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Graham, Thomas, 1943-
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Reissued rf by LibraryPress@UF on behalf of the University of Florida is work is licensed under anCreative Commons Attribution-NoncommercialNo Derivative Worksnt. Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visitnhttps:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/t./.nYou are free to electronically copy, dis tribute, and transmit this work if you attribute authorship.nPlease contactnthe University Press of Florida (http://upress.ub.edu)nto purchase printneditions of the work. You must attribute the work in the manner specied by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). For any reuse or distribu tion, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of the above conditions can be waived if younreceivenpermission from the UniversitynPress of Florida. Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the authors moral rights. ISBN f-r-tff-(pbk.) ISBN f-r-tff-(ePub) LibraryPress@UF is an imprint of the University of Florida Press. University of Florida Press r Northwest rth Street Gainesville, FL rr-f http://upress.ub.edu Cover : Map of the West Indies, published in Philadelphia, r. From the Caribbean Maps collection in the University of Florida Digital Collections at the George A. Smathers Libraries.
The Florida and the Caribbean Open Books SeriesIn r, the University Press of Florida, in collaboration with the George A. Smathers Libraries of the University of Florida, received a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Andrew W. Mel lon Foundation, under the Humanities Open Books program, to repub lish books related to Florida and the Caribbean and to make them freely available through an open access platform. e resulting list of books is the Florida and the Caribbean Open Books Series published by the Li braryPress@UF in collaboration with the University of Florida Press, an imprint of the University Press of Florida. A panel of distinguished schol ars has selected the series titles from the UPF list, identied as essential reading for scholars and students. e series is composed of titles that showcase a long, distinguished history of publishing works of Latin American and Caribbean scholar ship that connect through generations and places. e breadth and depth of the list demonstrates Floridas commitment to transnational history and regional studies. Selected reprints include Daniel Brintons A GuideBook of Florida and the South (r), Cornelis Goslingas e Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast, (rf), and Nelson Blakes Land into WaterWater into Land (r). Also of note are titles from the Bicentennial Floridiana Facsimile Series. e series, published in rf in commemoration of Americas bicentenary, comprises twenty-ve books regarded as classics, out-of-print works that needed to be in more librar ies and readers bookcases, including Sidney Laniers Florida: Its Scen ery, Climate, and History (rf) and Silvia Sunshines Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes (r). T odays readers will benet from having free and open access to these works, as they provide unique perspectives on the historical scholarship
on Florida and the Caribbean and serve as a foundation upon which to days researchers can build. Visit LibraryPress@UF and the Florida and the Caribbean Open Books Series at http://ufdc.ub.edu/librarypress .Florida and the Caribbean Open Books Series Project Members @ Judith C. Russell Laurie N. Taylor Brian W. Keith Chelsea Dinsmore Haven Hawley r Gary R. Mormino David C. Colburn Patrick J. Reakes f Meredith M. Babb Linda Bathgate Michele Fiyak-Burkley Romi Gutierrez Larry Leshan Anja Jimenez Marisol Amador Valerie Melina Jane Pollack Danny Duy Nichole Manosh Erika Stevens
is book is reissued as part of the Humanities Open Books program, funded by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION OF FLORIDA. Governor Reubin O'D. Askew, Honorary Chairman Lieutenant Governor J. H. Williams, Chairman Harold W. Stayman, Jr., Vice Chairman William R. Adams, Executive Director Dick J. Batchelor, Orlando Johnnie Ruth Clarke, St. Petersburg A. H. "Gus" Craig, St. Augustine James J. Gardener, Fort Lauderdale Jim Glisson, Tavares Mattox Hair, Jacksonville Thomas L. Hazouri, Jacksonville Ney C. Landrum, Tallahassee Mrs. Raymond Mason, Jacksonville Carl C. Mertins, Jr., Pensacola Charles E. Perry, Miami W. E. Potter, Orlando
Vi BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION. F. Blair Reeves, Gainesville Richard R. Renick, Coral Gables Jane W. Robinson, Cocoa Mrs. Robert L. Shevin, Tallahassee Don Shoemaker, Miami Mary L. Singleton, Jacksonville Bruce A. Smathers, Tallahassee Alan Trask, Fort Meade Edward J. Trombetta, Tallahassee Ralph D, Turlington, Tallahassee William S. Turnbull, Orlando Robert Williams, Tallahassee Lori Wilson, Merritt Island
GENERAL EDITOR'S PREFACE. As OUR NATION celebrates the Bicentennial, citi zens can reflect on one of the most precious of all our traditions: religious freedom. The founding fathers were so dedicated to this concept that they aflSrmed in the first lines of the Bill of Rights, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof/' Many of the colonies agreed with this precept, and all states today provide in their constitutions for religious freedom. From its beginning, this country included in its population many ethnic groups, many religious sects, and some persons who had no commitment to an established church or, for that matter, to any reli gious faith. There has always been room in the United States for dissent. Perhaps because religious freedom has been so much a part of the cement
Viii GENERAL EDITOR'S PREFACE. holding this nation together, Americans have been singularly free of religious intolerance, hatred, and bigotry. While there has been occasional animosity i and antagonism against Catholics, Jews, and other minority religious and ethnic groups, this attitude has not been universally held. The majority of Amer icans vehemently resent such evidence of intolerance, and the government has always bitterly opposed any action that threatened the private rights of con science of its citizens. Justice William O. Douglas underscored this philosophy in a decision which he wrote: "We guarantee the freedom to worship as one chooses. We make room for as wide a variety of beliefs and creeds as the spiritual needs of man deem necessary/' If this nation has endorsed a guarantee of religious freedom, this has been especially true of the South, from colonial days to the present. Perhaps that is why the publication in 1848 of Sketches of St. Au gustine by Rufus King Sewall created such a sensa tion in Florida and elsewhere. Sewall had arrived in St. Augustine, his wife's home, in 1845. Shortly afterward, he became minister of the Presbyterian Church. Local society was divided into two religious groups: northern immigrants, predominantly Protes tant, and the natives, mainly Minorcan by back-
GENERAL EDITOR'S PREFACE. ix ground and Catholic by religious persuasion. The latter, according to Sewall, were "priest-ridden arid superstitious"; he was appalled by "their habits, the way they lived, and particularly the way they treated the Sabbath Day." The Reverend Mr. Sewall was not alone in this attitude; other Protestants in St* Augustine were similarly inclined, but few were quite so vocal in their anti-Catholic expressions as he. There was, in the 1840s, a growing spirit of nationalism and nativism in the United States. In some instances, the emotions which emerged tended to be in conflict with the tradition of freedom of religion and freedom of conscience. Many poor and oppressed immigrants were pour ing into the United States during the early decades of the nineteenth century. Some of the older, more settled, and more affluent Americans looked upon these new arrivals as a threat to their position in society. Many of the newcomers were Catholic and this bothered the Protestant majority. Books attack ing "Romanism" were widely read, and anti-Catholic expressions began to appear in a variety of published works. How popular these books and pamphlets were in Florida, particularly in St. Augustine, is not known. St. Augustine was a predominantly Catholic city, and during the First Spanish Period (1565-
X GENERAL EDITOR^ PREFACE. 1763), and again when the Spanish returned after the American Revolution (1783-1821), the Catholic Church spoke for most of the province's people. Sometime late in 1847 or early the following year, Sewall and B. E. Carr, a leading St. Augustine mer chant and the owner and operator of the Magnolia Hotel, popular with winter tourists, decided to write and publish a book to promote Florida. It would be SewalFs responsibility to research and write the book. Sewall worked quickly, and the introduction to the volume is dated June 20, 1848. G. P. Putnam of New York, the publisher, rushed the work into print, and the first copies arrived in St. Augustine by October. How the contents of the new book became so widely distributed so quickly in St. Augustine is not known. Many of SewalFs statements greatly of fended the Minorcans, particularly when he claimed that they were "of servile extraction/' This implied that their ancestors were slaves and blacks. The Minorcans had long resented the slurs that many Northerners had been making against them and their Catholic faith. More accurate scholarship re veals that there was no basis for SewalFs conclusions, but at the moment, the Minorcans were unwilling to wait any longer for someone else to protect them.
GENERAL EDITOR'S PREFACE. xi They became so threatening to the Reverend Sewall that he felt that he and his family could no longer live safely in St. Augustine. He departed for Phila delphia, and there he delivered a series of lectures on the dangers of Roman Catholicism. The material from these talks he later incorporated into a chapter appended to the second edition of Sketches of St. Augustine (1849). SewalFs anti-Catholicism seemed to have had little effect on Florida. Three years before the publication of this book, the Florida legislature had appointed David Levy Yulee, a Jew, to represent the new state in the United States Senate. In 1850, Stephen R. Mallory, a Catholic from Pensacola, became Florida's second United States senator. Floridians obviously did not support Sewall in his prejudiced views on religion. While Floridians would in the twentieth century elect a governor who ran on an anti-Catholic platform, at least for the moment they opposed re ligious bigotry. Professor Thomas Graham, who has written the introduction to this facsimile of Sketches of St. Au gustine, also notes the intensely anti-Hispanic flavor of Sewall's book. According to Graham, it "exudes rank hostility to Spanish culture." Mr. Sewall was not alone in this attitude. His view was shared by
Xii GENERAL EDITOR'S PREFACE. other major historians of the periodBancroft, Mot ley, Fisk, Prescott, and Francis Parkman. Sewall was even more vituperative and hostile than these writers. Sketches of St. Augustine is another of the im portant and rare out-of-print books being repub lished in the Bicentennial Floridiana Facsimile Series by the Florida Bicentennial Commission. The Com mission was created by the state legislature in 1971 to plan Florida's role in the national Bicentennial and to make the story of Florida's rich and colorful past available to all its citizens. The Facsimile Series will include a total of twenty-five volumes. Out standing scholars like Professor Graham have been invited to write introductions to the volumes and to compile indexes. Besides these facsimiles which are being published by the University Presses of Flor ida, the Commission is publishing a history of Florida during the American Revolution and five volumes of the proceedings of the annual Bicenten nial Symposia which have been sponsored on state university campuses. Dr. Graham is a native of Miami, Florida. After attending Rollins College in Winter Park, he en rolled at Florida State University, and there received his bachelor's and master's degrees in history. He taught in the public schools of Orange County,
GENERAL EDITOR'S PREFACE. xiii Florida, and then attended the University of Florida where he received his doctorate in 1973. While at the University, he was editorial assistant to the Florida Historical Quarterly. In addition to several articles which have appeared in national and re gional scholarly journals, Professor Graham is com pleting a biography of Charles H. Jones, editor of the Florida Times-Union, the New York World, and the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, and a leader in the national Democratic party. Dr. Graham is a mem ber of the history faculty of Flagler College, St. Augustine. SAMUEL PROCTOR, University of Florida. General Editor of the BICENTENNIAL FLORIDIANA FACSIMILE SERIES.
INTRODUCTION. IN THE FALL of 1848 a slender little volume, Sketches of St. Augustine, appeared to inform peo ple living in the North of the regenerating in fluence which Florida's balmy winter climate could work for suflFerers of respiratory ailments. The book was one of many of the southern tour-guide genre that were produced during the nineteenth century, and this one, as were many such handbooks, was distinguished by its inadequacies. Within a few years of its publication it was consigned to merited oblivion; yet the book has become something of a collector's item today because most existing copies have been defaced by the removal of one page.1 The flyleaf of the copy from which this facsimile was photocopied contains a penciled note in the hand of Julien C. Yonge, for many years venerable librarian of the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida His-
Xvi INTRODUCTION. tory at the University of Florida: "contains pp 3940 which is usually lacking." Therein lies a story which makes Sketches of St. Augustine worthy of notice more than a century after it was written. An explanation of the missing page must begin with the author of Sketches of St. Augustine, for it was because of his beliefs that the leaf was removed. Indeed, Rufus King Sewall, the man who wrote the book, was forced to leave St. Augustine, so offensive did some of the inhabitants of that town find his opinions. Sewall's birthplace and early home was Edgecomb, Maine, where he was born January 22, 1814. His family was one of the most revered in New England, with a noble lineage in Old England which could be traced to A.D. 1066 when a Norman vassal named Saswald established an estate at Nether Eatendon, Warwickshire. Six hundred years later a Sewall of Puritan persuasion joined the Great Migration to the Bay Colony and originated the American branch of the family. From this branch came Massachusetts Chief Justice Samuel Sewall and Revolutionary War General Henry Sewall. Rufus King Sewall's grandfather, another Samuel Sewall, was a Congregational minister who married Abigail Trask of the prominent Trask family.2
INTRODUCTION. xvii Rufus King Sewall was the oldest of seven chil dren born to Rufus and Phoebe Sewall. The father was a farmer and civic leader in Edgecomb, and his neighbors several times sent him to the state legislature. Young Rufus K. Sewall followed the paths of learning which had taken many of his fore bears into professional careers. Beginning in the local common schools, he progressed through the lyceum and then the college preparatory school at Farmington. He entered Bowdoin College and, after receiv ing his degree in 1837, attended Bangor Theological Seminary to prepare for the ministry. He left the seminary in 1840 without taking a degree. At this time he began to suffer a "weakness of the lungs," although this affliction did not prevent him from preaching in several churches in Vermont and Massachusetts.3 The flow of events which would carry Sewall to Florida commenced when he married Anna E. Han son of St. Augustine. His bride was the widow of James Hanson, a young Floridian who six years earlier had drowned off the coast of Georgia when a packet ship capsized in a storm.4 She was the daughter of Dr. D. W. Whitehurst, one of St. Au gustine's leading citizens, a physician, newspaper
XV111 INTRODUCTION. editor, businessman, and real estate broker.5 The wedding ceremony was held in Salem, Massachusetts, on November 21, 1843.6 Sewall was then preaching at the Congregational Church in Burling ton. For two more years Sewall and his wife lived in the North, but in December 1845 they moved to St. Augustine. Several factors probably figured in SewalTs de cision to make his home in St. Augustine. The pul pit of the Presbyterian Church there had been va cant since summer when the incumbent pastor had left without notice. The church board was searching for a new minister, and Sewall may have come with the intention of applying for the position.7 Certainly, he believed the change in climate would be good for his health, which had deteriorated from overwork and "repeated pulmonary attacks/'8 Se wall may also have wished to test the possibilities of becoming involved in some of his father-in-law's various Florida enterprises. Sewall's guest sermon from the pulpit of the small coquina-stone Presbyterian Church on south St. George Street was apparently so well received that a committee was set up to confer with him on the possibility of becoming the permanent minister. Se-
INTRODUCTION. xix wall was agreeable. The following April he was enrolled in the Georgia Presbytery (which then in cluded East Florida) and was officially installed as minister of the church in St. Augustine. The elder presiding over his installation service was Charles Colcock Jones, father of the noted Georgia historian of the same name, who was well known in the South as a Presbyterian leader and an advocate of evangelizing the slaves.9 SewalFs new pastorate was a place far different from New England. He was struck by the great dis similarities between his familial homeland and his new southern residence* The narrow streets and crumbling stone of the ancient town, so quaint and romantic to most, struck him as decadent and de pressing. He was comforted, however, by the tide of Northerners who were then moving into the com munity and fashioning it in the image of their former homes. Perhaps^ he felt, St. Augustine might grow to become more like Jacksonville, its "stirring, busy, thrifty little sister" up the coast.10 But for the mo ment local society was divided into two distinct and separate groups: the northern immigrants and the native remnant of population remaining when the United States acquired Florida in 1821. Many of
XX INTRODUCTION. these indigenous residents were Minorcans, setders who had been brought to the New Smyrna colony in Florida from the Mediterranean area by Dr. Andrew Turnbull during the time when Florida was a British province. When the New Smyrna planta tion failed, its Minorcan, Italian, and Greek colonists walked the sandy road to St. Augustine where they settled permanently. A sizable Negro slave popula tion completed the social structure of town society. To a man of Sewall's sensibilities, the most im portant element separating the Yankee and Minorcan communities was religion. Because the North erners were predominantly Protestant and the natives Catholic, Sewall defined the two groups in religious categories and envisioned the Protestants as pilgrims in a hostile land. He considered the Minorcans "priest-ridden and superstitious," and was disgusted by many of their habits, in particular their custom of treating the Sabbath as a day of recreation rather than as a day to be observed with proper Calvinist solemnity. He believed that the Catholic priesthood in the town wished to isolate the natives from Prot estant influences and that the Catholic Church harbored "a deep undercurrent of opposition to the existence, and jealousy of the success of Protestant interests and institutions" (71-76).
INTRODUCTION. xxi There can be no doubt that tension arose in the community because of religious and cultural differences, but St. Augustine's Catholics felt uneasy for reasons far different than those supposed by Sewall. They perceived themselves as surrounded and in danger of being engulfed by a relentless wave of Protestant outsiders pouring in from the North. Despite this, the city's Protestants and Catholics tended to view each other with more suspicion than hostility. Religious animosity in Florida would not reach the hysterical proportions which often pre vailed elsewhere in the United States during the middle years of the nineteenth century.11 During that time the nation was convulsed with widespread anti-Catholic agitation and even spo radic acts of violence against Catholics. This senti ment had been aroused by the arrival of large num bers of Irish and German Catholics in the United States. Americans had always been mistrustful of Catholicism, and many assumed, as Sewall did, that the United States was a Protestant nation in which Catholicism was an alien intrusion. Anti-Catholic feeling was strongest in the Northeast, where most of the Catholic immigrants lived, and not in the South. The Congregational Churchheir to the Puri tan traditionwas perhaps the most adamantly anti-
xxii INTRODUCTION. Catholic denomination, but the Presbyterian Church, with its long history of hostility to Rome, also de nounced Catholicism as un-Christian. It is hardly surprising that Sewall, nurtured in Congregational ism and now serving a Presbyterian Church, should possess anti-Catholic attitudes. Nor is it unusual that he put these sentiments into his writing, for books attacking "Romanism" were widely read and ant> Catholic expressions might be found in all sorts of published works.12 Sewall's opinions do not seem to have caused difficulties for him in St. Augustine other than some petty insults which he described as typical of Cath olic hostility to all Protestant ministers (98). For almost three years he and his family apparently lived a quiet and uneventful life. The records of the Presbyterian Church indicate that its affairs moved at a very casual pace, without need for any major action by the church's officers.13 In the spring of 1848 Sewall came briefly to public notice when he led an investigating committee which went to ex amine a wrecked schooner that had drifted ashore on North Beach, eight miles from town. He sub mitted a report to the mayor saying that no evidence of the identity of the ship could be found, save for
INTRODUCTION. xxiii three half-obliterated letters on the stern. Scavengers had already stripped the wreck of everything of value.14 Some months prior to this incident Sewall and a leading town merchant, B. E. Carr, had decided to publish a book which would promote the Florida interests of both. Carr, who agreed to finance the publication, had recently constructed the Magnolia Hotel and was anxious to see St. Augustine prosper as a winter resort. Sewall would research and write the book, using it to publicize the pineapple and tropical fruit venture which his wife's family had undertaken around the St. Lucie Inlet south of St. Augustine (84). He probably began research for the work in early 1848, for most of his information on the climate was published in the St. Augustine Herald on consecutive weeks in March of that year. Sewall's introduction, probably the last portion of the book to be written, is dated June 20, 1848. His pub lisher, G. P. Putnam of New York, rushed the work to completion by early fall, well in time for the ap proaching winter season. Advance copies arrived in St. Augustine on October 21. So far, all seemed to be progressing to the satisfaction of those concerned, but within a month Sewall would be residing in
XXIV INTRODUCTION. Philadelphia, relating to gaping lecture-hall audi ences how he had been driven from St. Augustine by an enraged mob of outlandish Papists. The only extant sources for the events which happened after October 21 are from Sewall himself. His story is related in northern press accounts based on his lectures and in a supplementary chapter that he appended to the second edition of Sketches of St. Augustine. The St. Augustine Herald did not pub lish a word regarding SewalTs expulsion from the city. No doubt the editor felt it unwise to publicize an incident which might discourage visitors from coming to the city, and at the time the Herald was devoting all available space to a desperate effort to elect Democrat Lewis Gass to the Presidency (91). However, the narrative Sewall tells of his experience, stripped of its exaggerations and unfounded insinuations, is probably near the truth. Late in the afternoon of the day when the books arriveda SaturdaySewall returned from a stroll to find his "pale and trembling" wife clutching a note warning him that some persons would attempt to harm him that evening. An acquaintance came to spend the night in Sewall's home, prepared to help him meet whatever danger might present itself, but the dawn arrived with no sign of trouble. Later that
INTRODUCTION. XXV Sunday morning a house servant hurried in from the street to tell Sewall that the slave of a Minorcan family had asked the servant whether anyone had come to kill his master during the night. Some time afterward Sewall learned, or claimed to have learned, that a "gang of desperados, blackened and disguised as negroes" had assembled to take him and throw him off the seawall into the bay, but had been dissuaded by their women kinfolk (84-85). According to SewalFs account, the rest of the day passed without incident until evening church services. At the end of the worship a young member of the congregation slipped out the door but returned immediately to announce that a crowd of angry Minorcans had gathered outside the church. Sewall departed from the building surrounded by his parish ioners and was allowed to pass through the crowdperhaps, as one source suggests, because most of the worshipers were women.15 Followed through the streets by the mob, Sewall sought refuge at the house of a friend. In a short while several "AngloAmerican" men appeared outside the house to quiet the disturbed assemblage. Two Minorcans, one young and another older, were brought inside to confront Sewall and explain the cause of the uproar. The two men related their grievance, protesting that
xxvi INTRODUCTION. they had been insulted by a passage in SewalTs book which stated that St. Augustine's Minorcans were descended from slaves. After some discussion, Se wall assured them that he had meant no offense and invited a delegation of Minorcans to visit him in his home the following morning (87). On Monday, October 23, St. Augustine was filled with excitement over the book and the outcry against it. Sewall drafted a letter to the local citizenry, de claringtruthfullythat he had written that the Minorcans were "of servile extraction" only because John Lee Williams' Territory of Florida had de scribed the New Smyrna colonists as "slaves" (87).16 Sewall offered to correct the information in his book if authentic material were presented to him. He wished to have his statement published in the Herald, but the editor declined to publicize the controversy. Meanwhile, B. E. Can* had been im posed upon to stop distribution of the book. Later the Sketches of St. Augustine was put into circula tion, but only after pages 39-40, which contained the offending passage, were carefully cut from the binding.17 Sewall's use of the phrase "servile extraction," to gether with other derogatory references to Minorcan culture, touched a nerve of the Minorcan community
INTRODUCTION. XXVU which had been rubbed raw by contact with North erners. In local society the Minorcans had come to be regarded by some as an inferior social caste, and the reference to slave origins in a society practicing Negro slavery was taken as a direct affront to the dignity of Minorcans. As a matter of fact, the Minorcans were poorer than their Yankee neighbors, and they partook of a different culture and religion. This situation had been frequently commented upon by visitors to St. Augustine, but SewalTs attitude of dis dain put an abrasive edge to the common observation, provoking an outraged response from a people who were generally regarded as friendly and mildmannered.18 Recent historians have attempted to correct the misapprehension created by nineteenth-century com mentators, such as Williams and Sewall, regarding the Minorcan colonists of New Smyrna. Mr. Kenneth Beeson, Jr., a St. Augustine historian of Minorcan descent, has written: "The members of the New Smyrna colony were not slaves, servants, nor criminals, but free people who had signed contracts with Dr. Turnbull to work his land as 'farmers' for a specific number of years. After the term of their con tract was fulfilled, these people themselves became landowners, and during the term of their contract
xxviii INTRODUCTION. they were entitled to a percentage of the produce of the land they worked. There is a great deal of misconception in the point that these people were servants, slaves, and many other things which they actually were not. It should be pointed out that a contract colony was nothing new to British North America. Many of the colonies founded long before New Smyrna, were based on the same principle. The colony at Jamestown is one of the better ex amples."19 Although excitement over Sketches of St. Augus tine abated shordy after the incident, Sewall could not continue to live in the city and so departed for Philadelphia, leaving his wife and two young child ren in the care of friends. From the North Sewall sent a farewell letter to his congregation, saying that the Georgia Presbytery had advised him not to re main in St. Augustine and that animosity toward him and his family precluded his return in any case (10, 98). While in Philadelphia, Sewell de livered a series of lectures on the dangers of Roman Catholicism, recalling the horrors of Spanish cruelty in Florida's history and recounting his own en counter with "blood-thirsty Romish persecution."20 The material from these lectures was incorporated into an additional chapter appended to the second
INTRODUCTION. xxix edition of Sketches of St. Augustine, which was published in Philadelphia early in 1849. In his introduction to the second edition Sewall declared that the book had been revised to expose the "Politico-Religious Monster which is nestling in the heart of this nation. ... I republish it to the world, that freemen may see what they have to ex pect should Papal institutions and influences become ascendant in this country"(8). Sewall revealed that he had learned from reliable persons that on the Sunday evening of the disturbance in St. Augustine a mob had prepared kindling wood and matches to burn the books and their author in an auto-da-fe on the plaza (93). The book had been suppressed and its author intimidated, Sewall alleged, because they threatened to unmask the evils of Popery and to hinder a plot to crush Protestantism in East Florida and Georgia (93). The bulk of the added material in the second edition is designed to show that the plot to suppress Protestant influence and institutions did indeed exist and that the Catholic leadership intended to finance its intrigues with money from the United States Treasury. As evidence of this supposed conspiracy Sewall cites the claim placed before Congress in September 1847, by Vicar-General Benedict Made-
XXX INTRODUCTION. ore of St. Augustine, petitioning for the return of the so-called "Episcopal" lot and other properties in St. Augustine which had once belonged to the Catholic Church. Madeore based his claim on pro visions of the Adams-Onis Treaty ceding Florida to the United States. Sewall regards the long delay in making the claim as evidence that the VicarGeneral's concealed intent was to displace the Epis copal Church (which had acquired ownership of the lot) and to gain money for the Catholic Church to utilize in its effort against Protestantism. He also infers that there was something "Jesuitical" about the selection of Stephen R. Mallory of Key West, a Roman Catholic, to arbitrate the claim (79-97). Thus affairs stood as Sewall completed his second edition, but before the book was off the press his conspiracy theory had been confounded by Mallory's decision against the Vicar-General's claim.21 Two years later Florida's legislature would send the Catholic Mallory to join David Levy Yulee, a Jew, in representing the state in the United States Senate. Floridians did not follow Sewall in his views on religion. His book therefore stands as a work re flecting an attitude widely held in the United States, but not representative of the thinking of most Floridians of that time.22
INTRODUCTION. XXXI The significance of Sketches of St. Augustine lies, for the most part, in the interpretative slant put to it by Sewall, not in its merits. Hastily put together by an amateur writer from resources at hand in St. Augustine, it could not" have aspired to high pre tentions. This the author readily admits. In a short time George R. Fairbanks' History and Antiquities of the City of St. Augustine, published in 1858, would supplant and improve on SewalTs effort.23 Yet information for the history of St. Augustine and East Florida in the antebellum period is not so plentiful that SewalTs account, brief though it is, can be overlooked. Sewall is one of the most useful sources for a description of St. Augustine following the great freeze of 1835, which wiped out the citrus industry in North Florida. Cultivation of citrus in and around St. Augustine dated back into the eighteenth cen tury, and for a time it had become a local industry of major importance. The freeze ended this, and, when new orange stock was subsequently imported, recovery was forestalled by an outbreak of the destructive "orange coccus" or "scale," which caused the young trees to sicken and die. A second severe freeze in 1857 virtually ended citrus as a commercial venture in North Florida, causing the center of
xxxu INTRODUCTION. orange cultivation to move southward to the Indian River area.24 Perhaps it was the plight of the citrus industry which stimulated Anna SewallY family to join the pioneer tropical fruit experiments in the lower In dian River region. As early as 1843 pineapples had been planted around the St. Lucie Inlet in an area that was then far removed from any center of trans portation.25 To promote this family enterprise, Sewall devotes several pages to pineapple culture and even touts the area as superior in climate to St. Augustine. However, this first venture did not pros per, and it was not until after the Civil War that pineapples were reintroduced into that part of Flor ida. Thereafter the St. LucieFort Pierce section became the pineapple center of Florida. Production peaked around 1909, but the industry faded rapidly because of freezes, high production costs, and for eign competition.26 SewalFs remarks on significant St. Augustine land marks are perfunctory and show that he made litde effort to ascertain the background of the places he describes. The "monkish retreat," as he called it, south of town was originally a Franciscan monas tery. When Florida became a British colony in 1763 the English converted it into a military barracks.
INTRODUCTION. xxxiii The United States improved the property after Florida became a territory, and "St. Francis Barracks," as it is popularly known, remains to the present day a military site, serving now as head quarters for the Florida National Guard.27 The national cemetery adjacent to the military compound was established in 1842 to receive the remains of soldiers killed in the Second Seminole War. The most intriguing monuments in the cemetery are three stone pyramids (Sewall inadvertently says two) erected over the bones of Major Francis Dade and his command, massacred in an ambush south of Ocala near Bushnell on the eve of the Indian war. During that conflict white setders in the in terior sought safety in seacoast towns such as St. Augustine, and their advent, along with the mili tary presence, sparked a brief wartime boom. For a while promoters spoke of building a railroad to Picolata or of digging a canal to link St. Augustine's harbor with the St. Johns River. Speculators invested in a suburb called North City just outside the old Spanish gate, but by Sewall's day the boom had collapsed and North City was gone, although the name persists down to the present.28 The one St. Augustine monument Sewall did describe in some detail is the Castillo de San Marcos,
xxxiy INTRODUCTION. which had been renamed Fort Marion (for Revo lutionary War hero Francis Marion) when the United States took over the fortress. Sewall was fascinated by stories of Inquisitional horrors asso ciated with hidden "dungeons" which had been re vealed when the Americans arrived. Such tales would be plied by tourist guides down into the twentieth century, but they are without founda tion. The sealed rooms were closed by the Spanish at an early date simply because they were damp and useless. When reopened, they contained some rub bish and a few crumbling bones which the officer in charge of renovating the fort took to be human. On this slender base rested the tales of torture and cruelty.29 When he describes living accommodations for winter visitors, Sewall naturally places his associ ate's house first, but the favor was warranted be cause Carr's Magnolia Hotel was the finest rooming establishment of the day. It was completed and opened to receive guests in the fall of 1847 under the management of a hotel man imported from New York. At first the Magnolia could accommodate only forty guests, but, as Sewall points out, enlargements and improvements began at an early date and would continue from time to time thereafter.30 The Florida
INTRODUCTION. XXXV House, which one contemporary visitor described as "a miserable hotel," seems to have been the only other establishment in town to rise above the level of a boarding house.31 Although several much more elaborate hotels would later be erected in St. Augustine, including Henry M. Flagler's resort palaces built in the 1880s, the Magnolia would con tinue to offer comfortable lodgings in the heart of the historic St. George Street area until December 1926, when the rambling wooden structure was leveled by fire. Near the Magnolia House on the corner of Char lotte and Treasury streets was a large house, be longing to the Loring family, which operated inter mittently for several decades as the Planters' Hotel. During Sewall's years in St. Augustine the name Lor ing was often in the news, thanks to the exploits of William Wing Loring, then a junior officer in the United States Army fighting with Zachary Taylor's forces in the Mexican War. Loring would become the military pride of the town, serving as a general in the Confederate army and later in service to the khedive of Egypt. When he died in the 1880s his body was brought to St. Augustine for burial.32 A delightful hostess to visitors from the more re fined strata of society was Mrs. Martha M. Reid,
XXXVI INTRODUCTION. widow of Territorial Governor Robert R. Reid.33 Another widow who took in boarders was Mrs. Andrew Anderson, who resided on the Markland estate on the western edge of St. Augustine, across the marshes of Maria Sanchez creek. Her son, the second Andrew Anderson, would later become a physician and assume his father's place in com munity leadership. Part of the orange grove on the Anderson Markland estate would become the site of Henry M. Flagler's imposing Hotel Ponce de Leon, and the younger Dr. Anderson would serve as a trusted confidant of Flagler in the early years of his Florida enterprises.34 Sewall's comments on St. Augustine's climate are similar to those of his contemporaries, since he uses standard references. While he places St. Augustine's assets in a favorable light, he points out the super iority of the mild winter climate in South Florida. The greater portion of his material on the climate was published in the St. Augustine Herald in March 1848.35 At the same time the Herald also printed a letter from Sewall to Carr extolling the healthful benefits of the St. Augustine climate. Sewall cites his own letter in Sketches of St. Augustine as the testimony of a newspaper "correspondent" to the benefits of life in St. Augustine!36
INTRODUCTION. XXXV11 In part because of the publicity turned out by such men as Sewall, St. Augustine would remain a winter retreat for northern invalids for most of the nineteenth century. This no doubt promoted the town's economy, but it also gave the community a winter populace marked with the pallor of illness and death. An account written by a visitor shortly after Sewall's departure conveys a feeling for the tenor of life in the winter colony: "The bulk of the visitors here are from New England and New York. They are not all the most pleasant fellow-boarders: Their appetites are excessive, and when the bell an nounces dinner, they rush to the table and perform wonderful trencher feats. This appetite is undoubt edly a part of their disease. You hear the funereal cough all over the house, and in the parlor they loll at full length on the sofas, and expectorate al most constantly. They are very apt to be argumenta tive and disputatious, and it is really painful to witness the sad exhibitions of bodily and mental decadence. On the other hand, there are many agreeable and well-informed persons among them, whose conduct secures your friendship, and whose sufferings enlist your warmest sympathies. But not withstanding, every public house is, to a certain ex tent, a hospital, and whenever you walk the streets
XXXVUl INTRODUCTION, you meet some sufferer, whose wasted form and feeble gait proclaim the victim of consumption."37 As a contribution to the body of historical knowl edge about Florida, Sewall's book is utterly without distinction. His research was confined to a very fewbasically twosecondary sources, and the book is thus merely a recasting of information already available to the reading public. He was most de pendent upon John Lee Williams' The Territory of / Florida, which had been published just a decade prior to Sewall's writing. His other mainstay of ma terial was the first volume of A History of the United States, George Bancroft's widely popular national history.38 For the most part, Sewall's historical chapters are bare paraphrases of extended passages from Williams and Bancroft, strung together by Sewall to create a narrative. The reasons for Se wall's shortcomings in historical research are obvious. He was working under severe strictures of time in an effort to rush the manuscript to the publisher so that the book might be released before the next winter season. Also he was limited to the meager sources at hand in St. Augustine, Sewall makes reference to this difficulty in his preface, conceding that his book was only an elementary introduction to St. Augustine history for the visiting Northerner.
INTRODUCTION. xxxix "The work makes no pretentions to fullness of de tail," he admits, "nor to absolute perfection in any particular. It is rather a glimpse at, than a full history of, the place. ." (3, 1st ed.) However, if Sewall's history is undistinguished in its factual content, it is significant for the in tensely anti-Hispanic, anti-Catholic interpretation put to the historical facts. The entire book, but especially the portions devoted to history, exudes a rank hostility toward Spanish culture and the Roman Catholic religion. Partially this can be explained by Sewall's Protestant, New England background and sincere convictions on matters of religion. In part his bias reflects the wave of anti-Catholic sentiment which swept the nation in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. However, it is also a manifesta tion of a long-prevailing Anglo-Saxon prejudice against Spain and her institutions which dates back at least to the time of the Great Armada when Elizabethan England confronted the vast power of Philip IFs Spanish empire. The matrix of beliefs and attitudes supporting this anti-Hispanic attitude is usually referred to as la leyenda negra, "the black legend." Components of the black legend include the ideas that Spaniards were cruel, yet lazy and incompetent; that the
xl INTRODUCTION. Spanish enslaved and mistreated the American Indians; that Spain's colonies existed only as sources for gold and silver; that the Spanish government was corrupt and despotic; and that Spain's religion was an idolatrous, priest-ridden corruption of Christian ity. Ironically, the most important early support of the black legend was supplied by a Spanish bishop, Bartolome de Las Casas, who exposed abuses in the Spanish treatment of the Indians in the hope of pro moting reforms in the colonies. Las Casas* work was translated into English and French and circulated widely in northern Europe for the purpose of black ening Spain in the eyes of her European adversaries. By the nineteenth century the black legend had be come standard in renderings of United States his tory.39 This view was shared by all the major his torians of the century, including Bancroft, John Lothrop Motley, John Fiske, and even William H. Prescott, the historian of the conquistadores. The Hispanophobe school of interpretation reached its summit late in the century with Francis Parkman's Pioneers of France in the New World*0 SewalFs judgments in Sketches of St. Augustine diflFer from those of contemporary historians only in their ex treme vituperativeness.
INTRODUCTION. xli In the twentieth century historians have at tempted to dispel the black legend by offering an interpretation more sophisticated than that bipolar view which exalts Anglo-Saxon virtue by contrasting it with Hispanic depravity. Largely, this effort has been directed toward showing that the French, Dutch, and English were not so different from their Spanish counterparts as they have been depicted. It has been argued that the northern Europeans were as capable of cruelty, bigotry, ignorance, and greed as were the Iberians, These were characteris tics of the age and were shared by all members of the Western community of nations.41 A second aspect of the attack on the black legend has been the effort to point out the brighter sides of Spanish civilization and the Spanish colonial empire. It has been argued that the very fact that Las Casas could publish his criticisms demonstrated that the Spanish government was more liberal and tolerant than its enemies were willing to concede. Indeed, it can be shown that the Spanish colonies enjoyed a flourish ing literature, complex local government, wellpatronized universities, and extensive programs to uplift the Indians at a time when the Puritan colo nists to the north in Massachusetts were busily
xlii INTRODUCTION. exterminating their Indian neighbors.42 Prejudice against things Spanish has not vanished, but the kind of blatant bias exhibited by Sewall can no longer be accepted by scholars as an accurate por trayal of reality. The efforts of present-day historians to relate the story of the founding of Florida differ greatly from those accounts written under the influence of la leyenda negra. There is general agreement among historians today on the reasons for the French ex pedition to found Fort Caroline on the St. Johns River and the Spanish response which led to the establishment of St. Augustine. For a brief time in the 1560s the French government pursued a moder ate policy toward the French Protestants, the Hu guenots, and some Protestant leaders such as Gaspard de Coligny stood in high favor at the French court. The Fort Caroline settlement was sponsored by Coligny, who emphasized commercial and imperial reasons for founding a colony in the New World, although he also believed that the outpost might be come a haven for Huguenot refugees from France. Coligny did not admit piracy as a reason for the settlement, but the fact that a party of mutineers from Fort Caroline almost immediately sailed to
INTRODUCTION. xliii plunder the Spanish Main is proof that the idea was close to the hearts of at least some Frenchmen.43 When the Spanish learned of the French settle ment on the eastern shore of North America, they were justly concerned that this colony might pose a threat to the sea route from Spain's empire to the homeland. It is perhaps significant that Pedro Menendez de Avites, the man who developed the convoy system to protect the treasure fleet from marauding pirates, was selected to remove the French threat. Menendez also had a personal reason for wishing to secure Florida for Spain: his own son had been lost at sea in Florida waters, and Menendez hoped settlements on the peninsula would become havens for other shipwrecked sailors. Me nendez also seems to have been sincerely concerned for the souls of the Florida Indians. He brought priests with him to carry the gospel to the heathen and sent for more missionaries after the establish ment of St. Augustine. Pious Catholics of Menen dez' day held it important that all men receive the "true word" and their souls not perish because they had been misled by heretics.44 Sewall's source for his account of the founding of St. Augustine is Bancroft's History of the United
xliv INTRODUCTION. States, which is thoroughly imbued with the spirit of the black legend. It is from Bancroft that Sewall adopts the portrait of Philip II as a "bigoted Roman ist" and Pedro Menendez de Aviles as a bloodlusting warrior. Bancroft is quite clearly in sympathy with the French side in his account of the struggle for Florida, conceding France's right to make the settlement at Fort Caroline and attributing Spain's reaction to "jealous bigotry." Yet Bancroft is also willing to see the Spanish viewpoint that the French settlement would be a threat to Spain's commerce, and he tells of the French piratical expedition which was launched from Fort Caroline. While Bancroft condemns the French for taking this first aggressive step, Sewall neglects to mention this episode, and refuses, except in an oblique way, to admit that the French leader Jean Ribault intended to crush the Spanish just as the Spanish eventually would suc ceed in crushing the French.45 In Sewall's version, the French colony was planted only as a religious refuge for harried Protestants, and its destruction was deemed necessary by the Spanish only for reasons of religious intolerance. This interpretation is indefensible on historical grounds, as Sewall surely knew, but the intent from the beginning of his narrative is not to tell the truth, but rather to con-
INTRODUCTION. xlv struct a polemic against Catholicism. To Sewall the religious content of the black legend was primary. SewalTs unusual spelling of the name of St. Augustine's founder, "Melendez" rather than "Menendez," can be explained by his reliance on Ban croft's History. "Melendez" was a variant spelling which sometimes is found in old manuscripts. This was the spelling Richard Hakluyt used in his seven teenth century translation of the Frenchman Laudonniere's account of the Fort Caroline settlement. Bancroft followed Hakluyt, and Sewall copied Ban croft, although "Menendez" had been generally recognized as the correct form by the time Sewall wrote.46 Sewall's dependence on Bancroft for the early events in the settlement is supplanted by a reliance on John Lee Williams' Territory of Florida for the remainder of his historical narrative.47 As with his use of Bancroft, Sewall omits those facts which do not fit well into his interpretive scheme. A clear instance of this is the raid by James Moore's Caro lina army on the Franciscan missions in Florida during 1704. Although Williams did not moralize against the English pillaging of the missions, he did tell of their destruction and the enslavement of the mission Indians.48 Sewall does not see fit to re-
xlvi INTRODUCTION. count this odious massacre which so well illustrates the fact that not all slaughters in Florida were com mitted by Spaniards. On the other hand, he repeats an insignificant (and erroneous) reference to an Indian attack on St. Augustine from M. M. Cohen's Notices of Florida to show that the Florida Indians hated the Spanish.49 A final example of Sewall's misuse of history is his effort to demonstrate that the 1740 invasion of Florida by James Oglethorpe of Georgia was at least partially in response to a "Jesuitical plot" by a Span ish agent to incite the Indians against the English colonies. The story of Christian Gottlieb Priber (Priben in Sewall; see 1st ed., p. 35), a German fron tiersman who was captured among the Indians by the English and died in prison, remains clouded to this day. If Priber had connections with any Euro pean power, it was probably the French, not the Spanish, as Sewall's source of information clearly states.50 Recent studies by historians have shown Priber to be more a "strange dreamer" with plans for an Indian Utopia than a plotter against the secur ity of the English settlements. Indeed, it has been discovered that he was not a Jesuit priest at all and may have had Protestant inclinations.51 However, when Sewall wrote his history, rumors of "Jesuitical
INTRODUCTION. xlvii plots" were rife in the United States, and no doubt he wished to submit the Priber story as proof that such plots had indeed been uncovered in the past here in America. Because of its anti-Catholic bias, Sketches of St. Augustine received approving notices in some Prot estant journals when it was published, but the thin volume passed without notice in the major national literary magazines.52 The most penetrating contem porary critique of SewalTs book appeared in a series of four articles by a Roman Catholic, Henri Courey de La Roche-Heron, published in 1856 in the Cana dian newspaper Feuilleton du Journal de Quebec.53 Courey had come to Florida to escape the northern winter, but unlike Sewall, he disliked the new pinewood buildings of Jacksonville and sought out the rustic, solid, Catholic stone of St. Augustine. He read Sketches of St. Augustine and talked with Minorcans about the book and the wrangle it had elicited. Courey's judgment is that the Minorcans had been justified in removing the offending page from Sewall's book: "We would have forgiven them even if they had burned the entire book, because the author used it also against Catholicism, and it is deplorable that the traveler has to refer to this work, which is untrue."54
xlviii INTRODUCTION. The thrust of Courey *s criticism is that Sewall misrepresents the struggle for Florida between the French and Spanish as a religious conflict, when it was, he argues, primarily a political struggle. He maintains that the French Huguenots did not come to the New World seeking religious freedom, as Sewall had asserted, but had come "searching for adventure and wealth." Far from being a "banished and outlawed race/* the Huguenots had been granted freedom of worship in France, possessed strong friends in the royal court, and had the king's sup port in their colonial venture. Indeed, he argues, the Huguenots had demonstrated their love of the French crown by naming their settlement Fort Caro line in honor of King Charles IX. For their part, the Spanish reacted to the colony as a French threat, not as a Protestant threat. Courey declares that Menendez would have put all the French to the knife, Protestant and Catholic alike, had it not been for the intercession of his priests who pleaded that Catholics be spared. He also points out that Domi nique de Gourgues, who destroyed the Spanish settlement San Mateo (Fort Caroline renamed) in revenge for the slaughter of the French, was a Roman Catholic who acted as a Frenchman rather than a Catholic.
INTRODUCTION. xlix In some ways Courey anticipates arguments which would be used to combat the black legend. He balances the account of Spanish atrocity by citing French and English deeds of infamy. He writes of the heroic efforts of the Franciscans to Christianize the Indians, a subject which Sewall passes over, and condemns the British destruction of the missions as a tragic loss for Christianity and civilization. While Courey's protests sometimes go too far and reveal his own bias, he is much nearer the truth than Sew all in his rendering of the facts. Sewall himself, in the meantime, had returned to New England and settled in Wiscasset, Maine, where he was rejoined by his wife and family. For a time he returned to Florida to look after his fam ily interests in the pineapple fields, but shortly after ward he was in Mobile, Alabama, reading law under his uncle Kiah B. Sewall. Returning to Wiscasset, he was admitted to the bar in 1860 and commenced a long and prosperous law practice there. He argued cases in United States courts, including the Supreme Court, and won two settlements in the special claims court established to adjudicate cases arising from Confederate privateers, such as the Alabama.55 He did not lose his interest in history, and during the next five decades he turned out a multitude of
1 INTRODUCTION. books, pamphlets, and essays on Maine history. His most important book, Ancient Dominions of Maine, deals with the Indians, discovery, and early explora tion of Maine.56 He was active in the Maine His torical Society, being three times elected vice-presi dent of that body, and he frequently read papers before local historical societies and civic groups.57 Although Rufus K. Sewall had settled into a com fortable life in remote New England, Florida had not seen the last of the Sewall family. Henry Edwin, the youngest son among five children born to Rufus and Anna Sewall, returned to St. Lucie Inlet to man age the family property. He was later elected to the state legislature and for many years served as post master at SewalFs Point, the peninsula of land on the north side of St. Lucie Inlet which was named for him. Joining Henry at Sewall's Point was his older sister, Anna Cook Sewall. Together they wit nessed the development of the lower east coast from wilderness to one of the most productive agricultural parts of the country.58 Rufus K. Sewall, whose father had lived to the age of ninety-three, continued his tireless literary efforts as the nineteenth century turned into the twentieth. His wife, Anna Elizabeth, had died nearly
INTRODUCTION. li a half-century before, in 1855, at Wiscasset. During the first year of the Civil War Sewall had married a second time, to Emeline M. Barnes of Brooklyn, and from this union came two children. Sewall saw his second wife die in 1889, and, at last, in the eighty-ninth year of his life, April 17, 1903, he passed away at his home in Wiscasset. Only three of his seven children survived him.59 Although Rufus K. Sewall is remembered in Flor ida history because of an exciting, brief, and unique episode instigated by Sketches of St. Augustine, his story really is more typical than most. It is true that Florida has seldom seen the kind of extreme religious bigotry exhibited by Sewall. His anti-Catholic tirade is matched in modern times perhaps only by the demagoguery of Sidney J. Catts early in the twen tieth century. But when SewalFs religious views are set aside and the other features of his sojourn in the state are examined, his experience is not unusual: Yankee come south for reasons of health, speculator in Florida lands, promoter of state growth and tour ism. His Sketches of St. Augustine is, in most re spects, faithful to the pattern of almost all the many "tour guide" books produced in the nineteenth cen tury. Thus Sewall contributed more to Florida his-
Hi INTRODUCTION. tory than a single colorful incident; he was also one of the multitude who have shaped the development and the character of the sunshine state. THOMAS GRAHAM. Flagler College. NOTES. 1. Wright Howell, ed., U.S. iana (New York, 1963), p. 523. 2. "Materials for the History of Wiscasset, Maine," New England Historical and Genealogical Register 28 (October 1874): 411; "Rufus King Sewall," Biographical Review; Containing Life Sketches of Leading Citi zens of Sagadahoc, Lincoln, Knox, and Waldo Counties, Maine (Boston, 1897), pp. 200-201. 3. Biographical Review, p. 201; "Rufus King Sewall/' Appletons Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York, 1888), 5:469. 4. St. Augustine Florida Herald, August 25, 1837. 5. D. W. Whitehurst, biographical card file, St. Au gustine Historical Society; hereafter cited as SAHS. 6. St. Augustine News, December 30, 1843. 7. Minutes of the Board of Trustees, St. Augustine Presbyterian Church, September 5, 1845, microfilm copy, SAHS; Session Minutes, St. Augustine Presbyterian Church, December 17(?), 1845, microfilm copy, SAHS. 8. St. Augustine Florida Herald and Southern Demo crat, March 28, 1848. 9. Cooper C. Kirk, "A History of the Southern Pres byterian Church in Florida, 1821-1891" (Ph.D. disser tation, Florida State University, 1966), p. 140.
INTRODUCTION. liii 10. R. K. Sewall, Sketches of St. Augustine, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, 1849), p. 71. References to SewalFs work, all to the 2nd ed., will hereafter appear within paren theses in the text. 11. Michael V. Gannon, The Cross in the Sand (Gainesville, Fla., 1965), p. 152. 12. Ray Allen Billington, The Protestant Crusade, 1800-1860 (New York, 1938), pp. 33-91, 173-77. 13. See, for example, Session Minutes, April 1, 1848. 14. St. Augustine Florida Herald and Southern Democrat, April 29, May 6, 1848. 15. "Sewall's Sketches of St. Augustine, in Florida," Christian Observatory 2 (December 1848): 571. 16. John Lee Williams, The Territory of Florida (New York, 1837; facsimile ed., Gainesville, Fla., 1962), pp. 189-90. 17. At first the mob vowed to destroy the books, but relented when it was promised that the page would be removed. E. H. Reynolds, Standard Guide to St. Augus tine (St. Augustine, 1894), p. 89. 18. Anonymous, A Winter from Home (New York, 1852), pp. 18-19. 19. Kenneth H. Beeson, Jr., "Fromajadas and Indigo: The Minorcan Colony in Florida" (M.A. thesis, Univer sity of Florida, 1960), p. 109. See also E. P. Panagopoulos, New Smyrna: An Eighteenth Century Greek Odyssey (Gainesville, Fla., 1966), pp. 46-48. Panagopoulos used the word "tenants" to describe the New Smyrna colonists. 20. "Rev. R. K. Sewall and Liberty," Christian Observer 28 (February 10, 1849): 22; Kirk, "Presbyterian Church in Florida," p. 144. 21. The Episcopal lot controversy from the Catholic point of view is found in Gannon, Cross in the Sand, pp.
liv INTRODUCTION. 153-56. See also Joseph D. Cushman, Jr., A Goodly Heritage: The Episcopal Church in Florida, 1821-1892 (Gainesville, Fla., 1965), p. 26. 22. Charlton W. Tebeau, A History of Flonda (Miami, Fla., 1971), p. 176. 23. George R. Fairbanks, History and Antiquities of the City of St. Augustine, Florida (New York, 1858; facsimile ed., Gainesville, Fla. 1975). 24. T. Frederick Davis, "A Narrative History of the Orange in the Florida Peninsula," typescript, 1941, p. 12, P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History, University of Florida, Gainesville. 25. "Pine Apples in Florida," Niles' National Register 75 (June 6, 1849): 367; Robert Ransom, East Coast Flonda Memoirs, 1837 to 1886 (Tallahassee, Fla., 1926), pp. 7-14. 26. Walter R. Hellier, Indian River: Florida's Treasure Coast (Coconut Grove, Fla., 1965), pp. 28-33; J. E. Dovell, Florida: Historic, Dramatic, Contemporary (New York, 1952), 2:632. 27. Gannon, Cross in the Sand, p. 153. 28. Fairbanks, History of St. Augustine, p. 187. 29. The best summary of the dungeon stories and their origins is William W. Dewhurst, History of Saint Augustine, Flonda (New York, 1881), pp. 155-59. See also A. W. Martin, War Department, to L. F. Stock, January 27, 1916, copy SAHS. 30. St. Augustine Florida Herald and Southern Demo crat, November 2, 11, 1847, December 14, 1848; Mag nolia Hotel folder, SAHS. 31. Lester B. Shippe, ed., Bishop Whipple's Southern Diary, 1843-1844 (Minneapolis, 1937), p. 54. 32. William L. Wessels, Born to Be a Soldier (Fort Worth, Tex., 1971).
INTRODUCTION. lv 33. Shippe, Bishop Whipple's Diary, p. 68. 34. Sidney Walter Martin, Florida's Flagler (Athens, Ga., 1949), pp. 106-14. 35. St. Augustine Florida Herald and Southern Demo crat, March 14, 21, 1848. 36. Ibid., March 28, 1848. 37. Winter from Home, p. 27. 38. The cryptic citation "Bauer." at the bottom of page 19 in Sketches of St. Augustine is undoubtedly a typesetter's corruption of SewalTs abbreviation "Bancr." for Bancroft. See George Bancroft, A History of the United States (Boston, 1834), 1:76. 39. Lyle N. McAlister, introduction to the facsimile edition of Gonzalo Soils de Meras, Pedro Menendez de Amies, Adelantado, Governor, and Captain-General of Florida (Gainesville, Fla., 1964), pp. xvi, xviii. 40. Philip W. Powell, Tree of Hate: Propaganda and Prejudices Affecting United States Relations with the Hispanic World (New York, 1971), pp. 119-21. 41. Gannon, Cross in the Sand, p. 28; Rembert W. Patrick, editorial preface to the facsimile edition of Solis de Meras, MenSndez, p. xi. 42. Powell, Tree of Hate, p. 132. 43. Charles E. Bennett, Laudonniere 6Fort Caroline (Gainesville, Fla., 1964), p. 13. 44. Gannon, Cross in the Sand, p. 29. 45. Bancroft, History, 1:68-74. 46. Ibid, p. 72. 47. Compare Sewall, pp. 21-23, with Williams, p. 172, for example. 48. Williams, Territory of Florida, pp. 178-79. 49. M. M. Cohen, Notices of Florida and the Cam paigns (Charlestown, S.C, 1836; facsimile ed, Gainesville, Fla, 1964), p. 16.
lvi INTRODUCTION. 50. SewalTs source was William B. Stevens, "A His tory of Georgia," Southern Quarterly Review 26 (April 1848): 481. 51. E. Merton Coulter, Georgia: A Short History (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1947), p. 41; Knox Mellon, Jr., "Christian Priber's Cherokee 'Kingdom of Paradise,'" Georgia Historical Quarterly 57 (Fall 1973): 319-31. 52. "SewalTs Sketches," Christian Observatory 2 (De cember 1848): 571; "Popish Outrage in Florida," The Presbyterian 18 (December 30, 1848): 210. 53. Feuilleton du Journal de Queloec, March 25, 27, 29, April 1, 1856. A photocopy of the newspaper articles and a typed translation by Mrs. J. D. Thompson (1951) are in the St. Augustine Historical Society Library. 54. Courey, Thompson translation. 55. Biographical Review, p. 201; Appleton's Cyclopaedia, p. 469. 56. Rufus K. Sewall, Ancient Dominions of Maine (Bath, Me., 1859). 57. Biographical Review, p. 201; "Societies and Their Proceedings," New England Historical and Genealogical Register 27 (January 1873): 98. See also the "Proceedings" in the following volumes of the Register: 28 (July 1874): 344; 44 (October 1890): 404; 48 (October 1894): 470; 49 (October 1895): 460; 50 (October 1896): 490. 58. Hellier, Indian River, pp. vii, 99; Biographical Review, p. 202. 59. Biographical Review, p. 202; New York Times, April 18, 1903. SewalTs children were: Rufus Roland, Anna Cook, Henry Edwin, Elizabeth (Mrs. Alexander Smith), Emma (Mrs. John O'Brien); and by his second marriage, Mary Ellen and Charles Summers.
SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. WITH A VIEW OP ITS HISTORY AND ADVANTAGES AS A RESORT FOR INVALIDS. BY R. K. SEWALL. NEW-YORK: PUBLISHED FOR THE AUTHOR BY GEORGE P. PUTNAM, 155 BROADWAY. 1848.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1848, by GEORGE P. PUTNAM, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New-York. LEAVITT, TROW & Co. Printers and Stereolypers, 49 Ann-street, N. Y.
INTRODUCTION. THIS brief account of one of the most interesting towns in this country, in many historical points of view, has been prepared to meet the wants of those who may desire to learn something of the place in view of a sojourn, or who may already have come hither in search of health. The work makes no pretension to fullness of detail, nor to absolute perfection in any particular. It is rather a glimpse at, than a full history of, the place, though it gives such a connected view of the course of events, as to satisfy the curiosity of such as come among us, (and which every sojourner feels the want of,) so far as the lights we now have can aid us in a knowledge of the past. I have availed myself of such helps, in the few works written, as I could find, which speak of the place.
4 INTRODUCTION. But the field of historical research upon which I have entered, I find too extensive to be compressed in all its interesting particulars into a work of this sort. The gleanings, therefore, must for the present suffice. THE AUTHOR. St Augustine, June 20,1848.
CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. PAGE. LocationDescriptionAntiquityDistant AppearancePublic PlacesPublic Works of the City 7 CHAPTER II. Early SettlementFounderThe Objects of his Voyage from SpainCharacterEntrance into the HarborNameMas sacre of the Huguenot ProtestantsSlaughter at Matanzas Drake's AttackIndian AssaultContribution laid on the City by Davis, the BucanierThe BucaniersExpedition of Gov. Moore of South CarolinaCauses of the sameCol. Palmer's AttackOgle thorp's InvasionMinorcan Inhabi tantsPatriot WarPurchase of Florida by the United StatesChange of FlagsFrost of 1835Orange Trade and GrovesFruit Growing in East FloridaTropical Lux uries producedInducements to Agriculturists from the North .18 CHAPTER III. Climate of FloridaTestimony of PhysiciansCoast ClimateIts AdvantagesClass of Diseases favorably affected by a
6 CONTENTS. PAGE. Residence in the ClimateSt. Augustine as a Place of Resort for InvalidsAccommodationsSocietyTables of Temperature of the Climate, exhibiting the Degree of Changes during the Month and Year, as compared with Foreign Places of ResortCustomsConveyances to the City 49
SKETCHES. CHAPTER I. LOCATION. THIS city, the ancient metropolis of the Spanish Province of East Florida, is situated near the Atlantic coast, little south of the 30th parallel of north latitude. The southern point of a narrow peninsula, formed by the confluence of the waters of the St. Sebastian River and the sea, which here is backed in behind Anastatia Island, through the inlets of North River and Matanzas bar, is the site on which the city stands. 7'he island, behind which takes place an expansion of these waters into a beautiful harbor, accessible to all classes of vessels drawing nine feet, which is the depth on the bar at low water, is a long, low, and narrow body of sand and coquina, or shell rock, which is covered with various shrubbery; and though it affords a barrier to the surf of the Atlantic, it does not obstruct the cooling seabreeze, nor indeed a prospect of the ocean from elevated stations.
8 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. PECULIARITIES. The town is nearly surrounded with salt water. The face of the country, skirting on the seaboard, from Cape Hatteras hither, is low, level, and sandy. This feature prevails southward to near* Cape Florida; when the rock-bound shore, the rudiments of which begin with the coquina formation opposite the city, again is made the barrier against the encroachments of the sea, and continues until it is broken up among the keys of the Florida archipelago. The country around the city, is a plain of sandy shell soil, termed pine barren." With this the city is joined, on the west, by a substantial bridge over the St. Sebastian River; and on the north, in a neck of land over a stone causeway. Egress at this point is made from the city by a thoroughfare, once commanded by a fortified trench and. gateway. On the east, are the harbor and bay, which open in a beautiful sheet of water, over which, towering above the sand hills, on the adjacent island, is seen the light-house, originally a fortified "look-out," where the Spanish sentry watched against danger. The peninsula on which the city stands is said to have been originally a shell hammock." The soil consists of shell and sand, with an intermixture of vegetable mould. The surface has but a slight elevation above the level of the surrounding water. Both these circum stances are favorable. In wet weather, the texture of the soil is favorable to a rapid extraction of the super abundant moisture from the surface; and in dry weather,
DESCRIPTION OF THE CITY. 9 the slight elevation of the land above the sea, enables it to withstand drought,the waters percolating through the soil, refresh vegetation. These things conspire to promote the health of the city, inclosed as it is by the arms of the sea, to whose salubrious and refreshing breezes it is entirely open. DESCRIPTION OF THE CITY. The city of St. Augustine is built in the style of an ancient Spanish military town. The plan of the city is a parallelogram, traversed longitudinally by two principal streets the whole length. These are inter sected at right angles, transversely, by several cross streets, which divide the city into squares. Though not larger than many of our New England villages, the city is nevertheless regularly laid out, as it was intended, to be compactly built, each square having more or less space, once occupied with groves of the orange, which a few years since were the glory and wealth of the place. Indeed, it was once a forest of sturdy orange trees, in whose rich foliage of deep green, variegated with golden fruit, the buildings of the city were embosomed; and whose fragrance filled the body of the surrounding atmosphere so as to attract the notice of passers by on the sea; and whose delicious fruit was the great staple of export. The harbor fronts on the east, and is furnished with good wharves. The sandy beach of the St. Sebastian brings up the rear on the west, affording space for a delightful drive around the city; while a once thrifty
10 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. but now ruinous suburbthe bubble of a speculation in mortis multicaulus timescalled the North City, fills the background on the north. BUILDINGS. The coquina rock, a concretion of sand and shell formed on the neighboring sesubeach on the south side of the bar and on the islandthe upper extremity of which opens in sheets, ready for quarrying, and on which quarries are now extensively workedis the principal building material. The streets are excessively narrow, and are furnished with neither side-walks nor pavements. The houses are usually two-story buildings, generally crowded into the streets; and are built without much regard to architectural style or ornamental beauties. Not unfrequently a piazza projects from the base of the second story, which in some cases is inclosed with movable Venetian shutters, so as to control the draft of air, and increase or abate it at pleasure. These appendages, though they add greatly to the comfort of the occupants, nevertheless disfigure the buildings by impairing their symmetrical proportions. The piazza, especially, awakens a sensation of peril, as one passes for the first time on horseback through the streets, particularly if he has been accustomed to the broad thoroughfares and elevated structures of a northern Anglo-American city. The contrast is great.
APPEARANCE. 11 GREAT ANTIQUITY OF THE CITY. In all its outlines and main features, this city is deeply traced with the furrows of age. It also wears a foreign aspect to the eye of an American. Ruinous buildings, of antique and foreign model, vacant lots, bro ken inclosures, and a rough, tasteless exterior scarred by the ravages of fire and time, awaken a sense of dis comfort and desolation in the mind of a stranger. APPEARANCE. From the sea, as you enter the inlet from the harbor, the city presents a fine view. Any distant prospect is decidedly pleasing. Its deformitiesthe narrow streetsdilapidated buildings, with their projecting piazzasare lost to the eye in the distance ; in which, also, unity of effect is produced by the regularity of the plan on which the city is built; which effect is heightened greatly by the ornamental trees, whose foliage screens many of the houses the overshadowing pride of India and the vigorous "morus multicaulus." There is, however, much to relieve the first unfavorable impressions of a stranger. Its comfortless appearance is the effect of first impressions, which of course are superficial, and often delusive. The blighted stocks of desolate orange groves the tokens of decaythe obvious lack of industry and taste, and the consequent want of thrifton a close in spection, are relieved by a constant succession of images of the past, illustrative of the character of Castilian mind in a heroic and barbarous age. Moreover, there is
12 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. a rapid transition in progress. This ancient city is being transformed into American features, both in its external appearance, and in the habits and customs of the people. Many of its recent edifices are in the neat, attractive style of American village architecture. Especially is this the case in the neighborhood of the Magnolia House. PUBLIC PLACES. The city has a public square, or inclosed common. In the centre, a monument some sixteen or eighteen feet high, has been erected. It commemorates the giving of a constitutional basis to the Spanish government. On its fronts, the following Spanish sentence is engraved .: Plaza de la Constitution." The three sides of this square, or plaza, are now bounded by as many streets, fronting on which are the public buildings. The Government House, now used a a hall of justice, and for public offices, stands on the west front. On the east, near to the water, are the market buildings. The Roman Catholic Cathedral, sur mounted with the vertical section of a bell-shaped pyra mid, which supports a chime of bells, and which termi nates in a small cross, stands on the north ; and on thf opposite south front is the Episcopal Church, a neat, wellproportioned Gothic edifice, having a spire and bell. The Presbyterian and Methodist Churches, the former north and the latter south from the common, on the same street, are well-built, substantial houses of worship, of
PUBLIC WORKS. 13 simple Grecian style of architecture and neat American finish. PUBLIC WORKS. St. Francis Barracks, on the southern extreme of the city; Fort Marion, on the north, with its water-battery and the sea-wall,.are among the objects of historical and military interest within the city. The sea-wall is .erected of the native coquina rock. The upper stratum is granite flagging stone. This im portant work is more than a mile in extent, and of suffi cient width for two to walk on it abreast. As a public promenade, as well as a fortification against the encroach ments of the sea, it is of great use; and it is also a place of universal and of delightful resort. This wall incloses two beautiful basins, furnished also with stone steps. These are the points of embarkation and of debarkation for the numerous boatmen who navi gate the neighboring waters for pleasure and for profit. The Castle is a fortress of great strength, covering several acres, and built entirely of stone from the neigh boring coquina quarries, and according to the most ap proved principles of military science. It is said to be a good specimen of military architecture." Its walls are twenty-one feet high, terminating in four bastioned angles, at the several corners, each of which is surmounted with towers corresponding. The whole is casemated and bomb-proof." This work is in closed in a wide and deep ditch, with perpendicular walls
14 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. of mason-work, over which is thrown a bridge* originally protected by a draw. Within its massive walls are numerous cells. On the north side, opposite the main entrance, is one fitted up as a Romish church. It has now become converted into a storehouse for military fixtures. These rooms are at best dark, dungeon-like abodes; and, by natural associa tion, they revive the recollection of scenes characteristic of a dark and cruel age. Some of these gloomy retreats, though like Bunyan's giant Despair they now can only grin in ghastly silence at the Pilgrim stranger, yet look as if they were once the strong-holds of despotic power. With this character the gossip of common fame also charges them. The Castle commands the entrance to the harbor. Its water battery is furnished with a complement of Paixhan guns of heavy caliber. These are in a state of readi ness to be mounted. The Castle is a place of chief and universal attraction to the curious stranger. On approaching the main en trance, through the principal gateway, the first object of interest is a Spanish inscription, engraved on the solid rock immediately over head, and under the arms of Spain, and is as follows, viz. :* Reynando en Espana TRANSLATION." Don Ferdinand the Sixth being King of Spain, and the Field Marshal, Don Alonzo Fernandos de Herida being Governor and Captain General of this place, St. Augustine of Florida and its province, this fortress was finished in the year 1756. The works were directed by the Capt. Engineer, Don Pedro de Brazas y Garay."See Williams's Hist. Flor.
PUBLIC WORKS. 15 el son Don Fernando Sexto y Sierdo Governador y Capitan General di esta Plaza de San Augustine de Florida y su Provincia el Moriscal de Campo Dn. Alonzo Fer nandez de Herida se conduyo este Castello el ano de 1756 dirigendo las abras et Capitan ynginero Don Pedro de Brazasy Garay." On reaching the interior of the Fort, the several apart ments may be explored, except those where the magazine is found, and those which are used as cells for prisoners the State being permitted to confine its prisoners therein. Within the bastion of the northeast angle, far under ground, is a dark, dungeon-like recess, constructed of solid mason-work. Before entering here, the guide will furnish himself with a torchlight of pitch-wood. This place was accidentally discovered soon after the work fell into the hands of the American army. It was then walled up, and was not before known to have had an existence. Of this concealed retreat, Rumor has whispered strange things. A human skeleton, with the fragments of a pair of boots and an empty mug for water, it is alleged were discovered within. As to the history of the place whether it was once an inquisitorial chamber, or the scene of vengeance, where bigotry invoked the secular arm to silence heretical tongues, and suppress heretical thoughts; and as to the name, character, standing, guilt or innocence, pleasures or pains, of the poor unfortunate to whom the boots and bones belonged, there is silence. Either Fame has been unable to catch the echo through
16 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. the lapse of time, or shame bids her be silent, or horror has paralyzed her tongue. By these, and like rumors, either truth or fiction has succeeded in investing this place with mysterious and melancholy interest to an American citizen. The Barracks occupy a spot on which were the ruins of an ancient monkish retreat, near the south end. The main building is a substantial structure, of large dimen sions and neat appearance. The prospect from it, of the haA bar, ocean, and neighboring country, is delightful. Its location is one of the most eligible in the city. A large space is inclosed in rear of the main building, for a garden; the southern extremity of which is occupied as a military burial ground, where repose the ashes of the major part of the regular force of the United States, who fell in battle during the recent bloody Seminole war. Chaste and beautiful monuments with appropriate inscriptions, mark the spot where sleep the gory dead. Here, beneath two pyramids, together in one bed repose the ashes of one hundred and seven menthe gallant Major Dade and his intrepid warriorsa sacri fice to the vengeance of the brave and warlike Seminole, who with the Indian agent were the first fruits of the terrible threat of Osceola, who having indignantly rejected all overtures on the part of the government to leave the graves of his fathers, on closing his intercourse with the government agent, being refused the right of purchasing powder, thus addressed himself to Gen, Thompson: Am I a negro ? a slave ? My skin is dark, but not black. I am an Indiana Seminole. The
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PUBLIC WORKS. 17 white man shall not make me black I will make the white man red with blood; and then blacken him in the sun and rain, where the wolf shall smell his bones, and the buzzard live upon his flesh !" The extreme point of the peninsula, south, on which the city is located, is occupied with the outlines of an ancient breastwork, in a ruinous condition, and the United States Arsenal buildings. On the whole, it will be seen, from the facts above stated, that this city is not without its interest to the anti quary and to the historian. If not old Spain in miniature, it is a chip of the block of. the old in the new world, a relic of the past interwoven with the texture of the pre sent age. Sprague's Hist. War in Florida.
18 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. CHAPTER II. HISTORY EARLY SETTLEMENT. THIS city is by forty years the oldest town within the limits of the United States of America. It was the offspring of the religious bigotry, fanaticism, and jea lousy, of a barbarous but heroic age. On the 8th ef September, 1565, at noonday, on the celebration of a religious festival in honor of Mary, the virgin goddess o Papal homage and superstitious reverence, a creature of the Spanish government, Pedro Melendez by name, who had recently crossed from the old world, entered this harbor, debarked, and taking formal possession of the country, proclaimed Philip II king of North America, had the service of Mass performed, and the foundations of the town immediately laid. THE ORIGINAL FOUNDER. Pedro Melendez was a man of blood. His bigotry had been nourished, says the historian, in the wars against the Protestants of Holland. He had also acquir ed wealth and notoriety in the conquests of Spanish America. But there he had been guilty of such excesses, and pursued a course of such rapacity, that his conduct had
THE ORIGINAL FOUNDER. 19 provoked inquiry. It ended in his arrest and conviction. The king confirmed sentence against him. To recover the favor of his sovereign, retrieve his character, if not to atone for his crimes, Melendez devised the scheme of conquering, colonizing, and converting to the faith of Papacy, the Province of Florida. He agreed also to import five hundred negro slaves. In the meanwhile, a company of French Huguenots, in their flight from the bloodhounds of persecution, let loose upon them from the strong-holds of the Romish church, had found an asylum in the wilds of America, and as they supposed, on the banks of the St. John's River in East Florida. Thither they had fled and planted their colony. Amid the desert wilds and pestilential vapors of the morasses of Florida, they fondly hoped to enjoy freedom to worship 6od." Delusive hope Where could a poor Protestant hide from the wrath of the great red Dragon," breathing out fire and death to worry and destroy the saints, if the dens and caves of the earth could afford him no shelter in Europe ? Melendez, whose piety had been fed on the blood of Protestants till it had become bloated with bigotry, smell ing the scent of prey from afar, collected a force of more than twenty-five hundred persons:soldiers, sailors, priests, Jesuits, married men with their families, laborers and mechanics."* With this company he embarked, net merely to found, but to root up and destroy a peace* Bauer.
20 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. ful colony, solely because it was made up of the followers of Calvin, and not of the Pope In traversing the Atlantic he encountered a storm. His ships were by it scattered ; so that only one third of the number he embarked with from Spain reached the coast of Florida. It was on a day consecrated to the memory of St.. Augustine, a venerable and pious father of the early ages of Christianity, that he came in sight of the coast of Florida. Four days he sailed along this coast; and on the fifth he landed, having discovered a fine haven and harbor. TRANSACTIONS AT THE MOUTH OF THE ST. JOHN'S. Learning from the natives, the place where the French Huguenot colony had established itself, and the position of Fort Caroline on the banks of the St. John's, and hav ing named the harbor and haven here, where he first set foot on shore, St. Augustine, Melendez immediately sailed northward in quest of the infant Protestant com munity. Landonnier had conducted the expedition which had sought the shores of Florida, to find an asylum for the persecuted Protestants of France. Under the patronage of Admiral Coligni, he had on the 30th of June, in 1564, settled the mouth of the River St. John's with Protestant refugees, and erected Fort Caroline. This place Ribaut had reached on a return voyage from France, a few days prior to the appearance of Melendez. Melendez purposed to seize by treachery the French shipping,
MOUTH OF THE ST. JOHN'S. 21 which, however, by suddenly running to sea, eluded his grasp, and was soon after wrecked; being driven by a storm on the coast below, while menacing this place. The appearance of the Spanish fleet foreboded evil. The circumstances excited the fears of the Protestant colonists. They inquired the name and objects of the Spanish commander. To the deputation he answered: "lam Melendez of Spain, sent with orders from my king to gibbet and behead all the Protestants in this region. Frenchmen who are Catholics I will spare every heretic shall die!" Thus did he announce his mission to be one of blood with unblushing boldness. Melendez now returned to this place, to prepare for, and put it effectually into exe-' cution. Here his forces were collected, his plans laid: and from the newly laid foundations of thisthe first town within the United States of America-even while they were wet in the holy water of the Mother Church-F armed with the blessing of her priesthood, Melendez led a chosen band to the execution of his bloody mission, He marched through the wilderness with eight days' provisions, and reached the forests and hammocks on the banks of the St. John's near to Fort Caroline, where the Protestant colony reposed, unconscious of the evil impending. He now prepared himself and his followers for their work of human butchery, by kneel ing and praying for success."* All was silenqe, save the calm voice of nature, whose soft whispers were Johnson's Life of General Green.
22 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. wafted through the branches of the gray old trees and sturdy oaks, that stood round about and cast their pro tecting shade over the heads of a peaceful colony. These, perhaps, sighed at what they saw, and against which they could not warn. From prayers Melendez rose up to the slaughter. The blood of the mother and of her innocent babe mingled in the same pool! Helpless woman and decrepit age bowed together in death and violence! The citizen and the soldier met the same fate! A scene of carnage and of cruelty was enacted, unparalleled in the annals of human butchery! Some eighty-six persons, whose only crime was their Calvinism, fell victims to the barbarity of a savage Popish bigot. But few escaped. Of these, such as were after wards taken were hung on the limbs of the next tree, where their bodies became food to hungry birds of prey ; and to mark the spot, Melendez erected a monument of stone, on which he engraved, in extenuation of his crime, u Not as Frenchmen, but as heretics."* Having executed his avowed mission of death to Prot estantism in Florida, he retraced his steps to the place where he had laid out his new town, the work of the erection of which he was prepared to complete on the foundations he had now consecrated with hands reeking in Protestant blood, as well as with holy water. Here As there are some slight variations among historians in respect to the order of the events in the destruction and overthrow of the colony on the St. John's and of this massacre, I have inclined to the numerical preponderance of historical proof, inclining to Ban croft, reconciling the several particulars.
MOUTH OF THE ST. JOHN'S. 23 Melendez was hailed as a conqueror by a procession of priests and people who went out to meet him." "Te Deum was solemnly chanted !"* But the sacrifice offered could not satiate the thirst for blood which inflamed the desires of this persecutor, whose life had been steeped in atrocities. Perhaps he felt that a life of crime such as his, could have its guilt washed out only in the blood of poor innocents, who presumed to avow their purpose to worship God according to the dic tates of their own consciences. The taste of Protestant blood he had just sipped seemed but to quicken his ap petite. Angry," says Bancroft, that any should have es caped, the Spaniards insulted the corpses of the dead with wanton barbarity;" and having celebrated mass, and reared a cross on the spot, and chosen for the site of a church the ground still smoking with the blood of a peaceful colony, Melendez went in pursuit of the ship wrecked fugitives, who were now the only survivors of the French Protestant settlement in East Plorida. They had been cast upon the sands south of this city. In their wandering along the beach, they had reached the inlet of the Matanzas. Here they were found, a company of famished and forlorn men. To secure the destruction of these men more effectually, the cowardly assassin, Melendez, first contrived to obtain their confidence in his humanity, a virtue of which this creature in human shape was utterly incapable. Williams.
24 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. They surrendered by capitulation, though a few, sus picious of treachery, distrusted the integrity of Melendez, and fled into the interior. The major part being secured, the captives, in successive bands, were ferried over the river and received among theSpaniards. On reaching the opposite shore, each man's hands were pinioned be hind him ; and thus, like sheep to the slaughter, they were driven toward St. Augustine. But, as the company approached the fort, a signal was made."* Thereupon, the man in whose perfidious honor and humanity they had confided(acting, it may be fairly presumed, on the principle that no faith was to be kept with heretics a principle worthy of the Romish church, and which had been baptized and sanctified in oceans of Protestant blood)this man, I say, amid a flourish of trumpets and drums, cut the throats of the whole company, not as "Frenchmen, but as heretics."f Though the government of France looked on this thrilling scene of horror, in the destruction of her own peaceful subjects, unmoved, yet, adds the historian, his tory has been more faithful, and has assisted humanity by giving to the crime of Melendez an infamous notoriety." RETRIBUTION. The site of the Huguenot colony was named Fort Caroline. De Gourgas was a Roman Catholic and a French man. He had been distinguished in public life, but had retired to the enjoyment of his repose, when, on learning Bancroft's Hist. U. S. A. t Ibid.
^ v,.~-It'': fcf;.'* :
RETRIBUTION. 25 the barbarous atrocities with which his countrymen on the St. John's had been sacrificed to Spanish bigotry, he emerged from private lifeagain buckled on his armor for vengeance. At his own risk, he got up and fitted out an expedition. He sailed from France, with a chosen band of followers, to avenge the blood of his slaughtered countrymen. Between the years 1569 and '74 he reached the coast of Floridadebarked his forces at the mouth of the St. John'scarried several outworksand finally inclosed the Fort, now occupied by a Spanish colony. He entered it, and the first sight that greeted his eyes, was the horrible vision of the skeleton forms of his murdered countrymen, their bones and sinews dangling from the limbs of the surrounding trees. Here too was the stone set up by Melendez, with its inscription. The bones and relics of the slaughtered Huguenots De Gour gas ordered to be buried. He then fell upon the Spaniards. Hardly one escaped; and their bodies he ordered to be hung in the places where those of his countrymen had been before suspended, and underneath De Gourgas wrote this inscription-" Not as Spaniards^ hut as mur derers" He immediately returned to France. Thus the light of Protestantism, which had been first kindled by the fugitive Huguenots of France on the coast of Florida, in the southern extreme of these United States, was put out in the blood of those, who, as pioneers, were the torch-bearers of religious liberty, which was not to be again rekindled until it shot up from Puritan altars, and burst forth in the frozen north, where it was cherished and protected by chilling snows and frosts in those wintry 2
26 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. wilds, till it had acquired force and intensity sufficient to spread its beams over the whole land. Such is the connection of this city and its founders, in its early history, with the early Protestant institutions of the republic It can hardly be credible to an Ameri can citizen, that there is within the bounds of these United States a nook or corner so dark and blood-stained Melendez, for twelve years, presided over the destinies of this town, directing his attention mainly to the subjec tion, and conversion to papal superstitions, of the abori ginal inhabitants, aided by the Franciscans, an order of monks. Their missions were established throughout the interior. An ancient monkish retreat, occupying the present site of the United States Barracks, was the head quarters of the order in this city. A number of the mis sionaries, while on their passage from Cuba to this place, were wrecked on the bar at the entrance of this harbor, and in full view of their convent, and, with the crew of the vessel, were drowned. INCIDENTS IN THE SUBSEQUENT HISTORY. Some twenty-one years had elapsed since the founding of this city and the massacre of the neighboring Protestant colony, when Drake, as he coasted along the shore, dis covered the Look-out," a tower on the adjacent island. This led him to suspect a settlement inland. He ordered his boats to be lowered and manned, to make a reconnoisance on the shore. He landed on an island. In the exploration he perceived, across the water, a town built of wood. Soon after, a French fifer deserted from the
RETRIBUTION. 27 Spanish forcescrossed the lagoon in a canoe, playing an English air, the march of the Prince of Orange. This circumstance recommended him to the favor of the Eng lish admiralfor Drake now sailed as an admiral of the royal navy. The Frenchman described his situation to be that of a captive. He probably told also of the recent massacre, and described its horrors; and was himself, undoubtedly, one of the fugitives from that scene, who had been spared for some reason. Elizabeth of England was a Protestant queen; Drake, her representative, was a Protestant in his sympathies. Moreover, Spain and England were on terms of hostility at this time. His marine force was disembarked, under the command of Carlisle, his subordinate; the inter vening sound was crossed; and, notwithstanding the greatest caution had been observed in all these move ments, the reconnoitering officer was discovered by the Spaniards. A cannon was fired, and thereupon they all fled to town. This took place at an outpost. This work was immediately taken possession of by the recon noitering party under Carlisle. It was a fort built of tim ber, mounting fourteen pieces of brass cannon. Drake then plundered the garrison of a chest of silver, and next day marched for the town. As he approached, he en countered the Spaniards. An action commenced; but at the first fire of the invading force, the Spaniards fled, and the inhabitants evacuated the town, which fell into the hands of Drake, who burnt and plundered it; and then sailed for England, where he arrived in July of the same year, 1586.* Family Library.
28 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. Twenty-five years* passed away before any other tra gedy was enacted within the precinct of this then new city. But vengeance did not slumber long. The natives of Floridaa brave, warlike, and cruel, as well as nu merous band of savage menassaulted, captured, and burned the city to ashes. The details of this terrific scene of savage barbarity, and the immediate causes thereof, we have not at hand. 1665. In a quarter of a century more, Davis, the Bucanier, discovered this Spanish retreat. He entered on a piratical expedition against it; invested it with an armed band of freebooters; captured, and plundered it. The circumstances of this movement, the details of the attack and plunder of the town, are not to be found. THE BUCANIERS. The Florida archipelago, and the neighboring keys and islands of the West Indian seas, have been the resort of freebooters from an early period. The security they afforded, as a place of retreat from discovery, gave these points great eminence, as the centre of operations for a large, bold, and ruthless band of sea-rovers. Their pi ratical expeditions swarmed over the adjacent waters, and desolated the neighboring coasts of the Gulf of Mexico and the Spanish West Indies. This brotherhood of out laws were termed Bucaniers. They hailed from France, England, and Holland. They led a life of plunder; and reduced piracy to a profession, regulated by its own laws and customs, which had all the force of martial law among themselves. Cohen.
THE BUCANIERS. 29 The existence of these desperate men as a class was owing to the exclusive and arbitrary measures of the Spanish government, through which, they endeavored to secure and maintain the exclusive control of the com mercial resources of the New World. In war, the Bucaniers preyed on commerce as com missioned privateers ; in peace, they resorted to hunting wild cattle, and contraband trade against the Spanish. Finally, they entered upon a course of open piracy and plunder. They are said to have originated on this wise. Soon after the Spanish conquests on the Main had secur ed the fertile plains of Mexico and extended over it the Spanish power, the island of Cuba was nearly depopu lated by a tide of emigration setting into the newly acquired territory. The emigrants left their cattle be hind. These, in course of time, multiplied prodigiously. The hills and valleys of the island of Cuba were at length covered with herds of wild cattle ; and it was soon found profitable to hunt them for their hides and tallow alone. The first who engaged in this business were French. The distinctive term applied to these men, had its origin in their customs. Bucanier is supposed to be a derivative of the Carib word boucan," by which the Indians designated flesh prepared for food by its being smoked and dried slowly in the sun. The hunters prepared the flesh, of the slaughtered cattle for food in this way. From this circumstance, the term "Buca nier was first applied to the hunters; and subsequently, it was used to designate all such as followed a contra band trade, or were engaged in a predatory life upon the sea or shore.
30 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. The Bucaniers, at first, made the island of Tortuga their head-quarters. But the settlement being obnoxious to the Spaniards, they seized the first opportunity to destroy it. This dispersed the company, who sought other places of refuge ; and from thence they worried the Spanish settlements, actuated by motives of revenge. Several places and Spanish towns were compelled to submit to the degradation of purchasing the forbearance of the Bucaniers, by paying them contributions, equiv alent to black-mail levied by the banditti of Scotland. Being driven from their original retreat on the island of Tortuga, the Bucaniers retired to the Keys. No doubt the inlets and islands of the southern peninsula of Florida attracted their bands. Not only the towns and settlements on the Spanish islands and on the Main became objects of plunder, but the commerce of every nation also. It is not till within a few years, that the remnants of this desperate class of men, who have long infested the waters in the neighborhood of the West India islands, have been driven from their haunts, and hunted down, by the American Navy. The Bucanier was terrible in his appearance, as well as in his profession. His dress consisted of a shirt dipped in the blood of cattletrousers prepared in the same mannerbuskins without stockingsa cap with a small front, and a leath ern girdle, into which were stuck around his body^ knives, sabres and pistols. Such was the filthy and ter rific garb of the Bucanier in full costume. Such was Davis, who laid this city under contribution
CAUSES OF BORDER TROUBLES. 31 some eighty years after it was founded by Melendez. At this period, the Bucaniers seem to have regarded the whole Spanish race as their natural enemies, and their commerce and their cities as lawful objects of plunder. CAUSES OF BORDER TROUBLES. At the close of the seventeenth and in the beginning of the eighteen century, the English settlements of Carolina had acquired permanency and importance. But Spain had proclaimed her exclusive right to American possessions. By a permit from the Roman Pontiff, she had already seized and subdued a greater part of the New World, and left the prints of her bloody hand upon the rights and treasures of the aboriginal inhabitants. In the face of the civilized world, Spain, then one of the richest and most powerful states on earth, having as serted a claim to and planted her foot upon the soil of North America, how could she forego the exclusive con trol of the same ? How could she endure the presence, or divide the occupancy of the soil with a rival state? She had already acquired the proud title in her sove reign, of "Defender of the Faith," for the ardor and fidelity with which she supported the arrogant pretensions of the See of Rome, having given her strength to the extension of its interests, even to the prostitution of her civil power to ecclesiastical domination. How then could Spain consent that the Protestant religion should gain a foothold in North America ? Had she not already ex tinguished it on the coasts of Florida? Were not the English colonies still in their infancy, as well as within
32 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. the reach of her arms % It required but a single well directed stroke, and the Anglo-Saxon race and the hated Protestant faith would perish together. We have glanced at the barbarous scenes with which Spain opened her schemes of colonization in North America. The same malign purposes and bigoted spirit moved all her subsequent counsels, and hung like a dark and portentous cloud over the future peace and prosperity of her border settlements. In her efforts to make good her pretensions, a series of petty jealousies and strife between the English and Spanish races ensued. Distrust and jealousy were fos tered. These feelings led to mutual hostile demonstrations. Mutual depredations were perpetrated; and thus the seeds of open war were sown. The struggle was maintained till English blood and the Protestant faith acquired permanent ascendency in the Floridas. EXPEDITION OF GOV. MOORE. The Spaniards and Indians, stimulated by the bigoted and rapacious spirit of the mother country, perpetrated acts of wanton barbarity on the colonial settlements of Carolina and Georgia. Provoked to retaliation by these depredations, Governor Moore, A. D. 1702, projected an invasion of Florida, by the forces of South Carolina. In the month of September, with an army of twelve hun dred men, he embarked on an expedition for the reduc tion of St. Augustine, which was esteemed the centre of the predatory operations against the English settlers. Col. Daniel was ordered to scour the country inland,
PALMER'S EXPEDITION. 33 and penetrate to the city by the route of the St. John's River. An officer of distinguished military skill and enterprise, Col. Daniel, with great promptitude and success, marched through the country, captured and plun dered the city, and shut its inhabitants up within the walls of their Castle. Such was the position of affairs when Gov. Moore reached the scene of his military ope rations before St. Augustine. A regular siege was ad vised. The Fort was invested. But the artillery of the besieging army was too light, and no impression could be made on the fortified works. Col. Daniel was despatched to procure guns of a larger caliber and more effective powers. In the meanwhile, a Spanish naval armament made its appearance off the coast. Governor Moore, in a panic, appalled at this demonstration, raised the siege, abandoned his ships and stores, and fled back to Carolina by the nearest inland route. PALMER'S EXPEDITION. The original causes of disquietude were in nowise re moved or abated. They became, indeed, more and more active and aggravated, till they ripened into further hos tile demonstrations. The Spanish charged the English with intrusion. The grounds of complaint were mutual. The English, on the other hand, charged the Spaniards with enticing away their colored servants, and with ex citing the Indians to murder and depopulate their frontier towns. The Spanish governor not only justified himself 2*
34 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. in these things, but immediately fitted out an expedition from Augustine and marched into Georgia, laying waste the country, sparing neither age nor sex. These provocations occurred twenty years after Gov. Moore had invaded the Floridas. The tribe of the Yamasee Indians had been made the tools of Spanish barbarity in their recent hostile opera* tions against the English colonies of Georgia and Caro lina. The intrepid Col. Palmer immediately raised a force of militia and friendly Indians, with which he marched into Florida to retaliate the injuries of his countrymen. He pushed at once to the very gates of the city, laying waste nearly every settlement. The citizens fled and entrenched themselves within the city fortifications, leav ing the poor natives, their allies, to the mercy of the in vaders ; and the power of the Yamasee tribe was broken under the walls of the city, being nearly all killed or made prisoners by the English. All was destroyed but what lay within range and pro tection of the guns of the Fort. The Georgians, in their fury, seized on the Papal Church of Nostra Seniora de Lache," plundering and burning it to the ground, from which they took the gold and silver ornaments for booty, and also an image baby, which they found in the arms of the image of a woman, the Virgin Mary, with which the church was adorned. This place of worship occupied a position a little with out the city gates. The point of land back from the old steam mill is alleged to have been its site, the ruins of which, it is alleged, are still to be found there.
OGLETHORP's INVASION. 35 Palmer, with his Georgians, having taken ample ven geance, and being unable to reduce the city without heavier ordnance than he then had at command, gath ered all the booty within his reach, which was considerable, and retired to Georgia, leaving the Spaniards to obtain satisfaction as best they could. OGLETHORP's INVASION, A. D. 1740. During the next fifteen years, no considerable overt act of hostility was perpetrated, though the spirit and embers of war still glowed in the hearts of the border colonists. The Georgians were still plundered of their property. Their negroes were enticed and spirited away into the wilds of Florida ; and this was justified by the Governor of St. Augustine, on the pretence that the Spaniards were bound in conscience to draw to them selves as many negroes as they could, in order to con vert them to the faith of the Roman Catholic Church." Moreover, a plot was discovered, which contemplated the utter extinction of the English settlements. A Ger man Jesuitone Christian Pribena resident among the Cherokees, was the master spirit in this conspiracy. He was taken by the English traders. Upon his person was found his private journal, revealing his design to bring about a confederation of all the southern Indians, and to effect a new social and civil organization. He had noted his expectations of assistance in the execution of his ori ginal design from the French, and from another nation, whose name was left a blank. Among his papers were found letters for the Florida and Spanish governors, de manding their protection and countenance. Also, there
36 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. were found among his papers the plan and regulations for a new town. Many rights and privileges were enumerated, mar riage was abolished, a community of women and all kinds of licentiousness were to be allowed. In addition, the Spaniards had just made an abortive attempt to dispossess the Georgian colonists of Amelia Island. At this juncture, Oglethorp appeared on the stage of action. He had been recently appointed to the office of governor of the colony. The salvation of the English settlements required prompt and vigorous measures. Oglethorp solicited and secured the co-operation of South Carolina, in a combined effort to insure the safety of the English settlement. The invasion of Florida, and the reduction of St. Augustine, as the nest where were hatched the broils and perils of a border serife, and from whence swarmed the savage hordes which overran and devastated the land, were determined upon. South Carolina promptly responded to the call of Oglethorp. Carolina raised a regiment of five hundred men, and equipped one vessel of war, carrying ten car riage guns and sixteen swivels, with a crew of fifty men. Two hundred men enlisted as a volunteer force. In addition, Oglethorp had his own regiment of five hundred men, two troops of Highland and English rangers, and two companies of Highland and English foot."* His Stephen's Hist. Geo., art. in Southern Quarterly; April No. 1848.
OGLETHORP'S INVASION. 37 plan was to take the city by surprise. This however failed. With a select force, he entered East Florida, invested and reduced Fort Diego, situated some twenty-five miles north of St. Augustine. Having left here a garrison force, and completed his arrangements, he marched direct for St. Augustine and occupied Fort Mosa. This work he destroyed; and then advanced to reconnoitre the city. The result of the reconnoisance was disheart ening. The town was strongly fortified. The Spanish force within the intrenched city and castle, amounted to seven hundred regulars, two troops of horse, with armed negroes, militia, and Indians.* At the outset an oversight had been committed, in ne glecting to blockade the harbor, on account of which, supplies were thrown into the city, and additional means of resistance. Oglethorp, however, soon afterward en forced a blockade. The ships were moored across the entrance of the bar; and lines of investment were drawn around the town on the land. Col. Palmer, with a company of Highlanders and a small force of Indians, occupied the old Fort Mosa, with orders to scour the country. A small battery was planted on Point Quartele; while Oglethorp with his own regiment erected and occupied field works on the northern ex tremity of Anastatia Island, opposite the Castle. The ruins of these works are marked by a clump of shrubbery and a slight elevation on the point. Spanish accounts say less than this.
38 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. The arrangements being perfected,^ bombardment of the town and Castle was attempted. Oglethorp opened his batteries with a hot fire of shell and shot, a great number of which were thrown into the town. The fire was return ed with spirit from the Castle, and from galleys in the har bor ; but the distance was too great for either party to do much execution. The shallow water of the bar prevented any co-operation of the English naval force with that of the land. The fire of the besieging army at length abated. A counsel of war was held. In the meanwhile a sortie was made by the besieged; and Col. Palmer, with his entire force, were surprised in sleep, and all cut off at Fort Mosa, except a few who escaped by a small boat, and crossed to Point Quartele, where the Carolina regi ment was stationed. The Indian allies soon grew im patient, and left in disgust. The blockade of the inlet at Matanzas was raised, and provisions and other supplies were thrown into the town, through this approach to the city. The English troops became enfeebled by disease, dispirited, and filled with discontent, and many deserted. The naval force became short of provisions, and the hurricane season was at hand. Oglethorp was taken down with fever, and the flux raged among his troops. The siege was thereupon raised, and the army withdrawn into Georgia. Thus the expedition became abortive, though the face and angles of the Castle, fronting the harbor, bear the mark of Oglethorp's storm of shot and shells to this day. A counter invasion of Georgia was projected from this city, two years after. But though the preparations were
MINORCAN POPULATION. 39 made on a scale of unusual magnitude, and the expedition was well supported by competent naval power,* the Spaniards were whipped and frightened off from the settlements of Georgia. They related, on their return, as an excuse for their disgraceful and cowardly behavior, that, "the deep morasses and thickets were so lined with wild Indians and fierce Highlanders, that the devil could not penetrate to the strong-holds of the Georgians." Retaliation was, of course, the natural result. The very next year, Oglethorp again visited Augustine, captured a fort in the vicinage of the city; but being frustrated in some of his plans, retired again to his province, without further molestation to the enemy. These hostilities and differences continued to distract this city, till A D. 1763, when the peace of Paris gave the Floridas into possession of the government of Great Britain. For the twenty years that Florida remained in possession of Great Britain, great improvements were made, flourishing settlements begun; and the prosperity which industry and skill insure began to show itself on every side. In 1784, the Floridas were retroceded to Spain. The Anglo-Saxon race forsook their fields and villages, and retired under the shield of British law and the Protestant faith. MINORCAN POPULATION. Says the historian, A military government succeeded, together with a sparse population, who barely subsisted on their pay, who neglected improvements,who suffer ed their gardens and fields to grow up with weeds, their fences and houses to rot down, or be burned for fuel."
40 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. The Minorcan population, however, it is alleged, were an exception. Their industry furnished fish and vege tables to the market. This is a peculiar people, and they compose a large proportion of the population of the city. The present race were of servile extraction. By the duplicity and avarice of one Turnbull, they were seduced from their homes in the Mediterraneanlocated at Smyrnaand forced to till the lands of the proprietor, who had brought them into Florida for that purpose. After enduring great privation, toil, and suffering, under the most trying circumstances of a servile state, they revolted in a body, reclaimed their rights, and maintained them under English law, by a decision of the king's court at Augustine, whither they had fled from their oppressor, under the conduct of one of their number, a man by the name of Palbicier. A location was assigned them in the north of this city, which they occupy in the persons of their descendants to this day. Their women are distin guished for their taste, neatness, and industry, a peculiar light olive shade of complexion, and a dark, full eye. The males are less favored, both by nature and habit. They lack enterprise. Most of them are without edu cation. Their canoes, fishing lines, and hunting guns, are their main sources of subsistence. The rising generation is, however, in a state of rapid transition. The spirit of American institutions, and the reflex influence of an association with Anglo-American society, are working an assimilating change in the whole social structure of the native population of this city; the pre sent population of which is estimated at from 1800 to 2000 souls.
MIN0RCAN POPULATION. 41 From the time of the retrocession of the Floridas, till the disturbances growing out of the late war with Eng land, there was a state of comparative quiet in the border settlements. But ancient jealousies and the seeds of former dissensions, differences of religion, and the re membrance of past injuries, had not been altogether eradicated. Moreover, the occupants of lands on the line between the American and Spanish nations found those within the Spanish domain who strongly sympa thized with the free and liberal spirit of American insti tutions, as seen in contrast with the despotic features of a military government under the control of an intolerant and bigoted hierarchy. A patriot war ensued.* A neutral territory was erected. Spanish authority was rejected. Augustine was again invaded, But the American government in terposed, restored quiet, and immediately entered upon negotiations with the king of Spain for the purchase of the Floridas. These negotiations were at length crowned with success; and on the 17th of June, 1821, the "stars and stripes" of the United States of America floated from the Castle, and St. Augustine became an Anglo-American town, under the government of the American general, Andrew Jackson.f Protected by the shadow of the It is more than probable that the American government con nived at, if it did not encourage, these transactions.-EDITOR. t It is well known that the Spanish governor of West Florida attempted to withhold from the United States the public papers, and
42 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. American eagle, for the first time, the genius of the American institutions called together her sons and daugh ters in the old Government House, for the exercise of & right which had been watered with Protestant blood in the soil of Florida centuries before"freedom to worship God/9 On Friday, the 11th of June, 1824, was organ ized the Presbyterian church. Subsequently, the Prot estant and Methodist Episcopal churches were estab lished. Thus Protestant influence and institutions gained a firm foothold in the ancient Spanish capital of East Florida. It is related,* that immediately on the exchange of flags a strange sight was seen in the city. A Methodist that Governor Jackson was under the necessity of resorting to com pulsory measures to obtain them. The same disposition was exhibited by the governor of the East. Captain Hanham had been appointed sheriff of East Florida, and was dispatched for St. Augustine, and required to be there in seven teen days. He arrived within the given time, and applied to Gov ernor Coppinger for the public records. The governor declined, and gave him to understand that he should resist his authority. Under standing that a vessel lay in the offing ready to receive the papers and convey them to Cuba, Hanham forced his way into the govern or's room. There he found the papers nearly all packed in eleven strong boxes. He seized them all, and delivered them over into the hands of the collector of the United States. It was afterwards found that the papers thus rescued were of the greatest importance to the United States. These summary proceedings created an excitement at the time, which however soon passed away. This was told the author as coming from the lips of the man who was the subject of this anecdote, who still lives.
MIN0RCAN POPULATION. 43 itinerant was observed, wending his way from street to street and from house to house on a religious mission, distributing Protestant religious books, and otherwise intruding himself among the sons and daughters of the mother church. The circumstance, so unusual, and the great presump tion of the stranger, of course alarmed the Romish eccle siastical authority. The priest could not brook such intrusion. He went in pursuit of the pfesumptuous man in black, and when he had overtaken him, menaced him with the indignation of his ghostly power if he did not at once desist. The itinerant surveyed him for a moment in silence, as if measuring with his eye the capacity of his power, and then, with the most imperturbable coolness, and an impudent though significant movement of the eye, pointed the wrathy shadow of the Pope to the stars and stripes,"' which now proudly floated over the battlements of the Castlewhen it vanished, and left the Methodist minister to prosecute his favorite work among the people as he listed. This, undoubtedly, was the first time that prelacy had been taught a lesson of forbearance here, or to consider the nature of the change which had come over the scene of its former undisputed sway, and to understand, that under the flag of the United States of America man was protected in the enjoyment of his high prerogative freedom to worship God."
44 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. DESTRUCTION OF THE ORANGE GROVES. Prior to February, 1835, groves of the sweet orange had for many years, and with great care, been brought into a thrifty and productive state. Then St. Augustine was one immense orange orchard, and appeared, says an eye-witness, like a rustic village, with its white houses peeping from among the clustered boughs and golden fruit of the favorite tree, beneath whose shade the invalid cooled his fevered limbs and imbibed health from the fragrant air." Much attention was given to the rearing of orange orchards, and large investments had been made in planting out nurseries of fruit trees, which, indeed, could hardly supply the demand for the young trees. The season prior to February, 1835, was very pro ductive. Some of the orange groves paid from one to three thousand dollars. I have been informed, that twelve years ago the income to the city was some $72,000 per annum. Mature, thrifty trees sometimes produced 6000 oranges; and the average product per annum of a single tree was 500 oranges. In the vigor and thrift of the orange business, the annual export of oranges was between 2 and 3,000,000 per annum from this city. The trade was brisk, and a source of revenue and profit to the place of great value. In the orange season, the harbor was enlivened with a fleet of fruit vessels, that thronged the city for the purchase and transportation of oranges to the northern market. But on the night of the fatal month of February, 1835,
TROPICAL FRUIT CULTURE. 45 a frost cut down the entire species of the orange tribe, some of the trees rivaling in stature the sturdy forest oak. At one fell stroke, the labor and profit of years of toil- the inheritance of many generationsthe little all of many families, were swept away! The resources of the city were dried up! Many were hurled in a night from the seat of affluence, into the lap of poverty and distress! To this day, the city has not recovered from the blight of that dire stroke. Shoots from the withered stocks of the old trees have indeed sprung up, and been struggling for life ever since, but under the pressure of disease; and all efforts to resuscitate the tree have been rendered abortive by the ravages of insignificant animalculee, which prey on the life and vigor of the young shoots, and perpetuate the influence of the frost of 1835. TROPICAL FRUIT CULTURE OF EAST FLORIDA. There are important facts relative to these agricultural products and resources of East Florida, which ought to be better understood by those, who, on account of consti tutional delicacy, consumptive habits, or other causes, at the north, are disposed to seek other and more congenial latitudes. On the east coast of South Florida the lands are productive, and healthy in location. On the St. Lu cie River and Sound, the banks are high shell bluff, and exceedingly fertile for high lands. Though north of the tropical latitude, yet the climate is so genial, that it nour ishes with luxuriance, in the open air, most of the fruits of tropical climes. The cocoa, orange, lemon, lime, guava, citron, pine-apple, banana, and other like pro-
46 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. ducts, together with the semi-tropical fruits, the grape, fig, olive, &c, and garden vegetables, the cabbage, potato, beet, onion, with various species of the melon kind, grow with great luxuriance. Orange orchards, pine apple fields, banana and cocoa-nut groves, are now in process of cultivation by settlers, many of whom are from the north, and have begun to clear their lands with in the last few years. Industry and perseverance are the chief investments of capital required, in order to reap ample remuneration. Northern men, with their own hands, are now thus en gaged. It is no longer an experiment. On the banks of the Indian River and St. Lucie Sound fruiteries are being raised. Fruit 'groves and cane fields are being planted, which will probably ere long furnish for northern mar kets the delicious products of tropical climes, in a more perfect condition and of better quality than can be else where found. The lands of tropical Florida on the east coast, in the region of the Indian River, appear to be of an older for mation, and are on a higher level above the sea, than those in this neighborhood. The landscape is finer. The climate is more salubrious. Its attractions for those who wish to make their own labor their capital, from which they shall be enabled to draw a support for themselves and families, are great. The orange, pine-apple, and sugar lands of South Florida are worthy more attention from agriculturists, capitalists, and emigrants, than they have received ; and the day is not far distant, when their rich resources will begin to be developed, and will excite interest.
TROPICAL FRUIT CULTURE. 47 The orange culture has been proved to be a source of great profit. It will be again, whenever in this country groves can be reared. The culture of the pine-apple will be found to be of equal worth with that of the orange. The pine is said to mature its fruit from the slips, when they are well set out, in about eighteen months, and their stocks will continue to bear for several years. One acre of land will produce some 40,000 pines, and the sale of this fruit is made in market at say from ten to eighteen dollars per hundred. Moreover, the fruit from the pine plants of South Flo rida need not be plucked till it has matured on its stock. It will therefore come into market in a more mature con dition, and of finer flavor than any that can elsewhere be grown. It will bring the highest market prices; and the fruit of this kind that has already been grown, by competent judges is said to be of the best quality. The lands which are adapted to this culture are, in deed, of limited extent; but there are sufficient to sup ply the home market. These facts, together with the salubrity of the fruit growing region, must ere long attract attention from the public. Thousands, in that mild and equable climate, might there live and labor, and enjoy a ripe old age, who must soon die, amid the vicissitudes of the climate in the north. Admitting that the pine-apple, on account of risks in transportation and cost in getting to market, should be worth only about one-half the market price in the field,
48 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. yet an acre of thrifty, well cultivated pines will yield from $1500 to $2000 per annum. At five cents each, the product of an acre of pine-fruit would be $2000. These calculations show the great value of the pine lands and other fruit soil of Tropical Florida. These facts have but to be known, to be understood and appre ciated. They indicate the great resources of South Florida, in the soil of its tropical fruit lands, which is a region of country lying some forty miles south of Cape CarnavaraL
ADVANTAGES OF CLIMATE. 49 CHAPTER III. ST. AUGUSTINE AS A PLACE OF RESORT FOR INVALIDS. ADVANTAGES OF CLIMATE. THIS city enjoys many advantages in respect to climate, which are peculiar. The same may be true of the cli mate of the Florida peninsula in general. An intelligent correspondent of the Army and Navy Chronicle, in an interesting article, thus writes of the climate of Florida: Florida, from its position, lying just north of the Tropic of Cancer, and being nearly surrounded by water, would be judged to possess one of the blandest and most equable climates in the world. And such, in fact, for several months in the year, is found to be the case. "In the interior and upper portions, the variations in the annual temperature are considerable0 and 90 degrees. The diurnal variations are considerable. On the seacoast and in the lower part of the territory, where regular trade-winds prevail, the temperature is so much less va riable, that the islands about capes Florida and Sable are in this respect unexcelled perhaps by any other region of the globe." Dr. Forry,* U. S. A., thus writes of the climate of this region :" Among the various systems of climate Author of a standard work on climate, and of the highest pro fessional authority.
50 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. presented in the United States, that of the peninsula of Florida is wholly peculiar. Possessing an insular tem perature, not less equable and salubrious in winter than that afforded by the south of Europe, it will be seen that invalids requiring a mild winter residence, have gone to foreign lands in search of what might have been found at home. Florida therefore merits the attention of phy sicians at the north; for here the pulmonary invalid may exchange for the inclement seasons of the north, or the deteriorated atmosphere of a room to which he may be confined, the mild, equable temperature, the soft, balmy breezes of an evergreen land." For many years," says Dr. Wardeman, afflicted with phthisis, and compelled to pass the last seven win ters in the West Indies and the southern parts of Florida, we have been necessarily placed in communication with numerous invalids similarly affected, many of whom were under our professional care ; and from personal experience and the observation of others, we have had ample opportunities for comparing the effects of different climates on the disease. Premising that we have passed five winters in Cuba, one at Key West, and one at Enter prise, East Florida. Florida has the advantage over Italy, in having no mountain ranges covered during win ter with snows ; the cold blasts from the Apennines and the Jura mountains, rendering a large portion of Italy and southern France unfit for invalids unable to bear a sudden and great increase of temperature." Dr. Bernard Byrne thus writes of the climate of Flo rida (see the National Intelligencer of May 18th, 1843):
ADVANTAGES OF CLIMATE. 51 Taking it the year round, the climate of East Florida is much more agreeable than any other in the United States, or even .than that of Italy. In the southern portion of the peninsula frost is never (rarely) felt; even so far north as the Suwanee River, there are generally but three or four nights in a whole winter that ice as thick as a quarter of a dollar is formed. The winter weather is delightful in East Florida, beyond description. It very much resembles that season which in the Middle States is termed "Indian Summer;" except that in Florida the sky is perfectly clear, and the atmosphere more dry and elastic. We now will consider the climate of St. Augustine in particular. There is circulated a sentiment prejudi cial to the virtue of the climate of St. Augustine, as a resort for invalids in search of health. This may be all very natural, when the interest north of this city, served by the traveling public, is considered ; but it is not just. Experience usually contradicts this sentiment. It is en countered under various exaggerated forms of statement, all along the southern inland route. In the face of de clarations designed to forestall opinion against the place, however, many have persevered, and found experience the wisest counselor. Says a correspondent to the Florida Herald, 1848: I have occasionally been in the interior. In every instance, however, I have found the climate of this city preferable on the whole. The same is true of every place I have visited south, if I except the climate of south or tropical Florida, which I believe to be without a parallel."
52 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. These remarks on the nature of the climate, exhibiting its advantages, are founded on the experience and obser vation of individuals who have thoroughly tested its virtues, and who were capable of forming and of expressing an intelligent opinion*nany*of these writers being called, in the course of professional duty, to analyze and study the nature and effects of climate. Let me suggest certain peculiarities, which impart to the climate of St; Augustine peculiar advantages over any interior or more northern locality, and which are properties peculiarly favorable to a restoration of im paired health. During the winter months, the extremes of temperature, though the transitions are somewhat more sudden, are nevertheless not so great here as in the interior. This peculiarity follows a law of climate, which, both north and south, causes it to be warmer in the neighborhood of the sea in winter, than in regions remote therefrom. It is also cooler in summer. The east winds here are far different from the east winds at the north. Though somewhat raw and gusty, they are nevertheless shorn of their intensity, and greatly modified, in their passage across and along the Gulf stream. They thus lose very much of their asperity, and would hardly be recognized by a New Englander, being usually unattended with rain. In summer, the air is neither so hot nor as sultry as it is inland, where respiration is attended with a suffocating sensation. The atmosphere of the sea-eoast is not so highly rarefied. The process of evaporation, which is perpetually going on,
ADVANTAGES' OF CLIMATE. &a tends to equalize temperature, and so to adapt the atmos phere to the action of the respiratory organs; that one breathes freely and easily. By the same process, the intensity of the heat is greatly abated. The afternoons and evenings are invariably cool and refreshing. The atmosphere exhilarates. On one's energies and, spirits, it acts as a stimulus, so that one does not suffer from lassitude here, as is usual at the north. The nights are refreshing in the hottest season. This remark is true, I believe, only of the atmosphere in the neighbor hood of the sea, amid the coast climate* Indeed, the whole body of the atmosphere on the coast is more pure and healthful than in the interior ; and is believed also to be medicinal in its effects. The various chemical in gredients of the atmosphere on the coast, are powerful disinfecting agents, which are perpetually elaborated, from the prodigious evaporation and other chemical! com binations of the mineral waters of the sea, whose grand elements are soda and chlorine. These impart to the atmosphere healing power and medicinal virtue. ? The sea and the sun are laboratories of healthful energy and influence, which are projected into this atmosphere from natural resources, and which are taken into the system by the ordinary process of respiration. For these reasons, > invalids have often experienced as great, if not greater benefit, from a summer residence here, than from a win ter sojourn. Disease, taken in its incipient stages, may be eradicated, under the influence of the climate alone, aided by the vis medicatrix naturce." Air and exercise > are the chief medicines required.
54 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. CLASS OF DISEASES REACHED AND FAVORABLY AFFECTED BY THIS CLIMATE. In relation to this interesting point of inquiry, the opinions and reasoning of Dr. Samuel Forry (in the Journal of Medical Science, in the year 1841) are full and explicit. Bronchitis." The advantage of a winter residence in a more southern latitude, as respects this disease, becomes at once apparent. If the invalid can avoid the transition of the seasons, that meteorological condition of the atmosphere which stands first among the causes that induce catarrhal lesions, he will do much towards controlling the malady. As regards the change of climate, it will be observed that in the advantages enumerated, reference is made only to chronic bronchitis. (( The climate of Florida has been found beneficial in cases of incipient pulmonary consumption, and those threatened with disease from hereditary or acquired indisposition. It is in chronic bronchial affections more particularly that it speedily manifests its salutary tendency. But there are other forms of disease, in which such a climate as that of East Florida is not unfrequently of decided advantage. To this class belongs asthma. In chronic disorders of the digestive organs, where no inflammation exists, or structural changes have superven ed in viscera important to life, but the indication is merely to remove disease of a functional character, a winter's residence promises great benefit; but exercise in the
DISEASES AFFECTED BY THE CLIMATE. 55 open air, aided by a proper regimen, are indispensable adjuncts. In many of those obscure affections called nervous, unconnected with inflammation, exercise and traveling in this climate, are frequently powerful and efficient re medies. Chronic rheumatism, though apparently much less under the influence of meteorological causes than pulmo nic affections, will be often benefited by a winter residence in Florida. As these cases often resist the best directed efforts of medicines, it is the only remedy which the northern physician can recommend with a reasonable prospect of success. When there exists a general delicacy of the constitu tion in childhood, often the rubeola, or scarlatina mani festing itself by symptoms indicative of a scrofulous disposition, a winter residence in a warm climate frequently produces the most salutary effects. Another form of disease remains to be alluded to, in which change of climate promises healing power, viz.: premature decay of the constitution, characterized by general evidence of deteriorated health, whilst some tissue or organ important to life commonly mani fests symptoms of abnormal action. This remarkable change occurs without any obvious cause, and is not unappropriately termed in common parlance, a breaking up of the constitution.' In treating of the climate of Florida, the primary object held in view, is to direct attention to its fitness as a winter residence for northern invalids.
56 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. A comparison with the most favored situation on the continent of Europe and the islands held in the highest estimation for mildness and equability of climate, affords results in no way disparaging. A comparison of the mean temperature of winter and summer, that of the coldest and warmest months and seasons, furnishes results generally in favor of the Peninsula of Florida. On the coast of Florida^the average number of fair days, is about 250; while in the Northern States, the average number of fair days per annum, is about 120. Though climate is one of the most powerful remedial agents, and one, too, which in many cases will admit no substitute, yet much permanent advantage will not result, either from traveling or change of climate, unless the invalid adheres strictly to such regimen as his case may require. "The attention of many persons suffering with pul monary diseases having been directed to the southern section of the United States, as a temporary residence for the benefit of their health, and there being much diversity of sentiment as to the location most proper for attaining this desirable end, I propose to offer to the public some facts derived from personal observation. Having in the early part of last year been the subject of an attack, that threatened a rapid termination in consumption, the unanimous opinions of several of my medical friends concurred with my own judgment, to induce me to avoid the vicissitudes of the approaching winter in our varying climate; and I felt compelled to make an effort, which to every appearance was to decide the event of my disease.
DISEASES AFFECTED BY THE CLIMATE. 57 St. Augustine in East Florida, was the place to which my views had been directed, and I arrived there soon after the commencement of the present year. A few days' residence convinced me of the efficacy of the climate in promoting my own health; and from the observations I was continually enabled to make, in re ference to the invalids who had resorted there, from motives similar to my own, I became assured of the ex cellent effects of the climate : and am fully satisfied, that although prudence would have dictated a removal two months earlier in the season, the present great improve ment of my health is to be attributed almost wholly to having substituted for the variations of our own latitude, the mildness of that favored region. St. Augustine is the most southern location on our extensive seaboard to which a valetudinarian can resort, with any prospect of obtaining the attentions and comforts requisite for the improvement of health. .< The climate of St. Augustine, seems peculiarly adapted to the improvement of patients with consumptive chronic affections of the lungs, asthma, spitting of blood, rheumatism, and dyspepsia. It is a fact worthy of re mark, that though it is universally acknowledged ;the advanced stages of pulmonary consumption are often beyond the power of medical skill to produce restoration, There are now points in South Florida in a tropical climate, where preparations are being made for the accommodation of invalid strangers. The banks of the Indian River, St. Lucia Sound, and the Miami, possess advantages over any other place in this country. 3*
58 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. yet most of those who resort to a change of climate for cure, reject the advantages to be derived from the removal, until the disease shall have made such exten sive ravages as to render hopeless every prospect of renovation. Many cases of this nature I had an opportunity of observing during the last winter; and, in some instances, the patients seemed to have hastened from their homes whilst the last glimmerings of life only remained. "The benefit of the climate of St. Augustine will be particularly evident in the incipient stages of those affections, for the cure of which it has been celebrated ; and those invalids who contemplate a removal thither, ought not to allow the commencement of winter to sur prise them whilst preparing for departure. The glowing, and even exaggerated reports of this climate, that have been given by some persons of lively imagination, have occasioned disappointment to a few whose expectations had been greatly excited. Never theless, I am persuaded, generally, a residence there during the winter season will contribute much to the advantage of every stage of pulmonary affections." Extracts from a Circular published in Philadelphia., 1830, by James Cox, M. P,
TEMPERATURE OF THE CITY* 59 TEMPERATURE. TABLES OP THE COMPARATIVE AND ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE OF THIS CITY. TABLE I. Exhibiting a Comparison between the Mean Temperature of ths most favorite Resorts for Health in other Countries and that of St. Augustine-~FahrenheiVs Thermometer. MIAN DIFFERENCE OF TBS SUCCESSIVE MONTHS. deg. Pisa, Nice, Rome, Penzance, Eng., Madeira, 5.75 4.74 439 3.5 2.41 St, Augustine, Flor., 3.55 MKA.N ANNUAL HANOI. Naples, Nice, Rome, Penzance, Madeira, St. Augustine, d*. 64 60 62 49 59 TABLE II. Exhibition of the Mean Temperature of each Month at St. Augustine, East FloridaYears 1825,1828,1830. January, February, March, April, May, June, ibition of the January, February, March, April, May, June, deg. 1 62.15 64.97 66,53 68.68 76.44 81.12 July, August, September, October, November, 1 December, TABLE III. deg. 82.36 82.68 77.55 73.61 67.47 61.31 Mean Annual Monthly Mange for the i Years. Annual range, 59. deg. 1 35 30 25 31 20 17 July, August, September, October, November, December, < deg. 14 12 14 22 22 36
ABSTRACT FOR ONE YEAR. From Meteorological Reports on file in the Surgeon General's Office. MONTHS. 1840. April, j May, June, 1 July, August, September, October, November, December, January, February, March, THERMOMETER. Highest o. 86 90 90 88 88 90 80 73 72 84 82 1 80 Lowest0. 68 65 70 72 72 72 62 44 46 38 32 48 Mean. 74.071 76.43 78.61 79.61 78.95 7865 75.88 64.40 61.51 66.13 63.18 67.19 Hotday. Mean T. 78 82 82 81+ 83 82 78 70 68 76 76 174+ Cold-I day. Mean T. 69 70 74--76+ 75+ 75+ 164 51 + 48 47+ 41+ |54+ June 16t h,1848. WINDS. [ fc d'ys. 1 8 1 5 | 2 *" 2 34 1 4 N.W. d'ys. _.. 34 -7 4 3* 3 d'ys. 3 3 7 1 H 13Jr 8 i 8 15* 3 U^ 1 4 | 4i W j (PysJ 4 7 2 13 54 9* 94 2 14 6 44 ^ 1 d'ys. 2 8 9 64 134 6 1 3 94 64 144 d'ys. 10 2 4 2 6 4 34 H 2 -S.W. d'ys. 2 6 3 1 4 1 -' .,. 13 1 1 9 1 541 4 I l i d'ys. 1 \ 3 84 34 2 4 34 14 WEATHER. [ '3 d'ys. 25 |26 25 26 204 194 244 18 15 244 254 1 24II26 Cl'dy, d'ys. 1 -5 104 104 64 12 16 64 24 5 Rain. d'ys. 4 5 5 : *** m d'ys. -, J "1 _" Rain. 1Inches. '3
ft*** 'V fpi^fF^ imrmmM xm:*w'..:":.* % > 3:M .--v^: ',' ;:: :W:!' '!*'# :* (!*;;s*
ADVANTAGES OF ACCOMMODATION. 61 ADVANTAGES OF ACCOMMODATION. The accommodations for invalids, in this city, are comparable with any that can be furnished in this region, and will be ample. There are four public houses, two of which, in regard to style, convenience, and comfort, will compare well with any like establishments. The Magnolia House," erected by B. E. Carr, is a spacious and attractive resort. Its style of architecture is neat; its grounds are laid out with taste ; its location is eligible. Its host was trained in one of the best establish ments of the city of New-York, and of course understands well how both to satisfy and please those who make his house the home of their sojourn. The Magnolia House, though recently opened for public accommodation, it has been found necessary considerably to enlarge. This work its enterprising proprietor is now engaged upon. It will be also modified so as to suit the convenience and meet the wants of the public, by affording many comforts and conveniences not generally attached to a hotel. Seven teen additional rooms, with a new and spacious dining hall, are to be added, which in many respects will make it one of the most desirable places of sojourn for families and travelers in this city, as well as for invalids. The Planters' Hotel is a spacious and convenient public house, well adapted to the accommodation of the public. This large establishment is to be opened the ensuing fall, under the supervision of its present proprie-
62 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. tor, Mr. Loring. The Florida House," on the side opposite, is a large, well-kept establishment, belonging to Mr. Cole ; the "City Hotel," under Mr. Bridier, is also open. There are several neat private residences, where strangers and sojourners can be accommodated, at rea sonable prices. The boarding establishment of Mrs. Reid is an attractive establishment, capable of accommodating many persons, both families and single. The residence of Mrs. Dr. Anderson is conspicuous on the avenue leading over the bridge near the St. Sebas tian River. It is built of the native coquina rock, and was embosomed in a grove of young orange trees, of which the decaying stumps and sickly shoots are all that remain, together with the hedge of Spanish bayonet, which inclosed it. These suffice to designate Markland," though shorn of its glorywhich is partially sup plied by a grove of olive trees now in bearing. Yallaha is the neat cottage residence of P. B. Dun-nas. It is the Indian word for orange. Yallaha is situ ated on the river St. Sebastian, and is distinguished for the beauty and healthfulness of its position, and also for the delicious strawberries which enrich its blushing gar dens in the month of March. It was in orange times the site of a beautiful and ex tensive grove of trees, variegated with green foliage and golden fruit and fragrant blossoms. It is the purpose of the proprietor to erect on his grounds commodious boarding establishments.
RECREATION AND AMUSEMENT. 63 RECREATION AND AMUSEMENT. This city contains a small circle of intelligent and cultivated society. It is not as yet deformed with the arts and moral conveniences of more fashionable circles, in the higher walks of life. It needs not the blandish mentsit dreads not the encroachments which, if tolera ted in higher circles, would dissipate the fictitious colors that glow to deceive around fashionable intercourse. Its very simplicity is at once its greatest charm and surest defence against impertinent intrusion. The city affords comfortable, if not elegant homes, to the invalid sojourner, both in public houses and private families, through which he will have a more or less direct connection with the avenues to the Anglo-American society. Excellent medical aid can here be commanded, from resident mem bers of the profession ; and the institutions of religion can be enjoyed under the several forms of the Episcopal, Presbyterian, Methodist, and Roman Catholic churches. The invalid will here find a home in his sojourn, where he will meet with some of the advantages which distin guish the more cultivated circles of northern society. The sportsman, with his line and gun, can satisfy his largest desires in the way of game and angling. The boatman has a spacious harbor and the broad Atlantic open to him for health and pleasure, though it must be confessed that good boats are in great demand without a supply. The active, agile Indian Pony," is a luxury to
64 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. those who seek health in horsemanship. In the neigh borhood, on the estate of Capt. Hanham, of the ordnance department, are springs, which are alleged to contain mineral waters; and to which invalids sometimes ride in a conveyance the proprietor has had fitted up, and runs for that purpose. And then pleasure excursions over the beach are frequent. A boatman with his crew are secured the day beforehand, a party having been made up for such an expedition. The boatman and crew are usually negroes. The party having provided themselves with a lunch, apparatus for making coffee, knives and forks, and other necessary and useful articles for an oyster pic-nic, embark in the morning. They wend their way across the harbor, de bark, and arrange matters so as that the scattered fragments of the expedition shall be gathered at the proper time and place, to partake of the refreshments, and then disperse,some for the light-house, and others for the quarrywhile the boat's crew are left to collect oysters, and gather fuel for the roast on the beach. When the repast has been finished, the party return, loaded with specimens of rocks and natural history, fatigued, indeed, but gratified and benefited. This ex cursion is both pleasant and useful; and should the resort to this watering place for health inprease as it has been doing, there doubtless will be afforded greater facilities for more extended and healthful water excur sions : such expeditions, whether for shell or fish, in this climate being healthful and pleasant. Ordinarily, ex-
BECREAT10N AND AMUSEMENT. 65 posure does not induce colds, and may be taken without risk. The moonlight walks, are truly delightful beyond description. Those who reside at the north, and have never beheld, can have no adequate conception of a moonlight scene on the coast of Florida. A recent writer thus speaks of it: The nocturnal aspect of the heavens differs from a northern one, in the same manner that two paintings may differ, the warmth and richness of the one contrasting with the coldness and poverty of the other." It is no unusual thing for ladies to appear abroad on the public promenade, in their light, loose, flowing dresses, without shawl or bonnet, with denuded neck and arms, till near midnight, and not suffer the least risk or inconvenience. Nature, in silence, ma jesty, and beauty, invites her children to enjoy her moonlight luxuries. She fans them with soft and fra grant breezes. She allures them into the open air, and charms them with the gorgeous magnificenceof the nocturnal scene, in which every object, earth, sea, and sky, are made to glow in rich and pure effulgence. Who can restrain himself from the enjoyment of health and exercise, amid such attractions? and that, too, without peril from evening dews and tainted atmos phere 1 The maiden and her lover, the matron and her spouse, the youth and children, alike participate in the enjoy ment of these natural luxuries; and make the welkin ring at midnight often, with the merry peal of joy and
66 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. life, or with the notes of music, accompanied with the soft mellifluous strains of the guitar and viol. There are various customs, relics of Popish supersti tion and Spanish practice, yet prevalent in the city. CARNIVAL. Carnival is here observed, though not with its ancient excess of folly. This is a religious festival, observed in Roman Catholic countries, as a season of feasting, by which another religious festival called Lent is introduced. It is usually celebrated by feasts, operas, balls, concerts, &e." In this city it is celebrated by masquerade dances by night, idle and frivolous street sport, in processions of vagrant men and boys, disguised in masks and grotesque array by daylight. A most ridiculous burlesque is exhibited in honor of St. Peter, the fisherman of Galilee, by which his pro fessional skill in the use of the net is attempted to be illustrated. This is the closing farce of the feast of car nival. The description of this, as it passed under the eye of the author at the very last carnival, may suffice to give a stranger some idea of its folly. As I passed along one of the narrow streets of the city, my attention was arrested by the various exclama tions and boisterous cries of a motley crowd of black and white, who thronged the street, occasionally surging to the right hand and left. I was at first at a loss to account for it. On a nearer approach, I perceived two half grown men heading a
SHERIVAREE. 67 rabble of boys and others, with the face masked and concealed, and the person attired in a coarse, shabby fisher's dress. Over the shoulder of each was flung a common Spanish net. Whenever a boy black or white came within range of a cast, the net was suddenly spread, and thrown over the lad's head so as to inclose his person. There was seldom more than one throw of the net; and if it were not successful, it was seldom repeated on the same individual. Thus the streets were beset till the farcethe solemn farcein illustra tion of the call of Peter to become a "fisher of men" was ended. SHERIVAREE. On an evening after the celebration of the nuptials of an inhabitant of the city, who has been before married, and thus emerges from a state of widowhood, the welkin is made to ring with a most discordant concert of voices, horns, tin pans, and other boisterous sounds. It is an excessively annoying exhibition, to say nothing of its ill-manners, and gross violation of the peace and good order of society. The whole city is usually dis turbed by such riot and confusion, as in any orderly community would consign the perpetrators to a guard house, or prison, till they had taken some practical lessons in decency. This is what is here termed Sherivaree. The residence of the newly married pair is beset by the rabble in some cases, till it is bought off with money, or whisky. There are some other customs and practices growing
68 SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. out of the foreign extraction of the city, and connected with religious festivals, and which are the relics of the past, that are now passing rapidly away. FACILITIES OF COMMUNICATION. There are two routes, by which invalid strangers from the north may reach this city. The one is direct by sea, from either Charleston or New-York; the other is by the inland steam and stage route. The former is occasional; the latter is always available, though there is some prospect that a direct communication will be opened, and sustained between this city and Charleston ere long. The voyage from New-York, by sailing or steampacket, through to Charleston or Savannah, is the most reliable and expeditious. Twice a week, steamboats connect between Savannah and the St. John's River, at Picolata. The distance from Picolata to St. Augustine, is over land, and about eighteen miles. This distance is overcome by stage-coach, and a new and convenient omnibus the present proprietor of the line, Mr. Bridier, has just had completed for that route. Passengers are met by these conveyances, and usually reach St. Augus tine by 4 o'clock P. M., and often about noon. There is an inland steam connection between Charleston, S. C, and Savannah, Ga., with which the Florida boats con nect twice in a week. The most expeditious and economical route to Florida is that by which the traveler takes passage direct from New-York to Savannah, where he will be received by
FACILITIES OF COMMUNICATION. 69 the steamer, with his baggage, and brought into Florida and landed within eighteen miles of St. Augustine; the distance to which, from Savannah, is 218 miles. The passage from Savannah, especially over the wa ters of the noble river of the St. John's, is pleasant and instructive. The lover of naturethe curious stranger may each be gratified. In passing along this route, the traveler will get a bird's-eye view of a conside rable portion of the southern country, on the seaboard. The plantationsmarshesand peculiar varieties of trees, among which the noted cabbage-tree will be con spicuous}creeksinletsand the various specimens of natural historythe alligatorand peculiar species of water-fowl met withand the various contrasts between northern and southern habits, as presented in agricultu ral lifewill be novelties, more or less interesting and instructive to the curious traveler. Many preju dices will be dissipatedmany errors will be corrected many contrasts will be presented. FINIS.
INDEX. INDEX TO SKETCHES OF ST. AUGUSTINE. Amelia Island, 36 Amusements, 63-66 Anastasia Island, 7, 37 Anderson, Andrew, 62 Apennines Mountains, 50 Army and Navy Chronicle, 49 Arsenal, United States, 17 Bancroft, George, 22-24 Brazas y Garay, Don Pedro de, 14-15 Bridier, Francis, 62, 68 Bucaniers, 28-31 Byrnes, Dr. Bernard, 50 Calvin, John, 20 Calvinism, 22 Cape Canaveral, 48 Cape Florida, 8, 49 Cape Hatteras, 8 Cape Sable, 49
2 INDEXES. Carib Indians, 29 Carlisle (Carleill), Capt. Christopher, 27 Carnival, 66-67 Carolina, 31-34, 36 Carr, B. E., 61 Castillo de San Marco (Fort Marion), 13-17, 20, 33-34, 37-38, 41, 43 Cathedral, 12 Catholic Church, 12, 19, 21, 24, 34-35, 63 Cemetery, National, 16 Charleston, 68 Cherokee Indians, 35 Chlorine, 53 Churches, 12; Catholic, 19, 21, 24, 34-35, 63; Episcopal, 12, 63; Methodist, 12, 42, 63; Presbyterian, 12, 42, 63 Citrus culture, 9, 11, 44-45 City gates, 34 City Hotel, 62 Climate, 45, 49-53, 56; meteorological chart, 60; tem perature chart, 59 Cohen, M. M., 28n Cole, Mr., 62 Coligni, Gaspard de, 20 Coppinger, Gov. Jose, 16 Coquina, 7-8, 10, 13, 62 Cox, Dr. James, 58 Cuba, 26, 29, 42, 50 Dade, Major Francis, 16 Daniel, Col. Robert, 32-33 Davis (Searles), Robert, 28, 30 Defender of the Faith, 31 Diseases, 50; asthma, 54-55; bronchitis, 54; pulmonary, 50, 56; rheumatism, 55; rubeola, 55; scarlatina, 55
INDEXES. 3 Drake, Sir Francis, 26-27 Dungeon, 14 Dunnas, P. B., 62 East Florida, 7, 23, 37, 42, 45; climate, 50-53, 57 Elizabeth of England, 27 England, 27, 28, 31-33, 41 Enterprise, 50 Episcopal Church, 12, 63 Ferdinand VI, 14-15 Fernandos de Herida, Don Alonzo, 14-15 Florida purchase, 41 Florida Herald (St. Augustine), 51 Florida House, 62 Florida Keys, 28, 30 Forry, Dr. Samuel, 49-50, 54 Fort Caroline, 20-21 Fort Diego, 37 Fort Marion (Castillo de San Marcos), 13-17, 20, 33-34, 37-38, 41, 43 Fort Mosa, 37 France, 20, 24, 25, 28, 50 Franciscans, 26 Freeze of 1835, 44-45 Fruit culture, 45-48 Galilee, 66 Georgia, 32, 34-35; invasion of, 38-39 Gourgas (Gourgues), Dominique de, 24-25 Government House, 12, 42 Great Britain, 39 Gulf Stream, 52
4 INDEXES. Hanham, Capt. James R., 42 Health, 9 Highlanders, 36-37, 39 Holland, 18, 28 Hotels and rooming houses, 61-62 Huguenots, 19-25; Fort Caroline, 20-23; Ribault massacre, 23-24 Indian River, 46, 57 Indians, 16, 28, 32-33, 35, 37-39; Cherokees, 35; Semi-noles, 16; Yamassee, 35 Italy, 50 Jackson, Andrew, 41-42 Jesuits, 19, 35 Jura Mountains, 50 Key West, 50 Landonnier (Laudonniere), Rene de, 20 Lent, 66 Lighthouse, 8 Loring, Mr., 62 Magnolia House, 12, 61 Markland estate, 62 Mary, Virgin, 34 Matanzas Inlet, 23 Matanzas River, 7 Melendez (Menendez) de Aviles, Pedro, 18-24, 31 Methodist Church, 12, 43, 63 Mexico, 29 Minorcans, 39-41 Moore, Governor James, 32-34
INDEXES. 5 National Intelligencer, 50-51 Navy, United States, 30 Negroes, 14, 19, 33, 35, 64 New World, 31 New York City, 10, 61, 68 North City, 10 North River, 7 Nostra Seniora de Lache (La Leche), 34 Oglethorp, Gov. James, invasion of Florida, 35-38 Orange, Prince of, 27 Orange culture, 9, 11, 44-48, 62 Osceola, 16 Palbicier (Pellicer), Francisco, 40 Palmer, Col. John, 34-35, 37-38 Papacy, 18-20, 31, 43, 48 Peace of Paris (1763), 39 Philadelphia, 58 Philip II, 18 Picolata, 68 Pineapple culture, 45-48 Piracy, 28-31 Planters' Hotel, 61 Plaza de la Constitution, 12 Point Quartele, 37 Presbyterian Church, 12, 42, 63 Priben (Priber), Christian, 35 Protestantism, 19-32, 39, 42-43 Pulmonary diseases, 50, 56 Puritan, 25 Recreation, 63-66; beach excursions, 64; boating, 63-64; fishing, 63; hunting, 63; riding, 63-64; walks, 65
6 INDEXES. Reid, Mrs. Martha M., 62 Ribaut (Ribault), Jean, 20 Rome, 31 St. Augustine, 20; appearance, 11-12; buildings, 10; cli mate, 59-60; description, 9-11; history, 18-39; loca tion, 7; public places, 12-13; public works, 13-17 St. Francis Barracks, 13, 16, 26 St. Johns River, 19-22, 25, 68-69 St. Lucie River, 45 St. Lucie Sound, 45-46, 57 St. Peter, 66-67 St. Sebastian River, 7-9, 62 Savannah, 68-69 Scotland, 30 Sea wall, 13 Sherivaree, 67-68 Slavery, 14, 19, 33, 35 Smyrna, 4 Soda, 53 Soil, 8 South Florida, 45-48 Spain, 17-18, 20-21, 27, 29, 31-32, 39 Spanish America, 18 Sprague, John T., 17 Stephen, William B 36n Suwannee, River, 51 Thompson, Gen. Wiley, 16 Tortuga Island, 30 Transportation, 68-69 Tropic of Cancer, 49 Turnbull, Dr. Andrew, 40
INDEXES. 7 Vegetable farming, 46 Vegetation, 9 Wardeman (Wurdeman), Dr. J. G. F., 50 Weather, 8-9, 45, 49-53, 56, 59-60 West Florida, 41 West Indies, 28, 30, 50 Williams, John Lee, 14-15, 23 Yallaha, 62 INDEX TO INTRODUCTION. Adams-Onis Treaty, xxx Alabama, xlix Ancient Dominions of Maine, 1 Anderson, Mrs. Andrew, xxxvi Army, United States, xxxv Bancroft, George, xxxviii, xl, xliii-xlv Bangor Theological Seminary, xvii Barnes, Emeline M., li Bay Colony, xvi Beeson, Kenneth, Jr., xxvii Bowdoin College, xvii Burlington, Maine, xviii Bushnell, Florida, xxxiii Calvinists, xx Carr, B. E., xxiii, xxvi, xxxiv Cass, Lewis, xxxiv Castillo de San Marcos, xxxiii-xxxiv
8 INDEXES. Catholicism, xx-xxii, xxviii-xxx, xxix, xlii, xlv, xlvii-xlviii, li Catts, Sidney J., li Cemetery, National, xxxiii Charles IX, xlviii Citrus, xxxi-xxxii Civil War, xxxii, li Climate, xxxvi Cohen, M. M., xlvi Coligny, Gaspard de, xlii Congregational Church, xviii, xxi Congress, xxix Conquistadores, xl Courey, Henri de La Roche-Heron, xlviii-xlix Dade, Major Francis, xxxii Dutch, xli East Florida, xix, xxix, xxxi Edgecomb, Maine, xvi, xvii Egypt, xxxv England, xxxix English, xxxii, xli, xlv, xlvi, xlix Episcopal Church, xxx Fairbanks, George R., xxxi Farmington, Maine, xvii Feuilleton du Journal de Quibec, xlvii Fiske, John, xl Flagler, Henry M., xxxv, xxxvi Florida House Hotel, xxxiv-xxxv Florida National Guard, xxxiii Fort Caroline, xlii, xliv, xlv, xlviii Fort Marion, xxxiv
INDEXES. 9 Fort Pierce, xxxii Franciscans, xxxii, xlv, xlix French, xl-xlii, xlvi, xlviii, xlix Georgia, xvii, xxix, xlvi Georgia Presbytery, xix, xxviii Gourgues, Dominique de, xlviii Greeks, xx Hakluyt, Richard, xlv Hanson, Anna Elizabeth, xvii Hanson, James, xvii History and Antiquities of the City of St. Augustine, xxxi History of the United States, xxxviii, xliii, xlv Hotels, xxxiv-xxxvi Huguenots, xlii, xlviii Indian River, xxxii Indians, xxxiii, xl, xliii, xlv, xlvi, xlix Irish, xxi Italians, xx Jacksonville, xix Jamestown, xxviii Jesuits, xxx, xlvi Jones, Gharles C., xix Key West, xxx Las Casas, Bartolome de, xl, xli Laudonniere, Ren6 de, xlv Loring, William Wing, xxxv Madeore, Benedict, xxix-xxx
10 INDEXES. Magnolia Hotel, xxiii, xxxiv-xxxv Maine, 1 Maine Historical Society, 1 Mallory, Stephen R., xxx Maria Sanchez Creek, xxxvi Marion, Francis, xxxiv Markland, xxxvi Massachusetts, xvi, xvii, xli Menendez de Aviles, Pedro, xliii-xlv, xlviii Mexican War, xxxv Minorcans, xx, xxv-xxvii, xlvii Mobile, Alabama, xlix Monastery, Franciscan, xxxii Moore, James, xlv Motley, John Lothrop, xl Negroes, xx, xxv, xxvii Nether Eatendon, Warwickshire, xvi New England, xvi, xix, xxxix, xlix, 1 New Smyrna, xx, xxvi, xxvii New York, xxiii, xxxiv North Beach, xxii North City, xxxiii North Florida, xxxi Notices of Florida, xlvi Ocala, Florida, xxxiii Oglethorpe, James, xlvi Parkman, Francis, xl Philadelphia, xxiv, xxviii Philip II, xxxix, xliv Picolata, Florida, xxxiii Pineapple, xxxii, xlix
INDEXES. 11 Pioneers of France in the New World, xl Planters' Hotel, xxxv Presbyterian Church, xviii, xxii Prescott, William H., xl Priber, Christian Gottlieb, xlvi-xlvii Puritans, xvi, xxi, xli Putnam, G. P., xxiii Reid, Mrs. Martha M., xxxv-xxxvi Reid, Governor Robert R., xxxvi Ribault, Jean, xliv St. Augustine Herald, xxiii, xiv, xxvi, xxxvi St. Francis Barracks, xxxii St. George Street, xviii, xxxv St. Johns River, xxxiii, xlii St. Lucie Inlet, xxiii, xxxii, 1 Salem, Massachusetts, xviii San Mateo, xlviii Saswald, xvi Second Seminole War, xxxiii Sewall, Anna Cook, 1 Sewall, Anna Hanson, xxiv, xxxii, 1 Sewall, Emeline B., li Sewall, General Henry, xvi Sewall, Henry Edwin, 1 Sewall, Kiah B., xlix Sewall, Phoebe, xvii Sewall, Rufus King: early life, xvi-xviii; in St. Augustine, xviii-xxiii; writes Sketches of St. Augustine, xxiii; controversy over book, xxiv-xxvii; in Philadelphia, xxviii-xxx; returns to Florida, xlix; later life, xlix-li Sewall, Samuel, Chief Justice, xvi Sewall, Rev. Samuel, xvi
12 INDEXES. Sewall's Point, 1 South Florida, xxxvi Spain, xxxix Taylor, Zachary, xxxv Territory of Florida, xxvi, xxxviii, xlv Turnbull, Dr. Andrew, xxvii Trask, Abigail, xvi University of Florida, xvi Vermont, xvii Whitehurst, Dr. D. W., xvii Williams, John Lee, xxvi, xxvii, xxviii, xlv Wiscasset, Maine, xlix, li Yonge, Julien C, xv Yonge, P. K., Library of Florida History, xv
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