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A validation study of a learning module on selected library skills for the seventh grader

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A validation study of a learning module on selected library skills for the seventh grader
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Barkholz, Gerald Ralph, 1941-
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English
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viii, 76 leaves : ill. ; 28cm.

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Card catalogs ( jstor )
High school students ( jstor )
Instructional materials ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Library skills ( jstor )
Media centers ( jstor )
Middle schools ( jstor )
Reading tables ( jstor )
School libraries ( jstor )
Sex linked differences ( jstor )
Curriculum and Instruction thesis Ed. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Curriculum and Instruction -- UF
Instructional materials centers ( lcsh )
Libraries and students ( lcsh )
Seventh grade (Education) ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 72-75.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Gerald Ralph Barkholz.

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Full Text
A VALIDATION STUDY OF A LEARNING MODULE
ON SELECTED LIBRARY SKILLS
FOR THE SEVENTH GRADER
By
GERALD RALPH BARXHOLZ
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1976




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
It would be impossible for anyone to have reached this plateau in education without having called upon and been given the advice, encouragement, talents, knowledge, and help of countless people each step of the way.
Special appreciation is extended to Dr. William Alexander who not only served as Chairman to the writer's program, but also was instrumental in introducing the writer to the middle school concept and the unique characteristics of transescents,_which ultimately led to the development of this dissertation.
Dr. Joseph Mazur, of the University of South Florida, deserves recognition for giving freely and unselfishly of his knowledge and time to a novice in the area of research and writing.
Much of the data for this study could not have been gathered had it not been for the tireless efforts of a group of students at the University of South Florida who wanted to see their instructor succeed.
Special gratitude must go to the writer's family and friends for their continuous support.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii
LIST OF TABLES v
ABSTRACT vi
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Background Information I
Statement of the Problem 3 Need for the Study 4
Definition of Terms 5 Limitations of the Study 7
CHAPTER II A REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE AND RESEARCH 9
Introduction 9 Library Skills and Achievement 9 The Need for Media Skills 13 Summary 16
CHAPTER III PROCEDURES 18 Introduction 18 Module Development 18 The Sample 19 Design 21 Hypotheses 22 Instrumentation 23 Collection of Data 24 Analysis of Data 24
CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 26 Hypothesis 1 27 Hypothesis 11 28 Hypothesis 111 29 Hypothesis IV 29 Analysis of Additional Findings 30




TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
CHAPTER V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, AND
IMPLICATIONS 36 Summary 36 Discussion 38 Conclusions 41 Implications and Suggestions for Further Research 41
APPENDIX A MODULE ON SELECTED LIBRARY SKILLS FOR THE SEVENTH GRADER 46
APPENDIX B STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE ON PILOT STUDY DRAFT OF MODULE 71
BIBLIOGRAPHY 72
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 76
iv




LIST OF TABLES
TABLE I Source Table for Analysis 27 TABLE II Means and Tukey (t Values) for Post-Hoc
Comparisons Between Means for Reading Levels 29 TABLE III Means of Each Group Based on Reading Level 31 TABLE IV Means and Tukey (t Ratios) for Post-Hoc
Comparisons Between Means for Group Variable 31 TABLE V Construction of Sets of Confidence Intervals
Around the Differences Between Paired Means 32 TABLE VI Group Means on Pre and Posttests for Sex
and Reading Variables 34 TABLE VII Means for Each Observation Required by the
Solomon Four-Group Design 35 TABLE VIII Construction of Sets of Confidence Intervals
Around the Differences Between Paired
Observation Means 35
v




Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education
A VALIDATION STUDY OF A LEARNING MODULE ON SELECTED LIBRARY SKILLS FOR THE SEVENTH GRADER By
Gerald Ralph Barkholz
June, 1976
Chairman: Dr. William M. Alexander Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to develop a module to teach seventh grade youngsters selected skills in the use of the media center, and to validate its effectiveness. The research question attempted to determine if there was a differential effect on learning the skills due to differences in sex and reading level. The study tried to answer the following questions:
1. Was the module equally effective for both boys and girls?
2. Did students with high reading ability perform better with the module than did students of average reading ability?
3. Did students of average reading ability perform better with the module than did students of low reading ability?
vi




Procedures
A module was designed by the researcher to teach the following skills for locating information in the media center:
1. Knowledge of and use of parts of a book
2. Ability to use the card catalog
3. Knowledge of the arrangement of books
4. Ability to use dictionaries, encyclopedias, almanacs, and
atlases
5. Ability to use indexes
Because these five areas were those tested by the National Test of Library Skills, this was the instrument chosen for the study.
The module was written at the seventh grade level based on the Flesch Readability Formula.
Thirty-two seventh grade language arts classes from Pinellas County, Florida, were randomly selected for participation in this study. Pinellas County was chosen because of its metropolitan nature and because all junior high schools in the county had recently been converted to middle schools where self-directed and independent learning are encouraged. The thirty-two classes were randomly assigned to one of four groups prescribed by the Solomon Four-Group Design. Using this design, classes in Groups A and B were given a pretest, Groups A and C were given the module, and all four groups (A, B, C, and D) were given a posttest approximately seven school days after the pretests were given.
A multifactorial analysis of variance was performed and F ratios calculated to find significant differences due to the main effects of group, sex, and reading level, as well as due to vii




interaction effects between group and sex, sex and reading level,
and also group and sex and reading level. Findings
No significant difference at the .05 level was found for the main effect, sex, and the first hypothesis that there would
be no difference due to sex was not rejected.
Significant differences at both the .05 level and the .01
level were found when comparing the three reading levels, resulting in rejecting the remaining hypotheses that there would be no differences due to reading level. Rejecting these hypotheses led to the conclusion that the module was not written at a level suitable for most seventh graders, even though a significant difference was found between the means*of those students who used the module and those who did not.
There was also found to be a significant interaction between the groups and the reading level of the participants of the study.
The results of this study imply that a module on selected library skills can be an effective means of acquiring certain competencies in the use of the school media center.
Since the module used in this study was concluded to be too difficult for seventh graders in general, replication of the study is suggested with either the module being rewritten to a lower reading level, variations of the module being made available to readers of different abilities, or perhaps audiovisual materials being developed to complement the module.
viii




CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background Information
Two movements are underway which are important in this study. One is the trend toward recognizing the special needs and expectations of children between the ages of ten and fourteen, which has resulted in the development of middle schools. The other is the trend away from the traditional library to that of the media center and its role in helping each learner as an individual.
Much has been written on the physical and intellectual growth characteristics of the preadolescent. Children from ten to fourteen are going through a period of change different from any other period in their lives. They will be more unlike others of their age than they have ever been or will be again as they grow older (Mead, 1965). This is a time when children enter a transitional period within their lives, both psychological and physiological (Kohen-Raz, 1971; Kagen, 1973; Alexander, 1969). Recognition of these changes has resulted in a new look at the way children in this age group are educated. As children enter middle school or junior high school, they leave behind the highly structured environment of the elementary school, and move into an environment where independence and self-directed learning is expected and encouraged. Anthropologist
1




2
Margaret Mead (1965) points out that children at this age are working toward one definite purpose--to gain independence. They strive to better understand their individual abilities and are capable of exploring and selecting learning experiences and materials on their own (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1975).
Hershel Thornburg (1970), writing about the maturation and learning of the preadolescent, states that these children develop an interest in highly organizing and structuring their own knowledge. He goes on to say that one of the purposes for the middle school is to provide the kinds of experiences that permit the gradual acquisition of independence. The middle school may very well be the first opportunity for many pupils to experience independent study (Alexander, 1969).
The library or media center seems to be a natural place where much of this independence in learning can be gained. The school media center has always had a stake in this endeavor toward independence. The shift in emphasis from teaching to learning which came about in the 1920s and 1930s meant an increased need for materials to satisfy the diversified needs of the learners (Gates, 1968) and the library was a logical location in which to gather these materials. In 1941, the Joint Committee of the National Education Association and the American Library Association developed a statement that emphasized for the first time that school library service should be a part of the school program (Gates, 1968). James Glass (1925) recognized early the role of the school library. In his address to the American Library Association in 1924, he made clear his belief that the library should be the most influential part in the lives of




3
youth. He felt that there was no agency that could surpass the library in its power to guide the expansion of the early adolescent.
The reflection of this attitude among school librarians, and the multitude of materials for learning which has evolved led to the emergence of the school media center. But the problem of teaching the skills to use the media center effectively was still a concern. In order for students to get the most out of school, and to survive academically, they must have a knowledge of the use of the media
center (Hartz, 1966).
The skills that are introduced in elementary school require further instruction in junior high school or middle school (Krohn, 1964; Alexander, 1969). The primary objective of skills instruction in the media center should be to develop the ability of the student to take advantage of all the services and materials of the media center, and thereby establish a competence to engage in independent study and research (Hartz, 1966). The media center and the materials available should form the bridge between formal schooling and the continuing lifelong learning process (Hunt, 1966). The skills that are necessary for continued learning on the part of the student are among the major concerns of those who develop curriculum for middle school aged children going through a period of transition (Alexander, 1969; Seminar, 1971; Eichhorn, 1972).
Statement of the Problem
The skills required by students to become independent learners include full utilization of the media center and a mastery of library techniques (Alexander, 1969; Curtis and Bidwell, 1970).




4
The purpose of this study was to develop a module to teach seventh grade youngsters selected skills in the use of the media center, and to validate its effectiveness. The research question attempted to determine if there was a differential effect on learning due to differences in sex and reading levels. Ultimately this study directed itself at developing answers to several questions related to the validity of the module as a training vehicle:
1. Was the module equally effective for both boys and girls?
2. Did students with high reading ability perform better with the module than did students of average reading ability?
3. Did students of average reading ability perform better with the module than did students of low reading ability?
Need for the Study
Traditionally, the skills that are necessary for effective use of the media center are taught throughout the elementary grades. This instruction usually takes the form of lessons prepared by librarians for their particular students utilizing the librarian's own materials or commercially prepared filmstrips or audio tapes, (American Library Association, 1972). Often, the library skills to be taught are outlined in a curriculum guide provided by state departments of education, e.g., Oklahoma and Wisconsin, or by local school districts as in the case of Hillsborough County, Florida.
Because the middle and junior high school students are
going through a period when interests are expanding rapidly, it is difficult for the media specialist to provide adequate materials




5
and assistance to such a diverse group (Bowers, 1971). The student is given assistance by the librarian in reviewing and reinforcing his library skills when he requests such assistance. This replaces the classroom instruction received in elementary school.
The media center as currently conceived is moving towards open scheduling whereby students are encouraged to use the media center's facilities whenever it is deemed appropriate by students and their teachers. This puts an added burden on the media specialist in providing appropriate media skills to individual students while at the same time putting an added burden on the students to work independently.
If a method for developing appropriate media skills to aid in independent, self-directed, continued learning for the child going through a transitional period can be found, there would be significant implications for curriculum developers in the area of middle and junior high schools, for media specialists in planning their programs in these schools, and for media educators in teacher education programs.
Definition of Terms
This section defines selected terms and discusses concepts that are important to the clarity of this study.
The terms "library skills" and "media skills" are used
interchangeably throughout the study. Library is the traditional name given to that particular repository of information, of which books are usually the main and central core. Today, the term "media center" or "materials center" is often used instead of the term




6
"library" because this facility contains a vast array of materials other than books which store information, e.g., records, tapes, films, slides, etc. For this reason, the skills of using the media
center are referred to as "media skills" and "library skills" is used when this is the term used in the research being described.
Also, "librarian" and "media specialist" are used interchangeably to denote the person who administers the repositories described above.
"Transescent" is used to denote the youngster approximately between the ages of ten and fourteen--the pre or emerging adolescent.
The dependent variable in this study is the performance on the media skills instrument, and the independent variables are sex, the reading level of the participants, and the module itself.
Reading level is divided into three categories: high, average, and low.
High includes those students reading above the seventh grade level.
Average includes those students reading at the sixth through seventh grade levels.
Low includes those students reading below the sixth grade level.
A "module" is a set of learning activities intended to
facilitate the student's acquisition and demonstration of a particular competency.




7
Limitations of the Study
There are several areas which should be considered limitations to this study, both of a theoretical and a practical nature. The first limitation arises when one considers the instrument being used. There are no data available which describe the reliability or validity of the instrument aside from the information regarding its development found in the test manual. A further discussion of this development will appear in Chapter III, Procedures.
It is possible that some degree of limitation exists in
terms of external validity. Since the sample was drawn from seventh grade classrooms from one county in Florida, the findings can most appropriately be generalized to the seventh grade classrooms in that county. To the extent that these classes are representative of seventh grade classes from similar regions around the country, generalizations can be made. Further discussion of external and internal validity
will also appear in Chapter III.
Some degree of limitation may also exist due to the dependence on other people for results. A lack of familiarity with module format may cause some concern to the children who were expected to use it. Also, since children were allowed to work at their own pace, there was the possibility that some would choose to exit from the module at any point or just not complete it within the time restrictions imposed on the study.
Another limitation comes from the module itself. It was written at the seventh grade level as determined by the Flesch Readability Formula (Flesch, 1948) and therefore could have had a detrimental psychological effect on the student who had difficulty




8
reading the material at the outset. He may very well have given up without putting forth an honest effort, regarding it as "too hard."
Another source of limitation would come from the method of classifying students into groups. Since reading level was used as a variable, a common reading scale should have been used throughout. This was not the case. Reading levels were supplied by the teachers or gathered from student files, and since the levels were based on different standardized test scores, there would likely be different interpretations of actual reading levels.




CHAPTER II
A REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE AND RESEARCH
Introduction
A review of the literature will concentrate on two aspects of the problem: 1) the relationship between student success and the acquisition of media skills; and 2) the need for systematic, individualized instruction in media skills.
Library Skills and Achievement
Several research projects have shown a direct relationship between the success a student has and the degree with which he has the skills for and uses the media center. Adams (1972) conducted a study involving 400 students (grades seven, eight, and nine) in different schools in eastern Oregon, to discover attitudes, usage, skills, and knowledge about the library. One of his major findings was that those students who had taken formal instruction in library skills tended to be more studious. Adams did not define what was meant by "studious" so this writer has inferred that there was a relationship between formal media skills instruction and the earnest acquisition of knowledge by the student based on Adam's findings.
In an experiment with fifty-six eighth grade students placed into two matching groups for science, Barrilleaux (1966) had one group (the control group) provided with a textbook and gave them
9




10
access to the media center. This was considered the usual teaching method. The experimental group was required to depend on the media center as its only source of information. It was found that 1) for students of high and average ability, the library group had significantly higher mean scores in achievement after two years; and 2) the library group was higher in achievement in terms of critical thinking; and 3) the library group came out significantly higher in science attitudes, writing in science, and in the utilization of the library. The results of this experiment indicated that those students who had a textbook to use were inclined to depend on it as their prime source of information and did not generally turn to other means of gaining the additional, supplementary information the media center could provide.
Also, Hastings and Tanner (1963) found that English language skills were significantly greater as a result of regular weekly instruction in the library on the use of a wide variety of reference materials. For this study, four high tenth grade English classes of a large comprehensive high school in San Francisco were matched according to the results of ability tests, achievement tests, and teacher recommendation. The two experimental groups made systematic use of the school library and the two control groups did not.
In a similar study by Irlene Hale (1969) two twelfth grade classes were matched according to achievement scores. One class was given regular exposure to library skills and library resources and given the opportunity for independent study, while the other group was taught by the regular teaching method with library services and resources being only incidental. The findings showed a measurable




effect on learning by the students who were exposed to the library skills and services. There was a mean difference of 49.6 in academic achievement between the groups. A coincidental result showed the experimental group to be much more enthusiastic, often going far beyond the requirements of the teacher.
Although the three studies just cited show significant
improvement in student performance, one needs to guard against making broad generalizations based on them. In Barrilleaux's study, a small sample was selected from a single school, and that school was a laboratory school at the University of Iowa. Barrilleaux served as the teacher for both the experimental and the control groups. Hale, too, used a small sample from a single school. Similarly, Hastings and Tanner, though using a larger sample, selected their sample from a single school. In all three instances matching was employed as a means of separating into the experimental and control groups. Matching rarely overcomes the groups' differences since there are a great number of nonmatched variables among the groups. Nevertheless, these studies showed that a relationship did exist between media skills and student success.
Greve (1975) conducted a study of twelfth graders from
232 high schools in Iowa to determine if the availability of library services had any relationship to academic achievement. He found a positive relationship. Multiple regression analysis further revealed that the most valuable predictor of scores on the Iowa Tests of Educational Development was the number of volumes per pupil in the school library.




12
Joyce (1961) found a significant and positive relationship between performance of a graduating class at a teachers' college on a test of library understandings and their average grades over four years. It would have to be assumed that library "understandings" meant skills and that they were put to use during the students' enrollment at the college.
A study by Alexander (1972) of freshmen at Central Washington State College showed that entering freshmen did not have adequate skills to pursue independent library research. He also found that instruction in library skills and the availability of a central library increased the academic achievement of students at all levels of schooling and that library instruction was most effective when the skills were reviewed regularly. Unfortunately, Alexander's first conclusion would lead one to believe that no entering freshman at Central Washington State College has adequate library skills.
Mary Gaver (1962), writing a bibliographic essay, reported that children who had access to a good library throughout the elementary grades tended to make higher scores on reading tests (Masterton, 1953; Harmer, 1959). Between fourth grade and sixth
grade, these same children showed greater educational gain as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills or by the professional judgment of their teachers. She went on to report that children who received systematic instruction in library skills that were related to the curriculum and had the opportunity to use an organized library collection consistently and continuously scored higher on work-study tests.
A two-year study of 642 seventh and eighth graders to determine




13
the influence on knowledge of library skills and reading comprehension by an augmented school library program (Thorne, 1968) revealed that there were greater gains in reading comprehension and statistically significant gains in the acquisition of library skills. Further analysis to determine the growth in reading comprehension and acquisition of library skills between boys and girls showed gain in reading favored boys and gain in library skills favored girls.
The Need for Media Skills
Stryer (1972), in a study of forty-seven schools ranging from prekindergarten to grade eight (only one school had grades six through eight) found that students working independently in materials centers needed a great deal of help in acquiring research techniques, using indexes, outlining, developing study skills, and using reference materials. Although the majority of media specialists in these schools gave some type of formal or informal media instruction to groups, individualization of instruction for media skills was rarely employed.
Individualization of instruction for library skills was
accomplished by at least one librarian, however, when Geisler (1974) provided such a program to his entering seventh graders. He provided learning stations where filmstrips, tapes, and worksheets were available. Geisler reported that not only did the children enjoy the variety of materials available, the learning was more effective because the children could pace themselves and work as slowly or as
quickly as they pleased.




14
A programmed approach to teaching a specific library skill
has also shown greater gains over traditional methods (Sellmer, 1973). In this study, fourth graders were taught how to use the card catalog by means of programmed instruction. The data showed that students made greater gains in knowledge of how to use the card catalog. Looking at interaction effects there was no difference because of sex and no difference because of sex and method.
Writing about instruction in library skills, Eleanor Ahlers (1972) cited one reason why children don't learn library skills as being the lack of stimulation to learn these skills in a meaningful way. Even though individualization was stressed, formal instruction of library skills in large groups was still prevalent.
Regarding the learning tools of the media center, Adams
(1972) discovered that students in his sample of junior high schools,
were lacking in dictionary skills as well as knowledge of the card catalog. The Readers Guide to Periodical Literature was the least used with many students not even knowing what it was. Adams found a significant relationship between the use of periodicals and knowledge of the Readers Guide. An interesting finding in this study was that most students rated the vertical file as "'useful"' even though many of them did not know what it was.
A study of instructional materials centers in forty junior high schools in fourteen states to determine their characteristics with regard to administrative organization, facilities, and services for the utilization of materials (Grassmeyer, 1966) showed a distinct
lack of understanding on the part of educators and students of the instructional materials center concept and its contribution to the




15
improvement of instruction.
In an earlier study, Cyphert (1958) polled all the librarians of junior high schools in Pennsylvania enrolling 500-1500 students to determine the use of junior high school libraries. He, too, found that formal library instruction to students was a common practice, but that librarians needed more involvement with curriculum and that principals and faculty needed to spend more time in learning the importance of the role of the library in facilitating superior instruction. Teachers in particular needed more knowledge of library services, materials, and utilization. It is inferred that if teachers and administrators lack understanding of the function of the media center, then students are unlikely to be directed toward the media center as a means of improving themselves academically.
The identification and role of school libraries that function as instructional materials centers, a task performed by Alice Lohrer (1970) gave a complete description of instructional materials centers by state in terms of materials and selection aids. There was nothing in this study, however, regarding the services or teaching of skills.
Silvanus Sisson (1961) sent a questionnaire to fifty state departments of education in an attempt to determine the amount of recognition given to junior high school libraries in state regulations. The questionnaire consisted of fifty items, "Significant Elements Making for Adequate Library Service in the Junior High School." Only a few replies revealed any particular attention in this area, and these were in terms of quantitative standards only. Sisson's conclusion was that there was ". . no evidence of any planning for the 'unique needs' of the junior high library."




16
A catalog of media for library instruction compiled by the American Library Association (1972) pointed out:
1. Eye Gate House had ten filmstrips on library skills
suitable for junior and senior high school students.
2. Educational Progress Corporation published an audio
tape, "How to Use the Dictionary" for elementary and
junior high school students.
3. The Oklahoma State Department of Education has
published, Curriculum Guide for Teaching of Library
Skills.
4. The Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction has
published Learning to Use Media.
5. The remainder of the commercial firms which produced
media in this area only had materials for elementary
school children or college students.
The ALA media catalog also listed materials prepared by school librarians for use in their particular library. Of these, only one (Glen Ellyn Junior High School, Glen Ellyn, Illinois) had material for the age group being considered in this study.
Summary
A review of research supports the hypothesis that adequate media skills are an aid to learning and, also, that a systematic method of teaching these skills to the transescent is lacking. An effective means of providing for the mastery of media skills could give educators a springboard for future planning of middle and junior high school curricula. In this way, the preparation of youngsters




17
for the role of independent learners can be better realized, as well as establishing media centers to help reach that goal. The major purpose of the instructional materials center as set forth by the National Study of Secondary School Evaluation (1960) is that of serving the established aims of the total educational program. This can be accomplished by providing not only a rich supply of book and non-book materials and resources, but by "offering leadership in developing techniques for the use of various materials by teachers and students." This was updated by the National Study of School Evaluation (1970) to bring the media center into stronger focus. Among the guiding principles regarding the functions of the media center is that not only are facilities to be available to bring the student together with media but also that ". . students receive assistance and support in the effective and efficient use of media."




CHAPTER III
PROCEDURES
Introduction
This study has been concerned with the validation of a learning module on selected library skills for seventh graders. The main focus has been placed on the examination of the effectiveness with which the module assists students in mastering selected library skills. The material which follows will discuss the development of the module, the sample, the design, the hypotheses being examined, the instrumentation, and the collection of data.
Module Development
Based on the Module on Modules (Lawrence, 1972), one of a series prepared for teachers in Florida's middle schools, a module was designed by the researcher to teach the following skills for locating information in the media center:
1. Knowledge of and use of parts of a book
2. Ability to use the card catalog
3. Knowledge of the arrangement of books
4. Ability to use dictionaries, encyclopedias,
almanacs, and atlases
5. Ability to use indexes
These areas, or skills, have been identified by Gullette, Hatfield, 18




19
and Myers (1967), Cleary (1966), Toser (1964), and Santa and Hardy (1966) as being most crucial for finding information in school libraries.
The National Test of Library Skills, developed and validated by Gullette, Hatfield, and Myers (1967), was used as the preassessment and postassessment sections of the module.
The five items listed above were rewritten in behavioral
terms and became the specific objectives of the module, and appropriate enabling activities were designed to aid the learner meet the objectives.
This module was then presented to four junior high school librarians, four library science educators, one elementary school librarian, and seven school library interns from the University of South Florida for their comments, criticisms, and suggestions. The module was also field tested with eighty-two seventh graders of varying abilities from two schools in Hillsborough County, Florida, and one school in Manatee County, Florida, who were asked to fill out a questionnaire upon completion of the module (Appendix B). The information gathered from these various sources was the basis for rewriting the module in its final form for the study.
The Flesch Readability Formula (Flesch, 1948) was used to determine the approximate reading level of the module. It was found to be written at the seventh grade level.
The Sample
Pinellas County, Florida, was selected for this study because of its metropolitan nature and because it had recently converted all junior high schools to middle schools with regard to both organization




20
and program. To minimize disruption to the system, classrooms were randomly assigned to the methods employed and formed the sample population (Glass and Stanley, 1970). Since library skills are a part of the language arts curriculum, it seemed a logical choice that language arts classes be selected. From a computer print-out of 267 seventh grade language arts classes in the county, forty-eight classes were randomly selected to form the sample. These classes were then randomly assigned to one of four groups and each principal and teacher to be involved was contacted and asked to participate.
Of the thirteen schools represented, three chose not to participate, leaving ten schools with thirty-two classes. The breakdown according to groups is shown below. Group Number of Number of Number of Schools -Classes StudentsA 5 8 221 B 5 8 187 C 6 7 183 D 6 9 204
For the purpose of statistical analysis, each group was then divided by sex and subdivided according to low, average, and high reading level. This resulted in twenty-four groups in the study.
The reading abilities of the students involved ranged from first grade to twelfth grade, as determined by one or a combination of the following instruments.
Botel Word Opposites Test Helen Keller Level Finder




21
California Reading Test
Metropolitan Achievement Test Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test
The researcher was not permitted to administer a reading test to the students for the purpose of establishing a common base upon which to divide the students. Therefore, he had to rely on the scores from the above sources found in the students' files or provided by the teachers.
Design
The design chosen for this study was The Solomon Four-Group Design described by Campbell and Stanley (1963). The major advantage of this design is that the generalizability is increased because the main effects of testing, and the interaction of testing and the treatment can be determined.
The design may be graphically represented as follows: SOLOMON FOUR-GROUP DESIGN
Group A R 01 X 0 Group B R 03 04 Group C R X 05 Group D R 0
Symbols X treatment (module)
O observation instrument R random assignment
Group 03 served as the control group for Group 01. Group 04 served as the control group for Group 02.




22
Group 06 served as the control group for Group 05This design controlled for the following threats to internal and external validity:
1. By comparing 06 with 03 and 01 history and maturation.
2. By comparing 05 with 02, and 06 with 04 testing, instrumentation, and interaction of testing and X.
3. Regression was accounted for in that selection was not
based on scores and was random.
Hypotheses
In this study four major hypotheses were tested. Stated in
the null form, they are:
Hi: There is no difference between the means of boys and girls at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills.
H 2 : There is no difference between the means of participants of high and average reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills.
H3: There is no difference between the means of participants of high and low reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills.
H4: There is no difference between the means of participants of average and low reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills.
Glass and Stanley (1970) state that classroom units should be used to form the sample rather than individuals because, in educational settings, the student rarely acts solely on his own.




23
There is usually interaction with the teacher and classmates. However, since the participants worked independently on the module, without teacher or librarian intervention, a random selection of ten scores from each of the twenty-four groups formed the sample size for statistical analysis (Winer, 1962).
Inst rumen tat ion
The National Test of Library Skills was removed from the
module to be used as the pretest and posttest. This test was designed as a diagnostic instrument for grades four through twelve to identify individual deficiencies. "The test measures those skills necessary for a student's ability to function in a library"(Gullette, Hatfield,
and Myers, 1967).
The test was written by classroom teachers and librarians in cooperation with curriculum, testing, and computer specialists, after which a computer-processed item analysis was made based on the results of 8,000 student scores. Revisions were made and the test was standardized using a national sample of six schools or school systems from six states.
Experience with the instrument by the authors indicated that most students could attempt all questions in fifty minutes or less (a normal class period).
The test consists of forty-four questions with multiple choice answers. Broken down into specific skills, the questions
are concerned with:
1. Parts of books and their use--questions one through ten.
2. Arrangement of books--questions eleven through seventeen.




24
3. Card catalog--questions eighteen through twenty-five
and thirty-two through thirty-nine.
4. Dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other reference books-questions twenty-six through thirty-one.
5. Indexes--questions forty through forty-four.
Collection of Data
Groups A and B were pretested on November 17, 1975 by the researcher and some of his students from the University of South Florida. Groups A and C were instructed to use their class time and any other free time (if they wished) in the school media center working with the module. They were to attempt to complete the module in one week. On November 25 and 26, 1975, posttests were given to all groups in the study. Answers were recorded on IBM mark-sense sheets for scoring by an optical scanner.
Analysis of Data
The students provided the following information on their
answer sheet: name, sex, class period, and teacher's name. Reading level and group identification were added by the researcher. Those students reading below sixth grade level were designated as low readers, those reading at sixth or seventh grade level were designated as average readers, and those reading above seventh grade level were designated as high readers.
After the tests were scored, they were divided into twentyfour cells according to treatment group, sex, and reading level.




25
Since the over-all F test made at the .05 level of
significance was to be used in the analysis of variance, a sample size of ten from each treatment group was calculated assigning the test for main effects a power of .70 (Winer, 1962). Therefore, ten sheets from each cell were randomly selected to provide ten scores for each of the twenty-four cells for a total of 240 scores. These were then key punched on Hollerith cards for computer analysis. Biomedical Computer Programs (Dixon, 1973) was consulted and BMD 02V Analysis of Variance for Factorial Design was selected. An IBM 360/75 computer was used for the analysis of data, and F ratios were computed for determining levels of significance.
The chapter which follows will explain the findings of the analysis.




CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS This chapter presents the results of the analysis of the data obtained in the study. The major purpose of the analysis was to test the four hypotheses of the study. Stated in null form, these hypotheses were:
1. There is no difference between the means of boys and
girls at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills.
2. There is no difference between the means of participants of high and average reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills.
3. There is no difference between the means of participants of high and low reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills.
4. There is no difference between the means of participants of average and low reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills.
This study had three main effects and four interaction effects to be analyzed. These are presented in Table I with the corresponding sums of squares, degrees of freedom, mean squares, and F ratios.
26




27
TABLE I
SOURCE TABLE FOR ANALYSIS
Source of Mean
Variance Sums of Squares df Squares F
Groups 2,251.144 3 750.381 20.68* Sex 51.337 1 51.337 1.41 Reading level 4,227.652 2 2,113.826 58.26* Groups x Sex 28.047 3 9.349 .26 Groups x
Reading level 633.845 6 105.641 2.91* Sex x Reading
level 85.976 2 42.988 1.18 Groups x Sex
x Reading level 200.910 6 33.485 .92 Within 7,837.277 216 36.284 Total 15,316.180 239
*=statistically significant at the .05 level
Hypothesis I
H0: There is no difference between the means of boys and girls at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills.
The second main effect (sex) in Table I has an F ratio of
1.41 which is not significant at the .05 level of significance. The data support the hypothesis and, therefore, the hypothesis cannot be rejected.




28
Hypothesis II
Ho: There is no difference between the means of participants of high and average reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to knowledge of selected library skills.
The F ratio for the main effect of reading level is 58.26. This value is significant at the .05 level and one can conclude that the reading level of the participants appears to make a difference. However, Hypothesis II and those hypotheses which remain deal with specific levels of reading, and the F ratio represents all reading levels. It is not sufficient to reject or fail to reject the hypotheses without further analysis.
The means for knowledge of selected library skills for each of the three reading levels are shown in Table II with the relevant Tukey t ratios for paired mean comparisons.
A t ratio of 6.22 is significant at both the .05 level and the .01 level of significance and, therefore, the second hypothesis
may be rejected.




29
TABLE II
MEANS AND) TUKEY (t VALUES) FOR POST-HOC COMPARISONS BETWEEN MEANS FOR READING LEVELS
Means t ratios Low Reading Average High Reading
Level Reading Level
Level
(L) (A) (H) H-A H-L A-L
14.825 20.862 25.050 6.22* 15.19* 8.97*
Tukey t value = 2.25 at the .05 level of significance 2.81 at the .01 level of significance
Hypothesis III
H 0:There is no difference between the means of participants of high and low reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills.
From Table II, it can be seen that a Tukey t ratio of 15.19
is significant at both the .05 level and the .01 level of significance. Therefore, the hypothesis that there is no difference between high and low readers in relation to the possession of knowledge of selected library skills will also be rejected.
Hypothesis IV
H :There is no difference between the means of participants
0
of average and low reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills.
Again from Table II, there is a t ratio of 8.97 which is also significant at both the .05 level and the .01 level of




30
significance, and the fourth hypothesis is also rejected.
Analysis of Additional Findings
In addition to testing the major hypotheses, several other comparisons have resulted from this study. One such comparison deals with the interaction between variables. The F ratios which resulted from the analysis of variance show that there is an interaction between the groups and the reading level of the participants of the study. Figure 1 illustrates this interaction using the means of each group according to reading level. Table III shows the data used to construct Figure 1. The difference between A and L at C is greater than the difference at A and at B (8.95, 8.40; Scheffe" factor 7.58). No other interaction effects were significant at the .05 level.
FIGURE 1
PROFILES OF READING LEVELS
ACCORDING TO MEAN SCORES AND GROUP
35
301 H
25
A
20- L H
C/2 A
1l 5 L
~l0
51
0 II
A B C D GROUPS




31
TABLE III
MEANS OF EACH GROUP BASED ON READING LEVEL
A B C D L 20.35 14.40 12.35 12.2 A 23.45 18.05 24.4 17.55 H 30.15 23.30 27.1 19.65
Since there was a significant difference due to the main effect of Groups, a Tukey t test was computed using the test means of paired Groups (Table IV) for this variable to determine significant differences between groups.
TABLE IV
MEANS AND TUKEY (t RATIOS) FOR POST-HOC COMPARISONS BETWEEN MEANS FOR GROUP VARIABLE
Group Means t ratios
A 24.650 A B 7.80* B 18.583 A C 4.33* C 21.283 A D 10.52*
D 16.467 B C 3.47 B D 2.72
C D 6.19*
Tukey t value = 3.11 at the .05 level of significance




32
From this table it can be seen that there were no significant differences between Groups B and C, and between Groups B and D with regard to the effect of treatment at the .05 level of significance. Table V was constructed to show the sets of confidence intervals around the differences between the paired means to confirm the above findings. In addition, the confidence interval was constructed for the difference between combined means of groups which received the treatment (A and C) and groups which did not receive the treatment (B and D). Since the confidence interval does not include zero, it can be concluded that there is significant difference between the groups which received treatment and the groups which did not
receive treatment.
TABLE V
CONSTRUCTION OF SETS OF CONFIDENCE INTERVALS
AROUND THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PAIRED MEANS
Differences Between Means t value Confidence Interval
A -B = 6.07 3.11 (2.96, 9.18) A C = 3.37 3.11 (0.26, 6.48) A D = 8.18 3.11 (5.07, 11.29) B C = -2.70 3.11 (-5.81, 0.41) B D = 2.12 3.11 (-0.99, 5.23)
C D = 4.82 3.11 (1.71, 7.93) 112(A+C) l/2(B+D) = 5.44 2.20 (3.24, 7.64)




33
Considering the interaction between sex and reading level
(Table I) no significant difference at the .05 level of significance was found.
Likewise, there was no significant difference due to the interaction between group, sex, and reading level.
Another way of looking at whether or not the treatment
was successful would be to look at the difference between pretest and posttest means. Table VI shows the pretest and posttest means and differences in means for each of the variables in Groups A and B. (Since Groups A and B were the only groups given the pretest, these are the only ones listed in the table.)
Table VII presents the means for each observation required by the Solomon Four-Group Design. From these means, Table VIII was constructed to show confidence intervals around the differences between paired means (by the Scheffe method) to show that the threats to internal and external validity discussed in Chapter III were controlled.
Zero falls within each confidence interval, showing no significant differences between means.
A discussion of the findings in this chapter will be found in Chapter V, along with the summary, conclusions, and implications derived.




34
TABLE VI
GROUP MEANS ON PRE AND POSTTESTS FOR SEX AND READING VARIABLES
Group Sex Reading Pretest Posttest Difference Level Mean Mean Between Means
L 13.8 19.2 5.4 M A 21.1 23.8 2.7 H 24.0 29.3 5.3
A
L 16.3 21.5 5.2 F A 18.4 23.1 4.7 H 25.5 31.0 5.5
L 12.8 11.9 -0.9 M A 18.1 18.9 0.8 H 21.9 25.3 3.4
B
L 15.0 16.9 1.9 F A 16.1 17.2 1.1 H 21.7 21.3 -o.4




35
TABLE VII
MEANS FOR EACH OBSERVATION REQUIRED BY THE SOLOMON FOUR-GROUP DESIGN
Observation Mean
01 19.8
02 24.7 03 17.6 04 18.6 05 21.3 06 16.5
TABLE VIII
CONSTRUCTION OF SETS OF CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AROUND
THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PAIRED OBSERVATION MEANS
Differences Between Means t value Confidence Interval
06 0 3 = -1.1 5.24 (-6.34, 4.14) 06 0Oi = -3.3 5.24 (-8.54, 1.94) 0 5 02 = -3.4 5.24 (-8.64, 1.84)
0- 0 4 = -2.1 5.24 (-7.34, 3.14)




CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS Summary
The purpose of this study was to develop a module to teach seventh grade youngsters selected skills in the use of the media center, and to validate its effectiveness. The research question attempted to determine if there was a differential effect on learning the skills due to differences in sex and reading level. The study
tried to answer the following questions:
1. Was the module equally effective for both boys and girls?
2. Did students with high reading ability perform better with the module than did students of average reading ability?
3. Did students of average reading ability perform better with the module than did students of low reading ability?
Four hypotheses were tested in this study. Stated in the null form they were:
Hi: There is no difference between the means of boys and girls at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession
of knowledge of selected library skills.
H2: There is no difference between the means of participants of high and average reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills.
36




37
H3: There is no difference between the means of participants of high and low reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills.
H4: There is no difference between the means of participants of average and low reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills.
Thirty-two seventh grade language arts classes from Pinellas County, Florida, were randomly selected for participation in this study. These classes were randomly assigned to one of four groups necessary for the Solomon Four-Group Design. Using this design, classes in Groups A and B were given a pretest, Groups A and C were given the module, and all four groups (A, B, C, and D) were given a posttest approximately six to seven school days after the pretests were given.
A multifactorial analysis of variance was performed and F ratios calculated to find significant differences due to the main effects of group, sex, and reading level, as well as due to interaction effects between group and sex, sex and reading level, group and reading level, and also group and sex and reading level.
No significant difference was found at the .05 level of
significance for the main effect, sex, and the first hypothesis was not rejected.
A significant difference was found for the main effect of reading level, so a Tukey t test was performed on paired means for the three reading levels. There was significant difference for each of the paired means resulting in rejecting the second, third, and fourth hypotheses.




38
Interaction was found to exist between the group and the reading level of the participants of the study.
A significant difference for the main effect of group warranted post-hoc comparisons between group means. These comparisons resulted in no significant differences being found between Groups B and C and between Groups B and D. All other comparisons between groups were found to be significantly different at the .05 level of significance. The construction of confidence intervals further showed that there was significant difference between the groups which received treatment and the groups which did not receive treatment.
A table was prepared to illustrate the differences between pretest and posttest means showing changes in mean scores according to sex and reading levels for those groups having had both the pretest and posttest. Confidence intervals were also constructed to show that the threats to internal and external validity discussed in Chapter III were controlled.
Discussion
The purpose of this study was to validate a learning module on selected library skills for seventh graders. Comparisons were made according to sex and reading level to determine if the module was equally effective for both boys and girls of varying reading levels.
The research done by Sellmer (1973) using programmed
instruction to teach a specific library skill found no difference in performance due to sex and no interaction between sex and treatment. The data from this study appear to support Sellmer's findings in




39
that no differences of significance were found due to the sex of the participants or from the interaction of sex and the treatment. It really would not be expected that differences were found to exist because of the sex of those involved. Less and less emphasis has been placed on the sex roles of children over the past few years and, therefore, boys and girls tend to have had the same types of experiences and background which they bring to the learning situation.
Since reading level showed up as significant when comparing
pairs of means according to level, it would be appropriate to conclude that the reading level of the module must be regarded as the single most important factor in predicting success or failure for any given group of youngsters. The average reading level of the statistical sample was sixth grade based on the information provided to the researcher. However, as already pointed out in "Limitations of the Study" in Chapter I, different standardized tests were used to determine the reading levels. Different tests would result in different reading abilities being attributed to children who might be rated the same if given the same test instrument. Therefore, to say that the average reading level of the sample was a specific grade also becomes a matter of approximation.
Looking at the means for the different reading levels it can be seen that the scores between the high level readers and the average readers were closer together than were the scores between the average and low readers. This comparison would indicate that the module was written at a level that was too difficult for a majority of the participants. That the module was too difficult can also be seen by comparing the mean scores with the highest possible




40
score being forty-four. It is more than likely that if the average reading level had been calculated from the total sample, it would have been lower than that found in the statistical sample. Therefore, an adjustment downward of grouping by reading level would probably have resulted in mean scores being closer together across levels. However, if grouping by reading level was moved downward making the average reader at perhaps the fourth to sixth grade level, the module as it now stands would be written for readers of high ability. (The module was written for the seventh grader based on the Flesch Readability Formula.) Hence, it is concluded that the module is too difficult in terms of readability to elicit "no significant difference" based on reading level.
The interaction between group and reading level indicates
variation in group means that are not accounted for by simply having access to the means of either of the main effects (group or reading level). Figure I illustrates the interaction that took place. Even though random sampling would tend to produce lines that are not perfectly parallel, the extreme illustrated in the Figure shows that interaction between group and reading level occurred.
Post-hoc comparisons between means in Table IV showed that there was a significant difference between Groups A and C, and a lack of significant difference between Groups B and C, indicating the possible strength of the pretest. Yet, this does not hold true when comparing Groups B and D, where there was no significant difference. Further experimentation would be indicated as a means to ferret out conclusive evidence regarding the power of the pretest which is beyond the intent of this study.




41
Conclusions
Three conclusions can be drawn from this study. They are:
1. Seventh grade students can learn selected library skills through a self-instruction module. Evidence was provided through change measured by the pretest and posttest. This fact was also indicated by comparison of those who used the module and those who did not.
2. The module was equally effective for both boys and girls. An F ratio showed no significant differences between the
sexes at the .05 level.
3. The reading level of the student was a major determinant of the effectiveness of the module. Each reading group performed significantly higher than the reading group below it.
Other findings resulting from this study are the bases for further research and will be discussed in the next section.
Implications and Suggestions for Further Research
The results of this study imply that a module on selected
library skills can be an effective means of acquiring certain competencies in the use of the school media center. It can be used in place of formal group instruction conducted by the media specialists. Thus, the media specialists are free to work on a one-to-one basis with the students who need their help, and the students are free to work independently at their own pace and on those skills needed
for their lessons.
The particular module used in this study needs to be rewritten, lowering the reading level so as to suit the level of poorer readers




42
and perhaps improve the response of the better readers. Another implication resulting from the significance of reading level is that variations of the module should be prepared for students of varying reading abilities. Perhaps three modules could be written to accommodate three levels of reading. Still another implication would be to complement the module with audiovisual materials to make the material of the module clearer to all levels of readers. This method of complementing written materials with audiovisual materials has already been proven successful by Geisler (1974) and opens new avenues for further research. Replication of this study could be conducted with any of the modifications suggested above.
The prospectus of the module states that the real test
for the students' use of the skills taught by the module would be how well the skills are employed for classwork and personal work outside of school. This implies that students should show better achievement in their future studies as a result of their knowledge of library skills. Another suggestion for future research would be a follow-up study on the students taking part in this study to determine if any improvement in their schoolwork becomes evident, resulting in another method of validating the effectiveness of the module.
Other topics that could be considered for research are: 1. Designing learning materials other than modules for achieving competence in library skills.
2. Comparing different sets of self-instruction materials for teaching library skills.
3. Testing modules to measure change in student behavior.




43
This study adds evidence that learning modules can be
effective training vehicles for the acquisition of library skills. By making objectives clear and activities meaningful to the learners, there is no question of goals and hidden agenda. Self-paced learning when it is needed provides learners with the best opportunity for gaining useful skills to accomplish given tasks.




APPENDIX A




MODULE ON SELECTED LIBRARY SKILLS
FOR THE SEVENTH GRADER




PROSPECTUS
When you enter junior high school or middle school, it is expected that more and more of your learning will be self-directed. This is a time of exploration to gain new and wide knowledge in many different areas. Many of you do not have the skills to explore
and learn by yourself.
The school media center (library) is the best storehouse of knowledge in the school. Skill to use the media center can be the most useful thing you can have. This skill will not only open new worlds, but will also help you with all your schoolwork.
The purpose of this module is to give you some activities that will help you learn the skills needed to use the media center correctly and to your best advantage.
The module is divided into five sections. Each section has some information you will need to read. Then there are some activities to see if you understand what you have read. There are answers provided at the end of the module so you can check your work. You have been given paper on which to do the activities so that you will not write in the booklet.
After you have completed the five sections, there is a test to see if you have learned the skills. Of course, the real test will be how well you use these skills on your own in your classwork and in your personal work when not in school.
46




OBJECTIVES
Terminal Objective
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to demonstrate on a written test that you have the skills for locating information
in the media center.
Specific Objectives
1. You will be able to identify the parts of a book and tell the purpose of each part.
2. Using your media center, you will be able to find on a shelf or return to the shelf any given book.
3. Using the card catalog, you will be able to recognize
the different kinds of cards in the catalog. Then, using information on a particular card, you will be able to tell about that book and its location in the media center.
4. Given specific types of information, you will be able
to tell if that information came from a dictionary, an encyclopedia, an almanac, or an atlas.
5. Given an index of books, you will be able to locate books on a particular subject. You will also be able to locate pictures and find geographical and other information on a particular subject
by using an index in a book.
47




SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE 1
You will be able to identify the parts of a book and tell the purpose of each part.
Enabling Activity 1
Read the following carefully and do what is asked.
a. A great deal of information can be found about a book
without reading the whole thing. A book is divided into
parts, and by knowing where these parts are and what
information is in each part, you can save a lot of time
when trying to find out if that is even the book you
want.
One of the most important parts of the book is the Title Page. From this page you can learn the name
of the book, who wrote it (the author), where it was published, and who published it. On the back of the
title page, called the verso, you will find the copyright date and dates of revisions if there are any.
Where more than one date is listed, the latest is
considered the copyright date. This is important in
telling how up-to-date the information in the book
might be. The copyright is also a protection for the 48




49
author and the publisher. This shows that the book is
registered and that it may not be copied--not even
parts of it--without permission.
Pick up any book and open it to the front. Find the
title page and verso. What is the title? Who is the
author? Who is the publisher? Where was it published?
Look on the verso. Is there a copyright date? What
is it? More than one date shows that the book has
been revised. Has your book been revised?
b. Now find the Table of Contents, also in the front of
the book. The table of contents gives you a list of
chapters and the page on which each chapter begins.
How many chapters does your book have? Very often,
for non-fiction books, you can get a pretty good idea
of the kinds of things that can be found in the book
from this section.
C. The Introduction and/or Preface of a book is often
overlooked. This section usually tells how and why
the author wrote the book in the first place, and often
it gives a summary of what the book is about. Does your book have an introduction or preface? Read it.
d. There are still other parts of a book that are very
helpful. A book often has an Index at the back. This




50
can be the most important part of the book when you're
trying to find certain information. The index is a list
of subjects discussed in the book. The subjects are
listed in alphabetical order and have the page number or numbers where they can be found in the book. Look
at one of your schoolbooks. Does it have an index?
What are some of the topics?
e. Sometimes a book will have some special words in it
(especially science books). If this is true, the book
may also contain a special section called a Glossary.
This is like a dictionary except that it only tells
the meaning of those special words.
f. Very often the author will give you a list of other
books and writings where you can find more information
about a topic. This is called a Bibliography. If
the author has included a bibliography, it may be at
the end of each chapter or at the back of the book.
Find a book that has a bibliography so you will know
what it looks like. Most reference and textbooks
have one.
g. Sometimes a book will have a special section that gives
extra information in tables or charts. This is called an Appendix and is also found at the back of the book.
Does you social studies book have an appendix? What
kinds of information are there?




51
Enabling Activity 2
Written below is a list of things that can be found from
a book quickly if you know where to look. On a sheet of your paper, number from one to ten. Now look at the information asked for and write the name of that part of the book where the information is found.
1. Name of the publisher
2. Alphabetical list of topics in the book
3. Name of the author
4. Number of chapters in the book
5. List of books where more information can be found
6. Meaning of special words used in the book
7. Page number where an important topic can be found
8. Why the book was written
9. Extra information in the book
10. When the book was published
To check your answers, look at Activity 1.
The paragraph where each answer is given is listed below:
1. a 6. e 2. d 7. d 3. a 8. c 4. b 9. g 5. f 10. a




SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE 2 Using your media center, you will be able to find on a shelf or return to the shelf any given book.
Enabling Activity 1
The books in your media center are arranged in a certain way so that they can be found easily. The media center arranges its books by the Dewey Decimal Classification System. This system divides non-fiction (except biography) books into ten groups. These groups are:
General Works 000-099 Philosophy 100-199 Religion 200-299 Social Studies 300-399 Languages 400-499 Pure Science 500-599 Applied Science 600-699 Fine Arts 700-799 Literature 800-899 History 900-999
Every book that comes into the media center that is not a fiction book is put into one of these classes.
,The classification number that is assigned to the book is
placed on the spine of the book. Usually the first letter (or letters) 52




53
of the author's last name is put under the number. Together, they are known as the "call number." The book is then put in the proper section so it can be easily found. Books are arranged from left to right with the lowest number first.
621.3 621.34 621.8 622
Rearrange the following classification numbers in the order
that they would appear on the shelf:
733 620 940.54 621 940.5 310 510 733.4 940 620.1
The correct order is found on page 67.
Enabling Activity 2
Biographies are books written about real people. They
are marked with "B" or "1921" or "92" and the first letter or letters
of the last name of the person about whom the book is written.
Example: Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years by Carl Sandburg
or or
B 921 92 L L L




54
Number your paper from one to ten. Write the call number as it would be found in your media center for each of the following books.
1. Inventive Wizard: George Westinghouse by I. E. Levine
2. Young John Kennedy by Gene Schoor
3. Cleopatra of Egypt by Leonora Hornblow
4. Ahdoolo: The Biography of Matthew Henson by Floyd
Miller
5. Albert Einstein: Theoretical Physicist by Aylesa Forsee
6. Kaiulani: Crown Princess of Hawaii by Nancy Webb
7. Browning: World's Greatest Gunmaker by Gertrude Winders
8. Singing for the World: Marian Anderson by Janet Stevenson
9. The Rise and Fall of Adolf Hitler by William Shirer
10. Black Fire: Henri Christophe by Covelle Newcomb Enabling Activity 3
Fiction books are arranged in three groups. Easy books or picture books are marked with "E" and arranged on the shelves according to the author's last name. Collections of short stories are marked "SC" and are arranged on the shelves by the author's last name. The rest of the fiction books are marked "F" and they, too, are arranged according to the author's last name. If more than one book is written by the same author, they are arranged by title. Whatever the group, books are shelved alphabetically by the author's last name.




55
Example: Old Yeller by Frederick B. Gipson Little Women by Louisa May Alcott
F F
A G
From the following list of fiction books, write the call
numbers on your paper. Then, arrange them in the order they would appear on a shelf.
Tigre by Jim Kjelgaard
The Middle Sister by Louis Duncan
Drop-Out by Jeannette Eyerly
Island of the Blue Dolphins by Scott O'Dell
Goodbye Blue Jeans by Kay Avery
Hot Rod Fury by Robert Bowen
It's Like This, Cat by Emily Neville
Pedro, A Mystery of the Floridas by Alice Hancock
The Ghost of Dagger Bay by William Buchanan
Durango Street by Frank Bonham




SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE 3
Using the card catalog, you will be able to recognize the different kinds of cards in the catalog. Then, using information on a particular card, you will be able to tell about that book and its location in the media center.
Enabling Activity 1
You already know about a book's index being an alphabetical listing of topics in the book. Your media center has a special index listing everything that is there. It is the card catalog. The card catalog can be the most important tool in the media center, because if you know how to use it, you can find anything that is kept there.
First of all, you should know that everything in the media center is listed three different ways in the card catalog--by title, by author, and by subject.
Look at the following catalog cards.
56




57
613.8 Madison, Arnold
M Drugs and you by Arnold Madison
Drugs and you
613.8 Madison, Arnold
M Drugs and you by Arnold Madison
DRUG ABUSE
613.8 Madison, Arnold M Drugs and you by Arnold Madison
The first line on the card tells you what kind of card it is (author, title, or subject). The first card has the author's name on the first line making it an author card. The second card has the title first making it a title card. Notice that the third card has everything in the first line capitalized. If all the letters in the first line are capitalized or if they are typed in red, it is a subject card. Whatever is on the first line determines where the card will be filed. The first card would be filed in the M drawer and the other two in the D drawer.
Now look at the following catalog card to see what other information is there.




58
( 1.8 Hal uer, omnW
H rg:fcson th' san auc
3.-b Title.Hosr.Nw o
L LothopLe & Shepardi 16...
4.p Publishers
. DDate o tP o
6. Numd body of the stimulants, depressants,
T hallucinogens, and narcotics frequently
8 misused today.
bo a bibliography p48
1. Call number
2. Author (always last name first)
3. Title
4. Pubi isher
5. Date of publication
6. Number of pages in the book
7. This book has illustrations (colored)
8. Tells what is in the book
9. Tells that the book has a bibliography on page 48.
Notice that on catalog cards, only the first letter of the title is capitalized.
Enabling Activity 2
All catalog cards are arranged alphabetically by the first word in the first line. If "a," "an," or "the" is the first word,




59
it is ignored and the second word is used. Guide cards are cards that stick up in the file drawer. They have words on them to help you find the card you are looking for more easily.
Below is a list of "first lines." On your paper, rearrange them in the order they would be found in the card catalog.
Example: 1. Shakespeare, William
2. BASEBALL
3. Old yeller
Rearranged: 1. BASEBALL
2. Old yeller 3. Shakespeare
1. Florida: the long frontier
2. Sterling, Philip
3. DRAMA--HISTORY
4. The three musketeers
5. The doll's house
6. Powell, Richard Pitts
7. U. S. HISTORY
8. LIVINGSTON, DAVID
9. London, Jack
10. Go ask alice




60
Enabling Activity 3
Go back to Activity 2 and label each "first line" as to
whether it belongs to an author card, title card, or subject card.
Enabling Activity 4
Using the list of fiction books on page 55 of this module, find one that is listed in the card catalog. On your paper, answer these questions about that book from the information on the catalog card:
1. When was the book published?
2. How many pages are in the book?
3. Is it illustrated?
4. What is the call number?
5. What is it about?
See if the book is on the shelf.
Enabling Activity 5
Go to the card catalog and look up the Civil War. How many books does the media center have on this topic?
How many of these are fiction?




SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE 4
Given specific types of information, you will be able to tell if that information came from a dictionary, an encyclopedia, an almanac, or an atlas.
Enabling Activity 1
The dictionary is a book with which you are already familiar. You already know that you use a dictionary to find out what a word means. But you can also learn other things about that word.
Get a dictionary and look up the word "vicarious." The
words at the very top of the page are called guide words and tell you the first and last words on that page. So, if you know the alphabet, you should be able to tell at a glance if the word you are looking for is on that page. What are the guide words on the
page where you found vicarious?
After the pronunciation, you will find "adj." This tells
you that the word is an adjective. Then, there are several meanings given for the word. Can you write a sentence using vicarious? Notice that after the definitions there is some information in brackets. This tells you that the word came from Latin. (In the front of the dictionary it tells what all those letters in the brackets mean.) Vicarious can be changed to an adverb or a noun 61




62
just by adding some letters. What do you add to make it an adverb? a noun?
Sometimes synonyms and/or antonyms are given for a word. This is shown by "Syn." or "Ant." Does vicarious have a synonym listed?
Look up the word "induce." What kind of word is it? From what language did we get the word? Does it have a synonym?
Did you look these words up in an unabridged or abridged
dictionary? The unabridged dictionary has every word in the language in it. It is the great big one that sits on a stand in the media center. The abridged dictionary is the one we usually use. It has only the most commonly used words in it.
Enabling Activity 2
The encyclopedia is written to give an overview of a particular subject. By this time you have probably used the encyclopedia many times. Your media center has more than one set of encyclopedias.
Pick a topic you are studying in one of your classes. Look it up in each set and answer these questions on your paper:
1. Which seems to have the most information on your topic?
2. Which is easier for you to read?
3. Which set seems to have the most pictures?




63
4. Most sets of encyclopedias have one volume which is
the index for the whole set. Does your media center
have a set with an index at the end of each volume?
5. What is the name of this encyclopedia?
Enabling Activity 3
An almanac is a book of facts. You can use it as a quick reference to get the answers to many questions such as, "How many 'Oscars' did Katharine Hepburn win?" or "How much oil was produced
by Lebanon in 1971?"
Get a copy of the World Almanac and look through it. You will notice that instead of a table of contents in the front, it has an index to help you find the exact page you need.
Using World Almanac, find the answers to the following
questions and write them on your paper. The underlined words will
help you use the index.
1. Who won the Orange Bowl in 1970? What was the score?
(football)
2. What is the tallest building in Tampa?
3. How many radio stations are there in Florida?
4. What was the top selling single record in August, 1974?
5. What is the black population in the state of Vermont?




64
Enabling Activity 4
An atlas is a book of maps. It often provides information about geography. There are basically three types of maps--relief, political, and economic. Relief maps show such things as mountains, rivers, lakes, deserts, and plains. Political maps show boundaries of countries and states, cities and capitals. Economic maps are special maps which give information about population, temperature, rainfall, and products of a region. An atlas may contain one, two, or all three types of maps.
Get an atlas in the media center and answer the following questions:
1. What is the title?
2. Who is the publisher?
3. What is the copyright date?
4. What kind of maps does it have?
5. Does it have an index?
6. Does the index list cities and rivers and tell where
to locate them?
7. How do you think an atlas could help you do a report
for one of your classes?




SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE 5
Given an index of books, you will be able to locate books on a particular subject. You will also be able to locate pictures and find geographical and other information on a particular subject by using an index in a book.
Enabling Activity
An index is simply an alphabetical list of names, places, and topics and where information about them can be found. You will recall that an index in a book tells on what pages various topics are discussed, or on what pages there are pictures, maps, or bibliographies. The card catalog is an index that tells where materials can be found in the whole media center. Encyclopedia sets also have indexes. Most of the time, there is one book from the set that is an index to the entire set. Sometimes, as in the case of Compton's Encyclopedia, there is an index at the end of each volume. An encyclopedia index tells in which volume and on what page certain information is found.
Sometimes when you look up a topic, it will say "see" and give another word or words for the topic. If you find "see also," it means that more information can be found by also looking under a different topic.
65




66
Example: Packers, "see" Green Bay Packers Conservation, "see also" ecology "See" and "see also" are known as cross-references and are found in all types of indexes.
For a review of indexes, see pages 49, 50, 56, and 63 of this module.




67
Answers to Enabling Activity 1, p. 53
310 510 620 620.1 621 733 733.4
940 940.5 940.54
Answers to Enabling Activity 2, p. 54
1. B 6. B
W K 2. B 7. B
K B 3. B 8. B
C A 4. B 9. B
H H 5. B 10. B
E C
Answers to Enabling Activity 3,_p. 55
1. F 6. F
A E 2. F 7. F
B (Bonham) H
3. F 8. F
B (Bowen) K 4. F 9. F
B (Buchanan) N 5. F 10. F
D 0




68
Answers to Enabling Activity 2, p. 59
1. The doll's house
2. DRArMA--HISTORY
3. Florida: the long frontier
4. Go ask alice
5. LIVINGSTON, DAVID
6. London, Jack
7. Powell, Richard Pitts
8. Sterling, Philip
9. The three musketeers 10. U. S. HISTORY
Answers to Enabling Activity 3, p. 60
1. Title 6. Author 2. Author 7. Subject 3. Subject 8. Subject 4. Title 9. Author
5. Title 10. Title
Answers to Enabling Activity 3, p. 63
1. Penn. State 10 Missouri 3
2. First Financial Tower (36 stories)
3. 195 (AM) and 97 (FM) =292
4. Roberta Flack: "Feel Like Makin Love"l
5. 761




APPENDIX B




STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE ON PILOT STUDY DRAFT OF MODULE




71
Please help me by answering the following questions about the library skills module. D not put your name on this sheet. Just answer the questions truthfully.
1. Could you understand what you were Yes No
asked to do?
2. Were any activities too difficult? Yes No
If yes, which one(s)?
(Give page number and activity number)
3. Were any activities too easy? Yes No
If yes, which one(s)?
4. Were any activities not necessary? Yes No
If yes, which one(s)?
5. Were any activities particularly Yes No
helpful?
If yes, which one(s)?
6. Did the media center have all you Yes No
needed to complete the activities?
7. About how long did it take you to
do all the activities?
2 4 hours
4 6 hours
more than 6 hours
8. Over-all, did you find the module Interesting Not Interesting
If you would like to make any comments about the module, please put them on the back.




BIBLIOGRAPHY
Adams, Golden V., Jr. A Study: Library Attitudes, Usage Skill
and Knowledge of Junior High School Age Students Enrolled at Lincoln Junior High School and Burns Union High School, Burns, Harney County, Oregon 1971-72. (Master of Library
Science research project, Brigham Young University),
ERIC ED 077 538, 1972.
Ahlers, Eleanor E. "Instruction in Library Skills." School
Libraries XXI (Spring 1972):23-25.
Alexander, Malcolm D. A Measure of the Library Skills of High
School Graduates of Washington State as Demonstrated by
Freshmen of Central Washington State College. (Master of Education thesis, Central Washington State College),
ERIC ED 081 441, 1972.
Alexander, William M. and others. The Emergent Middle School.
New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969.
American Library Association. Show and Tell: A Clinic on Using
Media in Library Instruction. Chicago: American Library
Association, ERIC ED 067 841, 1972.
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. The Middle
School We Need: A Report from the ASCD Working Group on
the Emerging Adolescent Learner. Washington, D. C.:
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1975.
Barrilleaux, Louis E. An Excperimental Investigation of the Effects
of Multiple Library Sources as Compared to the Use of a
Basic Textbook on Student Achievement and Learning Activity
in Junior High School Science. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Iowa), Dissertation Abstracts XXVI (MarchApril 1966):5283.
Bowers, Melvyn K. Library Instruction in the Elementary School.
Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1971.
Campbell, Donald T. and Stanley, Julian C. Experimental l and
Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research. Chicago: Rand
McNally and Co., 1963.
Cleary, Florence Damon. Discovering Books and Libraries. New
York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1966.
72




73
Curtis, Thomas E. and Bidwell, Wilma W. "Rationale for Instruction
in the Middle School." Educational Leadership XXVII (March
1970) :578-581.
Cyphert, Frederick R. Current Practice in the Use of the Library
in Selected Junior High Schools in Pennsylvania. (Doctoral
Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh), Dissertation
Abstracts XVIII (January-February 1958):162.
Dixon, W. J., ed. Biomedical Computer Programs. Los Angeles,
California: University of California Press, 1973.
Eichhorn, Donald H. "The Emerging Adolescent School of the Future-NOW," in J. Galen Saylor, ed., The School of the Future--NOW.
Washington, D. C.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development, 1972, pp. 35-52.
Flesch, R. F. "A New Readability Yardstick." Journal of Applied
Psychology XXXII (June 1948):221-233.
Gates, Jean Key. Introduction to Librarianship. New York: McGrawHill Book Company, 1968.
Gaver, Mary V. "Research on Elementary School Libraries." American
Library Association Bulletin LVI (February 1962):117-126.
Geisler, C. "Individualized School Library Orientation." Wyoming
Library Roundup XXIX (December 1974) : 32-33.
Glass, Gene V. and Stanley,Julian C. Statistical Methods in Education
and Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall,
Inc., 1970.
Glass, James M. "The Library in Junior High Schools." Library
Journal L (February 1, 1925):123.
Grassmeyer, Donald Leroy. The Organization and Administration of
Instructional Materials Centers in Selected Junior High
Schools. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Nebraska
Teachers College), Dissertation Abstracts XXVII (JulyAugust 1966) :68-A.
Greve, Clyde. The Relationship of the Availability of Libraries
to the Academic Achievement of Iowa High School Seniors.
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Denver), Dissertation
Abstracts XXXV (January 1975):4574-A.
Gullette, Irene; Hatfield, Francis; and Myers, William. National
Test of Library Skills Manual. Fort Lauderdale, Florida:
Gullette, Hatfield and Myers, 1967.
Hale, Irlene W. "The Influence of Library Services upon the Academic
Achievement of Twelfth Grade Students." (Course paper,
ELE 960, Athens, Georgia: Georgia University, Department
of Library Science), ERIC ED 047 694, 1969.




74
Harmer, W. R. The Effect of a Library Training Program on Summer
Loss or Gain in Reading Abilities. (Doctoral Dissertation,
University of Minnesota, 1959), cited by Mary V. Gaver,
"Research on Elementary School Libraries." American Library
Association Bulletin LVI (February 1962):117-126.
Hartz, Frederic R. "Library Instruction in the Secondary School."
Journal of Secondary Education XLI (May 1966):201-205.
Hastings, Dorothy M. H., and Tanner, Daniel. "The Influence of
Library Work in Improving English Language Skills at the
High School Level." Journal of Experimental Education
XXXI (1963) :401-405.
Hunt, Bruce. "Surprising Things Happen When They Study on Their
Own." Grade Teacher LXXXIV (November 1966):114.
Joyce, William D. "A Study of Academic Achievement and Performance
on a Test of Library Understandings." Journal of Educational
Research LIV (January 1961):198-199.
Kagen, Jerome and Coles, Robert. Twelve to Sixteen: Early Adolescence.
New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1973.
Kohen-Raz, Reuven. The Child from 9 to 13. Chicago: Aldine.Atherton,
1971.
Krohn, Mildred L. "Learning and the Learning Center." Educational
Leadership XXI (January 1964):217-222.
Lawrence, Gordon. Module on Modules. Gainesville, Florida: Gordon
Lawrence, 1972.
Lohrer, Alice. The Identification and Role of School Libraries
that Function as Instructional Materials Centers and Implications for Library Education in the United States. Urbana, Illinois: Graduate School of Library Science, University
of Illinois, ERIC ED 038 150, 1970.
Masterton, Elizabeth G. "An Evaluation of the School Library in the
Reading Program." (Master's thesis, Graduate Library School,
University of Chicago, 1953), cited by Mary V. Gaver,
"Research on Elementary School Libraries." American Library
Association Bulletin LVI (February 1962):117-126.
Mead, Margaret. "Early Adolescence in the United States." Bulletin
of the National Association of Secondary School Principals
XLIX (April 1965):5-10.
National Study of School Evaluation. Junior High School/Middle
School Evaluative Criteria. Arlington, Virginia: National
Study of School Evaluation, 1970.




75
National Study of Secondary School Evaluation. Evaluative Criteria;
1960 Edition. Washington, D. C.: National Study of Secondary
School Evaluation, 1960.
Santa, Beauel M. and Hardy, Lois Lynn. How to Use the Library.
Palo Alto, California: Pacific Books, 1966.
Selimer, Donald F. Teaching Fourth Grade Children to Use A Library
Card Catalog: A Programmed Approach. (Doctoral Dissertation, Ball State University), Dissertation Abstracts XXXIV (NovemberDecember 1973) :2669-A.
Seminar. "Guidelines for the Middle Schools We Need Now." National
Elementary Principal LI (November 1971):78-89.
Sisson, Silvanus Hull. Planning the Junior High School Library
Program. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Nebraska Teachers College), Dissertation Abstracts XXI (April-June
1961):3692.
Stryer, Andrea. Media Centers and Individualized Instruction Programs
in Selected Elementary Schools in Connecticut. (a trs
thesis, Southern Connecticut State College) ERIC ED 073 681,
1972.
Thornburg, Hershel. "Learning and Maturation in Middle School Age
Youth." The Clearing House XLV (November 1970):150-155.
Thorne, Lucile M. The Influence of the Knapp School Libraries
Project on the Reading Comprehension and on the Knowledge of Library Skills of the Pupils at the Farrer Junior High
School, Provo, Utah. (Doctoral Dissertation, Brigham
Young University), Dissertation Abstracts XXVIII (JanuaryMarch 1968) :2465-A.
Toser, Marie A. Library Manual. New York: The H. W. Wilson Company,
1964.
Winer, B. J. Statistical Principles in Experimental Design. New
York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1962-




BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Gerald Ralph Barkholz was born November 10, 1941, in Detroit, Michigan. He attended elementary and secondary school in Detroit and subsequently entered Wayne State University there.
Upon receiving his Bachelor of Science in Education in 1964, Mr. Barkholz began teaching sixth grade in the Farmington Public School System, Farmington, Michigan. He remained with the
Farmington Public Schools for four years, teaching fifth and sixth grades and serving on the Central Committee for the Improvement of Instruction. He was also building audiovisual coordinator at Bond
School and Kenbrook School in Farmington.
In 1968 he received a Master of Education degree from Wayne State University with a major in Instructional Technology. At that point, he joined the Library Science/Audiovisual Education Department faculty in the College of Education at the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida.
Since 1971, he has been enrolled as a doctoral student in the Division of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Florida, while maintaining his position as Instructor at the University of South Florida.
Mr. Barkholz is married and has two daughters.
76




I certify that I have read this study and that, in my opinion, it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education.
Wilin.M Alexander,//C"aim
Professor of Education
I certify that I have read this study and that, in my opinion, it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education.
Vynce A. Hines
Professor of Education
I certify that I have read this study and that, in my opinion, it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education.
I
enneth A. Christiansen
rofessor of Journalism and Communications




I certify that I have read this study and that, in my opinion, it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education.
Ronald K. Bass
Assistant Professor of Education
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of
the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education.
June, 1976
ij AC
Dean, College of/ Ed,cation
Y
Dean, Graduate School




Full Text

PAGE 1

A VALIDATION STUDY OF A LEARNING MODULE ON SELECTED LIBRARY SKILLS FOR THE SEVENTH GRADER By GERALD RALPH BARKHOLZ A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1976

PAGE 2

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS It would be impossible for anyone to have reached this plateau in education without having called upon and been given the advice, encouragement, talents, knowledge, and help of countless people each step of the wa y Special appreciation is extended to Dr. William Alexander who not only served as Chairman to the writer's program, but also was instrumental in introducing the writer to the middle school concept and the unique characteristics of transesc~nt's, which . ultimately led to the development of this dissertation. Dr. Joseph Mazur, of the University of South Florida, deserves recognition for giving freely and unselfishly of his knowledge and time to a novice in the area of research and writing. Much of the data for this study could not have been gathered had it not been for the tireless efforts of a group of students at the University of South Florida who wanted to see their instructor succeed. Special gratitude must go to the writer's family and friends for their continuous support. ii

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS LIST OF TABLES ABSTRACT CHAPTER I CHAPTER II CHAPTER III CHAPTER IV TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Background Information Statement of the Problem Need for the Study Definition of Terms Limitations of the Study A REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE AND RESEARCH Introduction Library Skills and Achievement The Need for Media Skills Summary PROCEDURES Introduction Module Development The Sample Design Hypotheses Instrumentation Collection of Data Analysis of Data PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS Hypothesis I Hypothesis II Hypothesis III Hypothesis IV Analysis of Additional Findings iii ii V vi 1 1 3 4 5 7 9 9 9 13 16 18 18 18 19 21 22 23 24 24 26 27 28 29 29 30

PAGE 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) CHAPTER V APPENDIX A APPENDIX B BIBLIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS Surrnnary Discussion Conclusions Implications and Suggestions for Further Research MODULE ON SELECTED LIBRARY SKILLS FOR THE SEVENTH GRADER STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE ON PILOT STUDY DRAFT OF MODULE iv 36 36 38 41 41 46 71 72 76

PAGE 5

TABLE I TABLE II TABLE III TABLE IV TABLE V TABLE VI TABLE VII LIST OF TABLES Source Table for Analysis Means and Tukey (t Values) for Post-Hoc Comparisons Between Means for Reading Levels Means of Each Group Based on Reading Level Means and Tukey (t Ratios) for Post-Hoc Comparisons Between Means for Group Variable Construction of Sets of Confidence Intervals Around the Differences Between Paired Means Group Means on Pre and Posttests for Sex and Reading Variables Means for Each Observation Required by the Solomon Four-Group Design TABLE VIII Construction of Sets of Confidence Intervals Around the Differences Between Paired Observation Means V 27 29 31 31 32 34 35 35

PAGE 6

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education A VALIDATION STUDY OF A LEARNING MODULE ON SELECTED LIBRARY SKILLS FOR THE SEVENTH GRADER By Gerald Ralph Barkholz Jtme, 1976 Chairman: Dr. William M. Alexander Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to develop a module to teach seventh grade yotmgsters selected skills in the use of the media center, and to validate its effectiveness. The research question attempted to determine if there was a differential effect on learning the skills due to differences in sex and reading level. The study tried to answer the following questions: 1. Was the module equally effective for both boys and girls? 2. Did students with high reading ability perform better with the module than did students of average reading ability? 3. Did students of average reading ability perform better with the module than did students of low reading ability? vi

PAGE 7

Procedures A module was designed by the researcher to teach the following skills for locating information in the media center: 1. Knowledge of and use of parts of a book 2. Ability to use the card catalog 3. Knowledge of the arrangement of books 4. Ability to use dictionaries, encyclopedias, almanacs, and atlases 5. Ability to use indexes Because these five areas were those tested by the National Test of Library Skills, this was the instrument chosen for the study. The module was written at the seventh grade level based on the Flesch Readability Formula. Thirty-two seventh grade language arts classes from Pinellas County, Florida, were randomly selected for participation in this study. Pinellas County was chosen because of its metropolitan nature and because all junior high schools in the county had recently been converted to middle schools where self-directed and independent learning are encouraged. The thirty-two classes were randomly assigned to one of four groups prescribed by the Solomon Four-Group Design. Using this design, classes in Groups A and B were given a pretest, Groups A and C were given the module, and all four groups (A, B, C, and D) were given a posttest approximately seven school days after the pretests were given. A multifactorial analysis of variance was performed and F ratios calculated to find significant differences due to the main effects of group, sex, and reading level, as well as due to vii

PAGE 8

interaction effects between group and sex, sex and reading level, and also group and sex and reading level. Findings No significant difference at the .05 level was found for the main effect, sex, and the first hypothesis that there would be no difference due to sex was not rejected. Significant differences at both the .05 level and the .01 level were found when comparing the three reading levels, resulting in rejecting the remaining hypotheses that there would be no differences due to reading level. Rejecting these hypotheses led to the conclusion that the module was not written at a level suitable for most seventh graders, even though a significant difference was found between the means.of those students who used the module and those who did not. There was also found to be a significant interaction between the groups and the reading level of the participants of the study. The results of this study imply that a module on selected library skills can be an effective means of acquiring certain competencies in the use of the school media center. Since the module used in this study was concluded to be too difficult for seventh graders in general, replication of the study is suggested with either the module being rewritten to a lower reading level, variations of the module being made available to readers of different abilities, or perhaps audiovisual materials being developed to complement the module. viii

PAGE 9

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background Information 1\ v o movements are underway which are important in this study. One is the trend toward recognizing the special needs and expectations of children between the ages of ten and fourteen, which has resulted in the development of middle schools. The other is the trend away from the traditional library to that of the media center and its role in helping each learner as an individual. Much has been written on the physical and intellectual growth characteristics of the preadolescent. Children from ten to fourteen are going through a period of change different from any other period in their lives. They will be more unlike others of their age than they have ever been or will be again as they grow older ( Mead, 1965). This is a time when children enter a transitional period within their lives, both psychological and physiological (Kohen-Raz, 1971; Kagen, 1973; Alexander, 1969). Recognition of these changes has resulted in a new look at the way children in this age group are educated. As children enter middle school or junior hig school, they leave behind the highly structured environment of the elementary school, and move into an environment where independence and self-directed learning is expected and encouraged. Anthropologist 1

PAGE 10

Margaret Mead (1965) points out that children at this age are working toward one definite purpose--to gain independence. They strive to better understand their individual abilities and are capable of exploring and selecting learning experiences and materials on their own (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1975). Hershel Thornburg (1970), writing about the maturation and learning of the preadoles ent, states that these children develop an interest in highly organizing and structuring their own knowledge. He goes on to say that one of the purposes for the middle school is to provide the kinds of experiences that permit the gradual acquisition of independence. The middle school may very well be the first opportunity for many pupils to experience independent study (Alexander, 1969). The library or media center seems to be a natural place where much of this independence in learning can be gained. The school media center has always had a stake in this endeavor toward independence. The shift in emphasis from teaching to learning which came about in the 1920s and 1930s meant an increased need for materials to satisfy the diversified needs of the learners (Gates, 1968) and the library was a logical location in which to gather these materials. In 1941, the Joint Committee of the National Education Association and the American Library Association developed a statement that emphasized for the first time that school library service should be a part of the school program (Gates, 1968). James Glass (1925) recognized early the role of the school library. In his address to the American Library Association in 1924, he made clear his belief that the l ibrary should be the most influential part in the lives of 2

PAGE 11

youth. He felt that there was no agency that could surpass the library in its power to guide the expansion of the early adolescent. The reflection of this attitude among school librarians, and the multitude of materials for learning which has evolved led to the emergence of the school media center. But the problem of teaching the skills to use the media center effectively was still a concern. In order for students to get the most out of school, and to survive academically, they must have a knowledge of the use of the media center (Hartz, 1966). The skills that are introduced in elementary school require further instruction in jtmior high school or middle school (Krohn, 1964; Alexander, 1969). The primary objective of skills instruction in the media center should be to develop the ability of the student to take advantage of all the services and materials of the media center, and thereby establish a competence to engage in independent study and research (Hartz, 1966). The media center and the materials available should form the bridge between formal schooling and the continuing lifelong learning process (Htmt, 1966). The skills that are necessary for continued learning on the part of the student are among the major concerns of those who develop curriculum for middle school aged children going through a period of transition (Alexander, 1969; Seminar, 1971; Eichhorn, 1972). Statement of the Problem The skills required by students to become independent learners include full utilization of the media center and a mastery of library techniques (Alexander, 1969; Curtis and Bidwell, 1970). 3

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The purpose of this study was to develop a module to teach seventh grade youngsters selected skills in the use of the media center, and to validate its effectiveness. The research question attempted to determine if there was a differential effect on learning due to differences in sex and reading levels. Ultimately this study directed itself at developing answers to several questions related to the validity of the module as a training vehicle: 1. Was the module equally effective for both boys and girls? 2. Did students with high reading ability perform better with the module than did students of average reading ability? 3. Did students of average reading ability perform better with the module than did students of low reading ability? Need for the Study Traditionally, the skills that are necessary for effective use of the media center are taught throughout the elementary grades. This instruction usually takes the form of lessons prepared by librarians for their particular students utilizing the librarian's own materials or commercially prepared filmstrips or audio tapes, (American Library Association, 1972). Often, the library skills to be taught are outlined in a curriculum guide provided b y state departments of education, e.g., Oklahoma and Wisconsin, or b y local school districts as in the case of Hillsborough County, Florida. Because the middle and junior high school students are going through a period when interests are expanding rapidly it is difficult for the media specialist to provide adequate materials 4

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and assistance to such a diverse group (Bowers, 1971). The student is given assistance by the librarian in reviewing and reinforcing his library skills when he requests such assistance. This replaces the classroom instruction received in elementary school. The media center as currently conceived is moving towards open scheduling whereby students are encouraged to use the media center's facilities whenever it is deemed appropriate by students and their teachers. This puts an added burden on the media specialist in providing appropriate media skills to individual students while at the same time putting an added burden on the students to work independently. If a method for developing appropriate media skills to aid in independent, self-directed, continued learning for the child going through a transitional period can be found, there would be significant implications for curricull.llll developers in the area of middle and junior high schools, for media specialists in planning their programs in these schools, and for media educators in teacher education programs. Definition of Terms This section defines selected terms and discusses concepts that are important to the clarity of this study. The terms "library skills" and "media skills" are used interchangeably throughout the study. Library is the traditional name given to that particular repository of information, of which books are usually the main and central core. Today, the term "media center" or "materials center" is often used instead of the term 5

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"library" because this facility contains a vast array of materials other than books which store information, e.g., records, tapes, films, slides, etc. For this reason, the skills of using the media center are referred to as "media skills" and "library skills" is used when this is the term used in the research being described. Also, "librarian" and "media specialist" are used interchangeably to denote the person who administers the repositories described above. "Transescen t" is used to denote the youngster approximately between the ages of ten and fourteen--the pre or emerging adolescent. The dependent variable in this study is the performance on the media skills instrument, and the independent variables are sex, the reading level of the participants, and the module itself. Reading level is divided into three categories: high, average, and low. High includes those students reading above the seventh grade level. Average includes those students reading at the sixth through seventh grade levels. Low includes those students reading below the sixth grade level. A "module" is a set of learning activities intended to facilitate the student's acquisition and demonstration of a particular competency. 6

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Limitations of the Study There are several areas which should be considered limitations to this study both of a theoretical and a practical nature. The first limitation arises when one considers the instrument being used. There are no data available which describe the reliability or validity of the instrument aside from the information regarding its development found in the test manual. A further discussion of this development will appear in Chapter III, Procedures. It is possible that some degree of limitation exists in terms of external validity. Since the sample was drawn from seventh grade classrooms from one county in Florida, the findings can most appropriately be generalized to the seventh grade classrooms in that county To the extent that these classes are representative of seventh grade classes from similar regions around the country, generalizations can be made. Further discussion of external and internal validity will also appear in Chapter III. Some degree of limitation may also exist due to the dependence on other people for results. A lack of familiarity with module format may cause some concern to the children who were expected to 7 use it. Also, since children were allowed to work at their own pace, there was the possibility that some would choose to exit from the module at any point or just not complete it within the time restrictions imposed on the study. Another limitation comes from the module itself. It was written at the seventh grade level as determined by the Flesch Readability Formula (Flesch, 1948) and therefore could have had a detrimental psychological effect on the student who had difficulty

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reading the material at the outset. He may very well have given up without putting forth an honest effort, regarding it as "too hard." Another source of limitation would come from the method of classifying students into groups. Since reading level was used as a variable, a common reading scale should have been used throughout. This was not the case. Reading levels were supplied by the teachers or gathered from student files, and since the levels were based on different standardized test scores, there would likely be different interpretations of actual reading levels. 8

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CHAPTER II A REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE AND RESEARCH Introduction A review of the literature will concentrate on two aspects of the problem: 1) the relationship between student success and the acquisition of media skills; and 2) the need for systematic, individualized instruction in media skills. Library Skills and Achievement Several research projects have shown a direct relationship between the success a student has and the degree with which he has the skills for and uses the media center. Adams (1972) conducted a study involving 400 students (grades seven, eight, and nine) in different schools in eastern Oregon, to discover attitudes, usage, skills, and knowledge about the library. One of his major findings was that those students who had taken formal instruction in library skills tended to be more studious. Adams did not define what was meant by "studious" so this writer has inferred that there was a relationship between formal media skills instruction and the earnest acquisition of knowledge by the student based on Adam's findings. In an experiment with fifty-six eighth grade students placed into two matching groups for science, Barrilleaux (1966) had one group (the control group) provided with a textbook and gave them 9

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access to t h e media center. This was considered the usual teaching method. The experimental group was required to depend on the media center as its only source of information. It was found that 1) for students of high and average ability, the library group had significantly higher mean scores in achievement after t w o years; and 2) the library group was higher in achievement in terms of critical thinking; and 3) the library group came out significantly higher in science attitudes, writing in science, and in the utilization of the library The results of this experiment indicated that those students w ho had a textbook to use were inclined to depend on it as their prime source of information and did not generally turn to other means of gaining the additional, supplementary information the media center could provide. Also, Hastings and Tanner (1963) found that English language s kills were significantly greater as a result of regular weekly instruction in t h e library on the use of a wide variety of reference materials. For this study four high tenth grade English classes of a large comprehensive h i g h school in San Francisco were matched according to the results of ability tests, achievement tests, and teacher recommendation. The t w o e xperimental group s made s ystematic use of the school library and the t w o control groups did not. In a similar study b y Irlene Hale (1969) t w o twelfth grade classes were matched according to achievement scores. One class was given regular exposure to library skills and library resources and given the opportunity for independent study, while the other group was taught b y the regular teaching method with library services and resources being only incidental. The findings showed a measurable 10

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effect on learning by the students who were exposed to the library skills and services. There was a mean difference of 49.6 in academic achievement between the groups. A coincidental result showed the experimental group to be much more enthusiastic, often going far beyond the requirements of the teacher. Although the three studies just cited show significant improvement in student performance, one needs to guard against making broad generalizations based on them. In Barrilleaux's study, a 9mall sample was selected from a single school, and that school was a laboratory school at the University of Iowa. Barrilleaux served as the teacher for both the experimental and the control groups. Hale, too, used a small sample from a single school. Similarly Hastings and Tanner, though using a larger sample, selected their sample from 11 a single school. In all three instances matching was employed as a means of separating into the experimental and control groups. Matching rarely overcomes the groups' differences since there are a great number of nonmatched variables among the groups. Nevertheless, these studies showed that a relationship did exist between media skills and student success. Greve (1975) conducted a study of twelfth graders from 232 high schools in Iowa to determine if the availability of library services had any relationship to academic achievement. He found a positive relationship. Multiple regression analysis further revealed that the most valuable predictor of scores on the Iowa Tests of Educational Development was the number of volumes per pupil in the school library.

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Joyce (1961) found a significant and positive relationship between performance of a graduating class at a teachers' college on a test of library understandings and their average grades over four years. It would have to be assumed that library "understandings" meant skills and that they were put to use during the students' enrollment at the college. 12 A study b y Alexander (1972) of freshmen at Central Washington State College showed that entering freshmen did not have adequate skills to pursue independent library research. He also found that instruction in library skills and the availability of a central library increased the academic achievement of students at all levels of schooling and that library instruction was most effective when the skills were reviewed regularly Unfortunately Alexander's first conclusion would lead one to believe that no entering freshman at Central Washington State College has adequate library skills. Mary Gaver (1962), writing a bibliographic essay reported that children who had access to a good library throughout the elementary grades tended to mak e higher scores on reading tests (Masterton, 1953; Harmer, 1959). Between fourth grade and sixth grade, these same children showed greater educational gain as measured b y the Iowa Test of Basic Skills or b y the professional judgment of their teachers. She went on to report that children w ho received systematic instruction in library skills that were related to the curriculum and had the op portunity to use an organized library collection consistently and continuously scored higher on work-study tests. A t wo-year study of 642 seventh and eighth graders to determine

PAGE 21

the influence on knowledge of library skills and reading comprehension by an augmented school library program (Thorne, 1968) revealed that there were greater gains in reading comprehension and statistically significant gains in the acquisition of library skills. Further analysis to determine the growth in reading comprehension and acquisition of library skills between boy s and girls showed gain in reading favored boys and gain in library skills favored girls. The Need for Media Skills Stryer (1972), in a study of forty-seven schools ranging from prekindergarten to grade eight (only one school had grades six t hrough eight) found t hat students working independently in materials centers needed a great deal of help in acquiring research techniques, using indexes, outlining, developing study skills, and using reference materials. Although the majority of media specialists in t hese schools gave some t ype of formal or informal media instruction to groups, individualization of instruction for media s kills was rarely employed. Individualization of instruction for library s kills was accomplished b y at least one librarian, however, when Geisler (1974) provided such a program to his entering seventh graders. He provided learning stations where filmstrips, tapes, and worksheets were available. Geisler reported that not only did the children enjoy the variety of materials available, the learning was more effective because the children could pace themselves and work as slowly or as quickly as they pleased. 13

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A progrannned approach to teaching a specific library skill has also shown greater gains over traditional methods (Sellmer, 1973). In this study, fourth graders were taught how to use the card catalog by means of programmed instruction. The data showed that students made greater gains in knowledge of how to use the card catalog. Looking at interaction effects there was no difference because of sex and no difference because of sex and method. Writing about instruction in library skills, Eleanor Ahlers (1972) cited one reason why children don't learn library skills as being the lack of stimulation to learn these skills in a meaningful way. Even though individualization was stressed, formal instruction of library skills in large groups was still prevalent. Regarding the learning tools of the media center, Adams (1972) discovered that students in his sample of junior high schools, were lacking in dictionary skills as well as knowledge of the card catalog. The Readers Guide to Periodical Literature was the least used with many students not even knowing what it was. Adams found 14 a significant relationship between the use of periodicals and knowledge of the Readers Guide. An interesting finding in this study was that most students rated the vertical file as "useful" even though many of them did not know what it was. A study of instructional materials centers in forty junior high schools in fourteen states to determine their characteristics with regard to administrative organization, facilities, and services for the utilization of materials (Grassmeyer, 1966) showed a distinct lack of understanding on the part of educators and students of the instructional materials center concept and its contribution to the

PAGE 23

improvement of instruction. In an earlier study, Cyphert (1958) polled all the librarians of junior high schools in Pennsylvania enrolling 500-1500 students to determine the use of junior high school libraries. He, too, found that formal library instruction to students was a connnon practice, but that librarians needed more involvement with curriculum and that principals and faculty needed to spend more time in learning the importance of the role of the library in facilitating superior instruction. Teachers in particular needed more knowledge of library services, materials, and utilization. It is inferred that if teachers and administrators lack understanding of the function of the media center, then students are nnlikely to be directed toward the media center as a means of improving themselves academically. The identification and role of school libraries that function as instructional materials centers, a task performed by Alice Lohrer (1970) gave a complete description of instructional materials centers by state in terms of materials and selection aids. There was nothing in this study, however, regarding the services or teaching of skills. 15 Silvanus Sisson (1961) sent a questionnaire to fifty state departments of education in an attempt to determine the amount of recognition given to junior high school libraries in state regulations. The questionnaire consisted of fifty items, "Significant Elements Making for Adequate Library Service in the Junior High School." Only a few replies revealed any particular attention in this area, and these were in terms of quantitative standards only. Sisson' s conclusion was that there was no evidence of any planning for the 'unique needs' of the junior high library."

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A catalog of media for library instruction compiled by the American Library Association (1972) pointed out: 1. Eye Gate House had ten filmstrips on library s kills suitable for junior and senior high school students. 2. Educational Progress Corporation published an audio tape, "Ho w to Use t h e Dictionary" for elementary and junior high school students. 3. The Oklahoma State Department of Education has published, Curriculum Guide for Teaching of Library Skills. 4. T h e Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction has published Leaming to Use Media. 5. The remainder of the commercial firms which produced media in this area only had materials for elementary school children or college students. The ALA media catalog also listed materials prepared b y school librarians for use in their particular library. Of these, only one ( Glen Elly n Junior High School, Glen Ellyn, Illinois) had material for the age group b e ing considered in this study Summary A review of research supports the hypothesis that adequate media skills are an aid to learning and, also, that a s ystematic method of teaching these s kills to the transescent is lacking. An effective means of providing for the mastery of media skills could give educators a springboard for future planning of middle and junior high school curricula. In t his w a y the preparation of youngsters 16

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for the role of independent learners can be better realized, as well as establishing media centers to help reach that goal. The major purpose of the instructional materials center as set forth by the National Study of Secondary School Evaluation (1960) is that of serving the established aims of the total educational program. This can be accomplished by providing not only a rich supply of book and non-book materials and resources, but by "offering leadership in developing techniques for the use of various materials by teachers and students." This was updated by the National Study of School Evaluation (1970) to bring the media center into stronger focus. Among the guiding principles regarding the functions of the media center is that not only are facilities to be available to bring the student together with media but also that ". . students receive assistance and support in the effective and efficient use of media." 17

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CHAPTER III PROCEDURES Introduction This study has been concerned with the validation of a learning module on selected library skills for seventh graders. The main focus has been placed on the examination of the effectiveness with which the module assists students in mastering selected library skills. The material which follows will discuss the development of the module, the sample, the design, the h ypotheses being examined, the instrumentation, and the collection of data. Module Development Based on the Module on Modules (Lawrence, 1972), one of a series prepared for teachers in Florida's middle schools, a module was designed b y the researcher to teach the following skills for locating information in the media center: 1 Knowledge of and use of parts of a book 2. Ability to use the card catalog 3. Knowledge of the arrangement of books 4. Ability to use dictionaries, encyclopedias, almanacs, and atlases 5. Ability to use indexes These areas, or skills, have been identified b y Gullette, Hatfield, 18

PAGE 27

and Myers (1967), Cleary (1966), Toser (1964), and Santa and Hardy (1966) as being most crucial for finding information in school libraries. The National Test of Library Skills, developed and validated b y Gullette, Hatfield, and Myers (1967), was used as the preassessment and postassessment sections of the module. The five items listed above were rewritten in behavioral 19 terms and became the specific objectives of the module, and appropriate enabling activities were designed to aid the learner meet the objectives. This module was then presented to four junior hig h school librarians, four library science educators, one elementary school librarian, and seven school library interns from the Universi t y of South Florida for their comments, criticisms, and suggestions. The module was also field tested with eighty-two seventh graders of varying abilities from t w o schools in Hillsborough County Florida, and one school in Manatee County Florida, w ho were asked to fill out a questionnaire upon completion of the module (Appendix B). The information gathered from these various sources was the basis for rewriting the module in its final form for the study The Flesch Readability Formula ( Flesch, 1948) was used to determine t h e approximate reading level of the module. It was found to be written at the seventh grade level. The Sample Pinellas County, Florida, was selected for this study because of its metropolitan nature and because it had recently converted all junior high schools to middle schools with regard to both organization

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and program. To minimize disruption to the system, classrooms were randomly assigned to the methods employed and formed the sample population (Glass and Stanley, 1970). Since library skills are a part of the language arts curriculum, it seemed a logical choice that language arts classes be selected. From a computer print-out of 267 seventh grade language arts classes in the county forty-eight classes were randomly selected to form the sample. These classes were then randomly assigned to one of four groups and each principal and teacher to be involved was contacted and asked to participate. Of the thirteen schools represented, three chose not to participate, leaving ten schools with thirty-two classes. The breakdown according to groups is shown below. 20 Group Number of Number of Number of Schools Classes Students A 5 8 221 B 5 8 187 C 6 7 183 D 6 9 204 For the purpose of statistical analysis, each group was then divided by sex and subdivided according to low, average, and high reading level. This resulted in twenty-four groups in the study The reading abilities of the students involved ranged from first grade to twelfth grade, as determined b y one or a combination of the following instruments. Botel Word Opposites Test Helen Keller Level Finder

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California Reading Test Metropolitan Achievement Test Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test The researcher was not permitted to administer a reading 21 test to the students for the purpose of establishing a common base upon which to divide the students. Therefore, he had to rely on the scores from the above sources found in the students' files or provided by the teachers. Design The design chosen for this study was The Solomon FourGroup Design described by Campbell and Stanley (1963). The major advantage of this design is that the generalizability is increased because the main effects of testing, and the interaction of testing and the treatment can be determined. The design may be graphically represented as follows: SOLOMON FOUR -GROUP DESIGN Group A R 01 X Group B R 03 Group C R X Group D R Symbols X -treatment (module) 0 -observation instrument R random assignment Group 03 served as the control group for Group 01. Group 04 served as the control group for Group 02. 02 04 05 06

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Group 0 6 served as the control group for Group o5 This design controlled for the following threats to internal and external validity: 1. By comparing 0 6 with 03 and 01 -history and maturation. 2. By comparing 05 with 02, and 06 with 04 -testing, instrumentation, and interaction of testing and X. 3. Regression was accounted for in that selection was not based on scores and was random. Hypotheses In this study four major hypotheses were tested. Stated in the null form, they are: H 1 : There is no difference between the means of boys and girls at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills. H 2 : There is no difference between the means of participants of high and average reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills. H 3 : There is no difference between the means of participants of high and low reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills. H 4 : There is no difference between the means of participants of average and low reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills. Glass and Stanley (1970) state that classroom units should be used to form the sample rather than individuals because, in educational settings, the student rarely acts solely on his own. 22

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23 There is usually interaction with the teacher and classmates. However, since the participants worked independently on the module, without teacher or librarian intervention, a random selection of ten scores from each of the twenty-four groups formed the sample size for statistical analysis (Winer, 1962). Instrumentation The National Test of Library Skills was removed from the module to be used as the pretest and posttest. This test was designed as a diagnostic instrument for grades four through twelve to identify individual deficiencies, "The test measures those skills necessary for a student's ability to function in a library"(Gullette, Hatfield, and Myers, 1967), The test was written by classroom teachers and librarians in cooperation with curriculum, testing, and computer specialists, after which a computer-processed item analysis was made based on the results of 8,000 student scores, Revisions were made and the test was standardized using a national sample of six schools or school systems from six states, Experience with the instrument by the authors indicated that most students could attempt all questions in fifty minutes or less (a normal class period). The test consists of forty-four qu~stions with multiple choice answers. Broken down into specific skills, the questions are concerned with: 1. Parts of books and their use--questions one through ten. 2. Arrangement of books--questions eleven through seventeen.

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3. Card catalog--questions eighteen through twenty-five and thirty-two through thirty-nine. 4. Dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other reference books-questions twenty-six through thirty-one. 5. Indexes--questions forty through forty-four. Collection of Data Groups A and B were pretested on November 17, 1975 by the researcher and some of his students from the University of South Florida. Groups A and C were instructed to use their class time and any other free time (if they wished) in the school media center working with the module. They were to attempt to complete the module in one week. On November 25 and 26, 1975, posttests were given to all groups in the study. Answers were recorded on IBM mark-sense sheets for scoring by an optical scanner. Analysis of Data The students provided the following information on their answer sheet: name, sex, class period, and teacher's name. Reading level and group identification were added by the researcher. Those students reading below sixth grade level were designated as low readers, those reading at sixth or seventh grade level were designated as average readers, and those reading above seventh grade level were designated as high readers. After the tests were scored, they were divided into twentyfour cells according to treatment group, sex, and reading level. 24

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Since the over-all F test made at the .05 level of significance was to be used in the analysis of variance, a sample size of ten from each treatment group was calculated assigning the test 25 for main effects a power of .70 (Winer, 1962). Therefore, ten sheets from each cell were randomly selected to provide ten scores for each of the twenty-four cells for a total of 240 scores. These were then key punched on Hollerith cards for computer analysis. Biomedical Computer Programs (Dixon, 1973) was consulted and BMD 02V -Analysis of Variance for Factorial Design was selected. An IB M 360/75 computer was used for the analysis of data, and F ratios were computed for determining levels of significance. The chapter which follows will explain the findings of the analysis.

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CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS This chapter presents the results of the analysis of the data obtained in the study. The major purpose of the analysis was to test the four hypotheses of the study. Stated in null form, these hypotheses were: 1. There is no difference between the means of boys and girls at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills. 2. There is no difference between the means of participants of high and average reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills. 3. There is no difference between the means of participants of high and low reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills. 4, There is no difference between the means of participants of average and low reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills. This study had three main effects and four interaction effects to be analyzed. These are presented in Table I with the corresponding sums of squares, degrees of freedom, mean squares, and F ratios. 26

PAGE 35

Source of Variance Groups Sex Reading level Groups x Sex Groups x Reading level Sex x Reading level Groups x Sex x Reading level Within Total TABLE I S O URCE TABLE FOR ANALYSIS Sums of Squares 2,251.144 51.337 4,227.652 28.047 633.845 85. 9 76 200.910 7,837.277 15,316.180 df 3 1 2 3 6 2 6 216 239 Mean Squares 750. 381 51. 337 2,113.826 9.349 105.641 42. 988 33. 485 36.284 *=statistically significant at the .05 level Hypothesis I F 20.68* 1.41 58. 26* .26 2.91* 1.18 .92 H 0 : There is no difference between the means of boys and girls at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills. The second main effect (sex) in Table I has an F ratio of 1.41 which is not significant a t the .05 level of significance. The data support the hypothesis and, therefore, the h ypothesis cannot be rejected. 27

PAGE 36

Hypothesis II H 0 : There is no difference between the means of participants of high and average reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to knowledge of selected library skills. The F ratio for the main effect of reading level is 58.26. This value is significant at the .05 level and one can conclude that the reading level of the participants appears to make a difference. However, Hypothesis II and those hypotheses which remain deal with specific levels of reading, and the F ratio represents all reading levels. It is not sufficient to reject or fail to reject the hypotheses without further analysis. The means for knowledge of selected library skills for each of the three reading levels are shown in Table II with the relevant Tukey t ratios for paired mean comparisons. At ratio of 6.22 is significant at both the .05 level and the .01 level of significance and, therefore, the second hypothesis may be rejected. 28

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TABLE II MEANS AND TUKEY (t VALUES) FOR POST-HOC COMPARISONS BETWEEN MEANS FOR READING LEVELS Means t ratios Low Reading Average High Reading Level (L) 14. 825 Reading Level Level (A) (H) H-A H-L A-L 20. 862 25.050 6.22* 15.19* 8.97* Tukey t value= 2.25 at the .05 level of significance 2.81 at the .01 level of significance Hypothesis III H 0 : There is no difference between the means of participants of high and low reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills. From Table II, it can be seen that a Tuke y t ratio of 15.19 29 is significant at both the .05 level and the .01 level of significance. Therefore, the hypothesis that there is no difference between high and low readers in relation to the possession of knowledge of selected library skills will also be rejected. Hypothesis IV H 0 : There is no difference between the means of participants of average and low reading levels at the ,05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills. Again from Table II, there is at ratio of 8.97 which is also significant at both the 05 level and the 01 level of

PAGE 38

significance, and the fourth hypothesis is also rejected. Analysis of Additional Findings In addition to testing the major hypotheses, several other comparisons have resulted from this study. One such comparison deals with the interaction between variables. The F ratios which resulted from the analysis of variance show that there is an interaction between the groups and the reading level of the participants of the study. Figure 1 illustrates this interaction using the means of each group according to reading level. Table III shows the data used to construct Figure 1. The difference between A and Lat C is greater than the difference at A and at B (8.95, 8.40; Scheffe factor 7.58). No other interaction effects were significant at the .05 level. 35 30 25 0 2 u 15 10 5 0 FIGURE 1 PROFILES OF READING LEVELS ACCORDING TO MEAN SCORES AND GROUP H A L H A L A B C D GROUPS 30

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L A H TABLE III MEANS OF EACH GROUP BASED ON READING LEVEL A 20.35 23.45 30.15 B 14.40 18.05 23.30 C 1 2 .35 24.4 27.1 D 12 .2 17. 55 19.65 Since there was a significant difference due to the main effect of Groups, a Tukey t test was computed using the test means of paired Groups (Table IV) for this variable to determine significant differences between groups. Group A B C D TABLE IV MEANS AND TUKEY (t RATIOS) FOR POST-HOC COMPARISONS BETWEEN MEANS FOR GROUP VARIABLE Means t ratios 24.650 A -B 7. 80* 18.583 A C 4.33* 21. 283 A -D 10.52* 16.467 B C 3.47 B -D 2. 72 C D 6 .19* Tukey t value= 3.11 at the .05 level of significance 31

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From this table it can be seen that there were no significant differences between Groups Band C, and between Groups Band D with regard to the effect of treatment at the .05 level of significance. Table V was constructed to show the sets of confidence intervals around the differences between the paired means to confirm the above findings. In addition, the confidence interval was constructed for the difference between combined means of groups which received the treatment (A and C) and groups which did not receive the treatment (Band D). Since the confidence interval does not include zero, it can be concluded that there is significant difference between the groups which received treatment and the groups which did not receive treatment. TABLE V CONSTRUCTION OF SETS OF CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AROUND THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PAIRED MEANS Differences Between Means t value Confidence Interval A B = 6.07 3.11 (2. 96, 9 .18) A C 3.37 3.11 (0.26, 6. 48) A D 8.18 3.11 (5.07, 11. 29) B C -2.70 3.11 (-5.81, o. 41) B D 2.12 3.11 (-0.99, 5. 23) C D = 4.82 3.11 (1.71, 7. 93) 1/2 (A+C) -l/2(B+D) = 5.44 2.20 (3. 24, 7.64) 32

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Considering the interaction between sex and reading level (Table I) no significant difference at the 05 level of significance was found. Likewise, there was no significant difference due to the interaction between group, sex, and reading level. Another way of looking at whether or not the treatment was successful would be to look at the difference between pretest and posttest means. Table VI shows the pretest and posttest means and differences in means for each of the variables in Groups A and B. (Since Groups A and B were the only groups given the pretest, these are the only ones listed in the table.) Table VII presents the means for each observation required by the Solomon Four-Group Design. From these means, Table VIII was constructed to show confidence intervals around the differences between paired means (by the Scheff~ method) to show that the threats to internal and external validity discussed in Chapter III were controlled. Zero falls within each confidence interval, showing no significant differences between means. A discussion of the findings in this chapter will be found in Chapter V, along with the summary, conclusions, and implications derived. 33

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Group Sex M A F M B F TABLE VI GROUP MEANS ON PRE AND POSTTESTS FOR SEX AND READING VARIABLES Reading Pretest Posttest Difference Level Mean Mean Between Means L 13.8 19.2 5.4 A 21.1 23.8 2. 7 H 24.0 29.3 5.3 L 16.3 21.5 5.2 A 18.4 23.1 4.7 H 25.5 31.0 5.5 L 12. 8 11.9 -0.9 A 18.1 18.9 0.8 H 21. 9 25.3 3.4 L 15 .o 16.9 1. 9 A 16.1 17.2 1.1 H 21. 7 21.3 -0.4 34

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TABLE VII ME.ANS FOR EACH OBSERVATION REQUIRED BY THE SOLOMON FOUR-GROUP DESIGN Observation Mean 01 19. 8 02 24. 7 03 17.6 04 18.6 05 21. 3 06 16.5 TABLE VIII CONSTRUCTION OF SETS OF CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AROUND THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PAIRED OBSERVATION ME.ANS Differences Between Means t value Confidence Interval 06 03 = -1.1 5.24 (-6.34, 4.14) 06 01 = -3.3 5.24 ( -8.54, 1. 94) 05 02 = -3.4 5.24 ( -8.64, 1. 84) 06 04 = -2.1 5.24 (-7.34, 3.14) 35

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CHAPTER V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS Summary The purpose of this study was to develop a module to teach seventh grade youngsters selected skills in the use of the media center, and to validate its effectiveness. The research question attempted to determine if there was a differential effect on learning the skills due to differences in sex and reading level. The study tried to answer the following questions: 1. Was the module equally effective for both boys and girls? 2. Did students with high reading ability perform better with the module than did students of average reading ability? 3. Did students of average reading ability perform better with the module than did students of low reading ability? Four hypotheses were tested in this study. Stated in the null form they were: H 1 : There is no difference between the means of boys and girls at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills. H 2 : There is no difference between the means of participants of high and average reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills. 36

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H3: There is no difference between the means of participants of high and low reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills. H 4 : There is no difference between the means of participants of average and low reading levels at the .05 level of significance in relation to possession of knowledge of selected library skills. Thirty-two seventh grade language arts classes from Pinellas County, Florida, were randomly selected for participation in this study. These classes were randomly assigned to one of four groups necessary for the Solomon Four-Group Design. Using this design, classes in Groups A and B were given a pretest, Groups A and C were given the module, and all four groups (A, B, C, and D) were given a posttest approximately six to seven school days after the pretests were given. A multifactorial analysis of variance was performed and F ratios calculated to find significant differences due to the main effects of group, sex, and reading level, as well as due to interaction effects between group and sex, sex and reading level, group and reading level, and also group and sex and reading level. No significant difference was folIDd at the .05 level of significance for the main effect, sex, and the first hypothesis was not rejected. A significant difference was folIDd for the main effect of reading level, so a Tukey t test was performed on paired means for the three reading levels. There was significant difference for each of the paired means resulting in rejecting the second, third, and fourth hypotheses. 37

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Interaction was found to exist between the group and the reading level of the participants of the study. 38 A significant difference for the main effect of group warranted post-hoc comparisons between group means. These comparisons resulted in no significant differences being found between Groups Band C and between Groups Band D. All other comparisons between groups were found to be significantly different at the .05 level of significance. The construction of confidence intervals further showed that there was significant difference between the groups which received treatment and the groups which did not receive treatment. A table was prepared to illustrate the differences between pretest and posttest means showing changes in mean scores according to sex and reading levels for those groups having had both the pretest and posttest. Confidence intervals were also constructed to show that the threats to internal and external validity discussed in Chapter III were controlled. Discussion The purpose of this study was to validate a learning module on selected library skills for seventh graders. Comparisons were made according to sex and reading level to determine if the module was equally effective for both boys and girls of varying reading levels. The research done by Sellmer (1973) using programmed instruction to teach a specific library skill found no difference in performance due to sex and no interaction between sex and treatment. The data from this study appear to support Sellmer's findings in

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that no differences of significance were fotmd due to the sex of the participants or from the interaction of sex and the treatment. It really would not be expected that differences were fotmd to exist because of the sex of those involved. Less and less emphasis has been placed on the sex roles of children over the past few years and, therefore, boys and girls tend to have had the same types of experiences and backgrotmd which they bring to the learning situation. Since reading level showed up as significant when comparing pairs of means according to level, it would be appropriate to conclude that the reading level of the module must be regarded as the single most important factor in predicting success or failure for any given group of youngsters. The average reading level of the statistical sample was sixth grade based on the information provided to the researcher. However, as already pointed out in "Limitations of the Study" in Chapter I, different standardized tests were used to determine the reading levels. Different tests would result in different reading abilities being attributed to children who might be rated the same if given the same test instrument. Therefore, to say that the average reading level of the sample was a specific grade also becomes a matter of approximation. Looking at the means for the different reading levels it can be seen that the scores between the high level readers and the average readers were closer together than were the scores between the average and low readers. This comparison would indicate that 39 the module was written at a level that was too difficult for a majority of the participants. That the module was too difficult can also be seen by comparing the mean scores with the highest possible

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score being forty-four. It is more than likely that if the average reading level had been calculated from the total sample, it would have been lower than that found in the statistical sample. Therefore, an adjustment downward of grouping by reading level would probably have resulted in mean scores being closer together across levels. However, if grouping by reading level was moved downward making the average reader at perhaps the fourth to sixth grade level, the module as it now stands would be written for readers of high ability. (The module was written for the seventh grader based on the Flesch Readability Formula.) Hence, it is concluded that the module is too difficult in terms of readability to elicit "no significant difference" based on reading level. The interaction between group and reading level indicates variation in group means that are not accounted for b y simply having access to the means of either of the main effects (group or reading level). Figure 1 illustrates the interaction that took place. Even though random sampling would tend to produce lines that are not perfectly parallel, the extreme illustrated in the Figure shows that interaction between group and reading level occurred. Post-hoc comparisons between means in Table IV showed that there was a significant difference between Groups A and C, and a lack of significant difference between Groups Band C, indicating the possible strength of the pretest. Yet, this does not hold true when comparing Groups Band D, where there was no significant difference. Further experimentation would be indicated as a means to ferret out conclusive evidence regarding the power of the pretest which is beyond the intent of this study 40

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Conclusions Three conclusions can be drawn from this study The y are: 1. Seventh grade students can learn selected library s kills through a self-instruction module. Evidence was provided through change measured by the pretest and posttest. This fact was also indicated by comparison of those who used the module and those who did not. 2. The module was equally effective for both boy s and girls. An F ratio showed no significant differences between the sexes at the .05 level. 3 T h e reading level of t h e student was a major determinant of the effectiveness of the module. Each reading group performed significantly higher than t h e reading group below it. O t her findings resulting from this study are the bases for further research and will be discussed in the next section. Implications and Suggestions for Further Research The results of this study imply that a module on selected library skills can be an effective means of acquiring certain compe tencies i n the use of the school media center. It can be used in place of formal group instruction conducted b y the media s pecialists. Thus, the media s pecialists are free to work on a one-to-one basis with the students who need their help, and the students are free to work independently at their own pace and on those skills needed for their lessons. 41 The particular module used in this study needs to be rewritten, lowering the reading level so as to suit the level of poorer readers

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and perhaps improve the response of the better readers. Another implication resulting from the significance of reading level is that variations of the module should be prepared for students of varying reading abilities. Perhaps three modules could be written to accommodate three levels of reading. Still another implication would be to complement the module with audiovisual materials to make the material of the module clearer to all levels of readers. This method of complementing written materials with audiovisual materials has already been proven successful by Geisler (1974) and opens new avenues for further research. Replication of this study could be conducted with any of the modifications suggested a bove. The prospectus of the module states that the real test for the students' use of the skills taught by the module would be how well the skills are employed for classwork and personal work outside of school. This implies that students should show better achievement in their future studies as a result of their knowledge of library skills. Another suggestion for future research would be a follow-up study on the students taking part in this study to determine if any improvement in their schoolwork becomes evident, resulting in another method of validating the effectiveness of the module. Other topics that could be considered for research are: 1. Designing learning materials other than modules for achieving competence in library skills. 2. Comparing different sets of self-instruction materials for teaching library skills. 3. Testing modules to measure change in student behavior. 42

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This study adds evidence that learning modules can be effective training vehicles for the acquisition of library skills. By making objectives clear and activities meaningful to the learners, there is no question of goals and hidden agenda. Self-paced learning when it is needed provides learners with the best opportunity for gaining useful skills to accomplish given tasks. 43

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APPENDIX A

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MODULE ON SELECTED LIBRARY SKILLS FOR THE SEVENTH GRADER

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PROSPECTUS When you enter jnnior high school or middle school, it is expected that more and more of your learning will be self-directed. This is a time of exploration to gain new and wide knowledge in many different areas. Many of you do not have the skills to explore and learn by yourself. The school media center (library) is the best storehouse of knowledge in the school. Skill to use the media center can be the most useful thing you can have. This skill will not only open new worlds, but will also help you with all your schoolwork. The purpose of this module is to give you some activities that will help you learn the skills needed to use the media center correctly and to your best advantage. The module is divided into five sections. Each section has some information you will need to read. Then there are some activities to see if you nnderstand what you have read. There are answers provided at the end of the module so you can check your work. You have been given paper on which to do the activities so that you will not write in the booklet. After you have completed the five sections, there is a test to see if you have learned the skills. Of course, the real test will be how well you use these skills on your own in your classwork and in your personal work when not in school. 46

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OBJECTIVES Terminal Objective Upon completion of this module, you will be able to demonstrate on a written test that you have the skills for locating information in the media center. Specific Objectives 1. You will be able to identify the parts of a book and tell the purpose of each part. 2. Using your media center, you will be able to find on a shelf or return to the shelf any given book. 3. Using the card catalog, you will be able to recognize the different kinds of cards in the catalog. Then, using information on a particular card, you will be able to tell about that book and its location in the media center. 4. Given specific types of information, you will be able to tell if that information came from a dictionary an encyclopedia, an almanac, or an atlas. 5. Given an index of books, you will be able to locate books on a particular subject. You will also be able to locate pictures and find geographical and other information on a particular subject by using an index in a book. 47

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SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE 1 You will be able to identify the parts of a book and tell the purpose of each part. Enabling Activity 1 Read the following carefully and do what is asked. a. A great deal of information can be found about a book without reading the whole thing. A book is divided into parts, and by knowing where these parts are and what information is in each part, you can save a lot of time when trying to find out if that is even the book you want. One of the most important parts of the book is the Title Page. From this page you can learn the name of the book, who wrote it (the author), where it was published, and who published it. On the back of the title page, called the verso, you will find the copyright date and dates of revisions if there are any. Where more than one date is listed, the latest is considered the copyright date. This is important in telling how up-to-date the information in the book might be. The copyright is also a protection for the 48

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author and the publisher. This shows that the book is registered and that it may not be copied--not even parts of it--without permission. Pick up any book and open it to the front. Find the title page and verso. What is the title? Who is the author? Who is the publisher? Where was it published? Look on the verso. Is there a copyright date? What is it? l-lore than one date shows that the book has been revised. Has your book been revised? b. Now find the Table of Contents, also in the front of the book. The table of contents gives you a list of chapters and the page on which each chapter begins. How many chapters does your book have? Very often, for non-fiction books, you can get a pretty good idea of the kinds of things that can be found in the book from this section. c. The Introduction and/or Preface of a book is often overlooked. This section usually tells how and why the author wrote the book in the first place, and often it gives a summary of what the book is about. Does your book have an introduction or preface? Read it. d. There are still other parts of a book that are very helpful. A book often has an Index at the back. This 49

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can be the most important part of the book when you're trying to find certain information. The index is a list of subjects discussed in the book. The subjects are listed in alphabetical order and have the page number or numbers where they can be found in the book. Loo k at one of your schoolbooks. Does it have an index? What are some of the topics? e. Sometimes a book will have some special words in it (especially science books). If this is true, the book may also contain a special section called a Glossary. This is like a dictionary except that it only tells the meaning of those special words. f. Very often the author will give you a list of other books and writings where you can find more information about a topic. This is called a Bibliography. If the author has included a bibliography it may be at the end of each chapter or at the back of the book. Find a book that has a bibliography so you will kno w what it looks like. Most reference and textbooks have one. g. Sometimes a book will have a special section that gives extra information in tables or charts. This is called an Appendix and is also found at the back of the book. Does you social studies book have an a ppendix? What kinds of information are t h e re? 50

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Enabling Activity 2 Written below is a list of things that can be found from a book quickly if you know where to look. On a sheet of your paper, number from one to ten. Now look at the information asked for and write the name of that part of the b oo k where the information is folild. 1. Name of the publisher 2. A lphabetical list of topics in the book 3. Name of the author 4. Number of chapters in the book 5. List of books where more information can be folild 6. Meaning of special words used in the book 7, Page number where an important topic can be found 8. Why the book was written 9. Extra information in the book 10. When the book was published To check your answers, look at Activity 1. The paragraph where each answer is given is listed below: 1. a 6. e 2. d 7. d 3. a 8. C 4. b 9. g 5. f 10. a 51

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SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE 2 Using your media center, you will be able to find on a shelf or return to the shelf any given book. Enabling Activity 1 The books in your media center are arranged in a certain way so that they can be fotmd easily. The media center arranges its books by the Dewey Decimal Classification System. This system divides non-fiction (except biography) books into ten groups. These groups are: General Works 000-099 Philosophy 100-199 Religion 200-299 Social Studies 300-399 Languages 400-499 Pure Science 500-599 Applied Science 600-699 Fine Arts 700 -799 Literature 800-899 History 900-999 Every book that comes into the media center that is not a fiction book is put into one of these classes. The classification number that is assigned to the book is placed on the spine of the book. Usually the first letter (or letters) 52

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53 of the author's last name is put under the number. Together, they are known as the II call number. 11 The book is then put in the proper section so it can be easily found. Books are arranged from left to right with the lrnvest number first. 621. 3 621. 34 621. 8 622 Rearrange the following classification numbers in the order that they would appear on the shelf: 733 310 620 510 940.54 733.4 The correct order is found on page 67. Enabling Activity 2 621 940 Biographies are books written about real people. They 940.5 620.1 are marked with 11B11 or 1192111 or 1192" and the first letter or letters of the last name of the person about whom the book is written. Example: Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years by Carl Sandburg B L or 921 L or 92 L

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Number your paper from one to ten. Write the call number as it would be found in your media center for each o f the following books. 1. Inventive Wizard: George Westinghous e b y I.E. Levine 2. Young John Kennedy b y Gene Schoor 3. Cleopatra of Egypt b y Leonora Hornblow 4. Ahdoolo: The Biography of Matthew Henson b y Floy d Miller 5. Albert Einstein: Theoretical Ph ysicist b y A ylesa Forsee 6. Kaiulani: Crown Princess of Hawaii b y Nancy Webb 7. Browning: World's Greatest Gunmaker b y Gertrude Winders 8. Singing for the World: Marian Anderson b y J anet Stevenson 9. The Rise and Fall of Adolf Hitler b y William Shirer 10. Black Fire: Henri Christophe b y Covelle Newcomb Enabling Activity 3 Fiction books are arranged in three groups. Easy book s or picture book s are marked with "E" and arranged on the shelves according to the author's last name. Collections of short stories are marked "SC" and are arranged on the shelves b y the author's last name. The rest of the fiction books are marked F and they too, are arranged according to the author's last name. If more than one book is written by the same author, they are arranged by title. Whatever the group, books are shelved alphabetically b y the author's last name. 54

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Example: Old Yeller by Frederick B. Gipson Little Women by Louisa M ay Alcott F A F G From the following list of fiction books, write the call numbers on your paper. Then, arrange them in the order they would appear on a shelf. Tigre by Jim Kjelgaard The Middle Sister by Louis Duncan Drop-Out by Jeannette Eyerly Island of the Blue Dolphins by Scott O'Dell Goodbye Blue Jeans by Kay Avery Hot Rod Fury by Robert Bowen It's Like This, Cat by Emily Neville Pedro, A Mystery of the Floridas by Alice Hancock The Ghost of Dagger Bay by William Buchanan Durango Street by Frank Bonham 55

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SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE 3 Using the card catalog, you will be able to recognize the different kinds of cards in the catalog. Then, using information on a particular card, you will be able to tell about that book and its location in the media center. Enabling Activity 1 You already know about a book's index being an alphabetical listing of topics in the book. Your media center has a special index listing everything that is there. It is the card catalog. The card catalog can be the most important tool in the media center, because if you know how to use it, you can find an ything that is kept there. First of all, you should know that everything in the media center is listed three different ways in the card catalog--by title, by author, and by subject. Look at the following catalog cards. 56

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613.8 M Madison, Arnold 613.8 M Drugs and you b y Arnold Madison Drugs and you Madison, Arnold 613.8 M Drugs and you by Arnold Madison DRUG ABUSE Madison, Arnold Drugs and you by Arnold Madison The first line on the card tells you what kind of card it is (author, title, or subject). The first card has the author's name on the first line making it an author card. The second card has the title first making it a title card. Notice that the third card has everything in the first line capitalized. If all the letters in the first line are capitalized or if they are t yped in red, it is a subject card. Whatever is on the first line determines where the card will be filed. The first card would be filed in the M drawer and the other t w o in the D drawer. Now look at the following catalog card to see what other information is there. 57

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Houser, N orman W Drugs: facts on the use and abuse b y Norman W. Houser. New Yor Lothrop Lee & Shepard, 1969. 48p, col. illus. ----------~{?\, Describes t h e effects on the m ind V and body of the stimulants, de pressants, hallucinogens, and narcotics frequently misused today Bibliography; p 48 1 Call number 2. Author (alway s last name first) 3 Title 4. Publisher S Date of publication 6. N umber of pages in the book 7. This book has illustrations (colored) 8. Tells what is in the book 9. Tells that the book has a bibliography on p a g e 48. Notice that on catalog cards, only the first letter of the title is capitalized. Enabling Activity 2 All catalog cards are arranged alphabetically b y the first word in the first line. If "a," "an," or "the" is t h e first word, 58

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it is ignored and the second word is used. Guide cards are cards that stick up in the file drawer. They have words on them to help you find the card you are looking for more easily Below is a list of "first lines." On your paper, rearrange them in the order they would be found in the card catalog. Example: 1. Shakespeare, William 2. BASEBALL 3. Old yeller Rearranged: 1. BASEBALL 2. Old yeller 3. Shakespeare 1. Florida: the long frontier 2. Sterling, Philip 3. DRAMA--HISTORY 4. The three musketeers 5. The doll's house 6. Powell, Richard Pitts 7 U. S. HISTORY 8 LIVIN GSTON, DAVID 9. London, Jack 10. G o ask alice 59

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Enabling Activity 3 Go back to Activity 2 and label each "first line" as to whether it belongs to an author card, title card, or subject card. Enabling Activity 4 Using the list of fiction books on page 55 of this module, find one that is listed in the card catalog. On your paper, answer these questions about that book from the information on the catalog card: 1. When was the book published? 2. How many pages are in the book? 3. Is it illustrated? 4. What is the call number? 5. What is it about? See if the book is on the shelf. Enabling Activity 5 Go to the card catalog and look up the Civil War. How many books does the media center have on this topic? How many of these are fiction? 60

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SPECI F IC OBJECTIVE 4 Given specific types of information, you will be able to tell if that information came from a dictionary an encyclopedia, an almanac, or an atlas. Enabling Activity 1 The dictionary is a book with which you are already familiar. You already k now that you use a dictionary to find out what a word means. But you can also learn other t hings about that word. Get a dictionary and look up the word "vicarious." The words at the very top of the page are called guide words and tell you the first and last words on t hat page. So, if you know the alphabet, you should be able to tell at a glance if the word you are looking for is on that page. What are the guide words on the page w h ere you found vicarious? After the pronllllciation, you will find "adj." This tells you t hat the word is an adjective. Then, there are several meanings given for the word. Can you write a sentence using vicarious? Notice that after t h e definitions t here is some information in brackets. This tells you that the word came from Latin. (In the front of t h e dictionary it tells what all those letters in the brackets mean ) Vicarious can b e changed to an adverb or a noun 6 1

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just b y adding some letters. What do you add to mak e it an adverb? a noun? Sometimes synonyms and/or antonyms are given for a word. This is shown b y "Syn." or "Ant." Does vicarious have a synonym listed? Look up the word "induce." What kind of word is it? F rom what language did we get the word? Does it have a s yn onym? Did you look these words up in an unabridged or abridged dictionary? The unabridged dictionary has every word in the languag e in it. It is the great big one that sits on a stand in the media center. The abridged dictionary is the one we usually use. It has only the most commonl y used words in it. Enabling Activity 2 62 The encyclopedia is written to give an overview of a particular subject. B y this time you have probably used the encyclopedia many times. Your media center has more than one set of encyclopedias. Pick a topic you are studying in one of your classes. Loo k it up in each set and answer these questions on your paper: 1. Which seems to have the most information on your topic? 2. Whic h is easier for you to read? 3. Which set seems to have the most pictures?

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4. Most sets of encyclopedias have one volume which is the index for the whole set. Does your media center have a set with an index at the end of each volume? 5. What is the name of this encyclopedia? Enabling Activity 3 An almanac is a book of facts. You can use it as a quick reference to get the answers to many questions such as, "How many 'Oscars' did Katharine Hepburn win?" or "How much oil was produced by Lebanon in 19 71 ?" Get a copy of the World Almanac and look through it. You will notice that instead of a table of contents in the front, it has an index to help you find the exact page you need. Using World Almanac, find the answers to the following questions and write them on your paper. The underlined words will help you use the index. 1. Who won the Orange Bowl in 1970? What was the score? (football) 2. What is the tallest building in Tampa? 3. How many radio stations are there in Florida? 4. What was the top selling single record in August, 1974? 5. What is the black population in the state of Vermont? 63

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Enabling Activity 4 An atlas is a book of maps. It often provides information about geography. There are basically three t ypes of maps--relief, political, and economic. Relie f maps show such thing s as mountains, rivers, lakes, deserts, and plains. Political maps show boundaries of countries and states, cities and capitals. Economic map s are special maps which give informati on about population, t e m perature, rainfall, and products of a region. An atlas may contain one, t wo, or all three types of maps. Get an atlas in the media center and answer the following questions: 1. What is the t itle? 2. Who is the publisher? 3. What is the cop yright date? 4. What kind of maps does it have? 5. Does it have an index? 6. Does the index list cities and rivers and tell where to locate them? 7. How do you think an atlas could help you do a report for one of your classes? 64

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SPECI F IC OBJECTIVE 5 Given an index of books, you will be able to locate books on a particular subject. You will also be able to locate pictures and find geographical and other information on a particular subject by using an index in a book. Enabling Activity An index is simply an alphabetical list of names, places, and topics and where information about them can be found. You will recall that an index in a book tells on what pages various topics are discussed, or on what pages there are pictures, maps, or bibliographies. The card catalog is an index that tells where materials can be found in the whole media center. Enc yclopedia sets also have indexes. Most of the time, there is one book from the set that is an index to the entire set. Sometimes, as in the case of Compton's Encyclopedia, there is an index at the end of each volume. An encyclopedia index tells in which volume and on what page certain information is found. Sometimes when y ou look up a topic, it will say "see" and give another word or words for the topic. If you find "see also," it means that more information can be found b y also looking under a different topic. 65

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Example : Packers, "see" Green Bay Packers Conservation, "see also" ecology "See" and "see also" are known as cross-references and are found in all types of indexes. For a review of indexes, see pages 49, 50, 56, and 63 of this module. 66

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310 940 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B w B K B C B H B E F A F B F B F B F D Answers to Enabling Activity 1, p. 53 510 940.5 Answers Answers (Bonham) (Bowen) (Buchanan) 620 940.54 620.1 621 to Enabling Activity 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. to Enabling Activity 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 733 2' p. 54 B K B B B A B H B C 3, p. 55 F E F H F K F N F 0 67 733.4

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68 Answers to Enabling Activity 2, p. 59 1. The doll's house 2. DRAMA--HISTORY 3. Florida: the long frontier 4. Go ask alice 5. LIVINGSTON, DAVID 6. London, Jack 7. Powell, Richard Pitts 8. Sterling, Philip 9. The three musketeers 10. U. S. -HISTORY Answers to Enabling Activity 3, p. 60 1. Title 6. Author 2. Author 7. Subject 3. Subject 8. Subject 4. Title 9. Author 5. Title 10. Title Answers to Enabling Activity 3, p. 63 1. Penn. State 10 -Missouri 3 2 First Financial Tower (36 stories) 3. 195 (AM) and 97 (FM) = 292 4. Roberta Flack: "Feel Like Makin Love" 5. 761

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APPENDIX B

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STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE ON PILOT STUDY DRAFT OF MODULE

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Please help me by answering the following questions about the library skills module. Do not put your name on this sheet. Just answer the questions truthfully. 1. Could you understand what you were asked to do? 2. Were any activities too difficult? If yes, which one(s)? (Give page number and activity number) 3. Were any activities too easy? If yes, which one(s)? 4. Were any activities not necessary? If yes, which one(s)? 5. Were any activities particularly helpful? If yes, which one(s)? 6. Did the media center have all you needed to complete the activities? 7. About how long did it take you to do all the activities? 2 -4 hours 4 -6 hours more than 6 hours 8. Over-all, did you find the module Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No ---Interesting 71 Not Interesting __ If you would like to make any comments about the module, please put them on the back.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, Golden V., Jr. A Study: Library Attitudes, Usage Skill and Knowledge of Jrnior High School Age Students Enrolled at Lincoln Jrnior High School and Burns Union High School, Burns, Harney Cornty, Oregon 1971-72. (Master of Library Science research project, Brigham Young University), ERIC ED 077 538, 1972. Ahlers, Eleanor E. "Instruction in Library Skills." School Libraries XXI (Spring 1972):23-25. Alexander, Malcolm D. A Measure of the Library Skills of High School Graduates of Washington State as Demonstrated by Freshmen of Central Washington State College. (Master of Education thesis, Central Washington State College), ERIC ED 081 441, 1972. Alexander, William M. and others. The Emergent Middle School. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969. American Library Association. Show and Tell: A Clinic on Using Media in Library Instruction. Chicago: American Library Association, ERIC ED 067 841, 1972. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. The Middle School We Need: A Report from the ASCD Working Group on the Emerging Adolescent Learner. Washington, D. C.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1975. Barrilleaux, Louis E. An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Multiple Library Sources as Compared to the Use of a Basic Textbook on Student Achievement and Learning Activity in Jrnior High School Science. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Iowa), Dissertation Abstracts XXVI (MarchApril 1966):5283. Bowers, Melvyn K. Library Instruction in the Elementary School. Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1971. Campbell, Donald T. and Stanley, Julian C. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co., 1963. Cleary, Florence Damon. Discovering Books and Libraries. New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1966. 72

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Curtis, Thomas E. and Bidwell, Wilma W. "Rationale for Instruction in the Middle School." Educational Leadership XXVII (March 1970) :578-581. Cyphert, Frederick R. Current Practice in the Use of the Library in Selected Jtn1ior High Schools in Pennsylvania. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh), Dissertation Abstracts XVIII (January-February 1958):162. Dixon, W. J., ed. Biomedical Computer Programs. Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1973. Eichhorn, Donald H. "The Emerging Adolescent School of the Future-NOW," in J. Galen Saylor, ed., The School of the Future--NOW. Washington, D. C.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1972, pp. 35-52. Flesch, R. F. "A New Readability Yardstick." Journal of Applied Psychology XXXII (Jtn1e 1948):221-233. Gates, Jean Key. Introduction to Librarianship. New York: McGrawHill Book Company, 1968. Gaver, Mary V. "Research on Elementary School Libraries." American Library Association Bulletin LVI (February 1962):117-126. Geisler, C. "Individualized School Library Orientation." Wyoming Library Rotn1dup XXIX (December 1974):32-33. Glass, Gene V. and Stanley,Julian C. Statistical Methods in Education and Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1970. Glass, James M. "The Library in Jtn1ior High Schools." Library Journal L (February 1, 1925):123. Grassmeyer, Donald Leroy. The Organization and Administration of Instructional Materials Centers in Selected Jtn1ior High Schools. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Nebraska Teachers College), Dissertation Abstracts XXVII (JulyAugust 1966):68-A. Greve, Clyde. The Relationship of the Availability of Libraries to the Academic Achievement of Iowa High School Seniors. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Denver), Dissertation Abstracts XXXV (January 1975):4574-A. Gullette, Irene; Hatfield, Francis; and Myers, William. National Test of Library Skills Manual. Fort Lauderdale, Florida: Gullette, Hatfield and Myers, 1967. Hale, Irlene W. "The Influence of Library Services upon the Academic Achievement of Twelfth Grade Students." (Course paper, ELE 960, Athens, Georgia: Georgia University, Department of Library Science), ERIC ED 047 694, 1969. 73

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Harmer, W.R. The Effect of a Library Training Program on Sunnner Loss or Gain in Reading Abilities. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1959), cited by Mary V. Gaver, "Research on Elementary School Libraries." American Library Association Bulletin LVI (February 1962):117-126. Hartz, Frederic R. "Library Instruction in the Secondary School." Journal of Secondary Education XLI (May 1966):201-205. Hastings, Dorothy M. H., and Tanner, Daniel. "The Influence of Library Work in Improving English Language Skills at the High School Level." Journal of Experimental Education XXXI (1963):401-405. Hunt, Bruce. "Surprising Things Happen When They Study on Their Own." Grade Teacher LXXXIV (November 1966): 114. Joyce, William D. "A Study of Academic Achievement and Performance on a Test of Library Understandings." Journal of Educational Research LIV (January 1961):198-199. 74 Kagen, Jerome and Coles, Robert. Twelve to Sixteen: Early Adolescence. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1973. Kohen-Raz, Reuven. The Child from 9 to 13. Chicago: AldineAtherton, 1971. Krohn, Mildred L. "Learning and the Learning Center." Educational Leadership XXI (January 1964):217-222. Lawrence, Gordon. Module on Modules. Gainesville, Florida: Gordon Lawrence, 1972. Lohrer, Alice. The Identification and Role of School Libraries that Function as Instructional Materials Centers and Implications for Library Education in the United States. Urbana, Illinois: Graduate School of Library Science, University of Illinois, ERIC ED 038 150, 1970. Masterton, Elizabeth G. "An Evaluation of the School Library in the Reading Program." (Master's thesis, Graduate Library School, University of Chicago, 1953), cited by Mary V. Gaver, "Research on Elementary School Libraries." American Library Association Bulletin LVI (February 1962):117-126. Mead, Margaret. "Early Adolescence in the United States." Bulletin of the National Association of Secondary School Principals XLIX (April 1965):5-10. National Study of School Evaluation. Jrnior High School/Middle School Evaluative Criteria. Arlington, Virginia: National Study of School Evaluation, 1970.

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National Study of Secondary School Evaluation. Evaluative Criteria; 1960 Edition. Washington, D. C.: National Study of Secondary School Evaluation, 1960. Santa, Beauel M. and Hardy, Lois Lynn. How to Use the Library. Palo Alto, California: Pacific Books, 1966. 75 Sellmer, Donald F. Teaching Fourth Grade Children to Use A Library Card Catalog: A Programmed Approach. (Doctoral Dissertation, Ball State University), Dissertation Abstracts XXXIV (NovemberDecember 1973):2669-A. Seminar. "Guidelines for the Middle Schools We Need Now." National Elementary Principal LI (November 1971):78-89. Sisson, Silvanus Hull. Planning the_ Jtmior High School Library Program. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Nebraska Teachers College), Dissertation Abstracts XXI (April-Jtme 1961): 3692. Stryer, Andrea. Media Centers and Individualized Instruction Programs in Selected Elementary Schools in Connecticut. (Master's thesis, Southern Connecticut State College) ERIC ED 073 681, 1972. Thornburg, Hershel. "Leaming and Maturation in Middle School Age Youth." The Clearing House XLV (November 19 70): 150-155. Thome, Lucile M. The Influence of the Knapp School Libraries Project on the Reading Comprehension and on the Knowledge of Library Skills of the Pupils at the Farrer Jtmior High School, Provo, Utah. (Doctoral Dissertation, Brigham Yotmg University), Dissertation Abstracts XXVIII (JanuaryMarch 1968):2465-A. Toser, Marie A. Library Manual. New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1964. Winer, B. J. Statistical Principles in Experimental Design. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1962

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Gerald Ralph Barkholz was born November 10, 1941, in Detroit, Michigan. He attended elementary and secondary school in Detroit and subsequently entered Wayne State University there. Upon receiving his Bachelor of Science in Education in 1964, Mr. Barkholz began teaching sixth grade in the Farmington Public School S ystem, Farmington, Michigan. He remained with the Farmington Public Schools for four years, teaching fifth and sixth grades and serving on the Central Committee for the Improvement of Instruction. He was also building audiovisual coordinator at Bond School and Kenbrook School in Farmington. In 1968 he received a Master of Education degree from Wayne State University with a major in Instructional Technology. At that point, he joined the Library Science/Audiovisual Education Department faculty in the College of Education at the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida. Since 1971, he has been enrolled as a doctoral student in the Division of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Florida, while maintaining his position as Instructor at the University of South Florida. Mr. Barkholz is married and has two daughters. 76

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I certify that I have read this study and that, in m y opinion, it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education. I certify that I have read this study and that, in m y opinion, it conforms to acceptable standards o f scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education. .,. CJ..,:.',.,.\_.,. .,:-V ynce A. Hines Professor of Education I certify that I have read this study and that, in m y it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education. I opinion, and rofessor of Journalism and Communications

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I certify that I have read this study and that, in my opinion, it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education. Ronald K. Bass Assistant Professor of Education This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education. June, 1976 Dean, Graduate School