A guide-book of Florida and the South, for tourists, invalids, and emigrants

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A guide-book of Florida and the South, for tourists, invalids, and emigrants
Series Title:
The Florida and the Caribbean Open Books Series
Brinton, Daniel G ( Daniel Garrison ), 1837-1899 ( author )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
University Press of Florida
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1 online resource (232 pages) : illustrations, map. ;


Subjects / Keywords:
Since 1865 ( fast )
Travel ( fast )
Description and travel -- Florida ( lcsh )
Guidebooks -- Florida ( lcsh )
Guidebooks -- Southern States ( lcsh )
History -- Florida -- 1865- ( lcsh )
Florida ( fast )
Southern States ( fast )
History ( fast )
Guidebooks. ( fast )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
History ( fast )
Guidebooks ( fast )


Funded through the Humanities Open Book, which is jointly sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel G. Brinton.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivative License. This license allows others to download this work and share them with others as long as they mention the author and link back to the author, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.
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9781947372535 ( ISBN )
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A Guide-Book of Florida and the South, for Tourists, Invalids, and Emigrants


A Guide-Book of Florida and the South, for Tourists, Invalids, and Emigrants LibraryPress@UF,


Reissued r by LibraryPress@UF on behalf of the University of Florida fis work is licensed under aCreative Commons AttributionNoncommercial-No Derivative Worksn. Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit You are free to electronically copy, distribute, and transmit this work if you attribute authorship.Please contactthe University Press of Florida (http:// purchase printeditions of the work. You must attribute the work in the manner specibed by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of the above conditions can be waived if youreceivepermission from the UniversityPress of Florida. Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the authors moral rights. ISBN r--nrr-(pbk.) ISBN r--nrr-(ePub) LibraryPress@UF is an imprint of the University of Florida Press. University of Florida Press Northwest th Street Gainesville, FL -r Cover : Map of the West Indies, published in Philadelphia, From the Caribbean Maps collection in the University of Florida Digital Collections at the George A. Smathers Libraries.


The Florida and the Caribbean Open Books SeriesIn the University Press of Florida, in collaboration with the George A. Smathers Libraries of the University of Florida, received a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Andrew W. Mel lon Foundation, under the Humanities Open Books program, to repub lish books related to Florida and the Caribbean and to make them freely available through an open access platform. fe resulting list of books is the Florida and the Caribbean Open Books Series published by the Li braryPress@UF in collaboration with the University of Florida Press, an imprint of the University Press of Florida. A panel of distinguished schol ars has selected the series titles from the UPF list, identibed as essential reading for scholars and students. fe series is composed of titles that showcase a long, distinguished history of publishing works of Latin American and Caribbean scholar ship that connect through generations and places. fe breadth and depth of the list demonstrates Floridas commitment to transnational history and regional studies. Selected reprints include Daniel Brintons A GuideBook of Florida and the South (), Cornelis Goslingas e Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, (r), and Nelson Blakes Land into WaterWater into Land (). Also of note are titles from the Bicentennial Floridiana Facsimile Series. fe series, published in r in commemoration of Americas bicentenary, comprises twenty-bve books regarded as classics, out-of-print works that needed to be in more li braries and readers bookcases, including Sidney Laniers Florida: Its Scen ery, Climate, and History (r) and Silvia Sunshines Petals P lucked from Sunn y Climes ().


Todays readers will benebt from having free and open access to these works, as they provide unique perspectives on the historical scholarship on Florida and the Caribbean and serve as a foundation upon which to days researchers can build. Visit LibraryPress@UF and the Florida and the Caribbean Open Books Series at Florida and the Caribbean Open Books Series Project Members @ Judith C. Russell Laurie N. Taylor Brian W. Keith Chelsea Dinsmore Haven Hawley r Gary R. Mormino David Colburn Patrick J. Reakes f Meredith M. Babb Linda Bathgate Michele Fiyak-Burkley Romi Gutierrez Larry Leshan Anja Jimenez Marisol Amador Valerie Melina Jane Pollack Danny Duy Nichole Manosh Erika Stevens


fis book is reissued as part of the Humanities Open Books program, funded by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.


BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION OF FLORIDA. Governor Reubin O'D. Askew, Honorary Chairman Lieutenant Governor J. H. Williams, Chairman Harold W. Stayman, Jr., Vice Chairman William R. Adams, Executive Director Dick J. Batchelor, Orlando Johnnie Ruth Clarke, St. Petersburg A. H. "Gus" Craig, St. Augustine James J. Gardener, Fort Lauderdale Jim Glisson, Tavares Mattox Hair, Jacksonville Thomas L. Hazouri, Jacksonville Ney C. Landrum, Tallahassee Mrs. Raymond Mason, Jacksonville Carl C. Mertins, Jr., Pensacola Charles E. Perry, Miami W. E. Potter, Orlando F. Blair Reeves, Gainesville Richard R. Renick, Coral Gables Jane W. Robinson, Cocoa Mrs. Robert L. Shevin, Tallahassee Don Shoemaker, Miami


vi Mary L. Singleton, Jacksonville Bruce A. Smathers, Tallahassee Alan Trask, Fort Meade Edward J. Trombetta, Tallahassee Ralph D. Turlington, Tallahassee William S. Turnbull, Orlando Robert Williams, Tallahassee Lori Wilson, Merritt Island


GENERAL EDITOR'S PREFACE. Ponce de Leon was likely Florida's first mod ern-day tourist, but native AmericansIndians from what is now Georgia and Alabama prob ably were visiting Florida for countless decades before Europeans arrived in the sixteenth cen tury. Trading, hunting, and perhaps just curios ity were motivating factors, just as they are today. These earliest visitors left no written ac counts of what they saw in Florida, so the first descriptions of the landscape, vegetation, sandy beaches and rivers, and birds, animals, and other wild things that lived on the land and in the water had to wait until the publication of ac counts by Fontaneda, Cabeza de Vaca, and the followers of de Soto. Rene de Laudonniere's account of the French settlement on the St. Johns River in the 1560s provides rich detail of that part of Florida. From the settlement of St. Au gustine in 1565, letters, memoranda, and reports went out to Spain, with voluminous information about all aspects of Florida, both the land and its people. Unfortunately, most of this material has


viii been inaccessible except to the most industrious and persistent researchers. Accounts of the Flor ida Indians and details of missionaries' activities, shipwrecks, trade, weather, social activities, and a variety of other things are to be found in the great archives of Europe, particularly in Spain and England. An increasing quantity of this important source material is now being copied for American li braries as photographs or on microfilm. The P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History in Gainesville is a treasure house of material dealing with the First Spanish Period. The Stetson Collection alone contains 120,000 documents covering all as pects of Florida history from the 1520s to 1818. The Jeanette Thurber Connor Collection, the Lockey Collection, the East Florida Papers, the Buckingham Smith Collection, and the Papeles de Cuba are among the major collections now avail able for research purposes. The Spanish docu ments in the P. K. Yonge Library are being calendered under grants provided by the Wentworth Foundation, Inc., the Winn-Dixie Founda tion, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the Florida Bicentennial Commission. Once this annotated index is complete, a task that will take about three years, it will reveal the huge amount of material relating to early Florida


ix history which will enhance our knowledge of that era. Another major research project now under way concerns the activities of the eighteenthcentury British firm Panton, Leslie, and Company, which traded with the Indians in North and West Florida. With Professor William M. Coker of the University of West Florida as editor, this work is being carried on cooperatively with the Uni versity of Florida and the Florida Historical So ciety. Funding has been made available by the Florida Bicentennial Commission and the Na tional Historical Publications Commission to pro duce a microfilm copy of all of the papers and to publish selected documents and a narrative his tory of the company. All of the early books about Florida were lim ited in their scope. Except for Fontaneda, the writers were in Florida for only a few weeks or months, and they described what they saw as they moved through the area as members of the early Spanish exploring and colonizing expeditions. There was no attempt made to map Florida sci entifically until William Gerard De Brahm was appointed surveyor general of British East Flor ida in 1764. William Roberts' An Account of the First Discovery, and Natural History of Florida, published in 1763, was the first reliable source of information on the province which had been ac-


X quired by Great Britain in the Treaty of Paris ending the French and Indian War. A year ear lier, Thomas Jefferys, the king's geographer, pub lished a book containing some data about Florida and a few of his maps of the area. The British, anxious to attract settlers to Flor ida, launched a publicity campaign, and a series of books were published extolling the virtues of the area. One enthusiast called the newly ac quired province "the most precious jewel in His Majesty's American dominions." Florida was hailed as an agricultural El Dorado, a place where all the fruits and products of the West Indies could be raised: "Oranges, limes, lemons, and other fruits grow spontaneously over the country." Other eighteenthand nineteenth-cen tury writers, like Daniel G. Brinton whose travel book on Florida is being reprinted as a facsimile, also described in rapturous prose the physical characteristics of the East and Gulf coasts of Florida. Brinton talks of the cities and towns that he visited, the hotels and boardinghouses where he lodged, and some of the people whom he met. Not everything that he experienced was pleasant and comfortable, and he mentions the humidity, the mosquitos and gnats, and some of his discomfort that resulted from the water he drank and the food he consumed during his trav-


xi els. In the final part of Brinton's book, entitled "Chapters to Invalids," he describes some of the maladies of the day, but he also shows why resi dence in Florida would likely have a beneficial effect upon those suffering from these illnesses. William M. Goza, editor of Brinton's GuideBook, a fifth-generation Floridian, is a native of Madison. He is a graduate of the University of Florida and a practicing attorney in Clearwater. Long interested in Florida history, Mr. Goza has been president of the Florida Historical Society and of the Florida Anthropological Society. He received an award from the American Association for State and Local History for his contributions to the preservation and interpretation of Florida history. He is the author of articles and book reviews which have appeared in professional and scholarly journals, including the Florida Histori cal Quarterly, Mr. Goza received a Distinguished Alumnus Award from the University of Florida in 1976. He and Mrs. Goza have restored Mag nolia Hall in Madison and use it as their week end home. A Guide-Book of Florida and the South for Tourists, Invalids and Emigrants is one of the twenty-five rare Florida books that are being reprinted by the American Revolution Bicenten nial Commission of Florida as part of its exten-


xii sive research and publications program. Each volume has been edited by a Florida history spe cialist who has also written an introduction and compiled an index. SAMUEL PROCTOR General Editor of the BICENTENNIAL FLORIDIANA FACSIMILE SERIES


INTRODUCTION. Florida has long been a favored place for visit ing and for settlement by adventuresome and no madic peoples, and it is fortunate for posterity that many of these have responded to the urge to chronicle their travels and to describe the land which they saw. One of the earliest accounts of such a visitalbeit unintentionalis the one given by Hernando d'Escalante Fontaneda, which describes "The things, the shore, and the Indians of Florida." That author was shipwrecked on the coast of Florida about 1545 and remained a cap tive of the Indians for seventeen years. Although the account given by Fontaneda has been gener ally criticized (even by Daniel Garrison Brinton, who described the style as "crude and confused"), there is hardly a serious writer about Florida's early history who does not draw on this source.1 A much-quoted early account of a trip through Florida, extended and without comfort, was given by another Spaniard, Alvar Nufiez, treasurer and high sheriff of the expedition of Panfilo de Narvaez to Florida in 1528. Nunez bore also the hon-


xiv orary family title of Cabeza de Vaca.2 His ac count described not only Florida; he was the first to write about the territory which he saw when he crossed the North American continent. The adventures of Cabeza de Vaca, drawn from his original narrative published in 1542, have been the subject of many books, from some written for children to more scholarly accounts debating and delineating routes and locations. Perhaps best known of the early records of Florida visits are those describing the travels and travails of Hernando de Soto, who in 1539 journeyed through Florida and what is now the southeastern part of the United States in search of gold and glory. The four most mentioned ac counts of this ill-fated expedition range from the day-to-day record of Luis Hernandez de Biedma, the factor of the expedition,3 to the more detailed and explicit, though second-hand, de scription of the journey by Garcilaso de la Vega.4 Also of considerable importance are the narra tives of Rodrigo Ranjel, private secretary of de Soto, and that of the Knight of Elvas, an anony mous gentleman from Portugal who accompanied the expedition.5 There were a number of other accounts of voyages and expeditions to Florida, but they all had the common end, if not the purpose, of en ticing others to these golden shores in search of


XV personal fame, health, and fortune, or the propa gation of the religious beliefs of the travelers. The results obtained by those who heeded those early calls to Florida were in most cases disap pointing. As Fontaneda said of the Indians he saw, they had "no gold, less silver and less cloth ing." David 0. True later noted that this was a condition also fairly prevalent among Floridians four centuries later.6 Perhaps it was because the explorers and conquistadores suffered such hardships that the writ ers who followed these chroniclers sought to tell others how to travel through Florida in ease and comfort and how to avoid the perils and pitfalls which might befall them in varying forms. Tour guides have evolved from Fontaneda's Memoir and other early accounts by travelers. The tourist has replaced the conquistador, real estate invest ments have provided the gold which was so ea gerly sought by all, and orange juice is a palatable, though a less potent, substitute for the liquids emanating from the mythical Fountain of Youth. Travel books through the years have sought to attract the prospective traveler with eye-catching titles, such as Gone Sunwards, Flor ida Days, A Winter in Florida, and Going to Florida?7 Authors have ranged from the cele brated, like Sidney Lanier and Harriet Beecher Stowe, to those with less famous but with more


xvi fanciful names, such as Silvia Sunshine and N. 0. Winter,8 whose sobriquets suggest strong coop eration with Florida tourist bureaus. No prepossessing title identifies the slender volume A Guide-Book of Florida and the South, for Tourists, Invalids and Emigrants, published in 1869, which is the subject of this introduction, to which is subjoined, almost as a titular after thought, "a map of the St. John River." It seems slanted to provide something for nearly everyone. The author, Daniel Garrison Brinton, would in his day be identified as someone well known in specialized scientific fields but virtually a stranger to the literary world except to those in his own realm of work. This book is peripheral to his scientific writings, and it was possibly written as a by-product of his better-known and more scholarly Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, Its Literary History, Indian Tribes and Antiquities? Certainly, no one was more qualified by train ing, education, and experience to write a tour guide of Florida than Daniel G. Brinton. The information contained in the book was gained from an extensive trip through the state that he made during the winter of 1856-57,10 Florida had lost her territorial status only a few years ear lier, in 1845. Daniel Garrison Brinton, son of Lewis and Ann (Garrison) Brinton, was born May 13, 1837, at


xvii Thornberg (Chester County), Pennsylvania, of English-Quaker descent. His ancestor William Brinton had emigrated from Shropshire in 1684 and had joined William Penn's colony in Penn sylvania.11 An earlier ancestor Robertus de Brin ton, the first of the name known to history, was given the Manor of Langford in the county of Salop, Shropshire, England, by Henry I, and it was held by his descendants for several centuries.12 On the farm where Daniel Brinton was born were the remains of an encampment of Del aware Indians, and the artifacts turned up there by the plow probably excited the initial interest which would determine his major lifework.13 His taste in literature as a child was shaped by McClintock's Antiquarian Researches and Hum boldt's Cosmos, which he read again and again.14 The Reverend Mr. William Moore, pastor of the Presbyterian Church of West Chester, Pennsyl vania, prepared young Daniel for college. Moore was an excellent person to take on this responsi bility. He had graduated from Yale University in 1847, and it was that institution which Brin ton entered on September 13, 1854.15 In his first term at Yale he won second prize in English composition; the following term he won first prize. He was made chairman of the board of edi tors of the Yale Literary Magazine in 1857, and he made numerous contributions to that publica-


XV111 tion, evidencing his antiquarian tastes. One of his stories, "A City Gone to Seed," described St. Augustine, Florida.16 Brinton was active in his college fraternity, Delta Kappa Epsilon, and it was during his col lege years that occurred one of the last of the town-gown riots in New Haven. His scholastic record was satisfactory, though not outstanding, perhaps due to his many activities and interests apart from his studies. He made second dispute at the junior exhibition and at commencement, and he received the Townsend Premium for his essay "The Leaven of the Gospel in the Poetry of Christian Nations."17 The winter of 1856-57, Brinton's junior year at Yale, was spent in Florida. The occasion for the journey is not known, but the trip provided the inspiration and information which were the bases for his work Notes on the Floridian Penin sula, described in 1907 as "the best work extant of the archaeology of that peninsula," and which foreshadowed where his true interests lay. Notes on the Floridian Peninsula was published in 1859, the year after Brinton received his bachelor of arts degree from Yale.18 Thereafter, he entered the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, re ceiving a medical degree on March 12, 1860. From July 1860 to June 1861 Brinton traveled in Europe, studying in Paris and Heidelberg.


xix Upon his return he commenced a medical prac tice in West Chester, Pennsylvania, in July 1861. That same year he received the degree of master of arts from Yale. The following months were restless ones for him, at least until August 20, 1862, when he entered the United States Army as acting assistant surgeon. Brinton received a commission as surgeon of volunteers on February 9, 1863, an appointment which terminated his duty with military hospitals in Philadelphia. Brinton was assigned as surgeon-in-chief of division, Eleventh Corps, Army of the Potomac, and he was present at a number of historic en gagements, including Chancellorsville in May 1863 and Gettysburg in July 1863.19 The Elev enth was known as the German Corps because of its high percentage of German-speaking units. It was also called a "hard-luck outfit," and some of its ill-fortune was shared by Brinton.20 He suffered sunstroke in the fall of 1863, from which, in his own judgment, he never completely recov ered.21 After General William S. Rosecrans had fought the disastrous battle of Chickamauga in Tennessee in September 1863, Brinton was sent along with his Eleventh Corps and the Four teenth, Twentieth, and Twenty-first corps, as re inforcements to East Tennessee.22 There, he was present at the Battles of Wauhatchie (October 1863), Lookout Mountain (November 24, 1863),


XX and Missionary Ridge (November 25, 1863). It was during that time that he was made medical director of the Eleventh, the post he held until April 1864, when he was transferred, at his own request because of physical incapacity, to the United States Army General Hospital at Quincy, Illinois.23 Service at Quincy afforded Brinton the opportunity to meet Miss Sarah Tillson of that city; he married her on September 28, 1865, after he had been brevetted lieutenant colonel of vol unteers for "meritorious service" and had been honorably discharged from the army.24 After his marriage he returned to West Ches ter, and practiced medicine there until April 1867, when he moved to Philadelphia to become assistant editor of a weekly publication, The Medical and Surgical Reporter. In 1874 he was named editor. It was while living in Philadelphia that he published in 1869 the volume which is being reprinted as a facsimile edition. He re mained with the medical journal until 1887, when he retired in order to give more time to the studies which had become his main interest in life. He became a member of the American Philo sophical Society on April 16, 1869, and continued a close association with that group of learned scholars until his death, at which time he was signally honored with a memorial meeting. Brin-


XXI ton was elected curator of the American Philo sophical Society on January 5, 1877, and he held that office for two decades. He was secretary of the society for six years, and he was serving as chairman of the publications committee at the time of his death.25 From Dr. Brinton's first published work, The Floridian Peninsula, in 1859, to his last unfin ished study on racial psychology, in 1899, he wrote twenty-three books and a number of scien tific articles, pamphlets, monographs, and bro chures. He contributed forty-eight articles to the Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, and the bibliography pre pared by Dr. Brinton of his works lists approxi mately 150 titles.26 During all the years of his writing, he served in many capacities, including editor of the Compendium of Medical Science (1882) and editor and publisher of the Library of American Aboriginal Literature, one of the notable enterprises of the scientific world. In 1884, he became professor of ethnology and ar cheology in the Academy of National Sciences in Philadelphia, and, in 1886, professor of American linguistics and archeology at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Brinton served for a number of years as president of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia, and between


xxii 1886 and 1894 he advanced from vice-president to president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.27 Brinton's activities earned him an international reputation. He made several journeys to Europe for scientific meetings, and he was twice in North Africa. His travels took him to Morocco, Algiers, Constantinople, Tunis, and the Sahara Desert. In 1890, he became vice-president of the Interna tional Congress of Americanists in Paris. In November 1892, President Benjamin Harrison appointed him United States Commissioner to Madrid to report on the archeology of the His torical American Exposition. The following year he became president of the International Con gress of Anthropology. At the meeting that year in Chicago, Brinton delivered three papers: "The Nation as an Element in Anthropology," "Eth nology," and "Linguistics." He was also appointed one of the judges for the World's Columbian Ex position in the Department of Ethnology, in Chicago. In 1886, Dr. Brinton was awarded the Medal of the Societe Americaine de Francethe first American to be so honored-for his "numer ous and learned works on American Ethnology." He also held membership in the Society Royale des Antiquaires du Nord, Copenhagen (1884); Real Academia de Historia, Madrid (1886) ; Berliner Anthropologische Gesellschaft, Berlin


XX111 (1886); Wiener Anthropologische Gesellschaft, Berlin (1886); Wiener Anthropologische Gesell schaft, Vienna (1888); Societe d'Ethnographie, Paris (1890); Societa d'Ethnographia, Florence (1890); and the Societa Romano di Anthropologia (1893). The excellence of Dr. Brinton's work and his pre-eminence in his field of scientific endeavor were also recognized by fellow Ameri cans and their institutions. In 1891, he received the degree of LL.D. from the Jefferson Medical College, and in June 1893, he was awarded the honorary degree of D.Sc. from the University of Pennsylvania.28 Brinton's literary style was lucid compared to scientific literature generally, though when one considers his literary tastes it is not unusual that his writings should be so understandable. He read extensively and had a great interest in art, hav ing visited most of the famous galleries of Europe. Robert Browning and Walt Whitman were among his favorite poets, and he frequently spoke and read before the Browning Society. Brinton admitted that he had often resorted to the works of Tennyson to illuminate his scientific perplexities. The realism of Henrik Ibsen and Emile Zola also appealed to him, perhaps because of his scientific training. Dr. Brinton did not enjoy music, and he frequently quoted Jules Janin, "Music is an expensive noise." In 1897, Brinton pub-


XXIV lished Maria Candelaria: An Historic Drama from American Aboriginal Life. The story was taken from the life of the Indian girl Canus, or Marie Candelaria, the heroine of the revolt of the Tzentals in 1712. It was written in a smooth and agreeable form of blank verse, though it is rather mechanical.29 So broad was the scope of subject matter, and so prolific the pen of Daniel Garrison Brinton, that it would require several volumes of com ment and criticism to give even a cursory cover age of his scientific contributions. An illustration of the correctness of this statement will be found in the bibliography of Brinton's works which was prepared by Stewart Culin and appeared as a part of the published Memorial Meeting. Ex cluding reviews of books, short notes, purely lit erary articles, and medical writings, the list re quires twenty-six printed pages.30 Since over three-quarters of a century have passed since Dr. Brinton's death, it is remarkable that so much of his work has stood undisputed by scien tific inquiry. It is inevitable that there should be a challenge to some. Among Brinton's opinions which are not generally acceptable today were that the Eskimo extended far to the south of their present eastern abode; the probability of the derivation of the American race from Europe at the close of the last glacial epoch; and his


XXV correspondingly antagonistic attitude toward the theory of Asiatic derivation of the Indians. But even Hrdlicka, who spelled out that opposition, concedes that Brinton supplied much useful data, including his articles on the mound-builders, which designated a mound-builder race distinct from the rest of the Indians.31 Brinton died after a brief illness at Atlantic City, New Jersey, on July 31, 1899, at the age of sixty-two. His widow, Sarah Tillson Brinton, sur vived him and in 1908 was living in Media, Penn sylvania. His son, Robert T. Brinton, married Rose, the daughter of Robert James Arkell and Rose Smith, in Chicago, on October 6, 1897, and in 1908 they were living in Rutledge, Pennsylva nia. Robert's oldest son, named for his grand father, died in 1902 at the age of four. There was also a daughter, Sarah Maria Brinton, born in 1900, and a son, Robert Arkell Brinton, born in 1907. Dr. Brinton had a daughter, Emilia G., who married James Beaton Thompson in 1895. Their two children, Elizabeth Hough and Daniel Garrison Thompson, were born in 1896 and 1898, respectively, and they were listed as living in Philadelphia in 1908.32 The best measure of the degree of esteem and affection in which Daniel Brinton was held by his colleagues and associates may be found in the memorial meeting which was held under the aus-


XXVI pices of the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia on January 16, 1900, by twenty-six learned societies. There were representatives from the American Antiquarian Society, American As sociation for the Advancement of Science, Amer ican Folk-Lore Society, American Museum of Natural History, Bureau of American Ethnol ogy, Jefferson Medical College, Peabody Institute of Arts and Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum, and the Univer sity of Pennsylvania. A letter from Frank Hamil ton Cushing, who could not attend because of illness, described the count of Dr. Brinton's work as "scarce less than the Wallum Olum of the Leni Lenapi of his native state, which he was the first to adequately edit and introducethat stands, a monument more lasting than the sculptured mon oliths of Central America which he loved and labored so successfully to make speak again leaving pathways and signs for all the rest of us to follow or beware, in study of these the most subtle and significant of our archaeological problems." Charles C. Harrison, provost of the University of Pennsylvania, talked of Dr. Brinton as "a man of heart as well as of brain." Judge Samuel W. Pennypacker presented an oil portrait of Dr. Brinton, the gift of his friends, to the American Philosophical Society. It was the work of the


XXV11 distinguished artist Thomas Eakins. The portrait was accepted for the society by Professor Dr. J. W. Holland, who described Brinton as "the patriot surgeon, the man of light and leading, the learned archaeologist.,, Professor Albert H. Smyth delivered the me morial address, which has been used as a major source material here. Smyth mentioned the eightvolume Library of Aboriginal Literature, which Brinton began editing and publishing in 1882, describing it as a "monument of learning .. one of the most notable scientific enterprises of this country." He also stressed the importance of Brinton's The American Race, a systematic classi fication of all the tribes of North, Central, and South America on the basis of language. It de fined seventy-nine linguistic stocks in North America and sixty-one in South America and refers to nearly 1,600 tribes. Smyth praised Brin ton as having lived a "blameless, devoted and beneficent life. His work is permanent and valuable. He could say with Landor, 'I have warmed both hands before the fire of life. It sinks, and I am ready to depart.' The Reverend Jesse Y. Burk then presented to the American Philosophical Society, in the name of Dr. Brinton's family, a complete set of his printed works, describing them as "books trium phant." The collection was accepted by Joseph G.


xxviii Rosengarten, who called the volumes "an endur ing memorial of [Brinton's] many-sided literary activity." Stewart Culin, who also prepared the annotated bibliography as a contribution to the memorial meeting and which became a part of its proceedings, presented a bronze medal of Dr. Brinton; it had been struck by the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia. The medal was received for the society by Dr. J. Cheston Morris. Dr. W. J. McGee concluded the meeting with an address on Brinton's ethnological work, and he described Dr. Brinton as a "voracious yet ju dicious reader, a vigorous yet discriminating thinker, and a courageous yet courteous writer." Brinton was noted for his courtesy as well as for the vigor with which he enforced his convictions. His statements were clear and trenchant, and al though in debate he was incisive and even sharp in criticism, he was by nature fair and tolerant. He had a strong personality which attracted au diences, but it was among intimates that he was at his best. He was known as a delightful com panion, a charming host, and an ideal guest.33 Brinton was buried, by choice, with a quiet Episcopal service. He had not been a very ortho dox man in his religious practices, but the cere monies of a ritual appealed to him as an outward expression of a man in the presence of over-


XXIX whelming mystery. Some perhaps wondered why the man who had sought freedom for himself should have been buried with the voice of reli gious service. But, in his choice, he as fully ex pressed himself, perhaps, as though he had been laid to rest in the silence of sunlight. "The man who spoke with free heart at the grave of Walt Whitman" lives nonetheless for posterity.34 THE BOOK. A Guide-Book of Florida and the South, for Tourists, Invalids and Emigrants, like many nineteenth-century Florida volumes, is rare and, when available, expensive. It was published in Philadelphia by George Maclean of 719 Sanson Street in the late summer or fall of 1869. Actual printing was done by Wylie and Griest, Inquirer Printing House and Book Bindery of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. In Florida, the publisher was Co lumbus Drew of Jacksonville. Most of the origi nal books now available in libraries or private collections are lacking the "map of the St. John River." Whether it was removed through care lessness or design is not known. In his preface, Dr. Brinton says that the map was based "on that drawn by my friend, Mr. H. Linden Kohl, U.S. Coast Survey." With or without the map, however, the book now owes its desirability more


XXX to its scarceness than to the varied information that it contains. With the advent of air travel and interstate highways, only a few travelers today would try to make the trip to the South and to Florida by steamship or railroad. Even those persevering souls who would seek out and find the route by sea, or those who would share the pioneering aspects of Amtrak by land, would find little comfort or assistance from the sched ules appearing in this book. Even the hotels have disappeared, along with the attractive rates men tioned by Dr. Brinton. The plan of the book was modeled somewhat after the European guidebooks of Karl Baedeker, called by Brinton the "best ever published," and Baedeker's use of the asterisk was borrowed to denote noteworthy objects or well-kept hotels.35 Brinton recognized that railroad fares, accom modations, and charges were constantly chang ing.36 After an introductory section on "prelimi nary hints," the book is divided into three parts: "Southern Routes," "Florida," and "Chapter to Invalids." The largest section of the book, sev enty-five pages, is devoted to Florida. Brinton defines the most desirable season for southern travel as October to May, an extension that would doubtless be pleasing to present-day tourist bureaus. He warns, however, of the peri odic rains and oppressive heat after the first of


xxxi June. The reader is also warned of "swamp mi asm," or "miasma," which begins to pervade the low grounds about mid-summer and which Brin ton described as "an invisible poisonous exhala tion" which "spreads around" the travelers (p. 9). Miasma, which has been described as a "nox ious exhalation from putrescent organic matter," was feared as the carrier of the dreaded yellow fever.37 The presence of the mosquito in swamp areas had not yet been related to yellow fever, so the miasma "arising" from the low lands was blamed for a variety of diseases common to such localities. With the development of germ theories of medicine during and after the Civil War, the once-feared miasma was relegated to the growing list of medicine by supposition.38 One bit of information and advice from the introductory section of the book will not be dis puted by any traveler today. Brinton suggests that before leaving on the journey, one's teeth should be "set" by a skillful dentist. As he cor rectly states, there is no record of "a philosopher who could tranquilly bear a jumping toothache." Brinton also suggests a mosquito net for autumn nights. A teaspoonful of carbolic acid or camphor sprinkled in the room, he had learned, would be "disagreeable" to the insects, but "often equally so to the traveler." He also advised the visitor to include in his baggage "devilled ham, sardines,


xxxii potted meats ... a flask of wine ... a strong umbrella ... a stout pocket knife." And every wise tourist, he cautioned, should check to see if "the sheets on the bed [are] dry" (pp. 10-11). In Brinton's day, steamers were readily avail able between New York and Charleston, Savan nah, Fernandina, and Key West, and between those same cities and Philadelphia. Even Palatka was reached every other day by a steamer from Charleston and Savannah. Although the railroad lines mentioned by Brinton are still operating between the major cities along the east coast, the fares of that era bear slight resemblance to those in present-day schedules. Brinton cites a fare of $38.65 from New York to Jacksonville; the pres ent Amtrak rate is $66.00. However, when one considers the time spent in travel between the two cities in Brinton's time and today, and the applicable relative purchasing power of the dol lar of the 1860s and the present time, perhaps one of the best values today would be found in rail travel. It took the traveler in the decade prior to the Civil War twelve and one-half hours to go by train from Savannah to Jacksonville; a passenger train today makes the same trip in two hours and twenty-five minutes. On the map in Brinton's book, the spelling of Florida's main river appears as "St. John." Brin-


XXX111 ton notes that, in the "best usage of our geo graphical writers," the possessive use was not employed (p. 53). This river has been known by many names, just as the land through which it flows has been owned by several nations. The Indians, according to Brinton, called it Il-la-ka, River of Lakes, which the European invaders corrupted to Welaka. This name has survived to the present day as a community south of Palatka, on Florida Highway 309. The first-known Spanish name for the river was Rio de Corrientes (River of the Currents). This designation is shown on a map dating from about 1544, once in the possession of Alonzo de Santa Cruz, the Spanish royal cosmographer.39 The original is located in the Archivo General de las Indias in Seville, Spain.40 The French inva sion of Florida by Jean Ribault in 1562 intro duced still another name. Ribault's account was contemporaneously translated in a manuscript now in the British museum: "which river we have called by the name of the river of Maye, for that we discovered the same the first day of that mounthe."41 The name Riviere de May did not survive much longer, except in literature and history, than did the occupation of the area by the French. It was called Corrientes by the Spanish for over a hun-


xxxiv dred years, although Father Ore referred to it in 1616 as River Tocoy, for an early Indian mission on its bank, and Pedro Menendez renamed it Rio San Mateo, or St. Matthew, in 1565. In some mis sion reports around the beginning of the 1600s, the river is noted as the Rio Dulce and Agua Dulce (fresh water) ,42 In 1755, the English map of John Mitchell showed the alternate names of San Matheo and San Juan for the river, the latter designation honoring St. John the Evangelist. This was also the name given to the Spanish mission of San Juan del Puerto, which had been established at Fort George Island near the mouth of the river in 1587.43 The name of St. John, or St. John's River, was to be the derivative name, with and without the apostrophe.44 Finally, the United States Board of Geographic Names adopted a general policy of dropping the apostrophe, and Brinton's use of the name of St. John River was superseded by the now universally accepted des ignation St. Johns River, without the apostrophe. In spite of Brinton's familiarity with the river, he fell into the common error of mistaking the direction of the flow. The St. Johns is unique in that it is one of the largest rivers in the United States that flows north for most of its course, yet Brinton, in trying to call the reader's attention


XXXV to this unique feature, mistakenly wrote: "it flows nearly due south until within fifteen miles of its mouth" (p. 52). Dr. Brinton noted the population of Jackson ville at "7,000 souls," with the corporate limits "between two creeks which fall into the St. John about a mile and a quarter apart." The most expensive hotel, the St. James, was "on the pub lic square," and its rooms rented for $4.00 a day. The St. James opened January 1, 1869, with 120 guest rooms, including the innovative luxury of hot and cold baths. There were also bowling alleys and a billiard room in the four-story wooden structure. When General Robert E. Lee visited Jacksonville in 1870, the St. James Hotel was pointed out to him as "the Fifth Avenue Hotel of Florida." In 1888, President Cleveland stayed there with his wife during their attendance at the Sub-Tropical Exposition. Other city hotels were listed in Brinton's guide as charging from $2.00 to $3.00 a day (p. 56). Superior accommo dations enabled Jacksonville to become a favorite resort for invalids during the winter months (p. 57). The newspaper Florida Union, which Dr. Brinton labeled as "republican]," is listed, along with the Mercury and Floridian and Florida Land Register. The Florida Union, which began publi cation in 1864, was purchased by Charles Jones,


xxxvi editor of the rival Jacksonville Times, and the first issue of the Florida Times-Union appeared on February 4, 1883.45 Continuing south along the St. Johns River, Brinton notes the residence at Mandarin of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, the famed author of Uncle Tom's Cabin. She had settled on part of the "Old Fairbanks Grant" in 1867. Travelers could sometimes see Mrs. Stowe and members of her family on the lawn overlooking the river as the boats went by. Brinton described the hotel at Hibernia as "one of the best on the river,"46 and he noted the presence of a sanatorium at Mag nolia (pp. 59-60) near Green Cove Springs. That latter is described as "sulphurous ... of value in chronic rheumatism, cutaneous disease and dys pepsia," with a temperature of 78F at all sea sons (p. 61). Brinton was not entirely correct in this regard. The temperature of the water varies with the seasons; it was measured at 77F in April 1946 and only 70F in February 1924. The analyses of the chemical content of the water remained almost identical for the two dates. No longer is any specific medicinal value assigned to the waters from the springs, its utilization being described as "swimming and drinking."47 Dr. Brinton devotes almost ten pages to a de scription of St. Augustine, extending his usual comments on local facilities to include a short


xxxvii and largely accurate history of the city. He in correctly states that the fort (known as Fort Marion at the time of his visit) was "commenced of stone about 1640" (p. 63), when the correct date was 1672,48 and he incorrectly dates the founding of the colony of Georgia in 1732 (p. 64). His errors were undoubtedly derived from George R. Fairbanks' The Spaniards in Florida, cited by him as "the best" book (p. 63). It was published by Columbus Drew of Jacksonville, who was also the publisher of "this unpretending little book," as Brinton referred to his work (Preface, p. iii). Fairbanks wrote that in 1640 "Apalachian" Indians (p. 71) were brought to St. Au gustine "to labor upon the public works and for tifications of the city," and Brinton probably construed that "work" to mean construction of the great masonry fort which the Spanish called Castillo de San Marcos. Fairbanks had also in correctly stated that Oglethorpe had "planted" his colony in Georgia in 1732.49 While it is true that Oglethorpe and his company set sail for America on November 17, 1732, they did not land at the present site of Savannah until February 12 of the following year.50 It is pointless to quibble over such errors, but it seems more interesting when the fallacy can be traced. Dr. Brinton can not, however, explain his error of the "changing hands" of Spanish supremacy in Florida by blam-


XXXV111 ing Fairbanks for the erroneous date (1781) given in his book (p. 65) for the return of Flor ida to Spain by England. Two of Fairbanks' ac counts, nearly identical, show 1783 as the correct date.51 Dr. Brinton seemed to feel a strange fasci nation for St. Augustine, like many of its visitors then and now. While in college at Yale he had described it as "a very dull, lethargic, little city," yet he could not dismiss it without also calling it "beautiful, lovely; sleeping like an odalisque by its quiet bay."52 From St. Augustine, Brinton went on to "Picolata on the St. John" and by noting that he arrived the day after the burial of John Lee Wil liams (pp. 70-71), one knows that he was there on November 9, 1856. Williams had died two days earlier and was buried, according to Brin ton, in his "neat garden plot" where "the wind moaned in the pines."53 Palatka, Welaka, Volusia, and Blue Springs are mentioned in that order. Brinton's description of Blue Springs in Volusia County (the county was established December 29, 1854) does not differ materially from one of the Florida Depart ment of Conservation three-quarters of a century later, although no doubt its chemical analysis would have interested him, since he comments on its sulphurous nature. The average flow of the spring, which for the fifteen years following 1932


xxxix was over 100 million gallons per day, would cer tainly have confirmed his judgment of its mag nitude.54 Enterprise and Fort Mellon on Lake Monroe are the terminal points of Dr. Brinton's voyage on the river, and according to him the source of St. Johns was unknown (p. 77). Apparently, he was not familiar with United States government surveys made in 1822 which claimed that the St. Johns "takes its rise in a small lake," known today by the descriptive name of Lake Helen Blazes.55 After a brief mention of New Smyrna, with a short account concerning Dr. Andrew Turnbull and the Minorcans, Italians, and Greeks who settled there in 1767, Dr. Brinton takes passing notice of the Indian River section of Florida. He was interested in the manner in which mail was carried "by a man on foot" from Jupiter Inlet along the beach to Miami (p. 80), and he thus gives his readers a glimpse of the person who would later be widely known as "The Barefoot Mailman." Brinton estimates the route as ninety miles long; in later years, Theodore Pratt, author of The Barefoot Mailman, lists it only as sixtysix miles.56 Brinton deals in rather summary fashion with the section of Florida now known as the "Big Bend," the area westward from Jacksonville to


xl Tallahassee. Although Olustee is mentioned as "a rising village" and Ocean Pond as "a handsome sheet of water" (p. 81), no statement is made of the engagement fought there, the largest in Flor ida during the Civil War, although that event took place only some five years prior to the pub lication of his book. Perhaps Brinton thought southerners might resent his description of con flicts of that period, or perhaps he felt such events should not be mentioned because they had occurred after his visit to Florida. At any rate, Brinton seems to have avoided mention of the war. He referred only to "the fire of April 2, 1865" without connecting it with the fall of Rich mond, Virginia, except for an oblique reference to "that disastrous epoch" (p. 17). Mention of the north-central Florida area is not enticing, with stops at an "insignificant" station at San derson, "two tolerable hotels" in Lake City (p. 81), and "passable" accommodations at Suwan nee Springs north of Live Oak, called by Brinton the "Lower Spring" (p. 83). By contrast, how ever, he notes the "good table set [at Live Oak] by Mr. Conner, who keeps the hotel" (pp. 82-83). Monticello, in Jefferson County, he found to be "pleasantly located," and the climate of the entire section, "dry and equable," with the soil growing "the very best upland pine" (p. 84). George M. Barbour, in a book published some


xli thirteen years later, supported Dr. Brinton's ap praisal of "this part" of Florida.57 Tallahassee elicits little comment from Dr. Brinton, but he noted the population, then 3,000, and the selection of that site as the state capital in 1823. Brinton knew that John Lee Williams had been one of the two commissioners who had recommended the location for Florida's capital city. For some reason he does not give the name of Dr. W. H. Simmons of St. Augustine, the other commissioner. Perhaps he glossed over the omis sion by erroneously stating that there were three commissioners who acted (pp. 84-85). In Talla hassee, Brinton visited a "pleasant stream" in "the eastern part of the town," the same "mill stream" which, according to John Lee Williams, "falls fifteen or sixteen feet, into a gulf scooped out by its own current, and finally sinks into a cleft of limestone rock."58 Brinton described Flor ida's historic capitol building, as "handsome" and "spacious," noting that it was built during Flor ida's territorial days. Quincy, Madison, and Newport were seen only as the train passed through, and there is little description of these communities. St. Marks, San Marcos de Apalache, and Wakulla Springs are described in more detail, with the spring receiv ing special attention because of its "marvellous clearness" (p. 87).


xlii Brinton, like so many others before and after him, was apparently captivated by the Oklawaha River and the "Silver Spring" (p. 88). Although only five pages are devoted to this part of Florida, Dr. Brinton pictures the river as "a narrow, swift and tortuous stream, overhung by enormous cy presses" and "natural leafy curtains of vines." There were "forests of cypress, curled maple, black and prickly ash, cabbage trees, and loblolly bays" (p. 88), "thousands of beautiful and fra grant flowers," and a spring basin "tinged with the hues of the rainbow" (p. 90). There is a brief description of Silver Spring (Brinton uses the singular), and reference is made to a "good de scription" of it in a book by General George McCall; with the practical eye of a scientist and bookseller, Brinton calls attention to a "more sci entific" description in one of his own books.59 Ocala was "a neat town" (p. 91), and Leesburg was delineated only as "the county seat of Sum ter county" (p. 92) ; the latter statement may come as a surprise to some residents of Bushnell and of Lake County. A journey on the railroad constructed by United States Senator David Yulee from Fernandina to Cedar Key, a road which had been completed by 1861 and rendered inoperable by the events of the Civil War, is also on Brinton's itinerary. Since the 154-mile journey required eleven hours in


xliii transit, one can only wonder about the railroad's condition at best.60 The three and one-half pages devoted to the passage are relatively uninterest ing, and the trip itself probably was likewise dull. Cedar Key's population at the time was only 400. The highlight of the description of this segment of his Florida travel is Brinton's outline of Gainesville, with a population of 1,500. Brinton was obviously impressed by the Devil's Millhopper which he called the "Devil's Wash Pot," and by Payne's Prairie (p. 94). Warren's Cave and the natural bridge over the Santa Fe River, two more of the natural wonders of the area, were noticed. Worthington Springs (now in Union County) is incorrectly designated as "Wellington" Springs, a misnomer that would doubtless be dis pleasing to William G. D. Worthington, an 1822 United States marshal who also served briefly as acting governor of the Territory of East Florida, for whom the community was named.61 With its population of 4,800, Key West pro vides still another interesting insight into Brinton's activities and interests which would other wise be undisclosed. He mentions not only the accommodations, natural characteristics, and local activities, but he was also aware of "the dark eyes, rich tresses, graceful forms, and delicate feet of the ladies." The "favorite social drink" of the community, according to Brinton, was "cham-


xliv perou, a compound of curacoa [sic], eggs, Jamaica spirits and other ingredients" (p. 99). The United States Naval Station and Fort Taylor, then under construction, are mentioned. Dr. Brinton liked Key West's climate; he found it to be "the most equable in the United States" (p. 100). Only a slight reference is made to Fort Jefferson in the Dry Tortugas and its utilization as a prison "dur ing the war." Dr. Samuel Mudd's incarceration there because of his involvement with John Wilkes Booth is not described. Brinton did note that "at one time the yellow fever carried off great num bers of them [inhabitants of the fortress]" (pp. 101-2). Perhaps the most prophetic portion of Dr. Brinton's book is his short narrative of Miami. While the accommodations were "poor and insufficient" and there were "few settlers" in the area, Brin ton describes the winter climate on the south eastern coast of Florida as the "finest both in point of temperature and health." He feels that "before long" accommodations will be pro vided (p. 102). Perhaps also a trace of prophecy might be found in Brinton's statement that Wil liam Gleason, later lieutenant governor of Flor ida, who resided in Miami at that time, "will entertain travelers to the extent that he can" (p. 103). In the Miami area, Dr. Brinton also visited


xlv "Arch creek," "the Punch Bowl," and "Old and New Matacumba [sic]" (pp. 104-5). Brinton describes the physical characteristics of the area from Cape Sable to Tampa, but pre sumably accommodations were lacking for the visitor. Tampa had only 600 inhabitants, and since the hotels and boardinghouses are listed without recommendation, one should assume their mediocrity. The area generally is praised, and the military establishment at Fort Brooke is listed as "one of the best stations in the United States for providing the mess" (p. 108). Brinton men tions the claim that Hernando de Soto landed at "Tampa, or Espiritu Santo Bay" (p. 109) in May 1539, citing the authority of Theodore Irving and Buckingham Smith. Proponents of a Caloosahatchee River landing site will be pleased to see that Dr. Brinton also included Smith's comment that he believed the landing place of Hernando de Soto "to be far southward of Tampa."62 Apalachicola and Pensacola fare no better with Brinton than did Tampa. There were no hotels in Pensacola, even though it had then about 2,000 inhabitants. Boardinghouses were available with good but limited accommodations near the rail road depot. Brinton noted that the climate at Pensacola was "bracing in winter," but that un fortunately almost all consumptives grew worse.


xlvi Milton is the last of the Florida communities dis cussed, and it is described as "a pleasant town" (p. 112). From Florida, Dr. Brinton went next to Mobile, Alabama, and thus traveled out of the range of this Introduction. The final portion of the book is called "Chap ters to Invalids," and in it Brinton devotes twenty-two pages to such subjects as the advis ability of a climate change for invalids and the best kind to be chosen, where the most favorable southern climate is to be found, and suggestions to health seekers. In preparation for a discussion of the final part of the book, with a view toward comparing and contrasting medical opinions of Dr. Brinton's day and those of the present era, we have been guided in our comments by a gen eral practitioner from a metropolitan area of Florida, who is familiar with the contents of this volume.63 Dr. Brinton discusses a half dozen diseases which he believed could be cured or eased by liv ing in a more moderate climate. Pulmonary con sumption receives primary consideration, and Dr. Brinton prescribes a "change of air" since he believed that consumption is curable if treated in its early stages (p. 115). Breathing fresh air was regarded by many nineteenth-century physi cians as the best palliative for the disease. Dr. Edward L. Trudeau, a pioneer advocate of that


xlvii type of treatment, founded a tubercular center in the Adirondack Mountains of New York in 1884. There he exposed his patients to fresh air whenever possible, even to the extent of requiring them to sleep on an outdoor porch in the winter. That kind of medical treatment remained in force until the advent of anti-tuberculosis medications in the 1940s. With the discovery of streptomycin in 1944, PAS in 1946, and isoniazid (INH) in 1952, fresh-air tuberculosis centers began to de cline in importance. Dr. Brinton stressed the importance of courage on the part of the patient, and this characteristic continues to be regarded as an important factor in combatting a variety of illnesses. Outstanding examples of those who supposedly overcame fra gility of health through personal fortitude are Robert Louis Stevenson and Theodore Roosevelt. Brinton believed that bronchitis was another disease that would respond to a "change of air" (p. 117). However, many of the diseases referred to as bronchitis in Dr. Brinton's day might now, with modern X-ray equipment, result in a diag nosis of emphysema, black-lung disease, bronchi ectasis, or even allergy. The mild winter climate prescribed by Dr. Brinton for all such ailments would undoubtedly be beneficial, but augmenta tion of treatment with modern drugs is necessary for a complete cure.


xlviii Scrofulatuberculosis of the lymph nodes of the neckis spoken of with dread by Dr. Brin ton. His statement that the victims of this disease often possess a "precocious, spiritual, intelli gence" tends to find support in the case of Sam uel Johnson, whose similar disease might be said to have been accompanied by some of these qualities. Brinton prescribes "a total change of air, diet, surroundings" which would probably help even those without scrofula (p. 117). Rheumatism was also a concern of Dr. Brinton, and he advises rheumatics to prolong their lives by inhabiting "a warm, equable climate" (p. 118). Brinton mentions in connection with rheu matism the concomitant organic disease, known now generally as "heart murmur," and prescribes the same treatment. Today, it is known that rheu matism will follow streptococcal infections ("strep throat"), and early treatment with proper drugs can inhibit rheumatism. Dr. Brinton recommends travel as the best cure for dyspepsia, now recognized as heartburn or in digestion. Some contradiction with modern medi cine is shown in Brinton's discussion of nervous and mental exhaustion, which he identifies as paresis. Today, the term is generally confined to the narrow meaning of syphilis of the brain, but Brinton probably used the term to describe de mentia, without reference to syphilis. Dr. Brinton


xlix refers to this disease in his discussion of senility and observes that cold weather is the foe of the aged: "Relaxation from business and winters in a warm climate about the age of sixty, will add ten years to life" (p. 119). Few doctors or patients today would argue with that advice. According to Dr. Brinton, heat stimulates the faculty of reproduction, and thus, according to his diagnosis, a warm climate is desirable for "marriages not blessed by offspring" (p. 119). The Japanese might differ with this view; to them a daily hot bath is regarded as the best means of keeping them in a state of relative in fertility. Dr. Brinton merely adds to a long list of fertility rites when he praises a warm climate, a list which was also earlier augmented from Florida by the drinking of sassafras tea.64 Dr. Brinton realized that no climate can be recommended indiscriminately for all, but he be lieved that a change was important. According to him, the best climate for invalids included "an equable temperature, moderate moisture, moder ate and regular winds, and freedom from local disease" (p. 124). Dr. Brinton believed that of all parts of the United States, the section that was most desirable was the southeast coast of Florida (p. 126), in particular Key Biscayne (p. 130). In "Some Hints to Health Seekers," Brinton stressed the importance of keeping the mind and


1 body active. He advised collecting "something bugs butterflies mosses fossils flowers ... in fair weather," and spending one's time in "their arrangement when it rains" (p. 131). In this regard, Dr. Brinton anticipated Dr. William Osier, who said: "No man is really happy or safe without a hobby, and it makes precious little difference what the outside interests may bebotany, beetles or butterflies, roses, tulips or irises; fishing, mountaineering or antiquities anything will do so long as he straddles a hobby and rides it hard."65 Brinton deplored "interminable picture galleries" and "cold, damp churches" for sightseers abroad (p. 131). Florida, he discovered, had none of these, but he found to his delight that there "Nature has spread out boundless attractions" (p. 131). He urged "exercise in the open air" (p. 132), and he showed concern for food. His diet regimen for consumptives is compatible with modern medical advice in that it recommends foods which will increase caloric intake and re duce calcium deposits. Valetudinarians would perhaps be surprised that Dr. Brinton regarded medicine as "of sec ondary importance" (p. 134). Today's medical practitioners might also disagree with Brinton's feelings about the relative importance of medicine. Dr. Brinton did recommend cod-liver oil for


li consumptives. Doctors now also realize that the vitamin D found in cod-liver oil absorbs calcium, and it has a therapeutic value in treating diseases affecting the lungs. They also support Brinton's dietary aids in avoiding constipation, but they might be surprised that he recommended "corn grits" for this purpose (p. 135). Brinton pre scribed quinine for malaria, and he urged that one live away from stagnant water. Of course, when this book was first published in 1869, it was not then known that the mosquito caused malaria in human beings. Dr. Brinton urged northerners to journey to Florida. He claimed that any belief that visitors would be the target of "unpleasant feeling" was "entirely groundless." The risks of travel were minimal, he felt, and he agreed with Thoreau that 'We sit as many risks as we run' (p. 136). What, then, do we conclude after a considera tion of "this unpretending little book" and its author? Perhaps this was one of Brinton's lesser efforts, though it is interesting as a chronicle of the post-Civil War period and as an important view of Florida and the South. It contained med ical advice which is largely uncontradicted by modern medical practice, and the book must have been regarded in its day as important to those who contemplated travel in the South. Dr. Brin ton realized the importance of Florida as a


Hi health resort, and he strongly suggested its de velopment: "I build for the future, and not the present" (p. 130). Perhaps, though, over all shines the star of Daniel Garrison Brinton the scientist and Daniel Brinton the man. No one could have eulogized him more aptly than Provost Charles C. Harrison at the Brinton Memorial of the American Philo sophical Society, when he described his friend as "a man of heart as well as of brain."66 NOTES. 1. The original manuscript of Fontaneda's memoir is located in the Archivo General de las Indias, Seville, Spain (Patronato 18, Number 5). Buckingham Smith's 1854 translation with notes of the document was edited by David 0. True and published in 1944 and 1973: Memoir of D d'Escalante Fontaneda Re specting Florida (Miami, 1973), pp. 16, 19. 2. Buckingham Smith, trans., Relation of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca (New York, 1871; facsimile edition, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1966). 3. The original text was first published by Buck ingham Smith in his Coleccion de Varios Documentos para la Historia de la Florida y Tierras Adyacentes, Tomo I (London, 1857). 4. Garcilaso He la Vega, La Florida del Inca (Lis bon, 1605; Madrid, 1723). 5. Ran j el's original manuscript is lost; the con tents are known to us only through Gonzalo Fernan dez de Oviedo de Valdes, Historia General y Natural


liii de las Indias (Madrid, 1526). The account of de Soto's expedition by the Gentleman of Elvas appeared at Evora, Portugal, in 1557. Richard Hakluyt pub lished it in English in 1609 as Virginia Richly Valued. See Hakluyt, trans., The Discovery and Conquest of Terra Florida, by Don Francisco De Soto, ed. William B. Rye (London, 1851). 6. Smith, Memoir of D d'Escalante Fontaneda, p. 14. 7. Cecil Roberts, Gone Sunwards (London, 1936); Margaret DeLand, Florida Days (Boston, 1889); Ledyard Bill, A Winter in Florida (New York, 1869); Frank M. Dunbaugh, Jr., Going to Florida? (New York, 1925). 8. Sidney Lanier, Florida: Its Scenery, Climate, and History (Philadelphia, 1875; facsimile edition, Gainesville, Fla., 1973); Harriet Beecher Stowe, Palmetto-Leaves (Boston, 1873; facsimile edition, Gainesville, Fla., 1968); Silvia Sunshine [Abbie M. Brooks], Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes (Nashville, Tenn., 1880; facsimile edition, Gainesville, Fla., 1976) ; Nevin 0. Winter, Florida, the Land of En chantment (Boston, 1918). 9. (Philadelphia, 1859; facsimile edition, New York, 1969). 10. Alexander F. Chamberlain, "In Memoriam: Daniel Garrison Brinton,,, Journal of American FolkLore 12 (July-September 1899) :215. 11. Dictionary of American Biography, 3:50-51; National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 9: 265-66. 12. Memorial address by Professor Albert H. Smyth, January 16, 1900, in Brinton Memorial Meet ing (Philadelphia, 1900), p. 18. 13. Anson Phelps Stokes, Memorials of Eminent Yale Men, 3 vols. (New Haven, 1914), 1:351.


liv 14. Smyth, in Brinton Memorial Meeting, pp. 18-19. 15. Stokes, Memorials of Eminent Yale Men, 1:351. 16. "A City Gone to Seed," Yale Literary Mag azine 12 (June 1857) :261. 17. William P. Bacon, Fourth Biographical Rec ord of the Class of Fifty-eight, Yale University (New Britain, Conn., 1897), passim. 18. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 9:265; DAB, 3:50-51. 19. Bacon, Fourth Biographical Record, p. 77. 20. Mark Mayo Boatner III, The Civil War Dic tionary (New York, 1959), p. 193. 21. "Daniel G. Brinton," Science, n.s. 10 (August 18, 1899) :193. 22. Boatner, Civil War Dictionary, pp. 149-53. 23. Bacon, Fourth Biographical Record, pp. 77-78. 24. Smyth, in Brinton Memorial Meeting, pp. 19-20. 25. Bacon, Fourth Biographical Record, p. 78; Smyth, in Brinton Memorial Meeting, p. 26. 26. Smyth, p. 26; Chamberlain, "In Memoriam: Daniel Garrison Brinton," p. 223. 27. "Daniel G. Brinton," Science, p. 194. 28. Chamberlain, "In Memoriam: Daniel Garrison Brinton," p. 222; Bacon, Fourth Biographical Rec ord, p. 79. 29. Smyth, in Brinton Memorial Meeting, pp. 26-27. 30. Stewart Culin, ibid., pp. 42-67. 31. Alex Hrdlicka, American Anthropologist 16 (1914): 539. 32. William Plumb Bacon, Fifth Biographical Rec ord, Class of Fifty-eight, Yale University (New Britain, Conn., 1908), p. 35.


lv 33. "Daniel G. Brinton," Science, p. 195. 34. Helen Abbott Michael, in The Conservator (September 1899), p. 103. 35. Karl Baedeker (1801-59) published his guide books at Coblenz, Germany; by the time Brinton's book was published, Baedeker had been dead ten years, but his son, Fritz Baedeker, continued the business, moving it to Leipzig. See Columbia Ency clopedia, 3d ed. (New York, 1963), p. 148. 36. That "such matters are constantly changing" (Preface, p. iii), caused consternation among writers of guidebooks then but now delights such authors as a cause of a "new and revised edition." 37. Random House Dictionary of the English Lan guage (New York, 1966), p. 904. 38. J. E. Dovell, Florida, Historic, Dramatic, Contemporary, 4 vols, (New York, 1952), 1:388. 39. William P. Cumming, The Southeast in Early Maps (Princeton, 1958), plate 5, p. 113. 40. Indiferente General, Estante 145, Cajon 7, Legajo 8, Ramo 272. 41. Jean Ribau[l]t, The Whole & True Discouerye of Terra Florida, ed. Jeannette Thurber Conner (DeLand, Fla., 1927; facsimile edition, Gainesville, Fla., 1964), p. 70. 42. Herbert M. Corse, "Names of the St. Johns River," Florida Historical Quarterly 21 (October 1942):129. 43. Maynard Geiger, The Franciscan Conquest of Florida (1573-1618) (Washington, 1937), pp. 55, 58. 44. U.S. Board on Geographic Names, Report 1890-1899 (Washington,.1901), p. 110, cited in Corse, "Names of the St. Johns River," p. 134. 45. Richard A. Martin, The City Makers (Jack sonville, 1972), pp. 58, 72, 90, 137, 174, 203, 279n. 46. See Margaret Seton Fleming Biddle, Hibernia:


lvi The Unreturning Tide (New York, 1947; facsimile edition, New York, 1974), p. vii. A descendant of the founder George Fleming, the author described Hibernia in 1946 as "lonely and ... a little sad." 47. G. E. Ferguson, C. W. Lingham, S. K. Love, and R. O. Vernon, Springs of Florida, Florida Geo logical Survey Bulletin 31 (Tallahassee, 1947), pp. 59-60. 48. Albert C. Manucy, The History of Castillo de San Marcos & Fort Matanzas from Contemporary Narratives and Letters (Washington, 1943), p. 15. 49. George R. Fairbanks, The Spaniards in Flor ida (Jacksonville, 1868), p. 82. 50. "A History of the Erection and Dedication of the Monument to Gen'l James Edward Oglethorpe," Collections of the Georgia Historical Society 7, pt. 2 (1911):11. 51. George R. Fairbanks, Spaniards in Florida, pp. 90, 100, and History and Antiquities of St. Augustine, Florida (New York, 1858; facsimile edi tion, Gainesville, Fla., 1975), pp. 155, 173. 52. Brinton, "A City Gone to Seed." 53. Brinton, Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, pp. 70-72. 54. Ferguson et al., Springs of Florida, pp. 163-65. 55. John E. Le Conte, "Reports to Office of Chief of Engineers, U.S. War Department, 1822," National Archives, Washington; Branch Cabell and A. J. Hanna, The St. Johns, A Parade of Diversities (New York, 1943), p. 10. 56. Pratt, "Notes on the Barefoot Mailman," Florida Historical Quarterly 44 (January 1966) :201. 57. Barbour, Florida for Tourists, Invalids, and Settlers (New York, 1882; facsimile edition, Gainesville, Fla., 1964), p. 91.


lvii 58. Williams, The Territory of Florida (New York, 1837; facsimile edition, Gainesville, Fla., 1962), p. 121. At present (1978), Tallahassee civic organiza tions and other groups are hoping to restore this stream under the descriptive name of "The Cascades." 59. McCall, Letters from the Frontiers (Phila delphia, 1868; facsimile edition, Gainesville, Fla., 1974), pp. 149-52; Brinton, Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, Appendix I, pp. 183-90. 60. Dudley S. Johnson, "The Florida Railroad after the Civil War," Florida Historical Quarterly 47 (January 1969) :292. 61. Allen Morris, Florida Place Names (Coral Gables, Fla., 1974), p. 152. See also J. B. Whitfield, "Marshals of the United States for Districts of Florida, 1821-1865," Florida Historical Quarterly 20 (April 1942) -.380-81. 62. Warren H. Wilkinson, Opening the Case against the U.S. DeSoto Commission's Report and Other DeSoto Papers (Jacksonville Beach, Fla., 1960). 63. Comments of present-day practices and view points of the medical profession were furnished by Sherman H. Pace, M.D., a graduate of Duke Medical School, Durham, North Carolina. He has been a gen eral practitioner in Clearwater, Florida, since 1955; has served as chief-of-staff of Clearwater Com munity Hospital; and is a member of the staff of Morton F. Plant Hospital. Due to the technical na ture of Dr. Pace's comments, I assume responsibility for any errors as a matter of my own lack of pro fessional understanding. 64. Dr. Nicholas Monardes, Joyful Newes Out of the Newe-Founde Worlde (London, 1596), quoted in Charles E. Bennett, Laudonniere and Fort Caroline


lviii (Gainesville, Fla., 1964), p. 186: "Some women doo use of this water for to make them with child." 65. Sir William Osier, Aphorisms, ed. Robert B. Bean and William B. Bean (New York, 1950), p. 70. 66. Provost Charles C. Harrison, in Brinton Me morial Meeting, p. 14. TEXTUAL NOTE. The edition of the Guide-Book reproduced here was filmed from one of the two editions known to have been published by George Maclean in 1869; while textually identical, the editions differ slightly in page dimensions, binding, and arrange ment of the front matter. The most significant difference between the two editions is that the edition not filmed has the name of the publisher pasted onto the title page so as to conceal the original imprint.


C ) V \ ) v W >><1/| "* \ |T INVERT M If/ ^ ^.. I P-GJW^ W^^l 1/ T^^C^V ;|t SCALE:/




Entered according to Aot of Congress, in the year 186, by DANIEL G. BBINTON, A. M., M. D., In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, in and for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. F&OX THE FBHg 09 WTtlE & GR1B8T, ~" "*" Inquirer Printing House and Book Bindery, Lancaster, Penn'fc


PREFACE. This unpretending little book is designed to give the visitor to Florida such information as will make his trip more useful and more pleasant. In writing it I have had in mind the ex cellent European Guide-Books of Karl Baedeker, the best, to my mind, ever published. Though I have not followed his plan very closely, I have done so to the extent the character of our country seems to allow. I have borrowed from him the use of the asterisk (*) to de note that the object so designated is especially noteworthy, or that the hotel thus distinguished is known to me to be well" kept, either from my own observation or that of friends. Most of the localities are described from my own notes taken during an extended tour through the peninsula, but for much respecting railroad fare, accommodations, and charges, I am in debted to a large number of tourists and correspondents who have related to me their experience. To all these I express my warmest thanks for their assistance. As of course such matters are constantly changing, and as I shall be most desirous to correct any errors, and biing the work fully up to the times in future editions, I shall esteem it a particular favor if those who use this book will forward me any notes or observation which will aid me in improving it. Such communications may be addressed "care of the Penn Publishing Co., 719 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, Penna." The map of the St. John River is based on that drawn by my friend, Mr. H. Lindenkohl, U. S. Coast Survey. PHILADELPHIA, August, 1869,


CONTENTS. PAGE. Preface ,... iii Contents <.. .......... iv PRELIMINARY HINTS. 1. Season for Southern Travel 9 2. Preparations for the Journey 10 PART I SOUTHERN ROUTES. 1. Steamship Lines 13 2. Washington to Richmond 14 3. Richmond to Charleston 18 4. Aiken, S. C, and the Southern Highlands 22 5. Charleston to Savannah 26 6. Savannah to Jacksonville 29 PART II.FLORIDA. 1. Historical 32 2. Books and Maps 35


V 3. Physical Geography of Florida. 1. Geographical Formation. 2. Soil and Crops. 3. Climate and Health. 4. Vegetable and Animal Life 37 4. The St. John River and St. Augustine (Indian River,) 52 5. Jacksonville to Tallahasse, Quincy, and St. Marks.... 81 6. The Oklawaha River and the Silver Spring 88 7. Fernandina to Cedar Keys 93 8. Key West, the Florida Keys and the Gulf Coast 97 9. The Western Coast (Tampa, Apalachicola, Pensacola, Mobile) 1C6 PART lll.-CHAPTERS TO INVALIDS. I. When is a change of climate advisable ? 115 II. What climate shall be chosen ? 120 III. Where is the best Southern winter climate? 128 IV. Some hints to Health-Seekers 130


GUIDE-BOOK OF FLORIDA AND THE SOUTH. PRELIMINARY HINTS. THE SEASON FOR SOUTHERN TRAVEL. The season for Southern travel commences in October and ends in May. After the latter month the periodi cal rains commence in Florida, and the mid-day heat is relaxing and oppressive. About mid-summer the swamp miasm begins to pervade the low grounds, and spreads around them an invisible poisonous exhalation, into which the traveler ventures at his peril. This increases in violence until September, when it loses its power with the returning cold. When one or two sharp frosts have been felt in New York or Philadelphia, the danr ger is chiefly past. Nevertheless., for mere considera tions of health, November is soon enough to reach the Gulf States. Those who start earlier will do well to linger in some of the many attractive spots on their way through the more Northern States. A congestive chill is a serious matter, and evetx the lightest attack of fever and ague can destroy the pleasure and annul the bene fit of a winter's tour.


10 PREPARATIONS FOR THE JOURNEY. The comfort of a journey is vastly enhanced by a few simple precautions before starting. And if I seem too minute here, it is because I am writing for many to whom the little miseries of traveling are real afflictions. Before you leave home have your teeth thoroughly set in order by a skilful dentist. If there has been a phil osopher who could tranquilly bear a jumping toothache, his name is not on record A necessaire containing soap, brushes, and all the et ceteras of the toilet is indispensable. It is prudent in many parts of the South to carry your own towels. Spectacles, of plain glass, violet, light green, or light grey, are often a comfort in the sun and in the cars, and if the eyes are weak should not be omitted. A strong, silk musquito net, with fine meshes, will be highly prized in the autumn nights. A teaspoonful of carbolic acid or camphor, sprinkled in the room, or an ointment of cold cream scented with turpentine, will be found very disagreeable to these insects, and often equ ally so to the traveler. One or two air cushions take up but little room, and should be provided for every invalid. Shoes are preferable for ordinary journeys. In their make, let reason and not fashion rule. They should be double soled, have low and broad heels, lace firmly around the ankle, and fit loosely over the toes. Eubber boots or overshoes should be abolished, especially from the invalid's outfit. Rubber overcoats are equally ob jectionable. They are all unwholesome contrivances. A pair of easy slippers must always be remembered.


11 Tor ladies a hood, for gentlemen a felt hat, are the proper head-dresses on the route. In all parts of the South woolen clothing is required in winter, and flannel under-clothing should be worn by every one who goes there in pursuit of health. Next to flannel, cotton is to be recommended. It is more a non-conductor of heat than linen, and thus better pro tects the body from changes of temperature. Every person in feeble healthand those who are robust will not find the suggestion amissshould have with them a few cases of devilled ham, sardines, potted meats, German sausage, or other savory and portable preparations, which, with the assistance of a few crack ers or a piece of bread, will make a good lunch. A flask of wine or something similar, helps out such an impromptu meal. Frequently it is much better than to gulp down a badly cooked dinner in the time allow ed by the trains. A strong umbrella, and a stout pocket knife, are in dispensable. Guns, ammunition, rods, and fishing tackle should always be provided before starting. They should be well protected from dampness, especially the guns and powder. Florida is the paradise of the sports man, and those who are able should not omit to have a camp hunt" while there. Tents, camp equipage, and the greater part of the supplies should be purchased in the North, as they are dearer and not often the best in the Southern cities. On arriving at a hotel, first see that your baggage is safe; then that your room is well aired, and the sheets on the bed dry. It is always well in traveling to have baggage enough


12 always a bother to have too much. A good sized leather traveling-bag will do for the single man; but where a lady is attached, a medium sized leather trunk, which can be expressed or checked through," and a light traveling-bag, to be taken into the cars and state rooms, and carried in the hand, are the requisites. Money can be transmitted so readily by certified check or draft, that a tourist need not carry much with him. He should, however, have a reserve fund about him, so as to be prepared for one of those disagreeable emer gencies which nearly every veteran traveler has at sonie time experienced. Every one who visits a strange land should strive to interest himself in its condition, resources, history and peculiarities. The invalid, beyond all others, should cultivate an interest in his surroundings. Nothing so well sustains a failing body as an active mind. For that purpose, local histories, maps, etc., should always be purchased. I have indicated, under the different cities, what works there are of this kind in the market, and, in the introductory remarks on Florida, have men tioned several of a more general character, which should be purchased and read before going there. (For fur ther hints see the last chapter of this work.)


PART I. SOUTHEKN KOTJTES. 1> STEAMSHIP LIlTES. In visiting the South Atlantic States the tourist from the North has a choice of a number of routes. Steamers leave Kew York for Charleston, Savannah, Fernandina, and Key West, advertisements of which giving days of sailing can be seen in the principal daily papers. Philadelphia has regular steamship lines to Charleston, Savannah, and Key West. From Charles ton and Savannah boats run every other day to Fernan dina, Jacksonville, and Palatka on the St. John river. The whole or a portion of a journey to Florida can be accomplished by water, and the steamships are decidedly preferable to the cars for those who do not suffer much from sea sickness. The most direct route by railroad is the Atlantic Coast Line," by way of Washington, Acquia Creek, Richmond, Petersburg, Weldon, Wilmington, and Charleston. From Philadelphia to Wilmington the time is 28 hours, fare $21.90; to, Charleston 40 hours, fare $24.00; to Savannah, fare $33.00; to Jacksonville, fare $38.65. Through tickets and full information can be obtained in Kew York at 193 Broadway; Philadel phia 828 Chestnut Street.


14 It is proposed to establish a direct line of steamers from New York to Jacksonville. It is to be hoped that this will be done promptly, as it will greatly increase trade and travel. 2. WASHINGTON TO BICHMOND. Distance, 130 miles; time 7.30 hours. Until the tourist leaves Washington, he is on the beaten track of travel, and needs no hints for his guid ance ; or, if he does, can find them in abundance. Turning his face southward, he may leave our capital either in the cars from the Baltimore depot to Alexan dria and Acquia Creek, or, what is to be recommended as the more pleasant alternative, he may go by steam boat to this station, a distance of 55 miles. The banks of the Potomac present an attractive diversity of high land and meadow. A glimpse is caught of Mt. Vernon, and those who desire it can stop and visit those scenes once so dear to him whose memory is dear to us all. The reminiscences, however, which one acquires by a visit to Mount Vernon are rarely satisfactory. From Acquia Creek landing the railroad passes through a country still betraying the sears and scars of conflict, though, happily, it is recovering in some meas ure from those sad experiences. Fredericksburg (15 miles; hotel, the Planter's House, poor,) may have enough of interest to induce some one to lay 'over" a train. It is an unattractive spot, except for its histori cal associations. These are so fresh in the memory of most that it is unnecessary to mention them. Beyond Fredericksburg a number of stations are passednone of any size. The distance to Kichmond is 60 miles.


15 RICHMOND. Hotels.Ballard House (14.00 per day); Spottswood, Exchange (each $2 per day); Ford's Hotel on Capitol Square ($2.50 per day); St. Charles ($2.00.) Boarding Houses. Arlington House, corner Main and 6th street; Valentine House, on Capitol Square; Rich- mond House, corner Governor and Ross streets; Mrs. Bidgood's, 61 East Main street; Mrs. Brander, 107 E. Franklin street, (all about $12.00 per week). Telegraph Offices in Spottswood and Exchange Hotels* Reading Rooms at the Y. M. C. A. The Virginia State Library was pillaged in 1865, and the Virginia Histori cal Library burned. Theatre.The Richmond Theatre has a respectable stock company, and is visited by most of the stars of the stage. Booksellers.West & Johnson, 1006 Main St., (Brinton's Guide-Book.) Churches of all denominations. Richmond derives it name from the ancient burgh of the same name on the Thames. The word is supposed to be a corruption of rotre mont, and applies very well to the modern namesake. Like Rome, it is seated upon seven hills, and if it has never commanded the world, it will be forever famous as the seat of the government of the whilom Confederacy. It is situated at the Great Falls of the James river, on the Richmond and Shoccoe hills, between which flows the Shoccoe creek. In the early maps of the colony, the site of the present city is marked as Byrd's Warehouse," an ancient trad-


16 ing post, we can imagine, said to have stood where the Exchange hotel is now built. In 1742 the city was es tablished, and has ever since been the chief center of Virginian life. The capitol is a showy edifice, on Shoccoe hill. The plan was taken from the Maison Quarre, of Nismes, with some modifications, among others the Doric pillars. It stands in the midst of a square of eight acres. In this building the Confederate Congress held its sessions. It contains, among other objects, a well cut statue of Washington, dating from the last century, fait par Houdin, citoyen Francais^ as we learn from the inscrip tion, and a bust of Lafayette. Two relics of the old colonial times are exhibitedthe one a carved chair which once belonged to the house of Burgesses, of Norfolkthe other a huge stove, of singular shape, bearing the colonial arms of Virginia in relief. This latter is the product of a certain Buzaglo. It is eight or ten feet high, and slopes from base to summit. A let ter of the inventor is extant, addressed to Lord Bote tourt, in which he speaks of it as u excelled anything ever seen of the kind, and a masterpiece not to be ex celled in all Europe." In the square around the capitol is an* equestrian statue of Gen. George Washington, constructed by Crawford, and erected February 22, 1858. Its total height is sixty feet. Around its base are six pedestals, upon which are figures of Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, Marshall, Gov. Nelson, George Mason and An drew Lewis, the latter an Indian fighter, once of celeb rity in Western Virginia. To the left of this is a small statue of Henry Clay,


17 erected by the ladies of Virginia, made by Hart, and inaugurated in 1860. On the eastern side of the square is the residence of the Governor, and on another side the City Hall, a handsome edifice with Doric columns. St. John's Church, on Richmond Hill, is the oldest church edifice in the city. The tower and belfry are, however, a modern addition. From its church-yard, dotted with ancient tombs, one of the most charming views of the city can be obtained. In this church, in 1775, the young and brilliant orator, Patrick Henry, delivered his famous oration before the Yirginia Con vention, which concludes with the famous words, "Give me liberty, or give me death." The Tredegar Iron Works, Libby Prison, at the cor ner of Thirty-fifth and Main streets, Belle Isle, and Castle Thunder, will be visited by most tourists as ob jects of interest. ^Hollywood cemetery, near the city is a quiet and beautiful spot, well deserving a visic. In the fire of April 2,1865, about one thousand build ings were destroyed, but the ravages of that disastrous epoch are now nearly concealed by new and handsome structures. The Falls of the James are properly rapids, the bed of the river making a descent of only eighty feet in two miles. They furnish a valuable water-power. ^Hollywood Cemetery, one mile from the city, is a spot of great natural beauty. Here lie the remains of Presidents Monroe and Tyler, and other distinguished men, as well as of many thousand Confederate soldiers. A rough granite monument has recently been erected m memory of the latter.


18 Butler's Dutch Gap and Drewy's Bluff, and the fa mous battle fields near the city, will be visited with in terest by many. Those who would visit the mineral springs of Virginia, will find ample information in Dr. Moorhead's volume on them, or in that by Mr. Burke. Both can be ob tained of "West & Johnson, booksellers, Main street. The Natural Bridge, one of the most remarkable cu riosities in the State, is best approached by way of Lynchburg, from which place it is distant 35 miles, by canal. 3. BICHMOND TO CHAELESTON. From Richmond to Petersburg is 32 miles on the Richmond and Petersburg railway. The earthworks and fortifications around the latter town, memorials of our recent conflict, are well worth a visit from those who have not already seen too many such curiosities to care for more. 64 miles beyond Petersburg the train reaches Weldon, on the Roanoke river, a few miles within the boundary of North Carolina [GoucVs Hotel.) From Weldon to Goldsboro, the next stopping place of importance, is 78 miles, 7.30 hours. It is a place of about 5000 inhabitants, half white and half colored. Hotels.Griswold Hotel, Gregory's Hotel, both $3 per day. Boarding House by Mrs Tompkins, $2 per day. The road here intersects the North Carolina, and At lantic and North Carolina railways, the latter running to Morehead city and Beaufort, on the coast, (95 miles) and the former to Raleigh, the capitol of the State, (48


19 miles) and interior towns. From Goldsboro to Wil mington is 84 miles. Hotels.Purcell House, $4 per day; Fulton House, $3 per day. Boarding Houses.McRea House, Brock's Exchange, about $2 per day, $40.00 per month. Newspapers.Post, republican, Journal, democratic. Steamboat Line to Fayetteville, N. C, (130 miles, fare $5.00); to Smithville, at the mouth of Cape Fear, (30 miles, fare $1.50.) "Wilmington (16,000 inhabitants) is on Cape Fear river, 25 miles from the sea. It is well built. The staples are turpentine and resinous products. The vicinity is flat and sandy. At this point the railroad changes from the New York guage, 5 feet, to the Charleston guage, 4 feet 8 inches. The journey from Richmond to Charleston can also be made by way of Greensboro, Charlotte and Colum bia. This route leads through the interior of the coun try, and, though longer, offers a more diversified scene to the eye. To Greensboro, on the Richmond & Danville and Piedmont Railways, is 189 miles; thence on the North Carolina Railway to Charlotte, 93 miles; then on the Charlotte & S. Carolina railway to Columbia, S. C, 107 miles (Nickerson's hotel, $3.00 per day, newly fitted up); thence by the Columbia Branch of the South Carolina Railway to Charleston, 130 miles. Salisbury, N. C, 150 miles south of Greensboro, is the most convenient point to enter the celebrated mountain regions of North Carolina. A railway runs thence to Morgantown, in the midst of the sublime scenery of the


20 Black mountains, and in close proximity to the beauti ful falls of the Catawba. Charlotte (hotel, the Mansion House), is in the center of the gold region of North Carolina, and the site of a United States Branch Mint. It is also the scene of the battle of Guilford Court House, during the revolutionary war. The capitol, in Columbia, is considered a very hand some building. CHARLESTON. Hotels.Charleston Hotel, Mills House (newly fur nished), both on Meeting Street. Charges, $4.00 per day. ^Pavilion Hotel, Mr. Butterfield, proprietor, $3.00 per day, also on Meeting Street. Planter's Hotel, Church Street, Yictoria House, King Street, both $2.50 per day. Telegraph Office, on Broad near Church Street; branch office in Charleston Hotel. Post Office, on Hazel Street, near Meeting. Churches.Boman Catholic, Episcopal, Huguenot, Methodist, &c. Theatre, at the corner of King and Market Streets. Bathing Rouses.One of salt water near the battery; two, with water of the artesian well, one at the well, the other in the Charleston Hotel. Livery Stable, 21 Pinckney Street, connected with the Charleston Hotel. Street Cars run on several of the streets; fare, 10 cts., 15 tickets for $1.00. All the hotels have omnibuses waiting at the depots. Physician.Dr. Geo. Caulier, 158 Meeting Street. Newspapers.The Daily Courier, the Daily News. Depots.The depot of the Northeastern B. B. from Wilmington to the north, is at the corner of Chapel


21 and Washington Sts.; that of the road to Savannah is at the foot of Mill street; and that of the S. C. R. R. to Aikin, Augusta, Atlanta, etc., is in Line street, be tween King and Meeting streets. Bookseller,John Russell, 288 King street. (Brinton's Guide-Booh*) Libraries.Charleston library,30,000 vols.; Apprentices' library, 12,000 vols. Charleston claims 40,000 inhabitants, the whites and blacks being about equal in number. It is curious that since the war the mortality of the latter has been twice as great as of the whites. The city is seven miles from the ocean at the junc tion of the Ashley and Cooper rivers, and has an ex cellent harbor, surrounded by works of defence. On the sea line is Fort Moultrie; Castle Pinkney stands at the entrance to the city; south of the latter is Fort Ripley, built of palmetto logs; while in the midst of the harbor stands the famous Fort Sumter. The ravages caused by the terrible events of the late war have yet been only very partially repaired in Charleston. The greater part of the burnt district is deserted and waste. The history of Charleston, previous to that event, is not of conspicuous interest. The city was first com menced by English settlers, in 1672, and for a long time had a struggling existence. Many of its early inhabi tants were Huguenots, who fled thither to escape the persecutions which followed the revocation of the edict of Nantes. A church is still maintained in which their ancient worship is celebrated.


22 Of public buildings, the ancient church of St. Michael's, built about 1750, has some claim to architectural beauty. The fashionable quarter of the city is the Battery. ^Magnolia cemetery, on the Cooper river, is well worth a visit. It is one of the most beautiful in the South. It was laid out in 1850, and contains some hand some monuments. The Custom House is a fine building, of white marble. Those who wish to visit Fort Sumter, and review the scenes of 1861, can be accommodated by a small sailing vessel, which leaves the wharf every morning at 10.30 o'clock. In the church-yard of St. Philip's is the tomb of John C. Calhoun. A slab, bearing the single word "Calhoun," marks the spot. The museum of the Medical College is considered one of the finest in the United States. 4. AIKEN, S. C, AND THE SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS. Within the past ten years the advantages for invalids of a residence in the highlands of the Carolinas, Geor gia and Tennessee have been repeatedly urged on the public. The climate in these localities is dry and mild, exceedingly well adapted, therefore, for such cases as find the severe cold of Minnesota irritating., and the moist warmth of Florida enervating. Aiken, S. C, Atlanta, Ga., Lookout Mountain, near Chattanooga, East Tennessee, and other localities offer good ac commodations, and have almost equal advantages in


23 point of climate. Like other resorts, they do not agree with all invalids, but they are suitable for a large class. One of the best known and most eligible is AIKEN, SOUTH CAROLINA. Distance from Charleston, by the South Carolina Railroad, 120 miles. Time 8 hours. Two trains daily. Fare $6. Hotels.The Aiken Hotel, H. Smyser, proprietor. Engage rooms a week ahead. Fare, $3.00 per day. A Sanitarium is in process of construction on a beautiful eminence west of the town. Boarding can be obtained in a number of private families. Telegraph station at the depot. Livery Stables, two. Horse and buggy, $4.00 per day; saddle horse, $2.50 per day. Churches.Episcopal, Presbyterian, Methodist and Baptist. The town has about 1,500 inhabitants, though the passing traveler would not think so, as the railroad passes through a deep cut, which conceals most of the houses. Whites and blacks are about equal in number. The streets are wide, sandy, and not very neat. The site is on the ridge which divides the valleys of the Edisto and Savannah rivers. At this point the ele vation is 600 feet above sea level. The loose soil of si liceous sand and red clay, and the rapid declivities, in sure an excellent drainage. The water is clear, and contains some traces of iron and magnesia, rather ben eficial than otherwise. The climate is agreeable in both winter and summer. The mean temperature of the year is 62 degrees Fah-


24 renheit; of the three winter months 46.5,45 and 50 degrees. The thermometer rarely registers under 20 degrees. Rain falls to the depth of 37 inches annually, the wettest season being in summer. Frosts commence about the middle of November, and cease about the last of March. The prevailing winds are southerly in summer, easterly and northerly in winter. The dew point is always low, indicating a dry atmosphere. Ma larial diseases are asserted to be entirely unknown. The soil is lauded, and with justness, for its fitness for fruit culture. Orchards, vineyards and garden plots are exceedingly productive, but the more staple crops do not correspond in excellence. The wines of Aiken have long been known in commerce. Though not high fla vored, with none of the bouquet which lends such value to the vintages of the Upper Rhine, they are a pure and healthy beverage. It must be remembered that agriculture, in the sense of the word in Pennsylvania and New York, is almost an unknown art in this part of the South. Except its advantages in connection with health, Aiken offers little to attract the tourist. In the stone quarries near the railroad the geologist can collect some very good specimens of fossil shells and corals from the tertiary limestone. The buhr mill-stone abounds in this region, and has been successfully tried in mills. Prof. Tuomey in a report on the geology of the State pronounces these equal to the best French stones. They have, however, never been put in the market with energy* The wine cellars, especially that of Mr, Walker, will have attractions for those who delight to please the pallet with the juice of the grape. And the porcelain


25 works near by, where stone ware is manufactured from the kaolin clay, may form the objective point of a pleasant excursion. If one's inclinations are to sport, a ride of a few miles from town in any direction will bring one to good partridge cover, while the numerous streams in the vicinity are fairly stocked with trout, jack, bream and perch. Pic-nics in the pine woods, and excursions over the hills always supply ladies with means of inhal ing the healthful air and enjoying invigorating exercise* ATLANTA. From Aiken to Augusta, 16 miles, $1.00. From Au gusta to Atlanta by the Georgia railway, 171 miles, $8.50; 11 hours. Hotels.The National, on Peach Tree Street, $4.00 per day; the United States and the American, oppo site the depot, $3.00 per day. Telegraph Office in Kimball's Opera House. Post Office, corner of Alabama and Broad streets. Bathing House On Alabama street, near U. S. Hotel. Circulating Library at the Young Men's Library As sociation on Broad street. Atlanta has about 20,000 inhabitants. The water is pure, the air bracing, and the climate resembles that of Northern Italy. The "Walton Springs are in the city, furnishing a strongly chalybeate water, much used, and with great success, as a tonic. The fall and spring months are peculiarly delightful, and the vicinity offers many pleasant excursions. Communication by rail either to Chattanooga and East Tennessee, or south to Macon, etc., is conveni ent.


26 5 FROM CHARLESTON TO SAVANNAH. The tourist has the choice of the railway via Coosa whatchie, or via Augusta, Georgia, or the steamers. The first mentioned road was destroyed during the war, and is not yet in running order. Steamboats also leave Charleston every Thursday and Saturday, direct for Fernandina, Jacksonville and Palatka, and should be chosen by those who do not suffer from seasickness. They are roomy, and the table well supplied. SAVANNAH. Hotels.*Screven House, Pulaski House, both $4.00 a day. ^Marshall House, $3.00 per day, $15.00 per week, an excellent table. ^Pavilion Hotel, Mr. 'Noe. Proprie tor; a quiet, pleasant house for invalids, $3.00 per day. Boarding Houses.Mrs. McAlpin, South Broad street; Mrs. Kollock, South Broad street; Mrs. Savage, Barnard Street; all $3.00 per day, $14.00 per week. Post Office and Telegraph Office on Bay street, near the Pulaski House. Street Cars start from the post office to various parts Of the city. Fare, 10 cents; 14 tickets for $1.00. Om nibuses meet the various trains, and steamboats will deliver passengers anywhere in the city for 75 cents each. Livery Stables are connected with all the hotels. Restaurants.The best is the Restaurant Francais, in Whitaker Street, between Bay and Bryan Streets. Newspapers.Daily Savannah News, Daily Morning News.


27 Bookstores,J. Schreiner & Co., near the Pulaski House. (Brinton's Guide-Book, Historical Record of Savannah,) Depots.The Central Railroad depot is in the south western part of the city, corner of Liberty and E. Broad Streets. The railroad from Charleston has its terminus here. The Atlantic and Gulf Railroad is in the south-eastern part of the city, corner of Liberty and E. Broad Streets. Savannah is situated in Chatham county, Ga., on a bluff, about forty feet high, seven miles above the mouth of the river of the same name, on its right bank. Its present population is estimated at 40,000. The city was founded by Gov. James Oglethorpe, in 1733. It played a conspicuous part during the Revolu tion. With characteristic loyalty to the cause of free dom the Council of Safety passed a resolution in 1776 to burn the town rather than have it fall into the hands of the British. "N*everthless, two years afterwards the royal troops obtained possession of it by a strategic movement. In the autumn of 1779 the American forces under General Lincoln, and the distinguished Polish patriot, Count Casimir Pulaski, with their French allies under Count d' Estaing, made a desperate but fruitless attempt to regain it by assault. Both the foreign noblemen were wounded in a night assault on the works. Count Pulaski mortally. The spot where he fell is where the Central Railroad depot now stands. The chief objects of interest are the monuments. The ^finest is to the memory of Pulaski. It is in Chipcwa square, and is a handsome shaft of marble, sur-


28 mounted by a statue of Liberty, and supported on a base of granite. Its height is 55 feet; its date of erection 1853. An older and plainer monument, some fifty feet high, without inscription, stands in Johnson square. It was erected in 1829, and is known as the Greene and Pulas ki monument. The city is beautifully laid out, diversified with nu merous small squares, with wide and shady streets. Broad Street and Bay Street have each four rows of those popular southern shade trees known as the Pride of India, or China trees {Melia Azedarach). A praiseworthy energy has supplied the city with ex cellent water from public water works; and, in Forsyth Park, at the head of Bull Street, is a fountain of quite elaborate workmanship. Some of the public buildings are well worth visiting. The Georgia Historical Society has an excellent edifice, on Bryan Street, with a library of 7,500 volumes, among which are said to be a number of valuable manuscripts. The #Museum, on the northeast corner of Bull and Taylor streets, contains a number of local curiosities. The Custom House is a handsome fire-proof structure of Quincy granite. The Exchange building, now used as the Mayor's of fice, etc., offers, from its top, the best view of the city. Excursions*Several days can be passed extremely pleasantly in short excursions from the city. One of the most interesting of these will be to *Bonaventure Cemetery.This is situated 3 miles from the city, on the Warsaw river. A stately grove of live oaks, draped in the sombre weeds by the Spanish moss,,


29 cast an appropriate air of pensiveness around this rest ing place of past generations. A cah holding four per sons to this locality costs $8.00. Thunderbolt, a small town, (two hotels), 44 miles south east of the city, on a creek of the same name, is worth visiting, chiefly for the heautiful drive which leads to it. Cab fare for the trip, $8.00. White Bluff, on the Yernon river, 10 miles from the city has two unpretending hotels, and is a favorite re sort of the citizens on account of the excellent shell road which connects it with the city. Cab fare for the trip, $10.00. Bethesda Orphan House, also 10 miles distant, is erect ed on the site chosen by the Rev. Mr. Whitfield, very early in the history of the colony. Selina, the pious Countess of Huntington, took a deep interest in its wel fare as long as she lived, and it is pleasant to think that now it is established on a permanent footing. Jasper Spring, 2 miles from the city, is pointed out as the spot where the bold Sergeant Jasper, with one assistant, during the revolutionary war, surprised and captured eight Britishers, and forced them to release a prisoner. The thoughtless guard had stacked arms and proceeded to the spring to drink, when the shrewd Sergeant who, anticipating this very move, was hidden ln the bushes near by, rushed forward, seized the muskets, and brought the enemy to instant terms. 6. SAVANNAH TO JACKSONVILLE. The tourist has the choice of three routes for this part of his journey. He can take a sea steamer, and passing out the Savannah river, see no more land until the low shores at the mouth of the St. John River come


30 in sight. Or he can choose one of several small steam boats which ply in the narrow channels between the sea-islands and the main, touching at Brunswick, Darien, St. Catharine, Fernandina, etc., (fare $10.00). Or lastly he has the option of the railroad, which will carry him through to Jacksonville in twelve hours and a half, in a first class sleeping car. The channel along the coast lies through extensive salt marshes, intersected by numerous brackish creeks and lagoons. The boats are small, or they could not thread the mazes of this net-work of narrow water courses. The sea-islands, famous all over the world for their long-staple cotton, have a sandy, thin soil, rising in hillocks and covered with a growth of liveoak, water-oak, bay, gum and pine. Between the is lands and the main land the grassy marshes extend for several miles. In the distance the western horizon is hedged by a low wall of short-leaved pine. The sea islands are moderately healthy, but the main land is wet,-flat and sterile, and its few inhabitants are ex posed to the most malignant forms of malarial fever and pneumonia. On St. Catharine island is the plantation formerly owned by Mr. Pierce Butler, and the scene of Mrs. Francis Kemble Butler's well-known work, Life on a Georgia Plantation." On Cumberland island, the most southern of the sea-islands belonging to Georgia, is the Dungerness estate, 6000 acres in extent, once owned by Gen. Nat. Greene, of Revolutionary fame, and recently bought by Senator Sprague, of Rhode Island, for $10 per acre. With proper cultivation it would yield mag nificent crops of sea-island cotton.


31 Fernandina on Amelia Island, the terminus of the Fernandina and Cedar Keys Railroad, is a town of growing importance (pop. about 2,000; hotels, Virginia House, containing the telegraph office; the Whitfield House, both $3.00 per day; newspaper, the Island City Weekly.) This is one of the old Spanish settlements, and the traces of the indigo fields are still visible over a great part of the island. Fernandina-Oldtown is about a mile north of the present site. The sub-tropical vegetation is quite marked on the island. Magnificent oleanders, large live oaks, and dense growths of myrtle and palmettos conceal the rather unpromising soil. The olive has been cultivated with success, and there is no reason why a large supply of the best table oil should not be produced here. A low shell mound covers the beach at Fernandina, and in the interior of the island are several large Indian burial mounds. Several earthworks thrown up during the late war overlook the town and harbor. Fernan dina harbor is one of the best in the South Atlantic Coast, landlocked and safe. Its depth is 64 fathoms, and the water on the bar at low tide is 14 feet. The tide rises from 6 to 7 feet. In spite of what seems its more convenient situation, Fernandina does not seem destined to be a rival of Jacksonville.


PART II. FLORIDA. 1. HISTORICAL. Long before Columbus saw the dashing, Silver-flashing, ^ Surges of San Salvador," a rumor was abroad among the natives of the Bahamas, of Cuba, and even of Yucatan and Honduras, that in a land to the north was a fountain of water, whose crys tal waves restored health to the sick, and youth to the aged. Many of the credulous islanders, forsaking their homes, ventured in their frail canoes on the currents of the Gulf, and never returning, were supposed to be detained by the delights of that land of perennial youth. This ancient fame still clings to the peninsula. The tide of wanderers in search of the healing and rejuve nating waters still sets thitherward, and, with better fate than of yore, many an one now returns to his own, restored to vigor and life. Intelligence now endorses what superstition long believed. The country received its pretty and appropriate name, Terra florida, the Flowery Land, from Juan Ponce de Leon, who also has the credit of being its discoverer.


33 He first saw its shores on Easter Sunday, March 27, 1513not 1512, as all the text books have it, as on that year Easter Sunday came on April 20th. At that time it was inhabited by a number of wild tribes, included in two families, the Timucuas, who dwelt on the lower St. John, and the Chahta-Muskokis, who possessed the rest of the country. In later times, the latter were displaced by others of the same stock known as Seminoles (istisemoli, wild men, or strangers). A remnant of these still exist, several hundred in num ber, living on and around Lake Okee-chobee, in the same state of incorrigible savagery that they ever were, but now undisturbed *nd peaceful. The remains of the primitive inhabitants are abund ant over the Peninsula. Along the sea shores and water courses are numerous heaps of shells, bones and pottery, vestiges of once populous villages; small piles of earth and old fields" in the interior still wit ness to their agricultural character; and large mounds from ten to twenty-five feet in height filled with human bones testify to the pious regard they felt toward their departed relatives, and the care with which, in accord ance with the traditions of their race, they preserved the skeletons of the dead. As for those highways" and "artificial lakes" which the botanist Bartram thought he saw on the St. John river, they have not been visible to less enthusiastic eyes. Mounds of stones, of large size and enigmatic origin, have also been found (Prof. Jeffries "YVyman). For half a century after its discovery, no European power attempted to found a colony in Florida. Then, in 1562, the celebrated French Huguenot, Admiral de


34 Coligny, sent over a number of his own faith and na tion, who erected a fort near the mouth of the St. John. As they were upon Spanish territory, to which they had no right, and were peculiarly odious to the Spanish temper by their religion, they met an early and disastrous fate. They were attacked and routed in 1565 by a detatchment of Spaniards under the command of Pedro Menendez de Aviles, a soldier of distinction. The circumstance was not characterized by any greater atrocity than was customary on both sides in the relig ious wars of the sixteenth century, but it has been a text for much bitter writing since, and was revenged a few years after by a similar massacre by a French Pro testant, Dominique de Gourgues, and a party of Huguenots. Pedro Menendez established at once (1565) the city of St. Augustine and showed himself a capable officer. Under the rule of his successors the Spanish sway grad ually extended over the islands of the eastern coast, and the region of middle Florida. The towns of St. Marks and Pensacola were founded on the western coast, and several of the native tribes were converted to Christianity. This prosperity was rudely interrupted in the first de cade of the eighteenth century by the inroads of the Creek Indians, instigated and directed by the English settlers of South Carolina. The churches were burned, the converts killed or scattered, the plantations de stroyed, and the priests driven to the seaport towns. The colony languished under the rule of Spain until, in 1763, it was ceded to Great Britain. Some life was then instilled into it. Several colonies were planted on


35 the St. John river and the sea coast, and a small garri son stationed at St. Marks. In 1770 it reverted once more to Spain, under whose rule it remained in an uneasy condition until 1821, when it was purchased by the United States for the sum of five million dollars. Gen. Andrew Jackson was the first Governor, and treated the old inhabitants in his usual summary manner. In 1824 the seat of gov ernment was fixed at Tallahassee, the site of an old Indian town. At the time of the purchase there were about 4,000 Indians and refugee negroes scattered over the territory. These very soon manifested that jealousy of their rights, and resentment against the whites, which have ever since been their characteristics. From the time of the cession until the out-break of our civil struggle, the soil of Florida was the scene of one almost continual border war. The natives gave ground very slowly, and it was esti mated that for every one of them killed or banished beyond the Mississippi by our armies, the general gov ernment expended ten thousand dollars. 2.-BOOKS AND MAPS. The facts which I have here sketched in barest out line have been told at length by many able writers. The visitor to the scene of so many interesting inci dents should provide himself with some or all of the fol lowing works, which will divert and instruct him iu many a lagging hour : PARKMAN, Pioneers of France in the New World, This contains an admirably written account of the Huguenot colony on the St. John.

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36 FAIRBANKS, The Spaniards in Florida. (Published by Columbus Drew, Jacksonville, Florida.) An excel lent historical account of the Spanish colony. SPRACHJB, History of the Florida War. This is a correct and vivid narrative of the struggle with the Seminoles. The book is now rarely met with in the trade. GEN. GEORGE A. MCCALL, Letters from the Frontiers. (Lippincott & Co.y Philadelphia, 1868.) These letters are mostly from Florida, and contain many interesting pictures of army life and natural scenery there. R. M. BACHE, The Young Wrecker of the Florida Beef. (Claxton, Remsen & Haffelfinger, Philadelphia, 1869.) This is a book for boys," and is interesting for all ages. The author was engaged on the Coast Sur vey, and describes with great power and accuracy the animal and vegetable life of the Southern coast. Life of Audubon. (Putnam & Son, 1869.) This contains a number of letters of the great ornithologist while in Florida. A detailed description of the earlier works on the peninsula can be found in a small work I published some years ago, entitled The Floridian Peninsula, Its Literary History, Indian Tribes, and Antiquities." (For sale by the publishers of the present book,) On the Antiquities of the Peninsula* Prof. Jeffries Wyman, of Harvard College, published, not long since, a very excellent article in the second volume of the American Naturalist. Every tourist should provide himself with a good State map of Florida. The best extant is that pre pared and published by Columbus Drew, of Jackson-

PAGE 101

37 ville, Florida, in covers, for sale by the publishers of this work. Two very complete partial maps have been issued by the XJ. S. government, the one from the bu reau of the Secretary of War, in 1856, entitled, A Military Map of the Peninsula of Florida South of Tarn* pa Bay," on a scale of 1 to 400,000, the other from the TJ. S. Coast Survey office in 1864, drawn by Mr. H. Lindenkohl, embracing East Florida north of the 29th degree, on a scale of 10 miles to the inch. The latter should be procured by any one who wishes to depart from the usual routes of tourists. 3. PHTSICAL GEOGBAPHT OV FLOBIDA. 1. GEOLOGICAL FORMATION. 2. SOIL AND CROPS. 3. CLIMATE AND HEALTH. 4. VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL LIFE. 1. GEOLOGICAL FORMATION. Florida is a peninsula extending abruptly from the mainland of the continent in a direction a little east of south. It is nearly 400 miles in length, and has an average width of 130 miles. Its formation is peculiar. Every other large peninsula in the world owes its ex istence to a central mountain chain, which affords a stubborn resistance to the waves. Florida has no such elevation, and mainly a loose, low, sandy soil. Let us study this puzzle. The Apalachian (usually and incorrectly spelled Ap palachian) plain, sloping from the mountains to the Gulf of Mexico, lies on a vast bed of tertiary, lime stone and sand rock. About the thirtieth parallel of

PAGE 102

38 north latitude this plain sinks to the sea level, except in middle Florida, where it still remains 200 feet and more in height. This elevation gradually decreases and reaches the water level below the 28th parallel, south of Tampa Bay. It forms a ridge or spine about sixty miles in width, composed of a porous limestone somewhat older than the miocene group of the tertiary rocks, a hard blueishlimestone, and a friable sand rock.* Around this spine the rest of the, peninsula has been formed by two distinct agencies. Between the ridge and the Atlantic ocean is a tract of sandy soil, some forty miles in width, sloping very gently to the north. It is low and flat, and is drained by the St. John river. So little fall has this noble stream that 250 miles from its mouth it is only 12 miles distant from an inlet of the ocean, and only 3 feet 6 inches above tide level, as was demonstrated by the State survey made to construct a canal from Lake Har ney to Indian River. A section of the soil usually dis closes a thin top layer of vegetable mould, then from 3 to 6 feet of different colored sand, then a mixture of clay, shells, and sand for several feet further, when in many parts a curious conglomerate is reached, called coquina, formed of broken shells and small pebbles cemented together by carbonate of lime, no doubt of recent (post tertiary) formation. The coquina is never found south of Cape Canaveral, nor north of the mouth of the Matanzas river. # This Back-Bone Ridge," as it has been called, has a rounded and singularly symmetrical form when viewed in cross section. Where the Fernandina and Cedar Keys railroad crosses the penin-iula, the highest point, near Gainesville, is 180 feet in elevation, whence there is a gradual slope, east and west.

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39 For the whole of this distance a glance at the map will show that the coast is lined by long, narrow inlets, separated from the ocean by still narrower strips of land. These inlets are the "lagoons." The heavy rains wash into them quantities of sediment, and this, with the loose sand blown by the winds from the outer shore, gradually fills up the lagoon, and changes it into a morass, and at last into a low sandy swamp, through which a sluggish stream winds to its remote outlet. Probably the St. John river was at one time along lagoon, and probably all the land between the ridge described and the eastern sea has been formed by this slow process. The southern portion of the peninsula is also very low, rarely being more than six feet above sea level, but its slope, instead of being northward, is generally westward. Much of the surface is muddy rather than sandy, and is characterized by two remarkable forms of vegetable life, the Everglades and the Big Cypress. The Everglades cover an area of about 4,000 square miles, and embrace more than one half of the State south of Lake Okee-chobee. They present to the eye a vast field of coarse saw-grass springing from a soil of quicksand and soft mud, from three to ten feet deep. During the whole year the water rests on this soil from one to four feet in depth, spreading out into lakes, or forming narrow channels. The substratum is a lime stone, not tertiary, but modern and coralline. Here and there it rises above the mud, forming keys or islands of remarkable fertility, and on the east and south makes a continuous ridge along the ocean, one

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40 to four miles wide, and from ten to fifteen feet high, which encloses the interior low basin like a vast crescentic dam-breast. Lake Okee-chobee, 1,200 square miles in area, with an average depth of twelve feet, is, in fact, only an extension of the Everglades. South of the Caloosa-hatchie river, between the Everglades and the Gulf, extends the Big Cypress. This is a large swamp, fifty miles long and thirty-five miles broad. Here the saw-grass gives way to groves of cypress trees, with a rank and tangled undergrowth of vines. The soil is either bog or quicksand, generally covered one or two feet deep with stagnant water. The sun's rays rarely penetrate the dense foliage, and on the surface of the water floats a green slime, which, when disturbed, emits a sickening odor of decay. Crooked pools and sluggish streams traverse it in all directions, growing deeper and wider toward the Gulf shore, where they cut up the soil into numberless seg ments, called the Thousand Islands. The whole of this southern portion of the peninsula lies on a modern, coral formation. The crescent-shaped ridge which forms the eastern and southern boundary of the Everglades, commences north of Key Biscayne Bay, and sweeps southwest to Cape Sable. From the same starting point, another broken crescent of coral line limestone, but many miles longer, extends to the Dry Tortugas, forming the Florida Keys. And beyond this again some five or six miles, making a third crescent, is the Florida Beef. Outside of the Keef, the bottom abruptly sinks to a depth of 800 or 900 fathoms. Between the Keef and the Keys is the ship channel, about

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41 6 fathoms in depth; and between the Keys and the main land the water is very shallow, and covers broad flats of white calcareous mud. Between the coast-ridge and Lake Okee-chobee, the Keys," which are scat tered through the Everglades, are disposed in similar crescentic forms, some seven regular concentric arcs having been observed. They are all formed of the same character of coral rock as the present Reef and Keys, and undoubtedly owe their existence to the same agency. Each of these crescents was at one time a reef, until the industrious coral animals built another reef further out in the water, when the older line was broken up by the waves into small islands. Thus, for countless thousands of years, has this work of construction been going on around the extremity of the tertiary back bone ridge which at first projected but a short distance into the waters. What, it may be asked, has impressed this peculiar and unusual crescentic shape to the reefs ? This is owing to the Gulf Stream. This ocean-river rushes east ward through the Straits of Florida at the rate of five or six miles an hour, yet it does not wash the reef. By some obscure law of motion, an eddy counter-current is produced, moving westward, close to the reef, with a velocity of one or two miles an hour. Off Key West this secondary current is ten miles wide, with a rapidity of two miles per hour. Its waters are constantly whitened by the calcareous sands of the reefthe relics of the endless conflict between the waves and the untiring coral insects. The slowly-built houses of the lat ter are broken and tossed hither and thither by the billows, until they are ground into powder, and scattered

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42 through the waters. After every gale the sea, for miles on either side of the reef, is almost milk-white with the ruins of these coral homes. But nature is ever ready with some compensation. The impalpable dust taken up by the counter-current is carried westward, and gradually sinks to the bottom of the gulf, close to the northern border of the gulf stream. At length a bank is formed, reaching to within 80 or 90 feet of the surface. At this depth the coral insect can live, and straightway the bank is covered with a multi tudinous colony who commence building their branch ing structures. A similar process originated all the cres cent-shaped lines of Keys which traverse the Everglades and Big Cypress. 2. SOIL AND CKOPS. Much of the soil of Florida is not promising in appearance. The Everglades and Cypress Swamps may be considered at present agriculturally worthless. The ridge of sand and decomposed limestone along the southern shore, from Cape Sable to Indian river, is capable, however, of profitable cultivation, and offers the best field in the United States for the introduction of tropical plants, especially coffee. Its area is esti mated at about 7,000,000 acres. The northern portion of the Peninsula is composed of scrubs" (dry sterile tracts covered with thickets of black-jack, oak, and spruce), pine lands and hammocks (not hummocksthe latter is a New England word with a different signification). The hammocks are rich river bottoms, densely timbered with live oak, magnolia, palmetto, and other trees. They cannot be surpassed for fertility, and often yield 70 to 80 bushels of corn to

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43 the acre with very imperfect tillage. Of course, they are difficult to clear, and often require drainage. The pine lands, which occupy by far the greater por tion of the State, make at first an unfavorable impression on the northern farmer. The sandy pine lands near the St. John, are of deep white siliceous sand, with little or no vegetable mould through it. The greater part of it will not yield, without fertilizing, more than 12 or 15 bushels of corn to the acre. In the interior, on the central ridge, the soil is a siliceous alluvium on beds of argillaceous clay and marl. The limestone rocks crop out in many places, and could readily be employed as fertilizers, as could also the marl. Red clay, suitable for making bricks, is found in the northen counties, and a number of brick yards are in operation. Over this soil a growth of hickory is interspersed with yellow pine, and much of the face of the country is rolling. By mixing the hammock soil with the sand, an admi rable loam is formed, suited to raising vegetables and vines. Persons who visit Florida with a view to farming or gardening, should not expect to find it a land of exhuberant fertility, that will yield immense crops with little labor. East Florida is as a whole not a fertile country in comparison with South Carolina or Illinois, and probably never will be highly cultivated. On the other hand, they must not be discouraged by the first impres sions they form on seeing its soil. Labor can do won ders there. The climate favors the growth of vegetables and some staples,but labor, hard work, is just as neces sary as in Massachusetts. Middle and West Florida have much better lands.

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44 The leading crops of the State are corn and cotton. Of the latter, the improved short staple varieties are preferred, the long staple flourishing only in East Florida. Some experiments have been tried with Egyp tian cotton, but on too small a scale to decide its value. The enemv of the cotton fields is the caterpillar which destroys the whole crop in a very short time. Nor can anything be done to stop its ravages. In the vicinity of Tampa Bay and Indian Kiver the sugar cane is suc cessfully raised, quite as well as in Louisiana. In good seasons it is also a very remunerative crop in the north ern counties, as it yields as much as fifteen barrels of first class syrup to the acre, besides the sugar. Tobacco, which before the war was raised in consid erable quantities in Florida, has b en much neglected since. Good Cuba seed has been introduced, however, and some of the old attention is paid to it. The char acter of soil and climate of certain portions of Florida, especially the southeastern portion, is not very unlike that of the famed Vuelta Abajo, and with good seed, and proper care in the cultivation and curing of the leaf, it might be grown of a very superior quality. The climate is too warm for wheat, but rye and oats yield full crops, though they are but little cultivated. Sweet potatoes, yams, peas, and groundnuts are unfail ing, and of the very best qualities. The vine yields abundantly, and it is stated on good authority that two thousand gallons of wine per acre have been obtained from vineyards of the Scuppernong grape in Leon county. Apples grow only to a limited extent, some being found in the northern counties. Peaches, pears, apricots, oranges, limes, lemons, etc., are well suited to the

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45 soil and climate. The orange has two enemies, the in sect called the coccus, and the frost. The former seems disappearing of late years, but the frosts have become more severe and more frequent, so that north of the 28th degree, the orange crop is not dependable. The tropical plants, such as coffee, indigo, sesal hemp, etc., can undoubtedly be cultivated with success on the southern and southeastern coast, but hitherto, no seri ous attempt at their introduction has been made. For further particulars under this head, see a pamphlet of 151 pages prepared by Hon. John S. Adams, and published by the State, in 1869, entitled, Florida, its Climate, tts Soil, and Productions." 3. CLIMATE AND HEALTH. In regard to climate, Florida is in some respects un surpassed by any portion of the United States. The summers are not excessively hot, the average tempera ture of the months of June, July, and August, being at Tallahassee 79 degrees, Fah.; at St. Augustine, 80 de grees ; Cedar Keys, 79 degrees ; Tampa, 80 degrees; Miami, 81; and Key West, 82 degrees. The winters are delightful, the temperature of the three winter months averaging as follows: Tallahassee, 57 degrees ; St. Augustine, 58 degrees ; Cedar Keys, 60 degrees ; Tampa, 61 degrees; Miami, 67 degrees, Key West, 70 degrees. The summer heats are debilitating, especially in the interior. On the coast they are tempered by the seabreeze, which rises about 10 a.m. Ko part of the State is entirely free from frosts. In Jacksonville they occur about once a week during the month of January, while at Miami they only happen once in several years.

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46 Now and then a severe frost occurs, which destroys the orange groves far to the south. One such in 1767 de stroyed all the orange trees at Fernandina and St. Augustine; another in 1835 cut them down as far south as New Smyrna; in December, 1856, ice was noted on the Miami river; and in December, 1868, there was such an unprecedented cold snap that Lake Griffin, on the upper Oklawaha, bore ice one-and-a-half inches thick. The orange crop was destroyed as far up the St. John as Enterprise, and most of the trees ruined. On Indian river, however, the cold was not felt to a damaging extent. The nights in winter are cool, and in the interior ac companied with heavy dews. In summer, the prevailing winds are east and south east, being portions of the great air currents of the trade winds. Thunder storms are frequent. In win ter, variable winds from the north, northeast, and north west, prevail. At times they rise to violent gales of several days duration, called northers. These are most frequent on the west coast. The seasons of Florida are tropical in character, one being the dry and the other the wet season. The annual rain-fall averages from fifty to sixty inches. Threefourths of this fall between April and October. Some times there is nearly as much rain in the month of June as during the six winter months together. Two inches and a-half is a fair average each for the latter. The air is usually well charged with moisture, but owing to the equability of the temperature, this would hardly be suspected. Fogs are almost unknown, the sky is serene, the air clear, and no sensation of dampness is ex-

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47 perienced. The hygrometer alone reminds us of how nearly the atmosphere is saturated with warm, watery vapor. In the concluding chapters of this work I shall dis cuss at length the adaptation of the climate to invalids, and shall here speak of it chiefly as it affects residents. The prevailing diseases are of miasmatic origin. Dysentery of mild type, pneumonia and diarrhoea are oc casional visitors, but the most common enemy to health is the swamp poison. Intermittent and remittent fevers are common along the fresh water streams. On the sea coast they are rare, and after the month of October they disappear, but in the summer and early autumn they are very prevalent in some portions of the State. They are, however, neither more severe nor more fre quent than in the lowlands of all the Gulf States, or in southern Indiana and Illinois. These complaints are characteristic of new settle ments, usually disappearing after the land has been cleared a few years. They can be generally avoided by care in habits of life, and the moderate use of some bitter tonic. All who are exposed should be on their guard, avoiding excesses, over-work, getting chilled, the night dews, damp clothing, etc. One fall I ascended the Ocklawaha river in a polebarge "a large scow propelled by poles. At night we fastened the boat to a tree, and slept at some neighbor ing house. The captain and several of the darkies had a diurnal shake, with great regularity, and I en tered hardly a single house from Palatka to Ocala in which one or more of the family were not complaining of the same disease. I had no quinine with me, and in

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48 default of it used as a preventive a strong tincture of the peel of the bitter-sweet orange. Either through its virtues or good luck, I escaped an attack, quite to the surprise of my companions. I repeat, however, that during the winter there is no danger from this source, and even during the sickly season an enlight ened observance of the rules of health will generally protect the traveler. 4. VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL LIFE. The traveler who, for the first time, visits a southern latitude, has his attention most strongly arrested by the new and strange forms of vegetable life. I shall men tion some of those which give the scenery of Florida its most peculiar features. The most abundant is the saw palmetto, chamcerops Adansonii. This vigorous plant is found in all parts of the peninsula, flourishing equally well in the pine bar ren and the hammock. It throws up its sharp-edged leaves some four or five feet in length, from a large round root, which is, in fact, a trunk, extending along the surface of the ground. The young shoots and inner pith of the root are edible, and were often eaten by the Indians. The cabbage palm, another species of Chamcerops, is one of the most beautiful of trees. It raises its straight, graceful trunk to a height of 50, 60 and 100 feet, without a branch, and then suddenly bursts into a mass of dark green, pendant fronds. In the center of this mass,en veloped in many folds, is found the tender shoot called the cabbage." It tastes like a raw chestnut, and was highly prized by the Indians. This palm is not found

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49 north of St. Augustine, and is only seen in perfection about Enterprise, and further south. The live oak and cypress are the tenants of the low grounds. The former has a massive trunk, much es teemed for ship timber, spreading branches, and small green leaves. It is a perennial, and is not found farther north than South Carolina. The cypress stands in groups. Its symmetrical shaft rises without branches to a considerable height, and then spreads out numerous horizontal limbs, bearing a brown and scanty foliage. The base of the trunk is often enlarged and distorted into strange shapes, while scattered through the swamps are abortive attempts at trees, a foot or two thick and five or six feet in height, ending in a round, smooth top. These are called cypress knees." Two parasitic plants abound in the forests, the mistle toe and the Spanish moss, tillandsia usneoides. The former has bright green leaves and red berries. The latter attaches itself to the cypress and live oak, and hangs in long gray wreaths and ragged masses from every bough in the low lands. The southern shores and islands are covered with the mangrove, a species of the rhizojphora. It is admi rably adapted to shore building. The seed grows to a length of five or six inches before it leaves its calyx, when it resembles in form and color an Havana cigar. When it drops into the water it floats about until it strikes a beach, where it rapidly takes root and shoots out branches. Each branch sends down its own root, and soon the shore is covered with a dense growth, which in time rises to a height of twenty or thirty feet, and prevents the sand from any further shifting.

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50 Two varieties of a plant called by the Seminoles Jcoonta, bread, grow luxuriantly in the south. The red koonia, the smilax china of botanists, is a thrifty, briary vine, with roots like a large potato. The white koonta, a species of zamia, has large fern-like leaves and a root like a parsnip. Both were used by the Indians as food, and yield from 25 to 30 per cent, of starch. At some seasons, dense masses of vegetation form on the lakes and rivers and drift hither and thither with the wind, natural floating islands. They are composed chiefly of a water plant, the pistia spathulata, with the stalks and leaves of the water lily, nympJtea nilumbo. The bitter-sweet orange grows wild in great quanti ties along the streams. It is supposed to be an exotic which has run wild, as none of the species was found in the New World, and no mention is made of the orange in the early accounts of the peninsula, as undoubtedly would have been the case had it then flourished. The fruit has a taste not unlike the Seville orange, and is freely eaten by the inhabitants. The cork tree, the sesal hemp, and other tropical plants have been introduced, and no doubt could be successfully cultivated in the extreme south. The coacoanut palm grows vigorously at Key "West, and on the adjacent mainland. The animal life of Florida indicates its proximity to the tropics. Alligators are now scarce in the lower St. John, but are found in great numbers in the interior. They are by no means dangerous. The largest I ever saw was nearly 15 feet in length. The manatee, or sea cow, an herbivorous cetacean, midway between fish and flesh, once abounded in Flori-

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51 da. When Audubon visited the peninsula, his guide boasted of having killed hundreds" of them, and their bones are often found as far north as the Suwannee river. The Manatee spring and Manatee river bear record in their names to their former abundance. Now, I think, they are nearly extinct. A few still linger in the extreme south. Two were caught on the Indian river in the commencement of 1869, and exhibited in Jacksonville and Savannah. The gopher, testudo polypJiemus, is a large land turtle found in the pine woods, and is esteemed as an article of diet. The deer, panther, black bear, black and grey wolf are quite common. Beautiful perroquets, wild turkeys, white and rosecolored curlew, the latter prized for their tinted wings, pelicans, cormorants, herons, fish-crows, and cranes are seen in great numbers. The moccason and rattle-snake are the only venomous serpents. The former is most feared, but I do not re member to have heard of many deaths from the bite of either. Scorpions, centipedes and tarantulas abound, but are not very poisonous, and never fatally so. The mosquitoes are at times dreadfully annoying, and there is no escape from them. Sand-flies, ticks, and knats also mar the pleasures of camp life, but the true hunter rises superior to such inconveniences. The best river fish is the troutnot the speckled native of the northern streams, but of good flavor, and "game" when hooked. The mulleta fish about a foot longswarms on the coast in incredible numbers. The pompano is considered almost as good as the salmon. Catfish are large and coarse.

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52 4i THE ST. JOHN BIVEK, ST, AUGUSTINE, AND INDIAN KIVEK. The St. John river is about 400 miles in length, and from two to three miles wide, as far up as Lake George. It is, in fact, rather an arm of the sea than a river, and probably is the remains of an ancient lagoon. Its cur rent is about one mile an hour, and the slope of its bed so little that at such a distance from its mouth as at Lake Monroe, a careful survey showed that it was but three feet six inches above sea level. The tides are percept ible as far as Lake George, and its water more or less brackish at least this far. This may be partly owing to several large salt springs which empty into it. Its waters are of a light coffee-color, frequently covered with a per ceptible scum. Above Lake George they are pleasant to the taste, but do not easily quench the thirst, appa rently owing to the salts of various kinds in solution. Contrary to all the other large streams in the United States, the St. John flows nearly due south until within fifteen miles of its mouth, when it turns abruptly to the east, entering the Atlantic at 30 degrees 24 seconds, north latitude. For this peculiarity of its course, the Chahtas named it Il4a-ka7 corrupted into Welaka by the whites. Mr. Buckingham Smith asked an intelli gent native what the word meant. He answered slowly: It hath its own way, is alone, and contrary to every other." The only important tributary it receives is the Oklawaha. They each drain a row of numerous ponds, lakes, and marshes, and are separated by the Thlauhatke, or White Hills, the highest hills in the peninsu la, and an elevated sandy ridge, covered with scruboak, known as the Eteniah scrub."

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53 The St. John was discovered in 1562, by Jean Ribaut, leader of the Huguenot colony of Admiral Coligny. He named it the Kiver May, having entered it in that month. In the Spanish chronicles it is referred to as the Rio de San Matteo (St. Matthew). When it was named San Juan, does not appear, but the English took this name and translated it into the present ap pellation. In accordance with the best usage of our geographi cal writers, I shall omit the possessive sign, and speak of it as the St. John river; and in mentioning localities on the right or left bank, the reader is notified that while geographically these terms are used as if a per son were descending the river, for the convenience of the traveler I use them as of one ascending it. The mouth of the St. John is hardly a mile wide, and is impeded by a shifting sand bar, having rarely more than seven feet of water at low tide. The entrance is by a southerly pass, which leaves the course of the stream concealed by the shore of Baton island, on the north. This island is settled by a number of river pilots with their families, hardy and worthy people. On the southern shore the tourist sees the old and new lighthouses, and a row of brilliantly white sand dunes extending inland a mile or more. Baton Island passed, an extensive salt marsh is seen to form the northern bank of the river; through this numerous sluggish streams wind their way, forming part of the inside passage" to Fernandina. Near the entrance of this passage a number of symmetrical mounds, from 20 to 50 feet in height, strike the eye. These are known as The Sisters," or more prosaically

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54 as the Oyster Banks," as, on examination, they prove to be composed almost exclusively of broken oyster shells, covered with a tangled low shruboery. No doubt they are relics of the many glorious oyster feasts indulged in by the indigenes in times gone by. I regret that they were not visited by Prof. Jeffries Wyman, who has given us so excellent an account of the FreshWater-Shell-Heaps of the St. John's Kiver, East Flor ida," (Salem, Mass., 1868). Having passed the bar, the river rapidly widens. About six miles from the entrance the channel runs close along the base of a hill or headland of moderate height, covered with pine, cedar, etc. This is *St. John's Bluff, and is unquestionably the site of Fort Caroline, the settlement of Coligny's band of Hugue nots in 1562. A tragic interest surrounds this spot. Here, in 1564, Bene de Laudonniere established the colony of French Protestants, intending to reclaim a portion of this vast wilderness. His action was soon reported at the jealous court of Spain. Phillip II. at once despatched Pedro Menendez de Aviies, an accomplished soldier and earnest Catholic, to root out the feeble colony. It was done only too well. In the excitement of a surprise, Sept. 19th, 1565, the orders of Menendez to spare the women, the old men, and the children were disregarded by the furi ous soldiery, and nearly everv one was massacred. Lau donniere and a few others escaped by scrambling down the rough and thorn-covered eastern face of the bluff, and wading through the marshes to the mouth of the river, where they reached their ships. .They bore the

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55 distressing tidings to Trance. The ruler of that realm, the projector of the massacre of St. Bartholemew, and the son of Catharine de Medicis, was not the one to trouble himself about the death of a few Huguenots who had encroached on foreign soil. But the stain of unavenged blood did not remain on France. A private gentleman, Dominique de Gourejues, fitted out an expedi tion in 1568. Suddenly appearing before Fort Caroline, then manned by Spanish troops, he attacked and routed the garrison and burned the structure. As it was re ported that Menendez had inscribed on a tablet that the massacre of the Huguenots was not done as to French men but to heretics;" so De Gourgues returned the grim courtesy, and left an inscription that the dead men around had been slain not as Spaniards, but as traitors, thieves and murderers." In 1856, some copper coins were found near here bearing the inscription : KAROLUS ET JOANNA RE. They were identified by Mr. Buckingham Smith as of the reign of Carlos I. (Charles Y.) and Donna Juanna, and therefore date from about 1550. More recently a coin of about the same period, and from the same spot, but with a different and not fully legible inscription was exhibited to the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia. During the late civil war the Bluff was fortified by a detachment of Confederate troops, and for some days held against the gunboats of the United States forces. At length they were out-flanked by a party of Union soldiers, who made their way in the rear by the margin of the swamp, and the work was surrendered.

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5G A few miles bej-oud the bluff the boat stops at YELLOW BLUFF. It has a post office aod one small boarding-house, ($8.00 per week,) about 40 inhabitants, mostly en gaged in fishing. Near by is a small fort, built dur ing the recent war, and on the opposite bank of the river, on a plantation called New Castle, are an Indian mound and the vestiges of an ancient, quadrilateral earthwork of Spanish origin. Yellow Bluff was first chosen by Col. I. D. Hart as the city which he proposed to build on the St. John, but as he found some marsh land near which he thought might prove disadvantageous to such a large city as he contemplated founding, he passed further up the stream and built his cabin on the spot now known as the Cow's Ford," where the King's Road in the old days crossed the river and connected St. Augustine with the northern settlements, twenty-five miles above the bar. This spot, then occupied by a few straggling whites and halfbreeds, is now the site of the flourishing city of JACKSONVILLE. Hotels.*St. James, on the public square, with airy piazzas,$4.00 a day; *Taylor House, fronts the river; *Price House, close to the railroad depot; St. John's House, in the center of the city; Howard House; Cowart House; Union House; Florida House; ^Rochester House, on the bluff south of the town; from $2.00 to $3.00 a day. Boarding Houses.Mrs. Freeland, Mrs. Hodgson, Mrs. Alderman opposite the Taylor House, and many others.

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57 Newpapers. The Florida Union, repub.; Mercury and Floridian; Florida Land Register, Bookseller,COLUMBUS DREW, publisher of Brinton's Guide-Booh of Florida and the South, Mr. Drew makes a specialty of keeping works on Florida. Churches of all the principal denominations. Jacksonville, so named after General Andrew Jack son, has now a population of 7,000 souls, and is rapidly increasing that number. It is destined to be the most important city in Florida, as it is already the largest. It is locate^ between two creeks which fall into the St. John about a mile and a quarter apart. These form the present corporation limits, but several suburbs or additions have been recently formed beyond these streams. Brooklyn and Riverside are on the bank southwest of the town; Scottsville, immediately east of the eastern creek, is the principal location of the large saw mills which constitute one of the most important industries of the city; Wyoming is on the bluff one and a half miles northeast; and finally La Yilla is a small suburb on an island to the west. Many of the residences of Jacksonville are sub stantially built of brick manufactured from native clay, but wood is the prevailing material. Several hand some residences are conspicuous from the river, and every season a number of elegant cottages are added to the town. It is a favorite residence for invalids during the winter months, on account of its superior accommodations and ease of access. Indeed, too many of them remain here who would be improved by a nearer approach to the extreme south. The sight of so many sick often affects one unfavorably.

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58 The streets of Jacksonville are sandy, and the vicin ity only moderately fertile. The health of the city is good at all seasons, miasmatic disease not being com mon. There was an epidemic of yellow fever in 1857, but it has never since returned. During the war Jacksonville suffered severely. It was first partially burned by the Confederates, then three separate times occupied by the Union troops, the third time catching fire in the assault. About half a dozen blocks of houses were then burned, including the Catholic and Episcopal churches. Of course the result of these experiences was little short of desolation. Grass grew waist high in the streets, and the few cattle that remained found for themselves stalls in the deserted stores and houses. Now, however, one can hardly credit the fact that such was ever the case. Steamboats leave Jacksonville for Enterprise (206 miles), about every other day. One line is owned by Capt. Brock, who for many years has run the steamer Darlington'' up and down the river. The accommo dations on all the steamers are fair, and no one should omit to make the round trip, even if he does not tarry on the road. Fare to Enterprise, $9.00. About a mile above this city the river widens once more. The banks are usually 3 or 4 feet high, thickly set with live oak, pine and cypress. Here and there the pine barren cuts across the hammock to the river. In such places the banks are 8 or 10 feet high, and the tall yellow pine with an abundant undergrowth of pal metto give some variety to the otherwise monotonous view. 15 miles from Jacksonville, on the left (east) hand is the small town of

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59 MANDARIN. Post Office. !N"o hotel. Boarding can be had with Mr. Chas. F. Keed, near the landing. Mr. Foote, the postmaster, will give further information about the chance for accommodations in private families. A new School house and church. The name is said to have been derived from the Mandarin or China orange intro duced here. This little place has about a dozen houses and a back country three or four miles in extent. The location is pleasing and the soil good. Several flourish ing orange groves can be seen from the river. One of them about six acres in extent is owned by Mrs. Har riet Beecher Stowe, who has a pleasant country house here, and visits it every winter. It stands close to the river, on a bluff about 12 feet high. A little higher up the river the Marquis de Talleyrand has laid out hand some grounds. This is one of the localities associated with the atroicities of border warfare. In December, 1841, the Sem inole Indians attacked and burnt the town and massa cred the inhabitants almost to the last soul. For six teen hours," says Captain Sprague in his account of the occurrence, "the savages, naked and painted, danced around the corpses of the slain." Above Mandarin the river narrows and then again expands, the banks continuing of the same character. Ten miles above, on the right (west) bank is HIBERNIA. *IZbtfeZ,by Mrs. Fleming, one of the best on the river, accommodates about 35 persons, $2.50 per day, $15.00 per week. This very pleasant spot is on an island,

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60 about five miles long, immediately north of the en trance of Black Creek. It is separated from the main land by a body of water known as Doctor's Lake, which, toward its southern extremity, is lost in a broad marsh. The river walk" near the boarding house is a delightful promenade about three-fourths of a mile long under the spreading branches of noble live oaks. The hotel is near the landing, which is on the east side of the island. Visitors can readily obtain boats, and the vicinity offers many attractive spots for short ex cursions, picnics, and fishing parties. Kooms should be engaged by letter. Three miles above Hibernia is MAGNOLIA. This large building was erected by Dr. Benedict in 1851 with special reference to the wants of invalids, and their treatment under medical supervision. During the war it was used for various purposes and was much injured, but it has now been thoroughly refitted by a company, and placed under the charge of Dr. Kogers, formerly of Worcester, Mass., a capable and judicious physician, who proposes to continue it as a sanitarium. The building can accomodate comfortably about 50 boarders. The position is agreeable, a majestic oak grove shading the grounds, while at a little distance the pine forest scatters its aromatic odors in the air. Divided from it by a small creek, but 2 miles above as the river runs, is GREEK COVE SPRING. Hotels. Green Cove House, by Mr. J. Kamington, and boarding houses by Captain Henderson, and Cap-

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61 tain Glinskie, all said to be well kept; fare about $15.00 per week. This spring has been long celebrated for its mineral properties. It is sulphurous, and has been found of value in chronic rheumatism, cutaneous dis ease and dyspepsia. The temperature is 78 Fah. at all seasons. The basin varies in diameter from 35 to 40 feet at different points. The water rushes up with force forming what is called the boil." Recently a portion of the bottom of the spring gave way, and the orifice through which the water rises was covered. But the earth was cleared out, and the boil" re-instated. Facilities for bathing are afforded, though not to that extent which were desirable. 12 miles above green Cove on the left bank is PICOLATA. Boarding with Mr. T. F. Bridier. This is the station where passengers to St. Augustine land. It is much to be regretted that there is no hotel here, and only poor and insufficient accommodations in the house owned by the stage company. Usually but one line of stages runs to St. Augustine, and they are often densely crowded, and most uncomfortable. A second line was put on in Jan., 1869. The usual fare to St. Augustine is $3.00 ; distance 18 miles. By competition it has been reduced to $1.00. FROM PICOLATA TO ST. AUGUSTINE the road leads through an open pine country with an undergrowth of palmettoes. Here and there a clump of cypress, with a tangled mass of briars and vines around their trunks, diversifies the scene. The soil is miserably poor, and hardly a dozen houses are passed

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62 in the whole distance. Deep white sand obstructs the stage, and not so rarely as one wishes the wheels strike a pine or palmetto root with a most unpleasant effect upon the passengers, especially if they are invalids. After 34 hours of this torture, the stage is check ed by the Sebastian river, over which a miserable ferry boat conveys the exhausted tourist who at length finds himself in St. Augustine. ST. AUGUSTINE. Hotels: Florida House (dear and poor,) Magnolia House, fine piazza (grounds recently fitted up.) About $4.00 per day, slight reduction by the month. Boarding Souses : Mrs. Abbot, Mrs. Fatio, Mrs. Gardner, Mrs. Brava, Miss Dummitt. Charges, $15.00 to $20.00 per week. As a rule, the tables of the board ing houses are better kept than those of the hotels. Families can rent houses by the month, and sometimes furnished rooms, and thus live much cheaper. Apply to B. E. Carr, J. L. Phillips, or John Long. Billiard Saloon, at Delot's Kestaurant. Post Office on the Plaza, mail tri-weekly. Telegraph office near the market house on the Plaza. NewspaperSt* Augustine Examiner, weekly. Read* ng Room at the editor's office, 25 cts. a week. Drug Store-Dr. J. P. Mackay. Military MusicOn the Plaza every other night. ChurchesKoman Catholic, Episcopal, Presbyterian, Methodist chapel opposite the Magnolia House, Col ored Baptist. Bathing-House, on Bay Street, white flag for ladies, red flag for gentlemen, on alternate days. Season ticket $5.00.

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63 Local Histories.^Fairbanks, The Spaniards in Flo rida, (186S, the best, published by Columbus Drew, Jacksonville, Fla.); Sewall, Sketches of St. Augustine, 1848, (illustrated); St. Augustine, Florida, by an Eng lish visitor, (1869, by Mrs. Yelverton; inaccurate). St. Augustine (population 1,200 white, 600 black), the oldest settlement in the United States, was founded in 1565, by Pedro Menendez, a Spanish soldier, born in the city of Aviles. The site originally chosen was south of where the city now stands, but the subsequent year (1566) a fort was erected on the present spot. It re ceived its name because Menendez first saw the coast of Florida on St. Augustine's day. Little is known of its early history. In 1586 it was burned by Sir Francis Drake; and in 1665, Captain Davis, an English buccaneer, sacked and plundered it without opposition, the inhabitants, numbering at that time a few hundred, probably fleeing to the fort. This building, which had formerly been of logs, was com menced of stone about 1640. As it was found that the sea was making inroads upon the town, about the end of the seventeenth century, a sea-wall was commenced by the Spanish Governor, Don Diego de Quiroga y Losada, extending from the Fort to the houses, all of which, at that time, were south of the Plaza. The top of this first sea-wall can still be seen in places along Bay street, occupying nearly the middle of the street. Early in the last century, the English in Carolina, in alliance with the Creek (Muskoki) Indians com menced a series of attacks on the Spanish settlements. In 1702, Governor Moore made a descent on St. Augus-

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64 tine by land and sea, burnt a portion of the town, and destroyed all the plantations in the vicinity. The in habitants once more fled to the castle, which, we are told, was surrounded by a very deep and broad moat. But the priests had not time to remove the church plate. This, and much, other booty, fell into Gov. Moore's handsall of which he kept for himself to the great disgust of his companions in arms. Again, in 1725, Col. Palmer, of Carolina, at the head of 300 whites and Indians attacked and ravaged the Spanish settlements, completely annihilating their fieldhusbandry, burning the country houses, and forcing the inhabitants of St. Augustine to flee as usual to the castle. In 1732, Governor Oglethorpe founded the colony of Georgia, on the Savannah river. Eight years after wards he made his memorable attack on St. Augustine. At that date the city numbered 2,143 inhabitants, inclu ding the garrison (the latter probably about one half the whole number.) The city was intrenched, with sa lient angles and redoubts, the space enclosed being about half a mile long and quarter of a mile wide. The castle mounted 50 pieces of brass cannon. Its walls were of stone, casemated, with four bastions. The moat was 40 feet wide, and twelve feet deep. Governor Oglethorpe, therefore, undertook a difficult task when he set out in midsummer to besiege a place of this strength. He planted his principal batteries on Anastasia island, where their remains are still distinctly tra ceable, and bombarded castle and city with considera ble vigor for 20 days. He discovered, however, to his mortification, that his shot produced hardly any more effect on the coquina rock of which the walls were

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65 built, than on so much sand. After prolonging the siege 38 days, (June 13July 20,1740,) he withdrew. The exterior of the works was finally completed by Don Alonzo Fernando Here da, in 1756, since which time no alterations of importance have been made. St. Augustine, always the capital of the province during the Spanish supremacy, changed hands with the whole peninsula in 1763, 1781, and 1821. It had a temporary prosperity during the first Seminole war, when it was used as a military and naval station. In 1862 the naval force of the United States took posses sion of it, without resistance, and a garrison of New Hampshire volunteers was stationed there. A large percentage of the natives show traces of Spanish blood. They are usually embraced under the name u Minorcans." In 1767 a speculative Englishman, Dr. Turnbull, brought over a colony of about 1200 Greeks, Italians, Corsicansand Minorcans, and settled near New Smyrna. After a few years, wearied with his tyranny, most of those who survived,not more in all than 600,re moved to St. Augustine. They were a quiet, some what industrious, and ignorant people, and many of their descendants much mixed in blood still live in St. Au gustine. Their language is fast dying out. The young people speak only English. The following verse from the FromajardiS) or Easter Song, was written down in 1843. The italic e is the neutral vowel. Sant Gabiel Qui portaba la ambasciado Dee nostro rey del eel, Estaran vos prenada Ya omitiada

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66 Tu o vais aqui surventa Fia del Dieu contenta Para fe lo que el vol Disciar^m lu dol Cantaran aub 'alagria Y n'arem a da Las pascuas a Maria, O Maria." I have no doubt but that this is somewhat incorrect, as I am informed that the ordinary language of the old natives is comparatively pure Spanish. St. Augustine is built on a small Peninsula, between the St. Sebastian Eiver, itself an arm of the sea, and the Bay. Its plan is that of an oblong parallelogram, traversed longitudinally by two principal streets, which are intersected at right angles by cross streets. The Isthmus connecting the Peninsula to the main is on the north, and is strengthened by a stone causeway. The ruins of a suburb, called the North City, are visi ble near it. Most of the streets are narrow, without sidewalks, and shaded by projecting balconies. On the east is the harbor, a sheet of water about eight fathoms in depth, known as the Matanzas river. It is separated from the ocean by Anastasia, or Pish Island, a narrow tract of land about fourteen miles long. The inlet is variable in depth, but rarely aver ages over five feet. The principal buildings are of Coquina rock. This is a concretion of fragments of shells, of recent forma tion. It extends along the east coast for about a hundred and fifty miles, in some places rising above the surface level, at others covered with several feet of sand. In one spot, near St. Augustine, it rests upon a

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67 peat bog. The quarries are on Anastasia Island, and are worth visiting. Near the center of the town is the #Plaza, or square. In its midst is an unpretending monument, square at the base, and eighteen feet high, on which is inscribed: PLAZA DE LA CONSTITUCION. This was erected in 1812, to commemorate the short lived constitutional form of government then instituted in Spain. The building on the west side of the square was the residence of the Spanish Governors. It has been re built and much altered since the purchase of the terri tory, and is now used for the United States Court. On the opposite side, between the Square and the water, is the Market House. The building on the north side is the Eoman Catho lic Church. Its quaint belfry has four bells which ring forth the Angelus thrice daily. One of these has the following inscription : Sancte Joseph, Orapro Nobis. A. D., 1682. This church was commenced in 1793, and doubtless this bell was brought from the previous church, which was on St. George street. In the interior, the ceiling is painted, the floor of concrete, and there are a few pictures, none of note. Many of its attendants are descen dants of Spanish and Minorcan families. Opposite the Koman Catholic, is the Episcopal church, consecrated in 1833. The oldest building in the city is supposed to be that at the corner of Green Lane and Bay street. A cen-

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68 tury ago it was the residence of the English attorney general, and was probably built about 1750. It will be observed that the coquina rock does not wear very well. At the north end of the town, where the causeway (of modern construction) connects with the main land, is the *City Gate, flanked by two square pillars, with Moorish tops. On either side a dry ditch, and the re mains of a wall, mark the fortified limits of the city. At the southern extremity of the peninsula are the Barracks, built on the foundations of the ancient Fran ciscan convent. From their top a fine view of the town can be obtained. In the rear of the main building is a Cemetery where the victims of Dade's Massacre," du ring the 1st Seminole war, were buried, and other mem bers of the U. S. forces. Still further south are the United States Arsenal and the remains of an ancient breastwork. The whole east front of the town for more than a mile is occupied by the sea wall. It was built by the United States (1837) to prevent the encroach ment of the waves. The material is coquina stone topped by granite. It is wide enough for two persons to walk abreast upon it, and it is a favorite evening promenade. It encloses two handsome basins, with steps leading to the water. Fort Marion, or, as it was formerly called, the castle of San Marco, occupies a commanding position on the Dorth of the city. It is considered a fine specimen of military architecture, having been constructed on the principles laid down by the famous engineer Yauban. Ko fees are required for visitors. The walls are 21 feet high, with bastions at each corner, the whole

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69 structure being in the form of a trapezuim, and enclos ing an area about sixty yds. square. The main entrance is by a drawbridge. Over this is sculptured on a block of stone the Spanish coat of arms, surmounted by the globe and cross, with a Maltese cross and lamb beneath. Immediately under the arms is this inscription: Reynando en Espana el Senr Don Fernando Sexto y siendo Govor. y Capn. de esa. Cd. San. Augn. de La Florida y sus Prova. el Mariscal de campos Don Alonzo Ferndo, Hereda Asi concluio este Castillo el an OD. 1756. Dirigiendo las obrasel Cap Ingnro. Dn. Pedro de Brozas y Gar ay, Don Ferdinand VI. being king of Spain, the field marshal, Don Alonzo Fernando Hereda, governor and captain of this city of San Augustin de la Florida and its provinces, finished this castle in the year 1756, the captain of engineers Don Pedro de Brozas y Garay superintending the work." From the space in the interior, doors lead to the casemates. Opposite the entrance, in the northern case mate, is the apartment which was formerly used as a chapel. The altar stone is still preserved. In another apartment, the small window is pointed out through which Coacoochee, a distinguished Seminole chieftain, made his escape in the first Seminole war. Under the north east bastion there are subterranean cells, pro bably used for confining prisoners, in one of which a human skeleton is said to have been found. The curtain on the east side of the fort, still shows the marks of Oglethorpe's cannon balls.

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70 The vicinity of St. Augustine is uninteresting. A pleasant drive can he taken through the town and along the east bank of the Sebastian river. A sail along Matanzas river has some attractions. Several good sail boats can be hired, some accommodating twenty or twenty-five persons, price $5.00 a day. A few miles south of the city an elevated spot marks the remains of General Moultrie's (of revolutionary fame) residence. At the southern extremity of Anastasia island the ruins of a Spanish look-out are visible. Rock island, on the north shore of th6 inlet near this point, has a remarka ble Indian mound. Curlews and snipes afford some good sport along the strand, and in the winter, a brace or two of ducks can always be bagged on Anastasia island, but their flavor is not attractive. The nearest orange grove is that of Dr. Anderson, on the west side of the town. In going thither, the path should be chosen leading through the pleasant orange walk on the grounds of Mr. Buckingham Smith. The chief local industry at St. Augustine is the ^palmetto work* Hats, baskets, and boxes are very taste fully plaited from the sun-dried leaves of the low vari ety of that plant. Specimens of this handwork make pleasant mementoes of a visit to this ancient city. I now return to Picolata on the St. John. About a mile north of the landing, on the bank of the river, lived Col. John Lee Williams,the author of "The Natural and Civil History of Florida," and u Yiew of West Florida," and in many ways conspicuous in the early history of the State. He died in 1857, and was buried in his own garden. I had the melancholy satisfaction

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71 of visiting his grave the day after his burial, having reached Picolata without learning his death. I was told that the river here had materially altered its course within the memory of those now living. I am certain ly unable to account in any other way for the total dis appearance of the Spanish fort which, a century ago, existed here. The traveller Bartram describes it as built of coquina stone brought from Anastasia island. The main work, a square tower, thirty feet high, with bat tlements allowing two guns on each side, was surroun ded by a high wall, pterced with loop-holes and a deep exterior ditch. Even at that time he speaks of it as very ancient." On the opposite bank of the river was the fort of St. Francis de Poppa. Its earthworks are still visible, about one mile north of the landing. From St. Francis de Poppa the old Spanish road led across the province to St. Marks on the Gulf. Two small Sulphur Springs are found a short distance from the Picolata landing. Fifteen miles above Picolata the steamer stops on the right (west) bank at PALATKA. Hotels.Putnam House, St. John's House, charges, $3.50 per day. The Palatka hotels are tolerable, but not so good as those of Jacksonville. Several boarding houses. A large hotel is projected. This was originally a military post in the Indian war of 1836-'40. The town is built on a sand bluff ten to fifteen feet above the river, a few inches of shells form ing the surface soil. There are 800 or 1,000 inhabitants, principally engaged in orange culture and lumbering.

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72 Several beautiful orange groves are in the vicinity, and constitute the only attraction of the place. The streets are sandy, and walking is difficult. Steamboats run from here direct to Charleston and Savannah, and also to the lakes of Marion and Alachua counties and up the Oklawaha river to Lake Griffin. A mail stage runs to Tampa. Above Palatka the river narrows, and the banks be come as a rule lower and more swampy. At a point twelve miles above, on the left (east) bank, Buffalo bluff meets the river, a ridge of loose sandrock surmounted by a stratum of shells from six to ten feet in thickness. Five miles beyond, on the same side, is Horse Landing, where a shell and sand mound rises abruptly about eight feet from the water. This has been carefully examined by Prof. Jeffries Wyman, and pronounced to have been built by the ancient possessors of the land. About eighteen miles above Palatka, on the east bank, is the small town of WELAKA. Large boarding houses were here before the war but were destroyed. A capacious hotel is in process of erection. Three large sulphur springs are in the immediate vicinity, which could doubtless be applied to sanitary purposes. The soil is good, and well adapted to oranges. Eight miles east of Welaka is *Dunn's Lake, a beautiful sheet of water twelve miles long and three wide, abundantly stocked with fish. Its shores abound in game, and many rich plantations are on and near it. The soil is unsurpassed by any in Florida, and has always borne a high reputation.

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73 Opposite Welaka, the Oklawaha empties into the St. John. The latter river at this point is about 500 yards wide. Half a mile above, it expands to a width of three miles. This is called Little Lake George. Fort Gates landing is at its southern extremity. Twelve miles above Welaka is Lake George proper, a sheet of water about eighteen miles in length, and ten in width. At its southern end a large and fertile island (about 1900 acres), shuts off the view. It is calledRembrandt's, or Drayton's Island. According to Bar tram, there should be remarkable monuments of the aborigines, mounds, earthworks, and artificial lakes, on this island. The channel lies to its east, and is quite narrow. At the extremity of this entrance there is a landing on the eastern shore, known as Sam's landing, or Lake George landing. A post office was located here. Several remarkable mineral springs are around this lake, especially on the western shore. It is an unsafe sea for boats, being exposed to sudden and violent winds. A mile or two from the western shore, the ground rises into high sand-hills, covered with a dense growth of spruce-pine and blackjack oak. This is the Eteniah scrub," which divides the St. John from the Okla waha, and extends for many miles southwardly. It is a dry and hopeless barren. Sixty-five miles above Pa* latka, and four miles above the southern entrance of Lake George, on the left (east) bank of the river, is the old settlement of VOLUSIA. Good boarding-house by Dr. Langrenprice mod erate. Little is now seen from the river but a few

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74 ruinous houses and the marks of a once extended cultivation in overgrown old fields," but the place has a history worth recording. Soon after the cession of the county to the English crown in 1763, Mr. Denison Holies, a gentleman of wealth, actuated, it would appear, by a spirit of philan thropy, proposed to transport large numbers of the un fortunate women of the London street to this new country, and there give them a chancesto lead a better life. With this object he obtained a grant of 40,000 acres, and located it in this portion of Florida. The manor was called Charlottia, from the queen. Several hundred acres were cleared, a large mansion house erected, a handsome avenue laid out, which was to reach to St. Augustine, and colonists to the number of throe hundred brought across. But, as so often happens, unexpected obstacles arose. Supplies failed to come in time, fevers carried oft* many, the proprietor was accused of parsimony, and finally the settlement broke up, and those who survived went to Carolina and Georgia. At this point the river is quite narrow, and both banks are occupied by fresh-water shell-bluffs, of artifi cial origin. On that opposite Volusia stands Fort Butler, a place of some note in the Indian wars. Four miles above Volusia, is Dexter's Lake, (ten miles long.) It is a famous resort for wild fowls in the fall and win ter. It is surrounded by extensive marshes, cypress groves, and hammocks. A few miles above Lake Dexter the steamer stops at the small place now called Hawkinsville, but which for merly bore the much more euphonious name of the

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75 brave Seminole warrior, Osceola, (corruption of asse, Tieholar, sun rising). On the left bank, six miles above, is the remarkable BLUE SPRING. This is a landing, with post office, but has no hotel. One is (of course) in contemplation. The *spring is a large and beautiful fountain of crystal clear water. It forms a basin one-fourth of a mile long, twenty-five to thirty yards wide, and ten to twenty feet deep. The water is slightly sulphurous and thermal, the temperature reaching, at times, 75 degrees Fahr. This spot was called by the English, Berrisford, and was the most southern settlement made by them while in possession of the country. Hunting and fishing in this vicinity are remarkably fine. The back country is fertile, and some magnificent orange groves are under cultivation. The river now narrows to a width of fifty or sixty yds. Meadows of tall grass and maiden-cane, interspersed with clumps of lofty and graceful palms diversify the scene. Through these the stream winds its tortuous channel for thirty miles. At length the steamboat reaches its destination at ENTERPRISE, On Lake Monroe. *Brock House, kept by Mr. J. Brock, the proprietor of the line of steamers$3.50 per day. Several boarding-houses in the pine woods near. *Watson's. Several high shell mounds rise on the east shore of the lake, on one of which the hotel stands. Haifa

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7G mile south of it is a large sulphur spring of unusual strength, with a basin twenty-five yards in diameter. About 150 yards beyond it is a second sulphur springof less extent, and near by, also, a source of saline wa ters. (As yet no provisions are made for the applica tion of their waters to medicinal purposes). Beyond the springs, a hill of sand and shells rises some thirty or forty feet, surmounted by an old frame build ing. A luxuriant sweet orange grove extends along the shore, bearing the finest fruit I ever tasted in Flor" ida. The medicinal waters, the rich fruit, the charming lake, the near pine woods, and the attractive hunting and fishing at this spot, render it one of the most eligi ble for a large sanitary establishment. But its position should not be directly on the beach, where the dazzling sand tries the eyes, and the evening dampness is pain fully felt. Across Lake Monroe, is Fort Mellon, long used as a Government store-house, and the terminus of one of the military roads which connect with the interior of the country. Fragments of bog iron ore, and oolitic limestone, are picked up on the shore. A small steamboat runs about once a week from En terprise to Lake Harney (thirty miles). The channel is narrow and crooked, running through broad, grassy savannahs and hammocks. The first bluff above Lake Monroe is called Leneer's. It is on the left bank. Occasional trips are made to Salt Lake, thirty miles above Lake Harney. Its waters are brackish, rather, I think, from its contiguity to the sea, than from any salt

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77 springs. It is only seven miles from Indian river lagoon. Probably this is the only example in the world of a large river, at a distance of nearly 300 miles from its mouth, flowing within seven miles of the ocean into which it empties. When the water is high, small steamers and row-boats have passed beyond Salt Lake, sixty miles to Lake Washington. INTo settlements are on the river, however, higher up than Lake Harney. The source of the St. John is unknown. Its head waters probably lose themselves in vast marshes, from which flow sluggish streams northward to it, southward into Lake Okeechobee, and westward into the Kissimnee river. The determination of this geo graphical point would be interesting, though perhaps of no great practical value. Yet, one cannot help feeling astonished that the sources of this river ,on which the first colony north of Mexico was founded, which traverses the oldest settled State of our Union, and which has been alternately possessed by three powerful nations, are more completely unknown and unexplored than those of the Kile or the Niger. NEW SMYRNA. This small settlement of half a dozen houses, is on Musquito lagoon, or Halifax river. It is reached by a rather rough-traveling weekly stage from Enterprise, for the immoderate sum of $8.00 a head. Board can be obtained of Mrs. Sheldon. New Symrna was laid out by Dr. Turnbull, during the English occupancy of Florida, and hither he brought his colony of Greeks, Minorcans, and Italians, as I have previously related. The marks of their faithful industry are still

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78 discernible. Turtle Mound, on the west bank of the Lagoon, near the town, is one of the most remarkable shell-mounds, or Kitchen-middens" in Florida. I have described it in my Notes on the Floridian Peninsula," page 178. There are a number of other equally curi ous remains of a similar character in the vicinity. A hundred years ago nearly the whole of the bluff along the river, about half a mile wide, and nearly forty in length, was one vast orange grove. A mail boat leaves here for India river every second week. INDIAN RIVER. Persons wishing to visit Indian river for camp hunt ing, should hire an open boat, guide, and tent, (if the latter is deemed necessary), at Jacksonville, and bring them to Enterprise on the steamer. From that point they can row to Lake Harney in two days, where the boat and tent can be carried across to Sand Point, on Indian river, on an ox team. Col. H. F. Titus has a store and dwelling at Sand Point, and accommodates t ourists either with his team or his table. The distance from the Point to Enterprise is forty miles; to Lake Harney twenty^t wo miles, and to Salt Lake seven miles. A hack sometimes runs to Lake Harney during the win ter season (fare $4.00), which delivers the mail at the Point. Indian river is properly a lagoon, or arm of the sea. Its waters contain about two-thirds as much salt as those of the ocean. In width it varies from one to four miles. Its western shore is marshy, with hammocks. About half a mile from the water runs a ridge, averag-

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79 ing half a mile across, covered with pines, oak, and palmettos. At places this ridge approaches to the wa ter's edge, and offers first-class camping grounds. It varies in height, one point having been determined at fifty-two feet above tide level by the United States coast survey. That portion known as the Indian Garden, is about forty feet high, and was formerly thoroughly culti vated by the natives and the Spaniards. All the ridge could readily be made extremely productive. The or anges of Indian river are equal to the best brought from Havana. A single orchard is said to return to its owner not less than $20,000 a year. Here again the difficultyof access meets one. The Fort Pierce channel, the deepest of the outlets of Indi an river, has but six or seven feet of water at high tide, and it is so filled with sand and oyster shells that naviga tion is difficult for vessels drawing over three feet. SANTA LUCIE, One hundred miles below Sand Point, is near the outlet. The intervening shore is very thinly scattered with settlers, but abounds in unequalled hunting and fishing. Santa Lucie is the county seat of Brevard county. It boasts a post office, store, and two or three houses. Mr. Frank Smith is postmaster, and cheerfully gives information or furnishes accommodation to the few tourists who wander thus far from civilized life. SANTA LUCIE RIVER Commences twenty miles further south. It, too, is a salt water lagoon. Formerly a water connection existed between this and Indian river, but now it is closed.

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80 Santa Lucie river is principally famous for the numbers, size, and flavor of its turtles. Fort Capron is on its west side. At this point there is a post office, kept by Captain James Payne, who will give any infor mation wished for about the locality. The mail along this coast is carried from St. Augutine to Jupiter Inlet in boats, and thence ninety miles along the beach to Miami on Key Biscayne Bay by a man on foot. For the whole of this latter distance there is but one house, and no fresh water is to be had for a horse. The messenger is allowed four days for his journey. From Miami, which I shall speak of in a subsequent route, the letters are carried to Key West by schooner.

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81 e.-JACKSONVILLE TO TALLAHASEE, QUIWCY AND ST. MABKS. (Tallahassee, and Pensacola & Georgia, and Florida, Atlanta & Gulf Central railways. Time 14 hours, one train daily.) The train leaves Jacksonville following the old mili tary road, and soon enters open pine woods. The first station is White House (eleven miles). The next (eight miles) is Baldwin, (Florida House, M. Colding Pro prietor). Here the Florida railway connects for Fer* nandina, Cedar Keys, Gainesville, and other points in East Florida. Beyond Baldwin the train passes over a swampy country intersected by numerous creeks flowing north ward into the St. Mary's river, which near here makes its South Prong far to the south. Sanderson, (eighteen miles) is an insignificant station. Olustee (ten miles) is a rising village in the midst of a wide level tract, (no hotel; board at private houses SI.50 to $2.00 a day.) Ocean Pond, half a mile from the road (right hand side), is a handsome sheet of water, nearly circular, about four miles in diameter. It is deep, and offers excellent fishing. LAKE CITY (twelve miles; two tolerable hotels, $3.00 per day, $15* per week; newspaper, Lake City Press; telegraph of fice) is a promising place of several hundred inhabitants. Three miles south of the city is Alligator Lake, a body

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82 of water without any visible outlet. In the wet season it is three or four miles across, but in winter it retires into a deep sink hole, and the former bottom is trans formed into a grassy meadow. WELBORN Is the next stopping place (twelve miles. The Griffin House, and several boarding houses; $1.50 per day, $6.00 per week). It is a prosperous village of 150 inhabitants. The water is good, and the neighbor hood healthy. Its height above tide water is 200 feet. Stages leave Welborn daily for the White Sulphur Springs, on the Suwannee river, eight miles north of the station (fare $2.00). These springs are a favorite resort for persons suffering from rheumatism and skin diseases. They have been estimated to discharge about three hundred hogsheads a minute. The #hotel, ($3.00 per day, $12.00 per week, $40.00 per month,) accommo dating seventy-five guests, stands within a few yards of the Suwannee river, there a pretty stream about fifty yards wide. There is also a private boarding house near by. Dr. A. W. Knight, of Maine, resides at the hotel, and will be found an intelligent physician. There is good fishing in the river, and as the county is but sparsely settled, small game is abundant. Horses can be had for $2.00. The basin of the spring is ten feet deep, and 30 feet in diameter; the stream runs about a hundred yards and then empties into the river. Leaving Welborn, the tram passes Houston, (five miles), and reaches Live Oak (six miles.) Here the morn ing train stops for dinner. A good table is set by Mr.

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83 Conner, who keeps the hotel ($3 per day, $12.50 per week, $30.00 per month. Boarding, Mrs. M. A. McCleran, $25.00 per month, Mrs. Goodbread, $1.00 per day, $20.00 per month ; Newspaper, Live Oak Advertizer; Churches, Methodist, Presbyterian, and Baptist.) At this point a connecting railway diverges north to Lawton, Ga., on the main line of the Atlantic and Gulf R. R. Live Oak to Savannah, $9.00. Live Oak has at present about 250 inhabitants, and is a growing place. The country in the vicinity is the usual lime stone soil of Middle Florida, covered with pine. Pea ches nourish very well, and the soil is reason ably productive. The Lower Spring, on the banks of the Suwannee river, eight miles north of Live Oak, is reached by trains twice daily on the road to Lawton. Its waters are sulphurous, and it is a favorite resort for certain classes of invalids. The accommodations are passable. Beyond Live Oak, is Ellaville, (thirteen miles, for merly called Columbus), near the Suwannee. This river is comparatively narrow, and divides at this point into its east and west branches. The next station (fifteenmiles) is Madison, the county seat of Madison county (Madison hotel). The village is half a mile from the depot, located on a plain border ing on a small lake. Beyond this are Goodman station, (fourteen miles), Aucitta, (seven miles), and the Junction (seven miles). At the latter a railway four miles in length diverges to MONTICELLO, The county seat of Jefferson county. Hotels.Monticello houss, kept by Mrs. Madden, ac-

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84 commodates about thirty guests, $2.00 a day, $30.00 to $40.00 a month; Godfrey House. The village has a population of about 700. It is pleasantly located and regularly laid out, the court house occupying a square in the center of the town. There are four churches, Episcopal,Presbyterian, Methodist and Baptist. There is an academy of nearly 150 pupils, part of the support of the institution being drawn from the Southern Ed ucational Fund, provided by the banker, Mr. Peabody. A flourishing colored school is also in the vicinity. Lake Mickasukie, an extensive body of fresh water, is about three miles distant. The climate of this part of Florida is dry and equable, and the soil the very best upland pine. Many invalids Would find it a very pleasant and beneiicial change from the sea coast or the river side, and immigrants would do well to visit it. Game and fish are abundant, and the sportsman need never be at a loss for occupation. Leaving the Junction, the train stops at Lloyd's (nine miles), Chavies, (six miles), and finally at TALLAHASSEE. Hotels.City Hotel, Hagner house, about $3.00 a day. Newspapers*The Floridian and Journal, Democrat, an old established and ably conducted paper; the Tola-hassee Sentinel, republican, likewise well edited. Churches of most denominations. The capital of Florida is a city of about 3000 inhabitants, situated on a commanding eminence in the midst of a rolling and productive country. The name is pro bably a compound of the Greek talofah, town, and has-* see, sun. The site was chosen in 1823 by three commit

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85 sioners, of whom Colonel John Lee Williams, the subsequent historian of Florida, was one. In the follow ing year the first house was erected. A pleasant stream winds along the eastern part of the town, and tumbles over a limestone ledge in a little cataract. The capitol is a brick building, stuccoed, with a handsome center reached by a broad flight of steps, and with spacious wings. It was built by the United States during the territorial government. It stands in the center of the town surrounded by a large open square. The usual chambers for the legislative, judicial, and executive bodies are found here. In one of the offices a curious piece of antiquity is preserved. It is the fragments of a complete suit of ancient steel armour ploughed up in a field near Monti-cello. From its appearance it is judged to date from the sixteenth century. QUINCY lies twenty-four miles west of Tallahassee, (fare $1.50) the present terminus of the railroad. (Pop. 1,000). Hotels,Willard's, in the centre of the town, and Wood's, at the railroad depot. Both $2.50 per day $10.00 a week. Boarding House.Mrs. Ann Innes; same prices. Churches.Episcopal, Presbyterian, and Methodist. Newspaper.The Quincy Monitor, a well conducted Journal. The vicinity is a rolling, pine country, with limestone sub-soil. Plenty of marl is found, suitable for fertiliz ing. Cotton, corn, tobacco, and vines are cultivated With success. There is an agricultural association, of

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86 which Judge C. H. Dupont is president. Some caves and other natural curiosities are found in the vicinity. Stages run from Quincy to Chatahoochee, tri-weekly; fare $5.00twenty milesan exhorbitant charge. The boarding house in Chatahoochee, $2.00 per day. The steamer from Columbus and Bainbridge, Ga., touch at Chatahoochee daily; fare to Apalachicola, $5.00. TALLAHASSEE TO ST. MARKS. By St. Marks Railroaddistance twenty-one miles; time, one hour and thirty minutes. There is no hotel at St. Marks, and but one boarding house, that of Mrs. Eliza Barber, $3.50 per day, $12.00 per week. There are excellent hunting and fishing in this vicinity, and boats can be hired at very reasonable prices, but horses are scarce. The town is an old Spanish settlement, and some remains of the ancient fortifications are still visible in the vicinity. It was first settled under the name of San Marcos de Apalache, in 1718, by Don Joseph Primo. At one time it was a port of some promise, but has now fallen into insignificance. It is situated at the junction of the St. Marks and Wakulla rivers. The latter stream is ten miles in length, and takes its rise in the famous ^Wakulla foun tain. The name is the Creek word wanJculla, (w-nasal) South. It is a remarkable curiosity, and should be vis ited by those who have the time. The most pleasant and most expensivemeans is to hire a carriage at Tallahassee, from which the spring is seventeen miles distant. The country in the vicinity is low and flat, covered with dense groves of cypress, liveoak,-&c. The spring

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87 is oval in shape, about thirty yards in diameter, and quite deep. On the eastern side is a rocky ledge, whence the stream issues. The water is cool, im pregnated with lime, and of a marvellous clearness. Troops of fishes can be seen disporting themselves in the transparent depths. Mr. "Wise, of the Coast Survey, found bottom at eighty-eighty feet, the lead being plainly visible at that depth. In the same vicinity the Ocilla, Wacilla, and Spring Creek Springs are likewise subterranean streams, which boil up from great depths in fountains of perfect clearness. NEWPORT, A few miles from St. Marks, on the St. Marks river, was at one time a place of considerable summer resort, but is now but little visited. Near by is a natural bridge, over the river, which is esteemed sufficiently curious to attract occasional visitors.

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88 5. THE OKXAWAHA KIVEK AND THE SILVEB SPBING. Boats leave Jacksonville and Palatka every Thursday for Lake Griffin. Time from Palatka to Silver Spring, forty hours ; fare, $5,00; distance, 100 miles. The boats are necessarily small, and the accommodations limited. The Oklawaha, so called from one of the seven clans of the Seminoles, falls into the St. John opposite the town of "Welaka. It is only within a few years that, at a considerable expenditure, it has been rendered navi gable. Its mouth is hardly noticed in ascending the St. John. At Welaka, leaving the broad, placid bosom of the former river, the little steamer enters a narrow, swift and tortuous stream, overhung by enormous cypresses. .Its width is from twenty to forty yards, and its depth from fifteen to twenty feet. Natural, leafy curtains of vines and aquatic plants veil its banks. Twelve miles from the mouth the boat passes DAVENPORT'S BLUFF, On the right bank, where there are a few houses. Above this point the "Narrows commence and extend eight miles. The river is divided into numerous branches, separated by wet cypress islands. Dense, monotonous forests of cypress, curled maple, black and prickly ash? cabbage trees, and loblolly bays shut in the stream on both sides. Seventeen miles above Davenport's Bluff are the *BLTJE SPRINGS. These rise in the river itself about four feet from the right bank. They are warmer than the river water,

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89 and when seen in the sun's rays have a dark blue tinge* They have never been analyzed. Nine miles above these springs the pine woods abut on the river, and there is a settlement on the right hand bank called FORT BROOKE. This is within two miles of ^Grange Spring, a sul. phur spring, with strongly impregnated waters, but at present without accommodations for travelers. It is to be hoped that this will not continue, as it is one of the most admirable of the many medicinal springs of Florida. Twelve miles above is PAINE'S LANDING, near where the waters of Orange Lake drain into the river. One and a half miles beyond is a settlement with the pretty name Iola. A few miles further up forty foot Bluff" commences, which skirts the river several miles, here and there separated from it by cypress groves. As the steamer ascends, the banks become higher, pines more frequent along the shore, and cultivated fields more numerous. At length, at a distance of 100 miles from the mouth of the river, the crystal current of #Silver Spring Run, here as large as the river itself above the junction, pours into the coffee-colored waters of the Oklawaha. The Run is ten miles in length, with extensive savan* A good description of Silver Spring is found in Gen. McCall's Letters from the Frontier, p. 149, and a more scientific one in my Notes on the Floridian Peninsula. Appendix I.

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90 nas on either side, shut in by a distant wall of pines. In the spring months these savannas are covered with thousands of beautiful and fragrant flowers.* The stream is rapid, with an average width of 100 feet, and a depth of twenty feet. The water is perfectly clear, so that the bottom is distinctly visible, At places, it is clothed with dark green sedge, swaying to and fro in the current; at others, ridges of grey sand and white shells offer a pleasant contrast. The Spring-head forms an oval basin, 150 yards long, 100 feet wide, and forty feet deep. The water gushes from a large opening about 5 feet high, and fifteen feet long, under a ledge of limestone at the north-eastern extre mity. It is free from any unpleasant taste, has a tem perature of 73 degrees Fah., and is so transparent that a small coin can be distinctly seen on the bottom of the deepest part of the basin. When the basin is seen with the sunbeams falling upon it at a certain angle their refraction gives the sides and bottom the appearance of being elevated and tinged with the hues of the rainbow. Some observations I took about a mile below the ba sin, with a three mchlog, at a time when the water was at an average height, show that this fountain throws out about three hundred million gallons every twentyfour hours, or more than twenty times the amount con sumed daily by New York city. At Silver Spring stages meet the boat for OCALA, The county seat of Marion co., nine miles distant. The intervening country is rolling, with pine woods

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91 and hammocks. Ocala is a neat town, with about 300 inhabitants, two hotels, $1.50 per day, $25.00 per mo.; several boarding houses; two newspapers, East Florida Banner; livery stable; physician, Dr. T. P. Gary; several churches; mail three times a week by stage to Gainesville on the Florida B. B., fare for one passenger to Gainesville, $6.00; mail stage to Tampa. This portion of the State impresses the visitor favor ably, and is well adapted for sugar cane and fruit, but it is cursed with malarial fevers of severe type. A few miles south of the town are the remains of Fort King, a military post in the Seminole war, and six miles south, near the road to Tampa, there is a cave of some size in the limestone rock. Beturning now to the Oklawaha, and pursuing our journey up that river, no change in the monotony of the cypress swamp occurs for about sixteen miles above Silver Spring run. At this distance is the small settle ment Cow Ford. Beyond it the cypress disappears, and a savanna covered with dense saw grass stretches on either side for one or two miles from the river. This portion of the river has been but recently cleared and it was not till early in 1868 that the first steamboats could make their trips through this part. The chief difficulty encountered was thefloating islands; which cov ered the river, sometimes so thickly that no sign of its course was visible. They were composed mainly of the curious aquatic plant the pistia spathulata. These had to be sawed in pieces and the fragments suffered to float down, or fastened to the shore. After passing through these savannas some miles the boat enters Lake Griffin, a narrow lake about nine

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92 miles long. Several thriving settlements are on its banks, which present a diversity of soil, swamp, ham mock, and pme land. Six miles beyond Lage Griffin is Lake Eustis, a smaller body of water, but more pleasing to the eye. The settlement of Fort Mason is upon its shores. Beyond Lake Eustis a deep channel a mile and a half long called the Narrows leads to Lake Harris. It is fourteen miles in length and in some rmrts seven miles wide. Much of the land upon its banks is of the "best quality. The Oklawaha enters it at its south western extremity. LEESBUItG, A small village, passed between Lakes Grinla and Harris, is now the county seat of Sumter county. About five miles above Lake Harris is Lake Dunham, the head of navigation of the Oklawaha. A settlement on this lake bearing the name Oklawha is the terminus. All this country south of Silver Spring Run is laid down quite incorrectly on all maps but the last edition of Mr. Drew's Map of Florida."

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93 7, FKOM FERNANDIKA TO CEDAR KEYS. (Florida"Railroad;distance 151 miles; time 11 hours, 30 min. Fare $11.00.) The train, on leaving Fernandina, runs southward on Amelia Island, for about three miles, through a forest of pine and live oak with an undergrowth of myrtle and palmetto. The road then turns westward and crosses the salt marshes, and a narrow arm of the sea, the lat ter about twenty-five yards wide, which separate the island from the main. Beyond these, it enters the low pine lands of Nassau county. They are unproductive, thinly inhabited, and to the traveler extremely mo notonous. The first station is Callahan (27 miles); the next Baldwin (Florida House), where a connection is made with the Pensacola and Georgia Bailway for Tal lahassee, Jacksonville, etc. The country gradually rises and improves in quality of soil beyond this point, but houses continue sparse. The station next beyond is Trail Ridge (15 miles). Here the mail is delivered for Middleburg on Black Creek, twelve miles east. (See Route up the St. John.) Much of the land is swampy, and the road crosses a number of small water courses, tributaries of Black Creek. The traveller is now approaching the Lake country of Central Florida. The succeeding small sta tion, Waldoy (22 miles) is in the midst of a group of ponds, lakes and extensive swamps. They are known as the Ettini ponds. They are sep arated by sand hills and stretches of fertile low-lands. Twelve miles beyond Waldo is

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94 GAINESVILLE. IZbtefe.-*Exchange hotel, by Messrs. Barnes & Shemwell; the Magnolia house; the Bevill house; charges, $2.50 per day. Newspaper.The New Era, (Democrat). Two Livery Stables. Churches.Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian. Gainesville (pop. 1500) is situated in one of the most fertile regions of Florida. It is on a portion of the old "Arredondo Grant," which embraced the larger part of the rich Alachua plains, and has been called, not without reason, the garden of the State. The soil is a sandy loam, resting on limestone. The latter is friable, and easily eroded by water. The rains frequently thus undermine the soil, which suddenly gives way, forming so-called sinks" and pot holes," common throughout Alachua and the neighboring counties. One of the largest is the *DeviVs Wash Pot, 200 feet in depth, into which three small streams plunge by a series of leaps. Payne's Prairie, a rich, level tract, twelve miles in length, enclosing a pretty lake, commences three miles south of Gainesville. The famous Orange Grove commences about twelve miles south of Gainesville, and extends nearly around Orange Lake. It is probably the largest natural orange grove in the world, and in the spring when the trees are in blossom, perfumes the whole region. The Natural Bridge over the Santa Fe river is most readily approached from Gainesville, from which it is about twenty four miles distant, west of north. The road passes through Newnansville, (the Wilson House,

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95 widow Frier's boarding house, both $2.25 per day,) a place of 200 inhabitants. Near this place is Warren's Cave, a curiosity of local note. The Natural Bridge marks, in fact, the spot where the river enters an un derground channel for three miles of its course. Close to the bridge are the Wellington Springs, a sulphurous source of considerable magnitude, but with no accoml modations. A mail stage with very limited provisions for passengers, leaves GainsvilleforMicanopy, Ocala, and Tampa, three times a week. Travelers arriving at Gainesville, on their way to the upper St. John, will do well to hire a private conveyance and go by Payne's prairie and the Orange Grove to Ocala (thirty-eight miles) and the Sil ver Spring whence they can take the boats on the Oklawaha. (See page 89.) This trip will show them the most fertile portion of central Florida. Leaving Gainesville, the train passed over a high, rolling, limestone country, through open forests of pine, hickory, blackjack, and other hardwood trees. The first station, Archer, fifteen miles, (one hotel, $3.00 per day,) is in the midst of such scenery. About ten miles beyond it the surface descends, and cypress and ham" mock become more frequent. The next station, Otter Creek, twenty-two miles, is on the western border of the dense Gulf hammock, the part of it which lies in this vicinity being styled the Devil's hammock. As it approaches the Gulf, the road crosses a number of small creeks and over several arms of the sea, pass ing from island to island until it reaches Cedar Key

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96 (nineteenmiles), where is the terminus. (*Hotel kept by Mr. Willard, $3.00 per day.) The population of the key is about 400, chiefly en gaged in lumbering. Excellent hunting and Ashing can be had in the vicinity, and many pretty shells and sea. mosses are found along the shore. A hard sand beach, half a raile in length, is a favorite promenade. There are no horses on the island, but boats, here the only means of transportation, can be hired from $3.00 to $5.00 a day. Kemains of the former Indian occupants, such as shell mounds, stone axes, arrowheads, pottery, etc., are very abundant. Steamers touch at Ceder Keys every day or two, providing ready communication with the principal points on the Gulf. The fares are about as follows: to Tampa, $10.00; Key West, $20.00; Havana, $30.00; St. Marks, $10.00; Apalachicola, $20.00; Pensacola, $30.00; Kew Orleans, $40.00; Mobile, $20.00.

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97 8. KEY WEST-THE FLORIDA KEYS AND THEL GULF COAST. KEY WEST. Hotels,#Russell House, George Phillips, proprietor, on Duval St.; Florida House, both $2.50 per day, $40.00 to $60.00 per month. Boarding-Houses.^John Dixon, Whitehead Street; Mrs. E. Armbrister, Duval Street; Mrs. Clarke ; from $8.00 to $15.00 per week. Telegraph to Havana and the north; office in Naval depot building. Post Office opposite the Russell House. Churches.Roman Catholic, Episcopal, Baptist, and Methodist. Bookseller.R. P. Campbell, Duval Street, (northern weeklies, Brinton's Guide-Book). Newspaper.Key West Dispatch, weekly, well edited. The Key West Literary Association has a reading-room* Steamship Lines.The Baltimore, Havana, and New Orleans line, semi-monthly; to Baltimore, $50.00, to Havana $10.00, to New Orleans $40.00. The C. H. Mallory & Co., line from New York to Galveston and New Orleans, 6emi-weekly; to New York $40.00, to Galveston $40.00. The Spofford and Tilson line from New York to Galveston and New Orleans, semi-weekly; to New York $40.00, to New Orleans $40.00. The Alliance, United States mail line, to Fort Jefferson, Tampa, Cedar Keys, St. Marks, Apalachicola, Pensacola, and Mobile, the line for the west coast of Florida. The name Key West is a corruption of the Spanish Cayo Hueso, Bone Key, the latter word being of Indian origin (Arawack, Kairi, island). Formerly it was called Thompson's island by the English. It is about six

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98 miles long and one mile wide, and is formed of an ooli tic coralline limestone. It is the highest point of the Florida Keys, yet of such insignificant altitutde that the most elevated point is only fifteen feet ahove the sea level. The soil is thin, swampy and but little cultivated. It produces,however, a thick jungle-like growth of mangroves, cacti, tamarinds, mastics, gum elemi, and simi lar tropical bushes from twelve to fifteen feet in height. There is no fresh water except that furnished by e rains. Wells are dug in different parts, and reach water at the depth of a few feet, but brackish and unpalatable. So closely, indeed, are these wells in connection with the surrounding ocean, that the water rises and falls in them as the tides do on the shore, but following after an interval of about three hours. The town is in latitude 24 33'. It was incorporated in 1829. The present population is 4,800, of which 1500 are colored. It is situated on the northern part of the western end of the island, and has an excellent harbor. Duval is the principal street. Eows of cocoanut palms line some of the principal avenues, presenting a very picturesque appearance. A fine view of the harbor and town can be had from the cupola of Mr. Charles Tilt, agent of the Baltimore line of steamers. Many of the residences are neat and attractive. The lower part of the town is known as Conch town. Its inhabitants are called Conches, and are principally en gaged in wrecking," that is, relieving and rescuing the numerous vessels which are annually cast away or driven ashore on the treacherous Florida reef. The Conches are of English descent, their fathers having migrated from the Bahamas. In spite of the dubious reputation

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99 which they have acquired, they are a hard working and sufficiently honest set, and carry on their perilous occu pation if not quite for the sake of humanity, yet content with a just salvage. Their favorite vessels are sloops often to forty tons, which they manage with extraordi nary skill. Quite a number of Spaniards are domesticated in Key West. The dark eyes, rich tresses, graceful forms, and delicate feet of the ladies frequently greet the eye. Havana is only eighty-four miles distant, with almost daily communication. Fine oranges, coacoanuts, alligator pears, cigars and other good things for which the Pearl of the Antilles is famous can readily be obtained. The favorite social drink is champerou, a compound of curacoa, eggs, Ja maica spirits and other ingredients. Fish are abundant and finely flavored. A variety of sardine has been found in the waters near, and has been used commer cially to a limited extent. The principal industries are sponging" and turtling." The sponges are collected along the reef and shores of the peninsula. From December, 1868, to March, 1869,14,000 pounds were leceived by one mer chant. They are all, however, of inferior quality. The turtles are of four varieties. The green turtle is the most highly prized as food. They are sometimes enormous in size, weighing many hundred pounds. The hawks-bill turtle is the variety from which tortoise shell" for combs, etc., is obtained. The loggerhead and duck bill are less esteemed. Extensive salt works have long been in operation here. They produce annually about 30,000 bushels of

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100 salt by solar evaporation. Corals and shells of unu sual beauty are found among the keys, and can be bought for a trifling amount. Handsome canes made of the Florida crab-tree, are also to be purchased. Key West is a U. S. naval station for supplying ves sels with coal, provisions, etc. There is a Naval Hos pital near the town, 100 feet in length, and several other extensive public buildings. As in a military point of view the point is deemed of great importance in protecting our gulf coast, the general government has gone to large expense in fortifying it. Fort Taylor, at the entrance of the harbor, is still in process of con struction. When completed, it will mount 200 heavy guns. Besides it there are two large batteries, one on the extreme north part of the island, and one midway between it and Fort Taylor. The Barracks are usually occupied by a company of the 5th XJ. S. Artillery. The climate of Key West is the warmest and the most equable in the United States. Even in winter the south winds are frequently oppressive and debilitating. From five to ten "northers" occur every winter, and though they are not agreeable on account of the vio lence of the wind, they do not reduce the temperature below 40 degrees Fahr. Though the proximity of the Gulf Stream renders the air very moist, mists and fogs are extremely rare, ow ing to the equability of the temperature, and though the hygrometer shows that the air is constantly loaded with moisture, this same equability allows the moon and stars to shine with a rare and glorious brilliancy, such as we see elsewhere on dry and elevated plateaux. Another effect of the Gulf Stream ma-y also be noted.

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101 Every evening, shortly after sunset, a cloud-bank rises along the southern horizon in massive, irregular fleeces, dark below and silver gilt above by the rays of the de parting sun. This is the cloud-bank over the Gulf Stream, whose vast current of heated waters is rushing silently along, some twelve miles off. DRY TORTUGAS. FORT JEFFERSON. Two steamers of the Alliance line from Key West, touch monthly at the Tortugas. Also, two schooners ply between the two points. The Dry Tortugas (Sp. Turtle islands), are a group of small coral islands, about a score in number, fifty miles west of Key West. Garden Key is the main island, upon which Eort Jefferson is situated. It is about one mile in circumference, comprising nine acres of ground. The fort is an irregular hexagonal struct, ure, of double circular walls of brick and earth, with a foundation of coral rock. It was commenced in 1846. The entrance is through a handsome and massive *sal-lyport. Inside, on the right, are the lighthouse and keeper's residence. Between the walls the barracks and officers' quarters are situated. A well-kept walk of cement leads from the sallyport to the latter. Within the inner wall is an open space of about fifteen acres, well set in Ber muda grass, and dotted here and there with cocoanut palms. There is a good library in the fort. Service every Sunday by an army chaplain. Nearly a thousand prisoners were confined here during the war. At one time the yellow fever carried

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102 off great numbers of them. Sand Key, a barren sand bank of twenty-five acres, is used as a cemetery. Log gerhead Key, some miles west, has a tall and symmet rical lighthouse. Bird Key is a favorite resort of turtles. MIAMI AND KEY BISCAYNE BAY. Mail Schooner on the 1st and 15th of every month from Key West. Accommodations poor and insuffi cient. No public house, and few settlers at Miami. Undoubtedly the finest winter climate in the United States, both in point of temperature and health, is to be found on the south-eastern coast of Florida. It is earnestly to be hoped, for the sake of invalids, that ac commodations along the shore at Key Biscayne and at the mouth of the Miami, will, before long, be provided, and that a weekly or semi-weekly steamer be run from Key West thither. In the concluding chapters of this book I shall give in detail my reasons for thinking so highly of that locality, and shall here describe it with some minuteness. One strong argument in its favor I insert here. While it is the very best, it could also be made the most accessible part of the sea coast of Florida, as the whole journey from the north or north-west could be made by water, the only transhipment being at Key West. On leaving the harbor the schooner takes a southerly course, passing on the left numbers of low keys cover ed with dense mangrove bushes, quite concealing their shores. Here and there are gleaming ridges of white rocks, over which the breaKers tumble in glittering sheets of foam. This is a portion of the dreaded reef,

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103 on which unnumbered vessels have met their destruc tion. These naked islets, uninhabited and surrounded by the interminable moan of the ocean, impressed with an undefined sense of sadness the early Spanish mariners. They therefore called -them Los Martires (the Martyrs); and well they deserve the name," says the old chronicler, for many a man, since then, has met a painful death upon them." (Herrera, Historia de las ndias, Dec, I, Lib, IX, cap, X.) These are kept withiu sight until the Cape Florida light comes into view, (latitude 25 degrees, 39 minutes, 56 seconds,) on the extreme southern point of Key Bis cayne. On rounding the light, Key Biscayne Bay is entered. This is a body of water about twenty-five miles long, and from two to six miles broad. The settlement of Miami is on the river of that name, a clear, beauti ful stream, fringed with mangrove, and marked for some distance with a long line of coacoanut trees, laden with their large, green fruit. At its mouth it is about a hundred yards wide, with an average depth of six feet. There are about a dozen settlers on Key Biscayne Bay. Lieutenant Governor Gleason resides at Miami, and will entertain travelers to the extent that he can. At this part of the coast, a ridge of loose coralline limestone about four miles in width, and from ten to twenty-five feet in height, extends along the shore be tween the bay and the Everglades. !N"o ponds of stag nant water are near, and the soil, though not very rich, is a loose, sandy loam, exceedingly well adapted for garden vegetables and fruit. Arrow root (Maranta anm-dinacea) and the koonta, an allied plant, grow in great

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104 abundance, and are highly prized by the Indians as food. Arch creek empties into Key Biscayne bay ten miles north of the Miami river. It receives its name from a natural arch of limestone rock, fifty feet wide, which spans the waters of the stream as they flow through a channel a number of feet below. The Punch bowl is the name given by the sailors to a curious natural well about one mile south of the mouth of the Miami and close to the shore. It is al ways filled with good sweet water and is greatly resort ed to on that account. Game, as deer, bear, turkeys, etc., is very abundant in the pine woods whieh extend along the coast, and fish swarm in countless numbers in the bay. Turtle of the finest kinds can be caught on the islets off shore. Oysters are plentiful, but smaller and not so well fla vored as on the gulf coast. When it is remembered that in addition to these de sirable advantages, the temperature of this favored spot is so equable that it does not vary in some years more than 25, its advantages as a resort for invalids will be evident. The abundance of game on the shore ridge from Cape Sable to the Miami, led it to be chosen as a favorite spot of resort by the Indians, and it is still known dis tinctively as the "Hunting Grounds." Its character is quite uniform. Kear the shore is a breadth of rolling prairie land at points quite narrow, at others six miles in width, and elevated from three to eight or ten feet above high water. This is backed by a ridge about

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105 one quarter of a mile wide, covered with pines and black mangroves. Most of the keys are cut by deep lagoons, and the whole of their surfaces are under water at high tide. Only a few have any soil fit for vegetables, and settle ments upon them are very scarce. Old and New Matacumba have springs of fresh water, and were one of the last resorts of the ancient Caloosa Indians. Dove and Tea Table Keys are said to have the richest soil, "the best I have seen in Florida/' says Mr. "Wainright, of the U. S. Coast Survey.

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106 9. THE WESTERN COAST. Steamers from Key West touch at all the principal points on the western or Gulf coast of the peninsula. This coast is very much the same in character throughout its whole extent. It is an almost continu ous belt of marsh, cut by innumerable creeks and bayous, extending from five to fifteen miles into the inte rior. Thousands of small islands covered with stunted mangroves, and wholly or in part overflowed at high water, conceal the main land. The channels between them are usually shallow, with mud bottoms, and in parts, the slope of the shore is so gradual that low wa ter exposes a mud flat one to two miles wide. From Key West to St. Marks there are two tides daily, in the twenty-four (lunar) hours, one, the high est, rising from one foot to one foot six inches. From St. Marks to the Mississippi the smaller tide disappears, so there remains but one daily. Immediately north of Cape Sable, which shows from the sea a sand-beach three feet high, are the Thousand Isles, some few of which were formerly cultivated by Spanish planters. Charlotte Harbor, between latitude 26degrees 30 seconds and 27 degrees,is entered by the Boca Grande, which has fifteen feet of water at low tide. The bay itself has a depth of three or four fathoms. At its southern extremity it receives the waters of Caloosahatchee river. This stream has a depth of twelve feet for thirty-five or forty miles, and with a little ex pense could be rendered navigable for steamboats. The lower part of its course is through swamps, but about twenty-five miles up, it flows through high lands covered with palms, oak, pine, and palmetto.

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107 Between Charlotte Harbor and Sarasota Bay the shore forms a straight line of white sand beach several feet in height, and covered with pine and cypress. Sar asota Bay is about twenty miles long, and one to four broad, dotted with numerous mangrove islets. Its depth is about eight feet. North of Tampa bay are several small rivers, the Pithlo-chas-kotee, or boat-building river, the Chassahowitzka, the Crystal, the Homosassa, and the Wethlocco-chee or Withlacooche. Their banks are low and marshy, producing little of value except a fine variety of cedar. Much of this is exported to France and England for the manufacture of lead pencils. In the coves where the mud is not too deep oyster banks are numerous, and on almost every little stream the traveler finds the shell heaps left by the aborigines of the country. One of these of unusual size and in terest, on the Crystal River, I have described in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1866, p. 356. Sponge reefs also occur at various parts of the coast and many small vessels are employed in collecting these animals and drying them for the market. The low lands along the coast are often rich, but they are unhealthy. The United States Army Medical Reports pronounce them the most unhealthy parts of the peninsula. This, however, does not apply to the sandy pine tracts south of Tampa Bay, many of which still bear the imprint of an extended cultivation in some past time.

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108 TAMPA. Hotels.*Florida House, Orange Grove Hotel, both $2.00 per day, $35.00 to $40.00 per month. Boarding Houses^Several in number, from $3.00 to $10.00 per week. Mails.By steamer, twice weekly; to Brookville, weekly. Churches.Baptist, Methodist, Boman Catholic. Newspapers.The Trw Southerner, republican; the Florida Peninsular, democratic, both weekly. Sailboats and Morses, about $1.00 per day. Tampa is a town of 60Q inhabitants, on the left (east) bank of Hillsborouh river, where it empties into Hills borough bay. It is thirty miles from the li^ht house at the entrance of the harbor. The soil is poor, covered chiefly with pine, red oak and palmettos. For many years this has been an important military station. Fort Brooke, commenced 1823, stands on the reservation near the the town, and additional barracks have recently been erected. Several companies of in fantry are here most of the time. Excellent hunting and fishing can be had in the vicin ity of Tampa. The oysters in the bay are as large, abundant and finely flavored as anywhere on the Gulf coast. The orange groves are flourishing and many of the inhabitants raise garden vegetables. Old army officers have learned to regard it as one of the best sta tions in the United States for providing the mess. The land in the vicinity is level. A large Indian mound, nearly twenty feet high, stands upon the res-

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109 ervation, close to the town. Last winter (1869) this was opened by a curiosity seeker, and the usual con tents of Florida moundsbones, pottery, ornaments, etc.taken out. Beautiful specimens of chalcedony and fortification agate, well known in mineralogical cabinets, are found along the shore, washed out from the marl. Above Tampa, on the Hillsborough river, is a Sulphur Spring thirty feet in diameter and twelve feet deep. At the rapids of the Hillsborough river, near the spring, a dark bluish siliceous rock, supposed to be eocene, crops out. MANATEE is a small town six miles from the mouth of Manatee river, near the southern entrance of Tampa Bay. There is no hotel, but accommodations can be had with Judge Gates, or other residents. Fine orange groves and su gar plantations are near here, Manatee is a shallow, sluggish stream, two miles wide, with salt water. A weekly mail boat with Tampa is the only regular com munication. Historically, Tampa, or Espiritu Santo Bay, as the Spaniards named it, is interesting as the landing place of Hernando de Soto in May, 1539. The precise spot where his soldiers disembarked cannot now be decided. Theodore Irving (Congtiest of Florida, p. 58) places it immediately in the village of Tampa, at the extreme head of Hillsborough Bay. Buckingham Smith, whose studies of the old Spanish maps and re cords of Florida have been most profound, lays it down at the entrance of Tampa Bay, on the south bank, be tween Manatee river and the Gulf Shore. But he adds: could I utterly disregard the authority of old maps,

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110 and an opinion sanctioned by a long succession of writers, I should judge the landing-place of Soto to be far southward of Tampa." After a short stay, the steamer leaves Tampa and heads for Cedar Keys, distant one hundred and sixty miles; fare $10.00; time twenty-four hours. This has already been described. The next point is St. Marks, the terminus of the Tallahassee railroad, which has already been spoken of in a previous route. (Distance 100 miles from Cedar Keys to St. Marks; fare $10.00.) The steamer next stops at APALACHICOLA, distant sixty miles from St. Marks. This town, once a place of considerable trade, exporting a hundred thou sand bales of cotton a year, is now extremely dull. It has a good harbor, and being at the mouth of the Chat tahoochee river, has capacities not yet developed. Steamers run from here to Bainbridge, Georgia, and all stations on the river. After leaving Apalachicola the steamer heads south ward, the long, low island, St. George's, being visible on the left, and St. Vincent's island and the main land on the rig"ht. Once into the Gulf, no more land is seen until the well-fortified entrance to Pensacola harbor comes in sight. The town of Warrenton, where the United States navy yard is situated, is first seen. It is a small place. PENSACOLA. No hotel. Boarding houses by Mrs. Davis, on the beach, near the depot; Mrs. Knapp, on Intendencia

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Ill street; Mrs. Williams, on Palafox, the principal street. Mr. Hoffman, at the depot, has good accommodations for a limited number. Gentlemen can obtain lodgingrooms above Giovanni's confectionary store, on Palafox street, and meals at the City Restaurant, opposite the square. The charge at the boarding houses is $3.00 per day, $15.00 per week. A daily mail and telegraph office are now there* Baths and livery stables convenient. Newspapers*The Pensacola Observer, tri-weekly ; the West Florida Commercial, weekly. Reading room for gentlemen at the "Gem" restaurant. Churches.Roman Catholic, Episcopal, Methodist. Physicians.Drs. Hargis, Lee. Pensacola has about 2000 inhabitants, one-third of whom are colored. The bay was discovered in 1559, by Don Tristan de Luna y Arellana, who named it Santa Maria de Galve. He landed with 1500 men and a num ber of women and children, intending to establish a permanent colony. The neighborhood, however, proved barren, the ships were wrecked, and after two years the few who survived returned to Mexico. In 1696, Don Andres de Arriola made another attempt with more success. He constructed a fort at the entrance of the harbor, and received the title Governor of Pensa cola, the name being taken from a small native tribe called Pensocolos, who dwelt in the vicinity. The name is Choctaw, and means "Hairy People." In 1719, it was captured by the French, under M. de Serigny> who lost and regained it within the year. In 1721, it reverted to Spain, and some attempt was made by that power to lay out a city.

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112 A few old Spanish buildings yet stand, but have nothing about them worthy of note. Half a mile north of the bay is the site of Fort St. Michael* a commanding eminence, with a fine view of the bay and navy yard* About six hundred yards north of St. Michael's, stood Fort St. Bernard, known as el sombrero, from its resem blance to a hat. Both these edifices are completely demolished, and a few stones, potsherds, and pieces of iron are all that remain to mark their positions. The climate of Pensacola is bracing in winter, but not at all suited to consumptives. All such should avoid it, as they almost invariably grow worse. The pine lands, twenty or thirty miles north of the city, are much more favorable to such patients. A railroad is just finished from Pensacola to Mont gomery, Ala., which connects this seaport with Louis ville and the northern States east of the Mississippi. Doubtless this will give the old town quite an impetus in growth. A pamphlet setting forth its advantages as a seaport and place of residence was published in July of the present year (1869) by A. C. Blount, President of the railroad. MILTON Is a pleasant town of about a thousand inhabitantsy thirty miles from Pensacola. Hotels,Eagle and City Hotel, $2.25 a da}7 in each. A daily steamboat line connects the two towns (fare $2) and a triAveekly line of hacks runs from Milton to Poland, Ala., on the Montgomery & Mobile K. R., thirty-three milesfare $5. After leaving Pensacola, the next stopping place of the steamer is

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113 MOBILE. Hotels.The Battle House, corner Royal and St. Francis streets, $4.00 per day, an old established and well known house; *Gulf City Hotel, corner Water and Conti streets, S3 per day, $17.50 per week, $65 per month, new and good; Roper House,corner Royal and St. Michael streets, same price as Gulf City Hotel, ex cept $50 per month ; Girard House, 123 Dauphin street, $2.50 per day; Goff House, Conti street, not first class. Post Office.In Custom House, opposite the Battle House. Telegraph and Express offices near by. Bath Booms.In Battle House, 50 cents; in Gulf CityHotel, 35 cents, and in a barber shop on St. Francis street, opposite the ladies entrance to the Battle House, 35 cents. Restaurant.Jenkins', on Royal street, opposite the Battle House, is the best. Bookseller.Putnam & Co., 52 Dauphin street. Livery Stable.Hayden & Meenan, 39 Royal street, near the Roper House; carriage and driver, for half a day, $8.00 ; buggy, for half a day, $5. Newspapers.The Daily Register ; the Daily Tribune. Physician.Dr. T. S. Scales, 128 Dauphin street. Omnibusses meet the boats and cars, and street cars run on the principal streetsfare five cents and ten cents. Theaters.Mobile Theater, Variety Theater,both on Royal street. The city (population 35,000) is situated about thirty miles from the Gulf of Mexico, on the west side of Mo bile Bay. The bay is shallow and the channel tortu-

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114 ous. The rivals of the city say that the entrance is filling up, and will, before many generations, become little more than a marsh. The site of the town is on a sandy plain, elevated about fifteen feet above high tide, and is, consequently, well drained. The houses extend along the bay nearly three miles. The city was founded by the French at the com mencement of the last century, but remained an insig nificant post until 1819, when it was incorporated. Since then it has grown with rapidity, and is now one of the most active cotton ports in the United States. Many of the buildings are handsome, and though the city suffered considerably during the war, it is rapidly regain ing its former wealth. An excellent Directory has been published by the Southern Publishing Co. The Custom House is the finest public edifice. It is constructed of marble. There is a public square in a central locality, and the abundance of hedges of the Cherokee Rose, a flowering evergreen, gives the streets a pleasant appearance.

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PART III. CHAPTERS TO INVALIDS. CHAP. 1.WHEN IS A CHANGE OF CLIMATE ADVISABLE P In these days when the slow coach of our lathers has long been discarded, and steam and lightning are our draught horses, the advantages to health of a change of climate should be considered by every one. It is an easy, a pleasant, and a sure remedy in many a painful disorder. Keed I fortify such an assertion by the dicta of high authorities ? One is enough. It would be difficult," says Sir James Clark, M.D., whose name is familiar to every physician in connection with this very question, "to point out the chronic complaint, or even the disordered state of health which is not benefitted by a timely and judicious change of climate." Let me run over this catalogue of maladies and specify some in which fresh fields and pastures new are of especial value. All anticipate the first I men tionpulmonary consumption,that dreaded scourge which year by year destroys more than did the cholera in its most fatal epidemics. Even those who lay no claim to medical knowledge are well aware how often the consumptive prolongs and saves his life by a timely change of air; they are not awarefew doctors with

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116 their diplomas are awarehow much oftener this fortu nate result would be obtained were the change made with judgment, and the invalid to lend his own energies in this battle for life which his constitution is waging against disease. How to make this change with judg ment, and how to employ these energies, these chapters are intended to inform him. The watchword of the battle is : Courage, It is, indeed, not rare to see those who should have been left at home to die surrounded by home comforts, exiled by their wearied physician, or dragged by the ignorant solicitude of friends, late in their disease, to some strange land, there to meet their inevitable fate, deprived of the little luxuries so useful to them, served by unsympathizing strangers, far from the old, familiar faces# There are others who go early enough, and are earnest in their efforts to husband their nagging powers. But they have chosen a climate ill-adapted to the form of their complaint, they know not the precautions they should take, they have omitted provisions of essential value, in fine, they die of medicable wounds." These examples should not discourage others. The medical science of to-day gives its strongest endorse ment to this maxim: Consumption is cureable, IF TAKEN IN ITS EAKLY STAGES. And in its cure, change of climate is an essential element. Nor does science hesi tate to go farther. Even when the lungs are decidedly affected, even when the practised ear of the physician detects that ominous gurgling sound in the chest which reveals the presence of a cavity in the lungs, it still says Hope. We know that even then there is a good chance for life in many cases. Often the disease has

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117 invaded but a very circumscribed portion of lung and all the remainder is healthy; sometimes having gone thus far it seems to have spent its malignant powers, and rests for years, or disappears altogether; often under the genial influence of appropriate climate and regimen, the ulcer heals and health is restored. Bronchitis is another complaint which calls for change of air. There are persons who contract a cough regu larly at the beginning of every winter, which disappears only with the warm spring days. They hawk, and ex pectorate, and have pains in the breast, and a sore and tickling throat all the cold months. This is bronchitis, chronic bronchitis. Clergymen are very liable to it from neglect of precautions in using the voice. It is quite common among elderly people, and often paves the way for their final illness. In young persons it por tends consumption. Nothing so effectually dispels it as a winter in a warm climateI speak now from my own experience. There is a disease not less common, hardly less formi dable, often more distressing, more repulsive, than con sumption. It is scrofulathat taint in the blood by which the sins of the fathers are visited upon the chil dren unto and beyond the third and fourth generation. It often throws around its victims the charms of a strange beauty and a precocious, spiritual, intelligence. But the wise physician regards with anxious forbodings these signs so prized by loving friends. Here, too* a total change of air, diet, surroundings, is urgently, often imperatively, demanded. One of the banes of our raw, damp atmosphere is rheumatism. It is painful, it is common, it is danger-

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118 ous. In recent years we have learned that a fatal complication is alarmingly frequent in this complaintorganic disease of the heart. In examining for life in surance, we enquire particularly if the candidate is rheumatic. If the answer is affirmative, three times out of four we detect some unnatural action in this great centre of life. Now, it is well known how bene ficially a warm, equable climate acts on sufferers with this malady. Let them, therefore, be warned in time to seek this means of prolonging life. There is a complaint which makes us a burden to ourselves, and too often a nuisance to our companions. It is not dangerous, but is most trying. I mean dys pepsia, a hydra-headed disease, wearing alike to mind and body. The habits of our countrymen and country women predispose them to it. In our great cities it is exceedingly prevalent. It, too, is always relieved, often completely cured by travelingand often noth ing but this will cure it. The same may be said of those states of nervous and mental exhaustion, consequent on the harrassing strain of our American life, our over-active, excitable, na tional temperament. This exhaustion shows itself in the faltering step, the care-worn expression, the dis turbed nutrition, in palpitation, in irritability, in cause less anxiety, and a legion of similar symptoms. Doctors call it paresis, and say that it is a new disease, a visita tion of nature upon us for our artificial, unquiet lives. There is an era in life when no actual disease is pres ent, when the body visibly yields to the slow and cer tain advance of age. The mind, too, sympathises, and loses the keenness of its faculties. With most, this is

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119 about the age of sixty. It has long been noticed how fatal this period is. It is known as the grand climacteric" in works on life. It has also been noticed that it is the winter months especially that are dangerous to persons at this age. The old Eomans had this preg nant expression : u inimicior senibus hyems"winter, the foe of the aged. Modern research proves its cor rectness. An English physician, Dr. Bay, calculating from nearly 55,000 cases over sixty years of age, dis covered the startling fact that the deaths in January were within a small fraction twice as many as in July Such an unexpected statement reminds us of that sig nificant expression of another distinguished statistician who had studied closely the relation of mortality and temperature: Waves of heat are waves of life; and waves of cold are waves of death." With these, and a hundred similar warnings before us, we are safe in say ing that in many cases entire relaxation from business and two or three winters in a warm climate about the age of sixty, will add ten years to life. I now approach a delicate topic. A warm climate promises aid where medicines are utterly ineffectual. I mean in marriages not blessed by offspring. Most readers know how early females are married in the tropics. Mothers of fourteen and sixteen years are not uncommon. Heat stimulates powerfully the faculty of reproduction. The wires of the French colonists in Algiers are notably more fertile than when in their Northern homes. So we can with every reason recom mend to childless couples, without definite cause of sterility, a winter in the south. I have known most happy effects from it.

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120 CHAP. II.-WHAT CLIMATE SHALL BE CHOSEN P This is a question of vital importance. An error here is fatal. Every person, every case of the same disease, is not at all suited by the same climate. Many an invalid who would survive for years, if he passed his winters in Florida, is sent to die in the cold, dry air of Minnesota; some who would find health at St. Paul, choose to perish at St. Augustine; there are some whose safety lies in the mountains, others who can find it nowhere but on the sea shore. Neither patients nor physicians fully appreciate the extreme importance of deciding correctly here, and abiding by the decision. The invalid is apt to go where it is most convenient, or most agreeable for him to go. He goes where he has friends. He goes at his peril. I have in mind the case of a young priest, the only child of his parents, loved by them as an only child is loved by the warm Irish heart. Before leaving the seminary, unmistakeable signs of consumption showed themselves. By assiduous care, he passed the winter comfortably, and as spring approached, his disease was checked. Every symptom abated. He gained in weight and strength. The cough nearly disappeared; the night sweats left him; his appetite returned. When summer opened, I said to him : Go to the mountains. Complete restoration awaits you there. Avoid the sea shore. It is death to you." I heard nothing more from him for two months. Then I was summoned in haste. I found him with an irritative fever, with daily chills, with a distressing cough. He had been to the mountains for several weeks, and had improved so rapidly that he thought himself well, and concluded to join some

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121 riends on the Atlantic shoreHe did so, and the re sult was before me. I then had the most painful duty of a physician's life to perform,that of informing a mother that her only child is beyond human aid. And here I must say, with all deference to the faculty, that the ignorance and carelessness of physi cians in reference to this matter of climate are at most reprehensible. Few of them make any distinction in cases. They send all consumptives to Minnesota, or to Texas, or to Florida, or to Cuba, as if in every instance what is sauce for goose is also sauce for gander. Thus it happens that the most eligible climates gain a bad reputation. They suit many, perhaps most, but they do not suit all. Go to Nice, Naples, the Isle of Pines, you will find invalids who unquestionably, were they at home, would be in a better place. This is chiefly the fault of their physicians. When a doctor recom mends a climate, and yet is unable to tell you its tem perature, its moisture, its prevailing winds, its seasons, its local diseases, its articles of food, its water, its min eral springs, its accommodations for travellersbeware of him. He is a dangerous counsellor. These facts the physician must know to advise wisely. There are others which he must learn from the inva lid himself. Constitutions are differently affected by climate, and so are cases of the same disease. Some climates are sedative and relaxing, others tonic and bracing; some are moist and soothing, others dry and steeling. Some constitutions are nervous and irritable, others torpid and sluggish; some have plenty of latent force which needs use, in others the vital powers are. naturally weak, and must be carefully husbanded. la

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122 some cases, the symptoms are of an inflammatory, m others of an atonic character; in some, the secretions are scanty, in others profuse; in some, considerations of diet are of great importance, in others they do not enter; in some, the cough is importunate, in others, hardly annoyingand a hundred other differences might be added. The question is a complicated one. It asks for its solution the utmost care of the physician. It almost demands the trained skill of the specialist. I repeat, therefore, that no climate Jean be recom mended indiscriminately to all; that the climate must be selected by an intelligent physician who has carefully studied the case ; that the locality which brings life to one, brings death to another; and, therefore, that having decided on a change of climate, it is of vital importance to select the right one. The decision between a warm and a cold climate must be made somehow thus: If you have usually borne cold well, if you have not been subject to cold feet and hands, and disagreeable chilliness ; if you are accustomed to out-door exercise in winter; if you are not subject to catarrhs, pneumonia, pleurisy, coughs, irritation of the pharynx; if you are not plethoric ; if you are free from rheumatic, neuralgic or gouty pains which become worse as winter approaches; if your throat is anaemic rather than congestive, and your liver torpid; if your health is not already too much reduced to stand the icy winds of the north; if you prefer winter to sum mer, and the cold to the hot months; if heat oppresses you and enervates you;then if you want to change your climate, go to Minnesota, to Labrador, or the Canadian highlands. But no, this is not all. Have you a fancy

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123 for any particular spot among those famous for salu brity ? Is there a pastime or pursuit to which you are addicted? Do you love to boat, fish, hunt, ride,camp out,botanize, photograph? Indulge your taste. Such considerations have quite as much weight as many a medical reason. Then there is the question of money If you carry the cares of business with you; if you have to pinch and spare on your journey; if you are worried about your expenses, the trip will do you little good. I have tried to give accurate accounts of the cost of living in the South, so that a traveler may know what to expect there. All these matters have to be weighed, and from them a conclusion reached as to what climate is best. It is a complicated question, and it is not enough that the doc tor make his diagnosis and then oracularly pronounces the name of some locality as that best suited for your disease. It is easy for him, but it may turn out hard for you. CHAP. Ill"WHERE IS THE BEST SOUTHERN" WINTER CLIMATE? In studying this question of climate, more particu larly with reference to those who suffer from diseases of the throat and lungs, I have taken some pains to satisfy myself whereabout in the South those of them whom a Southern climate suits will find the most eligi ble climatic conditions in winter. I shall give the re sult of my studies, though for reasons which will soon appear, it is of no great use just now. I build for the future. The model climate for such invalids must satisfy four

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124 conditions. It must have an equable temperature, moderate moisture, moderate and regular winds, and freedom from local disease. First about temperature. Here the mere amount of heat or cold is not so much to be looked at, as what me teorologists call the range. The thermometer should show no great difference in the day and the night, or be tween one day and another. Sudden changes should not appear on the record. Warmth is desirable because it leads to a life in the open air, prevents chilly and close rooms, and soothes the irritable air passages. Heat above seventy-five degrees Fahrenheit is objectionable, because it is debilitating, and hinders exercise. In the United States, Key West has the warmest cli mate and the least range. Its mean annual tempera ture is 76.5; its range 52 Fahrenheit. This is rather too hot. Xor is it free from seme other objections. The island is small, barren, and uninteresting; there are no rides and drives, and violent winds from the north and northeast occur more or less every winter. Many have lauded the climate of Texas. It is true that the hottest portions of that State have a mean an nual temperature of 73. But then the winters there are as cold as in Southern Georgia, and the range is no where less than 70, and generally 80 to 90y. Then there are the northers," chilling winds from the north, which reduce the temperature 10 to 20Q in a few hours. In line, the climate is much less equable than on the south Atlantic coast. The winter temperature of most of Texas is as low as that of South Carolina. This is too low. The mean temperature of Charles ton, S. C, is GGQ, the range nearly 95. At Savannah

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125 the temperature of the year is 65, the range about 90. The summers at these points are hot, the winter months often cold, damp, and raw. It is precisely these months, and these only, which interest us just now. To present the matter more fully I extract the following table fro m the Medical statistics of the U. S. Army. It is based on careful observations extending over many years, and shows the temperature of each of the winter months in a number of places in the South: Locality. Aiken, S. C...... Tallahassee, .... St. Augustine,.. New Smyrna,... Cedar Keys,.... Tampa Bay, .... Miami River,... Corpus Christi,. December. 47 52 53 55 52 56 57 66 62 61 63 67 70 1 57 January. 45 51 52 65 55 54 57 62 58 1 61 58 66 69 1 56 February. 50 52 55 60 50 56 60 64 58 1 m 58 67 1 70 1 57 Corpus Christi is the hottest place in Texas ; yet its winters are colder than on the eastern coast of Florida, and its annual range is 70 degrees. The highest winter temperature observed anywhere on the mainland of the United States was at Fort Dallas on the Miami river, and at New Smyrna, some miles north of it, both on the east coast of Florida. Furthermore, their range is less than anywhere else. During four years that the army officers watched the thermometer at Fort Dallas, the

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12G highest point reached by the mercury was 95 degrees; the lowest 35 degrees; a range, therefore, of 60 degrees in four years. I conclude therefore that the most equable climate of the United States is on the south-eastern coast of Florida. I shall dismiss the second condition in a few words. Moist warmth is soothing; dryness is irritating ; every one who has worn a poultice knows this. A moist, warm air, moderately charged with vapor, or even approach ing a saturated condition, is therefore, as a rule, most agreeable to the air passages, and the general comfort. In winter, all along our southern seaboard the air is moist; it is sufficiently warm and moist both, nowhere but in southeastern Florida, as the table of winter tem peratures showrs us. A moist atmosphere is not always a rainy one. A rainy climate, no matter what other conditions it may have, is a detestable one. Southern Florida has a hot and rainy season from May to September. Everything moulds, and drips, and steams. The rainfall averages every year from forty-five to sixty,inches. But nearly all of it falls in the summer months. In December, January and February, two, two and a half, and three inches a month are an ordinary average. This means that the weather is much more generally fair than foul. The third condition is the prevalence of moderate and regular wrinds. I have already hinted about the Texan "northers." Similar windstorms occur throughout the Gulf States. I have felt them disagreeably at Key West, though there the tepid waters of the Gulf of Mexico temper their blasts. Sometimes they blow

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127 violently for thirty-six or forty-eight hours. On the southeastern coast of Florida they are both warmed by the Gulf, and lessened in violence by the woods of the peninsula. The winds there are in winter usually north, northeast, and northwest. In summer a breeze from the sea sets in about ten A. M., which often reduces the temperature about six degrees in ten minutes, without causing other than a pleasant sensation. At night a land breeze blows off the land. The occasional cold winds in winter are an objection from which no part of our southern country is wholly *ree. Moderate winds are essential to the purity of the atmosphere, and these generally prevail along the Gulf. The fourth condition of climate is a vital one. I have witnessed the results of months of care destroyed by a single attack of intermittent fever. I have already stated that miasmatic fevers arc extremely common in the interior of Florida during the summer and early au tumn, but they do not occur on the sea coast during the late autumn and winter. This is especially true of southeastern Florida. Por tions of our army were stationed there during all seasons, for a number of years, and the testimony of the army surgeons is unanimous and most favorable. And let me here remind the reader that the surgeons of the United States Army are thoroughly educated physicians, of unequaled experience in all the variety of cli mate which our country presents, and who, having no quai-ter sections to sell, or other axe to grind, give their evidence with the utmost impartiality. Here is one quotation from a report to the Surgeon General, dated at Fort Pierce, on Indian river: This post has a cli-

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128 mate, in every respect, perhaps, unsurpassed by any in the world." And these are the words of Dr. R. F. Simpson, TJ. S. A., writing about Fort Dallas, on the Miami, the very spot I have been maintaining ap proaches nearest the model climate for consumptives: I have been on duty at most of the posts in Florida, but none compare with this for salubrity." The sea coast of south-east Florida, therefore, fulfils the four conditions which make up the best climate for a consumptive. I have other testimony about it well worth presenting. It, too, comes from the same unin> peachable source,the medical statistics of the United States Army. I preface it by a fact of general interest about the whole of Florida. All know how terribly arduous must be campaigning through the swamps and everglades of that State. Yet the yearly mortality from disease of the regular army there, was only twen ty-six per thousand men. The average of the army elsewhere was thirty-five per thousand, while in Texas it rose to forty, and on the lower Mississippi to fortyfour per thousand. But the chaiacter of disease interests us most just now. We are inquiring particularly about throat and lung complaints. These army statistics are here of im mense value. They specify the diseases of each station. I have taken these four: Consumption (phthisis pulmonalis), bronchitis, inflammation of the lungs (pneu monia), and pleurisy; and have ascertained their rela tive frequency at various points in the South. Here are the results (omitting fractions): In Arkanzas, each year, one man in every sixteen came under the sur geon's hands, with one or other of these diseases; on

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129 the southern frontier of Texas, also one in sixteen ; at Baton Rouge, La., one in seventeen; on the western, frontier of Texas, one in nineteen; on the west coast of Florida, one in twenty-one; on the east coast of Florida, one in thirty-nine! This is confirmation strong indeed. Even in the fa vored northwest, we may look in vain for anything equal to it. The sick reports of St. Paul, Minn., show one in every nineteen, yearly treated for these com plaints. Yet all this avails nothing, so long as there are no accommodations for invalids, in this favored region, none of the conveniences of civilized life, few inhabi tants of any kind, hardly any means of getting there. There are bluffs forty feet high and more, on Indian river, beautiful localities along Key Biscayne Bay, in a glorious climate, healthy beyond any in our country, very easy of access from Key West, near the best hunt ing grounds of Florida, where an abundance of the most delicious tropical fruits could be raised, where fish, sea' turtles and oysters abound; all that is needed is a weekly steamer from Key West, and a few plain, well kept, moderate priced hotels, to make it the most eligible spot in the South for the invalid or the tourist. It has other attractions. I have been told that it is the only part of Florida where the pine apple will grow in the open air. Certainly guavas, pomegrantes, dates, alligator pears, (that fruit which it is worth -a voyage to the tropics to taste,) sugar apples and most of the other appetizing luxuries of the torrid zone would flourish. The climate in winter is serene, from two-and-a-haif

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130 to three inches of rain falling per month. The mean daily marking of the thermometer from November to April is 72Q, of the hygrometer 68. Here is another hint. The arrow root (maranta arundinacea) grows along Key Biscayne in great abundance. It furnishes the very finest form of starch known, a most admirable arti cle of diet for the sick, and a most profitable one to the cultivator. Its wholesale price in our markets is from fifty to seventy-five cents per pound ; there is al ways a demand for it, and tens of thousands of pounds a year could be readily gathered. I have already detailed at some length the position, soil, etc., of Key Biscayne Bay (ante p. 102). But, as al ready said, I build for the future, and not the present. It has the best warm climate in the United States for invalids, and it deserves to become a much frequented spot. CHAP. IV.-SOME HINTS TO HEALTH SEEKEES. In the introductory remarks I have thrown out a number of suggestions which every traveler in the South will do well to heed. I am now going to servir unplat de mon metierto offer some admonitions to invalids dis tinctively, and especially those suffering or threatened with pulmonary and bronchial affections. How often does one see invalids abroad deluding themselves with the idea that the climate alone will cure them! Yain hope. Better remain at home and die, if need be, than undertake long and fatiguing journeys with any such expectation. The result in either case is the same. There are certain rules of personal hygiene and diet which are half the battle, which might win it at home,

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131 which will almost surely win it if the right change of climate is made in time. They are not applicable to all, but they must form the basis of every regimen. And here, once more, I repeat the watchword, Courage. If improvement is not manifest at once, do not become disheartened. Often it is months, often it is not until after the return home that the hoped for change for the better is obvious. The interim is at best weari some. Make it as cheerful as possible. Valetudinarians should not travel alone. They fall easy victims to Giant Despair, who is still as ready as ever to pounce on unwary travelers, especially on wet days, alone in dull country taverns, with nothing to think of but them selves and their owo aches and pains. Go in company and always have a resource for spare hours. No resource is better than to collect something. There are bugs, and butterflies, and mosses, and fossils, and flowers, and Indian curiosities, and species of woods, and birds' eggs, and skins, and minerals, the pursuit of either one of which will give healthful exercise in fair weather, and their arrangement interesting occupation when it rains. I am almost pleased, for the invalid's sake, to say that as for treasures of art, Florida has none. There are no interminable picture galleries, or cold, damp churches, or belvideres, or other such aesthetic afflictions to visit, the frequency of which in Italy is a serious drawback to the seeker after health. On the other hand, Nature has spread out boundless attractions in the animal, the vegetable, and the mineral worlds, the study of which has ever something soothing and rejuvenating.

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132 Exercise in the open air every clay should be taken religiously and regularly. The kind of exercise must de pend on circumstances. Kowing develops the chest and arms; walking, the lower limbs; riding is an excellent stimulant of the liver and lungs. When possible, they should be alternated. An hour each morning and after noon should be consecrated to this purpose. A cheer ful companion is an admirable adjunct in any of them. There is another exercise of the greatest value. No person with a weak chest should neglect to practice every morning and evening, for ten or fifteen minutes at a time, deep inspiraiions. It is done thus : Stand or sit erect, throw the chest well forward, the arms back? then open the mouth and inhale slowly to the full capa city of the lungs. Retain the air several seconds by an increased effort, and then let it gradually escape. Breathe naturally a few times, then repeat the inspira tion. This simple procedure has a wonderful influence. It increases the breathing power of the lungs, it expands the walls of the chest, in the opinion of some learned physicians, Professor Piorry of Paris for example, it is actually curative where tuberculous deposit has already taken place. But whenever else exercise is taken, it is best not to be before breakfast. Another salutary habit is to bathe the whole body every morning with salt and water of the temperature of the room. There is no real difficulty in this, even when traveling. A sponge or a wash towel, and a coarse dry towel for the skin, are all that is required. A plunge bath is as good, but not so convenient. When neither can be taken, the whole person should receive a thorough dry-rubbing. But the salt water bath is most useful to the invalid.

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133 It would give me great pleasure to discuss at length the subject of food. But in fact tourists in most parts of the South must make up their minds to such fare as they can get, not such as they want. For instance, I place in the first line of the bill of fare for consumptives the article milk, fresh rich milk, five or six tumblers of it a day, dashed now and then, if you please, with a trifle of good old cognac or Jamaica spirits. Xow milk is precisely the scarcest article at a Florida hotel in winter. I lived once for a month on a plantation in the ex treme south of the peninsula. The proprietor had two hundred head of cattlemany of the cows with calves yet we actually did not have milk enough for out coffee. In the nextline of my bill of fare I place EGGS ; three or four a day, boiled soft, or taken in the guise of a "flip," with pale sherry. These, too, are not always, nor often, to be had for the asking in this country, where nature has done so much for the invalid and man so little. Fat meat comes next, or, in its place, butter and olive oil may be freely used. Coffee and chocolate are allowable; tea barely permissible. To bacco, even the tasteless, washed," Florida tobacco, absolutely prohibited in every form. Some pure rye or wheat whisky may be taken, well diluted, three times a day, if it causes no unpleasant sensations, but all excess should be shunned. And, here, I advise those who wish pure liquors not to depend on hotel bars, restaurants, or provincial drug stores, but to provide them be fore leaving home. Whatever food is taken, should be taken as nearly as

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134 possible at regular hours, in moderate quantities, and more frequently than in health. Those who are-weak, will find great comfort in having a cup of broth, a glass of milk punch, or some similar food, placed by their bed on retiring, to take during the night. Late suppers, however, should be avoided. In choosing a residence, see that it is at a distance from stagnant water, not very densely shaded, and not exposed to night fogs. The sleeping room should be on an upper floor, with a southerly or westerly exposure,, and with plenty of air, light, and sunshine. The bed should not be in a draft, nor in a recess, nor against the wall. A spring or hair mattress, (cotton, so much used in the South, is not objectionable), is most healthful, and it is of prime importance to those with weak lungsr not to sleep under many covers. The windows may be left open nightly, if the situation is dry. The question is often asked abQut exposure to night air. Our distinguished literateur, K. P. Willis, long a. sufferer with pulmonary disease, used to maintain that the atmosphere at night was quite as healthful as by day. The nightfall, when at dusk the temperature rapidly lowers, he found most hurtful. The air at night is, as a rule, colder than during the day, and is often saturated with moisture. Certainly, therefore, those who think with Mr. Willis, will do well to protect themselves by extra clothing. The safest plan is to avoid exposure, except on unusually clear, mild, and dry evenings. The final suggestions I have to make are about medicines. I put them last, because they are, in a certain sense, of secondary importance. Many a patient de-

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135 stroys his digestive powers, and deteriorates his blood by pouring down "stomach bitters," "cough syrups,"' purging pills," and even the more appropriate pre scriptions of his physician. Cod-liver oil and iron, with perhaps a little syrup of wild cherry at night to allay the cough, are the only drugs of much avail in consump tion, and the less one exclusively trusts to these for recovering, the better. Quinine, prepared iu three-grain pills, should be car ried. One pill before breakfast should be taken whenever one is exposed to the marsh miasms. I have already suggested a tincture of the peel of the bitter-sweet orange in whiskey, for the same purpose. Many persons, in traveling, become constipated. This is best avoided by diet. The favorite Southern breakfast dish, corn grits," is an admirable laxative. Corn bread with molasses, fruit early in the day, or a glass of saline mineral water where it can be had, will generally be sufficient. If these fail, one of the ordi nary compound cathartic pills can be taken before sleep, or one of the following before a meal: R. Pulverized rhubarb, 36 grains. Soap, q. s. Make 12 pills. A bottle of mild solution of ammonia is useful for application to musquito bites and the stings of insects. Eestlessness at night in strange beds and newr sur roundings, is quite common. A bath before retiring, or a glass of hot (not warm) water will quiet this ner vous excitement. Granules of morphia, i of a grain each, should be carried, but used very sparingly, and only to relieve pain. The first effect of a warm climate on many constitu-

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136 tions, is to bring on a "bilious" attack. Headache, sick stomach, slight fever and diarrhoea for a few days are the unpleasant symptoms of this first brush of accli mation. It can best be avoided by a sparing diet, by avoiding fatigue, the rays of the sun, and indulgence in fruit. The treatment is perfect rest, some citrate of magnesia or other cooling laxative, and low diet. Those who go by sea save themselves many annoyances, but in return run the risk of sea-sickness. To avoid this, they should go aboard after a moderate meal, keep on deck whenever the sea is smooth, remain in their births when it is rough, take a little brandy, or? what is better, a glass of champagne, when the nausea comes on, and wear a silk handkerchief or broad girdle tied tightly around the stomach. By the careful observance of such rules as I have here laid down, and such others as everyone's good sense will suggest without prompting, those in failing health can anticipate the best results from a winter in the South. The fears which some entertain from the unpleasant feeling toward Northerners, supposed to exist, are en tirely groundless. I have the best reason to know that there need not be the slightest anxiety on this score. So, also, about the alleged dangers of travel over Southern railroads and in Southern steamboats. In point of fact more people are injured on the railroads of New York than of Florida. Moreover it is quite sure, as Thoreau quaintly says in one of his books, "We sit as many risks as we run," and it is about as safe now-a-days on a railroad or in a steamboat as at one's own fireside. Such fears need not give a moment's uneasiness.

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INDEX TO GUIDEBOOK. Abbot, Mrs., St. Augustine boardinghouse keeper, 62 Adams, John S., Florida, its Climate, its Soil, and Productions, 45 Aiken, S.C., 22-25; Aiken Hotel, 23 Alderman, Mrs., Jacksonville boardinghouse keeper, 56 Alliance steamship line, 97, 101 Alligator Lake, 81-82 Alligators, 50 Amelia Island, 31, 93 American Hotel, Atlanta, 25 Anastasia (Fish) Island, 66 Anderson, Dr., 70 Animals of Florida, 50-51 Apalachicola, 110 Arch creek, 104 Archer, 95 Arlington House boardinghouse, Richmond, 15 Armbrister, Mrs. E., Key West boardinghouse keeper, 97 Arredondo Grant, 94 Arriola, Don Andres de, 111 Arrow root (Maranta arundinacea), 103, 130 Atlanta, 25 Atlantic and Gulf railroad, 27, 83 Atlantic and North Carolina railway, 18 Atlantic Coast Line railroad, 13

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2 Aucilla, 83 Audubon, 36, 51 Bache, R. M., The Young Wrecker of the Florida Reef, 36 Baedeker, Karl, iii Baldwin, 81, 93 Ballard House hotel, Richmond, 15 Baltimore, Havana, and New Orleans steamship line, 97 Barber, Mrs. Eliza, St. Marks boardinghouse keeper, 86 Barnes and Shemwell, Gainesville hotelkeepers, 94 Bartram, botanist, 33, 71, 73 Baton Island, 53 Battle House hotel, Mobile, 113 Benedict, Dr., 60 Berrisford (Blue Spring), 75 Bevill house hotel, Gainesville, 94 Bidgood's, Mrs., boardinghouse, Richmond, 15 Big Cypress Swamp, 40 Bird Key, 102 Birds, Florida, 51 Black Creek, 60 Blount, A. C, 112 Blue Spring (Berrisford), 75 Blue Springs, 88 Boca Grande, 106 Bone Key (Key West, Cayo Hueso, Thompson's Island), 97 Books about Florida, 35-36 Brander's boardinghouse, Richmond, 15 Brava, Mrs., St. Augustine boardinghouse keeper, 62 Bridier, Mr. T. F., Picolata boardinghouse keeper, 61 Brinton, Daniel G., The Floridian Peninsula, Its Literary History, Indian Tribes, and Antiquities, 36

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3 Brock, Capt., 58 Brock House hotel, Enterprise, J. Brock, hotelkeeper, 75 Bronchitis, 117 Brooklyn, Jacksonville suburb, 57 Brozas y Garay, Don Pedro de, 69 Buffalo bluff, 72 Butler, Mrs. Francis [sic] Kemble, 30 Butler, Pierce, 30 Cabbage palm, 48 Callahan, 93 Caloosahatchee River, 106 Caloosa Indians, 105 Campbell, R. P., 97 Cape Florida light, 103 Cape Sable, 106 Carr, B. E., 62 Catfish, 51 Cayo Hueso (Key West, Bone Key, Thompson's Island), 97 Cedar, 107 Cedar Key, 95-96; hotel, 96 Central Railroad, Savannah depot, 27 Chahta-Muskokis, 33 Chahtas, 52 Chamoerops Adansonii (saw palmetto), 48 Champerou, 99 Charleston, 20-22; Charleston Hotel, 20 Charlotte, N.C., 20 Charlotte & S. Carolina railway, 19 Charlotte Harbor, 106 Charlottia, 74 Chassahowitzka River, 107 Chattahoochee River, 110 Chavies, 84

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4 C. H. Mallory & Co. steamship line, 97 City Hotel, Milton, 112 City House hotel, Tallahassee, 84 Clarke, Mrs., Key West boardinghouse keeper, 97 Climate: Florida, 45-48; southern winter, 123-30 Coacoochee, 69 Cocoanut palm, 50 Colding, M., Florida House hotelkeeper, Baldwin, 81 Coligny, Admiral de, 33-34, 53, 54 Columbia, S.C., 19 Columbus (Ellaville), 83 Conches, 98-99 Conch town, Key West, 98 Connor, Mr., Live Oak hotelkeeper, 82-83 Conquest of Florida, by Irving, 109 Coquina, 38 Cowart House hotel, Jacksonville, 56 Cow Ford, 91 Cow's Ford, 56 Creek Indians, 34, 63 Crops, Florida, 44-45 Crystal River, 107 Cumberland Island, Ga., 30 Cypress, 49 Daily Register (Mobile), 113 Daily Tribune (Mobile), 113 Darlington, St. Johns steamer, 58 Davenport's Bluff, 88 Davis, Capt., 63 Davis, Mrs., Pensacola boardinghouse keeper, 110 De Soto, Hernando, 109 Devil's Hammock, 95 Devil's Wash Pot, 94 Dexter's Lake, 74 Diseases, Florida, 47-48

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5 Dixon, John, Key West boardinghouse keeper, 97 Doctor's Lake, 60 Dove Key, 105 Drake, Sir Francis, 63 Drayton's (Rembrandt's) Island, 73 Drew, Columbus, 36, 57, 63 Dry Tortugas (Turtle Islands), 101-2 Dummitt, Miss, St. Augustine boardinghouse keeper, 62 Dungerness estate, Cumberland Island, Ga., 30 Dunn's Lake, 72 Dupont, C. H., 86 Dyspepsia, 118 Eagle Hotel, Milton, 112 East Florida Banner (Ocala), 91 Ellaville (Columbus), 83 Enterprise, 58, 75-76 Espiritu Santo (Tampa) Bay, 109 Eteniah Scrub, 52, 73 Ettini ponds, 93 Everglades, 39-40 Exchange hotel, Gainesville, 94 Exchange Hotel, Richmond, 15 Fairbanks, The Spaniards in Florida, 36, 63 Fatio, Mrs., St. Augustine boardinghouse keeper, 62 Fernandina, 31, 53 Fernandina and Cedar Keys Railroad, 31 Fernandina Island City Weekly, 31 Fernandina-Oldtown, 31 Fish, Florida, 51 Fish (Anastasia) Island, 66 Fleming, Mrs., Hibernia hotelkeeper, 59 Florida animal life, 50-51

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6 birds, 51 books about, 35-36 climate, 45-48 crops, 44-45 diseases, 47-48 fish, 51 geology, 37 history of, 32-35 insects, 51 snakes, 51 soil, 42-43 vegetation, 48-50 weather conditions, 45-48 Florida, Atlantic, & Gulf Central railway, 81 Florida, its Climate, its Soil, and Productions, 45 Florida House hotel: Baldwin, 81, 93; Jacksonville, 56; Key West, 97; St. Augustine, 62; Tampa, 108 Florida Keys, 40, 97-101 Florida Land Register (Jacksonville), 57 Florida Peninsular (Tampa), 10,8 Florida railway, 81, 91, 93 Florida Reef, 40 Florida Union (Jacksonville), 57 Floridian and Journal (Tallahassee), 84 Floridian Peninsula, Its Literary History, Indian Tribes, and Antiquities, by Brinton, 36 Foote, Mr., Mandarin postmaster, 59 Ford's Hotel, Richmond, 15 Fort Brooke, 89, 108 Fort Butler, 74 Fort Capron, 80 Fort Caroline, 54, 55 Fort Gates landing, 73 Fort Jefferson, 101-2 Fort King, 91 Fort Marion (Castle of San Marco), 68

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7 Fort Mason, 92 Fort Mellon, 76 Fort Pierce channel, 79 Fort St. Bernard (El Sombrero), 112 Fort St. Francis de Poppa, 71 Fort St. Michael, 112 Fort Taylor, 100 Forty foot Bluff, 89 Fredericksburg, Va., 14 Freeland, Mrs., Jacksonville boardinghouse keeper, 56 Fresh-Water-Shell-Heaps of the St, John's River, East Florida, by Wyman, 54 Frier's boardinghouse, Newnansville, 95 Fromajardis (Minorcan Easter song), 65 Fulton House hotel, Wilmington, N.C., 19 Gainesville, 94-95; New Era, 94 Garden Key, 101-2 Gardner, Mrs., St. Augustine boardinghouse keeper, 62 Gary, Dr. T. P., 91 Gates, Judge, 109 Gauge, railroad track, Charleston, New York, 19 Geology of Florida, 37 Georgia railway, 25 Girard House hotel, Mobile, 113 Gleason, Lt. Gov., 103 Glinskie, Capt., Green Cove Spring boardinghouse keeper, 60-61 Godfrey House hotel, Monticello, 84 Goldsboro, N.C., 18 Goodbread, Mrs., Live Oak boardinghouse keeper, 83 Goodman station, 83 Gopher turtle (testudo polyphemus), 51 Gouch's Hotel, Weldon, N.C., 18 Gourgues, Dominique de, 34, 55

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8 Green Cove House hotel, 60 Green Cove Spring, 60-61 Greene, Gen. Nathaniel, 30 Gregory's Hotel, Goldsboro, N.C., 18 Griffin House hotel, Welborn, 82 Griswold Hotel, Goldsboro, N.C., 18 Gulf City Hotel, Mobile, 113 Gulf coast of Florida, 106-14 Gulf Stream, 41 Hagner house hotel, Tallahassee, 84 Hammocks, 42-43 Hargis, Dr., Ill Hart, Col. I. D., 56 Hawkinsville (Osceola), 74-75 Health seekers, hints to, 130-36 Henderson, Capt., Green Cove Spring boardinghouse keeper, 60 Hereda, Don Alonzo Fernando, 65, 69 Hibernia, 59-60 Hillsborough Bay, 108 Hillsborough River, 108-9 History of Florida, 32-35 History of the Florida War, by Sprague, 36 Hodgson, Mrs., Jacksonville boardinghouse keeper, 56 Hoffman, Mr., Pensacola boardinghouse keeper, 111 Homosassa River, 107 Horse Landing, 72 Houston, 82 Howard House hotel, Jacksonville, 56 Hunting grounds, 104 Il-la-ka (St. Johns River), 52 Indian Garden, 79 Indian River, 78-79 Innes, Mrs. Ann, Quincy boardinghouse keeper, 85

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9 Insects, Florida, 51 Invalids: when to change climates, 115-19; how to choose a beneficial climate, 120-23 Iola, 89 Irving, Theodore, Conquest of Florida, 109 Island City Weekly (Fernandina), 31 Jackson, Andrew, 35, 57 Jacksonville, 56-58; Florida Land Register, 57; Flor ida Union, 57; Mercury and Floridian, 57 Junction, 83 Key Biscayne Bay, 102-5 Keys, Florida, 97-101 Key West, 97-101, 124; Dispatch, 97 King's Road, 56 Knapp, Mrs., Pensacola boardinghouse keeper, 110 Knight, Dr. A. W., 82 Koonta, 50, 103 red (smilax china), 50 white (species of zamia), 50 Lake City, 81-82; Lake City Press, 81 Lake Dunham, 92 Lake Eustis, 92 Lake George, 52, 73 Lake George (Sam's) landing, 73 Lake Griffin, 91-92 Lake Harris, 92 Lake Mickasukie, 84 Lake Monroe, 52 Lake Okee-chobee, 40 Langren, Dr., Volusia boardinghouse keeper, 73 Laudonniere, Rene de, 54 La Villa, Jacksonville suburb, 57 Lee, Dr., Ill

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10 Leesburg, 92 Leneer's bluff, 76 Leon County, Scuppernong grape cultivation, 44 Letters from the Frontiers, by McCall, 36 Life of Audubon, 36 Lindenkohl, Mr. H., iii, 37 Little Lake George, 73 Live oak, 49 Live Oak, 82-83; Live Oak Advertizer, 83 Lloyd's, 84 Loggerhead Key, 102 Long, John, 62 Los Martires, 103 Lower Spring, 83 Luna y Arellana, Don Tristan de, 111 McCall, George A., Letters from the Frontiers, 36 McCleran, Mrs. M. A., Live Oak boardinghouse keeper, 83 Mackay, Dr. J. P., 62 Madden, Mrs., Monticello hotelkeeper, 83 Madison, town and hotel, 83 Magnolia, 60 Magnolia house hotel: Gainesville, 94; St. Augustine, 62 Mallory, C. H., & Co. steamship line, 97 Manatee, 109 Manatee River, 109 Manatee (sea cow), 50-51 Mandarin, 59 Mangrove, 49 Mansion House hotel, Charlotte, N.C., 20 Maranta arundinacea (arrow root), 103 Marshall House hotel, Savannah, 26 Matanzas River, 66, 70 Menendez de Aviles, Pedro, 34, 54-55, 63

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11 Mercury and Floridian (Jacksonville), 57 Miami, 102-15 Miami River, 103 Middleburg, 93 Mills House hotel, Charleston, 20 Milton, 112 Minorcans, 65-66 Mistletoe, 49 Mobile, 113-14; Daily Register, 113; Daily Tribune, 113 Montgomery & Mobile railroad, 112 Monticello, 83-84 Monticello house hotel, 83-84 Moore, Gov., 63-64 Moultrie, Gen., 70 Mullet, 51 Muskoki Indians, 63 National Hotel, Atlanta, 25 Natural and Civil History of Florida, by Williams, 70 Naval hospital and station, U.S., Key West, 100 New Castle, 56 New Era (Gainesville), 94 New Matacumba Key, 105 Newnansville, 94-95 Newport, 87 New Smyrna, 77-78; Dr. Turnbull's colony, 65, 77 Nickerson's Hotel, Columbia, S.C., 19 North Carolina railway, 18, 19 North City, St. Augustine suburb, 66 Northeastern Railroad, Charleston depot, 20 Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, by Brinton, 78 Nymphea nilumbo (water lily), 50 Ocala, 90-91; East Florida Banner, 91 Ocean Pond, 81

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12 Ocilla Spring, 87 Oglethorpe, Gov., 64-65, 69 Oklawaha, 92 Oklawaha Narrows, 88, 92 Oklawaha River, 52, 73, 88-92 Old Matacumba Key, 105 Olustee, 81 On the Antiquities of the Peninsula, by Wyman, 36 Orange Grove, 94 Orange Grove Hotel, Tampa, 108 Oranges, 50 Osceola (Hawkinsville), 74-75 Otter Creek, 95 Oyster banks, 107 Oyster Banks (symmetrical mounds near St. Johns River), 54 Paine's Landing, 89 Palatka, 71-72 Palmer, Col., 64 Paresis, 118 Parkman, Pioneers of France in the New World, 35 Pavilion Hotel: Charleston, 20; Savannah, 26 Payne, Capt. James, Fort Capron postmaster, 80 Payne's Prairie, 94, 95 Penn Publishing Co., Philadelphia, iii Pensacola, 110-12; Observer, 111; West Florida Commercial, 111 Pensacola and Georgia railway, 81, 93 Pensacola (Santa Maria de Galve) Bay, 111 Pensocolos, 111 Petersburg, Va., 18 Phillip II of Spain, 54 Phillips, George, Key West hotelkeeper, 97 Phillips, J. L., 62 Picolata, 61, 70-71

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13 Piedmont railway, 19 Pine lands, 43 Pioneers of France in the New World, by Parkman, 35 Pistia spathulata, 51, 91 Pithlo-chas-kotee River, 107 Planter's Hotel, Charleston, 20 Planter's House hotel, Fredericksburg, Va., 14 Pompano, 51 Ponce de Leon, Juan, 32 Precautions before starting journey, 10-12 Price House hotel, Jacksonville, 56 Primo, Don Joseph, 86 Pulaski House hotel, Savannah, 26 Pulmonary consumption, 115 Punch bowl, 104 Purcell House hotel, Wilmington, N.C., 19 Putnam House hotel, Palatka, 71 Quincy, 85-86; Quincy Monitor, 85 Quiroga y Losada [Lassada], Don Diego de, 63 Ramington, J., Green Cove House hotelkeeper, 60 Reed, Charles F., Mandarin boardinghouse keeper, 59 Rembrandt's (Drayton's) Island, 73 Rheumatism, 117-18 Ribaut [Ribault], Jean, 53 Richmond, Va., 15-18 Richmond & Danville railway, 19 Richmond and Petersburg railway, 18 Richmond House boardinghouse, 15 Rio de San Matteo (St. Matthew) [St. Johns River], 53 River May (St. Johns River), 53 Riverside, Jacksonville suburb, 57 Rochester House hotel, Jacksonville, 56

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14 Rock Island, 70 Rogers, Dr., 60 Rolles, Denison, 74 Roper House hotel, Mobile, 113 Runaway negro slaves, 35 Russell House hotel, Key West, 97 St. Augustine, 34, 62-70; St. Augustine Examiner, 62 St. Catherine Island, Ga., 30 St. Charles Hotel, Richmond, 15 St. George's Island, 110 St. James Hotel, Jacksonville, 56 St. John River [St. Johns River], 52-77 St. John's Bluff, 54, 55 St. John's House hotel: Jacksonville, 56; Palatka, 71 St. Marks, 86-87 St. Marks Railroad, 86 St. Sebastian River, 66 St. Vincent's Island, 110 Salt Lake, 76-77 Salt works, 99-100 Sam's (Lake George) landing, 73 Sanderson, 81 Sand Key, 102 Sand Point, 78 San Marco, Castle of (Fort Marion), 68 San Marcos de Apalache, 86 Santa Fe River, 94-95 Santa Luciej 79 Santa Lucie River, 79-80 Santa Maria de Galve (Pensacola) Bay, 111 Sarasota Bay, 107 Savannah, 26-29 Saw palmetto, 48 Scales, Dr. T. S., 113 Scottsville, Jacksonville suburb, 57

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15 Screven House hotel, Savannah, 26 Scrofula, 117 Scuppernong grape, 44 Sea cow (manatee), 50-51 Sea islands of Georgia, 30 Season for southern travel, 9 Sebastian River, 62 Seminoles, 33, 36, 59 Serigny, M. de, 111 Sewall, Sketches of St, Augustine, 63 Sheldon, Mrs., New Smyrna boardinghouse keeper, 77 Shemwell and Barnes, Gainesville hotelkeepers, 94 Silver Spring Run, 89-90 Simpson, Dr. R. F., 128 Smith, Buckingham, 52, 55, 70, 109-10 Smith, Frank, Santa Lucie postmaster, 79 Snakes, Florida, 51 Soil, Florida, 42-43 Sombrero, El (Fort St. Bernard), 112 South Carolina Railroad, 21, 23 South Carolina Railway, 19 Southern winter climate, 123-30 Spaniards in Florida, by Fairbanks, 36 Spanish moss, 49 Spofford and Tilson steamship line, 97 Sponge reefs, 107 Sponging, 99 Spottswood Hotel, Richmond, 15 Sprague, Capt., 59 Sprague, History of the Florida War, 36 Sprague, Senator, Rhode Island, 30 Spring Creek Spring, 87 Steamship routes to South, 13, 26, 29, 30 Sterility, 119 Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 59 Straits of Florida, 41

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16 Sugarcane, 44 Sulphur Spring, Hillsborough River, 109 Tallahassee, 35, 84-85; Floridian and Journal, 84; Tallahassee Sentinel, 84 Tallahassee railway, 81 Talleyrand, Marquis de, 59 Tampa, 108-9; Florida Peninsular, 108; True Southerner, 108 Tampa (Espiritu Santo) Bay, 109 Taylor House hotel, Jacksonville, 56 Tea Table Key, 105 Temperatures, winter, 124-25 Testudo polyphemus (gopher turtle), 51 The Sisters (symmetrical mounds near St. Johns River), 53 Thlauhatke hills (White Hills), 52 Thompson's Island (Key West, Cayo Hueso, Bone Key), 97 Thousand Islands, Big Cypress Swamp, 40 Thousand Isles, 106 Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss), 49 Tilt, Charles, 98 Timucuas, 33 Titus, Col. H. F., Sand Point boardinghouse keeper, 78 Tobacco, 44 Trail Ridge, 93 Trout, 51 True Southerner (Tampa), 108 Turnbull, Dr., 65, 77 Turtle Islands (Dry Tortugas), 101-2 Turtle Mound, 78 Turtles, 99 Union House hotel, Jacksonville, 56 United States Hotel, Atlanta, 25

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17 Valentine House boardinghouse, Richmond, 15 Vauban, engineer, 68 Vegetation, Florida, 48-50 Venomous snakes, Florida, 51 Victoria House hotel, Charleston, 20 View of West Florida, by Williams, 70 Virginia House hotel, Fernandina, 31 Volusia, 73-75 Wacilla Spring, 87 Wainwright, Mr., 105 Wakulla fountain, 86 Wakulla River, 86 Waldo, 93 Wankulla, 86 Warrenton, 110 Water lily (nymphea nilumbo), 50 Watson's boardinghouse, Enterprise, 75 Weather conditions, Florida, 45-48 Welaka, 72-73, 88 Welaka (St. Johns River), 52 Welborn, 82 Weldon, N.C., 18 Wellington Springs, 95 West Florida Commercial (Pensacola), 111 Wethlocco-chee (Withlacooche) River, 107 White House, 81 White Sulphur Springs, 82 Whitfield House hotel, Fernandina, 31 Willard, Mr., Cedar Key hotelkeeper, 96 Willard's hotel, Quincy, 85 Williams, Col. John Lee, 70, 85 Williams, Mrs., Pensacola boardinghouse keeper, 111 Wilmington, N.C., 19 Wilson House hotel, Newnansville, 94 Wise, Mr., 87 Withlacooche (Wethlocco-chee) River, 107

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18 Wood's Hotel, Quincy, 85 Wrecking, 98-99 Wyman, Prof. Jeffries, 33, 54, 72; On the Antiquities of the Peninsula, 36 Wyoming, Jacksonville suburb, 57 Yellow Bluff, 56 Yelverton, Mrs., St. Augustine, Florida, 63 Young Wrecker of the Florida Reef, by Bache, 36

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INDEX TO THE INTRODUCTION. Academy of National Sciences, Philadelphia, xxi Adirondack Mountains, xlvii Agua Dulce, xxxiv Algiers, xxii Allergy, xlvii American Antiquarian Society, xxvi American Association for the Advancement of Science, xxii, xxvi American Folk-Lore Society, xxvi American Museum of Natural History, xxvi American Philosophical Society, xx-xxi, xxv-xxviii, lii American Race, The, by Brinton, xxvii Amtrak, xxx, xxxii Antiquarian Researches, by McClintock, xvii Apalachicola, xlv Appalachian [Apalachee] Indians, xxxvii Arch creek, xlv Archivo General de las Indias, Seville, Spain, xxxiii Arkell, Robert James, xxv Arkell, Rose, xxv Army of the Potomac, xix Atlantic City, N.J., xxv Baedeker, Karl, xxx Barbour, George M., xl-xli

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20 Barefoot Mailman, The, by Pratt, xxxix Berliner Anthropologische Gesellschaft, xxii-xxiii Bibliography of Brinton's works, xxi, xxiv, xxviii Biedma, Luis Hernandez de, xiv "Big Bend," xxxix Black-lung disease, xlvii Blue Springs, xxxviii-xxxix Booth, John Wilkes, xliv Brinton, Ann Garrison (mother), xvi Brinton, Daniel Garrison Academy of National Sciences* professor, xxi American Philosophical Society, xx-xxi, xxvxxviii, lii Army service in Civil War, xix-xx Bibliography (see Bibliography of Brinton's works) Character, xxviii Childhood, xvi-xvii Children and grandchildren, xxv College career (Yale), xvii-xix, xxxviii Columbian Exposition, Chicago, judge, xxii Death, xxv Education, xvii-xix European trip (1860-61), xviii Florida trip (1856-57), xvi, xviii Foreign travels, xxii Funeral, xxviii-xxix Historical American Exposition, Madrid, commis sioner, xxii Honorary degrees, xxiii Literary tastes, xxiii M.D. degree received (Jefferson Medical College), xviii Medal of the Societe Americaine de France, xxii Medical practice, xix-xx Memorial meeting, American Philosophical Soci ety, xxv-xxviii, lii

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21 Music, aversion to, xxiii Poetry, xxiv Portrait, xxvi-xxvii Publications (see Bibliography of Brinton's works) Scientific opinions, xxiv-xxv Society memberships, xxii-xxiii University of Pennsylvania, xxi, xxiii Wife, xx, xxv Brinton, Daniel Garrison (grandson), xxv Brinton, Emilia G. (daughter), xxv Brinton, Lewis (father), xvi Brinton, Robert Arkell (grandson), xxv Brinton, Robert T. (son), xxv Brinton, Robertus de, xvii Brinton, Sarah Maria (granddaughter), xxv Brinton, Sara Tillson (wife), xxv Brinton, William, xvii Bronchiectasis, xlvii Bronchitis, xlvii Browning, Robert, xxiii Browning Society, xxiii Bureau of American Ethnology, xxvi Burk, Rev. Jesse Y., xxvii Bushnell, xlii Cabeza de Vaca, xiv Caloosahatchee River, xlv Camphor, xxxi Candelaria, Maria, xxiv Canus, xxiv Cape Sable, xlv Carbolic acid, xxxi Castillo de San Marcos, xxxvii Cedar Key, xliixliii Champerou, xliii-xliv Chancellorsville, Battle of, xix

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22 Charleston, xxxii Chester County, Pa., xvii Chicago, xxii, xxv Chickamauga, Battle of, xix "City Gone to Seed, A," by Brinton, xviii, xxxviii Civil War, xix-xx, xxxi, xxxii, xl, xlii Cleveland, President Grover, xxxv Climate, xxx-xxxi, xl, xliv, xlv, xlvi-1 Cod-liver oil, li Columbian Exposition, Chicago, xxii Commissioners to locate Florida capital, xli Compendium of Medical Science, edited by Brinton, xxi Conner, Mr., Live Oak hotelkeeper, xl Conservation, Department of, State of Florida, xxxviii Constantinople, xxii Constipation, li Consumptives, xlv. See also Pulmonary consumption Copenhagen, xxii "Corn grits," li Cosmos, by Humboldt, xvii Courage, as treatment for disease, xlvii Culin, Stewart, xxiv, xxviii Curacoa, xliv Cushing, Frank Hamilton, xxvi Delaware Indians, xvii Delta Kappa Epsilon, xviii Dementia, xlviii Dentist, xxxi Devil's Millhopper, xliii "Devil's Wash Pot," xliii Diet, 1li Diseases, xlvi-li Drew, Columbus, xxix, xxxvii Dry Tortugas, xliv Dyspepsia, xlviii

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23 Eakins, Thomas, xxvi-xxvii East Florida, Territory of, xliii East Tennessee, xix Eleventh Corps, xix Elvas, Knight of, xiv Emphysema, xlvii England, xvii Enterprise, xxxix Eskimo, xxiv Espiritu Santo Bay, xlv "Ethnology," by Brinton, xxii Europe, xxii, xxiv Exercise, 1 Exhaustion, xlviii Fairbanks, George R. See Spaniards in Florida Fairbanks Grant, xxxvi Fernandina, xxxii, xlii Fertility rites, xlix Florence, xxiii Florida Days, xv Florida Land Register, Jacksonville, xxxv Florida Times-Union, Jacksonville, xxxvi Florida Union, Jacksonville, xxxv Floridian Peninsula, The, by Brinton, xxi Fontaneda, Hernando d'Escalante, xiii; Memoir, xv Fort Brooke, xlv Fort George Island, xxxiv Fort Jefferson, xliv Fort Marion (Castillo de San Marcos), xxxvii Fort Mellon, xxxix Fort Taylor, xliv Fountain of Youth, xv French in Florida, xxxiii Gainesville, xliii Georgia, colony of, xxxvii

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24 German Corps (Eleventh Corps), xix Germ theories of medicine, xxxi Gettysburg, xix Gleason, Lt. Gov. William, xliv Going to Florida?, xv Gone Sunwards, xv Greeks, xxxix Green Cove Springs, xxxvi Guide-Book of Florida and the South, for Tourists, Invalids and Emigrants, A, by Brinton, xvi, xxix Guidebooks, xxx Harrison, President Benjamin, xxii Harrison, Charles C, xxvi, lii Heartburn, xlviii "Heart murmur," xlviii Heidelberg, xviii Hibernia, xxxvi Historical American Exposition, xxii Hobbies, 1 Holland, Dr. J. W., xxvii Hotel, Mr. Conner's, Live Oak, xl Hrdlicka, xxv Ibsen, Henrik, xxiii Il-la-ka (River of Lakes), xxxiii Indian River, xxxix Indians, xxiv-xxv, xxxiii Indigestion, xlviii International Congress of Americanists, xxii; of An thropology, xxii Invalids, xlvi-li Irving, Theodore, xlv Isoniazid (INH),xlvii Italians, xxxix

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25 Jacksonville, xxxii, xxxv-xxxvi, xxxvii, xxxix Jacksonville Times, xxxvi Janin, Jules, xxiii Japan, xlix Jefferson County, xl Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, xviii, xxiii, xxvi Johnson, Samuel, xlviii Jones, Charles, xxxv-xxxvi Jupiter Inlet, xxxix Key Biscayne, xlix Key West, xxxii, xliii-xliv Lake City, xl Lake County, xlii Lake Helen Blazes, xxxix Lake Monroe, xxxix Lanier, Sidney, xv "Leaven of the Gospel in the Poetry of Christian Nations, The," by Brinton, xviii Lee, Gen. Robert E., xxxv Leesburg, xlii Library of American Aboriginal Literature, xxi, xxvii "Linguistics," by Brinton, xxii Live Oak, xl Lookout Mountain, Battle of, xix Lower Spring, xl Lymph nodes, xlviii MacCall, Gen. George, xlii McClintock. See Antiquarian Researches McGee, Dr. W. J., xxviii Madison, xli Madrid, xxii Magnolia, xxxvi

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26 Malaria, li Mandarin, xxxvi Map, xxix, xxxii Maria Candelaria: An Historic Drama from Ameri can Aboriginal Life, by Brinton, xxiii-xxiv "Matacumba, Old and New," xlv Media, Pa., xxv Medical and Surgical Reporter, The, edited by Brin ton, xx Memorial meeting, American Philosophical Society, xx, xxiv, xxv-xxviii, Hi Menendez, Pedro, xxxiv Mercury and Floridian, Jacksonville, xxxv Miami, xxxix, xliv-xlv Miasma, xxxi Milton, xlvi Minorcans, xxxix Missionary Ridge, Battle of, xx Missions, Indian, Spanish, xxxiv Mitchell, John, map, xxxiv Mobile, Ala., xlvi Monticello, xl Moore, Rev. Mr. William, xvii Morocco, xxii Morris, Dr. J. Cheston, xxviii Mosquito, xxxi Mound-builders, xxv Mudd, Dr. Samuel, xliv Narvaez, Panfilo de, xiii "Nation as an Element in Anthropology, The," by Brinton, xxii Naval Station, U.S., Key West, xliv New Haven, Conn., xviii Newport, xli New Smyrna, xxxix New York, xxxii, xlvii

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27 North Africa, xxii Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, Its Literary His tory, Indian Tribes and Antiquities, by Brinton, xvi, xviii Numismatic and Antiquarian Society, Philadelphia, xxi, xxviii Nunez, Alvar, xiii Ocala, xlii Ocean Pond, xl Oglethorpe, [James Edward], xxxvii Oklawaha River, xlii Olustee, xl Ore, Father, xxxiv Osier, Dr. William, 1 Palatka, xxxii, xxxiii, xxxviii Paresis, xlviii Paris, xviii, xxii, xxiii PAS, xlvii Payne's Prairie, xliii Peabody Institute of Arts and Sciences, xxvi Penn, William, xvii Pennsylvania, xvii, xx, xxv Pennypacker, Judge Samuel W., xxvi Pensacola, xlv Philadelphia, xxiii, xix, xx, xxv, xxxii Picolata, xxxviii Portugal, xiv Pratt, Theodore, xxxix Prison, xliv Pulmonary consumption, xlvi-xlvii "Punch Bowl," xlv Quincy, Fla., xli Quincy, 111., xx Quinine, li

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28 Railroads, xxx, xxxii, xlii-xliii Rains, xxx Ranjel, Rodrigo, xiv Real Academia de Historia, Madrid, xxii Rheumatism, xlviii Ribault, Jean, xxxiii Richmond, Va., xl Rio de Corrientes (River of the Currents), xxxiii Rio Dulce, xxxiv Rio San Juan, xxxiv Rio San Mateo (Matheo), xxxiv River Tocoy, xxxiv Riviere de May, xxxiii Roosevelt, President Theodore, xlvii Rosecrans, Gen. William S., xix Rosengarten, Joseph G., xxvii-xxviii Rutledge, Pa., xxv Sahara Desert, xxii St. Augustine, xviii, xxxvi-xxxviii, xli St. James Hotel, Jacksonville, xxxv St. Johns River, xvi, xxix, xxxii-xxxv, xxxvi, xxxviii, xxxix St. John the Evangelist, xxxiv St. Marks, xli Sanderson, xl San Juan del Puerto mission, xxxiv San Marcos de Apalache, xli Santa Cruz, Alonzo de, xxxiii Santa Fe River, xliii Sassafras tea, xlix Savannah, xxxii, xxxvii Scrofula, xlviii Senility, xlix Seville, Spain, xxxiii Shropshire, England, xvii

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29 "Silver Spring," xlii Simmons, Dr. W. H., xli Smith, Buckingham, xlv Smith, Rose, xxv Smithsonian Institution, xxvi Smyth, Albert H., xxvii Societa d'Ethnographia, Florence, xxiii Societa Romano di Anthropologia, xxiii Societe Americaine de France, xxii Societe d'Ethnographie, Paris, xxiii Society Royale des Antiquaires du Nord, Copenhagen, xxii Soto, Hernando de, xiv, xlv Spaniards in Florida, by Fairbanks, xxxvii-xxxviii Steamships, xxx, xxxii Stevenson, Robert Louis, xlvii Stowe, Mrs. Harriet Beecher, xv, xxxvi "Strep throat," xlviii Streptococcal infections, xlviii Streptomycin, xlvii Sub-Tropical Exposition, Jacksonville, xxxv Sumter County, xlii Sunshine, Silvia, xvi Sunstroke, xix Suwannee Springs, xl Swamp, xxxi Syphilis, xlviii Tallahassee, xl, xli Tampa, xlv Teeth, xxxi Tennessee, xix Tennyson, xxiii Thompson, Daniel Garrison (grandson), xxv Thompson, Elizabeth Hough (granddaughter), xxv Thompson, James Beaton (son-in-law), xxv

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30 Thoreau, [Henry David], li Thornberg, Chester County, Pa., xvii Townsend Premium, xviii Transfer of Florida from England to Spain, xxxviii Travel time, xxxii Trudeau, Dr. Edward L., xlvi-xlvii True, David 0., xv Tuberculosis of the lymph nodes, xlviii Tunis, xxii Turnbull, Dr. Andrew, xxxix Tzentals, revolt of, xxiv Uncle Tom's Cabin, by Stowe, xxxvi Union County, xliii United States Army, xix-xx United States Board of Geographic Names, xxxiv United States National Museum, xxvi United States Naval Station, Key West, xliv University of Pennsylvania, xxi, xxiii, xxvi Vega, Garcilaso de la, xiv Vienna, xxiii Vitamin D, li Volusia, xxxviii Volusia County, xxxviii Wakulla Springs, xli Warren's Cave, xliii Wauhatchie, Battle of, xix Welaka, xxxiii, xxxviii West Chester, Pa., xvii, xix, xx Whitman, Walt, xxiii, xxix Wiener Anthropologische Gesellschaft, Berlin, xxiii; Vienna, xxiii Williams, John Lee, xxxviii, xli Winter, N. 0., xvi

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31 Winter in Florida, A, xv Worthington, William G. D., xliii Worthington Springs, xliii X-ray equipment, xlvii Yale Literary Magazine, xvii-xviii Yale University, xvii-xviii, xix, xxxviii Yellow fever, xxxi, xliv Yulee, Senator David, xlii Zola, Emile, xxiii