ANTU: The Industrial Energy Balance By Jake Gipson With guidance from Dr. Cristin Crdenas Lailhacar Dr. Serdar Kirli Dr. Fazil T. Najafi Submitted to the University of Florida College of Engineering for graduation with Honors from the Departm ent of Industrial and Systems Engineering Gainesville, Florida April 19, 2010
Executive Summary the described software is to facilitate quick, user friendly en ergy balancing functionality. It was developed with the assumption that the user has limited technical knowledge of energy energy balance. To complete the f acility energy balance, two types of information are required: energy bills and comprehensive list of facility equipment. Both types of data are input using simple Graphical User Interfaces and stored in an Access Database. The inputs are then balanced t o check that all equipment has been accurately accounted. An Energy Balance Report can be generated to provide helpful analysis of facility energy consumption and a comprehensive list of all equipment and its energy use. The paper concludes with a case study to demonstrate the functionality of the Energy Balance tool. Such a tool should greatly empower facility managers and serves as a building block for additional functionality for the ANTU program. I. Introduction ANTU is intended to be a comprehens ive program to aid facility managers in analyzing and improving the energy usage of their facility. Often, facility managers lack the technical knowledge to fully understand the varying components of energy consumption in their facility. This, combined w ith the ability to thoroughly analyze potential energy saving projects is very important to the adept facility manager. ANTU seeks to bridge this knowledge gap for facility managers. Currently, there are a number of tools available to facility managers t o aid them in facility operations and decisions. The U.S. Department of Energy provides a number of free tools, such as MotorMaster+ and AirMaster+  These programs are system specific and allow users to manage specific tools within their facility. F or example, MotorMaster+ contains a catalog of over 20,000 motors and can manage of facility inventory of motors. It provides tools to aid in decisio n making, such as whether to purchase a new motor, premium efficiency motor, or rewind a motor. Such prog rams are very effective for facility managers looking to effectively manage specific systems. Of the programs available, there is not any which allow to managers to consider their facility using a more holistic approach. ANTU allows users to catalog and t rack the major components of energy consumption in their facility. The total energy usage of the systems that are input is their energy consumption profile to identify key areas and systems. This information can then be used to investigate potential energy savings projects and obtain projected cost versus savings analysis. The result is that facility managers will be able to better understand and benefit from energy management. The ANTU program has been developed using Microsoft Visual Studio in Visual Basic and uses a Microsoft Access Database to store facility data and Microsoft Office to generate detailed output reports. These platforms were selected so th at the final product can be mass distributed
without the need for an ything more than a W indows based computer with the Microsoft Office suite. The Microsoft Access Database provides the functionality to manage multiple company and facility profiles, the ability to store large amounts of historical data, and the flexibility to expand to accommodate additional features. Microsoft Visual Studio was selected to provide a Graphical User Interface to facilitate simplified user access. II. The Energy Balance A n energy balance for a facility essentially documents the different components of energy consumption  The energy balance begins by recording the equipment used in the major systems of the facility. Generally, this equipment is broken down into five m ajor categories: lighting, motors, air compressors, chillers, and HVAC. In addition, users mus t also input their previous twelve months of energy bills. From the energy bills, the cost of energy and demand can be estimated. Using these costs and the equ ipment profiles, the energy consumption, demand, and energy cost for each piece of equipment can be calculated. There are a number of reasons that h aving such an energy balance is important. First, the totals of the energy balance can be compared to tho se of the energy bills. If there is drastic variation in the expected versus observed values then the manager will be able to investigate the discrepancy. Also, the user can identify which systems or types of equipment consume larger proportions of energ y in the facility. These likely offer the greatest opportunity for improvements and cost savings. Finally, the equipment entered in the energy balance can be carried forward to investigate potential energy savings projects. The energy balance subroutine for ANTU is summarized in Figure 1. The user begins by selecting or creating a company and facility profile for the desired location. Users have the option to enter energy bills or simply provide the cost of energy and cost of demand. Equipment data fo r each of the five major types of systems is input in separate data entry screens. A brief summary of the energy balance is available for review. From here, a more detailed word output can be generated summarizing the findings of the energy balance. The following subsections describe the various data entry screens. II A. Company Profile When the ANTU program is started, the user begins at the ANTU Welcome Screen, Figure 2. The user is greeted with a list of companies which are already loaded into the database. They may select one of the companies in the list or select to add a new company. If the user selects to add a new company, they are redirected to the Add Company screen, Figure 3. Some basic information is required to complete the company prof ile for the database. After the company has been selected, the user must choose which facility associated with the company for which they would like to input data. The Facility Selection screen is shown in Figure 4. Again they are provided with the optio n to select from a list of facilities or can choose to enter a new facility (Figure 5).
Figure 1. The ANTU Energy Balance Flow Diagram Once the company and facility have been selected, they are directed to the Home Screen, Figure 6. The user has a n umber of options once they are at the Home Screen. The user may choose to enter energy bills, which are used to calculate costs of energy and compare expected energy use values to actual energy use. The user also has a number of systems under which they may enter equipment in the facility. The five major categories under which the equipment is classified is lighting, motors, chillers, air conditioning, and air compressors. Each of these input options are discussed in greater detail. Finally, the user m ay chose to check the energy balance. This provides a summary of the data which has been input by the user and provides the option to
Figure 2. ANTU Welcome Screen Figure 3. ANTU Add New Company Screen
Figure 4. ANTU Select Facility Screen Figure 5. ANTU Add New Facility Screen Figure 6. ANTU Home Screen
II B. Lighting The Lighting Entry screen is shown in Figure 7. Users are able to enter data f or the lighting throughout their facility here. To decrease the amount of repetitive data which must be input, lighting fixture profiles are created and saved Often, the same fixtures are used in multiple areas of the facility so by easily being able to recall the data on these fixtures, the user can reduce the amount of data which must be input manually. From the fixture type drop down list, the user may select a fixture type. The wattage, lamps per fixture, type, and ballast factor will be displayed for that fixture. The user may also select to add a new fixture type. Figure 8 is the Add Lighting Fixture screen. Here the fixture is named and its characteristics are saved to the database. Once the fixture has been selected, the location, number of f ixtures, hours used, and whether or not it is air conditioned parameters are input and the fixture is added to the facility. A complete list of the lighting fixtures in the facility is listed in the table at the bottom of the window. The user may review their inputs here and delete incorrect or old lighting entries. Figure 7. ANTU Add/Edit Lighting Screen Figure 8. ANTU Add Lighting Fixture Screen
II C. Motors imilar to different profiles for the different motor types in their facility. Users can Add Motor Types in Figure 10, where they define the name, horse powe r, efficiency, load factor, utilization factor, and diversity factor for that motor. The load factor is the ratio of the actual electrical current drawn versus a piece of equipments full load power. Utilization factor is simply the proportion of the amou nt of time a piece of equipment is used during which the time it is available. Finally, the diversity factor represents the probability that a piece of equipment is being used during peak load times. Once a motor type is selected, its parameters are summa rized in the boxes to the left of the drop down list. The user can then input a description, number, and hours used for the selected motor and add it to the list of equipment. The motors input by the user are summarized in the table at the bottom of the screen. Motors can be removed from this list by clicking the delete button. Figure 9. ANTU Add/Edit Motors Screen Figure 10. ANTU Add Motor Type Screen
II D. Chillers The screen to Add Chillers is shown in Figure 11. To add a chiller to the fac ility a number of inputs are required. The location of the chiller must be given. Typically, chillers are measured in terms of tons and this is necessary to calculate energy consumption. The number of units must be defined, along with the hours used. T he Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio and diversity factor for the chiller must be provided. The chiller can then be added to the list. The full list of chillers is displayed in the table at the bottom of the screen. Figure 11. ANTU Add/Edit Chillers Screen II E. Air Conditioning Air conditioning used in the facility can be input using the Add Air Conditioners screen, Figure 12. The required fields for Air Conditioners are similar to those of chillers. They include a description of the Air Condition er location, tonnage, number of units, hours used, seasonal energy efficiency ratio, and diversity factor. The input air conditioners are displayed in the table at the bottom of the screen, where they can also be removed from the facility.
Figure 12. ANTU Add/Edit Air Conditioners Screen II F. Air Compressors Air compressors used in the facility are input using the Add Air Compressor screen shown in Figure 13. The required fields for air compressors include location, horse power, number of units, h ours used, load factor, utilization factor, diversity factor, and efficiency. The air compressor can then be added to the air compressor list. These are displayed in the table at the bottom of the screen and can be removed from the facility here by using the delete button. Figure 13. ANTU Add/Edit Air Compressors Screen
II G. Energy Balance After the energy bills of the facility and equipment have been input, the energy b alance can be checked. This is the primary focus of this aspect of ANTU. The a inputs for the facility and displays some important values describing the results obtained. The outputs of the Check Energy Balance screen are displayed in Figure 14. Box one Given Figures, shows a number of figures which im pact the final output of the energy balance. The first two, kW Cost and kWh Cost, are calculated from the energy balance. Using up to the 12 most recent months of data, these are calculated. If no energy bills have been input, default values are used. The last figure in this box is Misc Energy. Typically, when performing an audit of a facility, not all energy consuming devices are recorded. For instance, office lighting, computers, and small motors may a ll be ignored. These only account for a small f raction of the energy use so they are not worthwhile to collect. Thus, a percentage of the observed kW and kWh usage is added on to account for these omissions. The program starts with a default value of 2% but the user may enter their own value. The us er may also change the values which they wish to use for energy cost. The second box, Calculated Figures, provides a summary of the energy balance calculations. Using simple formulas, it is easy to calculate the demand and annual energy consumption for ea ch piece of equipment input into the energy balance. Formulas to calculate the required values can be found in any energy management text; the given reference provides formulas for calculating the necessary values . These can be translated into cost f or each piece of equipment by using the cost figures given in the first box. The first figure, Total kW, gives the total calculated demand for the equipment entered. Total kWh/yr provides the total calculated energy consumption for the equipment entered. Both figures including allowance for the miscellaneous equipment. The last figure is perhaps the most important. Percent error represents the difference between the calculated versus observed values for the energy consumption for the facility. Essenti ally, the energy bills are being compared to the calculated values for the equipment input. The values displayed on the Check Energy Balance screen should be used to reconcile the energy bills and facility equipment. If there is a discrepancy in the ene rgy balance, the user should work to rectify this. They should begin by ensuring that all pieces of equipment, especially large ones, have been input correctly into the energy balance. Also, an additional check of the energy bills should be done to ensur e that everything was properly input. If this yields no improvements, the user should check the hours used for the equipment and ensure that the diversity factor is correct to accurately compute peak loads. If this all fails to rectify the error, the loa d and usage factor for equipment should be adjusted accordingly. Once the energy balance has been properly adjusted, the user may generate an Energy Balance Report (Appendix A). The report generates a word document which provides detailed descriptions of where energy is being consumed in the facility. Also, the end of the report includes a full table that enumerates each piece of equipment its energy consumption, and its associated cost. Such information is very important so that managers can realize ho w much each system costs their facility and identify areas with the most promise for improvements.
Figure 14. ANTU Check Energy Balance Screen III. Case Study A case study is considered to display the functionality of the ANTU Energy Balance software The company considered is based off of actual data from a University of Florida Industrial Assessment Center facility visit. The company, Widget Masters, produces widgets at their Gainesville facility. The data shown in Figures 7 14 is actual data tak en from Widget Masters. Step 1: After the company profile is created, the data for the energy bills is input into ANTU. immediate feedback on the cost of energy. These figures will be used to calculate the total cost of the equipment input in later steps and can be manually input if the energy bills are not readily available. Step 2: pr ovides user friendly forms to enter equipment in five different categories: lighting, motors,
for later recall in the energy balance. Step 3: Check Energy Ba in the ANTU Energy Balance. the window (Figure 14). The user can adjust any figures that are necessary in the energ y balance. If any discrepancies appear, the user can close the energy balance and verify their inputs for the energy bills and equipment. Step 4: An Energy Balance Report can be generated once the inputs are sufficiently balanced. This detailed report the manager can easily understand which systems use the most energy. It also provides a final equipment list for Widget Masters that details all input equipment and its assoc iated costs. This information can be very useful for making management decisions at Widget Masters. IV. Conclusion facility equipment and previous energy bills, a user can perform a full electric energy balance of their facility. No technical knowledge of the required formulas and relationships is required. The data is entered in a quick, user friendly system and stored to create a catalog of facility equipment. The equipment list can then be balanced against the energy bills and a full Energy Balance Report can be generated. This information can be very useful to facility managers and enables even the least energy savvy managers to easily track and understand their energy usage. Future additions to ANTU will include recommendations built off of the Energy Balance. Improved Energy Balance functionality will be provided and the balance will expand to include more potential systems and other energy sources such as natu ral gas. Additional and improved reports using Microsoft Word and Excel will be provided for a variety of industrial assessment topics. V. References 1. Motor Master+4.0. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies. Free software that c an be downloaded from: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry /bestpractices/software.html 2. K D. E. Pawlik, L.C. Capehart, and B.L. Capehart Analyzing Energy Use: A Balancing Act Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment, Lilburn, GA, Fall 2001. 3. B.L. Capehart, W.C. Turner, and W.J. Kennedy, Guide to Energy Management Sixth Edition, The Fairmont Press Inc., Lilburn, Georgia, U.S.A. 2008
Appendices The Energy Balance Output This energy balance report pertains to Widget Masters at Gainesville. Based on your inputs, your facility annually spends $107,584.81 on lighting, $7,247.52 on motors, $22,961.28 on chillers, $2,055.17 on HVAC, and $46,255.97 on air compressors. Figure 1 summarizes y our energy usage. Figure 1 To better understand the components of your energy consumption, a number of figures are provided below. Figure 2 shows the amount of demand for which each system accounts. Figure 3 displays the energy consumption of your faci lity as dictated by kilowatt hours. Figure 4 breaks out your facilities lighting costs by the type of lighting used. Figure 5 displays the proportion of cost that different sizes of motors contribute to the overall motor costs. Each of these figures is provided so that you may better understand the components of your facilities energy consumption and identify areas with the most opportunity for improvements. Table 1 can be found at the end of this report and summaries the entire energy balance for each piece of equipment.
Figure 2 Figure 3
Figure 4 Figure 5
Table 1: Energy Balance Summary LIGHTING Location Watts No. Fixtures Lamps per Fixture Hours per Year Type A/C (Y/N) Estimated Ballast Factor kW kWh Estimated Annual Cost ($/y r) A 400 44 1 4250 MH TRUE 1.15 20.24 86,020 $10,589 A 400 81 1 4250 MH FALSE 1.15 37.26 158,355 $19,494 A 400 49 1 4250 MH FALSE 1.15 22.54 95,795 $11,793 A 400 38 1 4250 MH FALSE 1.15 17.48 74,290 $9,145 F 125 487 1 4250 FL FALSE 0.95 57.83 245,783 $30,257 F 125 26 1 4250 FL FALSE 0.95 3.09 13,122 $1,615 F 125 78 1 4250 FL FALSE 0.95 9.26 39,366 $4,846 FCVG 125 95 1 4250 FL FALSE 0.95 11.28 47,945 $5,902 G 75 26 1 4250 Inc FALSE 0.95 1.85 7,873 $969 J 145 180 1 4250 FL FALSE 0.95 24.80 105,379 $ 12,973 Lighting Totals: 205.63 873,928 $107,585
MOTORS Description HP Units Hours per Year lf uf df Estimated Motor Efficiency kW kWh Estimated Annual Cost ($/yr) O bdr 5 1 4250 0.75 0.65 1 0.84 3.33 9,200 $1,1 40 plaster frame hu 5 1 4250 0.75 0.65 1 0.84 3.33 9,200 $1,140 plaster frame roll 5 1 4250 0.75 0.65 1 0.84 3.33 9,200 $1,140 saw3 3 1 4250 0.75 0.65 1 0.8 2.10 5,796 $718 saw4 3 1 4250 0.75 0.65 1 0.8 2.10 5,796 $718 srh frame roll 10 1 4250 0.75 0. 65 1 0.8 6.99 19,320 $2,393 Motors Totals: 21.18 58,513 $7,248 CHILLERS Description Tons Units SEER df Hours per Year kW kWh Estimated Annual Cost ($/yr) Chiller 35 1 14 1 6240 30.00 187,200 $22,961 Chiller Totals: 30.00 187,200 $22,961
HVAC Description Tons Units SEER df Hours per Year kW kWh Estimated Annual Cost ($/yr) unit 1 2 3 13 1 3000 5.54 16,615 $2,055 HVAC Totals: 5.54 16,615 $2,055 AIR COMPRESSORS Description HP Units Hours per Year lf uf df Estimated Motor Efficiency kW kWh Estimated Annual Cost ($/yr) Quincy 75 1 1110 0.75 0.65 1 0.941 44.59 32,174 $4,182 Garder 150 1 5888 0.75 0.65 1 0.95 88.34 338,103 $41,675 Ingersoll 50 1 94 0.75 0.65 1 0.94 29.76 1,818 $399 Air Compressor Totals: 162.70 372,096 $46,256 CALCULATED FIGURES 425.05 1,508,352 $186,105 MISCELLANEOUS (2% of totals) 8.7 3 1 ,000 $3,820 TOTALS 434.0 1, 539,352 189,925 ACTUAL CONSUMPTION 435.0 1,550,000 $191,000 ERROR 0.23 % 0.69% 0.56 %