Citation
The Puzzle of Architecture: The Network of Peices: Joints, Journey, Parts

Material Information

Title:
The Puzzle of Architecture: The Network of Peices: Joints, Journey, Parts
Creator:
Tracy, Matthew
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Architectural design ( jstor )
Architectural elements ( jstor )
Beauty ( jstor )
Commercial architecture ( jstor )
Futurism ( jstor )
Houses ( jstor )
Housing ( jstor )
Jigsaw puzzles ( jstor )
Linear programming ( jstor )
Puzzles ( jstor )
Architectural design
Architecture
Puzzles
Genre:
Undergraduate Honors Thesis

Notes

Abstract:
The futurist movement presented the idea of societies rapid advancement in the early 20th century. Design as a process closely follows this pattern. As technology and development in society advances, the way in which the new and the old are added and subtracted has to be redeveloped. Accordingly, there is a need for design projects to allow for change over time. Thus systems and ideas most be created and utilized that allow for this. While not a direct answer to this problem, puzzles and networks hold in them elements that allow for change. Puzzles and networks utilize joints, elements, and process to create a whole. Thus they are not just talking about a result but a collection. "Bits and Pieces put together to create a semblance of a whole." 1 Utilizing the projects of Zaha Hadid, Carlos Scarpa and the theories of Stan Allen, conditions are presented that structure the whole. The idea is not to explain the result of the projects, but merely how the conditions they create allow for change to occur. 1. Bull, Geared. "Lawrence Weiner Bits and peices." Dec 24, 2004. ( en )
General Note:
Awarded Bachelor of Design; Graduated May 8, 2012 summa cum laude. Major: Architecture
General Note:
Advisor(s): Bradely Walters
General Note:
College/School: College of Design, Construction and Planning

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Matthew Tracy. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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THE PUZZLE OF ARCHIT ECTURE THE NETWORK OF PIECE S: JOINTS, JOURNEY, PAR TS

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 1 1 Robin Boyd. The Puzzle of Architecture. Carlton, Australia: Melbourne University Press,1965, 7 2 Vitruvius er ship Builders, http://www.bostonleadershipbuilders.com/vitruvius/book01.htm#1(accessed April 02, 2012).

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 2 We declare that the splendor of the world has been enriched by a new beauty: the beauty of speed. A racing automobile with its bonnet adorned with great tubes like serpents with explosive breath ... a roaring motor car which seems to run on machine-gun fire, is more beautiful than the Victory of Samothrace." 3 F. T. Marinetti, The Futurist Manifesto (London: Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1973), page nr., http://www.italianfuturism.org/manifestos/foundingmanifesto/ (accessed April 02, 2012).

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 3 4 Vittorio Gregotti. Inside Architecture Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1996. 52 5 Stan Allen. Practice: Architecture, Technique + Representation. London: Routledge, 2009, 218 Figure 3.1 Synaptic Shift Collaboration with Mario Lambert Dynamics of joints

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 4 6 Kenneth Frampton. Studies in Tectonic Culture: The Poetics of Construction in 19th and 20th Century Architecture Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1995, 300 Figure 4 .1 Brown, David. Querini Stampalia Bridge Detail, Nov. 7 2006 Figure 4 .2 Guthrie, Peter. Exhibition, Dec. 3 2007

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 5 7 G Kendall. Parkes A. and Spoerer K. A Survey of NP Complete Puzzles, International Computer Games Association Journal, 31, 2008, 13 8 Boyd. The Puzzle of Architecture. 183 9 Boyd. The Puzzle of Architecture. 7

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 6 10 Ioana Nemes. "Zaha Hadid. Architecture. From each and every aspect built visions. Realized Perspectives,." Idea http://idea.ro/revista/?q=en/node/41&articol=190 (accessed November 15, 2011). 11 Zaha Hadid & Schumacher, Patrick. "Z-Scape Design." Zaha Hadid Architects. http://www.zaha-hadid.com/design/z-scape/ (accessed November 15, 2011). Figure 6 .1 Z Scape Design." Zaha Hadid Architects. http://www.zaha hadid.com/design/z sca pe/ (accessed November 15, 2011 Figure 6 .2 "Architecture." Contemporary Arts Center.http://contemporaryartscenter.org/a rchitecture (accessed November 15, 2011). Figure 6 3 "Architecture." Contemporary Arts Center.http://contemporaryartscenter.org/a rchitecture (accessed November 15, 2011).

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 7 12 Herbert Muchamp. "ARCHITECTURE; A Jigsaw Puzzle Interlocking Layers of Space." New York Times Aug 09, 1998. 13 Allen. Practice: Architecture, Technique + Representation. 218 Figure 7 .1 Contemporary Arts Center. (accessed November 17, 2011) Figure 7 .2 Allen. Practice: Architecture, Technique + Representation. 218

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 8 14 Alle n. Practice: Architecture, Technique + Representation. 220 Figure 8 .1 Great Mosque of Cordoba." ARCHnet. http://archnet.org/library/images/one image.jsp?location_id=1422& image_id=170 816 (accessed November 15, 2011).

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 9

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 10 Figure 10.1 Synaptic Shift Collaboration with Mario Lambert Circulation Diagrams for Studio Project. The goal is to create a circulation system that does not operate in a linear fashion. Instead allowing a multitude of circulation that can be modified to accommodate new routes. Figure 10.1 Synaptic Shift Collaboration with Mario Lambert The use of multiple connections allows space to be disbursed throughout a project. Prevent areas from being defined by specific program.

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 11 Figure 11.1 Synaptic Shift Collaboration with Mario Lambert Circulation path connecting retail space with community space. This connection creatures a joint that can then be attached to in various ways to allow new program to be inserted.

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 12

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 13

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 14 15 Anthony Burke. and Therese Tierney. Network Practices: New Strategies in Architecture and Design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2007, 25

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 15 16 Boyd The Puzzle of Architecture., 7 17 Le Corbusier, and Frederick Etchells. Towards a New Architecture. London: Architectural Press, 1946.112 Figure 15 .1 Bull, Geared. "Lawrence Weiner Bits and peices." Dec 24, 2004.

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 16

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 17 Allen. Practice: Architecture, Technique + Representation. 2 36 19 Boyd. The Puzzle of Architecture, 26 20 Burke, and Therese. Network Practices: New Strategies in Architecture and Design, 27

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 18 Figure 1 8 .1 Synaptic Shift Collaboration with Mario Lambert Connection space. Dynamic transformation of structure to visualize the bridging of multiple different programs. Utilizing fissures in the facade that then allow the interior to spill outside.

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 19

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 20



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THE PUZZLE OF ARCHIT ECTURE THE NETWORK OF PIECE S: JOINTS, JOURNEY, PAR TS Matthew Tracy 9199 9222 matthewrtracy@ufl.edu Design Project: SYNAPTIC SHIFT WEST CHELSEA, NYC Design 7 Collaboration with Mario Lambert

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 1 1 This statement drives many questions. The most important question asked is what a puzzle is. Is it something that directs or defines? Is it archi tecture or is it a path to developing architecture? It can be said that architecture is many things. In fact Vitruvius states to be an architect is educated, skilful with the pencil, instructed in geometry, know much history, have followed the philosophers with attention, understand music, have some knowledge of medicine, know the opinions of the jurists, and be acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens." 2 The fact that architecture is so engrained in everyday living means that it has to be a lot of things This is where the significa nce of a puzzle and a network have their impact on architecture They all are about taking complex and simple ideas and elements and creating a complete result. This correlation is not in the description of architecture as a building or an image. The connection is in the development of a design. This development is ultimately the driver that creates the difference between design as a way of life and design as just a means of use It is what takes the element s and pieces of society and creates a joint to actual usage of a structure. 1 Robin Boyd. The Puzzle of Architecture. Carlton, Australia: Melbourne University Press,1965, 7 2 Vitruvius er ship Builders, http ://www.bostonleadershipbuilders.com/vitruvius/book01.htm#1 (accessed April 02, 2012).

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 2 WHY Society is in a constant state of change This fact is incredibly important today with the speed at which technology advances and ultimate des troys previous trains of thought This is something that was presented in the early 1900's in the Futurist Manifesto. We declare that the splendor of the world has been enriched by a new beauty: the beauty of speed. A racing automobile with its bonnet adorned with great tubes like serpe nts with explosive breath ... a roaring motor car which seems to run on machine gun fire, is more beautiful than the Victory of Samothrace." 3 The futurists believed in this speed of change and went so far as to say that movements should leave as soon as t hey start. Yet society stands at such a rate of development that the simple process of deleting cannot always be utilized. This means that architecture must expand itself to be as fluid as the environment around it. Thus the development of a design must ha ve an understanding of this change. This change is not something that is to be understand as a transforming building or a building of interchangeable parts. It is merely that a building has a principle of change present in it. A building should no longer look solely at the individualization of its program. For example: The elements that impact a lobby in a housing complex should also have their impact on the residential units that it posses. While distant in both program and location 3 F. T. Marinetti, The Futurist Manifesto (London: Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1973), page nr., http://www.italianfuturism.org/manifestos/foundingmanifesto/ (accessed April 02, 2012).

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 3 The correlation of this to puzzle's and networks is through the understanding of connections. Connections between pieces that although distant and unconnected still create one object and thus no matter their location still have impact on others. This impact moves design away from just physical connections or spiritual connections similar pieces the Joints, Journey and Path of all the pieces. system thus become the elements requiring the most effort and are often the points at which the application of specific 4 5 Joints are truly a crucial component to a fluid s tructure or any structure Joints can give a place of breakage which leaves room for expansion or they can become rigid and a place which concretes one aspect of a design. This idea of freedom and incarceration is what drives fluidity It allows a desig n to expand ou t and at the same time not lose its initial ideas. in fact in most cases 4 Vittorio Gregotti. Inside Architecture Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1996. 52 5 Stan Allen. Practice: Architecture, Technique + Representation. London: Routledge, 2009, 218 Figure 3.1 Synaptic Shift Collaboration with Mario Lambert Dynamics of joints

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 4 stre ngth is when it is used to hold space and ideals together. The joint then allows the individual to create their own story of how spaces and elements are held together This story is what leads a perso n to creating an ideal about a space, something that is their own creation leading to a entirely new a different pace compared to others. Probably the most significant person whe n it comes to joints in architecture is Carlo Scarpa. His joints can be a physical entity which holds pieces together like figure 3.1 or it can be a spatial idea which joins multiples spaces like figure 3.2. His joints are not self describing they are som ething that is studied and dismantled to gain an individual grasp on them. condensation; as an intersection embodying the whole in the part, irrespective of whether the connection in question is an articulation or a bearing or even an altogether larger linking 6 In his joints Scarpa not only creates the freedom which allows new spatial stories to exist but he also crea tes a sense of rigidity which can hold its ground while everythi ng around it shifts and changes. The shifting allows the joints to then conform to new ideas as time shifts a projects use. In this the pie replaced instead they hold true and just allow the joint to create a new condition. 6 Kenneth Frampton. Studies in Tectonic Culture: The Poetics of Construction in 19th and 20th Century Architecture Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1995, 300 Figure 4 .1 Brown, David. Querini Stampalia Bridge Detail, Nov. 7 2006 Figure 4 .2 Guthrie, Peter. Exhibition, Dec. 3 2007

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 5 A joint in a puzzle In a basic puzzle, one is intended to put together pieces in a logical way in 7 Without some sort of join t or connection a puzzle would be nothing The joint is the part of a puzzle which not only gives satisfaction for the end result but also creates frustration from its complexity. One is constantly trying this piece and that sometimes it fits and then These joints are where the difficulty levels come in. There are many different approaches to these joints A puzzle ca n have one joint used all over, it can have a few joints that are used throughout, or it can have an infinite n umber of joints. Joints in a puzzle are fairly straight forward. The principles at play are much like the ones of architecture. In architecture the joints symbolize a place where multiple elements come together and present the idea. This idea can be prese nted over an entire project or in a more local manor. The most importance aspect is understanding a joint as a connection. One that is direct or merely implied. design begins, the relist architect collects every material and 8 Architecture discusses a lot into the relations between architecture and a puzzle. The focus of his writings are on the development of projects with "all the pieces on the table." factors into a whole: one artist ic form built so spontaneously and convincingly that i t might appear to belong to s ome natural or intellectual pattern of creation. 9 When all of the pieces are on the table the design can come together in a fluid manner. This creates relations that exist between all of the elements. The result is that 7 G Kendall. Parkes A. and Spoerer K. A Survey of NP Complete Puzzles, International Computer Games Association Journal, 31, 2008, 13 8 Boyd. The Puzzle of Architecture. 183 9 Boyd. The Puzzle of Architecture. 7

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 6 that when a single joint is modified the whole is affected which makes the composition one uniform idea. puzzles in space I n many of her project she refer ences parts as pieces of a jigsaw 10 I n her furniture and her building projects, she talks about how she utilizes pieces that can be manipulated to form different experiences. Furniture and small singular pieces are where her work shows the most fluid ideals. By manipulating the joints new constructs are made utilizing the same pieces In essence, Z scape constituted an eleven piece jigsaw puzzle which could be dismantled and re assembled in many different ways to create comfortable seating elements, lounging areas, flat surfaces and even shelving. 11 10 Ioana Nemes. "Zaha Hadid. Architecture. Fr om each and every aspect built visions. Realized Perspectives,." Idea http://idea.ro/revista/?q=en/node/41&articol=190 (accessed November 15, 2011). 11 Zaha Hadid & Schumacher, Patrick. "Z Scape Design." Zaha Hadid Architects. http://www.zaha hadid.com/design/z scape/ (accessed November 15, 2011). Figure 6 .1 Z Scape Design." Zaha Hadid Architects. http://www.zaha hadid.com/design/z sca pe/ (accessed November 15, 2011 Figure 6 .2 "Architecture." Contemporary Arts Center.http://contemporaryartscenter.org/a rchitecture (accessed November 15, 2011). Figure 6 3 "Architecture." Contemporary Arts Center.http://contemporaryartscenter.org/a rchitecture (accessed November 15, 2011).

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 7 The architectural project of hers which most signifies this idea of fluxing pieces is The Contemporary Arts Center in Cincinnati It can be seen in even her early concepts like the mass model that pieces and spaces are pushed and pulled to create new exciting joints. Herbert Muschamp of the New York Times talks about shifting, multiperspectival 12 A Network of Joints remaining attentive to the detail conditions that determine the connection of one part to imagine an architecture that can respond fluidly and sensitively to local dif ference 13 In a network joints exist in an infinite realm. What define s the joint s are the multiple connections that exist to each piece and the space which is required for them to work together. In his article about fields and networks Stan Allen goes into saying that in networks joints should be about how elements join the next and t he next until the y form the whole. Thus there exists a condition where each individual joint is just as important as 12 Herbert Muchamp. "ARCHITECTURE; A Jigsaw Puzzle Interlocking Layers of Space." New York Times Aug 09, 1998. 13 Allen. Practice: Architecture, Technique + Representation. 218 Figure 7 .1 Contemporary Arts Center. (accessed November 17, 2011) Figure 7 .2 Allen. Practice: Architecture, Technique + Representation. 218

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 8 the next. With all of these connection s the whole can be in constant flux It means that local conditions start to define what exi sts aroun d them. This means that while one joint affects the other s, In his writings about this theory, Stan Allen shows many examples of both architecture and art that hold ideas of networks and how they affect what is created. The work that he talked about with the most flui dity was the Mosque at Cordoba. In this project stages could be added to the construction which would expand and change spaces but would still be read as part of t he original. To achieve this feet stages use 14 These parts mean that while spaces are changed and expanded ideas are not changed While this is a physical change its one that is capable due to the previous design of the structure. The design is such that alterations allow its expansion and thus the ex pansion of its ideals without the sacrificing of the original portions. 14 Alle n. Practice: Architecture, Technique + Representation. 220 Figure 8 .1 Great Mosque of Cordoba." ARCHnet. http://archnet.org/library/images/one image.jsp?location_id=1422& image_id=170 816 (accessed November 15, 2011).

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 9 Joint of Networked Puzzle s SYNAPTIC SHIFT WEST CHELSEA, NYC Design 7 Collaboration with Mario Lambert Synaptic shift is a design 7 project for a residential block on the West Side of Manhattan. It houses three residential towers which feature interconnected public sectors throughout. The complex also caters to an active lifestyle by providing various connections to commercial spaces and other amenities which not onl y make living within the city spacious, but also highly convenient. Each tower features several nodes throughout its design. Derived from the ideal characteristics common to suburban life, a community (club house) space is integrated between various floors to unite the many residents who are living within the towers. Each community space is designed to feature contrasting programs on the interior, however, common features of the programs include: Outdoor seating with a specific view of the city, A community garden, and An event space for meetings and functions. The hide and reveal. Finally, the complex features various programs which encourage residents to come together in a common space and to also promote public living. Such spaces include a library, a swimming pool and a shopping center. Keeping the idea of the necessity of more space in mind, the condominiums within the towers feature exterior private spaces which feature views of the city and the river. Building on the idea of connected spaces, the community spaces within the towers physically face each other w hich creates a visual connection between all three. It is important to note that each community space features its own unique view related to what is happening at street level, immediate context, and city.

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 10 The joints describes not only the physicality of connections but also delves into circulation as a system and as an indirect means of connecting program Thus the joint can transition from something that exists as a physical element to something that is a spatial transition. Figure 10.1 Synaptic Shift Collaboration with Mario Lambert Circulation Diagrams for Studio Project. The goal is to create a circulation system that does not operate in a linear fashion. Instead allowing a multitude of circulation that can be modified to accommodate new routes. Figure 10.1 Synaptic Shift Collaboration with Mario Lambert The use of multiple connections allows space to be disbursed throughout a project. Prevent areas from being defined by specific program.

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 11 In the Synaptic Shift project various means of connections were utilized that connect diverse program spread throughout These range s from visual connections of different residential elements across towers to usage of mutli story atriums that allow space to connect pieces. The multiply connections were utilized to allow for flexibility of locations. Meaning that if direct correlation could not exist the possibility of other system could structure new elements. Utilizing t he thought process of puzzle's and network s one can dismantle circulation into a scheme of connecting not just direct program but also indirect program. This idea allows relations to exist between all programmatic elements. Meaning that even objects that d o not directly relate are connected through a system of thought. This allows programmatic elements to be inserted based not on direct infrastructure but by required development. Figure 11.1 Synaptic Shift Collaboration with Mario Lambert Circulation path connecting retail space with community space. This connection creatures a joint that can then be attached to in various ways to allow new program to be inserted.

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 12 The Two arguments However the two systems differ, both have the commonalit y of elements which drive them. Of all the commonalties that the two share the ones with the most impact are in how they are processed and how they utilize the idea of a piece. These two elements hold facts about the nature of the objects they are modifying. The identities of puzzles and networks are in these elements. In how the journey develops their connections and how the pieces identify themselves in a collection. Thus individualizing themselves an d defining the basis for the whole. The Journey Puzzles and networks are not meant to answer architecture In fact a single system of thought could never take over architecture as architects would become obsolete. The systems are merely presented to give a possible means of process which answer what is needed in a specific project. This process is what takes a complex idea and make s it into a simple answer or vice versa. This conversion can be looked at in an infinite number of ways. Ever project has a different approach due to different circumstances and needs. In that way no piece of architecture can be created the exact same way as another. There are of course simila r trends that exist like the Sustainability trend but as a fundamental piece of work every project is its own creation. In this realm of infinite possibilities many things stay true. Certain truths must be kept in order for a design to ever leave the id

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 13 systems diverge. They progress in two different directions which in places merge but then remain separate. Puzzle The final image is not what is important when working on a puzzle The journey or path is what makes a puzzle something to accomplish. Once table and after awhile forgotten. The one thing that is remembered though is the experience of putting it together not the final image created. Like a puzzle architecture is not the final image. If architecture was about the final image then a lot of its meaning would be lost. Inevitably if design became about the image then the usage would be lost The process is thus what allows both image and usage to work together us from the hut to the house and so forth. Yet as a system of process the puzzle is the limited. A puzzle has the limitation of defined connections. This means that as a process of thought a puzzle is lacks complete freedom. This lack of freedom though also helps in development. It allows similar principles to exist that can be used to link seemingly different things. It allows a measure of the whole to be addressed at a micro level, at the joint level. One can understand one joint and allow it to inform another thus repeating allowing for a system of connections to exists throughout. In design this means that new elements can be introduced by introducing similarities in joints and e lements. Allowing for a house to be integrated into a commercial block by modifying the house to accept the elements of the commercial block.

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 14 Network In a network the same condition can exist of measuring the whole but in most cases not about the overall more about the nodes This fact helps in its The connections are only w 15 This then creates a system which is adaptable to new conditions, both internal and external. The networks path though removes a certain amount of trial and error. It also means than in order for a new element to be integrated the elements that connect to it are changed. To understand a network one has to understand why the individual elements are connected. Given information drives this. Thus the "journey" for networking is to create a system that merg es similar things into nodes, then connecting nodes to other nodes. This helps create connections with everything but limits elements by the information that defines them. This means that in understanding design as networks of spaces or ideas one has to de fine elements by some initial description. This means that introducing housing into a housing complex is simple but introducing the same housing element into a commercial space requires entirely new infrastructure. 15 Anthony Burke. and Therese Tierney. Network Practices: New Strategies in Architecture and Design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2007 25

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 15 The Pieces In both a puzzle and a network pieces are cr ucial. Without them neither c ould exist T hey would be blank statements much like if the wall in the picture next to this was blank. While joints and process do define projects they are not the first experience most people have. Where the architecture begins for most occupants is in the pieces painting to define circulation paths. The pieces are what they experience. In a puzzle these pieces are laid out as parts to a whole. These pieces can span different categories from spatial forms to windows. Robin B oyd states the pieces as: The budget, the required accommodation, the likely costs as knows from experience, the desirable mood to be created, the legal restrictions the site limitations, the building regulations, the town planning considerations, the predilection of the client, and 16 Taking these and defining them in broader design terms the pieces are the things which give direction to what can be cre 17 In a puzzle joints are what hold pieces together but without some sort of image or data the puzzle would only be a field of j oints Thus the question becomes when and 16 Boyd The Puzzle of Architecture., 7 17 Le Corbusier, and Frederick Etchells. Towards a New Architecture. London: Architectural Press, 1946.112 Figure 15 .1 Bull, Geared. "Lawrence Weiner Bits and peices." Dec 24, 2004.

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 16 where does the architecture begin. Does it start where direct connections occur? Does it start at some geometrically important part to each individual piece? Does it even occur on every piece? These questions are a nswered when you answer what each piece is to the whole. Where these pieces gain their most im portance is in how they connect and work with other pieces Do they exist to be a part and only a part or do they exist to disappear and become part of the whole? Are they there to bring in local conditions or are they there to introduce a completely foreign idea? These questions are not something that is has a given answer ; questions are fluid meaning that pieces have to be as fluid as the answers to the questions. Puzzle of Architecture or Network of Pieces Architecture cannot just be a puzzle A puzzle is solvable. It has a set of rules that define it and make it work M ost puzzles only fit together in one way or else it will physically not work It has no place other than its own existence or infinite existence with other puzzles. Thus the context would have to be unraveled into its pieces in order for the project to properly join w ith it. Once the puz zle starts to unravel into its context it begins to take on principles of a network. It utilizes local conditions in its connection to the site Yet a defined joint with the context would have to exist. This means that if one utilizes a buildings context as a driver then its functionality could become depend on that context. It wouldn't allow itself to be dynamic enough for a changing context. Networks though allow the joints to be

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 17 ariations and obstacles in the environment a re accommodated by fluid adjustment 18 The network not only allows for manipulations but also allows the network to expand beyond the building itself and 19 isolated, but intensifications of more broadly diffused social, technical, and material 20 Context in the future will not be something that can be guaranteed. It will take a system which exists that can change as it changes. The argument for both The design process is never truly defined. It would be foolish to define it as the by the time you do so that way of thinking becomes obsolete. Futurists knew this back 100 years a go and it still for the most part hold true today. A puzzle is a mix of pieces just like a network Both approaches have their positives and negatives. Philosophies fade when designing, at one moment solving and at another it s problem making. In cases where there is a co nstant shift both are necessary. The argument for both states just that. In some cases parts of both allow for design to expand. 18 Allen. Practice: Architecture, Technique + Representation. 2 36 19 Boyd. The Puzzle of Architecture, 26 20 Burke, and Therese. Network Practices: New Str ategies in Architecture and Design, 27

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 18 The Answer Most people will say that a puzzle is a set of pieces which comes together to form a single image or an answer. That answer would, in a very broad sense, be ones design A design is a mixture of pieces which when combined form something that has seams but no se ams. It has connections some visibl e and some not. The Answer is what is judged It is what determine s whether you are right or wrong, if that is something that can ever be answered. Figure 1 8 .1 Synaptic Shift Collaboration with Mario Lambert Connection space. Dynamic transformation of structure to visualize the bridging of multiple different programs. Utilizing fissures in the facade that then allow the interior to spill outside.

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 19 Yet in an ever changing world what is correct now is flawed to morrow. Thus the answer which is that crucial thin g we look for can no longer exist. Is the puzzle the answer or is it the network? Is the puzzle an example of how pieces can come together to form an overall ? Can the pieces be swapped a year later? Is the network a prime example of a system which allows conditions to drive it to the point that can be warped for a new program? This idea of puzzles and networks is not an answer to all the questions. Fluidity does not mean that a building has to physically morph to changing conditions. It simple means that conditions are in place which allows the project to be modified or manipulated to undertake different tasks. The use of a puzzle and a network are only two examples of systems which could account for this change. The real question then becomes at what poin t should we not accept this change This is not to argue that architecture is a puzzle or is a network. Or that they are processed entirely the same as in reality they just aren't. It's merely a thought to look at in order to create a more fluid design. The statement is more to understand th at as the world changes design must shift with it. Design is at a crux where entirely new ideals are created at a constant rate. Nothing is impossible. With all of these new techniques and ideas the principles of society simply cannot be lost. Networks and puzzles are not an answer to that. They are merely a thought that brings forth the idea of connection of all elements no matter the structure. In the end you can take something and make nothing but you cannot take nothing and make something.

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The Puzzle of Architecture Matthew Tracy Page | 20 Bibliography Allen, Stan. Practice: Architecture, Technique + Representation. London: Routledge, 2009. Boyd, Robin. The Puzzle of Architecture. Carlton, Australia: Melbourne University Press,1965. Burke, Anthony, and Therese Tierney. Network Practices: New Strategies in Architecture and Design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2007. Frampton, Kenneth. Studies in Tectonic Culture: The Poetics of Construction in 19th and 20th Century Architecture. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1995. Gregotti, Vittori o. Inside Architecture. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1996. Hadid, Zaha, & Schumacher, Patrick. "Z Scape Design." Zaha Hadid Architects. http://www.zaha hadid.com/design/z scape/ (accessed November 15, 2011). Kendall G., Parkes A. and Spoerer K. A Survey of NP Complete Puzzles, International Computer Games Association Journal, 31, 2008. Le Corbusier, and Frederick Etchells. Towards a New Architecture. London: Architectural Press, 1946. Marinetti, F. T. The Futurist Manifesto. London: Thames and Hudson L td, 1973. http://www.italianfuturism.org/manifestos/foundingmanifesto/ (accessed April 02, 2012). Muchamp, Herbert. "ARCHITECTURE; A Jigsaw Puzzle Interlocking La yers of Space." New York Times Aug 09, 1998. Nemes, Ioana. "Zaha Hadid. Architecture. From each and every aspect built visions. Realized Perspectives,." Idea http://idea.ro/revista/?q=en/node/41&articol=190 (accessed November 15, 2011). http://www.bostonleadershipbuilders.com/vitruvius/book01.htm#1 (accessed April 02, 2012).