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A sensitive bioluminescent ecosystem

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Title:
A sensitive bioluminescent ecosystem a master plan for Puerto Mosquito Bay in Vieques, Puerto Rico
Creator:
Rivera Serrano, Mario A. ( author )
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Language:
English
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1 online resource (80 pages) : illustrations ;

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Landscape Architecture graduate terminal project, M.L.A
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
A few years ago, Puerto Mosquito Bay, an iconic bioluminescent bay in Vieques, Puerto Rico, lost its prominent glow. The phenomenon precipitated an investigation by local environmental authorities on the potential causes for this black out. The main objectives of this project were: (1) to examine the ecological impacts affecting the concentration of bioluminescent dinoflagellates; (2) to explore effective management strategies to mitigate the negative ecological impacts; (3) to design a master plan for the protection of Puerto Mosquito Bay and for the provision of recreational activities and facilities. Lessons learned from case studies, and analysis of the study area and region provided a framework to address two goals: 1) To recommend watershed management strategies for the restoration and protection of stream corridors discharging into Puerto Mosquito Bay. 2) To design a master plan that will conserve and preserve the bioluminescent ecosystem in Puerto Mosquito Bay, while providing recreational activities and facilities such as kayaking and camping compatible to Puerto Mosquito Bay and its surrounding landscape. The recommendations and master plan could be used as a framework by planners, managers, and decision makers for future land planning and design ideas for the protection and preservation of a fragile bioluminescent ecosystem.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Includes vita.
General Note:
Landscape Architecture Terminal Project
Statement of Responsibility:
by Mario A. Rivera Serrano.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Creator. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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035612631 ( ALEPH )
Classification:
LD1780.1 2017 ( lcc )

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University of Florida Theses & Dissertations

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A SENSITIVE BIOLUMINESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUERTO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUERTO RICO B y MARIO A. RIVERA SERRANO mrivera@ufl.edu A GRADUATE TERMINAL PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE COLLEGE OF DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA COMMITTEE CHAIR: DR. TO M HOCTOR COMMITTEE MEMBER: PEGGY CARR April 18, 2017

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Page 1 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Acknowledgements I wish to express my great appreciatio n to the many people who assisted me and encouraged me through this terminal project. I would like to give a special thanks to my committee, Dr. Tom Hoctor (Chair) and Peggy Carr (Member). Without their encouragement, confidence and academic support, I cou ld not have complete d this project. I also would like to thank several people for their support, teachings and understanding: Family and friends, f or their unconditional support; Tina Gurucharri, Chair Department of Landscap e Architecture, faculty and staff for their assistance and teachings ; and classmates who stood by me through this endeavor.

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Page 2 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Abstract A few years ago, Puerto Mosquito Bay, an iconic bioluminescent bay in Vieques, Puerto Rico, lost its prominent glow. The phenomenon precipitated an investigation by local environmental authorities on the potential causes for this black out. The main objective s of this project were: (1) to examine the ecological impacts affecting the concentration of bioluminescent dinoflagellates; (2) to explore effective management strategies to m itigate the negative ecological impacts; (3) to design a master plan for the protection of Puerto Mosquito Bay and for the provision of recreational activities and facilities Lessons learned from case studies, and analysis of the study area and region provided a framework to address two goals : 1) To recommend watershed management strategies for the restoration and protection of stream corridors discharging in to Puerto Mosquito Bay. 2) To des ign a master plan that will conserve and preserve the bioluminescent ecosystem in Puerto Mos quito Bay, while providing recreational activities and facilities such as kayaking and camping compatible to Puerto Mosquito Bay and its surrounding landscape

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Page 3 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO The recommendations and master plan could be used as a framework by planners, managers, and decision makers for future land planning and design ideas for the protection and preservation of a fragile bioluminescent ecosystem.

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Page 4 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Table of Contents Acknowledgements ................................................................................................... 1 Abstract ..................................................................................................................... 2 List of Figures ........................................................................................................... 6 1. Introductio n and Background of the Project .................................................. 7 1.1. INTRODUCTION OF THE PHENOMENON ............................................................................. 7 1.2. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF BIOLUMINESCENCE ...................................................................... 9 1.3. DURATION OF THE PHENOMENON .................................................................................... 9 1.4. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ......................................................................................... 11 1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT .................................................................................... 11 1.6. MASTER PLAN ............................................................................................................... 12 2. Literature Review and Puerto Mosquito Bay Background .........................13 2.1. BIOLUMINESCENT ECOLOGY ............................................................................................. 13 2.2. ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS AFFECTING BIOLUMINESCENT ECOSYSTEMS ................................... 22 2.3. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT .............................................................................................. 22 2.4. VEGETATION MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................. 24 2.5. ECOTOURISM MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................ 27 3. Case Study Analysis .........................................................................................29 3.1. MORRO BAY, CALIFORNIA ............................................................................................... 30 3.2. MANGROVE LAGOON, SALT RIVER BAY, ST. CROIX, USVI ................................................ 33 3.3. BAHA FOSFORESCENTE, LA PARGUERA, LAJAS, PUERTO RICO ........................................... 36 4. Site Inventory, Analysis and Synthesis ..........................................................39 4.1. SITE ANALYSIS ISLAND ................................................................................................... 39 4.2. SITE ANALYSIS WATERSHED ............................................................................................ 42 4.3. SITE ANALYSIS PARK SITE ............................................................................................... 48 4.4. SITE SYNTHESIS PARK SITE ............................................................................................... 63 4.5. PROGRAM DEFINITION FOR PARK SITE ................................................................................ 65 4.6. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................. 66 5. Design Exploration ..........................................................................................67 5.1. CHANGES TO VISITOR SERVICES ON THE ISLAND ................................................................ 67 5.2. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................................. 67

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Page 5 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 5.3. PARK SITE MASTER PLAN ................................................................................................... 70 6. Conclusion ........................................................................................................73 Works Cited ............................................................................................................74 Biographical Ske tch ...............................................................................................78 List of Figures Sources .........................................................................................79

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Page 6 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO List of Figures FIGURE 1: PUERTO MOSQUITO BAY LOCATION ............................................................................... 8 FIGURE 2: DINOFLAGELLATE SPECIMEN .......................................................................................... 9 FIGURE 3: BIOLUMINESCENT BAY .................................................................................................... 9 FIGURE 4: PH LEVELS CHART ........................................................................................................ 19 FIGURE 5: MORRO BAY, CALIFORNIA ............................................................................................ 32 FIGURE 6: MANGROVE LAGOON, SALT RIVER BAY, ST. CROIX, USVI .......................................... 35 FIGURE 7: LA PARGUERA, LAJAS, PUERTO RICO ............................................................................ 38 FIGURE 8: ACCOMMODATIONS AND FOOD SERVICES LOCATION MAP ........................................... 41 FIGURE 9: VIEQUES' LAND ZONING MAP ....................................................................................... 43 FIGURE 10: SITE ANALYSIS WATERSHEDS ZONING AND STREAM CORRIDORS .......................... 46 FIGURE 11: SITE ANALYSIS WATERSHED LAND USE AND STREAM CORRIDORS ........................ 47 FIGURE 12: TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPE MAP ................................................................................... 50 FIGURE 13: HYDROLOGY MAP ....................................................................................................... 52 FIGURE 14: SOILS MAP .................................................................................................................. 54 FIGURE 15: VEGETATION MAP ....................................................................................................... 56 FIGURE 16: HISTORY/CU LTURAL SITE FEATURES MAP ............................................................... 58 FIGURE 17: EXISTING UTILITIES AND SERVICES MAP .................................................................... 60 FIGURE 18: EXISTING STRUCTURES MAP ....................................................................................... 62 FIGURE 19: OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS MAP .................................................................... 64 FIGURE 20: STREAM BANK STABILIZATION AND PROTECTION....................................................... 68 FIGURE 21: MASTER PLAN ............................................................................................................. 70 FIGURE 22: BEACHFRONT PLAN ..................................................................................................... 71 FIGURE 23: NATURE-BASE ECO PARK PLAN .................................................................................. 72

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Page 7 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 1. Introduction and Background of the Project 1.1. INTRODUCTION OF THE PHENOMENON The brightest bioluminescent bay in the world1 lost its refulgent glow o n January 29, 2014. Environmental authorities and researchers were nonplussed about what caused the Puerto Mosquito Bay to cease showcasing its nocturnal spectacle that famously characterized it. Even though, a gap in this phenomenon has occurred in the past, it never persisted for more than a few days. In prior events, residual levels of concentration of bioluminescent organisms remained in the bay. However, this time it appeared to be a complete disappearance of the luminescent organisms. T his event was detrimen tal both ecologically and economically for the small island of Vieques Viequenses rely on tourism to bolster their tenuous economy on the island. Night kayaking tours to the bay are a critical component in generating financial revenues for the local econo my. This enigmatic blackout prompted elected off icials to issue a moratorium restrict ing kayaking tours to weekend nights only and also to assemble a team of scientists to investigate the causes of the bay going dark (Alvarez, 2014). Puerto Mosquito Bay is located on the south coast of the Island of Vieques, which is approximately ten miles off the eastern coast of P uerto Rico The bay is situated within basins along the southern edge of a vol canic upland. This bay encloses about 158 acres. The maximum depth is about 12.1 feet and the ave rage is about 8.8 feet (Figure 1 ). 1 2006 Guinness Worlds Record.

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Page 8 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Figure 1 : Puerto Mosquito Bay Location

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Page 9 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 1.2. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF BIOLUMINESCENCE Bioluminescence is light emitte d by a living organism through a chemical reaction A common example of this is the firefly However, a firefly is a land organism, whereas most bioluminescent organisms are marine species found in quiescent and warm ocean waters. The kind of marine bioluminescent organisms found in Puerto Mos quito Bay are commonly known as dinoflagellates Dinoflagellates are single celled mic roscopic phytoplankton (Figure 2 ). When the waters surface is agitated, the wave en er gy generated causes pressure on the cell walls, thus serving as a catalyst for the chemical reaction within the dinoflagellates to take place and therefore illuminate the bay at night (Figure 3). They emit a blue green part of the visible light spectrum. T hese organisms use their bioluminescent properties to attract potential mates, hunt prey, mitigate predatory impact, and conduct other survival activities. 1.3. DURATION OF THE PHENOMENON The 2014 gap in t his phenomenon commenced in late January when a decrease in bioluminescence and an increase in turbidity were detected. This discovery precipitated the action of the Department of Natural and Environmental Resources of Puerto Rico (DNER) to establi sh a temporary moratorium that restricted kayaking tours in May As the bay regenerated and field data was being collected and analyzed, the dinoflagellates reappeared in June. According to the Figure 2 : Dinoflagellate Specimen Figure 3 : Bioluminescent Bay

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Page 10 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO field data, the population density of the dinoflagellate s in J anuary was about 200 organisms/mL In March i t had increased to 352 organisms/mL And by June it had more than doubled its num ber to a staggering 768 organisms/mL (ENDI, 2014) Evidentl y, the moratorium paid off and the dinoflagellate population was well on its way to a full recovery Subsequently, the moratorium was lifted and normal operations (pre moratorium) were resumed in early August 2014.

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Page 11 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 1.4. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Based on the conclusive findings from the data gathered during the moratorium, the causes of the gap in the phenomenon were attributed to seasonal tidal fluctuations, low precipitation, and low nutrients present in the ecosystem (DRNA) However, there are concerns that future black outs are possible and efforts should be considered to minimize this possibility. Thus, t he main research question this project sought to answer was how the ecological impacts affecting the bioluminescent bay can be mitigated as well as managed in order to preserve the bioluminescent ecosystem of Puerto Mosquito Bay. Therefore the central problem to be researched in this project was to accomplish three main objectives: 1. t o examine the ecological impacts affecting the concentration of bioluminesc ent dinoflagellates. 2. t o explore effective management strategies to mitigate the negative ecological impacts. 3. t o design a master plan for the protection and cons e rvation of Puerto Mosquito Bay, while providing for recreational activities and facilities to Puerto Mosquito Bay and its surrounding landscape 1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT This project is important because of the need to bring awareness of the ecological impacts threatening the intrinsic value of an ini mitable ecosystem and presents landscape management and design solutions for the preservation of a fragile and de licate bioluminescent ecosystem, while allowing for human enjoyment.

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Page 12 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 1.6. MASTER PLAN A master plan for long term protection of the delicate bioluminescent ecosystem in Puerto Mosquito Bay was developed to ensure the preservation and conservation of the bay for future gener ations to experience and enjoy. Moreover, it provides design solutions that integrate recreational activities and facilities that are compatible with protecting bioluminescent ecosystem of the bay.

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Page 13 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 2. Literature Review and Puerto Mosquito Bay Background 2.1. BIOLUMINESCENT ECOLOGY 2.1.1. Brief Historical Background of Dinoflagellates Pyrodinium bahamense specimens were first described by Plate in 1906 (Plate, 1906). Subsequently, two varieties of P. bahamense were identified, P. bahamense var. bahamense and P. bahamense var. compressum (Steidinger, Tester, & Taylor, 1980) Worldwide distribution of P. bahamense have been observed, particularly, P. bahamense var. bahamense in a variety of locations in the western North Atlantic, including Oyster Bay in Jamaica (Seliger et al. 1970, and Florida Bay (Philips & Basylak 1996), Indian River Lagoon (Badylak & Philip 2004), and Tampa Bay (Steidinger et al. 1980, Badylak et al. 2006) in Florida. In Puerto Rico, concentrations of P. bahamense have been reported in Baha Fosforescente and Baha Monsio Jos near La Parguera, Puerto Rico (Margalef 1957) and Puerto Mosquito, Vieques, Puerto Rico (S eliger et al. 1969). Despite the plethora of literature on harmful algae blooms and paralytic shellfish toxin producing marine dinoflagellates, there is no evidence of a correlation between the P. bahamense var. bahamense population in Puerto Mosquito Bay and any human illnesses and/or fatalities caused by PST producing dinoflagellates. 2.1.2. Physical Characteristics of Dinoflagellates 2.1.2.1. Type In their taxonomy lineage, Pyrodinium bahamense var. bahamense dinoflagellates belongs to the Protista Kingdom. Protists are eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified as a plant,

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Page 14 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO animal or fungus. They are mostly unicellular, but some are multicellular such as algae and seaweed. Protists can be heterotrophic they meet their energy requirements by consuming other organisms and autotrophic they meet their energy requirements from the environment through photosynthesis. As with many phytoplankton, movement is often by flagella or cilia. Phototactic dinoflagellates tend to drift with the waves and currents near the surface of the sea as they migrate vertically within a few feet to the surface in the evening and sink down during daylight hours. Seliger et al. (1970) argue that this vertical aggregation is one of the mechanisms for accumulation of high concentration of dinoflagellates in bioluminescent bays. P. bahamense has been known to have a biological clock that can be stimulated to produce light during the night (Hasting, 1975; Bold a nd Wynne, 1978). 2.1.2.2. Size and Length Pyrodinium bahamense var. bahamense specimens collected from bays in Puerto Rico and Jamaica measured a total length of 47 to 84 m with a width of 35 to 64 m (Balech, 1985) 2.1.2.3. Intensity of Luminescence Most dinoflagellates emit about 6x108 photons in a flash lasting only about 0.1 second. Much larger organisms such as jellyfish emit about 2x1011 photons per second for sometimes tens of seconds. The intensity of luminescence by photosynthetic dinoflagellates in strongly influence by the intensity of sunlight the previous day. The brighter the sunl ight the brighter the flash which is only emitted at night. Moreover, high intensity of luminescence can be attributed to high concent ration of dinoflagellates which probably is attributed to some combination of several factors such as low hydrodynamic activity, reduced exchange with coastal water, low grazing rate

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Page 15 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO by invertebrates, and phototactic vertical and lateral aggregation (Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce, 2011) 2.1.3. Abiotic Conditions for Dinoflagellates An estuary or bay is a semi enclosed coastal body of water which serves as a transition zone between land and sea, where freshwater and saltwater habitats interact. Thousands of marine species depend on these vital habitats. E stuaries are called the n urse ries of the sea due to their protective environment and abundant food available to fish and shellfish for their reproduction. Abiotic conditions in an estuary may influence the composition of its environment. Many of these abiotic conditions are structure d by hydrological processes such as currents, tides, and wind patterns in the embayment For example, population dynamics of P. bahamense can be drastically affected by variations of levels of salinity, turbidity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH levels, nutrients and water depth. 2.1.3.1. Salinity Sa linity measures the concentration of dissolved salt in water. It is measured in parts per thousands (ppt or ). On average, the salinity of seawater is about 35 ppt, whereas in freshwater it is about 0.5 ppt. Thus, the salinity concentration in Puerto Mosquito Ba y can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt given the fluctuation of entering the bay Salinity levels fluctuate daily depending on climatological factors such as tidal cycle, precipitation levels and other weather facto rs. Typically, salinity levels decline in the spring as precipitation increases the freshwater flow from streams and groundwater. Conversely, salinity levels rise during the summer when temperatures rise and evaporation is accelerated in the bay (NOAA, 2008)

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Page 16 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO The results in some studies have suggested a positive correlation between lower levels of salinity and warmer water temperature with higher concentration levels of P. bahamense For instance, Grasso et al. (2016) reported that isotonic or slightly hypertonic and relatively warm water are not desirable conditions for P. bahamense Conversely, lower salinity and higher tide level are correlated with high P. bahamense abundance. (Grasso, Albrecht, & Bras, 2016) Seliger et al. (1970) have concluded based on laboratory results that P. bahamense are prone to migrate to high salinity layer s (S=34 ppt) than low salinity layer s (S=10 15 ppt) in the water column through vertical distribution (Seliger H. H., Carpenter, Loftus, & McElroy, 1970) Furthermore, one study concluded that the optimal salinity for P. bahamense var. bahamense is 35 ppt (Wall & Dale, 1969) However, salinity tolerance appears to vary based upon geographical location. For instance, P. bahamense var. bahamense in Florida have a salinity range of 1045, even though blooms only transpired at 20 ppt or higher (Ph lips, Badylak, Bledsoe, & Cichra, 2006) Evidently, these findings demonstrate that the tropical marine photosynthetic P. bahamense can tolerate a broad range of salinities. 2.1.3.2. Turbidity Turbidity measures the level of haziness or cloudiness of a fluid. I n other words, it determines how easily light can be transmitted through it. The accumulation of sedim ents, algae and other suspended solids in the water restrict s the amount of light that can penetrate through the water. High levels of t urbidity i n a bay have a negative effect o n the health of the bioluminescent ecosystem. Organisms such as dinoflagellates depend on sunlight for their normal photosynthetic processes and gross primary production. P. bahamense is positively phototactic in direct trop ical sunlight (Seliger H. H., Carpenter, Loftus, Biggley, & McElroy, 1971) Phototactic is define d as

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Page 17 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO the movement of an organism toward or away from a source of light. Therefore, P. bahamense will have a tendency to move toward (positive direction) a source of light like tropical sunlight. 2.1.3.3. Temperature The temperature of the water often gives an indication of the type of organisms that thrive in the bay. Water temperature in the bay can serve as an indicator of a producti ve ecosystem. If the water in the bay shows an anomaly in the seasonal temperature range in which most organisms can comfortably live, it is probably an indication that some sort of ecological impact is adversely aff ecting the health of the bay. Pyrodinium bahamense are mostly confined to warm tropical and subtropical waters greater than 20C (68F). They bloom at temperature s greater than 25C (77F). Phlips et al. (2006) argue that the relationships between seawater temperature and abundance in Florida (Indian River Lagoon, Tampa Bay, and Florida Bay) support the notion that P. bahamense var. bahamense is constrained to periods of high temperature. (Phlips, Badylak, Bledsoe, & Cichra, 2006) Seliger et al. (1970) corroborate that the zone with high concentrations which corresponds to warm zone s in Oyster Bay, Jamaica, W.I. (Seliger H. H., Carpenter, Loftus, & McElroy, 1970) 2.1.3.4. Dissolved Oxygen Dissolved oxygen (DO) is critical for the survival of animals and plants t hat live in the water. The higher levels of DO in the water the healthier the ecosystem As oxygen from air is combined with surface waters through wind and waves actions, the dissolved oxygen level increases. However, oxygen goes into the water through two primary ecological processes: distribution from the atmosphere and photosynthesis by aquatic plants.

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Page 18 of 7 9 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO DO levels are affected by temperature and salinity. S olubility of oxygen in water diminishes a s the waters t emperature and salinity are elevated In other words, a s the water temperature increases, the amount of oxygen that can dissolve in the wate r decreases. For example, fresh water at 0C can contain up to 14.6 mg of oxygen per liter of water, but at 20C, it can only hold 9.2 mg of oxygen per liter. In seawater, the solubility of DO is about 20 percent less than it is in fresh water at the same temperature. (NOAA, 2008) DO levels are often influenced by seasonal water temperature fluctuations with the lowest levels occurring during the late summer months when temperatures are at the highest. (NOAA, 2008) Oxygen depletion may occur in bays experiencing eutrophication the process by which a body of water becomes eutrophic (overabundance of nutrient s and especially nitrogen and/or phosphorous ), typically as a consequence of high accumulation of mineral and organic runoff from the adjacent land including a gricultural, suburban, and urban stormwater Shallow, well mixed bays are less susceptible to this phenomenon because wave action and circulation patterns supply the waters with plentiful oxygen

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Page 19 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 2.1.3.5. pH Levels Figure 4 : pH Levels Chart The pH levels measure the acidity and alkalinity of a solution with a scale range from 1 to 14 (Figure 4). Acidic s olutions contain pH levels lower than 7, whereas those higher than 7 are found in the basic (or alkaline) side of the spectrum. Pure or distilled water has a pH of 7 (neutral) Aquatic organisms are quite adaptive in pH levels between 5.0 and 9.0. Chemical components in seawater help to minimize changes to pH levels. However pH levels have a tendency to increase in eutrophic bays. As a result of their study, Grasso et. al. (2016) attribute d low er concentrations of P. bahamense in Puerto Mosquito Bay to a combination of lower pH levels and water temperatures resulting from storm runof f draining into the bay after a heavy precipitation event. One dramatic consequence of the rise in levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is a decrease in pH, a process also known as ocean acidification. (Valdes Pizzini & Sharer Umpierre, 2014)

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Page 20 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 2.1.3.6. Low Nutrients Nutrients are critical indicato rs of water quality in bays Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are naturally introduced in a bays waters when freshwater runoff passes over geologic formations with abundant phosphate or nitrate, or when decomposing organic matter and wildlife waste get flushed into rivers and streams (NOAA, 2008) Anthropogenic contributions to nutrient loading to the bay include s sewage treatment plants, leaky septic tanks, industrial wastewater, acid rain, and fertilizer runoff from agricultural, residential and urban areas. A n overabundance of nitrogen and phosphorus acts as a pol lutant in the water which leads to eutrophication of the bay Superfluous nutrient concentrations have been attributed to hypoxic (very low oxygen) conditions in more than 50 percent of U.S. estuaries. In extreme conditions, the bays waters can become anoxic (having no oxygen). 2.1.3.7. Water Depth Water levels in a bay fluctuate with the daily tides and weather conditions In times of drought or excessive rainfall, the volume of the fresh water entering the bay from rivers or runoff, can easily ch ange the physical, chemical and biological conditions. Turbidity may be exacerbated with storm runoff or during periods of drought when there is a low volume of water in the bay and winds and waves disturb the muddy bottom at low tide. Conversely excessive water level fluctuation (too high or too low) in a bay for an extended periods of time, may threaten the health of the bays ecosystem

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Page 21 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 2.1.3.8. Chlor ophyll Chlorophyll is a by product of photosynthesis Chlorophyll is a green pigment in plants that converts light energy into food and allows plants to grow The level of concentration of chlorophyll in the water is a key indicator of the densit y of phytoplankton in a bay and the amount of primary productivity occurring as well. Phytoplankton forms t he base of th e aquatic food web in a bay The abundance of healthy organism s in a bay is linked to the amount of phytoplankton and primary productivity taking place. The total dinoflagellate population and chlorophyll a showed a positive correlation in Puerto Mosquito at the surface and two meters. Pyrodinium bahamense is likely to be a major contributor to the chlorophyll a concentrations, since it is the most abundant dinoflagellate in this bay (Walker, 1997)

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Page 22 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 2.2. ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS AFFECTING BIOLUMINESCENT ECOSYSTEM S S everal theories developed speculating about the p rima ry cause for the diminishing dinoflagellate population in 2014 in Puerto Mosquito Bay T hese emerging theories included four main ecological impacts: Poor w ater quality Mangrove deforestation Climate change and prevailing wind patterns Ineffective ecotourism management plan 2.3. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT 2.3.1. Poor Water Quality Water quality of the bay has bee n threaten ed by sedimentation population growth and pollution. T urbidi ty in the bay is one of the most consequential indicator s of water quality. The eutrophic ation of the bay can deprive dinoflagellate s of their autotrophic process by increasing turbidity and reducing sunlight penetration. During high rates of precipitation, stormwater runoff can contain pollutants such as sediments, organic compounds, nutrients, trace metal s, chloride, bacteria, oil and others that when flushed into the bay can significantly compromise the water quality. Furthermore, new c onstruction leads to an increase in impervious surfaces which adds to the volume of stormwater runoff produced by high precipitation event s Impervious surfaces may divert sto rmwater that would typically percolate through existing pervious surfaces and to replenish the aquifers and groundwater.

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Page 23 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Deterioration in water quality is due to increase of nutrients and turbidity due to sediment loads produced by land based sources and anthropogenic activities, which in terms are the principal sources of habitat degr adation. A plan t o protect a sensitive bay like Puerto Mosquito Bay must address land use A watershed plan that include s sustainable green infrastructure will provide corrective measures that will assist in treating non point source pollution in the storm water runoff before it reaches the bay. Green infrastructure such as rain gardens, bioswales, permeable pav ements and others measures can ameliorate the stormwater runoff prior to the point of entry into the bay. P ollution has a significant role to play in the deficiency of a bays water quality. For instance the amount of DEET ( the active ingredient in insect repellants) that swimmers have sprayed on themselves that wash es off in the bay may negatively affect dinoflagellates Some studies have concluded that certain kinds of dinoflagellates ( Pyrocystis fusiformis ) are tolerant of N, Ndiethylmeta toluamide (DEET) to certain level. However, when the threshold is surpassed, the dinoflagellates cease to exist (Ryan, 2011) T hus, DEET can be pernicious to dinoflagellates and detrimental to the health of the bioluminescent bay. Swimming in the bay is currently prohibited and should remain so. T our operators as well as conscientious ecotourists can help in adhering to the park rule s and educating themselves about the impact they make. P ollutants such as carbon emissions from motorboat s either when they are running or idled, can cause irreversible environmental damage to the bay and therefore to dinoflagellates. Thus, their use in a sensitive bay like Puerto Mosquito should be avoided (Valdes Pizzini & Sharer Umpierre, 2014)

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Page 24 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 2.4. VEGETATION MANAGEMENT 2.4.1. Mangrove Deforestation The clearing of red mangroves degrades the dinoflagellates feeding ground. The roots of the red mangrove rele ase tannins which are rich in Vitamin B12 nutrient needed by dinoflagellates (Mangrove Lagoons) Thus, the absence or reduction of these nutrients due to the removal of red mangrove roots is detrimental to the dinoflagellates growth cycle. Furthermore, decomposed red mangrove leaves that have fallen in the water provide additional nutrients that are essential for the survival of dinoflagellates (Mangrove Lagoons) Red mangrove s along the shoreline provide numerous ecosystem services. One is storm protection for human ecosystems. Mangrove restoration in Vietnam has been shown to attenuate wave height and thus reduce wave damage and erosion (Hale & al., 2009, p. 23) They also benefit the region economically. In Malaysia, the value of intact mangrove swamps for storm protection and flood control has been estimated at US D $186,420 per mile, which is the cost of replacing them with rock walls (Hale & al., 2009, p. 23) Moreover, m angroves play a crucial role in providing ecosystem services to the local environment such as carbon sequestration and sediment st orage. Healthy mangroves also provide numerous additional benefits, such as timber and fisheries production, biofiltration, and recreational activities like recreational fishing and bird watching, services not provided by nonecosystem based coastal protection alternatives. (Hale & al., 2009, p. 23) Protection and restoration of red mangrove s will ameliorate the natural habitat for the bioluminescent phytoplankton. Another benefit of mangrove restoration is that it provides refugia for microscopic phytoplankton and other species.

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Page 25 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 2.4.2. Climate Change and Wind Patterns The increasing concentration of greenhouse gas s es (GHG) in the atmosphere, caused mostly by anthropogenic activity since the beginning of the industrial revolution, has accelerated the warming of the Earth. This increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration has modified the amount of ra diation absorbed from the Earths surface, raising the global temperature (Shipman & Wilson, 1990) Consequently, the temperature of the oceans is in creasing resulting in ocean acidity to also increase, as global warming intensifies. There are two related factors that contribute to the rising of sea level: Thermal expansion ; resulting in the warming of ocean water; and the vast input of freshwater in the ocean f rom melted ice sheets, ice caps, and glaciers from Greenland and Antarctica. These two factors have contributed about 75 percent of the global mean sea level increase. Thermal expansion has attributed 23 percent of the average annual rise in global sea level from 1961 to 2003 (IPCC, 2014) It has also attributed 52 percent of the average rise in global sea level from 1993 to 2003 (IPCC, 2014) Input of freshwater from the melting of ice sheets, ice caps and glaciers have contributed to 38 percent of the annual global sea level rise from 1993 to 2003. It is projected that the oceans will rise between 20 inches to more than 3 feet by 2100 (IPCC, 2014) The main potential stressors to bioluminescent systems due to climate change are the increases in heavy precipitation, storms, and hurricanes. Heavy precipitation and storms lead to increases in runoff in to these systems This can trigger increases i n sediment and nutrient loading which would affect water quality due to increased turbidity primary productivity, as well as frequency and extension of salinity levels fluctuation.

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Page 26 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Dinoflagellates can also be affected by warmer temperatures expected from global climate change, because t emperature is cons idered one of the main abiotic conditions that influence the growth of these organisms. At some point temperature may rise to a level that will inhibit survival of dinoflagellates. Winds produced by inclement weather have been found to considerably change the composition of the optimal conditions for the organisms to thrive. These conditions are warm, calm and shallow waters (Jha, 2013) Torrential rain, strong wind gust s and storm surge can potentially cause the dinoflagellates population to be flushed out into the ocean: While no conclusions have yet been drawn, Dr. Latz said one reason for the loss of bioluminescence may be a shift in wind direction to the north last winter. Strong winds from that direction would push the dinoflagellates (which cannot swim against the current) out of the bays na rrow mouth back into the Caribbean Sea. These strong winds in January and March also made the bay extremely turbid, which interferes with bioluminescence. (Alvarez, 2014, p. 3) While some natural disturbances like hurric ane winds are impossible for ma nagers and planners to predict, let alone address in a management plan, some adaptation strategies if properly implemented would be effective in mitigating the damages these forces of nature are likely to cause to the biolumi nescent ecosystems and coastal development. For example, strategic planting of mangrove s and other plant material will buffer wind gusts and erosion.

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Page 27 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 2.5. ECOTOURISM MANAGEMENT 2.5.1. Ineffective Ecotourism Management Plan The increase kayaking has been presumed to be a plausible cause of the bay losing its nocturnal show The interagency communication and management coordination among various jurisdictions (federal, state, and municipal) have been a challenge. The mana gement of ecotourists who have flocked to Puerto Mosquito Bay is the responsibility of the following environmental agencies : 1) Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources (PRDNER) 2) Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board (PREQB) 3) Vieques Conservation and Historical Trust (VCHT ) 4) US Fish and Wildlife Service O ne of the main challenges for these authorities is the coordination of their jurisdictions Some discrepancies among details in zoning regul ations and planning have weakened the prot ective emphasis of the bay that one wo uld assume come with the Marine Protected Area designation. Puerto Mosquito Bay is currently classified as a natural reserve which is categorized in a lower rank of classification for the level of protection that is needed. A lack of enforcement is perhaps the most consistent and persistent hurdle in the management of coastal and marine resources, not only in Puerto Rico but in all the Caribbean under US jurisdiction. There are certain activities that impact coral reef and marine stocks in which enforceme nt is scarce to null (Aguilar Perera, 2006, p. 968).

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Page 28 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO However, it will be imperative for these agencies to develop a well conceived ecosystem based management plan that can be effectively implemented in order to regulate a tractable number of visitors. Unregulated recreation carrying capacity of the site can degrade the bi oluminescent ecosystem further. Pollution from artificial lighting has recently been added as a potential contributor to depriving ecotourists with the full experience of maximum illumination of the bay. In other words to fully experience the glow of the bay, the darker the ambient light the brighter the bay appears, thus the more satisfying the experience is. Recen t studies on artificial light pollution have suggest ed that artificial lighting abates the intensity of the lumin escent properties of the bay. T herefore, street, residential, commercial and other forms of ambient lighting should be monitored and reduced in order t o assuage the effect on the bay (Ramos, 2003)

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Page 29 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 3. Case Study Analysis Case studies focus on the subject being studied and in particular a specific aspect of that subject. In this case, those are 1) the ecological impacts affecting the health of the estuary ecosystem and 2) management strategies implemented to mitigate the effects of the impacts. The primary data for this was collected through comparative case study analysis from selected estuaries or bays that closely resemble the character of Puerto Mosquit o Bay and/or the conservation and management issues facing the bay. The following three estuaries or bays were analyz ed: Morro Bay, California, USA Mangrove Lagoon, Salt River Bay, St. Croix, USVI La Parguera, Lajas, Puerto Rico

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Page 30 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 3.1. MORRO BAY, CALIFORNIA 3.1.1. P roject Description Location: 320 km north of Los Angeles and 370 km south of San Francisco Size: 2,300acres Project Type: Coastal Embayment, E stuary Mo rro Bay (Figure 5) is relevant to Puerto Mosquito Bay because the challenges it had to overcome in order to reach the goal of ecological restoration. Challenges such as poor water quality, ecosystem degradation, and a lack of management plan exclusively apply to Puerto Mosquito Bay. Morro Bays ecosystem serves as a home for many fish, mammals, invertebrates, and plants. The ecosystem provides significant services such as recreational and commercial fishing, recreational boating, land based agriculture including farming and g razing, and an active oyster and abalone aquaculture industry. The watershed for the Morro Bay Estuary covers approximately 75 square miles. Sixty eight percent of land cover for the watershed includes agricultural land, eleven percent in urbanized residential areas and the remaining are some open spaces for public facilities and recreation areas. A potential point source of pollution that threatens the ecological health of Morro Bay is the 200foot tall stacks of the natural gas fired power plant. Another one is the partial discharge of treated sewage into the coastal environment. 3.1.2. Benefits Wildlife habitats Ecosystem services: shellfish harvest and recreational activities

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Page 31 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Open spaces for public facilities and recreation areas Stormwater runoff detention and percolation. 3.1.3. Lessons Learned Watershed management strategies for mitigating pointsource pollution from natural gas fired power plant and land use cover change from agriculture, urban, and residential zoning. Ecosystem based management plan to provide interagency communication and management coordination among various jurisdictions (federal, state, and municipal).

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Page 32 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 3.1.4. Photograph of Site Figure 5 : Morro Bay, California NORTH

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Page 33 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 3.2. MANGROVE LAGOON, SALT RIVER BAY, ST. CROIX, USVI 3.2.1. Project Description Location: Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve Size: 9.3acre Project Type: Coastal Embayment, E stuary Ecological Preserve Mangrove Lagoon (Figure 6) shares similar bioluminescent characteristics with Puerto Mosquito Bay. It demonstrates the relationship between water quality, dinoflagellate concentration, mangrove preservation and ecotourism management. Mangrove Lagoon is located within Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve (SARI) which is managed by the National Park Service (NPS) and the Government of the Virgin Islands of the United States (GVI). In order to bolster t he goals of the park, NPS, SARI, and other collaborators conducted resources management and research activities. These activities have included demolition and removal of derelict structures, shoreline stabilization, evaluation of manmade peninsula, year l ong sea water quality survey inside/outside the bay, installation of an automated weather station recoding rainfall, wind speed, temperature, vegetation inventory and mapping, coral monitoring, removal of invasive plants and planting of native plants around the mangrove lagoon and peninsula to bolster native plant diversity and wildlife ecosystems. The susceptibility level of point and nonpoint sources pollution to Mangrove Lagoon has been considered to be high, unfortunately the bay has continued to suff er from upland erosion from development and land clearing within the watershed, discharges from live boats, construction of fiberglass boats, and failed private septic systems which are all having adverse effects on the water qual ity and turbidity in the b ay (Rothenberger, 2008) Therefore, NPS and GVI has taken management action to control pollution and improve the overall water quality to support the

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Page 34 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO nursery, mangrove, and coral reef ecosystems. In the last 15 years, ecotourists have flocked to the bioluminescent waters of Mangrove Lagoon. Night kayak tours have steadily been increasing to the point where an ecotourism management plan that includes acceptable levels of recreation carrying capacity is needed to conserve the natural bioluminescent ecosystem in Mangrove Lagoon. 3.2.2. Benefits Wildlife habitat (marine, estuarine, and terrestrial) Largest mangrove forest in the US Virgin Islands Bioluminescent bay, an ecotourists attraction. Recreational activities night kayak tours. 3.2.3. Less ons Learned Water quality management and pollution control Ecosystem based management plan to provide interagency communication and management coordination among various jurisdictions (federal, state, and municipal). Vegetation management plan for Mangrove Lagoon that include strategies such as removal of invasive plants, and planting of native plants, vegetation inventory and mapping. Shoreline stabilization, erosion control measures and re pavement of park historic access road.

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Page 35 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 3.2.4. Photograph of Site Figure 6 : Mangrove Lagoon, Salt River Bay, St. Croix, USVI NORTH

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Page 36 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 3.3. BAHA FOSFORESCENTE, LA PARGUERA, LAJAS, PUERTO RICO 3.3.1. Project Description Location: Southwest coast of Puerto Rico Size: 49acre Project Type: Bioluminescent Bay/Estuary Ba ha Fo sforescente (Figure 7) resembles Puerto Mosquito Bay in that it is also a bioluminescent bay. As with Puerto Mosquito Bay, Ba ha Fosforescente is characterized by calm and shallow waters, narrow entrances and surrounded by relatively low rolling hills. At La Parguera, the low lying lands surrounding the bay exhibit a gamut of sands, clays and muck deposit. Ba ha Fosforescente attracts a large number of visitors to La Parguera who travel by boat, owned by local operators, to the coves. Therefore, a number of factors affecting the ecology of dinoflagellates in this bay in particular includes: visitation patterns, the wake caused by vessel traffic, the influence of propellers stirring up sediments, carbon emissions from gasoline and diesel motorboats, and the chemicals and contaminants from the vessels. Conversely, the bioluminescent ecology in Ba ha Fo sforescente has been affected by surrounding agricultural activities (timber production, mangrove cutting, charcoal production, small agricultural farms, pastures, and sugarcane production mainly in the 20th century ) A study that compared land use/land cover maps of Ba ha Fosforescente and Puerto Mosquito Bay concludes that Ba ha Fosforescente has more exposure to anthropogenic activities than Puerto Mosquito Bay which result s in less density of vegetation than Puerto Mosquito Bay (Viruet, 2002) The implication of these findings is that the environmental degradation thru changes of land use surrounding the bioluminescent ecosystem might negatively affect the viability of dinoflagellates.

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Page 37 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 3.3.2. Benefits Wildlife habitat Bioluminescent bay, an ecotourist attraction. Recreational activities night kayak tours. Mangrove forest for attenuating prevailing wind and providing nutrient to dinoflagellates. 3.3.3. Lessons Learned Vegetation management plan for M angrove Lagoon that include strategies such as removal of invasive plants, and planting of native plants, vegetation inventory and mapping. Shoreline stabilization, erosion control measures and repavement of park historic access road. Watershed management for pollution and erosion control.

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Page 38 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 3.3.4. Photograph of Site Figure 7 : La Parguera, Lajas, Puerto Rico NORTH

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Page 39 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 4. Site Inventory, Analysis and Synthesis The site inventory, analysis and synthesis is divided into three section: site analysis island, site analysis watershed, and site analysis park site. 4.1. SITE ANALYSIS ISLAND 4.1.1. Point of Access and Transportation There are two main point of access from the main island of Puerto Rico, both located on the northern coast of the island: Vieques Ferry Port and TJVQ Vieques Airport S ea travel is available through Fajardo Vieques Ferry for passenger and cargo The ferry has available four scheduled trips daily to Vieques Even though, this mode of travel takes longer (75 90 minute ferry ride) than by air (2030 minute flight), most traveler s prefer to use this economical mode of transportation ($4USD round trip per passen ger). Air travel can be arrange d through the following airline services : Air Culebra Vieques Air Link and Isla Nena Air Service. Flights depart from the San Juan International Airport to Vieques 5 times a day. G round transportation is available by public transit (bus), taxi, or car rental. Public transit (bus) include s prices that range from $2USD to $5USD per person from a specific site drop off or various sightseeing locations. Taxi s ervices can be arranged as well, price is negot iable For example, a trip from Isabel II to Sun Bay Beach (5 mile trip) can cost around $6USD. Car rental prices vary between $35 $50USD per day depending of the car model and year. Most car available are all terrain vehicles (jeep) and some minivans.

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Page 40 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 4.1.2. A ccommodations Vieques offers a wide range of places to lodge. T ype s of accommodation s includes: Villas vacation homes a partments s tudios hotels and guesthouses (Figure 8 ). 4.1.3. Food Services Vieques offers numerous places to eat. Food s ervices can be conveniently provided at the places guests are stay ing In addition, a number of local eateries are available such as: r estaurants c afes b akeries delis and fast food (Figure 8).

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Page 41 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Figure 8 : Accommodations and Food Services Location Map Puerto Mosquito Bay Food Services Restaurants Cafes Bakeries Delis Accommodations Villas Vacations homes Apartments Studios Hotels Guesthouses Food Services Restaurants Cafes Accommodations Vacations homes Apartments Hotels Guesthouses SCALE: N.T.S.

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Page 42 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 4.2. SITE ANALYSIS WATERSHED There are two watersheds that feed Puerto Mosquito Bay Watershed East and Watershed West (Figure 10 ). 4.2.1. Existing Land Use Zoning There are three main land use classifications within the watersheds that support the stream corridors that flow into Puerto Mosquito Bay (Figure 9). Agriculture: This zone is characterized as rural and agricultural areas that are allowed to be developed. The areas are prime farmland if irrigated. Typical crops includes coffee, bananas, coconuts, papaya, fruit trees, and sugarcane. Development must be consistent with the retention of pastoral open spaces, and a bucolic character. It also needs to pr e serve environmentally sensitive areas. The vast majority of the stream corridors that outflow into the bay run through this agriculture land use zoning category Conservation: D evelopment is permit ted as long as it protects natural and historic resources. Approximately, 25% of the stream corridor in the Watershed West is located in the conservation zone. In the Watershed East, about 60% can be found in the conservation area. Residential: T his include s urban residential development that may consist of a full range of housing types, lot size s, and densities. Currently, 8% of the stream corridor in the W atershed East originates in this zone.

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Page 43 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Puerto Mosquito Bay Figure 9 : Vieques' Land Zoning Map SCALE: N.T.S.

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Page 44 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 4.2.2. Existing Stream Corridor Condition Existing stream corridor conditions appear to be unknown in the absent of physical inspection. According to the most recent waterbody quality assessment report for Puerto Mosquito Bay conducted by EPA for years 2012 and 2014, the overall status was not ass essed. However, the 2010 report indicated the status w as good. It could be interpreted that the water quality contribution from the existing stream corridor s to the bay was in acceptable condit ion according to EPA s standards in the 2010 report, but one obvious recommendation is to initiate annual monitoring of these streams to ensure no negative changes in water quality. 4.2.3. Future Land Use Changes to the existing land use could exacerbate current biophysiological conditions of the streams in the two Puerto Mosquito Bays watersheds. For instance, if in the future the agriculture zone that encompasses most of the stream corridors were to be developed, it would threaten the water quality and theref ore the existence of dinoflagellates An increase in impervious surface s would contribute to sediment loading, erosion and pollution to the bay. 4.2.4. Conclusion A co mprehensive land use plan for Puerto Mosquito Bays watershed and stream corridor pollution control methods for its streams must be developed as part of an integrated protective strategy for Puerto Mosquito Bay. Si ting considerations, and planning for water pollution and stormwater control must be included in de sign guidelines. More specifically, it is important for management entities responsible for the bay to minimize any future development in the watershed, ensure proper use of low impact development techniques to minimize the impact of any new

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Page 45 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO development in the watershed, and to consider mitigating the existing impacts from urban and agricultural land uses within the watershed.

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Page 46 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Figure 10 : Site Analysis Watersheds Zoning and Stream Corridors

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Page 47 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Figure 11: Site Analysis Watershed Land Use and Stream Corridors

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Page 48 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 4.3. SITE ANALYSIS PARK SITE 4.3.1. Land Use and Access Puerto Mosquito Bay is surrounded by land uses identified as conservation, preservation, rural, urban, and residential tourism (low density) The land immediately surrounding the bay is classified as conservation area (Figure 10 ). The primary means for arriving at the site is traveling on an unpaved road, approximately 2,600 feet off of PR997 heading southeast. A second unpaved road that provides access to the site is approximately 3,000 feet in length running the southwest off of a sandy path from Sun Ba ys Beach. Both roads end at the edge of the bay where points of deployment for kayaks have been designated and modestly developed with parking, and boat launch. 4.3.2. Topography and Slope The landform within the park site is composed of a series of hill summits on two rock island areas. Summits or convex landforms are described as high points of ground. Generally, the summits on both rock islands show contours in a concentric arrangement sloping at about 6%. Generally, speaking the higher the summit of a convex landform, the steeper its side slopes. In this particular case, the steep side slopes on the w est side and east site are 6.4% and 5.8% respectively (Figure 12) and run from a high point of 25 feet to 0 feet at a distance of approximately 416 feet. This can cause erosion at the edges, and contributing to sediment loading to the bay. Conversely, on t he north shore of the bay, the slope or gradient is relatively level with a 0.5% slope with the high point of 15 feet to 0 feet at a distance of 2640 feet. This

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Page 49 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO creates a low lying area where frequent flooding and ponding occurs. A drainage divide on the e ast side of the bay allows for stormwater to be channeled into the salt marsh adjacent to the bay.

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Page 50 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Figure 12 : Topography and Slope Map

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Page 51 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 4.3.3. Hydrology Water in the bay circulates t hrough tidal fluctuations, freshwater runoff from creek that enters the bay and brackish or saline surfac e water that enters from a saline marsh to the west (Figure 13 ). There is some sheet flow runoff flowing from land area on the north side.

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Page 52 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Figure 13 : Hydrology Map

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Page 53 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 4.3.4. Soils Soil composition at Puerto Mosquito Bay encompasses four main types: Tidal flats (Tf), Tidal swamp (Ts), Rock land (Rs), and Vieques loam, 5 to 12 percent slopes (VmC) (Figure 14). Tidal flats and tidal swamps are similar in their properties. They are both found in areas where the landforms are fairly level and wet (wetlands) and the elevations are between 0 and 10 feet. Slope is between 0 to 2 percent. Their natural drainage prop erty is classified as very poorly drained, and therefore tend to flood and pond frequently. Based on the Hydrologic Soils Group, soils are rated by assigning a grade of either A, B, C, or D. An A soils exhibit the highest infiltration rate, whereas D soils have the lowest infiltration rate. Tidal swamp has a rating of C/D which indicates that it has a very low infiltration rate (0.00 0.15). They exhibit strong salinity levels 16.0 to 32.0 mmhos/cm. However, the difference between them is the dep th to the water table. Tidal flats have a depth of about 12 to 24 inches, whereas with tidal swamp is 0 inches. Conversely, rock land soil is prevalent in ridges landforms. It has a steep slope of approximately 60 to 70 percent. Finally, Vieques loams soi l is predominant in hillslopes where elevations between 10 to 100 feet dominate the landscape. Slope of 5 to 12 percent exhibits a well drained surface which translates to low or no frequency of flooding or ponding. It also is nonsaline to very slightly s aline (0.0 to 2.0 mmhos/cm). Moreover, Vieques loam, 5 to 12 percent has a rating of B (0.15 .30) which is considered moderate, based on the Hydrologic Soil Group rating system.

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Page 54 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Figure 14 : Soils Map

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Page 55 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 4.3.5. Vegetation Puerto Mosquito Bay is bordered by red mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle ) (Figure 15). Although, the majority of the mangrove forest is dominated by red mangrove, few white mangrove ( Laguncularia racemose ) are found along with the red. The fringing mangrove include wide lagoons and channels on which kayakers can navigate through. Estuarine subtidal and intertidal wetlands dominate the landscape especially on the north side. The bay has a healthy cover of sea grass. Seagrass habitats provide a variety of ecological functions in coastal marine ecosystems. Among these functions seagrasses are known for their high primary productivity via photosynthesis, the accumulation of sediment s and nursery function for fish and invertebrates. (Valdes Pizzini & Sharer Umpierre, 2014) The upland located north of the bay is predominately cover by lowland dry riparian and semi deciduous forest.

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Page 56 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Figure 15 : Vegetation Map

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Page 57 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 4.3.6. History/Cultural Site/Features In addition to its bioluminescent properties as an ecotourism attraction, Puerto Mosquito is also valued as a conservation, educational and cultural resource for the island of Vieques. The Vieques Conservation and Historical Trust is the principal manageme nt agency for the bioluminescent bay. Its mission is to promote the islands precious natur al and cultural resources, in particular the ecology of the bay by conducting nonformal education activities, and f acilitatin g scientific research (Figure 16 ).

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Page 58 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Figure 16 : History/Cultural Site Features Map

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Page 59 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 4.3.7. Existing Utilities and Services Existing utilities and services include water distribution systems, wastewater collection systems, and electrical distribution systems. The w ater distribution main is located off of PR 997 connecting to wells located just north of the site A force main runs through PR 996 with gravity and lateral lines connected to public restrooms at Playa Sun Bays visitor center and nearby residential community (Figure 17 ).

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Page 60 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Figure 17 : Existing Utilities and Services Map

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Page 61 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 4.3.8. Existing Structures Several existing buildings, parking lot, pavilions located at the north side of Playa Sun Bay (public beach) are the only structure s enclosed within the defined site limits (Figure 18).

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Page 62 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Figure 18 : Existing Structures Map

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Page 63 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 4.4. SITE SYNTHESIS PARK SITE 4.4.1. Opportunities (Figure 19) 4.4.1.1. Public Beach Sun Bay Beach (1) Proximity to public beach (Playa Sun Bay). Proximity to residential subdivision. Connectivity to program elements. Good site for a sustainable development (e.g., eco resort). Adjacent to primary road (Road 997). Convenient access to Isabel II (main town in Vieques). 4.4.1.2. Natural Area (2 ) Serves as ero si on control Stormwater detention Allows for water to percolate. Cleanse pollutants from storm runoff. Replenishes freshwater back to the aquifers. 4.4.1.3. Mangrove Stand (3 ) Provides wildlife habitat and refuge. Attenuates prevailing winds (NW direction). Provides food for dinoflagellates and other organisms Reduces sediment loading. 4.4.1.4. Rock Island Area (4 ) Site contains high bearing soil capacity = good for low impact sustainable development. Consider ed for idea l campground opportunities in the future. 4.4.1.5. Biobay Area (5 ) Potential for nonmotorized water transportation (e.g., kayak, canoe). Night ecotourists attraction should be protected, preserved and conserved for current and future generation s 4.4.1.6. Hype rsaline Estuarine Lagoon Area (6 ) Filters pollution, sediment, and nutrients. Mangrove planting where feasible may improve water quality. 4.4.1.7. Rock Island Area (7 ) Provide access to beaches (Media Luna & Navio Beach). Should be considered f or low impact sustainable development.

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Page 64 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Good drainage and high soil bearing capacity. Provides 360 views of coastline. 4.4.2. Constraints (Figure 19) 4.4.2.1. Public Beach Sun Bay Beach (1) Should make provision to protect c ri tical stream corridor if development is proposed in this area. Adjacent to primary road (Road 997), increase in traffic may augment noise pollution (vegetative buffer may be needed to mitigate effect). 4.4.2.2. Natural Area (2 ) Existing conditions unsuitable for development. Wet soil, flat grade < 1%. Prone to flooding and ponding. Figure 19: Opportunities and Constraints Map

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Page 65 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 4.5. PROGRAM DEFINITION FOR PARK S ITE 4.5.1. Program Elements 4.5.1.1. Public Beach Sun Bay Beach Visitor center (restrooms, rangers office, classrooms, etc.) Playground (Tot lot) Outdoor fitness area Pavilions (grills, picnic tables, potable water and electrical outlets) Outdoor showers Beach volleyball court Parking (permeable pavement) 4.5.1.2. Nature based Recreation Park Pri mitive camping Cabin camping Kayaking Canoeing Trail system (nature trail, boar dwalk) Lookout tower Interactive outdoor learning (biobay) signage posting. Guided group tours to the Biobay at night

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Page 66 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 4.6. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 4.6.1. Goal 1: Create a place that will facilitate beach goers to experience positive outcomes and provide them with a variety of aquaticrelated activities in a clean and safe venue. 4.6.1.1. Objectives 1. 1 Build a new visitor center that will offer facilities such as restrooms, rangers office, and classrooms. 4.6.1.2. Objectives 1. 2 Construct a new parking lot that provides better vehi cular circulation with a dropoff area and landscaped islands. 4.6.1.3. Objectives 1. 3 Design ate zones for different activities in order to mitigate potential activity conf lict. 4.6.2. Goal 2 : Design a nature based park where ecotourists will be encourage d to engage in sustainable tourism. 4.6.2.1. Objectives 2. 1 Designate zones for various activities to minimize conflict of interactivity (e.g., primitive camping vs. cabin camping). 4.6.2.2. Objectives 2. 2 De signate zone fo r non motorized aquatic transportation such as kayaks and canoes. 4.6.2.3. Objectives 2. 3 Develop a trail system that will accommodate all terrain (elevated boardwalk) with a lookout tower in the center for maximum 360 views. 4.6.2.4. Objectives 2. 4 Create a system of easy access to the bay for scheduled guided night tours (operated by the Vieques Conservation and Historical Trust VCHT).

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Page 67 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 5. Design Exploration 5.1. CHANGES TO VISITOR SERVICES ON THE ISLAND 5.1.1. Overnight Accommodations Cabins and cabanas will provide overnight accommodations, primarily for guests who will be participating in guided tours of the biobay as well as other events with prior arrangements. 5.1.2. Transportation A shuttle will have scheduled trips to and from Puerto Mosquito Bay in coordination with programmed guided tours to the biobay. 5.2. WATERSHED MANAGE MENT RECOMMENDATIONS 5.2.1. Land Use It is recommended that the e xisting agricultural land use designation should be changed to conservation use Much of this zone designated as potential agricultural use is still currently forest and I recommend remaining forest be retained and any intensive agricultural areas be restored or managed with best management practices to minimize erosion, sedimentatio n, and nutrient runoff. Theref ore, a comprehensive plan that incorporates watershed management strategies and a stream corridor protection approach should be developed in order to mitigate the ecological impacts affecting Puerto Mosquito Bay.

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Page 68 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 5.2.2. Stream Management Stream management best practices might include three main methods or approaches to amelio rate stream corridor conditions (De Chiara & Koppelman, 1984) 1. Stream Bank Stabilization (Figure 20) Stabilization through vegetation Vegetative buffers along the streams to minimize pollution, erosion, and sedimentation. Buffers entrap sediment, absorb pollutants and provide food and cover for fish and wildlife. Figure 20: Stream Bank Stabilization and Protection

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Page 69 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 2. Rehabilitation of Stream s Restore channelized streams by installing stones or long deflectors, gabions, and low dams. Sloping ripraps Improving water circulation by replacing undersized culverts. Removing construction debris and other obstacle s preventing or clogging the natural flow of water.

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Page 70 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 5.3. PARK SI TE MASTER PLAN Figure 21: Master Plan

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Page 71 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Figure 22: Beachfront Plan NORTH

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Page 72 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Figure 23: Nature base Eco Park Plan NORTH

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Page 73 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO 6. Conclusion In examining the ecological impacts of poor water quality that might be affecting Puerto Mosquito Bay, a watershed analysis was conducted. This analysis revealed that approximately 75% of the stream corridors that outfa ll to the bioluminescent bay are encompassed within agricultural land use zoning A recent study found that the main cause for sediment loss from the ridge watersheds in Puerto Rico was the interactions of development, heavy rainfall events (primarily hurricanes), and steep mountainous sl opes associat ed with the ridges (Yuan, Jiang, Taguas, Mbonimpa, & Hu, 2015) These results showed the potential implications of changes in land use/cover and sediment loading to the composition of the existing stream corridors. Based on the results from this study, stream corridor s w ere highly susceptible to non point and point source polluti on that could ultimately threaten the water quality in the bioluminescent bay. Further field study should be conduc ted to verify the extent of any damage to the stream corridors that may exist and the ramifications this might have downstream to the bioluminescent bay. This includes the need for annual monitoring of water quality in these streams. Throughout this projec t, effective management strategies applicable to mitigating the ecological impacts were explored. Watershed, vegetation and ecotourism management strategies were identified from the literature and case studies to be applicable to the protection of this bioluminescent ecosystem. Based on the information developed throughout the project, a master plan was designed to address the ecological impacts and implement the management strategies learned. The information presented from this project could be used by pla nners, managers, and decision makers as a framework for future land planning initiatives and as a catalyst of design ideas for conserving and

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Page 74 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO preserving the environment, culture and economic values this part of the region has to offer to future generations

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Page 75 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Works Cited Aguilar Perera, A. (2006). Marine Protected Areas in Puerto Rico: Historical and Current Perspectives. Ocean and Coastal Management 961975. Alvarez, L. (2014, 06 04). Puerto Rico Debates Who Put Out the Lights in Mosquito Bay. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/05/us/puertorico debates who put out the lights in a bay.html?_r=0 Balech, E. (1985). A Revision of Pyrodinium bahamense Plate (Dinoflagellata). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 1734. Corrales, R. (1995). Notes on the encystment and excystment of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum in vitro. (pp. 573578). New York: Lavoisier Publishing/Springer Verlag. De Chiara, J., & Koppelman, L. E. (1984). Time Saver Standards for Site Planning. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company. DRNA. (n.d.). Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambientales (DRNA) del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Puerto DRNA. Retrieved from Department of Natural and Environmental Resources of Puerto Rico: http://drna.pr.gov/historico/bioluminiscencia/bahia mosquitoen vieques/contexto?set_language=en us&cl=en us ENDI. (2014, August 1). Fin a restricciones en la bahia bioluminiscente de Vieques. Retrieved from endi: http://www.elnuevodia.com/noticias/locales/nota/f inarestriccionesenlabahiabioluminiscen tedevieques 1826392/ Govender, Y., & Padilla, E. (n.d.). The (Un)shining Star of the Caribbean. Grasso, S., Albrecht, M., & Bras, M. M. (2016). Seasonal abundance of Pyrodinium bahamense (order Peridiniales, family Gon yaulacaceae) in Mosquito Bay, Vieques, Puerto Rico. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 277283. Hale, L. Z., & al., e. (2009). Ecosystem based Adaptation in Marine and Coastal Ecosystems. Renewable Resources Journal, 25, 2128. IPCC. (2014). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC. Jha, A. (2013, November 20). Bioluminescent Bay In Puerto Rico,Fajardo, Went Dark And No One Knows Why. Retrieved from http://www.isciencetimes.com/articles/6354/20131120/bioluminescent bay lagoonpuertor ico fajardo dark.htm Mangrove Lagoons. (n.d.). Retrieved from El Yunque Rainforest Puerto Rico USA: http://www.elyunque.com/mangroves.html

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Page 76 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO NOAA. (2008, March 25). National Ocean Service: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Retrieved from NOAA' s National Ocean Service Education: Estuaries: http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/media/supp_estuar10c_salinity.html Phlips, E. J., Badylak, S., Bledsoe, E., & Cichra, M. (2006). Factors affecting the distribution of Pyrodinium bahamense var. bahamense in coastal waters of Florida. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 322, 99115. Ramos, O. (2003). Manto de oscuridad nocturna: Patrimonio natural olvidado. Instituto Internacional de Dasonomia Tropical Servicio Forestal del Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos de America. Rothenberger, P. (2008). The state of the coral reef ecosystems of the U.S. Virgin Islands. Retrieved from http://ccma.nos.noaa.gov/ecosystems/coralreef/coral2008/pdf/USVI.pdf Ryan. (2011). The Effects of DEET on Bioluminescent Dinoflagellates, Pyrocystis fusiformis Retrieved from American Museum of Natural History: http://www.amnh.org/learn te ach/young naturalistawards/winningessays2/2011winning essays/the effects of deet onbioluminescent dinoflagellates pyrocystis fusiformis Seliger, H. H., Carpenter, H. J., Loftus, M., & McElroy, W. D. (1970). Mechanisms for the Accumulation of High Conce ntrations of Dinoflagellates in a Bioluminescent Bay. Limnology and Oceanography 234245. Seliger, H. H., Carpenter, J. H., Loftus, M., Biggley, W. H., & McElroy, W. D. (1971). Bioluminescence and Phytoplankton Successions in Bahia Fosforescente, Puerto R ico. Limnology and Oceanography 608622. Shipman, J. T., & Wilson, J. D. (1990). An Introduction to Physical Science (6th ed.). Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company. Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. (2011, 09 25). Retrieved from Pyrodinium baha mense: http://www.sms.si.edu/irlspec/Pyrodi_bahame.htm Steidinger, K., Tester, L., & Taylor, F. (1980). A redescription of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressa (Bohm) stat. nov. from Pacific red tides. Phycologia, 329337. Valdes Pizzini, M., & Sharer Umpie rre, M. (2014). People, Habitats, Species, and Governance: An Assessment of the SociaEcological System of La Parguera, Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico. Mayaguez: Interdisciplinary Center for Coastal Studies. Vilamil, J. J. (2011). Master Plan For t he Sustainable Development of Vieques and Culebra: Land Use Update. San Juan, Puerto Rico: Estudios Tecnicos, Inc. Viruet, Y. S. (2002). Land Use/Land Cover of two bioluminescent bays in Puerto Rico. Mayaguez: University of Puerto Rico.

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Page 77 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Walker, L. A. (1997). Population Dynamics of Dinoflagellates in Two Biolumiescent Bays: Bahia Fosforescente, La Parguera and Puerto Mosquito, Vieques. Wall, D., & Dale, B. (1969). The "hystrichosphaerid" resting spore of the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense Plate 1906. Jo urnal of Phycology 140149. Yuan, Y., Jiang, Y., Taguas, E. V., Mbonimpa, E. G., & Hu, W. (2015). Sediment Loss and Its Cause in Puerto Rico Watersheds. SOIL 595602.

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Page 78 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO Biographical Sketch One of the most enlightening moments of my life was when I discovered Landscape Architecture. The skills, interests and career goals that I value are epitomized in this profession. Landsc ape Architecture has become an incipient passion that began in the fall of 1998 when I first toured the graduate studio in the Department of Landscape Architecture at the University of Florida (UF). I became more passionate about Landscape Architecture as I collaborated with landscape architects and allied professionals in multiple projects as a CADD Technician/GIS Analyst. One book in particular, Becoming a Landscape Architect: A Guide to Careers in Design by Kelleann Foster, RLA, ASLA, was a catalyst for my journey to become a landscape architect. I embarked on that journey when I was accepted in graduate school at the Universi ty of Florida In the summer of 2014, I began my studies for the First Professional Masters in Landscape Architecture degree.

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Page 79 of 79 A SENSITIVE BIOLUMIN ESCENT ECOSYSTEM: A MASTER PLAN FOR PUER TO MOSQUITO BAY IN VIEQUES, PUER TO RICO List of Figure s Sources FIGURE 2: DINOFLAGELLATE SPECIMEN ..le citydeluxe.com F IGURE 3: BIOLUMINESCENT BAY..imgkid.com FIGUR E 4: PH LEVELS CHART FIGURE 5: MORRO BAY, CALIFORNIA http://earth.goggle.com FIGURE 6: MANGROVE LAGOON, SALT RIVER BAY, ST. CROIX, USVI.http://earth.goggle.com FIGURE 7: LA PARGUERA, LAJAS, PUERTO RICOhttp://earth.goggle.com FIGURE 9: VIEQUES LAND ZONING MAP .....http://www.jp.gobierno.pr/ FIGURE 20: STREAM BANK STABILI ZATION AND PROTECTION.. (De Chiara & Koppelman, 1984, p. 183)