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Within Merapi ritual

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Title:
Within Merapi ritual
Creator:
Zurman Nasution, Anggita Y. ( author )
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 online resource (160 pages) : illustrations ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Architecture master's research project, M. Arch

Notes

Abstract:
In the vast area of the landscape, there is a thin line as if it is the end of the land and the beginning of the sky. The view shows that the earth is not flat. This line is the limit of the sky and the ground, which called the horizon. The interaction between landscape and human that last for a long time could create cultural heritage landscape (UNESCO, 2016). The interaction with the purpose of sustaining human life while preserving nature, protect the local genius and specific character of the region. Landscape, culture, heritage building, traditions, rituals, and ruins are some things that represent the identity of the region. The combinations among of them express the long term relationship between human and nature, intentionally or unintentionally. To sustain the life in a village near the volcanic area in Indonesia, the villagers try to live in harmony with nature. The area near the four active volcanoes which can erupt in unpredicted time. The eruption changes the landscape, the contour, though it will grant the fertile soil to the villagers. It is not the lava that ruins the village, but the cold lava flood and the pyroclastic flow. In the altitude around 2900 m above sea level, the Merapi Volcano, impact the area in radius 25 km minimum. As one of the most active volcano around the world according to decades of the volcano, the top slope of Merapi is the national park, which means prohibited to build residential buildings. The landscape near the volcano is an active landscape because it is dynamically changed. The river from the volcano become the source of water to the city in the lower land. Unfortunately, when the cold lava happened, the river will be full of the sediments and different size of the rock, that can destroy everything nearby the river. The Sabo dam put in the river aims to decrease the sediment flow. After the floor, the river in
Abstract:
the top slope become empty. The dam is filled with the sediment and rock. Year by year, it becomes the new terrain of the river, creating a new landscape. Nevertheless, the volcano is still active, and it can erupt anytime, the dam should be an immortal thing, unlike the buildings. The ritual, Merapi procession, and ceremony are the culture of the place that lives among the local. The landscape of Merapi and the ritual can not be separated. They are connected each other. As a place, the landscape facilitates the ritual, the action of contemplation. There is a time that frames the action, sense of time. The architecture is composed by the sense of place, sense of space, sense of time, as the purpose to remind the mortal and immortal creation. The technology nowadays might create the ageless perfection and fear of death (Pallasmaa, 1996), while architecture is a mortal thing. In spite of that, the disaster management will need an immortal sense, to give the survival. Between the mortal and the immortal things should be cooperated in order to preserve not only nature but also human. Will the landscape create contemplative space while the wildness of nature (eruption, flood, steep terrain) can recreate its own body of the landscape? How to balance the immortal and mortal space in nature while the landscape itself is an actively changing? Does the architecture preserve the dynamic nature as space? Can the nature heal human mind?
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Sustainable Development Practice (MDP) Program final field practicum report
Statement of Responsibility:
by Anggita Y. Zurman Nasution.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Creator. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
035652486 ( ALEPH )
Classification:
LD1780 2017 ( lcc )

UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
University of Florida Theses & Dissertations

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WITHIN MERAPI RITUAL By: Anggita Y. Zurman Nasution A Master Thesis in Architecture Spring 2017 Graduate School of Architecture, University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA Chair : Lisa Huang Co Chair : Bradley Walters Critics : Charlie Hailey Hui Zou Paul Robinson

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for the restless soul

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! ! ! Contents Abstract Part One 1.2 The Four Old Friends Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) The Varian The Cross Section The Sabo Dam The Moving Dome The Ash Part Two 2.2 Water as a Living Source Story Line Sanjaya and Syailendra The Ritual Intercropping Structure Javanese Joint Un Part U.2 The Site Part Three 3.2 Contemplative Action The Foot, The Body, and The Head Borobudur Implementation The Hole Sequence of Light The Path Water Connection Before and After Eruption Reflection Bibliography

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To all the people who already help me in the United States of America. Thank you

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!

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!

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A bstract In the vast area of the landscape, there is a thin line as if it is the end of the land and the beginning of the sky. The view shows that the earth is not flat. This line is the limit of the sky and the ground, which called the horizon. The interaction bet ween landscape and human that last for a long time could create cultural heritage landscape (UNESCO, 2016). The interaction with the purpose of sustaining human life while preserving nature, protect the local genius and specific character of the region. La ndscape, culture, heritage building, traditions, rituals, and ruins are some things that represent the identity of the region. The combinations among of them express the long term relationship between human and nature, intentionally or unintentionally. T o sustain the life in a village near the volcanic area in Indonesia, the villagers try to live in harmony with nature. The area near the four active volcanoes which can erupt in unpredicted time. The eruption changes the landscape, the contour, though it w ill grant the fertile soil to the villagers. It is not the lava that ruins the village, but the cold lava flood and the pyroclastic flow. In the altitude around 2900 m above sea level, the Merapi Volcano, impact the area in radius 25 km minimum. As one of the most active volcano around the world according to decades of the volcano, the top slope of Merapi is the national park, which means prohibited to build residential buildings. The landscape near the volcano is an active landscape because it is dynamical ly changed. The river from the volcano become the source of water to the city in the lower land. Unfortunately, when the cold lava happened, the river will be full of the sediments and different size of the rock, that can destroy everything nearby the rive r. The Sabo dam put in the river aims to decrease the sediment flow. After the floor, the river in the top slope become empty. The dam is filled with the sediment and rock. Year by year, it becomes the new terrain of the river, creating a new landscape. Ne vertheless, the volcano is still active, and it can erupt anytime, the dam should be an immortal thing, unlike the buildings. The ritual, Merapi procession, and ceremony are the culture of the place that lives among the local. The landscape of Merapi and the ritual can not be separated. They are connected each other. As a place, the landscape facilitates the ritual, the action of contemplation. There is a time that frames the action, sense of time. The architecture is composed by the sense of place, sense of space, sense of time, as the purpose to remind the mortal and immortal creation. The technology nowadays might create the ageless perfection and fear of death (Pallasmaa, 1996), while architecture is a mortal thing. In spite of that, the disaster manag ement will need an immortal sense, to give the survival. Between the mortal and the immortal things should be cooperated in order to preserve not only nature but also human. Will the landscape create contemplative space while the wildness of nature (erupti on, flood, steep terrain) can recreate its own body of the landscape? How to balance the immortal and mortal space in nature while the landscape itself is an actively changing? Does the architecture preserve the dynamic nature as space? Can the nature heal human mind?

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 2 PART ONE Landscape

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 3 The Four Old Friends Located in Java Island, Indonesia, Sindoro Volcano, Sumbing Volcano, Merbabu Volcano, and Merapi Volcano are and active volcano with different duration for an eruption. The four of the are an active stratovolcano which is about 6 30 miles' distance among of them. Merapi Volcano is in the south of Merbabu Volcano and in the east of Su mbing Volcano.

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 4 !"#$%&'()' ( !"#$%&'()'

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 5 Volca nic Explosivity Index (VEI) To measure the explosion of the volcano relative to another, there is a Vo lcanic Explosivity Index (VEI), that had been discovered by Chris Newhall of the United States Geological Survey and Stephen Self of the University of Hawaii in 1982. In the range from 0 to 8, the index can help the un geological person to imagine the impact. The way to det ermine the index is by using the volume of pyroclastic material emitted by the volcano. The pyroclastic material contains volcanic ash, tephra, pyroclastic flow, and other type of ejecta. Besides the volume of pyroclastic mat erial, there are eruption volum e and the duration of the eruption considered the level of eruption. The 0 VEI is in Kilauea Volcano, Hawai i It is erupted for every 24 hour and the quality of magma that is is produced (the viscosity of magma) is not high, liquid and can be move easily from the high of the summit to the lower level of the body. If the viscosity is lower, the magma can be squirted similar to fireworks. The denser the magma the more difficult to move to the lower area, and sometimes the magma even already solidify on the top of the summit to form the lava rock until the pressure from the body push the rocks and fly those solid magma as a lava bomb in radius around 17 miles.

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 6 !"#$%&'()' +

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 7 The last eruption in 2010 of Merapi volcano is in Volcanic Explosivity Index no. 4. The explos ion power is similar to the explosion of Mt. Galunggung, Indonesia, in 1982. At that time, when Mt. Galunggung erupted the whole area was dark, the air mix with the ash, and the condition remained until more than a week. The impact could reach Australia. The eruption of Merapi in 2010 was accompanied by the earthquake. Since the Mt. Merapi is located in the subduction zone of Indo Australian and Eurasian plates, the earthquake source at that time ca me from the interaction of the two plat es. Indonesia is located in those two plates. Along the subduction of Indo Australian and Eurasian plates create the series of formation of volcanoes. The gap between the two islands (Sumatra and Java Island) in the s ubduction of the plates creates Sunda Strait. On the other hand, the tectonic plate is always moving. Therefore, sometimes there will be an earthquake source under the seabed and cause tsunami and volcanic activity along Sumatra and Java Island. !"#$%&'()'

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 8 !"#$%&'()' VEI 0: Mt. Kilauea, Hawai; VEI 1: Mt. Stromboli, Italy; VEI 2: Mt. Galeras, Colombia; VEI 3: Mt. Ruiz, Colombia; VEI 4: Mt. Galunggung, Indonesia; VEI 5: Mt. St. Helen, USA; VEI 6: Mt. Krakatoa, Indonesia; VEI 7: Mt. Tambora, Indonesia; VEI 8: Yellowstone, USA. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 9 The Varian There are three types of eruption in Mt. Merapi Freatic Eruption The source of eruption comes from water vapor from the outside of the body. Freomagnetic Eruption The source eruption comes from water vapor outside and the magma inside the body. Magmatic Eruption The source eruption comes from magma, magma chamber.

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 10 !"#$%&'()' (1) before the eruption. (2) the pressure from the body of the volcano is ready to blow the lava dome and breaks it. (3) after the dome had collapsed, the ash spread following the wind direction. The area covers with the ash and the sun can not penetrate to illuminate the city, (4) the heavy rain comes, and bring the pyroclastic material, rocks, ashes, from the summit through the river, created cold lava flood. The Sabo dam (the yellow d ots) put in the river to withstand the rocks that move along the stream. 1 2 3 4

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 11 !"#$%&'()' /

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 12 !"#$%&'()' 0

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 15 !"#$%&'()' (( # $ %

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 16 Section B Section C Section D !"#$%&'()' (*

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 17 The cold lava flood, the continuuing disaster after eruption will impact the city of Jogja. It will bring the water and pyroclastic material 1 through the river. The material that comes with the flood will reside in the bottom of the river and cause the surface full of sand. After the eruptio n usually the people will work to clean the river in order to help the water flow normally. 1.13 Sabo dam full with cold lava flood 1.14 Cold lava flood in Code river, Yogyakarta 1.15 The excavation of sediment after cold lava flood in Code river, Yogyak arta !"#$%&'()' (+ !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! & '()*!+'!+'*,!-.)/',!+01!'.234523'!6+7+!8.289

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 18 !"#$%&'()' (, !"#$%&'()' ('

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 19 The Moving Dome Mt Merapi has two chambers deep down the surface: 3 miles and 19 miles' depth. The magmatic eruption source comes from the 19 miles' depth of chambers. It will emit the carbon dioxide until the pressure reach the summit and push everything it passed. Every eruption always changes the surface of the summit Since the viscosity magma of Mt. Merapi is high, the glowing lahar that usually comes after explosion, can not reach the foot of the mountain. It will solidify on the top of the mountain and remain there until the rain comes to bring it down. !"#$%&'()' (.

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 20 !"#$%&'()' (/ !"#$%&'()' (0

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 21 The Ash During the eruption, Mt. Merapi can produce around 10 million m 3 of pyroclastic material. It is about 0.1 % of the volume of its magma chamber. The ash is very soft, but when it is observed closely, the surface is sharp. It contains silica that glass material has, figure 1.16 iron, and other material Since silica has sharp edge, it is easier to attach to cement rather than sand that has round edge 2 The more silica contained inside the ash, the brighter the color 3 Figure 1.17 shows the ash from Mt. Merapi (left) and Mt. Kelud (right). Mt. Kelud is located 130 miles f rom Mt. Merapi but the ash flew to Yogyakarta when it was erupted in 20 15. The ash from Merapi volcano will be sticky and expanding if it is mixed to the water. When the eruption happened, the house that covered with the fly ash, did not allowed to clean it with water since it would clog the drainage system. It is better to sweep the ash rather than water it. The local people use the ash for brick material 4 The material to produce the brick is s and, li mestone, cement, water and foam. !"#$%&'()' (1 !"#$%&'()' *2 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! : ;<.2=+',!:>&>? @ <-5'0+1A5,!:>&B B ;<('(2+,!:>&B?

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 22 !"#$%&'()' *( !"#$%&'()' **

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 23 Picture Credit FIgure 1. 1 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 2 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 3 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 4 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 5 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 6 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 7 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 8 Photo by BPPTKG FIgure 1. 9 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 10 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 11 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 12 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution F Igure 1. 13 Photo by Nana Harmanto, 2015, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 14 Photo by Andinhere, 2010, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 15 Photo by Kompasiana, 2015, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 16 Drawing by Van Bemme len FIgure 1. 17 Photo by BPPTKG, 2017 FIgure 1. 18 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 19 Picture by Krisnadwi, 2014, edited by by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 20 Photo by Muhammadiyah, 2014, edited by by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 21 Photo by Wijaya Kususma, 2014, edited by by Anggita Zurman Nasution FIgure 1. 22 Photo by Trisnadi, 2010, edited by by Anggita Zurman Nasution

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Part 1: Landscape 1. 24

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 2 PART T WO The Ritual

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 3 Water as A Living Source As one of the most active volcano in the world, Mt. Merapi is located in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia, The city is located 17 miles from the top of the summit. The city built between the mountain and the sea appears as an imaginary axis of Jogja. The symbol of the mountain in the north of the city is the white monument, and the symbol of the city is the stage krpayak, are lied along the imaginary axis created philosophy axis. On the other hand, in the ancient time, the kingdom ruled the area, built several temples and palaces for praying, dormitories, and city. The specialty of the temples was always built fac ing the closest river or the source of water and in the back of the hilly surface. !"#$%&'()'

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 4 ! !"#$%&'()' (

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 6 The eruption changed the surface of the landscape, especially in Borobudur temple's landscape. In the ancient time, Borobudur, which is located on the top of the hill of Kedu Plain ( Dataran Kedu ), surrounded by the lake. The fact was founded because the mo rphology of surface was changed as the impact of volcanic activity near the area, and the pressure from the eruption pushed the Kedu Plain and become Menoreh Plain, located in the south area of Borobudur landscape nowadays. The changes had caused the water from the ancient river and the lake drought up. The water might penetrate to the ground or flow into the ocean.

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 7 !"#$%&'()' !"#$%&'()' + Kedu Plain Menoreh Hill Kedu Plain Menoreh Hill

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 8 Sanjaya and Syailendra Both dynasties had left the temples. Since Sanjaya dynasty is a Hindu and Syailendra dynasty is a Buddhist, they are similar but not the same. The Hindu temples usually tall and narrow, but the Buddhist temples are wide and shorter. The biggest Hindu temple in Indonesia is Prambanan temple, which has 3 main temples and their 3 companion temples, and total 156 small temples surrounded the main temples. The biggest Buddhist temple is Borobudur temple, whic h has reliefs in its wall and several stupas in the head of the temples. Both Hindu and Buddhist temples built based on the arrangement of the foot, the body, and the head. Until now, Prambanan and Borobudur are still used for worship and ritual. The temp les are nor always functioned as a worship place. A temple, named Sari temple, was used as a dormitory and a small worship place for the scholars. Ratu Baka temple is actually a palace contained, worship place, cremation area, bath area, stages, and the ar ea is surrounded by the fortress. Ratu Baka temple is located on the top of the hill, across Prambanan temple, built in order to create a meditating place for the retired king.

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 9 "#$%&'!()! !

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 10 Hindu Temple ! "#$%&'!()! +

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 11 Buddhist Temple "#$%&'!()!

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 12 The Ritual Nowadays, people still use Borobudur temple and Prambanan for the ritual. The biggest ritual in Borobudur temple is implemented once a year, Vesak day. The ritual will be done for 3 days, in 2 temples: Borobudur and Mendut temples. The first day is in Mendut temple, where the monks put the pure water from Temang gung spring water and eternal fire from Mt. Muria inside Mendut temple. The next day, they will walk around the area in order to get food from every person that they met, as a symbol of decent living. The last day, they will bring the water and the fire wi th their own hands, walk across the river that separate Borobudur and Mendut, passes the small temple, Pawon temple. Pawon temple is a place where the people put the ash of the king, Indera (782 812 AD), so that there is no relation between the Vesak ritua l and the temple. The last day of the ritual, the monks and the people will release the lanterns as the symbol of a new hope for the future.

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 13 "#$%&'!()!

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 15 Intercropping Structure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replace d Genta Stacking Stone Chamber

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 17 N "&;.$!#>93#$&6$ B1.>5.6.6 $ %)>93#@ /$'"#$"&,"#2'$T&64:$'#>93#$&6$ ?64)6#2&. /$.32)$:2#$2'.%=&6,$1))>$&6$)14#1$')$1#.%"$'"#$')9$9)&6'$)*$'"#$ '#>93#8$ !"#$1.'&)$5#'0##6$'"#$;#1'&%.3$.64$'"#$")1&G)6'.3$)*$'"#$'#>93#$&2$ 6)'$)6#8$Q)0.4.(2/$&6$)14#1$')$2:99)1'$'"#$')9$9)&6'$)*$'"#$'#>93#/$9#)93#$ :2#$>#'.3$.2$.$-)&6'8 $ $ '()*+",-., &4 $ '()*+",-., &5 H B F

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 18 $ $ '()*+",-., &6 $ $ '()*+",-., &7 $

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 19 By the time Borobudur was found, it was covered by the soil, forms as the high land. It was firstly found by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, the British chief of colonial administration. Then the researched was continued by H.C. Cornel ius, the Dutchmen, who had been doing research temple in Indonesia 3 The monument at that time was found only the foot part. Other part s were scattered around the area, Kedu Plain. The big stupa, located in the head of Borobudor, was rumored to be the treasure in the ancient time, thus it became dispute among people 4 Some part of Buddha statu e, the head or the hand, was lost. Some statue does not have stupa. The form of statue some has shorten arms some are perfectly sculptures, which symbolized the unfinished of B uddha" because the perfect thing is out of description 5 The stupa has two k ind of hole, the rhombus and the square holes, to let sun lighten the Buddha statue inside. Figure 2.20 shows the statue of Buddha uncovered by the stupa, facing the east. In Borobudur temple, the intercropping structure that is located on the floor. It mak es the temple shaping terraces. The restoration to repair the damage of the temple was implemented fir st in the foot area, figure 2.19. ,,,,,,,,, '()*+",-., &8 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $ I $ MOQUNVR/$EKKHS $ L $ /0(1 9 LH $ H $ /0(1 / $ LW $

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 21 Borobudur is placed in a natural hill which has around 53 feet above the plateau. In the southern part, due to an uneven height of the hill, the soil was filled under the temple. There are three different height of soil: below the first gallery is 23 feet, below the third gallery is 28 feet, and below the circular terrace is 23 feet, figure 2.23. Due to different height of the hill, the researcher using borings in several spots of Borobudur temple in order to know the structure that supports the temple and the reason of damaging and decaying the stones. The temple is located in 3 different horizons, figure 2.21, in order to break the rhythm of the ground, the temple. The temple restoration also tried to circulate the water, because there is always the abundance of water from the rain and the water can cau se damage. The restoration used underground pipe covered by the concrete, figure 2.22. From figure 2.21, horizon A has 6.5 11.5 feet depth contains Sandy clay or clayey sand, color ranging from dark brown to blackish, sticky and soft, sometimes friable, hi gh permeability. Horizon B has 1.6 11.5 feet depth contains Sandy clay, reddish or yellowish brown in color, rather sticky and soft, very low permeability. Horizon C has more than 24.6 feet of depth and contains Whitish yellow medium grain size tuff, neith er sticky nor soft, containing igneous rocks. The igneous rocks might come from the volcano near the site. $ '()*+",-., -&

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 22 $ '()*+",-., -, $ '()*+",-., -2

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 23 $ '()*+",-., -3

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 24 $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ '()*+",-., -4

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 25 Javanese Joint The intercropping structure is also found in the modern era of Yogyakarta region. The structure, named tumpangsari is used to form the roof. Tumpangsari is supported by the main column, which usually consisted of 4 column s (there is also 1 or 6 supporting type of column). The main columns will act as a flexible column when the earthquake happened and the last supporting system that collapse 6 This traditional Javanese structure is made of wood such as teak wood or jackfruit wood in other area. $ '()*+",-., -5 $ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $ W $ MB1&".'>.-&/$!1.4&'&)6.3$+.;.6#2#$X))4#6$T):2#2$M+),3)S$Y.>.,#4$Z($7.($EKKW$[),(.=.1'.$U.1'"<:.=#/$ ?64)6#2&./$EKFIS $ tumpangs ari Main column 4 main columns

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 26 $ $ $ $ $ $ $$ $ '()*+",-., -6 $ A Section A B B Axonometric A

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 27 $ '()*+",-., -7 $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 28 $ '()*+",-., -8

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 29 Picture Credits Figure 2. 1 Drawing by Ardhyasa Fabrian Gusma Figure 2. 2 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 3 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 4 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 5 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 6 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 7 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 8 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 9 P icture from instagram, 2016 editid by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 10 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 11 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 12 Photo by Sasandra Manjer, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 13 Photo by Chepas, 1900, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 14 Photo by Chepas, 1900, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 15 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 16 Photo by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 17 Photo by Chepas, 1900, edited by Anggita Zurm an Nasution Figure 2. 18 Photo by Frank Psaila, 2013, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 19 Drawing by UNESCO, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 20 Photo by UNESCO, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 21 Drawing by UNESCO, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 22 Drawing by UNESCO, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 23 Drawing by UNESCO, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 24 Photo by UNESCO, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 25 Photo by Ko Hon Chi u, 2012, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 26 Drawing by Prihatmaji, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 27 Drawing by Prihatmaji, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 2. 28 Photo by Arif L. Hakim, 2015, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasut ion Figure 2. 29 Photo by Arif L. Hakim, 2015, edited by Anggita Zurman Nasution

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Part 2: The Ritual 2. 30

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Un Part: Conne ction U. 2 UN PART CONNECTION

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Un Part: Conne ction U. 3 The Site The relation of the mountain, the city, and the sea in modern life is still tight. There are three kinds of ritual that usually implemented in the three area, depends on the time. The three of them, named Labuhan. The biggest Labuhan is implemented every e ight years. The purpose of the ritual is to pray for the public welfare. The ritual will be first started in the south sea, where the people bring the alms and put those in the sea. The second ritual is in the city where the people preparing the alms to be brought to the mountain. The last ritual is on the mountain, where is led by the caretaker. The alms will be given to the caretaker to put in the summit of the mountain. The mountain ritual is located in the national park of Merapi Volcano. There used to be a village near in the area, but it was destroyed by the eruption in 2010. The caretaker house was also inside the destroyed village. As part of the ritual and an ancient landscape, Mt. Merapi is an important place. There is a strong connection between the landscape and the ritual. The ritual is related to human action. A human can create his own domesticated place with the help of nature, but nature does not need human to provide the human place. As a place, the landscape facilitates the ritual. The ri tual is the action of contemplation that needs the time as a frame. The time frames the Vesak ritual to be done every once a year, and the Labuhan every eight years. On the other hand, architecture is related to a sense of time, a sense of place, and a sen se of space (Pallasmaa, 2012). In ritual, the time purpose is to remind human about mortal and immortal. Architecture is a mortal thing, while the technology is an immortal thing. The technology supports the architecture. In the real life. The technology o f Sabo system helps to prevent the cold lava flow from bringing the sediment to the city, the architecture. The technology nowadays can not be separated to architecture.

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Un Part: Conne ction U. 4 "#$%&'!()!

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Un Part: Conne ction U. 5 "#$%&'!()! +

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Un Part: Conne ction U. 6 "#$%&'!()!

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Un Part: Conne ction U. 7 The site selected based on the location and the existing infrastructure. The location is on the border between the National Park of Merapi Volcano and the village that is separated by the river, Kalikuning River. The river is where the cold lava passed aft er the eruption happened. The infrastructure is the immortal thing that supports the city. It contains the water catchment, the bridge, and the sabo dam. The image shows the journey to the site of the bridge, as the only way to get inside the site. In t he left side of the entrance, there is a sabo dam, shapes as terraces. After the eruption, the dam will be grown by the plants, creating terraces and blend with nature. The river where the sabo sit become wider and deeper as the result of cold lava flood t hat brings the sediment and the huge rocks. After the eruption, the remaining sand from the flood should be excavated in order to empty the dam.

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Un Part: Conne ction U. 8 "#$%&'!()!

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Un Part: Conne ction U. 9 Kalikuning river, marked between the two spline lines hatched in a greyish region, figure 5, is the river that the water source comes from the mountain and branched out into several rivers in the city. The water debit before the eruption, the normal flow, is marked with the brighter color inside the gray hatched. When the eruption happened, caused the cold lava flood, The river will be full, marked as the gray color. There is a small river next to Kalikuning so that the site is actually between the rivers. Nevertheless, the small river does not have much water. When the cold lava flood passed the big river, it might also pass the small river.

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Un Part: Conne ction U. 10 "#$%&'!()!

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Un Part: Conne ction U. 11 "#$%&'!()! /

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Un Part: Conne ction U. 12 "#$%&'!()! 0

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Un Part: Conne ction U. 13 Picture Credit Figure U. 1 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure U. 2 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure U. 3 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure U. 4 Photos by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure U. 5 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure U. 6 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure U. 7 Photo from Google Earth, 2017

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Un Part: Conne ction U. 14

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 2 PART THREE The Foot, The Body, and The Head

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 3 As an infrastructure, the bridge is always suffered for the cold lava flood. It is stand still and remain. The bridge is part of the landscape, the undulating landscape. So does the Sabo dam and the water catchment. As part of the landscape, the infrastructures are put on the ground. It is the immortal thing. The foot can reach the ground but it can not reach the sky. On th e other hand, the bridge might not always live. It is limited by the time. The time frame the bridge. The immortal bridge would be the mortal bridge in the future.

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 4 !"#$%&'()' !"#$%&'()' +

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 5 Contemplative Action The interaction with the purpose of sustaining human life while preserving nature, protect the local genius and specific character of the region. Landscape, culture, heritage building, traditions, rituals, and ruins are some things th at represent the identity of the region. "#$%&'($)*#!&%+'$%,!$*!'($)-)$./!'($)-)$.!&%+'$%,!$*!'($)*#0!12%!'($)*#!),!#*$! '+3'.,!,*4%$2)#5!2'-%!4*-%4%#$0! The action of looking thoughtfully at something for a long time a contemplative action 1 Deep reflective thought a contemplative action 2 Concentration on spiritual things a s a form of private devotion a contemplative action 3 A contemplation action is part of the meditation in order to do reflection of someone's mind. A discourse intended to express its author's reflection a meditation 4 A thought, idea, or opinion formed or a remark made as a result of meditation a reflection 5 Contemplation functions are to make someone calm, related to state, lowering blood pressure, lessening muscle tension, heightened self awareness, improved concentration, empathy, perceptual acuity, and reduce or cure illnesses. Contemplation is not always about escap ing the world, it can start by fixing the attention, identify the action, deepen identificat ion, and the result will lead to action that can sustain the action. Landscape as a contemplative space start s from the wilderness space !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 6 7**5+%!$&'#,+'$)*# + ,-". 8 9%&&)'4 : ;%<,$%& / ,-". 0 ,-".

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 6 !"#$%&'()' (

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 7 !"#$%&'()' /

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 8 !"#$%&'()' 0

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 9 The Foot, The Body, and The Head Being a part of the ritual and in located on the site of Labuhan the purpose of the functional space is a contemplative space. A part of the contemplative action and a part of the ritual, the contemplative space pursue the concept of the temple in relation to the landscape. The undulating landscape, created by the water, is the ground. The person who is doing the contemplative action is later called the actor in this book. The contemplative sp ace is the body, where the actor moves inside of it in order to reflect her/himself. The body is an active contemplation space. To enter the contemplative space, the actor will pass the bridge, as the foot. The foot is always touching the ground, near the body, but does not always attach to the body. The foot supports the body and the head in order to sustain the life. The head is the main space. It is envisaged the highest thought. The head is the place where the meditation happened. The head can see the body and the foot. It is facing the nature and the human creation: the water, the volcano, and the city. The head is the passive contemplation space.

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 10 !"#$%&'()' 1 The Head The Body The Foot

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 12 Borobudur The foot in Borobudur temple is called Kamadhatu. It is a stage where the body stand on it. Kamadhati symbolizes the world of desire and passions. The reliefs in Kamadhatu, found on the legs, describes the law of cause and effect. The Body is called Rupad hatu. The wall in the Rupadhatu is full or reliefs. Walking between the two walls will only see the walls and the sky on the top. The space of the two walls is an intimate space where the actor has already leave the world but his/her little piece of mind s till remain in it. The head is Arupadhatu. It is the top of nature, shapeless, without a face. In Arupadhatu's world, the God resides in it. In the real form, Arupadhatu is a circle form. It has 6 kinds of the stupa on 3 levels. On the top level, there i s a main stupa where nothing inside of it.

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 13 !"#$%&'()' The Foot, Body, and Head of Borobudur

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 14 !"#$%&'()' + The body

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 15 !"#$%&'()' ,' The Head, level 1

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 16 ! !"#$%&'()' ,,

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 17 !"#$%&'()' ,.

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 18 Implementation The body contains 4 types of contemplation face. Each of it facing different thing. The first and the second spaces are facing the human creation or the foot. It is the bridge and the water catchment. The third one is facing the river, Kalikuning river. Th e last space is facing itself, the body, as a journey of reflection. The head is on the top of the hill. It is the meditation space, that is not facing in particular area. The light comes inside the space as a rectangular light from the rectangular hole of the linear wood. To reach the body, there are two kinds different experience of the path, outside the hill and inside the hill. The space to facilitate the contemplation area, for the purpose of the service area is place inside the hill.

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 19 !"#$%&'()' ,(

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 22 Every contemplation space will face different thing and can o nly be occupied by 1 or 2 people The light comes from the orientation's window and the opening pf the roof.

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 23 !"#$%&'()' *+

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 24 The Hole The long section in Figure 15 shows the detail of the body, the contemplation space. The body needs the air to breath and the light to grow. The opening to the underground allow the light to come and the water, the rain, from the outside permeates into the soil. The waterway opening can also be the source of light. The light opening is covered by transparent material so that the water can not go into the underground space. The water comes from the opening grows the plant inside. Since the precipitation in this area is high, even in the dry season the rain always falls, the unflatten roof is always needed to allow the water flow to the lower area. The humidity is high. Thus, the circulation of the air is needed. The opening from the front entrance let the a ir comes in and the waterway opening let the air comes out because the water opening is higher than the front opening. In Sumur Gemuling Taman sari, Yogyakarta there is a hidden contemplative space. The local called is as sumur means a well. It was use d to be a mosque and the contemplative area for the king. It has a circular hole in the center mass of the building that allows the sun and the rain come in. Taman Sari is a part of the king's palace the located in the center of the city, Jogja. It had bee n renovated in order to sustain the structure.

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 25 !"#$%&'()' *,

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 27 Sequence of Light To go inside the body, there is a tunnel that has the sequence of light. The tunnel contains several opening that let the light comes inside. The more the closer to the body, the more the lighter the light is. The first experience of the light is far away on the top of the head. The last opening will let the light comes across the actor's body. The light ant the air is always needed in the area so that both the front and the end way of the tunnel is uncovered. To go inside Sumur Gemuling there is a repeti tion of light sequence, figure 18. It is a long underground tunnel, that is hidden from the outside area. The light comes from the opening on the top of the roof. The form of the interior tunnel is similar to the shape of the interior mosque in Indonesia. The tunnel is made out of concrete. Although it is soundproof, the air can circulate inside of it. There are two small lines of a waterway on each side of the walls to let the water flow. In the ancient time, when Taman Sari is surrounded by the water, the water might trap in the tunnel so that there is no way for the colonists to go inside Sumur Gemuling

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 28 !"#$%&'()' *+

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 30 ! "#$%&'!()! *+ Start From the bridge End To the river

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 31 !!!!!!!!! "#$%&'!()! ** "#$%!&'()!*+,-!./(!(0.+102(!,*!3(+14'!51.',016!71+8 "#$9! :;,0,-(.+'2!,*!2,0.(-461.',0!10+'
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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 33 The Path There are two different kinds of the path to go inside or outside the contemplative space. The first path uses the ground as the roof, and the second path uses the sky as the roof. The first path is the tunnel. The second path is the sky roof that creates the experience to walk among the trees, blending with nature. The path depends on the undulating landscape and the trees. Since the sacred place, such as temple, is sometimes put at the top of the hill, the way to go inside the area use hundreds of steps. One of the pace, named Cemetery of the King in Imogiri, located on the top of the hill. The interesting part is, the king' s servants usually the old man is getting used to climbing up the stairs more than once per day. They use the zig zag method to climb up and down the stairs.

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 34 !"#$%&'()' *+

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 35 Water Connection The water is the source of the living. In Buddhist, the temple will face the water to symbolize the life. On the other hand, the water can also be a foe, if the human does not protect it. In the meditation space, there is a reflection pond that facing the smal l river. It will be a guide for the actor in his/her meditation activity. Under the pond, there is a singular path that facing the small river. It is the place where the actor can see the river and notice that the river will have no water except when it is rain or eruption happened. The small river is can not be separated from the big one. It will help to distribute the water when the flood comes.

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 36 !"#$%&'()' *,

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 37 The Meditation The head as a meditation. It is a triangular form that comes from intercropping structure. The material is made out of teak wood which is stacking on top of each other and remains only the rectangular holes and the structures are made of iron wood. The hol es are uncovered to let the water from the rain comes in. The wood will decay in the matter of time, to reflect the mortal thing of architecture. The iron wood is an exterior wood, which usually uses in the bridge. The mass is bigger than the water so that it will sink into the water. In the east side of the meditation space is the reflection pond. It is the water connection between the river and the meditation space. The path to walk under the reflecting pond will lead the actor to the river. He/she can w itness the cold lava flood from the path. ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 38 !"#$%&'()' *' '''''' !"#$%&'()' *.

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 41 Before and After Eruption The architecture is a mortal thing. When the eruption happened, most of the buildings located near the national park were destroyed by the ash. The soft material; such as wood, fabric, clay, glass, and leather; is easy to destroy, while the hard material; such as concrete, natural stone, and metal; is still remain. The immortal materials might create the ageless perfection, but they also help to support the mortal material. If t he eruption happened in the future, the mortal material from the contemplation and the meditation space will be destroyed. The immortal material functioned as the structure will be remained and create a new space. The eruption in the ancient time, ruined the temples since the method to construct the temples was the stacking system without a connection. Nevertheless, the stones are still good, did not destroyed by the ash. Unfortunately, some stones are missing so that the construction of several temples ca n not be continued, figure 3. 30

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 42 !"#$%&'()' (*

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 43 !"#$%&'()' (+ The undulating terrain is created by the water. It is the river that passed by the cold lava flood. 3.31 elevation of the smooth terrain 3.32 the steep terrain create s the space The different level of the water catchment and the Sabo dam reveals that the river is also a little steep 3.33 elevation of water catchment 3.34 elevation of Sabo dam

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 44 !"#$%&'()' (,

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 45 !"#$%&'()' ((

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 46 '''' !"#$%&'()' ('

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 47 !"#$%&'()' (.

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 48 ''''''''''' !"#$%&'()' (/

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 49 Picture Credit Figure 3. 1 Collage by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 2 Collage by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 3 Photo by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 4 Photo by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 5 Photo by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 6 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 7 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 8 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 9 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 10 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 11 Photo b y famouswonders 2017/04/22 Figure 3. 12 Photo by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 13 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 14 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 15 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 16 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 17 Photo by www. jelajahjogja.com, 2017/04/22 Figure 3. 18 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 19 Photo by www. tripadvisor.co.id, 2017/04/22 Figure 3. 20 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 21 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 22 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 23 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 24 Photo by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 25 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 26 Model by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 2 7 Model by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 28 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 29 Drawing by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 30 Photo by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 31 Model by Anggita Zurman Nasution

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Part 3: The Foot, The Body, and The Head 3. 50 Figure 3. 32 Model by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 33 Model by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 34 Model by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 35 Photo by Anggita Zurman Nasution Figure 3. 36 Photo by Anggita Zurman Nasution

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REFL ECTION The process

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Bibliography Beauducel, F. (2000, April). Constraints on magma flux from displacements data at Merapi volcano, Java, Indonesia. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres Bemmelen, R. V. (1949, 12). The Geology of Indonesia IA. Charbonnier, S. J. (2011, March 4). Deposit architecture and dynamics of the 2006 block and ash flows of Merapi Volcano, Java, Indonesia. (V. Manville, Ed.) Bulletin of volcanology, 9 Blaser, W. (2007). Tadao Ando : bauen in die Erde = Sunken courts. Niggli: Sulgen. BPPTKG. (2016). Mitigasi Bencana Gunung Api. Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Badan Geologi. Yogyakarta: BPPTKG. Cantz, H. (2005). Chichu Art Museum : Tadao Ando builds for Walter De Maria, James Turre ll, and Claude Monet. Ostfildern. Corner, J. (1996). Taking Measures Across the American Landscape. USA: Yale University Press. Forum, Steering Committee of International Sabo. (2009). Leading Model of Great Japanese Disaster Prevention System Tateyama Sa bo. Sabo Forum, Toyama. Frearson, A. (2014, 12 11). High altitude viewpoint perches over a volcanic crater lake. Dezeen. Gertisser, R. (2012, January 1). The geological evolution of Merapi volcano, Central Java, Indonesia. Bulletin of Vulcanology Herwindo R. P. (2014, 02). Kajian Tipomorfologi Arsitektur Percandian Kayu' di Jawa. Research Report Engineering Science, 1 Jorgustin, K. (2010, November 7). Modern Survival Blog Retrieved 2016, from http://modernsurvivalblog.com/volcano/xxx magma chamber de ep under merapi/ King, H. (2005 2017). Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI). Geology.com. Klokke, M. J. (1994). Ancient Indonesia Sculpture. (M. J. Scheurleer, Ed.) Verhandelingen van het koninklijk Instituut Voor Taal Land, en Volkenkunde Krinke, R. (2005) Contemporary landscapes of contemplation. New York, USA. Li, Y. (2014). Winged Migration. London, UK: AA School. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource. (2014, June 3). Sejarah Letusan. Gunung Merapi Bandung, Indonesia. Newhall, C. (2000). 10,000 Years of explosive eruptions of Merapi Volcano, Central Java: archaeological and modern implications. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research Nijhuis, S. (2013, 12 20). Principles of Landscape Architecture. HowDoYouLandscape? Wordpress.com.

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Pallasmaa, J (2006). Questions of Perceptions, Phenomenology of Architecture. San Francisco, USA: William Stout Publishers __________ (2012). The Eyes of The Skin: Architecture and The Senses, Third Edition. Chicester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Pri hatmaji, Y. P. (2013, 10 28). Traditional Javanese Wooden Houses (Joglo) Damaged By May 2006 Yogyakarta Earthquake, Indonesia. International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration, 8 (2), 247 268. _____________ (2013, 10 28). Traditional Javanese Wooden Houses (Joglo) Damaged By May 2006 Yogyakarta Earthquake, Indonesia. International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration, 8 (2), 247 268. ____________ (2015, 08 14). Seismic vuln erability on structural proportion of traditionalJavanese wooden houses (Joglo). Procedia Environmental Sciences, 28 804 808. Skandarajah, S. (2014). Curating an Egalitarian Territory. Lodon, UK: Bartlett School. Solikhin, A. (2015, March). High spatial r esolution imagery helps map deposits of the large (VEI 4) 2010 Merapi Volcano eruption and their impact. Bouletin Vulcanology, 77 Turgeon, A. (2014, October 31). Volcanis Ash (N. G. Caryl Sue, Editor, N. G. Caryl Sue, Producer, & National Geographic Soci ety) Retrieved December 11, 2016, from Encyclopedic Entry: http://nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/volcanic ash/ U.S. Geological Survey. (2017, 04 23). Recent Kilauea Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases. USA: HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY. UNESCO. (2005). The Restoration of Borobudur. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Belgium: UNESCO. ________ (2016). World Heritage Convention Retrieved 2016, from United Nation Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization: http://whc.unesco.org/en/culturallandscape/ !"# $ http://gunungmerapi.weebly.com/hazards.html http://merapi.bgl.esdm.go.id/pub/page.php?idf=10 https://www.merriam webster.com/ https://www.archdaily.com/ https://www.dez een.com/ https://www.landezine.com/ https://www.pinterest.com/ $


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