Citation
Income diversification and seasonality for smallholder farmers in Kilosa, Tanzania

Material Information

Title:
Income diversification and seasonality for smallholder farmers in Kilosa, Tanzania
Creator:
Harris-Coble, Lacey ( author )
University of Florida Digital Collections
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 online resource (65 pages) : illustrations ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture ( jstor )
Cash crops ( jstor )
Crop income ( jstor )
Crops ( jstor )
Diversification ( jstor )
Farmers ( jstor )
Income level ( jstor )
Income shares ( jstor )
Net income ( jstor )
Poverty ( jstor )
Sustainable Development Practice field practicum report M.D.P
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
Rural livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa have been previously documented in the literature as complex and diversified. This diversification may be a response to many influencing factors including: a coping strategy to shocks, risk reduction or income smoothing, lack of financial services or credit markets, and the seasonality of agricultural production. This field practicum examined the pattern and seasonality of income for 75 farmers in the Kilosa District of Tanzania. The farmers were selected among the villages participating in the Tanzania Forest Conservation Group's agricultural project, whose aim is to increase the incomes of smallholder farmers. This report presents the findings from a thorough examination of the income sources of these selected farmers along with trends related to level of income, diversification and income seasonality. The report concludes with recommendations of ways that this information could be incorporated into program activities.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
In the University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
The MDP Program is administered jointly by the Center for Latin American Studies and the Center for African Studies.
Statement of Responsibility:
Lacey Harris-Coble.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Lacey Harris-Coble. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
035387589 ( ALEPH )
1013977838 ( OCLC )
Classification:
LD1780.1 2017 ( lcc )

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Lacey Harris Coble A Field Practicum Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Sustainable Development Practice Degree at the University of Florida, in Gainesville, FL USA May, 2017 Committee Chair: Dr. Sandra Russo Committee Members: Dr. Renata Serra, and Dr. John Kraft Income Diversification and Seasonality for Smallholder Farmers in Kilosa, Tanzania

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n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f$,#!,#$%!$/4('8.,$(/!">FI!-$33!<*!.<3*!,(!#.1*!.!8('*! 0*,.$3*0!&$+,2'*!(4!,#*$'!4.'8*'%!+2''*/,!3*1*3!(4!$/+(8*!./0!.+,$1$,$*%?!-#$+#!+./!,#*/!<*! 2%*0!,(!$0*/,$49!6*9!.'*.%!(4!(&&(',2/$,9!4('!42,2'*!&'(:'.88.,$+!%2&&(',=!! !

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10 <0"#*4%:$) Tanzania 4!&5(,%2*$,"#$6-+0,)!$ "./;./$.!$%!./!g.%,*'/!G4'$+./!+(2/,'9!%$,2.,*0!.3(/:!,#*!5/0$./!N+*./!<*,-**/!L*/9.!./0! @(;.8<$o2*=!"./;./$.!#.%!.!,(,.3!3./0!.'*.!(4!cb\?X``!%o2.'*!6$3(8*,*'%!CX[b?c``!%o2.'*! 8$3*%D?!-#$+#!$%!'(2:#39!,-$+*!,#*!%$;*!(4!F.3$4('/$.!CF5G?!a`_[D=!"#*!3./0!.'*.!(4!"./;./$.! $%!+(8&'$%*0!(4!.!3.':*!8.$/3./0!./0!,#*!$%3./0!.'+#$&*3.:(!(4!e./;$<.'=!G3(/:!-$,#!5/0$./! N+*./!,(!,#*!*.%,!*$:# ,!+(2/,'$*%!<('0*'!"./;./$.?!,#*%*!.'*O!L*/9.!./0!E:./0.!,(!,#*! /(',#p!^2'2/0$?!K-./0.!./0!,#*!A*8(+'.,$+!K*&2<3$+!(4!F(/:(!,(!,#*!-*%,p!./0!e.8<$.?! @.3.-$!./0!@(;.8<$o2*!,(!,#*!%(2,#!CF5G?!a`_[D=! ! ! ! ! ! ! "./;./$.R%!+3$8.,*!'./:*%!4'(8!,'(&$+.3!$/!,#*!+(.%,.3!3(-3./0%!,(!,*8&*'.,*!$/!,#*! /(',#*'/!#$:#3./0%!C5/:#.8?!a`_ZD=!H$/+*!"./;./$.!$%!3(+.,*0!$/!,#*!H(2,#*'/!d*8$%&#*'*?! ,#*!#(,,*%,!&*'$(0!(4!,#*!9*.'!(++2'%!4'(8!J(1*8<*'!,(!>*<'2.'9!./0!,#*!+(30*%,!4'(8!@.9! ,(!G2:2%,=!A2'$/:!,#*!#(,!%*.%(/!,#*!.1*'.:*!,*8&*'.,2'*!'./:*%!4'(8!aZ!P!X`qF!C\\ S]\q>D?! -#$3*!$/!,#*!+(30!%*.%(/!,#*!.1*'.:*!,*8&*'.,2'*!'./:*%!4'(8!_Z!P!a`qF!CZc!P![]q>D! C5/:#.8?!a`_ZD=!A2*!,(!,#*!8(1*8*/,!(4!,#*!5/,*'S"'(&$+.3!F(/1*':*/+*!e(/ *!C5"FeD?!.! <./0!(4!1*'9!3(-!&'*%%2'*!./0!#$:#!&'*+$&$,.,$(/!3(+.,*0!.3(/:!,#*!*o2.,('?!"./;./$.!$%! +#.'.+,*'$;*0!<9!,-(!0$44*'*/,!,9&*%!(4!'.$/4.33!&.,,*'/%!C@+H-**/9!*,!.3 ?!a`_aD=!"#*! Figure 2. Location of Tanzania within Africa

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11 %(2,#*'/?!+*/,'.3!./0!-*%,*'/!.'*.%!#.1*!.!2/$ S8(0.3!'.$/4.33!&.,,*'/?!-#*'*!.!%$/:3*!'.$/9! %*.%(/!(++2'%!4'(8!N+,(<*'!,(!G&'$3=!5/!,#*!/(',#*'/!.'*.%!(4!"./;./$.!,#*'*!$%!.!<$ S8(0.3! '.$/4.33!&.,,*'/?!-#*'*!,-(!'.$/9!%*.%(/%!(++2'=!"#*'*!$%!(/*!%#(',!'.$/9!%*.%(/!4'(8! N+,(<*'!,(!J(1*8<*'!./0!./(,#*'!3(/:*'!'.$/9!%*.%(/!4'(8!@.'+#!,(!@.9!C5/:#.8?!a`_ZD=! "#*!8(1*8*/,!(4!,#*!5"Fe!$%!$/432*/+*0!<9!+#./:*%!$/!,#*!%*.!%2'4.+*!,*8&*'.,2'*!(4!,#*! 5/0$./!N+*./?!-#$+#!,*/0%!,(!1.'9!4'(8!9*.'!,(!9*.'!'*%23,$/:!$/!$/,*'S.//2.3!1.'$.<$3$,9!$/! ,#*!(/%*,?!02'.,$(/!./0!$/,*/%$,9!(4!'.$/4.33= !g3!J$/(!./0!M.!J$/.!*1*/,%!.3%(!$8&.+,!,#*! 8(1*8*/,!(4!,#*!5"Fe!3*.0$/:!,(!#$:#*'!('!3(-*'!,#./!.1*'.:*!'.$/4.33!'*%&*+,$1*39! C@+H-**/9!*,!.3 ?!a`_aD=! $ 7&%8-,)+&"$$ "./;./$.!#.%!.!&(&23.,$(/!(4!.&&'(7$8.,*39!ZX!8$33$(/!&*(&3*?!-#$+#!8.6*%!$,!,#*!Z,#!8(%,! &(&23(2%!+(2/,'9!$/!%2
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12 =%'7,7"0'.>7-,%45.0$).?%6(4$+($,.@,4:",:4(. 9,"5,"*+:,$ 5/!,#*!3.,*!_c,#!+*/,2'9!I*'8./9!+(/o2*'*0!-#.,!$%!,(0.9!,#*!8.$/3./0!(4!"./;./$.!./0! $/+('&('.,*0!$,!$/,(!,#*!+(3(/9!(4!I*'8./!g.%,!G4'$+.=!G4,*'!I*'8./9R%!0*4*.,!$/!ff5?!,#*! +(3(/9!-.%!,'./%4*''*0!,(!,#*!^'$,$%#!./0!'*/.8*0!,#*!l"./:./9$6.!"*''$,('9m!C^'$,.//$+.?! a`_ZD= !5/!_cZb?!,#*!"./:./9$6.!G4'$+./!J.,$(/.3!E/$(/!C"GJED?!.!&(3$,$+.3!(':./$;.,$(/! 4('8*0!<9!U23$2%!J9*'*'*?!<*+.8*!,#*!+*/,*'!(4!,#*!"./;./$./!/.,$(/.3$%,!./0! $/0*&*/0*/+*!8(1*8*/,!CM(#'8.//?!a``\D=!"#'(2:#!.!/(/S1$(3*/,!+.8&.$:/?!"GJE! %2++*%%42339!3*0!"./: ./9$6.!,(!$/0*&*/0*/+*!4'(8!^'$,.$/!(/!A*+*8<*'!c?!_c[_!./0! J9*'*'*!<*+.8*!,#*!4$'%,!&'*%$0*/,!(4!"./:./9$6.=!! $ ;,"<+3,($ e./;$<.'!$%!,#*!$%3./0!.'+#$&*3.:(!3(+.,*0!a`!8$3*%!(44!,#*!+(.%,!(4!8.$/3./0!"./;./$.! C^'$,,./$+.?!a`_ZD=!e./;$<.'R%!+(3(/$.3!#$%,('9! <*:./!$/!,#*!*.'39!_[,#!+*/,2'9!-#*/!,#*! B(',2:2*%*!+(/o2*'*0!,#*!$%3./0!C^'$,,./$+.?!a`_ZD=!5/!,#*!*.'39!_],#!+*/,2'9!N8./$!G'.<%! 0*4*.,*0!,#*!B(',2:2*%*!./0!:.$/*0!+(/,'(3!(1*'!e./;$<.'=!"#*!'23*!(4!G'.<$+!%23,./%!4'(8! ,#*!_],#!+*/,2'9!2/,$3!$/0*&*/0*/+*!#.%!'*%23,*0!$/!%$:/$4$+./,!+23,2'.3!0$44*'*/+*%!<*,-**/! e./;$<.'$./%!./0!8.$/3./0!"./;./$./%=!5/!_]c`?!e./;$<.'!<*+.8*!.!^'$,$%#!&'(,*+,('.,*?! <2,!,#*!^'$,$%#!(/39!'23*0!$/0$'*+,39!./0!3*4,!,#*!%23,./!$/!&(-*'=!N/!A*+*8<*'!_`?!_c[X?! e./;$<.'!'*+*$1*0!$,%!$/0*&*/0*/+*!4'(8!,#*!E/$,*0!L$/:0(8!.%!.!+(/%,$,2,$(/.3!8(/.'+#9! 2/0*'!.!%23,./!C5/:#.8?!a`_ZD=!d(-*1*'?!,#*!&*(&3*!(4!e./;$<.'!0$0!/(,!.++*&,!,#*! +(/%,$,2,$(/.3!8(/.'+#9!./0!(/!U./2.'9!_a?!_c[b!,#*!G4'$+./!&(&23.,$(/!'*1(3,*0=!"#*! '*%23,!-.%!.!/*-!:(1*' /8*/,!-$,#!,#*!G4'(SH#$'.;$!B.',9!CGHBD!&.',9!$/!&(-*'!./0!G<*$0! L.'28*!C,#*!&.',9!3*.0*'!(4!GHBD!.%!B'*%$0*/,!(4!e./;$<.'=!! ="+/+>,)+&"$&/$9,"5,"*+:,$,"#$;,"<+3,($ N/!G&'$3!a[?!_c[b!"./:./9$6.!./0!e./;$<.'!8.0*!#$%,('9!.%!,#*!(/39!,-(!%(1*'*$:/!/.,$(/%! *1*'!,(!2/$,*=!"(:*,#*'!,#*9!4('8*0!,#*!E/$,*0!K*&2<3$+!(4!"./:./9$6.!./0!e./;$<.'?!-#$+#! .4,*'!2/$4$+.,$(/!-.%!'*/.8*0!,#*!E/$,*0!K*&2<3$+!(4!"./;./$.=!"#*!/.8*!"./;./$.!+(8*%! 4'(8!,#*!+(8<$/.,$(/!(4!"./:./9$6.!./0!e./;$<.'!CA./:*?!a`__D=!U23$2%!J9*'*'*?!&'*%$0*/,! (4!"./:./9$6.?!8.$/,.$/*0!#$%!3*.0*'%#$&!'(3*!./0!<*+.8*!&'*%$0*/,!(4!"./;./$.?!-#$3*! G<*$0!L.'28*?!&'*%$0*/,!(4!e./;$<.'?!<*+.8*!1$+*!&'*%$0*/,!(4!"./;./$.=!!

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13 N/!>*<'2.'9!Z?!_c\\!J9*'*'*R%!&.',9!"GJE!./0!L.'28*R%!&.',9!GHB!-*'*!+(8<$/*0!,(! 4('8!,#*!(/39!&(3$,$+.3!&.',9!(4!"./;./$.!F#.0*8.!+#.!@.&$/02;$!CFF@D?!-#$+#!8*./%!,#*! K*1(32,$(/.'9!B.',9!CA./:*?!a`__D=!J9*'*'*!-.%!+(/%$0*'*0!<9!8./9!,(!<*!.!1$%$(/.'9! 3*.0*'!./0!"./;./$./%!%,$33!'*4*'!,(!#$8!.%!01,-+08!('!,#*!,*.+#*'!C^328<*':?!_ccZD=! J9*'*'*R%!&(3$+$*%!4('!"./;./$.!+*/,*'*0!(/!#$%!$0*.!(4! 8?,0,, !C('!4.8$39#((0D?!-#$+#!-.%!.! +(8<$/.,$(/!(4!%(+$.3$%8!./0!%*34S'*3$./+*!,#.,!#*!%.-!.%!.!l"#$'0!f.9m!4('!G4'$+./! 0*1*3(&8*/,!02'$/:!,#*!F(30!f.'!C5<#.-(#!./0!A$<2.?!a``XD=!"#*!8.$/!+(8&(/*/,%!(4! J9*'*'*R%!8?,0,, !&(3$+9!-*'*O!./!*8&#.%$%!(/!.:'$+23,2'*!.%!,#*!<.+6<(/*!(4!,#*!*+(/(89?! ,#*!/.,$(/.3$;.,$(/!(4!,#*!8*./%!(4!&'(02+,$(/?!*02+.,$(/?!$/02%,'$.3$;.,$(/!,#'(2:#!$8&(',! %2<%,$,2,$(/?!./0!,#*!+(/+*/,'.,$(/!(4!&(-*'!$/!.!%$/:3*!&(3$,$+.3!&.',9!CdA5?!a `_bD=!"#*%*! $0*.%!#*3&*0!,(!4('8!.!%,'(/:!/.,$(/.3!$0*/,$,9!$/!,#*!/*-!+(2/,'9!(4!"./;./$.?!-#$+#! .33(-*0!$,!,(!.1($0!8./9!(4!,#*!*,#/$+!./0!'*3$:$(2%!+(/43$+,%!,#.,!(,#*'!G4'$+./!+(2/,'$*%! #.1*!./0!+(/,$/2*!,(!4.+*!&(%, S$/0*&*/0*/+*!CEHG5A?!a``]D=!d(-*1*'?!J9*'*'*R%!%(+$.3$%,! &(3$+$*%!-*'*!/(,!*+(/(8$+.339!%2++*%%423!./0!,#*!8.)('$,9!(4!,#*!+(2/,'9!'*8.$/*0!$/! &(1*',9=!5/!J(1*8<*'!_c]b?!J9*'*'*!'*%$:/*0!4'(8!,#*!&'*%$0*/+9!./0!-.%!%2++**0*0!<9! d.%%./!@-$/9$!-#(!<*:./!,(!3$<*'.3$;*!./0!&'$1.,$;*!,#*!*+(/(89!.4,*'!,#*!*+(/(8$+! 4.$32'*!(4!,#*! 8?,0,, !&'(:'.8!CEHG5A?!a``]D=!5/!_ccb?!,#*!+(/%,$,2,$(/!-.%!.8*/0*0!,(! .33(-!4('!.!823,$S&.',9!&(3$,$+.3!%9%,*8=!d(-*1*'?!0*%&$,*!/*-!(&&(%$,$(/!&.',$*%?!FF@!#.%! +(/,$/2*0!,(!8.$/,.$/!+(/,'(3!(4!<(,#!,#*!M*:$%3.,$1*!F(2/+$3!./0!,#*!&'*%$0*/+9!CA./:*?! a`__D= ! 4&'!("0!")$@)(8>)8(!$ "#*!:(1*'/8*/,!(4!"./;./$.!$%!+(8&(%*0!(4!,#'**!<'./+#*%O!*7*+2,$1*?!3*:$%3.,$1*!./0! )20$+$.3=!"#*!&'*%$0*/,!./0!1$+*!&'*%$0*/,!#*.0!,#*!*7*+2,$1*!<'./+#!./0!.'*!0$'*+,39! *3*+,*0!4('!.!4$1*S9*.'!,*'8=!"#*!J.,$(/.3!G%%*8<39!$%!"./;./$.R%!2/$+.8*'.3!3*:$%3.,$1*! <(09=!5,!$%!+(8&'$%*0!(4!XZ\!%*.,%!./0!#.%!_`a!%&*+$.3!%*.,%!4('!'*%*'1*0!4('!-(8*/?!.! &'.+,$+*!,#.,!<*:./!$/!_c]Z!!CV((/?!a``]p!F5G?!a`_[D=!G3,#(2:#!%*1*'.3!8$/('$,9!&.',$*%! #.1*!*8*':*0!./0!#.1*!:'.02.339!:.$/*0!%2&&(',!%$/+*!_ccb!-#*/!,#*!%$/:3* S&.',9!%9%,*8! -.%!*/0*0?!,#*!'23$/:!&.',9!FF@!+(/,$/2*%!0(8$/.,*%!&(3$,$+%!$/!"./;./$.=!F2''*/,39?!FF@! #.%!,#*!8.)('$,9!$/!,#*!J.,$(/.3!G%%*8<39!-$,#!\Xj!(4!%*.,%!.%!-*33!.%!+(/,'(3!(4!,#*! &'*%$0*/+9!C F5G?!a`_[D=!"./;./$.R%!+.&$,.3!+$,9!$%!A(0(8.?!-#$+#!#(2%*%!,#*!J.,$(/.3! G%%*8<39=!d(-*1*'?!8./9!:(1*'/8*/,!(44$+*%!(4!*7*+2,$1*%!./0!0$&3(8.,$+!*8<.%%$*%!.'*! 3(+.,*0!$/!A.'!*%!H.3..8?!-#$+#!"./;./$.R%!3.':*%,!+$,9!./0!,#*!+(88*'+$.3!+.&$,.3=!>('!!

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17 #.%!(1*'3((6*0!4*8.3*!4.'8*'%!*1*/!,#(2:#!,#*9!&*'4('8!.,!3*.%,!#.34!(4!,#* !.:'$+23,2'.3! 3.<('!$/!%8.33#(30*'!4.'8$/:!%9%,*8%!$/!"./;./$.!CB.3.+$(% SM(&*;!*,!.3?!a`_ZD= ! ?($)(4. "./;./$.!#.%!%,'(/:!3*:.3!&'(1$%$(/%!4('!-(8*/R%!'$:#,%!./0!3./0!(-/*'%#$&?!#(-*1*'!$/! &'.+,$+*!,#*%*!'$:#,%!.'*!(4,*/!/(,!2&#*30!02*!,(!+2%,(8.'9!3.-%!./0 !,'$<.3!/('8%=!"./;./$.! #.%!'.,$4$*0!/*.'39!.33!(4!,#*!8.)('!$/,*'/.,$(/.3!#28./!'$:#,%!$/%,'28*/,%!$/+320$/:!,#*! F(/1*/,$(/!(4!g3$8$/.,$(/!(4!.33!>('8%!(4!A$%+'$8$/.,$(/!G:.$/%,!f(8*/!Cg33$%?!a``\D=!G! %&*+$.3!.8*/08*/,!,(!,#*!+(/%,$,2,$(/!$/!a```!(2,3.-*0!0$%+'$8$/.,$(/!(/!,#*!<.%$%!(4! :*/0*'=!"#*!"./;./$.!:(1*'/8*/,!#.%!&.%%*0!.00$,$(/.3!3.-%!,(!%2&&(',!-(8*/?!%2+#!.%! ,#*!,-(!M./0!G+,%!(4!_ccc!-#$+#!*%,.<3$%#!-(8*/R%!*o2.3!'$:#,%!,(!.+o2$'*?!#(30?!2%*!./0! 0*.3!-$,#!3./0!Cg33$%!*,!.3?!a``\D=!i2(,.%!.'*!$/! &3.+*!,(!*/%2'*!-(8*/R%!'*&'*%*/,.,$(/!$/! :(1*'/8*/,!<(,#!.,!,#*!3(+.3!./0!/.,$(/.3!3*1*3%!Cg33$% ?!a``\D=! M./0!,*/2'*!$%!.!&.',$+23.'39!$8&(',./,!$%%2*!4('!-(8*/!02*!,#*!#$:#!&*'+*/,.:*!(4!-(8*/! *8&3(9*0!$/!.:'$+23,2'*!C]_jD?!*%&*+$.339!$/!'2'.3!.'*.%!Cc]jD!CG/0*'%(/!./0!I2:*',9?! a`__D=!G3,#(2:#!,#*!4('8.3!3*:.3!%9%,*8!%2&&(',%!-(8*/R%!'$:#,%!,(!3./0!,*/2'*?!$/!'*.3$,9! ,#*%*!'$:#,%!.'*!(4,*/!/(,!2&#*30=!K.,*%!(4!4*8.3*!3./0!(-/*'%#$&!.'*!3(-?!(/39!a`j!(4! (44$+$.339!'*:$%,*'*0!3./0!$/!"./;./$.!$%!(-/*0!<9!-(8*/=!G00$,$(/.339?!,#*!&3(,%!(-/*0!<9! -(8*/!.'*!(/!.1*'.:*!#.34!,#*!%$;*%!(4!&3(,%!(-/*0!<9!8*/!C`=a_ S`=X#.!4('!-(8*/! +(8&.'*0!,(!`=[_S`=\#.!4('!8*/D!CG/0*'%(/!./0!I2:*',9?!a`__D=!"#*!,'2*!'.,*!(4!4*8.3*! 3./0!(-/*'%#$&!$%!3$6*39!82+#!3(-*'!:$1*/!,#.,!,#*!8.)('$,9!(4!3./0!$/!"./;./$.!$%! 2/'*:$%,*'*0!./0!,#.,!-(8*/!.'*!*1*/!3*%%!3$6*39!,(!(-/!3./0!,#'(2:#!+2%,(8.'9!3.-! CEHG5A?!a`__D=!G&&'(7$8.,*39!]`j!(4!"./;./$.R%!,'$<.3!:'(2&%!.'*!&.,'$.'+#.3!./0!,#*! +2%,(8.'9!3.-%!(4!,#*%*!:'(2&%!+(/,$/2*!,(!0$%+'$8$/.,*!.:.$/%,!-(8*/?!&.',$+23.'39!$/! $%%2*%!(4!3./0!(-/*'%#$&!./0!$/#*'$,./+*!C5>GA?!a`_`D=!"9&$+.339!-#*/!.!-(8./!$%!8.''$*0! #*'!#2%<./0R%!4.8$39!-$33!:$1*!,#*8!3./0!./0!.!&(',$(/!(4!,#.,!3./0!$%!$/4('8.339!:$1*/!,(!,#*! -(8./!,(!&'(02+*!+'(&%!4('!,#*!#(2%*#(30=!G3,#(2:#!$,!$%!&(%%$<3*!4('!-(8*/!,(!#(30!3./0! )($/,39!-$,#!,#*$'!#2%<./0%!,#*'*!$%!.!%,'(/:!+23,2'.3!$/#$<$,$(/!.:.$/%,!-(8*/!#.1$/:! &'(&*',9!$/!,#*$'!/.8*!CG/0*'%(/!./0!I2:*',9?!a`__D=!H$/+*!-(8*/R%!&'$8.'9!-.9!,(! .++*%%!3./0!$%!,#'(2:#!8.''$.:*?!-(8*/R%!3./0!'$:#,%!.'*!(4,*/!)*(&.'0$;*0!$/!,#*!+.%*!(4! -$0(-#((0!('!0$1('+*=!H(8*!+(2',!+.%*%!(1*'!3./0!(-/*'%#$&!#.1*!<**/!0*+$0*0!$/!4.1('!

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18 (4!-(8*/?!#(-*1*'!'2'.3!-(8*/!.'*!(4,*/!/(,!.-.'*!(4!,#*!3*:.3!.+,$(/%!,#*9!+./!,.6*!./0! %2+#!.+,$(/%!8.9!<*!&'(#$<$,$1*39!0$44$+23,!./0!*7&*/%$1*!CG/0*'%(/!./0!I2:*',9?!a`__D=!! f(8*/!.'*!82+#!8('*!3$6*39!,#./!8*/!,(!-('6!.%!2/&.$0!3.<('!./0!"./;./$.R%!I*/0*'! 5/*o2.3$,9!5/0*7!%+('*!-.%!`=ZXX?!-#$+#!'./6*0!"./;./$.!_aX'0!(2,!(4!_bX!+(2/,'$*%!4('! :*/0*'!*o2.3$,9 !CEJAB!dA5?!a `_bD=!G3,#(2:#!*/'(338*/,!$/!&'$8.'9!%+#((3!#.%!'*.+#*0! :*/0*'!&.'$,9?!:*/0*'!:.&%!$/!#$:#*'!*02+.,$(/!%,$33!*7$%,=!N/39![j!(4!-(8*/!#.1*! +(8&3*,*0!%*+(/0.'9!*02+.,$(/!+(8&.'*0!,(!cj!(4!8*/!CEJAB!dA5?!a`_bD=!"./;./$.!#.%!.! #$:#!.0(3*%+*/,!<$',#!'.,*!02*!,( !,#*!&'*1.3*/+*!(4!*.'39!8.''$.:*!./0!b`j!(4!:$'3%!.'*! 8.''$*0!<*4('*!,#*$'!_],#!<$',#0.9!CAdH?!a`_`D=!"#*!.0(3*%+*/,!4*',$3$,9!'.,*!#.%!0*+3$/*0! %$/+*!a``[?!<2,!$,!$%!%,$33!#$:#*'!,#./!,#*!HHG!.1*'.:*!C0*1*3(&$/:!(/39D!4('!a`_b?!,#*!HHG! .1*'.:*!$%!_`X=`!. /0!,#*!3(-S$/+(8*!+(2/,'9!.1*'.:*!$%!c]=a!Cf('30!^./6!A.,.?!a`_ZD=!5/! a`_`?!Zcj!(4!+#$30'*/!./0!b`j!(4!-(8*/!-*'*!+(/%$0*'*0!./*8$+!CAdH?!a`_`D=! C7'%-0.D7-,47",. G++('0$/:!,(!,#*!4$/0$/:%!4'(8!,#*!"./;./$.!@$/$%,'9!(4!G:'$+23,2'*!H2'1*9!$/!a`_a?!,#*! L$3(%. !A$%,'$+,!#.%!.!&(&23.,$(/!(4!bX]?_\Z=!!N4!,#*!#(2%*#(30%!$/!,#*!0$%,'$+,!\`j!-*'*! 0*%+'$<*0!.%!'2'.3!./0!X`j!.%!2'<./=!J*.'39!.33!(4!,#*!'2'.3!#(2%*#(30%!*/:.:*0!$/! .:'$+23,2'.3!&'(02+,$(/!Cc]=bjD=! 58&(',./,!+'(&%!$/!L$3(%.!.'*!+*'*.3%!%2+#!.%!+('/?!'$+*! ./0!8$33*,!.%!-*33!.%!1*:*,.<3*%!%2+#!.%!,(8.,(*%?!(/$(/%!./0!%-**,!&(,.,(*%=!>*',$3$;*'%! -*'*!(/39!2%*0!(/!_\j!(4!,#*!'*&(',*0!4.'8!.'*.!./0!(/39!\j!(4!,#*!4.'8*0!3./0!-.%! $''$:.,*0=!G00$,$(/.339?![a=_j!(4!+'(&!&'(02+$/:!#(2%*#(30%!'*&(',*0!'*+*$1$/:!.:'$+23,2'.3! *7,*/%$(/!%*'1$+*%!./0!_c=_j!(4!4.'8*'%!'*&(',*0!2%$/:!$8&'(1*0!%**0!1.'$*,$*%=!! ! ! Figure 4. Map of Morogoro Region and Kilosa District

PAGE 19

19 ! 5/!,*'8%!(4!%,./0.'0%!(4!3$1$/:!]bj!(4!'2'.3!#(2%*#(30%!#.0!*.',#!43(('%!./0!,#*!.1*'.:*! #(2%*#(30!%$;*!-.%!b=a!&*(&3*=!@(%,!#(2%*#(30%!'*&(',*0!+(/%28$/:!8*.,!('!4$%#!.,!3*.%,! (/+*!.!-**6?!#(-*1*'![]j!(4!#(2%*#(30%!'*&(',*0!*7&*'$*/+$/:!&*'$(0$+!4((0! $/%244$+$*/+9= ! ! ! ! . . . .

PAGE 20

20 87,(40,:4(.E(67(& f#*/!,#$/6$/:!(4!'2'.3!%8.33#(30*'!4.'8*'%!%,'2::3$/:!,(!*%+.&*!&(1*',9?!8./9! &(3$+98.6*'%!&$+,2'*!.!4.'8*'!*.'/$/:!$/+(8*!4'(8!%,.&3*!+'(&!&'(02+,$(/?!-#*/!$/!4.+,! ,#*!3$,*'.,2'*!(/!'2'.3!3$1*3$#((0%!$/!H2< SH.#.'./!G4'$+.!#.%!+(/%$%,*/,39!4(2/0!,#.,! 3$1*3$#((0!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!$/,(!823,$&3*!$/+(8*S*.'/$/:!.+,$1$,$*%!./0!%*+,('%!&'* 0(8$/.,*! '2'.3!3$1*3$#((0%!Cd.::<3.0* !*,!.3?!a``[D=!"#$%!3$,*'.,2'*!(/!'2'.3!3$1*3$#((0% !*8&#.%$;*%! ,#.,!&(1*',9!'*02+,$(/!&(3$+$*%!%#(230!'*+(:/$;*!,#*!0$1*'%$,9!(4!%8.33#(30 *'!4.'8*'R%! 3$1*3$#((0%!'.,#*'!,#./ !,#*!/(,$(/!(4!.!(/* S%$;*S4$,%S.33!&'*%+'$&,$(/!,(!&(1*',9!'*02+,$(/=! "#2%?!2/0*'%,./0$/:!&.,,*'/%!(4!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!.8(/:!%8.33#(30*'!4.'8*'%!$%!/*+*%%.'9!4('! ,#*!0*1*3(&8*/,!(4!*44*+,$1*!&'(:'.8%!./0!&(3$+$*%!,#.,!.%%$%,!4.'8*'%!<9!4.+$3$,.,$/:!.++*%%! ,(!(&&(',2/$,$*%!('!<9! *8&(-*'$/:!4.'8*'%!,(!+'*.,*!,#*$'!(-/!r&.,#-.9%!(2,!(4!&(1*',9R! <9!3*1*'.:$/:!,#*$'! %$+.3?!4$/./+$.3?!%(+$.3?!./0!#28./!+.&$,.3!Cg33$%?!a```p!A*!f**'0, ?! a`_`D=!"#$%!%*+,$(/!&'(1$0*%!.!<'$*4!'*1$*-!(4!,#*!3$,*'.,2'*!(/!3$1*3$#((0!./0!$/+(8*! 0$1*'%$4$+., $(/!,#.,!#.%!%#.& *0!,#*!+(/+*&,2.3$;.,$(/!(4!,#$%!4$*30!&'.+,$+28!&'()*+,!./0!,#*! $/,*'&'*,.,$(/!(4!,#*!'*%23,%=! 876('7A%%).0$).;$"%+(.D76(4-727"0,7%$ N/*!(4!,#* !8(%,!$/432*/,$.3!4'.8*-('6%!$/!,#*!3$,*'.,2'*!(/!%2%,.$/.<3*!3$1*3$#((0 %!$%!,#*! %2%,.$/.<3*! 3$1*3$#((0%!4'.8*-('6!0*1*3(&*0!<9!>'./6!g33$%!Ca```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d2%%*$/!./0! J*3%(/?!_cc]D=!

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22 %288.'$;*0!<9!A*.,(/!C_cc\D!,#.,?!l)2!$%(,>)+>,-$,"#$>&">!%)8,-$#+//+>8-)+!.$&/$>&--!>)+"5$ 5&&#$+">&0!$#,),$,(!$.!'!(!$!"&852$)&$(,+.!$#&83).$,3&8)$)2!$',-8!$&/$)(*+"5D$)2!$>&.).$,(!$ -,(5!$,"#$)2!$#,),$0,*$"&)$,-1,*.$3!$&/$5(!,)$',-8!$&">!$>&--!>)!#A$C&=!X`D= !d(-*1*'?! .3,#(2:#!%2+#!0.,.!8.9!<*!0$44$+23,!,(!+(33*+,!./0!%#(230!,.6*/!-$,#!+.2,$(/?!-$,#(2,!$,!,#*! %,209!(4!'2'.3!&(1*',9! $/!0*1*3(&$/:!+(2/,'$ *%!$%!2//*+*%%.'$39!(/* S%$0*0?!,#2%!8('*!$%! 6/(-/!.<(2,!,#*!'.,*?!0*&,#?!./0!%*1*'$,9!(4!&(1*',9!,#./!,#*!3$1*3$#((0!%,'.,*:$*%! (4!,#*! &((' ?!8.6$/:!$,!0$44$+23,!,(!0*%$:/!*44*+,$1*!&'(:'.8%!./0!&(3$+$*%!,(!$8&'(1*!,#*!3$1*3$#((0%! (4!,#$%!:'(2&! Cg33$%?!a```D=! ! 5/!.00$,$(/!,(!$/+(8*?!(,#*'!1.'$.<3*%!2%*0!,(!%,209!3$1*3$#((0!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!.'*!.%%*,%!./0! .+,$1$,$*%=!d(-*1*'!^.''*,,!./0!K*.'0(/!Ca```D !0(*%!/(,!+3.$8!,#.,!(/*!1.'$.<3*!$%!%2&*'$('! ,(!,#*!(,#*'%?!<2,!,#.,!*.+#!#.%!'*3.,$1*!. 01./,.:*%!./0!0$%.01./,.:*%!./0!,#.,!2%$/:!,#*! 1.'$.<3*%!$/!.!+(8&3*8*/,.'9!8.//*'!&'(1$0*%!,#*!8(%,!+(8&3*,*!&$+,2'*!(4!'2'.3! 3$1*3$#((0%=!H$/+*!$/+(8*!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!$%!(4,*/!+(/%$0*'*0!,(!<*!0'$1*/!<9!8(,$1.,$(/%!(4! $/+(8*!8.7$8$;.,$(/?!$/+(8*!%,.<$3$;.,$(/!('!<(,#?!$/+(8*!$%!(4,*/!%,20$*0!%$/+*!$,!$%!,#*! 1.'$.<3*!8(%,!0$'*+,39!(4!$/,*'*%,=!d(-*1*'?!,#*!#$:#!1.'$.<$3$,9!(4!$/+(8*!+./!'*%23,!$/!.! 8$%3*.0$/:!&$+,2'*!(4!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!.,!.!:$1*/!&($/,!$/!,$8*?!-#$+#!8.6*%!$,!0$44$+23,!,(! 0$%,$/:2$%#!,#*!* 44*+,%!(4!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!4'(8!+#($+*!('!<9!+#./+*=!G%%*,%?!#(-*1*'?!+./!<*! 0$44$+23,!.++2'.,*39!,(!1.32*!$/!$/+(8&3*,*!8.'6*,%?!-#$3*!.+,$1$,$*%!.'*!/(,!0$'*+,39!'*3*1./,! ./0!+./!+(/+*.3!+(2/,*' S$/,2$,$1*!&.,,*'/%!(4!&'(4$,.<$3$,9=!>('!*7.8&3*?!g33$%!Ca```D! *7.8$/*0!$/+(8*!0$1*'%$,9!$/!,#'**!1$33.:*%!$/!,#*!L$3$8./).'(!'*:$(/!(4!"./;./$.?!-#$+#!$%! -*33!6/(-/!4('!+(44**!&'(02+,$(/!./0!%*1*'.3!:(1*'/8*/,!&'(:'.8%!-*'*!$8&3*8*/,*0!,(! $/+'*.%*!+(44**!&'(02+,$(/!$/!,#*!.'*.!%$/+*!$,!-.%!'*:.'0*0!.%!,#*!&'$/+$&. 3!.:'$+23,2'.3! .+,$1$,9=!d(-*1*'?!-#*/!,#*!$/+(8*%!(4!,#*!4.'8*'%!-*'*!*7.8$/*0!$/!0*,.$3!$,!-.%!%#(-/! ,#.,!8./9!#(2%*#(30%!-*'*!9$*30$/:!/*:.,$1*!$/+(8*%!4'(8!+(44**!:$1*/!,#*!#$:#! $/1*%,8*/,!+(%,%!./0!3*%%!&'(4$,.<3*!,#./!*7&*+,*0!%.3*%=!"#*!.1*'.:*!$/+( 8*!&(',4(3$(!4('! .33!]]!#(2%*#(30%!%2'1*9*0!4(2/0!,#.,!+(44**!+(8&'$%*0!(/39!_j!(4!$/+(8*!-#$3*!(,#*'! +'(&%!+(8&'$%*0!X`j!(4!$/+(8*!./0!0.$'9!a\j!(4!$/+(8*!Cg33$%?!a``` D=!"#2%?!+(44**!-.%! /(,!,#*!&'$8.'9!.:'$+23,2'.3!.+,$1$,9!:*/*'.,$/:!$/+(8*!.%!-.%!&'*1$(2%39!,#(2:#!<9!,#*! :(1*'/8*/,!(44$+$.3%!-#(!0*%$:/*0!,#*!&'(:'.8!./0!:(1*'/8*/,!&'(:'.8%!.$8$/:!,(! $/+'*.%*!,#*!$/+(8*%!(4!'2'.3!4.'8*'%!8$:#,!#.1*!#.0!8('*!$8&.+,!,.':*,$/:!$/+(8*S :*/*'.,$/:!.+,$1$,$*%!,#.,! +(/,'$<2,*!,(!. !3.':*'!%#.'*!(4!$/+(8*!$/!,#*!3$1*3$#((0!%,'.,*:$*%! (4!,#*!&.',$+$&./,%=!!!

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23 E">&0!$F+'!(.+/+>,)+&"$ "#*!3$,*'.,2'*!(/!$/+(8*!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!#.%!4(2/0!,#.,!$/+(8*!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!$%! -$0*%&'*.0!.8(/:!'2'.3!#(2%*#(30%!$/!H2)&(.$)2,)$#(+'!$#+'!(.+/+>,)+&"$ "#*'*!.'*!%*1*'.3!4.+,('%!,#.,!#.1*!<**/!'*&*.,*039!$0*/,$4$*0!$/!,#*!3$,*'.,2'*!.%!0'$1$/:! ,#*!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!<*#.1$('!(4!%8.33#(30*'!4.'8*'%=!"#*%*!4.+,('%!.'*O!'$%6!'*02+,$(/?!3.+6! (4!+'*0$,?!'2'.3!$/4'.%,'2+,2'*?!:*/0*'!./0!%*.%(/.3$,9! Cg33$%?!a```p!^.''*,,!./0!K*.'0(/?! a```D=! ! G:'$+23,2'.3!3$1*3$#((0%!.'*!$/#*'*/,39!&'(/*!,(!'$%6!02*!,(!+3$8.,$+!1.'$.<$3$,9?!&*%,%?! 0$%*.%*!./0!8.'6*,!1.'$.<$3$,9!Cg33$%?!a```D=!5/!('0*'!,(!'*02+*!$/,*' S%*.%(/.3!1.'$.<3*! $/+(8*?!3$1*3$#((0!%+#(3.'%!./0!*+(/(8$%,%!(4,*/!&2,!4('-.'0!,#*!$0*.!,#.,!4.'8*'%! 0$1*'%$49!.%!.!4('8!(4!%*34!$/%2'./+*!$/!('0*'!,(!'*02+*!'$%6=!"#$%!%,'.,*:9!(4!'$%6!'*02+,$(/! +./!,.6*!8./9!4('8%!P!823,$&3*!&3(,%!-$,#!1.'9$/:!8$+'(+3$8.,*%?!823,$&3*!+'(&%!-$,#! 0$44*'$/:!%*/%$,$1$,9!,(!#*.,!('!0'(2:#,?!('!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!$/,(!$/+(8*!*.'/$/:!.+,$1$,$*%!-$,#! '$%6%!,#.,!0(!/(,!+(1.'$.,*!-$,#!+'(&!&'(02+,$(/!C g33$%?!_cc] D=!K2'.3!$/4'.%,'2+,2'*!$%! ./(,#*'!4.+,('!,#.,!$/432*/+*%!$/+(8*!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!<*+.2%*!(4!$,%!%,'(/:!*44*+,!(/!,#*! .1.$3.<$3$,9!./0!,9&*%!(4!'2'.3!/(/ S4. '8!*8&3(98*/,!.1.$3.<3*!Cd.::<3.0*!*,!.3?!a``[D=! A*f**'0,!Ca`_`D!.3%(!4(2/0!,#.,!#(2%*#(30%!$/!1$33.:*%!-$,#!<*,,*'!.++*%%!,(!'(.0%!./0! 8.'6*,%!-*'*!8('*!3$6*39!,(!0$1*'%$49!$/,(!,#*!/(/S4.'8!%*+,('=!5,!%#(230!<*!*7&3$+$,39! '*+(:/$;*0!,#.,!,#*!,9&*%!(4!3$1*3$#((0!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!%,'.,*:$*%!,#.,!+./!<*!&2'%2*0!-$,#$/! .!#(2%*#(30!.'*!4'*o2*/,39!:*/0*'!%&*+$4$+!C g33$%?!a``` D=!5/!8./9!+(/,*7,%!+23,2'.3! +(/%,'.$/,%!3$8$,!,#*!.<$3$,9!4('!-(8*/!,(!*/,*'!$/,(!+*',.$/!$/+(8*S:*/*'.,$/:!.+,$1$,$*%?!

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24 ./0!$/!:*/*'.3!,#*!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!.+,$1$,$*%!.1.$3.<3*!4('!-(8*/!(4,*/!,*/0!,(!<*!3*%%! &'(4$,.<3*!,#./!,#(%*!(&*/!,(!8*/!C g33$%?!a``` D=! ! H*.%(/.3$,9!$%!./!$/#*'*/,!4*.,2'*!(4!'2'.3!.:'$+23,2'.3!3$1*3$#((0%!CH.#/?!_c]cp! M*3*!./0! G:.'-.3?!_cc`p!g33$%?!a``` D=!g33$%!C_cc]D!+3.$8%!,#.,!%*.%(/.3$,9!.3(/*!+./!*7&3.$/!,#*! &.,,*'/%!(4!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!$/,(!(/ S4.'8!.+,$1$,$*%!./0!(44S4.'8!-.:*!*.'/$/:%!$/!'2'.3! $/+(8*!&(',4(3$(%=!5/!#$%!.',$+3*!g33$%!C_cc]D!0*4$/*%!%*.%(/.3$,9!$/!,#*!*+(/(8$+!%*/%*!.%?! l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d(-*1*'?!*1*/!.,!,#$%!3*1*3!4.'8*'%!4.+*!%*'$(2%! $%%2*%!%$/+*!,#*'*!$%!.!-$0*%&'*.0!3.+6!(4!%244$+$*/,!4((0!%,('.:*!8*+#./$%8%!.,!,#*! #(2%*#(30!3*1*3!.%!-*33!.%!4*-!(&,$(/ %!,(!%*+2'*!%.1$/:%=!f#*/!'$%6!./0!8.'6*,! $8&*'4*+,$(/%!.'*!.++(2/,*0!4('!.%!-*33!$,!$%!(<1$(2%!,#.,!+(/%28&,$(/!./0!$/+(8*! %8((,#$/:!.'*!%*'$(2%!$%%2*%!4('!4.'8*'%?!-#$+#!$4!/(,!&'(&*'39!.00'*%%*0!+./!'*%23,!$/!,#*! r)2!$28"5(*$/,(0!($%,(,#&IJ!Cg33$%?!_cc]p!^.+(/!*,!.3?!a`_b D=!"#2%?!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!+./!<*! ,#(2:#,!(4!.%!.!%,'.,*:9!,(!%8((,#!+(/%28&,$(/!!I$,")!$$/!('0*'!,(!0$32,*!,#*!*44*+,!(4!,#*! /.,2'.3!%*.%(/.3$,9!(4!4.'8S<.%*0!$/+(8*!Cg33$%?! _cc]D=!"#*'*!$%!*8&$'$+.3!*1$0*/+*!,#.,! 0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!8.9!.%%$%,!#(2%*#(30%!$/!.,,.$/$/:!4((0!%*+2'$,9!<9!*/.<3$/:!#(2%*#(30! +(/%28&,$(/!02'$/:!,#*!0*4$+$,!%*.%(/!<*4('*!,#*!#.'1*%,!CK*.'0(/!*,!.3?!_ccap!g33$% ?!_cc]D=! ! M.+6!(4!+'*0$,!$%!./(,#*'!4.+,('!'*3.,*0!-$,#!%*.%(/.3$,9!,#.,!0'$1*%!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/=!^9! */:.:$/: !$/!/(/ S4.'8!*8&3(98*/,!,(!:*/*'.,*!+.%#!$/+(8*!$/!,#*!.<%*/+*!(4!+'*0$,! 8.'6*,%?!4.'8*'%!.'*!.<3*!,(!(1*'+(8*!,#*!#$:#!+(%,%!(4!.,,.$/$/:!+'*0$,!,(!8.6*!&2'+#.%*%! 4('!4.'8!$/&2,%!('!$/1*%,8*/,%!CK*.'0(/?!_cc\D=!5/!.00$,$(/!-$,#(2,!.++*%%!,(!+'*0$,!('! %.1$/:%!8*+#./$%8%?!,#*!3(-!$/+(8*!02'$/:!+*',.$/!,$8*!&*'$(0%!C$=*=!&3./,$/:D!02*!,( !,#*! %*.%(/.3!/.,2'* !(4!.:'$+23,2'.3!&'(02+,$(/?!.!%8.33!$/43(-!(4!+.%#!$%!/**0*0!('0*'!,(! 8.$/,.$/!8$/$828!#(2%*#(30!+(/%28&,$(/!Cg33$%?!_cc]D=!"#2%?!/(/ S4.'8!$/+(8*S :*/*'.,$/:!.+,$1$,$*%!+(230!<*!0'$1*/!<9!,#*!$/#*'*/,!%*.%(/.3 $,9!(4!.:'$+23,2'.3!3$1*3$#((0%! ./0 !./!.<%*/+*!(4!+'*0$,!8.'6*,%?!.%!.!%,'.,*:9!4('!'$%6!'*02+,$(/!('!.!%,'.,*:9!,(!

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25 .++2823.,*!.%%*,%!./0!,#*%*!.+,$1$,$*%!.'*!0*,*'8$/*0!<9!,#*!+#.'.+,*'$%,$+%!(4!,#*! $/0$1$02.3!C#28./!+.&$,.3?!:*/0*'!*,+=D!./0!(4!,#*!1$33.:*n'*:$(/!C$/4'.%,'2+,2'*?!+3$8.,*?! 8.'6*,%!*,+=D=! F+'!(.+/+>,)+&"$/&($.8('+',-$&($,>>808-,)+&"K$ 5/!,#*!$/+(8*!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!3$,*'.,2'*?!(/*!2/%*,,3*0!o2*%,$(/!#.%!<**/!-#*,#*'! 0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!+./!<*!+#.'.+,*'$;*0!0$44*'*/,39!0*&*/0$/:!(/!,#*!3*1*3!(4!$/+(8*!(4!,#*! #(2%*#(30=!5/!'$+#*'!#(2%*#(30%!$,!.&&*.'%!,#.,!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!$%!2%*0!.%!.!%,'.,*:9 !,(! .++2823.,*!.%%*,%?!-#$3*!$/!&(('*'!#(2%*#(30%!$,!%**8%!,#.,!#(2%*#(30%!0$1*'%$49!8*'*39!,(! %2'1$1*=!"-(!'*3.,$1*39!'*+*/,!&.&*'%!#.1*!*7.8$/*0!,#$%!o2*%,$(/!.:.$/!2%$/:!%2'1*9!0.,.! 4'(8!,#*!L.:*'.!'*:$(/!(4!"./;./$.=!A*f**'0,!Ca`_`D!2%*0!./!*7,*/%$1*!o2./,$,.,$1*!./0! o2.3$,.,$1*!8$7*0!8*,#(0%!.&&'(.+#!2%$/:!%2'1*9!0.,.!4'(8!,#*!L.:*'.!d*.3,#!./0! A*1*3(&8*/,!H2'1*9!CLdAHD?!4(+2%!:'(2&!0$%+2%%$(/%!2%$/:!&**'!.%%*%%8*/,%!(4!,#*!%2'1*9! '*%&(/0*/,%!-*.3,#!'./6$/:?!./0!3$4*!#$%,('9!$/,*'1$*-%!-$,#!_Z!LdAH!'*% &(/0*/,%!$/!*.+#! 1$33.:*=!A*f**'0,!Ca`_`D!4(2/0!+(/%$%,*/,39!,#.,!$/0$1$02.3%!-#(!0$1*'%$4$*0!.:'$+23,2'.3! &'(02+,$(/!&*'4('8*0!*+(/(8$+.339!<*,,*'!,#./!*7&*+,*0!$/!,#*!'*:'*%%$(/!./.39%$%!./0! ,#.,!,#(%*!-#(!+(8<$/*0!4.'8!./0!/(/S4.'8!.+,$1$,$*%!0$0!*1*/!<*,,*'=!5/!,#*!4(+2%!:'(2&! 0$%+2%%$(/%?!A*f**'0,!.3%(!4(2/0!,#.,!&.',$+$&./,%!$/%$%,*0!(/!.!+.2%.3!3$/6!<*,-**/! 0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!./0!8(1*8*/,!(2,!(4!&(1*',9=!! G/(,#*'!.',$+3*!,#.,!*7.8$/*0!,#*!o2*%,$(/!(4!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!4('!.++2823.,$(/!('!%2'1$1.3!$%! A$8(1.!./0!H*/!Ca`_`D=!M$6*!A*f**'0,!Ca`_`D?! A$8(1.!./0!H*/!2%*0!,#*!LAdH!0.,.!%*,!,(! *8&$'$+.339!,*%,!,#*!+.2%*!(4!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!2%$/:!*+(/(8*,'$+!8*,#(0%!%2+#!.%! './0(8n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26 97(').=40",7":+ . "#*!"./;./$.!>('*%,!F(/%*'1.,$(/!I'(2&!C">FID!$%!.!823,$0$%+$&3$/.'9!,*.8!(4!4('*%,*'%?! <$(3(:$%,%!./0!+(882/$+.,('%!-#(!.'*!+(88$,,*0!,(!+(/%*'1$/:!"./;./$.R%!4('*%,%!./0! $8&'(1$/:!,#*!3$1*3$#((0%!(4!,#(%*!-#(!0*&*/0!(/!,#*8=!">FI!-.%!*%,.<3$%#*0!$/!_c]Z!./0! $%!,#*!3.':*%,!/(/S&'(4$,!(':./$;.,$(/!$/!"./;./$.!-('6$/:!(/!4('*%,!+(/%*'1.,$(/=!"#'(2:#! 8('*!,#./!a`!9*.'%!(4!*7&*'$*/+*?!">FI!#.%!4(2/0!,#.,!,#*!8(%,!*44*+,$1*!-.9!,(!+(/%*'1*! 4('*%,%!$%!,#'(2:#!&'(,*+,*0!.'*.!8./.:*8*/,?!+(882/$,9!0*1*3(&8*/,!./0!+.&.+$,9! <2$30$/:?!.01(+.+9!./0!'*%*.'+#=!"#*!"./;./$.!>('*%,!F(/%*'1.,$(/!I'(2&!&'(8(,*%! 8*,#(0%!,#.,!4(%,*'!&.',$+$&.,$(/?!+((&*'.,$(/?!&.',/*'%#$&!./0!%2%,.$/.<$3$,9! C">FI?! a`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igure 5. TFCG Village Savings and Loans (VSL) Group

PAGE 27

27 97(').=40",7":+.F1G(",76(. "#*!(<)*+,$1*%!(4!,#$%!4$*30!&'.+,$+28!-*'*!,#'**4(30=!"#*!4$'%,!-.%!,(!&'(1$0*!">FI!-$,#! $/4('8.,$(/!(/!,#*!/28<*'?!,9&*%?!4'*o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igure 6. Field Practicum Objectives

PAGE 28

28 H(,A%)%'%*5! "#*!8*,#(0%!2%*0!4('!,#$%!4$*30!&'.+,$+28!-*'*!&.',$+$&./,!(<%*'1.,$(/%?!4(+2%!:'(2&! 0$%+2%%$(/%!./0!4.'8*'!%2'1*9%=!>.'8*'!%*3*+,$(/!4('!<(,#!,#*!4(+2%!:'(2&!0$%+2%%$(/%!./0! ,#*!%2'1*9%! -.%!*/,$'*39!0*+$0*0!<9!">FI!4$*30!%,.44?!-#$+#!-.%!.&&'(&'$.,*!4('!,#*!&2'&(%*! (4!,#$%!4$*30!&'.+,$+28!%$/+*!(/39!4.'8*'%!-('6$/:!-$,#!">FI!-*'*!(4!$/,*'*%,=! _= B.',$+$&./,!N<%*'1.,$(/ G!8*,#(0!2%*0!,#'(2:#(2,!,#*!__!-**6%!(4!4$*30-('6!-.%!&.',$+$&./,!(<%*'1.,$(/=! "$8*!%&*/,!/(,!+(/02+,$/:!4.'8*'!%2'1*9%?!4(+2%!:'(2&%!('!./.39;$/:!0.,.?!,#*! 8.)('$,9!(4!,#*!4$*30!-('6 !,$8*!-.%!%&*/,!-$,#!,#*!">FI!4$*30!%,.44=!"#$%!+(/%$%,*0!(4! .++(8&./9$/:!,#*8!,(!,#*!4$*30!,(!1$%$,!,#*!&'()*+,!%$,*%!./0!%$,,$/:!$/!(/!:'(2&! 8**,$/:%!./0!,'.$/$/:%!-$,#!,#*!:(.3!(4!3*.'/$/:!.%!82+#!.%!&(%%$<3*!.<(2,!,#*!L$3(%.! 0$%,'$+,!./0!">FIR%!-('6=!5/!.00$,$(/!,(!,#*!4$1*!1$33.:*% !-#*'*!4.'8*'!%2'1*9%!-*'*! +(/02+,*0 ?!4$1*! (,#*'!1$33.:*%!-#*'*!">FI!#.%!&'()*+,%!$/!,#*!L$3(%.!A$%,'$+, !-*'*! 1$%$,*0!$/!.00$,$(/!,(!,#*!1$33.:*%!%2'1*9*0 =!>$*30!1$%$,%!.3%(!&'*%*/,*0!,#* !(&&(',2/$,9! ,(!$/,*'.+,!-$,#! 3(+.3!:(1*'/8*/,!(44$+$.3%!./0!.:'$+23,2'.3!*7,*/%$(/!(44$+*'%!.%!-*33! .%!8./9!(4!,#*!&.',$+$&./,%!$/!">FIR%!&'()*+,%=!! a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

PAGE 29

29 +(/02+,*0!-$,#!]!4.'8*'%!4'(8!,#*!1$33.:*!(4 !J9.3$=!H$/+*!3$,*'.+9!$/!,#$%!'*:$(/!$%!3(-?! C[ajD!,#*!%2'1*9%!-*'*!:$1*/!('.339!$/!H.#$3$ !C@$/$%,'9!(4!G:'$+23,2'*?!a`_aD=!">FI! 4$*30!(44$+*'!@$+#.*3!J$3(/:(!(<%*'1*0 !,#*!0*3$1*'9!(4!,#*!%2'1*9! ,#'(2:#(2,!,#*! 02'.,$(/!(4!,#*! $/%,'28*/,!,*%,!,(!*1.32.,*! $4!5!-(230!<*!.<3*!,(!+(/02+,!,#*!%2'1*9% !$/! H-.#$3$!(/!89!(-/=!G4,*'!%$:/$4$+./,!8(0$4$+.,$(/%?!,#*!%2 '1*9!$/%,'28*/,!-.%!,*%,*0!.! %*+(/0!,$8*!-$,#!4$1*!4.'8*'%!4'(8!,#*!1$33.:*!(4 !L$:2/:.=!>(33(-$/:!8$/('!+#./:*%?! &'*3$8$/.'9!0.,.!-.%!+(33*+,*0!4'(8!.!%8.33!%.8&3*!(4!a`!4.'8*'%!-.%!%2'1*9*0?!_`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a`j!(4!">FIR%!4.'8*'%R!:'(2&!$/!*.+#!1$33.:*=!5/!,#*!%.8&3*!0.,.! +(33*+ ,*0!4'(8!J9.3$!./0!L$:2/:.?!/(,!.33!4.'8*'%!-*'*!8*8<*'%!(4!">FIR%!4.'8*'%R! :'(2&=!"#*!4.'8*'%!$/!,#*!%.8&3*!0.,.!-#(!-*'*!.!&.',!(4!,#*!4.'8*'%R!:'(2&!-*'*! $/+320*0!$/!,#*!4$/.3!%.8&3*!$/!('0*'!,(!'*02+*!,$8*!%&*/,!+(33*+,$/:!0.,.=!! !Table 1 Survey Sections ! . @:46(5.@(",7%$ /%I7". _! A*8(:'.&#$+!5/4('8.,$(/?!M./0!N-/*'%#$& !./0!5''$:.,$(/ a! F.%#!>3(-!K./6$/:!CK*1*/2*!./0!g7&*/%*%D X! F'(&!K*1*/2*! b! F'(&!F(%,%! Z! J(/SF'(&!K*1*/2*! [! J(/SF'(&!F(%,%!./0 !K*8$,,./+*%! \! M.':*!B2'+#.%*%?!H.1$/:%!./0! 5/1*%,8*/,%!

PAGE 30

30 3%$"(I,:0'.940+(&%4#. N/*!(4!,#*!8.$/!+(/+*&,2.3!$/432*/+*%!4('!,#$%!4$*30!&'.+,$+28!-.%!g33$%!Ca```D!4'.8*-('6! 4('!8$+'(!&(3$+9!./.39%$%!(4!'2'.3!3$1*3$#((0%!C%**!G&&*/0$7!^!4('!+#.',D=!"#$%!4'.8*-('6! $332%,'.,*%!,#*!/28*'(2%!4.+,('%!.,!823,$&3*!%+.3*% !,#.,!$/432*/+*!.!:$1*/!4.'8*'R%!3$1*3$#((0! %,'.,*:9=!"#*!4'.8*-('6!$0*/,$4$*%!4.+,('%!4'(8!,#*!.%%*,%!,#.,!+(/%,$,2,*!,#*!l3$1*3$#((0! &3.,4('8m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g33$%!Ca```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igure 7 Field Practicum Conceptual Framework

PAGE 31

31 L!/-!>)+&"$&"$7&)!")+,-$@2&()>&0+"5.$+"$)2!$M!)2&#&-&5*$ "#$%!-.%!89!4$'%,!*7&*'$*/+*!+(/02+,$/:!,#$%!,9&*!(4!4$*30-('6!./0!%(!,#*'*!-*'*!%(8*! %#(',+(8$/:%!$/!,#*!0.,.! +(33*+,*0 =!N/*!.'*.!(4!(1*'%$:#,!-.%!$/!,#*!4('8.,!(4!,#*! o2*%,$(//.$'*=!i2*%,$(/%!(/! *02+.,$(/!./0!.:*!-*'*!/(,!$/+320*0!$/!,#*!$/,*'*%,!(4!8.6$/:! ,#*!%2'1*9%!.%!%#(',!.%!&(%%$<3*?!#(-*1*'!.4,*'!'*1$*-$/:!,#*!3$,*'.,2'*!$,!$%!+3*.'!#(-! $8&(',./,!,#*%*!.,,'$<2,*%!.'*!,(!.%%*%%$/:!#28./!+.&$,.3!./0!,#.,!,#*9!#.1*!%,'(/:! +(''*3.,$(/%!-$,#!$/+ (8*!3*1*3!./0!,#2%!%#(230!#.1*!<**/!$/+320*0=!! ! ! . . . . . . . . . .

PAGE 32

32 E(-:',-.0$).!$0'5-7. ^.%*0!(/ !,#*!,#'**!(<)*+,$1*%!4('!,#$%!4$*30!&'.+,$+28!,#$%!%*+,$(/!-$33!<*!+(8&(%*0!(4!,#'**! %2<%*+,$(/%!(4!,#*!'*%23,%!./0!./.39%$%!&*',.$/$/:!,(!*.+#!(<)*+ ,$1*=!"#*!4$'%,!%2<%*+,$(/! 0*%+'$<*%!,#*!+#.'.+,*'$%,$+%!(4!,#*!4.'8*'R%!%2'1*9*0 !./0!$/4('8.,$(/!(/!,#*!/28<*'?! ,9&*%?!4'*o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o2./,$49!,#./!+.%#!$/+(8*!./0!:$1*/!,#*!3$8$,*0!,$8*! ./0!'*%(2'+*%!(4!,#$%!&'()*+,!,#*!0*+$%$(/!-.%!8.0*!,(!'*&(',!(/39!+.%#!$/+(8*!0.,.=! G,(0!($62,(,>)!(+.)+>.$ N4!,#*!\Z!4.'8*'%!%2'1*9*0?!X[!'*%&(/0*/,%!-*'*!8*/!Cb]jD!./0!Xc!-*'*!-(8*/!CZajD=! "#*!.1*'.:*!#(2%*#(30!%$;*!-.%!Z=X!&*(&3*!./0!/*.'39!.33!(4!,#*!'*%&(/0*/,%!(-/*0!.!&$*+*! (4!3./0!Cc_jD=!"#*!.1*'.:*!.8(2/,!(4!3./0!(-/*0!-.%!_=c!#.=!"(!<*,,*'!*%,$8.,*!,#*! .8(2/,!(4!3./0!2%*0!4('!+23, $1.,$(/!$/!(/*!9*.'?! ,#*!%28!(4!,#*!3./0!.'*.!&3./,*0!4('!*.+#! +'(&!'*&(',*0!$/!,#*!%2'1*9 !-.%!+.3+23.,*0=!N/!.1*'.:*!4.'8*'%!'*&(',*0!+23,$1.,$/:!a=Z!#.! (1*'!,#*!+(2'%*!(4!(/*!9*.'=! H$/+*!,#*!.1*'.:*!,#* !/28<*'!(4!.+'*%!+23,$1.,*0!$%!:'*.,*'!,#./!

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33 ,#*!.1*'.:*!/28<*'!(4!.+'*%!(-/*0?!,#*%*!'*%23,% !%2::*%,!*$,#*'!$/,*' +'(&&$/:? !8$7$/:!(4! +'(&%!(/!,#*!%.8*!4.'8!&3(,!(' !823,$&3*!&3./,$/:!%*.%(/%?!.33!(4!-#$+#!.'*!+(88(/!$/! "./;./$.!C@$/$%,'9!(4!G:'$+23,2'*?!a`_aD=!N/39!_Xj!(4!,#*!4.'8*'%!%2'1*9*0!-*'*!.<3*!,(! $''$:.,*!,#*$'!4.'8!&3(,%=!!! 6(&%.$ "#*!4$1*!8(%,!+(88(/39!:'(-/!+'(&%!$/!,#*!%.8&3*!-*'*!8.$;*!CccjD?!&$:*(/!&*.!C]bjD?! %*%.8*!C[]jD?!<*./%!CbXjD!./0!'$+*!CX_jD!C%**! G&&*/0$7!G!4('!,#*!+(8&3*,*!3$%,!(4!+'(&%! :'(-/D=!N/!.1*'.:*!4.'8*'%!#.'1*%,*0!X=a!:2/$.!&* '!.+'*!(4!8.$;*=!J*.'39!#.34!!CbcjD(4! 4.'8*'%!%.8&3*0!6*&,!,#*$'!*/,$'*!8.$;*!#.'1*%,!4('!#(8*!+(/%28&,$(/?!-#$3*!,#* '*8.$/$/:!4.'8*'%!-#(!%(30!.!&(',$(/!(4!,#*$'!8.$;* ?!(/!.1*'.:*!%(30!bXj!(4!,#*$'!#.'1*%,= "#*!'*3.,$(/%#$&!<*,-**/!,#*!.8(2/,!(4!8.$;*!.!4.'8*'!#.'1*%,*0!./0!,#*!.8(2/,!%(30!-.%! %,'(/:39!&(%$,$1*!C'as`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a!-*'*!,(8.,(*%!Ckac_=a\D!./0!G4'$+./!*::&3./,! CkaX]=c]D!4(33(-*0!<9!&$:*(/!&*.!Ckaa]=`XD!./0!%*%.8*!Ck_b[=XbD=!! "#*!+'(&%!-$,#!,#*!#$:#*%,!.1*'.:*!'*1*/2*%!.3%(!'*o2$'*0!#$:#!$/&2,!+(%,%!(4!%**0%! &*%,$+$0*%?!4*',$3$;*'!./0!3.<('=!"#*!.1*'.:*!'*&(',*0!+(%,%!4('!%**0%!./0!&*%,$+$0*%!4('! ,(8.,(*%!./0!G4'$+./!*::&3./,!-*'*!ka]=X`!./0!kab=`_!'*%&*+,$1*39?!-#$3*!,#*!.1*'.:*! +(%,%!4('!%**0%!./0!&*%,$+$0*% !4('!&$:*(/!&*.!./0!%*%.8*!-*'*!(/39!k_a=[_!./0!kZ=[_! '*%&*+,$1*39=!"#*'*!-.%!.!&(%$,$1*!+(''*3.,$(/!<*,-**/!,#*!.8(2/,!%&*/,!(1*'.33!(/!+'(&! $/&2,%!./0!,#*!.8(2/,!(4!(1*'.33!+'(&!'*1*/2*%!C'a!s!`=b]D=!N/!.1*'.:*!4.'8*'%!%&*/,!k]b! $/!(/*!9*.'!(/!+'(&!$/&2, %!./0!(/!.1*'.:*!*.'/*0!kbcZ!$/!+'(&!'*1*/2*!,#*'*4('*!,#*! .1*'.:*!+'(&!/*,!$/+(8*!C+.3+23.,*0!<9!%2<,'.+,$/:!+'(&!$/&2,!+(%,%!4'(8!+'(&!'*1*/2*D! -.%!kb_a!&*'!9*.'=! ! a! N/39!.1*'. :*! '*1*/2*%!.'*!'*&(',*0!%$/+*!,#* 1.32*!4('!'*1*/2*n.+'*!+(230!/(,!<*!+.3+23.,*0! 4('!+'(&%!-#$+#!-*'*!&.',$.339!2%*0!4('!#(8*!+(/%28&,$(/

PAGE 34

34 N&"H6(&%$O>)+'+)+!.$ G%!0$%+2%%*0!$/!,#*!'*1$*-!(4!,#*!3$,*'.,2'*?!/(/S+'(&!%(2'+*%!(4!$/+(8*!+(/,'$<2,* !.! %$:/$4$+./,!&(',$(/!(4!%8.33#(30*'!4.'8*'R%!$/+(8*=!"#*!/(/ S+'(&!.+,$1$,$*% !8(%,!4'*o2*/,39! */:.:*0!$/!<9!,#*!%2'1*9!'*%&(/0*/,% !-*'*!%*33$/:!+#$+6*/%!4('!8*.,!CZ_jD?!+#.'+(.3! &'(02+,$(/!Ca`jD?!./0!.3+(#(3!&'(02+,$(/!C_\jD!C%**!".<3*!XD =!"#*!/(/ S+'(&!.+ ,$1$,$*%! -$,#!,#*!#$:#*%,!.1*'.:*!'*1*/2*%!-*'*!'2//$/:!.!%8.33!%#(&!Ck]][=`ZD?!.3+(#(3!&'(02+,$(/! CkZc\=``D?!./0!%*33$/:!4'$*0!%/.+6%!Ckb`_=a_D=!G%!-$,#!+'(&!'*1*/2*%?!,#*'*!-.%!.!&(%$,$1*! +(''*3.,$(/!<*,-**/!,#*!.8(2/,!%&*/,!(/!/(/S+'(&!.+,$1$,9!$/&2,!+(%,%!./0!,#*!.8(2/,!(4! '*1*/2*!*.'/*0!4'(8!/(/S+'(&!.+,$1$,$*%!C'a!s!`=bcD=! =!N/!.1*'.:*!4.'8*'%!*.'/*0!X]j!(4! /*,!$/+(8*!4'(8!/(/S+'(&!%(2'+*%?!*/:.:*0!$/!a!/(/ S+'(&!.+,$1$,$*%?!./0!*.'/*0!k\\c=]c!(4! /*,!$/+(8*!4'(8!/(/S+'(&!%(2'+*%=!! K*8$,,./+*%!.'*!./(,#*'!4('8!(4!$/+(8*?!-#$+#!$%!+(88(/!$/!0*1*3(&$/:!+(2/,'$*%!./0! '2'.3!%*,,$/:%?!#(-*1*' !3$,*'.,2'*!(/!$/+(8*!%(2'+*%!$/!"./;./$.!#.%!%2::*%,% !,#.,! '*8$,,./+*%!&3.9!.!%8.33*'!'(3*!$/!#(2%*#(30!$/+(8*!+(8&.'*0!,(!#(2%*#(30%!$/!(,#*'! G4'$+./!+(2/,'$*%!CA*'+(/!./0!L'$%#/./ ?!_cc[D=!5/!,#$%!%.8&3*?!_[j!(4!4.'8*'%!%.$0!,#*9! '*+*$1*0!'*8$,,./+*%!./0!,#*%*!'*8$,,./+*%!'./:*0!4'(8!k_b=ac!,(!ka]Z=\_!4('!(/*!9*.'=! F'(& G1*'.:*!G+'*%! I'(-/! G1*'.:*!K*1*/2*! CEHAD! J28<*'!(4!>.'8*'%! I'(-$/:! F('/ _=c_! k_`_=ZX! \b!CccjD! B$:*(/!B*. _=\`! kaa]=`X! [X!C]bjD! H*%.8*! _=ZZ! k_b[=Xb! Z_!C[]jD! ^*./%! _=`a! k_``=_`! Xa!CbXjD! K$+* _=`X! k_X[=a[! aX!CX_jD! F(-&*. `=c[! k\_=`c! a_!Ca]jD! H2/43(-*' _=aZ! kZa=X]! _b!C_cjD! "(8.,(! `=Z]! kac`=\b! c!C_ajD! G4'$+./!g::&3./,! `=Z[! kaX]=c]! \!CcjD! M*.49!I'**/%! `=X`! kbZ=aZ! Z!C\jD! Table 2. Crops Grown, Average Acres and Average Revenue

PAGE 35

35 >('!4.'8*'%!,#.,!'*+*$1*0!'*8$,,./+*%?!,#*!'*8$,,./+*%!+(8&'$%*0!(/!.1*'.:*!_a=]j!(4! ,(,.3!$/+(8*?!%$8$3.'!,(!,#*!4$/0$/:%!(4!A*'+(/!./0!L'$%#/./!C_cc[D!(4!.'(2/0!_`j!4('! "./;./$./!4.'8*'%=!!! $ $ P!'!-$&/$E">&0!$ "#*!/*,! $/+(8*!-.%!+.3+23.,*0!<9!%2<,'.+,$/:!+'(&!$/&2,!+(%,%!C$/+320$/:!#$'*0!3.<('!+(%,%! <2,!*7+320$/:!,#*!+(%,!(4! (-/!3.<(' D!4'(8!+'(&!'*1*/2*%!./0!/(/S+'(&!$/&2,!+(%,%!4'(8! /(/S+'(&!'*1*/2*%!./0!,#*/!%288$/:!,#*!'*8.$/$/:!+'(&!&'(4$,%!./0!/(/S+'(&!&'(4$,%=!"#*! .8(2/,!(4!/*,!$/+(8*!1.'$*0!4'(8!,#*!#$:#*%,!/*,!$/+(8*!(4!k_a?\Z]=Z\!,(!,#*!3(-*%,!/*,! $/+(8*!(4!kS_a=][= !"#*!.1*'.:*!$/+(8*!-.%!k_?_c\=`] ?!#(-*1*'!,#*!8*0$./!$/+(8*!-.%! (/39!k[[_=bX!%2 ::*%,$/:!,#.,!,#*!.1*'.:*!-.%!$/432*/+*0!<9!.!&.',$+23.'39!-*.3,#9!(2,3$*' =! "(!./.39;*!0$44*'*/+*%!<*,-**/!4.'8*'%!<9!/*,!$/+(8*!3*1*3?!,#*!%.8&3*!-.%!0$1$0*0!$/,(!Z! $/+(8*!o2$/,$3*%=!"#*!&(('*%,!_Z!4.'8*'%!+(8&'$%*!,#*!_%,!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*!-#$3*!,#*!'$+#*%,! _Z!4.'8*'%!+(8&'$%*!,#*!Z,#!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*=!! ! ! J(/SF'(&!G+,$1$,9! G1*'.:*!K*1*/2*!! G1*'.:*!F(%,%! J28<*'!(4!>.'8*'%!! F#$+6*/ !C8*.,D! k_`_=`] k__=b_ X]!CZ_jD! F#.'+(.3 k_[_=c` k__=[\ _Z!Ca`jD! G3+(#(3! k_?`cc=[[ kbbZ=cc _X!C_\jD! H8.33!%#(&! kb?a[c=\X ka?a[_=aa \!CcjD! >'$*0!H/.+6% k[]]=_X ka][=ca [!C]jD! B$:%! kaXZ=ab k_\c=bX Z!C\jD! >$*30!M.<('! k[]=Z\ k`=``! Z!C\jD! F(/%,'2+,$(/ ka[X=XX k_`=b] Z!C\jD! A2+6%! k_X\=Z` kc=]]! b!CZjD! F.'&*/,*'! kX\b=\[ kaZ=\_ b!CZjD! Table 3. Non Crop Activities, Revenues and Costs

PAGE 36

36 ;$"%+(. L:7$,7'(. H7$M.;$"%+( H0NM.;$"%+( !6(40*(. ;$"%+( _!C&(('*%,D ! kS_a=][! ka`Z=]_ k_ab=ZZ a! ka_[=[\ kbZ`=cZ kXa]=[[ X! kbZ\=_b k\ca=X] k[Xb=b[ b! k]ZX=XX k_?]]\=_b k_?a]Z=[X Z!C'$+#*%,D! k_?cXb=\[ k_a?\Z]=Z\ kX?[\c=]\ ! @,'+"5.C$P&,".C$P,(5!$78(>2,.!.$,"#$E"'!.)0!").$ g1*'9! %2'1*9!'*%&(/0*/,!$/!,#*!%.8&3*!'*&(',*0!%.1$/:!8(/*9!$/!%(8*!4('8=!"#*!8*,#(0%! (4!%.1$/:!'*&(',*0!-*'*!$/!.!:'(2&?!,#'(2:#!,#*!&#(/*?!.,!#(8*?!.,!,#*!<./6!('!.! +(8<$/.,$(/!(4!,#*%*!C%**!>$:2'*!c!<*3(-D=! "#*!#$:#! &'*1.3*/+*!(4!%.1$/:%!:'(2&% !$%!/(,! %2'&'$%$/:!$/!,#$%!%.8&3*!%$/+* !./(,#*'!&.',!(4!">FIR%! &'()* +,!$%!$8&3*8*/,$/:!h$33.:*! H.1$/:%!./0!M(./%!:'(2&%=!"#*%*!:'(2&%!.33(!8*8<*'%!%.1*!.!%*,!.8(2/,!-**639!./0!2%*! ,#*!&((3*0!%.1$/:%!,(!0$%,'$<2,*!3(./%!,(!,#*!:'(2&!8*8<*'%!,#.,!.'*!&.$0!<.+6!-$,#! $/,*'*%,?!,#2%!$/+'*.%$/:!,#*!:'(2& R%!42/0%!(1*'!,$8*=!! ! ! F igure 8 Methods of Saving T able 4 Income Quintiles 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Group House Phone Phone and Group House and Group Bank and Group House and Phone House, Phone and Bank Methods of Saving

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37 H.1$/:!$/!:'(2&%!-.%!2%*0!<9![bj!(4!'*%&(/0*/,%!./0!Z[j!(4!'*%&(/0*/,%!,((6!(2,!.! 3(./!$/!,#*!&.%,!9*.'=!"#*!8(%,!+(88(/!'*.%(/%!4('!,#*!3(./%!-*'*!4('!4.'8$/:?!<2$30$/:! .!#(2%*?!$33/*%%?!<2%$/*%%?!3$1*%,(+6?!%+#((3!./0!.3%(!.!+(8<$/.,$(/!(4!,#*%*!'*.%(/%=!"#*! .1*'.:*!3(./!%$;*!-.%!k_XZ=[Z! !C(/!.1*'.:*!a_j!(4!/*,!$/+(8*D!.3,#(2:#!$,!1.'$*0!<.%*0! (/!-#.,!,#*!3(./!-.%!$/,*/0*0!4('=!>('!*7.8&3*!,#*!.1*'.:*!<2%$/*%%!3(./!-.%!kX`X=bc! -#$3*!,#*!.1*'.:*!4.'8!3(./!-.%!k_a`=``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d*'4$/0.#3!$/0$+*%?!-#$+#!$%!<(''(-*0!4'(8!$/02%,'$.3! *+(/(8$+%=!^.%*0!(/!,#*!8*,#(0%!2%*0!$/!,#*!3$,*'.,2'*?!$/+(8*!0 $1*'%$4$+.,$(/ !-.%! 8*.%2'*0!<9!,#*! /28<*'!(4!,(,.3!.+,$1$,$*%?!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!<9!%*+,('%!C.:'$+23,2'*?!3$1*%,(+6?! ./0!%*'1$+*%D!./0!<9!d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c!<*3(-! $332%,'.,*%!,#*!'*3.,$(/%#$&!<*,-**/!,#$%!8*.%2'*8*/,!(4!$/+(8*!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!./0!,(,.3! .8(2/,!(4!$/+(8*=!"#*!+(''*3.,$(/!<*,-**/!,#*!/28<*'!(4!$/+(8*S:*/*'.,$/:!.+,$1$,$*%!$%! &(%$,$1*?!<2,!/(,!%,'(/:!C'a!s!`=a`D=!"#$%!'*%23,!$%!/(,!%2'&'$%$/:!+ (/%$0*'$/:!,#.,!,#*'*!$%!.! 3.':*!.8(2/,!(4!1.'$.<$3$,9!$/!,#*!&'(4$,.<$3$,9!(4!$/+(8*S:*/*'.,$/:!.+,$1$,$*%!%(!,#.,!.!4*-! &'(4$,.<3*!.+,$1$,$*%!8.9!3*.0!,(!.!#$:#*'!.8(2/,!(4!$/+(8*!,#./!%*1*'.3!3*%%S&'(4$,.<3*! .+,$1$,$*%=

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38 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! $ E">&0!$F+'!(.+/+>,)+&"$3*$@!>)&(! G%!8*/,$(/*0!$/!,#*!&'*1$(2%!%*+,$(/ ?!,#*!.1*'.:*!&'(4$,%!4'(8!,#*!,(&S,#'**!8(%,! &'(4$,.<3*!/(/S+'(&!.+,$1$,$*%!C%8.33!<2%$/*%%?!.3+(#(3!&'(02+,$(/!./0!4'$*0!%/.+6%D!-*'*!a! ,(!b !,$8*%!#$:#*'!,#./!,#*!'*1*/2*%!4'(8!,#*!,(&S,#'**!8(%,!&'(4$,.<3*!+'(&%!C,(8.,(?! G4'$+./!*::&3 ./,!./0!&$:*(/!&*.D=!H$/+*!,#*!.8(2/,%!(4!/*,!$/+(8*!'*+*$1*0!4'(8!/(/S+'(&! .+,$1$,$*%! 1.'$*0!8('*!,#./!4('!+'(&%?!$,!$%!3$6*39!,#.,!,#*! +(''*3.,$(/ !<*,-**/!,#*!,(,.3! /28<*'!(4!+'(&!.+,$1$,$*%?!('!+'(&%!%(30 ?!./0!,#*!.8(2/,!(4!+'(&!$/+(8*!$%!0$44*'*/,!,#./!,#*! +(''*3.,$(/ !<*,-**/!,#*! ,(,.3!/28<*'!(4!/(/S+'(&!.+,$1$,$*%!./0!,#*!.8(2/,!(4!/(/ S+'(&! $/+(8*=!5/!>$:2'*!_`?!+(8&.'$/:!,#*!'*3.,$(/%#$&!<*,-**/!/28<*'!(4!+' (&!.+,$1$,$*%!./0! +'(&!'*1*/2*!*7.8$/*0!,#$%!$0*.?!./0!/28<*'!(4!/(/S+'(&!$/+(8*!./0!/(/S+'(&!$/+(8*! -$,#!,-(!%+.,,*'!&3(,%=!>('!,#*!/(/ S+'(&!.+,$1$,$*% !-.%!.38(%,!/(!+(''*3.,$(/!<*,-**/!,#*! /28<*'!(4!/(/S+'(&!.+,$1$,$*%!.!4.'8*'!*/:.:*0!$/!./0!,#*!.8(2/,!(4!$/+(8*!:*/*'.,*0! 4'(8!,#*!/(/S+'(&!.+,$1$,$*%!C'a!s!`=`XD?!#(-*1*'!,#*'*!-.%!.!4.$'39!%,'(/:!&(%$,$1*! +(''*3.,$(/!<*,-**/!,#*!/28<*'!(4!+'(&%!%(30!./0!,#*!.8(2/,!(4!$/+(8*!4'(8!+'(&%!C'a!s! `=b[D=! ! F igure 9 Total Number of Act ivities vs. Total Net Income R! = 0.19573 (5,000,000) 5,000,000 10,000,000 15,000,000 20,000,000 25,000,000 30,000,000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Net Income (TZSH) Total Number of Activities

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39 ! !! ! ! ! "#2%?!$,!.&&*.'%!,#.,!0$1*'%$,9!$/!,*'8%!(4 !,#*!/28<*'!(4!.+,$1$,$*%!,#.,!:*/*'.,*!$/+(8*!#.%! .!:'*.,*'!$/432*/ +*!(/!,#*!.8(2/,!(4!+'(&!$/+(8*!,#./!4('!/(/S+'(&!$/+(8*=!H*1*'.3!4.+,('%! +(230!<*!$/432*/+$/:!,#$%!(2,+(8*=!N/*!$%!,#.,!(/!.1*'.:*!4.'8*'%!:'(-!./0!%*33!8('*!+'(&%! CX=aZD!+(8&.'*0!,(!,#*!.1*'.:*!/28<*'!(4!/(/ S+'(&!.+,$1$,$*%!CaD!./0!(/39!_\=Xj!(4! 4.'8*'%!-*'*!*/:.:*0!$/!8('*!,#./!a!/(/S+'(&!.+,$1$,$*%=!"#2%?!4.'8*'%!8.9!/(,!#.1*! */(2:#!,$8*!./0!'*%(2'+*%!C$/!&.',$+23.'!4$/./+$.3!+.&$,.3D!.1.$3.<3*!,(!*7&./0!<*9(/0!a! /(/S+'(&!.+,$1$,$*%=!G/(,#*'!4.+,('!$%!,#*!-$0*'!'./:*!(4!&'(4$,.<$3$,9!$/!,#*!/(/S+'(&! .+,$1$,$*%!+(8&.'*0!-$,#!,#*!+'(&%=!5,!%**8%!,#.,!$,!8.9!8.,,*'!8('*!-#$+#!/(/S+'(&! 4.'8*'%!*/:.:*!$/!'.,#*'!,#./!,#*!,(,.3!/28<*'!(4!.+,$1$,$*%=!>$/.339?!/*.'39!.33!(4!,#*! "./;./$./!4.'8*'%!:'(-!8.$;*!./0!$,!$%!,#*!8.$/!+'(&!4('!4((0!%*+2'$,9!.3,#(2:#!.!&(',$(/! R! = 0.02776 5,000,000 10,000,000 15,000,000 20,000,000 25,000,000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Net Non-Crop Income (TZSH) Number of Non-Crop Activities R! = 0.45957 (1,000,000) 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Net Crop Income (TZSH) Number of Crops Sold F igure 10 Number of Crops Sold vs. Crop Income (t op) and Number of Non Crop Activities vs. Non Crop Income (bottom)

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40 (4!$,!$%!.3%(!%(30=!d(-*1*'?!8.$;*!.3%(!#.%!,#*!3(-*%,!.1*'.:*!&'$+*!&*'!:2/$.!#.'1*%,*0! .8(/:!.33!(4!,#*!%,.&3*!+'(&% !'*&(',*0=!"#2%?!$4!4.'8*'%!0$1*'%$4$*0!,#*$'!+'(&!&'(02+,$(/!,(! $/+320*! (,#*'!+'(&%!$/!.00$,$(/!,(!8.$;*?!-#$+#!.'* !.3%(!8('*!&'(4$,.<3*?!,#*$'!$/+(8*%!4'(8! +'(&%!%#(230!$/+'*.%*=! J*7,?!,#*!&*'+*/,.:*!(4!$/+(8*!4'(8!+'(&!./0!/(/S+'(&!%(2'+*%!-.% !*7.8$/*0!4('!*.+#!(4! ,#*!4$1*!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*%!0*%+'$<*0!$/!,#*!0*%+'$&,$1*!%,.,$%,$+%!%*+,$(/=!"#*!3$,*'.,2'*! %2::*%,%!,#.,!&(('*'!4.'8*'%!'*+*$1*!,#*!8.)('$,9!(4!,#*$'!$/+(8*!4'(8!.:'$+23,2'.3!%(2'+*%?! -#$3*!-*.3,#$*'!4.'8*'%!#.1*!.!#$:#*'!%#.'*!(4!$/+(8*!4'(8!/(/S+'(&!%(2'+*%!%2+#!.%!%8.33! <2%$/*%%*%!C K*.'0(/!*,!.3?!_cc\ D=! ! F(/%$%,*/,!-$,#!&'*1$(2%!4$/0$/:%!'*&(',*0!$/!,#*!3$,*'.,2'*?!4.'8*'%!$/!,#*!&(('*%,!$/+(8*! o2$/,$3*!'*+*$1*0!,#*!8.)('$,9!(4!,#*$'!$/+(8*!4'(8!+'(&!%(2'+*%?!-#$3*!,#*!'$+#*%,!o2$/,$3*! '*+*$1*0!,#*!8.)('$,9!(4!,#*$'!$/+(8*!4'(8!/(/S+'(&!%(2'+*%=!5/!,#$%!4$'%,!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*?! 4.'8*'%!(/!.1*'.:*!'*+*$1*0!][j!(4!,#*$'!$/+(8*!4'(8!+'(&!%(2'+*%!./0!(/39!_bj!4'(8! /(/S+'(&!%(2'+*%?!-#$3*!4.'8*'%!$/!,#*!4$4,#!o2$/,$3*!'*+*$1*0!(/39!a[j!(4!,#*$'!,(,.3!$/+(8*! 4'(8!+'(&!%(2'+*%!./0!,#*!'*%,!C\bjD!4'(8!/(/S+'(&!%(2'+*%=! ! "(!42',#*'!*7.8$/*!,#*!0$44*'*/+*%!<*,-**/!0$44*'*/,!,9&*%!(4!/(/ S+'(&!.+,$1$,$*% ?!-#$+#! -.%!%2::*%,*0!,(!<*!$8&(',./,!$/!,#*!&'*+*0$/:!'*%23,%?!,#*!/(/ S+'(&!.+,$1$,$*%!-*'*! 0$1$0*0!$/,(!,#'**!+.,*:('$*%O! (,#*'!.:'$+23,2'.3?!$/02%,'9!./0!%*'1$+*%=!G3,#(2:#!,#*! 5/+(8*! i2$/,$3* G1*'.:*! 5/+(8*! G1*'.:*!J*,! F'(&! 5/+(8*! F'(&! 5/+(8*!Cj! (4!"(,.3D G1*'.:*! J*,!J(/S F'(&! 5/+(8*! J(/SF'(&! 5/+(8*!Cj!(4! "(,.3D _! C&(('*%,D! k_ab=ZZ kca=aZ ][j! kXa=X` _bj! a! kXa]=[[ k_Zc=\Z bcj! k_[]=c` Z_j! X! k[Xb=b[ kXXX=Za Zaj! kX``=cX b]j! b! k_?a]Z=[X k\b]=\a Zcj! kZX[=c` b_j! Z!C'$+#*%,D kX?[\c=]\ k]_c=b\ a[j! ka?][`=b` \bj! Table 5 Income Quintile, Share of Net Crop and Net Non Crop Income

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41 &3.+*8*/,!(4!%(8*!(4!,#*!.+,$1$,$*%!$/!(/*!+.,*:('9!('!./(,#*'!+(230!+*',.$/39!<*!0*<.,*0?! ,#*! .+,$1$,$*% !-*'*!+.,*:('$;*0!<.%*0!(/!,#*!%6$33%!/*+*%%.'9=!>('!*7.8&3*?!.+,$1$,$*% !,#.,! (/39!'*o2$'*0!.:'$+23,2'.3!%6$33%!-*'*!&3.+*0!$/!,#*!(,#*'!.:'$+23,2'.3!+.,*:('9?!.+,$1$,$*%! ,#.,!#.'1*%,*0!./0!, './%4('8*0!.!/.,2'.3!'*%(2'+*!-*'*!&3.+*0!$/!,#*!$/02%,'9!+.,*:('9?! ./0!.+,$1$,$*%!,#.,! -*'*!<2%$/*%%*%!$/1(31$/:!%.3*%!('!,'.0*!-*'*!&3.+*0!$/!,#*! %*'1$+*%! +.,*:('9!C%**!".<3*![ !4('!,#*!+.,*:('$;.,$(/!(4!* .+#!.+,$1$,9D=!"#*!2%*!(4!,#*!+.,*:('9!/.8*%! 2%*0!$/!8.+'(S3*1*3!&(3$+9! ./0!,#*!:2$0*3$/*%!4('!+.,*:('$;.,$(/!-*'* !*/+(2'.:*0!<9! C^.''*,,!./0!K*.'0(/?!a``` D=! ! F,A(4. !*47":',:4(! ;$):-,45! @(467"(! F#$+6*/!C8*.,D! F#.'+(.3 K*,.$3! F#$+6*/!C*::%D F(/%,'2+,$(/ H8.33!+(/1*/$*/+*! %,('*! A2+6%! F.'&*/,*'! H.3(/n^'.$0$/:! B$:%! F('/!I'$/0*'! C8.+#$/*D! H*+2'$,9! I(.,% ^'$+68.6$/:! K*%,.2'./, @$36 ".$3(' ^.' >$*30!M.<('! >'$*0!H/.+6% ! d*.3,#+.'* ! ^.%*0!(/!,#*%*!.%%$:/8*/,%?!,#*!%#.'*!(4!$/+(8*!4('!*.+#!(4!,#*!/(/S+'(&!.+,$1$,9!%*+,('%! -.%!+.3+23.,*0! 4('!*.+#!(4!,#*!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*%=!"#*!8(%,!.&&.'*/,!'*%23, !4'(8!,#$%!./.39%$%! $%!,#.,!,#*!%*'1$+*%!%*+,('!+ (/,'$<2,*% !,#*!8.)('$,9!(4!$/+(8*!4('!4.'8*'%!$/!,#*!-*.3,#$*%,! o2$/,$3*=!5/!+(/,'.%,?!/(/*!(4!,#*!4.'8*'%!$/!,#*!&(('*%,!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*!*/:.:*0!$/!.!%*'1$+*! %*+,('!.+,$1$,9=!G3%(?!.!+(/%$%,*/,!$/+'*. %*!$/!,#*!%#.'*!(4!$/+(8*!4'(8!,#*!%*'1$+*!-.%! (<%*'1*0 !.%!,#*!3*1*3!(4!$/+(8*!$/+'*.%*0?!-$,#!4.'8*'%!$/!,#*!%*+(/0!o2$/,$3*!*.'/$/:!.! #$:#*'!%#.'*!(4!$/+(8*!4'(8!%*'1$+*%!,#./!,#*!4$'%,!o2$/,$3*!./0!,#*!,#$'0!o2$/,$3*!*.'/$/:!.! T able 6 Non Crop Activity Categories >$:2'*! T =!J(/ S F'(&!G+,$1$,9!F.,*:('$*%

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42 #$:#*'!%#.'*!,#./!,#*!% *+(/0!o2$/,$3*!./0!%(!(/ =!"#*!(&&(%$,*!,'*/0!#(30%!,'2*!4('!,#*!%#.'*! (4!$/+ (8*!*.'/*0!4'(8!+'(&%=! !! H#.'*!(4!$/+(8*!4'(8!+'(&%!$%!,#*!#$:#*%,!$/!,#*!4$'%,!o2$/,$3*!./0!,#*/!+(/%$%,*/,39!0*+3$/*%! -$,#!*.+#!$/+'*.%$/:!o2$/,$3*= !d(-*1*'?!, #*!%#.'*%!(4!$/+(8*!4'(8!.:'$+23,2'.3!.+,$1$,$*%! ./0!$/02%,'9!0(!/(,!4(33(-!,#*!&.,,*'/%!%**/!4('!,#*!%#.'*%!(4!%*'1$+*!('!+'(&! $/+(8*=!5/%,*.0!,#*!o2$/,$3*%!-$,#!,#*!#$:#*%,!%#.'*%!(4!$/+(8*!0*'$1*0!4'(8!,#*%*!,9&*%!(4! .+,$1$,$*%!.'*!,# *!a/0!./0!X'0!o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o2$/,$3*! <*:$/!,(!0$1*'%$49!,#*$'!'*%(2'+*%!$/,(!(,#*'!,9&*%!(4!.+,$1$,$*%!(,#*'!,#./!+'(&%=! N/+*!4.'8*'%!.'*!.<3*!,(!.++2823.,*!*/(2:#!+.&$,.3!.'*!,#*9!,#*/!(1*'+(8*!,#*!<.''$*'%!,(! */,'9!$/,(!8('*!&'(4$,.<3*!%*'1$+*!%*+,('!<2%$/*%%*%=! 5/+(8*! i2$/,$3* F'(&!5/+(8*! CH#.'*!(4!"(,.3D G:'$+23,2'.3 CH#.'*!(4! 5/+(8*! 5/02%,'9 CH#.'*!(4! 5/+(8*D! H*'1$+*%!CH#.'*! (4!5/+(8*D! _!C&(('*%,D ][j! \j! ]j! `j! a! bcj! _[j! aZj! _`j! X! Zaj! _aj! _]j! _\j! b! Zcj! cj! ]j! abj! Z!C'$+#*%,D! a[j! bj! _Zj! ZZj! 5/+(8*! i2$/,$3* F'(&!5/+(8*! CH#.'*!(4! "(,.3D G:'$+23,2'.3 CH#.'*!(4! 5/+(8*! 5/02%,'9 CH#.'*!(4! 5/+(8*D! H*'1$+*%! CH#.'*!(4! 5/+(8*D! G1*'.:*! J28<*'! (4!F'(&%! H(30! _!C&(('*%,D ][j! \j! ]j! `j! a=_b! a! bcj! _[j! aZj! _`j! a=``! X! Zaj! _aj! _]j! _\j! X=XX! b! Zcj! cj! ]j! abj! b=b`! T able 7 Share of Income from Cro ps and Non Crop Activity Categories Table 8. Share of Income from Crops and Non Crop Activities and Average Number of Crops Sold

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43 "(!42',#*'!$/1*%,$:.,*!,#*!,'*/0!(4!$/+'*.%$/:!+'(&!0$1*'%$,9!<*,-**/!,#*!%*+(/0!./0!4(2',#! $/+(8*!o2$/,$3*?!,#*!,9&*%!(4!+'(&%! %(30!-*'*!0$1$0*0! $/,(!,-(!,9&*%O!4((0!./0!+.%#!+'(&%=! >((0!+'(&%!-*'*!0*4$/*0!.%!+'(&%!4('!-#$+#! 4.'8*'%!'*&(',*0!6**& $/: !%(8*!(4!,#*!#.'1*%,! 4('!#(8*!+(/%28&,$(/=!g7.8&3*%!(4!4((0!+'(&%!$/!,#*!%.8&3*!.'* !8.$;*!('!<*./%=!F.%#! +'(&%!-*'*!0*4$/*0!.% !+'(&%!4('!-#$+# !4.'8*'%!'*&(',*0 !%*33$/:! ,#*!*/,$'*!#.'1*%,! $/!('0*'! ,(!:*/*'.,*!$/+(8*=!H*%.8*!('!&$:*(/!&*. %!.'*!*7.8&3*%!(4!+.%#!+'(&%!4('!,#$%!%.8&3*=!"#*! <32* !<.'%!$/!>$:2'*!__ !<*3(-!'*&'*%*/,%!,#*!.1*'.:*!/28<*'!(4!4((0!+'(&%!%(30!<9!*.+#! $/+(8*!o2$/,$3*?!-#$3*!,#*!('./:*!<.'%!'*&'*%*/,!,#*!.1*'.:*!/28<*'!(4!+.%#!+'(&%!%(30!<9! *.+#!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*=!"#*!/28<*'!(4!4((0!+'(&%!'*8.$/%!4.$'39!+(/%,./,!.+'(%%!,#*!0$44*'*/, $/+(8*!o2$/,$3*%?!-#$3*!,#*!/28<*'!(4!+.%#!+'(&%!4(33(-%!/*.'39!,#*!%.8*!&.,,*'/!.%!$/! ".<3*!\= !5,!$%!$/,*'*%,$/:!,(!/(,*!,#.,!,#*!.1*'.:*!/28<*'!(4!+.%#!+'(&%!%(30!0*+'*.%*%! <*,-**/!,#*!4$'%,!./0 !%*+(/0!o2$/,$3*!./0!.3%(!<*,-**/!,#*!4(2',#!./0!4$4,#!o2$/,$3* =!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 5/!+(/,'.%,!,#*!/28<*'!(4!+.%#!+'(&%!$/+'*.%*%!4'(8!_=X!+'(&%!$/!,#*!%*+(/0!o2$/,$3*!,(!X!$/! ,#*! 4(2',#!o2$/,$3*?!%2::*%,$/:!,#., !4.'8*'%!-$,#!$/+(8*%!$/!,#*!,#$'0!('!4(2',#!o2$/,$3*! $/1*%,*0!.00$,$(/.3!'*%(2'+*% !$/!+.%#!+'(&!&'(02+,$(/= Z!C'$+#*%,D! a[j! bj! _Zj! ZZj! b=b\! Figure 11. Average Number of Food and Cash Crops Grown by Income Quintile 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 1 (poorest) 2 3 4 5 (richest) Average Number of Food Crops Grown Average Number of Cash Crops Grown

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44 G/(,#*'!8*,#(0!(4!1$%2.3$;$/:!#(-!,#*!%(2'+*%!(4!$/+(8*!1.'9!-$,#!,#*!3*1*3!(4!$/+(8*!$%! 2%$/:!.!'.0.'!+#.',=!5/! >$:2'*!_a!<*3(-?!.!'.0.'!+#.', !-.%!+(/%,'2+,*0 !-$,#!,#*!.1*'.:*! %#.'*%!(4!$/+(8*!4'(8!4((0!+'(&!&'(02+,$(/?!+.%#!+'(&!&'(02+,$(/?!.:'$+23,2'.3!.+,$1$,$*%?! $/02%,'9!.+,$1$,$*%!./0!%*'1$+*!.+,$1$,$*%!C.%!0*4$/*0!&'*1$(2%39!$/! ".<3*! [D=!5/!('0*'!,(!8.6*! ,#*!1$%2.3$;.,$(/!*.%$*'!,(!'*.0?!,#*!/28<*'!(4!$/+(8*!+.,*:('$*% !-.%!0*+'*.%*0 !4'(8!4$1*! +.,*:('$*%!-$,#!_Z!(<%*'1.,$(/%! ,(!,#'**!+.,*:('$*%!-$,#!aZ!(<%*'1.,$(/% =!"#*!8(%,!%,'$6$/:! .%&*+,!(4!,#$%!+#.',!$%!,#*!%$:/$4$+./,!+(/,'.%,!<*,-**/ !,#*!0$44*'*/,!%,'.,*:$*%!(4!,#*!3(-! $/+(8*!./0!#$:#S$/+(8*!:'(2&%=!"#*! 3(-S$/+(8*!:'(2&!'*+*$1*0!(/!.1*'.:*!/*.'39![`j!(4! $/+(8*!4'(8!+.%#!+'(&%!-#$3*!,#*!#$:#S$/+(8*!:'(2&!(/!.1*'.:*!'*+*$1*0!/*.'39!Z`j!(4! $/+(8*!4'(8!%*'1$+*%=!"#*!8*0$28!$/+(8*!:'(2&!8*./-#$3*!'*+*$1*0!.&&'(7$8.,*39!b`j! (4!$/+(8*!4'(8!+.%#!+'(&%?!<2,!.3%(!'*+*$1*0!(/!.1*'.:*!a`j!(4!$/+(8*!4'(8!$/02%,'9! .+,$1$,$*%!./0!_Zj!(/!.1*'.:*!4'(8!%*'1$+*!.+,$1$,$*%=!! ! ! "#2%?!,#$%!*1$0*/+*!%2&&(',%!,#*!4$/0$/:%!(4!,#*!3$,*'.,2'*!,#.,!#(2%*#(30%!-$,#!#$:#*'! 3*1*3%!(4!$/+(8*!*/:.:*!$/!8('*!32+'.,$1*!/(/S4.'8!<2%$/*%%*%!./0!%*'1$+*%?!-#$3*!&(('*'! #(2%*#(30%!'*+*$1*!8(%,!(4!,#*$'!$/+(8*!4'(8!.:'$+23,2'.3!&'(02+,$(/!./0!.'*!/(,!*/:.:$/:! $/!,#*!8('*!&'(4$,.<3*!%*'1$+*!.+,$1$,$*%=!d(-*1*'?!.%!%**/!$/!".<3*!b?! ,#*'*!$%!%(8*!%3$:#,! *1$0*/+*!,#.,!#(2%*#(30%!8.9!<*!.<3*!,(!.++2823.,*!+.&$,.3!,#'(2:#!+.%#!+'(&!&'(02+,$(/! ,(!8(1*!$/,(!8('*!&'(4$,.<3*!.+,$1$,$*%!$/!,#*!$/02%,'9!./0!%*'1$+*!%*+,('%=!! E">&0!$F+'!(.+/+>,)+&"$3*$Q!(/+"#,2-$E"#!I$ 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Avg. Food Crop Avg. Cash Crop Avg. Agricultura l Avg. Industry Avg. Services High Medium Low F igure 12 Sources of Income Radar Chart

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45 G/(,#*'!8*,#(0!(4!8*.%2'$/:!,#*!.8(2/,!(4!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!-$,#$/!.!3$1*3$#((0!%,'.,*:9!$%! <9!+.3+23.,$/:!,#*! $/1*'%*!d*'4$/0.#3Sd$'%+#8./!5/0*7!Cdd5D=!"#*!dd5!('$:$/.,*0!$/!,#*! 4$*30!(4!$/02%,'$.3! *+(/(8$+%!,(!%,209!,#*!+(/+*/,'.,$(/!(4!,#*!8.'6*,!%#.'*!(4!4$'8%! CA$8(1.!./0!H*/?!a`_`D=!"#$%!$/0*7!$%!-*33!%2$,*0!.%!.!%$/:3*!%288.'9!%,.,$%,$+!4('! 0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!<*+.2%*!$,!.++(2/,%!4('!<(,#!,#*!/28<*'!(4!.+,$1$,$*%!.%!-*33!.%!,#*! 0$%,'$<2,$(/!(4!$/ +(8*!<*,-** /!.+,$1$,$*% !Cg33$%?!a```D=!>(33(-$/:!,#*!*7.8&3*!(4!g33$%! Ca```D?!,#*!$/1*'%*!dd5 !-.%!+.3+23.,*0!4('!*.+#!#(2%*#(30!$/!,#*!%.8&3*!2%$/:!.33!(4!,#*! .+,$1$,$*%!'*&(',*0!C$=*=!+('/?!%*%.8*?!+#$+6*/%!*,+=D=!"#*/!,#*!.1*'.:*!$/1*'%*!dd5!-.%! +.3+23.,*0!4('!*.+#!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*=!5/! >$:2'*!_X !<*3(-!,#*!.1*'.:*!$/1*'%*!dd5!%+('*!4('! *.+#!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*!$%!&'*%*/,*0!-$,#!,#*!#$:#*'!1.32*%!+(''*%&(/0$/:!-$,#!8('*! 0$1*'%$,9!./0!3(-*'!1.32*%!+(''*%&(/0$/:!-$,#!3*%%!0$1*'%$,9= !"#*!$/1*'%*!dd5!-.%! +.3+23.,*0!<9!%2<,'.+,$/:!4'(8!(/*!,#*!%28!(4!,#*!%o2.'*!(4!,#*!%#.'*!(4!*.+#!%(2'+*!(4! $/+(8*?!('!,(!&2,!$,!8.,#*8.,$+.339O!! !"#$%&$ !!!" !! !! ! ! !! f#*'*!U!$%!*o2.3!,(!,#*!/28<*'!(4!%(2'+*%!(4!$/+(8*?!)!'*&'*%*/,%!,#*!$/0*7!(4!*.+#!%(2'+*! (4!$/+(8*?!%)!$%!,#*!%#.'*!(4!$/+(8*!4('!*.+#!%(2'+*!+.3+23.,*0!<9!0$1$0$/:!,#*!/*,!$/+(8*!4('! *.+#!%(2'+*!<9!,#*!,(,.3!/*,!$/+(8*=!! 5/,*'*%,$/:39!,#* !&(('*%,!./0!'$+#*%,!o2$/,$3*%!#.1*!1*'9!%$8$3.'!$/1*'%*!dd5!%+('*%=!"#*! 4$'%,!o2$/,$3*!#.%!./!$/1*'%*!dd5 !%+('*! (4!`=ZX!-#$3*!,#*!4$4,#!o2$/,$3*!#.%!./!$/1*'%*!dd5! %+('*!(4!`=Z`=! 5/!+(/,'.%,?!,#*!,#$'0!./0!4(2',#!o2$/,$3*%! #.0!,#*!#$:#*%,!dd5!%+('*%!(4!`=[]?! -#$+#!%$:/$4$*%!#$:#*'!3*1*3% !(4!$/+(8*!0$1*'%$,9=!"#2%?!$,!.&&*.'%!,#.,!.%!4.'8*' R%!$/+(8*%! $/+'*.%*!,#*9!.'*!.<3*! ,(!0$1*'%$49!$/,(!8('*!&'(4$,.<3*!$/+(8*S:*/*'.,$/:!.+,$1$,$*%!2/,$3! ,#*9!+(/%(3$0.,*!,#*$'!+.&$,.3!$/!,#*!&'(4$,.<3*!%*'1$+*!%*+,('!$/!,#*!#$:#*%,!o2$/,$3*= !N'!$/! (,#*'!-('0%?!,#.,!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!$%!#*3&423!4('!4.'8*'%!.,!3(-*'!3*1*3%!(4!$/+(8*?!<2,!.,! #$:#*'!3*1*3%!%&*+$.3$;.,$(/!8.9!<*!8('*!.01./,.:*(2%=!!

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igure 13 Average Inverse Herfindahl Hirschman Index Score By Income Quintile 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 1st quintile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 5th quintile

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a!.+,$1$,$*%!_`=\jp!X Sb!.+,$1$,$*%!ac=Xjp!Z S[!.+,$1$,$*%! X\=Xjp!./0!\t!.+,$1$,$*%!aa=\jD=!G%!%**/!$/! >$:2'*!_[ !<*3(-?!,#*!<(,,(8!,-(!.+,$1$,9!:'(2&%! '*&'*%*/,*0!-$,#!,#*!0.'6!<32*!./0!('./:*!3$/*%! .&&*.'!,(!<*!1*'9!0$44*'*/,!4'(8!,#*!2&&*'! F igure 14 Median Net Income by Month

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48 ,-(!0$1*'%$,9!:'(2&%! '*&'*%*/,*0!<9!,#*!:'**/!./0!3$:#,!<32*!3$/*%! $/!,*'8%!(4!$/+(8*!<9! 8(/,#=!d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`!"eHd!,(!_``?```!P!a``?```!"eHd= ! ! G/(,#*'!-.9!,(!3((6!.,!,#*!&.,,*'/%!(4 !$/+(8*!%*.%(/.3$,9 !./0!$/+(8*!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!$%!<9! *7.8$/$/:!,#*!3*1*3!(4!$/+(8*=!G%!0$%+2%%*0!.<(1*?!,#*'*!-*'*!,'*/0%!$/!,#*!,9&*%!(4! .+,$1$,$*%!2/0*',.6*/!<9!,#*!&(('*%,!./0!,#*!'$+#*%,!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*%!.%!-*33!.%!,#*!3*1*3!(4! 0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!.++('0$/:!,(!,#*!$/1*'%*!dd5!1.32*=!5/!>$:2'*! _\!<*3(?!,#*'*!$%!.!%2'&'$%$/:! .8(2/,!(4!%$8$3.'$,9!$/!,#*!&.,,*'/%!(4!$/+(8*!%*.%(/.3$,9!<*,-**/!,#*!4$'%,?!%*+(/0?!,#$'0! ./0!4(2',#!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*%=!N/39!,#*!'$+#*%,!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*!#.%!.!+(/%$%,*/,!<.%*!(4! $/+(8*!,#'(2:#(2,!,#*!9*.'?!8(%,!3$6*39!%$/+*!,#*9!*/:.:*!$/!&'(4$,.<3*!<2%$/*%%!./0! %*'1$+*!.+,$1$,$*%=! (100,000) 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 1 to 2 Activities 3 to 4 Activities 5 to 6 Activities 7+ Activities F igure 15 Activity Diversification and Income Seasonality

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49 ! . . . . . . . . "#2%?!,#*!&.,,*'/!(4!$/+(8*!%*.%(/.3$,9!4('!4.'8*'%!.+'(%%!$/+(8*!3*1*3%!./0!/28<*'%! (4!.+,$1$,$*%!-.%!82+#!8('*!+(/%$%,*/,!,#./!*7&*+,*0=!5/+(8*!$/+'*.%*0!.,!,#*!#.'1*%,! &*'$(0%!4('!6*9!+'(&%!C+('/?!%*%.8*!./0!8.$;*D!./0!0*+3$/*0!02'$/:!,#*!&3./,$/:!%*.%(/! 4'(8!J(1*8<*'!,(!U./2.'9=!>.'8*'%!-$,#!#$:#*'!$/+(8*!.3%(!.&&*.'*0!,(!*7&*'$*/+*! 8('*!$/+(8*!%*.%(/.3$,9!.%!0*4$/*0!.%!.<%(32,*!+#./:*!$/!$/+(8*!(/!.!8(/,#39!<.%$%! ,#./!3(-*'!$/+(8*!4.'8*'%=!d(-*1*'?!#$:#*'!$/+(8*!4.'8*'%!0$0!*7&*'$*/+*!&*'$(0%!(4! ,#*!9*.'!-$,#(2,!./9!$/+(8*!.,!.33!2/3$6*!3(-*'!$/+(8*!4.'8*'%!./0!,#*%*!&*'$(0%! -$,#(2,!$/+(8*!02'$/:!,#*!3.<('!$/,*/%$1*!&3./,$/:!%*.%(/!+(230!3*.0!,(!+(/,'$<2,*!,(! %*.%(/.3!4((0!$/%*+2'$,9=!! . . F igure 16 Income Quintile and Income Seasonality (200,000) 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000 1,400,000 1st Income Quintile 2nd Income Quintile 3rd Income Quintile 4th Income Quintile 5th Income Quintile

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50 3%$"':-7%$-.0$).E("%++($)0,7%$. Conclusions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a`_[D!4$/0$/:!(4!.!8*0$./!#(2%*#(30!%$;*!(4!Z=!"#*!.1*'.:*! 3./0!(-/*0!<9!,#*!4.'8*'%!%.8&3*0?!_=Z!#.?!$%!+(/%$%,*/,!-$,#!,#*!>GN!Ca`__D!0.,.!,#.,! 4(2/0!,#.,!.1*'.:*!4.'8!%$;*%!'./:*!4'(8!`=c#.!,(!X!#.=!G3%(?!+(/%$%,*/,!-$,#!&'*1$(2%! '*%*.'+#!(/39!.!%8.33!&*'+*/,.:*!(4!4.'8*'%!#.1*!.++*%%!,(!$''$:.,$(/!C>GN?!a`__D?!./0!$/! ,#$%!%.8&3*!(/39!_Xj!(4!4.'8*'%!-*'*!.<3*!,(!$''$:.,*!,#*$'!&3(,%=!! 5/!,(,.3!a`!+'(&%!-*'*!'*&(',*0!<9!,#*!%2'1*9!'*%&(/0*/,%!./0!aX!/(/ S+'(&!.+,$1$,$*%=!"#*! 4$1*!8(%,!+(88(/39!:'(-/!+'(&%!-*'*!8.$;*!CccjD?!&$:*(/!&*.!C]bjD?!%*%.8*!C[]jD?! <*./%!CbXjD!./0!'$+*!CX_jD=!"#*!4$1*!8(%,!+(88(/!/(/S+'(&!$/+(8*!:*/*'.,$/:!.+,$1$,$*%! -*'*! +#$+6*/%!4('!8*.,!CZ_jD?!+#.'+(.3!&'(02+,$(/!Ca`jD?!.3+(#(3!&'(02+,$(/!C_\jD?!%8.33! %#(&!CcjD?!./0!8.6$/:!4'$*0!%/.+6%!C]jD=!@./9!(4!,#*!%2'1*9!'*%&(/0*/,%!&.',$+$&.,*0!$/! %.1$/:%!:'(2&%!C[bjD!./0! Z[j!'*&(',*0!'*+*$1$/:!.!3(./!$/!,#*!&.%,!9*.'=!5/+( 8*!3*1*3%! 1.'$*0!-$0*39!.8(/:!,#*!'*%&(/0*/,%!'./:$/:!4'(8!Sk_a=]b!,(!k_a?\Z]=Z\=!"#*!.1*'.:*!/*,! $/+(8*!4('!,#*!%.8&3*!-.%!k_?_c\=`]!./0!,#*!8*0$./!$/+(8*!-.%!k[[_=bX=!! 6&">-8.+&".$R$S3?!>)+'!$U$ H$8$3.'39!,(!(<)*+,$1*!_?!8(%,!(4!,#*!'*%23,%!'*:.'0$/:!(<)*+,$1*!a!-*'*!+(/%$%,*/,!-$,#! &'*1$(2%!4$/0$/:%!$/!,#*!3$,*'.,2'*=!d(-*1*'?!,#*'*!-*'*!.!4*-!&($/,%!,#.,!+(230!<*! *7.8$/*0!42',#*'!0*,.$3!$/!42,2'*!%,20$*%=!!

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51 F(/%$%,*/,!-$,#!,#*!3$,*'.,2'*!(/!$/+(8*!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/?!-*.3,#$*'!4.'8*'%!-*'*!4(2/0!,(! 0*'$1*! .!#$:#*'!&*'+*/,.:*!(4!,#*$'!$/+(8*!4'(8!/(/S+'(&!C\bjD!-#$3*!&(('! 4.'8*'%!'*3$*0! .38(%,!*/,$'*39!(/!+'(&!$/+(8*!C]bj!(4!,(,.3!$/+(8*D=!f#*/!$/+(8*!0$1*'%$,9!-.%!0*4$/*0! .%!,#*!,(,.3!/28<*'!(4!$/+(8*!%(2'+*%?!,#*'*!-.%!(/39!.!-*.6!'*3.,$(/%#$&!<*,-**/!,#*! ,(,.3!/28<*'!(4!$/+(8*!%(2'+*%!./0!,#*!.8(2/,!(4!/*,!$/+(8*!C'a!s!`=_cD=!d(-*1*'?!-#*/! +'(&!./0!/(/ S+'(&!$/+(8*!./0!.+,$1$,$*%!-*'*!*7.8$/*0!%*&.'.,*39?!.!+3*.'!&(%$,$1*!,'*/0! -.%!(<%*'1*0!<*,-**/!+'(&!$/+(8*!./0!,#*!/28<*'!(4!+'(&%!%(30!C'a!s!`=b[D!-#$3*!/(!,'*/0! -.%!.&&.'*/,!<*,-**/!/(/S+'(&!$/+(8*!./0!,#*!/28<*'!(4!/(/S+'(&!.+,$1$,$*%!C'a!s!`=`XD=! ! f#*/!/(/S+'(&!.+,$1$,$*%!-*'*!*7.8$/*0!42',#*'!,#'(2:#!+.,*:('$;.,$(/!$/,(!.:'$+23,2'.3?! $/02%,'9!./0!%*'1$+*!.+,$1$,$*%!,#*'*!-*'*!%(8*!+3*.'!,'*/0%!.%!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*!$/+'*.%*0=! >('!*7.8&3*?!,#*!%#.'*!(4!$/+(8*!4'(8!%*'1$+*!.+,$1$,$*%!$/+'*.%*0!-$,#!*.+#!$/+'*.%$/:! $/+(8*!o2$/,$3*!C4'(8!`j!,(!ZZjD?!-#$3*!,#*!%#.'*!(4!$/+(8*!4'(8!+'(&%!0*+3$/*0!4'(8! *.+#!$/+'*.%$/:!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*!C4'(8!][j!,(!a[jD!*1*/!,#(2: #!,#*!/28<*'!(4!+'(&%!%(30! :*/*'.339!$/+'*.%*0!-$,#!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*!4'(8!a=_b!$/!,#*!&(('*%,!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*!,(!b=b\!$/! ,#*!'$+#*%,!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*=!! G/!$/,*'*%,$/:!.%&*+,!(4!,#$%!&'()*+,!-.%!,#*!*7.8$/.,$(/!/(,!(/39!(4!,#*!+(8&(%$,$(/!(4! $/+(8*!:*/*'.,$/:!.+,$1$,$*%!(4!,#*!&(('*%,!('!'$+#*%,!4.'8*'%!-#$+#!#.1*!<**/!&'*1$(2%39! 0*%+'$<*0!$/!,#*!3$,*'.,2'*?!<2,!.3%(!$/%$:#,!$/,(!4.'8*'%!$/!,#*!8$003*!-#$+#!+(230!&'(1$0*! $8&(',./,!$/%$:#,%!$/,(!4.'8*'R%!8(1*8*/,!(2,!(4!('!$/,(!&(1*',9=!>('!*7.8&3*?!,#*! o2$/,$3*%!,#.,!'*+*$1*0!,#*!#$:#*%,!%#.'*%!(4!$/+(8*!4'(8!.:'$+23,2'.3!./0!$/02%,'9! .+,$1$,$*%!-*'*!,#*!%*+(/0!./0!,#$'0!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*%?!-#$+#!-.%!.3%(!'*43*+,*0!$/!,#*!'.0.'! +#.',!4('!4.'8*'%!-$,#!.!8$003*!3*1*3!(4!$/+(8*=!G3%(?!8*.%2'$/:!0$1*'%$,9!-$,#!,#*!$/1*'%*! dd5!%#(-%!,#.,!4.'8*'%!$/!,#*!a/0?!X'0!./0!b,#!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*%!#.1*!#$:#*'!3*1*3%!(4! 0$1*'%$,9!,#./!,#*!_%,!('!Z,#!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*%?!-$,#!,#*!X'0!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*!#.1$/:!,#*!#$:#*%,! .8(2/,!(4!0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/=!"#*%*!'*%23,%!8.9!%2::*%,!,#.,!4.'8*'%!.<(1*!.!8$/$828!3*1*3!(4! $/+(8*!0$1*'%$49!,#*$'!.+,$1$,$*%!&(%%$<39!.%!.!-.9!,(!.++2823.,*!+.&$,.3!C.%!%2::*%,*0!<9! A*f**'0, =!a`_`p!A$8(1.!./0!H*/?!a`_`D!$/!('0*'!,(!(1*'+(8*!<.''$*'%!,(!*/,'9!$/!,#*!8(%,! &'(4$,.<3*!%*'1$+*!%*+,('!,#.,!,#*!-*.3,#$*%,!4.'8*'%!#*.1$39!*/:.:*!$/=!! !

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52 6&">-8.+&".$R$S3?!>)+'!$V$ "#*!%*.%(/.3$,9!$/#*'*/,!$/!.:'$+23,2'.3!&'(02+,$(/!./0!'2'.3!3$4*!#.%!<**/!&'*1$(2%39! $0*/,$4$*0!$/!,#*!3$,*'.,2'*=!d(-*1*'?!./!*7.8$/.,$(/!(4!,#*!*7,*/,!(4!$/+(8*!1.'$.,$(/!<9! 8(/,#!./0!,#*!'*3.,$(/%#$&!<*,-**/!$/+(8*!%*.%(/.3$,9!./0!3*1*3!(4!$/+(8*!.%!-*33!.%! 0$1*'%$4$+.,$(/!#.%!/(,!<**/!-*33!%,20$*0=! ! @*0$./!/*,!$/+(8*!1.'$*0!+(/%$0*'.<39!<*,-**/!,#*!8(/,#!-$,#!,#*!#$:#*%,!8*0$./!/*,! $/+(8*!CH*&,*8<*'?!k\[=_aD!./0!,#*!8(/,#%!-$,#!,#*!3(-*%,!8*0$./!$/+(8*%!CA*+*8<*'! ./0!U./2.'9?!ka=][D=!H&$6*%!$/!8*0$./!/*,!$/+(8*!-*'*!(<%*'1*0!02'$/:!,#*!8(/,#%!(4!,#*! 8.)('!+.%#!+'(&!#.'1*%,%?!%*%.8*!$/!@.9!./0!&$:*(/!&*.!$/!G2:2%,!./0!H*&,*8<*'=!f#*/! ,#*!$/+(8*!%*.%(/.3$,9!4('!4.'8*'%!-$,#!0$44*'*/,!/28<*'%!(4!.+,$1$,$*%!-.%!*7.8$/*0!,#*! %.8*!(1*'.33!&.,,*'/%!(4 !$/+(8*!%*.%(/.3$,9!-*'*!(<%*'1*0?!<2,!4.'8*'%!-$,#!Z!('!8('*! .+,$1$,$*%!.&&*.'*0!,(!#.1*!.!#$:#*'!<.%* 3$/*!(4!$/+(8*!,#./!4.'8*'%!-$,#!4*-*'!.+,$1$,$*%=! H$8$3.'39!-#*/!$/+(8*!%*.%(/.3$,9!-.%!*7.8$/*0!4('!,#*!0$44*'*/,!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*%?!,#*! %.8*!%*.%(/.3!&.,,*'%!-*'*!(<%*'1*0!C$=*=!&*.6%!.'(2/0!,#*!8.)('!+.%#!+'(&!#.'1*%,%D?!<2,! 4.'8*'%!$/!,#*!#$:#*%,!$/+(8*!o2$/,$3*!#.0!.!82+#!#$:#*'!<.%*3$/*!3*1*3!(4!$/+(8*!,#./! 4.'8*'%!$/!3(-*'!$/+(8*!o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bj!(4!4.'8*'%!'*&(',*0!:'(-$/:!&$:*(/!&*.!./0![bj!'*&(',*0! :'(-$/:!%*%.8*D=!!

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