ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING THROUGH STUDENT CENTERED APPROACHES: A PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR THE CENTRAL COMMUNITY ( LA ) SCHOOL SYSTEM MUSIC FACULTY By MICHAEL TREYSON MILLER SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: DR. RICHARD S. WEBB CHAIR DR. MATTHEW D. THIBEAULT MEMBER A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC IN MUSIC EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2015
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 2 Abstract The purpose of this project was to create a professional development in service for the music faculty of the Central Community (LA) School System for professional development. The project consists of two sections: a comprehensive review of literature, and the in service. The in service section of the project is informed by my understandings of the research literature and includes activities and teaching strategies that can be u sed in the music classroom to engage students in the learning process through the use of student centered teaching practices. Specific techniques and strategies I explored through the research include peer teaching, peer mentoring, self evaluation, and cre ative thinking. The in service component of this project includes a PowerPoint presentation on student centered teaching approaches, connections to the Louisiana COMPASS rubric, and activities that can be used in the music classroom. Sample lesson plans fe aturing student centered lessons are also included. Keywords: student centered lear ning, peer teaching and learning, peer mentoring creative thinking, critical thinkin g, self evaluation
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS A bstract 2 Ta ble of Contents .......................... 3 5 6 Purpo s ...................... 6 Potential Significance of the Project 7 Act 54 and COMPASS 8 Student Centered Learning 10 Rationale of the Project 14 Review of Literature 14 Student Centered Learning 15 Peer Based Instruction and Mentoring 18 Motivation 21 Creative Thinking 22 Listening Activities 23 Summary 25 Constructing Professional Development 26 Concluding Thoughts 27 Part II: An In Service for the Music Faculty of the Central Community (LA) School System 28 Introduction 29 Schedule of Events 30
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 4 Presentation 31 52 Student Ce 53 54 55 Sample Lesson Plan 2 57 Sample Lesson Plan 3 58 Louisiana Music Standards and Benchmarks 60 Post In 62 References 63
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 5 Acknowledgements I would first like to thank my parents, Stan and Betty Miller, for instilling in me the value of education and personal betterment. Without them, I would not be where I am today. I would also like to thank my grandmother, Ernestine Bridges, for always supp orting my educational endeavors. Graduate school would have been impossible without her. To my school administrator, Dr. Jason Fountain, thank you for your never ending support of my aspirations both in and out of the classroom. Your guidance has been unwa vering through this process. Finally, I would like to thank my professors at the University of Florid a for their help and guidance during my graduate studies. I have gained a wealth of knowledge that I can use for the rest of my life. Specifically, thank you Dr. Richard Webb for your unmatched support during the completion of this project.
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 6 Engaging Students in Learning through Student Centered Approaches: A Professional Development for the Central Comm unity ( LA ) School System Music Faculty In 2007, th e citizens of Louisiana passed a constitutional amendment allowing the formation of the Central Community School System (CCSS). Since that time, CCSS has grown st performing school districts CCSS school administrators pla ce high value on academics and extra curricular activities and offer many ways for students to stay involved (CCSS, 2015) This academic curriculum includes course offerings in music. Current music classes offered throughout the CCSS include general music for all elementary students grades Pre K through fifth. Once students enter middle school, course offerings include choir, band, and piano. At the high school level, guitar and music technology are also made available to students. The music faculty of the five schools within the CCSS meet regularly to collaborate and share ideas and teaching tips with one another. One way to achieve this goal would be to u se employ a more student centered approach to teaching and learning in the classroom. Purp ose of the P roject The purpose of this project was to create a teacher in ser vice that will provide the CCSS music educators with a variety of teaching methods, suggestions, and activities that will aid them in student engagement through student centered approaches to learning. The in servic e is informed by a comprehensive review of literature that focuses on st udent centered learning practices This in service will also aid teachers in the discovery of motivational tools that can be used in the classroom to better engage students. The infor mation in the in service is geared specifically towards Louisiana music e ducators and will align with the Louisiana DOE standards and benchmarks for music education.
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 7 This capstone project seeks to help educate teachers with new ways to engage students in the learning process. The ideas and activities presented in this in service can be used to create music classrooms where students are excited to learn and take active ownership of their music program. Although not all ideas are applicable to every teaching situation, attendees of this in service can all leave with at le ast one new idea to help them be better music educators who actively engage their students in the learning process. These activities have the potential to help teachers achieve higher scores on the COMPASS (Clear, Overall Measure of Performance to Analyze and Support Success) rubric in each of the five domains and therefore increase their effectiveness. Specifically, by employing a more student centered approach, music educators might their students with leadership roles that allow them to take ownership of their education. Students who are actively involved in the planning and preparation of their own learning also engages and motivates students to raise their own expectations (Scruggs, 2009). Incorporating student centered practices into daily teaching hel ps develop student leaders that ultimately become independent musicians who seek out their own knowledge (Brown, 2008). Potential Significance of the Project Althou gh this in service was designed for Louisiana music educators, the activities and teaching strategies can be used in any music classroom. Because current trends in education are focusing on a more student centere d approach to teaching and learning, these activities might be a pp ropriate for all music classroom s in all states. Also, COMPASS is directly taken from Framework for Teaching which is used in many states as an evaluation instrument for teachers. The activities and information presented in the in service may b e applicable to any and all educators wanting to incorporate more student centered approaches to teaching in their
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 8 classroom. These activities will allow students to take ownership their education and play an active role in the learning process. This in s ervice seeks to better prepare teachers in the CCSS for the classroom by providing information and methods that will enhance teaching using student centered approaches to learning. In addition to this, there is a strong tie to COMPASS teacher evaluations. Domain 3c: Engaging Students in Learning is the centerpiece of the framework for teaching; all other components contribute to it (Danielson, 2011) For this reason, engaging students in learning is a major focus of this in service. Using student centered approaches in the engagement process might allow educators to create a safe learning environment where students feel comfortable to freely ex press themselves through music. Act 54 and COMPASS In 2010, the Louisiana State Legislature and Governor Bobby Jin dal passed Act 54 which introduced sweeping changes to the way teachers and administrators are evaluated. Through Act 54, the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE) created the COMPASS rubric. There are five domains taken directly from the D ani Framework for Teaching The five domain s used in Louisiana are: (1) Setting Instructional Outcomes (2) Managing Classroom Procedures (3) Using Questi o ning and Discussion Techniques (4) Eng aging Students in Learning (5) Using Assessment in Instruction (Danielson, 2011). Teachers receive a score of highly effective, effective proficient, effective emerging, or ineffective in each of the five domains and the average of the five scores is taken as the final score. This
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 9 information is used, in part, to de salary and ability to gain tenure. Although there are five separate domains in the COMPASS rubric, I feel that the majority of the domains fall under one main idea: engaging students through a mo re student centered approach to teaching and learning. The other four domains lead directly to this one and all contribute to student engagement in the classroom. The COMPASS rubric seems to suggest a cen tered focus on student centered learning and peer te aching. ( Danielson, 2011, p. 18). In the music classroom, it can sometimes be difficult for the teacher/director to relinquish control of the class/ensemble to students, especially those teachers/directors who work with younger and beginner students. COMPASS does suggest a student centered approach to teaching but there has been a lack of professional development offered to the music educators in the CCSS district that focus on ways to use more student centered approaches to learning in the classroom. The music f aculty of the CCSS meet regularly to share ideas, but more concrete examples and information for the implementation of these ideas is needed to further the success of the music programs at our schools. Even through attendance at state and regional music te acher education conferences, teachers receive little to no professional development that focuses on student centered learning. In response to the way states and school systems evaluate educators, the National Association for Music Education has created a s eries of workbooks that help administrators Framework for Teaching and use the same domain/component layout. The benefit to using this workbook is that it explains to evaluators w hat they will see in a music classroom and provides possible examples
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 10 of each of the components found in the Framework for Teaching Almost all of the possible examples given by NAfME are student centered and provide both educators and administrators with concrete examples of student centered instruction in the music classroom. Figure 1 on the next page, details each of the COMPASS components and possible examples from both the Daniel son rubric and the NAfME teacher evaluation instrument. Teacher evaluation programs, like COMPASS, are becoming more prevalent in education. According to the Center for Public Education (2013), over two thirds of the states have made major changes in the way teachers are evaluated. Teachers are evaluated based on student achievement and classroom observations conducted by principals. In Maine, legislation passed in 2010 required schools to offer multiple paths and opportunities to demonstrate learning. Man centered approaches to accompl ish this goal Bellavance (2014) describes the process her school went through to build a learner centered culture. It includes students and teachers working together to develop a nd implement standard operating procedures and codes of coope ration. Student Centered Learning Because of the focus on teacher effectiveness, the idea of student centered instruction is becoming more relevant. Many teacher evaluation frameworks, including Framework for Teaching place a student centered instruction in high regard. Student centered instruction is a form of active learning in which students are engaged in all steps of the lesson creation and implementation (Brown, 2008). This type of instruction is based heavily in the ideas of constructivism, the epistemological theory that posits that students learn by doing something, rather than observing someone else (Dewey, 1916; 1963). In a student centered classroom,
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 11 COMPONENT DANIELSON EXAMPLES NAfME EXAMPLES 1c: Setting Instructional Outcomes The teacher encourages students to set their own goals; he provides them a taxonomy of challenge verbs to help them strive for higher expectations. Teacher has learning activities that require students to create, perform, and respond to music. All outcomes are clear, and students know what they are. 2b: Managing Classroom Procedures Students redirect classmates in small groups not working directly w ith the teacher to be more efficient in their work. A student reminds classmates of the roles that they are to play within the group. Students assist teacher in developing management guidelines and behavioral signals. Section leaders remind classmates of t heir roles within the ensemble. Student librarian oversees the distribution and collection of music and other instructional materials. 3b: Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques stu dent I have another idea how we might Students work in ensemble sections to listen to a recording of th eir playing, detect and correct errors in performance. another idea as to how we might 3c: Engaging Students in Learning Students are asked to write an essay in the style of Hemingway. Students identify or create their own learning materials. Students summarize their learning from the lesson. Students are asked to suggest appropriate warm ups to use considering the repertoire to be rehearsed. Students carry out peer evaluations on learned material. Students are assigned to carry out individual conducting tasks. 3d: Using Assessment in Instruction The teacher reminds students of high quality work. While students are working, the teacher circulates, providing feedback to individual students. The teacher uses exit tickets to elicit evidence of student understanding. Teacher reminds students of the characteristics of high quality work. Students evaluate their performanc e and suggest strategies for improving their performance. Students offer feedback to their classmates of how to improve their work. (Danielson, 2011) (NAfME, 2013 ) Figure 1 A comparison of Danielson and NAfME highly effective teaching examples.
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 12 students have more control and influence as part of the learning process. Blair (2009) used the centered classroom. h music, solving musical problems. Rather than merely following directions, students are bei ng musical growing as musicians p. 43 ) In the general music classroom, Scott (2011) offers s uggestions on the implementation of student centered practices, especially in the areas of planning. Rather than create lesson plans, teachers in student centered classrooms should create frameworks that can be adjusted to meet the needs of students if the lesson were to take on a different direction (Scott, 2011). Teachers who employ a more student centered instruction in their classroom create lessons and learning musical skills and knowledge in ways that have personal meaning to their lives, both in and out centered classroom. Questioning should begin with the teacher and then swit ch to the students asking the questions of other students. This allows students to take on the active learning role (Scott, 2011). Student centered learning goes by many different names, but the main goal is having the student as the focus of the learning process. This can accomplished by providing authentic educational experiences in which the student is at th e center and are provided with meaningful experiences they will not soon forget. Hands on activities where students are learning through experience rather than being lectured to are more engaging and are more likely to be placed in long term memory (Wiggins & McTighe, 2011). The idea of using student centered learning in the classroom requires a paradigm sh ift, especially in the music classroom. It can be difficult for a teacher to give up total control of their classroom, but the benefits of student centered le arning
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 13 might outweigh the risks. Through student centered learning, students become self sufficient, creative thinkers and people who appreciate and value the subject bein g taught (Brown, 2008). Brown also suggests some basic concepts to aide in the success of those teachers implementing a student centered approach to learning in their classroom: Start asking students more questions in class. Ask your students what they think of your class. Listen to your students. Personalize a unit of study (Brown, 2008, p. 34 ) The concept of a more student centered approach to teaching and learning is not a new one One example can be found in the Comprehensive Musicianship through Performance initiative developed in the second half of the 20 th centur y (Sindberg, 2012) Dating but it is a true model of student centered instruction particularly for directors of performing ensembles interested in implementing more student centered approaches Acc ording to Sindberg formance (CMP) model is a framework from which teachers of performing groups plan i ) describes CMP as organizing the music classroom around a student centered, whole music learning environment. There are five components of the CMP model: music selection, analysis, outcomes, strategies, and assessments. Through the five components of the CMP model, students are at the center of everything. The teacher involves students in major decisions in each of the five areas. Students self asses s their own performances regularly and learn to analyze music on many different levels. CMP also suggests allowing students to help choose repertoire that is to be performed. This give s students partial ownership of the music that is being performed. The C MP model makes students
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 14 the focus of the instruction and allows them to be a part of and o ften lead their own instruction throughout the learning process (Brown, 2008) Rationale for the Project This proj ect is the culmination of my t wo and a half years of study in the Universi ty of Florida MMME program. I have gained a wealth of knowledge that has greatly improved my own teaching and that has guided me to the comp letion of this capstone project. Creative Thinking in Music the course designed by Dr. Peter Webster, inspired this project. In my own daily teaching, I am always looking for ways to actively engage students in the learning process. Through this course, I was able to more easily identify ways in which I could create a learning environment that fos tered creativity. T he course Research in Music Education, designed by Dr. William Bauer, course has given me the skills necessary to pursue scholarly materials that can be used to support this capstone project. The skills learned in this class have greatly enhanced my ability to actively gather the information needed to continue exploring and examining important and relevant topics to music education The course Foundations in Music Education designed by Dr. Charles Hoffer, provided the basic framework for how music classes have evolved over time and how they continue to evolve. In just a few years of teaching, I have seen how teaching methods are constantly evolving to reflect the current trends in education. This is true of music education and Foundations of Music Education provided a study of how changes over time have affected music education. Review of Literature This section will detail a review o f the research literature on student centered learning practices. These include studies labeled as construc tivist teaching approaches, peer teaching and instruction, peer tutoring, peer mentoring, critical thinking, creative thinking, critical listening,
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 15 and self assessment. Motivation, as it relates to student engagement, i s also a topic that was explored My understanding s of the research in these areas have provided a firm foundation for the professional development section of this capstone project. Research into Student Centered Learning Scruggs (2009) sought to measure the differences between teacher cente red and learner centered instruction in the music classroom. She observed four middle school orchestra classes in a suburban area in the Southeastern United States. Two schools were chosen for this study and were made up of similar student population s. One class at each school employed teacher centered instruction while the other class at each school employed learner centered or student centered, instruction. The findings from this study suggest that classrooms with learner centered practices can be implem In centered classrooms have better leadership skills and higher self initiative to complete tasks. In this study, teachers in the learner centered classroom spent less time at the podium teaching which allowed students to take on more leadership responsibilities within the ensemble. Students in the learner centered classrooms also showed more musical growth than their counterpart s in the teacher centered classrooms. Scruggs (2009 ) says the following about the learner centered classroom: Learner centered instruction requires te achers to consider their goals from a student perspective, and the resultant broadened view offers students a holistic approach to learning, which enriches their classroom ex periences. Rather than a rote performance of teache r chosen music literature, the learner centered teacher strives for student awareness and the ability to present a musical renderi ng of
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 16 repertoire that has been realized by a collaborative effort between teacher and student s. (p. 167) Scruggs proceeds to describe the learner centered classroom as a satisfying experience for the student and the teacher through the incorporation of student leadership, active learning, student choice, and student engagement in classroom activities. The development of critical thinking skills is a part of the constructivist educational model. Garrett (2013) sought to measure the amount of time high school choral ensembles spent in critical thinking activities. Three schools from a large southern state were chosen fo r this study. Behaviors from six choral rehearsals were observed and recorded. Teachers were initially told the study was to observe effective rehearsal techniques so that teachers did not intentionally change their behaviors. Results from the study show t hat ensembles spend relatively low amounts of time in critical thinking skills outside of actually rehearsing, but other important implications were discovered in the research process. During classroom observations, Garrett noticed that the advanced ensemb les spent more time in actual performance than beginning ensembles. Garrett concluded that this may be because students in the advanced ensembles are making better musical decisions and are constantly self assessing themselves. These are student centered p ractices that over time can be taught to students which would allow for more time spent in rehearsal, rather than taking care of non musical tasks. A study conducted by Allsup (2003) sought to discover ways schools might incorporate opportunities for students to create new music that focused on creative thinking and self expression. Nine instrumental students from a small town were divided into two mu tual learning communities for this study. The participants were included in the design of the study and used democratic processes to make decisions. They assisted in the developing of rules and protocols
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 17 for the groups. They also helped analyze the data at the completion of the study. Students in these groups were tasked with creating original music. One group chose to form a rock band while the other chose to follow a more traditional music format, creating classical and jazz music. These two groups were o bserved for several rehearsal sessions. Results of the study indicated that peer learning had much more to do with the discovery of new ideas rather than one student teaching something to another. Students learned more when they discovered it for themselve s with input from their peers. Alsup observed that t he group that chose to form a rock band worked much more cohesively because they worked together rather than separately. Music was created by the group rather than individuals within the group. The group that composed more traditional style music suffered because they did not work cohesively. Much of their work was done by individuals away from the group and then brought to the next rehearsal. When students work together to create something new, they begin to recognize the talents of others. Self to accurately assess their own performance. Hewitt (2005) sought to discover the differences between how middle and high school ers evaluate themselves as compared to expert evaluators. Participants in this study were 143 high school and 92 middle school students. The students in this study were given a new piece of music and were asked to evaluate themselves after playing the piec e on three occasions. At the end of the study, students played their part in a room alone and then rated their performance. These scores were then compared to an expert adjudicators score based on the last recorded performance. A modified version of an exi sting adjudication form was used to complete the self evaluation. Results of the study indicate that middle school students tend to self evaluate themselves lower than high school students. According to Hewitt, the results from this study may very helpful for educators determining which areas of music
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 18 students should focus on when self evaluating. Middle school students tended to be more accura te in their self evaluations of melody and rhythm. Student centered learning is focused around finding ways that pl ace the student at the center of the educational process. This includes identifying specific differences between male and female learners. A study by Abramo (2011) sought to examine these differences in a popular music setting. Participants in this study c onsisted of 15 high school students. The students were divided into five groups, with some students serving in more than one group. Some of the groups were gender specific and some were of mixed gender The study found that in a popular music setting, boys tended to communicate using music gestures rather than focusing on dialogue between members of the group. Girls, on the other hand, tended to use dialogue as their primary form of communication. The mixed gender groups had communication issues for the dur ation of the study. Although these research findings were part of a study on popular music, they can be carried over to any group work situation. Peer Based Instruction and Mentoring There are many ways to implement student centered learning into daily teaching. One method that is gaining much attenti on is the use of peer tutoring. Although it takes more time and there is no instant result, the benefits of such programs are proven successful (Darrow, Gibbs, & Wedel, 2005 ) The benefits of peer tutoring a lso extend past the realm of music education. Research has shown that students who participate in peer tutoring as the tutor or tutee reap benefits in the areas of cognitive and performance skills ( Rekut, 1994) In a study conducted by Darrow, Gibbs, and W edel (2005) students were observed in a general music class while par ticipating in peer tutoring. Fif th grade students were given a pre test on their knowledge of flat key signatures. Students were part of a tutor training in which
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 19 teachers explained the tutoring procedures. After the initial training, students were paired together with specific roles assigned. After a forty minute tutoring session, a post test was administered. The roles were then reversed for students. Students pre tested on sharp key si gnatures and were then engaged in a forty minute tutoring session. A post test was administered. The res ults of this study showed that peer tutoring was an effective method for teaching key signatures, children were capable of teaching one another musical concepts, and children are capable of learn ing themse lves as they teach. Students who were a part of this study Webb (2015 ) focused on the thought processes and choices o f the tutor rather than the end product. Three high school students from a suburban area of a large Midwestern city were chosen for this study. Each of the students participated in a peer tutoring program serving as tutors to younger students. Each of the tutors taught three 30 minute lessons and then participated in self reflection Their lessons were observed by Webb and their teaching methods and thought processes were observed and recorded. The results of this study show that the tutors in this study (h igh school students) self reported and enjoyable experience that also helped with musical skills as well. All three participants felt that teaching was also a learning experience in which they also benefitted. One participant reported heightened sight read ing abilities due to the tutoring sessions, while another reported improved technique in areas taught during the tutoring sessions. In addition to these results, students who participated as tutors also reported higher levels of self awareness and better c ommunication skills. The study also revealed that the tutors all used teaching methods that put much of the responsibility on the tutee. These teaching methods included using questioning and problem solving. The tutors reported that they had learned these strategies from previous musical instruction.
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 20 Establishing a peer mentoring program is another way to incorporate student centered instructional practices in the classroom. Similar to peer tutoring, students are paired up with an older student to work wi th them in and out of the classrooms. A s defined by Goodrich (2007), eer mentoring is defined as helping students increase their level of achievement, providing teaching support for the director to aid in making rehearsals more efficient, helping student s learn informal and formal knowledge of the jazz idiom, and enhancing social characteristics of learning, including leadership A study conducted by Goodrich (2007) found that peer mentoring contributed to the succ ess of a high school jazz band. Students involved in the mentori ng program attributed a large portion of their knowledge to former participants who were previously mentored by past students. The implementation of a peer mentoring program can also greatly enhance the learning process and aid the director of a performing ensemble in providing rehearsal s that run much more efficiently ( Sheldon, 2001) A study conducted by E. Johnson (2011) sought to explore the effects of peer based instruction on rhythm reading achievement in the secondary music classroom. Participants in this study consisted of students enrolled in band or choir classes from an urban fringe high school. Most of the students in this study were considered to be from minority populations. 113 students were administered the Mu sical Self Perception Inventory (MUSPI) and then divided in two equal groups. One group received traditional teacher student instruction, while the other group received reciprocal peer based instruction. Students in the peer based group received training a s to how to effectively run the paired groups before instruction began. Results of this study show that students in the peer based groups scored significantly higher on the post test than their counterparts who received traditional teacher student instruct ion. It was also discovered that student in band classes showed smaller gains than their choral counterparts. Another important
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 21 finding suggests that musical self concept as determined by the MUSPI did not determine how a student would score on the post te st. Students with low musical self concept showed the highest gains with peer based instruction. Peer assisted learning is a great way to make all students feel they are a part of the classroom (Jellison et al, 2015) Jellison suggests that this positive learning environment contributes to students musical li ves when they occur frequently. This style of instruction is especially effective for students with disabilities. leadership roles (roles carefully chosen by the teacher), negative stereotyping by typical students toward the student a nd low expectation can decrease p. 20 ) Mot ivation Motivation plays a large role in the student centered classroom. Planning lessons that engage students in critical thinking activities produces a high level of motivation within students. Student centered lessons focus on intrinsic motivation as a tool to push students to strive for high levels of achievement. According to Criss (2011), t he ability to create motivation within students is one of the most important and challenging responsibilit ies of any teacher. Process theories directly relate to motivational factors in the student centered classroom. These theories focus on the intrinsic motivation to strive for success, solve prob lems, and to gain understanding (Criss, 2011) Goal setting is one of six aspects of process theory. Having students set goals and outcomes is a recurring theme in student centered learning. In a study conducted by Stamer (2009), it was found that teachers who create a nurturing environment in their classroom, provide students with appropriate feedback, and present material in interesting ways are effective i n motivating students to learn. Stamer studied high school choral students a nd their perceptions of effective motivational strategies. The study also
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 22 determined that stimulating student interest in the subject matter was also an effective motivation strategy. Applying the ideas of student centered instruction can greatly enhance s tudent interest in the subject matter by providing experiences that place students in situations where they must use critical thinking skills to solve problems. that students in a learner centered classro om were more motivated to complete musical tasks than the students in a teacher centered classroom. In relation to the motivation of students, Schmidt (2005) administered a survey to 300 students in grades 7 12 who were enrolled in four school districts from New York and Massachusetts The purpose of the study was to uncover motivational factors of students participating in instrumental music programs in New York and Massachusetts. Students were administered a s urvey to gather background information relating to their participation. Results from this survey were compared to performance achievement and effort as determined by the atly affected by a high self concept. Students also report that their success was due to achieving personal goals and accomplishing musical tasks. There was also less emphasis on the competitive aspect of music performance. Students in this study reported that they learned more and did better when working with other students cooperatively. Creative Thinking Opportunities for divergent and/or creative thinking is considered an important component of a more student ce ntered music classroom ( Hickey & Webster 2001). Providing students with opportunities to think divergently requires them to find more than one solution to a given problem (Sawyer, 2012). Composition and improvisation are two ways students can use their creative abilities to produce an original work of art. A study conducted by Kiehn (2003)
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 23 sought to measure the creativity levels of students in grades two, four, and six using two different creativity measures : the Vaughan Test of Musical Creativity (TMC) and the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinkin g (TTCT) creativity levels. Results from this study show that students who scored high on the improvisational creativity measure (TMC) also scored high on figural creativity measures (TTCT) In ad dition to this, there was also no correlation found between academic achievement and creative ability. A study by Kennedy (20 0 2) examined the creative process as it pertained to composition. Four high school students participated in a study that required them to create two original works. Each student used their own process, but several similarities were discovered. The importanc e of music listening to the composition process emerged as a major theme of the study. All of the participants agreed that listening to their own compositions as well as other sources enhanced the process. Many of the skills necessary to achieve a higher l evel of musicianship are intertwined and are uses in conjunction with each other. Listening Activities Listening and responding to music is a necessary skill in music. It is important to find ways to challenge students to listen beyond just mere notes to discover the deeper meanings behind the music so that we may better understand it (Kennedy, 2002). Listening skills can be taught to students. Activities that require students to focus on truly understanding the music as opposed to just hearing it produce listeners who are able to think critically A study conducted by D. Johnson (2011) sought to determine the effects of critical thinking skills as they relate to music listening. The participants of this study were 81 fifth grade students. The students were
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 24 (CTI) (ABI) during the study. Both groups received instruction in musical vocabulary, and mu sic listening, and response to listening. The CTI groups were urged to also figure out other ways to answer questions from the teacher. The ABI groups received no critical thinking instruction. Results from the study show that CTI has a substantially posit ive effect. The students in the CTI group had longer and more reflective responses to music than their counterparts who received the ABI treatment. Results from this study indicate that instruction that requires students to think critically when responding to music provides connections that are meaningful to music students. The author centered music listening activities that are When listening, the use of music sc ores is also something that can affect the listening process. A study conducted by Napoles (2009) determined that collegiate musicians scored significantly higher when using scores while listening. 240 collegiate musicians were the participants in this stu dy. The students were divided into multiple groups. Some received musical scores to follow along while listening, while other groups received either some of the scores or none of the scores. The groups who did not have musical scores rated the recordings v ery low compared to the groups with musical scores. This may be due to the score serving as a distraction from fully listening. A study by Madsen & Geringer (2008) sought to investigate listening models. Participants in this study, 50 collegiate musicians l La Boheme and created a continuous line drawing. Results from this study indicate that using this type of listening model is extremely effective in determining aesthetic experiences and when they happen while listening.
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 25 advanced equipment use by researchers, a music teacher might be able to obtain glimpses of its of students can allow educators to plan listening activities that are appropriate and relevant to their students. One of the biggest challenges of planning listening activities is the level of attentiveness of the students participating. A study conduc ted by Flowers (2005) sought to collect information from students based on their self reported distractions while listening. The participants in the study, 118 middle school students, listened to a musical and prose excerpt and recorded each time they beca me distracted. Results from this study indicate that students become most distracted at the beginning and end of listening exercises. Fewer distractions were also reported during the middle of the listening excerpts used in the study. This information can be very useful when planning listening activities for students in the music classroom. Summary After a review of the literature, it is evident that more research into the effects of student centered learning is needed. Teaching strategies that contribute to a student centered approach to education are abundant. These include p e er teaching and learning (Darrow, Gibbs, & Wedel, 2005; Webb, 2015; E. Johnson, 2011 ) peer mentoring (Goodrich, 2007) critical thinking (Ga rrett, 2013; D. Johnson, 2011 ), creative thinking (Kiehn, 2003; Kennedy, 2002) and self evaluation (Hewitt, 2005) Motivation plays a large part in student engagement as well. Teachers who employ student centered practices engage students with lessons that are interesting effectively motivate the ir students to achieve at higher levels (Scruggs, 2009; Schmidt, 2005; Stamer, 2009) All of these concepts, methodologies, and practices are seen to contribute to a more student centered approach to teaching and learning and can empower student to take an
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 26 active part in their own education, as well as providing opportunities for students to take on leadership roles in and out of the classroom. (Scruggs, 2009; Allsup, 2003) Constructing a Professional Development In Service When creating a professional l earning seminar/presentation, the end results are often not the focus of the planner. It is important that this in service provide music educators with information that can be used to enhance teaching in the classroom. Guskey (2014) provide d much insight i nto the planning of professional learning. He suggests taking backward approach to planning, similar to how one would plan a lesson in the classroom. Outcomes should be identified as the first step. The intended effects on student learning should be the ma in discussion when thinking about outcomes. Next, the practices to be implemented to produce the outcomes should be decided upon. In this case, student centered practices would be implemented to achieve a student centered classroom. When designing professional development, the National Staff Development Council (2012) states: High pedagogical skills, includes opportunities for practice, research, and reflection; is embedd e d time; and is founded on a sense of collegiality and collaboration among teachers and between teachers and principals in solving important problems relating to teaching and learn ing ( p. 1 4) Focusing on these principals during the design process can help ensure that the professional development is effective.
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 27 Concluding Thoughts: Informing My In Service Throughout the development phase of this project, I have incorporated many of the strategies and teaching techniques I have discovered while exploring and examining the research. I have seen in my own classroom how effective student centered learning can be. This project has opened my eyes to a whole new world of possibilities for educational growth. Student centered practices have allowed me to focus on my students and how they learn best. Students in my classroom have taken on new leadership roles that have empowered them to take a vested interest in their own education. My studen ts have new opportunities to share their own students work together to solve musical problems and enhance their own performance through self assessment activities t hat require them to think critically. Although difficult at times, the implementation of student centered practices has greatly enhanced my own teaching and my centered l earning, but the process will be much easier thanks in large part to this project.
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 28 Part II: An In service for the Music Faculty of the Central Community ( LA ) School System
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 29 An In service for the Music Faculty of the Central Community (LA) School System The second section of this project, a pro fessional development experience for my colleagues is based on the literature on student centered learning and motivational factors in the music classroom. In addition, specific types of student centered learning (peer teaching, peer mentoring, peer based instruction) have also become prevalent topics to be discussed within the in service. This in service will take place in January d uring a teacher in service day as designated by the CCSS and will be held in the choir room of Central Middle School. As teachers enter the classroom they will be greeted with a sign in table and a large sign with directions to collect two Post It notes and answer the following two questions prior to t he start of the presentation: (1) What is student centered learning? and (2) What, if any, teaching practices are you currently using that are student centered? After answering these two questions, teachers will place the Post It notes on a designated area of the wall. These responses will be revisited as a discussion prompt Once this task is complete, the in service will begin. A PowerPoint presentation will be used to guide participants through the in service and will be made available to attendees. With in the PowerPoint are activities that will engage participants. The appendices to this capstone project will serves as handouts that will be used during the in service as supplemental materials. After viewing the PowerPoint and participating in some activi ties, teachers will collaborate with their co workers in content area focused groups to create lesson plans that focus on student centered teaching approaches in the classroom. Following this collaborative time, there will be a time to share these lesson p lans with the entire music faculty. A post in service questionnaire is also located in the appendices. Participants will complete this questionnaire at the end of the session. A schedule of events is included below.
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 30 Schedule of Events Engaging Students in Learning Using Student Centered Approaches: An In service for the Music Faculty of the Central Community (LA) School System 8:00 AM Breakfast and Social Time 8:30 AM Professional Dev elopment Session : Presented by Trey Miller, Central Middle School 10:00 AM Break 10:15 AM Content Area Breakout Sessions (lesson planning) 11:00 AM Lesson planning share time 11:30 AM Participants fill out questionnaire NOON Lunch
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ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 52 Instructions for Included Activities Brain Blast Supplies Needed 1. Large foam die 2. Paper and Pencil for score keeping Instructions Students will divide into equal teams. These teams may be chosen by students or the teacher may choose the students for each group. Once students are in their teams, they take turns rolling the foam die. The number on the die determines the number of correct responses the team must give in order to receive any p oints. The teacher determines the topic. Sample topics include note names, note types, dynamic a group does not give the correct number of responses they receive no points. It is at the discretion of the teacher as to what the winning group receives. Circle of Music Students stand in a large circle facing toward the center of the classroom. The teacher or students will determine a section of the current repertoire that co uld use some work. One student will stand in the center of the circle and listen while the students sing or play the selected excerpt. When finished singing, the student in the middle of the circle will choose ONE thing the group could work on or fix. The student in the middle then moves back to the large group and the process is repeated with a new student in the middle of the circle. Students should be able to build upon each new item to work on.
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 53 Student Centered Teaching Examples 1. Students unpack and set up quickly and efficie ntly without teacher prompting 2. Students discuss/help to select daily rehearsal objectives 3. Students assist as administrative leaders (organization tasks, taking roll, etc.) 4. Students engage in conduct ing music 5. Students write individual performance critiques (formal student critique) 6. Students participate in musical critiques during class (informal student critique) 7. Students self manage learning in a sectional group 8 Students p articipate in peer tutor ing during the regular music class 9 Students participate in small ensembles while working on large ensemble music 10 Students participate in small ensembles while working on enrichment music (duets, trios, etc.) 11 Students critique musical performance and learning while working in small ensemble 12 Students assist with the creation of a rubric to assess their own musicianship. Adapted from: Scruggs, B. B. (2009). Learning outcomes in two divergent middle school string orchestra classroom environments: A comparison of a learner centered and a teacher centered approach Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Tex t (304892483).
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 54 COMPASS Guide Setting Instructional Outcomes Outcomes should be clearly written and students should know what they are All planned activities should require students to create, perform, and respond. Students can transfer their new knowledge to similar learning situation Managing Classroom Procedures Students assist te acher in developing rehearsal management techniques Students check themselves into class Section Leaders!!! Students help to ensure transitions are smooth Student Librarian oversees distribution and collection of music and other materials Questioning Tech niques Students work in sections to listen to a recording of their singing/playing and detect errors and then correct errors to improve performance nother idea as to how we Engaging Students In Learning Students are asked to suggest appropriate warm ups to use considering the repertoire Students carry out peer evaluations on learned material Students are assigned to carry out individual conducting tasks with the larger group Using Assessment in Instruction Teacher reminds students of the characteristics of high quality work, suggesting that students helped develop them Students evaluate thei r performance and suggest strategies for improving their performance Students offer feedback to their classmates on how to improve their work Adapted from: National Association for Music Education. (2013). Workbook for the building and evaluating effecti ve music education in the school ensemble. Reston, VA : NAfME
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 55 Sample Lesson Plan 1 Grade Level : 6 Class Subject: Choir Lesson Length: 45 Minutes Louisiana Standards/Benchmarks Addressed in this Lesson: M CE M1 M AP M1 M HP M1 M CA M1 M CE M2 M AP M4 M HP M2 M CA M2 M CE M3 M AP M5 M HP M4 M CA M4 M CE M4 M HP M5 M CE M5 Mastery Objectives: At the completion of the lesson, t he student will be able to: 1. Sing Wake Every Breath using correct posture and proper breathing techniques 2. Evaluate the performance of others 3. Self assess using a student created rubric Materials: Copy of Wake Every Breath by William Billings for each student Procedures: Anticipatory Set: Students will participate in physical warm ups led by a student. Students will p articipate in vocal warm ups. Student suggestions of appropriate warm ups will be accepted. Instructional Strategies: After warm ups, students will create a large circle in the classroom by standing shoulder to shoulder and facing towards the center of the room. Students will sing Wake Every Breath attached) Specific sections will be the focus of the activity. Students will come together for a teacher led run through of Wake Every Breath The teacher will record s tudents singing Wake Every Breath Students will return to their assigned seat and evaluate their performance of Wake Every Breath using a student created rubric. Closure: The student(s) will be prepared to answer the following questions when asked: What is one thing new you learned today? Did anyone else learn this as well today? What is one thing you could have done better today? By a show of fingers, rate the quality of your work today (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 56 Assessment: Constant self assessment during all si nging. Self evaluation using a student created rubric. Informal assessments during closure
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 57 Sample Lesson Plan 2 Grade Level : 4 Class Subject: General Music Lesson Length: 40 Minutes Louisiana Standards/Benchmarks Addressed in this Lesson: M CE E1 M AP E1 M HP E4 M CA E 1 M CE E2 M AP E4 M CA E 2 M CE E3 M AP E5 M CA E 4 M CE E4 M CE E5 Mastery Objectives: Today, t he student will be able to: 1. Compose a melodic musical phrase in groups using the recorder 2. Evaluate the performance of others Materials: Recorder for each student Recording equipment Procedures: Anticipatory Set: Students will play through several songs previously learned on the recorder Instructional Strategies: Students will be divided into groups to compose a mel odic musical phrase using the recorder. Students will work together to create and practice their musical phrase. Students will present their composition to the class. The teacher will record each performance for self evaluation during another lesson. Students will offer positive feedback and comments based on performances by other groups. Closure: The student(s) will be prepared to answer the following questions when asked: What is one thing you could have done better today? Did you find it easy to compose as a group? Assessment: Constant self assessment during all singing. Self evaluation using a student created rubric. Informal assessments during closure
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 58 Sample Lesson Plan 3 Grade Level : 9 12 Class Subject: Music Lesson Length: 2 4 Periods Louisiana Standards/Benchmarks Addressed in this Lesson: M CE H1 M AP H1 M HP H1 M CA H 1 M CE H2 M AP H 4 M HP H4 M CA H 2 M CE H3 M AP H5 M CA H 4 M CE H 4 M CE H 5 Mastery Objectives: Students Will: 1. Record at least 10 minutes of unedited sound from a place of their choice 2. Using the recording as a base, manipulate the audio file (cut, shorten, move around, sound effects, etc.) into a music composition 3. Provide a paragraph to describe the space they recorded as well as their intention for the final composition Materials: Recording of Favorite Intermissions by Chris DeLaurenti Music playing device Digital recording device (computer, cell phone) Computer with audio manipulation software (Audacity) Procedures: Day 1: Favorite Intermissions and Stude nts will record 10 minutes of a sound space of their choice. Students will be encouraged to find a place that has either plenty of rich sounds of a variety of interesting sounds. Day 2 3: Students work on manipulating their audio file into a musical composition using Audacity. Students will write a paragraph describing original space recording and the thoughts that went into shaping their final compositions. Day 4 Play student compositions for the class. Composers will be asked to describe their comp osition is organized.
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 59 Assessment: Students describe the technology process and conceptual thoughts behind their musical soundscape. This lesson plan was adapted from: Hickey, M. (2012). Music outside the lines: Ideas for composing in K 12 music classrooms. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 60 Louisiana Music Benchmarks for K 12 Retrieved from the Louisiana Department of Education Creative Expression Grade Cluster K 4 5 8 9 12 Benchmark 1 Recognize and imitate simple melodies and rhythmic patterns using voice, musical instruments, or other sound sources (3) Recognize and perform melodic and rhythmic patterns using voice, musical instruments, or other sound sources, both individually and in ensembles (1, 3, 4) Create and improvise advanced musical forms using voice, musical instruments, or other sound sources, both individually and in ensembles (1, 2, 4) Benchmark 2 Recognize basic notational symbols and express vocabulary that conveys precise musical meanings (3, 4) Interpret notational symbols and vocabulary that convey precise musical meanings (2, 3, 4) Apply with technical accuracy notational symbols and vocabulary that convey precise musical meanings (2, 3, 4 ) Benchmark 3 Improvise or compose and perform simple musical ideas, such as echoing melody or short rhythmic patterns (1, 4) Improvise or compose and perform written music (1, 4) Improvise or compose and perform advanced compositions (1, 4) Benchmark 4 Explore and express basic elements of music through voice, musical instruments, electronic technology, or available media (3) Recognize and demonstrate elements of music, using voice, musical instruments, electronic technology, or other availa ble media (3, 4) Interpret and apply elements of music using preferred medium of performance (3, 4, 5) Benchmark 5 Participate in organized musical activities including singing, playing, and movement (1, 2, 5) Perform in organized musical activities including singing, playing, and movement (1, 5) Perform in musical ensembles using preferred performance medium (1, 5) Aesthetic Perception Grade Cluster K 4 5 8 9 12 Benchmark 1 Understand and apply basic music vocabulary to describe aesthetic qualities of musical compositions (1, 4) Understand and apply expanded music vocabulary to describe aesthetic qualities of musical compositions (1, 4) Understand and apply advanced music vocabulary to describe aesthetic qualities of musical compositions (1 4) Benchmark 2 Recognize and respond to concepts of beauty and taste in the ideas and creations of others through the study of music (1, 4, 5) Recognize that concepts of beauty differ by culture and that taste varies from person to person (1, 4, 5) Distinguish unique characteristics of music as it reflects concepts of beauty and quality of life in various cultures (1, 4, 5) Benchmark 3 Demonstrate awareness of where and how music is used in daily life and within the community (1, 4, 5) Describe the emotional and intellectual impact of music in various contexts (1, 4, 5) Analyze and express the impact of music on intellect and emotions (1, 4, 5) Benchmark 4 Recognize that there are many possibilities and choices available in the creative processes of music (4) Demonstrate awareness of various traditional and technological options pertaining to creative processes in music (1, 4) Compare and contrast traditional and technological options available for artistic expression in music (1, 4) Benchmark 5 Participate in guided inquiry into the basic question "What is music?" and share personal feelings or preferences about music (1, 5) Discuss the question "What is music?" and express intuitive reactions and personal responses to various works (1, 4) Quest ion/weigh evidence and information, examine intuitive reactions, and articulate personal attitudes toward musical works (1, 2, 5) Benchmark 6 Recognize and demonstrate behavior appropriate for various musical environments (4, 5) Demonstrate and discuss behavior appropriate for various musical environments (1, 4, 5) Evaluate and discuss appropriateness of behavior for different types of musical environments (2, 4, 5)
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 61 Historical and Cultural Perspective Grade Cluster K 4 5 8 9 12 Benchmark 1 Recognize musical styles representative of various cultures (4) Identify distinguishing characteristics of musical styles representative of various historical periods and cultures (1, 2, 4) Compare and contrast musical styles representative of various historical pe riods and cultures (1, 2, 4) Benchmark 2 Recognize and discuss the function of music within historical and cultural contexts, including celebrations, ceremonies, and special occasions (1, 4) Compare and contrast the function of music within historical and cultural contexts, such as celebrations, ceremonies, and events (1, 4, 5) Analyze the function of music as it fulfills societal needs within historical and cultural contexts (1, 4, 5) Benchmark 3 Recognize families of musical instruments and instruments of various cultures (4) Identify specific types and uses of musical instruments in various cultures (4) Compare and contrast types and uses of musical instruments in various cultures (4) Benchmark 4 Recognize professions in music and identify the roles of musicians in various cultures (4) Describe careers for musicians and compare the roles of musicians in various cultures (1, 4, 5) Investigate and assess roles, careers, and career opportunities for musicians (3, 4) Benchmark 5 Recognize great composers and their most significant musical works (4) Identify major works of great composers and recognize achievements of prominent musicians (4, 5) Identify prominent musicians of various cultures and compare their lives, careers, works, and influence (1, 4) Benchmark 6 Recognize universal themes in music and how music communicates a universal language (1, 4) Identify and discuss ways in which universal themes are revealed and developed in the music of diverse cultures and time periods (1, 4) Analyze the unive rsality of musical themes across cultures and time periods (1, 4) Critical Analysis Grade Cluster K 4 5 8 9 12 Benchmark 1 Identify the music form (e.g., AB, ABA) and describe in simple terms how the elements of music are used in various works (1, 4) Identify the music form (e.g., round, canon) and explain how the elements of music are used in works representing various genres/styles (4) Distinguish and analyze elements of music and expressive devices as used in musical works representing diverse genre s/styles (1, 2, 4) Benchmark 2 Identify simple music events (e.g., dynamic change, meter change, same/different sections) while listening to a work (2, 4) Identify and describe music events (e.g., entry of an instrument, meter change, return of refrain) w hile listening to a work (2, 4) Identify and explain compositional devices and techniques used to provide unity and variety and tension and release in a musical work (1, 2, 4) Benchmark 3 Recognize characteristics of music that make a musical selection appropriate for a particular purpose (4) Describe or explain characteristics of music in regard to suitability of musical selections for specific purposes (1, 4) Analyze the appropriateness of music choices as they relate to purpose (2, 4, 5) Benchmark 4 Identify relationships among music, other arts, and disciplines outside the arts (1, 4) Describe relationships among music, other arts, and disciplines outside the arts (1, 4) Explain commonalities and differences among music, other arts, and disciplines outside the arts (1, 2, 4) Benchmark 5 Devise criteria for evaluating music and music performances, and express opinions using basic music vocabulary (1, 2, 4) Use appropriate criteria and expanded music vocabulary to evaluate the quality of music and performances (1, 2, 4) Use appropriate criteria and advanced music vocabulary to critique the quality of music and performances (1, 2, 4)
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 62 Post In Service Questionnaire this questionnaire so that future presentations may be improved. Thank you! 1. Following this presentation what would your conception of a student centered classroom entail? 2. Prior to today, were you actively including student centered learning practic es into your daily teaching? What are some of these practices? Could you draw any connections between what you experienced today and the practices you are already employing? What are some of these? 3. What are some specific practices that you learned ab out today would you would consider implementing in your own classroom? 4. Is the topic of student centered learning one you would like to explore further? Why or why not? 5. What suggestions might you offer to make this in service more useful or efficient in future presentations?
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 63 References Abramo, J. M. (2011). Gender differences of popular music production in secondary schools. Journal of Research in Music Education, 59 (1), 21 43. Allsup, R. E. (2003). Mutual learning and democratic action in instrumental music education. Journal of Research in Music Education, 51 (1), 24 37. Bellavance, M. (2014). Personalize d learning M aine style. Educat i onal Leadership 71 (9), 62 65. Blair, D. V. (2009). Stepping aside: Teaching in a student centered music classroom. Music Educators Journal, 95 (3), 42 45. Brown, J. K. (2008). Student centered instruction: Involving students in their own education. Music Educators Journal, 94 (5), 30 35. Central Community School System (2015). Welcomemessage2015 Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yitlZZQiYKc Criss, E. (2011). Dance all night: Motivation in education. Music Educators Journal, 97 (3), 61 66. Daneilson, C. (2011). The framework for teaching evaluation instrument L ouisiana edition. Princeton, NJ : The Danielson Group Darrow, A., Gibbs, P., & Wedel, S. (2005). Use of classwide peer tutoring in the general music classroom. U pdate: Applications of Research in Music Education, 28 (1), 25 32. Dewey, J. (1963). Democracy and education. New York, NY : Macmillan Flowers, P. M. (2005). Self reported distractions in middle school students in learning to music and prose. Journal of Research in Music Education, 53 (4), 308 321. Garrett, M. L. (2013). An examination of critical thinking skills in high school choral rehearsals. Journal of Research in Music Education, 61 (3), 303 317.
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 64 Goodrich, A. (2007). Peer mentoring in a high school jazz ensemble. Journal of Research in Music Education, 55 (2), 94 114. Guskey, T. G. (2014). Planning professional learning. Educational Leadership, 71 (8), 10 16. Hickey, M. (2012). Music outside the line s: Ideas for composing in K 12 music classrooms New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Hickey, M. & Webster P. (2001). Creative thinking in music. Music Educators Journal, 88 (1), 19 23. Hewitt, M. P. (2005). Self evaluation accuracy among high school and middle school instrumentalists. Journal of Research in Music Education, 53 (2), 148 161. Hull, J. (2013). Trends in teacher evaluation: At a glance Retrieved from http://www.centerfo rpubliceducation.org/teacherevalreview Jellison, J, Brown, L., & Draper, E. (2015). Peer assisted learning and interactions in inclusive music classrooms: Benefits, research, and applications. General Music Today, 28 (3), 18 22. Johnson, D. C. (2011). The effect of critical thinking instruction on verbal descriptions of music. Journal of Research in Music Education, 53 (3), 257 272. Johnson, E. A. (2011). The effect of peer based instruction on rhythm reading achievement. Contribut ions to Music Education, 38 (2), 43 60. Kennedy, M. A. (2002). Listening to the music: Compositional processes of high school composers. Journal of Research in Music Education, 50 (2), 4 110. Kiehn, M. T. (2003). Development of music creativity among element ary school students. Journal of Research in Music Education, 51 (4), 278 288.
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 65 Madsen, C. K. & Geringer, J. M. ( 2008). Reflections of oheme : Investigating a model for listening. Journal of Research in Music Education, 56 (1), 33 72. Napoles Journal of Research in Music Education, 57 (3), 267 279. National Associ ation for Music Education. (2013 ). Workbook for the building and evaluating effective music education in the school ensemble. Reston, VA : National Association for Music Education National Staff Development Council (2002). Designing powerful professional development for teachers and principals Retrieved fro m http://www.friscoisd.org/docs/default source/professional development/designingpowerfulprofessionaldevelopmentforteachersandprincipals_000.p df Rekut, M. D. (1994). Peer and cross age tutoring: The lessons of research. Journal of Reading, 37 (5), 356 362. Sawyer, R. K. (2012). Explaining creativity: The science of human innovation New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Schmidt, C. P. (2005). Relations among motivation, performance achievement, and music experience variables in secondary instrumental music students. Journal of Research in Music Education, 53 (2), 134 147. Scott, S. J. (2011). Constructivist perspectives fo r developing and implementing lesson plans in general music. General Music Today, 25 (2), 24 30.
ENGAGING STUDENTS IN LEARNING 66 Scruggs, B. B. (2009). Learning outcomes in two divergent middle school string orchestra classroom environments: A comparison of a learner centered and a teacher centered approach (Order No. 3371516). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Tex t (304892483). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304892483?accountid=10920 Sheldon, D. A. (2001). Peer and cross age tutoring in music. Music Educators Journal, 87 (6), 33 38. Sindberg, L. K. ( 2012). Just good teaching: Comprehensive musicianship through performance (CMP ) in theory and practice Lanham, MD : Rowman & Littlefield Education. Stamer, R. A. (2009). Choral student perceptions of effective motivation strategies. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 28 (1), 25 32. Webb, R. S. ( 201 5 ) An exploration of three peer tutoring cases in the school orchestra program. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 203 63 80. Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (2011). The understanding by design guide to creating high quality units. Alexandri a, VA : ASCD.