Citation
The Irish Emigrant: A Nation in Miniature

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Title:
The Irish Emigrant: A Nation in Miniature
Creator:
Miney, Helen
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Diasporas ( jstor )
Emigration ( jstor )
Irish Americans ( jstor )
Irish culture ( jstor )
Irish diaspora ( jstor )
Irish famine ( jstor )
Irish immigration ( jstor )
Irish literature ( jstor )
Irish nationalism ( jstor )
Irish politics ( jstor )
Emigration and immigration
Famine (Ireland : 1845-1852)
Ireland
Genre:
Undergraduate Honors Thesis

Notes

Abstract:
Over the course of hundreds of years, emigration, or leaving home, has become a uniquely Irish institution or “habit.” No other culture is as well known for its tightly-knit emigrant communities, or for the deep sense of cultural pride expressed by members of its diaspora whose ancestors emigrated decades or centuries ago. There are more than 70 million people in the Irish Diaspora worldwide, who identify themselves as being of Irish heritage, and yet fewer than five million people currently live in the Republic of Ireland. In the face of economic and social upheaval, the emigrant has become a representation of a nation on the move. Since the Great Famine, the Irish have evolved from the model of the liberal imperial subject, to the champions of self-determination, to the perpetrators of terrorism, and finally, to the poster children of neoliberal economic success. The experience of Ireland’s emigrants has been a direct reflection of this transition, as those people who once represented the specter of national doom have become national saviors, as well as a symbol of Irish cultural solidarity. ( en )
General Note:
Awarded Bachelor of Arts; Graduated May 6, 2014 summa cum laude. Major: History
General Note:
Advisor: Sheryl Kroen
General Note:
College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Helen Miney. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Honors Thesis Submission Form Name Helen Miney ________________________________ U F ID 6418 8399___ __ ________ Thesis Title The Irish Emigrant: A Nation in Miniature_ _________________________ _______ ____________________________________________________________________ ________________ Date April 4, 2014_ __________________ Length 47 _____ pages Bibliography Yes No Illustrate d Yes No College Liberal Arts & Sciences ______________________________________________________ Thesis Advisor Dr. Sheryl Kroen _____________________________________________________ History ________________________________________________________ Is your thesis or any part being submitted for publication? Yes No If any part has been submitted for pub licati on, please indicate where: University of Florida Journal of Undergraduate Rese arch_____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ________ Keywords ( provide five ) diaspora, cultural commodification, liberalism, literary heritage __ __ Abstract (100 200 Words) ( For Office Use Only ) Major: _______________ __ Designation: __________ __ Graduation Term: ______ __ Over the cou rse of hundreds of years, emigration, or leaving home, has become a uniquely Irish knit emigrant communities, or for the deep sense of cultural pride expressed by members of its dias pora whose ancestors emigrated decades or centuries ago. There are more than 70 million people in the Irish Diaspora worldwide, who identify themselves as being of Irish heritage, and yet fewer than five million people currently live in the Republic of Ire land. In the face of economic and social upheaval, the emigrant has become a representation of a nation on the move. Since the Great Famine, the Irish have evolved from the model of the liberal imperial subject, to the champions of self determination, to t he perpetrators of terrorism, and finally, to the poster children of neoliberal transition, as those people who once represented the specter of national doom have become national saviors, as well as a symbol of Irish cultural solidarity.

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2 The Irish Emigrant: A Nation in Miniature Helen Miney

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3 Table of Contents Introduction 4 I. From Victim to Champion: The Emigrant as a Political Force 1 2 II. A Culture of Connections: The Emigrant and the National Imagination 24 III. Cherishing the Diaspora: The Return of the Emigrant 35 Conclusion 42 Bibliography 44

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4 Introduction One of the most well Tr na n"g, 1 2 and return to Tr na n"g with her. Although Oisn is welcomed and greatly loved by the denizens of Tr na n"g, after a year he wishes to visit his home in Ireland once again. Niamh gives Oisn her horse for the journey, but warns him that if he touches the ground in Ireland, he may never return to Tr na n"g. Upon arriving in Ireland, Oisn discovers that more than three hundred years have passed, and all of his friends and family are dead. As he turns his horse to leave Ireland for Tr na n"g, a group of men ask Oisn to assist them with moving a boulder out of the road. They marvel at his strength as he easily lifts the rock, but as he does so the saddle girth snaps and Oisn falls to the ground. Oisn transforms from a young and handsome man to an old, withered creature, before turning to dust. The sto ry of Oisn and Tr na n"g is one of the earliest tales of Irish emigration. It serves 3 As the inhabitants of a small island on the edge of the Atlantic Oce an, the Irish have been leaving home for centuries. Emigration has become deeply ingrained in the Irish consciousness, manifesting in many different cultural and political arenas. The figure of the emigrant has become almost mythical in Irish culture. The deep sense of loss affiliated with emigration has been the subject of ballads and novels, and has fueled political debate in Ireland. 1 Reg Keating, Oisn and Tr na n"g (Dublin: Owl Records Ltd, 1997), 5. 2 Ibid, 3. 3 Enda The Irish Times 2 November 2011. http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2011/11/02/traditions of emigration the irish habit of going away/

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5 Kerby Miller takes a particularly politicized view of the subject in Emigrants and Exiles but makes a very important obse rvation regarding the popular perception of Irish emigrants, 4 Thus the emigrant cam e to be represented as a kind of tragic hero in the Irish consciousness; one that is both an innocent victim of external forces as well as a symbol of adventure and the pursuit of a better life. The origin of these myths is rooted in a long history of migr ation in Ireland, but they became particularly salient in nineteenth century Irish society, during and after the Great Famine of 1845. Migration has been an integral part of Irish culture for thousands of years. Society is often shaped by geography, and t his is particularly true for small islands like Ireland. It is with them. 5 Tribal wars prompted small waves of emigration, as those who were defeated in comba t either fled or were ejected from the island. Over the centuries, the tribes that inhabited Ireland conquered neighboring areas and were themselves the subjects of invasions from outside forces. Despite constant instability on the island, Miller identifie s the English conquest of Ireland, beginning in 1166 AD 6 as the beginning of the waves of mass emigration that would 7 Miller identifies several large waves of transatlantic migration as seven million people emigrated from Ireland to North 8 9 which took place between 1607 and the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1921, as 1) before the American Revolution, 2) 1783 to 4 Kerby Miller, Emigrants and Exi les: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 4. 5 T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin, The Course of Irish History (Lanham, Maryland: Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 2001), 15 6 Miller, Emigrants and Exiles 11 7 Ibid, 102. 8 Ibid, 3. 9 Ibid, 131.

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6 10 of 1815 to 1844, 4) the Great Famine, and 5) post Famine emigration. Although Miller focuses on transatlantic migration, and particularly Irish migration to the United States and Canada, during these periods millions more Irish immigrated primarily to English speaking areas like England and Australia Many Irish men and women travelled with wealthy English businessmen or families to the farthest reaches of the globe, as indentured servants to the Caribbean, South Africa, India, China, etc., hoping to one day earn their freedom and possibly some land of their own. A smaller number of wealthy Irish Protestants joined the English in establishing plantations throughout the New World. During the late eighteenth and most of the nineteenth centurie s, many Irish men and women were deported to British penal colonies in Australia and North America in order to alleviate pressure on overpopulated British prisons and workhouses 11 Although extreme poverty and overpopulation spurred a steady stream of emigr ants prior to 1845, the Great Famine, also known as an Gorta Mr the Great Hunger, has become infamous as the largest wave of mass emigration in Irish history. The Irish Famine of 1845 set the stage for the creation of the archetype of the Irish emigrant in the Western historical imagination. During the first half of the nineteenth century, the Irish population grew rapidly to an all time high of 8.5 million people. 12 From 1845 to 1850, it is estimated that between 75 0,000 and 1,000,000 Irish people died o f starvation or famine related illnesses, and another 2,000,000 people emigrated. 13 Based on census statistics, t he Public Records Office of Northern Ireland has estimated that during this period an average of 1,000,000 10 Ibid, 193. 11 Australian Government last updated February 17, 2010, http://australia.gov.au/about australia/australian story/convicts and the british colonies. 12 Marjie Bloy, The Victorian Web, August 13, 2013, http://www.victorianweb.org/history/famine.html. 13 University of Houston last updated April 3, 2014, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/irish_potato_fa mine.cfm.

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7 Irish immigrated to the United States alone. 14 Another 1,000,000 immigrated to Australia, while a n additional 750,000 Irish traveled to the British mainland in search of work and shelter. 15 their destinat ion starving and diseased, if they arrived at all. 16 The image of these skeletal figures has taken root in the Irish national imagination, as the Great Famine stands out as one of the most significant and painful events embedded in the national memory. The Great Famine is significant not only because of the magnitude of the loss of life, but also because it served as the catalyst for a series of home rule campaigns in the latter half of nineteenth century that eventually led to the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1921. Although this was not the first time that the figure of the emigrant was used to reach a political end in Ireland, the salience of powerful too l for social mobilization. The fallout from the Great Famine was so significant that many people living outside of Ireland who do not study Irish history often admit that it is the only event in the history of Ireland of which they have any knowledge. The legacy of the famine victims lives on in the generations of descendants who now make up part of the more than 70 million members of the modern Irish Diaspora. 17 Emigration continued at a rapid pace after the Famine. Mill nine teent h century the peculiar evolution of Irish society had made mass emigration a permanent 18 He suggests that this was due to both a lack of economic opportunity in Ireland as 14 Ibid. 15 last viewed April 3, 2014, http://ighm.nfshost.com/emigration and coffin ships/. 16 Ibid. 17 Kenny TD, at the National Launch of Ireland Reaching Out, at MerrionStreet.ie: Irish Government News Service March 14, 2012, http://www.merrionstreet.ie/index.php/2012/03/speech by the taoiseach mr enda kenny td at the n ational launch of ireland reaching out at the national library of ireland/. 18 Miller, Emigrants and Exiles 345.

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8 well a desire to be reunited with family members who had previously emigrated. It is generally recognized that for many poor Irish men and women during the late nineteenth and early 19 However, despite the fact that the United States is assumed to be the destination of choice for most Irish immigrants, many would also continue to emigrate to Britain and Australia. The institution of mass emigration from Ireland would continue througho ut the twentieth century. Like the emigrants of the Famine era, emigrants during the twentieth century were usually poor, unskilled laborers. Unlike that previous generation of emigrants, however, Irish emigrants in the twentieth century were not usually m embers of the poorest class of society, as the cost of travel prevented those with no resources from leaving. In many cases, family members who had previously emigrated would send for individual members of families as they built up the funds to pay for tra vel fare. The First and Second World Wars would provide opportunities for young men to leave Ireland as soldiers and for young women as nurses, usually for the British armed forces, but in some cases as volunteers for the armed forces of other nations. Aft er the World Wars, Ireland experienced severe economic recessions in the 1950s and 1980s, which further triggered large waves of emigration. Although emigration remains a prominent factor in modern Irish society, the current technological revolution, which began in the late 1980s, created an entirely new experience for as their ability to connect with the population on the island, as well as with other emigrants, is no longer limited by the traditional boundarie s of time and space The technological innovations of the twentieth and twenty first centuries have allowed for the creation of communities on a global scale, which is particularly clear when one examines the case of Ireland and its emigrants, who have mai ntained their ties to the nation 19 Keating, Oisn and Tr na n"g 3.

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9 despite time and distance. The development of a global community composed of generations of Irish emigrants and their descendants over the past 150 years or so has in a sense, has become an extension of the nation outside In Imagined Communities imagined political community 20 According to Anderson, a nation is imagined beca their fellow members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image With this definition, Anderson attempts to capture the evolving nature of nations and address the broad range of motivations that inspire populations to form their own nations. However, since the publishing of his work in 1983, technological innovations have introduced new variables that nations, as members of different nations now participat e in a global community that is no longer limited by geopolitical lines of demarcation. Anderson argues that o ne of the most important aspects in the formation of an imagined community is a shared language, and, by extension, a shared body of written works and information. He identifies books and newspapers as cultural products whose simultaneous consumption connects people by way of a shared cultural imagination. He abandoned a between the collection of seemingly unrelated stories based on his or her own perspective of and relationship to the content. 21 The newspaper also creates a sense of simultane ity, making the 20 Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities (London: Verso, 1983), 6. 21 Ibid, 35.

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10 reader aware of the existence of the other members of the imagined community that share his or Print culture has been integral in the formation and engagement of the Irish Diaspora, as the shared consumption of news has encouraged a global sense of community involvement, while cultural products such as novels which detail the emigrant experience have captured the imagination of the Diaspora as a whole. In spite of these ideas, w hy is it that history and culture has become fact that historians like Miller and Delaney can characterize emigration as a uniquely Irish become a fact of life. No other culture is as well known for its tightly knit emigrant communities, or for the deep sense of cultural pride expr essed by members of its diaspora whose ancestors emigrated decades or centuries ago. There are more than 70 million people in the Irish Diaspora worldwide who identify themselves as being of Irish heritage and yet fewer than five million people currently live in the Republic of Ireland. 22 In the face of economic and social upheaval the emigrant has become a representation of a nation on the move. Since the Great Famine, the Irish have evolved from the model of the liberal imperial subject, to the champion s of self determination to the perpetrators of terrorism and finally, to the poster children of neoliberal economic success. of this transition, as those people who once represented the s pecter of national doom have become national saviors, as well as a symbol of Irish cultural solidarity. 22 Central Intelligence Agency last viewed April 3, 2014, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the world factbook/geos/ei.html.

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11 In her inaugural address on December 3, 1990, Irish President Mary Robinson invoked the idea of the mythical Fifth Province of Ireland to introduce her reconnecting the Irish on the island with the members of the Irish Diaspora living abroad. In recent years, Irish dignitaries had become fond of quoting Article 2 of the Irish Constitution, rishes its special affinity with people of Irish ancestry 23 Rather than simply state her dedication to the interests of the members of the Irish Diaspora, however, Robinson challenged Irish began to for ge in the smith he uncreated conscience of our race might of the wider international community? 24 not just in reevaluating the conscience and shared objectives of the Irish at home and abroad, but also in terms of cultural commodification and exploitation. The Irish Diaspora has truly come to embody as in the context of our modern und erstanding of the nation it continues to provide the political balance and cultural resources that were once considered characteristics of the legendary force that consolidated the interests of the Irish nation as a whole. 23 Bunreacht na hireann, November 1, 2013, http://www.taoiseach.gov.ie/eng/Historical_Information/The_Constitution/Decemb er_2013_ _Bhunreacht_na_hEireann_Constitution_Text.pdf. 24 Stanford Presidential Lectures in the Humanities and Arts last viewed April 1, 2014, https://prelectur.stanford.edu/lecturers/robinson/inaugural.html.

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12 I. From Victim to Champion: The Emigrant as a Political Force united by history. No people ever believed more deeply in the cause of Irish freedom than the people of the United States. And no country contributed more to building my own than your sons and daughters. They came to our shores in a mixture of hope and agony, and I would not underrate the difficulties of their course once they arrived in the United States. They left behind hearts, fields and a nation yearnin g to be free. It is no wonder that James Joyce described the Atlantic as a bowl of bitter tears, and an earlier President John F. Kennedy 25 A n Gorta Mr the Great Famine of 1845 to 1849, was a turning point in Irish history. Although there had certainly been significant nationalist movements during the first half of the nineteenth century and earlier, the Famine proved to be a political and cultural catalyst for the creation of the I rish Free State, and later the Republic of Ireland. As Richard English, the he appalling scale of the episode was to become written firmly and enduringly into Irish nationalist 26 Although the British ruling classes did attempt to provide some relief for those who were evicted from their land durin g the Famine, most Irish people tenants and replace them with more profitable livestock. Even today there is some debate as to whether the actions of th e British government during the Great Famine constitute genocide, although it is generally acknowledged that there was little the government could do to alleviate the plight of the huge population of Irish potato farmers and their families. 25 Oireachtas Great Irish Speeches ed. Richard Aldous (London: Quercus, 2007), 116 26 Richard English, Irish Freedom: The History of Nationalism in Ireland (London: Macmillan, 2007), 163.

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13 The massive and very visible loss of life in Ireland during the Great Famine was one motivating factor in the growth of Irish nationalist movements, but the impact of emigration may ultimately have been even greater. It is estimated that more than one million Irish men, women, and children emigrated during the Famine. 27 These emigrants formed huge, tightly knit Irish communities in their host nations and became a prominent political force, especially in the United States. These embittered men and women saw themselves as ex iles, forced to leave their homeland and their families at the hands of the English. The Irish emigrant not only became a political symbol of English oppression in Irish nationalist campaigns, but communities of Irish emigrants also came to constitute an i nvisible political force which influenced the course of Irish history throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In order to understand the motivations behind the nationalist pursuits of Irish emigrant communities, we must first look back to the de velopment of the relationship between the Irish and English that preceded the Famine. Over the course of the nineteenth century, the events and attitudes that came to constitute the figure of the British tyrant in the Irish national imagination and memory eventually came to a head over the question of land ownership and political sovereignty, which became known in arose as the result of a buildup of Irish res entment after hundreds of years of English conquest and oppression. colony territorial conquest, of Great Britain remains contested within academic circles, it is often acknowledged that British soil rose over Ireland, as Ireland served as a colonial laboratory for British imperial experiments. 28 Some revisionist scholars, such as 27 History Learning Site March 26, 2014, http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/ireland_great_famine_of_1845. htm. 28 Crime and Social Justice 8 (1977): 53.

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14 Stephen Howe, author of Ireland and Empire: Colonial Legacies in Irish History and Culture argue that the establishment of the United Kingdom as a result of the Acts of Union of 1800 made Britain and Ireland political and cultural equals. 29 This would suggest that the Irish were no longer subjugated by the British, and therefore were no longer British colonial or imperial subjects. In reality, however, the experimental British colonial ideas and techniques that had been at work in Ireland for centuries continued throughout the entire nineteenth century, as the British elite attempted to s ubdue and profit from the impoverished Irish population. The Irish, as a result, represent the archetype of the imperial subject often referenced in the works of classical liberal theorists such as John Locke, Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, James Mill, and Jo hn Stuart Mill, among others. As early as the seventeenth century, John L ownership through improvement were used to justify the English confiscation and redistribution of land in Ireland. English settlers determined the tra ditional Irish form of subsistence farming to be unprofitable, and justified turning native Irish people off their lands in the name of God and their served a obtained the right to call the land his property. In the minds of the English, this form of feudalism also served as a method of improving the native Irish by lifti ng them out of their original and culturally inferior state of nature. Lord Deputy Mountjoy once characterized a without any knowledge of God, or almost any civilit 30 Canny argues that while this perception of the native Irish was popular amongst the English in the seventeenth century, the perception of 29 Kathleen Costello New Hibernia Review 6.4 (2002): 157 158. 30 Ibid, 585.

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15 the Irish as barbarians was propagated by the English conquerors throughout the sixteenth century as a justification for the subjugation of the native Irish population. The English, who considered themselves to be culturally superior to the Irish, argued t hat only through forceful 31 The English cultural influence would improve the natu rally barbaric Irish culture, thereby elevating the Irish people to a more civilized state of nature. By the nineteenth century, t he English perception of t 32 Ireland thus became a laboratory for social experimentation, as the British government began to develop biopolitical strategies to manage its colonial populations by focusing on the control of the individual. During the latter half of the nineteenth century, John Stuart Mill followed in the liberal tradition of his predecessors, namely John Locke and Adam Smith by publishing On Liberty in 1859 and Considerations on Representative Government in 1861. In these two works, Mill discusses the utilitarian principles which he believes must govern society in order to promote the precursors as he u ses the concept of improvement to make his case for the rationality of the individual and for his ability to self govern. However, d espite his defense of the sovereignty of the individual, Mill believes in a hierarchy of civilizations and places limitations on the ability to govern of those individuals in societies that have not yet reached a particular st ate of 31 Nicholas Canny, "The ideology of English colonization: from Ireland to America." The William and Mary Quarterly 30.4 (1973): 592. 32 Ibid, 720.

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16 protected against their own actions as well as against external injury. For the same reason, we may leave out of consideration those backward states of society in which the race itself may be ernment in dealing with barbarians, provided the end be their improvement, and the means justified by actually effecting 33 tings, it is evident that he regards English society as being the pinnacle of civilization, meaning that all other societies must be slowing evolving to become like England, including Ireland. 34 In his introduction to his pamphlet, England and Ireland published in 1886, Mill draws attention to the issue that was hotly debated in the Briti sh parliament at the time, as well as to the flippant attitude held by many of his fellow members of parliament with regard to affairs in Ireland. He had existed b etween England and Ireland for generations, and refute d the idea that Irish disaffection 35 Rather than discredit the Irish claim to Irish land by labeling the Irish as savages o r barbarians, Mill declares that the English government has failed in its responsibilities to its subjects, as it has done nothing Ireland is to be a consent ing party to her union with England, the changes must be so made that the existing generation of Irish farmers shall at once enter upon their benefits. The rule of Ireland now rightfully belongs to those who, by means consistent with justice, will make the cultivators 33 John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (London: The Walter Sco tt Publishing Co., Ltd., 1901). 6. 34 John Stuart Mill, England and Ireland (London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer, 1868), 1. 35 Ibid, 2.

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17 of the soil of Ireland the owners of it; and the English nation has got to decide whether it will be 36 was the result of many years of deep political reflection and personal ideological evolution, and was therefore not shared by the vast majority of his fellow ministers in the British Parliament. Had the English relinquished their claim to Irish land and I rish rule the legitimacy of the liberal theories upon which the expansion of the British Empire was founded throughout the nineteenth century would have been thoroughly undermined In the world of John Stuart Mill and his father, James Mill, it had been determined that men no longer emerged from a universal state of nature. Different societies existed at different stages of development, with England at the pinnacle. At the opposite end of the spectrum, there those backward states of society in wh ich the race itself may be considered as its nonage to carry such a people the most rapidly through the next necessary step in social progress. 37 John Stuart Mill termed this interventionist for admissible as a means o f gradually training the people to walk alone. On a continuum of culture and development, Mill claimed that all societies, or communities, were compelled to strive for a greater degree of civilization, and that the best form of government would be the one that encouraged the conditions necessary for progress. As U day Singh Mehta explains in his analysis of political exclusion in nineteenth century India of political exclusion of colonial peoples, of slaves, of women, and of those without sufficient property to exercise either suffrage or real political power over the past three and a half centuries must be allowed to embarrass the universalistic clai 38 Eventually the British colonial experiments in Ireland eventually led to the creation of a monster, as by the end of the nineteenth century the British 36 Ibid, 22. 37 John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (London: The Walter Scott Publishing Co., Ltd., 1901), 6, 31. 38 Uday Singh Mehta, Liberalism and Empire (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 76.

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18 could no longer maintain peaceful control over their colonial subjects In 1914, the country erupted in violent clashes between Irish nationalists and unionists, which culminated in the events surrounding the Easter Rising by members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood in 1916. 39 The British government took full advantage of the opportunit y to assert their martial dominance over their imperial subjects by conducting widespread arrests of suspected rebels, condemning ninety men to death for their involvement in the insurrection, and the executing fifteen rebel leaders, including Padraig Pear se, who became a martyr to the Irish cause. 40 American supporters of Irish nationalism, who would employ free the small nations, let us show our good faith by liberating that small nation which has 41 During the early twentieth century the Irish, and especially Irish American emigrant communities, became the champions of the liberal ideal of self determination and the embodiment of liberal progress. Organizations like the Irish Progressive League and the American Association for the Recognition of the Irish Republic played an integral role in channeling Irish American support for Irish independence and offered a political outlet for exiled participants of the 1916 Rising. 42 These organizations assisted Eamon De Valera, president of the Dil ireann ( National Assembly of Ireland), in his attempts to raise money to finance the work of the Irish government and the Irish Republic Army (IRA), as well as to raise awareness and support for official recognition of an Irish republic by the United States 39 The Course of Irish History ed. T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin (Dublin: Mercier Press 2001), 254 56. 40 Ibid, 25 6. 41 boundary 2 31, no. 1 (2004): 163. 42 Ibid, 175.

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1 9 govern ment. In June of 1921 the intensity of the Anglo Irish War became so destructive that public opinion in Britain and the United States turned against the British government and demanded a truce This eventually led to the signing of the Anglo Irish Treaty, which established the Irish Free State in December of 1921. 43 Much to the disappointment of Irish nationalists, the Irish Free State consisted of only 26 of the 32 counties in Ireland and, rather than becoming a sovereign state, Ireland remained a dominion of the British Commonwealth of Nations. 44 Ireland would not b ecome a sovereign state until 1949. 45 attention would turn away from Ireland, as its members focused on bolstering their own communities throughout economic depressions and world wars. The 1960s signaled a sea chang e for both the Irish on the island and the members of the Irish Diaspora, particularly those who lived in the United States. The election of John F. Kennedy as the first Irish Catholic president of the United States in 1960 encouraged a new sense of ethnic pride in Irish American communities across the United States. 46 Kennedy arguably represented the culmination of the Irish immigrant struggle in the United States. His great grandparents had emigrated from Ireland between 1846 and 1855 to escape the devasta tion of the Great Famine and overcame the cultural discrimination against Irish immigrants prevalent in the United States to become influential businesspeople and politicians in Boston. 47 Irish immigrants were once compared to dogs, and they had succeeded i n producing the leader of the most powerful nation on earth. The Irish on the island were particularly enamored with Kennedy, and 43 The Course of Irish History, ed. T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin (Dublin: Mercier Press 2001), 258. 44 Ibid, 258 59. 45 The Course of Irish History ed. T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin (Dublin: Mercier Press 2001) 279. 46 The White House last viewed March 31, 2014, http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy. 47 John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum last viewed March 31, 2014, http://www.jfkli brary.org/JFK/JFK in History/John F Kennedy and Ireland.aspx.

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20 revered him as a national hero of the same caliber as Padraig Pearse. It became commonplace in Ireland for Catholic families a nd pub owners to hang a picture of Kennedy next to the obligatory picture of the Pope above the fireplace. Kennedy and Pearse are both immortalized as mosaics in the Cathedral of Our Lady Assumed into Heaven and St Nicholas in Galway, where they are repre sented as martyrs worshipping the triumphant figure of the resurrected Messiah. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum last viewed March 31, 2014, http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK in History/John F Kennedy and Ireland.aspx.

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21 after his visit to Ireland in June of 1953, less than six months before his assassination. 48 and political dedication, and these connections proved to be significant throughout the rest of the twentieth century. On October 5, 1968, what began as a civil rights march protesting equal rights for the nationalist Catholic minority in Northern Ireland, ended as a violent clash between republican protesters and officers of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC). 49 The event sparked a ser beginning of the thirty year period that came to be known as the Troubles, in which members of the primarily Catholic nationalist minority battled those of the l argely Protestant unionist majority for territorial control of Northern Ireland. The conflict was mainly perpetuated by paramilitary groups that became involved on both sides. The republican side was represented mainly by the Provisional Irish Republican A rmy, a more radical offshoot of the Official Irish Republican Army. 50 The loyalist or unionist side was represented by the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and the Ulster Defence Association (UDA). 51 Over 3,600 British and Irish people, many of whom were civilia ns, were killed over the course of the conflict and thousands more sustained physical injuries and/or psychological trauma. 52 Although few Irish emigrants or their descendants became directly involved in the conflict, members of the Diaspora, primarily in the United States, united in a campaign for Irish 48 Ibid. 49 BBC last viewed April 1, 2014, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/events/day_troubles_began. 50 51 BBC February, 2013, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/topics/troubles_paramilitaries. 52 Ibid.

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22 national self determination in Northern Ireland during the 1970s. 53 Irish Americans formed several prominent non governmental organizations that provided both material support to the republican side, as wel l as political support through lobbying efforts. The Northern Irish Aid Northern Ireland, was founded in 1970 in New York by Michael Flannery, an Irish immigrant and former IR A member. 54 It is estimated that NORAID raised $3 million between 1970 and 1986, allegedly for the benefit of the families of republican prisoners held by the British Army in internment camps in Northern Ireland. 55 Evidence was also discovered in 1982 that N ORAID had retained undeclared funds in the United States, which were then used to purchase arms that 56 Although NORAID was the most militant of the Irish American groups to supp ort the republican efforts in Northern Ireland, several other organizations were instrumental in lobbying the United State government to address the situation in Northern Ireland. In the 1980s the Irish National Caucus (INC) successfully lobbied support fr om the Carter Administration for Irish unity and for the redress of religious discrimination and human rights violations by British authorities in Northern Ireland. 57 The evolving efforts of the INC and its supporters reflected a gradual shift in the Irish American position on the situation in Northern Ireland throughout the 1980s. Although four prominent Irish ur 53 Journal o f Peace Research 44, no. 2 (2007): 220. 54 International Affairs 72, no. 3 (1996): 523. 55 Ibid, 524. 56 Ibid, 524 525. 57 Ibid, 526 27.

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23 Ireland as a legitimate foreign policy concern, they advocated for a nonviolent political strategy to end the violence, rather than to unite Ireland. 58 President B ill Clinton would utilize such a strategy throughout the 1990s to broker a ceasefire between the leadership of the nationalist party, Sinn Fen, with the British government, represented by Prime Minister Tony Blair. 59 The fact that American involvement was so instrumental in ending what was essentially a civil conflict in a tiny European country indicates the depth and strength of the connection that ha d been built throughout generations of migration between Ireland and America. It was not until the 1990s th at the Irish government would realize the extent of the economic advantage that this connection provided, and learned how to exploit it During the 1990s, Ireland embarked upon a course of rapid economic expansion that was praised the world over as the ad vent of a new era of international wealth. Like the United States, such as minimal use of economic regulations and low corporate tax rates in order to encourage fore ign direct investment in Ireland. Unfortunately, Irish politicians and bankers also participated in the same reckless economic gambling that led to the collapse of the housing market in the United States, and triggered the global financial crisis in 2008. Unlike the United States, losses, and the national economy was completely devastated. By 2010, after bailing out three of product. 60 I n November of 2010, Ireland European Union and the International Monetary fund which they were offered under the 58 Journal of Peace Research 44, no. 2 (2007): 221. 59 International Affairs 72, no. 3 (1 996): 534. 60 BBC April 25, 2013, http://www.bbc.com/news/business 13366011.

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24 condition that the government impose strict austerity measures and economic structural reforms, as well as submit to reviews of the 61 Although the ending cuts alone proved to be insufficient. But, as they say, necessity is the mother of invention, and the government got creative. At the suggestion of entrepreneurs like Kingsley Aikins, founder of Diaspora Matters the Irish government followed the ex ample of countries like Israel and chose to harness the power of the Diaspora in order to kick start the failing Irish economy. In an era where neoliberal thinkers value profit and economic power above all, Ireland capitalized on its biggest resources: its culture, and the global population whose identity is defined by that culture. II. A Culture of Connections: The Emigrant and the National Imagination If we are challenged about this tendency, we will deny it T o us Irish, memory is a canvas stretched, primed, and read story and we love it trimmed out with color and drama, ribbons and bows. Listen to our t unes, observe a Celtic Frank Delaney, Tipperary 62 In 2010, the Irish government embarked on a massive cultural rebranding campaign in order to inspire global interest in the country, and thereby promote tourism. The hope was to economic, as opposed to the historical, value in it. In order to understand how the government was able to successfully implement such a campaign, we must first consider the history behind the cultural ties which have bound the Irish Diaspora for centurie s. One of the most important cultural 61 BBC March 26, 2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/world europe 17473476. 62 Frank Delaney, Tipperary (New York: Random House, 2007), 3.

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25 characteristics of the Irish is their love of the spoken word, which became a huge factor in maintaining permanent connections between the Irish on the island and the Irish abroad. Ireland is a nation known for its li terary heritage. The Irish dedication to the written word manifested itself as far back as the Dark Ages, when Irish monks reproduced great religious and philosophical texts, essentially saving them from oblivion. 63 The works produced by these monks were in strumental in inspiring the renewed intellectual spirit of the Renaissance. For hundreds of years, Irish writers have channeled the Irish love for stories and wordplay into their work, often producing innovative forms of poetry, fiction, and drama when tra ditional becoming the only the fourth city worldwide to receiv e such an honor. 64 Promotional materials Joyce. However, what the a uthors of these materials fail to acknowledge is the fact that many of an unparalleled influence on the world at large, pro viding a unique cultural experience with literature at its heart 63 Thomas Cahill, Rome to the Rise of Medieval Europe (New York: Anchor Books, 1995), 3. 64 Dublin UNESCO last viewed Ma rch 30, 2014, http://www.dublincityofliterature.ie/.

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26 65 Although authors like Wilde and Joyce are now celebrated for their literary achievements, dur ing their lifetimes they faced considerable resistance from the Irish literary establishment. Their respective vantage points outside of Ireland allowed these emigrant authors to cast a critical eye on Irish society, which led to some of the most influenti al portrayals of contemporary Ireland, many of which provided a satirical view of the absurdities of Anglo Irish culture and society. literary heritage is more bro adly characterized by themes of loss, and especially personal loss as a result emigration. Poets like Eavan Boland have long mourned the loss of those men and women who were forced to leave their homeland in search of a better life. These Irish men and wom en were often portrayed as martyrs or exiles, as they were in the political manifestations of the figure of the emigrant, but they were also sometimes imagined as beneficiaries of the fabled 66 The desperate poverty and overa ll lack of opportunity in Ireland fueled the need for Irish men and women to leave their homes in search of employment in order to support themselves and their families. News of emigrants who had found success perpetuated stories of America as the Promised waves of emigrants into trying their luck away from home. 67 Once these travelers arrived at their destination, however, they were met with the shocking reality that life in their new country, whe ther England, the United States, Australia, or elsewhere, was much harder than they had ever imagined. Over time, the initial homesickness that every migrant experiences gradually evolved 65 http://www.dublincityofliterature.ie/dublinliterary/literary heritage.html. 66 Sean Williams and Lillis Laoire, Bright Star of the West: Joe Heaney, Irish Song Man (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 134. 67 Oscar Handlin, The Uprooted: The Epic Story of the Great Migrations that Made the American People (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 233.

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27 into a sense of permanent and enduring nostalgia as well as series o f idealized memories of their family and homeland in Ireland. Generations of Irish immigrants, especially in the United States, passed down these memories and stories to their offspring and generated a mythical version of Ireland and its culture that would come to be cherished by communities of Irish descent worldwide. These stories were not only captured in the memoires of Irish emigrants and their families, but also preserved through a range of other literary genres, particularly fiction and poetry, or so ng. Some of the most popular and well known memoirs that chronicle the struggle of Irish emigrants and their families during the mid Ashes Tis. In McCourt, who was born in Brooklyn in 19 30, describes the struggles that he, his parents, and his siblings endured while living in the slums of Depression era New York, and further compares these hardships with the extreme poverty he witnessed on Limerick. While it is easy to imagine the harsh conditions during an event like the Great Famine in the 1840s, it is more difficult to envision how little social and economic conditions in some parts of the coun portrait of the stagnant economic conditions that continued to plague society in the west of Ireland throughout the twentieth century. Although his personal experience is the main focus of Angela McCourt, ne Sheehan, first leaves Limerick at the suggestion of her mother, who 68 68 Frank McCourt, Ange (New York: Touchstone, 1996), 15.

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28 that he included for dramatic effect, as he was not yet born at the time, but it does reveal a certain attitude about emigration held in Irish society. Emigration was not only a safety valve for the excess population, but it was also thought that there wer e enough opportunities abroad that anyone of the poorest Irish immigrants; those unskilled laborers that travelled to America hoping for a better life and ended up wi th barely enough money to survive. Shortly after arriving in the toes, 69 Angela becomes pregnant, and her chances of succeeding by her own volition in the States are dashed. Her last spite the fact that they employment and their youngest child and only girl, Margaret, dies of malnutrition, Angela decides to return to Ireland and seek the support of her mo ther and siblings in Limerick. But, as American imagination, nor do Angela and her family receive a warm welcome upon their return. Already resentful of her for marrying a particularly her mother, only grudgingly offer her and her children what little material support they have to give. Eventually, when he is old enough and obtains enough money for the trans Atlant ic fare, Frank follows his dream of returning to New York, but he finds that his situation is off the 70 rish 69 Ibid, 15. 70 Frank McCourt, (New York: Scribner, 1999),101.

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29 emigrants inhabited once they left Ireland. Unlike a character in a novel, Angela McCourt experiences the worst of both worlds in America and in Ireland. Whether she lives in New York or in Limerick, Angela has to suffer the deaths of her children and continues to give birth to new children. Ultimately seven McCourt children are born, and three die. In addition to crushing poverty and hunger, Frank and his younger brother, Malachy, also face discrimination at home and at school because of their America over and 71 At school, the two boys are bullied for sounding 72 Furthermore, when Frank McCourt returns to New York at the age of nineteen, he faces even 73 Even though he had always thought that nothing could be worse than living in Limerick, Frank realizes that he had not been prepared for back to Limerick in my m 74 filled with humorous anecdotes, the underlying conditions which McCourt and his brothers had to survive reveal the depth of the poverty which Irish people had to endure, and the power of the social stigma Irish migrants had to suffer, even in the twentieth century. However, economic strife was not the only motivator for Irish men and women to emigrate. The late nineteenth and 71 Frank McCourt, (New York: Touchstone, 1996), 72, 63. 72 Ibid, 79. 73 Frank McCourt, (New York: Scribner, 1999), 73. 74 Ibid, 76.

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30 twentieth centuries were politically tumultuous times, and if one w as not on the right side, life could be terribly dangerous. is an emotionally compelling example of the independence. Li lly Dunne recounts the story of her life as she mourns the suicide of her grandson, Bill, a veteran of the Gulf War. Lilly, the daughter of an officer in Dublin Metropolitan Police, a division of the Royal Irish Constabulary is forced to flee Ireland when her love interest, Tadg Bere, becomes a target for political violence. Tadg, one of the approximately 140,000 Irishmen who volunteered to serve in the British military during World War I, becomes a recruit for the reviled British paramilitary force known as the Black and Tans upon returning from the war. 75 The Irish Republic Army (IRA) places a price on both Lilly and Black and Tan vehicles. Lilly and Tadg are force d to flee to Chicago, never to return to Ireland. Although Lilly herself is harmless and is wrongly accused of informing the Black and Tans of abandon her home. Because the Irish uprisings in the early twentieth century were, in essence, successful and led to the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922, the historical narrative mainly reflects the victories of the winning Irish Republic side. Little attention is given to those people who, like Lilly and her family, were the beneficiaries of English institutions in Ireland, as they were commonly considered traitors in Ireland. The fact that Lilly left Ireland permanently means that her story may never have reached the island and could not have had an impact on the greater Irish and Irish emigrant narrative. However, despite the fact that Lilly never returns after she 75 BBC, last modified March 10, 2010, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/ireland_wwone_01.shtml.

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31 emigrates and only receives a handful of letters from her father and sisters, she notes that 76 Lilly becomes one of the hundreds of thousands of Irish emigrants who found a home in the United States. Unlike most Irish immigrants, however, Lilly spends most of her young life outside of the large Irish communities found in New York and Chicago. America becomes a sanctuary, a place where she can create a new identity and choose whether or not to exploit her Irish heritage. Lilly grows into being an American, and uses the fact that she is Irish to form connections between herself and other Americans who claim Irish heritage, like her employer, Mrs. Wolohan, who proclaims herself to be a third generation Irish American. As in the case of Frank McCourt, the fact that Lil ly immigrates when she is in her early twenties give her the ability to recognize the difference between the Irish American representation of Ireland and the true characteristics of the country and its inhabitants. Her life is marked by fortunate and unfor tunate events which offset one another, and since she has experienced both the positive and negative aspects of Irish and American society, her writing benefits from a balanced view of the peals from her family, since they are afraid that writing to her will reveal her whereabouts to the IRA. Although she encounters many of the same facets of Irish American society as many of other Irish emigrants rs in that she makes a concerted effort to blend into her new society, and does not mourn her old life in Ireland the way most emigrants do. On captures the range of emotions and experiences Irish emigrants were subject to once they had left their homeland for good, and is incredibly emotionally compelling for readers who may not have known or held inaccurate assumptions about the political situation in Ireland during the early twentieth century. An even more powerful genre, however, has grown and 76 Sebastian Barry, (London: Pen guin Books, 2011), 57.

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32 evolved throughout centuries of Irish migration and represents the true depth of emotion that comes with emigration: poetry and song. As the teenage Frank McCourt awaits his second journey across the Atlantic Ocean to return to New York, he muses that go to America, which was so far away the parties were called American wakes because the 77 It was at these American wakes that I rish families and communities would gather and sing the old songs. Piaras Mac inr former director of the inter disciplinary Irish Centre for Migration Studies at University g emigrant songs that there are few Irish songs that celebrate emigration as an opportunity for a new life. 78 Instead, most songs are based on themes of loneliness, loss, nostalgia, the anger and bitterness of departure and exile, and the memory of the beau ty of Ireland. The songs themselves range from traditional ballads and airs with unknown composers, to parlor songs from Victorian Ireland, to songs written from the perspective of members of the Irish Diaspora or of Irish communities. atest Sean ns (old style) singers, Joe Heaney, created widespread awareness of emigrant songs throughout his career in England and the United States by performing songs in both English and Irish that he had learned growing up in Connemara. 79 One of the mos t iconic songs from the west of Ireland that Heaney made popular in Irish communities in the United A St r Mo Chro mother whose child is leaving home, and features several of the themes of expectation and loss that are common in many of the emigrant songs: 77 Frank McCourt, (New York: Touchstone, 1996), 356. 78 University College Cork last viewed March 30, 2014, http://www.ucc.ie/en/emigre/emigrant songs 1/. 79 Sean Williams and Lillis Laoire, Bright Star of the West: Joe Heaney, Irish Song Man (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 5.

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33 A str mo chro From That your heart will be sorely grieving. With riches and treasure golden never olden. A str mo chro There is plenty of wealth and wearing Whilst gems adorn the rich and the grand There are faces with hunger tearing. Though the road is dreary and hard to tread And the lights of their cities blind you Yo a str And the ones you left behind you. A str mo chro when the evening sun Over mountain and meadow is falling t you turn away from the throng and listen be surely mine A rin,a rin will you come back soon To the one who will always love you. 80 The song obviously features many of the sentiments expressed in the prose works previously mentioned, but the addition of the Sean ns style of singing brought an entirely different dimension to the text. Sean ns is traditionally an unaccompanied and highly ornamented style of singing. 81 Joe Heaney is said to have drawn on his own emigration experience for inspiration while singing, a nd emphasized the emotive power of the music in order to balance the sentiment of the lyrics. 82 paramount in achieving a visceral reaction from members of the audience, the fact that the lyrics seemed to draw on the collective memory of the members of the Irish Diaspora was equally as 80 Ibid, 134. 81 Comhaltas Ceoltir ireann last viewed March 30, 2014, http://comhaltas.ie/music/treoir/detail/amhranaiocht_ar_an_sean_nos/. 82 Sean Williams and Lillis Laoire, Bright Star of the West: Joe Heaney, Irish Song Man (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 135.

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34 may or may not have identified themselves as Irish American or being of Irish heritag e, but most, if not all, were one or more generations removed from the emigration experience. As Sean Williams and Lillis Laoire note in Bright Star of the West tears as their imaginations rushed past the specific circu mstances of the story and song, either 83 The power of these songs comes from not only creating awareness of the experience of emigrants, but from establishing emotional connectio ns between members of a diaspora community. By performing these songs and passing them down through generations, Irish emigrants were able to maintain their connection to their homeland no matter where they ended up on the globe. Irish emigrant songs conne cted people across borders and strengthened the links between the Irish on the island and abroad. In her address to the joint sitting houses of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament), on February Like oil lamps we put them out the back, / Of our houses, of our minds. 84 Robinson argued that the members of the Oireachtas were charged with a duty to lead the people of Ireland in actively pursuing stronger connections with members of the Irish Diaspora living outside of the island. She explained that in order for Ireland to grow, its population needed to engage in initiativ es that nurture the relationship between the Irish on the a sentimental regard for those who leave our shores 83 Ibid, 135. 84 Uachtarn na hireann Mary Robinson to Joint Sitting of the Houses of the Oireachtas Offices of the Houses of the Oireachtas last viewed March 30, 2014, http://www.oireachtas.ie/viewdoc.asp?fn=/documents/addresses/2Feb1995.htm.

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35 te nd to it until the fire burns out. 85 While Robinson was successful in appealing to the emotional connection between the Irish on the island and the Irish abroad, her purpose was not just to highlight the community sentiment embedded in the Irish national me mory. Rather, it was to raise support for transnational engagements conducted between the Irish and their vast diaspora population. Robinson is remembered for being the first government representative to directly address the importance of the Irish Diaspor a and bring it to the forefront of national attention. Although her invocation of the relationships that constitute the global Irish community was range of diaspo ra engagement policies that would later rescue the Irish economy after the global economic crash of 2008. III. Cherishing the Diaspora: The Return of the Emigrant Irish People are spread all over the world, many making a major contribution in their new homes. These people are not just members of the global Irish family they may also be members of your Clan, part of your extended family. The best events start with a simple invitation. Irish men and women have family members in all corners of the globe a nd next year offers a once in a lifetime opportunity to bring all the far flung members of your Clan together in a spirit of celebration. In October of 2011, Ciara Kenny, a contributor to The Irish Times posed a question to the issue of mass emigration, an affliction which had again returned to Ireland after the economic initiative aimed at this current gener way dialogue that 85 Ibid.

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36 86 The blog engages cultural, economic, and social issues that affect Irish people at home and around the world. Although articles addressing ma ss emigration and its impact on Ireland have been published in print as a part of The Irish Times the blog with its electronic format has a much farther reach. Irish men and women who have emigrated from Ireland during the current economic downturn, or ev recession in the 1980s, are invited to write in and tell their stories. Because emigration is an issue that affects people from all over Ireland of various ages and economic backgrounds, it is something to which everyone in the cou ntry can relate. It is an issue that also connects everyone living in Ireland to the more than 70 million people that make up the Irish Diaspora. 87 As we have seen, waves of emigration from Ireland have occurred over hundreds of years, but recent changes in technology have made the experience a very different one than ever before. Travel has become easier, making the homeland more accessible, and most emigrants now have the means to communicate with their friends and family continuously and instantly The In ternet has made it possible for the Irish to build communities throughout the world and to maintain their culture, regardless of geography, thereby expanding the nation beyond its physical borders. The concept of a public blog like changes the newspaper between the reader and the imagined community. While the reach of a newspaper is physically limited by the number of copies that can be made and b y the size of the area in which it can be distributed, a blog is available worldwide and is accessible to anyone at any time. The reader is not only aware of the simultaneous existence of the rest of the members of the readership, but can also create 86 The Irish Times, October 20, 2011, http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2011/10/20/generation emigration whats it all about/. 87 Kerby Miller, Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 4.

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37 relat ionships with other members by commenting on blog posts and participating in social media navigating relatively alien cultures, appear to experience a sense of communi ty by engaging with a larger online audience, it is important to note that, as Ciara Kenny mentioned, the blog itself is fundamentally based on a bilateral exchange of information. Not only can Kenny influence the readership by drawing attention to a speci fic selection of news articles published in The Irish Times she is also capable of extracting a particularly rich form of consumer feedback by posing questions which address topics that are of interest to multiple parties, including the Irish government. For example, on March 18, 2014, an unidentified author, presumably Kenny, posted a brief article which reviewed a government of the Irish community abroad to contribute their views on how Ireland engages wi th its 88 Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade which summarized the results so far of the a. 89 The consultation concerned with what the Diaspora population can do for Ireland, rather than what Ireland can do for its Diaspora. The report mainly emph asized the importance of reinforcing connections between the Irish on the island and the Irish abroad, particularly when those connections encouraged economic and social development in Ireland. Its authors made reference to several government sponsored ini tiatives that have already encouraged economic growth and investment 88 The Irish Times March 18, 2014, http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2014/03/18/emigrants invited to share views on irelands diaspora engagement/. 89 Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade March 18, 2014, https://www.dfa.ie/media/dfa/alldfawebsitemedia/ourrolesandpolicies/Review of Irelands Diaspora Strategy Consultation 2014.pdf.

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38 in Ireland, many of which successfully exploit the rich cultural and ancestral ties which bind the Diaspora. to kick start the economy and lift the depressed mood that has overshadowed the country since 2008, the Irish government, in partnership with the Irish Tourism Board, chose to emulate an long celebration of everything Irish, involved a national network of city and county community leaders as well as various professional and community organizations. Towns, counties, and individual families came together to plan approximately 5,000 cultural events to be held throughout the year 2013. They then sent out the call to fa mily members living abroad who had either personally emigrated or were the descendants of Irish emigrants. Anyone who considered him or herself to be of Irish descent, and therefore a member of the Irish Diaspora, was encouraged to rediscover their roots in through their local parish records for evidence of Irish people who h ad emigrated decades, even centuries, beforehand. They then traced the lineage of these emigrants and contacted any surviving relatives or descendants to invite them to visit their ancestral home in Ireland. 90 With at least 250,000 to 275,000 overseas visit project a success. There was, however, a great deal of backlash from the international Irish community 90 Ireland Reaching Out, March 14, 2014, http://www.irelandxo.com/about.

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39 dur 91 The Irish Times commented on an article published on the new 92 Proponents of the initiati itself and illustrates the integration of economic and cultural interests that is necessary to create an effective diaspora engagement strategy. Preliminary analyses of data collected throughout but also fostered the increased sense of community involvement and national solidarity necessary for the nation to pull through the austerit program. Additionally, several leading European Union officials, including Jrg Asmussen, a example of the successful implementation of austerity measures in combination with culturally based projects. Even the German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, has lauded Ireland for setting a 93 What man 91 Harry M The Irish Times November 7, 2012, http://www.irishtimes.com/news/a shakedown or a welcome initiative to attract visitors 1.548324. 92 The Irish Times, January 11, 2013, http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2013/01/11/gathering momentum forget the shakedown heres the breakdown/. 93 The New York T imes January 10, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/11/opinion/irelands rebound is european blarney.html?_r=0.

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40 liberalization throughout the 1990s that led to the shockingly rapid, an d completely and subsequently resulted in the crash of 2008. In an opinion piece published in the New York Times Rebound Union leaders point to Ireland as an example of the successful implementation of austerity measures, in reality the situation in Ireland is much worse than it appears. Since its entry into the European Union in 1973 Ireland has been lauded as the poster child for the success associated website, since its inclusion in the Union in 1973 I 94 achievements have since served as justification for EU policy. Its rapid economic growth during the 1990s and 2000 s signaled an era of neoliberal economic expansion within Europe, as it additionally en ticed other European countries, particularly in Eastern Europe, to seek membership in the EU in the hope of achieving the same economic boost when integrated into a larg s economic policies led to a vastly inflated property market in the early 2000s, and the economy was completely devastated 94 European Union last viewed April 3, 2014, http://europa.eu/about eu/countries/member countries/ireland//index_en.htm.

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41 contradiction that has manifested in the attitudes of EU politicians and economic leaders, who once praised the Irish government for its irresponsible policies during the boom years, and are now congratulating the government for its implementation of strict austerity measures. Whereas five y ears ago Ireland was a model of economic success for other EU countries, its image has now been reworked as a model of economic responsibility for countries like Spain and Greece. land since the crisis in 2008, and people continue to leave. Although the technology sector in Dublin is booming, the foreign firms who own these companies are reaping the profits, so none of this money is reinvested in the Irish economy. Severe cuts in go vernment spending have resulted in a massive reduction in the number of public sector jobs as well as in government investment in infrastructure. Professionals have been forced to leave Ireland to find work elsewhere, and the unemployment rate remains at a that found that the majority of Irish people who are emigrating are highly educated young people who have found little opportunity for advancement in their chosen fields in Ireland. These are the people who should be rebuilding the country, but unfortunately there is little incentive for them government nor other members of the European Union are planning on changing their practices in the near future. within Ireland and encourage emigration, the country has become a leader in the growing field of diaspora engagement a nd mobilization Countries both in Europe and around the world are looking to Ireland for inspiration as to how they too can reach out to their external ethnic populations. In May of 2013, Dublin hosted the European arm of the Global Diaspora Forum,

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42 sponso red by the United States Department of State, the International Diaspora Engagement Alliance, and Irish Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 95 ns that participated in the planning of these events are in the process of evaluating their efforts, so that they may execute similar events in the future with even greater success. It remains to be seen if Diaspora will be sustainable, but it does appear to signal a shift in the perception of the value of culture in a global neoliberal context. Conclusion The Great Famine of 1845 and the global economic crisis of 2008 are examples of two very different eve nts that had a permanent effect on the course of Irish history. Although they occurred in very different historical contexts, these two catastrophes caused the largest waves of emigration Ireland has ever seen. Over the centuries, the Irish Diaspora has de veloped into an influential economic, political, and cultural asset for the Irish state. Without the intervention and political pressure created by members of the Diaspora in the United States, England, and elsewhere, the Republic of Ireland would not exis t. Without the remittances provided by members of the Diaspora worldwide, Ireland may have never maintained the means to sustain it self as a nation. The figure of the Irish emigrant represents a cultural memory that is deeply ingrained in the Irish nationa l consciousness, but the emigrant also stands as a symbol of a nation once dominated by the liberal ideals of a colonial oppressor that has undergone a transition to a leader in neoliberal economic strategy. No longer a symbol of national doom, the emigran t is now valued as an informal ambassador, connecting Ireland to the world. As globalization slowly 95 Thomas D International Diaspora Engagement Alliance, May 12, 2013, http://diasporaalliance.org/welcome to the 2013 global diaspora forum/.

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43 erodes the physical barriers that once defined nation states during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the experience of modern Irish emigrants suggest s that eventually these lines will be almost meaningless. Emigrant experiences lend themselves to the redefinition of the nation, and with the Irish actively taking control of their fate, they are one step closer to achieving the constantly sought after ha ven represented in Irish lore by Tr na n"g.

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44 Bibliography Primary Sources Ireland Reaching Out. March 14, 2014. http://www.irelandxo.com/about. Anderson Benedict. Imagined Communities. London: Verso, 1983. Bunreacht na hireann November 1, 2013. http://www.taoiseach.gov.ie/eng/Historical_Information/The_Constitution/December_2013_ _Bhunreacht_na_hEireann_Constitution_Text.pdf. Barry, Sebastian. London: Penguin Books, 2011. Debass International Diaspora Engagement Alliance, May 12, 2013, http://diasporaalliance.org/welcome to the 2013 global diaspora forum/. The Irish Times November 2, 2011. http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2011/11/02/traditions of emigration the irish habit of going away/. Delaney, Frank. Tipperary. New York: Random House, 2007. The Irish Times March 18, 2014. http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2014/03/18/emigrants invited to share views on irelands diaspora engagement/. The National Archives Last viewed April 1, 2014. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1920/67/pdfs/ukpga_19200067_en.pdf. Dublin UNESCO. Last viewed March 30, 2014. http://www.dublincityofliterature.ie/. European Union. Last viewed April 3, 2014. http://eu ropa.eu/about eu/countries/member countries/ireland//index_en.htm. Keating, Reg. Oisn and Tr na n"g Dublin: Owl Records Ltd, 1997. Oireachtas Great Irish Speeches edited by Richard Aldous, 115 118. London: Quercus, 2007. The Irish Times. January 11, 2013. http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2013/01/11/gathering momentum forg et the shakedown heres the breakdown/.

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45 --The Irish Times. October 20, 2011. http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2011/10/20/generation emigration whats it all about/. y the Taoiseach, Mr Enda Kenny TD, at the National Launch of Ireland MerrionStreet.ie: Irish Government News Service. March 14, 2012. http://www.merrionstreet.ie/index.php/2012/03/speech by the taoiseach m r enda kenny td at the national launch of ireland reaching out at the national library of ireland/. Dublin UNESCO Last viewed March 30, 2014. http://www.dublincityofliterature.ie/dublinliterary/literary heritage.html. McCourt, Fran k. New York: Touchstone, 1996. --. New York: Scribner, 1999. The Irish Times November 7, 2012. http://www.irishtimes.com/news/a shakedown or a welcome initiative to attract visitors 1.548324. Mill, John Stuart. England and Ireland. London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer, 1868. --. On Liberty London: The Walter Scott Publishing Co., Ltd., 1901. The New York Times January 10, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/11/opinion/irelands rebound is european blarney.html?_r=0. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade March 18, 2014. https://www.dfa.ie/media/dfa/alldfawebsitemedia/ourrolesandpolicies/Review of Irelands Diaspora Strategy Consultation 2014.pdf. Robinson, Ma Uachtarn na hireann Mary Robinson to Joint Sitting of the Houses of the Oireachtas Offices of the Houses of the Oireachtas. Last viewed March 30, 2014. http://www.oireachtas.ie/viewdoc.asp?fn=/documents/addresses/2Feb1995.htm. --augural Speech Given by Her Excellency Mary Robinson, President of Ireland, in Dublin Stanford Presidential Lectures in the Humanities and Arts. Last viewed April 1, 2014. https://prelectur.stanford.edu/lecturers/robins on/inaugural.html.

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46 Secondary Sources The Victorian Web. August 13, 2013. http://www.victorianweb.org/history/famine.html. Cahill, Thomas. Role from the Fall of Rome to the Rise of Medieval Europe. New York: Anchor Books, 1995. Canny, Nicholas P. "The ideology of English colonization: from Ireland to America." The William and Mary Quarterly 30.4 (1973): 575 598 Cochrane, Feargal Journal of Peace Research 44, no. 2 (2007): 215 231. Australian Government Last updated February 17, 2010. http:// australia.gov.au/about australia/australian story/convicts and the british colonies. Coogan, Tim Pat, De Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow. London: Arrow Books, 1995. BBC. Last viewed April 1, 2014. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/events/day_troubles_began. last viewed April 3, 2014, http://ighm.nfshost.com/emigration and coffin ships/. English, Richard. Irish Freedom: The History of Natio nalism in Ireland. London: Macmillan, 2007. International Affairs 72, no. 3 (1996): 521 536. Handlin, Oscar. The Uprooted: The Epic Story of the Great Migrati ons that Made the American People. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002. BBC. April 25, 2013. http://www.bbc.com/news/business 13366011. Central Intelligence Agency Last viewed April 3, 2014. ht tps://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the world factbook/geos/ei.html. BBC. Last modified March 10, 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/ireland_wwone_01.shtml. The White House. Last viewed March 31, 2014. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy.

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47 John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum Last viewed March 31, 2014. http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK in History/John F Ken nedy and Ireland.aspx. The Course of Irish History Edited T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin. Dublin: Mercier Press 2001. Universit y College Cork Last viewed March 30, 2014. http://www.ucc.ie/en/emigre/emigrant songs 1/. The Course of Irish History. Edited by T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin, 245 261. Dublin: Mercier Press 2001. Miller, Kerby. Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. The Course of Irish History Edited by T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin, 228 244. Dublin: Mercier Press 2001. boundary 2 31, no. 1 (2004): 147 178. ireann. Last viewed March 30, 2014. http://comhaltas.ie/music/treoir/detail/amhranaiocht_ar_an_sean_nos/. BBC. February, 2013. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/topics/troubles_paramilitaries. University of Houston last updated April 3, 2014, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/irish_potato_famine.cfm. BBC. Last viewed March 31, 2014. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/troubles. Trueman, Chris. History Learning Site. March 26, 2014. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/ireland_great_famine_of_1845.htm. Williams, Sean and Lillis Laoire. Bright Star of the West: Joe Heaney, Irish Song Man. Oxford: Oxford University P ress, 2011



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Honors Thesis Submission Form Name Helen Miney ________________________________ U F ID 6418 8399___ __ ________ Thesis Title The Irish Emigrant: A Nation in Miniature_ _________________________ _______ ____________________________________________________________________ ________________ Date April 4, 2014_ __________________ Length 47 _____ pages Bibliography Yes No Illustrate d Yes No College Liberal Arts & Sciences ______________________________________________________ Thesis Advisor Dr. Sheryl Kroen _____________________________________________________ History ________________________________________________________ Is your thesis or any part being submitted for publication? Yes No If any part has been submitted for pub licati on, please indicate where: University of Florida Journal of Undergraduate Rese arch_____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ________ Keywords ( provide five ) diaspora, cultural commodification, liberalism, literary heritage __ __ Abstract (100 200 Words) ( For Office Use Only ) Major: _______________ __ Designation: __________ __ Graduation Term: ______ __ Over the cou rse of hundreds of years, emigration, or leaving home, has become a uniquely Irish knit emigrant communities, or for the deep sense of cultural pride expressed by members of its dias pora whose ancestors emigrated decades or centuries ago. There are more than 70 million people in the Irish Diaspora worldwide, who identify themselves as being of Irish heritage, and yet fewer than five million people currently live in the Republic of Ire land. In the face of economic and social upheaval, the emigrant has become a representation of a nation on the move. Since the Great Famine, the Irish have evolved from the model of the liberal imperial subject, to the champions of self determination, to t he perpetrators of terrorism, and finally, to the poster children of neoliberal transition, as those people who once represented the specter of national doom have become national saviors, as well as a symbol of Irish cultural solidarity.

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2 The Irish Emigrant: A Nation in Miniature Helen Miney

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3 Table of Contents Introduction 4 I. From Victim to Champion: The Emigrant as a Political Force 1 2 II. A Culture of Connections: The Emigrant and the National Imagination 24 III. Cherishing the Diaspora: The Return of the Emigrant 35 Conclusion 42 Bibliography 44

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4 Introduction One of the most well Tr na n"g, 1 2 and return to Tr na n"g with her. Although Oisn is welcomed and greatly loved by the denizens of Tr na n"g, after a year he wishes to visit his home in Ireland once again. Niamh gives Oisn her horse for the journey, but warns him that if he touches the ground in Ireland, he may never return to Tr na n"g. Upon arriving in Ireland, Oisn discovers that more than three hundred years have passed, and all of his friends and family are dead. As he turns his horse to leave Ireland for Tr na n"g, a group of men ask Oisn to assist them with moving a boulder out of the road. They marvel at his strength as he easily lifts the rock, but as he does so the saddle girth snaps and Oisn falls to the ground. Oisn transforms from a young and handsome man to an old, withered creature, before turning to dust. The sto ry of Oisn and Tr na n"g is one of the earliest tales of Irish emigration. It serves 3 As the inhabitants of a small island on the edge of the Atlantic Oce an, the Irish have been leaving home for centuries. Emigration has become deeply ingrained in the Irish consciousness, manifesting in many different cultural and political arenas. The figure of the emigrant has become almost mythical in Irish culture. The deep sense of loss affiliated with emigration has been the subject of ballads and novels, and has fueled political debate in Ireland. 1 Reg Keating, Oisn and Tr na n"g (Dublin: Owl Records Ltd, 1997), 5. 2 Ibid, 3. 3 Enda The Irish Times 2 November 2011. http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2011/11/02/traditions of emigration the irish habit of going away/

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5 Kerby Miller takes a particularly politicized view of the subject in Emigrants and Exiles but makes a very important obse rvation regarding the popular perception of Irish emigrants, 4 Thus the emigrant cam e to be represented as a kind of tragic hero in the Irish consciousness; one that is both an innocent victim of external forces as well as a symbol of adventure and the pursuit of a better life. The origin of these myths is rooted in a long history of migr ation in Ireland, but they became particularly salient in nineteenth century Irish society, during and after the Great Famine of 1845. Migration has been an integral part of Irish culture for thousands of years. Society is often shaped by geography, and t his is particularly true for small islands like Ireland. It is with them. 5 Tribal wars prompted small waves of emigration, as those who were defeated in comba t either fled or were ejected from the island. Over the centuries, the tribes that inhabited Ireland conquered neighboring areas and were themselves the subjects of invasions from outside forces. Despite constant instability on the island, Miller identifie s the English conquest of Ireland, beginning in 1166 AD 6 as the beginning of the waves of mass emigration that would 7 Miller identifies several large waves of transatlantic migration as seven million people emigrated from Ireland to North 8 9 which took place between 1607 and the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1921, as 1) before the American Revolution, 2) 1783 to 4 Kerby Miller, Emigrants and Exi les: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 4. 5 T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin, The Course of Irish History (Lanham, Maryland: Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 2001), 15 6 Miller, Emigrants and Exiles 11 7 Ibid, 102. 8 Ibid, 3. 9 Ibid, 131.

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6 10 of 1815 to 1844, 4) the Great Famine, and 5) post Famine emigration. Although Miller focuses on transatlantic migration, and particularly Irish migration to the United States and Canada, during these periods millions more Irish immigrated primarily to English speaking areas like England and Australia Many Irish men and women travelled with wealthy English businessmen or families to the farthest reaches of the globe, as indentured servants to the Caribbean, South Africa, India, China, etc., hoping to one day earn their freedom and possibly some land of their own. A smaller number of wealthy Irish Protestants joined the English in establishing plantations throughout the New World. During the late eighteenth and most of the nineteenth centurie s, many Irish men and women were deported to British penal colonies in Australia and North America in order to alleviate pressure on overpopulated British prisons and workhouses 11 Although extreme poverty and overpopulation spurred a steady stream of emigr ants prior to 1845, the Great Famine, also known as an Gorta Mr the Great Hunger, has become infamous as the largest wave of mass emigration in Irish history. The Irish Famine of 1845 set the stage for the creation of the archetype of the Irish emigrant in the Western historical imagination. During the first half of the nineteenth century, the Irish population grew rapidly to an all time high of 8.5 million people. 12 From 1845 to 1850, it is estimated that between 75 0,000 and 1,000,000 Irish people died o f starvation or famine related illnesses, and another 2,000,000 people emigrated. 13 Based on census statistics, t he Public Records Office of Northern Ireland has estimated that during this period an average of 1,000,000 10 Ibid, 193. 11 Australian Government last updated February 17, 2010, http://australia.gov.au/about australia/australian story/convicts and the british colonies. 12 Marjie Bloy, The Victorian Web, August 13, 2013, http://www.victorianweb.org/history/famine.html. 13 University of Houston last updated April 3, 2014, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/irish_potato_fa mine.cfm.

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7 Irish immigrated to the United States alone. 14 Another 1,000,000 immigrated to Australia, while a n additional 750,000 Irish traveled to the British mainland in search of work and shelter. 15 their destinat ion starving and diseased, if they arrived at all. 16 The image of these skeletal figures has taken root in the Irish national imagination, as the Great Famine stands out as one of the most significant and painful events embedded in the national memory. The Great Famine is significant not only because of the magnitude of the loss of life, but also because it served as the catalyst for a series of home rule campaigns in the latter half of nineteenth century that eventually led to the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1921. Although this was not the first time that the figure of the emigrant was used to reach a political end in Ireland, the salience of powerful too l for social mobilization. The fallout from the Great Famine was so significant that many people living outside of Ireland who do not study Irish history often admit that it is the only event in the history of Ireland of which they have any knowledge. The legacy of the famine victims lives on in the generations of descendants who now make up part of the more than 70 million members of the modern Irish Diaspora. 17 Emigration continued at a rapid pace after the Famine. Mill nine teent h century the peculiar evolution of Irish society had made mass emigration a permanent 18 He suggests that this was due to both a lack of economic opportunity in Ireland as 14 Ibid. 15 last viewed April 3, 2014, http://ighm.nfshost.com/emigration and coffin ships/. 16 Ibid. 17 Kenny TD, at the National Launch of Ireland Reaching Out, at MerrionStreet.ie: Irish Government News Service March 14, 2012, http://www.merrionstreet.ie/index.php/2012/03/speech by the taoiseach mr enda kenny td at the n ational launch of ireland reaching out at the national library of ireland/. 18 Miller, Emigrants and Exiles 345.

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8 well a desire to be reunited with family members who had previously emigrated. It is generally recognized that for many poor Irish men and women during the late nineteenth and early 19 However, despite the fact that the United States is assumed to be the destination of choice for most Irish immigrants, many would also continue to emigrate to Britain and Australia. The institution of mass emigration from Ireland would continue througho ut the twentieth century. Like the emigrants of the Famine era, emigrants during the twentieth century were usually poor, unskilled laborers. Unlike that previous generation of emigrants, however, Irish emigrants in the twentieth century were not usually m embers of the poorest class of society, as the cost of travel prevented those with no resources from leaving. In many cases, family members who had previously emigrated would send for individual members of families as they built up the funds to pay for tra vel fare. The First and Second World Wars would provide opportunities for young men to leave Ireland as soldiers and for young women as nurses, usually for the British armed forces, but in some cases as volunteers for the armed forces of other nations. Aft er the World Wars, Ireland experienced severe economic recessions in the 1950s and 1980s, which further triggered large waves of emigration. Although emigration remains a prominent factor in modern Irish society, the current technological revolution, which began in the late 1980s, created an entirely new experience for as their ability to connect with the population on the island, as well as with other emigrants, is no longer limited by the traditional boundarie s of time and space The technological innovations of the twentieth and twenty first centuries have allowed for the creation of communities on a global scale, which is particularly clear when one examines the case of Ireland and its emigrants, who have mai ntained their ties to the nation 19 Keating, Oisn and Tr na n"g 3.

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9 despite time and distance. The development of a global community composed of generations of Irish emigrants and their descendants over the past 150 years or so has in a sense, has become an extension of the nation outside In Imagined Communities imagined political community 20 According to Anderson, a nation is imagined beca their fellow members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image With this definition, Anderson attempts to capture the evolving nature of nations and address the broad range of motivations that inspire populations to form their own nations. However, since the publishing of his work in 1983, technological innovations have introduced new variables that nations, as members of different nations now participat e in a global community that is no longer limited by geopolitical lines of demarcation. Anderson argues that o ne of the most important aspects in the formation of an imagined community is a shared language, and, by extension, a shared body of written works and information. He identifies books and newspapers as cultural products whose simultaneous consumption connects people by way of a shared cultural imagination. He abandoned a between the collection of seemingly unrelated stories based on his or her own perspective of and relationship to the content. 21 The newspaper also creates a sense of simultane ity, making the 20 Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities (London: Verso, 1983), 6. 21 Ibid, 35.

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10 reader aware of the existence of the other members of the imagined community that share his or Print culture has been integral in the formation and engagement of the Irish Diaspora, as the shared consumption of news has encouraged a global sense of community involvement, while cultural products such as novels which detail the emigrant experience have captured the imagination of the Diaspora as a whole. In spite of these ideas, w hy is it that history and culture has become fact that historians like Miller and Delaney can characterize emigration as a uniquely Irish become a fact of life. No other culture is as well known for its tightly knit emigrant communities, or for the deep sense of cultural pride expr essed by members of its diaspora whose ancestors emigrated decades or centuries ago. There are more than 70 million people in the Irish Diaspora worldwide who identify themselves as being of Irish heritage and yet fewer than five million people currently live in the Republic of Ireland. 22 In the face of economic and social upheaval the emigrant has become a representation of a nation on the move. Since the Great Famine, the Irish have evolved from the model of the liberal imperial subject, to the champion s of self determination to the perpetrators of terrorism and finally, to the poster children of neoliberal economic success. of this transition, as those people who once represented the s pecter of national doom have become national saviors, as well as a symbol of Irish cultural solidarity. 22 Central Intelligence Agency last viewed April 3, 2014, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the world factbook/geos/ei.html.

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11 In her inaugural address on December 3, 1990, Irish President Mary Robinson invoked the idea of the mythical Fifth Province of Ireland to introduce her reconnecting the Irish on the island with the members of the Irish Diaspora living abroad. In recent years, Irish dignitaries had become fond of quoting Article 2 of the Irish Constitution, rishes its special affinity with people of Irish ancestry 23 Rather than simply state her dedication to the interests of the members of the Irish Diaspora, however, Robinson challenged Irish began to for ge in the smith he uncreated conscience of our race might of the wider international community? 24 not just in reevaluating the conscience and shared objectives of the Irish at home and abroad, but also in terms of cultural commodification and exploitation. The Irish Diaspora has truly come to embody as in the context of our modern und erstanding of the nation it continues to provide the political balance and cultural resources that were once considered characteristics of the legendary force that consolidated the interests of the Irish nation as a whole. 23 Bunreacht na hireann, November 1, 2013, http://www.taoiseach.gov.ie/eng/Historical_Information/The_Constitution/Decemb er_2013_ _Bhunreacht_na_hEireann_Constitution_Text.pdf. 24 Stanford Presidential Lectures in the Humanities and Arts last viewed April 1, 2014, https://prelectur.stanford.edu/lecturers/robinson/inaugural.html.

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12 I. From Victim to Champion: The Emigrant as a Political Force united by history. No people ever believed more deeply in the cause of Irish freedom than the people of the United States. And no country contributed more to building my own than your sons and daughters. They came to our shores in a mixture of hope and agony, and I would not underrate the difficulties of their course once they arrived in the United States. They left behind hearts, fields and a nation yearnin g to be free. It is no wonder that James Joyce described the Atlantic as a bowl of bitter tears, and an earlier President John F. Kennedy 25 A n Gorta Mr the Great Famine of 1845 to 1849, was a turning point in Irish history. Although there had certainly been significant nationalist movements during the first half of the nineteenth century and earlier, the Famine proved to be a political and cultural catalyst for the creation of the I rish Free State, and later the Republic of Ireland. As Richard English, the he appalling scale of the episode was to become written firmly and enduringly into Irish nationalist 26 Although the British ruling classes did attempt to provide some relief for those who were evicted from their land durin g the Famine, most Irish people tenants and replace them with more profitable livestock. Even today there is some debate as to whether the actions of th e British government during the Great Famine constitute genocide, although it is generally acknowledged that there was little the government could do to alleviate the plight of the huge population of Irish potato farmers and their families. 25 Oireachtas Great Irish Speeches ed. Richard Aldous (London: Quercus, 2007), 116 26 Richard English, Irish Freedom: The History of Nationalism in Ireland (London: Macmillan, 2007), 163.

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13 The massive and very visible loss of life in Ireland during the Great Famine was one motivating factor in the growth of Irish nationalist movements, but the impact of emigration may ultimately have been even greater. It is estimated that more than one million Irish men, women, and children emigrated during the Famine. 27 These emigrants formed huge, tightly knit Irish communities in their host nations and became a prominent political force, especially in the United States. These embittered men and women saw themselves as ex iles, forced to leave their homeland and their families at the hands of the English. The Irish emigrant not only became a political symbol of English oppression in Irish nationalist campaigns, but communities of Irish emigrants also came to constitute an i nvisible political force which influenced the course of Irish history throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In order to understand the motivations behind the nationalist pursuits of Irish emigrant communities, we must first look back to the de velopment of the relationship between the Irish and English that preceded the Famine. Over the course of the nineteenth century, the events and attitudes that came to constitute the figure of the British tyrant in the Irish national imagination and memory eventually came to a head over the question of land ownership and political sovereignty, which became known in arose as the result of a buildup of Irish res entment after hundreds of years of English conquest and oppression. colony territorial conquest, of Great Britain remains contested within academic circles, it is often acknowledged that British soil rose over Ireland, as Ireland served as a colonial laboratory for British imperial experiments. 28 Some revisionist scholars, such as 27 History Learning Site March 26, 2014, http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/ireland_great_famine_of_1845. htm. 28 Crime and Social Justice 8 (1977): 53.

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14 Stephen Howe, author of Ireland and Empire: Colonial Legacies in Irish History and Culture argue that the establishment of the United Kingdom as a result of the Acts of Union of 1800 made Britain and Ireland political and cultural equals. 29 This would suggest that the Irish were no longer subjugated by the British, and therefore were no longer British colonial or imperial subjects. In reality, however, the experimental British colonial ideas and techniques that had been at work in Ireland for centuries continued throughout the entire nineteenth century, as the British elite attempted to s ubdue and profit from the impoverished Irish population. The Irish, as a result, represent the archetype of the imperial subject often referenced in the works of classical liberal theorists such as John Locke, Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, James Mill, and Jo hn Stuart Mill, among others. As early as the seventeenth century, John L ownership through improvement were used to justify the English confiscation and redistribution of land in Ireland. English settlers determined the tra ditional Irish form of subsistence farming to be unprofitable, and justified turning native Irish people off their lands in the name of God and their served a obtained the right to call the land his property. In the minds of the English, this form of feudalism also served as a method of improving the native Irish by lifti ng them out of their original and culturally inferior state of nature. Lord Deputy Mountjoy once characterized a without any knowledge of God, or almost any civilit 30 Canny argues that while this perception of the native Irish was popular amongst the English in the seventeenth century, the perception of 29 Kathleen Costello New Hibernia Review 6.4 (2002): 157 158. 30 Ibid, 585.

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15 the Irish as barbarians was propagated by the English conquerors throughout the sixteenth century as a justification for the subjugation of the native Irish population. The English, who considered themselves to be culturally superior to the Irish, argued t hat only through forceful 31 The English cultural influence would improve the natu rally barbaric Irish culture, thereby elevating the Irish people to a more civilized state of nature. By the nineteenth century, t he English perception of t 32 Ireland thus became a laboratory for social experimentation, as the British government began to develop biopolitical strategies to manage its colonial populations by focusing on the control of the individual. During the latter half of the nineteenth century, John Stuart Mill followed in the liberal tradition of his predecessors, namely John Locke and Adam Smith by publishing On Liberty in 1859 and Considerations on Representative Government in 1861. In these two works, Mill discusses the utilitarian principles which he believes must govern society in order to promote the precursors as he u ses the concept of improvement to make his case for the rationality of the individual and for his ability to self govern. However, d espite his defense of the sovereignty of the individual, Mill believes in a hierarchy of civilizations and places limitations on the ability to govern of those individuals in societies that have not yet reached a particular st ate of 31 Nicholas Canny, "The ideology of English colonization: from Ireland to America." The William and Mary Quarterly 30.4 (1973): 592. 32 Ibid, 720.

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16 protected against their own actions as well as against external injury. For the same reason, we may leave out of consideration those backward states of society in which the race itself may be ernment in dealing with barbarians, provided the end be their improvement, and the means justified by actually effecting 33 tings, it is evident that he regards English society as being the pinnacle of civilization, meaning that all other societies must be slowing evolving to become like England, including Ireland. 34 In his introduction to his pamphlet, England and Ireland published in 1886, Mill draws attention to the issue that was hotly debated in the Briti sh parliament at the time, as well as to the flippant attitude held by many of his fellow members of parliament with regard to affairs in Ireland. He had existed b etween England and Ireland for generations, and refute d the idea that Irish disaffection 35 Rather than discredit the Irish claim to Irish land by labeling the Irish as savages o r barbarians, Mill declares that the English government has failed in its responsibilities to its subjects, as it has done nothing Ireland is to be a consent ing party to her union with England, the changes must be so made that the existing generation of Irish farmers shall at once enter upon their benefits. The rule of Ireland now rightfully belongs to those who, by means consistent with justice, will make the cultivators 33 John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (London: The Walter Sco tt Publishing Co., Ltd., 1901). 6. 34 John Stuart Mill, England and Ireland (London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer, 1868), 1. 35 Ibid, 2.

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17 of the soil of Ireland the owners of it; and the English nation has got to decide whether it will be 36 was the result of many years of deep political reflection and personal ideological evolution, and was therefore not shared by the vast majority of his fellow ministers in the British Parliament. Had the English relinquished their claim to Irish land and I rish rule the legitimacy of the liberal theories upon which the expansion of the British Empire was founded throughout the nineteenth century would have been thoroughly undermined In the world of John Stuart Mill and his father, James Mill, it had been determined that men no longer emerged from a universal state of nature. Different societies existed at different stages of development, with England at the pinnacle. At the opposite end of the spectrum, there those backward states of society in wh ich the race itself may be considered as its nonage to carry such a people the most rapidly through the next necessary step in social progress. 37 John Stuart Mill termed this interventionist for admissible as a means o f gradually training the people to walk alone. On a continuum of culture and development, Mill claimed that all societies, or communities, were compelled to strive for a greater degree of civilization, and that the best form of government would be the one that encouraged the conditions necessary for progress. As U day Singh Mehta explains in his analysis of political exclusion in nineteenth century India of political exclusion of colonial peoples, of slaves, of women, and of those without sufficient property to exercise either suffrage or real political power over the past three and a half centuries must be allowed to embarrass the universalistic clai 38 Eventually the British colonial experiments in Ireland eventually led to the creation of a monster, as by the end of the nineteenth century the British 36 Ibid, 22. 37 John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (London: The Walter Scott Publishing Co., Ltd., 1901), 6, 31. 38 Uday Singh Mehta, Liberalism and Empire (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 76.

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18 could no longer maintain peaceful control over their colonial subjects In 1914, the country erupted in violent clashes between Irish nationalists and unionists, which culminated in the events surrounding the Easter Rising by members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood in 1916. 39 The British government took full advantage of the opportunit y to assert their martial dominance over their imperial subjects by conducting widespread arrests of suspected rebels, condemning ninety men to death for their involvement in the insurrection, and the executing fifteen rebel leaders, including Padraig Pear se, who became a martyr to the Irish cause. 40 American supporters of Irish nationalism, who would employ free the small nations, let us show our good faith by liberating that small nation which has 41 During the early twentieth century the Irish, and especially Irish American emigrant communities, became the champions of the liberal ideal of self determination and the embodiment of liberal progress. Organizations like the Irish Progressive League and the American Association for the Recognition of the Irish Republic played an integral role in channeling Irish American support for Irish independence and offered a political outlet for exiled participants of the 1916 Rising. 42 These organizations assisted Eamon De Valera, president of the Dil ireann ( National Assembly of Ireland), in his attempts to raise money to finance the work of the Irish government and the Irish Republic Army (IRA), as well as to raise awareness and support for official recognition of an Irish republic by the United States 39 The Course of Irish History ed. T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin (Dublin: Mercier Press 2001), 254 56. 40 Ibid, 25 6. 41 boundary 2 31, no. 1 (2004): 163. 42 Ibid, 175.

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1 9 govern ment. In June of 1921 the intensity of the Anglo Irish War became so destructive that public opinion in Britain and the United States turned against the British government and demanded a truce This eventually led to the signing of the Anglo Irish Treaty, which established the Irish Free State in December of 1921. 43 Much to the disappointment of Irish nationalists, the Irish Free State consisted of only 26 of the 32 counties in Ireland and, rather than becoming a sovereign state, Ireland remained a dominion of the British Commonwealth of Nations. 44 Ireland would not b ecome a sovereign state until 1949. 45 attention would turn away from Ireland, as its members focused on bolstering their own communities throughout economic depressions and world wars. The 1960s signaled a sea chang e for both the Irish on the island and the members of the Irish Diaspora, particularly those who lived in the United States. The election of John F. Kennedy as the first Irish Catholic president of the United States in 1960 encouraged a new sense of ethnic pride in Irish American communities across the United States. 46 Kennedy arguably represented the culmination of the Irish immigrant struggle in the United States. His great grandparents had emigrated from Ireland between 1846 and 1855 to escape the devasta tion of the Great Famine and overcame the cultural discrimination against Irish immigrants prevalent in the United States to become influential businesspeople and politicians in Boston. 47 Irish immigrants were once compared to dogs, and they had succeeded i n producing the leader of the most powerful nation on earth. The Irish on the island were particularly enamored with Kennedy, and 43 The Course of Irish History, ed. T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin (Dublin: Mercier Press 2001), 258. 44 Ibid, 258 59. 45 The Course of Irish History ed. T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin (Dublin: Mercier Press 2001) 279. 46 The White House last viewed March 31, 2014, http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy. 47 John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum last viewed March 31, 2014, http://www.jfkli brary.org/JFK/JFK in History/John F Kennedy and Ireland.aspx.

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20 revered him as a national hero of the same caliber as Padraig Pearse. It became commonplace in Ireland for Catholic families a nd pub owners to hang a picture of Kennedy next to the obligatory picture of the Pope above the fireplace. Kennedy and Pearse are both immortalized as mosaics in the Cathedral of Our Lady Assumed into Heaven and St Nicholas in Galway, where they are repre sented as martyrs worshipping the triumphant figure of the resurrected Messiah. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum last viewed March 31, 2014, http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK in History/John F Kennedy and Ireland.aspx.

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21 after his visit to Ireland in June of 1953, less than six months before his assassination. 48 and political dedication, and these connections proved to be significant throughout the rest of the twentieth century. On October 5, 1968, what began as a civil rights march protesting equal rights for the nationalist Catholic minority in Northern Ireland, ended as a violent clash between republican protesters and officers of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC). 49 The event sparked a ser beginning of the thirty year period that came to be known as the Troubles, in which members of the primarily Catholic nationalist minority battled those of the l argely Protestant unionist majority for territorial control of Northern Ireland. The conflict was mainly perpetuated by paramilitary groups that became involved on both sides. The republican side was represented mainly by the Provisional Irish Republican A rmy, a more radical offshoot of the Official Irish Republican Army. 50 The loyalist or unionist side was represented by the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and the Ulster Defence Association (UDA). 51 Over 3,600 British and Irish people, many of whom were civilia ns, were killed over the course of the conflict and thousands more sustained physical injuries and/or psychological trauma. 52 Although few Irish emigrants or their descendants became directly involved in the conflict, members of the Diaspora, primarily in the United States, united in a campaign for Irish 48 Ibid. 49 BBC last viewed April 1, 2014, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/events/day_troubles_began. 50 51 BBC February, 2013, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/topics/troubles_paramilitaries. 52 Ibid.

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22 national self determination in Northern Ireland during the 1970s. 53 Irish Americans formed several prominent non governmental organizations that provided both material support to the republican side, as wel l as political support through lobbying efforts. The Northern Irish Aid Northern Ireland, was founded in 1970 in New York by Michael Flannery, an Irish immigrant and former IR A member. 54 It is estimated that NORAID raised $3 million between 1970 and 1986, allegedly for the benefit of the families of republican prisoners held by the British Army in internment camps in Northern Ireland. 55 Evidence was also discovered in 1982 that N ORAID had retained undeclared funds in the United States, which were then used to purchase arms that 56 Although NORAID was the most militant of the Irish American groups to supp ort the republican efforts in Northern Ireland, several other organizations were instrumental in lobbying the United State government to address the situation in Northern Ireland. In the 1980s the Irish National Caucus (INC) successfully lobbied support fr om the Carter Administration for Irish unity and for the redress of religious discrimination and human rights violations by British authorities in Northern Ireland. 57 The evolving efforts of the INC and its supporters reflected a gradual shift in the Irish American position on the situation in Northern Ireland throughout the 1980s. Although four prominent Irish ur 53 Journal o f Peace Research 44, no. 2 (2007): 220. 54 International Affairs 72, no. 3 (1996): 523. 55 Ibid, 524. 56 Ibid, 524 525. 57 Ibid, 526 27.

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23 Ireland as a legitimate foreign policy concern, they advocated for a nonviolent political strategy to end the violence, rather than to unite Ireland. 58 President B ill Clinton would utilize such a strategy throughout the 1990s to broker a ceasefire between the leadership of the nationalist party, Sinn Fen, with the British government, represented by Prime Minister Tony Blair. 59 The fact that American involvement was so instrumental in ending what was essentially a civil conflict in a tiny European country indicates the depth and strength of the connection that ha d been built throughout generations of migration between Ireland and America. It was not until the 1990s th at the Irish government would realize the extent of the economic advantage that this connection provided, and learned how to exploit it During the 1990s, Ireland embarked upon a course of rapid economic expansion that was praised the world over as the ad vent of a new era of international wealth. Like the United States, such as minimal use of economic regulations and low corporate tax rates in order to encourage fore ign direct investment in Ireland. Unfortunately, Irish politicians and bankers also participated in the same reckless economic gambling that led to the collapse of the housing market in the United States, and triggered the global financial crisis in 2008. Unlike the United States, losses, and the national economy was completely devastated. By 2010, after bailing out three of product. 60 I n November of 2010, Ireland European Union and the International Monetary fund which they were offered under the 58 Journal of Peace Research 44, no. 2 (2007): 221. 59 International Affairs 72, no. 3 (1 996): 534. 60 BBC April 25, 2013, http://www.bbc.com/news/business 13366011.

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24 condition that the government impose strict austerity measures and economic structural reforms, as well as submit to reviews of the 61 Although the ending cuts alone proved to be insufficient. But, as they say, necessity is the mother of invention, and the government got creative. At the suggestion of entrepreneurs like Kingsley Aikins, founder of Diaspora Matters the Irish government followed the ex ample of countries like Israel and chose to harness the power of the Diaspora in order to kick start the failing Irish economy. In an era where neoliberal thinkers value profit and economic power above all, Ireland capitalized on its biggest resources: its culture, and the global population whose identity is defined by that culture. II. A Culture of Connections: The Emigrant and the National Imagination If we are challenged about this tendency, we will deny it T o us Irish, memory is a canvas stretched, primed, and read story and we love it trimmed out with color and drama, ribbons and bows. Listen to our t unes, observe a Celtic Frank Delaney, Tipperary 62 In 2010, the Irish government embarked on a massive cultural rebranding campaign in order to inspire global interest in the country, and thereby promote tourism. The hope was to economic, as opposed to the historical, value in it. In order to understand how the government was able to successfully implement such a campaign, we must first consider the history behind the cultural ties which have bound the Irish Diaspora for centurie s. One of the most important cultural 61 BBC March 26, 2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/world europe 17473476. 62 Frank Delaney, Tipperary (New York: Random House, 2007), 3.

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25 characteristics of the Irish is their love of the spoken word, which became a huge factor in maintaining permanent connections between the Irish on the island and the Irish abroad. Ireland is a nation known for its li terary heritage. The Irish dedication to the written word manifested itself as far back as the Dark Ages, when Irish monks reproduced great religious and philosophical texts, essentially saving them from oblivion. 63 The works produced by these monks were in strumental in inspiring the renewed intellectual spirit of the Renaissance. For hundreds of years, Irish writers have channeled the Irish love for stories and wordplay into their work, often producing innovative forms of poetry, fiction, and drama when tra ditional becoming the only the fourth city worldwide to receiv e such an honor. 64 Promotional materials Joyce. However, what the a uthors of these materials fail to acknowledge is the fact that many of an unparalleled influence on the world at large, pro viding a unique cultural experience with literature at its heart 63 Thomas Cahill, Rome to the Rise of Medieval Europe (New York: Anchor Books, 1995), 3. 64 Dublin UNESCO last viewed Ma rch 30, 2014, http://www.dublincityofliterature.ie/.

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26 65 Although authors like Wilde and Joyce are now celebrated for their literary achievements, dur ing their lifetimes they faced considerable resistance from the Irish literary establishment. Their respective vantage points outside of Ireland allowed these emigrant authors to cast a critical eye on Irish society, which led to some of the most influenti al portrayals of contemporary Ireland, many of which provided a satirical view of the absurdities of Anglo Irish culture and society. literary heritage is more bro adly characterized by themes of loss, and especially personal loss as a result emigration. Poets like Eavan Boland have long mourned the loss of those men and women who were forced to leave their homeland in search of a better life. These Irish men and wom en were often portrayed as martyrs or exiles, as they were in the political manifestations of the figure of the emigrant, but they were also sometimes imagined as beneficiaries of the fabled 66 The desperate poverty and overa ll lack of opportunity in Ireland fueled the need for Irish men and women to leave their homes in search of employment in order to support themselves and their families. News of emigrants who had found success perpetuated stories of America as the Promised waves of emigrants into trying their luck away from home. 67 Once these travelers arrived at their destination, however, they were met with the shocking reality that life in their new country, whe ther England, the United States, Australia, or elsewhere, was much harder than they had ever imagined. Over time, the initial homesickness that every migrant experiences gradually evolved 65 http://www.dublincityofliterature.ie/dublinliterary/literary heritage.html. 66 Sean Williams and Lillis Laoire, Bright Star of the West: Joe Heaney, Irish Song Man (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 134. 67 Oscar Handlin, The Uprooted: The Epic Story of the Great Migrations that Made the American People (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 233.

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27 into a sense of permanent and enduring nostalgia as well as series o f idealized memories of their family and homeland in Ireland. Generations of Irish immigrants, especially in the United States, passed down these memories and stories to their offspring and generated a mythical version of Ireland and its culture that would come to be cherished by communities of Irish descent worldwide. These stories were not only captured in the memoires of Irish emigrants and their families, but also preserved through a range of other literary genres, particularly fiction and poetry, or so ng. Some of the most popular and well known memoirs that chronicle the struggle of Irish emigrants and their families during the mid Ashes Tis. In McCourt, who was born in Brooklyn in 19 30, describes the struggles that he, his parents, and his siblings endured while living in the slums of Depression era New York, and further compares these hardships with the extreme poverty he witnessed on Limerick. While it is easy to imagine the harsh conditions during an event like the Great Famine in the 1840s, it is more difficult to envision how little social and economic conditions in some parts of the coun portrait of the stagnant economic conditions that continued to plague society in the west of Ireland throughout the twentieth century. Although his personal experience is the main focus of Angela McCourt, ne Sheehan, first leaves Limerick at the suggestion of her mother, who 68 68 Frank McCourt, Ange (New York: Touchstone, 1996), 15.

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28 that he included for dramatic effect, as he was not yet born at the time, but it does reveal a certain attitude about emigration held in Irish society. Emigration was not only a safety valve for the excess population, but it was also thought that there wer e enough opportunities abroad that anyone of the poorest Irish immigrants; those unskilled laborers that travelled to America hoping for a better life and ended up wi th barely enough money to survive. Shortly after arriving in the toes, 69 Angela becomes pregnant, and her chances of succeeding by her own volition in the States are dashed. Her last spite the fact that they employment and their youngest child and only girl, Margaret, dies of malnutrition, Angela decides to return to Ireland and seek the support of her mo ther and siblings in Limerick. But, as American imagination, nor do Angela and her family receive a warm welcome upon their return. Already resentful of her for marrying a particularly her mother, only grudgingly offer her and her children what little material support they have to give. Eventually, when he is old enough and obtains enough money for the trans Atlant ic fare, Frank follows his dream of returning to New York, but he finds that his situation is off the 70 rish 69 Ibid, 15. 70 Frank McCourt, (New York: Scribner, 1999),101.

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29 emigrants inhabited once they left Ireland. Unlike a character in a novel, Angela McCourt experiences the worst of both worlds in America and in Ireland. Whether she lives in New York or in Limerick, Angela has to suffer the deaths of her children and continues to give birth to new children. Ultimately seven McCourt children are born, and three die. In addition to crushing poverty and hunger, Frank and his younger brother, Malachy, also face discrimination at home and at school because of their America over and 71 At school, the two boys are bullied for sounding 72 Furthermore, when Frank McCourt returns to New York at the age of nineteen, he faces even 73 Even though he had always thought that nothing could be worse than living in Limerick, Frank realizes that he had not been prepared for back to Limerick in my m 74 filled with humorous anecdotes, the underlying conditions which McCourt and his brothers had to survive reveal the depth of the poverty which Irish people had to endure, and the power of the social stigma Irish migrants had to suffer, even in the twentieth century. However, economic strife was not the only motivator for Irish men and women to emigrate. The late nineteenth and 71 Frank McCourt, (New York: Touchstone, 1996), 72, 63. 72 Ibid, 79. 73 Frank McCourt, (New York: Scribner, 1999), 73. 74 Ibid, 76.

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30 twentieth centuries were politically tumultuous times, and if one w as not on the right side, life could be terribly dangerous. is an emotionally compelling example of the independence. Li lly Dunne recounts the story of her life as she mourns the suicide of her grandson, Bill, a veteran of the Gulf War. Lilly, the daughter of an officer in Dublin Metropolitan Police, a division of the Royal Irish Constabulary is forced to flee Ireland when her love interest, Tadg Bere, becomes a target for political violence. Tadg, one of the approximately 140,000 Irishmen who volunteered to serve in the British military during World War I, becomes a recruit for the reviled British paramilitary force known as the Black and Tans upon returning from the war. 75 The Irish Republic Army (IRA) places a price on both Lilly and Black and Tan vehicles. Lilly and Tadg are force d to flee to Chicago, never to return to Ireland. Although Lilly herself is harmless and is wrongly accused of informing the Black and Tans of abandon her home. Because the Irish uprisings in the early twentieth century were, in essence, successful and led to the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922, the historical narrative mainly reflects the victories of the winning Irish Republic side. Little attention is given to those people who, like Lilly and her family, were the beneficiaries of English institutions in Ireland, as they were commonly considered traitors in Ireland. The fact that Lilly left Ireland permanently means that her story may never have reached the island and could not have had an impact on the greater Irish and Irish emigrant narrative. However, despite the fact that Lilly never returns after she 75 BBC, last modified March 10, 2010, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/ireland_wwone_01.shtml.

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31 emigrates and only receives a handful of letters from her father and sisters, she notes that 76 Lilly becomes one of the hundreds of thousands of Irish emigrants who found a home in the United States. Unlike most Irish immigrants, however, Lilly spends most of her young life outside of the large Irish communities found in New York and Chicago. America becomes a sanctuary, a place where she can create a new identity and choose whether or not to exploit her Irish heritage. Lilly grows into being an American, and uses the fact that she is Irish to form connections between herself and other Americans who claim Irish heritage, like her employer, Mrs. Wolohan, who proclaims herself to be a third generation Irish American. As in the case of Frank McCourt, the fact that Lil ly immigrates when she is in her early twenties give her the ability to recognize the difference between the Irish American representation of Ireland and the true characteristics of the country and its inhabitants. Her life is marked by fortunate and unfor tunate events which offset one another, and since she has experienced both the positive and negative aspects of Irish and American society, her writing benefits from a balanced view of the peals from her family, since they are afraid that writing to her will reveal her whereabouts to the IRA. Although she encounters many of the same facets of Irish American society as many of other Irish emigrants rs in that she makes a concerted effort to blend into her new society, and does not mourn her old life in Ireland the way most emigrants do. On captures the range of emotions and experiences Irish emigrants were subject to once they had left their homeland for good, and is incredibly emotionally compelling for readers who may not have known or held inaccurate assumptions about the political situation in Ireland during the early twentieth century. An even more powerful genre, however, has grown and 76 Sebastian Barry, (London: Pen guin Books, 2011), 57.

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32 evolved throughout centuries of Irish migration and represents the true depth of emotion that comes with emigration: poetry and song. As the teenage Frank McCourt awaits his second journey across the Atlantic Ocean to return to New York, he muses that go to America, which was so far away the parties were called American wakes because the 77 It was at these American wakes that I rish families and communities would gather and sing the old songs. Piaras Mac inr former director of the inter disciplinary Irish Centre for Migration Studies at University g emigrant songs that there are few Irish songs that celebrate emigration as an opportunity for a new life. 78 Instead, most songs are based on themes of loneliness, loss, nostalgia, the anger and bitterness of departure and exile, and the memory of the beau ty of Ireland. The songs themselves range from traditional ballads and airs with unknown composers, to parlor songs from Victorian Ireland, to songs written from the perspective of members of the Irish Diaspora or of Irish communities. atest Sean ns (old style) singers, Joe Heaney, created widespread awareness of emigrant songs throughout his career in England and the United States by performing songs in both English and Irish that he had learned growing up in Connemara. 79 One of the mos t iconic songs from the west of Ireland that Heaney made popular in Irish communities in the United A St r Mo Chro mother whose child is leaving home, and features several of the themes of expectation and loss that are common in many of the emigrant songs: 77 Frank McCourt, (New York: Touchstone, 1996), 356. 78 University College Cork last viewed March 30, 2014, http://www.ucc.ie/en/emigre/emigrant songs 1/. 79 Sean Williams and Lillis Laoire, Bright Star of the West: Joe Heaney, Irish Song Man (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 5.

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33 A str mo chro From That your heart will be sorely grieving. With riches and treasure golden never olden. A str mo chro There is plenty of wealth and wearing Whilst gems adorn the rich and the grand There are faces with hunger tearing. Though the road is dreary and hard to tread And the lights of their cities blind you Yo a str And the ones you left behind you. A str mo chro when the evening sun Over mountain and meadow is falling t you turn away from the throng and listen be surely mine A rin,a rin will you come back soon To the one who will always love you. 80 The song obviously features many of the sentiments expressed in the prose works previously mentioned, but the addition of the Sean ns style of singing brought an entirely different dimension to the text. Sean ns is traditionally an unaccompanied and highly ornamented style of singing. 81 Joe Heaney is said to have drawn on his own emigration experience for inspiration while singing, a nd emphasized the emotive power of the music in order to balance the sentiment of the lyrics. 82 paramount in achieving a visceral reaction from members of the audience, the fact that the lyrics seemed to draw on the collective memory of the members of the Irish Diaspora was equally as 80 Ibid, 134. 81 Comhaltas Ceoltir ireann last viewed March 30, 2014, http://comhaltas.ie/music/treoir/detail/amhranaiocht_ar_an_sean_nos/. 82 Sean Williams and Lillis Laoire, Bright Star of the West: Joe Heaney, Irish Song Man (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 135.

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34 may or may not have identified themselves as Irish American or being of Irish heritag e, but most, if not all, were one or more generations removed from the emigration experience. As Sean Williams and Lillis Laoire note in Bright Star of the West tears as their imaginations rushed past the specific circu mstances of the story and song, either 83 The power of these songs comes from not only creating awareness of the experience of emigrants, but from establishing emotional connectio ns between members of a diaspora community. By performing these songs and passing them down through generations, Irish emigrants were able to maintain their connection to their homeland no matter where they ended up on the globe. Irish emigrant songs conne cted people across borders and strengthened the links between the Irish on the island and abroad. In her address to the joint sitting houses of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament), on February Like oil lamps we put them out the back, / Of our houses, of our minds. 84 Robinson argued that the members of the Oireachtas were charged with a duty to lead the people of Ireland in actively pursuing stronger connections with members of the Irish Diaspora living outside of the island. She explained that in order for Ireland to grow, its population needed to engage in initiativ es that nurture the relationship between the Irish on the a sentimental regard for those who leave our shores 83 Ibid, 135. 84 Uachtarn na hireann Mary Robinson to Joint Sitting of the Houses of the Oireachtas Offices of the Houses of the Oireachtas last viewed March 30, 2014, http://www.oireachtas.ie/viewdoc.asp?fn=/documents/addresses/2Feb1995.htm.

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35 te nd to it until the fire burns out. 85 While Robinson was successful in appealing to the emotional connection between the Irish on the island and the Irish abroad, her purpose was not just to highlight the community sentiment embedded in the Irish national me mory. Rather, it was to raise support for transnational engagements conducted between the Irish and their vast diaspora population. Robinson is remembered for being the first government representative to directly address the importance of the Irish Diaspor a and bring it to the forefront of national attention. Although her invocation of the relationships that constitute the global Irish community was range of diaspo ra engagement policies that would later rescue the Irish economy after the global economic crash of 2008. III. Cherishing the Diaspora: The Return of the Emigrant Irish People are spread all over the world, many making a major contribution in their new homes. These people are not just members of the global Irish family they may also be members of your Clan, part of your extended family. The best events start with a simple invitation. Irish men and women have family members in all corners of the globe a nd next year offers a once in a lifetime opportunity to bring all the far flung members of your Clan together in a spirit of celebration. In October of 2011, Ciara Kenny, a contributor to The Irish Times posed a question to the issue of mass emigration, an affliction which had again returned to Ireland after the economic initiative aimed at this current gener way dialogue that 85 Ibid.

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36 86 The blog engages cultural, economic, and social issues that affect Irish people at home and around the world. Although articles addressing ma ss emigration and its impact on Ireland have been published in print as a part of The Irish Times the blog with its electronic format has a much farther reach. Irish men and women who have emigrated from Ireland during the current economic downturn, or ev recession in the 1980s, are invited to write in and tell their stories. Because emigration is an issue that affects people from all over Ireland of various ages and economic backgrounds, it is something to which everyone in the cou ntry can relate. It is an issue that also connects everyone living in Ireland to the more than 70 million people that make up the Irish Diaspora. 87 As we have seen, waves of emigration from Ireland have occurred over hundreds of years, but recent changes in technology have made the experience a very different one than ever before. Travel has become easier, making the homeland more accessible, and most emigrants now have the means to communicate with their friends and family continuously and instantly The In ternet has made it possible for the Irish to build communities throughout the world and to maintain their culture, regardless of geography, thereby expanding the nation beyond its physical borders. The concept of a public blog like changes the newspaper between the reader and the imagined community. While the reach of a newspaper is physically limited by the number of copies that can be made and b y the size of the area in which it can be distributed, a blog is available worldwide and is accessible to anyone at any time. The reader is not only aware of the simultaneous existence of the rest of the members of the readership, but can also create 86 The Irish Times, October 20, 2011, http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2011/10/20/generation emigration whats it all about/. 87 Kerby Miller, Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 4.

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37 relat ionships with other members by commenting on blog posts and participating in social media navigating relatively alien cultures, appear to experience a sense of communi ty by engaging with a larger online audience, it is important to note that, as Ciara Kenny mentioned, the blog itself is fundamentally based on a bilateral exchange of information. Not only can Kenny influence the readership by drawing attention to a speci fic selection of news articles published in The Irish Times she is also capable of extracting a particularly rich form of consumer feedback by posing questions which address topics that are of interest to multiple parties, including the Irish government. For example, on March 18, 2014, an unidentified author, presumably Kenny, posted a brief article which reviewed a government of the Irish community abroad to contribute their views on how Ireland engages wi th its 88 Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade which summarized the results so far of the a. 89 The consultation concerned with what the Diaspora population can do for Ireland, rather than what Ireland can do for its Diaspora. The report mainly emph asized the importance of reinforcing connections between the Irish on the island and the Irish abroad, particularly when those connections encouraged economic and social development in Ireland. Its authors made reference to several government sponsored ini tiatives that have already encouraged economic growth and investment 88 The Irish Times March 18, 2014, http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2014/03/18/emigrants invited to share views on irelands diaspora engagement/. 89 Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade March 18, 2014, https://www.dfa.ie/media/dfa/alldfawebsitemedia/ourrolesandpolicies/Review of Irelands Diaspora Strategy Consultation 2014.pdf.

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38 in Ireland, many of which successfully exploit the rich cultural and ancestral ties which bind the Diaspora. to kick start the economy and lift the depressed mood that has overshadowed the country since 2008, the Irish government, in partnership with the Irish Tourism Board, chose to emulate an long celebration of everything Irish, involved a national network of city and county community leaders as well as various professional and community organizations. Towns, counties, and individual families came together to plan approximately 5,000 cultural events to be held throughout the year 2013. They then sent out the call to fa mily members living abroad who had either personally emigrated or were the descendants of Irish emigrants. Anyone who considered him or herself to be of Irish descent, and therefore a member of the Irish Diaspora, was encouraged to rediscover their roots in through their local parish records for evidence of Irish people who h ad emigrated decades, even centuries, beforehand. They then traced the lineage of these emigrants and contacted any surviving relatives or descendants to invite them to visit their ancestral home in Ireland. 90 With at least 250,000 to 275,000 overseas visit project a success. There was, however, a great deal of backlash from the international Irish community 90 Ireland Reaching Out, March 14, 2014, http://www.irelandxo.com/about.

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39 dur 91 The Irish Times commented on an article published on the new 92 Proponents of the initiati itself and illustrates the integration of economic and cultural interests that is necessary to create an effective diaspora engagement strategy. Preliminary analyses of data collected throughout but also fostered the increased sense of community involvement and national solidarity necessary for the nation to pull through the austerit program. Additionally, several leading European Union officials, including Jrg Asmussen, a example of the successful implementation of austerity measures in combination with culturally based projects. Even the German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, has lauded Ireland for setting a 93 What man 91 Harry M The Irish Times November 7, 2012, http://www.irishtimes.com/news/a shakedown or a welcome initiative to attract visitors 1.548324. 92 The Irish Times, January 11, 2013, http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2013/01/11/gathering momentum forget the shakedown heres the breakdown/. 93 The New York T imes January 10, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/11/opinion/irelands rebound is european blarney.html?_r=0.

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40 liberalization throughout the 1990s that led to the shockingly rapid, an d completely and subsequently resulted in the crash of 2008. In an opinion piece published in the New York Times Rebound Union leaders point to Ireland as an example of the successful implementation of austerity measures, in reality the situation in Ireland is much worse than it appears. Since its entry into the European Union in 1973 Ireland has been lauded as the poster child for the success associated website, since its inclusion in the Union in 1973 I 94 achievements have since served as justification for EU policy. Its rapid economic growth during the 1990s and 2000 s signaled an era of neoliberal economic expansion within Europe, as it additionally en ticed other European countries, particularly in Eastern Europe, to seek membership in the EU in the hope of achieving the same economic boost when integrated into a larg s economic policies led to a vastly inflated property market in the early 2000s, and the economy was completely devastated 94 European Union last viewed April 3, 2014, http://europa.eu/about eu/countries/member countries/ireland//index_en.htm.

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41 contradiction that has manifested in the attitudes of EU politicians and economic leaders, who once praised the Irish government for its irresponsible policies during the boom years, and are now congratulating the government for its implementation of strict austerity measures. Whereas five y ears ago Ireland was a model of economic success for other EU countries, its image has now been reworked as a model of economic responsibility for countries like Spain and Greece. land since the crisis in 2008, and people continue to leave. Although the technology sector in Dublin is booming, the foreign firms who own these companies are reaping the profits, so none of this money is reinvested in the Irish economy. Severe cuts in go vernment spending have resulted in a massive reduction in the number of public sector jobs as well as in government investment in infrastructure. Professionals have been forced to leave Ireland to find work elsewhere, and the unemployment rate remains at a that found that the majority of Irish people who are emigrating are highly educated young people who have found little opportunity for advancement in their chosen fields in Ireland. These are the people who should be rebuilding the country, but unfortunately there is little incentive for them government nor other members of the European Union are planning on changing their practices in the near future. within Ireland and encourage emigration, the country has become a leader in the growing field of diaspora engagement a nd mobilization Countries both in Europe and around the world are looking to Ireland for inspiration as to how they too can reach out to their external ethnic populations. In May of 2013, Dublin hosted the European arm of the Global Diaspora Forum,

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42 sponso red by the United States Department of State, the International Diaspora Engagement Alliance, and Irish Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 95 ns that participated in the planning of these events are in the process of evaluating their efforts, so that they may execute similar events in the future with even greater success. It remains to be seen if Diaspora will be sustainable, but it does appear to signal a shift in the perception of the value of culture in a global neoliberal context. Conclusion The Great Famine of 1845 and the global economic crisis of 2008 are examples of two very different eve nts that had a permanent effect on the course of Irish history. Although they occurred in very different historical contexts, these two catastrophes caused the largest waves of emigration Ireland has ever seen. Over the centuries, the Irish Diaspora has de veloped into an influential economic, political, and cultural asset for the Irish state. Without the intervention and political pressure created by members of the Diaspora in the United States, England, and elsewhere, the Republic of Ireland would not exis t. Without the remittances provided by members of the Diaspora worldwide, Ireland may have never maintained the means to sustain it self as a nation. The figure of the Irish emigrant represents a cultural memory that is deeply ingrained in the Irish nationa l consciousness, but the emigrant also stands as a symbol of a nation once dominated by the liberal ideals of a colonial oppressor that has undergone a transition to a leader in neoliberal economic strategy. No longer a symbol of national doom, the emigran t is now valued as an informal ambassador, connecting Ireland to the world. As globalization slowly 95 Thomas D International Diaspora Engagement Alliance, May 12, 2013, http://diasporaalliance.org/welcome to the 2013 global diaspora forum/.

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43 erodes the physical barriers that once defined nation states during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the experience of modern Irish emigrants suggest s that eventually these lines will be almost meaningless. Emigrant experiences lend themselves to the redefinition of the nation, and with the Irish actively taking control of their fate, they are one step closer to achieving the constantly sought after ha ven represented in Irish lore by Tr na n"g.

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44 Bibliography Primary Sources Ireland Reaching Out. March 14, 2014. http://www.irelandxo.com/about. Anderson Benedict. Imagined Communities. London: Verso, 1983. Bunreacht na hireann November 1, 2013. http://www.taoiseach.gov.ie/eng/Historical_Information/The_Constitution/December_2013_ _Bhunreacht_na_hEireann_Constitution_Text.pdf. Barry, Sebastian. London: Penguin Books, 2011. Debass International Diaspora Engagement Alliance, May 12, 2013, http://diasporaalliance.org/welcome to the 2013 global diaspora forum/. The Irish Times November 2, 2011. http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2011/11/02/traditions of emigration the irish habit of going away/. Delaney, Frank. Tipperary. New York: Random House, 2007. The Irish Times March 18, 2014. http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2014/03/18/emigrants invited to share views on irelands diaspora engagement/. The National Archives Last viewed April 1, 2014. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1920/67/pdfs/ukpga_19200067_en.pdf. Dublin UNESCO. Last viewed March 30, 2014. http://www.dublincityofliterature.ie/. European Union. Last viewed April 3, 2014. http://eu ropa.eu/about eu/countries/member countries/ireland//index_en.htm. Keating, Reg. Oisn and Tr na n"g Dublin: Owl Records Ltd, 1997. Oireachtas Great Irish Speeches edited by Richard Aldous, 115 118. London: Quercus, 2007. The Irish Times. January 11, 2013. http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2013/01/11/gathering momentum forg et the shakedown heres the breakdown/.

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45 --The Irish Times. October 20, 2011. http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2011/10/20/generation emigration whats it all about/. y the Taoiseach, Mr Enda Kenny TD, at the National Launch of Ireland MerrionStreet.ie: Irish Government News Service. March 14, 2012. http://www.merrionstreet.ie/index.php/2012/03/speech by the taoiseach m r enda kenny td at the national launch of ireland reaching out at the national library of ireland/. Dublin UNESCO Last viewed March 30, 2014. http://www.dublincityofliterature.ie/dublinliterary/literary heritage.html. McCourt, Fran k. New York: Touchstone, 1996. --. New York: Scribner, 1999. The Irish Times November 7, 2012. http://www.irishtimes.com/news/a shakedown or a welcome initiative to attract visitors 1.548324. Mill, John Stuart. England and Ireland. London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer, 1868. --. On Liberty London: The Walter Scott Publishing Co., Ltd., 1901. The New York Times January 10, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/11/opinion/irelands rebound is european blarney.html?_r=0. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade March 18, 2014. https://www.dfa.ie/media/dfa/alldfawebsitemedia/ourrolesandpolicies/Review of Irelands Diaspora Strategy Consultation 2014.pdf. Robinson, Ma Uachtarn na hireann Mary Robinson to Joint Sitting of the Houses of the Oireachtas Offices of the Houses of the Oireachtas. Last viewed March 30, 2014. http://www.oireachtas.ie/viewdoc.asp?fn=/documents/addresses/2Feb1995.htm. --augural Speech Given by Her Excellency Mary Robinson, President of Ireland, in Dublin Stanford Presidential Lectures in the Humanities and Arts. Last viewed April 1, 2014. https://prelectur.stanford.edu/lecturers/robins on/inaugural.html.

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46 Secondary Sources The Victorian Web. August 13, 2013. http://www.victorianweb.org/history/famine.html. Cahill, Thomas. Role from the Fall of Rome to the Rise of Medieval Europe. New York: Anchor Books, 1995. Canny, Nicholas P. "The ideology of English colonization: from Ireland to America." The William and Mary Quarterly 30.4 (1973): 575 598 Cochrane, Feargal Journal of Peace Research 44, no. 2 (2007): 215 231. Australian Government Last updated February 17, 2010. http:// australia.gov.au/about australia/australian story/convicts and the british colonies. Coogan, Tim Pat, De Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow. London: Arrow Books, 1995. BBC. Last viewed April 1, 2014. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/events/day_troubles_began. last viewed April 3, 2014, http://ighm.nfshost.com/emigration and coffin ships/. English, Richard. Irish Freedom: The History of Natio nalism in Ireland. London: Macmillan, 2007. International Affairs 72, no. 3 (1996): 521 536. Handlin, Oscar. The Uprooted: The Epic Story of the Great Migrati ons that Made the American People. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002. BBC. April 25, 2013. http://www.bbc.com/news/business 13366011. Central Intelligence Agency Last viewed April 3, 2014. ht tps://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the world factbook/geos/ei.html. BBC. Last modified March 10, 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/ireland_wwone_01.shtml. The White House. Last viewed March 31, 2014. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy.

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47 John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum Last viewed March 31, 2014. http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK in History/John F Ken nedy and Ireland.aspx. The Course of Irish History Edited T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin. Dublin: Mercier Press 2001. Universit y College Cork Last viewed March 30, 2014. http://www.ucc.ie/en/emigre/emigrant songs 1/. The Course of Irish History. Edited by T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin, 245 261. Dublin: Mercier Press 2001. Miller, Kerby. Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. The Course of Irish History Edited by T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin, 228 244. Dublin: Mercier Press 2001. boundary 2 31, no. 1 (2004): 147 178. ireann. Last viewed March 30, 2014. http://comhaltas.ie/music/treoir/detail/amhranaiocht_ar_an_sean_nos/. BBC. February, 2013. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/topics/troubles_paramilitaries. University of Houston last updated April 3, 2014, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/irish_potato_famine.cfm. BBC. Last viewed March 31, 2014. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/troubles. Trueman, Chris. History Learning Site. March 26, 2014. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/ireland_great_famine_of_1845.htm. Williams, Sean and Lillis Laoire. Bright Star of the West: Joe Heaney, Irish Song Man. Oxford: Oxford University P ress, 2011



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2 The Irish Emigrant: A Nation in Miniature Helen Miney

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3 Table of Contents Introduction 4 I. From Victim to Champion: The Emigrant as a Political Force 1 2 II. A Culture of Connections: The Emigrant and the National Imagination 24 III. Cherishing the Diaspora: The Return of the Emigrant 35 Conclusion 42 Bibliography 44

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4 Introduction One of the most well Tr na n"g, 1 2 and return to Tr na n"g with her. Although Oisn is welcomed and greatly loved by the denizens of Tr na n"g, after a year he wishes to visit his home in Ireland once again. Niamh gives Oisn her horse for the journey, but warns him that if he touches the ground in Ireland, he may never return to Tr na n"g. Upon arriving in Ireland, Oisn discovers that more than three hundred years have passed, and all of his friends and family are dead. As he turns his horse to leave Ireland for Tr na n"g, a group of men ask Oisn to assist them with moving a boulder out of the road. They marvel at his strength as he easily lifts the rock, but as he does so the saddle girth snaps and Oisn falls to the ground. Oisn transforms from a young and handsome man to an old, withered creature, before turning to dust. The sto ry of Oisn and Tr na n"g is one of the earliest tales of Irish emigration. It serves 3 As the inhabitants of a small island on the edge of the Atlantic Oce an, the Irish have been leaving home for centuries. Emigration has become deeply ingrained in the Irish consciousness, manifesting in many different cultural and political arenas. The figure of the emigrant has become almost mythical in Irish culture. The deep sense of loss affiliated with emigration has been the subject of ballads and novels, and has fueled political debate in Ireland. 1 Reg Keating, Oisn and Tr na n"g (Dublin: Owl Records Ltd, 1997), 5. 2 Ibid, 3. 3 Enda The Irish Times 2 November 2011. http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2011/11/02/traditions of emigration the irish habit of going away/

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5 Kerby Miller takes a particularly politicized view of the subject in Emigrants and Exiles but makes a very important obse rvation regarding the popular perception of Irish emigrants, 4 Thus the emigrant cam e to be represented as a kind of tragic hero in the Irish consciousness; one that is both an innocent victim of external forces as well as a symbol of adventure and the pursuit of a better life. The origin of these myths is rooted in a long history of migr ation in Ireland, but they became particularly salient in nineteenth century Irish society, during and after the Great Famine of 1845. Migration has been an integral part of Irish culture for thousands of years. Society is often shaped by geography, and t his is particularly true for small islands like Ireland. It is with them. 5 Tribal wars prompted small waves of emigration, as those who were defeated in comba t either fled or were ejected from the island. Over the centuries, the tribes that inhabited Ireland conquered neighboring areas and were themselves the subjects of invasions from outside forces. Despite constant instability on the island, Miller identifie s the English conquest of Ireland, beginning in 1166 AD 6 as the beginning of the waves of mass emigration that would 7 Miller identifies several large waves of transatlantic migration as seven million people emigrated from Ireland to North 8 9 which took place between 1607 and the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1921, as 1) before the American Revolution, 2) 1783 to 4 Kerby Miller, Emigrants and Exi les: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 4. 5 T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin, The Course of Irish History (Lanham, Maryland: Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 2001), 15 6 Miller, Emigrants and Exiles 11 7 Ibid, 102. 8 Ibid, 3. 9 Ibid, 131.

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6 10 of 1815 to 1844, 4) the Great Famine, and 5) post Famine emigration. Although Miller focuses on transatlantic migration, and particularly Irish migration to the United States and Canada, during these periods millions more Irish immigrated primarily to English speaking areas like England and Australia Many Irish men and women travelled with wealthy English businessmen or families to the farthest reaches of the globe, as indentured servants to the Caribbean, South Africa, India, China, etc., hoping to one day earn their freedom and possibly some land of their own. A smaller number of wealthy Irish Protestants joined the English in establishing plantations throughout the New World. During the late eighteenth and most of the nineteenth centurie s, many Irish men and women were deported to British penal colonies in Australia and North America in order to alleviate pressure on overpopulated British prisons and workhouses 11 Although extreme poverty and overpopulation spurred a steady stream of emigr ants prior to 1845, the Great Famine, also known as an Gorta Mr the Great Hunger, has become infamous as the largest wave of mass emigration in Irish history. The Irish Famine of 1845 set the stage for the creation of the archetype of the Irish emigrant in the Western historical imagination. During the first half of the nineteenth century, the Irish population grew rapidly to an all time high of 8.5 million people. 12 From 1845 to 1850, it is estimated that between 75 0,000 and 1,000,000 Irish people died o f starvation or famine related illnesses, and another 2,000,000 people emigrated. 13 Based on census statistics, t he Public Records Office of Northern Ireland has estimated that during this period an average of 1,000,000 10 Ibid, 193. 11 Australian Government last updated February 17, 2010, http://australia.gov.au/about australia/australian story/convicts and the british colonies. 12 Marjie Bloy, The Victorian Web, August 13, 2013, http://www.victorianweb.org/history/famine.html. 13 University of Houston last updated April 3, 2014, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/irish_potato_fa mine.cfm.

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7 Irish immigrated to the United States alone. 14 Another 1,000,000 immigrated to Australia, while a n additional 750,000 Irish traveled to the British mainland in search of work and shelter. 15 their destinat ion starving and diseased, if they arrived at all. 16 The image of these skeletal figures has taken root in the Irish national imagination, as the Great Famine stands out as one of the most significant and painful events embedded in the national memory. The Great Famine is significant not only because of the magnitude of the loss of life, but also because it served as the catalyst for a series of home rule campaigns in the latter half of nineteenth century that eventually led to the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1921. Although this was not the first time that the figure of the emigrant was used to reach a political end in Ireland, the salience of powerful too l for social mobilization. The fallout from the Great Famine was so significant that many people living outside of Ireland who do not study Irish history often admit that it is the only event in the history of Ireland of which they have any knowledge. The legacy of the famine victims lives on in the generations of descendants who now make up part of the more than 70 million members of the modern Irish Diaspora. 17 Emigration continued at a rapid pace after the Famine. Mill nine teent h century the peculiar evolution of Irish society had made mass emigration a permanent 18 He suggests that this was due to both a lack of economic opportunity in Ireland as 14 Ibid. 15 last viewed April 3, 2014, http://ighm.nfshost.com/emigration and coffin ships/. 16 Ibid. 17 Kenny TD, at the National Launch of Ireland Reaching Out, at MerrionStreet.ie: Irish Government News Service March 14, 2012, http://www.merrionstreet.ie/index.php/2012/03/speech by the taoiseach mr enda kenny td at the n ational launch of ireland reaching out at the national library of ireland/. 18 Miller, Emigrants and Exiles 345.

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8 well a desire to be reunited with family members who had previously emigrated. It is generally recognized that for many poor Irish men and women during the late nineteenth and early 19 However, despite the fact that the United States is assumed to be the destination of choice for most Irish immigrants, many would also continue to emigrate to Britain and Australia. The institution of mass emigration from Ireland would continue througho ut the twentieth century. Like the emigrants of the Famine era, emigrants during the twentieth century were usually poor, unskilled laborers. Unlike that previous generation of emigrants, however, Irish emigrants in the twentieth century were not usually m embers of the poorest class of society, as the cost of travel prevented those with no resources from leaving. In many cases, family members who had previously emigrated would send for individual members of families as they built up the funds to pay for tra vel fare. The First and Second World Wars would provide opportunities for young men to leave Ireland as soldiers and for young women as nurses, usually for the British armed forces, but in some cases as volunteers for the armed forces of other nations. Aft er the World Wars, Ireland experienced severe economic recessions in the 1950s and 1980s, which further triggered large waves of emigration. Although emigration remains a prominent factor in modern Irish society, the current technological revolution, which began in the late 1980s, created an entirely new experience for as their ability to connect with the population on the island, as well as with other emigrants, is no longer limited by the traditional boundarie s of time and space The technological innovations of the twentieth and twenty first centuries have allowed for the creation of communities on a global scale, which is particularly clear when one examines the case of Ireland and its emigrants, who have mai ntained their ties to the nation 19 Keating, Oisn and Tr na n"g 3.

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9 despite time and distance. The development of a global community composed of generations of Irish emigrants and their descendants over the past 150 years or so has in a sense, has become an extension of the nation outside In Imagined Communities imagined political community 20 According to Anderson, a nation is imagined beca their fellow members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image With this definition, Anderson attempts to capture the evolving nature of nations and address the broad range of motivations that inspire populations to form their own nations. However, since the publishing of his work in 1983, technological innovations have introduced new variables that nations, as members of different nations now participat e in a global community that is no longer limited by geopolitical lines of demarcation. Anderson argues that o ne of the most important aspects in the formation of an imagined community is a shared language, and, by extension, a shared body of written works and information. He identifies books and newspapers as cultural products whose simultaneous consumption connects people by way of a shared cultural imagination. He abandoned a between the collection of seemingly unrelated stories based on his or her own perspective of and relationship to the content. 21 The newspaper also creates a sense of simultane ity, making the 20 Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities (London: Verso, 1983), 6. 21 Ibid, 35.

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10 reader aware of the existence of the other members of the imagined community that share his or Print culture has been integral in the formation and engagement of the Irish Diaspora, as the shared consumption of news has encouraged a global sense of community involvement, while cultural products such as novels which detail the emigrant experience have captured the imagination of the Diaspora as a whole. In spite of these ideas, w hy is it that history and culture has become fact that historians like Miller and Delaney can characterize emigration as a uniquely Irish become a fact of life. No other culture is as well known for its tightly knit emigrant communities, or for the deep sense of cultural pride expr essed by members of its diaspora whose ancestors emigrated decades or centuries ago. There are more than 70 million people in the Irish Diaspora worldwide who identify themselves as being of Irish heritage and yet fewer than five million people currently live in the Republic of Ireland. 22 In the face of economic and social upheaval the emigrant has become a representation of a nation on the move. Since the Great Famine, the Irish have evolved from the model of the liberal imperial subject, to the champion s of self determination to the perpetrators of terrorism and finally, to the poster children of neoliberal economic success. of this transition, as those people who once represented the s pecter of national doom have become national saviors, as well as a symbol of Irish cultural solidarity. 22 Central Intelligence Agency last viewed April 3, 2014, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the world factbook/geos/ei.html.

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11 In her inaugural address on December 3, 1990, Irish President Mary Robinson invoked the idea of the mythical Fifth Province of Ireland to introduce her reconnecting the Irish on the island with the members of the Irish Diaspora living abroad. In recent years, Irish dignitaries had become fond of quoting Article 2 of the Irish Constitution, rishes its special affinity with people of Irish ancestry 23 Rather than simply state her dedication to the interests of the members of the Irish Diaspora, however, Robinson challenged Irish began to for ge in the smith he uncreated conscience of our race might of the wider international community? 24 not just in reevaluating the conscience and shared objectives of the Irish at home and abroad, but also in terms of cultural commodification and exploitation. The Irish Diaspora has truly come to embody as in the context of our modern und erstanding of the nation it continues to provide the political balance and cultural resources that were once considered characteristics of the legendary force that consolidated the interests of the Irish nation as a whole. 23 Bunreacht na hireann, November 1, 2013, http://www.taoiseach.gov.ie/eng/Historical_Information/The_Constitution/Decemb er_2013_ _Bhunreacht_na_hEireann_Constitution_Text.pdf. 24 Stanford Presidential Lectures in the Humanities and Arts last viewed April 1, 2014, https://prelectur.stanford.edu/lecturers/robinson/inaugural.html.

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12 I. From Victim to Champion: The Emigrant as a Political Force united by history. No people ever believed more deeply in the cause of Irish freedom than the people of the United States. And no country contributed more to building my own than your sons and daughters. They came to our shores in a mixture of hope and agony, and I would not underrate the difficulties of their course once they arrived in the United States. They left behind hearts, fields and a nation yearnin g to be free. It is no wonder that James Joyce described the Atlantic as a bowl of bitter tears, and an earlier President John F. Kennedy 25 A n Gorta Mr the Great Famine of 1845 to 1849, was a turning point in Irish history. Although there had certainly been significant nationalist movements during the first half of the nineteenth century and earlier, the Famine proved to be a political and cultural catalyst for the creation of the I rish Free State, and later the Republic of Ireland. As Richard English, the he appalling scale of the episode was to become written firmly and enduringly into Irish nationalist 26 Although the British ruling classes did attempt to provide some relief for those who were evicted from their land durin g the Famine, most Irish people tenants and replace them with more profitable livestock. Even today there is some debate as to whether the actions of th e British government during the Great Famine constitute genocide, although it is generally acknowledged that there was little the government could do to alleviate the plight of the huge population of Irish potato farmers and their families. 25 Oireachtas Great Irish Speeches ed. Richard Aldous (London: Quercus, 2007), 116 26 Richard English, Irish Freedom: The History of Nationalism in Ireland (London: Macmillan, 2007), 163.

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13 The massive and very visible loss of life in Ireland during the Great Famine was one motivating factor in the growth of Irish nationalist movements, but the impact of emigration may ultimately have been even greater. It is estimated that more than one million Irish men, women, and children emigrated during the Famine. 27 These emigrants formed huge, tightly knit Irish communities in their host nations and became a prominent political force, especially in the United States. These embittered men and women saw themselves as ex iles, forced to leave their homeland and their families at the hands of the English. The Irish emigrant not only became a political symbol of English oppression in Irish nationalist campaigns, but communities of Irish emigrants also came to constitute an i nvisible political force which influenced the course of Irish history throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In order to understand the motivations behind the nationalist pursuits of Irish emigrant communities, we must first look back to the de velopment of the relationship between the Irish and English that preceded the Famine. Over the course of the nineteenth century, the events and attitudes that came to constitute the figure of the British tyrant in the Irish national imagination and memory eventually came to a head over the question of land ownership and political sovereignty, which became known in arose as the result of a buildup of Irish res entment after hundreds of years of English conquest and oppression. colony territorial conquest, of Great Britain remains contested within academic circles, it is often acknowledged that British soil rose over Ireland, as Ireland served as a colonial laboratory for British imperial experiments. 28 Some revisionist scholars, such as 27 History Learning Site March 26, 2014, http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/ireland_great_famine_of_1845. htm. 28 Crime and Social Justice 8 (1977): 53.

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14 Stephen Howe, author of Ireland and Empire: Colonial Legacies in Irish History and Culture argue that the establishment of the United Kingdom as a result of the Acts of Union of 1800 made Britain and Ireland political and cultural equals. 29 This would suggest that the Irish were no longer subjugated by the British, and therefore were no longer British colonial or imperial subjects. In reality, however, the experimental British colonial ideas and techniques that had been at work in Ireland for centuries continued throughout the entire nineteenth century, as the British elite attempted to s ubdue and profit from the impoverished Irish population. The Irish, as a result, represent the archetype of the imperial subject often referenced in the works of classical liberal theorists such as John Locke, Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, James Mill, and Jo hn Stuart Mill, among others. As early as the seventeenth century, John L ownership through improvement were used to justify the English confiscation and redistribution of land in Ireland. English settlers determined the tra ditional Irish form of subsistence farming to be unprofitable, and justified turning native Irish people off their lands in the name of God and their served a obtained the right to call the land his property. In the minds of the English, this form of feudalism also served as a method of improving the native Irish by lifti ng them out of their original and culturally inferior state of nature. Lord Deputy Mountjoy once characterized a without any knowledge of God, or almost any civilit 30 Canny argues that while this perception of the native Irish was popular amongst the English in the seventeenth century, the perception of 29 Kathleen Costello New Hibernia Review 6.4 (2002): 157 158. 30 Ibid, 585.

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15 the Irish as barbarians was propagated by the English conquerors throughout the sixteenth century as a justification for the subjugation of the native Irish population. The English, who considered themselves to be culturally superior to the Irish, argued t hat only through forceful 31 The English cultural influence would improve the natu rally barbaric Irish culture, thereby elevating the Irish people to a more civilized state of nature. By the nineteenth century, t he English perception of t 32 Ireland thus became a laboratory for social experimentation, as the British government began to develop biopolitical strategies to manage its colonial populations by focusing on the control of the individual. During the latter half of the nineteenth century, John Stuart Mill followed in the liberal tradition of his predecessors, namely John Locke and Adam Smith by publishing On Liberty in 1859 and Considerations on Representative Government in 1861. In these two works, Mill discusses the utilitarian principles which he believes must govern society in order to promote the precursors as he u ses the concept of improvement to make his case for the rationality of the individual and for his ability to self govern. However, d espite his defense of the sovereignty of the individual, Mill believes in a hierarchy of civilizations and places limitations on the ability to govern of those individuals in societies that have not yet reached a particular st ate of 31 Nicholas Canny, "The ideology of English colonization: from Ireland to America." The William and Mary Quarterly 30.4 (1973): 592. 32 Ibid, 720.

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16 protected against their own actions as well as against external injury. For the same reason, we may leave out of consideration those backward states of society in which the race itself may be ernment in dealing with barbarians, provided the end be their improvement, and the means justified by actually effecting 33 tings, it is evident that he regards English society as being the pinnacle of civilization, meaning that all other societies must be slowing evolving to become like England, including Ireland. 34 In his introduction to his pamphlet, England and Ireland published in 1886, Mill draws attention to the issue that was hotly debated in the Briti sh parliament at the time, as well as to the flippant attitude held by many of his fellow members of parliament with regard to affairs in Ireland. He had existed b etween England and Ireland for generations, and refute d the idea that Irish disaffection 35 Rather than discredit the Irish claim to Irish land by labeling the Irish as savages o r barbarians, Mill declares that the English government has failed in its responsibilities to its subjects, as it has done nothing Ireland is to be a consent ing party to her union with England, the changes must be so made that the existing generation of Irish farmers shall at once enter upon their benefits. The rule of Ireland now rightfully belongs to those who, by means consistent with justice, will make the cultivators 33 John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (London: The Walter Sco tt Publishing Co., Ltd., 1901). 6. 34 John Stuart Mill, England and Ireland (London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer, 1868), 1. 35 Ibid, 2.

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17 of the soil of Ireland the owners of it; and the English nation has got to decide whether it will be 36 was the result of many years of deep political reflection and personal ideological evolution, and was therefore not shared by the vast majority of his fellow ministers in the British Parliament. Had the English relinquished their claim to Irish land and I rish rule the legitimacy of the liberal theories upon which the expansion of the British Empire was founded throughout the nineteenth century would have been thoroughly undermined In the world of John Stuart Mill and his father, James Mill, it had been determined that men no longer emerged from a universal state of nature. Different societies existed at different stages of development, with England at the pinnacle. At the opposite end of the spectrum, there those backward states of society in wh ich the race itself may be considered as its nonage to carry such a people the most rapidly through the next necessary step in social progress. 37 John Stuart Mill termed this interventionist for admissible as a means o f gradually training the people to walk alone. On a continuum of culture and development, Mill claimed that all societies, or communities, were compelled to strive for a greater degree of civilization, and that the best form of government would be the one that encouraged the conditions necessary for progress. As U day Singh Mehta explains in his analysis of political exclusion in nineteenth century India of political exclusion of colonial peoples, of slaves, of women, and of those without sufficient property to exercise either suffrage or real political power over the past three and a half centuries must be allowed to embarrass the universalistic clai 38 Eventually the British colonial experiments in Ireland eventually led to the creation of a monster, as by the end of the nineteenth century the British 36 Ibid, 22. 37 John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (London: The Walter Scott Publishing Co., Ltd., 1901), 6, 31. 38 Uday Singh Mehta, Liberalism and Empire (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 76.

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18 could no longer maintain peaceful control over their colonial subjects In 1914, the country erupted in violent clashes between Irish nationalists and unionists, which culminated in the events surrounding the Easter Rising by members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood in 1916. 39 The British government took full advantage of the opportunit y to assert their martial dominance over their imperial subjects by conducting widespread arrests of suspected rebels, condemning ninety men to death for their involvement in the insurrection, and the executing fifteen rebel leaders, including Padraig Pear se, who became a martyr to the Irish cause. 40 American supporters of Irish nationalism, who would employ free the small nations, let us show our good faith by liberating that small nation which has 41 During the early twentieth century the Irish, and especially Irish American emigrant communities, became the champions of the liberal ideal of self determination and the embodiment of liberal progress. Organizations like the Irish Progressive League and the American Association for the Recognition of the Irish Republic played an integral role in channeling Irish American support for Irish independence and offered a political outlet for exiled participants of the 1916 Rising. 42 These organizations assisted Eamon De Valera, president of the Dil ireann ( National Assembly of Ireland), in his attempts to raise money to finance the work of the Irish government and the Irish Republic Army (IRA), as well as to raise awareness and support for official recognition of an Irish republic by the United States 39 The Course of Irish History ed. T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin (Dublin: Mercier Press 2001), 254 56. 40 Ibid, 25 6. 41 boundary 2 31, no. 1 (2004): 163. 42 Ibid, 175.

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1 9 govern ment. In June of 1921 the intensity of the Anglo Irish War became so destructive that public opinion in Britain and the United States turned against the British government and demanded a truce This eventually led to the signing of the Anglo Irish Treaty, which established the Irish Free State in December of 1921. 43 Much to the disappointment of Irish nationalists, the Irish Free State consisted of only 26 of the 32 counties in Ireland and, rather than becoming a sovereign state, Ireland remained a dominion of the British Commonwealth of Nations. 44 Ireland would not b ecome a sovereign state until 1949. 45 attention would turn away from Ireland, as its members focused on bolstering their own communities throughout economic depressions and world wars. The 1960s signaled a sea chang e for both the Irish on the island and the members of the Irish Diaspora, particularly those who lived in the United States. The election of John F. Kennedy as the first Irish Catholic president of the United States in 1960 encouraged a new sense of ethnic pride in Irish American communities across the United States. 46 Kennedy arguably represented the culmination of the Irish immigrant struggle in the United States. His great grandparents had emigrated from Ireland between 1846 and 1855 to escape the devasta tion of the Great Famine and overcame the cultural discrimination against Irish immigrants prevalent in the United States to become influential businesspeople and politicians in Boston. 47 Irish immigrants were once compared to dogs, and they had succeeded i n producing the leader of the most powerful nation on earth. The Irish on the island were particularly enamored with Kennedy, and 43 The Course of Irish History, ed. T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin (Dublin: Mercier Press 2001), 258. 44 Ibid, 258 59. 45 The Course of Irish History ed. T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin (Dublin: Mercier Press 2001) 279. 46 The White House last viewed March 31, 2014, http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy. 47 John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum last viewed March 31, 2014, http://www.jfkli brary.org/JFK/JFK in History/John F Kennedy and Ireland.aspx.

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20 revered him as a national hero of the same caliber as Padraig Pearse. It became commonplace in Ireland for Catholic families a nd pub owners to hang a picture of Kennedy next to the obligatory picture of the Pope above the fireplace. Kennedy and Pearse are both immortalized as mosaics in the Cathedral of Our Lady Assumed into Heaven and St Nicholas in Galway, where they are repre sented as martyrs worshipping the triumphant figure of the resurrected Messiah. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum last viewed March 31, 2014, http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK in History/John F Kennedy and Ireland.aspx.

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21 after his visit to Ireland in June of 1953, less than six months before his assassination. 48 and political dedication, and these connections proved to be significant throughout the rest of the twentieth century. On October 5, 1968, what began as a civil rights march protesting equal rights for the nationalist Catholic minority in Northern Ireland, ended as a violent clash between republican protesters and officers of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC). 49 The event sparked a ser beginning of the thirty year period that came to be known as the Troubles, in which members of the primarily Catholic nationalist minority battled those of the l argely Protestant unionist majority for territorial control of Northern Ireland. The conflict was mainly perpetuated by paramilitary groups that became involved on both sides. The republican side was represented mainly by the Provisional Irish Republican A rmy, a more radical offshoot of the Official Irish Republican Army. 50 The loyalist or unionist side was represented by the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and the Ulster Defence Association (UDA). 51 Over 3,600 British and Irish people, many of whom were civilia ns, were killed over the course of the conflict and thousands more sustained physical injuries and/or psychological trauma. 52 Although few Irish emigrants or their descendants became directly involved in the conflict, members of the Diaspora, primarily in the United States, united in a campaign for Irish 48 Ibid. 49 BBC last viewed April 1, 2014, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/events/day_troubles_began. 50 51 BBC February, 2013, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/topics/troubles_paramilitaries. 52 Ibid.

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22 national self determination in Northern Ireland during the 1970s. 53 Irish Americans formed several prominent non governmental organizations that provided both material support to the republican side, as wel l as political support through lobbying efforts. The Northern Irish Aid Northern Ireland, was founded in 1970 in New York by Michael Flannery, an Irish immigrant and former IR A member. 54 It is estimated that NORAID raised $3 million between 1970 and 1986, allegedly for the benefit of the families of republican prisoners held by the British Army in internment camps in Northern Ireland. 55 Evidence was also discovered in 1982 that N ORAID had retained undeclared funds in the United States, which were then used to purchase arms that 56 Although NORAID was the most militant of the Irish American groups to supp ort the republican efforts in Northern Ireland, several other organizations were instrumental in lobbying the United State government to address the situation in Northern Ireland. In the 1980s the Irish National Caucus (INC) successfully lobbied support fr om the Carter Administration for Irish unity and for the redress of religious discrimination and human rights violations by British authorities in Northern Ireland. 57 The evolving efforts of the INC and its supporters reflected a gradual shift in the Irish American position on the situation in Northern Ireland throughout the 1980s. Although four prominent Irish ur 53 Journal o f Peace Research 44, no. 2 (2007): 220. 54 International Affairs 72, no. 3 (1996): 523. 55 Ibid, 524. 56 Ibid, 524 525. 57 Ibid, 526 27.

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23 Ireland as a legitimate foreign policy concern, they advocated for a nonviolent political strategy to end the violence, rather than to unite Ireland. 58 President B ill Clinton would utilize such a strategy throughout the 1990s to broker a ceasefire between the leadership of the nationalist party, Sinn Fen, with the British government, represented by Prime Minister Tony Blair. 59 The fact that American involvement was so instrumental in ending what was essentially a civil conflict in a tiny European country indicates the depth and strength of the connection that ha d been built throughout generations of migration between Ireland and America. It was not until the 1990s th at the Irish government would realize the extent of the economic advantage that this connection provided, and learned how to exploit it During the 1990s, Ireland embarked upon a course of rapid economic expansion that was praised the world over as the ad vent of a new era of international wealth. Like the United States, such as minimal use of economic regulations and low corporate tax rates in order to encourage fore ign direct investment in Ireland. Unfortunately, Irish politicians and bankers also participated in the same reckless economic gambling that led to the collapse of the housing market in the United States, and triggered the global financial crisis in 2008. Unlike the United States, losses, and the national economy was completely devastated. By 2010, after bailing out three of product. 60 I n November of 2010, Ireland European Union and the International Monetary fund which they were offered under the 58 Journal of Peace Research 44, no. 2 (2007): 221. 59 International Affairs 72, no. 3 (1 996): 534. 60 BBC April 25, 2013, http://www.bbc.com/news/business 13366011.

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24 condition that the government impose strict austerity measures and economic structural reforms, as well as submit to reviews of the 61 Although the ending cuts alone proved to be insufficient. But, as they say, necessity is the mother of invention, and the government got creative. At the suggestion of entrepreneurs like Kingsley Aikins, founder of Diaspora Matters the Irish government followed the ex ample of countries like Israel and chose to harness the power of the Diaspora in order to kick start the failing Irish economy. In an era where neoliberal thinkers value profit and economic power above all, Ireland capitalized on its biggest resources: its culture, and the global population whose identity is defined by that culture. II. A Culture of Connections: The Emigrant and the National Imagination If we are challenged about this tendency, we will deny it T o us Irish, memory is a canvas stretched, primed, and read story and we love it trimmed out with color and drama, ribbons and bows. Listen to our t unes, observe a Celtic Frank Delaney, Tipperary 62 In 2010, the Irish government embarked on a massive cultural rebranding campaign in order to inspire global interest in the country, and thereby promote tourism. The hope was to economic, as opposed to the historical, value in it. In order to understand how the government was able to successfully implement such a campaign, we must first consider the history behind the cultural ties which have bound the Irish Diaspora for centurie s. One of the most important cultural 61 BBC March 26, 2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/world europe 17473476. 62 Frank Delaney, Tipperary (New York: Random House, 2007), 3.

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25 characteristics of the Irish is their love of the spoken word, which became a huge factor in maintaining permanent connections between the Irish on the island and the Irish abroad. Ireland is a nation known for its li terary heritage. The Irish dedication to the written word manifested itself as far back as the Dark Ages, when Irish monks reproduced great religious and philosophical texts, essentially saving them from oblivion. 63 The works produced by these monks were in strumental in inspiring the renewed intellectual spirit of the Renaissance. For hundreds of years, Irish writers have channeled the Irish love for stories and wordplay into their work, often producing innovative forms of poetry, fiction, and drama when tra ditional becoming the only the fourth city worldwide to receiv e such an honor. 64 Promotional materials Joyce. However, what the a uthors of these materials fail to acknowledge is the fact that many of an unparalleled influence on the world at large, pro viding a unique cultural experience with literature at its heart 63 Thomas Cahill, Rome to the Rise of Medieval Europe (New York: Anchor Books, 1995), 3. 64 Dublin UNESCO last viewed Ma rch 30, 2014, http://www.dublincityofliterature.ie/.

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26 65 Although authors like Wilde and Joyce are now celebrated for their literary achievements, dur ing their lifetimes they faced considerable resistance from the Irish literary establishment. Their respective vantage points outside of Ireland allowed these emigrant authors to cast a critical eye on Irish society, which led to some of the most influenti al portrayals of contemporary Ireland, many of which provided a satirical view of the absurdities of Anglo Irish culture and society. literary heritage is more bro adly characterized by themes of loss, and especially personal loss as a result emigration. Poets like Eavan Boland have long mourned the loss of those men and women who were forced to leave their homeland in search of a better life. These Irish men and wom en were often portrayed as martyrs or exiles, as they were in the political manifestations of the figure of the emigrant, but they were also sometimes imagined as beneficiaries of the fabled 66 The desperate poverty and overa ll lack of opportunity in Ireland fueled the need for Irish men and women to leave their homes in search of employment in order to support themselves and their families. News of emigrants who had found success perpetuated stories of America as the Promised waves of emigrants into trying their luck away from home. 67 Once these travelers arrived at their destination, however, they were met with the shocking reality that life in their new country, whe ther England, the United States, Australia, or elsewhere, was much harder than they had ever imagined. Over time, the initial homesickness that every migrant experiences gradually evolved 65 http://www.dublincityofliterature.ie/dublinliterary/literary heritage.html. 66 Sean Williams and Lillis Laoire, Bright Star of the West: Joe Heaney, Irish Song Man (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 134. 67 Oscar Handlin, The Uprooted: The Epic Story of the Great Migrations that Made the American People (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 233.

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27 into a sense of permanent and enduring nostalgia as well as series o f idealized memories of their family and homeland in Ireland. Generations of Irish immigrants, especially in the United States, passed down these memories and stories to their offspring and generated a mythical version of Ireland and its culture that would come to be cherished by communities of Irish descent worldwide. These stories were not only captured in the memoires of Irish emigrants and their families, but also preserved through a range of other literary genres, particularly fiction and poetry, or so ng. Some of the most popular and well known memoirs that chronicle the struggle of Irish emigrants and their families during the mid Ashes Tis. In McCourt, who was born in Brooklyn in 19 30, describes the struggles that he, his parents, and his siblings endured while living in the slums of Depression era New York, and further compares these hardships with the extreme poverty he witnessed on Limerick. While it is easy to imagine the harsh conditions during an event like the Great Famine in the 1840s, it is more difficult to envision how little social and economic conditions in some parts of the coun portrait of the stagnant economic conditions that continued to plague society in the west of Ireland throughout the twentieth century. Although his personal experience is the main focus of Angela McCourt, ne Sheehan, first leaves Limerick at the suggestion of her mother, who 68 68 Frank McCourt, Ange (New York: Touchstone, 1996), 15.

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28 that he included for dramatic effect, as he was not yet born at the time, but it does reveal a certain attitude about emigration held in Irish society. Emigration was not only a safety valve for the excess population, but it was also thought that there wer e enough opportunities abroad that anyone of the poorest Irish immigrants; those unskilled laborers that travelled to America hoping for a better life and ended up wi th barely enough money to survive. Shortly after arriving in the toes, 69 Angela becomes pregnant, and her chances of succeeding by her own volition in the States are dashed. Her last spite the fact that they employment and their youngest child and only girl, Margaret, dies of malnutrition, Angela decides to return to Ireland and seek the support of her mo ther and siblings in Limerick. But, as American imagination, nor do Angela and her family receive a warm welcome upon their return. Already resentful of her for marrying a particularly her mother, only grudgingly offer her and her children what little material support they have to give. Eventually, when he is old enough and obtains enough money for the trans Atlant ic fare, Frank follows his dream of returning to New York, but he finds that his situation is off the 70 rish 69 Ibid, 15. 70 Frank McCourt, (New York: Scribner, 1999),101.

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29 emigrants inhabited once they left Ireland. Unlike a character in a novel, Angela McCourt experiences the worst of both worlds in America and in Ireland. Whether she lives in New York or in Limerick, Angela has to suffer the deaths of her children and continues to give birth to new children. Ultimately seven McCourt children are born, and three die. In addition to crushing poverty and hunger, Frank and his younger brother, Malachy, also face discrimination at home and at school because of their America over and 71 At school, the two boys are bullied for sounding 72 Furthermore, when Frank McCourt returns to New York at the age of nineteen, he faces even 73 Even though he had always thought that nothing could be worse than living in Limerick, Frank realizes that he had not been prepared for back to Limerick in my m 74 filled with humorous anecdotes, the underlying conditions which McCourt and his brothers had to survive reveal the depth of the poverty which Irish people had to endure, and the power of the social stigma Irish migrants had to suffer, even in the twentieth century. However, economic strife was not the only motivator for Irish men and women to emigrate. The late nineteenth and 71 Frank McCourt, (New York: Touchstone, 1996), 72, 63. 72 Ibid, 79. 73 Frank McCourt, (New York: Scribner, 1999), 73. 74 Ibid, 76.

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30 twentieth centuries were politically tumultuous times, and if one w as not on the right side, life could be terribly dangerous. is an emotionally compelling example of the independence. Li lly Dunne recounts the story of her life as she mourns the suicide of her grandson, Bill, a veteran of the Gulf War. Lilly, the daughter of an officer in Dublin Metropolitan Police, a division of the Royal Irish Constabulary is forced to flee Ireland when her love interest, Tadg Bere, becomes a target for political violence. Tadg, one of the approximately 140,000 Irishmen who volunteered to serve in the British military during World War I, becomes a recruit for the reviled British paramilitary force known as the Black and Tans upon returning from the war. 75 The Irish Republic Army (IRA) places a price on both Lilly and Black and Tan vehicles. Lilly and Tadg are force d to flee to Chicago, never to return to Ireland. Although Lilly herself is harmless and is wrongly accused of informing the Black and Tans of abandon her home. Because the Irish uprisings in the early twentieth century were, in essence, successful and led to the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922, the historical narrative mainly reflects the victories of the winning Irish Republic side. Little attention is given to those people who, like Lilly and her family, were the beneficiaries of English institutions in Ireland, as they were commonly considered traitors in Ireland. The fact that Lilly left Ireland permanently means that her story may never have reached the island and could not have had an impact on the greater Irish and Irish emigrant narrative. However, despite the fact that Lilly never returns after she 75 BBC, last modified March 10, 2010, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/ireland_wwone_01.shtml.

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31 emigrates and only receives a handful of letters from her father and sisters, she notes that 76 Lilly becomes one of the hundreds of thousands of Irish emigrants who found a home in the United States. Unlike most Irish immigrants, however, Lilly spends most of her young life outside of the large Irish communities found in New York and Chicago. America becomes a sanctuary, a place where she can create a new identity and choose whether or not to exploit her Irish heritage. Lilly grows into being an American, and uses the fact that she is Irish to form connections between herself and other Americans who claim Irish heritage, like her employer, Mrs. Wolohan, who proclaims herself to be a third generation Irish American. As in the case of Frank McCourt, the fact that Lil ly immigrates when she is in her early twenties give her the ability to recognize the difference between the Irish American representation of Ireland and the true characteristics of the country and its inhabitants. Her life is marked by fortunate and unfor tunate events which offset one another, and since she has experienced both the positive and negative aspects of Irish and American society, her writing benefits from a balanced view of the peals from her family, since they are afraid that writing to her will reveal her whereabouts to the IRA. Although she encounters many of the same facets of Irish American society as many of other Irish emigrants rs in that she makes a concerted effort to blend into her new society, and does not mourn her old life in Ireland the way most emigrants do. On captures the range of emotions and experiences Irish emigrants were subject to once they had left their homeland for good, and is incredibly emotionally compelling for readers who may not have known or held inaccurate assumptions about the political situation in Ireland during the early twentieth century. An even more powerful genre, however, has grown and 76 Sebastian Barry, (London: Pen guin Books, 2011), 57.

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32 evolved throughout centuries of Irish migration and represents the true depth of emotion that comes with emigration: poetry and song. As the teenage Frank McCourt awaits his second journey across the Atlantic Ocean to return to New York, he muses that go to America, which was so far away the parties were called American wakes because the 77 It was at these American wakes that I rish families and communities would gather and sing the old songs. Piaras Mac inr former director of the inter disciplinary Irish Centre for Migration Studies at University g emigrant songs that there are few Irish songs that celebrate emigration as an opportunity for a new life. 78 Instead, most songs are based on themes of loneliness, loss, nostalgia, the anger and bitterness of departure and exile, and the memory of the beau ty of Ireland. The songs themselves range from traditional ballads and airs with unknown composers, to parlor songs from Victorian Ireland, to songs written from the perspective of members of the Irish Diaspora or of Irish communities. atest Sean ns (old style) singers, Joe Heaney, created widespread awareness of emigrant songs throughout his career in England and the United States by performing songs in both English and Irish that he had learned growing up in Connemara. 79 One of the mos t iconic songs from the west of Ireland that Heaney made popular in Irish communities in the United A St r Mo Chro mother whose child is leaving home, and features several of the themes of expectation and loss that are common in many of the emigrant songs: 77 Frank McCourt, (New York: Touchstone, 1996), 356. 78 University College Cork last viewed March 30, 2014, http://www.ucc.ie/en/emigre/emigrant songs 1/. 79 Sean Williams and Lillis Laoire, Bright Star of the West: Joe Heaney, Irish Song Man (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 5.

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33 A str mo chro From That your heart will be sorely grieving. With riches and treasure golden never olden. A str mo chro There is plenty of wealth and wearing Whilst gems adorn the rich and the grand There are faces with hunger tearing. Though the road is dreary and hard to tread And the lights of their cities blind you Yo a str And the ones you left behind you. A str mo chro when the evening sun Over mountain and meadow is falling t you turn away from the throng and listen be surely mine A rin,a rin will you come back soon To the one who will always love you. 80 The song obviously features many of the sentiments expressed in the prose works previously mentioned, but the addition of the Sean ns style of singing brought an entirely different dimension to the text. Sean ns is traditionally an unaccompanied and highly ornamented style of singing. 81 Joe Heaney is said to have drawn on his own emigration experience for inspiration while singing, a nd emphasized the emotive power of the music in order to balance the sentiment of the lyrics. 82 paramount in achieving a visceral reaction from members of the audience, the fact that the lyrics seemed to draw on the collective memory of the members of the Irish Diaspora was equally as 80 Ibid, 134. 81 Comhaltas Ceoltir ireann last viewed March 30, 2014, http://comhaltas.ie/music/treoir/detail/amhranaiocht_ar_an_sean_nos/. 82 Sean Williams and Lillis Laoire, Bright Star of the West: Joe Heaney, Irish Song Man (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 135.

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34 may or may not have identified themselves as Irish American or being of Irish heritag e, but most, if not all, were one or more generations removed from the emigration experience. As Sean Williams and Lillis Laoire note in Bright Star of the West tears as their imaginations rushed past the specific circu mstances of the story and song, either 83 The power of these songs comes from not only creating awareness of the experience of emigrants, but from establishing emotional connectio ns between members of a diaspora community. By performing these songs and passing them down through generations, Irish emigrants were able to maintain their connection to their homeland no matter where they ended up on the globe. Irish emigrant songs conne cted people across borders and strengthened the links between the Irish on the island and abroad. In her address to the joint sitting houses of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament), on February Like oil lamps we put them out the back, / Of our houses, of our minds. 84 Robinson argued that the members of the Oireachtas were charged with a duty to lead the people of Ireland in actively pursuing stronger connections with members of the Irish Diaspora living outside of the island. She explained that in order for Ireland to grow, its population needed to engage in initiativ es that nurture the relationship between the Irish on the a sentimental regard for those who leave our shores 83 Ibid, 135. 84 Uachtarn na hireann Mary Robinson to Joint Sitting of the Houses of the Oireachtas Offices of the Houses of the Oireachtas last viewed March 30, 2014, http://www.oireachtas.ie/viewdoc.asp?fn=/documents/addresses/2Feb1995.htm.

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35 te nd to it until the fire burns out. 85 While Robinson was successful in appealing to the emotional connection between the Irish on the island and the Irish abroad, her purpose was not just to highlight the community sentiment embedded in the Irish national me mory. Rather, it was to raise support for transnational engagements conducted between the Irish and their vast diaspora population. Robinson is remembered for being the first government representative to directly address the importance of the Irish Diaspor a and bring it to the forefront of national attention. Although her invocation of the relationships that constitute the global Irish community was range of diaspo ra engagement policies that would later rescue the Irish economy after the global economic crash of 2008. III. Cherishing the Diaspora: The Return of the Emigrant Irish People are spread all over the world, many making a major contribution in their new homes. These people are not just members of the global Irish family they may also be members of your Clan, part of your extended family. The best events start with a simple invitation. Irish men and women have family members in all corners of the globe a nd next year offers a once in a lifetime opportunity to bring all the far flung members of your Clan together in a spirit of celebration. In October of 2011, Ciara Kenny, a contributor to The Irish Times posed a question to the issue of mass emigration, an affliction which had again returned to Ireland after the economic initiative aimed at this current gener way dialogue that 85 Ibid.

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36 86 The blog engages cultural, economic, and social issues that affect Irish people at home and around the world. Although articles addressing ma ss emigration and its impact on Ireland have been published in print as a part of The Irish Times the blog with its electronic format has a much farther reach. Irish men and women who have emigrated from Ireland during the current economic downturn, or ev recession in the 1980s, are invited to write in and tell their stories. Because emigration is an issue that affects people from all over Ireland of various ages and economic backgrounds, it is something to which everyone in the cou ntry can relate. It is an issue that also connects everyone living in Ireland to the more than 70 million people that make up the Irish Diaspora. 87 As we have seen, waves of emigration from Ireland have occurred over hundreds of years, but recent changes in technology have made the experience a very different one than ever before. Travel has become easier, making the homeland more accessible, and most emigrants now have the means to communicate with their friends and family continuously and instantly The In ternet has made it possible for the Irish to build communities throughout the world and to maintain their culture, regardless of geography, thereby expanding the nation beyond its physical borders. The concept of a public blog like changes the newspaper between the reader and the imagined community. While the reach of a newspaper is physically limited by the number of copies that can be made and b y the size of the area in which it can be distributed, a blog is available worldwide and is accessible to anyone at any time. The reader is not only aware of the simultaneous existence of the rest of the members of the readership, but can also create 86 The Irish Times, October 20, 2011, http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2011/10/20/generation emigration whats it all about/. 87 Kerby Miller, Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 4.

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37 relat ionships with other members by commenting on blog posts and participating in social media navigating relatively alien cultures, appear to experience a sense of communi ty by engaging with a larger online audience, it is important to note that, as Ciara Kenny mentioned, the blog itself is fundamentally based on a bilateral exchange of information. Not only can Kenny influence the readership by drawing attention to a speci fic selection of news articles published in The Irish Times she is also capable of extracting a particularly rich form of consumer feedback by posing questions which address topics that are of interest to multiple parties, including the Irish government. For example, on March 18, 2014, an unidentified author, presumably Kenny, posted a brief article which reviewed a government of the Irish community abroad to contribute their views on how Ireland engages wi th its 88 Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade which summarized the results so far of the a. 89 The consultation concerned with what the Diaspora population can do for Ireland, rather than what Ireland can do for its Diaspora. The report mainly emph asized the importance of reinforcing connections between the Irish on the island and the Irish abroad, particularly when those connections encouraged economic and social development in Ireland. Its authors made reference to several government sponsored ini tiatives that have already encouraged economic growth and investment 88 The Irish Times March 18, 2014, http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2014/03/18/emigrants invited to share views on irelands diaspora engagement/. 89 Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade March 18, 2014, https://www.dfa.ie/media/dfa/alldfawebsitemedia/ourrolesandpolicies/Review of Irelands Diaspora Strategy Consultation 2014.pdf.

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38 in Ireland, many of which successfully exploit the rich cultural and ancestral ties which bind the Diaspora. to kick start the economy and lift the depressed mood that has overshadowed the country since 2008, the Irish government, in partnership with the Irish Tourism Board, chose to emulate an long celebration of everything Irish, involved a national network of city and county community leaders as well as various professional and community organizations. Towns, counties, and individual families came together to plan approximately 5,000 cultural events to be held throughout the year 2013. They then sent out the call to fa mily members living abroad who had either personally emigrated or were the descendants of Irish emigrants. Anyone who considered him or herself to be of Irish descent, and therefore a member of the Irish Diaspora, was encouraged to rediscover their roots in through their local parish records for evidence of Irish people who h ad emigrated decades, even centuries, beforehand. They then traced the lineage of these emigrants and contacted any surviving relatives or descendants to invite them to visit their ancestral home in Ireland. 90 With at least 250,000 to 275,000 overseas visit project a success. There was, however, a great deal of backlash from the international Irish community 90 Ireland Reaching Out, March 14, 2014, http://www.irelandxo.com/about.

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39 dur 91 The Irish Times commented on an article published on the new 92 Proponents of the initiati itself and illustrates the integration of economic and cultural interests that is necessary to create an effective diaspora engagement strategy. Preliminary analyses of data collected throughout but also fostered the increased sense of community involvement and national solidarity necessary for the nation to pull through the austerit program. Additionally, several leading European Union officials, including Jrg Asmussen, a example of the successful implementation of austerity measures in combination with culturally based projects. Even the German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, has lauded Ireland for setting a 93 What man 91 Harry M The Irish Times November 7, 2012, http://www.irishtimes.com/news/a shakedown or a welcome initiative to attract visitors 1.548324. 92 The Irish Times, January 11, 2013, http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/generationemigration/2013/01/11/gathering momentum forget the shakedown heres the breakdown/. 93 The New York T imes January 10, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/11/opinion/irelands rebound is european blarney.html?_r=0.

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40 liberalization throughout the 1990s that led to the shockingly rapid, an d completely and subsequently resulted in the crash of 2008. In an opinion piece published in the New York Times Rebound Union leaders point to Ireland as an example of the successful implementation of austerity measures, in reality the situation in Ireland is much worse than it appears. Since its entry into the European Union in 1973 Ireland has been lauded as the poster child for the success associated website, since its inclusion in the Union in 1973 I 94 achievements have since served as justification for EU policy. Its rapid economic growth during the 1990s and 2000 s signaled an era of neoliberal economic expansion within Europe, as it additionally en ticed other European countries, particularly in Eastern Europe, to seek membership in the EU in the hope of achieving the same economic boost when integrated into a larg s economic policies led to a vastly inflated property market in the early 2000s, and the economy was completely devastated 94 European Union last viewed April 3, 2014, http://europa.eu/about eu/countries/member countries/ireland//index_en.htm.

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41 contradiction that has manifested in the attitudes of EU politicians and economic leaders, who once praised the Irish government for its irresponsible policies during the boom years, and are now congratulating the government for its implementation of strict austerity measures. Whereas five y ears ago Ireland was a model of economic success for other EU countries, its image has now been reworked as a model of economic responsibility for countries like Spain and Greece. land since the crisis in 2008, and people continue to leave. Although the technology sector in Dublin is booming, the foreign firms who own these companies are reaping the profits, so none of this money is reinvested in the Irish economy. Severe cuts in go vernment spending have resulted in a massive reduction in the number of public sector jobs as well as in government investment in infrastructure. Professionals have been forced to leave Ireland to find work elsewhere, and the unemployment rate remains at a that found that the majority of Irish people who are emigrating are highly educated young people who have found little opportunity for advancement in their chosen fields in Ireland. These are the people who should be rebuilding the country, but unfortunately there is little incentive for them government nor other members of the European Union are planning on changing their practices in the near future. within Ireland and encourage emigration, the country has become a leader in the growing field of diaspora engagement a nd mobilization Countries both in Europe and around the world are looking to Ireland for inspiration as to how they too can reach out to their external ethnic populations. In May of 2013, Dublin hosted the European arm of the Global Diaspora Forum,

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42 sponso red by the United States Department of State, the International Diaspora Engagement Alliance, and Irish Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 95 ns that participated in the planning of these events are in the process of evaluating their efforts, so that they may execute similar events in the future with even greater success. It remains to be seen if Diaspora will be sustainable, but it does appear to signal a shift in the perception of the value of culture in a global neoliberal context. Conclusion The Great Famine of 1845 and the global economic crisis of 2008 are examples of two very different eve nts that had a permanent effect on the course of Irish history. Although they occurred in very different historical contexts, these two catastrophes caused the largest waves of emigration Ireland has ever seen. Over the centuries, the Irish Diaspora has de veloped into an influential economic, political, and cultural asset for the Irish state. Without the intervention and political pressure created by members of the Diaspora in the United States, England, and elsewhere, the Republic of Ireland would not exis t. Without the remittances provided by members of the Diaspora worldwide, Ireland may have never maintained the means to sustain it self as a nation. The figure of the Irish emigrant represents a cultural memory that is deeply ingrained in the Irish nationa l consciousness, but the emigrant also stands as a symbol of a nation once dominated by the liberal ideals of a colonial oppressor that has undergone a transition to a leader in neoliberal economic strategy. No longer a symbol of national doom, the emigran t is now valued as an informal ambassador, connecting Ireland to the world. As globalization slowly 95 Thomas D International Diaspora Engagement Alliance, May 12, 2013, http://diasporaalliance.org/welcome to the 2013 global diaspora forum/.

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43 erodes the physical barriers that once defined nation states during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the experience of modern Irish emigrants suggest s that eventually these lines will be almost meaningless. Emigrant experiences lend themselves to the redefinition of the nation, and with the Irish actively taking control of their fate, they are one step closer to achieving the constantly sought after ha ven represented in Irish lore by Tr na n"g.

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