1 ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDING DESIGN BASED ON THE URBAN MICROCLIMATE IN THE HOT SUMMER AND COLD WINTER REGION OF WUHAN By HE ZHANG A MASTERS RESEARCH PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES WITH A CONCENTRATION IN SUSTAINABLE DESIGN UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2016
2 2016 HE ZHANG
3 To my parents, friends and colleagues
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Fir stly, I would like to thank my parents E ven though far away in China they have offer ed me guidance and encouragement. Secondly, I would like to extend much gratitude to my committee members, Professor Charlie Hailey and Professor Donna L. Cohen, for their tireless efforts and invaluable advice throughout this master research project, English is not my fi rst language but they still had patience to help me over and over again. I would also like to thank Dr. Michael Kung for his help since I come to American. Lastly, I would like to thank all my friends and classmates who helped me in my studies and made me feel less lonely.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS P age ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ .................. 4 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ .......................... 8 LIST OF TABLES s ................................ ................................ ......................... 11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........... 12 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 13 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ........................... 16 G lobal climate condition and sustainability ................................ ............. 16 B uilding effect on urban microclimate ................................ ..................... 18 B uilding energy conservation ................................ ................................ .. 20 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ................. 24 M odern energy efficient building ................................ ............................. 24 T he evaluation and assessment of energy efficient building ................... 27 B ui lding life cycle assessment (LCA ) ................................ ...................... 28 B enefit of improving building efficiency ................................ ................... 30 T o design and constructive with climate ................................ ................. 32 D ata hot summer and cold winter region ................................ ................ 34 A rchitecture in hot summer and cold winter region ................................ 36 E co efficiency materials selection ................................ ........................... 38 S ummary ................................ ................................ ................................ 39 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ........................... 41 R esearch approach ................................ ................................ ................ 41 T he survey in two kinds of climate conditions ................................ ......... 43 B uilding life cycle ................................ ................................ .................... 43 I nvestigation and research on climatic adaptability building ................... 44 S ummary ................................ ................................ ................................ 45 CASE STUDY ................................ ................................ ................................ 46 The Ewha University Building by Dominique Perrault Architect seoul, korea ................................ ................................ ................................ 46
6 Background information ................................ ................................ .......... 46 Passive solar energy design ................................ ................................ ... 48 The composite retaining structure of building ................................ ......... 52 Earth sheltered structure ................................ ................................ ........ 54 Green roof ................................ ................................ ............................... 55 Rainwater treatment ................................ ................................ ............... 56 California Academy of Sciences (cas) by Renzo Piano Building Workshop San Francisco, CA, USA ................................ ................................ .............. 57 Background information ................................ ................................ .......... 57 Green roof ................................ ................................ ............................... 58 Heating and cooling ................................ ................................ ................ 59 Nanyang Technological University (NTU) School of Art, Design and Media (adm) by CPG Consultants Singapore .......................... 60 Background information ................................ ................................ .......... 60 Green roof ................................ ................................ ............................... 62 Heating and cooling ................................ ................................ ................ 62 FROM CASE STUDY TO THE DESIGN ................................ ........................ 64 A CONCEPT DESIGN OF SUBWAY STATION IN WUHAN ......................... 66 Introduction ................................ ................................ ............................. 6 6 Site analysis ................................ ................................ ............................ 68 Site plan and size of project ................................ ................................ .... 71 Climate in wuhan ................................ ................................ .................... 73 Winter and summer psychrometric chart. ................................ ............... 73 Trend of historical temperature variation january, april, july, october .... 75 Summer climate factors comparison ................................ ....................... 77 Winter climate factors comparison ................................ ........................ 79 Orientation of building ................................ ................................ ............. 84 Architecture morphology and surface design ................................ .......... 87 Interior space design and atrium ventilation ................................ ........... 91 Interior climate responsive methods ................................ ....................... 92 Energy efficiency in summer ................................ ................................ ... 94 Energy efficiency in winter ................................ ................................ ...... 95 Central hall in the courtyard ................................ ................................ .... 96 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ 99 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK ................................ ...................... 101 Dynamic climate adaptive strategy ................................ ....................... 101 Static climate adaptive strategy ................................ ............................ 102 Compare with earth sheltered and conventional ................................ ... 104
7 The misunderstanding of current designing and development .............. 105 Future opportunities for research ................................ .......................... 106 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ .............. 108 LIST OF FIGURE REFERENCES ................................ ............................... 115 BOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ........... 117
8 LIST OF FIGURES F igure P ages Figure 2 Figure 3 1 The flowing chart of research Figure 3 2 Energy consumption footprint for the study Figure 4 1 Site plan of Ewha woman s U niversity Figure 4 2 West& East Section of Ewha woman U niversity 50 Figure 4 3 Heating energy comparison Figure 4 4 cooling energy comparison Figure 4 5 MID season: Natural ventilation and natural lighting 52 Figure 4 6 Summer: thermal labyrinth and ground water energy Figure 4 7 Winter: thermal labyrinth and ground water energy Figure 4 8 Detail of glass wall of Ewha University Figure 4 9 Plan view of CAS Figure 4 10 Indoor ventilation of CSA Figure 4 11 Plan drawing of School of Art, Design and Media (ADM) Figure 4 12 Section of School of Art, Design and Media (ADM) Figure 4 Figure 5 1. Aerial view 66 Figure 5 2. Location analysis 68 Figure 5 3. Site traffic analysis 69 Figure 5 4. Urban relationship analysis 70
9 Figure 5 5. Site plan and size of project 71 Figure 5 6. Summ 72 Figure 5 7. Winter psychrometric chart of Wuhan. 74 Figure 5 8. Historic temperature of Wuhan 74 Figure 5 9. Annual dry ball temperature of Wuhan by Ecotect analysis 75 Figure 5 10. Annual wet ball temperature of Wuhan by Ecotect A nalysis 76 Figure 5 11. Winds rose of summer 77 Figure 5 12. Wind warm of summer 77 Figure 5 13. Rainfall in summer 78 Figure 5 14. Summer humidity 78 Figure 5 15. Winds rose of winter 79 Figure 5 16. Wind warm of winter 79 Figure 5 17. Rainfall in winter 80 Figure 5 18. Winter humidity 80 Figure 5 19. Sunlight environment in summer 12:00 pm. 81 Figure 5 20. Sunlight environment in winter 12: 00 pm 81 Figure 5 21. Optimum sunlight orientation 82 Figure 5 22. 8:00 am, summer 83 Figure 5 23. Sunlight at 12:00 pm, summer 83 Figure 5 24. 5:00 pm, summer 84 Figure 5 25. 8:00 am, winter 85 Figure 5 26. 12:00 pm, winter 85
10 Figure 5 27. 5:00 pm, winter 86 Figure 5 28. Architecture Morphology and surface design 86 Figure 5 29. Building Elevation 87 Figure 5 30. Wind flow in summer 88 Figure 5 31.The wind flows in winter 89 Figure 5 32. The movable green roof 90 Figure 5 33. Axonometric of floor levels 91 Figure 5 34. Architecture section 92 Figure 5 35. Ventilation tower 93 Figu re 5 36. Energy efficiency in summer 94 Figure 5 37. Energy efficiency in winter 95 Figure 5 38. Front view of central hall in the courtyard 96 Figure 5 39. Perspective view pf central hall 97 Fig ure 5 40. Analysis of central hall 98 Figure 5 41. Aerial view of project 99
11 LIST OF TABLES F igure P ages Table 2 1 Features comparison of two LCA tools Table 2 2 Meteorologica l data set for building thermal environment Table 4 1 Basic information the space usage of The Ewha University
12 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS BPS Building Performance Simulation EPI Environment performance I ndicators GHG Greenhouse Gas HVAC Heating, Ventilation and A ir conditioning IDP Integrated Design P rocess LID L ow impact development LCA L ife cycle assessment LCC Life Cycle Cost PSED Passiv e Solar Energy D esign SEER Seasonal Energy Efficiency R atio TIC Titanium C arbide UHI Urban Heat I sland
13 Abstract of to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDING DESIGN BASED ON THE URBAN MICROCLIMATE IN THE HOT SUMMER AND COLD WINTER REGION OF WUHAN By H e Z hang AUGUST 2016 Chair: C harlie Hailey Major: Master of Science in Architectural Studies with a Concentration in Sustainable Design M ost of existing research on climate adaptable building usually make s use of an experimental subject in the suburb or open field in order to highlight climate characteristics But d ue to the high density of people activities and the subsequent releasing of green house gas s es that have caused weather conditions of the urban city become more and more complex Hot summer and cold winter region s are often associated with high humidity and frequent precipitation throughout the year I n addition the people who liv e in the se area s have to rely on HVAC and other high energy consumption mechanical equipment system s to maintain comfort able living All these situations not only cause the uninhabitable but als o increased environment stress. As a main reason lead to environmental degradation, architecture can no longer be seen as a discrete, it is necessary to
14 meet the needs of people and use the envi ronment in an innovative and sustainable way. R esearch on meteorological data and i dentification of the characteristics of hot summer and cold winter regions is the basis of the design, i t is necessary to start design with specific climate data information then to make an appropriate decision for the climate responsive of building life cycle. F or this research I investigate Wuhan city in the Midd le and lower areas of Yangtze R iver as a sample climatic feature that can provide background information on the variety of climate factor s such as sun angle, humidity, precipitation, the wind and so on Meanwhile, the culture and demands of the environment for local people will be investigated to coordinate with a des ign approach that takes into account indoor temperature, noise, the sunshine, ventilation and prevent radioactive contamination. In other words, it is necessary to study the relative climate parameters to integrate a more environment friendly and habitat comfortability design philosophy. Through case studies that offer a series of sustainable construction s which succeed ed in hot or cold region s this research analyzed the energy efficiency technologies and investigates how these systems might improve it the design process. Design a climate adaptability building in a hot summer and cold winter region can let local people get more comfortab le living environment with out weather damage. As we know i f we implement a large scale climate responsive industrial in the future, at the same time keep follow ing up research and development on systematized methods of the design standard
15 the urban micro climate condition will be improved which will result in a productive environment.
16 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Global climate condition and sustainability I n the past decades, the extreme weather across the global has become more and more apparent especially to the people who live in hot summer and cold winter area, they suffered from the greater effects of climate. NASA has repeatedly stated that, in the future, the phenomen a of EI Nio and La Nia will not diminish, but their influence will be increasingly strengthen. No matter how the outcome of intern glacier melting is accelerating, sea level is rising, climate is becoming warm and hence some part of people are living in the exacerbation of extreme climates. Under such an environment, how to give the responsible constructions for the society is a challenge problem Hence, in the future, t he architecture field should deeply realize that a house is not only a living machine in general sense but also a a d jus tor of the comfortable environment. For the sustainable development of human society, architects and planners should have a clear and deep knowledge to the interaction between building and microclimate, and, with their knowledge, design out some suitable c limate adaptable buildings to improve the living environment in the extreme climate and environment. It is quite significant to study the designs of energy efficient buildings under the urban microclimate in hot summer and cold winter regions. The people l iving in the bad climate regions will be very benefited from t his type of research.
17 Obviously, when the human society is on the way to the future, it will suffer from inevitably with the increasing of energy consumption and deterioration of the living env ironment. A lot of industrial buildings are destroying the land and the balance of ecology, asphalt and concrete is replacing forest and grasslands, sunlight is unable to cover soil, no rain waters the crops and some species is gradually accelerated their extinction. These bad factors are severely affecting good architect should not be a destroyer for the environment, whereas, he/she should be an excellent desingner of the comfortable environment and the gree ner society. Generally, in hot summer and cold winter regions, the buildings have more special requirement s for the maintenance properties of structural materials, a nd their heating and ventilation also have different standards. So it is reasonable that we should not use the common standardization for energy conservation and emission reduction. Depending on the situation is the premise for designing a particular pattern. In the face of the huge quality of living. Among them, undoubtedly, urban microclimate is one of the most important factors. With the rapid development s of energy efficient technology sustainability theory and multi subject cooperation, up to now, the green building field has ma de a series of gre at advances in solving the challenge problems on the extreme climate.
18 Building effect on urban microclimate Based on the thermal design index for civil buildings (MOC, 1993) and the data of national climatic statistics, China is divided into five climatic zones, they are severe cold regions, cold regions, hot summer and cold winter regions, hot summer and warm winter regions, and temperate regions. Architecture design in hot summer an d cold winter regions need to consider the summer heat prevention and winter protection, but the existing buildings usually blind to this point. Because of government did not provide the unified heating system for all the construction, so most of Chinese u rban residents have to install the additional air conditioning equipment this condition brings C hinese urban environment with a great pressure of energy consumption However, through a statistical analysis of the meteorological data, the result show s that hot summer and cold winter regions have a unique climate patterns, some parts of regions have the abundant rainfall in spring and summer, an d the other places, such as Wuhan city, can obtain the plenty of sunshine throughout all the year. The concept of t he green building gives architects inspiration to design with climate. Use the energy efficient technology a nd the e xisting design concept can remarkably adjust climatic of seasonal differences. For the architecture design in hot summer and cold winter regions, it is necessary to take an integrate consideration for the uncertainty and resilience project design Understanding the urban microclimate is essential so that we may manipulate the relationship between the environment and the human comfortability. (Erell, E.,
19 in 2014, and by 2050 it will r each 66%. In 2014, America has urban population around 82%, and China has 49.6% (United Nations, 2014). These numbers show that, with the growing urban population, the city is the main place for human survival and social activity. However, the living envir onment of the city which people rely on is getting worse and worse, and the urban climate condition becomes the extreme one For example, the urban heat island (UHI) is one of the most common urban climate problems. It has heavily affected the life of urba n people and this effect becomes very intensive in many countries like Singapore, China, Japan, America and UK UHI causes mainly by thermal storage of building structure and road pavement, artificial heat releasing and green space decreasing. It greatly i ncreased the building energy consumption for cooling requirements. A s an example, British urban energy consumption for cooling is 16% higher than its rural area (Liao, Feng Chi, et al 2015). I n order to resolve the energy efficient problems, ones have to face to these negative urban climate phenomena. I t is the first step to record and analyze the dynamic data continuously so that we can predict how climate conditions affect the performance of building thermal energy. Temperature is one of the main factors that influencing the indoor comfort. Under the improper temperature, human temperature regulation can be a disorder that may let people have long lasting effects on mental and physical health. Moreover, it is remarkable that the different climate bodies h ave different adaptation abilities. Hence, a good
20 design for the building needs to gi ve a full consider ation to the design pattern and pay a peculiar attention to the exceptional climate condition. Building energy conservation T he statistical data fro m the U.S Energy information Administration (EIA) shows that building consumes about half of energy produced in American in 2012 and building operations account of largest part of electricity consumption (Architecture 2030, 2013). The situation in China is also not optimistic, the total primary energy consumption accounts for more than 25% (Chmutina, K. 2010). These data explain s why the energy efficient buildings can play a significant role in the environment protecting problems. From the meaning s of the words, we know that the energy efficient building aims to use the various energy conservation methods to reduce energy consumption. T he new energy efficient building apply the integrated design process (IDP) and passive deign to each stage of the construct ion and take all the climatic factors into the early design stage These ideas provide an objective analysis system for building climatic adoption research. Obviously, an energy efficient building has a large space to improve itself and to corresponding en vironment al conditions. For example, by the simulation and analysis of the project and a comparison with ordinary energy efficient buildings proved that the earth sheltered construction have an energy saving over 60%. (K. Liu. 2012) R apid urbanization of most cities on the world is leading to the soil degradation and the deterioration of natural landscape and vegetation. Changes in
21 urban surfaces have altered the radiative, thermal, moisture and aerodynamic properties of the environmen t (Givoni, B. 1998). City texture determines the surface albedo, different construction methods, and various materials use in the construction process it is severly impacted on the environment and increasing the full life cycle GHG emission. So identify t he correct design methods become an important step in the process it is ne cessary for the modern architecture design to consider the space configuration and the comfortab i lity of biological feeling (Olgyay, V., & Olgyay, A. 1963). In the past se veral deca des, with the planning, design, prefabricate construction development, human take the energy efficiency construction industry towards to the top. Many developed countries obtain the successful low impact development (LID) system, producing the urban agricu lture and the vertical gardens. We seem to have found a way to solve the problem s but, when we walk into the process of implementation, we still encounter many setbacks. Namely, the specific situations bring the different new problems. How to identify the valid data and the right methods under certain climate conditions? How does an architecture with large and complex construction affect the urban microclimate? How to maintain the human body comfort? In order to resolve th ese probl ems, we will analyze the utilizability of natural resource, attempted selection of energy saving materials and renewable materials that high performance, high durable and low energy consumption, and compare the obtained results with simulation energy consumption results. I n the construction field it is possible to use a variety of different measures and techniques to calculation the
22 value of virtual water during the each construction stage. For example, as the presentation of life cycle assessment (LC A), we can have the opportunity to observe the energy consumption behind the product. There are a lot of virtual energy consumption simulation software, which can be use d to confirm that the low energy buildings result in more high efficient energy than th e normal building does All of these methods make it possible for design i n a predefined comfort range. Also, according to the matching abilities of thermal insulation, homeothermy, ventilation and daylighting, we can reduce the energy usages. The the sis is organized as follows. In chapter two, a review of existing literature focus on the study of literature. First I will taking W uhan as an example of temperature form of hot summer and cold regions. Collect and analysis the meteorology data databases f demands for construction in hot summer and cold region The third point is an investigation of the specific interaction effect between the climate and construction development After that, I study on serials existing building cases, review the advantages and defects of sustainable methods used by them for summary and conclude the feasibility of my design, which includes a few modern earth sheltered architecture cases. Fifth, analysis the selection and take a concept design to apply the climate responsive strategies. In the last, concluding remarks idea and information for the follow up study. After a literature review, in chapter three is research methodology that provides a description of the method to collect and process the data, at same time analytical framework has been sketched by climatic
23 and building information. Chapter four is case studies of climate responsive buildings each from different country, the project focus on the strategies of organi ze the different design system work together and the strategies of apply the corresponding methods for the different requirement. In the cha pter five, it analysis the Wuhan Meteorological data by Ecotect analysis tool, then provide a concept design of clim ate responsive design, which based on Wuhan climate feature. In the conclusion, I take out the dynamic climate responsive strategies and the static climate responsive strategies of building design in the hot summer and cold winter region, and also provide the future opportunities for the research.
24 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Mo dern Energy efficient B uilding The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) point s out that the buildings contribute to 30 percent of Greenhouse gas emission in America. Around the world construction field consume 60% of raw materials. ( Bribin, I. Z., et al 2011 ) As a branch of the green building system, the goals of modern energy eff icient building is according to energy saving standard and using sustainable materials to reduce energy consumption in phases of planning, d esign, building and operating ( X. Wu. 2007). With the prosperous development of sustainable study and popularization of energy conservation idea, more and more people realize there is a connection between environment and green lifestyle. The existing research about energy efficient building are concentrate on improvement building envelope, HV AC water supply and drainag e, refrigerati on and building channel system ( X. Wu. 2007). Since the concept of sustainable development been taken into architecture field, the theories and technologies of energy efficient building have been constantly practicing in the recent decade. Th e sustainable development concept effectively control the whole life cycle energy consumption of the building, at the same time it also has good performance on adaptability of environment change. That is why the energy efficient building has be widely acce pted. Through the data collection by tracking of 60 cases, the results indicate that building which powered by solar energy will be more efficient than built with
25 greener ingredients, and the solar powered building decreased more life cycle energy demand b y compared with an equivalent conventional version. (Sartori, I., & Hestnes, A. G. 2007). The integrated design process (IDP) is one of the mainstream strategies of designing an energy efficient building, it is characterized by use energy conserving techni ques and passive design methodologies into the first stage of design. In greatly increasing by IDP method implementation ( Kanters, J., & Horvat, M. 2012). The International Energy Agency (IEA) report shows when the project included energy efficiency consideration at early designing stage will significant reduce the operate cost and know save energy as save money, th e energy efficiency building may have more cost than conventional building at early stage, but in the long term it will obtain lower cost of space heating, water heating, lighting, and air conditioning. In the other hand, energy efficiency building does no t only benefit the individual user, but also has significant value from owner to the whole society. Meanwhile, the improvement of local environment also will effect on individual energy usage. Different with IDP the Building life cycle assessment (LCA) observed the building material production, processing, trading, logistics, new type energy use, building demolition and recycling. LCA present resource consumption of each unit of the entire construction, this help the designer can easily obtain the most objective angle to planning the building process.
26 energy building (Sartori, et al, 2007), authors defined building energy sources into the diffe rent category which as follows. First is embodied energy that use for manufacture and construction, and generally it express in term of primary energy. Next is End use energy which presents the building final energy usage. The feedstock energy usually show s a gross calorific value of raw materials energy consumption during production and processing stages. The Initial embodied energy present total energy consumption used in all the materials. Operating energy present the energy use in operational stages. As mentioned in previous, operating energy account for main part of whole life cycle building energy consumption, meanwhile because of all the electric use and water consumption, in some situation it also can be seen as primary energy. Primary energy present a gross energy consumption of all the construction, it is include extraction, transformation and distribution energy usage. The recurring embodied energy present the potential energy use of recycling and regenerate material. (Sartori, Igor, and Anne Grete Hestnes 2007). All these concepts are fully illustrated energy consumption are not only a phenomenon but come from different levels, the designer need to understand this way of thinking to control the energy saving effect. Through the tracing observation of existing cases by Cathy Turner and Mark Frankel, the statistic shows that compared with the normal building, energy efficient building can reduce 25% to 50% of total energy use, 33% to 39% of carbon dioxide, 40% of water use and 70% of solid waste. Howe ver, currently in China, the non
27 energy efficient building account over 95% of all, and energy consumption of unit area is two to three times than developed country (XiangXiang. Wu. 2007). Energy problems in China are still growing rapidly that may create an energy crisis in anytime. In order to reduce the waste of resource and ensure the national sustainable development, there is great demand of energy efficient building in China. In recent years, Chinese building energy saving field have made a certain ac hievement, the value of industry has reached fifteen billion dollars, and also create eight million jobs (XiangXiang. Wu. 2007). The aim of energy efficient building not just to save the natural resources but to maintain a balance between climate, resource s and energy use. The E valuation and A ssessment of E nergy Efficient B uilding There are two aspects of evaluation of energy efficient projects first is the influences of building to the external environment another is the quality of interior building environment that includ e the cultural value. As a highly complex construction system, energy efficient building has more evaluation standards and assessment strategies than conventional building After the e nergy crisis in 1973, the governments and organizations around the world began to build national energy efficient building evaluation and assessment systems that in order to quantitative evaluate the energy efficient technologies, observe whole life cycle energy consumption of building and p otential ecology value. Now day as more and more computer digital simulation methods
28 becoming mature that be used to c alculation and improvement for e nergy efficient buildings. There is serials assessme nt system have great ly contribute to modern green projects field, s uch as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) system Life Cycle Cost (LCC) BEES GBtools and Athena (Sartori, Igor, and Anne Grete Hestnes 2007). ; Many organizations also p rovides a very efficient project evaluation system like BREEAMS LEED, NABERS, DGNB GBC2000 and so on, all these make the great contribute to the great decision making also from Canada, Sweden, Norway and several other countries collaborated green building assessment system Building Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Building life cycle be defined that mean s from the design stage to demolition stage. Building Life Cycle Assessment system that contribut ion through use cross subject study, include Industrial ecology, chemistry, chemical engineering and construction engineering. LCA is being promoted as a tool for quantitative analysis the potential environmental impacts by product and energy consumption thro ugh out the building life cycle (Bayer, 2010) According to describes by the AIA guide to building life cycle assessment in practice LCA method applied in building construction field has been presented in four levels as follows. First is material characteristic analysis, it through the calculation by process chemist and chemical engineers then obtains the data of materials contained elements and potential energy consumption. Second is production phase that is mainly for the monitor and the observation energy emission during the material s production process Third is for the building level,
29 which obtain s data by observation energy usage of materials installation stage o peration stage a nd maintenance stage F ourth is an industry scale analysis that mainly focus on examining the industry production and economic output or inputs and potential environment impacts of relatively small scale construction The specific design process of LCA generally be divide into seven steps include (Bayer, 2010) : Select an energy efficient targets Determine a research scope and goal of LCA Choosing an appropriate computer simulation tools Because of each LCA analysis tool has a specific purpose and research direction, so choose different LCA tools have the different evaluation process. (as is shown in T able 2 1) Life Cycle Inventory(LCI) Life Cycle Impact Assessment(LCIA) Results and Interpretations improvement Table 2 1. Features comparison of two LCA tools ( D ata from Bayer, 2010)
30 Benefit of I mproving Building Efficiency The core point of building energy efficiency development is to reduce energy consumption, save and reuse the natural resources. The statistic shows compare with the ordinary building, the energy efficiency building reduced the energy and fossil fuels use that contribute to more than 50% energy saving ( X iangXia ng. W u 2007) In the background of world energy crisis, human still not slowing down the pace and most of developing country still need large area construction of building
31 and infrastructure. China as one of the most energy consumption country it has 95% of buildings belong to high energy consumption, inefficiency and inadequate thermal insulation performance. Most of these building rely on high consumption air conditioning to keep indoor comfortable, and air conditioning equipment is developing fast with ten million annual average increasing. ( X iangXiang. W u 2007). Improving bu ilding energy efficiency can greatly alleviate energy shortages and reduce greenhouse gas emissions though statistic shows that unit cost of energy efficient building is slightly higher than general building for long term revenue is greater than it cost. Improving building energy efficiency not only can reduce energy consumption and improve the local environment but also is one kind of important way to bring huge economic benefits. Operating energy consumption is the largest section that share of e nergy consumption of building life span and also energy efficient revenue in that time can make up for the i nitial investment of energy efficiency cost. Those n ew type energy saving equipment such as energy efficiency protective structure, multi purpose heat pump conditioner, rain water harvesting mechanism have longer service life than conventional building equipment that is mean the building maintenance cost will be cover by equipment repair cost From the social perspective, at 2015, green construction field has create d 796,000 jobs in American and contribute to direct U.S national GDP of 60.7 billion ( U.S Green Building Council, n.d.)
32 Through a statistic of attendance rate and comprehensi on productivity, the results show that staffs become more effective in the office building after building installed energy efficient equipment ( Loftness et al. 2003) Thus it can be seen that improving the building energy efficiency can also cause the favorable changes of human psychological and physiological health. Energy efficiency sacrifice living comfortable but use energy efficient strategies to reduce energy consumption and to xin s emission, it create a healthy and comfortable env ironment for people living and working in addition, energy efficient building also can reduce the medical care costs. To Design and Constructive With C limate The r egional climate feature in the urban area is different with the climate feature in the nature area. This climate performance closely linked with human activity. In a global context Urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon is aggravating prove the results of human activities and l arge scale urban construction In absolute terms, in IPCC 2004 reported that building has emissions around 8.6 million metric tons carbon dioxide in 2004 and that situation will be come more than two times in next 20 years However energy efficient building has ability to reduce 35 % to 80% of wh ole life cycle energy use (Sbci, U. N. E. P. 2009). Building should provide a favorable environment for human living instead of deteriorate the local environment. From the descri ption of Alcofarado, M.J t he goal of construction and design today should decrease the negative effect on different climate situation such
33 as urban radiation and energy balance, wind conditions, air pollution and thermal comfort ( Alcofarado M. J., & Matzarakis, A. 2014) The U rban Heat Island (UHI ) is mainly caused by not use the correct climate adoption building pattern, lack of urban air duct and building height is desultor y High thermal admittance of building materials also is the important factor lead to UHI On the other hand, u se the unsuitable materials, lack of appropriate street layouts and orientation, may directly give rise to temperature (Priyadarsini, R. et al. 2008). From these results we can get a conclusion that Building as a unit of the urban texture, played a great role to the impact o n the urban climate environment, it h as relatively long life span and also has the largest potential for delivering long term, significant on GHG emissions. I t i s necessary to select appropriate Materials and energy saving equipment and designing strategies that adopt local climate. The level of GHG emissions is closely related to the demand of human living and energy supply. Under part of the region that has the extreme weather conditions, building energy demand and people healthy conditions face the serious challenges. According to the research by Alcofarado, M. J., & Matzarakis, A. ( 2014), Defined the different climatic conditions like arid and hot climates, hot humid climates, c old climates and contrast climate seasons. The a uthor offers a serials strategies to design with these special climatic conditions, meanwhile provide reasons to show the necessity of the Integrated Design, Use large scale factorial simulation methods made the model predictive control.
34 For maintaining winter and summer seasons thermal exchange of indoor and outdoor environment it is necessary to consider about efficiency of protect ing structure like wall insulating layer, window, shade and earth sheltered The main elements that include of climate adoption building design can be divide d into three items, first is outdoor actual weather conditions, second is indoor thermal comfort code, the third i s climate control strategies. Meanwhile, climate control strategies include p assive design system and active design system. Data Ho t summer and Cold Winter R egion Based on the data statistics of the global average temperature in same latitude and the Thermal Design Code for Civil Building (GB50176 93) Show as figure 2 1. China has been divide d into four climate zone as follows, cold, severe cold, mild, hot summer and cold winter, hot summer and warm winter (MOC, 1993) Figure2 1. i on (D ata from MOC, 1993 )
35 T his research will take Wuhan as an example of h ot summer and cold winter temperature form. M eanwhile cause this research area in the north subtropical monsoon region and it also belong s to the continental climate so taking the January as the coldest month, July as the most thermal month for a node of the investigation. According to the datum from the C hina M eteorological A dministration (CMA), and compare with other regions in the same la titude of the world the temperature of research area shows 46.4 to 50 lower t han average standard in January; 34.34 to 36.5 higher than average standard in July (Miao, X. 2006 Cities in this area belong to the typical cold winter and hot summer climate. Table 2 2 shows various factors for the climate adaption elements of five cities that have typical hot summer and cold winter climate features D ata management th rough The Meteorological data set for building thermal Table 2 2 Meteorological data set for building thermal environment analysis of part of Hot summer and cold winter region in China ( dara from Song, Fangting, et al .200 5)
36 Architecture in Hot Summer and Cold Winter R egion U sually the core aim of climate adaptation is trying to control the fast changing environment factors. More and more climate adaptability buildings have been built around the world such as Hut Ken Yeang bioclimatic skyscrapers, Swiss Alpine
37 Club Tjibaou Cultural Center by Renzo Piano, Swiss Re by Norman Foster Because of these successful cases let local people can enjoy in the health and comfortable environment, and it also contributed to regional natural resource protection. According to the research b y Jianqiang Li introduces the characteristic of the cold dry winter and damp hot summer region. On the annual average, these regions have over 70 days that temperature higher than 30 with relatively humidity more than 80%, around 60% of rain days in summ er that reached 1200mm, these regions also have plenty sunshine around 1100~2500 hrs (Jianqiang Li. 2012). Meanwhile, in this paper author describes a serials of building climate adaptable strategies to improve innovative cooling, protect air quality, and also introduces the glass and isolation materials selection, passive natural ventilation system design, heat transfer system, green public space and greening roof system. In the conclussion of paper shows the peripheral structure can be able to adopt diffe rent climate standard to face the outdoor temperature increasing and humid decrease in the hot summer and cold winter region. (Jianqiang Li. 2012). Through investigation on existing cases, different construction mode have different performance on sunlight and wind load energy efficiency ability. The adaptive capacity of various systems has greatly impact between architecture and environment each other. I n order to control energy consumption and create more resilient building, it is necessary to take an inte rgrate consideration of waste energy use, passive design and intelligent design. (Jianqiang Li. 2012).
38 Eco efficiency materials selection I n the back ground of modern ization building materials market become hugeness and disorder. This situation generally along with the amount of energy waste, environmental pollution and resource damage. If architects choose the inappropriate materials may effect on whole building life cycle and even cause the long term energy consumption. In the a Life cycle assessment of building materials ( Bribin, I. Z., Capilla, A. V., & Usn, A. A. 2011). Author discussed relationship between the energy b ehavio r in materials and environment also introduce the development of eco efficiency materials. Through the comparative analysis, author mainly use s the LCA method to calculate each production parameter of materials then figure out the assessment data of life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions. Research results show that different material usage can lead significant changes in energy performance. And If choose s the new type green materials and improving innovation of manufacturing process can greatly reduce the negative impact of building usage s tage on the local environment. R esults also provide a direct ion for manufacturing companies to adjust the principle and producing way. The p roperties of the materials will decide the energy consumption of building in the future, cause it calculation process need consider various factors even from different tim es and usage method. A lot existing energy efficiency cases are using locally raw materials and recycling wasted pro duct for the project, and through the LCA experiment th e y have excellent sustainability performance. ( Bribin, I. Z., Capilla, A. V., & Usn, A. A. 2011). The
39 code of eco materials generally include items such as d ensity, thermal conductivity, primary energy d emand, global warming potential and water demand. Through multiple comparison s with these data, it is a possible to find a correct way to use eco efficiency materials appropriately and change part of contrary conve ntional ideas of energy efficient building design. Summary U n like traditional building design energy efficient building in a hot summer and cold winter region have greater responsi ve to the environment and humans comfortable. That is significant to take clarify the streamline of IDP design before the designing stage, A lot of existing green building cases have already proved that choose appropriate design method and improving building energy efficiency technical are greatly reduced GHG emissions and negative effect of building on micro climate. Though the policy, green construction system and citizen s sustainable education are wildly adopted energy efficiency theory. But in the specific climate condition the defects of common standards are also appear ing th e vague of technologies selection of climate adaptability need careful consider ation There is no energy efficient infrastructure can be use d as universal, especially for the materials selection. For example the prefabricated agglutination bamboo is a n ew type of sustainable material with stro ng bearing capacity, can defend fire and insects, but if architects use it into cold winter region, will add stress on HAVC system, m eanwhile it consume s more water resource in the material
40 production stage. So the en ergy efficient building depend s on the site and the special circumstance (Yang Ruizhen.October.2013). The LCA and an other assessment system provide the amount of reference data for improving energy building efficiency. It is possible to create a more flexible design ing process for those people who live in the extreme weather condition such as the hot summer and cold winter region.
41 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The purpose of this research is to use the effective methods to design an energy efficient building in a region with hot summers and cold winters This project focuses on the application of passive design and the energy saving technologies that related with energy consumption of the building whole life cycl e, building structure and materials. The study methods show as follows: first is the study of existing cases and experiments that inorder to understand the mutual influence on the passive design and local climates. Second, is the collection of climate data of Wuhan by analysis the information from local official meteorological monitoring center, after that is the comparison of these data and relate information to improve the methods of building climate adaptability.Third is a concept design located in Wuhan it is in order to understand the possibe methods that relate with multiple functions of each energy adaptability and energy efficiency. Research Approach Over all, the research is on the basis of quantita tive and qualitative analysis. The topic of building climate adaptability and energy conservation design belong to the interdisciplinary research, which means it is necessary to make manual correlation to find out the datum from different environment and b ackground. In the other hand, there are two cooperative methods support each to prove the research hypothesis, First, is the retrospective prospective method which use to collect the
42 data about application of existing energy efficiency technologies. Second is a short survey for the opinions of local living condition from local students who have been studied related area and the green building design specialists. After that there are two kinds of established energy modeling software help to processing all th ese data, then make the data visualization in the concept design section. This research associated with multifactorial fields, so it is significant that identify and remedy knowledge gap by comparison related results of cases study before the analysis and conclusion. Figure 3 1. The flowing chart of research
43 The survey in T wo K ind s of Climate C onditions The primary data of local climate is collected from related literature and local meteorological dataset. The main parameter is divided by different seasons; data set includes air temperature, wet bulb temperature, relative humidity, surface temperature, wind direc tion, wind speed and radiation Then import the related data into software like Autodesk Ecotect Analysis and Givoni to obtain the specific design standard for each item, and it will show the climate change effect on people energy usages like electricity and water. These data also used for debugging the trivial difference of final building model. However, digital simula tion always following the human perception, f or the de mand of the indoor comfort level I made a simple survey for the local people who are living in Wuhan. T he main information I got includes indoor temperature requirements in summer and winter seasons w hich passive design method it is acceptable for them, the dependence rate of HAVC and how climate change effect on them daily life. Building Life C ycle Design a building with climate is a dynamic proces s, it is necessary to identify the building life cycle period before we do the climate analysis, select an appropriate design me thod and thermal comfort assessment. Show as Figure 3 2, I t summarized a building energy consumption period for the concept design and data analysis, this per iod mainly based on building life cycle assessment of LEED
44 building and construction. It is help to make a better decision in the early stage by preview a whole life cycle energy consumption in different stage. F igure3 2. Energy consumption footprint for the study Investigation and Research on Climatic Adaptability B uilding A primary reason to build a house is to adjust climate of small area for people living comfortable. In the part of case studies ; first is basic information a bout space usage, it is for discusses of building scale and relationship with the local environment. Second is the application of the specific energy saving method s such as passive solar energy design (PSED), the composite retaining structure of building and green roof. which also divided by the seasonal condition. Third is summarize the space for improvement, and consider which method can be application in the hot summer and cold winter region. Through the cases study can obtain the characteristic of bui lding energy consumption, it can help to avoid
45 inappropriate design method. And also through the case study find out the method which can both used in winter and summer, and also classify the methods can flexibl y use in other s specific climate S ummary Data statistic stage including three major part: First, is from the viewpoints of micro climate adaptability, collect useful meteorological data and observation the trend of climate change to decide design scheme. Second, make data visualization by related software then compare with the datum from literature. Third is from the viewpoints of architecture and urban city, through the cases study consider about the energy saving strategies and urban green land development, from macroscopic to the microsc opic, then obtain the results for determine building methods. These step s not only rely on dataset and software simulation but also used network survey from local people. After data statistic, I will provide a concept design in the ho t summer and cold wint er region and summarized design experiment. Then through cross sectional study and semi experimental analysis obtain the dynam ic solution and static solution of building design which matching each of parameter weight, In the last take out the collusion of appropriate method to desig n the regional climate buildin g.
46 CHAPTER 4 CASE STUDY The E wha University Building by Dominique Perrault Architect Seoul, Korea The case in S eoul Korea. It is designed for the Seoul Ewha University which is one of the best female student college in the world. The goals of design include connecting the relationship between the campus, the city of Shinchon and local environment. In the other hand, it also reduce the building energy consumpt ion during the operate stages and efficient use of the limited construction spaces. Background information This is a typical earth sheltered building fully covered by Green roof and surrounded by the city Overall of the building looks like a valley a s inking aisle as Figure 3 1 in the middle is the main outdoor public space for the students and the teachers. Near the both sides of sinking aisle is the six floor high glass wall that brings the natural wind and sunshine into the interior space. The projec t released by Dominique Perrault Architecture (DPA) at 2004, completed at 2008. The total area occupies 70000 sqm, site area is 19000sqm and landscape setting up an account of 31000 sqm (Dominique P errault Earth sheltered structure not only provides a remarkable pastoral nature space for people simply relaxing, but also make a closly connection between project and urban landscape
47 integration, in addition it also improved the performance of the building ene rgy efficient strategies, such as rainwater storage, heat insulation and so on. Table 4 1. Basic information the space usage of The Ewha University ( Data from Dominique Perrault Architecture, 2008) Program/ Userspace Data Program/ Userspace Data Classrooms(sqm) 3600 Administrative program (sqm) 5700 2 amphitheaters, audience capacity (seat) 90 Commercial program(sqm) 5700 2 amphitheaters, audience capacity, seat 200 2 Screen cinema(seat) 162 Library(sqm) 2000 Bank (sqm) 100 Computer rooms, workshop space and study hall(sqm) 6000 Post(sqm) 300 4 amphitheaters, audience capacity (seat) 80 Fitness club(sqm) 1000 Hall and Common use space(sqm) 15000 Theatre(sqm) 750 Underground car park (vehicles) 750 Chapel(sqm) 200 Student plaza (sqm) 1000 Student theater and exhibition hall(sqm) 1000
48 Figure 4 1 Site plan ( Data from Dominique P errault architect DPA) Figure 4 2 West& East Section, ( Data from Dominique P errault architect DPA) Passive solar Energy Design (PSED) As Table 4 3 and 4 4 Ewha U niversity project has great energy efficient performance of heating and cooling system. The glass walls of building toward to north and south direction each respectively covered the entire elevation these let the sunlight be able to directly into the interior, this method ensured enough demands for inside lighting and winter heat absorption ; indoor facilities can store
49 and release thermal energy when indoor temperature have change d Generally, for the earth she ltered building can only use the open roo f or patio to solve the problems of lack of the passive solar energy design. The core aim of the PSED is not t o rely on the artificial devices like heat storage heat accumulator, water pump, but through the building itself to reduce the conventional energy consumption. At the same time, PSED also reduce s the cost and difficulty of construction. Figure4 3 Heating energy compar is on, data sources: (Dominique P errault 2008)
50 Figure4 4 cooling energy compar is on, data sources: (Dominique P errault For cooling in summer the Ewha University improved heat dissipation by using air convection system to organized natural ventilation This strategy is composed b y three major parts ; first is natural wind pressure ventilation system show as figure 4 5 use the local eddy that created by the pressure of leeward side and wind ward side of building to drive the air flow. Second is thermal natural ventilation, this method has more adaptability to work with changes of the outside temperature conditions. Because of different air density between the indoor and outdoor, high temperature air will rise and go out through the roof vent, meanwhile low density fresh air be inhaled into building through the bottom vent. Third show as figure 4 6, 4 7 is mechanical aids combine with the wind pressure ventilation and thermal ventilation In summer, t he foundation slab drainage under layer is equipped with pipes connected to water tanks ; the air is pre cooled to lower the temperature by
51 approximately 7 In winter, building use CHP plants to produce electricity and heat, the air temperature is pre heat ed to raise by approximately about 11 (Dominique P errault Figure 4 5 MID season: Natural ventilation and natural lighting in the Ewha U niversity (Dominique perrault Figure4 6 Summer: thermal labyrinth and ground water energy in the Ewha University (Dominique perrault
52 Figure 4 7 Winter : thermal labyrinth and ground water energy in the Ewha University (Dominique perrault The composite retaining structure of building The structure of roof, wall, doors and windows are fully consideration with the ventilation and sunshine, at the same time it also used for shading and ins u lation Except earth sheltered part of the composite retaining str ucture of the building steel and glass curtain wall responsible for the direct sunshine adoption and stable sunshade. The double layer tempered glass like Figure 4 8 has the great insulation performance than traditional one, t wo pieces of glass with one suspended heat mirror film construct the unique dual space structure. A lso in winter, the ins u lation gap provide a buffer zone to retaining the heat loss in the building. For the sunshade, building installed the steel vertical sun shield, it is mainly to s hade the sunshine that from north east, north and north west The connect ing structure of double curtain wall is aluminum alloy material with high thermal resistance and volume stability. Aluminum alloy is a commonly energy saving material which has low imp act and high recovery value. However, t he glass curtain wall is one part of all the system it cannot work independently for high energy efficie ncy improving
53 it is necessary to work with other retaining structure s Wall through the heat storage structure layer like polystyrene improve the thermal insulation ability, for the different wall orientation use the different thermal resistance value to arrange the indoor thermal buffering Building use ventilation, evaporation and long wave radiation methods to increase the heat dissipation from the wall At same time project set s ventilation gaps in the wall, wi n dow beam and pillar that also help to avoid the moisture condensation on a structure all these strategi es are effectivly to control the indoor humidity. Figure 4 8. Detail of glass wall of Ewha University (Dominique P errault
54 Earth sheltered structure Roof is the one of most important maintenance structure The h alf earth sheltered structure of Ewha U niversity maximize use its advantage for the energy efficiency. Earth sheltered means building be covered by natural entities, it as few as a possible to change of original landform meanwhile use the natural heat insulation ability of soil to make building energy saving and local climate adoption. There is the different temperature of soil between the upper layer and down layer, the g eneral condition in summer, down layer temperature of the soil is lower than local outdoor temperature ; there is the contrary performance in winter. After the rain water evaporation will take away with big part of heat energy. This process ensure d stable temperature and humidity of the indoor environment. Soil for r oof garden mainly used humus soil to promote plant growth heat insulation, a nd also it decrease the load of the roof structure. For the local climate, outer soil layer transition and absorbed building GHG emission, provide more space for the green vegetation, it is significant reduced operat ion energy loss low building high improve the urban air duct. T he e arth sheltered structure also bring s the earthquake resis tance and noise insulation resistance for users. In the other hand a c cording to statistics Maintenance cost of the building is 18% lower than conventional building in the same scale and saving the more doors and windows construction cost.
55 Green roof Building surface ref l ection and operating GHG emission are the major reasons cause of urban heat island. Vegetation cover can effectively resolve these problems. U se plants to covered roof as a reparation damage to the urban environment, students and faculties can easily contact nature environment in any time, the building not only devote s itself to the people but all the local biological. From a spatial perspective, green roof improved thermal environment of indoor and outdoor, ensure the living comfort and health, avoided the ecological disruption. From the climate view green roof absorbs the heat energy, reduce the sunlight reflection. From the archit ecture view, plants improve d the insulation and water storage function of soil, and also reduced the energy consumption of building external envelope structure. Now day green roof become s a necessary method to practice the urban low impact development and passive designing system. Green r oof structure include s the following layers (from top to bottom ) : Plan ting soil layer Use artificial soil that benefit s for plant growth, such as perlite, peat moss, vermiculite and a n other type of light soil Filter layer In order to catch impurities that fall down from the planting soil layer, ensure the drainage pipe working. Drainage layer When the water absorption of p lant and soil layers approaching the saturated value, drainage layer help to release the excess water.
56 Root barrier Can be able to withstand penetration power and corrosive from roots to protect understructures. Material s include aluminum coil and high density polyethylene (HDPE). I solation layer Avoid prevent ing rejection between the Root barrier layer and water proof layer. Water proof layer The Ewha U niversity used flexible waterproof that composite by water proof coil s like ethylene diene monomer (EPDM ), hollow foam and water proof coating Thermal Insulat ing layer Light polyethylene foam plane Building structural layer Thick roof panel, mainly use of precast reinforced concrete. Rainwater treatment T he e arth sheltered structure provided the advantage of using passive design, the more gradient the pitch, the more effective of the roof for drainage an d water collection. At the same time, rain water collection system not only can provide re use water in the season that lack of rain, but also can mitigation the storm water and recharge the groundwater. The Ewha University has the high efficiency rainwater treatment system for reduci ng the portable water consumption. Rain water is collected from the roof, stored, and then used as needs arise. Through the rapid run off green roof surface, rainwater can fall in to the bottom pipeline. There are three types of equipment under the building for the rain water
57 management first is rainwater collection pipeline it is for divide rainwater from green roof. S econd is a rainwater sewer which can clean the collected rainwater before it is stored in the main rainwater tank. T hird one is a rainwater tank, which provide s re use water for the flushing toilets, irrigation and vegetation watering. Water collection system work s with the geothermal system and thermal bridge of building can supply the adjustable temperature of re use water that reduced electricity energy consumption. (Dominique P errault California Academy of Sciences (CAS) by Renzo P iano B uilding W orkshop San Francisco, CA, USA Background information The natural history museum covered 197,000 square feet area, and there are 1,700,000 plants covered on the living roof. Show as 4 9. Two domes help to bring in sunlight, when open the window glazing on the dome can also support ventilation. Soi l covered structure effectively reduced the demand of air conditioning. The double photovoltaic cells panels provided more than 5% of the total electricity energy use. 90% of materials of the project is renewable, there are 15% fly ash, 35% slag in concre te and 68% of insulation comes from recycled blue jeans. 90% of office space covered by the skylight and natural ventilation. The project has 30% less energy consumption than the federal standard. The reclaimed water from the city be used to irrigation, fl ush the toilet. All these sustainable achievements helped
58 this building obtain credits for LEED platinum certification. (Renzo Piano Building Workshop, n.d). Figure4 9. Plan view of CAS. ( Renzo P iano Building W orkshop n.d ) Green roof The typical tar and asphalt building caused the urban heat island, project applied plants to replaced hard pavement. According to the statistic, the green roof of CAS absorb around 3.6 million gallons of rainwater per year, due to the soil heat absorption and photosyn thesis of plants, it help s to reduce 40 degrees than a standard roof and make s indoor temperature 10 degrees than a traditional roof. The photovoltaic cells on the roof also reduced 10% of the energy needed that about 400,000 pounds of GHG emissions p er year (Renzo P iano Building W orkshop n.d ). At the same time, the roof with the curve modeling which draws cool air in to the room reduce the regional wind resistance it can effectively improve on microclimate
59 Heating and cooling Visitors can easily look the outside landscape from the inside of the museum, the glass wall of building used low iron content for the excellent permeability these glass curtain s provide sufficient landscape view and natural light. For the ceili ng glass, it not only helped to bring in sun light but also can support for ventilation, reduced the dependence on HAVC system and air conditioning. The circular skylights on the top of rain forest and planetarium it can automatically open and close for emission or storage the indoor thermal. All this project used the hig h ly insulating window and faade system which has high performance on thermal insulation to ensure the completely climate control and natural sunlight serve. Figure 4 10. Indoor ventilation of CSA ( Renzo P iano building workshop, n.d) They also used radiant floor heating for interior comfort that can saving energy, the hot water tubes embodied in the floor heating the other part of structure then
60 effect on indoor air tem perature, because of the large floor area, the impact of this method is obvious The heat recovering systems collection the waste heat by HVAC equipment to decreasing the cooling load. The high lying ventilation flaps generally open at night, like other cooling devices it is controlled by indoor temperature, Co2 condition and air humidity. Nanyang Technological University (NTU) School of Art, Design and Media (ADM) by CPG Consultants Singapore Background information Completed in July 2006, the b uilding is the first professional art school in Singapore, total area is 215,000 square feet. A g reen roof of this five story school has a 45 degree slope, it is responsive to the hot ambient temperature intense sunlight and slowing runoff of Singapore The various fountains be set in the courtyard, this interior space not only beautify ing the surrounding landscape but also effectively decrease the microclimate. Due to the tropical climate, Singapore has plenty sunshine with overly hot and humidity through the year building placing the facades which fixed with a double glass curtain to facing north and south. Th e courtyard in the middle conduct the natural wind and skylight into the room. ( CPG C onsultants. n.d. )
61 F igure 4 11 Plan drawing (CPG Consultants. n.d. ) F igure 4 12 S ection (CPG Consultants. n.d. )
62 Green roof T he g reen roof not only gives large relaxing but also provides a good platform for ecological and energy saving. In S ingapore the average annual precipitation reached 175 mm, and average relatively humidity reached 84%; around 70% of rainwater is effec tively collected by the green roof Rainwater harvesting system as part of water circulation, all the rainwater will be conduct to the wastewater separation and treatment system for flirting and cleaning, then send for irrigation, sanitary water use and other operation water use At the same time, the green roof prote ct s direct sunlight radiation resistant heat energy a cross the roof reduced load of coo l ing air conditioning. A l arge area of plants on the green roof is also improv e the indoor and outdoor air quality, decrease the demands of healthcare expenditures. Except that green roof also improve the electromagnetic radiation reduction, noise reduction and increa sed roofing membrane durability. ( Nanyang Technological University (NTU) School of Art, Design and Media (ADM) July 2014) Heating and C ooling The exposed faade glass curtain bring in enough sunlight for working and studying, and it double structure has insulation barrier with dark color that prevent heat gain and loss by the different intensity of sunlight In order to meet the cooling and heating needs, b uilding used environment friendly air conditioning system which is low cost and easily installation, one of this unit s can work for fifty rooms.
63 This system can automatically control each part of compressor work for differ ent cooling and heating request. Except air machinery conditioning building applied a series of passive design. In order to take the advantages of venture effect for indoor ventilation b uilding effectively use the Venturi effect for adjust ing indoor thermal. Show as Figure 4 13 it along with the transfer of heat energy that drive by the air movement to create self air move ment in the building. I n the low are a high air pressure drives cool wind move to the low pressure area. I n these process, air temperature from cold become warm then released by the vent on the top, after that warm wind will be cooling by cold flow through the green roof as this way, it effectively avoid s abandon air heating the atmosphere. In the conventional building, a large part of heat energy made by the light bulb, however the project used fluorescent light for release less heat than normal light bulb. ( Nanyang Technological University (NTU) School of Art, Design and Media (ADM) July 2014) Figure 4 13 Venturi
64 From case study to the design These cases illustrate the thermal exchange between the indoor and outdoor environment, there are three methods as follow. First is the conductive of building envelope, second is air convention; third is thermal radiation of building surface. In addition under a hot and humid climate condition, the evaporative heat loss also can significant effect on the thermal exchange. Through the heat exchange patterns control formed the b asic climate design strategy. In summer, design should focus on reduce the heat gain, heat conduction, warm air permeability and sunlight radiation. Meanwhile it should also pay attention to Increase the heat loss, natural ventilation, thermal radiation re lease and evaporation heat loss. All these cases are large public facility buildings, there are plenty reference value for the design in Wuhan, such as green roof system, courtyard design, passive solar design and thermal envelope. Nanyang Technological Un iversity (NTU) School of Art, Design and Media (ADM) connecting interspace to extremely improved natural sunlight and air pressure ventilation. There are four aspects generally a ffect the climate responsive strategies selection. First is collect the data of local sunlight radiation, wind power, temperature and humidity, and manage these data to consider about local architecture lighting, ventilation, evaporation and solar energy consum ption. Third is to meet the requirement for passive design by consider about the group layout,
65 building shape and local structure. After that use quantitative analysis method for design strateg y assessment and final decision making
66 CHAPTER 5 A CONCEPT DESIGN OF SUBWAY STATION IN WUHAN Introduction Figure 5 1. Aerial view A n I dyllic scene is an old song written by The Tang D ynasty poet Wang Wei, it is describes the silence and leisure view in the mountain W ithout noise, Birds, flowers, all the universe follow the law of nature, all the creatures living together and make each other become better. My grandmother told me that riverside was like this scene at a long time before however with t he development of Wuhan, Industry and construction broke the silence, green space and lake be removed the sounds of birds also disappeared. Now is time to bring it back. It is not only a traffic hub but also the hub for natural resources. This public fac ility includes functions of transportati on, commercial and tourist land scape The design purpose is to fit local climate, reduces the building energy consumption in
67 the special weather conditions Meanwhile it will not des troy the local ecological syste m but reduc ing the building energy consumption. Meanwhile, promote the collection of the local waterbody, pretreatment different water class system. Also the building used various energy effic ient technologies that can also enhanc e the comfort of users livi ng.
68 S ite Analysis L ocation Figure 5 2. Location analysis ( Software: Arcgis P hotoshop ) The p roject is located in Wuhan city, where a typical hot summer and cold winter region. Wuhan has a long history and plenty natural resources. T he g ross area of the city is 8494 square kilometer; the u rban area is 8494 sq uare k ilometer urban residential population about 10.338 million u rban population density about 1152 sq uare kilometer Agriculture area account s about 66.04% of the gross city area. Wuhan city now has 147 lakes, total area lakes area reached 17535.27 hectares, a large amount of water areas and wetlands provide plenty space of the biological ha bitat for fishes and other animal s From Wuhan municipal bureau
69 statistic the region of Wuhan in the Yangtze R iver have 88 species terrestrial animal and 45 types of water animal The b uilding is in a reconstructing natural park which located near the Riverside avenue, one block from Yangtze River. Currently, the parcel in the reconstructing stage the master plan is to build a quiet scenic site in the fast bustle city the main factors of the site includes plants, trees and lawn There are no tall building in the block because of soil quality is relatively soft not suit for high construction. T opography form of the parcel is relatively fluctuant and general s lightly incline s to the south east direction Site traffic Figure 5 3. Site traffic analysis The s ite near the river has the complex and diverse underground water network; it is also a major transport Cent er at Hanyang district. Because a large number of residential areas around the site wit h high school and kindergartens and at the middle of two Yangtze River Bridge, there are heavily traffic stream
70 throughout the year. T he design considered about the significant load of pedestrian flow. Figure 5 4 Urban relationship analysis Most of surrounding building like sub quadrate, so I designed a curved building hope to bring a etherealize element into a busy and tedious environment. The c urved surface can also help to design the green strategies of water and wind. There is no tall building around the site have good urban air duct but at the same
71 time, no screen can obstruct cold wind from north east side. G reen infrastructure and blue infrastructure linked with each other. But now with the development of urban construction, this link has be interrupted. The building is also for connect ing the city and ecological environment. Site plan and size of project Figure 5 5. Site plan and size of project In order to protect those original plants on the slope and save the utility of land use, it is inappropriate to remove the slope for the construction. So building is half
72 earth sheltered, the roof covered by different vegetation layers and connect with slopes. Building is embedded between the three small hills. People can easily go to the roof runway from any point of slop for the relaxe and entertainment. Those p eople who need enter or exit the subway station can come through four main entrances and five secondary entrances The secondary entrances are mainly served for park walk and be divide by pedestrian traffic system. A successful size decision of building d esign can take the advantage of original site condition, the construction land area of this project is 16492 square meter, there are three major elements for determines this size and overall shape of building First is the huge flow of people that need lar ge space for activity and safety, the high population den sity means high energy generate and it will also cause the high internal cooling loads. Second is the multiple function organization, it is necessary to consider about the transportation, shopping and entertainment space. Third is the performance of energy efficiency. Building massing is closely related to passive design, the first floor account half of building total area that is in order to use the advantage of green and soil covered structure to reduce the cooling energy consumption, and also support rainwater harvest. In addition there is a typically oval courtyard around 6217 square meters in the central that can appropriately conduct the natural sunlight into the room, at the same time, it al so leaves enough area for the central pond for reserve water. The thin annulus building lets wind and sun can easily cross the interior to increase the heat loss in summer.
73 C limate in Wuhan Wuhan city has a muggy and wet climate in summer, this type of weather will last from June to September, there no obvious daily variation of local temperature. The average temperature is 77 to 80 in hottest month about 20 days higher than 95 the highest temperature in past 50 years is 103.28 at 2005. In the winter, generally start from December to February with high air humidity, about 70 days temperature lower than 41 the average temperature in January is 32 to 50 (The annual and daily value data set 1981 2010. Aug 20 12) Winter and summer Psychrometric chart. ( Software: Ecotect, weather tool. Data S ource : Meteorological data set for building thermal environment analysis of China) Figure 5 6. Summer psychrometric chart of Wuhan.
74 Figure 5 7. Winter psychrometric chart of Wuhan. The Ps ychrometric chart is use d to determine the state of the air in the thermal environment. There are four basic parameters show on the figure s : temperature, humidity rate, air pressure, actual vapor pressure. The abscissa axis represents Air dry bulb temperature (DB, ); the vertical axis represents absolute humidity ( AH, G/ kg); curve represents air relatively humidity (RH, %); T he purple block s represent specific heat capacity (VOL m 3 / kg) Y ellow line represents a living comfortable area and the relationship with all the parameter. We can clearly see there is a great deviation between the comfort standard and actual temperature. In the actual design it is necessary to face the excessive hot humid summer and cold dry winter.
75 Trend of historical temperature variation January, April, July, October Figure 5 8. H istoric temperature of W uhan
76 From the historical average temperature we can see that summer keep a high temperature and be on the rise, winter is cold and the temperature is not stable. Design should avoid the impact of the minimum and unstable temperature in the winter. F igure 5 9. Annual dry ball temperature of Wuhan by Ecotect analysis Figure 5 10. Annual wet ball temperature of Wuhan by Ecotect A nalysis
77 The abscissa axis is data, the vertical axis is temperature and relative humidity, the green line is the best comfort of temperature We can mak e a dynamic analysis of the annual building heating and cooling period. From the middle of May to September need using cooling equipment, from December to M arch need using heating equipment. Summer climate factors comparison ( Software Ecotect, weather tools ) Figure 5 11. Winds rose of summer
78 Figure 5 12. Wind warm of summer Figure 5 13. Rain fall in summer
79 Figure 5 14. Summer humidity Winter climate fact ors comparison ( Software Ecotect, weather tools ) Figure 5 15. Winds rose of winter
80 Figure 5 16. Wind warm of winter Figure 5 17. Rainfall in winter
81 Figure 5 18. Winter humidity The color is more darker means the relative value is more higher, the wind rose chart according to the annual frequency of occurrence can be see n as maximum wind value and minimum wind value. These chart s show the main wind direction of Wuhan in summer is south east, and north north east in winter, The annual most wind direction is from the north east. However, W uhan does not have the high wind speed, that simply to use the passive ventila tion for the indoor thermal comfort and collect he wind power Wuhan city has the high precipi t ation in the both of winter and summer season, especial l y in summer the va lu e is overly pass ed the capacity of the public drainage system. In a n other hand rainwater resource can be effective use for energy consumption, and as a unit of urban system, the building has responsibility for share a load of the urba n sewerage system.
82 Sunlight Figure 5 19. S unlight environment in summer 12:00 pm. Figure 5 20. Sunlight environment in winter 12: 00 pm
83 Figure 5 21. Optimum sunlight orientation Ecotect W eather Tool according to the annual solar radiation provide s the best suggestion for building direction. T he h orizontal axis is mo n th and the vertical axis is radiant exposure rate. The g reen arrow line is the most appropriate direction of annual average radiant exposure. The blue arrow line is the best direction for radiant exposure in col d seasons. The red arrow line presents the best direction for radiant exposure in hot seasons. We can see from chart the best solar radiation direction of Wuhan is South by E ast 30 degree s on the other hand, east by north 20 degree s is not recommend ed to sunlight design.
84 Orientation of building Figure 5 22 8:00 am, summer Figure 5 23. Sunlight at 12:00 pm, summer
85 Figure 5 24. 5:00 pm, summer Figure 5 25. 8:00 am, winter
86 Figure 5 26. 12:00 pm, winter Figure 5 27. 5:00 pm, winter According to the demands of winter heating and summer ventilation, the best building orientation decided east by south 30 degree s about 30 degree s angle between the predominant wind directions in summer. As we can see from these graphics, building receive d more irradi ate radiation in summe r and the atrium is the most radiation area. T he e arth sheltered structure excludes a big part of direct sunlight and keep the relatively stable indoor temperature. In the winter, the building has abundant changes of light and shadow on both sides of east and west
87 C overed area provided heat storage function to keep the indoor thermal comfort. T o response climate change, the building has been installed compluvium, mirror reflection, lighting tube to satisfy the sunlight demand in winter. Architecture morphology and surface design Figure 5 28 Architecture Morphology and surface design
88 Figure 5 29 Building Elevation Figure 5 30. Wind flow in summer Figure 5 31. The w ind flow s in winter
89 The exten ded eaves can effectively block the high angle of the sunlight in summer, at the same time it also can keep enough low angl e of the sunlight in the winter. In order to avoid wind resistance and reduce the pressure building surface did not use acute angle. Each inflection point is for the surface air flow and make s it looping, then divert ed the wind to each e vent According to the Wuhan seasonal wind direction, the sharp corner at north east and south east of the building can break the wind. Like a polyvalent wall, the building surface composite by multiple layers, the out layer used to avoid reflect heat energy from sunlight and keep slightly hollow to ensure the humidity rate of inside wall The middle layers are central controlled to storage or evaporate energy; it is key point to control the air condition through moisture and dryness The bottom layer is for hold up the long span structure The concept of surface design based on metabolism, from function angle is related t o thermal condition, light condition, humidity, air quality, indoor humidity and human activity.
90 Figure 5 32. The movable green roof This is a movable green roof, the green spot can cover the skylight in summer, and move away to expose roof window in winter. The green roof reduc ed the urban hard pavement area and improving the absorption of solar radiation by photosynthesis and transpiration. In the summer it can effectively control the heat energy absorb, reduced the load of air conditioning. Not just simple replace to soil, for those walk way surface water run off wind duct vegetation area are not be fully green cover ed.
91 Interior space design and atrium ventilation Figure 5 33. Axonometric of floor levels There are five underground levels, interconnected each by elevator, stairs and central open space The main function is for the metro transportaion which at the bottom floor, the rest of the floors provide dining, shopping and office function zones. Atrium space bring s the sunshine into the first floor, and it work s with window walls that in sides of building to take cross ventilation through the interior space by wind pressure and thermal pressure. For the underground ventilation, it mainly rely on t he circular central open space and ventilation towers, all the internal wind flow and air thermal energy will be brought to here together. On the other hand y ou can stand at any point of central space to observe the condition of all levels. The stairs have a long cross section, enough to bear the massive flow of people. T ransparent spaces not only convenient to people walk through with various purpose but also make the all kinds of energy transfer become more easily
92 I nterior c limate responsive methods Figure 5 34. Architecture section The central reservoir As the core point of building energy junction, the central reservoir system cross all the levels extends to the ground aquifer. Water resource collectt from the artificial pool, rainwater collection, underground water, municipal water and reuse water. In order to reduce wat er energy consumption, the different class of water usage will outlet different quality water for drinking, domestic use, sanitary water, equipment operation water, cooling and thermal water and greenery irrigation. The container material is double layer p rism glass, and it depend s on the turbidity of water, from outside to inside. The outer circle of the container has the most clarity
93 water, it can be able to refraction the upper light to the down layer, the first ground floor can directly affect by sunlig ht. There is water layer in the each floor panel, different season contain s with different temperature water for heating and cooling the air, also adjust the indoor humidity. Cooling and thermal equipment in each floor attach with humidity control device t hat can absorb or release the air with different temperature. V entilation T ower F igure 5 35. Ventilation tower T here are ventilation tower s located at the both sides of north and south It inspired by 2000 B.C the ancient Egyptians, they established original ventilation system in building that from the basement extend to the roof, through temperature different between indoor and outdoor generate air circulat ion. At the same time, each a ffect ed room by ventilation tower installed air value for adjust ing wind power. For keep ing the humidity they set the water pot and moist wood charcoal in the tower. After thousands o f years, this method was replaced by air condition but n ow
94 day more and more negative affect of air condition being exposed such as high energy consumption, noise and harmful substance release. With the development of technologies there is possible to improve the ancient method for building passive design. These two cylindroid towers are composed by the countless small unit. Through wind pressure and thermal pressure take out the extra heat and water vapor, each unit of the tower with a built in a wind catch er equipment and air filtration. Each outlet valv e is c entral controlled to responsive the different weather. The bottom of towers connected with an interior water network, it is for regulat ing the temperature of the reservoir. Energy efficiency in summer Figure 5 36. Energy efficiency in summer
95 In summer, project o btain the direct heat respectively from atrium building glass curtain, building surface and shallow pond which in the ground floor These heat energy mainly for the operation power and indoor lighting. Sunlight heat the top of ventilation tower, meanwhile warm the air in the tower hot air rise with th e indoor heated air flow, then air duct generate the siph on effect T he cold fresh air be absorb ed from other side of building, generate a horizontal duct in each floor, the water layer used cold water to cooling the fresh air, then h ot air be forced t o push out from the tower by the high density of cold air. Energy efficiency in winter Figure 5 37. Energy efficiency in winter In winter, Sunlight and heat energy is mainly for the direct ly indoor thermal and water heating. Project o btain the he at energy through the direct heat ing and
96 indirect heat ing like: s oil heat storage, ground source heat pump, light well, light wall of ventilation tower, light pipe with a solar tracking device, optical fiber and an optical sensor. B ecause of indoor air pressure the direct vent of the tower will be turn off to eliminate the heat air. T he pipeline of ventilation tower will be joint with indoo r thermal equipment for heating the air, then sending to the indoor space I n the other hand the tower will also use to collect daytime heat energy and sunlight The operational heat energy will be collect ed by the central reservoir t his method has two benefit s : one is provide d domestic hot water, another is auxiliary wind delivery through change the heat pressure. Central hall in the courtyard Figure 5 38. Front view of central hall in the courtyard
97 Figure 5 39. Perspective view Same as outside building, the central hall ace to the south by E ast that can accept s most natural sunlight. It is shape looks like a blooming lotus which is The inspiration for spires of the building came from patterns of Chu D ynasty culture. This building used for foresight, relaxing soft drinks and a small exhib ition. And also this building provide one of the exit s gate for the people who want to visit P ark
98 Figure 5 40. A nalysis of central hall S tart from south elevation the first curtain layer m ade by countless honeycomb solar panels, this layer generate s operating energy and it let natural sunlight can able cross into the indoor space. The second layer is a double structural sealant glazing curtain that improving the permeability of curtain, it can effectively storage the heat energy; the joint point s made by metal with a gap that great at thermal resistance. T hird layer is a silica based aerogel glass which can change the dept h of the color by air humidity, it has the good heat insulation performance and also can block the strong sunlight. The material of c urve shape in both sides of east and west is foam glass, this renewable material is after mixed with a foaming agent, abandoned glass and concrete, has great thermal insulation and damp proof effect. The north side section is a set of reticula r and irregular curve surface it made by titanium carbide (TIC). TIC has plenty reserves in the local area of Wuhan it has light weight with high strength, can bear high pressure and corrosion, and the most important it has great performance on heat insulation so be en used to made the
99 surface of a spaceship Consider about TIC has high reflectivity that not help for reduci ng the UHI effect, so set it to north side for accept s relatively less of sunlight. T he arrows on the top not only present regional symbol but it also work as humidity sensor and temperature transmitter, these arrows can record and processi ng the real time climate data that support for the efficiently regulate the indoor climate. Summary F igure 5 41. A erial view of project This concept design is from the perspective of climate feature analyzed energy efficient building design methods in Wuhan city which has special weather condition in summer and winter. First is to identify the purpose of energy efficiency design through analyzed the climate data in Wuhan. Then according to the site topographic element decide to use the earth sheltered building, and take advantage of soil covered structure which has the excellent natural the rmal storage
100 and water collector performance. Earth sheltered building not only provide a large green area to reduce the UHI, but also increased more possible to response the humid and hot in summer, and the cold temperature in winter. Bui lding apply the v entilation tower for a ir circulation and water reservoir; use green roof for water treatment, and selected high insulation materials for the building envelope. The energy efficient section of this project is not independent but support each other, passive design with machinery energy saving work together, exchange the generated energy for different functions. A ll these make the most energy efficiency system.
101 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK Dy namic climate adaptive strategy Through analysis of the climate responsive problems of building in Wuhan, the actual project needs to focus on high temperature and cold wind in summer, in winter need pay attention to cold and moist climate. It is essential to flexible control th e humidity of roof in the summer. The roof need to be able to cooling by the evaporation and conserved the rainwater by the green vegetation layer, water of the soil and vegetation layer can reflection sunlight and absorption the heat energy that can be ab le to reduce the thermal conductivity. In the winter, green roof can draining the water for increase the structure thermal conduction. The stationary shading structure may solve the exposure in summer, but blocking the passive solar energy in winter, so ap ply a dynami c shading system which can adjust angle and length for the different sunlight demand. For the plants selection of green roof in Wuhan, it is necessary to meet shallow root, drought proof, fast water emission and cold resistant, such as Parthe nocissus henryana ophiopogon japonicas. For the ventilation, due to the volume of wind energy is instable in summer and winter, so the design of ventilation tower and air layer of the floor need to add wind catcher equipment or control the scale for t he ventilation effect. At the same time, it is also necessary to install a valve on the each air inlet that can centrally
102 control the building ventilation system, turn it on in the summer and turn it off in the winter. The less wall set up, the more flexibility to control the indoor ventilation, so as much as possible to design the slight and removable wall can reduce the needlessly enclosure space. The barrier layer can use double structure air grill that can storage th ermal energy and also releases it. The air vent grill can select material like aluminum or local materials such as bamboo. In addition the indoor vertical greening also can improve the humidity, temperature control and air quality, in summer, these branch es and leaves form the vertical irrigation system can screens out much of the sunlight radiation and cooling the air temperature. S tatic climate adaptive strategy The dynamic climate adaptive strategies might work if party has enough funding and an appropriate location. The static climate adaptive strategy fit for more general construction can even be seen as design premise. It seems like using fixed climate responsive design to solve two kinds of climate conditions. First is b uilding orientation, it should combine with the both supply and demand of winter sunlight and summer shading into the integrated design, avoid the cold wind, and keep the ventilation in Summer. Through analysis the meteorological data of Wuhan, we can see the best orientation for building in that area is 10 degrees of the south by east to 10 degrees of the south by west After determine the best orientation, designer can uses the specific method in the later design to cover the defect of orientation.
103 For t he passive solar energy design, an appropriate shape of the building is very important, there is a particularly close connection between the urban micro climate and building configuration. From the perspective of thermal flow, when we design a building app earance, the obtuse angle and curve is better than the right angle for air circulation. In addition, the aerodynamic curve can conducts air flow, help for air pressure exchange and it also can support roof cooling and evaporation. The large building exte rior envelope can accelerate the heat dissipation; however, it may lead to high volume of energy consumption, so designer should consider to reducing the interior space deep, increasing the building windward area for natural ventilation and heat release. I t is also necessary to think about shadow of indoor long time need less or work need a balance between the sunlig ht and shading. In Wuhan, the annual warm seasons is longer than the cold seasons, at the same time, the cost of sun shading are much higher than artificial daylight, so for the part of sunlight design should pay more attention to the winter radiati on. It is also necessary to increase the south side area of the building meanwhile decrease the deep plan one basic way is to add a sunspace at south side elevation and use thermal storage wall to connect sunspace and room. The sunspace have a certainty distance between the interior space and it can be seem as a buffer space for storage the heat energy. In the winter, sunlight can directly exposure into the sunspace, the thermal storage wall can absorb heat energy to make the low
104 temperature irradiation for indoor cold air then air density will be decrease and air rises upward then from the gap into the room, meanwhile cold air go into the sunspace. The air at the bottom of the sunspace create negative pressure that can achieve air circulation and warm the indoor space. In addition use piloti structure can drive air circulation and improve the indoor climate condition, in the winter, it also support the response to sunlight and effectively avoids indoor humidity. Compare with earth shelter ed and conventional In general, the earth sheltered building have a lot advantage to support energy efficiency design, especially in the extreme climate condition. Due to covered by soil and vegetation, these factors make the envelope system of building become more resilience, when it facing the extreme hot and cold temperature, the building no need rely on the mechanism system for adjust ing the indoor comfort. The earth sheltered building with a maximum reducing the e nergy consumption and GHG emission. The natural surface not only considerably cut down the envelope maintenance cost but also reduced the operation spending, absorb the heat energy and release water to cool down the temperature in summer, conduct winds flow and improve the local micro climate. Whether from the appearance or internal function, the a rchitecture and natural landscape become integrated, increasing the green area of the city It is also benefit for integrated lands use planning, effectively use slope on the site. At the same time earth sheltered building can effectively
105 prevent eolian dust and noise, block the pollutant and radiation, all these are positive e ffect However, compare with conventional building, earth sheltered building still have some disadvantages. First is natural sunlight and natural ventilation, especially for those underground building. F or thermal comfort, it is necessary to design the active ma nagement system though it may bring some finical matters. Second, the outdoor land scape vis i on is restricted, staying in building for long term will tri gger out depressed psychology, a rchitects should pay attention to humanized when design the indoor environment. Third, due to the new type of bearing structure has more cost earthwork excavation and removal of spoil involves much higher real costs. The misunderstanding of current designing and development In Wuhan, or even China most d evelopers are ignoring the climate problems and potential value of energy efficiency even they understand the condition of global energy. They would rather than sacr ifice the huge energy to meet the plot ratio or create more space for sale Energy efficient building and green building even become the sell points a slogans without meaning. A lot of expensive material exi s ting in the market and be labeled The g overnment just see the energy efficient building as an individual, ho wever, the best way to change the urban microclimate depends on grand and long term goal, policy should focus on building group organization and block layout organization The policies and criteria
1 06 are static but weather and technolog y development is dynamic; no matter from design or assessment, all need a dynamic and comprehensive view, especially to analysis the results of computer simulation Part of C hinese a rchitects just follow the market short benefits and less willing to do the research on new materials. The judgment criteria of energy efficiency performance of structure or materials are depend on commercial promotion, f or example, p art of energy efficient material is extensive applied on construction, just because it good at one aspect but not fit the local climate or have others negative impact as following Future O pportunities for Research Rainwater treatment, thermal insulation and ventilation performance of building structure are the three major problems of construction in Wuhan. But for Hot summer and cold winter region around the world still have much subtle areas with the difference of climate situation and thermal demand situation. It is necessary to categoriz e the hot summer and cold winter region by specific temperature variation, period s of precipitation, detailed architecture function and the size of projects New construction and renovation construction also have a different climate responsive system, in this area, it is necessary to refer to green buildin g evaluation system to identify energy saving purpose. At the same time, the planning department in the hot summer and cold winter area should consider about the relationship between over all layout and building energy efficiency. The building shading rate and buildings layout are the significant factors that impact on site microclimate an
107 inappropriate parcel layout will indirectly increase the pressure of energy consumption. On the other ha nd, human body comfort study will be the next step to study on architecture in the specific environment, because people and local biological will determi ne that if a project is success in the final, instead of value of the number In the end, for those people who ar e living in the severe weather, energy efficiency means the future for them, i t is possible to stop building depravation climatic environment Now day building no longer as the symbol of power or will as before, and it will become merchandise in the future, the building will be given more responsibility for the human living environment.
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115 LIST OF FIGURE REFERENCES Figure 4 1 Image retrieved from http://www.perraultarchitecture.com/en/projects/2459 ewha_womans_university.html Figure 4 2 Image retrieved from http://www.perraultarchitecture.com/en/projects/2459 ewha_womans_university.html Figure 4 3 Image retrieved from http://www.gooood.hk/ewha university building by dominique perrault architect.htm Figure 4 4 Image retrieved from http://www.gooood.hk/ewha university building by dominique perrault architect.htm Figure 4 5 Image retrieved from http://www.gooood.hk/ewha university building by dominique perrault architect.htm Figure 4 6 Image retrieved from http://www.gooood.hk/ewha university building by dominique perrault architect.htm Figure 4 7 Image retrieved from http://www.gooood.hk/ewha university build ing by dominique perrault architect.htm Figure 4 8 Image retrieved from http://www.gooood.hk/ewha university building by dominique perrault architect.htm F igure 4 9 Image retrieved from http://www.rpbw.com/project/68/california academy of sciences/ Figure 4 10 Image retrieved from http://www.rpbw.com/project/68/california academy of sciences/ F igure 4 11 Image retrieved from
116 http://inhabitat.com/amazing green roof art school in singapore/ F igure 4 12 Image retrieved from http://inhabitat.com/amazing green roof art school in singapore/
117 B OGRAPHICAL SKETCH He Zhang was born in pinjiang Hunan province, China. He got his Bachelor degree of Environment art at HUST (Huazhong University of Science and Technology) and was accepted to the graduate school of HUST in Art design of the College of Architecture and Urban Planning. He attended the interdisciplinary program between HUST and University of Florida from 2015 to 2016 in sustainable Architecture design. Now He is currently pursuing his graduate degree in Master of Science in Architectural studies, with an expected date of completion in fall 2016. He hopes to k eep study in architecture field and design with the sustainable thinking.
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