to be brought to Market, by Means of its many Navigable Rivers. Among those sorts of Timber the Elm, Ash, Maple, About Twenty Sorts of Oak, and many Species of Pine &ca are in Common to Other Countries. But the Live Oak, Juniper, Cedar and Yellow Pine, are not to be Equalled anywhere, and are a Vast and Inexhaustible Mine, for the Building of those so Necessary Vehicles to Great Britain, Viz. Ships of all kinds, whether for War or Trade; Next to Consider the Medicinal Plants, we find here they are Many, not to Speak of the Numerous Variety of Antiscorbuticks, we find here Spontaneously every where, whose Nature is so well known to the Seamen after long Voyages, and of whom I shall only Mention the Principals, Such are the Crambe, checorium portulacca, a Species of Esculent Amaranthus, and many kinds of Allium, Sisymbrium, and Cacalia, I must not forbear the Mention of the Tallap of which Root I Claim the first finding in any Settlement, Belonging to Great Britain, or any other Power Except Spain, and of which there is here a Plentifull Sufficiency for to begin its Cultivation, was it Encouraged, the Specansanha is here also in Abundance, besides the Pistacia Therebinthus, the Styrax Officinale, Convolvulus Scammonia, Smilax China, Smilax Sarsaparilla, Peenia Granetum, Memordica Elateria, and Innumerable Others Used by the Savages and to us almost Utterly Unknown. Next let us proceed to the produce of its Waters, and for this the sea is Certainly first in Rank, it Abounds here in fish of all kinds, that are Usually found in those Latitudes, Principally the Jacob Evers, or Jew Fish, the Tarpom, the Mangrove Snapper, Spanish Mackerel, Grunts Black and Red Drum, this Last Miscalled in this Country the Carp, the Sheep Head, the Hog Fish, the Croaker, the Glen Fish, not unlike the Trout in Europe, and of the same Outward Appearance and so Called here, Rays and Species of Turbot, Cavallos, Dolphins, Eels among which the Murena, a Species of Albula and Mullet, besides prawns and Many others too Tedious to Mention, and those in very great Abundance. The Rivers have in Common with those of Europe the Sturgeon, the Eel, the Pike, the Chab or Chevin, here Miscalled a Trout, this last of a much finer flavour than in England, and so is the Sturgeon, But the Pike is Inferior, those peculiar to America are three Species of the Bream, One of which is here Called Perch, the Striped Rock, and a kind of Fish that is very Excellent and on which there is not a Name yet fixed it is Seemingly peculiar to this Province, and in it to the Western Rivers: I have Seen but One it is Silver Coloured with a Black Back, flat and Broad, but as I saw but one I must

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124 LIFE AND WORKS forbear a Proper Description, there is also a fish Called the Gar Fish or Allegator Fish from the Shape of its head and teeth, by the french Called poisson arme, and not ill described by their Writers. Besides these there are three Species of Eel Ponts, but these are in every Sea or River on the Earth besides, and of no Great Value though Some People pretend to Admire them. The Sea fish is an Article that Requires and Merits a Serious Con sideration, they are in such Innumerable Quantity's as exceed even Imagi nation, but in Some parts more than in others. We See every Year from September to March the Spaniards Coming for fish; the Northermost place of Rendezvous for them, is About One Hundred Leagues to the East of Pensacola harbour, Where the Coast in some Measure Resembles that of Newfoundland, for the fishermens flakes and hats, and during the Season I mentioned it is not Uncommon to see three or four Hundred White Men Maintained who Only bring some Maize, Rice and Sweetmeats, and for the Rest depend upon their Musquets, Nets, hooks, Lines, and harpoons, besides About Five hundred of the Lower Creek Nation of Indians from the Settle ments up the Apalachicola River, Likewise the Whole Tribe of Ocanee Indians, at least two hundred more who yearly Come there for the purpose of hunting, and the Skins they get make more than Two thirds of the Number Exported from Carolina and Georgia together, thus this Country thought so Barren and Worthless, Maintains by its Natural Produce About Eleven hundred people every Year. The Savages are not so Well Provided with Bread as the Spaniards who bring some with them. But both are Supplied with that Article in a very great Measure by the Cabbage Tree, but more by a Species of Convolvulus known by the Name of Wild Potatoe, and found in the Cane Branches, as well as by Several Species of Smilax China, the Root of Which they pound into a flower, or more properly in an Impalpable Powder, and of this they make a kind of Bread which tho* Insipid is yet very Nourishing, Likewise in Years when the Canes produce their Seed which indeed is not frequent, they Supply them with an Excellent Grain, and the first Shoots of Cane are far from being a Despicable Food, they also have a Species of Coreopsis of which they make a Sort of Sweet Bread, tho* in no great Quantity. But the Diospgros Supplys them with a kind of Bread, that is not only in a very great Abundance, but also of a very pleasant and Agreeable Taste, and a Sovereign Remedy against Fluxes. The Hickory Nut they make a kind of Milk of; which they Esteem next to their Bear Bacon above all things in the World; this does not ill resemble the Milk of Almonds, then the Woods Supply them with such Amazing Abundance of very Excellent Honey that after eating it in Surprizing Quantities they Carry with them at going away many Skins full for to Sell, this Honey is so very good that a Gentleman who was with me one Winter declared it Surpassed the Mediteranean Honey, and had two Bottles full Carefully put up, and reserved for Lord Moyro, who he said was a good Connoisseur in that Article, how his present was Approved of or whether it was really sent or received, I never heard. I have these Last Articles from my own experience of Three Years during this time I have Yearly Seen About One Thousand Tons

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 125 Weight of dry'd Salted Fish go from the Western Shore of the Province of East Florida, to the Havannah, Besides what goes from the Eastern Shore. In this Trade they Employ About Thirty Vessels from fifteen to forty Tons, and none are Navigated with less than Twelve Men the Largest Sometimes Twenty or Twenty Eight, and most Come and go twice every Season, this we of both Floridas See and Sit Still, and with this Fish the West India Markets, but more Particularly Jamaica, may be Supplied at a Season when all their Northward Fish is bad, and begins to decay, so that the two Fisheries would by no means Interfere, with each Other; and I will be bold to say that the Coast will Admit of Six times that Number of Vessells to Load Annually. Add to this that the Sorts of Fish Caught here Always fetch a Much Greater price in the West Indies than the Cod from New foundland. Who Can seriously Consider all this without being Convinced that it is a Beneficial Article of Trade, nor is it a Visionary Scheme as Gover nor Grant once was pleased to say when I related all this. But whoever will keep his Eyes Open may yearly see all which I have related and more, for I am Convinced that my Computation of One Thousand Tons of Fish is much within Bounds, I Cannot help relating that in the Winter of the Years One thousand seven hundred and sixty nine and Seventy I lay by the side of a Spaniard in Aisa Hatcha who during Six Weeks made up a Cargo of Two Thousand Arobas of Red and Black Drum Fish, dry'd and Salted, Besides Several hundred Turbots and fourteen Thousand Mullet rows made into Botango, he had Twenty Six Men on Board, and I had Twenty three besides four Runaways, I Chanced to get during my Stay on the Coast, this Number of Men was really Maintained by him in Fish, and there was such Variety that with the help of now and then a Turkey, a Carcase of Venison, or Turtle, Oysters and Cockles, I never heard a Complaint About their Diet, it is Worth Observing that of all the Mullets, that were Caught, not one was ever kept, Except one person or other had a fancy to eat one of them, these fish were always Caught during the Night; and in the Morning After an Examination whether they were Males or Females, the Males were thrown over and when the roes were taken out the Females Shared the Same Fate; It is to be observed that these People go upon Shares, and as I had After wards an Opportunity of Seeing Many of this Crew, Curiosity led me to Enquire What their Shares had Amounted to for that Voyage, and I was told by every one whom I Asked that each Single Share Amounted to near Two Hundred and Eighty Milled Dollars, and I had so much reason to believe them that I dare Confidently to deliver this as from Undoubted Authority: This I think good reward for About Eight Weeks Labour. The Places on the Coast that are best Calculated for this Fishery, are to Begin from the South and so go North and Westerly, first Cape Sable, next the Island in Juan Ponce de Leon's Bay, then at punto Largo, next Caximbo Espaniola, Carlos Bay, and Charlotte Harbour, then Tampo, and all the Coast to Amaraco, after these Cape Blaze, St. Andrews Bay, and Last of all the Entrance of Mobile Bay. Now let me Speak of another Article which I think might be made of Consequence to Pensacola how Conveniently are

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126 LIFE AND WORKS they not placed to repair to the resort of the Above named Indians, and with Smaller Vessells Supply those Savages with flower, Rice, Blankets, and a reasonable Quantity of their beloved Rum, which at those Seasons they are not much given to make an ill use of, and many Others of the Heavy Articles which by the present Manner of Trading Cannot be but Sparingly brought to them perhaps three hundred Miles by Land upon horses Consequently they must pay a very Incredible price for them and every one who is in the least Acquainted with the Indians, knows that they will part with their most Valuable things for a Supply of said Articles. Now how much Cheaper might this be done in Small Vessells from Pensacola than on Horses from Carolina and Georgia, Also would not this be a Means to make the Trade of the Lower Creeks Center in West Florida, as well as that of the Upper Creeks, and Chactaws, this however has not been tryed, therefore it may be Liable to be thought a Visionary Scheme, but I will take upon me to say that at some not very remote period it will take place; I beg leave Also to Mention that to all Appearance this part of the Indian Trade might be so regulated As to make it be Carried on with less Danger of a Breach of Peace with those People, which whenever it happens is so dreadfull to our remote Settlements and Causes such an Unusual and Severe Service to our Brave Troops, as Surpasses Description, and in which Simple Death is the Smallest Misfortune, that Can befall them, for it is Certain that all the Troubles we have with the Indians take their rise in the Behaviour of the Vile Race who now Carry on that Business, and whose Manners, Discourse, and Way of Life, is such that a relation of it in the most favourable Manner could not fail to Shock humanity. Nay the very Savages are Scandalized at the Lives of those Brutes in human Shape, and in a Case, as above mentioned it would not be so, by reason that in sea Voyages the People are often Changed, and there would be no Danger of their Adopting the Manner of Life of the present Traders because they would not then pass their Summers in the Country in Idleness the parent of all Vice, but to the Contrary follow their Noble Calling, during that Season, in some other Way. With regard to the Savages themselves as they do not properly inhabit the Province, it Comes not within my Sphere to say much of them, only as a great deal hath been said by Many Writers from which we might Conclude that they were a very good, Simple, honest, and even Virtuous People. I must Contradict them and (after Observing that these Southern Indians are incomparably more given to Vice than the Northern Ones) Say that they are a Treacherous, Cruel, deceitfull, Faithless, and thieving Race not in the least to be trusted, but by all means much to be watched against for they have a Thousand Arts of Low Cunning, which when they Cannot Accomplish, they will not Scruple to Commit Violence, which they do with Impunity even in our Town; and best Settlements, well knowing we are not Willing to hinder them. They despise us in a Sovereign Manner, not Scrupling to tell us that they do not Value us, and that we are Obliged to stand in Awe of them; witness the many Presents we give them thro* fear. But I must Conclude this Disagreeable Article And only Quote a

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OF BERNARD ROMANS 127 Sentence of Mr. Oldmixon "Let the Learned say all the fine things that Wit Eloquence and Art can Inspire them With, of the Simplicity of pure Nature, The Savage Wretches of America are an Instance that this In nocence is downright Ignorance, and Stupidity, and this pretended Beauty a Deformity, which puts Man the Lord of the Creation upon an Equal foot with (yea Below) the Beasts of the Forest" the Commercial part Con sidered it must be Evident upon a View of the Geography of this Coast that no Situation on Earth is better for the Logwood Trade with Honduras and Campeachy, and it is Certain that in time the Spaniards in the Bottom and South Western parts of the Gulph must by this Channel be Supplied with the British Manufactures, the Musqueto Shore Likewise Lays Ex tremely handy, Where and at Saint Bias, or old Scot's Settlement a great deal of those Manufactures are Consumed, and the Returns are made in Mahogany, and fustick wood, Turtle Shell, Cocoa, and Some Gold both in Spe cies and in the Mass, and tho' Trade to these Last Country's is free from Dan ger, and the Passage to and from there is Safe Easy and not at all Unpleasant, not to Speak any thing of Cuba: how Easy as has been Above Observed might Jamaica be Supplied with Fish a Very Necessary Article to them And that too at a Season when the fish from the North begins to be Expended, and loose its Goodness, And this would Again Supply this Country with Sugar, Rum, Molasses, Coffee, and Allspice, in return for its Fish, even if in Much Greater Quantity than would be here Consumed, [several words illeg ible] at Providence and Salt from there supply Pensacola. And I promise this is a Safe Navigation, and a Short one too; of which every body will be Sen sible; when those Dreadfull Scyllas & Charybdis's, the Florida and Bahama Banks, those Bug Bears to the fancy of our Navigators, Come once to be as Well known in General as I know them Now, And it is with Joy I behold the Prospect of the Accomplishment of this, Since Daily More and More Vessels find their Way there [about fifteen words illegible] that Trade may be much Extended. How Noble also is the site of this Coast for the Rendezvous of a fleet of Men of War to Command the Spanish Supplys of Money, Five Har bours that are Able to receive as Large Ships as are Necessary in this Part of the World Make a Chain from the South East, to North West, and West, Between the Latitudes of 26.30 and 30.15, the Winds and Currents [about eight words illegible] will not [word illegible] the Ships with the Spanish Treasure, [about six words illegible] very near this Chain of Harbours, so that by Inter cepting these the Power of Spain may be guided, Nay Commanded by Great Britain, And the Treasure that Comes this Way is Lately encreased in a Prodigious Proportion, for since the laying aside the Port of Acapulco by the Spaniards all the Money which used to go that way to Manilla, now finds its way to Europe through this Channel, but I Confess myself not Politician enough to [several words illegible] and I therefore [several words illeg ible] N. B. The Course of the Coast and the Shape of the Bays in this Map were taken from the Accurate Surveys of George Gould Esquire, Chester River, The Middle River and Most Part of the Scambe the Wiocca &ca with their Branches and the Interjacent parts of the Country, were Surveyed

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128 LIFE AND WORKS in the Months of May June and July, One Thousand Seven hundred and Seventy two, by Bernard Romans Employed by His Excellency Governor Chester. The Country between the Scambe and the [word illegible] Branch of the Coosa or Alibama River including the Lower Parts or [one or two words illegible] by Bernard Romans as above and the Islands between it and the River Tombechbe were taken in One Thousand Seven hundred and Seventy One by order of the Honorable John Stuart Esq. Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the District by Mr. David Taitt. The River Tombechbe from Mobile to the Chickesaw Nation and beyond it as far as the Rivers Boqueatane and Tascagoula with all their Branches from the Sources to their Junction the heads of Pearl River &ca & were done in the Latter End of One Thousand Seven hundred and Seventy one and the beginning of One Thousand Seven hundred and Seventy two by the same Bernard Romans employed by the Honorable John Stuart And the whole Examined and Carefully Connected at Pensacola the Thirty first day of August one thousand Seven hundred and Seventy two by the same Bernard Romans. All the Latitudes of the Sea Coast may with Certainty be depended upon and the Inland parts of the Map were also often Corrected by the Latitude. Particularly the Country to the South of the Bay of Mobile where the said Bernard Romans took Sundry Observations of Latitude. The Longitude of the Entrance of Pensacola Harbour upon which all the Rest Depend was taken from Observations of the Eclipses of Jupiters Satellites in one thousand Seven hundred and Sixty Six by John Lorrimer Esq!" M D and makes New Orleans in West Long. 900 which very nearly Agrees with the Observations of M. Baron of the french Academy and may be Sufficiently Depended upon for all the Purposes of Navigation.

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LIST OF SUSTAINING MEMBERS OF THE FLORIDA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY INSTITUTIONS AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY Worcester, Massachusetts AVERY LIBRARY AND HISTORICAL SOCIETY New Port Richey, Florida BANCROFT LIBRARY University of California, Berkeley, California BARTOW PUBLIC LIBRARY Bartow, Florida BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY Boston, Massachusetts CHICAGO PUBLIC LIBRARY Chicago, Illinois CLEMENTS LIBRARY OF AMERICAN HISTORY University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY New York City CONNECTICUT HISTORICAL SOCIETY Hartford, Connecticut DENISON UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Granville, Ohio FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN LIBRARY Tallahassee, Florida HARVARD UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Cambridge, Massachusetts HENRY E. HUNTINGTON LIBRARY AND ART SOCIETY San Gabriel, California JACKSONVILLE PUBLIC LIBRARY Jacksonville, Florida JOHN B. STETSON UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Deland, Florida LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Washington, D. C. MIAMI PUBLIC LIBRARY Miami, Florida

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MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY Saint Paul, Minnesota NEW SMYRNA FREE LIBRARY New Smyrna, Florida NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY New York City NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY New York City OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Columbus, Ohio PALATKA PUBLIC LIBRARY Palatka, Florida PRINCETON UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Princeton, New Jersey ROLLINS COLLEGE LIBRARY Winter Park, Florida SUPREME COURT OF FLORIDA LIBRARY Tallahassee, Florida TAMPA PUBLIC LIBRARY Tampa, Florida UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARY Gainesville, Florida UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS LIBRARY Austin, Texas VIRGINIA STATE LIBRARY Richmond, Virginia WEST PALM BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY West Palm Beach, Florida YALE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY New Haven, Connecticut

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I ADAMS, Miss MAUDE New York City ALLISON, JAMES A. Miami Beach, Florida BARRELL, EDWARD P. Deland, Florida BEAVER, F. P. Dayton, Ohio BEEMAN, H. L. Orlando, Florida BENTLEY, FRANK Tampa, Florida BIGLER, B. B. Saint Augustine, Florida BOND, Mrs. ELIZABETH G. Deland, Florida CALL, RHYDON M. Jacksonville, Florida CANNON, HENRY W. Daytona, Florida CARSON, JAMES M. Miami, Florida CARTER, FRANCIS B. Pensacola, Florida CARTER, W. R. Jacksonville, Florida CHAPIN, GEORGE M. Jacksonville, Florida CHASE, S. O. Sanford, Florida CLAUSSEN, JOHN W. Miami, Florida CLEWIS, A. C. Tampa, Florida COACHMAN, W. F. Jacksonville, Florida DEAN, S. BOBO Miami, Florida DEERING, CHARLES Miami, Florida IVIDUALS ANDERSON, ANDREW Saint Augustine, Florida ANGE, J. F. Orlando, Florida BOND, Mrs. ROBERT M. Deland, Florida BROREIN, W. G. Tampa, Florida BROWN, CHARLES H. Tampa, Florida BRYAN, WILLIAM JENNINGS Miami, Florida BURT, FRED N. DeLeon Springs, Florida COLTON, LITCHFIELD Deland, Florida CONNOR, Mrs. JEANNETTE THURBER New York City CONNOR, WASHINGTON E. New York City CONNOR, WAYNE E. New Smyrna, Florida CONRAD, Mrs. CARRIE F. Deland, Florida CORBETT, WALTER P. Jacksonville, Florida CUBBERLY, FRED S. Gainesville, Florida CUESTA, A. L. Tampa, Florida CURTISS, G. H. Hi-a-le-ah, Florida DEWHURST, W. W. Saint Augustine, Florida DOGGETT, J. L. Jacksonville, Florida

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DEERING, JAMES Miami, Florida DETWILER, JOHN Y. New Smyrna, Florida EVERITT, CHARLES P. New York City FARRISS, CHARLES S. Deland, Florida FEE, WILLIAM I. Fort Pierce, Florida FISHER, CARL G. Miami Beach, Florida FISHER, Mrs. GEORGIA GERTRUDE Deland, Florida GAMBLE, JAMES N. Cincinnati, Ohio GARWOOD, H. C. Deland, Florida GILLETT, D. C. Tampa, Florida GLEN, JAMES F. Tampa, Florida HANAFOURDE, B. K. Jacksonville, Florida HARDEE, CARY A. Tallahassee, Florida HARPER, LATHROP C. New York City JAMESON, JOHN FRANKLIN Washington, D. C. JENNINGS, Mrs. W. S. Jacksonville, Florida KAY, WILLIAM E. Jacksonville, Florida KETTERLINUS, J. L. Saint Augustine, Florida LAKE, FORREST Sanford, Florida DOUGLAS, Mrs. MARJORY STONEMAN Miami, Florida FLEMING, F. P. Jacksonville, Florida FLETCHER, DUNCAN U. Washington, D. C. FOSTER, WARD G. New York City GORDIS, W. S. Deland, Florida GREENE, JAMES A. Winter Haven, Florida GRIFFIN, J. A. Tampa, Florida HENDERSON, ROBERT A., Jr. Fort Myers, Florida HULLEY, LINCOLN Deland, Florida JIJ6N y CAAMANO, JACINTO Quito, Ecuador JORDAN, SAMUEL D. Deland, Florida KNIGHT, PETER 0. Tampa, Florida KNOWLES, WILLIAM H. Pensacola, Florida LEWIS, Miss MARY D. Tallahassee, Florida

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LAMAR, G. B. Saint Augustine, Florida L'ENGLE, E. M. Jacksonville, Florida MACFARLANE, HOWARD P. Tampa, Florida MacWILLIAMS, W. A. Saint Augustine, Florida MALONE, E. R. Pensacola, Florida LOFTIN, SCOTT M. Jacksonville, Florida LOOMIS, JOHN T. Washington, D. C. MASSEY, LOUIS C. Orlando, Florida MAXWELL, E. C. Pensacola, Florida McKAY, D B. Tampa, Florida MICKLE, W. Y. Deland, Florida MURPHREE, A. A. Gainesville, Florida MYERS, W.B. Tallahassee, Florida O'NEAL, W. R. Orlando, Florida OSBORNE, F. R. Deland, Florida PANCOAST, THOMAS J. Miami Beach, Florida PATTERSON, GILES J. Jacksonville, Florida PAUL, JOHN J. Watertown, Florida PERKINS, J. W. Deland, Florida PERRY, P. R. Saint Augustine, Florida RASCO,R.A. Gainesville, Florida REAVES, O.K. Taiapa, Florida REESE, J. H. Miami, Florida REYNOLDS, B. S. Washington, D. C. REYNOLDS, CHARLES B. New York City REYNOLDS, E. H. Saint Augustine, Florida RICKMERS, Mrs. EDNA A. Miami, Florida RIGBY, GEORGE W. Ormond Beach, Florida ROMFH, E. C. Miami, Florida ROSENBACH, A. S. W. Philadelphia, Pa. SANCHEZ, EUGENE M. Jacksonville, Florida SAUL, MAURICE B. Moylan, Pennsylvania SEYMOUR, Mrs. ROBERT MORRIS Miami, Florida SHACKLEFORD, T. M., Jr. Tampa, Florida STETSON, JOHN B., Jr. Elkins Park, Pennsylvania STOKES, JOHN P. Pensacola, Florida STONE, EDWARD L. Roanoke, Virginia STOVALL, W. F. Tampa, Florida

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SHUTTS, FRANK B. Miami, Florida STANLEY, Mrs. M. L. Daytona, Florida THURBER,Mrs.JEANNETTE M. New York City WALL, PERRY G. Tampa, Florida WATSON, W.H. Pensacola, Florida WELLCOME, HENRY S. London, England WILDER, Mrs. C. M. Daytona, Florida WILKINSON, E. G. Naples, Florida YONGE, P. K. Pensacola, Florida STOVER, IRVING C. Deland, Florida TRICE, W. W. Tampa, Florida WILLIAMS, ARTHUR T, Jacksonville, Florida WILMSHURST, HENRY J. Deland, Florida WINSHIP, GEORGE PARKER Cambridge, Massachusetts WOOD, S. A. Deland, Florida WRIGHT, SILAS B. Deland, Florida YOWELL,N. P. Orlando, Florida

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INDEX

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INDEX pages in Ware's introduction.) (The italicized roman numerals refer to Aitken, R., 38, 83, 85 Alabama, xxvii, xxx Alaska, xxxi, xxxiii Albany, N.Y., Ixvii, 54, 62 Allen, Ethan, IxviIxvii, Ixviii Allibone, S. Austin, 67 Amelia Island, xlv America, Ixx, 47, 73 America Catalogue, 73 American Antiquarian Society, [10] American Archives, quotations from, 5366; referred to, 81 American Bibliography, 36, 86 American Colonies, Hi, Ixiv, Ixxvii American Engravers upon Copper and Steel, 31, 66, 83, 103 American Geographical Society, 33 American Military Pocket Atlas, The,%$ American Philosophical Society: Romans, Ellis, Gauld elected members of, Ixii, 49; Romans attended meeting of, Ixii, 49; Romans elected member of, 111 American Revolution, xxi, xxvi, xlii, Ixiv, Ixvi Amite River, 30 Amsterdam, Holland, 35 Andrews, William Loring, 76t 85 Annals of the Troubles in the Netherlands: copies located, 114 Anthony's Nose, N.Y., Ixxii Apalache, 30 Arnold, Benedict, Ixvi, Ixxxii, 53-54, 62 Atlas, Island of [Atlantis], Ixiii Badlam, Major, 63 Bahama Bank, 25, 28-30 Bahama Islands, 23 Bailey, Frederic W., 67 Banneker, Benjamin, xxxvii Baron, M., Hi, 128 Bates, Albert Carlos, [12], 114 Beekman, 28 Belknap, Jeremy, 72 Bennct (Bennett), John, 86 Bennington, Vt., Ixvi, 52 Berrien, John, Ixx, Ixxvi-lxxvii Berry, Mr., 26, 37 Bethany, Ga., xlvi Betsey, schooner, xliv Bibliography, description, provenance, advertisements of Romans' works, 74-99 Biblioteca Americana, 36 Board of Trade, xlvi Boston, xxxviii, 25-26; harbor, 82, 103 Boston Athenaeum, 103 Boston Evening Post, advertisements in, 76 Boston Gazette, Romans' advertisement in, 25 Boston Gazette, and Country Journal, advertisement in, 87 Boston Marine Society, Ixii Bracket, Mr. Joshua, 26 Bradford Exhibition, Grolier Club, Catalogue of books printed by William Bradford and ether printers in the middle colonies, 38 Brazil, xxxv Brigham, Clarence Saunders, [12], 24 Brinton, Daniel G., 72 Britain, Ixi British Colonial Office, 48

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4 INDEX British Guinea, xxxii, xxxiv British Museum, 91 Brooks, Nicholas, 85 Brown, C. B., 71 Brown, John, Ixvi Brown, John Carter, Library, 103 Buell, Abel, xxi
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INDEX 5 Dictionary of National Biography, 67 Diodorus Siculus, Ixiii Dr. Andrew Turnbull and the Neiv Smyrna Colony, 111 Documentary History of the State of Neiv York, 91 Dodd, Robert H., 73 Doggett, Carita, 111 Dollar, John, xlv Dominica, Iv Doughty, A. G., xxxv Drake, Colonel Joseph, Ixxvi Dry Tortugas Bank, xliii Dumont, Mary Wolfe, 41 Duncan, Sir William, 40 Durnford, Eli as, It, liii Early Connecticut Marriages prior to 1800, 68 Early History of Florida, The, xviii Early Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Manuscript Minutes, Romans mentioned in, 48-49 East Florida, xxi, xlii-xliii, xlv-xlvi, lix, 28-30; fishing industry in, 124-25 Easton, James, Ixvi Ebenezer, Ga., xlvi Egmont, Lord (John Percival), xlv, 29 Ellis, John, Iv-lxii, Ixiv, 35 Emmet Collection of Manuscripts, etc., relating to American History, Calendar of the, 112 Endeavour (ship), 76 England, xvii, xli, Hi, l
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6 INDEX Highgate, Ga., xliv Highlands, N.Y., Ixviii; commissioners for fortifications, Ixviii-lxxvi, Ixxviii; fortifications at, Ixix-lxxi, Ixxvii Hildeburn, Charles R., 38 Hildreth, Benjamin, Ixii Hillsborough, Lord (Earl of), xlvii, I, Hi, liv, 47 Hillsborough River, xlviii Hispaniola, 26 History of Florida, 41 History of Wethersfield, cited, 113 Historical Magazine, quoted, 76 Historical Register of Officers of the Continental Army, 66 Historical Society of Florida, The, xviixviii Holland (Netherlands), xl, Ixxxv, 38 Holland, Samuel, 35 House of Representatives, xxvii, xxix Hudson River (North River), Ixviii, Ixxii, Ixxvii-lxxviii; fortifications along, Ixxix, 38 Hunt, Captain John, Iviii Hutchins (Phillips), Imogen D., xxviii Hutchins, Thomas, li, 35 Ingersoll, Mr. Joseph, 26 Ireland, Hi, Ifv Island of Orleans, Spanish, Hi Italians, 44 Jalap, li, liv, Ixi Jamaica, planters in and merchants trad ing to, xxiv, xlix-l, Ivi, 26; Montego Bay, Ixxxv, 27 Jameson, J. Franklin, [12] Jefferys, Thomas, 97 Kennedy, John S., 112 Kentucky, 35, 38 Key to unlock the Door, that leads in, to take a Fair View of the Religious Constitution, established by Law, in the Colony of Connecticut, A: compared, 114 Key West, 28 King, Captain Thomas, 29 Kingston-Port Royal harbor, xlix Knox, Henry, 37 Kohl, Johann Georg, map collection of, xxxv Labrador, Ixiii La Grange, Ga., xxvii Lake Champlain, Ixvi Latitudes, observed by Romans, 128 Laurie, Robert, and James Whittle, pub lishers, 97-99 Lexington, Mass., Ixiv, 83 Leyden, Holland, 35 Liberty, schooner, Ivii Liberty County, Ga., xlv Library Journal, xxxiv Library of Congress, xxi, xxviii; Hall of Maps and Charts, xxxi, xxxiii; Geog raphy and Map Division, xxxi, xxxvi, xxxviii; in Capitol, xxxiii; mentioned, [11] ; Manuscript Division, letter in, 47-48; Romans' work in, 76, 82-83, 88, 91-92, 95, 97-99, 103, 114 Linnaeus, Carl, Iv Literary Diary (Ezra Stiles), 51 Lodge, John, 36 London, liv, Iv, Ixviii, [12], 36, 83, 86, 9799 London Coffee House (New York), 38, 85 Longitude: from observations of eclipses of Jupiter's satellites, Hi, 128 Lorimer, Dr. John, xxiv, xlix, li, Hi, Ixv, 27-28, 128 Lossing, Benson J., 54, 81 Loudon, S., 82 Louisiana, Spanish, xxiii, xlix Lutherans, xlvi Lowdermilk, W. H. and Company, xxxvi Lowery, Woodbury, "Collection" of, xxxviii-xxxix McMurray, William, 33 Manatee River, xlviii Manchac, 30 Maps by Romans, 18-23, 74-76, 81-91, 97-99, 119 Marine Societies: New York, xxiv-xxv, Ixii, 27, 48, 103 ; Salem, xxv; NewburyPort, xxv; Boston, xxv, Ixii Martelaar's (Martelaers's) Rock (Martyr's Reach), Ixix Mary, sloop, xliii Massachusetts Committee of Safety, IxviiIxviii, 54 Massachusetts Gazette and the Boston

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INDEX 7 Post-Boy and Advertiser, Romans' ad vertisement in, 24 Massachusetts Gazette and the Boston Weekly Nevus-Letter, Romans' advertise ment in, 37 Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections of, 72 Memoir upon the Late War in North America, 91 Memoirs on Geography of East and West Florida, 71 Metropolitan Club, xxxii Mexico, xxxv Middle River (Pensacola Bay), liii, 121 Mississippi River, xlv, xlix, Hi, Ivi; mouths of, Ix, 26, 30 Mobile, Ala.: Bar, xxvi, xxvii, xlix; Bay of, 120, 128 Money: dollars (Spanish milled), reales, Ivii; dollars, continental, Ixxxiv Montressor, Captain John, 35 Moore, John, xlv Moore's House, Ixxii Mott, Captain Edward, Ixv; Journal of, quoted, 52 Mulcaster, George, xlix, 29 Narrative of Events at Lake George, A, 52 Nassau River, xlv, xlviii Nevj American Atlas, 71 Newberry Library, 103 New England, 35 Nevj England Historical and Genealogical Register, 68 New Haven, Conn., Ixiii, Ixx, Ixxxiv, Ixxxv, 87-88 New London, Conn., Ixvii, Ixxxv Nevj London Gazette, advertisement in, 89 New Orleans, La., xxvii, Hi, Ivii; Isle of, Ivii, 30; longitude of, stated, 128 Newport, R.I., Ixiii, 51 New Smyrna, colony of, xxiv, xlviii, 40-41 Nevj Voyage Round the World, 1768-1771, by Captain James Cook, SO New York City, xxxviii, Hi, lix-lx, Ixii, Ixiii, 26, 28, 30, 38; Public Library of, 50, 103; letter in Public Library quoted, 64; mentioned, 51, 91, 112 New York Committee of Safety, Ixix-lxxi, Ixxvi-lxxix, Ixxx, 62; plans and report sent to, 81 Nevj York Gazeteer, James Rivington's, Romans' advertisements in, 24, 27, 31, 45, 81-82 New York Historical Society, [12], 50, 103; John Berrien's letter held by, 111, 114 Nevj York Journal, The; or the General Advertiser, Romans' advertisements in defense of charge of plagiarism, ap peared in, 103 New York Provincial Congress, Ixviii-lxix, Ixxi-lxxii, Ixxvi; committee of, Ixxvi-Ixxviii, Ixxix-lxxx ; Journal of, quoted, 60 Nevj York Tribune, xxxiv, 68 Nicoll, Colonel Francis, Ixxvi Noel and Hazard, Messrs., 82-83 Nordberg, John, Ixvii, 53 North America, xlii; Southern District of, xliv, Hi, lix, 26 North River (Hudson), Ixix Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, 72 Observations upon the Floridas, 71 Obstructions to the Navigation of Hudson's River, 64 O'Callaghan, E. B., 91 Offut, Captain, 28 Ogeechee River, xliv Ohio, 35 Oldmixon, Mr., 127 Palmer, Thomas, Ixxvi-lxxix Panama, xli, Ixiii Parmelee, G. W., xxxv "Part of the Province of East Florida," map discussed, xxi, xxiii-xxiv, 11, 23 Paul Revere and His Engravings, 76 Pelham, Henry, 35 Pennsylvania, Ixxx; Council of Safety, Ixxxiii; Provincial Council, Minutes of, 61 Pennsylvania Archives, 61 Pennsylvania Gazette, advertisements in, 82-83, 85 Pennsylvania Historical Society, 82, 103 Pennsylvania Magazine, 39, 82-83, 85 Pennsylvania Packet, 33 Pensacola: Bar, xxvi; capital of West Florida, xlix-li; "Harbour," Hi, 128; Bay, liii, liv, Ix, 27-30, 73 Percival, John, second earl of Egmont, xlv

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8 INDEX Phelps, Noah, Ixvi Philadelphia, Ixiii, Ixix, Ixxix, Ixxxi, 26, 38, 71 Phillips, Eugenia Levy, xxvii Phillips, Imogen Hutchins, xxvii Phillips, Mary Lee, xxvii Phillips, Philip, xvii Phillips, Philip Lee: Notes on the Life and Works of Bernard Romans, xvii; pre eminence as cartographer and cartobibliographer, xx; critique of Phillips, Notes, xxi-xxvi; biographical, xxvii-xl; publications by, xxx-xxxii; education, xxviii; marriage, employment by Library of Congress, xxviii; first superintendent of Hall of Maps and Charts, xxxiii; trips to Europe to buy maps, xxxvi; pro fessional affiliation, xxxvii; editing of Lowery collection, xxxviii-xxxix, [11] Philippine Islands, xxxv Pictorial Field-book of the Revolution, The, 54, 81 Pittsburgh, Pa., xxix Pittsfield, Mass., Ixvi Planter, H.M.S., Hi Plato, Critias, Ixiii Political Magazine, 36 Pooploop's Kill, Ixxii, Ixxvi, Ixxix Pownall, Governor Thomas, 86 Providence, Bahamas, 30 Providence, R.I., Ixiv, 25, 103 Purcell, Joseph, 41 Putnam, Dr. Herbert, xxix Putnam, Captain Rufus, 35 Quebec, Ixxxi Records of the Governor and Council of the State of Vermont, 91 Records of the Revolutionary War, 61 Revere, Paul, xxiv, Ixiii; Romans' accounts with, 25, 31, 39 Revolutionary War, xv Rhode Island, Ixiii Rhodes, Harrison Garfield, 41 Riley, Dr. Franklin L., 75 Rivers. See individual names Rivington, James, 38, 50, 76, 81-82 Robertson, James A., editor of Phillips, Notes, xxii-xxiii Rodney, Admiral Sir George, xlix Rolfes, George, xlv Romans, Bernard: biographical, xl-cv, 45-51; sent to North America, xlii, 47; ear liest record of, De Brahm's assistant, xlii, xliii, 45 ; early surveys by, appointed deputy surveyor general of Georgia, xliii; left Georgia, xliii; land grants in Georgia, xliv-xlv, 45-46 ; "introduced into East Florida," land grants in, xlv; appointment by De Brahm as "Principal Deputy Surveyor for the Southern dis trict," xlvi, 29; "virtual" suspension, xlvii; surveys in East Florida, xlvii, 28-30; surveys of "Florida and Bahama Banks," xlviii, 29-30; surveys and maps of West Florida, xlviii-xlix, Hi; ex change of surveys with George Gauld, xlix; advertisements in defense of charge of plagiarism, xlix-l, 27-30; relationship with Gauld and Lorimer, /, 27-28; land grants in West Florida, lii-liv; botanical interest in West Florida, liv-lvii; voyage from West Florida to Charleston, Iviiilix; departure from Charleston, lix; arrival in New York, Ix; relationship to John Ellis, Iv-lvii, Ix-lxi, Ixii, Ixiii, Ixiv; botanist of West Florida, Ix; financial circumstances, Ix-lxii, Ixxx; writings and travels connected therewith, Ixii-lxiii; elected to American Philosophical So ciety, Ixii, 49, 111; proposed journey to Asia, Ixiii; defection to American patriots, Ixv; suspension as botanist, Ixv; participation in capture of Ticonderoga and dependencies, Ixv-lxvii, 52-54; engagement and work as engineer at Highlands, Ixviii-lxxix, 54-60; alleged promise of appointment as principal provincial engineer and commission and pay of colonel, Ixix, Ixxiii, 54, 56-57; relationship with commissioners for for tifications at Highlands, Ixx-lxxi, IxxiiiIxxvi, 55-60; "contract" to complete for tifications, Ixxi; optimistic report of work, Ixxii; committee report of N.Y. Provincial Congress unfavorable to, Ixxvi; committee report of Continental Congress not critical of, Ixxvii; sum moned by N.Y. Committee of Safety, Ixxviii; dispatched to Philadelphia and Continental Congress, Ixxix; Lord Ster-

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INDEX 9 ling critical of, Ixxx, 60; petition for back pay, appearance before N.Y. Com mittee of Safety, Ixxx-lxxxi, 62; service as captain of "matrosses," difficulties of command, Ixxxi-xcix, 61-66; court mar tial of, Ixxxii, 62; court of inquiry for, Ixxxii, 63-64; return to engineering duties, Ixxxiii, 66; other cartographic and literary works, Ixxxiv; marriage and life in Connecticut, Ixxxv, 67-68; final years of, Ixxxv-lxxxvi, 68-69; achievements recounted, 71-73 ; bibliog raphy, description, provenance, and ad vertisements of Romans' works, 74-79; extract of a letter on mariner's compass, 113-14; description of West Florida by, [119], 128; observations of latitude by, 128 Romans, Elizabeth Whiting, xxvi; petition for pension, 67-69 Romans, Hubertus (Hybertus), Ixxxv, 35, 68 Ross, David, 27-28 Royal American Magazine, 50, 76-77 Royal Geographical Society, xxxvii Royal Society (of London), Iv, Ivii Royal Society of Upsala, Ivii Ruttenber, E. M., 64, 68 Sabin, 36, 92 Saffel, W. T. R., 61 St. Augustine, xvii, xlvi, xlviii, 29, 103 St. Clair, Colonel, 63 St. Johns River, xlv St. Marks at Apalachee, Fort, xxv St. Marys River, xxv Salem, Mass., 25 Salzberger Colony, Ga., 103 San Bias, Cape, 28 San Francisco, Cal., xxxviii Savannah, Ga., xxvii, xliii Sayer, Robert, 86, 97-99 School History of Mississippi, 75 Schuyler, General Philip, Ixviii, Ixxvii, Ixxxii, 62, 112; MS. Calendar of Letter to 1761-1802, 113 Scott, John, 27-28 Senate Document (U.S.), no. 242, [15]-16 Ship Island, xxvii Simpson, John, liii-liv Skene's Borough, 66 Sketches of Printers and Printing in Colonial New York, 38 Smith, Buckingham, [15] Smith, Daniel, xxxvii, 35 Smith, Captain John, 35 Sorel, Canada, Ixxxii, 62 South Carolina, xxvii, Ixxxv, 26-30 Spain, xvii Spanish American War, xxxv Spaniards, Ivii Spooner, Nath'l, 49 Squadron, Red (British Navy), xlix Stauffer, David McNeely, 66, 83, 103 Sterling, Lord, Ixxx, 60 Stetson, John B., Jr., xix, xxii, [12] Stetson University, John B., xix, xxii Stevens, Henry Newton, [12], 88 Stiles, Ezra, Ixii, 51, 113 Stoney Point, N.Y., Ixxxvi Stuart, John, xlix, liv, Ivii, Iviii-lx, 28-30, 128 Subscribers to Romans' book, classifications of, xxv Sunbury, Ga., xlv Supreme Court, xxviii Switzerland, xxxvi Tableau du climat et du sol des Etats-Unis, 1803, 71 Taitt, David, xlix, li, Ix, 128 Talbot, Captain, 27 Tampa Bay: entrance, xxvi; surveyed by Romans, xlviii Tanner, Henry S., 71 Ten Facsimile Reproductions Relating to Various Subjects, 83 Tennessee, xxxvii, 35 Territory of Florida, 43 Ticonderoga: Fort, Ixvii-lxviii; Landing, Ixxxi, 52, 54 Topographical description of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland and North Carolina, 35 Tortugas, Ivi, 28-29 Touchet, Samuel, xlviii, 29 Townsend, Nathaniel, 87 Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 73, 75 Treaty of Paris (Versailles), xlv, 103 Trumbull, Governor Jonathan, 92 Tryon, Governor William, 35

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10 INDEX Turnbull, Dr. Andrew, xxiii, xxiv, xlviii, 40, 43, 103 "Two whole sheet maps": provenance, [15] ; discussed, xxi, xxiii-xxvi, 16-23 ; toponymy, 18-23; dedications, 18, 21; advertisement on progress of, 26 United States, xviii; Congress of, xxvii, xxxiii, [11] Universal Intelligencer, advertisement in, 87 Venezuela, xxxii, xxxiv Veritas, 111 Vermont, Ixvii Verplanck's Point, N.Y., Ixxii Vignoles, C. B., 71 Virginia, 35 Volney, C. F., 71 Wall, Alexander J., [12], 112 Wallis and Stonehouse, Messrs., London, 83 War between the States, xxvii Warner, Seth, Ixvi Washington, General George, Ixxx, Ixxxit, Ixxxv, 54, 60, 62, 67 Washington, D.C., xxvii, xxviii, xxxv Watson, Charles, xliv Weekly Intelligencer, Romans' advertise ments in, 92-97 Welti, Oswald, xxxvi West Florida, xxi, xlviii, Hi, liv-lv, Ivi-Iviii, lix-lxi, Ix, lxi
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