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A Preliminary Osteological Analysis of the Human Remains from Hughes Island Mound (8DI45) Dixie County, Florida

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Title:
A Preliminary Osteological Analysis of the Human Remains from Hughes Island Mound (8DI45) Dixie County, Florida
Creator:
Holland, Christina
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Adults ( jstor )
Bones ( jstor )
Boxes ( jstor )
Long bones ( jstor )
Mound sites ( jstor )
Recordings ( jstor )
Ribs ( jstor )
Skull ( jstor )
Teeth ( jstor )
Trenches ( jstor )
Burial
Human remains (Archaeology)
Weeden Island culture
Genre:
Undergraduate Honors Thesis

Notes

Abstract:
This thesis is a preliminary biological analysis of the skeletal material recovered from Hughes Island Mound (8DI45). The assemblage consists of two accession numbers: 71-51, with 29 catalog numbers (S-78 to S-106) and 89-15, with one catalog number only (1). The burials represented are primarily secondary deposits as opposed to primary inhumations. As a result, the material is quite fragmentary and poorly preserved, and some of the remains show evidence of burning. This preliminary analysis identifies both subadult and adult remains, with both males and females represented. Analysis of the pathological markers on the skeletal material reveals poor dental health and evidence of degenerative disease, including osteoarthritis. 89-15 is represented by remains that are generally better preserved than the larger 71-51 assemblage. The material from 89-15 is lighter in color than the material from 71-51. Since there is no known provenience and only vague records of 89-15, its association with Hughes Island Mound is tentative at best. The analysis of the skeletal assemblage from Hughes Island Mound, especially 71-51, demonstrates that the site has high scientific merit and that further research on these collections should refine the human experience associated with Middle Woodland Weeden Island culture. ( en )
General Note:
Awarded Bachelor of Arts; Graduated May 7, 2013 summa cum laude. Major: Anthropology
General Note:
Advisor(s): John Krigbaum
General Note:
College/School: College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

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University of Florida
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Copyright Christina Holland. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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1 A PRELIMINARY OSTEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE HUMAN REMAINS FROM HUGHES ISLAND MOUND ( 8DI45 ) DIXIE COUNTY, FLORIDA By CHRISTINA EVELYN MARIE HOLLAND A SENIOR THESIS PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA May 2013

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2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would first like to thank Dr. John Krigbaum and Dr. Neil l Wallis for allowing me to participate in this endeavor. It is an honor to have been recruited on a project that holds such promise and I hope that my efforts will facilitate their research on Hughes Island Mound and associated Weeden Island sites. I am es pecially grateful to Dr. John Krigbaum for providing me with endless encouragement and the confidence needed as a young researcher. I would like to extend a special thanks to Rachel Iannelli for digging through museum archives for information on Hughes Is land Mound, which has provided an important interpretative backbone for this research. Her analysis of past field records and student papers has allowed for a better understanding of the site as a whole and has allowed for the material to be revisited in a systematic fashion once again paper is a direct result of her work. Although Dr. Susan deFrance did not participate in this endeavor directly, I would like thank her as well because h er professorship provided me with the necessary tools of a researcher. because she taught me a great deal about the ethical conc erns associated with the analysi s of human remains, as well as the importance of organization in a museum setting. I must finally express my gratitude towards my family and friends for walking with me through every s tep of this journey. I am certain that with their help I can triumphantly approach any project and I look forward to always having them on my team.

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3 TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 2 LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES ................................ ................................ ............................... 5 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 6 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 7 I. INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 8 II. SITE BACKGROUND ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 15 Hughes Island Mound: A Weeden Island Culture Belonging t o the Middle Woodland Period ... 15 Hughes Island Mound: The Archaeological S ite and its Pr esent Day State ................................ 17 III. METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 19 Museum Protocol ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 19 Native American Graves Protection and Rep a triation Act (NAGPRA) (1990) ........................... 19 General Procedures ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 20 Standardized Forms ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 20 Non Faunal Ma t erial and Non Human Material ................................ ................................ ........... 20 Gui delines for Skeletal Ana lysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 21 Research Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 21 IV. BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 22 Genera l Procedures for Sorting Skeletal Material an d Obtaining Quantitative Data ................... 22

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4 Minim u m Number of Individuals (MNI) ................................ ................................ ....................... 23 Age at Death ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 24 Sex Estimation ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 26 V. INFORMAL OBSERVATIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 28 Tapho nomy ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 28 Paleop athology ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 30 VI. Further Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 31 Burial Type ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 32 Sk eletal Population Traits ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 33 VII. ANALYSIS OF SITE NOTES AND ASSOCIATED PAPERS ................................ ........... 33 VIII CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 34 IX LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 36 X APPENDI CES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 38 APPENDIX A : Skeletal Remains Recording Form ................................ ................................ ...... 38 APPENDIX B: Hughes Island Mound Site Information ................................ .............................. 87

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5 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Summary of Burials from Hughes Island Mound ( 8DI45 ) ................................ ................ 9 Table 2: Current Location and Provenience Information for the Skeletal Assemblage from Hughes Island Mound (8DI45) ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 1 1 Table 3: Informal Inventory of the Bones Present in Each Box of Remains ................................ 1 3 Table 4: Age Categories for Subadults ................................ ................................ ......................... 2 6 Table 5: Age Categories for Adults ................................ ................................ .............................. 2 6 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 : Map of the Woodland Period Cultures in Eastern U.S. ................................ ................. 1 5 Figure 2 : Geographic Region of the Weeden Island Culture ................................ ........................ 16

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6 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS TBD: To be determined N/A: Not applicable I: Incisor C: Canine PM: Premolar M: Molar MC: Metacarpal MT: Metatarsal

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7 A University of Florida College of Liberal Arts and Sciences A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE SKELETAL MATERIAL FROM HUGHES ISLAND MOUND ( 8DI45 ) DIXIE COUNTY, FLORIDA Christina Evelyn Marie Holland May 201 3 Mentor: John Krigbaum Major: Anthropology This thesis is a preliminary biological analysis of the skeletal material recovered fr om Hughes Island Mound ( 8DI45 ) The assemblage consists of two accession numbers : 71 51 with 29 catalog numbers (S 78 to S 106 ) and 89 15, with one catalog number only (1) T he burials represented are primarily secondary deposits as opposed to primary inhumations. As a result, the material is quite fragmentary and poorly preserved and s ome of the remains show evidence of burning This prelimin ary analysis identifies both subadult and adult remain s with both male s and female s represented A nalysis of the pathological markers on the skeletal material reveal s poor dental health and evidence of degenerative disease including osteoarthritis 89 15 is r epresented by remai ns that are generally better preserved than the larger 71 51 assemblage T he material from 89 15 i s lighter in color than the material from 71 51. Since there is no known provenience and only vague records of 89 15 its association with Hughes Island Moun d is tentative at best The analysis of the skeletal assemblage from Hughes Island Mound especially 71 51, demonstrates that the site has high scientific merit and that further research on these collections should refine the human experience associated wi th Middle Wood l and Weeden Island culture

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8 I. INTRODUCTION Hughes Island Mound, 8DI45 is an archaeological site located on the Gulf Coast of northwest Florida It was excavated d uring the field seasons of 1953 and 1955 The excavations of Hughes Island Mound were led by Dr. John Goggin then an associate professor in the joint department of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Florida Unfortunately, the fieldwork records are not detailed and no official site report was produced documenting th ese past excavations Current research on Hughes Island Mound is focused on the context and analysis of recovered remains and associated material culture from the 1953 and 1955 field seasons so that maximum information may be gleaned from this material. The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary biological analysis of the skeletal material recovered fr om the site to aid in future research endeavors of Hughes Island Mound specifically, and its place within the Middle Woodland Weeden Island Cultu re Osteological assessment and a nalysis of the skeletal assemblage was conducted during the fall semester of 2012 and the spring semester of 2013 The analysis was performed by Christina Holland, a senior undergraduate student in the Department of Anthrop ology at the University of Florida, unde r the direction of Dr. John Krigbaum, associate professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Florida. Laboratory supervision was provided by Donna Ruhl, Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) museum collections manager for the Department of Anthropology, to ensure that the skeletal material received proper treatment. Th is paper is split i nto two sections. The first section consist s of a review of site history and context and the skeletal analys is of Hughes Island Mound, as well as t he analysis of past excavation s and associated papers. The analysis primarily focuses on osteological materials

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9 curated in accession numbers 7 1 51 and 89 15 (Table 1) The second portion of this paper consists of two ap pendi ces (Appendix A and Appendix B) The purpose of th e se a ppendices is to provide detai led information of the data and observations collected during this research as well as providing details on past re cords associated with the site, in hopes of generating future research interest on the assemblage. Table 1: Summary of Bu rials from Hughes Island Mound ( 8DI45 ) FLMNH # MNI Age Sex Mends Notes S 78 1 Infant N/A Yes Possibly 2 individuals S 79 1 Adult (Middle adult?) Male Yes S 80 2 Infant; upper end middle adult N/A ; female ? Yes 1 of 3 S 80 S 80 1 Upper end middle adult Fe male ? Yes 2 of 3 S 80 S 80 1 Upper end middle adult Fem ale? Yes 3 of S 80 S 81 1 Old adult Male Yes 1 of 4 S 81 S 81 1 Adult Male Yes 2 of 4 S 81 S 81 2 Juvenile; adult N/A ; female? Yes 3 of 4 S 81 S 81 2 Juvenile; adult N/A ; male Yes 4 of 4 S 81 S 82 1 Young adult Male? TBD S 83 1 Adult TBD TBD S 84 1 Adult TBD TBD S 85 1 Young adult TBD TBD S 86 "1" Juvenile N/A TBD S 87 2 Juvenile; adult N/A ; male Yes S 88 Faunal S 89 1 Young adult TBD TBD S 90 2 Older child; adult N/A ; ? TBD S 91 2 Middle adult, middle adult Male; female? S 92 1 Adult Female? Yes 1 of 2 S 92 S 92 2 Older child ; young adult N/A ; female Yes 2 of 2 S 92 S 93 4 2 Adults; young child; old child TBD ; TBD; N/A; N/A Yes

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10 S 94 2 Older child; middle adult N/A ; female ? Yes S 95 1 Middle adult Female Yes S 96 1 Young adult Female Yes S 97 1 Older child N/A TBD S 98 1 Older child N/A TBD S 99 2 Juvenile; adult N/A ; female TBD S 100 1 Middle adult Male Yes 1 of 2 S 100 S 100 1 Young adult Female Yes 2 of 2 S 100 S 101 2 Juvenile; young adult N/A ; male? TBD S 102 2 Young individual; adult N/A ; male? TBD S 103 1 Old adult Male Yes S 104 1 Young child N/A Yes S 105 2 Adult; young adult TBD; male Yes S 106 2 Adult; young adult TBD; female Yes All together S 106 has 4 individuals S 106 1 Middle adult Female TBD This box has com m ingled teeth S 106 These remains belong to S106 part 4 S 106 2 Young adult; young adult Male; female Yes 89 15 1 2/ 3? Adult, adult, adult? Male, female, male? Yes Likely same individuals as below 89 15 1 3 Adult, adult, adult Male, male, female No Likely same individuals as above 89 15 1 1 Adult Male No Likely same individuals as above 89 15 1 2 Adult, adult Male ? female No Likely same individuals as above 89 15 1 3 Adult, adult, adult TBD TBD 89 15 1 Needs to be resolved 89 15 1 2 Adult, adult TBD TBD 89 15 1 4 Adult, adult, adult, older child TBD ; TBD; TBD; N/A TBD 89 15 1 TBD Adult TBD TBD 89 15 1 5 All adult TBD TBD

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11 Table 2 : Current Location and Provenience Information for the Skeletal Assemblage from Hughes Island Mound (8DI45) FLMNH # Range Location Provenience Burial # S 78 OC 11.5 Tr. 0 Burial S 79 OC 11.5 Tr. 0 40 50' None S 80 OC 11.5 Tr. 1 30 40' 1 S 80 OC 11.6 Tr. 1 30 40' 1 S 80 OC 11.6 Tr. 1 30 40' 1 S 81 OC 11.6 Tr. 1 30 40' 2 S 81 OC 11.6 Tr. 1 30 40' 2 S 81 OC 11.6 Tr. 1 30 40' 2 S 81 OC 11.7 Tr. 1 30 40' 2 S 82 OC 11.7 Tr. 1 30 40' None S 83 OC 11.7 Tr. 1 30 40' 0 12" None S 84 OC 11.7 Tr. 1 30 40' 12 24" None S 85 OC 11.7 Tr. 1 40 50' 0 24" None S 86 OC 11.7 Tr. 1 40 50' 12 24" None S 87 OC 11.7 Tr. 1 40 50' 25"_ None S 88 OC 11.7 Tr. 1 50 None S 89 OC 11.7 Tr. 1 55 None S 90 OC 11.7 Tr. 2 30 None S 91 OC 11.7 Tr. 2 30 3 S 92 OC 11.7 Tr. 2 30 None S 92 OC 11.8 Tr. 2 30 None S 93 OC 11.8 Tr. 2 30 None S 94 OC 11.8 Tr. 3 40 1 S 95 OC 11.8 Tr. 3 40 None S 96 OC 11.8 Tr. 3 40 None S 97 OC 11.8 Tr. 3 45 None S 98 OC 11.8 Tr. 3 45 2 S 99 OC 11.8 Tr. 3 50 None S 100 OC 11.8 Tr. 4 40 1 S 100 OC 11.9 Tr. 4 40 1 S 101 OC 11.8 Tr. 4 40 2 S 102 OC 11.8 Tr. 4 40 3 S 103 OC 11.8 Tr. 4 40 None S 104 OC 11.8 45 None S 105 OC 11.8 40 None S 106 OC 11.8 None None

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12 S 106 OC 11.8 None None S 106 OC 11.8 None None S 106 OC 11.8 None None 89 15 1 OC 12.1 None None 89 15 1 OC 12.1 None None 89 15 1 OC 12.1 None None 89 15 1 OC 12.1 None None 89 15 1 OC 12.2 None None 89 15 1 OC 12.2 None None 89 15 1 OC 12.2 None None 89 15 1 OC 12.2 None None 89 15 1 OC 12.2 None None

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13 Table 3: Informal Inventory of the Bones Present in Each Box of Remains FLMNH # Cranial Teeth Long Bone Hand/Feet Rib Vert./Sacral Other Postcranial UID/Misc. Non human Non faunal S 78 ++ + + + + + + S 79 ++ ++ + + + S 80 ++ ++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ + + + S 80 + +++ + S 80 + +++ +++ + + + + S 81 ++ + ++ + + + S 81 ++ + S 81 + + ++ +++ ++ ++ + + + S 81 +++ + + + ++ + S 82 ++ + ++ + + + S 83 + + + + S 84 + + + + S 85 + + ++ + + S 86 + + S 87 ++ + ++ + + + S 88 ++ S 89 + + + + + S 90 ++ ++ + + + + + + S 91 + + ++ + + + + S 92 + + ++ + + + S 92 +++ +++ + + + + S 93 ++ +++ ++ + + + + S 94 +++ ++ + + + + + S 95 +++ ++ + + S 96 + +

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14 S 97 ++ ++ S 98 + +++ + + S 99 + ++ + + S 100 ++ + ++ + + + S 100 + ++ + + + S 101 + ++ + + + + S 102 ++ + +++ + + + S 103 + + S 104 + +++ S 105 +++ ++ + + + S 106 +++ + S 106 +++ +++ + + S 106 ++ + S 106 +++ + + 89 15 1 +++ 89 15 1 + 89 15 1 +++ 89 15 1 +++ 89 15 1 + + ++ + + 89 15 1 + + + + 89 15 1 +++ + 89 15 1 ++ + + 89 15 1 +++

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15 II. SITE BACKGROUND Hughes Island Mound: A Weeden Island Cultu re Belonging to the Middle Woodland Period Hughes Island Mound is a burial mound that is associated with the Weeden Island culture and the Middle Woodland period (Figure 1) Weeden Island cu lture consist s of prehistoric people that lived during the first millennium in what is the present n Alabama, Florida, and Georgia (Milanich, 1997 ). Hughes Island Mound is found on the western coast of Florida and therefore falls within the region that repre sents th e Weeden Island culture (Figure 2 ). Figure 1 : Map of the Woodland Period Cultures in Eastern U.S. ( www.uflib.ufl.edu )

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16 Figure 2 : Geographic Region of the Weeden Island Culture (Milanich, 1997 ) The changes associated with the ceramic complex of the Weeden Island culture have been studied extensively, which has allowed for the determination of a demarcation between an earlier period and a later period of Weeden Island culture : Weeden Island I, fro m A.D. 250 700, and Weeden Island II, from A.D. 700 900/1000 ( Milanich, 1997 ). Hughes Island Mound has consequently been assigned to the Weeden Island I period through the analysis of the ceramic material. It is currently believed to have been an active burial site from about A.D. 200 600 Ongoing r esearch is being conducted on the ceramic assemblage recovered from Hughes Island Mound. Since it belongs to the earlier Weeden Island I culture the material is expected to and complicated designs ; however, the majority of pottery

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17 found along coastal Florida does not bear ma rks of decoration ( Milanich, 1997 ). For the purposes of this paper, however, it is important to note that the pottery associated with burial practices from these past cultures are known to have been decorated more extensively tha n pottery deposited in middens Hughes Island Mound: The Archaeological Site and its Present Day State Hughes Island Mound, 8DI45 is located in Dixie County, northern Florida near the Suwannee River Iannelli and Wallis 2012 : 1 ) Island Mound, bu t for the purposes of the paper the site will be referred to as Hughes Island Mound, since it is the term currently agreed upon by the researchers involved in the project. The site is currently documented as an early Weeden Island archaeological site in the Florida Master State File (Ia nnelli and Wallis 2012) Although a detailed report of fieldwor k do es not exist unique insight into the excavation histor y of Hughes Island Mound is provided within past excavation forms, associated artifact forms that often times include a plan view sketch of the excavation unit profile drawings of the trenches and two papers written by students of Dr. Goggin. These records are available in the archives section of the Department of Anthropology, Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida. Although helpful, they are imbued with inconsistent recording techniques and various degrees of detail, which has made them confusing to analyze. It is also difficult to piece this information together because each member of the excavation team u tilized a different style of recording and terminology (Iannelli and Wallis 2012) There are also various spellings of names, which may imply that the participants did not know each other well.

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18 The objectives of past excavation efforts are unclear; howev er, the student papers menti on that the site was pot hunted T herefore it has been assumed to have been an opportunity for Dr. Goggin to salvage the site and to provide his students with an understanding of fieldwork. The papers also mention that the site belongs to the Weeden Island I culture period, which was determined by pottery recovered from the site. For the purposes of this analysis, it is important to consisted of bundles and skulls which Iannelli and Wallis 2012 : 1 ) Team member Rachel Iannelli has stitched together the drawing s of individual 5feet by 5 feet units to create a preliminary site map. It demonstrates that the s ite was comprised of trenches (Iannelli and Wallis 2012 : 2 ) The excavation was appr oximately 30 x 40 and nearly covered the entire mound A finalized product of the site map is currently being worked on in hopes of adding to our current understanding of the spatial relationships of the burials and the associate d artifacts. Ianelli and Wallis (2012) also deconstructed the profile drawings of the site. The profile drawings show that the mound was created through successive series of events They describe the layers as such: First, a large dark earth and shell midden accumulated atop a small sand rise, post holes suggest that a structure may have existed during the middening period. The next phase of mound construction was characterized by the addition of shell and clean yellow/tan sand within which was placed a single flexed burial with accoutrements of pottery. Successive brown sand layers were then added along with copious amounts of pottery vessels and sherds and the interment of approxi mately forty individuals. The duration of this phase of mound construction is currently unclear, but was unlikely to have been more than two or three centuries based on the types of pottery recovered, which are all contemporaneous with the Early Weeden Isl and period. Finally, the mound was capped with grey sand (Iannelli and Wallis 2012 : 2 )

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19 Although the archival information is comprised of information that does not follow standard archaeological methods today, the records have been valuable nonetheless. Our understanding of the site is a direct result of these records and they have given scientific credibility to the study of Hughes Island Mound. III. METHODOLOGY Museum Protocol A Technical Analysis/Destructive Sampling (TADS) request form was submitted to the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) on October 12, 2012. Permission to study the skeletal material was granted for the fall semester of 2012 and the spring semester of 2013. The permission was granted with the agreement that no destructive ana lysis would be conducted on the skeletal material studied A technical agre ement that outlined the research protocol was provided by FLMNH staff and was followed throughout the course of this research project. Native American Graves Protection and Repatri ation Act (NAGPRA) (1990) Established FLMNH protocol and the research conducted on skeletal material from Native American sites are in conjunction with the gu idelines distributed by NAGPRA. These guidelines promote the rights of the lineal descendants to t he cultural material and human remains from Native American sites ( National NAGPRA, 2013). The research that this paper focuses on was conducted with an ethical concern for the skeletal material recovered fro m Hughes Island Mound The analysis complies with by providing an informal inventory of the remains.

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20 General Procedures A standardized set of procedures was developed to analyze each box of skeletal material from Hughes Island Mound to ensure that the remains were treated with care and that each set of remains received the same amount of analysis. Standardized Forms Standardized forms were used during the span of the research project to ensure proper treatment of the skeletal material and to produce a fair assessment of the each box of remains. Three forms were utilized to assess the skeletal assemblage Two of the forms were issued by the museum to record the usage of the skeletal material The researcher initially created a b asic inventory form to conduct the analyses of the skeletal material; however, a new form was created to better suit the purposes of the analysis and future research endeavors. Thus, a third form was developed referred to as S kelet al Remains Recording Fo rm. A fourth form was created to assist in inputting the information from the site cards and the student papers, known as the Non Faunal Material and Non Human Material Non faunal and non human material was noted. A total of 6 non faunal remains were recovered from S 80, S 91, and S 100. A total of 29 non human faunal bones were re covered from S 79, S 80, S 81, S 82, S 83, S 85, S 86, S 88, S 89, S 90, and 89 15 1 It is advised that the material be removed, bagged and labeled by museum personnel. Future analysis of this material is necessary to understand the past conditions of Hughes Island Mound.

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21 Guidelines for Skeletal Analysis The analysis of the skeletal material from Hughes Island Mound was conducted using protocols outlined in Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains ( Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994) The methods described in The Human Bone Manual ( White and Folkens 2005) and Human Osteology 5 th edition ( Bass 2005) were used as additional guidelines. The protocols were modified due to the experience of the osteologist, time constraints, and space availability; however, the goal was to follow each outlined procedure when possible. Research Objectives The intent of the a nalysis of the skeletal material from Hughes Island Mound was as follows: 1) to provide an informal inventory of the remains; 2) to determine the minimum number of individuals (MNI) per accession number and eventually for the entire skeletal assemblage; 3) to ass ess the age and sex of each individual per accession number and ultimately the distribution of age and sex within the population; 4) to prepare a basic description of taphonomic and pathological markers on the remains; 5) to informally note skeletal population c haracteristics; 6) to complement past notes and associated papers on Hughes Island Mound; 7) to construct simplified tables and images to aid in the spatial understanding of the skeletal assemblage; 8) to assist future research efforts on the material from Hughes Island Mound; 9) to understand the scientific value of the skeletal material from Hughes Island Mound ;

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22 10) to broaden the current understanding of the Weeden Island culture ; 11) and to adhere to NAGPRA protocols The analysis of the skeletons from Hughes Island M ound provides a basic biological profile of each individual per accession number, as well as an informal assessment of the taphonomic and pathological profile of each individual per accession number. Each box of remains was analyzed multiple times to ensure that accurate data were collected IV. BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS General Procedures for Sorting Skeletal Material and Obtaining Quantitative Data A rough sort of the skeletal material was necessary to generate a count of the elements present and to perform a biological analysis on the remains. The following steps were performed for each box of remains: 1) Identify, note, and remove all non faunal material and non human material. 2) Separate elements into one of the assigned categories of bones: crania l fragments, teeth fragments, long bone fragments, hand/feet fragments, rib fragments, vertebra or sacral fragments, other post cranial fragments, and miscellaneous/unidentifiable fragments. 3) Count the number of elements per category and note this on the Skeletal Remains Recording Form Each category of elements received either a +, ++, or a +++ based on the amount of material present (Table 3) The categories are as follows: + : some bones are present; ++ : a fair amount of bones are present; +++ : a substantial amount of bones are present.

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23 This system was utilized to aid the efforts of future research. It allows for easy recognition of patterns and may provide clues as to which remains are from the one or multiple individuals. Minimum Number of Individuals (MNI) One of the primary goals of the analysis was to determine the minimum number or individuals (MNI) per accession number and eventually for the entire skeletal assemblage. MNI is the least number of individuals needed to make up the skele tal material in an assemblage (White and Folkens 2005 ). It is associated with the number of elements and how identifiable they are. It is important not to associate the MNI with the actual number of individuals that were present at the site because the actual number of individuals may be underrepresented. Interpretations of MNI should take biological factors, such as age and sex, along with size and the site context into account Although biases in the skeletal assemblage may occur, MNI is a commonly used fo rm of analysis nonetheless (Reitz and Wing 2008). Methods: Bones belonging to multiple individuals were often times found in the same box, thus the catalog accounted for multiple individuals. To determine the MNI, the bones were further sorted into categories that reflected bilateral symmetry, differences of age, sex and size, and variations between taphonomic and pathological marke rs. The osteologist also tried to determine if the bones would match up via articular surfaces and/or via facets. Analysis of MNI was done once the initial rough sort was completed. The following procedures for determining the MNI box of remains are as follows: 1) Separate each category of elements into identifiable elements. Example: separate temporal bones within the cranial category.

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24 2) Side each identifiable element. 3) When possible, perform hypothetical mends. Example: place 2 fragments of 1 temporal bone together so as to only account the fragments as 1 representative element of 1 individual. 4) Assess the identifiable elements and separate bones based on observable diff erence s : age, sex, size, taphonomic, and/or pathological differences. Example: 1 left temporal and 1 right temporal may actually be from separate individuals, so it is important account observable differences. 5) The final MNI count may be ascertained by dete rmining the highest count provided by symmetrical analyses or by the marked differences between skeletal remains. Example: There are 2 left temporals, so there are 2 at least two individuals present, OR 1 tooth is an adult molar and another tooth is a juve nile molar, so there are at least 2 individuals present. Results: The MNI for each box of remains can be found in Table 1 and Appendix A Since it is clear that many of the remains are commingle d, no final MNI was derived for the skeletal assemblage as a whole. Until a more conclusive assessment of the remains is done, it is impossible to determine the number of individuals that represent the skeletal assemblage without under representing or over representing the actual number. Age at Death The purpose of this analysis was to determine the age of an individual at death, not to determine the length of time that the individual had been dead. This type of analysis is dependent

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25 lifetime (White and Folkens 2005 ). The accuracy of this analysis depends on which age range the individual fell in (Bass 2005 ). It is easier to age an individual before he/she has received his/her permanent dentition (Roberts, 2009; Bass 2005 ). D egenerative changes rather than developmental changes, are primarily focused on to assess the age at death of an adult (Bass 20 05 ). It is important to note that human variability exists and may not follow the general patterns of development (Bass 2005 ) and that non age related pathologies may affect the general patterns of skeletal development (White and Folkens 2005 ) Although it is advised to compare the information with age estimations of both modern and prehistoric populations (Ubelaker 1978 ), time constrain t s prohibited the osteologist from doing so. Future researchers should address this component of age analysis to condu ct a more accurate analysis of the skeletal material. Methods: The following analyses were observed in conjunction with the guidelines described by disting uished bioarchaeology textbooks. Age determination is first assessed by determining whether the individual was a subadult or an adult Different characteristics are observed between the two categories. Method s for Determining the Age of Death of a Subadult: Age s of the subadults from Hughes Island Mound were determined by observing tooth eruption, closure of long bone epiphyses, and the length of long bones that hav e not yet fused with epiphyses. Guidelines have been established for determining age by observing which phase the pubic sy mphysis is in; however, the skeletal assemblage did not comprise of this element and it was therefore not analyzed.

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26 Table 4: Age Categories for Subadults Infant 0 4 years Young Child 4 8 years Older Child 8 12 years Adolescent 12 20 years Methods for Determining the Age of an Adult Ages of the adults f r o m Hughes Island Mound were determined by observing the degree of closure of cranial sutures and degenerative changes in the skeleton, such as tooth wear and skeletal pathologies (Table 5) Table 5 : Age Categories for Adults Young Adult 20 35 years Mid dle Adult 25 50 years Old Adult 50+ years Results: Hughes Island Mound yielded remains of individuals from all ages. Age designations can be found in Table 1 and A ppendix A It is important to note that during the analysis, there was no separation between older children and adolescents, and the remains are categorized as merely older children. These remains should be revisited and categorized properly. Sex Estimation The s keleton of a male versus the s keleton a female is different in both size and morphology in all human populations (Buikstra 1977 ). Methods have been created and are constantly being improved upon to accurately assess the sex of an individual (Roberts 2009 ). The degree of sexual dimorphism in any population varies (Buikstra 1977 ) and it is therefore

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27 advised to work under a scope of analysis that pertains to the skeletal population at hand (Bass, 2005 ) Unfortunately, t he osteologist was not able to utiliz e othe r southeastern Native American assemblage s studies to assist in sex determination; however, the skeletal assemblage of Hughes Island Mound was compared as a unit to determine which qualities were more robust and which were more gracile. Debates curre ntly exist as to whether or not accurate sex estimations can be determined for sub adults, so the osteologist only observed characteristics related to sex in adult remains (Bass, 2005 ) It is important to note that there is a distinction between sex and g ender. This study will not assess gender roles of the past inhabitants of Hughes Island Mound. Methods: The following analyses were observed in conjunction with the guidelines described by disting uished bioarchaeology textbooks. Three categories of bones from adult remains were analyzed: cranium, innominate, and long bones Multiple other traits may yield evidence for sex estimation; however, the fragmentary nature of the material only permitted the osteologist to observe a handful of skeletal features. Id eally, the determ ina tion of sex is done through the use of multiple bones per individual (Ubelaker 1978 ) ; however, assessments were often made through the observations of one or few bone s The features observed under each category were as follows (scores outline d by Buikstra, 1977 were assigned to these features when necessary) : 1) Cranium : external occipital protuberance, nuchal crest, temporal lines, mastoid process, supraorbital margin, supraorbital ridge/glabella, men tal eminence, shape of mandible, 2) Innominate : greater sciatic notch 3) Long bones : muscle and ligament attachment sites size, and bone mass

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28 The osteologist also took general characteristics of male bones versus female bones into account that were outlined by White and Folkens ( 2005 ) : Female bones : smaller (shorter) more gracile, and lighter Male bones: larger (longer) more robust, and bear a high degree of rugosity V. INFORMAL OBSERVATIONS Skeletal Remains however, the observations provide helpful information for future researchers. It is suggested that formal analyses are performed on the remains to better underst and the taphonomical processes of the site, past burial practices, and the health status of the past inhabitants of Hughes Island Mound. Taphonomy t he study of the processes that operate between the time of death of the or (White and Folkens 2005 : 49 ). Taphonomical analysis of a skeleton may provide clues to events that occurred at the time of death and/or after the time of death, as well as in formation of what the environment that the bones were deposited in was like (Buikstra 1977 ). Postmortem changes and those that occurred during the life of an individual may be difficult to distinguish between one another, however, proper experience allows the osteologist to differentiate between the two (Buikstra 1977 ). Two observations were primarily noted:

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29 1) Completeness and Preservation : A percentage of how complete the skeleton was of each box of material was assessed to determine how well the skelet al assemblage was preserved. The categories of preservation are as follows: >75%: complete 25 75%: partial preservation <25: poor preservation Results : Unfortunately it was difficult to assess the completeness of the sk eletal material since catalog numbers were often times represented by multiple boxes. It was also difficult to determine if multiple accession numbers in fact represented the same individual. Until these issues can be resolved, the skeletal material was deemed to have been poorly prese rved, since each box represented fewer than 25% of the skeleton. It is likely, however that with further assessment, multiple in dividuals will comprise of a mor e complete skeleton than is presently understood. 2) Color : Through time, multiple taphonomical a gents, including the past environments of deposition and burial practices, may alter the color of skeletal remains (Buikstra 1977 ). Assessments of heat alterations may also be made via the assessment of the discoloration of bones (Buikstra 1977 ). T he intensity of the heat that the bone was exposed to may be derived by the assessment of the range of colors present on the remains (Buikstra 1977 ). T he color of the material was also noted because it may help assess whether the skeletal material was commin gle d or not and it may help determine whether diffe rent boxes of the same catalog number represent a single individual or multiple individuals

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30 Results : The majority of the material from 71 51 was composed of varying degrees of the color brown. The skelet al assemblage also consisted of dark brown, black, and gray to white remains, which provides evidence for charring. The material from 89 15 was lighter than 71 51, which may indicate that the material was deposite d in a different environment. 89 15 did not display much evidence of burning which may provide evidence that the bones of from 89 15 were buried in a different manner than those of 71 51. The osteologist noted other taphonomic process, such as cracking, but these processes were not determined fo r each skeleton du e to limited time availability and should therefore be assessed in more detail in future studies of the skeletal material. Paleopathology 2009 : 153 ) It is studied through a multidisciplinary approach that utilizes a sl ew of analytical methodologies (R oberts 2009 ) The study of the health status and disease of past individuals through their skeletal remains may be challenging to an inexperienced osteologist since not all dis eases manifest in the skeleton and those that do may generate similar morphological reactions (White and Folkens 2005 ). It is suggested to study diseases that affect the skeleton, however, because much information about the individual and the population as a whole can be ascertained through the proper assessment of the manifestati ons of disease in the skeleton (Buikstra 1977 ). Methods : following Roberts (2009) to assess the manifestations of disease in the skeleton. This approa ch understands the present day e ffects that diseases leave on the skeleton and applies it to past populations. The pathological notes were not

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31 detailed or scored; however, they were noted with the purpose of generating future research on the hea lth status of the material from Hughes Island Mound. Results : The informal analysis of the pathological manifestations of the skeletal assemblage has revealed poor tooth condition, as well as the presence of degenerative diseases, such as osteoarthritis. T he poor tooth condition was often characterized by dental calculus and moderate to heavy wear. Heavy tooth wear was common in Native American popu lations because the food was often embedded with grit or dirt (White and Folkens 2005). Premortem tooth loss was also noted, as well as the presence of periapical abscesses. Osteoarthritis was commonly found along the vertebral column of the adult remains but was also found in the hand/foot bones, long bones, and bones of the shoulder girdle. It is likely that periostitis and/or osteomyelitis is also present on the skeletal assemblage, however, a more detailed analysis should be done on these remains. One individual displayed unusual bone deformation that was similar to caries sicca characteristic of tertiary syphilis, a venereal disease that was not present around the time in North America; however, th is pathology requires further careful analysis and may be an example of pseudopathology, a response to the environment of deposition. VI. FURTHER DISCUSSION The analysis of the skeletal assemblage excavated from Hughes Island Mound, 8DI45 has allowed for the generation of discussion on a variety of topics. With further research, each of these subject s can be analyzed more systematically and may ultimately allow for a better understanding of the Weeden Island culture.

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32 Burial Type Custom dictates the type of burial practices that a particular group of people use. The type of burial can often be inferred from the position and from the orientation of the skeletal remains, which can ultimately generate an understanding of when and where a particular group of people lived. Ideas of religion may also be inferred fr om the types of burials present at an archaeological site; howe ver, inference may be difficult (Brothwell 1981 ) The majority of the remains that were excavated from Hugh es Island Mound a re fragmented and display evidence of burning, which supports the co ntention that these are secondary burial s, the predominant type of burial practiced at Hughes Island Mound as inferred by the original excavator, Dr. John Goggin Secondary burials are characterized by a multi stage process that ultimately generates a compilation of non articulated remains. The first stage consists of flesh removal, either through the use of tools or through the natural processes of decomposition either at or below ground level. The next stage necessitates the collection or the exhumati on of the remains. The remains may be kept for a short or an extended period of time. They are reburied in the final stage. Although the exact practices cannot be ascertained from the skeletal assemblage, it is clear that secondary burial took place. Futur e research may be able to situate the cultural pra ctices and ideologies of the past people of Hughes Island Mound and eventually Weeden Island culture. The site notes and associated papers attest to the presence of secondary burials; however, i t is importa nt to note there is mention of flexed and pseudo flexed burials. It would be interesting to further investigate these remains to determine if there are social and status implications of burial types.

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33 Skeletal Population Traits The incisors yielded from Hughes Island Mound were characterized as shovel shaped. This trait is common amongst Native American populations, who often times have an extension of enamel along the edges of the lingual surface of the incisors that produce the shovel shape (White and F olkens 2005). This trait is shared with Asian populations, which suggests that Native American populations have a northeast Asian origin (Roberts, 2009). It is likely that the immigration from northeast Asia took place via the Bering land bridge (Roberts, 2009). It is also interesting to note that many of the preserved frontal bones displayed metopic sutures. The suture usually closes during the first 2 years or life, but it may persist throughout an The presence of metopism may depend on an inheritable genetic trait, but its presence is still currently misunderstood (Brothwell, 1981). If is it linked to genetic inheritance, is it plausible that this trait can be used to determine relatedness between individuals present in a skeletal a ssemblage. VII. ANALYSIS OF SITE NOTES AND ASSOCIATED PAPERS Information from past site notes and associated papers were digitized in the efforts of aiding future research on Hughes Island Mound. The digitized information was input with the intent of remaining as true as possible to the original notes and papers. Th erefore, the information is imbued with multiple spellings of names and typing errors. The second part of the appendix consists of the digitized notes, as well as the catalog numbers that are likely associated with the information. The information was used in conjunction with the analysis of the skeletal material. It supported the hypothesis of the predominant use of secondary burial at Hughes Island Mound.

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34 Utilizing the available written sources from the 1953 and 1955 field seasons has allowed for the rev ival of the scientific research of Hughes Island Mound and can provide future researchers with a platform for future research and may allow for the inference of certain cultural practices. VIII. CONCLUSION The skeletal assembla ge of Hughes Island Mound (8DI4 5) consists of two accession numbers, 71 51 and 89 15, and a total of 30 catalog numbers. Since the provenance information was not ascertained when the accession number 89 15 was assigned, the association of 89 15 and remains recovered from Hughes Island M ound proper (71 51) is not currently understood. The skeletal assemblage in its entirety consists of both male and female individuals of various ages. It is currently difficult to ascribe an MNI to the recovered assemblage; however, future research should allow for an estimation of the MNI Skeletal pathologies, both dental and degener ative, are manifested in the os t e ological assemblage. It is suggested that future research focus on the skeletal pathologies especially those related to oral health, to bett er understand the health status of the individuals recovered from this site. The skeletal material reco vered from Hughes Island Mound (8DI45) allows for a further understanding of the archaeological site, the past people associated with the site, and the Weeden Island culture. Although the majority of the material is heavily fragmented, the mending of bones will help provide a better representation of the individuals and MNI estimate than is currently possible at this time M ending the material in conjunction with assessment of morphological variability (e.g., size) and demographic estimates ( age and sex) of each feature, in consultation with associated site notes, will help further our understanding of this important skeletal assemblage.

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35 This prel iminary osteological analysis underscores the high scientific merit of this important skeletal assemblage and further bioarchaeological research should be conducted. Possible research areas include paleopathology, stature estimation, and age/sex estimation including overall taphonomic study of the secondary burials. Planned research of this site and other Weeden Island sites by Drs. Wallis and Krigbaum will include i sotopic analyse s that will contribute to a better understanding of individual life history and place in the Middle Woodland Weeden Island period. Research is also currently being conducted on the non faunal material recovered from Hughes Island Mound (Ianelli and Wallis, 2012) The union of the skeletal analysis with the non faunal material ana lysis, and the suggested analyses of the non human material, will ultimately provide a holistic understanding of Hughes Island Mound in the past.

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36 IX. LIST OF REFERENCES Bass, William M. (2005) Human Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual 5 th ed ition Springfield Missouri : Missouri Archaeological Society. Bense, Judith A. (1994) Archaeology of the Southeastern United States: Paleoindian to World War I San Diego, California: Academic Press Brothwell, Don R. (1981) Digging Up Bones Ithaca, New York: Cornell U niversity Press Brown, Robin C. ( 1994) Florida's First People: 12,000 Years of Human History Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press Buikstra, Jane E. and Douglas H. Ubelaker (199 4 ) Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains: Proceedings of a Seminar at the Field Museum of Natural History Fayetteville, Arkansas: Arkansas Archeological Society. Iannelli, Rachel J. and Neill J. Wallis ( 2012 ) Pots and Puzzles: A Return to Hughes Island Mound ( 8DI45 ). Paper presented at the 64 th A nnual Meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society, Tallahasee. Milanich, Jerald T. et al. (1997) Archaeology of Northern Florida: A.D. 200 900: The McKeithen Weeden Island Culture Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida Milanich, Jerald T. (1994) Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida. Gainesville Florida: University Press of Florida. Milanich, Jerald T. and Charles H. Fairbanks (1980) Florida Archaeology New York, New York: Academic Press

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37 Milanich, Jerald T. (2002) Weeden Island Cultures I n The Woodland Southeast edited by D. G. Anderson and R. C. Mainfort, pp. 352 372. Tuscaloosa, Alabama. University of Alabama Press. National NAGPRA National Park Service, n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. Reitz, Elizabeth J. and Elizabeth S. Wing (2008) Zooarchaeology Cambridge: Cambridge U niversity Press Roberts, Charlotte A. (2009) Human Remains in Archaeology: A Handbook York: Council for British Archaeology Ubelaker, Douglas H. (1978) Human Skeletal Remains: Excavation, Analysis, Interpretation Washington D.C.: Taraxacum. White, Tim D. and Pieter A. Folkens (2005) The Human Bone Manual Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press.

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38 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 11/2/ 2012; 11/16/20 12; 2/28/2013; 3/17/ 2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 0 Burial FLMNH Number: S 78 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.5 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: INFANT based on upper L eft deciduous molar (roots not yet complete) with some wear occlusion, relatively thin bones, and unfused basilar part of occipital and sphenoid Sex: N/A MNI: 1 1 Left temporal and 1 Right temporal (remains are the same age); possibility of 2 individuals based on the size of the lunate (questionable association with the infant because it is large) Notes: Medium sized box: full; Heavily fragmented: difficult to assess; <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; 1 charcoal fragment burning; Charring present; Black/brown remains; Root etching present QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 81 (majority are heavily fragmented); ++ Teeth Fragments: 1 (relatively good condition); + Long Bone Fragments: 9 (very small fragments); + Hand/Feet Fragments: 2; + Rib Fragments: 1, possibly 2 (all small fragments); + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: 1; + Other Postcranial Fragments: Unidentified: 1; + NOTES ndidate for isotope analysis Crack through crown is due to preservation makes sampling easy, but affects quality of the tooth Right temporal: petrous portion 25% 75% present (partial), with external auditory meatus Left temporal: 2 pieces MEND, external auditory meatus portion not present Meningeal grooves visible on cranial bones 1 lunate in relatively good condition, possibly from another individual indicated by size Vertebra: 1 facet likely from C1, <25% of bone available Basilar part of occipital and sphenoid fit together (not yet fused) 3 occipital fragments: MEND cruciform eminence REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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39 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 11/16/2012; 2/28/201 3; 3/17/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 0 40 FLMNH Number: S 79 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.5 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: ADULT based on moderate to heavy wear on teeth, possibly middle adult(?) because of extreme wear on M1 Sex: MALE based on mandible (Standards:4/5), which is fragmented and difficult to assess, and thick occipital fragments MENDS MNI: 1 Notes: Small sized box: full; Difficult to assess; <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; Brown remains and some black; Identifiable ight M3(1) pulled for stable isotope analysis on 11/21/2012 QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 14 (not whole); ++ Teeth Fragments: 9 (heavy wear, dental calculus)(1 just the root); ++ Long Bone Fragments: 3(1 questionable: head? Or not long bone?); + Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: 1 (patella in good condition); + Non human: 1; metacarpal(?), deer ; + NOTES MEND 2 occipital fragments cruciform eminence present Teeth heavily worn: 2 lower incisors (heavily worn); 1 lower canine with wear and cracking; 1 root; 5 molars (1 lower cracked multiple times; 1 lower Right M2 with moderate wear, 3 lower Left M, moderate to heavy wear); Recheck teeth The root fragment belongs to M1 (broken) KEY MEND; Teeth are cracked and poorly preserved 3 mandible fragments: 1 lower anterior portion that MENDS with Left mandible; 1 Left: does not have alveoli, only ascending r amus, with groove; 1 Right with nutrient foramen, alveoli, some tooth fragments, part of chin 1 long bone head fragment 1 radius fragment, shaft, <25% 1 ulna fragment, shaft, <25% 1 whole Left patella >75% present REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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40 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 10/19/2012; 11/2/201 2; 2/28/2013; 3/4/20 13; 3/17/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 1 30 FLMNH Number: S 80 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.5; 1 of 3 S 80 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: 3 teeth and zygomatic from juvenile, most likely TODDLER ; the rest of the remains are from the older individual ADULT, probably mid/possibly old adult indicated by arthritis on the vertebral column Sex: 1 FEMALE? Adult Frontal: rounded eye orbits, supraorbital margins are not prominent; Mental eminence (Standards: 3); Questionable because of: Mastoid process of temporal (Standards: 3/4) MNI: 2 indicated by 2 L eft temporal fragments and 2 L eft zygomatic fragments Notes: Large sized box: full; H eavily fragmented remains; C ; < 25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; S ome large skull fragments; H eavily fragmented long bones; H eavily worn teeth (some with dental calculus); L ight brown remains; W hole bones present; A rth ritis present (especially on vertebrae); G ood candidate for analysis; MENDS (occipital, jaws, etc.); Commingle d teeth; M ajority of the sample is from the female adult: excellent dentition, but extreme wear; B urning on some cranial fragments QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 84; ++ Teeth Fragments: 10 in bag; 6 loose; 14 in mandible/maxilla; ++ Long Bone Fragments: 73; ++ Hand/Feet Fragments: 47 (10 carpals?); ++ Rib Fragments: 6; + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: 17; ++ Other Postcranial Fragments: 38; ++; (uid 4); + Non human: 2; +; Non faunal: 2; + NOTES Cranial: whole cranial bones present MEND : occipital (2), mandible (2), L eft zygomatic and maxilla, L eft and R ight maxilla ; P ossibly more MENDS F rontal: majority R ight; W hole L eft temporal ; 3 mandible: 1 R ight without condyle, 2 L eft : 1 condyle, 1 anterior portion; 2 hypoglossal canal portion of o ccipital ; M axilla with teeth (both); 1 cranial fragment that is very dark brown water damage?; 1 vomer Teeth: majority are and cracking present Vertebrae: none are whole, 1 centrum with heavy pathology, 1 dens of C2, 1 L eft and 1 R ight C1 fragment; 3 sacral fragments? 2 distal phalanges with bony growths arthritis? 1 L eft temporal charred appearance; water damage? Frontal with same taphonomical markers Long bone s ar e not whole, all < 25% Long bone head fragments Identifiable shaft fragments (radius, ulna different individuals?) 1 clavicle? 1 innominate fragment Hand/feet: in relatively good condition, whole bones present L eft scaphoid: bony outgrowth arthritis? 2 fish bones (vertebra and operculum in good condition) 2 pottery fragments REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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41 Original recording form used for S 80 part 1 Bone Side Segment Completeness Mandible R Corpus; ramus RI2, RC, RP3, RP4; no condyle/cor. pro. Mandible (^) R Condyle Attaches to ^ Mandible L Corpus RI2, RP3 Mandible (^) L Ramus Occipital M/L Occipital; transverse sulcus; cerebral fossa Occipital (^) M/L Transverse sulcus; occipital crest; cerebral fossa Occipital R Hypoglossal canal; con. (?) Occipital L Hypoglossal canal; con. (?) Frontal M/R Nearly whole No L supraorbital margin Temporal/Sphenoid L Nearly whole Temporal L Petrous portion Temporal R Pet. (?); mar. pro. (?) Temporal (^) R TMJ; zygomatic process Maxilla L R12; RC1; RP3; RP4 Maxilla R No frontal/zygomatic process; RC1, RP3, RP4, RM(?) Vomer Zygomatic L Zygomatic R No temporal process Zygomatic L No maxillary/temporal process Clavicle R Lateral portion No medial portion Sphenoid L Vert. Thoracic M/R No spine; missing 1 superior facet(?) 5 Rib Frags. Triquetral M Scaphoid L Root puncture Scaphoid L Capitate R Lunate L Lunate L Trapezoid R Trapezoid L Pisiform R

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42 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 1/24/2013; 2/28/2013 ; 3/4/2013; 3/17/201 3 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 1 30 FLMNH Number: S 80 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.6; 2 of 3 S 80 ; B ack box in tray BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: Fused long bones ADULT (If these bones are from the same individual as 1 of S 80 then probably mid/possibly old adult) Sex: FEMALE?; S 80 part 1 is comprised of a female skull, these bones likely belong to the same individual needs to be resolved; Long bones are not too large; Difficult to assess the sex of this individual, but likely female in comparison to other individuals of this assemblage MNI: 1 Notes: S 80 is also in OC11.5; L arge sized box: full; <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; S ome well preserved long bones; L ook at tibia for PATHOLOGIES QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 1; + Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: 26; +++ Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: Miscellaneous: 2; + NOTES 1 L eft humerus whole pitting/holes proximal/distal, bony outgrowth on lateral/distal condyle, large (male?), look at pathologies 1 R ight femur represented by 2 fragments: MEND to make distal portion of shaft 1 mid shaft femur fragment 1 R ight tibia, no proximal portion, fragmented distal portion (not sure if taphonomic process or pathology is affecting bone); 1 R ight tibia > 75% present 2 tibia fragments: MEND to make shaft portion 1 mid shaft tibia fragment (Left?) 1 possible long bone fragment REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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43 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 1/24/2013; 2/28/2013 ; 3/4/2013; 3/17/201 3 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 1 30 FLMNH Number: S 80 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.6; 3 of 3 S 80; Front box in tray BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: Probably upper end of MIDDLE ADULT Sex: FEMALE? (look at other S 80 forms; needs to be resolved) MNI: 1 Notes: S 80 also in O C11.5; Large sized box: full; < 25% of skeleton present; Some well preserved long bones; PATHOLOGIES; MENDS; Good postcranial bones to collects data on QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 3; + Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: 13 + 20/21(?); +++ Hand/Feet Fragments: 13++ Rib Fragments: 1; + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: 3; + Other PC Fragments: 9; + Miscellaneous: 5 (2 possibly foot); + NOTES 1 Left and 1 Right calcaneus: Left is > 75% whole, Right does not have inferior portion; 1 Left and 1Right talus: nearly whole; 1 fragment possibly calcaneus or talus; 1 Right capitate whole; 1 Left intermediate cuneiform whole 7MC/MT: 1 Left MT1; 1 Left and 1Right MT3(?); possibly 1 Rig ht and 1 Left MT2; 1 Left MT5; 1 distal MC1 1 Right patella, nearly whole 1 Left clavicle, no medial portion, fragmented lateral portion; 1 rib fragment 3 Vertebrae: 1 thoracic fragment, posterior portion, <25% present; 1 C2, primarily Left portion, no dens process; 1 body, likely thoracic with pathologies 2 humerus fragments, distal portion, 1Right and 1?; 1 possible humerus head; 5 radius and ulna fragments (ulna: 1 Left with olecranon process, <25% present; 1 R shaft, <50% present Femurs (large male?); 1 L femoral head, proximal portion of shaft, no greater or lesser trochanter, <50% present; 2 Right fragments <50% present:1 with head, no greater or lesser trochanter and 1 shaft (attaches to S 80 part 1 in OC 11.5) 1 Left tibia: shaft, <50% present 1 distal Right fibula, with portion of shaft, <50% present +20/21 long bone fragments 3 cranial fragments 5 miscellaneous: possibly calcaneus/talus 7 innominate fragments (with acetabulum, sciatic notches, and ischial tuberosity) REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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44 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 11/16/2012; 1/24/201 3; 2/28/2013; 3/14/2 013; 3/17/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 1 30 FLMNH Number: S 81 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.6; 1 of 4 S 81; Front right box in tray BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: Advanced osteoarthritis along vertebral column OLD ADULT Sex: MALE indicated by large zygomatic, supraorbital margins and mastoid process MNI: 1 Notes: Medium sized box: full; L ight brown remains; <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; S evere arthritis along vertebral column QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 33; ++ Teeth Fragments: 1 (likely incisor heavily worn); + Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: 11; (heavy osteoarthritis); ++ Other Postcranial Fragments: 2; + Non human : 2; + ; Unidentified: 2 possibly 1 tooth, 1 cranial; + NOTES Arthritis along vertebral column L eft and R ight zygomatic present; >75%: good preservation; MEND L eft zygomatic with L eft frontal (supraorbital margin) L eft temporal (2 pieces); >75% MEND 2 mandible fragments R condyle with other portion in that area Pelvic fragment with auricular surface? REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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45 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 11/16/2012; 1/24/201 3; 2/28/2013; 3/14; 2013; 3/17/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 1 30 FLMNH Number: S 81 Current Location: FLMNH OC 11.6; 2 of 4 S 81; back right box in tray BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: ADULT Sex: MALE (likely belongs to other S 81) MNI: 1 Notes: Medium sized box: not full; Very few fragments (majority are small) QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: 11; ++ Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: Miscellaneous: 1; + NOTES 4 fragments from Left tibia: MEND 7 long bone fragments REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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46 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 11/16/2012; 1/24/201 3; 2/28/2013; 3/14/2 013; 3/17/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 1 30 2 FLMNH Number: S 81 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.6; 3 of 4 S 81; Back left box in tray BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: 1 ADULT; 1 JUVENILE (teeth) Sex: Adult is a FEMALE? based on innominate (however, likely male if S 81 consists of 1 adult) MNI: 2 juvenile teeth commingle d with adult remains Notes: Light/medium brown color remains; Large sized box: almost full QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 9; + Teeth Fragments: 3; + Long Bone Fragments: 21; ++ Hand/Feet Fragments: 35; +++ Rib Fragments: 22 (some are large); ++ Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: 23; ++ Other Postcranial Fragments: 10 (small fragments); + Non human: 1, +; Miscellaneous: 1, questionable, very thin; + NOTES Teeth are not heavily worn, relatively good condition, all with roots (1 DM, 1 upper PM, 1 upper RC) 1Right ilium with acetabulum and sciatic notch MEND 3 Right scapula fragments (glenoid fossa, coracoid process, and acromion process); possibly another scapula fragment alo ng border 1 non human: fish vertebrate Skull fragments are small Whole carpals: 1 Left and 1 Right capitate, 1 Right lunate, 1 Left and 1 Right Scaphoid, 1 Left and 1 Right trapezium, 1 Left and 1 Right hamate, 1 Left and1 Right triquetral (nearly whole), 1 Left and 1 Right trapezoid Whole phalanges: 1 distal, 6 intermediate, 3 proximal; 5 nearly complete phalanx fragments; 5 nearly complete metacarpal/metatarsal fragment s; 1 Left and 1 Right MC1 (Right is whole) 1 nearly whole Right patella Vert ebrae with osteoarthritis: C2 with dens process and facets, 3 body fragments, 4 thoracic (posterior portions), 1 thoracic (up per, body, and posterior portion, nearly whole), 2 cervical (1 nearly whole with body and posterior portion, 1 more Right wit h body and Right posterior portion) Long bones: 10 small fragments, 1 nearly whole Left radius (fragmented distal portion), MEASURE, MEND 3 Right radius (2: shaf t fragment, 1 Proximal with radial tuberosity and head), MEND 2 Left ulna fragments (nearly whole, no distal styloid process an d fragmented olecranon), 1 nearly whole Right ulna (no posterior portion of olecranon process), MEND 4 fragments of Rig ht humerus (2 head, 1 proximal portion, 1: Shaft with deltoid tuberosity) 3 clavicle: MEND 2 to form nearly whole Right clavicle (1: medial portion and shaft, 1: majority of acromion); 1 Left shaft f ragment REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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47 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 1/24/2013; 2/28/2013 ; 3/19/2013; 3/17/20 13 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 1 30 FLMNH Number: S 81 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.7; 4 of 4 S 81 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: ADULT; COMMINGLE D teeth Sex: Adult is a MALE based on frontal fragment with Right supraorbital margin with notch, prominent brown ridge MNI: 2 ( commingle d juvenile remains) Notes: S 81 is also in OC 11.6 ; Medium sized box: full; Primarily cranial (>75% present; MENDS) QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 28 (primarily parietal, occipital); +++ Teeth Fragments: 14 in bag; 2 loose; 2 in mandible (?); + Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: 2; + Other Postcranial Fragments: 2; + Miscellaneous: 41 (small); ++; Non human: 2; + NOTES Teeth: Heavy wear, dental calculus, used for isotope analysis Possible reconstruction for cranial fragments (MENDS) Mandible: >75% present, MEND Left condyle, PATHOLOGIES, with 3 teeth (heavy wear, dental calculus), closing up in back where teeth fell out premortem, Right condyle is broken off, teeth fragments in bag: some with heavy wear, DC 1 Left and 1 Right occipital with occipital condyle and hypoglossal canal 1 sphenoid fragment 1 maxilla mid/Left: >75% present 2 Right teeth with p itting/growth on top surface, 1 tooth has heavy wear 1 Left clavicle, very dense, pitted inferior portion, PATHOLOGICAL 1 strange bone non human A lot of small fragments that are likely cranial 1 Left glenoid of scapula 14 large cranial vault fragments (parietal, occipital with cruciform eminence); 9 small cranial fragments 2 vertebrae: 1 with body, 1 with spine 1 turtle bone REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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48 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/7/2013; 3/14/2013; 3/17/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 1 30 FLMNH Number: S 82 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.7 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: YOUNG ADULT based on tooth wear, all 3 molars in mandible, cranial suture pattern Sex: MALE? MNI: 1 (possibly multiple individuals? based on different wear on teeth) Notes: <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; Small sized box: full; Teeth are not as heavily worn as others; Cranial MENDS; Heavily fragmented remains: small; NO whole bones QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 26; ++ Teeth Fragments: 3 in L mandible; 2 in bag: not heavily worn; + Long Bone Fragments: 14; ++ Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: 2; + Other Postcranial Fragments: Miscellaneous: 7; + Non human: 1; + NOTES Teeth: 1 canine, 4 molars (relatively good condition) Radius shaft present Vertebrae: heavily fragmented, likely thoracic REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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49 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/7/2013; 3/14/2013; 3/17/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 1 30 FLMNH Number: S 83 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.7 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: ADULT Sex: TBD MNI: 1 Notes: Small sized box: full; < 25% of skeleton present; Medium brown remains; Heavily fragmented: small remains; NO whole bones; NO teeth; Cranial fragments and some postcranial QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 19; + Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: 14; + Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: Unidentified: 2 (1 possible vertebra fragment); +; Non human: 1; + NOTES Not much information to be yielded from the skeletal material REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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50 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/7/2013; 3/14/2013; 3/17/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 1 30 FLMNH Number: S 84 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.7 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: ADULT Sex: TBD MNI: 1 Notes: <25% present: poor preservation; Only 5 bones present; Heavily fragmented; NO teeth present QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 1; + Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: 1; + Rib Fragments: 1; + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: Miscellaneous: 2; + NOTES Not much data can be yielded from the skeletal material REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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51 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/7/2013; 3/14/2013; 3/17/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 1 40 0 FLMNH Number: S 85 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.7 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: YOUNG ADULT based on tooth wear, 1 unfused epiphysis: head, 1 molar Sex: TBD MNI: 1 Notes: < 25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; Small sized box: full; Medium brown remains; Small fragments; NO whole bones; Some burning QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 11; + Teeth Fragments: ; + Long Bone Fragments: 17; ++ Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: Miscellaneous: 4 (likely cranial/ long bone); +; Non human: 1; + NOTES Whole molar is heavily worn 1 unfused epiphysis head Radius and ulna are identifiable 1 Right radius with radial tuberosity Not much information can be yielded form skeletal material REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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52 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/7/2013; 3/14/2013; 3/17/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 1 40 FLMNH Number: S 86 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.7 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: JUVENILE cranial fragment Sex: N/A not sure whether to count this fragment as 1 individual because it may belong to another individual from a different box Notes: <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; Small sized box: not full; Only 2 elements present QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 1; + Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: Non human: 1; + NOTES 1 non human proximal ulna (look at taphonomic processes: dark brown with white discoloration) REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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53 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/7/2013; 3/17/2013; 3/21/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 1 40 FLMNH Number: S 87 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.7 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: 1 JUVENILE based on teeth: commingle d; 1 ADULT based on tooth wear; Majority of material is from adult Sex: Adult is a MALE, indicated by chin and by long bone robusticity MNI: 2 Notes: <25% of skeleton present: poorly preservation; In between small and medium sized box: full; Medium brown remains; Heavily fragmented material; Burning present; Not much information can be yielded from skeletal material; Revisit material QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 37; ++ Teeth Fragments: 3; + Long Bone Fragments: 30; ++ Hand/Feet Fragments: 1; + Rib Fragments: 4?; + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: Miscellaneous: 4; + To be further identified: 4 (3 probably foot bones); + NOTES 3 teeth: 2deciduous molar?s with light wear and broken roots, 1 adult Right molar with moderate wear and with roots Cranial fragments are small 3 mandible fragments with alveoli 2 tibial shaft fragments? REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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54 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/7/2013; 3/17/2013; 3/21/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 1 50 FLMNH Number: S 88 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.7 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: Sex: MNI: Notes: Small sized box ; FAUNAL REMAINS QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: Non human: 12: (3 turtle; 1 deer; 2 may be human cranial) ++ NOTES 1 whole proximal phalange: deer Likely ALL faunal REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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55 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/7/2013; 3/17/2013; 3/21/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 1 55 FLMNH Number: S 89 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.7 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: YOUNG ADULT based on 1 molar with moderate wear Sex: TBD MNI: 1 Notes: :< 25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; In between small and medium sized box; Small fragments; NO whole bones except 1 tooth present; Some charring; 1 non human QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 14 (charring); + Teeth Fragments: 1; + Long Bone Fragments: 2; + Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: Miscellaneous: 3; + Non human: 1; + NOTES Non human rib Tooth: Molar with broken roots Miscellaneous material: 1 possibly cranial, 1 possibly a long bone; 1 is thin and flat non human? Long bones: 1 femur fragment with active PATHOLOGY (periostitis or osetomyelitis), 1 easily identified radius fragment REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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56 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/7/2013; 3/17/2013; 3/21/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 2 30 FLMNH Number: S 90 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.7 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: Originally said 1 older child, but I think younger child because a lot of bones are not fused (femur, MC or MT, 1 phalange), distinct line of fusion on MC1, cranial bones seem very small (long bone fragments, zygomatic process, hand/feet bones, clavicle); 1 ADULT (cranial and postcranial material) Sex: Questionable sex for adult MNI: 2 based on age of bones Notes: <25% of skeleton present; Light to medium brown material; Medium sized box: full; Some whole bones; Interesting material QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 44; ++ Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: 33; ++ Hand/Feet Fragments: 6; + Rib Fragments: 4 (likely from both individuals); + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: 1; + Other Postcranial Fragments: 3; +; Miscellaneous: 5; + Non human: 1(fish?); + NOTES 1 Right temporal fragment with zygomatic process (ADULT) 1 Left patella fragment, mainly Right side and superior portion 1 Left clavicle fragment with acromion process, no medial portion or very distal portion (JUVENILE) Hand/feet bones: phalanges and MCs or MTs no epiphysis, not done fusing, lines of fusion Proximal femur fragment not fused with head; epiphysis (JUVENILE) Vertebra with superior and inferior articular facet, likely cervical 1 scapula fragment Hand/feet: 1 phalanx form ADULT, other 5 are likely from JUVENILE (fusion notes above) Majority of long bones are from ADULT 1 occipital from JUVENILE 1 Right zygomatic? REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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57 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/7/2013; 3/17/2013; 3/21/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 2 30 FLMNH Number: S 91 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.7 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: Both are likely MIDDLE ADULT based on teeth wear (good teeth, but few) sed on mandible seems like mental eminence is not prominent, but it is broken so it is difficult to asses ( Mandible with no teeth (premortem tooth loss) teeth in bag likely associated with this individual less wear then the other individual, but still heavy) MNI: 2 indicated by 2 Right portions of mandible Notes: Large sized box: full; Light to medium brown material; Primarily postcranial remains QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 6; + Teeth Fragments: 2 in mandible; 3 in bag; + Long Bone Fragments: 54 (some identifiable); ++ Hand/Feet Fragments: 7; + Rib Fragments: 4; + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: Miscellaneous: 2; + Non faunal: 2; + NOTES A lot of long bone fragments Many are identifiable Large fragments and small fragments 1 Left and 1Right mandible Left mandible with mental spines and 2 teeth (heavily worn M1 and PM4) and alveoli (2, anterior) (new notes say Right?) MALE Right mandible, posterior portion with 3 alveoli, no teeth (3 teeth belong to this?) 7 Hand/feet bones 4 hand phalanges (intermediate?) 1 hand phalanx (proximal) 2 without proximal/distal end: 1 likely phalanx, 1 likely MC or MT < 25% alveoli available poor preservation 3 teeth in bag Heavily worn, PATHOLOGIES, dental calculus Teeth of the 2 individuals are worn differently, but still moderately heavy REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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58 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: S/7/2013; 3/17/2013; 3/21/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 2 30 FLMNH Number: S 92 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.7; 1 of 2 S 92 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: ADULT Sex: Look male, but probably FEMALE? (based on other S 92) MNI: 1 Notes: < 25% of skeleton preset: poor preservation; Large sized box: almost full; Light brown material; Very robust, large individuals; Arthritis in hand/feet bones; Whole bones present QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 2; + Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: 11; + Hand/Feet Fragments: 24(well preserved, arthritis); ++ Rib Fragments: 5 (1very small 11/12?); + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: 2?; (1 is possibly rib facet); + Other Postcranial Fragments: Miscellaneous: 2; + NOTES Hand/feet bones: 4 proximal, 2 intermediate, and 3 distal phalanges (plus more) Plus metacarpals and metatarsals 1 Left lunate,1 Left scaphoid, 1 pisiform, 1 Left capitate, 1 cuneiform (Left?, medial?) 1 Right distal humerus with shaft, broken medial condyle, good for measurements 1 Right ulna, proximal, no distal portion, well preserved proximal portion 1 long bone head fragment 2 Radius: 1 proximal Right radius, no distal portion, large, radial tub erosity plus head, pathologies? (pathologies on humerus/ulna too?) MEND 1 shaft (2 nutrient foramen) MEND 3 Right tibia fragments 1 cranial fragment with alveoli (maxilla) REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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59 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/7/2013; 3/17/2013; 3/21/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 2 30 midden FLMNH Number: S 92 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.7; 2 of 2 S 92; Back right box in tray BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: Mandible in great condition: about 10 years (probably a little younger) OLDER CHILD; 1 YOUNG ADULT Sex: Young adult is a FEMALE based on frontal and Left temporal MNI: Multiple individuals in cranial box based on 2 Right temporal, 2 Left petrous portion, and age of material At least 2 individuals for S 92; Is other S 92 box another individual? Notes: <25% of individual present: poor preservation; Medium sized box: full; Light brown material; A lot of teeth, Good for analysis; Majority cranial; Good bones to study; Young adult female skull is good for potential MENDS QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 47; +++ Teeth Fragments: 28 (good condition, no heavy wear); +++ Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: 1?; + Rib Fragments: 2; + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: 12; + Other Postcranial Fragments: Miscellaneous: 9 (likely cranial); + NOTES Well preserved frontal With metopic suture 2 mandible fragments In great condition, 1 Right (no posterior portion or condyle), 1 mid/Left (fragmented posterior to PM4) Cranial MENDS large cranial bones Occipital nearly complete, no inferior portion, cruciform eminence is present; MEND juvenile occipital Well preserved Left temporal, no zygomatic process 1 Right temporal, no petrous portion; 1 Right temporal of same portion; 1Right temporal fragment with zygom atic process; 1 portion of temporal with temporomandibular joint; 1 juvenile temporomandibular joint present; 1 Left petrous portion and 1 Right tempora l belong to the juvenile 2 hypoglossal canals, Left and Right REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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60 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/12/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/28/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 2 30 FLMNH Number: S 93 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: 2 ADULTs (difficult to age) based on 1 molar, 1 molar?; 1 YOUNGER CHILD based on deciduous M1 and deciduous M2; 1 OLDER CHILD Sex: TBD for adult remains; however, look at 1 Right supraorbital margin that is present; Mandible fragments (2 MENDS MNI: 4 indicated by mandibles Notes: Large sized box: almost full; Light to medium brown remains; Some charring; <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; Teeth can likely be separated by individuals; Disconnection with postcra nial material and cranial material QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 27; ++ Teeth Fragments: 1 loose I; 9 in mandible/maxilla; 32 in bag; +++ Long Bone Fragments: 28 (4 of which are questionable); ++ Hand/Feet Fragments: 2; + Rib Fragments: 4; + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: 9; + Other Postcranial Fragments: Unidentified: 12; + NOTES Different taphonomic markers on bones, some look burnt (black) Vertebral/Sacral: 1 C2, complete, small, younger individual; 1 C1: Left fragment about 50% present; 2 small fragments: pedicl es?, likely younger individual; 1 Lumbar?, < 50% present; 1 body with arthritis: compressed and pitting; 3 upper thoracic (1 possibly lower cervical: about 50% present), younger individual Hand/Feet: 1 calcaneus?; 1 navicular fragment Long Bones: majority are small fragments 2 are identifiable shaft fragments: 1 radius; 1 ulna? (younger individual?) 1 Right femur about 50% present older individual, no greater or lesser trochanter, no distal portion, part of head present nutrient foramen 1 distal femur fragment: condyle Cranial: small cranial fragments 1 Right supraor bital margin from younger individual 11 mandible/maxilla fragments: 3 maxilla fragments: 1 is from the younger individual and has 1 tooth present (molar with dental calculus) MEND mandible of young individual:1 Right with C, PM 3 & 4, and M1; 1 Left with PM3 and M1; 1 small fragment 1 Right mandible with M1 and M2 (alveoli indicates that M3 was once present in this mandible) MEND mandible of olde r individual: 1 mid with alveoli, PATHOLOGY present, no Right ascending ramus, with condyle and coronoid process and 1 Left ascending ramus with condyle and coronoid process MEND: fragments from older individual: 1 small fragmen t, 1 mainly Left, 1 Right, PATHOLOGIES present, no ascending ramus with condyle or process Teeth are in relatively good condition: the teeth in the bag likely represent all four individuals: GREAT 17 likely belong to the young indi vidual; 11 to one adult; 3 to one adult; and 1 to one adult REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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61 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/14/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/28/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 3 40 FLMNH Number: S 94 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: Skull associated with MIDDLE ADULT female? (associated mandible has all 3 molars present); 1 OLDER CHILD mandible, likely 6 (2 pieces: 1 Left with PM3 and 4 + M1, 1 Right with canine; semi prominent, but small) Sex: Middle adult is a FEMALE? Question assessment because of nuchal crest, occipital bun (Standards: 4/5), and frontal (supraorbital margins : (Standards: 3) ,BUT mandible, mental eminence(Standards: 2/3), and mastoid processes (broken, but look small) look female MNI: 2 indicated by 2 Right portions of mandible and 1 individual has considerably less wear on the teeth; majority of bones are likely associated with reconstructed frontal (including Left and Right temporal, teeth in bag, Left zygomatic MEND to frontal) Notes: Medium sized box: full; Medium brown material; Some charring; < 25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; Majority of the bones are heavily fragmented, but there are some large fragments available; Majority of the bones are CRANIAL; Prior reconstr uction has been made QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 52; +++ Teeth Fragments: 5 in bag; 15(?) in mandible/maxilla; ++ Long Bone Fragments: 7 (heavily fragmented); + Hand/Feet Fragments: 3; + Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: 1; + Other Postcranial Fragments: 1 (scapula?); + Unidentified: 9 (small fragments); + NOTES 5 teeth in bag belong to older individual (dental calculus) Hand/feet: 1 is an intermediate hand phalange Cranial: great material; already mended frontal with parietals; 1 occipital: posterior portion with crest Mandible/maxilla: 2 condyles; 1 fragment; MEND mandible of young individual: 1 Right condyle, 1 with PM3/4 and M1; MEND: 1 with 8 teeth (first incisor(?) to 3 rd molar), 1 with 3 teeth and 2 tooth fragments (incisor fragment to molar fragment(?)) (one fragment belongs to this mandible but it cannot be mended with it) 1 Left zygomatic in great condition 1 Left and 1 Right t emporal: both are represented by petrous portion (whole) 2/3? sphenoid fragments Note the sutures The rest of the remains are relatively small fragments REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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62 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/14/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/28/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 3 40 FLMNH Number: S 95 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: MIDDLE ADULT MNI: 1 Notes: Medium sized box: full; Medium brown remains; Some charring; < 25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; MENDS; Majority of remains are CRANIAL; Large fragments are present QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 31; +++ Teeth Fragments: 5 in bag; 8 in mandible/maxilla; ++ Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: 2; + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: Unidentified: 1; + NOTES Prior MENDS have already been made; potential for future MENDS (cranial) 1 cruciform eminence of occipital 1 Left temporal (whole), small mastoid process 1 Right temporal with petrous portion and part of cranial vault 1 large parietal fragment with part of temporal attached 1 frontal in great condition: prominent brow ridges(?), rounded supraorbital margins 3 mandible/maxilla fragments 1 maxilla with 2 teeth 1 mandible MEND: 1 Left fragment with 2 teeth (1 PM3 and 1 PM4?) with 1 Right fragment (with C, PM3, PM4, and M1) (neither fragments have ascending ramus and no condyle or process) nearly complete Teeth display heavy wear and dental calculus Premortem tooth loss REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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63 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/12/2013; 2/14/2013 ; 3/17/2013; 3/28/20 13 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 3 40 FLMNH Number: S 96 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: YOUNG ADULT indicated by the moderate wear on the teeth Sex: FEMALE MNI: 1 Notes: Small Good teeth QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 3; + Teeth Fragments: 6 in bag; 5 in Left mandible; with dental calculus; + Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: NOTES MEND mandible fragments: 1 Right with alveoli (no teeth), no condyle or process; 1 Left with I2, C, PM 3 and 4, and M2 Premortem tooth loss Dental abscess? REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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64 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/14/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/28/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 3 45 FLMNH Number: S 97 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: OLDER CHILD (possibly 6 years of age); a lot of teeth are present figure out which teeth and age more accurately Sex: N/A MNI: 1 Notes: Box larger than small sized: full; Light brown material; <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; All CRANIAL QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 23; ++ Teeth Fragments: 16; well preserved (dental calculus/cracking); ++ Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: NOTES 1 occipital with part of cruciform eminence 1 Left temporomandibular joint with zygomatic process 1 Left temporal fragment: part of petrous portion 1 Right temporal: petrous portion with external auditory meatus and auditory process All of the teeth are in bag REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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65 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/14/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/28/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 3 45 FLMNH Number: S 98 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: OLDER CHILD (measure long bones to determine age) Sex: N/A MNI: 1 Notes: Large sized box: not full; Light brown mat erial; Maybe slightly more than 25% of skeleton present because of presence of long bones; Active fusion; Remains are relatively well preserved QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 1: + Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: 10: +++ Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: 3; + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: 4; + Other Postcranial Fragments: NOTES Vertebrae: 1 Left with fragment body and posterior portion 1 thoracic, >50%, with fragmented body and posterior portion can see active fusion 1 body, likely lumbar?, with active fusion 1 thoracic, < 50%, posterior portion, NO body Cranial: 1 temporal (Right?) meningeal grooves Long bones: 1 Left and 1 Right radius shaft with nutrient foramen 1 Left ulna, with shaft, nutrient foramen, olecranon process, NO distal portion 2 nearly whole femurs: Left and Right MEND Right: 1 shaft with superior portion, but no epiphyses (just epiphyseal surface, not fused yet), 1 distal shaft (no epip hyses) Left: whole without epiphyses (not yet fused), fragmented distal portion; 1 Left epiphyseal head is present 1 Right humerus: no proximal portion, fragmented medial distal portion; 1 Left distal humerus shaft(?), not fused distally 1 Left and 1 Right tibia Right: nearly whole fragmented proximal portion and no distal epiphysis (not yet fused) Left: no proximal portion or distal epiphysis (not yet fused) REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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66 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/14/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/28/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 3 50 FLMNH Number: S 99 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: ADULT based on tooth wear: moderate to light; tooth wear suggests MIDDLE ADULT age, but COMMINGLE D with teeth from a juvenile MNI: 2 based on age of remains Notes: Small sized box: full; Medium to dark brown material; Charring present; <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 3; + Teeth Fragments: 13; ++ Long Bone Fragments: 1; + Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: 2; + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: NOTES Cranial: all mandible, dark charring, no teeth in mandible Teeth: 1 very white tooth REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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67 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/14/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/28/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 4 40 FLMNH Number: S 100 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8; Box 1 of S 100 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: Probably MIDDLE ADULT MNI: 1 (majority of this box is one individual and the majority of the other S 100 is another individual, so each S 100 has an MNI of 1, but S 100 as a whole has at least2 individuals) Notes: Larger than small sized box: full; Light to dark material; Charring present; <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; 1 jaw fragment belongs to the second box of S 100 (possible that multiple remains are for the other S 100 box) (2 individuals for S 100 overall) QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 20; ++ Teeth Fragments: 1 (I, worn); + Long Bone Fragments: 22; ++ Hand/Feet Fragments: 1; + Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: 2: + Non faunal: 2 (chalky white); + NOTES Long bones: majority are small fragments 1 ulna/ 1 radius: identifiable small shaft fragments 1 Right radius with radial tuberosity, no head, <25% present, with nutrient foramen, only part of shaft, no distal portion, r obust 1 Left humerus, < 25% present, no proximal portion, fragmented distal portion, only part of shaft present with distal medial curvature Postcranial: 1 Right acromion process of scapula; 1 Left clavicle(?) shaft, no medial portion, no lateral portion Hand/Foot: phalanx Tooth: I? (heavy wear, dental calculus) MEND 2 mandible fragments (no teeth): 1 mid/more Right fragment (no ascending ramus, condyle or coronoid process), 1 small fr agment missing the same portion; mandibles have premortem tooth loss 1 possible R ight ascending ramus (mandible) Cranial: 1 Left and 1 Right mastoid process of temporal large 1 Right temporal mastoid process with sulcus smaller: female? REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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68 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/14/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/28/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 4 40 FLMNH Number:: S 100 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.9; Box 2 of S 100 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: YOUNG ADULT Sex: FEMALE based mandible (mend with fragment from other box of S 100) small mastoid process MNI: 1 Notes: Larger than small sized box: full; Medium brown material; <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation ; Used for stable isotope analysis; A lot of teeth QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 2; + Teeth Fragments: 14 in bag, 4 in mandible; moderate wear; ++ Long Bone Fragments: 6; + Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: 1; + Unidentified: 1 (almost looks like a mandible fragment); + NOTES Long Bone: fragments; 1 humerus (<25% present), 1 proximal tibia fragment Postcranial: 1 Right clavicle with acromion process present, no medial portion present Cranial: 1 temporal (?) with temporomandibular joint; 1 Right mandible with 3 molars and PM4 (all with moderate wear) Teeth: ++ REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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69 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/14/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/21/2013; 3/28/20 13 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 4 40 FLMNH Number: S 101 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: Good teeth with light wear 1 individual is a YOUNG ADULT; commingle d with juvenile teeth (crowns) Sex: Questionable sex MALE? Adult based on ascending ramus MNI: 2 ( commingle d remains) Notes: Small sized box: full; Medium brown material; <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; A little charring on teeth QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 7; + Teeth Fragments: 9; ++ Long Bone Fragments: 7; + Hand/Feet Fragments: 1; + Rib Fragments: 1: + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: 1; + Other Postcranial Fragments: NOTES Cranial: 1 Right ascending ramus of mandible with part of coronoid process, but no condyle The rest of the cranial remains are heavily fragmented REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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70 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/14/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/21/2013; 3/28/20 13 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 4 40 FLMNH Number: S 102 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: 1 YOUNGER individual based on I, 1 deciduous M1, and 1 small tibia; 1 ADULT PM with moderate wear Sex: Younger individual: N/A; Adult MALE? based on femur, large long bones (besides tibia) MNI: 2 based on 2 Left and 2 Right petrous portion of temporal; different ages of material Notes: Medium/large sized box: full; Heavily fragmented ; Light to medium brown material; Some charring partially black remains; <25% of sk eleton present: poor preservation QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 42; ++ Teeth Fragments: 4; + Long Bone Fragments: 54; +++ Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: 2; + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: 2; + Unidentified: 2 (likely cranial); + NOTES Cranial: generally small fragments 2 Left and 2 Right petrous portion of temporal 1 Left temporal fragment with sulcus 1 Left zygomatic process on temporal Long bone: (1 clavicle fragment? curvature) 1 identifiable radius and ulna shaft 1 tibia shaft, <25% present, Right? 1 femur with linea aspera (dense), about 25% present 1 femur, <25% present, with multiple metal tool marks Teeth: 3 from younger individual (1I and 2M(?)) 1 I from adult REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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7 1 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/14/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/21/2013; 3/28/20 13 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: Tr. 4 40 FLMNH Number: S 103 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: OLD ADULT Sex: MALE based on mandible: mental eminence (Standards: 3/4) MNI: 1 Notes: Small/medium sized box: full; Light brown material; <25% of skeleton present; GREAT teeth; Periapical abscess; Only mandible fragments are present QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 2; + Teeth Fragments: 8; + Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: NOTES Cranial: GREAT jaw, >75% present, no 3 rd M?, both sides have M1, M2, PM3, PM4 MEND Left and Right Teeth: In jaw; heavy wear REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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72 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/14/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/21/2013; 3/28/20 13 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: 45 FLMNH Number: S 104 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: YOUNGER CHILD (narrow it down based on teeth); probably 5 or 6 Sex: N/A MNI: 1 Notes: Small sized box: not full; Light brown material; <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; Very few fragments QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 2; + Teeth Fragments: 20 in bag; 2 in mandible; +++ Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: NOTES Right mandible fragment with M1 (light wear) and un erupted PM3? Or C? Teeth in bag have light wear, in good condition REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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73 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/14/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/21/2013; 3/28/20 13 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: 40 FLMNH Number: S 105 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: 1 ADULT and 1 YOUNG ADULT based on tooth wear Sex: Adult: TBD; MALE young adult (jaw, mastoid process, prominent frontal most of S 105) MNI: 2 based on presence of 2 zygomatic; mandible fragment from another individual Notes: Medium/large sized box: full; Medium to dark brown material; Charring present; <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; Great teeth; Good to sample QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 62; +++ Teeth Fragments: 11 in bag; 9 in mandible/maxilla; ++ Long Bone Fragments: 10; + Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: 1?; + Other Postcranial Fragments: 2; + NOTES Postcranial: 1 Right scapula fragment? acromion process Cranial: Well preserved parietals 1 Left and 1 Right temporal MEND Left: petrous portion and part of cranial vault Right temporal with petrous portion, mastoid process, external auditory meatus, temporomandibular joint, no vault portion 1 Right zygomatic (whitish brown) 1 Right zygomatic, nearly whole, belongs with the rest of the cranial material based on color 2 supraorbital margins (Left and Right) 1 occipital with cruciform eminence (fragmented) 1 frontal with crest; 1 Right frontal prominent 3 mandible: 1 whole without whole teeth (4 teeth fragments); MEND: 1 Right w ith M2 and M3 and 1 Right with M1 and PM4: MALE Teeth: 1 fragment in box (likely incisor); charring present; dental calculus; moderate wear Moderate wear; some in good condition REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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74 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/14/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/21/2013; 3/28/20 13 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: FLMNH Number: S 106 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8; 1 of 4 S 106; Right front of tray BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: 1 ADULT and 1 YOUNG ADULT (based on sutures) Sex: Adult: TBD; Young adult FEMALE based on small mastoid process MNI: Potentially 2 individuals Notes: Medium/large sized box: full; Medium to dark brown material; Some charring; Previous MENDS to cranial vault; Further MENDS to be made; PATHOLOGY on frontal and Left supraorbital margin (looks like syphilis); Reassess QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 38; +++ Teeth Fragments: 1; + Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: NOTES 1 hypoglossal canal from occipital (Left and Right) 1 Left and 1 Right temporal Left MEND: 1 petrous portion and 1 with temporomandibular joint and zygomatic process Right MEND: 1 with sphenoid attached and zygomatic process and 1 with small mastoid process and sulcus 1 Right petrous portion Frontal present with crest REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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75 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/14/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/21/2013; 3/28/20 13 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: FLMNH Number: S 106 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8; 2 of 4 S 106; Right back box in tray BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: MIDDLE ADULT Sex: FEMALE based on glabella (Standards: 1), mental eminence (Standards: 2), mastoid process (Standards: 1), and occipital bun (Standards: 2) MNI: 1 (but there are commingle d teeth; however, all of S 106 likely has 4 individuals) Notes: Medium/large sized box: full; Dark brown material charring (very dark brown/black); Some light brown material ( commingle d?); < 25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; Great MEND potential; Well preserved cranial bones large QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 39; +++ Teeth Fragments: 2 loose; 12 in maxilla/mandible; 11 in bag; +++ Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: 2; + Rib Fragments: 1; + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: NOTES Great frontal (FEMALE) with rounded eye vaults (Right only), brow ridges are not prominent, crest present INTACT: Right parietal, Right temporal, and cruciform eminence part of occipital Left frontal fragment supraorbital margin 1 Right zygomatic fragment, >75% present 1 Left and 1Right occipital with hypoglossal canal and occipital condyle (small FEMALE) Great sphenoid fragment 1 Left temporal with petrous portion, external auditory meatus, mastoid process (small), sulcus Commingle d teeth in bag 1M from a young individual; teeth have moderate wear; some are in good condition 4 Maxilla 1 with fragmented tooth 1 with canine and PM 3 and 4 1 with PM 3 and 4 1 with M 1 small Right fragment with PM4, M1, and M2 with 1 fragment that is part of Left but majority is Right with PM4, M1, no ascending ramus or associated condyle/coronoid process Hand/feet: 1 MT?; 1 trapezium whole (go back and side) REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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76 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/14/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/21/2013; 3/28/20 13 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: FLMNH Number: S 106 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8; 3 of 4 S 106; Back right box in tray BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: Belongs to part 4 of S 106 Sex: Belongs to part 4 of S 106 MNI: Belongs to part 4 of S 106 Notes: Small sized box: full; Light brown material; Belongs to part 4 of S 106 QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 4; ++ Teeth Fragments: 6 (moderate wear, different colors); + Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: NOTES Left sphenoid fragment with all 3 foramina 1 parietal with meningeal grooves 1 whole Left zygomatic: GREAT majority Right, no ascending ramus or associated condyle/coronoid process REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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77 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/14/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 3/21/2013; 3/28/20 13 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: FLMNH Number: S 106 Current Location: FLMNH OC11.8; 4 of 4 S 106; Back left box in tray BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: Both are YOUNG ADULTs based on tooth wear Sex: 1 MALE and 1 FEMALE MNI: 2 Notes: Medium/large sized box: full; Light brown material; GREAT QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 29; +++ Teeth Fragments: 5: + Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: 1 (distal foot phalange); + Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: NOTES Cranial Occipital with cruciform eminence (nuchal line suggests MALE), not whole but large fragment Frontal almost whole, with square eye orbits (MEND Right, Left is whole), MALE, with notch, metopic suture, crest, nasal area Left and Right temporal Left with parietal, petrous portion with large mastoid (MALE), sulcus, external auditory meatus, temporomandibular joint, zygomatic process Right, no petrous portion, but with large mastoi d (MALE), sulcus, external auditory meatus, temporomandibular joint, zygomatic GREAT Left mandible no teeth (premortem tooth loss), but large ascending ramus with process and MEND condyle 1 Left and 1 Rigth hypoglossal canal of occipital 1 Left maxilla with 3 teeth present: M1, PM 3 and 4 Mandible fragment from another individual Left with M1 and M2 All teeth have light to moderate wear REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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78 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/19/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 4/4/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: FLMNH Number: 89 15 1 Current Location: FLMNH OC12.1; 1 of 9 89 15 1; Front right box in tray BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: ADULTs Sex: 1 MALE based on prominent supraorbital margins and mastoid process (Standards: 3/4) and 1 FEMALE based on small mandible fragment and flat supraorbital margins; If there is another individual present, likely MALE based on thickness MNI: 2 indicate d by occipitals and temporals; Possibly 3 based on a temporal fragment Notes: Large sized box: full; Some light brown, some yellowish white, 1 white (likely parietal) material; Some charring; <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation, but some of the fragments are large and well preserved; ALL CRANIAL QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: 36; +++ Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: NOTES MALE remains: yellowish white material Frontal with metopic suture, crest, Left supraorbital margin present, >75% present Left parietal (nearly whole), with Right parietal (about 50%), with occipital (<50% present, superior portion) INTACT possible MEND: rest of cruciform eminence of occipital Left and Right temporals Left with sulcus, mastoid process, and petrous portion Right with sulcus, mastoid process, petrous portion, external auditory meatus, temporomandibular joint, and part of cranial v ault Majority of small fragments likely associated with FEMALE based on discoloration, but some belong to MALE 22 in t otal + 3 sphenoid fragments likely belong to FEMALE 1 with foramen ovale and foramen rotundum attached to temporal bone with external auditory meatus and zygomatic process FEMALE remains Frontal with Left supraorbital margin (not prominent) with notch, with crest, with fragmented Right supraorbital margin, no m etopic suture 1 Left mandible fragment, small, ascending ramus portion with condyle 1 cruciform eminence of occipital (not complete) 1 Left temporal with all associated features including zygomatic process and part of sphenoid REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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79 SKELETAL REMAINS RECORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/19/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 4/4/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: FLMNH Number: 89 15 1 Current Location: FLMNH OC12.1; 2 of 9 89 15 1 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: ADULTs (all fused) Sex: 1 FEMALE and 2 MALEs MNI: 3 (all Right fragments in the same location) Notes: Medium sized box: not full; <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation; 2 yellowish brown remains, 1 whitish brown remain; ALL INNOMINATE fragments QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: 3; + NOTES FEMALE: Ilium with acetabulum, auricular surface, superior border, greater sciatic notch, and iliac fossa MALE remains: same portion of ilium acetabulum with greater sciatic notch and auricular surface REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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80 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/19/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 4/4/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: FLMNH Number: 89 15 1 Current Location: FLMNH OC12.1; 3 of 9 89 15 1 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: Adult based on fusion and size Sex: MALE based on thick muscle attachment sites and size MNI: 1 Notes: Large sized box: full; Yellowish brown/white material; < are in GREAT shape; NEARLY WHOLE femurs QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: 2; +++ Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: NOTES Left and Right femur: fragmented lateral and medial condyles REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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81 SKELETAL REMAINS RECORDING FO RM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/19/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 4/4/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: FLMNH Number: 89 15 1 Current Location: FLMNH OC12.1; 4 of 9 89 15 1 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: ADULTs Sex: 1 MALE? difficult to tell because of pathologies; 1 FEMALE MNI: 2 Notes: Large sized box: full; <25% of skeleton present (?): poor preservation of body as a whole, but GREAT preservation of individual bones; Active PATHOLOGIES (bony growth); Light brown/white material and 1 yellowish brown/white humerus; Prior MENDS QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: 5; +++ Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: NOTES 1 Right femur fragmented medial condyle; 1 Left femur fragmented medial condyle and lesser trochanter Both have prior MENDS at shaft with glue 1 Right whole tibia with prior MENDS (2) at shaft, large 1 Left (? 50%, no distal portion 1 Left humerus MALE yellowish, whole, PATHOLOGICAL, large REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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82 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/21/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 4/4/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: FLMNH Number: 89 15 1 Current Location: FLMNH OC12.2; 5 of 9 89 15 1; Front right box in tray BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: ADULTs Sex: TBD MNI: 3 based on 3 C2 (axis) Notes: Small sized box: full; A few light brown/gray remains (including femur?), majority light yellowish brown material QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: 1/2(?); + Hand/Feet Fragments: 4; + Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: 9; ++ Other Postcranial Fragments: 2; + Miscellaneous: 3; + NOTES Vertebrae: signs of arthritis 3 C2 (axis): 1 with dens process, with Right superior articular facet, no Left portion; 1 medial portion with dens process an d part of superior articular facets, no posterior portion; 1 Left lateral and posterior portion, no dens process present 2 Cervical: 1 body (compressed); 1 C6 with fragmented body 2 Thoracic: 1 body with Left pedicel and superior articular facet; 1 body with majority of posterior portion 2 Lumbar: 1 body; 1 body with Right superior articular facet Hand/Foot: 1 Left medial cuneiform 2 talus (1 Left and 1 Right), both whole; 1 Right calcaneus Postcranial: 1 Left scapula fragment; 1 R innominate fragment ischial tuberosity with acetabulum Long bone: 1 shaft (likely humerus); (in other notes 1 Left femur: adult/male?) Miscellaneous: 2 are likely innominate REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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83 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/21/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 4/4/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: FLMNH Number: 89 15 1 Current Location: FLMNH OC12.2; 6 of 9 89 15 1; Front middle box in tray BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: ADULTs Sex: TBD MNI: 2 Notes: Small/medium sized box: full; Light to medium brown material; <25% of skeleton present: poor preservation QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: 2; + Hand/Feet Fragments: 3; + Rib Fragments: 2; + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: 7; + NOTES Rib: small fragments 1 Right and 1 Right (?) Hand/foot: 2 Right MT1, complete, much different sizes between the two MNI 2; 1 Left talus, complete Long bone: shaft fragments 1 unidentified postcranial fragment 1 Right clavicle nearly complete, no medial portion or very lateral portion 4 Scapula fragments: 1 Left lateral border with glenoid fossa; 2(?) Left acromion processes; 1 Right glenoid fossa; 1 Right a cromion process REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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84 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/19/2013; 2/21/2013 ; 3/17/2013; 4/4/201 3 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: FLMNH Number: 89 15 1 Current Location: FLMNH OC12.2; 7 of 9 89 15 1; Front left box in tray BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: 3 ADULTs and 1 OLDER CHILD Sex: TBD for adults, N/A for child MNI: 4 (because of juvenile bone?) Notes: Large sized box: full; Multiple colors present on material, from light yellowish white to medium brown; <25%(?) of skeleton present: poor preservation; ALL LONG BONE fragments QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: 34; +++ Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: Non human: 3; + NOTES 1 radius shaft 3 Left and 3 Right Ulna all proximal fragments Left: 1 with whole olecranon process; 1 with no olecranon process; 1 with fragmented olecranon process Right: 1 with fragmented olecranon process, large; 1 whole olecranon process; 1 with fragmented olecranon process, majority o f shaft 6 long bone shaft fragments 5 humerus: 1 shaft fragment; 2 Right (1 distal shaft fragment, but no distal portion; 1 distal shaft fragment with whole dist al portion, large) 2 Left (1 shaft fragment with nutrient foramen; 1 distal fragment) 2 Tibia: 2 Right shaft portions 11 Femur: 2 heads, 1 shaft with hacks, 3 shaft fragments, 4 Right (1 shaft, 3 superior portion 2 of which have lesser trochanter); 2 Left (1 shaft fragment, 1 superior portion of juvenile bone with neck portion and no head not yet fused) 3 Non human: 1 Right distal fibula, 1 distal humerus, 1 distal femur REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

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85 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/21/2013; 3/17/2013 ; 4/4/2013 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: FLMNH Number: 89 15 1 Current Location: FLMNH OC12.2; 8 of 9 89 15 1; Right middle box in tray BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: All ADULT Sex: TBD MNI :? Notes: Medium/large sized box: full; Light whitish material to medium brown material QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: 20; ++ Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: 1; + Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: Miscellaneous: 4; + NOTES 5 tibia shafts: 2 Right and 3 Left (1 of which is very large) 3 radiuses : 1 Right with radial tuberosity and about 50% of shaft, 2 Right shafts ( ?) 1 rib 1 Right humerus with medial condyle and about 50% of shaft 5 Femur REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

PAGE 86

86 SKELETAL REMAINS REC ORDING FORM OBSERVER: CHRISTINA HOLLAND DATE: 2/21/2013; 2/26/2013 ; 3/17/2013; 4/4/201 3 Site Name: Hughes Island Mound Site Number: 8DI45 Provenience: FLMNH Number: 89 15 1 Current Location: FLMNH OC12.2 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Age: ADULTs Sex: TBD MNI: 5 indicated by femur fragments Notes: 1 white fragment, the rest are light to medium brown, some are yellowish white/brown; ALL LONG BONE; some with multiple PATHOLOGIES QUANTITATIVE DATA Cranial Fragments: Teeth Fragments: Long Bone Fragments: 26; +++ Hand/Feet Fragments: Rib Fragments: Vertebral/Sacral Fragments: Other Postcranial Fragments: NOTES Long bone: 2 long bone heads 5 humerus fragments: 1 Right > 75% present, no proximal portion; 4 Left shaft fragments (1 with deltoid tuberosity, others have medial distal curve) 1 ulna fragment >50% present, PATHOLOGICAL (bony outgrowth, pitting), large 2 radius fragments: 1 Left with head and radial tuberosity, about 50% present; 1 Right, with radial tuberosity, no head, <50% present 6 tibia fragments: 1 small; shaft fragments; 1 with distal medial condyle 5 Left femur fragments: 2 with majority of proximal surface; 3 shaft fragments 5 shaft fragments PATHOLOGICAL human? REFERENCE MATERIAL Standards, Human Bone Manual, Human Osteology

PAGE 87

87 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 0 Section: Level: Date: 2/9/1969 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS 1 restorable pot for restoration HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 0 Section: 44' Level: Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS in pot scattered associated bones; scatter of sherds concentrated below skull, pot, and bones

PAGE 88

88 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 1 Section: 20 30' (width 3') Level: 0 12" Date: 4/3/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Charles Knight Recorder SOIL/MATRIX 0 6" grey sand, 6 12" shell & black sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS 4 shell hammers, a few sherds HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 1 Section: 20 30' (continued) Level: 0 12" Date: 4/3/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Chas Knight Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS 2 concentrations of sherds, scattered animal bone refuse; sherds

PAGE 89

89 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 1 Section: 30 40' Level: 0 12" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 80 (ALL 3 BOXES) Date: 4/4/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Paul Hahn Recorder Mel Webster SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS 8 14" from surface, head upright, side tilted up 15 degrees; Burial 1 in pseudo flexed position, skull tilted to left, arms flexed with hands under left side of head, feet placed together crossed over each other, femur ? With hip joint near feet. Leg bone of Burial 2 with joint laid N S 6" East of skull, mass of bones E W in front of skull. HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 1 Section: 30 40' (continued) Level: 0 12" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 81CONTINUATION Date: 4/3/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Paul Hahn, Mel Webster Recorder SOIL/MATRIX 0 6" grey sand, 6 12" yellowish sand (shell conspicuously absent) FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Burial (scattered bones, some articulated, mostly splintered), thick sherd concentrations, in piles; sherds

PAGE 90

90 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 1 Section: 30 40' Level: LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 81 (ALL 4 BOXES) Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Burial 2, Leg bones articulated and ? Laid out on each side of skull in N S direction. Arm bones and other ? ? E W between legs. Ends of arm bones and one leg were below burial one area of burial about 25"N S and 20" E W. Ribs piled in beneath arms. HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 1 Section: 30 40' (width 5') Level: 0 12" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 82? and/or S 83 Date: 4/3/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator 4/3/1953 Recorder SOIL/MATRIX 0 6" grey sand, 6 12" shell & black sand; & yellowish sand (little shell) FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Heavy layer of sherds 6 10", burial (scattered bones, unarticulated, mostly splintered); sherds

PAGE 91

91 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 1 Section: 30 40' Level: 12 24" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 84 Date: 2/1/1969 SITE PERSON N EL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Restorable pot "A" for restoration in lab HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 1 Section: 30 40' Level: 12 24" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 84 Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX yellow sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS

PAGE 92

92 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 1 Section: 40 50' (width 5') Level: 0 12" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 85 Date: 4/4/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Chas Knight, Bill Plowden Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Grey sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Turtle bones, broken pot complexes, point, scattered human bones & teeth; flint point, sherds HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 1 Section: 40 50' Level: 12 24" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 85 and/or S 86; S Date: 5 Apr SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Chas Knight Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Black sand with shell, white sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Scattered bones & sherds, pot; pot & sherds

PAGE 93

93 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 1 Section: 40 50' (continued) Level: 12 24" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 85 and/or S 86; S Date: Apr 5 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Mel Webster Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Grey sand, shell FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Heavy sherd concentrations; sherds, 1" quartz sphere, pot HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 1 Section: 50 60' (50 55' half only dug) Level: 0 24" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 88 FROM 0 89 FOUND IN 55 HALF Date: 4/18/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Plowden, Granberry Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Sand, light grey, with some oyster shells near top. A shell layer (oyster) at about 12". About 3 4" thick. FEATURES/ARTIFACTS 0 12".

PAGE 94

94 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 1 Extension Section: 30 35' Level: 0'12" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90 Date: 4/3 4/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Paul and Joann Hahn Recorder SOIL/MATRIX 0 6" grey sand, 6 12" yellow sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Piles of sherds and bones; sherds HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 (Trench 1 Extension) Section: 30 35' Level: 0 12" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90 Date: 4/4/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Bill Plowden Recorder Mel Webster SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS 8" from surface

PAGE 95

95 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 30 40' Level: 10" down LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90, S 92, and/or S 93 Date: 4/19/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator P Hahn Recorder J. Hahn SOIL/MATRIX tan sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS 10" from surface, scrambled condition, secondary, bones piled in a mass, facing up, Burial C skull frags. Inside skull pieces are teeth, frags. o f pelvis and other bone. Long bones extend So. From under skull. Near end of long bones are few, more skull f rags. Teeth scattered around, jaw frags. Many ? potsherds found HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 30 35' Level: 0 12" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 91, age data? Date: 4/19/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Hahns Recorder Hahns SOIL/MATRIX Shell and Rock dirt, western, part on tan sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS 1 12" from surface, poor condition, child, concentrated mass of broken bones; Burial 3 reconstructed whole pots stacked on top of it. Very small ribs and other bones. Child burial. Runs into bones from Buria l C. Child ribs 4" skull frag. u nder ? In large bones + jaw of burial C.

PAGE 96

96 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 30 Level: 0 LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90, S 92, and/or S 93 Date: 4/19/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Hahns et. al Recorder SOIL/MATRIX tan sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS 12" from surface, wet, crumbly condition, bones present, secondary burial mass of bone piled up, Burial A NW corner of 30 35', 3 pots stacked on top of bones. Burial extends W. of palmetto area into 35 40' area. HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 30 Level: 0 LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90, S 92, and/or S 93 Date: 4/19/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator J Hahn, P Hahn Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Grey sand on surface to 4 6". Tan sand down to shell midden ( about 11 inches) FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Shell pocket in S.W. corner, scattered masses of broken bones; One pot (reconstructed) was stacked on top of Burial 3, 3 stacked (reconstructed) pots found on top of bone m ass. Thin block ware, little ? r im o f thick reddish ware?

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97 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 35 45' Level: 6 12" (approx.) LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90, S 92, and/or S 93 Date: 6/4/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Mel Webster, Rita Goggin Recorder Mel Webster, Rita Goggin SOIL/MATRIX white and lt. tan sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS In area about 37 41 1/2' of section, probably 2 burials, perhaps part of a 3rd, c. 4 12", badly broken and scattered by roots, skull, skull fragments, 2 femurs, pelvic girdle fragments, misc. broken bone, pathology: none observed appears to be normal, sex undetermined, age adult, secondary burial, bones scattered over area with no apparent orientation, 2 femurs N S, leaning slightly on rt., facing SW, orientation: none apparent, size o f grave: approx. 4' sq. shallow, sketch on back HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 35 Level: below 12" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90, S 92, and/or S 93 Date: 6/4/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator R. Goggin, M. Webster Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Card 2, sketch (of scattered sherds?)

PAGE 98

98 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 35 40' (35 Level: 0 12" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90, S 92, and/or S 93 Date: 4/19/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator J. Hahn, Granberry Recorder SOIL/MATRIX White and light grey sand. Some shell. FEATURES/ARTIFACTS HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 35 Level: 8"_ LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90, S 92, and/or S 93 Date: 4/19/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Secondary burial, bon e mass, Burial D skull frags. r oughly in position, some over to So. Side of others, jaw frags. o ver to N. side of skull, long bones and others angling roughly from N.E. towards skull, ? Of potsherds mixed in, underneath burial D is more? (Associated artifacts sheet not sure if it belongs to this provenience: bone, in cluding frags., pieces of small skill and some jaw bone.)

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99 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: Level: LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90, S 92, and/or S 93 Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Associated artifacts (with above burial?), bone, including large pieces of small skull plus some jaw bone HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 35 Level: LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90, S 92, and/or S 93 Date: 4/19/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Burial E skull fragments with part of jaw and teeth underneath and several inches to So. Couple long bones So. Of jaw angling towards it, piece of scapula also, at 15" depth approx. under large effigy sherd or with wall are several ribs.

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100 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 35 Level: LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90, S 92, and/or S 93 Date: 4/19/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Burial G HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 35 Level: 10"_ LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90, S 92, and/or S 93 Date: 4/19/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Secondary matrix; Burial F mass of long bones and scattered bone, some potsherds mixed in, few skull frags. mixed in with mass of bone which extends down to depth of about 24" to shell midden.

PAGE 101

101 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATI ON Trench 2 Section: 35 Level: LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90, S 92, and/or S 93 Date: 4/19/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator P Hahn, J. Plowdin Recorder J. Hahn SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS 10" from surface, secondary, bone mass, Burial B skull frags. i n regular position. Starts at 10" below surface. Associated long bones extended out from under skull towards SE. long ribs in between some long bones. (Associated artifacts sheet/not sure if same provenience: lower jaw with teeth found near S.E. end of long bones, child ribs, and child skull frag. ( From Burial 3?) in and around under these bones, child bones HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 30 Level: Down to midden shell LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90, S 92, and/or S 93 Date: 4/19/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator P + J Hahn. J Granberry Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Gray sand on surface down to burials. Burials in tan sand on top of dark organic midden soil containing good bit of shell. FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Concentrated masses of scattered, crumbly bone. At least 5 masses of skull fragments with other bones bunched nearby. There is one solid mass of bone moving (?) down the middle of the square E. to W. going to depth of; scattered potsherds in with burials

PAGE 102

102 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 40 50' Level: Profile test West wall LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90, S 92, and/or S 93 Date: 6/5/1953? SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Paul Hahn and Rita Goggin Recorder SOIL/MATRIX white, then brown, over black midden like soil. White sub soil. FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Post holes HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 40 50' Level: LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 90, S 92, and/or S 93 Date: 4/6/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Paul Hahn Recorder Paul Hahn SOIL/MATRIX White sand brown sand shell ; white sand and top of brown FEATURES/ARTIFACTS 10" from surface, badly broken, secondary burial of long bones and skull fragments

PAGE 103

103 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 40 45' Level: 0"_ Date: 5/2/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator P + J Hahns Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Light grey sand change to FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Round stain, + long stain containing a good bit of charcoal; lots of potsherds HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 40 45' Level: _sand layer Date: 5/3/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Hahns, Mr. ? Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Gray sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Pit, dark stained soil with charcoal and ash.

PAGE 104

104 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 45 50' Level: Date: 5/3/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator P + J Hahn, C? Knight, ? Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Gray to brown sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Burials, skull plotted and removed. Facing NNE and leaning to right, 11" from surface long bones and second skull not removed. NE.; Corner had a lot of sherds HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 45 50' Level: 0_12 13" Date: 5/2/1953 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Hahns, Granberry Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Stains, 1 restorable pot, Indian sherds.

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105 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 50 55' Level: Date: 4/6/1953? SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Goggin Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Greyish white sand layer, brown sand layer FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Pots: St. Johns Plain, Weeden Island ?, Weeden Island Plain; St. Johns, Weeden Island Types, Broken point. HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 2 Section: 55 60' Level: 7" Date: 6/5/1953? SITE PERSONNEL Excavator J. M. Goggin Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Light tan and white sand with numerous small roots. FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Effigy head (see reverse) mass sherd deposit with scattered bones in the matrix. Appare ntly a pot with cranium frags. i n it and miscellaneous sherds placed around it, also a few bones around it. Pot was lying on deposit.

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106 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: Level: LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 94 to S 99 Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Total of 9 burials location indicates a concentration towards the center of the mound and a thinning out towards the edges; all but one of the burials were secondary (scattered; facing in multiple directions; lying on sides; crushed in); MNI from the fac t that 9 skulls were found, but there may have been more individuals indicated by the presence of isolated jaw bones and isolated bone fragments; all but the skull buried at 24" show that they were likely buried at the same time indicated by similar depths ; flexed burial was the only one found in the oyster layer probably earlier; potsherds found scattered between and around skulls, sometimes on top of; burial ceremony is indicated HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 40 45' Level: LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 94 to S 96, possibly S 97 and S 98 Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Before excavation the area had been disturbed on the eastern side; already cut down from 12" to 17" below the surface soil; 5 secondary burials found within the remaining area, one in the west wall that was not removed; bone fragments with the secondary burials (detailed information on burials below)

PAGE 107

107 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 40 45' Level: 11 12" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 94 Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Burial 1: skull and 4 or 5 long bones, secondary type of burial, oriented north and south, the skull lying on its left side facing east and a few sherds with it HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 40 45' Level: 7 8" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 98 Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Burial 2: 5 or 6 long bone fragments and a broken skull (not sure if this was the only element found at 7 8"), poor secondary burial with the head inclined to the right and facing slightly east of north

PAGE 108

108 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 40 45' Level: 12" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 96 Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Burial 3: a skull in very poor condition, another secondary type of disposal, the flattened skull lay on the right side, facing east and oriented north south HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 40 45' Level: 15" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 95? Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Burial 4: a poor skull overlain by broken bones, inclined to the right side facing to the southwest and resting on the right half of the base of the skull, the top of the skull was pointed to the southwest, secondary burial

PAGE 109

109 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 40 45' Level: 14" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 95? Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Burial 5: skull found in the wall 12" north of the 40' stake in the southwest corner of the section, it was not completely uncovered and left in place, poor to fair condition, secondary burial HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 40 45' Level: 24" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 95? Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS 6th burial in the pitted area (from 12" to 18") (this burial correlates with other 5 burials); secondary type of burial consisting of a skull, piece of pelvis, several pieces of long bone, some ribs; they were stacked together in a pit; the skull rested on its left side with bones stacked on it; the top of the skull was north and it faced east

PAGE 110

110 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 45 50' Level: 6 1/2" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 97 Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Two groupings of broken pots; scattering of sherds HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 45 50' Level: 7" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 97 Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS A skull and an isolated (jaw?) bone with one sherd; more information in paper suggests that the skull was in average condition for a secondary burial with a few scattered unidentifiable bones, the skull was upright but with a slightly downward tipped chin, the head was facing 345 degrees north, sherds were scattered around it and behind the head were pieces of a restorable pot in sec tion 50 55'

PAGE 111

111 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 45 50' Level: 14" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 97 Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Burial 2: primary flexed with skull 14"; burial in oyster shell and tan sand and the area of the burial was 26" by 19", all bones were present except the feet bone, it appeared to be a young person, but in crushed condition; more information: it was flexed on the chest face down, the head was pos itioned left and up facing 121degrees SE and oriented head end towards 231 degrees, very few sherds were found with it, a shark's tooth was found in relation to the burial and 5 pieces of a pot under the pelvis, Dr. Goggin took color photographs of it. HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 45 50' Level: 14" 27" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 97 Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Information about the shell layer for this part (readdress); bits of charcoal found

PAGE 112

112 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 50 55' Level: 0 12" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 99 Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS One skull, scattered bones, and pots "A" and "B" HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 50 55' Level: 8 1/2" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 99 Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Additional information to information above: one burial, secondary type in average condition for the type of site in which it was found, the skull was upright with the lower jaw 4" in front of it and long bones scattered around it, a conch shell, which was possibly a dipper, was found with the bones, the head faced 323 degrees (NNW?) and was oriented at 260 degrees (west), sherds and two restorable pots were between the skull and the one of section 45 50' at 7"

PAGE 113

113 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 50 55' Level: LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 99 Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Information about shell level, circular shape, post hole, etc (readdress) HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 55 60' Level: 12" Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Restorable pots

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114 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 55 60' Level: 18 20" Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Shell refuse HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 3 Section: 55 60' Level: Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Charcoal flecks in the gray sand; bone chips concentrated in the yellow tan sand in the southwest corner with 2 restorable pots; small pit contained a Swift Creek complicated Stamped pot.

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115 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 4 Section: 40 45' Level: 0 4" (Approx.) Date: 2/4/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator England, Granberry Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Light grey, sandy humus, scattered, infrequent, oyster shell. FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Features begin at approx. 3 to 4", scattered potsherds, HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 4 Section: 40 Level: Approx. 0 6" LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 100 (BOTH BOXES) Date: 2/4/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator England, Granberry Recorder Granberry, J. M. G. SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Burial 1: 3" from surface, skull 15" deep (top) at edge of ?, under jaw, Sex ?, Age ?, secondary burial

PAGE 116

116 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 4 Section: 40 Level: Approx. 0 LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 101 Date: 2/4/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator England, Granberry Recorder Granberry SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Burial 2: 3" from surface HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 4 Section: 40 Level: Approx. 0 LIKELY ASSOCIATED WITH: S 102 Date: 2/4/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator England, Granberry Recorder Granberry SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Burial 3: 4"_ from surface, skull under long bones

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117 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 4 Section: 45 50' Level: 0" pottery level (approx. 6 8") Date: 2/4/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Adele + Charles Silbereisen Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Grey sand layer of stained humus on top. FEATURES/ARTIFACTS HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 4 Section: 45 Level: 8"_shell layer (approx. 16 20") Date: 2/5/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Adele Silbereisen Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Grey sand, brown shell down to shell midden (mixture of brown sand + shell) FEATURES/ARTIFACTS 1 skull, several partial skulls, many long bones, potsherds (scarce).

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118 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 4 Section: 50 55' Level: 0 12" Date: 2/4/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Top Humus stained, White sand below, Small pockets of shells FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Two clusters, shattered sherds; With associated image HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 4 Section: 55 60' Level: Below roots Date: 11/26/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator J. Goggin et. Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS This ? Was not dug becau se of large dead oak tree. I ? i n ? Side; sherd concentration, rest pot

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119 H UGHES ISLAND MOUND S ITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 40 45' Level: Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Notes from associated drawing: Skull 1 partial 8"; skull 2 complete 7"; skull 3 partial 5"; skull 4 complete 5"; skull 5 complete 6"; skull 6 partial 7"; The long bones illustrated are the most important ones uncovered. Many hundred s of other bones and bone fragments were found scattered about in the square; The potsherds found were relatively few in number. Notes from another drawing: Skull 7 complete 11 1/2"; skull 8 complete 12"; Skulls in very poor condition due to their close association with the palmetto roots; skull 9 complete 14"' skull 10 complete 15"; the overall level of the shell midden was at a depth of approximately 12" from the surface; the pit extended down into the shell midden with its lowest point be ing approximately 20" from the surface. HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 40 Level: 0 4" Date: 11/24/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Bill Cantrel, Adele Silbereisen, David Conkle Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Humus FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Potsherds; Entry is recorded twice.

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120 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 40 Level: 4_ approx. 10" Date: 11/25/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Adele Silbereisen Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Greyish white sand at top, yellowish sand at bottom of level. FEATURES/ARTIFACTS 6 skulls or partial skulls, numerous long bones, large fragment of compartment pot; potsherds; (with associated images) HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 40 Level: 4_10" Date: 11/25/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Adele Silbereisen Recorder Adele Silbereisen SOIL/MATRIX Greyish white to yellow sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Skull 1: 8"from surface, very poor condition, partial skull, secondary burial, top of skull facing downward, only top of skull cap present.

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121 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 40 Level: 4 Date: 11/25/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Adele Silbereisen Recorder Adele Silbereisen SOIL/MATRIX Greyish white to yellow sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS facing approx. North; Small ? less projectile point under jaw. HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: Level: Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Associated artifacts: (small ?less projectile point under jaw; with skull 2?)

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122 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 40 Level: Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Greyish white to yellow sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Skull 3: 5" from surface O nly part of skull cap present. Skull appears to be face upward as teeth + jaw bones found in proper position for thi s. HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 40 Level: 4 Date: 11/25/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Adele Silbereisen Recorder Adele Silbereisen SOIL/MATRIX Greyish white to yellow sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Skull 4: 5" from surface facing West

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123 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 40 Level: 4 Date: 11/25/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Adele Silbereisen Recorder Adele Silbereisen SOIL/MATRIX Greyish white to yellow sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Skull 5: 6"from surface, poor condition, skull (complete), right side facing upward, facing approx. N.W. HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 40 Level: 4 Date: 11/25/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Adele Silbereisen Recorder Adele Silbereisen SOIL/MATRIX Greyish white to yellow sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Skull 6: 7"from surface, very poor condition, partial skull, top of skull facing downward

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124 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 40 Level: 10"_ Date: 11/26/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Adele Silbereisen Recorder Adele Silbereisen SOIL/MATRIX Brown sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Skull 7: 11 1/2" from surface, very poor condition, skull (complete) + various long bones, secondary burial, left side facing upward, facing approx N.W. HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 40 Level: Date: 11/26/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Adele Silbereisen Recorder Adele Silbereisen SOIL/MATRIX Brown sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Skull 8: 12" from surface, very poor condition, skull (complete), secondary burial, skull in such poor condition that its position could not be determined.

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125 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: Level: Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Brown sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Skulls in very poor condition due to their close association with the palmetto roots. HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 40 Level: Date: 11/26/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Adele Silbereisen Recorder Adele Silbereisen SOIL/MATRIX Brown sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Skull 9: 14"from surface, very poor condition, skull (complete), secondary burial, top of skull facing upward, facing toward the N.E.

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126 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: Level: Date: 11/26/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Adele Silbereisen Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Brown sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Skull 10: 15", very poor condition, skull (complete) with first vertebrae attached, secondary burial, right side facing upward, facing toward the South HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: Level: Date: SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS The overall level of the shell midden was at a depth of approx. 12" from the surface. The pit extended down into the shell midden with its lowest pt. being approx. 20" from the surface.

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127 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 40 Level: 10"_ Shell midden Date: 11/26/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Adele Silbereisen Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Brown sand. FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Two skulls and associated long bones; Associated artifacts: none HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 45 50' Level: 4"_ Date: 11/25/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Bill Cantrell, Dave Konkel Recorder SOIL/MATRIX White sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Mass of charcoal + bone 8 to 14" below surface, potsherds; Associated artifacts: none?; With associated image.

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128 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 45 Level: 4_ Date: 11/26/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Kantrel + Konkel Recorder B. C. Cantrell SOIL/MATRIX Grayish to brownish sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Skull 1: About 10"from surface, fragmented condition, complete skull, secondary burial, base to North, facing ? HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 45 Level: Date: 11/26/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Cantrell + Konkel Recorder B. ? Cantrell SOIL/MATRIX Gray to brownish sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Skull 2: Ca. 7"from surface, small fragments held together by earth, complete skull, secondary burial, resting on top of skull, facing West

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129 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 45 Level: Date: 11/26/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Kantrel + Konkle Recorder Cantrell SOIL/MATRIX Grayish to brown sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Skull 3: Ca. 7.5" from surface, fragmented condition, complete skull, secondary burial, resting upright, facing North HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 45 Level: Date: 11/26/19555 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Cantrell + Konkel Recorder Cantrell SOIL/MATRIX Grayish sand FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Skull 4: Ca. 8" from surface, fragmented condition, complete skull, secondary burial, position of head upright, facing ?; (Associated artifacts: none)

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130 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench 5 Section: 45 Level: 16 23" Date: 11/26/1955 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator David Conkle Recorder SOIL/MATRIX Brownish sand. FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Pit 16 HUGHES ISLAND MOUND SITE INFORMATION Trench Section: Level: Date: 5/6/53 SITE PERSONNEL Excavator Recorder Paul Hahn SOIL/MATRIX FEATURES/ARTIFACTS Additional information from notes: County: Dixie; Location (how to reach): First island before Shired Island; Nature of site: Midden of dark soil and shell; Present condition of site: Occupied by fishermen; Vegetation and general physiographic situation: Located on Shired Creek. ?Accessible from Gulf by marsh. Pine, cedar, palmettos, cabbage palm.

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