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SPANISH DOMINIONS IN NORTH AMERICA.
FLOR.~DA'.9AST AND W ES8T.,
T' HI IS counwas difcovered by Sebaftian Cabot,
ome y -efore it was known t the Spaniards.
-That nation, in 1512z, gave it a vat extentï¿½,comprehiending, under the name of Florida, all the country from the 25th to the 39th degree of north latitude.:But what is 'now properly called the Peninfula of Flbrida, is fituated between 25 and 31 degrees of north latitude, and in, about &5 degrees ofweftlongitude. It is bounded on the north by Georgia, on the fouth by the Gulph of Mexico, on the eaft by the firaits of Bahama and the Atlantic.Ocean, and on the weft by the river Miffiflippi. It is about 500 miles in length, and 440 in bieadth.
Of the mountains the moft confiderable are the Apalachian, which divide Carolina, and the reft of the American States,,from Florida. A valt number of noble rivers pafs thr-ough this country, the mot of which' rife in the Apalachian mountains, and fall into the Gulph of Mexico, or the Atlantic Ocean. The chief are the, Miffiffi i, the Ohio, the Coza, Couffa, or Mobile, and t~e river St. 'John. The Miffiffippi, which the FreGich call St. Louis, is, in many refpeas, the finell riverin the world. It runs avery Iong courfe, free from fhol'$ aid cataraas, and is navigable within 6o leagues of its fource. In thefe rivers is good
flore of fifli.
Florida, by the treaty of peace in 1763, was ceded
'by Spain to Great Britain, who divided it into-,two colonies, EaRt and.Welt Florida, according to which we fh 11 confider it, having premifed, that, in the year '178o, it was taken by the Spaniards, and ceded to
them by Great Britain by the treaty of 1783.
EAST FLORIDA comprehends about twelve millions of acres, which is about the quantity of Ireland.
In the eallern and fouthernparts are a number ofiflands, formed by narrow fraits and bays, which run in from the weft, and join others from the fouth and ealt. One of the principal of the-bays is called Laguna del Efpiritu Sant6;-which extends, from north to fouth, about 27 leagues, and is ne'it 8 leagues wide, It has feveral communications with the bay on the weft fide of the peninfula, as well as with the Gulph of Florida. To the fouth-eaft of this part of the country is a chain of iflands and rocks, called Cayos de los Martyrs, or the Keys of the Martyrs, which extend, in a circular form, at t he difltance of thirteen leagues from Punta Florida to the mIlt fouthern point. In 1773'a fleet of 14 galleons, on their return throughthe 'Gulph of Florida for Old Spain, ran foul of thefe rocks, through the ignorance or inattention of the commander in chief. One of the captains difobeying the fignals, avoidedthe danger, and faved his fhip; but the other thirteen wer
entirely loft, with great part of their treafure.
The foil, except in the middle, is very low T
ifiores are fandy or marfhy to a great diftance w
The country abounds with all kird of ti r nd
fruit trees, efecially pines, -laure, pal, ceda's, chef nutan extraorcyprefs,-and cifuttrees, which gro toanexra
dinary length and fize, and, withthe a ford nouri finent to fwine. But the woY m pr zed, and in greteft plenty, is the fafiafras, of -which remarkable quantities are exported. Excelnt limes and prunes alfo grow here in great abundance,with vines of various forts, and cotton trees, hemp, flax, pulfe, roots, and herbs. The root called mendihoca, of which the caf:ava flour and bread are made, is very common. Of tl},e iruits there is one called tuna, fo exquifitc and
wholefome, when ripe, that; among the Europeans, it goes by the name of the cordial julep.
There are woods which ferve for dying, as fuffic, braziletto, logwood, &c. There are fhrabs, which may be of great confequence in trade, fuch as the myrtle-wax flrub, which grows in evety foil, the Ipunn.tia, the imna fhrub, &c. To this may- be added, that Eat Florida has the greateft part of the fruit trees of the New World. 'Eat Florida has alfo much of the plant called barilla, or kali, with which pearl-afhes are made, and of which confiderable quantities are imported into Europe for divers ufeful purpofes. Here is a fort of grain like our oats, and-when rightly prepared exceeds our bet oatmeal. It grows fpontaneoufly in marthy places, and by the fides of rivers, like ruffles. -The Indians, when it is ripe, take handfulls and thake them into their canoes; and what efcapes them, falling into the water, produces, without further trouble, tht next year's crop. 'But the moft fingular production intheveoetable fytem, in this or in any other country, is the cabbagetree, called by fome naturalifis the palmello royal. The trunk bulges out a little near the ground, wiich gives it the becoming appearance of a fubliantial bafis to fupport its towering Weight, It is fRrait as an arrow, rifes above an hundred feet in height, and the trunk near the earth is about fix or feven feet in circumference, the whole body growing tapering to the top. The infide texture of the leaves appear as threadlike filaments, which being fpun, are ufed in making cordage of every kind as well as fithing-nets. - What is called the cabbage lies in many thin, white, brittle flakes, which, when raw, have fomething of the taRe of almonds, and when boiled, fomething of that of cabbage, but fweeter and more agreeable.
Here is good beef, veal and mutton, with plenty of hogs, efpecially on the fea coaft, and alfr not only cattle for draught of the Tartar breed, but hoifes for the faddle, that may be purchafed for any trifle of European commodity.
The wild beafis of this country are panthers, bears, catamountains, buffaloes, deer, hares, goats, rabid beavers, otters, foxes,.flying fquirrels, &c.
The feathered creation is numerous, as c geefe and ducks, turtle doves, partrid t fles, jays, hawks and crows. The ma t miningbird, and a great number of ohrs~ fe of which are of beautiful plumage.
All the low lands h 6atas far as they can be approached, arew h mangrove trees, to which ad nl mber of fmall oyfters,of exquifite ur. Others, much larger, and not fc deliciouare found in the fea, and that in fuch number they form elves therein, which, at firft
em like rocks level with the furface of the
The other produas of Eall Florida are ambergris,' cochineal, indigo, and filk-grafs. It alfo produces amethyfts,' turqioifes, lapis-l azuli, and other precious flones: likewife copper, quickfilver, pit-coal, iron ore, and a kind of Rone pitch, called copea, which the Spaniards ufe as tar for their fhipping.
The principal town in Eall Plorida is St. Auguftine, Ranging on the eaflern coat of the peninfula, about 70 leagues from the Gulph of Florida and Channel of Bahama, 30 fouth of the river Alatahama or Alatumacha, and 47 from the town and river of Savannah. It is fituated in latitude 3- degrees north, and lies along the fore, or the bottom of a hill, in the form of a parallelogram, the ifreets cutting each other at riobt angles. Theport is formed by an ifland and along point
508 A NEW AND AUTHENTIC SYSTE
of land, almoft divided from the continent by a river, which falls int6 the fea two miles fouth of the town. About a mile to the northward of the town ftands the caflle, called St. John's Fort, defended by four baftions, and pretty firong. The entrance into the port lies between the ifland and the point of land, and is about one mile and a quarter over, as is, indeed, moft part of the coafi of Florida. Down by the fide, about three quarters of a mile fouth of the town, flands the church and monafltery of St. Augufline. The beft built part of the'town is on the north fide, leading to the caftle. On the north and fouth are two Indian towns, without the city walls.
Weft Florida is a long track of land of more than 8o leagues, extending from eaft to welt, along the coaft of the Bay of Mexico. The climate is hot, damp, and unhealthy, particularly near the fea. The ftrand takes up a great depth, and is compofed of white and dry fand. On advancing into the country, which is pretty even, the climate is found to be more healthy, and the lands more fruitful. They have annually two barvefis of maize. They have alfo good pafturage, and plenty of cattle. The trees and plants are much' the fame as in Eaft Florida; but the Weft affords fome articles which are wanted there. The inland parts are
_alfo much better.
Pearls are found here in great abundance; but the Indians prize the European beads more. Upon the whole coaft, for 200 leagues, are feveral vaft beds of oyfters, and in the frelh water lakes and rivers is a fort of fhell fiflh, between a mufcle and an oyfter, in which is found abundance of peaTls, many of which are larger than ordinary.
The French inhabitants, who are numerous here, are chiefly employed in the building fhips, and cultivating rice, cotton, and indigo. Their cotton is very fine, of a clear white, and their indigo is as good as that from St. Domingo.
On the banks of the Miffiffippi are feveral fprings and lakes, which produce excellent falt. The plants producing hemp and flax abound here, as well as that fort of filk-grafs of which are made fuch ftuffs ascome from the Eaft Indies, called herb fluffs. Vaft flights of wild pigeons come hereat fome feafons of the year, and rooft on the trees in great numbers. In many places are mines of pit-coal ; and i'ron ore is often found near the furface of the earth, whence a metal is extraded little inferior to flteel. Here are alfo fome mines of quickfilver, or rather the metal from which it is extraded: It is only ufed by the original natives to paint their faces and bodies in time of war, or at high feftivals.
The inilaitants of Weft Florida are more numerous than thofe of Eaft Florida, it being more healthy and inviting, efpecially in the weftern parts, near the banks of the Miffiffippi.
The chief town of Weft Florid is- Penfacola. The landing-place is within the bay, thetown being fituated on a fandy ihore, perfetly white, ,that can only be approached by fmall veffels. The road, however, is one of the beft in all the Gulph of Mexico, as veffels may lie there in fafgty againft every kind of wind. The bottom affords excellent anchorage; and the fea, which is feldom agitated, on account of being furrounded by the land on every fide, is capable of containing a great number of fhips. On the weft fide of the harbour ftands the town, defended by a fmall fort. A very fine river falls into the Bay of Mexico on the eaft fide of the harbour, after running above ioo miles through the country. The land here produces plenty of the trees fit for mafis of fhips, and accordingly many of them are cut down and carried to Vera Cruz for that purpofe.
As there are many particulars refpeaing perfon, drefs, manners, and cuftoms, which are peculiar to the original Indians of Florida, we fhall prefent them tothe reader. The bodies of thefe people are robufi, and well proportioned. Both fexes go naked, except having a deer tkin round the waift. They flain their fln with the juice of plants, and have long black hair,
A or UNIVERSAL GEOGRAPHY.
which they have amethod oftwifting and binding upon the head, fo as to render it rather becoming. The women, who, in general have good features, and are well made, are fo a-ive that they will climb with amazing fwiftnefs to the tops of the higheft trees, and fwim acrofs broad rivers with their children on their backs. The men make ufe of bows and arrows with great dexterity. The ftrings of their bows are made of the fin 4s of ftags; and they point the ends of their arrows with flharp flones, or the teeth of iffles. With refped to religion, they are idolaters.
Theiroeconomy in the management and difiribution of their corn, which is accounted the common flock of the public, is well worthy of notice. The crop, which is calculated to ferve onlyhalf the year, is collefitedinto granaries appointed for that purpofe, and afterwards regularly delivered out to every family, in proportion to the number of perfons it contains. The foil, is indeed, capable of affording much more corn than they are able to confume; but they choofe to fow no more than will ferve them for that term, retiring, for the remainder of the year, into the receffes of the forefis, where they build huts of palm trees, and live upon rogts, wild fowl, and fifh. They are very fond of the fleih of alligators, which has a ftrong muky fmell. Their meat is dreffed in the fmoak, upon a gridiron made of fticks,and water ferves for their common drink.
The people are, in general, fatisfied with one wife, but the chiefs are indulged with more, though the children of only one of them fucceed to the father's dignity.
The government of the original Floridas is in the hands of many chiefs, who are called caciques. They are frequently at war with each other. In their warlike expeditions they carry with therp honey and maize, and fometimes filh dried in the fun. The chief marches at the head, carries a bow in one hand, and a bow and arrows in the other; his quiver hangs at his back; and the reft follow tumultuoufly with the fame arms.
In their warlike deliberations, if the matter be of great moment,'their priefis, who are alfo a kind of phyficians, are called in, and their opinions particularly afked. Then the cacique carries round a kind of liquor, like our tea, made by the infufions of the leaves of a certain tree.
The funeral of a deceafed cacique is celebrated with great folemnity. They place upon his tomb the bowl out of which he was accuftomed to drink, and flick great numbers of arrows in the earth around him, bewailing his death for three days with fafling and loud lamentations. The generality of them cut off their hair as a fingular tefltimony of their forrow. Their chieftains alfo fet fire to, and confume, all the houfehold furniture, together with the hut that belonged to the deceafed, after which fome old women are deputed, who every day, during the fpace of half a year, at morning, noon, and evening, bewail him with dreadful howlings, according to the pradfice of fome more civilized nations, and particularly the ancient Romans, who frequently hired women at the funerals of 'their relations and friends.
L OUISIANA, a country of confiderable extent, is bounded on the north by the territories of the wild Indians, on the fouth by the Gulph of Mexico, on the eaft by Florida, and on the weft by New Mexico. It extends from latitude 26 to lat. 40 deg. north.
Notwithstanding the feveral attempts of the Spaniards and French to make fettlements in this country, which generally mifcarried, it appears that the latter had hardly any fettlements in it till 1720, except that of Ifle Dauphine, on the banks of the Mobile, about 8o leagues eaft of the mouth of the Miffiffippi.
4oR T ft AMERICA.
This country may be confiderid as compreheded tinder the government of Florida. It was ceded, in part, to the Englifh by the treaty of 1763, and by them, together with Florida, ceded to the Spaniards, according to the treaty of 1783. Louiranais rendered exceedingly pleafant and fertile by the overflowing of feveral rivers at certain feafons. The meadows are delightful, and well adapted to agriculture, tnfome parts the ground yields two or three crops for in-the winter there are only heavy rains, without any nipping frofts. All the trees known in Europe flourith here, together with a great variety of others unknown to us; fuch as the tall cedar, which diftils an odoriferous gum; and the cotton tree, which is of a prodigious height. The foil, to the fouthward, is adapted to the cultivation of indigo and rice; and, to the northward, to that of wheat. T'he whole country abounds with variety of* game, fowl, and cattle, and all the neceffaries of life.
The rivers of Louifiana, befides the Miffiffippi, are St. Francis, the Black River, and the Mobile, which waters a very fine tracI of country, and forms at its mouth a noble bay.
In the Ife of Orleans, at the mouth of the Miffiffippi, is the town of New Orleans, the capital of Louifiana; both of which derived their names from the French. New Orleans is the refidence of the governor, grand council, and courts ofjuftice, as well as the emporium of Louifiana.
The original inhabitants of this country differ, in general, from thofe of Canada, being more-fprightly and affive, and lefs thoughtful and morofe. They knew nothing of any inftruments made of iron and Reel, much lefs of fire-arms, till the coming of the French, all their cutting tools being very ingenioufly made of flarp flints, and ufed with great dexterity. T heirprincipal ornaments are bracelets, pendants, and collars; fome of which are pearl, but fpoied for want of knowing in what manner to bore them
SECTI ON III.
NEW MEXICO AND CALIFORNIA.
N EW Mexico, including California, is 2ooo miles
long, and i6oo broad. It is bounded on the caft by Louifiana, on the fouth,.by New Spain, or Mexico Proper, on the weft by the Gulph of California, and on the north by high mountains. It is fituated between 25 and-37 degrees of northlatitude, and between 94 and iz6 degrees of welt longitude. The country is watered by rivers and rivulets. The principal rivers are thofe called the Rio Solado, and the Rio del Norte. There are feveral fmaller ones that fall into the Gulph of Mexico ; and fome bays, ports, and creeks on that coaft Ihat might be converted into good harbours, were theSpaniards poffeffed, in any degree, of that affive fpirit which animates the other maritime powers of Europe. The lands are in:erfe&ed with riing grounds and fertile plains, covered with trees, fome of which are fit for timber, and others produce various forts of fruits. Here are all kinds of wild and tame cattle, with Variety of fowl; and the rivers are flored with the choiceft fitli.
Santa F6, the capital of NewMexico, is fituated Y 0,o leagues from the fea, near the fource of the river Rio del Norte. It is an opulent city, regularly built, and the fee of a bifhop, fuffragan-of Mexico, as well as the feat of the governor of the couniry, who is fubordinate to the viceroy of Mexico.
New Mexico is inhabited by a great variety of different nations, entirely unconneaed with each other; but the principal are the Apaches, the feveral tribes of. whom arediflinguiflbed by their towns and fettlements. Tbey are a refolute and -warlike people, fond of liberty, averfe to tyranny and oppreffion, and formidable on account of the dexterity with which they handle their bows and arrows. NWhen the Spaniards firft entered the country, they found the natives pretty well cloathed,
their iand ~tultivated, their villages neat, and iheil towns built of Itone, in which they difcovered 'fome knowledge Of archite&-ure, not drawn from the iules of art, but the convenience di&ated by nature They were great lovers of mules fleth, and, upon that account, frequently feized the mules of Spanifh travellers, leaving their cheft offilver upon the road, becaufe they fet no value upon that metal. Their princes were little more than leaders of their armies, cleded at the pleafure of the people for their wifdom or valour. Thefe people m dy nov be faid to be rather the allies, than the'fubje&s, of the Spaniards. The Spaniards have been rather fparing in their accounts of this country, which ruft be imputed either to their ignbrance or caution.
California, the moll northern of all the Spahifl dominions on the continent of America, towards the Pacific Ocean, was for a long time fuppofed to be aft iflarid, but-at laft was found to be only a peninfula, iffuing from the north coats of America, and extending into the Pacific Ocean 8oo miles from Cape Sebaftian, in 43 deg. 3b mi. north latitude; towards the fouth-eaft, as far, ag Cape St. Lucai, in 22 deg. 30 min. north latitude. The eaftern coaft lies nearly parallel with that of Mexico, oppofite to it ; and the fea between is called the Gulph or Lake of California; or the Vermilion Purple or Red Sea.
The breadth of the peninfula is Vei'y iinejual. To wards the north it is near 2oomiles broad, but at the fouthern extremity it tapers away, and is fcarcely 50 miles over.
California was flrft discovered to be a peninliula by a German jefuit, who landed in it from the Ifiand of Sumatra, and paffed into New Mexico, without croffing any other water than Rio Azul, or the Blue River. The more fouthern part was known to the Spaniards foon after the difcovery. of Mexico, for Cortez difcovered it in 1535 but they did not penetrate far into it till fome time after, contenting themfelves with the pearl fifhery on the coaft.
It was vifited by our countryman Sir Francis Drake in 1578, who called it New Albion, and took poffeffion of it in the name ofQOeen Elizabeth, fincewhich time, however, the Englith have made no pretenfions to it.
In fummer the heats are violent along the coafts, but up the country the air is more temperate, and, in winter, fometimes cold. However, in fo extenfive a country, there mult be great variations both of foil and climate- and though upon a general view, California appears rather rough, craggy, and unpromifing, with due culture it would furnifl mdft of the neceffaries of life.
The country produces timber fit for fhip-building, and has molt of the fruitsto be found in other parts of America. Here is a pecles of manna, fuppofed to fall with the d'w arnd to become infpiffated on the leaves of the trees. Botanifis are agreed that this manna is a juice oozing from the tree ; though the natives think that it drops from heaven.
With refpe&t to animals, here are deer, of which two kinds are peculiar to the country; a partieular fpecies of (beep, buffaloes, beavers, or animals much refembling them, a peculiar fpecies ofwild dogs, lions, wild cats, and many other wild beafts. The horfes, mules, affes, oxen, fbeep, hogs, goats, and other quadrupeds, that have been imported hither fromi Spain and Mexico, multiply exceedingly. Of the two fpecies of deer peculiar to California, that called by th natives taye is greatly efteemed, and eat with.the fame relifh as venifon by many Europeans.
Of the feathered kind here is great variety, ir) particular, the coaft is plentifully ftocked with peacocks, buftards; geefe, cranes, vultures, gulls which are larger than geefe, cormorants, mews, quails, linnets, larks, nightingales, and many other fpecies.
The multitude and variety of filh with which the Gulph of California, the Pacific Ocean, and the rivers are fupplied, is almost in ''-edible. Saltmon, turbot,
6 N brbel,
510 A NEW, ROYAL A.ND AUTHENTIC SYSTEM F UNIVER8AL GEObRAP1Y
barbelfjokate, mackarel, pilchardsj thornbacks, foles, bontaï¿½, And many Other fpecies, are caught here with very little trouble; together with pearl oyfterss common oyfters, cray-fifha3 lobilers, and a variety of exquifite [hell fiflf. HOwever, of the teftaceous or fhell kind, the molt remarkable and aburidantis thetortoife, caught in the utnioft plenty upon the coafts, On the fouth coat alfo is a fliell fifh the molt beautiful that can be imagined, being of an elegant vivid blue colour, like the lapis lazuli.
California affords one of the ficheft pearl fiflieries in the world, and iN likewife thought to have'mines.
Infe&s fwarm here, as in moft warm countries; yet they are neither fo numerous or troublefome as in frme, on account of the drynefs of the foil and climate.
There are two confiderable rivers in California, viz. Rio Colloredo, and Riodu Carmel, with feveral finaller fireams, and fine ports, bays, creeks, and roads, both on the eaft and weft, fide.
In the heart of the country there are plains of falt, quite firm, and clear as cryftal, which, confidering the vai: quantities of fifh of all forts found here, might be of great advantage to any civilized nation.
The original Indians who inhabit California are, in general, well formed and robuil, of a healthy countenance, but fwarthy complexion. Their habitations are wretched huts, built near the few iftreams, wells, and ponds found in the country. As they are under the neceffity of frequent migrations in fearch of food, they eafily fhift their refidence, it requiring only the labour of a few hours to build a little habitation fitted for all their purpofes; and it is ufual with them, in the feverity of winter, to live in fubterraneous caverns. Their furniture and property confilts of implements for fifhing, hunting, and war, in which molt of their time is fpent. I heir boats are only rafts ; and their arms are bows, arrows, and jagged clubs.
The drefs of the men is little more than a girdle round the waifi, with a few ornaments about their hair. The women wear their hair loofe. They have alfo a kind of cloak and petticoat, made of palm leaves; fome wear fillets of neat net-work. Their arms are likewife frequently adorned with net work, or ftrings of pearls in the form of bracelets. The love of ornament prevails among the women more than among the men.
Their greateft ingenuity appea-sin their fiihing nets, which are made with admirable lkill, of various cod fuch diverfity of texture and workmanship,
a nt.e defcribed.
The ahigh feftival at the gathering in of the fruits of th when they indulge themfelves in feafting, danc d irth.
S E C T 1 g 0 T.
OLD MEXICO, oiR NEW SPAIN.
Situation, Extent, Boundaries, Vegetables, "nimal Birds, FiJh, drticles of rrade, 4ines, Div,%n chief.Cities and gowns, Inhabitants, Perfons,. Dif 0
fitions, Aanners, Cuftoms, &c.
'OLD Mexico, or New Spain, the firif valuableacquifition of the Spaniards on the continent of America, lies between 7 deg. 30 min. and 30 deg. 40 min. north latitude, is 2ooo miles long, 6oo broad, where wideft, and has the Ifthmus of Darien on'the fbuth,New Mexico on the north, the Gulph of Mexico on" the eaft, and the Ocean on the weft.
'here are fbme mountains on the weftern coalt of New Spain, near the Pacific Ocean, molt of which are faid to be volcanos. Several rivers rife'in thefe mountains, and fall fome into the Gulph of Mexico, and
-r fme intb the South Sea, on both of which there are feverai capes and bays. Among the bays on the gulph are tiofi offCampeachy and Honduras. In thejucatan, a agepeninfulain theGulph of Mexico, theSpaniards
firft difcovered that iell-known plant called tobaccdi in the year 1520.
The air of this cduntry is temperate, confidering its fituation in the torid zone. The rainy feafon begins the latter end of April, and continues till September, being pteceded by terrible ftorms, which are fo variegatedi that the Wind blows from almoft every point of the heavens, inereafing their fury daily till the month. of June, at whieh time the rain falls as if a fecond deluge were to efifue.
No country tinder 14eaven abouids rriofe wvith grtit delicious fruifs, roots, and vegetables, many of whiclj are peculiar to it, -or at leaft to America. Of thefe tlhe moft remarkable are bamboos, mangroves, and logwood, whidi growon the coaftg red, and white coiton trees, ced,;s, blood-wood, and -h'Vho, of which thc natives m-ke ropes and cables; light Wod,. of which they make floats, being as light as cork ; white wood, the cabbage tree, the calabafh, cocoa, and vanillaj which the Spaniards call bexuco, or bainilal V plantains, bananas, pine apples, fapadillo, avogato' pear, mamniee,mammee-fapota, grape, prickle, bibby, and other curious fruit-trees; befides which, the Spaniards have introduced moft of the European fruits. Mexico alfo produces the poifonous manchineel apple, gourds of a prodigious fize, melons, filk-grafs, tanarinds, and locuil trees; the little black, white, and borachio@ fapota trees, the !aft of which takes its name from the inebriating quality of the fruit-. To thefe we may add the Grenadillo de China, creeping-plant, and the mayhey, which furniffies the natives with thread for linen and cordage, and alfo a balfam and liquor, which, when fermented, is as pleafant and ftrong as, wine. From this, too, is diftilled a ftrong fpirit, which is. ,not unlike brandy.
Other valuable produ&ions of New Spain are copaf, aninie, tacamahaca, earanica, liquid amber, and oil of amber. Balfam of Peru is alfo found in Mexico, guaiacum, China-root, farfaparilla, and the root mechoacan, which are well known to druggiffs and apo. thecaries, and of excellent ufe in a variety of diftempers. Befides the maize, or native grain of Mexico, the Spaniards have introduced the ufe of barley, wheat, peas, beans, and other grain.
The numbers of horned cattle here are immenfe, many of them running wild., Their flefh turns to little account by reafon of the extreme heat; but their hides and tallow are produdive of great advantages. Swine are very numerous, and their lard is much in requeft,
-and ufed inflead of butter throughout the country. Sheep are likewife numerous, but their wool is of no great confideration, being hairy and fhort. There are feveral forts of red and fallow deer, hares, rabbits, fquirrels, foxes, jackalls, monkies, and divers other animals.
With refpeft, to thle feathered race, there are, in Mexico, tame poultry ,turkies, pidgeons, parrots, paroquets, macaws, humming birds, eagles, vultures, pelicans, cormorants, bats, and a multitude of other species, i. 1.
the coaffs and banks of rivers are caught alligat .rtle, paracoad, gar fifh, mullets, and mackare wicrefemble thofe of Europe, but are of a very large fize. There are oyflers and muffels of a prodigious fize, alfo great plenty of lobilers, crabs, and
The principal trading commodities of New Sp are wool, cotton, fugar, filk, cochineal, chocol feathers, honey, balfuxms, drugs, dyeing woods, tallow, hides, tobacco, ginger, amber, pearls, I cious flones, jafper, porphyry, exquifite marble, gold and filver.
The gold and filver mines are found in the ro barren parts of the country. Thee are feveral, faid, of the former, and no fewer than iooo of latter. Gold isalfo found iti grains, or duft, in the fa of rivers and torrents. Whoever difcovers a min gold or filver is at liberty go work it, paying the I a t