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Some characteristics of persistent and nonpersistent students

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Title:
Some characteristics of persistent and nonpersistent students who enrolled voluntarily in a developmental reading program at the University of Florida
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Parham, Jo Ann Walton
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English
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xiv, 112 leaves : ; 28cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Curriculum and Instruction thesis Ed. D
Developmental reading ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Curriculum and Instruction -- UF
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ed. D.)--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 103-110.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jo Ann Walton Parham.

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SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSISTENT AND NONPERSISTENT STUDENTS WHO ENROLLED VOLUNTARILY IN A DEVELOPMENTAL READING PROGRAM
AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA







By

JO ANN WALTON PARHAM


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1975




































Copyright
by
Jo Ann Walton Parham
1975















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The writer is deeply grateful for the excellent support

which has been provided by many people during the time of this study and the preparation of this manuscript. She wishes to express a special and genuine appreciation to the following people:

To her Chairperson, Dr. Ruthellen Crews for her friendship, understanding, and support, her continuous leadership as she gave direction for the study, and the hours of time spent to help clarify it.

To Dr. A. Garr Cranney for graciously making available

much of the necessary data for the study, lending the support of his staff, and directing the writer to many important sources of information.

To Dr. Vynce Hines for giving valuable help in the area

of statistical procedures for this research and helping in the details of expression.

To Dr. Art Lewis for giving assistance in the preparation of this work and being supportive throughout her graduate studies.


iii








To Mrs. Arden Goettling for typing the manuscript and providing valuable ideas and suggestions during the entire time of preparation.

To her husband, Bob Parham for providing unwaivering and unconditional loving support and encouragement throughout her graduate studies, doing the extras to make time available, understanding the frustrations and difficulties, and having a loyal and consistent belief in the possibility of success.

To her children, Robert, Sam, Terry, Danny, and Cindy

for occasionally having to accept a part-time mother yet continuing to have empathy in difficult times and joy in times of progress, being willing to assume extra responsibilities at home, and having a continuous interest in the project.

To her parents, S. Rix and Willie Mae Hugghins Walton for helping create the desire to develop potentials by assuming that their daughter would and for understanding the demands on her time and energies.


iv
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

Acknowledgments........................................... iii

List of Tables........................................... viii

List of Figures........................................... xi

Abstract............................................... xii

Chapter

I Introduction to the Study......................... 1

Statement of the Problem........................ 2

Limitations of the Study........................ 2

Justification for the Study..................... 3

Definition of Terms............................ 5

Statement of Hypotheses........................ 6

Procedures...................................... 6

Sample........................................ 7

Data Collection.............................. 8

Data Treatment............................... 8

Organization of the Study....................... 11

II A Review of the Related Literature............. 13

College Reading Programs and Academic Success 14


v









Chapter II Page

College Reading Programs and Attrition....... 19

Voluntary Versus Mandatory Attendance in a
College Reading Program......................... 25

College Reading Programs and Personality..... 29

III Presentation of the Data......................... 36

The Locale...................................... 36

A Short History of the RSSC.................. 37

The RSSC at the Time of This Study......... 40

Description of the Sample...................... 43

Identification of Persistent Students and
Nonpersistent Students....................... 43

Cumulative Grade-Point Averages (GPA)........ 44 Sex of the Subjects............................ 47

The Test Instruments........................... 47

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)......... 48

McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading
Test (MHRT)................................... 49

School and College Ability Test, Series II
(SCAT)........................................ 52

The Test Scores................................ 54

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)......... 54

McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading
Test (MHRT)................................... 55

School and College Ability Test, Series II
(SCAT)........................................ 64

Reading Instructional Programs................. 67

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Chapter Page

IV Analyses of Data................................. 70

The Relationship Between Persistence and Each
Variable of the Study........................... 71

Summary of Analyses............................ 86

V Conclusions and Implications..................... 87

Summary...................................... 87

Findings........................................ 90

Implications for College Reading Programs.... 93 Recommendations for Further Research......... 96 Appendix A Services, Activities, and Functions uf the
University of Florida's Reading and Study
Skills Center................................ 99

Appendix B Summary Table for Grade-Point Average (GPA)
Means......................................... 101

List of References....................................... 103

Biographical Sketch.................................... 111


vii















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Distributions of Cumulative Grade-Point Averages
(GPA) of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for Fall Ouarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter,
1975, Excluding Summer Ouarter, 1973, and Summer
Quarter, 1974........................................ 46

2 Distributions of Sex of Subjects in the Persistent
and Nonpersistent Subgroups......................... 47

3 Distributions of MBTI Personality Preferences of
Persistent and Nonpersistent Students............. 54

4 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent
Students for Reading Rate 1 and Reading Rate 2
for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT.............. 56

5 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent
Students for Flexibility for the Entrance Raw
Scores for MHRT...................................... 57

6 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent
Students for Retention for Reading Rate 1 and Retention for Reading Rate 2 for the Entrance
Raw Scores for MHRT................................ 58

7 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent
Students for Article Comprehension, Skimming and
Scanning, and Paragraph Comprehension for the
Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT......................... 59

8 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent
Students for Total Comprehension for the Entrance
Raw Scores for MHRT................................. 61


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Table


9 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for the Verbal Subtest and the
Ouantitative Subtest for the Entrance Raw
Scores for SCAT...................................... 65

10 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent
Students for the Entrance Raw Scores for the
Total Test for SCAT................................. 67

11 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent
Students for the Initial Selection of the
Type(s) of Program Requested........................ 68

12 Summary of Analysis of Variance for GPA Means
for the Persistent Students and the Nonpersistent
Students for Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter
Ouarter, 1975, Excluding Summer Ouarter, 1973,
and Summer Quarter, 1974............................ 73

13 A Comparison of Males and Females in the
Persistent and the Nonpersistent Subgroups........ 75

14 A Comparison of the Preferences of Extroversion
or Introversion, Sensing or Intuition, Thinking
or Feeling, and Judging or Perceiving on MBTI for Persistent Students and for Nonpersistent
Students............................................. 76

15 Analysis of Reading Rate 1 for the Entrance Raw
Scores for MHRT for Persistent Students and
Nonpersistent Students............................... 78

16 Analysis of Reading Rate 2 for the Entrance Raw
Scores for MHRT for Persistent Students and
Nonpersistent Students.............................. 78

17 Analysis of Flexibility for the Entrance Raw Scores
for MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent
Students............................................. 79

18 Analysis of Retention for Reading Rate 1 for the
Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent
Students and Nonpersistent Students................. 79


ix


Page









Table


19 Analysis of Retention for Reading Rate 2 for the
Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent
Students and Nonpersistent Students................. 80

20 Analysis of Article Comprehension for the Entrance
Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent Students and
Nonpersistent Students.............................. 80

21 Analysis of Skimming and Scanning for the Entrance
Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent Students and
Nonpersistent Students.............................. 81

22 Analysis of Paragraph Comprehension for the
Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent
Students and Nonpersistent Students................. 81

23 Analysis of Total Comprehension for the Entrance
Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent Students and
Nonpersistent Students............................... 82

24 Analysis of the Verbal Subtest, Quantitative
Subtest, and Total Test for the Entrance Raw
Scores for SCAT for Persistent Students and
Nonpersistent Students............................. 83

25 Analysis of the Type of Program Initially
Selected--Reading Rate, Comprehension, Study
Skills, or a Combination--by Persistent Students
and Nonpersistent Students.......................... 85


x


Page















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1 A comparison of GPA means of the persistent
students and the nonpersistent students for Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter Ouarter,
1975, exluding Summer Quarter, 1973, and
Summer Quarter, 1974................................ 74


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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education


SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSISTENT AND NONPERSISTENT STUDENTS WHO ENROLLED VOLUNTARILY IN A DEVELOPMENTAL READING PROGRAM
AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

By

Jo Ann Walton Parham

December, 1975

Chairperson: Ruthellen Crews
Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction


The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between persistence in participating in a college voluntary, noncredit developmental reading program and change in academic achievement as measured by grade-point average (GPA), sex of student, personality type as measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), entrance reading proficiency as measured by McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test (MHRT), entrance general scholastic ability as measured by School and CollegE Ability Test (SCAT), and the type of program initially selected by the student.

The study was limited to 70 randomly selected University of Florida freshman students who enrolled in the Reading and Study Skills Center (RSSC) during the fall quarter of the 19721973 academic school year. For the purposes of this study,


xii








students were identified as persistent and nonpersistent according to the total number of hours of participation in the RSSC. The 32 persistent students were ones who attended the RSSC for at least a total of nine hours, while the 38 nonpersistent students were those who had attended the RSSC for a total of eight or fewer hours.

Three statistical analyses were computed on the data collected. The split-plot design was used to compute the analysis of variance for unweighted means to compare GPA means for the two subgroups. A line graph showing the difference between GPA means for the persistent students and the nonpersistent students was also made. The chi square was performed on the data concerning the sex of student, the personality type preferences ofExtroversion or Introversion, Sensing or Intuition, Thinking or Feeling, and Judging or Perceiving as measured by MBTI, and the student's initial program selection of reading rate, comprehension, study skills, or a combination of programs. A t test for group mean differences was used to determine differences between reading proficiency as measured by the raw scores of the subtests of MHRT. The subtests included Reading Rate 1, Reading Rate 2, Flexibility, Retention for Reading Rate 1, Retention for Reading Rate 2, Article Comprehension, Skimming and Scanning, Paragraph Comprehension, and Total Comprehension. A t test was also performed to describe xiii








group differences between persistent and nonpersistent students for entrance general scholastic ability as measured by the verbal, quantitative, and total raw scores of SCAT.

On the basis of the observed results from the various statistical analyses, the conclusion was made that for this sample there was no significant difference between persistent students and nonpersistent students who voluntarily enrolled in a noncredit developmental reading program and any of the six variables tested.














CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY


One of the greatest needs among students who enroll in postsecondary education is instruction in reading and study skills. As a result, Lhe number of developmental reading programs has rapidly increased in both universities and junior colleges. According to a survey (Devirian, Enright, and Smith, 1975a) of the accredited colleges and universities listed in the Educational Directory for the academic years 1972-1973 and 19731974, of the 1,258 institutions which responded, 61 percent reported that their institutions had a learning study skills program and another 9.3 percent indicated plans to develop such a center within the next two years. Many of these are free, voluntary, noncredit programs. A large number do not give grades, and allow students to discontinue at any time.

Generally, it is expected that participation in a collegelevel developmental reading program will result in improvement in academic success. Furthermore, one might expect that the level of persistence in using such volunteer services would


1.






2

have some effect on results. At the present time data to support these expectations are minimal.


Statement of the Problem

The problem in this study is directed toward answering

the following question. What is the relationship between the level of persistence in participating in a voluntary, noncredit college developmental reading program and these variables:

1. Change in academic achievement as measured by
grade-point average (GPA);

2. Sex of student;

3. Personality type as measured by the Myers-Briggs
Type Indicator (MBTI);

4. Entrance reading performance as measured by the
McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test (MHRT);

5. Entrance general ability as measured by the School
and College Ability Test (SCAT); and

6. Type of program initially selected by the student.


Limitations of the Study

This study was limited to 70 University of Florida freshman students who voluntarily enrolled in the University's noncredit developmental reading program provided at the Reading and Study Skills Center (RSSC) during the fall quarter of their 1972-1973 academic school year. Of these students, 32 were identified as persistent and 38 were identified as nonpersistent.

This research was concerned only with identifying certain






3

specified characteristics which might be related to the persistence and the nonpersistence of participation in the RSSC by these students. The characteristics considered and analyzed in this study were limited to GPA; sex; personality type as measured by the MBTI; reading proficiency as measured by the entrance scores on the MHRT; general ability as measured by the entrance scores on the SCAT; and the type of program initially selected by the student.

The extent to which the findings in this study can be generalized to the populations enrolled in similar reading and study skills programs at other universities is limited because the sample population was taken from one specific university and gave consideration to the data collected from those students.


Justification for the Study

There is national concern for the improvement of reading at all levels; therefore, the results of university reading programs are of importance. The research reviewed relating to this study points uut some positive results of participation in a developmental reading program on grade-point average; consequently, it would also be expected that persistence in such a service would cause even greater improvements. However, little has been done to investigate the specific effects that persistence in participating in such a program might have on improvement in GPA.






4

Furthermore, additional study is needed to determine the reason(s) students are willing to persist or not to do so in their attendance in programs which offer no credit for the time and effort expended. It might be expected that certain personal characteristics of students would influence their levels of persistence.

Devirian et al. (1975b)have indicated that college reading and study skills programs and/or centers are relatively new in institutions of higher education and that during the past few years they have experienced phenomenal growth. They reported that 57 percent of the centers were started after 1970 and that only 9 percent were in existence prior to 1960. This increased concern about providing students with facilities to help them improve their reading and study skills indicates a need to seek ways of making such programs as effective as possible. When a developmental program is voluntary, student motivation becomes vital to its success. Therefore, more information about the characteristics of participating students is needed in order to help directors of such programs make the necessary adjustments in each student's program to insure that the length of time the student participates is most beneficial and that the student is indeed persistent to the point of reaching his/her potential for academic success.

The present economic conditions in this country and a






5


declining enrollment in many colleges and universities point

to the need for a careful evaluation of all programs in higher

education. Because most developmental reading services offered

by four-year institutions of higher education are voluntary,

participation in them especially needs to be studied. It was

expected that this study would result in findings which would

give added support so such services.


Definition of Terms

The following definition of terms is provided to clarify

the concepts as they were used in this study:

A developmental reading program (DRP) was defined as one where provisions were made available by the university to help students make improvement in such skills as reading rate, comprehension, and study skills. In this study such a program was provided at the Reading and Study Skills Center (RSSC) at the University of Florida.

A voluntary program was one offered by an institution which was noncredit and required no additional fees, and in which the student freely selected to or not to enroll. The student determined the length and number of times to participate and could enter and discontinue at any time. The student also had some input into determining the type of program to be pursued.

Persistent students were identified, in this study, as those students who attended the DRP (RSSC) for at least a total of nine hours.

Nonpersistent students were identified, in this study, as those students who attended the DRP (RSSC) for a total of eight or fewer hours.






6


Statement of Hypotheses

This study investigated the following null hypotheses:

Hypothesis 1. There will be no significant difference in change in grade-point average between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida.

Hypothesis 2. There will be no significant difference in the number of males and in the number of females between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida.

Hypothesis 3. There will be no significant difference in personality type as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida.

Hypothesis 4. There will be no significant difference in entrance reading performance as measured by each of the subtest scores on the McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida.

Hypothesis 5. There will be no significant difference in general ability as measured by the entrance scores on the School and College Ability Test between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida.

Hypothesis 6. There will be no significant difference in the type of reading program initially selected--reading rate, comprehension, study skills, or a combination of programs--between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida.


Procedures

Seeking an answer to the question posed in this study, the






7

following procedures were used in the collection and analyses of data:

Permission was requested and approval was granted from the University of Florida College of Education Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to use the necessary data on each subject for this study.

Permission was secured from the Registrar's Office,

University of Florida, to use the data concerning grade-point averages for each quarter from Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975, for the 1972-1973 freshman students used in this study.

Permission was secured from Dr. A. G. Cranney, the Director of the Reading and Study Skills Center (RSSC) at the University of Florida, to use the data available on the 1972-1973 freshman students who attended the RSSC during their Fall Quarter, 1972.

Sample

University of Florida freshman students from the 19721973 academic year who voluntarily went to the RSSC during their fall quarter were identified from the records available. These students had been tested, counseled, and given a program of work to follow in the laboratory. Randomization was used to select 70 of these students to be used in this study. From this sample, two subgroups were selected. One subgroup consisted






8

of those students who were considered persistent and the other subgroup consisted of those students who were considered nonpersistent. Persistent students were identified, for purposes of this study, as those who attended the RSSC at least a total of nine hours. Nonpersistent students were identified, for the purposes of this study, as those who attended the RSSC for a total of eight or fewer hours. Data Collection

From the Registrar's Office, University of Florida, each student's total grade points earned and total hours carried for grade points for each quarter from Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975, were obtained and used to determine each student's GPA.

The following data available from the RSSC were also used:

1. Sex of student;

2. Results on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator;

3. Entrance scores for the subtests of the McCraw-Hill
Basic Skills System Reading Test;

4. Entrance scores for verbal, quantitative, and total
performance on the School and College Ability Test;
and

5. Type of program initially selected by each student
(i.e., reading rate, comprehension, study skills,
or a combination of programs) when enrolling at the
RSSC.

Data Treatment

The above data were analyzed to determine what significant






9

relationship(s) existed between each of them and those students who were persistent and those students who were nonpersistent in their participation in the voluntary developmental reading program offered at the RSSC. The statistical methods used to analyze the data were determined.by the nature of the data available and the types of information sought.

A comparison was made of the GPA means of subjects in

this study to determine whether these averages showed gains, remained the same, or showed losses for persistent students and for nonpersistent students. Scores for the GPA for each quarter from Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975, were analyzed using the split-plot design, as recommended by Kirk (1968), to compute an analysis of variance to determine if significant Fs occurred. Significant changes in GPA means were checked at the .05 level of confidence. Summer Quarter, 1973, and Summer Quarter, 1974, were not computed in this analysis because many of the students in the sample population did not attend the summer sessions. This comparison was made in an attempt to determine if there was any difference between GPA and the amount of participation in a developmental reading program. From the obtained GPA means for the persistent students and for the nonpersistent students a line graph was designed to compare the GPA means for the two subgroups each quarter considered in the study.






10

The study also attempted to determine if the sex of the students was associated with persistence and nonpersistence among those students who attended the RSSC by comparing the number of male students and the number of female students in the persistent subgroup with the nonpersistent subgroup. The chi square was used to analyze this association.

The results of each student's self-report of preferences on the MBTI questionnaire were used to determine personality type. For this part of the study an analysis was made of the four categories of the basic preferences. These data were investigated to see if there was a relationship between persistence of these students and each of the following indices: Extroversion or Introversion, Sensing or Intuition, Thinking or Feeling, and Judging or Perceiving. Each pair of personality preferences was analyzed by the use of the chi square.

The student's entrance subtest raw scores on the MHRT were studied to determine if there was a difference between any of those scores and persistence in the participation of students in the RSSC. These subtests included: Reading Rate 1, Reading Rate 2, Flexibility, Retention for Reading Rate 1, Retention for Reading Rate 2, Article Comprehension, Skimming and Scanning, Paragraph Comprehension, and Total Comprehension. The raw scores from these subtests were analyzed by the use of the t test.






11

Entrance results for the verbal, quantitative, and total raw scores of the SCAT were analyzed to determine if there was a difference between any of those scores and persistence in the participation of students in the RSSC. These scores were analyzed by the use of the t test.

The student's perception of his/her individual reading improvement needs, to be met through participation in a program of work at the RSSC, was determined by his/her initial selection of a type(s) of program. The type of program included programs to help improve the student's skills in reading rate, comprehension, study skills, or a combination of these. An analysis was made to see if there was a difference between the type of program initially selected by students and persistence or nonpersistence in participation in the RSSC. These program selections were analyzed by the use of the chi square.

The above data were studied in an attempt to identify

some of the characteristics of persistent students and of nonpersistent students who voluntarily participated in a developmental reading program at the University of Florida.


Organization of the Study

This research report will be presented in five chapters. The first serves as an introduction to the study and briefly describes the procedures for the study.






12

Chapter II contains a review of selected literature and research that is related to the topic of the study. This review led to the formulation of the hypotheses.

The third chapter presents the data derived from the study.

The analyses of the data collected and the conclusions

drawn in relation to the stated hypotheses are contained in the fourth chapter.

The fifth chapter summarizes the study and presents

specific recommendations based on the findings of this study.

A bibliography and appendices are included.















CHAPTER II


A REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE


This review of selected literature and research concentrates primarily on the relationship(s) between a developmental reading program (DRP) and the variables included in this study. Specifically, the review focuses on grade-point average (GPA), attrition rate, the values of voluntary and mandatory DRPs, and personality factors. These studies provided a basis for the hypotheses posed.

A major assumption underlying the need to provide a

college developmental reading program is that participation in such a program will result in increased academic achievement. Since this achievement is generally measured by an increase in GPA, literature which discusses GPA as related to DRP participation will be reviewed. If participation in a DRP positively influences GPA it might be expected that the amount of participation in such a program would result in differing amounts of change in GPA. Furthermore, it should be recognized that in a voluntary DRP the enrollment and persistence in the program are not necessarily synonymous.

13






14

Therefore, literature concerned with factors related to attrition will be considered.

In addition, voluntary and mandatory participation in a DRP may result in positive or negative results, or not influence results. To help determine what effects self-referral or forced attendance in a service such as this will produce, a review of studies relating to voluntary and mandatory participation in a reading and study skills program will be analyzed.

For many years educators, psychologists, and others have

been interested in the relationship(s), if any, between personality and learning. Studies have been made in an attempt to determine which personality types might be related to learning superiority and learning disability. Recognizing that reading is a vital part of the total learning process, particularly for students in institutions of higher education, a review of the literature which deals with the. relationship between reading and personality will be included.


College Reading Programs and Academic Success

Numerous studies have been carried out which have attempted to identify the relationship between college reading improvement programs and grade-point average changes. One of the most recent studies reported was done at the University of Florida. Using the scores from the Florida State-Wide Twelfth Grade Test as her criterion for comparison, Burgess (1975) found that the 1972






15

freshman students used in her study who voluntarily enrolled in the Reading and Study Skills Center, University of Florida, and other freshman students at the same school had similar initial ability. She further reported that the participants in the RSSC showed significant GPA gains over the total freshman class at the end of the first term of the freshman year. After two years, these RSSC participants continued to have GPAs above those of the total junior class but not at the .01 level of significance.

The majority of the studies concerning the relationship(s) between GPA and reading improvement and study skills programs have been reported in summary by Entwisle (1960), Fairbanks (1974a, 1974b), and Tillman (1972, 1972-1973). The findings of these three summaries of the research overlap by reporting many of the same studies. However, attention will be given to the findings of all three researchers.

The effects of 22 study skills improvement programs upon GPA were analyzed by Entwisle (1960). The size of GPA changes for each study was reported and discussed, but the following general statement seems to summarize her conclusions about such programs: "Some kind of improvement following a study-skills course seems to be the rule, although the improvement varies from a very slight amount to a considerable amount" (p. 248).

Tillman (1972-1973) compiled an annotated review of 31






16

studies which were carried out from 1945 through 1971 dealing with this relationship. He stated that "although 23 of the 31 studies found that statistically significant gain in grade-point average was associated with participation in a reading program, grade gains tended to be practically small" (p. 100). It was recommended that criteria in addition to overall GPA be used to evaluate these reading programs. In another publication, Tillman (1972) reported that some of the studies analyzed used attrition as part of the investigation and some used type of course and grades of specific courses. In this report he stated, "Eight of the thirty-three studies were negative in the sense that CPA was not associated with reading improvement" (p. 209).

The most recent and probably the most thorough report compiling studies concerning the relationship between GPA and participation in reading and study skills programs has been done by Fairbanks (1974a, 1974b). She examined 87 college-level reading-study skills programs which were reported from 1930 through 1974. Her criterion for evaluating the program effect on academic achievement was overall CPA. The results of her study identified 34 programs in which the experimental group made greater overall CPA gains than the control group at the .05 level of significance or above; 20 programs showed a tendency for greater CPA gains by the developmental reading program participants but not at the .05 level of significance; 19 programs






17

were reported as successful but were "unsubstantiated" because of a lack of adequate evidence; and 14 programs were considered unsuccessful. However, her definition of unsuccessful did not mean only that the control group made greater GPA improvement than the experimental group. It also included studies that did not indicate an advantage for the participating group for overall GPA.

A summary of the literature reviewed concerning GPA and DRP association generally supports the value of a reading/ study skills program when it is evaluated on the basis of GPA gains. However, several authors suggested that GPA gains should not be the only criterion used when evaluating the value of such services (Reed, 1956; Regensburg, 1966; Tillman, 1972, 1972-1973).

Although it is expected that overall GPA gains are of concern to DRP participants and to directors of reading and study skills programs, some studies have also suggested that research results concerning the permanency of reading and study skills gains and GPA gains related to DRP participation are necessary when evaluating these programs. Furthermore, it is important to know whether or not students participating in such programs might benefit more in certain types of academic curricula than in others. Literature relating to these factors will be considered.

O'Bear (1954) observed that remedial student achievement

tended to be higher during the semester of participation in the






18

course. Sternitzke (1957) found that after a year's time, grades did not show any improvement as a result of reading and study habit training. But in his study of a junior college, Freer (1965) reported that GPA gains were significantly higher for the participating group and that gains in reading scores tended to be retained for at least a year after the specialized instruction. Rate retention and improvement were observed after five semesters, according to Payne (1971). Although he recognized that gains could be made without DRP participation, he felt these programs might influence the amount of improvement. Ranson (1952) and Reed (1956) found that increased reading rate was more likely to result from DRP participation than was comprehension improvement or improvement in certain other skills. Ranson (1952) further noted that not only were GPAs higher at the end of the semester of DRP participation but that this continued to be true of subsequent semesters. Even though the rate improvement seemed to have some permanency, Reed (1956) warned that established reading and study habits are not likely to be changed after a short training period. However, Herman (1972) found that improvements in reading skills were retained over time and appeared to have a positive effect on cumulative quality point ratio.

Bloomer (1962) found that reading skills improvement and

academic achievement were not related; whereas Gunderson (1960) noted that reading ability was related to accomplishments in all






19

subject matters considered in her study. Reed (1956) did not find that rapid reading increases were related to gains in academic work for nursing students. He suggested that the nature of their required reading was the reason for this. However, Swindle (1968) found that Veterinary Medicine students received more benefits from a techniques-of-learning course than other students. Kilby (1945), Kingston and George (1955), and Wright (1960) found that participation in a reading and study skills program had more positive results on verbal or linguistic subject matter.


College Reading Programs and Attrition

Since motivation is vital not only to participation in a DRP but also to the amount of persistence in the program, literature related to attrition will be discussed.

Several studies investigated the college attrition rate of DRP participants, but only a few reported results of attrition rate in the program itself. College attrition rates were favorably influenced by participation in such programs according to the findings of Kaye (1971), McDonald (1956), Munger (1954), and Swindle (1968). However, O'Bear (1954), Sosebee (1963), and Wright (1960) concluded from their studies that enrollment or lack of it in a reading and study skills program did not affect school attrition.

Since one major concern of this study was the amount of participation in a DRP, most of the emphasis on this part of






20


the literature review will be concerned with attrition in a reading program and its influence on various variables studied by researchers.

The number of students who maintain a high level of persistence in a voluntary developmental reading program does not necessarily have a high correlation with the number of students who begin such a program. Maxwell (1975) surveyed a random sample of students using the student services at the University of California at Berkeley. She found that of those students seeking help about 10-25 percent of them did not follow through. Most of the students dropped the course or decided they did not need the assistance. The majority of students did not finish the programs they began. For example, of those who registered for the Xerox reading program only one-third completed it. However, after some modifications which made the program more flexible in order to accommodate different skill levels, more students persisted. According to Tillman, Millott, and Larsen (1974), freshman students who voluntarily attended the Reading and Study Skills Center at the University of Florida during their 1972 fall quarter averaged only 7.9 hours in the laboratory.

Wood (1957) did one of the first studies in the attrition

of noncredit university reading classes. Personality variables, motivational factors, and reading class placement of the subjects were studied as predictors of attrition. Class meeting






21


time was the only factor that differentiated the groups in this study. However, a study of the total population showed that there was an unsubstantial negative association between referral and dropouts. Referral students who showed the greatest tendency to finish the course were identified as impermeable or anxious according to the SA-S Senior Scales scores.

Wood (1957) further studied the association between instructional variables and attrition. He found nonsignificant differences between students who persisted and those who dropped out for progress on practice exercises and student ratings of their instructors. Between subgroup membership and course completion there was a negative association. He concluded that the prediction of dropouts was not possible with the measures used in this study. However, his study indicated that attrition was associated with classroom variables, subgroup membership, referral, and personality interaction with referral.

Three groups of university freshman students enrolled

in a noncredit reading and study course were studied by Allen (1968). The groups were designated as students who voluntarily enrolled and persisted, those who voluntarily enrolled but dropped out of the reading course, and students who were nonvoluntary enrollees. The characteristics of initial reading





22

ability, improvement of reading skills, study habits and attitudes, academic aptitude, and success in college were analyzed to determine if a significant difference could be found between any of these factors and any of the three groups. The results of her findings indicated the following conclusions:

(a) more effective study habits and attitudes could be expected for nonvoluntary enrollees than for voluntary enrollees among male students; (b) differences observed between persistent and nonpersistent students with regard to graduation from college seemed to be due more to such variables as sex, age, college, and major field than to remaining in the reading course; (c) the areas of improvement may differ for persisting voluntary enrollees and nonvoluntary enrollees but both may benefit from such a course; and (d) the expectations for these groups of subjects in regard to probable success in college or success in the reading improvement course seem not to need modification. For this reason it was felt that this reading and study course was appropriate as provided.

DeFrain (1970) studied the relationship between attrition in a noncredit college reading improvement program and the variables of sex, initial reading performance, academic ability, first semester grade-point average, and self-concept. Differences were analyzed between subjects who completed the course and those who did not, and separate analyses were carried out






23


for each sex. Although the results of the subscales of the California Test of Personality did not show any statistical significance for either sex, the results of the readers subscale of the Englander Scale did show a significant difference for self-concept between the male subjects in the two groups. The relative number of terminating males and females was due to random variance. In academic ability the females in the group completing the course was significantly higher, but no significant difference was found between the males in the two groups. The findings also showed that for both sexes in the persisting group there were higher GPAs. Except for comprehension for the terminating male subjects, the initial reading ability subscales showed only differences due to random variation,

Attrition was one of the factors in Smith's (1970) investigation concerning the association between personality and reading improvement prediction. Using the Personality Assessment System to measure personality, he found no association between attrition in a DRP and personality.

Dalton, Gliessman, Guthrie, and Rees (1966) reported that trends among the reading groups they analyzed suggested that students who persisted in a reading course made greater GPA gains than nonpersisters and nonparticipants.

Pauk (1965) compared the GPA gains of a 14-session DRP






24


with a 6-session program and reported that the participants of the shorter session gained three times as much in GPA. Even though this was not significant, it had certain implications. Pauk speculated that the difference was due to the students' attitudes that their needs could best be met by increasing the speed of their reading which was included only in the longer sessions, when, in fact, it was the study skills that were of most value to them.

The dropout rate for both the control group and the

reading program participants at the University of Wichita was less than the average for the nation according to Hinton (1961). She felt motivation was important here. Of the DRPs reviewed, this was one of the few which required enrollment fees.

The findings of Bohr, Cias, and Clayton (1973) showed that counseling helped decrease attrition rate in a reading skills class but it did not significantly influence enrollment or success in the program.

Fairbanks (1974a) concluded from her analysis of 79 studies relating to DRPs that "successful" programs were significantly more often reported when at least 40 hours of student participation was involved. Furthermore, she found that subject involvement in diagnosing personal reading problems and in program evaluation were significantly more often reported in "successful" than in "unsuccessful" programs.






25

From the limited amount of literature available concerning DRPs and attrition, it is difficult to ascertain the contribution that different amounts of participation in a college

reading programhave upon those students who are persistent and those who are nonpersistent. However, persistence in program participation appears to favorably influence students' achievements in the acquisition of reading skills and improved grades for many curricula. It might be observed that many of these studies resulted in a concern for identifying the reasons for different rates of attrition in college reading programs. Factors such as students' motivation and perceptions of their individual needs, variables within the program, personality traits, and the interaction of various variables were suggested as possible influences upon the amount of participation in such programs.


Voluntary Versus Mandatory Attendance in a College Reading Program

Certain features, such as mandatory or voluntary participation, in developmental reading programs seem to influence the student's desire to participate and to gain maximum results from these programs. Robinson (1950) suggested that the motivation and attitudes of students are of importance when considering the results of reading programs. The greater motivation of volunteering students as opposed to nonvolunteering






26

students for a reading improvement program should be considered. Although many studies reviewed did not indicate whether or not this variable was considered, some of those which recognized the need to control for motivation are included here. Kingston and George (1955) claimed that control for this factor was established in their study by providing students with a choice of the reading course instead of one of the required orientation group guidance courses. Regensburg (1966) felt motivation was controlled in his study because one of his control groups was composed of students who requested but were denied admission to the reading improvement course. Kilby (1945) used a means of acquiring a predicted grade status to equate subjects in his attempt to control for motivation.

Furthermore, differences in the definition of voluntary programs were noted in the reported research. Many authors used the term to mean that students were free to enroll but once enrolled they were expected to fulfill certain requirements such as a designated amount of attendance in the course. It should be noted that in this study a voluntary program also included the right to discontinue the program at any time as determined by the participant.

Certain studies reviewed did not indicate whether the program was voluntary or mandatory. However, some programs involving various definitions of voluntary participation are






27

reported below. Sternitzke's (1957) study found significant gains were made in reading skills and study habits but not in GPA at the end of a year's time. Regensburg (1966) also reported that the experimental groups made significant gains in reading but not in GPA. Using the Nelson-Denny Reading Test as the measuring device, Bonham (1972) found positive results for most reading skills tested. Immediate and longrange positive effects in terms of GPAs for students with study behavior problems were noted by Lesnik (1968) as a result of an individual study counseling program. The volunteer students studied by Gunderson (1960) benefited sooner in courses such as religion and English than in other courses as a result of their DRP participation. Ranson (1952) observed most growth in rate but also some in comprehension for students in a voluntary program. A higher GPA but not significant study habit scores for the experimental group was reported by Hutchinson (1971). From his study Cosper (1953) reported that experimental subjects could improve in rate and comprehension from a voluntary developmental reading program. In Bliesmer's (1966) review of reading programs, he summarized a study by Ross which, when analyzing three groups at the University of Kentucky, found that each semester's group gained in certain reading skills (first semester was rate, second semester was comprehension, and third semester was both rate






28

and comprehension), but there was a lack of continuity in the growth by groups.

It can further be noted that investigations of several

mandatory programs also reported that students benefited from participation in them. A compulsory remedial reading group at the University of Miami was studied by Mouly (1952). He observed that, although for various reasons certain students who were required to enroll did not, those who took the course and remained made significant favorable differences in grades for academic work. The experimental group required to take reading training which Wright (1960) studied showed more reading skills gain and under certain conditions better GPAs in verbal type curriculum. Gerberich (1934) studied 1928-1929 probation students at the University of Arkansas who were required to take the special course because of deficient reading ability. When certain disparity between the initial and final status for the two groups was considered it was suggested that the program was effective.

Although they may differ in the areas of improvement, Allen (1968) found that both persisting voluntary enrollees and nonvoluntary enrollees could benefit from a reading and study skills course. However, Feinberg, Long, and Rosenheck (1962) reported that students resisted being required to take a study methods course and felt that this negatively influenced the amount of change which occurred.






29

Fairbanks (1974a) noted in her report of 79 reading improvement programs that significantly more voluntary programs than required programs reported success resulting from student participation. A number of studies discussed the implications and made recommendations about the need to study more carefully the influence of voluntary and mandatory programs. Federice (1972) noted that studies concerned with the results of voluntary versus forced program participation in educational services is "meager and equivocal." But in his study of highrisk community college freshmen he found that enforced attendance in a study skills program did not adversely affect the results gained.

Although significant positive effects can be derived for participants in either voluntary or mandatory college DRPs, from the literature reviewed, it appears that more often than not students who voluntarily enrolled made significant gains in reading performance.


College Reading Programs and Personality

Recognizing the complexities involved in the act of reading, past and present concerns about the possible associations between reading and personality traits, and the possible implications for students' personality characteristics upon enrollment and attrition in a DRP, it seems appropriate to






30


investigate what association there may be between college reading program participation and personality. Through the years, most concern has been devoted to the associations between reading difficulties and personality abnormalities. Strang (1955), along with others, has written much about this relationship. However, she has stated that, "Since the achievement of reading proficiency is part of one's Lotal development, personality factors naturally enter into every reading case" (Ephron, 1953, p. xi). This idea was supported by Spache (Millott, 1974) in his theory that reading is "an extention of personality." Although Ephron (1953) wrote primarily about early school years, it is felt that her suggestions have applications for college personnel. She too was concerned about the total person and the relationships between difficulties in reading and problems in personality. Some of this philosophy may have helped establish college DRPs. However, attention has also been given to the possibility that certain personality characteristics may have differing effects upon reading development and DRP participation. Therefore, a review of the literature related to these associations will be presented.

The following researchers used Eysenck's theory of personality as a basis for their studies and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) as their measuring device for personality traits. Whitehill and Jipson (1970) found a difference in the responses






31

of introverts and extroverts to type of reading training (traditional or instrumental) with extroverts being influenced most by the types of program. Their conclusion was that introverts did not need the structure needed by extroverts. A similar study was reported by Whitehill and Rubin (1971) which confirmed the earlier investigation. They also found the instrumental method was beneficial to all personality type as measured by words per minute gains in reading scores. However, the results were not as conclusive concerning the advantages of that method of teaching versus the traditional method for extroverts. Using the EPI to measure personality traits and the Brown-Holtzman Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes to measure study habits, Cowell and Entwistle (1971) found that although stable introverts had better study habits than extroverts, their test results were not better. Entwistle and Entwistle (1970) also used EPI to determine personality characteristics for a group of college of education students. They reported that stable introverts are good students and have good study habits. Antoine (1972) investigated the possibility of predicting reading achievement in community college students by using personality type. He further analyzed the relationship between reading and Eysenck's personality types. His conclusions were that introverts were more proficient readers than extroverts, and he also suggested that neuroticism had little or no effect upon reading achievement.






32

Anderson (1961) studied Western Australian college freshmen on the association between reading and personality using the Cooperative Reading Test and Cattell 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire to measure these variables. The results indicated that effective readers were more self-sufficient, emotionally sensitive, introverted, and intelligent than other readers.

Millott (1974) concluded from the literature he examined that there is support for the theory that personality differences are related to different reading skills. Furthermore, he studied the relationship between personality type as measured by MBTI and reading performance as measured by the subtests of MHRT: Flexibility, Scanning, and Paragraph Comprehension. This study of college freshmen was also analyzed by sex. Although no difference was found between the sexes, correlations between Flexibility and Thinking, Scanning and Intuition, and Paragraph Comprehension and Introversion, Intuition, and Perception were observed. He also stated that the personality type of INTP according to MBTI type showed the most efficiency in reading whereas ESTJ showed the least. The personality factor of Intuition had a significant relationship to reading comprehension.

Hill (1962) found little agreement among researchers with respect to identifying specific personality characteristics






33

which were related to reading difficulty. This led him to suggest that the reader's total behavior should be used when studying the relationship of reading to personality.

Using reading effectiveness as the learning process, Smith, Wood, Downer, and Raygor (1956) found that the method of teaching affected certain kinds of learners. The directive methods were best for permeable and anxious students. But the method of teaching did not seem to influence impermeable and anxious students.

Tillman et al. (1974) reported several studies concerning the relationship between personality and reading ability involving both normal and disadvantaged samples enrolled in the Reading and Study Skills Center, University of Florida. They found that more efficient readers more often preferred dealing with symbols and abstractions, and that the DRP atmosphere of individual help benefited persons who were concerned about pleasing others.

Although a consideration of the relation between reading and personality may be of value in helping understand student participation in a DRP, more information is needed that is directly related to the association between DRP participation and personality. Since the literature dealing with the persistence of participation in a reading program is limited, there is also a limited number of studies that examine the






34

relationship between attrition in a college reading and study skills program and personality, particularly for the normal population. A review of a few such studies is presented.

Seeking more information about the relationship between personality types as measured by MBTI and college reading skills, Larsen, Millott, and Tillman (1974) compared regularly enrolled students with those from special programs such as Upward Bound and EEOP. They found that among regularly enrolled college students who attended the DRP each personality type was represented and in approximately the same ratio as were in the total freshman population. Furthermore, those preferring Extroversion and those preferring Perception were more persistent than those preferring Introversion and Judging although not to a significant degree. The specially enrolled students seemed to be more Sensing and Judging. At the end of the first quarter more Feeling students in the special program group had better GPAs.

The usefulness of the Personality Assessment System (PAS) to predict student performance in a reading improvement program was studied by Smith (1970). He analyzed the relationship between various PAS dimensions and the variables of enrollment, attrition, reading rate and comprehension improvement, and the differences between two sections of the Missouri Rapid Reading Program taught by different instructors. He found no relationship





35

between the results from the PAS and either enrollment or attrition in the reading program. An analysis of the relationship between dimensions of PAS and the course performance showed no general consistencies. Although the controls were inadequate, Smith did conclude that different teaching styles of the two instructors had differing effects upon the subjects with different basic personality patterns as measured by PAS.

Spache, Standlee, and Neville (1960) investigated the possible relationship between personality as measured by the SA-S Senior Scales, a personality test, and attrition in an individualized reading program on the university level. The results indicated that prediction of attrition rate in such a

program could not be obtained using the SA-S Senior Scales as the measuring instrument for personality.

From the literature examined it seems evident that there

is some kind of relationship between certain personality traits and the acquisition of efficient reading skills. Furthermore, there are indications that persistence in a reading and study skills program, designed to improve these skills by voluntary participation, may be associated with personality traits. However, due to the minimal number of investigations into this association, it is difficult to draw any final conclusions.















CHAPTER III


PRESENTATION OF THE DATA


The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between levels of persistence in participating in a college developmental reading program and change in academic achievement as measured by grade-point average (GPA), the sex of the student, the personality type as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the entrance reading proficiency as measured by the McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test (MHRT), the entrance general scholastic ability as measured by the School and College Ability Test (SCAT), and the type of program initially selected by the student.

This chapter presents information about the locale where the study was carried out, the study population, the gradepoint averages, the test instruments, the test scores, and the reading instructional programs.


The Locale

The following resume about the development and current practices of the Reading and Study Skills Center (RSSC),


36






37

University of Florida, is included to help the reader have a more accurate concept of the facilities and environment where the study was undertaken. The selection of information shared here concentrates upon aspects of the Center that are relevant to this study. It is not intended to fully cover all functions and aspects of the Center.

A Short History of the RSSC

As a result of recommendations made by the Florida Center of Clinical Services and supported by the appropriate leaders from the University College, the English Department, and the College of Education, the Reading Laboratory and Clinic was established in August, 1950, and it became operational during that same year. The Reading Laboratory and Clinic was part of a larger service offered by the University of Florida which also included the Speech and Hearing Clinic, the Bureau of Vocational Guidance and Mental Hygiene, and the Adapted and Therapeutic Physical Education Program. The Florida Center of Clinical Services served to integrate and coordinate these services.

The original purpose of the Reading Laboratory and Clinic was to serve as a source of referral to and from the Florida Center of Clinical Services. According to early reports, the Reading Laboratory and Clinic operated to fulfill the following four capacities: (a) as a diagnostic and remedial organ of the





38

University; (b) as a source of referral to and from the Florida Center of Clinical Services; (c) as an instruction and training facility for teachers and graduate students interested in learning techniques of reading diagnosis and correction; and

(d) as an instrument in research in reading and related fields.

During the first year of existence, under the direction of Dr. George D. Spache, 400 college students and 70 offcampus persons participated in the program. The clinic had four chief sources from which the participants came. These were from the University College, the University in general, and secondary and elementary schools outside the University, as well as from other clinics of the Florida Center of Clinical Services. The facilities and personnel available in 1951 only permitted providing assistance to approximately 100 students at one given time for remedial purposes (Livengood, 1951).

According to Spache (1959), the clinic served 700 college students and 250 elementary and high school students during 1958, and the services to all these students were free.

Through the years some adjustments have been made in the philosophy of the program, the type of clientele served, and the services rendered. One such change occurred as a result of the requirement that all students taking the introductory University College English course be given a diagnostic reading test. Since this testing was administered by the English






39

Department, the Reading Laboratory and Clinic was placed under that department in 1959. Later, the requirement that all students be given a diagnostic reading test was discarded. However, the clinic remained a part of the English Department until 1974. At that time it was placed under the Office of Instructional Resources.

In 1971 the Reading Laboratory and Clinic was renamed

and became the Reading and Study Skills Center. Other changes have also been made in the Center to help it provide an environment which would cause its clientele to take maximum advantage of the available services. One of these was to insure that any work done at the Center be completely voluntary. Thus, only those who sought assistance at the Center were given a diagnostic reading test, rather than having students seek help as a result of the requirement that all students be given the group reading test as part of the University College freshman English course. The Center has continued to update and make adjustments in the equipment and materials to provide for the needs and interests of individual students.

From its inception the Center has recommended, but not

required, that each student devote three hours per week to work at the Center while enrolled there. This amount of time has continued to be the recommendation of the Center personnel. The services have always been free to University of Florida






40

students, and self-referral has always been the primary method of initiating a program of work. The RSSC at the Time of This Study

The University of Florida developmental reading program

is under the direction of Dr. A. G. Cranney. It is located in S.W. Broward Hall on the University of Florida campus and is open for services Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Its services are available to any person who is registered for course work at the University of Florida as well as to the faculty and staff. These services provide help to students who desire improvement in the areas of reading rate, comprehension, study habits, spelling, vocabulary development, and preparation for various graduate qualifying examinations.

Any student desiring to improve already adequate reading and study skills is encouraged to participate in a program of work which would be appropriate to his/her individual needs and interests. The RSSC does not cater only to students with remedial problems or low reading scores. Also, the clientele is not limited to lower division students since many upper division and graduate students are enrolled each year. Thus, the concept behind this Center is that of improving existing reading and study skills, no matter how well these may have already been developed rather than providing only a remediation program for poor students.






41

Faculty referral is not necessary and most enrollees are

not sent to the Center by any member of the University faculty. However, the Center encourages faculty advisers to consult with RSSC personnel and to refer students for help.

Enrollment and attendance at the RSSC is completely voluntary since students are free to initiate enrollment and to discontinue at any time. No fees are charged for its services. It is expected that all assignments will be completed at the Center. Neither grades nor course credit is given for the work done.

Individual programs are determined by the use of tests and interviews. Upon enrollment at the RSSC each student is assigned a counselor who helps set up a program of work and who continues to work with that student as long as he/she is enrolled. For diagnostic purposes the MHRT is given to each entering student. Each student is also requested to share his/ her perceptions of areas of need or weakness for which he/she anticipates receiving help at the Center. Furthermore, as the student progresses through a program of work he/she is encouraged to make suggestions about the program. The counselor seeks to have a close working relationship with each of his/ her students and encourages them to have some input into their programs.

The RSSC facilities include a reception area, two laboratory






42

classrooms, a testing room, a well-stocked library, a conference room, a work area, and office space for the full-time faculty personnel and counselors. The laboratory is divided into two rooms. One contains the hardware equipment such as controlled readers, pacers, and cassettes, while the other contains books and program-type materials. In addition to commercially prepared and published materials, there are some which have been devised by the staff of the Center. Certain equipment is available to test for gross screening measurements in vision and hearing. Upon request the Orthorator, Spache Binocular Reading Test, and Titmus Stereotests may be used. However, if these tests indicate any difficulty the student is referred to the appropriate source of help.

There are three full-time faculty members and two secretaries working in the Center. And the number of student

assistants ranges from four to six graduate students and one to three undergraduate students according to the needs.

This brief summary concerning the RSSC is not intended

to cover all the functions of this Center. Since this research is concerned only with certain aspects of a developmental reading program, the data included in this section are provided to give the reader a better understanding of the Center's program and environment as it particularily relates to this study. An outline which more fully covers the services,






43

activities, and functions of the RSSC is given in Appendix A.


Description of the Sample

From the RSSC files a list including enrollment dates was made of all University of Florida freshman students who had initiated contact with the Center anytime during the academic year 1972-1973. From this list students who voluntarily enrolled in the RSSC during the Fall Quarter, 1972, were identified, and 70 were selected through the use of a table of random numbers. Since 71 students were initially identified, only one was randomly eliminated from the group that served as the sample. All data used in the study were taken from the RSSC files except students' grade-point averages which were obtained from information available in the Registrar's Office, University of Florida. Identification of Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students

From the sample of 70 students, two subgroups were identified. One subgroup consisted of those students who were considered persistent students and the other subgroup consisted of those who were considered nonpersistent students. The records maintained on the students enrolled at the RSSC included the dates each student attended the Center and designated whether each session was used for counseling or for laboratory work. From this record the total number of hours






44

spent at the Center was determined for each of these students. Since the average amount of attendance for the 1972-1973 freshman students was approximately 7.9 hours for the year (Tillman et al., 1974) and the records at the Center indicated that for the Fall Quarter, 1972, the average visits by all students to work in the laboratory was 8.2 hours; therefore, the researcher used a total of 9 hours as the lower limits for the amount of time that a student worked in the Center to be considered persistent in attendance. Any subject who attended the RSSC for 8 or fewer hours was considered nonpersistent. Therefore, for the purposes of this study, persistent students were identified as those who attended the RSSC at least a total of 9 hours, and nonpersistent students were identified as those who attended the RSSC for a total of

8 or fewer hours.

Using the above as the criteria for placement in the

persistent subgroup and the nonpersistent subgroup resulted in the two subgroups containing an unequal number of subjects. Identified as persistent were 32 subjects while 38 subjects were identified as nonpersistent.


Cumulative Grade-Point Averages (GPA)

From the records in the Registrar's Office, University of Florida data were available to determine the GPA for each






45


student in this study from the Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975. Because of their limited sample sizes Summer Quarter, 1973, and Summer Quarter, 1974, GPAs were not used in the analyses.

The cumulative GPAs for the students in this investigation are presented in Table 1.

As might be expected because the number of subjects

generally decreased for each subgroup for each quarter, the sum of the GPAs for persistent students and for nonpersistent students also usually decreased. However, from Fall Quarter, 1972, to Winter Quarter, 1973, the sum of the GPAs increased slightly for both subgroups. Also for the nonpersistent students there was an increase in the sum of the GPAs from Fall Quarter, 1973, to Winter Quarter, 1974. The range for the sum of GPAs for the persistent students was from 82.80 to 48.56 and for the nonpersistent students it was from 104.97 to 74.69.

From Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975, the number of subjects for each quarter decreased from 32 to 17 for the persistent students and from 38 to 24 for the nonpersistent students. This indicated the college attrition rate of the students in this study. The GPA means fluctuated from quarter to quarter for the persistent students and the nonpersistent students. For the persistent students the GPA means ranged from 2.57 to 3.00 and for the nonpersistent students these ranged from 2.60 to 3.16.









Table 1


Distributions of Cumulative Grade-Point Averages (GPA) of Persistent and Nonpersistent
Students for Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975, Excluding Summer Quarter, 1973, and Summer Quarter, 1974


F.Q. W.Q. S.Q. F.Q. W.Q. S.Q. F.Q. W.Q.
1972 1973 1973 1973 1974 1974 1974 1975 Persistent Students

82.35 82.80 77.93 66.11 61.82 61.38 53.33 48.56 n 32 30 28 22 22 21 20 17

x 2.57 2.76 2.78 3.00 2.81 2.92 2 67 2.86 Nonpersistent Students

101.54 104.97 92.14 83.16 87.08 82.05 79.11 74.69 n 38 35 33 32 29 28 25 24 x 2.67 3.00 2.79 2.60 3.00 2.93 3.16 3.11






47


Sex of the Subjects

The total population of the study was unevenly divided

by sex and each subgroup also consisted of an unequal distribution of males and females. The data concerning the distribution of males and females are presented in Table 2.


Table 2

Distributions ofSex of Subjects in the Persistent
and Nonpersistent Subgroups


Sex of Subject Persistent Nonpersistent

Males 12 17 Females 20 21 Total 32 38



The subjects were divided into 29 males and 41 females. The intragroup distributions by sex included 12 males and 20 females in the persistent subgroup and 17 males and 21 females in the nonpersistent subgroup.


The Test Instruments

The University of Florida Board of Examiners administered several tests to all entering freshman students for the Fall Quarter, 1972. The data from some of these tests were used in carrying out this study.






48


Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

The MBTI is a self-administered, untimed personality test given in questionnaire format containing 166 forced-choice items. Each item was designed to present equally attractive options in a nonthreatening manner with the choices being either in short phrases or word pairs.

It contains four bipolar indices which are scored separately resulting in a preference for each of the four categories

--Extroversion (E) or Introversion (I), Sensing (S) or Intuition

(N), Thinking (T) or Feeling (F), and Judging (J) or Perceiving

(P). This results in 16 possibilities for personality type. Each of the four preferences indicate one pole being preferred over the other. A score is obtained above or below a midpoint of the continuum for each indice according to the subject's choices. This results in preferences for I, N, F, or P scores above the midpoint and E, S, T, or J for preference,, below the midpoint.

To arrive at each subject type, four pairs of preferences are scored. These are explained below:

The Direction of Perception and Judgment: Extroversion
(E) indicates the outer world of action, persons, and
objects while Introversion (I) indicates the inner
world of concepts and ideas.

Perception: Sensing (S) shows a preference to the immediate realities of direct experiences but Intuition (N)
attaches more importance to inferential meaning, relationships and possibilities of experiences.






49


Judgment: Thinking (T) relies more on logical order and cause and effect whereas Feeling (F) places more
priority on personal importance and values.

Dealing with environment: Judging (J) shows preference
for systematic, planning, judging, and controlling
events but Perception (P) is more adaptive, curious,
spontaneous, and waiting.

Data to support the reliability of the MBTI have been

based primarily on the use of the split-half procedures obtained by applying the Spearman Brown prophecy formula. The median reliability is .83 for the categories (Myers, 1962).

The Center used the results to help counsel students concerning a better understanding of themselves, their adjustment to living in the university setting, vocational choices, and other areas where a knowledge of their personality types might be useful.

McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test (MHRT)

The MHRT was prepared to test the general reading competency needed for academic success for students ranging from juniors in high school to sophomores in college. College textbooks were used as the source for most of the reading materials contained in this test.

The MHRT is divided into three major parts. Part I is designed to test reading rate and comprehension and has the following four sections: (a) Reading Rate 1 which measures an easy selection of reading. The level of difficulty of this






50

material is intended to represent the kind of reading done for recreation such as newspapers, magazines, and novels. The test results are given in a words per minute score. (b) Reading Rate 2 which measures a difficult reading selection such as study-type material encountered in college textbooks. This is to test the subject's ability to recognize, understand, and retain specific facts. The results are given in a words per minute score. (c) Flexibility which determines the difference in the two rates and indicates the subject's ability to adapt reading rate to the material's complexity and the purpose for reading is acquired by finding the difference between Reading Rate 1 and Reading Rate 2. (d) Retention for 20 items is reported in relation to the two different rates of reading. Two scores are provided, one for the number of items correct for Reading Rate 1 and another for the number of items correct for Reading Rate 2. There is also a score given for Article Comprehension which measures the retention of both kinds of reading and is a combination of the two retention scores based on the 20 items measuring the subject's ability to observe, understand, and retain specific facts.

Part II deals with Skimming and Scanning and contains 30

items to test for the subject's ability to gain general comprehension and to search for specific information such as definitions, words, numbers, and specific facts. The materials included here






51

are a bibliography, an index, a table of atomic weights, and excerpts from both a geography and astronomy text. In 10 minutes the subject is to read the questions and search for the answers without actually reading the selection.

Part III has five long reading passages with five items each interspersed with five short paragraphs with one item each which are used to determine Paragraph Comprehension in material similar to textbook reading. Six categories of understanding are measured--recognizing the main ideas, recognizing the significant facts, understanding general principles for the physical and social sciences, recognizing paragraph organization and structure, and evaluating the material presented.

A Total Comprehension Score is derived by adding the scores from the sections entitled Article Comprehension, Skimming and Scanning, and Paragraph Comprehension. This includes the 80 items on the three parts of the test.

Each form of the test (A and B) was normed by using

1,526 students with about equal numbers of four-year college and university freshmen, two-year college students, and high school juniors and seniors who were considered college bound students. To determine internal consistency the KuderRichardson Formula 20 (KR-20) was computed for both test forms for the total test. The KR-20 is spuriously high for the






52

Skimming and Scanning part because of a strong speed factor. The KR-20 for each form was .89. The coefficients for stability and interform reliability had not been completed when the manual was published (Raygor, 1970). Local norms for several University of Florida campus populations have also been developed (Cranney & Tillman, 1973).

The variables tested for content validity are those

directly related to the reading instructional situations in the MHRT and are represented in the three main divisions of the test (Reading Rate and Article Comprehension, Skimming and Scanning, and Paragraph Comprehension).

The Center used the results to aid in evaluating the

strengths and weaknesses of student's reading performance for those students who voluntarily enrolled in the developmental reading program provided by the RSSC. These data were used, along with other information, to help identify the areas of need in reading for these students and to provide assistance in the selection of materials, as well as to locate the correct placement for students to work in these materials. School and College Ability Test, Series II (SCAT)

The SCAT was designed to identify the general ability of the subjects to whom it is administered. It is a timed test limited to 40 minutes. It is divided into a verbal subtest containing analogy items to measure the subject's ability






53

to understand, think, and use words and a mathematical subtest containing quantitative comparison items to measure the subject's ability to reason and compute in numerical terms. Each subtest contains 50 items to which the subject is expected to respond in 20 minutes per subtest. From the number of correct responses to these subtests a verbal score, a quantitative score, and a total score are obtained. Not only is this test used to compare individual students or classes, but it is useful to estimate basic verbal and mathematical ability, to estimate long range growth of these basic skills, and particularly to predict possible success in future academic work.

To determine the reliability and standard errors of

measurement the Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 was computed. A score of .94 was obtained for all Total scores reported. The Verbal scores were at least .87 and the Mathematical scores were at least .90 for the grades analyzed. The test handbook stated that these scores are overestimates of the reliability for within a school grade, but only to a small degree (Ahrens, Anderson, and others, 1967).

The RSSC used these scores to help gain a better understanding of student's general scholastic ability in order to be able to advise individual students appropriately concerning their needs and expectations in academic work.






54


The Test Scores

All tests used in this study were administered by the University of Florida Board of Examiners, and the results were made available to personnel in the RSSC. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

The result of each student's self-report of preferences on the MBTI questionnaire are presented in Table 3.


Table 3

Distributions ofMBTI Personality Preferences of Persistent
and Nonpersistent Students


Personality Preferences

Extroverted Introverted

Sensing
Intuition

Thinking Feeling Judging
Perceiving


Persistent
Males Females

5 10
6 9

5 8 6 11

4 5 7 14

6 9 5 10


Nonpersistent Males Females

7 15
8 6

7 10 8 11

8 4 7 17

8 9 7 12


The MBTI results were not available for four subjects in this study. Since these data were unavailable for two persistent students and for two nonpersistent students, the N for the persistent subgroup was 30 and the N for the nonpersistent subgroup was 36 for this part of the study.






55

The number of males in both subgroups was closely related in size in every category of this indicator, except for the Thinking or Feeling indice where there were three members difference favoring the preference for Feeling for persistent males.

More difference can be noted among the females than the

males of both subgroups. For example, 9 more females preferred Feeling to Thinking in the persistent group and Extroversion to Introversion in the nonpersistent subgroup. The most noticeable preference for any category was 17 for Feeling compared with 4 for Thinking for the female nonpersisters. McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test (MHRT)

The MHRT provided nine scores from various subtesLs and/

or combinations of subtests. Since only raw scores were analyzed in this study, it was necessary to convert certain percentile ranks to raw scores. The data in each of the following tables for the MHRT are given as raw scores. Table 4 through Table 8 present the distributions of persistent and nonpersistent students for the subtests of Reading Rate 1, Reading Rate 2, Flexibility, Retention for Reading Rate 1, Retention for Reading Rate 2, Article Comprehension, Skimming and Scanning, Paragraph Comprehension, and Total Comprehension.

The range of words per minute for Reading Rate 1 (easy

reading) was from 146 to 418 for the male persistent students






Table 4


Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for Reading Rate 1
and Reading Rate 2 for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT


Range in Reading Rate 1 Reading Rate 2 Words Per Persistent Nonpersistent Persistent Nonpersistent Minute Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females

91 120 - 1 - 121 150 1 - 1 3 2 2 1 151 180 1 - 2 1 3 181 210 1 5 2 2 3 6 5 4 211 240 5 2 1 7 3 5 3 5 241 270 2 5 3 6 2 3 5 3 271 300 - 4 3 1 1 1 4 301 330 1 5 3 2 1 331 360 1 1 1 - 361 390 1 1 - - 1 391 420 1 1 - -






57


Table 5

Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students
for Flexibility for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT


Difference in Persistent Nonpersistent Words Per Minute Males Females Males Females

0 10 1 1 1 4c 11 20 1 3a 2b 4b 21 30 1 1 5b 31 40 2 3a 4 41 50 2 4 2 1 51 60 1 5 1 1
61 70 2 1 1 la
71 80 - 5 81-90 - 1 91 100 1 1 101 119 1 2 111 120 - 1 121 130 - 1 131 140 1 1


Note. Certain students read the Reading Rate 2 (hard
reading) faster than Reading Rate 1 (easy reading).
aRepresents a student who had a wmp score higher
for Reading Rate 2 than for Reading Rate 1.
bRepresents two students who had a wmp score higher
for Reading Rate 2 than for Reading Rate 1.
cRepresents three students who had a wmp score
higher for Reading Rate 2 than for Reading Rate 1.








Table 6

Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for Retention for Reading Rate 1 and Retention for Reading Rate 2 for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT


Retention for Reading Rate 1 Retention for Reading Rate 2
Number Persistent Nonpersistent Persistent Nonpersistent Correct Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females

01

02 - - 1 1 03 1 1 4 2 04 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 05 2 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 06 2 2 1 2 5 7 3 5 07 4 7 4 8 1 3 3 7 08 1 4 8 4 1 2 1 2 09 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 10 1 1 1 1 1


00






59


Table 7

Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for Article Comprehension, Skimming and Scanning, and Paragraph Comprehension for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT


Article Comprehension
Range in Persistent Nonpersistent Raw Scores Males Females Males Females


05 06 07 08 09 10 11
12 13
14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28 29 30


1


1
2
1

4
1
2


1


1
2
3
1
1
3
1
3
1
1


1
2
1


3
6
6

1


4
2
1
4
3
2
3

1






60


Table 7 extended


Skimming and Scanning
Persistent Nonpersistent Males Females Males Females


Paragraph Comprehension
Persistent Nonpersistent Males Females Males Females






61


Table 8

Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students
for Total Comprehension for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT


Total Comprehension
Persistent Nonpersistent Males Females Males Females


Range in Raw Scores


36 37 38 39
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53
54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63
64 65 66


3





2

1


1


1




1
3





1




1
1


1

2



2
1
1






3


2

3
2

2
1


1

1
2

1
3






62

and 164 to 376 for female persistent students. For the nonpersistent students the range was 119 to 418 for males and 141 to 323 for females (Table 4).

The range of words per minute for Reading Rate 2 (hard

reading) was from 127 to 279 for male persistent students and 141 to 323 for female persistent students. For the nonpersistent students the range was from 133 to 291 for males and from 131 to 361 for females (Table 4).

The difference in words per minute between Reading Rate 1 and Reading Rate 2 is the Flexibility score for MHRT. For persistent students this ranged from 0 words to 139 words difference for the males and from 6 words to 131 words difference for the females. For nonpersistent students this was a range of from 4 words difference to 127 words difference for the males and from 1 word difference to 87 words difference

for the females (Table 5).

The scores for Rate of Reading 1 (easy) were given as

the number correct for 0 through 10 and for the Rate of Reading

2 (hard) were given as the number correct for 11 through 20. Thus, the range was from 0 to 10 for the number correct for each of these subtest scores.

The number correct for Retention for Reading Rate 1 for

the persistent subgroup ranged from 04 to 10 for the males and 04 to 09 for the females. In this same subtest the range was






63


from 05 to 10 for the males and 03 to 10 for the females in the nonpersistent subgroup (Table 6).

The range of the number correct for Retention for Reading Rate 2 was 04 to 09 for the male persistent students and 03 to 10 for the female persistent students. The male nonpersistent students ranged from 02 to 09 and the female nonpersistent students ranged from 02 to 10 for the number correct (Table 6).

Article Comprehension scores are derived from the combined correct answers for the two retention selections (easy and hard readings) with a range of 0 to 20 as possible scores. The range for male persistent students was 09 to 18 and for the female persistent students it was 10 to 18. The range for male nonpersistent students was 08 to 17 and for the female nonpersistent students it was 06 to 17 (Table 7).

There are 30 items in the Skimming and Scanning subtest and in the Paragraph Comprehension subtest. Thus, there is a possible range in scores from 0 to 30 for each of these subtests.

For the Skimming and Scanning subtest there was a range of 14 to 24 for the male persistent students and 16 to 29 for the female persistent students. For the nonpersistent students there was a range of 14 to 28 for the males and 16 to 28 for the females (Table 7).

For the Paragraph Comprehension there was the following






64


range for the persistent students: males from 12 to 25 and females 12 to 27. For the nonpersistent males the range was from 10 to 26 and for the nonpersistent females it was from 15 to 25 (Table 7).

Total Comprehension included all 80 comprehension items

for the three parts of the MHRT. The number of correct answers for these combined raw scores for this sample ranged from 40 to 65 for the males and 39 to 65 for the females of the persistent subgroup. The range of raw scores for the number correct for the nonpersistent subgroup was 38 to 66 for the males and 42 to 64 for the females (Table 8). School and College Ability Test, Series II (SCAT)

The results of each student's raw scores for the Verbal Subtest and the Quantitative Subtest on SCAT are presented in Table 9.

The Verbal and Quantitative subtests contain 50 items each from which the raw score is derived. Therefore, there is a range from 0 to 50 for each of these subtests. The range of Verbal raw scores for the persistent subgroup was 14 to 36 for the males and 18 to 43 for the females. The range for the nonpersistent subgroup was 16 to 43 for the males and 17 to 33 for the females.

The Quantitative Subtest scores ranged from 20 to 43 for the male persistent students and 18 to 40 for the female








Table 9

Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for the Verbal Subtest
and the Quantitative Subtest for the Entrance Raw Scores for SCAT


Verbal Subtest Quantitative Subtest Range in Persistent Nonpersistent Persistent Nonpersistent Raw Scores Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females


1


13
14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
34


1


1


1

1



1


2
1


3
1


ON
U1








35 36 37 38 39
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47


2
1


1


1




1


1
1



1


1






67

persistent students. The nonpersistent males ranged from 14 to 46 while the nonpersistent females ranged from 13 to 39.

The results of each student's raw scores for the total test on SCAT are presented in Table 10.


Table 10

Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for the Entrance Raw Scores for the Total Test for SCAT


Range in Raw Scores

30 34 35 39 40 44 45 49 50 54 55 59 60 64 65 69 70 74 75 79 80 84


Total Test
Persistent Nonpersistent Males Females Males Females

- 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 1 7 1 5 2 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1
- 1
1 2 1 1 -


The

subgroup females. 33 to 84 scores.


range for total scores included from 37 to 79 For the nonpersistent and the females ranged


on the SCAT for the persistent for males and from 37 to 83 for subgroup the males ranged from from 34 to 71 for these total


Reading Instructional Programs

At the time of enrollment each student was requested to






68

complete a form containing certain information. One part of this form sought to identify the student's perception of his/ her needs which might be helped through a program of work at the Center. The result of each student's initial selection of a program(s) of work is presented in Table 11.


Table 11

Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for the Initial Selection of the Type(s) of Program Requested


Persistent Nonpersistent Type of Program Males Females Males Females

Reading Rate 2 2 1 3 Comprehension 2 2 3 Study Skills - 2 3 Combination 9 15 11 10



Since only 65 of the students in this study had completed this information, the data for this part of the study are limited to that number. In this part of the study there were 30 persistent students and 35 nonpersistent students. None of the persistent students selected Study Skills as the area of need. Most of these students selected a combined program with

9 male and 15 female persistent students making this their initial selection. The choices of the nonpersistent students were spread about equally across all types of programs, except






69

for the combination programs which 11 males and 10 females selected.















CHAPTER IV


ANALYSES OF DATA


The statistical methods used in analyzing the data collected in this study were determined by the nature of the information sought. The following question was posed in this study. Is there a significant relationship between the level of persistence in participating in a college developmental reading program and change in academic achievement as measured by grade-point average (GPA), sex of student, personality, entrance reading performance, entrance general scholastic ability, and the type of program initially selected by the student?

The results of this study are presented in this chapter in the order of the hypotheses posed. A summary is presented for each hypothesis and data used to test each hypothesis are given. Appropriate tables and a figure are provided with reference to the data collected and analyzed for each hypothesis. Statistical significance was considered at the .05 level of confidence.


70






71


The Relationship Between Persistence and Each Variable of the Study

To answer the research question regarding the relationship

between persistence in participating in a college-level reading

program and each of the selected factors, the following null

hypotheses were tested.

Hypothesis 1. There will be no significant difference in change in grade-point average between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida.

Hypothesis 2. There will be no significant difference in the number of males and in the number of females between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida.

Hypothesis 3. There will be no significant difference in personality type as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida.

Hypothesis 4. There will be no significant difference in entrance reading performance as measured by each of the subtest scores on the McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida.

Hypothesis 5. There will be no significant difference in general ability as measured by the entrance scores on the School and College Ability Test between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida.

Hypothesis 6. There will be no significant difference in the type of reading program initially selected--reading rate, comprehension, study skills, or a combination of programs--between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida.






72

In order to test Hypothesis 1, an analysis of variance for unweighted means was performed using the split-plot design (Kirk, 1968) on the GPA means for each quarter from Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975, except for Summer Quarter, 1973, and Summer Quarter, 1974. The data for the two summer quarters were not analyzed for this study because of their limited sample size as compared with the sample sizes of the remainder of the quarters. In addition, a line graph was designed to compare the GPA means for the persistent subgroup and the nonpersistent subgroup. The graph included data for each quarter from Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975, except for the two summer quarters within that time designation.

The raw data for GPAs for each subgroup are summarized and presented in Appendix B. A summary of the analysis of variance is presented in Table 12.

The observed F ratios indicated no significant difference between group means for the persistent subgroup and the nonpersistent subgroup on the variables of Persistence/Nonpersistence (F = 2.38, p >.05), Quarters (F = 1.21, p >.05), and Persistence times Quarter (F = 1.62, p>.05) for GPAs.

The line graph to compare the GPA means is presented in Figure 1.






73


Table 12

Summary of Analysis of Variance for GPA Means for the
Persistent Students and the Nonpersistent Students
for Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975,
Excluding Summer Quarter, 1973,
and Summer Quarter, 1974


Adjusted Adjusted
SS df MS F F .05

Persistent/
Nonpersistent 1.30 1 1.30 2.38 3.86

Quarters 4.62 7 .66 1.21 2.03

Persistence X
Quarters 6.18 7 .88 1.62 2.03

Within Groups 228.70 420 .54






74


------Persistent Students
Nonpersistent Students
3.5


3.0





2.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Quarters


Figure 1. A comparison of GPA means of the persistent students and the nonpersistent students for Fall
Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975,
excluding Summer Quarter, 1973, and Summer
Quarter, 1974.



The line graph supported the computed analysis of variance that there was no significant difference between the persistent subgroup and the nonpersistent subgroup GPA means for the two groups.

On the basis of statistical analysis, the conclusion was made that GPA means were similar for the persistent subgroup and the nonpersistent subgroup. Thus, the null hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in the change in GPAs between the persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida was not rejected.

In order to test Hypothesis 2, the chi square was applied






75


to the data concerning the number of male students and the number of female students in the persistent subgroup as compared with the number of male students and the number of female students in the nonpersistent subgroup. A summary of data used in the chi square analysis is presented in Table 13.


Table 13

A Comparison of Males and Females in the Persistent
and the NonpersistenTL Subgroups


Males Females

Persistent Students 12 20 Nonpersistent Students 17 21


Note. Chi square = .370 n.s.


The obtained chi square for the number of males and the number of females in the persistent subgroup and those in the nonpersistent subgroup (chi square = .370, p >.05), indicated no significant difference between subgroups on the variable of proportion of males and females in each subgroup.

On the basis of statistical analysis, the conclusion was made that the number of males and the number of females were as well distributed in the persistent subgroup as in the nonpersistent subgroup. Therefore, the null hypothesis that there would be no significant difference between the number of males






76

and the number of females between the persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida was not rejected.

In order to test Hypothesis 3, the chi square was applied to the self-reported preferences on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator for the four basic categories of Extroversion or Introversion, Sensing or Intuition, Thinking or Feeling, and Judging or Perceiving. A summary of the data used in the chi square analysis for these preferences is presented in Table 14.


Table 14

A Comparison of the Preferences of Extroversion or
Introversion, Sensing or Intuition, Thinking or
Feeling, and Judging or Perceiving on MBTI
for Persistent Students and for Nonpersistent Students


Persistent Nonpersistent
Students Students chi square

Extroversion 15 22 Introversion 15 14 .804 n.s. Sensing 13 17 Intuition 17 19 .088 n.s. Thinking 9 12 Feeling 21 24 .070 n.s. Judging 15 17 Perceiving 15 19 .061 n.s.






77

The obtained chi square indicated no significant difference between the persistent students and the nonpersistent students on the preference for Extroversion and Introversion (chi square = .804, p >.05), Sensing or Intuition (chi square = .088, p>.05), Thinking or Feeling (chi square = .070, p >.05), and Judging or Perceiving (chi square = .061, p >.05) as measured by the MBTI.

On the basis of statistical analysis, the conclusion was made that on the indices of personality types measured the four basic categories were similarly distributed in the persistent subgroup and in the nonpersistent subgroup. Thus, the null hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in personality type as measured by the MBTI between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida was not rejected.

In order to test Hypothesis 4, the t test was computed

for the raw scores of each of the subtests of the McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test (MHRT). These subtests included: Reading Rate 1, Reading Rate 2, Flexibility, Retention for Reading Rate 1, Retention for Reading Rate 2, Article Comprehension, Skimming and Scanning, Paragraph Comprehension, and Total Comprehension. Summaries of the data used in the t test analysis for each of these subtests--






78


Reading Rate 1, Reading Rate 2, Flexibility, Retention for Reading Rate 1, Retention for Reading Rate 2, Article Comprehension, Skimming and Scanning, Paragraph Comprehension, and Total Comprehension--are represented in Tables 15 through 23 respectively.


Table 15

Analysis of Reading Rate 1 for the Entrance Raw Scores
for MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students


n x s Persistent Students 32 257.28 62.43 Nonpersistent Students 38 259.53


Note. t =-.15 n.s.




Table 16

Analysis of Reading Rate 2 for the Entrance Raw Scores
for MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students


n x s Persistent Students 32 209.25 49.84 Nonpersistent Students 38 223.76


Note. t = -1.21 n.s.






79


Table 17

Analysis of Flexibility for the Entrance Raw Scores
for MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students


n x s Persistent Students 32 48.03 41.69 Nonpersistent Students 38 35.76


Note. t = 1.23 n.s.









Table 18

Analysis of Retention for Reading Rate 1 for the
Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent
Students and Nonpersistent Students


n x s Persistent Students 32 6.75 1.51 Nonpersistent Students 38 7.16


Note. t = -1.13






80


Table 19

Analysis of Retention for Reading Rate 2 for the
Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent
Students and Nonpersistent Students


n x s Persistent Students 32 6.31 1.80 Nonpersistent Students 38 5.68


Note. t = 1.45 n.s.








Table 20

Analysis of Article Comprehension for the Entrance Raw Scores
for MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students


n x s Persistent Students 32 13.06 2.97 Nonpersistent Students 38 12.84


Note. t = .31 n.s






81


Table 21

Analysis of Skimming and Scanning for the Entrance Raw Scores
for MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students


n x s Persistent Students 32 19.91 3.92 Nonpersistent Students 38 21.00


Note. t = -1.16 n.s.








Table 22

Analysis of Paragraph Comprehension for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students


n x s Persistent Students 32 19.16 3.92 Nonpersistent Students 38 20.24


Note. t = -1.15 n.s.






82


Table 23

Analysis of Total Comprehension for the Entrance Raw Scores
for MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students


n x s

Persistent Students 32 52.09 7.91 Nonpersistent Students 38 54.05


Note. t = -1.03 n.s.


The calculated t test results indicated no significant

difference between the persistent students and the nonpersistent students on the subtest raw scores of the McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test for Reading Rate 1 (t = -.15, p >.05), Reading Rate 2 ( t = -1.21, p >.05), Flexibility (t = 1.23, p->.05), Retention for Reading Rate 1 (t = -1.13, p >.05), Retention for Reading Rate 2 (t = 1.45, p >.05), Article Comprehension (t = .31, p >.05), Skimming and Scanning (t = -1.16, p >.05), Paragraph Comprehension (t = -1.15, p >.05), or Total Comprehension ( t = -1.03, p >.05).

On the basis of statistical analysis, the conclusion was made that the college entrance reading proficiency was as well developed in the persistent subgroup as in the nonpersistent subgroup. Thus, the null hypothesis that there would not be any significant difference between entrance reading performance






83


between the persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida was not rejected.

In order to test Hypothesis 5, the t test was computed

for the raw scores of the verbal, quantitative, and total test results of the School and College Ability Test. A summary of the data used for the t test analysis for the Verbal Subtest, the Quantitative Subtest, and the Total Test is presented in Table 24.


Table 24

Analysis of the Verbal Subtest, Quantitative Subtest, and
Total Test for the Entrance Raw Scores for SCAT for
Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students



Verbal Quantitative
Subtest Subtest Total
n x n x n x Persistent
Students 32 25.81 32 26.97 32 52.78 Nonpersistent
Students 38 27.10 38 27.42 38 54.53 s = 5.70 s = 7.38 s = 12.83 t =-.94 t = -.26 t = -.57



The calculated t test results indicated no significant

difference between the persistent students and the nonpersistent






84

students on the raw scores for the School and College Ability Test for the Verbal Scores (t = -.94, p >.05), the Quantitative Scores (t = -.26, p >.05), and the Total Scores (t = -.57, p >.05).

On the basis of statistical analysis, the conclusion was

made that general ability was as well developed in the persistent subgroup as in the nonpersistent subgroup. Thus, the null hypothesis that there would not be any significant difference in general ability between the persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida was not rejected.

In order to test Hypothesis 6, the chi square was applied to the data concerning the type of program initially selected by persistent and nonpersistent students. The types of programs included were reading rate, comprehension, study skills, or a combination of programs. The total number of students in the persistent subgroup and the nonpersistent subgroup for this variable is not equal to the total numbers for these subgroups in the sample for this study. This is due to the fact that two students in the persistent subgroup and three students in the nonpersistent subgroup did not adequately complete the information on their RSSC enrollment forms. A summary of the data used for the chi square analysis is presented in Table 25.






85


Table 25

Analysis of the Type of Program Initially Selected-Reading Rate, Comprehension, Study Skills, or a
Combination--by Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students


Reading Compre- Study CombinaRate hension Skills tion

Persistent
Students 4 2 0 24 Nonpersistent
Students 4 5 5 21


Note. Chi square = 6.049 n.s.


The calculated chi square indicated no significant difference between the persistent students and the nonpersistent students in their perception of needs to be met through a program of work at the RSSC as indicated by their initial program selection for reading rate improvement, comprehension improvement, study skills improvement or a combination of programs for improvement (chi square = 6.049, p>.05).

On the basis of statistical analysis, the conclusion was made that on the initial program selection as determined by student selection of program the types of program were similarly distributed in the persistent subgroup and in the nonpersistent subgroup. Therefore, the null hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in program selection






86

between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida was not rejected.


Summary of Analyses

A review of the various analyses computed in this study reveal that there were no significant differences between the persistent students and the nonpersistent students on the six variables investigated. Therefore, each null hypothesis was not rejected.

In summary, it can be stated that for this sample there was no significant difference between the persistent subgroup and the nonpersistent subgroup in their relationship between persistence and GPA; sex; personality; entrance reading performance, entrance general scholastic ability; or type of initial reading program selected.




Full Text

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SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSISTENT AND NONPERSISTENT STUDENTS WHO ENROLLED VOLUNTARILY IN A DEVELOPMENTAL READING PROGRAM AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA By JO ANN WALTON PARHAM A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR I DA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1975

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Copyright by Jo An n Walton Parham 1975

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The writer is deeply grateful for the excellent support which has been provided by many people during the time of this study and the prepa r ation of this manuscript. She wishes to express a special and genuine appreciation to the following people: To her Chairperson, Dr. Ruthellen Crews for her friendship, understanding, and support, her continuous leadership as she gave direction for the study, and the hours of time spent to help clarify it. To Dr. A. Garr Cranney for graciously making available much of the necessary data for the study, lending the support of his staff, and directing the writer to many important sources of information. To Dr. Vynce Hines for giving valuable help in the area of statistical procedures for this research and helping in the details of expression. To Dr. Art Lewis for giving assistance in the preparation of thi s work and being supportive throughout her graduate studies. iii

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To Mrs. Arden Goettling for typing the manuscript and providing valuable ideas and suggestions during the entire time of preparation. To her husb a nd, Bob Parham for providing unwaivering and unconditional loving support and encouragement throughout her graduate studies, doing the extras to make time available, understanding the frustrations and difficulti e s, and having a loyal and consistent belief in the possibility of success. To her children, Robert, Sam, Terry, Danny, and Cindy for occasionally having to accept a part-time mother yet con tinuing to have empathy in difficult times and joy in times of progress, being willing to assume extra responsibilities at home, and having a continuous interest in the project. To her parents, S. Rix and Willie Mae Hugghins Walton for helping create the desire to develop potentials by assuming that their daughter would and for understanding the demands on her time and energies iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . iii List of Tables ......................................... viii List of Figures. . . . . . . . . . xi Abstract. . . . . . . . . . . . xii Chapter I Introduction to the Study...................... 1 Statement of the Problem..................... 2 Limitations of the Study..................... 2 Justification for the Study.................. 3 Definition of Terms.......................... 5 Statement of Hypotheses .................... ~. 6 Procedures. . . . . . . . . 6 Sample. . . . . . . . . . 7 Dat a Collection. . . . . . . 8 Data Treatment. . . . . . . . 8 Organization of the Study.................... 11 II A Review of the Related Literature............. 13 College Reading Programs and Academic Success 14 V

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Chapter II Page College Reading Programs and Attrition....... 19 Voluntary Versus Mandatory Attendance in a College Reading Program...................... 25 College Reading Programs and Personality..... 29 III Presentation of the Data....................... 36 The Locale. . . . . . . . . 36 A Short History of the RSSC.... .. .. ..... 37 The RSSC at the Time of This Study......... 40 Description of the Sample.. . . . . 43 Identification of Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students..................... 43 Cumulative Grade-Point Averages (GPA)........ 44 Sex of the Subjects.... . . . . . 4 7 The Test Instruments......................... 47 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).... ..... 48 McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test (MHR T) . . . . . . . . 4 9 School and College Ability Test, Series II (SCAT) . . . . . . . . . 52 The Test Scores. . . . . . . . 54 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)... ...... 54 McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test (MHR T) . . . . . . . . 5 5 School and College Ability Test, Series II (SCAT)... . . . . . . . . 64 Reading Instructional Programs............... 67 vi

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Chapter Page IV Analyses of Data............................... 70 The Relationship Between Persistence and Each Variable of the Study........................ 71 Summary of Analyses. . . . . . . 86 V Conclusions and Implications................... 87 Summary.. . . . . . . . . . 87 Findings. . . . . . . . . . 90 Implications for College Reading Programs.. 93 Recommen d ations for Furt h er Research......... 96 A p pendix A Services, Activities, and F u nctions o f the University of Florida's Reading and Study Skills Center.. . . . . . . . 99 Appendix B Summary Table fo r Grade-Point Average (GPA) Means. . . . . . . . . . 101 List of References......... . . . . . . . 103 Biographical Sk e tch .................................... 111 vii

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Distributions of Cumulative Grade-Point Averages (GPA) of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for Fa ll Ouarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975, E x cluding Summer Quarter, 1973, and Summer Page O uarter, 1974..................................... 46 2 Distributions of Sex of Subj e cts in the Persistent and Nonpersist e nt Subgroups.............. ........ 47 3 Distributions of MBTI P e rsonality Preferences of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students............. 54 4 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for Reading Rate 1 and Reading Rate 2 for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT.. ............ 56 5 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for Flexibility for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT. . . . . . . . . 5 7 6 Distributions of Persistent and N o npersistent Students for Retention for Reading Rate 1 and Retention for Reading Rate 2 for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT. . . . . . . . 58 7 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for Article Compr e hension, Skimming and Scanning, and Paragraph Comprehension for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT.. . . . . . 59 8 Distributions of Persistent and N o npersistent Students for Total Comprehension for the Entrance Raw Sc ore s for MHR T . . . . . . . 6 1 viii

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Table Page 9 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for the Verbal Subtest and the Quant i tative Subtest for the Entrance R a w Scores for SCAT................................... 65 10 Distributions of Persistent and N o n p ersistent Students for the Entrance R a w Scor e s for the Total Test for SCAT............................... 67 11 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for the Initial Selection of the Type(s) of Program Requested.... ................. 68 12 Summary of Analysis of Var ia nce for GPA Means for t he P e rsistent Students and th e Nonpersistent Students for Fal l Quarter, 1972, through Winter Ouarter, 1975, E xcluding Summer Quart e r, 1973, and Summer Quart e r, 1974.......................... 73 13 A Comparison of Males and Females in the Persistent and the Nonpersistent Subgroups. ...... 75 14 A Comparison o f t he Preferences of Extroversion or Introversion, Sen s ing or Intuition, Thinking or Feeling, and Judging or Perc e iving on MBTI for Persistent Students and for Nonpersistent Students......................... . . . . 76 15 Analysis of Reading Rate 1 for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent Stud e nts and Nonpersistent Students............................ 78 16 Analysis of Reading Rate 2 for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for P e rsistent Studen t s and Nonper s istent Students............................ 78 17 Analysis of Flexibility for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent Students a nd Nonpersi s tent Students ..... ~ 79 1 8 Analysis of Retention for Reading Rate 1 f or the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students............... 79 i x

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Table 19 Analysis of Retention for Reading Rate 2 for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent Page Students and Nonpersistent Students............... 80 20 Analysis of Arti c le Comprehension for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students............................ 80 21 Analysis of Skimming and Scanning for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students............................ 81 22 Analysis of Paragraph Comprehension for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT f or Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Stud e nts............... 81 23 Analysis of Total Comprehension for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students............................ 82 24 Analysis o f the Verbal Subtest, Quantitativ e Subtest, and Total Test for the Entrance Raw Scores for SCAT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students........................... 83 25 Analysis of the Type of Pr o gram Initially SelectedReading Rate, Compreh e nsion, Study Skills, or a Combination--by Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students........................ 85 X

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 A comparison of GPA means of the persistent stude n ts and the nonpersistent stud e nts for Fall Qu ar t e r, 1972, through Winte r Ouarter, 1975, exluding Summer Quarter, 1973, and Page Summer Quarter, 1974............... . . . 74 xi

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to t he Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSISTENT AND NONPERSISTENT STUDENTS WHO ENROLLED VOLUNTARILY IN A DEVELOPMENTAL READING PROGRAM AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA By Jo Ann Walton Parham December, 1975 Chairperson: Ruthellen Crews Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relation ship between persistence in participating in a college voluntary, noncredit developmental reading program and change in academic achievement as measured by grade-point average (GPA), sex of student, personality type as measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), entrance reading profi ciency as measured by McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test (MHRT), entrance general scholastic ability as measured by School and College Ability Test (SCAT), and the type of program initially selected b y the student. The study was limited to 70 randomly selected University of Florida freshman st u dents who enrolled in the Reading and Study Skills Center (RSSC) during the fall quarter of the 19721973 academic school year. For the purposes of this study, x ii

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students were identified as persistent and nonpersistent according to the total number of hours of participation in the RSSC. The 32 persistent students were ones who attended the RSSC for at least a total of nine hours, while the 38 nonpersistent students were those who had attended the RSSC for a total of eight or fewer hours. Three statistical analyses were computed on the data collected. The split-plot design was used to compute the analysis of variance for unweighted means to compare GPA means for the two subgroups. A line graph showing the difference between GPA means for the persistent students and the non persistent students was also made. The chi square was performed on the data concerning the sex of student, the personality type preferences of Extroversion or Introversion, Sensing or Intuition, Thinking or Feeling, and Judging or Perceiving as measured by MBTI, and the student's initial program selection of reading rate, comprehension, study skills, or a combination of pro grams. At test for group mean differences was used to deter mine differences between reading proficiency as measured by the raw scores of the subtests of MHRT. The subtests included Reading Rate 1, Reading Rate 2, Flexibility, Retention for Reading Rate 1, Retention for Reading Rate 2, Article Compre hension, Skimming and Scanning, Paragraph Comprehension, and Total Comprehension. At test was also performed to describe xiii

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group differences between persistent and nonpersistent students for entrance general scholastic ability as measured by the verbal, quantitative, and total raw scores of SCAT. On the basis of the observed results from the v a rious statistical analys e s, the conclusion was made that for this sample there was no significant difference between persistent students and nonpersistent students who voluntarily enrolled in a noncredit developmental reading program and any of the six variables tested. x iv

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY One of the greatest needs among stu de nts who enroll in postsecondary education is instruction in reading a nd s tudy skills. As a result, t he number of developmental reading pro grams has rapidly increased in both universities and junior colleges. According to a survey (Devirian, Enright, and Smith, 1975a) of the accredit e d colleges and universities listed in the Educational Direct o ry for the academic years 1972-1973 and 19731974, of the 1,258 institutions which responded, 61 percent reported that their institutions had a learning study skills program and another 9.3 perc e nt indicated plans to develop such a center within the next two years. Many of these are f ree, voluntary, noncredit programs. A large number do not give grades, and a llow students to discontinue at a n y time. Generally, it is expected that participation in a college level developmental reading p rogr a m will result in improv e ment in academic su c cess. Furth er mor e one might ex p ect tha t the l e vel of persistence in using such volunteer services would 1

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2 have some effect on results. At the present time data to sup port these e x pectations are minimal. Statement of the Probl e m The problem in this study is directed toward answering the following question. What is the relationship between the level of persistence in participating in a voluntary, noncredit college developmental reading program and these variables: 1. Change in academic achievement as measured by grade-point average (GPA); 2. Sex of stude n t; 3. Personality type as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicato r (MBTI); 4. Entrance reading performance as measured by the McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Re a ding Test (MHRT); 5. Entrance general ability as measured by the School and College Ability Test (SCAT); and 6. Type of program initially selected by the student. Limitations of the Study This study was limited to 70 University of Florida fresh man students who voluntarily enrolled in the University's noncredit developmental reading program provided at the Reading and Study Skills Center (RSSC) during the fall quarter of their 1972-1973 academic school year. Of these students, 32 were identified as persistent and 38 were identified as nonpersistent. This r e sear c h was concerned only with identif yi ng certain

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3 specified characteristics w hich might be r e lated to the persist ence and th e nonpersistence of participation in the RSSC by these students The characteristi c s considered and analyzed i n this study were limited to GPA; sex; personality ty pe as measured by the MBTI; reading proficiency as measured by the entrance scores on the MHRT; general ability as measured by the entrance scores on the SCAT; and the type of program initially selected by the student. The extent to which the findings in this study can be gener alized to the populations enrolled in similar reading a nd study skills pr o gr ams at oth e r u niversit i es is limited because the sample population wa s taken from one specific university and gave consideration to the data collected from thos e s tudents. Justification for the Study There is national concern for the improvement of reading at all levels; therefore, the results of university reading pr og ram s ar e of importanc e The r e search reviewed relating to th i s st u dy poi n ts o ut some po s i t iv e results of par t icipation in a developmental reading pro g ram on grad e -point average; consequently, it would also be expected that persistence in such a service would cause e ven g r e a ter improvements. However, little has been done to investig a t e the specif i c e f fects that per s istence in particip a ting i n such a program might have on improvement in GPA.

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4 Furthermore, additional study is needed to determine the reason(s) students are willing to persist or not to do so in their attendance in programs which offer no credit for the time and effort expended. It might be expected that certain personal characteristics of students would influence their levels of persistence. Devirian et al. (1975b)have indicated that college reading and study skills programs and/or centers are relatively new in institutions of higher education and that durin g the past few years they have experienced phenomenal growth. They reported th a t 57 percent of the centers were started after 1970 and that only 9 percent were in existence prior to 1960. This increased concern about providing students with facilities to help them improve their reading and study skills indicates a need to seek ways of making such programs as effective as possible. When a developmental program is voluntary, student motivation becomes vital to its success. Therefore, more information about the characteristics of participating stu dents is needed in order to help directors of such programs make the necessary adjustments in each student's program to insure that the length of time the student participates is most beneficial and that the student is indeed persistent to the point of reaching his/her potential for academic success. The present economic conditions in this country and a

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5 d e clining enrollment in m a ny coll e ges and universities point to the need for a careful evaluation of all programs in hi g her education. Because most developmental reading services offered by four-year institutions of higher education are voluntary, participation in them especially needs to be studied. It was expected that this study would result in findings which would give added support so such services. Definition of Terms The following definition of terms is provided to clarify the concepts as they w e re used in this study: A developmental reading progr a m (DRP) was defined as one where provisions were made available by the university to help stu dents make improvement in such skills as reading rate, compre hension, and study skills. In this study such a program was provided at the Reading and Study Skills Center (RSSC) at the University o f Florida. A volunta r y program was one offered by an institution which was noncredit and r equi red no additional fees, and in which the student freely selected to or not to enroll. The student determined the length and number of times to participate and could enter and discontinue at any time. The student also had some input into determining the type of program to be pursu e d. Persistent students were i d enti f ied, in this study, as those students who attended the DRP (RSSC) for at least a total of nine hours. Nonpersistent students were identified, in this study, as those students who attended the DRP (RSSC) for a total of eight or fewer hours.

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6 Statement of Hypotheses This study investigated the fo l lowing null hypotheses: Hypothesis 1. There will be no significant difference in change in grade-point average between persistent and non persistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida. Hypothesis 2. There will be no significant difference in the number of males and in the number of females between persist ent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman st ud ents who volun tarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida. Hypothesis 3. There will be no significant difference in personality type as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman stu dents who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida. Hypothesis 4. There will be no significant difference in entrance reading performance as m e asured by each of the sub test scores on the McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida. Hypo t hesis 5. There will b e no significant difference in general ability as me a sured by the entrance scores on the School and College Ability Test between persistent and non persistent 1972-1973 freshman studen t s who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the Univer si ty of Florida. Hypothesis 6. Th e re will be no significant difference in the type of re a ding program ini t ially selected--reading ra t e, com prehension, study skills, or a combination of programs--between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily at t ended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida. Procedures Seeking an answer to the question posed in this study, the

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7 following procedures were used in the collection and analyses of data: Permission was requested and approval was granted from the University of Florida College of Education Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to use the necessary data on each subject for this study. Permission was secured from the Registrar's Office, University of Florida, to use the data concerning grade-point averages for each quarter from Fall Quarter, 1972, throu g h Winter Quarter, 1975, for the 1972-1973 f reshman students used in this study. Permission was secured from Dr. A. G. Cranney, the D i rector of the Reading and Study Skills Center (RSSC) at the University of Florida, to use the data available on the 1972-1973 fresh man students who attended the RSSC during their Fall Quarter, 1972. S a mpie University of Florida freshman students from the 19721973 acad em ic year who voluntarily went to the RSSC during their fall quarter were id e ntified from the records avail a ble. The s e students had been tested, counseled, and given a program o f work to f o llow in the laboratory Randomization was used to select 70 of these students to be used in this study. From this sample, two subgroups were selected. One subgroup consisted

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8 of those students who were considered persistent and the other subgroup consisted of those students who were considered non p e rsistent. Persistent students were identified, f o r purposes of this study, as those who attended the RSSC at least a total of nine hours. Nonpersistent students were identified, for the purposes of this study, as those who attended the RSSC for a total of eight or fewer hours. Data Collection From the Registrar's Office, University of Florida, each student's total grade points earned and total hours carried for grade points for each quarter from Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975, were obtained and used to deter mine each student's GPA. The following data available from the RSSC were also used: 1. Sex of student; 2. Res u lts on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator; 3. Entrance scores for th e s ubtests of the McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test; 4. Entrance scores for verbal, quantitative, and total p er formance on the School and College Ability Test; and 5. Type of program initially selected by each student (i.e., reading rate, comprehension, study skills, or a combination of programs) when enrolling at the RSSC. Data Treatment The above data were analyzed to determine what signific a nt

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9 relationship(s) existed between each of them and those students who were persistent and those students who were nonpersistent in their participation in the voluntary developmental reading program offered at the RSSC. The statistical methods used to analyze the data were determined_by th e nature of the data available and the types of information sought. A comparison was made of the GPA means of subjects in this study to determine whether these averages showed gains, remained the same, or showed losses for persistent students and for nonpersistent students. Scores for the GPA for each quarter from Fa l l Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975, were analyzed using the split-plot design, as recommended by Kirk (1968), to compute an analysis of variance to determine if significant Fs occurred. Significant changes in GPA means were checked at the .OS level of co n fidence. Summer Quarter, 1973, and Summer Quarter, 1974, were not computed in this analysis becau s e many of the students in the sample popula tion did not attend the summer sessions. This comparison was made in an attempt to determine if there was any difference between GPA and the amount of participation in a developmental reading program. From the obtained GPA means for the persist ent students and for the nonpersistent students a line g r aph was designed to compa r e the GPA means for the two subgro u ps each quarter considered in the study.

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10 The study also attemp t ed to determine if the sex of the students was associated with persistence and nonpersistence among those students who attended the RSSC by comparing the number of male students and the number of female students in the persistent subgroup with the nonpersistent subgroup. The chi square was used to analyze this association. The results of each student's self-report of preferences on the MBTI questionnaire were used to determine personality type. For this part of the study an analysis was made of the four categories of the basic preferences. These data were investigated to see if there was a relationship between per sistence of these students and each of the following indices: Extroversion or Introversion, Sensing or Intuition, Thinking or Feeling, and Judging or Perceiving. Each pair of personality preferences was analyzed by the use of the chi square. The student's entrance subtest raw scores on the MHRT were studied to determine if there was a difference between any of th o se scores and persistence in the participation of students in the RSSC. These subtests included: Reading Rate 1, Reading Rate 2, Flexibility, Retention for Reading Rate 1, Retention for Reading Rate 2, Article Comprehension, Skimming and Scanning, Paragraph Comprehension, a nd Total Comprehension. The raw scores from these subtests were analyzed by the use of the t test.

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11 Entrance results for the verbal, quantitative, and t o tal raw scores of the SCAT were analyzed to determine if there was a difference between any of those scores and persistence in the participation of students in the RSSC. These scores were analyzed by the use of the! test. The student's perception of his/her individual reading improvement needs, to be met through participation in a pro gram of work at the RSSC, was determined by his/her initial selection of a type(s) of program. Th e type of program included programs to help improve the student's skills in reading rate, comprehension, study skills, or a combination of these. An analysis was made to see if there was a differ ence between the type of program initially selected by students and persistence or nonpersistence in participation in the RSSC. These program selections were analyzed by the use of the chi square. The above data were studied in an attempt to identify some of the characteristics of persistent students and of non persistent students who voluntarily participated in a develop mental reading program at the University of Florida. Organization of the Study This research report will be presented in five chapters. The first serves as an introduction to the study and briefly describes the procedures for the study.

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12 Chapter II contains a review of selected literature and research that is related t o the topic of the study. This review led to the formulation o f the hypotheses. The third chapter p r esents the d a ta de r ived from th e study. The analyses of the data collected and the conclusions drawn in relation to the stated hypothes e s are contained in the fourth chapter. The fifth chap t er summarizes th e study and presents spe ci fic recommendations based on the findings of this study. A bi b li o graphy and appendices are included.

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CHAPTER II A REVI E W OF THE RE LATED LITERATURE This review of selected literature and research concen trates primarily on the relationship(s) between a developmental reading program (DRP) and the variables included in this study. Specifically, the review focuses on grade-point average (GPA), attrition rate, the values of voluntary and mandatory DRPs, and personality factors. These studies provided a basis for the hypotheses posed. A major assumption underlying the need to provide a college developmental reading program is that participation in such a program will result in increased academic achieve ment. Since this achievement is generally measured by an increase in GPA, literature which discusses GPA as related to DRP participation will be reviewed. If parti c ipation in a DRP positively influences GPA it might be expected that the amount of participation in such a program would result in differing amounts of change in GPA. Furthermore, it should b e recognized that in a voluntary DRP the enrollment and per sistence in the program are not necessarily synonymous. 13

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14 Therefore, literature concerned with factors related to attri tion will be considered. In addition, voluntary and mandatory participation in a DRP may result in positive or negative results, or not influ ence results. To help determine what effects self-referral or forced attendance in a service such as this will produce, a review of studies relating to voluntary and mandatory participa tion in a reading and study skills program will be analyzed. For many years educators, psychologists, and others have been interested in the relati on ship(s), if any, between person ality and learning. Studies have been made in an attempt to determine which personality types might be related to learning superiority and learning disability. Recognizing that reading is a vital part of the total learning process, p articularly for students in institutions of higher education, a review of the liter a ture which deals with th e relationship between reading and personality will be included. College Reading Programs and Academic Success Numerous studies have been carried out which have attempted to identify the relationship between college reading improvement programs and grade-point average changes. One of the most recent studies reported was done at the University of Florida. Using the scores from the Florida State-Wide Twelfth Grade Test as her criterion for comparison, Burgess (1975) found that the 1972

PAGE 29

15 freshman students used in her study who voluntarily enrol l ed in the Reading and Study Skills Center, Unive r sity of Florida, a nd other freshman students at the same school had similar initial ability. She further repor t ed that the participants in the RSSC showed significant GPA gains over the total fresh man class at the end of the first term of the freshman year. After two y e ars, these RSSC participants continued to have GPAs above those of the total junior class but not at the .01 level of signifi c ance. The majority of the studies concerning the relationship(s) between GPA and reading improvement and study skills programs have been repor t ed in summary by Entwisle (1960), Fairbanks (1974a, 1974b), and Tillman (1972, 1972-1973). The findings of these three summa rie s of the research overlap by reporting many of the same studies. However, a tt e ntion wil l be given to the findings of all three researcher s The effects of 22 study skills improvement programs upon GPA were analyzed by Entwisle (1960). The size o f GPA changes for each study was reported and discussed, but the foll o wing general statement see m s to summarize her conclusions about such programs: "Some kind o f i m provement following a study-skills course seems to be th e rule, although the improvement varies from a very slight amount to a consid e rable amount" (p. 248). Tillman (1972-1973) compiled an annotated review of 31

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16 studies which were carried out from 1945 through 1971 dealing with this relationship. He stated that ''although 23 of the 31 studies found that statisti c ally significant gain in grade-point average was associated with participation in a reading program, grade gains tended to be practically small" (p. 100). It was recommended that criteria in addition to overall GPA be used to evaluate these reading programs. In another publication, Tillman (1972) reported that some of the studies analyzed used attrition as part of the investigation and some used type of course and grades of specific courses. In this report he stated, "Eight of the thirty-three studies were negative in the sense that GPA was not associated with reading improvement" (p. 209). The most recent and probably the most thorough report com piling studies concerning the relationship between GPA and par ticipation in reading and study skills programs has been done by Fairbanks (1974a, 1974b). She examined 87 college-level reading-study skills programs which were reported from 1930 through 1974. Her criterion for evaluating the program effect on academic achievement was overall GPA. The results of her study identified 34 programs in which the experimental group made greater overall GPA gains than the control group at the .05 level of significance or above; 20 programs showed a tendency for g r e a ter GPA gains by the developmental reading program par ticipants but not at the .05 level of significance; 19 programs

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17 were reported as successful but were "uns u bstantiated" because of a lack of adequate evidence; and 14 programs were considered unsuccessful. However, her definition of unsuccessful did not mean only that the control g r o up made greater GPA imp r ovement than the experimental group. It also included studies that did not indicate an advantage for the participatin g group for overall GPA A summa r y o f the lite ra ture reviewed concern i ng GPA a nd DRP association generally supports the value of a readin g / study skills program wh e n it is evaluat e d on the basis o f GPA g a i n s. Ho w ever, several authors suggested that GPA gains should not be the only criterion used when evaluating the value of such services (Reed, 1956; Re g ensburg, 1966; Tillman, 1972, 1972-1973). Althou g h it is expected that overall G P A gains are of con cern to DRP participants and to directors of reading and study skills programs, some studies have also suggested that research results concerning the permanency of reading and study skills gai n s and GPA gains related to DRP part i cipation are necessary when evaluating these p r ograms. Furthermore, it is imp o rtant to know whether or not students participating i n such programs might benefit more in certain types of acad e mic curricula than in others. Literature rela t ing to th e se fa c tors will be considered. O'Bear (1954) obs e rved that remedial student achievement tended to be higher during the semest e r of participation in the

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18 course. Sternitzke (1957) found that after a year's time, grades did not show any improvement as a result of reading and study habit training. But in his study of a junior college, Freer (1965) reported that GPA gains were significantly higher for the participating group and that gains in reading s co res tended to be retained for at least a year after the specialized instruc tion. Rate retention and improvement were observed after five semesters, according to Pa y ne (1971). Although he recognized that gains could be made without D R P participation, he felt these programs might influence the amount of improvement. Ranson (1952) and Reed (1956) found that increased reading rate was more likely to result from DRP participation than was comprehension improve ment or improvement in certain other skills. Ranson (1952) further noted that not only were GPAs higher at the end of the semester of DRP participation but that this continued to be true of subsequent semesters. Even though the rate improvement seemed to have some permanency, Reed (1956) warned that established reading and study habits are not likely to be changed after a short training period. However, Herman (1972) found that improve ments in reading skills were retained over time and appeared to have a positive effect on cumulative quality point ratio. Bloomer (1962) found that reading skills improvement and academic achievement were not related; whereas Gunderson (1960) noted that reading ability was related to accomplishments in all

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19 subject matters considered in her study. Reed (1956) did not find that rapid reading increases were related to g ains in aca demic work for nursing students. He suggest ed that the nature of their required reading was the reason for this However, Swindle (1968) found that Veterinary Medicine students received more benefits from a techniques-of-learning course than other students. Kilby (1945), Kingston and George (1955), and Wright (1960) found that participation in a reading a n d study ski l ls program had more positive results on verbal or linguistic subject matter. College Reading Programs and Attrition Since motivation is vital not only to participation in a DRP but also to the amount of persistence in the program, lit erature related to attrition will be discussed. Several studies investigated the college attrition rate of DRP participants, but only a few reported results of attrition rate in the program itself. College attrition rates were favor ably i n fluenced by participation in such programs according to the findings of Kaye (1971), McDonald (19 5 6), Munger (1954), and Swindle (1968). However, O'Bear (1954), Sosebee (1963), and Wright (1960) concluded from their studies that enrollment or lack of it in a reading and study skills program did not affect school attrition. Since one major concern of this study was the amount of participation in a DRP, most of the emphasis on this part of

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20 the literature review will be concerned with attrition in a reading program and its influence on various variables studied by researchers. The n um ber of students who maintain a high level of per sistence in a voluntary developmental reading program does not necessarily h a ve a high correlation with the number of students who begin such a program. Maxwell ( 1 975) surveyed a random sample of students using the student services at the University of California at Berkeley. She found that of those students seeking help about 10-25 percent of them did not follow through. Most of the students dropped the course or decided they did not need the assistance. The majority of students did not finish the programs they began. For example, of those who registered for the Xerox readi ng program only one-third completed it. How ever, after some modifications whi c h made the program more flex ible in order to accommodate different skill levels, more students persisted. According to Tillman, Millott, and Larsen (1974), freshman students who voluntarily a t tend e d the Reading and Study Skills Center at the University of Florida during their 1972 fall quarter averaged only 7.9 hours in the laboratory. Wood (1957) did one of the fi r st studi e s in the attrition of noncredit university reading classes. Personality variables, motivational factors, and reading class placement of the sub jects were studied as predictors of attrition. Class meeting

PAGE 35

21 time was the only factor that differentiated the groups in this study. However, a study of the total population showed that there was an unsubstantial ne g ative associati on between referral and dropouts. Referral students who showed the g reatest tendency to finish the course were id e ntified as impermeable or an x ious according to the SA-S Senior Scales scores. Wood (1957) further studied the association between instruc tional variables an d attrition. He found nonsignificant dif ferences betw e en students who persisted and those who dropped out for progress on practice exercises and student rating s of their instructors. B etween subgroup membership and course completion there was a negative association. He concluded that the prediction of dropouts was n o t possible with the measures used in this study. However, his study indicated that attrition w as associated with classroom variables, sub group membership, referral, and personality interaction with referral Three groups of university freshman students e n rolled in a noncredit reading and study course were studied by Allen (1968). The groups w e re designated as students who voluntarily enrolled and persisted, those who voluntarily enrolled but dropped out of the reading course, and students who were non voluntary enrollees. The characteristics of initial reading

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22 ability, improvement of reading skil l s, study habits and atti tud e s, academic aptitude, and success in college were analyzed to determine if a significant difference could be found between any of these facto r s and any of the three g roups. The results of her findings indicated the following conclusions: (a) more ef f ective study habits and attitudes could be expected for nonvoluntary enrollees than for volu n ta r y enrollees among male students; (b) differences observed between persistent and nonpersistent students with regard to graduation from college seemed to be due more to such variables as sex, age, college, and major field than to r e maining in the reading course; (c ) the areas of improvement may differ for persisting voluntary enrollees and nonvoluntary enrollees but both may benefit from such a cour s e ; and (d) the expectations for these groups of subjects in regard to pro b able success in college or success in the reading improvement course seem not to need modification. For this reason it was felt that this reading and study course was appropriate as provided. DeFrain (1970) studied th e relationship between a tt rition in a noncredit college reading improvement program and the variables of sex, initial reading p e rformance, academic ability, first semester grade-point average, and self-concept. Differ ences were analyzed between subjects who completed the course and those who did not, and separate analyses were c a rri e d out

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23 for each sex. Although the results of the subscales of the California Test of Personality did not show any statistical significance for either sex, the results of the readers sub scale of the Englander Scale did sho w a significant difference for self-concept between the male subjects in the two groups. The relative number of terminating males and females was due to random variance. In academic ability the females in the group completing the course was significantly higher, but no significant difference was found between the males in the two groups. The findings also showed that for both sexes in the persisting group there w e re higher GPAs. Except for compre hension for the terminating male subjects, the initial reading ability subscales showed only differences due to random variation Attrition was one of the factors in Smith's (1970) inves tigation concerning the association between personality and reading improvement prediction. Using the Personality Assessment System to measure personality, he found no associa tion between attrition in a DRP and personality. Dalton, G liessman, Guthrie, and Rees (1966) r ep orted that trends among the reading groups th e y analyzed sugg e sted that students who persisted in a readin g course made greater GPA gains than nonpersisters and nonparticipants. Pauk (1965) co m pared the GPA gains of a 14-session DRP

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24 with a 6-session program and reported that the participants of the shorter s e ssion gained three times as much in GPA. Even though this was not significan t it had certain impli cations. Pauk specul a ted that the difference was due to the s t udents' attitudes that their needs could best be met by increasin g the speed of their reading which was included only in t h e longer sessions, when, in fact, i t was the study skills that were of most value to them. The dropout rate for both the control group and the reading program participants at the Univ e r s ity of Wichita was less than the av e rage for t he nation according to Hinton (1961). She felt motivation was important here. Of the DRPs reviewed, this was one of the few which required enrollment fees. The findings of Bohr, Cias, and Clayton (1973) showed that counseling helped decrease attritio n rate in a reading skills class but it did not significantly influence enrollment or success in the program F ai rbanks (1974a) concluded from her analysis of 79 studies relating to DRPs that "successful" programs were significantly more often reporte d when at least 40 hours o f student participa tion was involved. Furthermore, she f o und that subject involvement in diagnosing personal reading problems and i n program evaluation were significantly more often reported in "successful" than in "unsuccessful" programs.

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25 From the limited amount of literature available concerning DRPs and attrition, it is difficult to ascertain the contribu tion that different amounts of participation in a college reading program have upon those stud e nts who are persistent and those who are nonpersistent. However, persistence in program participation appears to favorably influence students' achievements in the acquisition of reading skills and improved grades for many curricula. It might be observed th a t many of these studies resulted in a concern for identifying the reasons for different rates of attrition in c o lleg e reading programs. Factors such as students' motivation and perceptions of their individual needs, variables within the program, personality traits, and the interaction of various variables were suggested as possible influences upon the amount of participation in such programs. Voluntary Versus Mandatory Attendance in a College Reading Program Certain features, such as mandatory or voluntary partici pation, in developmental reading programs seem to influence the student's desire to participate and to gain maximum results from these programs. Robinson (1950) suggested th a t the motiva tion and attitudes of students are of importance when con sidering the results of reading programs. The greater motivation of volunteering students as opposed to nonvolunteering

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26 students for a reading improvement program should be considered. Although many studi e s reviewed did not indicate whether or not this variable was c o nsidered, some of those which recognized the need to control f o r motivation are included here. Kingst on and George (1955) claimed that control for this factor was established in their study by providi n g students with a choice of the reading course instead of one of the required orienta tion group guidanc e courses. Regensburg (1966) felt motivation was controlled in his study because one of his control groups was composed of students who requested but were denied admis sion t o the reading improvement course. Kilby (1945) used a means of acquiring a predict e d grade status to equate subjects in his attempt to co n trol for motivation. Furthermore, diff e rences in the defini t ion of voluntary pro g rams were noted in the rep o rted research. Many authors u s ed the t e rm to mean t hat students were free to enroll but once enrolled they we r e e x p ec ted to f ulfill certain require ments such as a designated amount of attendance in the course. It should be noted that in this study a voluntary p r ogram also includ e d the right to discontinue t h e program at any time as determined by the participant. Certain studies reviewed did not indicate whether the program was voluntary or mandatory. However, some programs involving various definitions of voluntary participation are

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27 reported below. Sternitzke's (1957) study found significant gains were made in reading skills and study habits but not in GPA at the end of a year's time. Regensburg (1966) also report e d that the experimental groups made significant gains in reading but not in GPA. Using the Nelson-Denny Reading Test as the measuring device, Bonham (1972) found positive results for most reading skills tested. Immediate and long range positive effects in terms of GPAs for students with study behavior problems were noted by Lesnik (1968) as a result of an individual study counseling pro g ram. The volunteer stu dents studied by Gunderson (1960) benefited sooner in courses such as religion and English than in other courses as a result of their DRP participation. Ranson (1952) obs e rved most growth in rate but also some in comprehension for students in a voluntary program. A higher GPA but not significant study habit scores for the experimental g roup was reported by Hutchinson (1971). From his study Cosper (1953) reported that experimental subjects could improve in rate and compre hension from a voluntary developmental reading program. In Bliesmer's (1966) review of reading programs, he summarized a study by Ross which,when analyzing three groups at the Univer sity of Kentucky, found that each semester's group gained in certain reading skills (first semester was rate, second semester was comprehension, and third semester was both rate

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28 and comprehension), but there was a lack of conti nu ity in the growth by groups. It can further be noted that investigations of several mandatory programs also reported that students benefited from participation in them. A compulsory remedial reading group at the University of Miami was studied by Mouly (1952). He observed that, although for various reasons certain students who were req u ired to enroll did not, those who took the course and remained made significant favorabl e differences in grades for academic work. The experimental group required to take reading training which Wright (1960) studied showed more reading skills gain and under certain conditions better GPAs in verbal type curriculum. Gerberich (1934) studied 1928-1929 probation students at th e University of Arkansas who were required to take the special course because of deficient reading ability. When certain disparity between the initial and final status for the two groups was considered it was s ug gested that the program was effective. Although they may differ in the areas of improvement, Allen (1968) found that both persisting voluntary enrollees and nonvoluntary enrollees could b e nefit from a reading and study skills course. However, Feinberg, Long, and Rosenheck (1962) reported that students resisted being required to take a study methods course and felt that this negatively influenced the amount of change which occurred.

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29 Fairbanks (1974a) noted in her report of 79 reading improve ment programs that significantly more voluntary programs than required p rograms reported success resulting from student participation. A number of studies discussed the implications and m a de recommendations about the need to study more carefully the influence of voluntary and m a ndqtory programs. Federice (1972) noted that studies concerned with the results of voluntary versus forced program participation in educational services is "meager and equivocal." But in his study of high risk community college freshmen he found that enforced attend ance in a study skills program did not adversely affect the results gained. Although significant positive effects can be derived for participants in either voluntary or mandatory college DRPs, from the literature reviewed, it appears that more often than not students who voluntarily enrolled made significant gains in reading performance. College Reading Programs and P er sonality Recognizing the complexities involved in the act of reading, past and present concerns about the possible associations between reading and personality traits, and the possible implications for students' personality characteristics upon enrollment and attrition in a DRP, it seems appropriate to

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investigate what association there may be between college reading program participation and personality. Through the years, most concern has been devoted to the associations 30 between reading difficulties and personality abnormalities. Strang (1955), along w i th others, has written much about this relationship. However, she has stated that, "Since the achieve ment of reading proficiency is part of one's t otal development, personality factors naturally enter into every reading case" (Ephron, 1953, p. xi) This idea was supported by Spache (Millott, 1974) in his theory that reading is ''an extention of personality." Although Ephron (1953) wrote primarily about early school years, it is felt that her suggestions have appli cations for college personnel. She too was concerned about the total person and the relationships between difficulties in reading and problems in personality. Some of this philosophy may have helped e s t ablish college DRPs. However, attention has also been given to the possibility that certain pers o nality characteristics may have differing effects upon reading development and DRP participation. Therefore, a review of the literature related to these associations will be presented The following researchers used Eysenck's theory of per sonality as a basis for their studies and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) as their measuring device for personality traits. Whitehill and Jipson (1970) found a difference in the responses

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31 of introverts and extroverts to type of reading training (tradi tional or instrumental) with extroverts being influenced most by the types of program. Their conclusion was that introverts did not need the structure needed by extroverts. A similar study was reported by Whitehill and Rubin (1971) which confirmed the earlier investigation. They also found the instrumental method was beneficial to all personality type as measured by words per minute gains in reading scores. However, the results were not as conclusive concerning the advantages of that method of teaching versus the traditional method for extroverts. Using the EPI to measure personality traits and the Brown-Holtzman Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes to measure study habits, Cowell and Entwistle (1971) found that although stable intro verts had better study habits than extroverts, their test results were not better. Entwistl e and Entwistle (1970) also used EPI to determine personality characteristics for a group of college of education students. They reported that stable introverts are good students and have good study habits. Antoine (1972) investigated the possibility of predicting reading achievement in community college students by using personality type. He further analyzed the relationship between reading and Eysenck's p e rsonality types. His conclusions were that introverts were more proficient readers than extroverts, and he also suggested that neuroticism had little or no effect upon reading achievement.

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32 Anderson (1961) studied Western Australian college fresh men on the association between reading and personality using the Cooperative Reading Test and Cattell 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire to measure these variables. The results indi cated that effective readers were more self-sufficient, emotionally sensitive, introverted, and intelligent than other readers. Millott (1974) concluded from the literature he examined that there is support for the theory that personality differ ences are related to different reading skills. Furthermore, he studied the relationship between personality type as measured by MBTI and reading performance as measured by the subtests of MHRT: Flexibility, Scanning, and Paragraph Com prehension. This study of college freshmen was also analyzed by sex. Although no difference was found between the sexes, correlations between Flexibility and Thinking, Scanning and Intuition, and Paragraph C o mprehension and Introversion, Intuition, and Perception were observed. He also stated that the personality type of INTP according to MBTI type showed the most efficiency in reading whereas E STJ showed the least The personality factor of Intuition had a significant relationship to reading comprehension. Hill (1962) found little agreement among researchers with respect to identifying specific personality characteristics

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33 which were related to reading difficulty. This led him to sug gest that the reader's total behavior should be used when studying the relationship of reading to personality. Using reading effectiveness as the learning process, Smith, Wood, Downer, and Raygor (1956) found that the method of teaching affected certain kinds of learners. The directive methods were best for permeable and anxious students. But the method of teaching did not seem to influence i m permeable and anxious students. Tillman et al. (1974) reported several studies concerning the relationship between personality and reading ability involving both normal and disadvantaged samples enrolled in the Reading and Study Skills Center, University of Florida. They found that more efficient readers more often preferred dealing with symbols and abstractions, and that the DRP atmo sphere of individual help benefited persons who were concerned about pleasing others. Although a consideration of the r e lation between reading and personality m a y be o f value in helping understand student participation in a DRP, more information is needed that is directly related to the association between DRP participation and personality. Since the literature de a ling with the per sistence of participation in a reading program is limited, there is also a limited number of studies that examine the

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34 relationship between attrition in a college reading and study skills program and personality, particularly for the normal population. A review of a few such studies is presented Seeking more information about the relationship between personality types as measured by MBTI and college readin g skills, Larsen, Millott, and Tillman (1974) compared regularly e nrolled students with those f r om special programs such as Upward Bound and EEOP. They found that among regularly enrolled college students who attended the DRP each personality type was represented and in approximately the s am e ratio as were in the total freshman population. Furthermore, those preferring Extroversion and those preferring Perception were more per sistent than those preferring Introversion and Judging although not to a significant degree. The spec i ally enrolled students seemed to be mor e Sensing and Judging. At the end of the first quarter more Feeling studen t s in the special program group had better GPAs. The usefulness of the Personality Asses s ment System (PAS) to predict student performance in a reading improvement program was studied by Smith (1970). He analyzed the relationship between various PAS dimensions and the variables of enrollment, attrition, readi n g ra te and comprehension improvement, and the differences between two sections of the Missouri R a pid Reading Program taught by different instructors. He found no relationship

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35 between the results from the PAS and either enrollment or attri tion in the reading program. An analysis of the relationship betw e en dimensions of P AS and th e course p erformance showed no g en eral consistencies. Alt h ough the controls were inadequate, S mith did c onclude that different teaching styles of the two instructors had diff e ring effects upon the subjects with dif f e rent basic personality pa t t e rn s as measured by PAS. Spach e Standlee, and Nevill e (1960) investigate d the pos sible relationship between personality as measured by the SA-S Senior Scales, a personality test, and attrition in an indi vidualized reading p r o g ram on the university level. The results indicated that prediction of attrition rate in such a program could not be obtained usin g the SA-S Se n io r Scales as the measu r ing ins t rument for person a lity. From the literature examined it seems evident that there is some kind of relationship betw e en certain personality traits and the a c qu i sition of efficient reading skills. Furthermore, there are indicatio n s that persistence in a reading and study skills progra m designed to improve these skills by voluntary participation, may be associated with personality traits. However, due to the minimal number of investigations into this association, it is difficult to d raw any final conclusions.

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CHAPTER III PRESENTATION OF THE DATA The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between levels of persistence in participating in a college developmental reading program and change in academic achieve ment as measured by grade-point average (GPA), the sex of the student, the personality type as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the entrance reading proficiency as measured by the McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test (MHRT), the entrance general scholastic ability as measured by the School and College Ability Test (SCAT), and the type of program initially selected by the student. This chapter presents information about the locale where the study was carried out, the study population, the grade point averages, the test instruments, the test scores, and the reading instructional programs. The Locale The following resume about the development and current practices of the Reading and Study Skills Center (RSSC), 36

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37 University of Florida, is included to help the reader have a more accurate concept of the facilities and environment where the study was undertaken. The s election of information shared here c o ncentrates upon aspects of the Center that are relevant to this study. It is not intended to fully cover all functions and aspects of the Center. A Short History of the RSSC As a result of recommendations made by the Florida Center of Clinical Services and supported by the appropriate leaders from the University College, the English Department, and the College of Education, the Reading Laboratory and Clinic was established in August, 1950, and it became operational during that same year. The Reading Laboratory and Clinic was part of a larger service of fe r e d by the University of Florida which also included the Speech and Hearing Clinic, the Bureau of Vocational Guidance and Mental Hy g iene, a n d the Adapted and Th e rapeutic Physical Education Program. The Florida Center of Clinical Services served to integrate and coordinate these services. The original purpose of the Reading Laboratory and Clinic was to serve as a source of referral to and from the Florida Center of Clinical Ser v ices. According to early reports, the Reading Laboratory and Clinic operated to fulfill the following four capacities: (a) as a diagnostic and remedial organ of the

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38 University; (b) as a source of referral to and from the Florida Center of Clinical Services; (c) as an instruction and training facility for teachers and graduate students interested in learning techniques of reading diagnosis and correction; and (d) as an instrument in research in reading and related fields. During the first year of existence, under the direction of Dr. George D. Spache, 400 college students and 70 off campus persons participated in the program. The clinic had four chief sources from which the participants came. These were from the Univers i ty College, the University in general, and secondary and elementary schools outside the University, as well as from other clinics of the Florida Center of Clinical Services. The facilities and personnel available in 1951 only permitted providing assistance to approximately 100 students at one given time for remedial purposes (Livengood, 1951). According to Spache (1959) the clinic served 700 college students and 250 elementary and high school students during 1958, and the services to all these students were free. Through the years some adjustments have been made in the philosophy of the program, the type of clientele served, and the services rendered. One such change occurred as a result of the requirement that all students taking the int r oductory University Coll e ge English course be given a diagnostic reading test. Since this testing was administered by the English

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39 Department, the Reading Laborator y and Clinic was placed under that department in 1959. Later, the requi r ement that all students be given a diagnostic reading test was discarded. However, the clinic remained a part of the English Department until 1974. At that time it was placed under the Office of Instructional Resources. In 1971 the Reading Laboratory and Clinic was renamed and became t he Reading and Study Skills Center. Other changes have also been made in the Center to help it provide an environ ment which w o uld cause its clientele to take maximum advantage of the available services. One of these was to insure that any work done at the Center be completely voluntary. Thus, only those who sought assistance at the Center were given a diagnostic reading t es t, rather than having students seek help as a result of the requirement that all students be given the group reading test as part of the University College freshman English course. The Center has continued to update and make adjustments in the equipment and materials to provide for the needs and interests of individual student s From its inception the Center has recommended, but not required, that each student devote three hours per week to work at the Center while enrolled there. This amount of time has continued to be the recommendation of the Cen t er personnel. The services have always been free to University of Florida

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40 students, and self-referral has always been the primary method of initiatin g a pro g ra m of work. The RSSC at the Time of This Study The University of Florida dev e lopment a l reading program is under the direction of Dr A. G. Cranney. It is located in S.W. Broward Hall on the University of Florida campus and is open for services Monday throu g h Friday fro m 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Its services are available to any person who is r eg istered for course work at the University of Florida as well as to the faculty and staff. These services provide help to students who desire i m p r ovement in the areas of r e ading rate, comprehen sion, study habits, spelling, vocabulary development, and preparation for various graduate qualifying examinations. Any student desiring to improve already adequate readin g and study skills is encouraged to participate in a program of work which would be appropriate to his/her individual needs and interests. The RSSC does not cater only to students with remedial problems or low reading scores. Also, the clientele is not limited to lower division students since many upper division and graduate students are enrolled each year. Thus, the concept behind this Center is that of improving ex i sting readin g and study skills, no matter how well these m ay have already been developed rather than providing only a remedia tion program for poor students.

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41 Faculty referral is not necessary and most enrollees are not sent to the Center by any member of the University faculty. However, the Center encourages faculty advisers to consult with RSSC personnel and to refer students for help. Enrollment and attendance at the RSSC is completely volun tary since students are free to initiate enrollment and to discontinue at any time. No fees are charged for its services. It is e x pected that all assignm e nts will be completed at the Center. Neither g ra des nor course credit is given for the work done. Individual programs ar e determined by the use of tests and interviews. Upon enrollment at the RSSC each student is assigned a counselor who helps set up a p r ogram of work and who continues to work with that student as long as he/she is enrolled. For diagnostic purpos e s the MHRT is given to each entering student. Each student is also requested to share his/ her perceptions of areas of need or weakness for which he/she anticipates receiving help at the Center. Furthermore, as the student pro g resses throu g h a program of work he/she is encour aged to make suggestions about the program. The counselor seeks to have a close working r elationship with each of his/ her students and encourages them to have some input into their programs. The RSSC facilities include a reception area, two laboratory

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42 classrooms, a testing room, a well-stocked library, a confer ence room, a work area, and office space for the full-time faculty personnel and counselors. The laboratory is divided into two rooms. One contains the hardware equipment such as controlled readers, pacers, and cassettes, while the other contains books and program-type materials. In addition to commercially prepared and published materials, there are some which have been devised by the staff of the Center. Certain equipment is available to test for gross screening measure ments in vision and hearing. Upon request the Orthorator, Spache Binocular Reading Test, and Titmus Stereotests may be used. However, if these tests indicate any difficulty the student is referred to the appropriate source of help. There are three full-time faculty members and two secre taries working in the Center. And the number of student assistants ranges from four to six graduate students and one to three undergraduate students according to the needs. This brief summary concerning the RSSC is not intended to cover all the functions of this Center. Since this research is concerned only with certain aspects of a developmental reading program, the data included in this section are pro vided to give the read e r a better understanding of the Center's program and environment as it particularily relates to this study. An outline which more fully covers the services,

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43 activities, and functions of the RSSC is given in Appendix A Description of the Sample From the RSSC files a list including enrollment dates was made of all Univers i ty of Florida freshman students who had initiat e d contact with the Cente r a nytime during the academ i c year 197 2 -19 73 From this list students who volun tarily enr o ll e d in the RSSC during the Fall Quarter, 1972, w e re id e n t ified, and 70 w e re selected through the use of a table of ra n d om numbe r s. Since 71 s t udents were initially identified, o n ly one w a s randomly eliminated from the group that served as the sample. All d at a used in t he study were taken from the RSSC files except students' grade-point aver ages which were obtained from information available in the Registrar's Of fi ce, Univ e rsity of Florida Identification of P ersistent Students and Nonpersistent Students From the sample of 70 students, two subgroups w e re iden tified. One subgroup co n sisted of th o se stu de nts who we r e considered persistent stud e nts a n d th e other subgrou p con sist e d o f those who were considered nonpersistent students. The records maintained on the students enr o lled at the RSSC included the dates each student att e nded th e Center and desig nated whether e a ch ses s ion w a s used for counseling or for laboratory work. From this record the total number o f hours

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44 spent at the C e nter was deter m ined for each of these students. Since the avera g e amount of attendance for the 1972-1973 freshman students w a s approximately 7.9 hours for the year (Tillman et al 1974) and the records at the Cent e r indicated that for the F a ll Quarter, 1972, the avera g e visits by all students to work in the laboratory was 8.2 hours; therefore, the researcher used a total of 9 hours as the lower limits for the amount of time that a student worked in the Center to be considered persistent in attendance. Any subject who attended the RS S C for 8 or fewer hours was considered non persistent. Therefore, for the purposes of this study, persistent stude n ts were identified as those who attended the RSSC at least a total of 9 hours, and nonpersistent students were identified as those who attended the RSSC for a total of 8 or fewer hours. Using the above as the criteria for placement in th e persistent subgroup and the nonpersistent subgroup resulted in the two sub g roups containing an unequal number of subjects. Id e ntifi e d as persistent were 32 subjects while 38 subjects were identified as nonpersistent. Cumulati v e G rade-Point Averages (GPA) From the records in the Registrar's Office, University of Florida data were available to determine the GPA for ea c h

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45 student in this study from the Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975. Because of their limited sample sizes Summer Quarter, 1973, and Summer Quarter, 1974, GPAs were not used in the analyses. The cumulative GPAs for the students in this investiga tion a re presented in Table 1. A s might be expected because the number of subjects generally decreased for each subgroup for each quarter, the sum of th e GPA s fo r p e rsistent students and for nonpersistent students also usually decreased. However, from Fall Quarter, 1972, to Winter Quarter, 1973, the sum of the GPAs increased sli g htly for both s ub g roups. Also for the nonpersistent stu dents there was an increase in the sum of the GPAs from Fall Quarter, 1973, to Winter Quarter, 1974. The range for the sum of GPAs for the persistent students was from 82.80 to 48.56 and for the nonpersistent students it was from 104.97 to 74.69. From Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975, th e numb e r of subjects for each quarter d e crea s ed from 32 to 17 for the persistent students and from 38 to 24 for the non persistent students. This indicated the college attrition rate of the students in this study. The GPA means fluctuated from quarter to quarter for the persistent students and the nonpersistent students For the persistent students the GPA means ranged from 2.57 to 3.00 and for the nonpersistent students these ranged from 2.60 to 3.16.

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Table 1 Distributions of Cumulative Grade-Point Averages (GPA) of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975, Excluding Summer Quarter, 1973, and Summer Quarter, 1974 F.Q. W.Q. S.Q. F.Q. W.Q. S.Q. F.Q. W.Q 1972 1973 1973 1973 197 4 1974 1974 1975 Persistent Students 2 82.35 82.80 77.93 66.11 61.82 61. 38 53.33 48.56 n 32 30 28 22 22 2 1 20 17 X 2.57 2.76 2.78 3.00 2.81 2.92 2 67 2.86 Nonpersistent Students 101.54 104.9 7 92.14 83.16 87.08 82.05 79.11 74.69 n 38 35 33 32 29 28 25 24 X 2.67 3.00 2.79 2.60 3.00 2.93 3.16 3.11

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47 Sex of the Subjects The total population of the study was unevenly divided by sex and each subgroup also consis t ed of an unequal distribu tion of males and females. The data conce r ning the distribution of males and females are presented in Table 2. Table 2 Distributions of Sex of Subjects in the Persistent and Nonpersistent Subgroups Sex of Subject Males Females Total Persiste n t 12 20 32 Nonpersistent 17 21 38 The subje c ts were divided into 29 males and 41 females. The intrag r oup distributions by sex included 12 males and 20 females in the persist e nt subgro u p and 17 mal e s and 21 females in the nonper si stent subgroup. The Test Instr um ents The University of Florida Bo a r d of Examiners a dministered several te s ts to all ent e rin g freshman studen t s fo r the Fall Quarter, 19 7 2. The da t a from some of these tests w e re used in c a rrying out this study.

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48 Myers Brigg s Typ e I ndicat o r (MBTI) The MBTI is a self-administered, untimed p e rsonality test given in qu e stionnaire format containing 166 forced-choice items. Each item was designed to present equally attractive options in a nonthreatening manner with the choi c es being either in short phra s es or word pairs. It contains four bipolar indic e s which are scored sepa rately re s ulting in a preference fo r each of the four categories --Extroversion (E) or Introversion (I), Sensing (S) or Intuition (N), Thinking (T) or Feeling (F), and Judging (J) or Perceiving (P). This results in 16 possibilities for personality type. Each of the four preferences indicate one pole being preferred over the other A score is obtai n ed above or below a midpoint of the continuum for each indice according to the subject's choices. This results in preferences for I, N, F, or P scores above the midpoint and E, S, T, or J for preferenc e s below the midpoint. To arrive at each subject type, four pairs of preferences are scored. These are ex plained below: The Direction of Perception and Judgment: Extroversion (E) indicates the outer world of action, persons, and objects while Introversion (I) indicates the inner world of concepts and ideas. Perception: Sensing (S) sho w s a prefe r ence to the immedi ate realities of dir e ct exp er i e nces but Intu i t i on (N) attaches more importance to in f erential meaning, relation ships and possibilities of e x periences.

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Judgment: T hinking (T) relies more on logical ord er and cause and effect whereas Feeling (F) places mo r e priority on personal im p ortance and values. 49 Dealing with environment: for systematic, planning, events but Perception (P) spontaneous, and waiting. Judging (J) shows preference judging, and controlling is more adaptive, curious, Data to support the reliability of the MBTI have been based primarily on the use of the split-half procedures obtained by applying the Spearman Brown prophecy formula. The median reliability is .83 for the categories (Myers, 1962). The Center used the results to help counsel students con cerning a better understanding of themselves, their adjustment to living in the university setting, v o cational choices, and other areas where a knowledge of their personality types might be useful. McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test (MHRT) The MHRT was prepared to test the general reading com petency needed for ac a demic success for students ranging from juniors in high school to sophomores in college. Colleg e text books were used as the source for most of the reading materials contained in this test. The MHRT is divided into three major parts. Part I is d e signed to test reading rate and comprehension and has the following four s ections: (a) Reading Rate 1 which measures an easy selection of r ea ding. The level of difficulty of this

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50 material is inte n ded to represent the kind of reading done for recreation such as newspapers, magazines, and novels. The test results are given in a words per minut e score. (b) Reading Rate 2 which measures a difficult reading selection such as study-type mat e rial encountered in college textbooks. This is to test the subject's ability to recognize, understand, and retain specific facts. The results are given in a words per minute score. (c) Flexibility which d e termines the di f ference in the two rates and indicates the subject's ability to adapt reading rate to the material's complexity and the purpose for reading is acquired by finding the difference between Reading Rate 1 and Reading Rate 2. (d) Retention for 20 items is reported in relation to the two different rates of reading. Two scores are prov i d e d, one for the number of items correct f or Reading Rate 1 and a n other for the numbe r of items correct for Reading Rate 2. There is also a sco r e given for Article Comprehension which m ea sures the re t ention of both kinds of reading and is a co m bination of t he two retention scores based on the 2 0 items m easuring the subject's ability to observe, understand, and retain specific facts. Part II deals with Skimming and Scanning and contains 30 items to test for the subject's ability to gain gen e ral compre hension and to search f or specific information such as definitions, words, numbers, and specific facts. The materials included here

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51 are a bibliography, an index, a table of atomic weights, and excerpts from both a geography and astronomy text. In 10 minutes the subject is to read the questions and search for the answers without actually reading the selection. Part III has five long reading passages with five items each interspersed with five short paragraphs with one item each which a r e used to determine Paragr a ph Comprehension in material similar to textbook reading. Six categories of understanding are measured--recognizing the main ideas, recognizing the significant facts, understanding general principles for the physical and social sciences, reco gni z ing paragraph organization and structure, and evaluating the material presented. A Total Comprehension Score is derived by adding the sco r es from the sections entitled Article C o mprehension, Skimming and Scanning, and Paragraph Comprehension. This includes the 80 items on the three parts or the test. Each form of the test (A and B) was normed by using 1,526 students with about equal numbers of four-year college and university freshmen, two-year college students, and high school juniors and seniors who were considered college bound students. To determine internal consist e ncy the Kuder Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20) was computed for both test forms for the total test. The KR-20 is spuriously high for the

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52 Skimming and Scanning part because of a strong speed factor. The KR-20 for each form was .89. The coefficients for stability and interform reliability had not been completed when the manual was published (Raygor, 1970). Local norms for several University of Florida campus p o pulations have also been developed (Cranney & Tillman, 1973). The variables tested for content validity are those directly related to the reading instructional situations in the MHRT and are represented in the three main divisions of the test (Reading Rate and Article Comprehension, Skimming and Scanning, and Paragraph C om prehension). The Center used the results to aid in evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of student's reading performance for those students who voluntarily enr o lled in the developmental reading program provided by the RSSC. These data were used, along with other information, to help identify the areas of need in reading for these students and to provide assistance in the selection of materials, as well as to locate the cor rect placement for students to work in these materials. School and C o llege Ability Test, Series II (SCAT) The SCAT was designed to identify the general ability of the subjects to whom it is administered. It is a timed test limited to 40 minutes. It is divided into a verbal sub test containing analogy items to measure the subject's ability

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53 to understand, think, and use words a nd a mathematical subtest containing quantitative comparison items to measure the sub ject's ability to reason and compute in numerical terms. Each subtest contains SO items to which the subject is expected to respond in 20 minutes per subtest. From the number of correct responses to these subtests a verbal score, a quantitative score, and a total score are obtained. Not only is this test used to compare individual students or classes, but it is useful to estimate basic verbal and mathematical ability, to estimate long range gr o wth of these basic skills, and particu larly to predict possible success in future academic work. To determine the reliability and standard errors of measurement the Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 was computed. A score of .94 was obtained for all Total scores reported. The Verbal scores were at least .87 and the Mathematical scores were at least .90 for the grades analyzed. The test handbook stated that these scores are overestimates of the reliability for within a school grade, but only to a small degree (Ahrens, Anderson, and others, 1967). The RSSC used these scores to help gain a better under standing of student's general scholastic ability in order to be able to advise individual students appropriately concerning their needs and expectations in academic work.

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The Test Score s All tests used in this study were administered by the University of Florida Board of Examiners, and the results were made available to personnel in the RSSC. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) 54 The result of each student's self-report of preferences on the MBTI questionnaire are presented in Table 3. Table 3 Distributions o fM BTI Personality Preferences of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students Persistent Nonpersistent Personality Preferences Males Females Males Females Extroverted 5 10 7 15 Intro v erted 6 9 8 6 Sensing 5 8 7 10 Intuition 6 11 8 11 Thinking 4 5 8 4 Feeling 7 14 7 17 J u dging 6 9 8 9 P e rceiving 5 10 7 12 The MBTI results were not available for four subjects i n this study. Since these data were unavailable for two per sistent students and for two nonpersistent students, the N for the persistent subgroup w as 30 and the N for the nonper sistent subgroup was 36 for this part of the study.

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55 The number of males in both subgroups was closely related in size in every category of this indicator, except for the Thinking or Feeling indice where there were three members difference favoring th e preference for Feeling for persistent males. More dif f erence can be noted among the females than the males of both subgroups. For example, 9 more females preferred Feeling to Thinking in the persistent group and Extroversion to Introversion in the nonpersistent subgroup. The most noticeable preference for any category was 17 for Feeling compared with 4 for Thinking for the female nonpersisters. McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test (MHRT) The MHRT provided nine scores from various subtes t s and/ or combinations of subtests. Since only raw scores were analyzed in this study, it was necessary to convert certain per ce ntile ranks to raw scores. The data in each of the following tables for the MHRT are given as raw scores. Table 4 through T a ble 8 present the distributions of persistent and nonpersistent stu dents for the subtests o f Reading R ate 1, Reading Rate 2, Flexibility, Retention for Reading Rate 1, Reten t ion for Reading Rate 2, Article Comprehension, Skimming and Scanning, Paragraph Comprehension, and Total Comprehension. The range of words per minute for Reading Rate 1 (easy reading) was from 146 to 418 for the male persistent students

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Table 4 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for Reading Rate 1 and Reading Rate 2 for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT Range in Reading Rate 1 Reading Rate 2 Words Per Persist ent N o nEersistent Persistent NonEersistent Minute Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females 91 120 1 121 150 1 1 3 2 2 1 151 180 1 2 1 3 181 210 1 5 2 2 3 6 5 4 211 240 5 2 1 7 3 5 3 5 241 270 2 5 3 6 2 3 5 3 271 300 4 3 1 1 1 4 301 330 1 5 3 2 1 331 360 1 1 1 361 390 1 1 1 391 420 1 1 u, O'\

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57 Table 5 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for Flexibility for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT Differen ce in Persistent NonEersistent Words Per Minute Males Females Males Females 0 10 1 1 1 4c 11 20 1 3a 2b 4b 21 30 1 1 5b 31 40 2 3a 4 41 so 2 4 2 1 51 60 1 5 1 1 61 70 2 1 1 1a 71 80 5 81 90 1 91 100 1 1 101 110 1 2 111 120 1 121 130 1 131 140 1 1 Note. Certain students read the Reading Rate 2 (hard reading) faster than Reading Rate 1 (e a sy reading). aRepresents a student who had a wmp score higher for Reading Rate 2 than for Reading Rate 1. bRepresents two students who had a wmp score higher for Reading Rate 2 than for Reading Rate 1. cRepresents three students who had a wmp score higher for Reading Rate 2 than for Reading Rate 1.

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Number Correct 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 Table 6 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for Retention for Reading Rate 1 and Retention for Reading Rate 2 for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT Retention for Reading Rate 1 Retention for Reading Rate 2 Persistent NonEersistent Persistent NonEersistent Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females 1 1 1 1 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 2 5 7 3 5 4 7 4 8 1 3 3 7 1 4 8 4 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 V, 00

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59 Table 7 Distributions of P e rsistent and Nonpersistent S tudents for Arti c le Comp r eh e nsion, Skimming and Scannin g and Paragraph Comprehension for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT Range in Raw Scores 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Article Comprehension Persistent Nonpersistent Males Femal e s Males Females 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 4 4 3 3 1 3 1 6 2 2 3 6 3 1 1 1 1 1

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60 Table 7 extended Skimming and Scanning Para g raph Comprehension Persistent Nonpersistent M al e s Females Males Females Persistent Nonpersistent Mal e s Females Males Fe males 1 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 3 2 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 1 4 2 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 5 3 3 4 1 4 1 3 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1

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Table 8 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for Total Comprehension for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT Total ComErehension Range in Persistent NonEersistent 61 Raw Scores Males Females Males Females 36 37 38 1 39 1 40 1 41 1 1 42 1 1 43 3 1 44 1 1 45 2 1 46 47 3 2 48 1 49 2 50 2 51 1 2 52 1 3 1 53 1 1 1 54 2 55 3 56 1 1 57 1 58 1 2 59 1 60 1 3 61 1 2 62 1 2 1 63 2 64 1 1 1 65 1 3 66 1

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62 and 164 to 376 for female persistent students. For the non persistent students the range was 119 to 418 for males and 141 to 323 for females (Table 4). The range of words per minute f or Reading Rate 2 (hard reading) was from 127 to 279 for male persistent students and 141 to 323 for female persistent students. For the nonper sistent students the range was from 133 to 291 for males and from 131 to 361 for females (Table 4). The difference in words per minute between Reading Rate 1 and Reading Rate 2 is the Flexibility score for MHRT. For persistent students this ranged from O words to 139 words difference for the males and from 6 words to 131 words dif ference for the females. For nonpersistent s tudents this was a range of from 4 words difference to 127 words difference for the males and from 1 word difference to 87 words difference for the females (Table 5). The scores for Rate of Reading 1 (easy) were given as the number correct for O through 10 and for the Rate of Reading 2 (hard) were given as the number correct for 11 through 20. Thus, the range was from Oto 10 for the number correct for each of these subtest scores. The number correct for Retention for Reading Rate 1 for the persistent subgroup ranged from 04 to 10 for the males and 04 to 09 for the females. In this same subtest the range was

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from 05 to 10 fo r the males and 03 to 10 for the females in the nonpersistent subgroup (Table 6). 63 The range of the number correct for Retention for Reading Rate 2 was 04 to 09 for the male persistent students and 03 to 10 for the female persistent students. The male nonpersistent students ranged from 02 to 09 and the female nonpersistent students ranged from 02 to 10 for the number correct (Table 6). Article Comprehension scores are derived from the com bined correct answers for the two retention selections (easy and hard readings) with a range of Oto 20 as possible scores. The range f or male persistent students was 09 to 18 and for the female persistent students it was 10 to 18. The range for male nonpersistent students was 08 to 17 and for the female nonpersistent students it was 06 to 17 (Table 7). There are 30 items in the Skimming and Scannin g subtest and in the Paragraph Comprehension subtest. Thus, there is a possible range in scores from Oto 30 for each of these subtests. For the Skimming and Scanning subtest there was a range of 14 to 24 for the male persistent students and 16 to 29 for the female persistent students. For the nonpersistent stu dents there was a range of 14 to 28 f or the males and 16 to 28 for the females (Table 7). For the Paragraph Comprehension there was the following

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64 range for the persistent students: males from 12 to 25 and females 12 to 27. For the nonpersistent males the range was from 10 to 26 and for the nonpersistent females it was from 15 to 25 (Table 7). Total Comprehension included all 80 comprehension items for the three parts of the MHRT. The number of correct answers for these combined raw scores for this sample ranged from 40 to 65 for the males and 39 to 65 for the females of the per sistent subgroup. The range of raw scores for the number correct for the nonpersistent subgroup was 38 to 66 for the males and 4 2 to 64 for the females (Table 8). School and College Ability Test, Series II (SCAT) The results of each student's raw scores for the Verbal Subtest and the Quantita t ive Subtest on SCAT are presented in Table 9. The Verbal and Quantitative subtests contain 50 items each from which the raw score is derived. Therefore, there is a range from Oto 50 for each of these subtests. The range of Verbal raw scores for the persistent subgroup was 14 to 36 for the males and 18 to 43 for the females. The range for the nonpersistent subgroup was 16 to 43 for the males and 17 to 33 for the females The Quantitative Subtest scores ranged from 20 to 43 for the male persistent students and 18 to 40 for the female

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Range in Raw Scores 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Table 9 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for the Verbal Subtest and the Quantitative Subtest for the Entrance Raw Scores for SCAT Verbal Subtest Quantitative Subtest Persistent Non:eersistent Persistent Non:eersistent Males Females Males Females Males Females M al es Females 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 4 1 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 3 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 l 1

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35 2 1 1 1 36 1 1 1 37 38 39 1 2 40 1 1 1 41 1 42 1 43 1 1 1 44 4 5 46 1 47

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67 persistent students. The nonpersistent males ranged from 14 to 46 while th e nonpersistent females ranged from 13 to 39. The results of each student's raw scores for the total test on SCAT are presented in Ta b le 10. Table 10 Distributions of Persistent and Nonpersistent Students for the Entrance Raw Scores for the Total Test for SCAT Total Test Persist e nt Non:eersist e nt Range in Raw Scores Mal e s F em ales Males Females 30 34 1 2 35 39 2 1 3 40 44 2 2 2 3 45 49 2 3 1 so 54 1 7 1 5 55 59 2 4 4 4 60 64 1 1 1 1 65 69 1 1 5 1 70 74 1 75 79 1 2 80 84 1 1 The range for total scores on the SCAT for the persistent subgroup included from 37 to 79 for males and from 37 to 83 for females. For the nonpersistent subgroup the males ranged from 33 to 84 and the females ranged from 34 to 71 for these total scores. Reading Instructional Programs At the time of enrollment each student was requested to

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68 complete a form contain i ng certain in f ormation. One part of this form sought to identify the stud e nt's perception o f his/ her needs which might be helped through a program of work at the Center. The result of each student's initial selection of a program(s) of work is presented in Table 11. Table 11 Distributions of Pers i stent and Nonp e rsistent Student s for the I ni tial Selection of the Type(s ) of Program Requested Persist en t NonEe r sist e nt TyEe of Program Males F em ales Males Females Reading Rate 2 2 1 3 Comprehension 2 2 3 Study Skills 2 3 Combination 9 15 11 10 Since only 65 of the students in this study had completed this information, the d a ta for this par t of the study are limited to that number. In this pa r t of the study ther e were 30 persistent students and 35 nonpersistent students. None of the persistent s t udents selected Study Skills as the area of need. Mo s t of the s e students selec t ed a comb i n e d program with 9 male and 15 female persis t e n t s tudents making this the i r initial selection. The choices of t h e nonper s istent students were spread about equally across all types of p rograms, except

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for the combination programs which 11 males and 10 females selected. 69

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CHAPTER IV ANALYSES OF DATA The statistical methods used in analyzing the data col lected in this study were determined by the nature of the information sought. The following question was posed in this study. Is there a significant relationship between the level of persistence in participating in a college developmental reading program and change in academic achievement as measured by grade-point average (GPA), sex of student, personality, entrance r e ading performance, entrance general scholastic ability, and the type of program initially selected by the student? The results of this study are presented in this chapter in the order of the hypotheses posed. A summary is presented for each hypothesis and data used to test each hypothesis are given. Appropriate tables and a figure are provided with reference to the data collected and analyzed for each hypothe sis. Statistical significance was considered at the .05 level of confidence. 70

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The Relationship Between Persistence and Each Variable of the Study 71 To answer the research question regarding the relationship between persistence in participating in a college-level reading program and each of the selected factors, the following null hypotheses wer e tested. Hypothesis 1. There will be no significant difference in change in grade-point average between persistent and non persistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida. Hypothesis 2. There will be no significant difference in the number of males and in the number of females between persist ent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who volun tarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida. Hypothesis 3. There will be no significant difference in personality type as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman stu dents who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida. Hypothesis 4. There will be no significant difference in entrance reading performance as measured by each of the sub test scores on the McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida. Hypothesis 5. There will be no significant diffe r ence in general ability as measured by the entrance scores on the School and College Ability Test between persistent and non persistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida. Hypothesis 6. There will be no significant difference in the type of reading program initially selected--reading rate, com prehension, study skills, or a combination of programs--between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida.

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72 In order to test Hypothesis 1, an analysis of variance for unweighted means was performed using the split-plot design (Kirk, 1968) on the GPA means for each quarter from Fall Quarter, 197 2 through Winter Quarter, 1975, except for Summer Quarter, 1973, and Summer Quarter, 1974. The data for the two summer quarters were not analyzed for this study because of their limited sample size as compared with the sample sizes of the remainder of the quarters. In addition, a line graph was designed to compar e the GPA means for the persistent sub g roup and the nonpersist e nt subgroup. The graph included data for each quarter from Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975, except for the two summer quarters within that time designation. The raw data for GPAs for each subgroup are summarized and presented in Appendix B. A summary of the analysis of variance is presented in Table 12. The observed F ratios indicated no significant difference between group means for the persistent subgroup and the non persistent sub g roup on the variables of Persistence/Nonpersist ence (F = 2.38, p >,05), Quarters (F = 1.21, p > .05), and Persistence times Quarter (F = 1.62, p>.05) for GPAs. The line graph to compare the GPA means is presented in Figure 1.

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Table 12 Summary of Analysis of Variance for GPA Means for the Persistent Students and the Nonpersistent Students for Fall Quarter, 1972, through Winter Quarter, 1975, Excluding Summer Quarter, 1973, and Summer Quarter, 1974 Adjusted Adjusted ss df MS F F .05 Persistent/ Nonpersistent 1.30 1 1.30 2.38 3.86 Quarters 4.62 7 .66 1.21 2.03 Persistence X Quarters 6.18 7 .88 1.62 2.03 Within Groups 228.70 420 .54 73

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74 ------Persistent Students ---Nonpersistent Students 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Quarters Figure 1. A comparison of GPA means of the persistent stu dents and the nonpersistent students for Fall Quarter, 1972, through W inter Quarter, 1975, excluding Summer Quarter, 1973, and Summer Quarter, 1974. The line graph supported the computed analysis of variance that there was no significant difference between the persistent subgroup and the nonpersistent subgroup GPA means for the two groups. On the basis of statistical analysis, the conclusion was made that GPA means were similar for the persistent subgroup and the nonpersistent subgroup. Thus, t he null hypothesis that there would be no signi f icant diffe r ence in the change in GPAs between the persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental readin g program at the University of Florida was not rejected. In order to test Hypothesis 2, th e chi square was applied

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75 to the data concerning the number of male students and the number of female students in the persistent subgroup as com pared with the number of male students and t h e number of female students in the nonpersistent subgroup. A summary of data used in the chi square analysis is presented in Table 13. Table 13 A Comparison of Males and Fe m al e s in the Persistent and the Nonpersiste nt Subg r oups Persistent Students Nonpersistent Students Note. Chi square= .370 n.s Males 12 17 Females 20 21 The obtained chi square for the number of males and the number of females in the persistent subgroup and those in the nonpersistent subgroup (chi square= .370, p> .05), indicated no significant difference between subgroups on the variable of proportion of males and females in each subgroup. On the basis of statistical analysis, the conclusion was made that the number of males and the number of females were as well distributed in the persistent subgroup as in the non persistent subgroup. Therefore, the null hypothesis that there would be no significant difference between the number of males

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76 and the number of females between the persistent and nonpersist ent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental readin g program at the University of Florida was not rejected. In order to test Hypothesis 3, the chi square was applied to the self-reported preferences on the Myers -B riggs Type Indi cator for the four basic categories of Extroversion or Intro version, Sensing or Intuition, Thinking or Feeling, and Jud g ing or Perceivin g A summary of the data used in the chi square analysis for these preferences is presente d i n Table 14. Table 14 A C omparison of the Preferences of Extroversion or Introversion, Sensing or Intuition, Thinkin g or Feeling, and Judging or Perceiving on MBTI Extro v ersion Introversion Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling Judging Perceiving for Persistent Students and for Nonpersistent Students Persistent Nonpersistent Students Students 15 22 15 14 13 17 17 19 9 12 21 24 15 17 15 19 'v chi square .804 n.s. .088 n.s. .070 n.s. .061 n.s.

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77 The obtained chi square indicated no significant differ e nc e b e tween the persistent students and the nonpersiste n t students on the preference for Extroversion and Introversion (chi square= .804, p >.05), Sensing or Intuition (chi sq u are= .088, p~ .05), Thinkin g or Feeling (chi square= .070, p >.05), and Judging or Perceiving (chi squ a re= .061, p >.05) as measured by the MBTI. On the basis of statistical analysi s the conclusion was made that on the indices of personality types measu r e d the four basic categories were si m ilarly distributed in the persist ent subgroup and in t he nonpersi s tent subgroup. Thus, the null hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in personality ty p e as measured by the MBTI between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida was not rejected. In order to test Hypothesis 4, the t test was computed fo r the raw scores of each of the subtests of the McGraw-Hill B a s ic Skills Syst e m Re a ding Test (MHRT). These subtests included: Reading Rate 1, R e ading R ate 2, Flexibility, Retention for Reading Rate 1, Retention for Reading Rate 2, Article Comprehension, Skimming and Scanning, Paragraph Com prehension, and Total Comprehension. Summaries of the data used in the! test analysis for each of these subtests-

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78 Reading Rate 1, Reading Rate 2, Flexibility, Retention for Reading Rate 1, Retention for Reading Rate 2, Article Comprehen sion, Skimming and Scanning, Paragraph Comprehension, and Total Comprehensi on --are represented in Tables 15 through 23 respectively. Table 15 Analysis of Reading Rate 1 for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent S tud e nts and Nonpersistent Students Persistent Students Nonpersistent Students Note. t =-.15 n.s. n 32 38 Table 16 X 257.28 259.53 s 62.43 Analysis of Reading Rate 2 for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students Persistent Students Nonpersistent Students Note. t = -1.21 n.s. n 32 38 X 209.25 223.76 s 49.84

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Table 17 Analysis of Flexibility for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students n X s Persistent Students 32 38 48.03 3 5 .76 41.69 Nonpersistent Students Note. t = 1.23 n.s. Table 18 Analysis of Retention for Reading Rate 1 for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students n X s Persistent Students Nonpersistent Students 32 38 6.75 7.16 1.51 Note. t = -1.13 79

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Table 19 A nalysis of Retention for Re a ding Rate 2 for t he Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persisten t Students and Nonpersist e nt Stud e nts n X s Per s istent Students 32 38 6.31 5.68 1.80 Nonpersistent Student s N o te. t = 1.45 n s Table 20 80 Analysis of Article Comprehension for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for P ersisten t Students and Nonpe r sistent S tu dents Pe r sistent Students Nonpersistent Students Note. t = 31 n s n 32 38 X 13.06 12.84 s 2.97

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81 Table 21 A nalysis of Ski m ming and Scanning for the Entrance Raw Scores fo r MHRT for Persistent Stude n ts and No n persistent Students Persistent Students Nonpersistent Students Note. t = -1.16 n.s. n 32 38 Table 22 X 19.91 21.00 s 3.92 Analys i s of Pa r a g raph C o mpr e hension for the Entrance Raw Scores f or MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Students Persistent Students Nonpersistent Students Note. t = -1.15 n.s. n 32 38 X 19.16 20.24 s 3.92

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82 Table 23 Analysis of Total Comprehension for the Entrance Raw Scores for MHRT for Persistent Students and Nonpersistent Stud e nts Persistent Students Nonpersistent Students Note. t = -1.03 n.s. n 32 38 X 52.09 54.05 s 7 91 The calculated! test results indicated no significant difference between the pe rs istent students and the nonpersist ent students on the subtest raw scores of the McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System R e ading Test for Reading Rate 1 (t = -.15, p >. 0 5), Re a ding Rate 2 ( t = -1.21, p >.05), Flexibility (t = 1.23, p >.05), Retention for Reading Rate 1 (t = -1.13, p >.05), Retention for Reading Rate 2 (t = 1.45, p ~.05), Article Comprehension (t = .31, p >.05), Skimming and Scanning (t = -1.16, p > .05), Par a graph Comprehension (t = -1.15, p>.05), or Total Compr e hension ( t = -1.03, p>.05). On the basis of statistical analysis, th e co n clusion was made that the coll e ge entran c e read i ng profi c iency w as as well d e veloped in the per s istent sub g roup as in the nonpersistent subgroup. Thus, the null hypothe s is that there would not be any significant difference between entrance reading performance

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83 between the persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University o f Florida was not rejected. In order to test Hypothesis 5, the! test was computed for the raw scores of the verbal, quantitative, and total test results of the School and College Ability Test. A summary of the data used for the! test analysis for the Verbal subtest, the Quantitative Subtest, and the Total Test is presented in Table 24. Table 24 Analys i s of the Verb a l Subtest, Quantitative Sub t est, and Total Test for the Entrance Raw Scores for SCAT for Persistent Students a nd Nonpersistent Students Verbal Quantitative Subtest Subtest Total n X n X n X Persistent Students 3 2 25.81 32 26.97 32 52.78 Nonpersistent Students 38 27.10 38 27.42 38 54.53 s = 5.70 s = 7.38 s = 12.83 t = -.94 t = -.26 t = -.57 The calculated! test results indicated no significant difference between the persistent students and the nonpersistent

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84 students on the raw scores for the School and College Ability Test for the Verbal Scores (t = -.94, p >.05), the Quantitative Scores (t = -.26, p>.OS), and th e Total Scores (t = -.57, p>.05). On the basis of statistical analysis, the conclusion was made that general ability was as well developed in the persist ent subgroup as in th e nonpersistent subgroup. Thus, the null hypothesis that there would not be any significant difference in general ability between the persisten t and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a develop mental reading program at the University of Florida was not rejected. In order to test Hypothesis 6, the chi square was applied to the data concerning the type of program initially selected by persistent and nonpersistent students. The types of pro grams included were reading rate, comprehension, study skills, or a combination of programs. The total number of students in the persistent subgroup and t h e nonpersistent subgroup for this variable is not equal to the total numbers for these sub groups in the sample for this study. This is due to the fact that two students in the p e rsistent subgroup and t hr ee stu dents in the nonpersistent subgroup did not adequately com plete the informat i on on their RSSC enrollm e nt forms. A summary of the data used for the chi square analysis is presented in Table 25.

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Table 25 Analysis of the Type of Program Initially SelectedReading Rate, Comprehension, Study Skills, or a Combination--by Persistent S tudents and Nonpersistent Students Reading CompreStudy CombinaRate hension Skills tion Persistent Students 4 2 0 24 Nonpersistent Students 4 5 5 21 Note. Chi square= 6.049 n.s. 85 The calculated chi square indicated no significant differ ence between the persistent students and the nonpersistent students in their perception of needs to be met through a program of work at the RSSC as indicated by their initial program selection for reading rate improvement, comprehension improvement, study skills improvement or a combination of programs for improvement (chi square= 6.049, p ~.05). On the basis of statistical analysis, the conclusion was made that on the initial program selection as determined by student selection of program the types of program were simi larly distributed in the persistent subgroup and in the non persistent subgroup. Therefore, the null hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in program selec t ion

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86 between persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Flor id a was not rejected. Summary of Analyses A review of the various analyses computed in this study reveal that there were no significant differences between the persistent students and the nonpersistent students on the six variables investigated. Therefore, each null hypothesis was not rejected. In summary, it can be s t ated that f or this sample there was no significant difference between the persistent subgroup and the nonpersistent subgroup in their relationship between persistence and GPA; sex; personality; entrance reading per formance, entrance general scholastic ability; or type of ini t ial reading program selected.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Summary The focus of this study was on identifying the relation ships between persistence in participating in a college developmental reading program and the following variables: (a) change in academic achievement as measured by grade-point average (GPA), (b) sex, (c) personality type as measured by the Myers-Briggs Typ e Indicator (MBTI), (d) entrance reading performance as m e asured by the M c G r aw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test (MHRT), (e) entrance general scholastic ability as measured by the School an'd College Ability Test (SCAT), and (f) the type of program initially selected by the student. The study was carried out with 1972-1973 University of Florida freshman students who voluntarily enrolled in the developmental reading program provided by the Reading and Study Skills Center (RSSC) at the University of Florida. The sample included only those freshman students who enrolled in the RSSC during the Fall Quarter of their freshman academic 87

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88 year. The investigation was longitudinal beginning with the data about subject's GPAs for the Fall Quarter, 1972, and extending through the Winter Quarter, 1975. Although the initial enrollment for all of these students was during the Fall Quarter, 1972, the last date of recorded attendance for students varied from September, 1972, through March, 1975. However, 91.4 percent of the students discontinued their work at the RSSC by the end of the F a ll Quarter, 1972. Another 4.3 percent of the students discontinued their participation by the end of the Winter Quarter, 1973. Only 3 of the 70 subjects in this sample continued after that time. The students were divided into two subgroups according to the amount of time each participated in the program at the RSSC. One subgroup was identified as persistent stu dents, while the other subgroup was identified as nonpe r sis tent students. For the purposes of this study, those stu dents who attended the RSSC for a total of at least nine hours were considered persistent students, and those who attended the RSSC for a total of eight or fewer hours were considered nonpersistent students. The necessary data to determine GPA for each student in this study were collected from the Registrar's Office, Uni versity of Florida. The data concerning sex of students,

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89 personality type as measured by MBTI, reading proficiency as measured by entrance raw scores on MHRT, general scho lastic ability as measured by entrance raw scores on SCAT, and the type of program initially selected by students indi cating their perception of what reading and study skills they needed were collected from the RSSC. A statistical analysis of the data relating to each null hypothesis w a s made. Using the recommendations of Kirk (1968) for computing the analysis of variance for un weighted means, the split-plot design was performed on GPA means to d e termine if significant Fs occurred. A line graph showing the difference between G PA means for the persistent students and the nonpersistent students was also made. The chi square was computed on the data concerning the sex of students, the personality type preferences of Extro version or Introversion, Sensing or Intuition, Thinking or Feeling, and Judging or Perceiving as measured by the MBTI, and the student's initial program selection of reading rate, comprehension, study skills or a combination of programs. A! test for group mean differences was used to deter mine differences between reading proficiency as measured by the raw scores on the subtests of the MHRT. These subtests included Reading Rate 1, Reading Rate 2, Flexibility, Reten tion for Reading Rate 1, Retention for Reading Rate 2,

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90 Article Comprehension, Skimming and Scanning, Paragraph Comprehension, and Total Comprehe n sion. At test was also performed to describe group differences between persistent students and nonpersistent students for entrance general scholastic ability as measured by the verbal, quantitative, and total raw scores on SCAT. Findings Certain hypotheses were investigated in order to study certain characteristics of persistent and nonpersistent students who voluntarily attended a university developmental reading program. These hypotheses are restated in this chap ter with the conclusions drawn from the results of the data collected. Hypothesis 1. Th e re will be no significant differ ence in chan g e in grade-point average between per sistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman stu dents wh o voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida. On the basis of the statistical analysis of variance using the split-plot design, the conclusion was made that the GPA means were as high among the persistent students as the nonpersistent students (Persistence/Nonpersistence, F = 2.38, p>.05; Quarters, F = 1.21, p >.OS; and Persistence times Quarters, F = 1.62, p >.05). The line graph supported the computed analysis of varianc e Therefore, the hypothesis was not rejected.

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Hypothesis 2. There will be no significant dif ference in the number of males and in the number of females between persistent and nonpers i s tent 197 21973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a dev el opmental reading program at the University of Florida. 91 On the basis of statistical analysis of the chi square, the conclusi o n was made that the distribution of males was about equal to that of females among persistent students and among nonpersistent students (chi square= .370, p >.05). Therefore, the hypothesis was not rejected. Hypothesis 3. There will be no significant difference in personality type as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator between persis tent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman stu dents who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida. On the basis of the statistical analysis o f the chi square, the conclusion was made that the personality pre ferences of Extroversion or Introversion (chi square= .804, p >.05), Sensing or Intuition (chi square= .088, p >.05), Thinking or Feeling (chi square= .070, p> .05), and Judging or Perceiving (chi square= .061, p >.05) as measured by MBTI were similarly distributed among the persistent students and among the nonpersistent students. Therefore, the hypo thesis was not rejected. Hypothesis 4. There will be no significant difference in entrance reading performance as measured by each of the subtest scores on the McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test between persistent and nonpersistent 1972

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1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida. 92 On the basis of statistical analysis of the! test, the conclusion w a s made that the entrance reading proficiency of Reading Rate 1 (t = -.15, p >.05), Reading Rate 2 (t = -1.21, p > .05), Flexibility (t = 1.23, p >.05), Retention for Readi ng Rate 1 (t = -1.13, p >.05), Retention for Reading Rate 2 (t = 1.45, p > .05), Article Compr e hension (t = .31, p ~.05), Skimming and Scanning (t = -1.16, p~.05), Pa rag raph Comprehension (t = -1.15, p >.05), and Total Comprehension (t = -1.03, p >. 05) as measured by MHRT subtest raw scores were as well developed for the persistent students as for the nonpersistent students. Therefore, the hypothesis was not rejected. Hypothesis 5. Th e re will be no significant difference in general ability as measured by the entrance scores on the School and College Ability Test between persistent and nonpersistent 19721973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the University of Florida. On the basis of the statistical analysis performed by the t test, the conclusion was made that the verbal raw scores (t = -.94, p ~.05), the quantitative raw scores (t = -.26, p >.05), and the total raw scores (t = -.57, p>.05) as measured by SCAT were similarly distributed among

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the persistent students and the nonpersistent students. Therefore, the hypothesis was not rejected. Hypothesis 6. There will be no significant difference in the type of reading program ini tially selected--reading rate, comprehension, study skills, or a combination of programsbetween persistent and nonpersistent 1972-1973 freshman students who voluntarily attended a developmental reading program at the Univer sity of Florida. 93 On the basis of the statistical analysis performed by the u s e of the chi square, the conclusion was made that the type(s) of program initially selected--reading rate, com prehension, study skills, or a combination of programs (chi square= 6.049, p >.05) was similarly distributed among persistent students and nonpersistent students. Therefore, the hypothesis was not rejected. Th e results of the application of stated statistical techniques to the various hypotheses presented in this study indicated that on the characteristics investigated there were no significant statistical differences between the per sistent students and the nonpersistent students and any of the variables studied. Implications for College Reading Programs The act u al investigation seemed to support certain theoretical assumptions cited in the review of research. For example, Wood (1957) was unable to determine which students

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would persist and which would not in a DRP by his measure ments of personality, motivation,and reading class placement of subjects. This study lends support to Wood's findings since no significant difference was discovered between the persistent and nonpersistent subgroups. Using the Personality Ass e sment System to measure personality, Smith (1970) found no association between personality and reading. Spache et al. (1960) used the SA-S Senior Scales 94 to measure personality when studying the attrition of stu dents in a DRP. Neither of these studies was able to predict attrition from their measurements of personality. From his study, Hill (1962) concluded that a study of the total be havior of the reader would be more worthwhile than studying segments of the individual's personality. In this study, the personality traits, according to the measurement of MBTI preferences, were found not to be significantly different between the persistent and the nonpersistent students which adds support to the above mentioned studies concerning person ality and reading. This study found no significant difference between persistent and nonpersistent students on initial reading performance which was similar to DeFrain's (1970) findings that difference in initial reading performance was due to random variance, except for nonpersistent males.

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95 Furthermore, Fairbanks (1974a)in her study of 79 DRPs found that programs where students completed 40 hours or more of work in them more often reported successful programs than those with fewer hours of participation. This supports the assumption of this study that persistence in DRP parti cipation results in greater GPAs. Since this study consi dered nine or more hours of participation as persistent and found no significant difference between the two subgroups, this leads the researcher to suggest that her study may add confirmation to Fairbanks' findings because of the limited hours considered as persistent. Due to the limited amount of study that has been done concerning the characteristics of persistent and nonpersis tent students who have enrolled voluntarily in a developmen tal reading program provided by a four-year institution of higher education, there was little evidence available to either support or rej e ct some of the assumptions made at the beginning of this study. The major implication of this study is that there were no significant differences in the characteristics studied between persistent and nonpersistent students who voluntarily enrolled in a developmental reading program at the University of Florida. There were certain trends which might be of con cern to administrators of reading and study skills programs,

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96 such as the order of differences between the two subgroups on the MBTI, MHRT, and SCAT, the difference in the time for a slump in GPA betw e en the subgroups, and the fact that the type of program selected most frequently by both groups was a combination program. Recommendations for Further Research For the purposes of this study, the number of variables was kept small and the students included in the study were only those who voluntarily enrolled in the university's developmental reading program during the fall quarter of their freshman year, 1972-1973. Due to the limits placed on this study, it is recommended that studies be made investi gating a larger sample size. Furthermore, it would be advan tageous to compare persistent and nonpersistent students using different sample groups at the same level in this institution, sample groups enrolled in such services at a later time in their college careers,and students enrolled in programs in similar institutions. A more precise definition of persistence might lead to more accurate results. For example, divide the sample into three or fo ur subgroups with the time designated for several levels of persistence. Or have the subgroups identified with a greater difference between the amount of participation which is considered

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persistent and nonper s istent. This greater amount of time designated as persistent may result in finding significant differences between the two subgroups. 97 A study of fa c tors pertaining to such things as attitudes, motivation,and environm e nt might include a consideration of the attitudes about program prefe r ences at times other than the initial perceptions, reasons for chang e in program em phasis should there be any and whether this change is a counselor decision, a student decision or if both have input into it, and the student-counselor relationships. Influences that may exist due to family background, early school devel opment and problems, outside factors such as marital status, sources of financial support, whether the student is working or not, and other things which might affect motivation in a developmental reading program need to be investigated. Attention also needs to be given to the areas of academic performance by considering such things as the amount of carry over from program participation into academic work, which might be done by comparing the amount of gains in the program with gains in GPA. Analysis of academi c aptitudes and the student's present college preference of enrollment, the materials used and the amount of progress made within such materials, th e amount of time needed in the program for

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98 students of each subgroup to reach maximum results from participation, and the possibility of a tim e difference for a GPA slump for the two groups might also add useful data to this kind of study. It is possible that data to support the hypothesis that different amount of participation in a DRP are related to the variables in this study could be secured from the results of a self-report or interview. Ther e fore, it is suggested that research be carried out using this method of gathering data.

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APPENDIX A SERVICES, ACTIVI T IES, AND FUNCTIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA'S READING AND STUDY SKILLS CEN T ER I.a Services to students A. Reading/study skills and related individualized instruction. Counse l in g in academic skills. B. Testing and diagnosis for freshmen, transfe r, law, medical and dental students. Others on request. C. Test anxiety groups. II. Participation in and support of special campus programs A. Special Services B. Upward Bound C. Department of Athletics D. P.K. Yonge secondary reading programs and state workshops E. Department of Pediatrics Learning Disabilities F. English Language Institute G. CLEO Law School admissions H. Occasional courses and special student projects III. Graduate training and teaching, practicum and internship supervision. Course and curriculum development. A. Reading--Education and Psychology B. Clinical Testing--Education and Psychology C. Community college and adult reading c o ursesEH 616 and EH 617 D. Counselor Education E. Individual work for advanced graduate students IV. Research, publication, consultation 99

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APPENDIX A continued V. Limited services to the community A. Referrals from schools B. Services to schools C. Tutoring D. Ref e rrals from stat e agencies E. Continuing Education VI. Materials cent e r A. ERIC Reading Resources Center Professional Library (microfiche and hard copy) 100 B. Ex tensive file of t e sts and materials maintained C. Materials dev e lopm e nt and publication aNumerals do not r e flect priorities.

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APPENDIX B SUMMARY TABLE FOR GRADE-POINT AVERAGE (GPA) MEANS (if 8 X F.Q. W.Q. S.Q. F.Q. W.Q. S.Q. F.Q. W.Q. 2.X 1 1972 1973 1973 1973 1974 1974 1974 1975 1 8 Persistent Students 82.35 82.80 77.93 66.11 61.82 61.38 53.33 48.56 n 32 30 28 2 2 22 21 20 17 X 2.57 2.76 2.78 3.00 2.81 2.92 2.67 2.86 22.38 62.58 NonEersistent Students 101.54 104.97 92.14 83.16 87.08 82.05 79.11 74.69 n 38 35 33 32 29 28 25 24 X 2 67 3.00 2.79 2.60 3.00 2.93 3.16 3.11 23.27 6 7 .69

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2 ~ Q 1 -2 ix p -2 ~ x NP 5.24 5.76 13.76 16.58 b 230.68 247.28 b 293.04 323.70 5.58 5.60 5.81 5.85 5.83 5. 97 45. 65 a 15.54 15.70 16 90 17.13 16.99 17.81 229.17 208.66 188.31 190. 7 6 163.64 145.42 271.57 237.64 274.19 256.30 262.54 240.08 Note. a iiP/NP Q b ~2 -Sum of totals for eight quarters: 1 x p = 1603. 92; sum of totals for eight quarters: -2 ix = 2159.06; sum of totals for eight quarters for both subgroups: NP N tx 2 =3762.98. 1 I-' 0 N

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LIST OF REFERENCES Ahrens, D F., Anderson, S. B., and others. SCAT Series II Handbook. (Cooperative School and College Ability Tests) Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service, 1967. Allen, P. M. An analysis of select ed characteristics of three groups of enrollees in a universi t y non-credit reading and study course. (Doctor a l dissertation, University of Cincinnati) Ann Arb o r, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1968. No. 69-6 3 26. Anderson, A. W. Personality traits in readin g ability of Western Australian University freshmen. Journ a l of Educational Resear c h, 1961, 54 (6), 234-237. Antoine, L. W. Personality types as a predictor of reading achievement in community college students. (Doctoral dissert a tion, Northern Illinois University) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1972. No 73-4166. Bliesmer, E. P. 1965 review of research in college-adult reading. In G. B. Schick and M. M. May (Eds.), New Frontiers in College-Adult Reading. Fifteenth Yearbook of the National Reading Conference. Milwaukee, Wis.: National Reading Conference, Inc., 1966, pp. 222-240. Bloomer, R.H. The effects of a college r eading program on a random sample of education freshmen. Journal of Developmental Reading, 1962, 5 (2), 110-118. Bohr, D. H., Cias, G., and Clayton, B. L. The effects of pre scrib e d testing and personaliz e d counseling on enroll m e nt, attrition and success of new st u dents e nrolled in reading courses at Sacramento City College. Practicum p r esented to Nova University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Education degree. Nova University, California, July 2, 1973. (ERIC, 1973, No. ED 099 076) 103

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104 Bonham, L. E. An evaluation of a voluntary college-level read i ng program. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Sout h ern Mississippi) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1972. No. 73-5551. Burgess, B. A. Di ff erential ch a racteristics of participants in a college r e ading center: A two year follow-up study. (M.A. Th e sis, University of Florida) Gainesville, Fla.: Dept. of E nglish, University of Florida, 1975. Cosper, R. D e velopmental reading at Purdue. The Journal of Higher Education, 1953, 24 (5), 258-262. Cowe l l, M. D. and E ntwistle, N. J. T he relationships between personality, st udy attitudes an d academic performance in a technical college. The B ritish Journal of Educa tiona l Psychology, 1971, 41 (part 1), 85-90. Crann e y, A.G. and Tillman, C. E. University of Florida norms for the Basic Skills System Reading Test. Florida Reading Quarte r ly, 1973, 2 (3), 26-28. Dalton, P., Gliessman, D., Guthrie, H.,and Re e s, G. Th e effect of reading improveme n t in academic achievem e nt. Journal of Reading, 1966, 2 (4), 242-252. DeFrain, D. M. The effects of self-concept and selected personal and educational va riables u p on attrition in a nonc redit college reading improvement program. (Doctoral dissertation, Oklah om a State University) Ann Arbor, Mich., University Microfilms, 1970. No. 71-11,131. D e virian, M., Enright, G., and Smith, G. Survey of learning prog r ~ ms in higher education. In Twenty-fourth Yearbook of the Natio n al Reading Conference. Clemson, S. C.: The National Reading Conference (In press), 1975 (a). D e virian, M., Enright, G., and Smith, G. A survey of le a rning program centers in U. S. institutions of higher educa tion. In Eighth Annual Proceedings of the Western Coll e ge Reading Association. Long Beach, C a lif.: Western College R e ading Association (In press), 1975 (b). Entwisle, D. R. Evaluation of study-skills courses: A r e view. Journal of Educational Research, 1960, 53 (7), 243-251, 244.

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105 Entwistle, N. J. and Entwistle, D. The relationships between personality, study methods and academic performance. The B r itish Journal of Educational Psychology, 1970, 40 (part 2), 132-141. Ephron, B. K. Emotional Difficulties in Reading. New York: The Julian Press, Inc., 1953. Fairbanks, M. M. The effect of college reading improvement programs on academic achievement. In P. L. Nache (Ed.), Interaction: Research and Practice in College-Adult Reading. Twenty-third Yearbook of the National Reading Conference. Clemson, S. C.: The National Reading Conference, Inc., 1974 (a), 105-114. Fairbanks, M. M. College reading improvement program evalu ation: Role of research factors on reported program effect on academic achievement. Paper presented at the Twenty-fourth Annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference, Kansas City, Mo., December, 1974 (b). Fed e rico, J. J. The effects of voluntary and forced enroll ment in a study skills program on academic achievement and attitudes of high risk community college freshmen men. (Doctoral dis s ertation, Lehigh University) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1972. No. 72-25, 874. Feinberg, M. R., Long, L., and Rosenbeck, V. Results of a man datory study course for entering freshmen. Journal of Developmental Reading, 1962, 1 (2), 95-100. Freer, I. J. A study of the effect of a college reading program upon grade-point average in Odessa College, Odessa, Texas. (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms 1965. No. 66 6124. Gerberich, J. R. Five years of experience with a remedial reading course for college students. The Journal o f Experimental Education, 1934,} (1), 36-41. Gunderso~, D. V. The influence of college reading instruc tion upon academic achievement. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1960. No. 60-5619.

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106 Herman, J.E. The effect of a reading improvement program upon academic achievement in college. (Doctoral disser tation, The University of Connecticut) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1972. No. 72-32,219. Hill, W. Personality traits and reading disability: A critique. In E. P. Bliesmer and R. C. Staiger (Eds.), Problems, Programs and Projects in College-Adult Reading. Eleventh Yearbook of the National Reading Conference. Milwaukee, Wis.: The National Reading Conference, Inc., 1962, pp. 174-179. Hinton, E. A. Dropout rate and academic progress of two groups of students enrolled at the University of Wichita. Journal of Developmental Reading, 1961, 4 (4), 272-275. Hutchinson, R. W. An experimental study to determine the effectiveness of a study skills program. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1 9 71. No. 71-15,993. Kaye, R. A. The effectiveness of a guidance-counseling study skills treatment program on the academic achieve ment of failing college freshmen. (Doctoral disser tation, The U niversity of Connecticut) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1971. No. 71-18,419. Kilby, R. W. The relation of a remedial reading program to scholastic success in college. The Journal of Edu cational Psychology, 1945, 36 (9), 513-534. Kingston, A. J. and George, C. E. The effectiveness of reading training at the college level. Journal of Educational Research, 1955, 48 (6), 467-471. Kirk, R. E. Experimental Design: Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences. Belmont, Calif.: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., 1968. Larsen, J., Millott, R., and Tillman, C. Personality traits and college student reading skills. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association Chicago, Ill., April 15-19, 1974. (ERIC, 1974, No. ED 097 627)

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107 Lesnik, M. The effects of an individual counseling program on study behavior. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Micro films, 1968. No. 69-21,640. Livengood, D. K. The reading laboratory and clinic at the University of Florida. Unpublished paper. Gainesville, Fla.: Reading & Study Skills Center, University of Florida, 1951. Maxwell, M. J. Developing a learning center: Plans, problems and progress. Journal of Reading, 1975, 18 (6), 462-469. McDonald, A. S. An experimental study of the influence of a college reading program on academic performance. (Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University) An n Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1956. No. 17,004 McGinnis, D J. Corrective reading: A means of increasing s c holastic attainment at the college level. Journal of Education a l Psychology, 1951, 42 (3), 166-173. Millott, R. F. Reading performance as a correlate of th e personality type of college freshmen. (Doctoral disser tation, University of Florida) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1974. No. 75-16,420. Mouly, G. J. A study of the effects of a remedial reading program on academic grade at the college level. The Journal of Educational Psychology, 1952, 43 (8), 459-466. Munger, P. F. students from the cla s ses. gan) Ann No. 7694. Factors related to persistence in college of who were admitted to the University of Toledo lower third of their respective high school (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michi Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1954. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Manual. PrinceMyers, I. B. ton, N. J.: Educational Testing Service, 1962. 0 Bear, H. H. Changes in the academic achievement of matched groups of remedial reading and non-remedial reading students at Indiana Univ e rsity. (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1954. No. 11,204.

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108 Pauk, W. Scholarly skills or gadget s. Journal of Reading, 1965, (4), 234-239. Payne, D. B. The effect of participation in a college reading improvement program on retention of reading skills and academic achievement. (Doctoral dissertation, Northwestern State University of Louisiana) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1971. No. 71-16,257. Ranson, M. K. An evaluation of certain aspects of the reading and study program at the University of Missouri. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1952. No. 4282. Raygor, A. L. McGraw-Hill Basic Skills System Reading Test Examiner's Manual. Monterey, Calif.: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1970. Reed, J.C. Some effects of short term training in reading under conditions o f controlled motivation. The Journal of Educational Psychology, 1956, 47 (5), 257-264. Regensburg, G. E. Relationship between participation in a reading improvement course and grade-point averages of college freshmen. (Doctoral dissertation, Rutgers-The State University) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Micro films, 1966. No. 66-12,078. Robinson, H. A. A note on the evaluation of college remedial reading co urses. The Journal of Educational Psychology, 1950, 41 (2), 83-96. Smith, D. E. P., Wood, R. L., Downer, J. W., and Ray g or, A. L. Reading improvement as a function of student personality and teaching method. The Journal of Educational Psy c hology, 1956, 47 (1), 47-59. Smith, W. A. A study of the personality assessment system and its utility in the prediction of performance in a reading improvement course. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri-Columbia) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1970. No. 71-8391.

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10 9 Sosebee, A. L. Four y e a r follow-up of students in the Indian a University reading program, 1958. (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1963. No. 645 142. Spache, G.D. Th e college-level prog r am at the University of Florida. Journal of Developm e ntal Reading, 1959 (4), 35-42. Spache, G., Standlee, L., and Neville, D. Personality and attrition of university students in individualized reading. Journal of College Student Personnel, 1960, 2 (2), 10-11. Sternitzke, V. L. An evaluation of the reading and study methods program of the University of Kansas for the years 1953 to 1956. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Micr o f ilms, 1957. No. 58-3576. Strang, R., McCullough, C. M.,and Tra x ler, A. E. Problems in the Improvement of Reading. (2nd ed.) New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1955. Swindle, W. C. Longi t udinal evaluati o n of the university academic performance of stud e nts previously enroll e d in a program for improvement of l earning techniques. (Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1968. No. 69-5154. Tillman, C. E. Four-year college reading improvement pro grams and grades: An annotated review, 1945-1971. Journal of Reading Behavior, 197 2 -1973, 5 (2), 100-109. Tillman, C. E. Measuring outcomes in college readin g pro grams. In F. P. Greene (Ed ). College R e ading: Problems and Programs. Tw en ty first Yearbook of the National Reading Conference. Milwaukee, Wis.: National Reading Conference, 1972, pp. 205-212. Tillman, C. E., Millott, R. F., and Larsen, J. L. Using personality test data in individualized reading instruc tion: Brief r e ports of five studies of per s onality and rea d ing. In P L. Nache (Ed.). Interaction: Research and Practice in Colleg e -Adul t Reading. Twe nty -third Yearbook of the National Reading Conference. Clemson, S.C.: National Reading Conference, 1974, pp. 125-130.

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110 Whitehill, R. P. and Jipson, J. A. Differential reading pro gram performance of extroverts and introverts. The Journal of Experimental Education, 1970, 38 (3), 9 396 Whitehill, R. P. and Rubin, S. J. Effectiveness of instru mental and traditional methods of c o llege reading instruction. The Journal of Experimental Education, 1971, 39 (3), 85-87. Wood, R. L. Prediction and analysis of attrition in classes of a university reading service. (Doctoral disserta tion, University of Michigan) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1957. No. 58-1486. Wright, E. S. An investigation into the effects of reading training on academic achievement among freshmen in the college of agriculture, fore s try and home economi c s. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1960. No. 61-685.

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BI OG RAPHICAL SKETCH Jo Ann Walton Parham was born i n Ocala, Florida. She attended schools in Georgia and Florida and graduated from P.K. Yonge Laboratory School, Gainesville, Florida. She received th e Bachelor of A rts in E ducation on July 22, 19 50, from the University of Florida. While an undergraduate, she was elected to the social sorority o f Alpha Chi Omega and the education honor society of Kappa Delta Pi. After teaching first grade for two years in Fern C r eek, Ken t u c ky, sh e attended Carver School, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Kentucky, for one year. Mrs. Parham and her husband are the par e nts of four sons and one daughter. They have served as missionaries in N i geria, West Africa, under appointment by the Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, from 1953 to 1974. She has written materials and been a lecturer in local, stat e and convent i on-wide meetings for Southern Baptist churches. She r e ceived her Master of Education on December 16, 1972, and her Specialist in Education on December 15, 1 9 73, 1 1 1

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112 both from the Unive r sity of Florida. Her doctoral studies were in t he Department of Curriculum and Instr u ction with a major in reading. She worked as a Graduate Assistant in the Re a ding and Stud y Skills Center, University of F l orida, from July through December, 1973. She has also taught reading and language arts as an Interim Instructor and as a Graduate Teaching Assistant at the Univers ity of Florida, beginning in January, 1974, until the present time. She is a member of the Phi Kap pa Phi h o nor society and International Reading Association.

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my o pi nion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degre e of Doctor of Education. R~llen Crews Chairperson Pro f essor of Ed uc ation I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education. A. Gar Cranney Associate Professo of Engli s h I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of s c holarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and qual i ty, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education. Professor of Education I certify tha t I have read this st u dy and tha t in my opinion it conform s to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education. Arthur J. L is Professor o Education

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dis s ertation for the degree of Doctor of Education. Suzanne M. Kinzef Associate Professor of Education This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education. December, 1975 Dean, Graduate School