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Correlates of life satisfaction among older Libyans and Americans

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Correlates of life satisfaction among older Libyans and Americans
Creator:
Shebani, Bashir Lamin, 1945-
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English
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xiii, 169 leaves : ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Clothing ( jstor )
Cross cultural studies ( jstor )
Gerontology ( jstor )
Older adults ( jstor )
Questionnaires ( jstor )
Sex linked differences ( jstor )
Social psychology ( jstor )
Spouses ( jstor )
Transportation ( jstor )
Women ( jstor )
Aged -- Cultural studies -- United States ( lcsh )
Americans -- Conduct of life ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Foundations of Education
Foundations of Education thesis Ph. D
Libyans -- Conduct of life ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D)--University of Florida, 1984.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 158-167.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Bashir Lamin Shebani.

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University of Florida
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The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact the RDS coordinator (ufdissertations@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
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11941388 ( OCLC )

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CORRELATES OF LIFE SATISFACTION AMONG OLDER LIBYANS AND AMERICANS










BY

BASHIR LAMIN SHEBANI


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1984



























In the Name of "God"
Most Gracious, Most Merciful














To my Parents


































Copyright 1984

by

Bashir Lamin Shebani













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Thanks and gratitude are expressed first to Almighty "God" most gracious, most merciful.

This study has been made possible through the cooperation of many people who have given unselfishly of their time and effort. Sincere gratitude is expressed to Dr. Hannelore L. Wass, chairperson of the supervisory committee. The author is especially grateful for her advice in formulating the problems and for her constant help and supervision of the study from its inception to its completion. Her encouragement provided the stimulus which caused the author to pursue a Certificate in Gerontology and a doctoral degree in educational psychology.

The author is deeply indebted to Dr. Wilson H. Guertin whose guidance, demanding encouragement, patience, and time given so generously made this study an interesting learning experience. Thanks are due to him for adherence to objective quantitative research methods and discipline which helped the author deliver this study.

Appreciation is expressed to the other member of the

Committee, Dr. Robert Blume, for his guidance, inspiration, and understanding.


iv








Thanks and appreciation are expressed to Dr. Donald

Avila and Dr. Arthur White for their inspiration, guidance and support.

Grateful recognition is given to Dr. Azza Guertin and Dr. Hassan Zaitun for their participation in determining the validity of the Questionnaire.

Sincere gratitude is expressed to all students and their elderly relatives in Libya and in the U.S.A. who served as subjects for this study.

The author is grateful to his country and his people who have given him this opportunity to further his education, in particular to the University of Garyounis in Benghazi, Libya.

Thanks are expressed to the author's parents,

brothers, sisters, and children for their moral support. Appreciation is extended to all friends who helped in any way in completing this study.

Finally, the author is deeply grateful to his wife for her constant encouragement, support, and understanding.


V














TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.......................................... iv

LIST OF TABLES............................................ viii

ABSTRACT.................................................. xi

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION..................................... 1

Statement of the Problem........................... 1
Development of the Problem......................... 5
Existing Theories of Aging......................... 10
Hypotheses of this Study......................... 20

Psychological Hypotheses........................ 20
Null Hypotheses.................................. 22

Limitations of the Study............................ 22

II LITERATURE REVIEW................................... 24

Sex and Life Satisfaction.......................... 25
Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Life Satisfaction. 26 Age and Life Satisfaction.......................... 27
Single Variable Studies............................ 30
Multiple Variable Studies.......................... 30
Assessment Instruments............................. 32

Combined Approaches............................. 34
Assessments as Value Judgements............... 35
The Cultural Context............................ 35

International Studies............................... 36
Intra-Cultural Studies.............................. 39
Cross-Cultural Studies............................. 40
Middle-Eastern Studies............................. 45
Summary.......................................... 50


vi









CHAPTER Page

III DESIGN OF THE STUDY.............................. 53

Sample........................................... 54
Instrumentation.................................. 57
Data Collection.................................. 70
Limitation of the Research Design................... 72
Analysis of Data................................. 74

IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION........................... 76

Results of Testing the Null Hypotheses............. 80

Results of Testing Hypothesis One............... 80
Results of Testing Hypothesis Two................ 83
Results of Testing Hypothesis Three............. 86

Discussion....................................... 89

Cultural Differences.......................... 89
Sex Differences............................... 98
Age Differences............................... 107

V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.................. 130

Conclusions...................................... 130
Recommendations.................................. 136

Physical and Material Correlates of Life
Satisfaction............................... 137
Social Relations and Activities............... 139
Psychological Correlates of Life Satisfaction. 139 APPENDICES

A QUESTIONNAIRE IN ENGLISH AND ARABIC ................. 141
B RANKED IMPORTANCE OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE
ITEMS......................................... 150

REFERENCES ............................................... 158

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH....................................... 168


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LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1. Age Distribution of the Subject Samples.............. 55

2. Academic Sources of Young Libyan Subjects.......... 56

3. Academic Sources of Young American Subjects........ 58

4. Summary Table of Correlations of Major Life
Satisfaction Variables with Subjective WellBeing.............................................. 61

5. Relationship of Selected Variables with Life
Satisfaction....................................... 62

6. Selected Correlates of Satisfaction, Personal
Adjustment, Positive Self-Concept, Self-Esteem, "Morale," or Other Indicators of Psychological
Well-Being......................................... 63

7. Distribution of Grand Means and Standard Deviations for Questionnaire Items........................ 71

8. Varimax Rotated Factors of the Responses by
Eight Subject Samples................................. 78

9. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction:
Culture Differences Between Libyans and Americans.. 81

10. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction:
Sex Differences Between the Libyan Young........... 84

11. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction:
Sex Differences Between the Libyan Old............. 84

12. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction:
Sex Differences Between the American Young......... 85


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Table Page

13. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction:
Sex Differences Between the American Old............. 85

14. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction:
Age Differences Between Libyan Males............... 87

15. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction:
Age Differences Between Libyan Females............. 87

16. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction:
Age Differences Between American Males ............. 88

17. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction:
Age Differences Between American Females........... 88

18. Cultural Differences Between Responses of Libyan
and American Young Male Subjects Ordered by
Size of t-Ratio....................................... 90

19. Cultural Differences Between Responses of Libyan
and American Old Male Subjects Ordered by Size
of t-Ratio......................................... 94

20. Cultural Differences Between Responses of Libyan
and American Young Female Subjects Ordered by
size of t-Ratio-.. ................................... 96

21. Cultural Differences Between Responses of Libyan
and American Old Female Subjects Ordered by Size
of t-Ratio......................................... 99

22. Sex Differences Between Responses of Libyan Young
Male and Libyan Young Female Subjects Ordered by
Size of t-Ratio -.................. .................. 100

23. Sex Differences Between Responses of Libyan Old
Male and Libyan Old Female Subjects Ordered by
Size of t-Ratio............-........................... 102

24. Sex Differences Between Responses of American
Young Male and American Young Female Subjects Ordered
by Size of t-Ratio.................................... 104


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Table Page

25. Sex Differences Between Responses of American Old Male and American Old Female Subjects Ordered
by Size of t-Ratio.................................... 105

26. Differences Between Responses of Young and Old Libyan Male Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio.... 108

27. Differences Between Responses of Young and Old Libyan Female Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio.. 118

28. Differences Between Responses of Young and Old American Male Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio.. 124

29. Differences Between Responses of Young and Old American Female Subjects Ordered by Size of tRatio.............................................. 128

B.l. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life
Satisfaction for Libyan Young Male Subjects........ 150

B.2. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life
Satisfaction for Libyan Old Male Subjects.......... 151

B.3. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life
Satisfaction for Libyan Young Female Subjects....... 152

B.4. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life
Satisfaction for Libyan Old Female Subjects ........ 153

B.5. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life
Satisfaction for American Young Male Subjects ....... 154

B.6. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life
Satisfaction for American Old Male Subjects ........ 155

B.7. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life
Satisfaction for American Young Female Subjects.... 156

B.8. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life
Satisfaction for American Old Female Subjects...... 157


X














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the
Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



CORRELATES OF LIFE SATISFACTION
AMONG OLDER LIBYANS AND AMERICANS By

Bashir Lamin Shebani

August, 1984


Chairperson: Dr. Hannelore L. Wass Major Department: Foundations of Education



A questionnaire consisting of 44 correlates of life

satisfaction for the elderly, developed by the author, and a biographical information questionnaire were administered to a sample of college students and their aged relatives in Benghazi, Libya, and Gainesville, Florida. The 44 correlates of life satisfaction are a personal inventory questionnaire consisting of two parts, Part I demographic information (age, sex, and culture) and Part II the 44 correlates of life satisfaction representing four broad categories--physical and material correlates, social relations, activities, and psychological correlates.

Four-hundred twenty-eight subjects, 217 Libyans and 211 Americans, with age and sex equally distributed,


xi








comprised the overall sample. Subjects rated the correlates of life satisfaction in order of their importance for the elderly, or perceived importance in the case of young subjects.

The primary statistical technique used was stepwise multiple regression analysis. Sub-scale scoring of the instrument was explored first. Subsequently, several multiple regression equations were developed to examine the statistical significance of the relationships between the correlates of life satisfaction and the nature of the samples. Finally, separate analyses were made for the different samples by culture, sex, and age.

Twelve tables indicating important differences in responses between subject samples are presented. All differences among culture, sex, and age were found to be overall statistically significant. Libyan and American subject differences permitted the combination of sub-samples of different sexes and ages within each culture. Thus, only one regression analysis for cultural differences was generated. Its overall P value was less than .001, with 10 correlates of life satisfaction entered into the equation. The hypothesis attributing differences in responses between cultures to chance was rejected. Statistically significant sex and age differences were also found.


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The primary recommendation, based upon the results of this study, is that cross-cultural application of data should be viewed as highly questionable. Other recommendations for social planning for the care of the aged, based on responses categorized by age and sex, are also provided.

This is the first study in Libya that focused on

aspects of aging and hopefully will provide the beginning of extensive future gerontological research there.


xiii














CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION



Statement of the Problem

Adjustments to aging, particularly those associated with life satisfaction in old age, have been studied extensively in Western countries, including the United States. However, little research has been done about life satisfaction among the aged in the Middle East, and none among the aged in Libya specifically. To complicate matters, much of the existing knowledge in Western countries appears to be inapplicable and not generalizable to the Libyan context, due to vast cultural differences. Research is, therefore, needed to discover how much, if any, of the Western research findings can be generalized to Libyan society, and if not, to determine what accounts for the differences in life satisfaction between Libyans and aged Americans. To accomplish this, cross-cultural study of Americans and Libyans is necessary.

When considering such cross-cultural comparisons, differences in cultural practices pertaining to the aged in both countries must be recognized since they are likely to affect the findings considerably. One possible source of difference concerns the management of physical needs of the


1





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elderly, as the satisfaction of basic physical needs has been found to be an important correlate of life satisfaction at all ages.

Various ways of dealing with the physical needs of the aged have been developed in the United States. Most prominent among them are convalescent and nursing homes, geriatric facilities, retirement villages, home meal delivery programs, and special public transportation. However, the appropriateness of such measures for Libyan society is yet to be evaluated. To answer the questions regarding the suitability of such services and facilities for aged Libyans, it is necessary to assess their perceptions of their needs. It is not enough to decide for them what facilities and services should be available. Instead, we need to determine what older Libyans view as factors that contribute to their life satisfaction. Additionally, as a rapidly developing country, Libya must look beyond the present. Identifying the perceived correlates of life satisfaction of today's aged will provide only part of the picture. Anticipation of what the correlates of life satisfaction will be for the aged of tomorrow is possible only through assessing today's young as to how important they perceive various correlates of life satisfaction will be when they are aged. Thus, for more complete information, a study of life satisfaction must include the perceptions of the young as well as the old.






3

Finally, we do not know i-f Libyan men and women will

agree in their perception of correlates of life satisfaction for the aged. For example, the Libyan man may perceive "being an important person" as a correlate of life satisfaction, whereas the Libyan woman, due to social and cultural conditioning, may find this to be of little value. Differences between the sexes in anticipated correlates of life satisfaction may dictate special social planning for different environments to meet differing, sex-specific needs, i.e., providing continuing contact with the professional world for a man who feels that "being an important person" is a necessary correlate of life satisfaction. Therefore, it is important to consider both intra-cultural, as well as cross-cultural factors.

The purpose of this study was to add to the body of knowledge in life satisfaction through examining the following issues: First, cross-cultural data from Libyan and American subjects were scrutinized to determine if differences in perceived correlates of life satisfaction exist on the basis of culture. Previous cross-cultural studies allude to the possibility of generalizing results from one culture to another. This study was undertaken to determine if such generalization is applicable.

Secondly, sex differences in perceived correlates of life satisfaction that may occur in one culture were examined. If such differences exist among males and






4

females, social planners must be cognizant of such in order to provide services that will meet the needs of both sexes. Further, the question of whether women and men respond differently to the questionnaire items in the different cultures was examined.

Third, the same two-fold approach was used to examine age differences. Initially, differences in perceived correlates of life satisfaction were analyzed on the basis of age, in terms of young and old. Then the results were compared on the basis of culture, Libyan and American, in order to determine if differences exist, and if so, whether they are due to age or culture. Any discrepancies due to youth having different perceptions of perceived future correlates of life satisfaction may have marked implications for social planning to meet the future elderly populations' needs.

In order to fulfill the criterion of determining

whether data can be applied cross-culturally, data from both cultures are necessary. Currently, Libya lacks factual gerontological data, particularly in terms of life satisfaction. The results were intended to facilitate Libyans' understanding of the needs of the elderly within their society, as well as to provide knowledge regarding possible differences in the factors affecting life satisfaction of Libyans, as opposed to Americans; males, as opposed to females; and young, as opposed to old. It was hoped that







5

this study would be the beginning of extensive future research.



Development of the Problem

Since the turn of the century, the aged have been the fastest growing segment of the population worldwide. The ever-increasing life expectancy of people everywhere, but especially in modern and rapidly modernizing countries, is a result of better health care and disease control due to technological advances. The world population of those 65 years of age and older has increased significantly for both developed and less-developed countries, reaching 129 million in less-developed countries in 1980, equaling the number of elderly in developed countries. Estimates for the year 2000 predict that 58 percent of the aged (229 million) will then reside in less-developed countries, leaving only 42 percent (167 million) in developed countries (U.N., 1980).

Currently, the American proportion of the aged in the population is 11 percent (U.S. Bureau of Census, 1983, p. 27), as opposed to 5.9 percent in Libya (World Almanac, 1983, p. 540), with the discrepancy largely due to Libya's birth rate being proportionately higher.

Age is an underlying dimension of social organization, for in all societies the relations between individuals and groups are regulated by age (Eisenstadt, 1971; Neugarten, 1968). Awareness of this and of the inevitable effects of






6

these increasing numbers of older persons on the social structure of societies has resulted in the accumulation of gerontological data by medical researchers, psychologists, and sociologists. However, in spite of the fact that an increasing majority of the aged will live in less-developed countries (U.N., 1980), few studies have been conducted within these countries to identify social needs, nor have any studies of American and Libyan-Arabic persons been conducted. The purpose of this study was to initiate such cross-cultural study, specifically, to examine the correlates of life satisfaction. A brief description of Libyan-Arabic culture is offered below for those who may be unfamiliar with such.

Libya is situated in North Africa. Its size is

1,760,000 square kilometers (two and one-half times the size of the American state of Texas). It is bordered on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, on the east by Egypt and Sudan, on the south by Sudan, Chad, and Niger, and on the west by Algeria and Tunisia. A 1979 census showed a total Libyan population of 3,245,000 (Roberts, 1979), which is composed of Arabs, Tabu, Negroes, Tawarks, and Barbars, all of whom are Moslems. Due to the low percentage of minority groups, 6 percent, the country is considered to be homogeneous. These minorities are well integrated into Libyan culture, despite the discouragement of intermarriage by ancient tradition. The official language is Arabic (Attir, 1981).






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Libya has been exposed to several civilizations during its history, including the Phoenician, Roman, and Greek civilizations. These civilizations built several coastal cities whose remains still exist today. Moslems dominated Libya in the 17th century A.D., and as a result, it became an Arab-Moslem nation. In 1911, Italian forces invaded Libya and established themselves in the country after a long, bloody war. When the Allies won the Second World War, Libya was put under British and French military administration. As a result of this, Britain, France, and the United States developed air bases and other military installations in Libya. On December 24, 1951, Libya became an independent country through a United Nations resolution, and was to be ruled by a pro-Western king. At that time, Libya was categorized as one of the poor nations in the world (U.N., 1950), with no visible chance of improvement. Then composed of more than one million illiterate people, and with few college graduates, the country was poor in literacy as well as income, which was then fifty dollars per annum. However, during the late 1960's, oil explorations brought the beginnings of hope for economic development of the nation.

On the first of September, 1969, a new political system was instituted, changing Libya from a monarchy to a republic. On March 2, 1977, the official name of the country became "The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya." The






8

revolution sought to make Libya a modern socialized nation, grounded in Islamic law and values, free of foreign domination, and dedicated to Arab unity. The growth in financial resources that resulted from oil explorations and export has provided a better standard of living and general increase in the economic level of Libyan citizens. However, Libya has an economy that involves more than just oil production. One of its most interesting projects is an attempt to grow food in the desert. Other projects include educational and cultural reforms (Hahn, 1981).

The most pressing problems that face Libya today are

those centering around the economic system, social services, and formal educational standards that will meet both the needs of the country as a whole, as well as the capabilities and aspirations of its people. One of those problems is planning that will meet the needs of the elderly.

The normal social expectation in Libya is that elderly persons will be cared for by their grown children. The ideal family system is one in which young men remain in the household of their parents after marriage. The Libyan family has traditionally been characterized by its pattern of extended family relationships, with families living either within one household, or in separate homes in close proximity to each other. Interpersonal and intergenerational relationships, as well as the interdependence among the members of the family, are, therefore, given great







9


emphasis. The Libyan elderly face no threat to their physical survival within the extended family framework. However, Libyan society is experiencing vast cultural and social changes in its move from a rural, semi-agricultural society to one in which technology and industry influence nearly every aspect of life. This change tends to break up the extended family in favor of the nuclear family unit. Rapid urbanization causes much migration of young people to urban centers, in search of a higher standard of living. The resulting physical distance is causing the aged in Libya to become increasingly self-sufficient, contrary to established Arabic custom. In the absence of other forms of provisions for old age security, however, there remains a great emphasis upon having children to ensure such security. The Glorious Qur'an emphasizes the respect that children are to accord aged parents, as illustrated by the following verses from Chapter XVII:

(23) The Lord hath decreed that ye worship none save Him, and (that ye show) kindness
to parents. If one of them or both of them
attain to old age with thee, say not "fie"
unto them, nor repulse them, but speak unto
them a gracious word.
(24) And lower unto them the wing of submission
through mercy, and say: "My Lord! Have mercy
on them both as they did care for me when I was
little." (Qur'an 17:23,24)

Additionally, Islamic teachings, with their broader concepts of family solidarity, provide for care of the elderly in the absence of children by extending the responsibility





10


for care of the aged to nephews, grandsons, and others of the extended family network. Continuity is established through provisions of Islamic law which dictates the division of property among all children upon the death of the father. Even during his lifetime, whatever property he owns is typically held in common with his children.

There is considerable variation in actual practice

however, depending upon such things as geographic region, economic level, and individual preferences. Urbanization and the increasing proportion of aged in the population, along with other rapid developments in the country, are bringing about the social changes previously mentioned. Planning needs to be consistent with social values, yet recognize the constant changes in them. Such planning will also have to incorporate a sound theoretical base.



Existing Theories of Aging

Intensive investigations have been conducted during the last two decades concerning the biological, psychological, and sociological correlates of individual life satisfaction, especially among the elderly. The results reveal discrepancies. One reason for discrepancies in the findings of these investigations is the concept of life satisfaction, which is difficult to measure as there are probably several dimensions operating within this concept, in addition to numerous possible correlates. Additional





11


discrepancies in findings exist because of the controversy in social gerontology as to which of the two theories, the activity or the disengagement theory, represents more accurately the desired mode of adjustment in old age.

The disengagement theory, as originally posed by

Cumming and Henry (1961) posits that disengagement is a natural rather than an imposed process, which is voluntary, desirable, and beneficial to both the individual and to society. According to this theory of aging, there takes place an inevitable, mutual disengagement between the aging person and society. The person gradually withdraws, socially and psychologically, with increasing age. This process is seen as having two important results. First, the process is seen as socially functional because society is thus able to draw in new people of energy and competence to replace the aged. Secondly, the aged individual's disengagement is seen as resulting ultimately in increased morale. This is facilitated by the release from social pressures which is allegedly concurrent with disengagement. Withdrawal is seen as conserving the elderlys' dwindling energy, thus leading to greater physical and psychological well-being.

This theory does take into account the disjunctive quality of the passage into old age. This disjunctive quality is indicative of a change in the balance of social and personal spheres. To the extent that the theory






12


recognizes that old age is different from middle age, indeed a developmental stage in its own right, and marked by substantial shifts in the equilibrium of life forces, the change in the balance of spheres indicative of disjunction is recognized. The individual is seen as able to function better with decreased activity levels, since his or her needs also decrease, congruent with the belief that the sources of psychological well-being carry different definitions at different developmental stages. The disengagement theory thus emphasizes the synchrony of timing of social and individual change.

Those excluded from Cumming and Henry's original

study (1961) included the elderly who had no alternative to social withdrawal, such as the institutionalized, the extremely poor, or the physically or psychologically impaired.

A majority of researchers have argued against the disengagement theory, especially the second part of the theory which proposes that a disengaged individual displays a higher degree of psychological well-being and higher morale. Havighurst, Neugarten, and Tobin (1968) analyzed the same data used by Cumming and Henry and concluded that decreased activity and interaction are not a mutual process between the elderly and society, are neither natural, beneficial, nor desirable for the individual or the society. Palmore (1975) demonstrated the undesirability of






13

disengagement in a study which concluded that disengaged people tend to be unhappier, lonelier, sicker, and die sooner than more active people.

Other criticisms of the theory include the argument that it does not allow for individual variation. Maddox (1964) pointed out that when age is held constant, there are substantial variations in the indicators of social and psychological disengagement displayed. Further, individuals who do disengage display different patterns and rates of disengagement. Disengagement theory does not account for such individual variation, nor does it treat possible new activities such as second careers or involvement in voluntary or religious organizations (Cowgile, 1972).

Other opponents of the disengagement theory argue that it addresses only the quantity of social relations and ignores the kinds and quality of these relations. They claim that the elderly may retain meaningful activities and eliminate only the less pleasurable ones. Adequate testing of the disengagement hypothesis must involve specific hypotheses concerning the conditions under which individual disengagement occurs. Streib and Schneider (1971) suggest that people deal with declining capacities by differential disengagement, withdrawing from some activities in order to increase, maintain, or minimize the decline of involvement in other activities. Conversely, several studies (Rose, 1964; Atchley, 1971; Roman and Taietz, 1967; Carp, 1968)






14

indicate that withdrawal is due solely to lack of opportunity for continued involvement, thus making disengagement involuntary.

Technical problems with the disengagement theory have also been cited. Hochschild (1975, p. 567) concluded that Cumming and Henry posed an important question: How is age related to engagement in social life? However, he sees their results as suffering from three problems. First, the major thesis can be shown to be false. Second, their major variables are composed of sub-parts that do not vary in a unitary way. Third, they ignore the meanings people attach to their roles. Hochschild concluded by presenting an alternative proposal to solve those problems. The precedent for modifying the disengagement theory was set by Cumming himself (1963), and further modifications have been proposed by numerous researchers (Havighurst et al., 1968; Carp, 1968; Lowenthal and Boler, 1965; Maddox, 1966; Palmore, 1968; Rose, 1964; and Tallmer and Kutner, 1969).

Not a modification, but rather a complete reversal of position is embodied in the activity theory. This theory sees withdrawal as involuntary and imposed by society upon individuals, usually against their desires. As proposed by Havighurst and Albrecht (1953) the activity theory stresses that successful aging is related to maintaining reasonable activity levels and substituting new roles for those lost through retirement or death of a spouse. The criterion for







15

a reasonable activity level subsumes being as much as possible like one is at middle age, as well as being successful in finding substitutions for those activities that have been curtailed or eliminated. That middle age is chosen for the comparative criterion illustrates the different way in which this theory approaches the relationship between the personal and the social sphere. Presupposing that this relationship remains constant as the person progresses from middle age to old age precludes treating passage into old age as having a disjunctive quality. Personal orientations are seen as stable.

Current research supporting the activity theory includes that of Neugarten and Hagested (1976) whose results indicate that if an individual has been active, involved, and satisfied through life, and if the environment continues to provide opportunities for similar involvement, a resulting high degree of life satisfaction is facilitated. This perspective suggests that psychological well-being is a function of the degree to which an individual can maintain patterns of activity.

Kuypers and Bengtson (1973) attempt to determine why, rather than if, continuing activity is desirable. They suggest that the aged are expected to live up to the American ideal of rugged individualism, to fulfill the requirements of the work ethic.






16

Another theory, the role exit theory, says essentially the same thing as the activity theory, but from a more sociological perspective (Blau, 1973). Old age is described as a time when a number of roles are terminated and when substitutes must be found. A role exit is defined as the cessation of a stable pattern of social interaction. Age is characterized by many such exits. When one exit follows another in rapid succession, as they often do in old age, the cumulative effect can be devastating, thus the emphasis on finding substitute roles.

Older people must adjust to conditions that are not generally characteristic of other stages of life, namely, the increased probability of illness and impending death, in addition to restrictions imposed by society. These unique conditions include 1) retirement from full-time employment, 2) withdrawal from active community and organizational leadership, 3) breaking up of marriage through a spouse's death, 4) loss of an independent household, 5) loss of interest in distant goals and plans, and 6) physical distance of children and grandchildren. Additionally, physical ailments may curtail activities, as may a reduced income.

Most role exits signal the end of lifetime attachments. Role exit describes only part of the process, however, for the individual's adjustment to losses through finding new interests is also necessary. When an






17


individual is successful in finding replacements, the .process is one of both role exit and subsequent renewal, as mandated by the activity theory.

All of these theories describe changes and adjustments that are central to the later years of life. Although most research substantiates the tenets of the activity theory and considers it to be the best way for the aged to transcend the physical and cognitive declines and role exits of old age, the cultural bias favoring the activity theory must be taken into account, as well as individual variation. This cultural bias and individual variation is stressed by Dibner (1975). He states "the activity theory fits the prevailing American ethic of activity, work, and productivity as human ideals, while disengagement can be seen as an appropriate adjustment mode for many aging persons although the process does not fit the society's ideal" (p. 83). Individual variation was also studied by Neugarten, Havighurst and Tobin (1968), Richard, Livson and Peterson (1962), and Streib (1971). Conclusions from these studies substantiate the importance of individual variation by suggesting that successful aging is primarily dependent upon the individual's personality. For example, a passivedependent personality may enjoy passive disengagement while a person with an achievement-oriented personality may consider role replacement as important. Maddox (1968) and Neugarten (1965) treat the question of those individuals






18

who have been happily involved in personal interests without much social interaction throughout their lives, and conclude that to mandate the activity theory as the most desirable way of adjusting to old age is undesirable.

Therefore, all of these theories have limitations.

Neither major theory accounts for the empirical relationship extant between social activity, personality type, psychological well-being, and social respect for the elderly. Although neither disengagement nor activity theories are directly concerned with respect for the elderly, it is nevertheless as important a variable as cultural bias. Withdrawal from social roles and diminished social interaction are associated with a lower amount of social respect for the elderly, especially when a society values youth, competition, and independence (McArdle and Yeracaris, 1981).

Other research concerned with the issue of individual variation includes the ethnographic literature which illustrates similar patterns of activity among the elderly in pre-industrial and present day societies, with some persons choosing to remain active and others choosing a sedentary life.

Williams and Wirths (1965) point out that successful aging is possible in any lifestyle, but that it is often more difficult for people whose lifestyles revolve around either their jobs or their spouses to the exclusion of other commitments.






19

Older persons choose the combination of activities

that offer them the most ego-involvement and that are most congruent with their long-established value patterns and self-concepts. What is not so readily apparent is how much their value patterns and self-concepts are influenced by societal ideals. A pilot study conducted by the Chicago group (Havighurst, Munnichs, Neugarten, and Thomae, 1969) in collaboration with a group of European investigators collected pilot data for a large-scale study of patterns of retirement. They adapted the methods used in the Kansas City studies of adult life and gathered data on patterns of role activity and life satisfaction for 50 men aged 70 - 75 in each of six cities: Bonn, Chicago, Milan, Nijmegen, Vienna, and Warsaw. The preliminary results reveal that over and above individual differences, patterns of role behavior varied systematically by city of residence and by former occupation (half of the men in each city were retired school teachers; half retired steelworkers). The data suggested, to a higher degree than anticipated, that even in industrialized centers in modern Western societies, differences in cultural traditions and value systems produce systematic variations in patterns of social interaction in the aged. The data also suggested that the same general level of positive relationship between level of activity and life satisfaction existed as that found in the Kansas City sample.






20

Thus, we see that every person ages in a manner unique to him- or herself, in an intricate pattern of interaction with environment in accordance with long established needs and values, and as influenced by cultural dictates. To the extent that cultural values play any role at all in determining which hypothesis is deemed the most accurate reflection of successful aging, conclusions cannot be reached at this point with any certainty. Results regarding the cross-cultural applicability in this area must be evaluated before determining which theory, if any, is superior.



Hypotheses of This Study

Two separate sets of hypotheses, psychological and null hypotheses, were formulated. Psychological Hypotheses

I. (a) If differences exist between young and old

Libyans in perceived correlates of life satisfaction for the aged, these differences will

be understandable in terms of the Arab/Libyan culture and the rapid social changes therein.

(b) If differences exist between young and old Americans in perceived correlates of life satisfaction

for the aged, these differences will be understandable in terms of the American culture, which

is to be seen as representative of Western culture.







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II. (a) If differences exist between the perceptions of

Libyan males and females in perceived correlates

of life satisfaction, these differences will be

understandable because of sex differences related

to cultural conditioning and, when taken together, will suggest social change that will

meet the needs of both males and females, living together or separately in the next generation of

aged.

(b) If differences exist between the perceptions of

American males and females in perceived correlates of life satisfaction, these differences

will be understandable because of sex differences related to cultural conditioning and, when taken

together, will suggest social change that will

meet the needs of both males and females, living together or separately in the next generation of

aged.

III. (a) If differences exist between young and old

Libyans in perceived correlates of life satisfaction for the aged, the differences will be useful in augmenting social change to meet the

needs of the coming generation of aged.

(b) If differences exist between young and old Americans in perceived correlates of life satisfaction

for the aged, the differences will be useful in

augmenting social change to meet the needs of the

coming generation of aged.






22


Null Hypotheses

The null hypotheses of the study were as follows. Generally stated, none of the differences in subject samples, consisting of different cultures, sexes, and ages, will lead to significantly different responses to the questionnaire.

HO1: There will be no statistically significant differences between Libyan and American responses shown when the four age and sex samples (Young Male, Old Male, Young Female, Old Female) are compared separately.

HO 2: There will be no statistically significant differences between male and female responses shown

when the four culture and age samples (Libyan Young,

Libyan Old, American Young, American Old) are compared separately.

HO3: There will be no statistically significant differences between young and old responses when the four culture and sex samples (Libyan Male, Libyan

Female, American Male, American Female) are compared separately.



Limitations of the Study

Several limitations are inherent within the design of this study. The sample used was not randomly drawn from the total populations; thus, it would be inappropriate to






23


generalize the findings to other populations. Selection of the aged sample may admit further bias as the young subjects not only filled out their questionnaires but also administered the questionnaires to one or both of their parents or grandparents, who comprised the aged sample in both countries. Furthermore, since this study is not longitudinal, there are no means of identifying variables that might have affected the results of the testing, and will only tell us what young people perceive correlates of life satisfaction will be when they are aged. Actually, once they reach that stage their perceived correlates may change. If a similar pattern of perceived correlates of life satisfaction could be traced longitudinally, then any differences in responses between young and old currently would be attributable only to current differences in age, and not to the changes in youth stemming from rapid social change.

Another limitation lies with the concept of life

satisfaction itself, which is difficult to operationalize and particularly so between two different culture groups. Thus, a different instrument could produce different results. Finally, there may be a question of nonequivalence of measurement across differing age, cohort, sex, or cultural lines.













CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW



Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in later life span development. This interest has increased as the elderly have become an ever-increasing segment of the world population. The political influence of any group increases with its numbers, thus making governments more receptive to committing time and funds to larger groups. This pattern is reflected in the recent interest in gerontological research.

The correlates of life satisfaction among the elderly, as summarized by pertinent literature, that are most relevant to this study include age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES). These correlates and their relation to the specific problem at hand, therefore, needed to be examined.

Further, a review of available literature in the area of cross-cultural research has revealed a lack of studies dealing with the life satisfaction of both Americans and Arabic cultures. Thus, the present study might be considered a pioneer in this field which has until now escaped the attention of educational researchers in spite of its importance for international understanding.


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25


Therefore, the purpose of this review was two-fold. First, to provide a review of literature by relevant variables, including age, sex, and SES, and second, to examine available studies by culture. This section of the review progresses from international studies in general, which reflect Western and Eastern viewpoints, to the existence of intra-cultural variation, and then to available cross-cultural studies. The review then ends with a summation of available Middle Eastern research, to give an idea of the need for further study.

The reader is invited to compare cultural studies

through an amplification of the relative merits of single and multiple variable studies, as well as an extensive discussion of the instrument used to measure correlates of life satisfaction.



Sex and Life Satisfaction

The few studies that compare life satisfaction between aged men and aged women find no significant differences (Kutner, Fanshel, Togo, and Langner, 1956; Lawton, 1972; Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin, 1961). However, in a more recent study Kimmel (1979) emphasized the importance of sex as a variable affecting life satisfaction and questioned the validity of applying the research and theories of adult development which were based primarily on men directly to women.





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In accounting for these disparate results two factors must be considered. First, the studies finding no significant differences between the sexes did not provide for distinctions among subgroups, such as marital status or employment. Second, the viability of cross-cultural application must be evaluated. Given that much of the research literature in adult development is based on the study of men, and that the issue at hand here deals with two divergent cultures, and thus divergent cultural roles which are sex-specific, it cannot be concluded on the basis of early Western studies that there are no significant differences in the ways in which elderly men and women view correlates of life satisfaction. Therefore, more comparison studies are needed.



Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Life Satisfaction

Although many studies have found a strong association between SES and life satisfaction, the strongest relationship has been consistently found at the lower end of the social spectrum (Bultena, 1969; Cutler, 1973; Edwards and Klemmack, 1973; Kivett, 1976; Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin, 1961). Another variable is time reference. It has been found to be of more importance in conjunction with SES when evaluated by long term circumstances rather than satisfaction at the moment (Kutner, Fanshel, Togo, and Langner, 1956; Palmore and Luikart, 1972; Edwards and






27

Klemmack, 1973). Thus, we see that SES, while an important and perhaps causal factor at all times and social levels, is most strongly related to life satisfaction among the poor and when viewed longitudinally.

Edwards and Klemmack (1973) concluded that SES is one of three variables that are the best life satisfaction predictors, with the other two being perceived as health status, and continuing contact with the working world through informal participation. These findings parallel those of Larson (1978), who reviewed 30 years of life satisfaction research and concluded that subjective wellbeing is consistently most strongly related to health, socioeconomic factors, and degree of social interaction. It should be noted that both of these summaries are in accordance with the activity theory, rather than the disengagement theory. However, care should be taken that conclusions drawn from this always take into account individual perceptions of activity.



Age and Life Satisfaction

Studies that suggest that chronological age is of

importance in ordering the social and psychological data of human development view adulthood as marked by passages, transitions, and "mid-life" crises, often negative. At the same time, "older adults, like all others, are worthy, capable individuals of great value to society, and their






28

educational development is worthy of the best efforts that can be exerted" (Wass and West, 1977, p. 414). This educational development should clarify the situations which are supposed to affect all human beings at specific ages, usually at decade or 'mid-decade points. Levinson (1978) focused on one such early stage, that of men's "early adulthood" (ages 17-45) which is reported to be as crisisridden as adolescence and marked by many age-related changes. Erikson (1950) who continued his stage theory of psycho-sexual development into adulthood and hypothesized that there are problems with the development of a person which endure through a number of crises in adulthood, found the major problem of this early adulthood stage to be that of intimacy versus isolation. The second adult stage, beginning around 40, involves generativity versus stagnation, and finally, during late adulthood and old age comes the conflict of integrity versus despair. In contrast to this view, others such as Neugarten and Datan (1973) suggest that chronological age is not a meaningful index by which to order the social and psychological data of adulthood. Differences and changes are seen as emerging from a combination of biological and social factors rather than from age. Thus, we see that the relationship between age and life satisfaction is controversial. While Mason (1954) showed negative correlation between age and life satisfaction, Cameron (1967) reported no correlation






29

between the two factors, and Meltzer (1963) has suggested a positive correlation. Further, in cases in which a negative correlation is found between greater age and increased life satisfaction, the results have been determined to be related not so much to age as to the factors related to increasing age. Such factors include death of a spouse, decreased finances and levels of social activity due to retirement and declining health. When statistical controls are employed to equalize the factors associated with aging, the negative correlation becomes much less pronounced (Edwards and Klemmack, 1973; Kivett, 1976).

The general failure to achieve clear and consistent

correlational data may be largely due to failure to recognize the multidimensionality of attitudes. Other variables and correlates, as well as age, are responsible for life satisfaction. Examples of these variables include health, income, activity level, and self-knowledge (Kaplan, 1971). While Levinson (1978) focusing on men, found age to be a relevant variable, he also concluded that there are other variables that affect life satisfaction and the nature of changes in life, or that might interact with age, such as sex, race, marital status, income, education, and health. These conclusions lead logically to the comparison of undimensional and multidimensional constructs.






30


Single Variable Studies

Many studies have used single variable correlations other than age to predict the level of an individual's life satisfaction. Such studies have looked at self-rated health (Snider, 1980); the effect of transportation (Holley, 1978); the type of primary relationships (Zeglen, 1976); the type of housing (Carp, 1975); and voluntary associations (Cutler, 1981) of the individuals studied. Two further studies looked at the differences in religiosity (Johnson, 1978), and urban-rural dwelling (Sauer, Shehan, and Baymel, 1976) and found them to be independent of life satisfaction.

Thus, it appears that these variables provide no better prediction than the single variable, age, which has been previously believed to predict life satisfaction. The reason for this may be the exclusion of very important covariables from the study, such as age and culture, which together with the variable under study, might increase accuracy of prediction.



Multiple Variable Studies

The inclusion of some of the related variables is not enough. For example, bivariate or multivariate models are often used to describe relationships of one or more independent or predictor variables to the dependent or criterion variable. The choice of these variables is too






31

frequently guesswork, and the usual educational psychology variables are either too vague and too poorly defined to produce significant results, or they are situation specific, and thus the next investigator obtains contradictory results. Attempting to elucidate relationships among weak variables with high-powered multivariate techniques is ineffective. The employment of factor analysis in multiple variable studies is necessary in order to develop the most promising data-based concepts, which are then fed into the multivariate equations to check their value. Guertin (1961), in a study of attitudes toward aging, made an early attempt to establish dimensionality through use of factor analysis.

Researchers who have considered the life satisfaction construct as being multidimensional rather than unidimensional include Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin (1961), who approached this concept by means of their well-known LSIA (Neugarten's Life Satisfaction Index, Scale A). Other examples are the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale (Bradburn, 1969), and the Philadelphia Geriatric Morale Scale (Lawton, 1972). Such a focus is required in this study since its interest lies, in part, with the question of whether the same factors will be of similar importance in different cultures, age, or sexual categories, while not holding the same importance as the other variables under consideration. This can only be tested by using such a multidimensional approach.






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Assessment Instruments

Several approaches have been employed to measure the domain of life satisfaction for older people. Research began with attempts to assess people's adjustment (Cavan, Burgess, Havighurst, and Holdhamer, 1949; Havighurst, 1957). These early measures defined self-satisfaction in terms of adjustment within specified domains of a person's life, such as work, health, or religion. They were criticized for having a bias towards people with a specific, idealized, external life situation (Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin, 1961).

More recent measures have defined life satisfaction as an internal construct, independent of exterior conditions of a person's life. However, the danger exists that reverse biases could arise, with a consequential over-reliance upon the subjective.

Internal constructs represent a range of conceptualizations, illustrated by both multidimensional and unidimensional constructs. The multidimensional constructs include LSIA (Neugarten et al., 1961), the PCG Morale Scale (Lawton, 1972), and the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale (Bradburn, 1969). Others consider life satisfaction a unidimensional construct, for example, the Kutner Morale Scale (Kutner, Fanshel, Togo, and Langner, 1956), the life satisfaction scale of the Cornell study of retirement (Thompson, Streib, and Kosa, 1960), Havighurst and






33

Albrecht's Scale of Happiness (1953), as well as single item measures of satisfaction (Spreitzer and Snyder, 1974) and happiness (Kivett, 1976). A few investigators (Kuhlen, 1948; Lebo, 1953, Pollak, 1948; Rose, 1955) have used direct self-reports of self-satisfaction. Although they are vulnerable to conscious and subconscious psychological defenses, those self-reports have not been checked for validation against more objective criteria. Kutner's Morale Scale (Kutner et al., 1956) is based on responses to seven items such as "On the whole, how satisfied are you with your way of life today?" Problems with this instrument are non-validation against an external criterion, assumption that life satisfaction is undimensional, and language difficulties in use with populations other than the one originally studied (Kutner et al., 1956, p. 303; Morrison and Kristjanson, 1958). The Morale Index (Cumming, Dean, and Newell, 1958) is a final example of life satisfaction as a unidimensional construct. This index is based on few and unreliable items which are validated against small samples of cases, and it appears to be a unidimensional scale reflecting conformity to the status quo.

Multidimensional and unidimensional constructs alike

have measures which differ in the time limits available for respondents, and the extent of evaluative comparisons with others, one's past experience, or one's conception of how things might be (Larson, 1978).






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Combined Approaches

One approach to the problems of instrumentation,

stated previously, is to combine social criteria of success (external activity) with internal frame of reference (individual evaluation). For the former, the greater the social participation and the less the deviation from one's middle age activity pattern, the greater one's self-satisfaction. For the latter, the individual is the only proper judge of his or her satisfaction, so that the value judgement of the investigator, and the importance of deviation from the middle-age activity pattern, are both minimized.

Several instruments do combine both approaches. For instance, the Chicago Attitude Inventory (Cavan, Burgess, Havighurst, and Holdhamer, 1949; Havighurst, 1957) emphasizes feelings of satisfaction, but also depends upon high levels of activity. The Solamon-Conte Life Satisfaction in the Elderly Scale (SCLSES), a newly developed, multifactor scale for measuring life satisfaction (Solamon and Conte, 1981), examines the influence of eight factors: pleasure in daily activity, meaningfulness of life, goodness of fit between desired and achieved goals, mood, love, selfconcept, financial security, perceived health, and social contact. The first five are similar to the Morale Scale developed at the Philadelphia Geriatric Center (LSR) (Lawton, 1972), while the remaining three factors are drawn from the work of Spreitzer and Snyder (1974). The eight






35

factors were decided upon based on a principal axes factor analysis with varimax rotation. Assessments as Value Judgements

An additional problem inherent in any instrument is that of definitions. For example, the operational definitions of self satisfaction include "successful aging," "adjustment," "competence, " "morale ," and "happiness." Consequently, different criteria and different measurement techniques are employed. Rosow (1963) and several others criticized these attempts at definition and measurement mainly because they are inextricably involved with value judgements.



The Cultural Context

One of the problems in rating scales developed by

others or oneself is the cultural bias involved. In the United States, self-satisfaction tends to be avowed and feelings of unhappiness disavowed, with the result that most people will tend to rate their own self-satisfaction as too high. The implications for cross-cultural generalization are apparent. Even the life satisfaction measure (LSIA) created by Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin (1961) which stands out as being the most significant attempt to assess the general concept of well-being as it appears in aging populations, cannot be generalized to other cultures. Though this appears to be the most frequently used






36

and, therefore, the most carefully scrutinized and revised of all such instruments, this scale is apparently not applicable when generalized to other cultures, such as Libya, due to its undimensionality. Rao and Rao (1981) failed to prove LSIA multidimensionality using exploratory factor analysis.



International Studies

To plan good cross-cultural research it is necessary to be familiar both with the findings of others and with the methodological problems they have encountered. Current studies are available from many countries, both developed and less-developed countries. Below are examples of research studies pertinent to less-developed countries.

Goldstein and Beal (1982) conducted a field study in rural areas of India, including Nepal, Sherpa, and Tibet. They presented evidence that the process of modernization can have a negative impact on the elderly in even the most remote third world settings, even when those settings themselves are not modernized, or are in the process of modernization in any of the normal uses of that concept. The authors demonstrate in their report the manner in which modernization in India has profoundly changed household family organization and found that elderly in those rural areas, despite the high level of activity, wealth, social and economic status, were greatly dissatisfied with their situation.






37


African studies include one by Vanderwiele (1982) who did a study that presented a questionnaire to 630 Senegales secondary school students, requesting their opinions regarding various periods in the life of an individual (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age) in terms of happiness, freedom, financial security, health, etc. Periods given the most favorable comments were adolescence and adulthood, while the most unfavorable comments were reserved for old age.

A summation of Latin American research is provided by Finley (1981) who presents a review of the literature focusing on aging in those countries that emphasize work in gerontology and the social sciences. His literature review has been translated into English from Spanish and Portugese, and includes an unpublished study undertaken in Bogota by Garcia and Gomez (1981). This study involved older, institutionalized, lower class men in 15 group counseling sessions of 90 minutes each. They found significant improvements in self-concept, social interaction, and activity participation following these sessions. A further study reviewed by Finley which focuses on intracultural variation is discussed in that section.

Western studies in countries other than the U.S.A. include one based in Paris. Cool (1980) indicated that old people in traditional or non-industrial cultures, by being embedded in a cohesive social structure of extended





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families, are accorded security in old age and have alternative roles and activities. She explored the question of whether older adults fare as well in industrialized cities and found variation and complexity among elderly Parisian informants who had migrated from rural Corsica. Cool concluded that ethnic identity is an important resource which can provide a basis for continuing activity in an urban setting.

Some international studies are concerned with the validity of applying the existing theories to cultures outside of those in which they were formulated. Vatuk (1980) studied withdrawal and disengagement as a cultural response to aging in India, exploring the disengagement hypothesis in a cultural context different from that in which it was developed. Given that Hindu scriptures mandate a withdrawal in old age, she expected the theory to be reflected in the life of Indians. She concluded that the ideal of withdrawal in India does not mean cessation of social activity, but rather it is a norm which encourages the old to transfer resources and burdens to the young, leaving the young to care, love, and respect their parents who should be more concerned with spiritual affairs. In actual practice this transfer can result in an increase in activity levels, though in different areas.






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Intra-Cultural Studies

Two available studies which consider the question of intra-cultural variation differentiate between respondents on the basis of age, SES, and place of residence (rural/ urban). The cultures represented are Hispanic and Asian.

Dulcey and Ardila (1981), published in an edited volume by Finley (1981), selected 40 items from the original Tuckman and Lorge (1953) 137-item questionnaire designed to tap negative stereotypes, misconceptions, and over-generalized beliefs about old people, and translated them into Spanish for use in Bogota, Colombia, with 400 subjects. Two hundred subjects were elderly persons, 100 institutionalized, lower-middle-class older people, and 100 institutionalized upper-middle-class elderly. The other 200 subjects consisted of 100 second year students at an uppermiddle-class university, and 100 from a lower-middle-class university. The findings of this study show that college students had more positive attitudes towards aging than the elderly themselves, with the most positive attitudes being held by upper-middle-class students, and the most negative by the institutionalized lower-middle-class elderly.

Concerning Asian intra-cultural variation, Ikles

(1980) studied traditional patterns of the aged in Chinese society, particularly in contemporary Hong Kong as an urban industrial society. Industrialization forced Western Europe to develop special programs and services to meet






40

emerging needs of the elderly. Similar changes in Hong Kong have not been accompanied by compensatory changes. However, the existing urban networks still carry out a much heavier burden than their rural predecessors, differing in many aspects such as personal safety, public security, public opinion, and privacy. These differences suggest that aging in Hong Kong is frought with insecurity which will persist for quite some time. Ikles' (1980) conclusions are based on the examination of three separate contexts of the culture, in order to explain variation. She sees the dimension of intra-cultural variation as of special importance in large and complex societies, such as China.



Cross-Cultural Studies

One problem of cross-cultural studies is that cultural differences are not considered in most measurement scales. More investigations related to this subject are required. The structure of Neugarten's Life Satisfaction Index, when examined in a heterogeneous national sample, even within the culture, did not support the original configuration. There is, however, some support for an alternative structure of the LSIA that utilizes a subset of the items (Hoyt and Creech, 1983). A few culturally related studies have been conducted showing inconsistencies of results as solely related to inconsistencies of the variables used in






41

relation to life satisfaction. With these considerations in mind, let us review the available cross-cultural research.

Vandewiele (1982) studied the views of high school students concerning the best periods in the life of the Senegalese. Adolescence and adulthood were most preferred. A similar study was conducted with Americans by Borges and Dutton (1976). They report that the best year selected by subjects over 25 were years past; however, the particular year chosen increased with the respondent's age until age 65, at which point there was a slight decline from "34" (cited by the 49-65 year olds) to "32" (cited by the 65+ group). Subjects younger than 24 chose best years which were above their own age, while most subjects over 25 chose their best years below their own age, but above the 24-year-point. The responses grew increasingly differentiated as a function of both the age level being evaluated and the respondent's age.

Goldman and Goldman (1981) devised a comparative study regarding how children view old people and the causes of aging, with participating children from Australia, England, North America, and Sweden aged 5-15 years. Children were interviewed about physical and sexual development and were asked to identify old age in terms of specific age. With the exception of the North American sample, only a small percentage of subjects in this age group reported any






42

positive features of aging. Results indicated that while children generally developed a realistic identification by nine years of age, the English-speaking countries showed increasing realism with increasing age (Australian children were the least realistic). Swedish children made more realistic assessments earlier. Overall, the majority of characteristics attributed to old people, categorized as physical, psychological, socioeconomic, and sexual, were seen as negative.

Comparisons among English-speaking countries can also reveal dramatic differences. Luszcz (1982) administered Palmore's Facts of Aging quiz to 166 first-year university students ranging in age from 17 to 49 years, and 52 thirty-year-old Australian undergraduates. He found a higher degree of similarity in factual knowledge among these students regardless of age difference, as well as fewer misconceptions and biases, than those found in the United States by Palmore.

Regarding gender in cross-cultural studies, Norman, Murphy, Gilligan, and Vasudev (1982) did cross-sectional studies of sex differences and interpersonal relationships, sampled in the United States and India. They found consistent sex differences in a number of relationships with life satisfaction, with females mentioning a higher number of interpersonal relationships than males. Life span patterns regarding the number of relationships were also






43


sources of difference for men and women aged 19 to 31 years. At age 35 there was seen a convergence in the number of relationships mentioned by both sexes.

Whether positive attitudes toward the age are more prevalent in developed or less-developed countries has also been researched cross-culturally. Arnhoff, Leon, and Lorge (1964) selected 100 items reflecting generally negative stereotypes, misconceptions, and overgeneralized beliefs about the elderly from the widely used attitude scale of 137 items developed by Tuckman and Lorge (1953). To indicate whether or not the statements are generally true of "old people" required a straight yes or no response. Samples of 108 to 420 college students from India, Greece, Japan, Sweden, Puerto Rico, and the United States participated in this study. Results indicate that attitudes toward the aged are more positive in more modern nations. Although possible reasons for these discrepant results have been discussed in other studies, it is apparent that additional cross-cultural studies of attitudes toward the aged are required before a clear understanding of the factors involved will be possible.

Two studies which contradict the above findings should also be mentioned, especially in light of the fact that one of the most direct measures of the status and prestige of the aged is attitudes held by the younger members of the society toward them. Bengtson, Dowd, Smith, and Inkeles






44


(1975) undertook a secondary analysis of three items on aging from a 438-item modernity questionnaire used in other, earlier studies by Inkeles and Smith (1974). The sample of this study consisted of 5,450 males between the ages of 18 and 32 from six developing countries (Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, India, Nigeria, and another MiddleEastern country. Two items were emphasized and used across all six of these nationalities. The items were "Some people say that a boy learns the deepest and most profound truths from old people; others say that a boy learns most from books and in school. What is your opinion?"; and "Some people look forward to old age with pleasure, while others dread (fear) the coming of old age. How do you personally feel about the coming of old age?" Results in this study indicated that positive attitudes toward the aged were associated with low levels of technological modernization, while negative attitudes were associated with nations (such as Argentina and Chile) which were more modern.

The second study which contradicts Arnhoff, Leon, and Lorge's results (1964) is a social psychological study conducted by Diaz-Guerrero (1975). This study asked 298 Mexican high school students and 340 North American college students to check off on a list of 60 items which kinds of people and occupations were worthy of respect. They found that in Mexico "the two extremes of the age continuum, the elderly and the very young, hold the highest status in the






45


society: they are given respect, power, and love" (Diaz-Guerrero, 1975). Even though old men are highly respected in both societies, they receive significantly more respect in Mexico, as do other members of the family such as grandfathers, uncles, and aunts.

The disparity of results is but one illustration of the pressing need for further cross-cultural studies.



Middle-Eastern Studies

To understand in which direction beginning gerontological studies in the Middle East are pointed, a separate section has been devoted to them.

McCabe (1979) has conducted an anthropological investigation regarding the status of aging women in the Middle East. The researcher chose a village in southern Lebanon for her study which was guided by a developmental psychology approach to human aging. The hypothesis was that a reversal of the typical sex roles of women and men exists in later life. The researcher examined the life stages of females (from infants to the very old) using the methods of participant observation. The interview, an "Arabized" Thematic Apperception Test, and (Cantril's) Self-Anchoring Striving Scale (to assess life satisfaction) were employed to attain the research goals. One of the general conclusions reached in this study was that "a rural Lebanese woman is indeed powerful and dominant vis-a-vis the






46

Lebanese man throughout her life, but increasingly with age. Moreover, women in late middle age in this Lebanese community experience greater life satisfaction than men" (McCabe, 1979, pp. 365-369). However, it must be realized that these conclusions, due to intra-cultural variation previously discussed, cannot be generalized to fit the entire Lebanese culture. This is especially true in light of the fact that Lebanon is a heterogeneous, rather than a homogeneous society. Also, the subjects who participated in this study were not identified clearly enough. There are no specific criteria given and methods described for the selection of the sample with the exception of the age category. Finally, there is a communication difficulty with respect to using her instrument in another culture. The reliabilty of administering it to subjects in a different culture, with a different language and traditions, was not explored; therefore, misinterpretations may occur because of misunderstanding.

In a different area of Lebanon, Dajani (1973) conducted a study to discover the relationships between media exposure, mobility, literacy, and political participation. This researcher administered a multiple choice questionnaire using stratified quota consisting of 144 subjects representing two religious communities in Lebanon--the Shiite Moslems and the Maronite (Catholic) Christians. The researcher controlled four variables in his study: 1)






47

religious affiliation or ethnicity, 2) socioeconomic class, as defined by the indices, 3) community of residence, and 4) age group. Three age groups were studied with the first one including teenagers, the second including people between 22 and 35 years old, and the third including those 38 years old and older. The results of this study indicated that the older subjects, who because of their seniority in terms of age, had more freedom than the other age groups, were more exposed to the media and more mobile than the other age groups. The problem of applying any of these conclusions to the present study is found in the limitations imposed by the loose definitions of age in the last category. The researcher does not make clear the extent of range in those 38 years old and older, and thus the category is too broad to be of use.

In other parts of the Middle East Siassi and Fozouni (1982) examined the relationship between aging and psychiatric distress levels of older and younger populations in Iran. The researchers present drug utilization rates as well as the results of psychiatric tests on older and younger populations of psychiatric patients and drug addicts. Siassi and Fozouni conclude that the elderly use available psychiatric and drug abuse services much less frequently than the younger population does. However, one is left to theorize as to why. Is it due to a lack of geriatric specialists in these areas? Or perhaps the high






48

ideals which are a part of the elderly's status prevent them from seeking help, and give them a negative attitude toward these services. The former opinion was found to be indicative of this population by Jacobson and Juthani (1978) who concluded: "Although the elderly have a higher incidence of mental illness than other groups, their need for psychiatric services is not being met adequately. This situation could be improved by providing psychiatrists with a broader education in aging and more extensive supervised experience in treating mentally ill old people at an early stage of their training" (Jacobson and Juthani, 1977, p. 408). The authors of this study have described their program of training second year residents in psychiatry who are given regular assignments, under supervision, in the multiservice nursing home in Lebanon. They conclude that those students become more knowledgable about the aging process because of the better understanding of the effect of physical, emotional, and social factors which affect mental health in later life. In addition to this special competence, a greater interest in treating the aging mentally ill has also been found. The authors discuss the pressing need for such training programs and their value as a means of encouraging psychiatrists to take a more active and responsible role in treating the aged.

In addition to the need for more specialized services, a study undertaken in Iraq demonstrates the need for






49


additional physical settings for the aged. Al-Hi.lali (1982) undertook a study in which he interviewed both the aged themselves and the officials who administer the currently available social services for the aged and concluded that plans to develop homes in all areas of Iraq should be instituted.

In an Egyptian study undertaken by Fadel-Girgis (1983) elderly respondents endorsed the construction of more retirement homes. There are currently only 34 such facilities in Egypt, to serve an elderly population of over one million (General Population Census of November, 1976, Cairo). Further, that population is expected to increase by 94% between 1980 and 2000 (United Nations Population Division, 1980). Special problems facing social planners in Egypt include the emigration of many of these elderly persons' children. Emigration was encouraged by the Egyptian government in the 1950's and 1960's to counteract overpopulation. Many middle-aged parents whose young adult children emigrated during that time are now aged and without family support systems. Indeed, one-third of the institutionalized respondents in this study reported that all of their children lived abroad. Thus, there would be many instances where government assisted home care would not be feasible.

The results of these studies should be considered in evaluating the instrument to be used for further assessments, as well as developing social policy for the future.





50


Summary

Through a review of available studies and their methodologies, it can be concluded that further research must take current discrepancies into account.

In terms of the variables, though both Larson (1978) and Edwards and Klemmack (1973) agree that SES is one of the three most important correlates which determine life satisfaction, no such agreement exists in the area of sex or age.

With regard to sex as a variable, the paucity of

research available on the life satisfaction of aged women reflects the need for further study to achieve the goals of social planning which will meet any sex-specific needs, as outlined in Chapter I. This study was undertaken to determine the existence of any such sex-specific needs and, until the results are evaluated, there is an obvious danger in generalizing to females studies which are conducted on male respondents.

Studies which emphasize age reflect a high degree of discrepancy due to a general failure to delineate whether age itself, or the factors associated with age, are responsible for the results achieved. This area requires extremely careful analysis, since age, while a single variable, encompasses a multitude of related effects which must be evaluated separately before conclusions can be reached with any certainty. Only after analysis






51


is completed can a synthesis, i-n terms of multivariate studies, be achieved.

The instrument used to achieve a clear conceptualization of life satisfaction is seen as having changed its focus from an external construct in early research, to an internal construct in more recent research. The necessity of maintaining a measure of objectivity, to ensure philosophical tenability, has been seen as possible through the use of forced choice items and external validation. In addition, a value-free instrument is needed as is evaluation of an instrument's cross-cultural applicability.

To evaluate the relevance of studies to Middle Eastern countries it is helpful to classify them as from developed countries or less-developed ones. At the same time, attention must be paid to whether the population studied was typical of that country. The major discrepancy that occurs after such an evaluation is the disagreement as to whether the aged are accorded more respect in developed or lessdeveloped nations.

Completing the review is a section devoted to current Middle-Eastern research that illustrates the focus of present studies. That focus includes studies that utilize as variables sex, age as related to mobility, age as related to utilization of available social services, and satisfaction with available physical settings.






52

This study was an- effort to expand the body of knowledge in the Middle-Eastern context, as well as to determine its effectiveness for cross-cultural generalization.













CHAPTER III

DESIGN OF THE STUDY



Questionnaire responses to the correlates of life

satisfaction were the data to be examined for the various subsamples. The independent variables were culture (Libyan and American), sex (Male and Female),1 and age (Young and Old).

Analysis was focused on the differences between young and old subjects. However, it was necessary to first see if the culture and sex characteristics of the samples were such important sources of variance in responding that they could not be combined into a composite Young and a composite Old sample.



Null Hypotheses

In general, it was hypothesized that none of the

differences in subject samples, consisting of different cultures, sexes, and ages, would lead to significantly different responses to the questionnaire. Specifically, three null hypotheses were formulated:




1Capitalization of the first letter denotes the word refers to the proper-noun name for the sample and that the word is not a common noun. For example, Males means that subsample, while males refers to men in the population.
3





54


1. There will be no statistically significant differences between Libyan and American responses when the four age and sex samples (Young Male,

Old Male, Young Female, Old Female) are compared

separately.

2. There will be no statistically significant diferences between Male and Female responses when the four culture and age samples (Libyan Young,

Libyan Old, American Young, American Old) are

compared separately.

3. There will be no statistically significant diferences between Young and Old responses when the

four culture and sex samples (Libyan Male, Libyan

Female, American Male, American Female) are

compared separately.



Sample

A total of 428 subjects were used in this study. Of these, 217 subjects were Libyan and 211 were American.

Libyans. The younger Libyan subjects (53 males and 53 females) ranged in age from 18-24 years with a mean age of 19.51 years. They were enrolled in undergraduate education, philosophy, sociology, and psychology courses in the College of Arts and Education at Garyounis University, Benghazi, Libya in May, 1983 (see Tables 1 and 2). The older Libyan subjects (55 males and 54 females) ranged in age from 65 to





55


TABLE 1. Age Distribution of the Subject Samples


Sample N Mean Age Range
in Years

Young Libyan Males 53 19.13 18-24
Young Libyan Females 55 19.98 18-24
Subtotal 108 19.51

Old Libyan Males 55 72.71 65-88
Old Libyan Females 54 72.26 65-93
Subtotal 109 72.48

Young American Males 51 21.69 18-24
Young American Females 59 22.12 18-24
Subtotal 110 21.90

Old American Males 50 71.40 65-89
Old American Females 51 72.90 65-94
Subtotal 101 72.18


Total 428










TABLE 2. Academic Sources of Young Libyan Subjects


Dept. Course


Title No. in Participant Total Percent
Class M F Participants of Total


Philosophy Quantitative Research in Social Science Modern History Theor ism Sociology Educational
Psychology Principles


Behavioral Science

Arabic
Literature


40 22


30

31 37


44 68


47


319


6 7

4 5


15 10

7 9


3 6


5 2

10 7


3 9


53 55


Phh SSI


2001 3003


Flis SSI EdG EdG EdG


ARL


200


2002 4000 3003

4004 1001


13

9


25

16


9


7

17


12


108


12.0 8.3


23.2

14.8 8.3 6.5 15.8 11.1 100.0


U'






57

92 years of age, with a mean age of 72.48 years. See Table

1 for age distributions. Most of these subjects were related to the younger subjects tested (parents, grandparents, or other older relatives).

Americans. The younger American subjects (51 males and 59 females) ranged in age from 18 to 24 years with a mean age of 21.90 years. These subjects were enrolled in undergraduate educational courses in the Department of Foundations of Education at the University of Florida during the Spring semester of 1983 (see Tables 1 and 3). The older American subjects (50 males and 51 females) ranged in age from 65 to 93 years of age, with a mean of 72.18 years. Most of these subjects were related (parents, grandparents, or other older relatives) to the young subjects tested.



Instrumentation

A personal inventory questionnaire (see Appendix A) was administered to all subjects. This questionnaire consists of two parts. Part I contains demographic information (age, sex, and culture). Part II consists of 44 correlates of life satisfaction representing four broad categories identified as relating to life satisfaction. These categories are: I. Physical and material correlates, II. Social relations, III. Activities, and IV. Psychological correlates. They were derived from the life










TABLE 3. Academic Sources of Young American Subjects


Dept. Course Title No. in Participant Total Percent
Class M F Participants of Total


4542 4430


3514


3604


Philosophy of Education


Measurement and Evaluation in Education

History of Education in USA

Social Foundations in Education


25 23 10



46


5 4


7 2



3 2



9 6


9


9



5 15


8.2


8.2



4.6 13.6


Educational Psychology


Human Growth and Development Adolescent Adolescent


29


131 33 26


323


2 13 14 12 4 12 7 8


51 59


EDF EDF


EDF


EDF


EDF EDF


EDF EDF


4210 3110 3135 3135


15 26 16 15


110


13.6 23.6


14.6

13.6 100.0


u-i Wo






59

satisfaction literature with a major emphasis upon activity theory and disengagement theory.

Because there is no existing cross-culturally appropriate scale, the researcher designed one to meet the needs of the current study. Special care was taken to assure the equivalence of questionnaires in both languages. The correlates of life satisfaction used were obtained, tested, and evaluated in the following manner:

Forty-four correlates of life satisfaction were chosen from the psychology and sociology of aging literature because they characterize areas of concern to the older population as a whole and others because they are sexspecific. Also used in this selection were the two major theories of gerontology: Activity Theory, developed by Havighurst and Albrecht, 1953; and Disengagement Theory by Cumming and Henry, 1961. These two major theories have recently become the subject of inquiry in relation to areas related to life satisfaction. Larson (1978) reviewed 30 years of research on the "Subjective Well-Being for the Population of Americans over 60." "Well-Being" is a catchall term covering satisfaction and happiness in life as a wfole, high morale, personal adjustment, good attitude toward life, competence, and what Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin (1961) called "successful aging." On the basis of the 70 references listed in his paper, Larson concluded






60

that subjective well-being is consistently most strongly related to health, socioeconomic factors, and degree of social interaction. Larson presented a table in his paper summarizing his findings. It will be presented in this study as Table 4 (Larson, 1978, p. 116).

In addition to the Larson studies, life satisfaction was reported to be positively correlated to good health by Loeb, Pincus and Mueller (1963), Marshall and Eteng (1970), Zibbell (1971), Falkman (1972), Grithens (1975), Gerber (1976), Wolk and Telleen (1976), Sauer, Shehan, and Baymel (1976), Toseland and Sykes (1977); to self-related health by Snider (1980); and to income by Toseland and Sykes (1977) and Kivitt (1976).

Edwards and Klemmack (1973) explored the relationship between 22 variables and life satisfaction and concluded that socioeconomic status is one of three variables that are the best life satisfaction predictors, with the other two being perceived as wealth, status, and continuing contact with the working world, through informal participation (see Table 5). Adams (1971) listed 53 correlates of satisfaction and found three main categories of these correlates. These are biological, psychological and sociological, and each particular correlate can be associated with decrements or increments of life satisfaction (see Table 6).







61


TABLE 4. Summary Table of Correlations of Major
Life Satisfaction Variables with Subjective Well-Being


Life Situation Variable


Correlation Coefficient


Health, physical disability Socioeconomic variables


Age


Race


Sex


Employment


Marital status Transportation


Housing


Social activity


.2 to .4 .1 to .3 .0 to .1 .0 to .1 .0 to .1 .0 to .1 .1 to .2 .1 to .2 .1 to .2 .1 to .3


Source: Larson, R. (1978). Thirty years of research on
the subjective well-being of older Americans.
Journal of Gerontology, 33(1), p. 116.






62

TABLE 5. Relationship of Selected Variables with
Life Satisfaction


Variable Correlation
Coefficient

Socioeconomic Status

Education .24
Income .33
Occupational status .12

Background Characteristics

Age -.14
Sex -.01
Marital status .14
Family size .10
Time in area -.07
Community size -.02
Retired (head of household) -.06

Formal Participation

Voting .05
Voluntary association .24
Church-related activities .19

Informal Familial Participation

Visit relatives .06
Visit children .02

Informal Nonfamilial Participation

Visit neighbors .16
Phone others .13
Number of neighbors .09
Number of friends .04

Health

Perceived health .19
Number of ailments last month -.06
Number of ailments last year -.07



Source: Edwards, J.N., & Klemmack, D.L. (1973). Correlates of life satisfaction: A re-examination.
Journal of Gerontology, 28(4), p. 499.




63


TABLE 6. Selected Correlates of Satisfaction, Personal
Adjustment, Positive Self-Concept, SelfEsteem, "Morale," or Other Indicators of
Psychological Well-Being2



Biological Correlates

(+) good health (Jeffers & Nichols, 1961; Loeb et al.,
1963; Marshall & Eteng, 1970)
(-) physical disability (Lowenthal & Boler, 1965)
(-) advancing age (Kutner et al., 1956)
(0) advancing age (Maddox &~ETsdorfer, 1962; Philblad &
McNamara, 1965)
(-) to age 75 or 80 (0 or +) thereafter (Loeb et al.,
1963)

Psychological Correlates

(+) perception of health as "good" (Hansen & Yoshioka,
1962)
(-) perception of age as "old" (Hansen & Yoshioka, 1962;
Phillips, 1961)
(-) perception of life space as contracting (Lipman, 1961;
Tobin & Neugarten, 1961)
(-) perception of relative deprivation (Phillips, 1961)
(-) feeling of inadequacy by males or of rejection by females (Lieberman, 1960)
(+) "vocabulary of motives" to justify low status (Gillespie, 1968)
(+) favorable pre-cetirement attitude (Thompson, 1958)
(+) accurate pre-conception of retirement (Thompson, 1958)
(+) belief in afterlife (Jeffers & Nichols, 1961)

Sociological Correlates: Personal Characteristics

(0) rural-urban residence (Hansen & Yoshioka, 1962)
(+) high socioeconomic status (Kutner et al., 1956)
(+) high education (Hansen & Yoshioka,~79TZ; Marshall &
Eteng, 1970)
(+) high income (Hansen & Yoshioka, 1962; Marshall &
Eteng, 1970; Thompson, Streib & Kosa, 1963)
(+) income maintenance (Lloyd, 1955; Loeb et al., 1963)
(+) income adequacy (Hansen & Yoshioka, 1967;-Thompson,
1958)
(+) home ownership (Hansen & Yoshioka, 1962)
(+) supported independence from family (Townsend, 1963)
(-) living alone, but not isolated (Loeb et al., 1963)

Sociological Correlates: Roles and Role Chances

(+) continuity of life styles (Williams & Wirths, 1965)




64


TABLE 6 - Continued

(+) retaining past patterns of living (Zbvorwski & Eydt ,
1962)
(+) higher role counts (Lipman & Smith, 1968; Tobin &
Neugarten, 1961)
(+) large social life span (Lipman, 1961; Tobin & Neugarten, 1961)
(+) being married (Hansen & Yoshioka, 1962; Kutner tt al.,
1956)
(-) widowhood (Lopata, 1968; Lowenthal, 1965)
(+) being employed (Hansen & Yoshioka, 1962; Kutner et
al., 1956)
(-) retirement (Kutner et al., 1956; Lipman, 1961; Loeb
et al., 1963; L6wenThal, 1965; Thompson, 1958)
(+) retirement for females (Loeb et al., 1963)
(+) retirement for non-whites (Ll5yd~l955)
(+) length of retirement to 3-7 years, (-) thereafter
(Marshall & Eteng, 1970)
(+) if made preparations for retirement (Marshall & Eteng,
1970)
(+) if retirement is voluntary (Thompson et al., 1963)
(0) if retirement is voluntary (Lowenthal, 1965)
(-) if reluctant to retire (Thompson, 1958)
(-) if retired because of "poor health" (Marshall & Eteng,
1970)
(+) if household tasks are assumed, by males, after retirement (Lipman, 1961)

Sociological Correlates: Social Relations and Activities

(+) high level of interaction (Anderson, 1967b; Lipman,
1961; Tobin, 1961)
(+) high level of engagement (Lipman, 1961)
(+) high level of activity (Maddox & Eisdorfer, 1962)
(+) high level of social relations (Davis, 1962; Rosow,
1967)
(+) high age density of neighborhood (Rosow, 1967)
(+) if member of a reference group (Phillips, 1961)
(.) if in a "useful contribution climate" (Filer &
O'Connell, 1962)
(.) high friendship association (Lemon et al., 1969;
Lloyd, 1955)
(-) loss of friends (Lopata, 1968)
(-) inability to make new friends (Lopata, 1968)
(.) if satisfied with amount of contact with friends and
relatives (Loeb et al., 1963)
(+) high interpersonal EelEions with children, relatives
and friends (Kutner et al., 1956)
(.) if member of family group (Townsend, 1963)
(0) level of association with relatives, neighbors, or
formal or solitary activities (Lemon et al., 1969)



Source: Adams, D. (1971). Correlates of satisfaction amrng
the elderly. Gerontologist, 11, p. 56.
All references in Table 6, pp. 63-64, will be found in
the original article.






65

Life satisfaction for older people was reported to

have positive correlations with self-esteem by Vancoevering (1973) and Peterson (1974); with social class by Gerber (1976); with better housing by Carp (1975); with good transportation by Cutler (1975); with primary relationships by Zeglen (1976); and with social integration by Liang and Fairchild (1980).

Palmore and Luikart, in their study of health and

social factors related to life satisfaction (1972), found that self-rated health was the strongest variable related to life satisfaction, and that activity, such as the involvement in social organization, was the second. Belief in internal control was the third strongest variable. They found that income and education were more strongly related to satisfaction among the younger middle-aged and among those with below average incomes. Also, they found that married persons have a higher level of life satisfaction than persons who are not married.

McClelland (1982) found that positive self-concept is shown to be correlated with life satisfaction for the old people.

Consideration of the above literature and other

studies mentioned in the literature review in this study, suggests that many areas are correlated with life satisfaction of old people. The four broad areas chosen to be sampled with the questionnaire are as follows:





66


I. Physical and material correlates. Items to sample correlates were devised with regard to the available studies presented in this work. These correlates of life satisfaction were carefully chosen to fit both countries, the U.S.A. and Libya. This area is represented by the items below:

1. Feeling healthy

2. Having an adequate income

3. Having medical assistance available

4. Owning property 5. Having good food

6. Having good transportation

7. Having good clothing

8. Having good living arrangements

9. Expecting an adequate income in the future

10. Being physically strong

11. Having privacy in your living quarters

II. Social relations. Opportunities for social

interactions in both countries were considered. Family relations and friendships are emphasized in this questionnaire because this is where the social interaction occurs for the Libyan-Arab. This area is represented by the 11 items below:

1. Having children to be proud of

2. Living close to children

3. Having many friends





67


4. Having a few close friends

5. Living with spouse

6. Living with friend(s) 7. Living with relatives

3. Asssociating with older people

9. Having friendly neighbors

10. Living in the same community as your relatives

11. Associating with younger people

III. Activity. There are some kinds of activities that relate to old people, but that do not occur in both cultures, such as going on a cruise, dancing and other leisure activities and, therefore, were excluded from the questionnaire. The 11 items below were selected to represent this area.

1. Using one's mind

2. Being able to travel

3. Watching good TV and listening to radio programs

4. Reading good books

5. Helping others in various ways

6. Making new friends

7. Participating in social organizations

8. Visiting with close friend(s)

9. Attending church/mosque

10. Being physically active

11. Having work to do





68


IV. _Psychologiical needs. Self-concept and selfesteem, as well as spiritual fulfillment, are psychological needs in all societies. As self-esteem generally requires validation by others, the majority of items deal with psychological correlates requiring interaction. The 11 items below were selected to represnt this area.

1. Feeling loved by others

2. Being able to tell others what to do

3. Being respected by others

4. Being independent

5. Having a good education

6. Being respected for one's knowledge

7. Having an important job

8. Being an important person

9. Understanding oneself

10. Believing in God

11. Being needed by others

The 44 items or correlates of life satisfaction classified into the four broad areas of concern were written on separate cards, shuffled to ensure random presentation and then typed in the order drawn. This pilot questionnaire was then administered to 40 subjects (20 Americans and 20

Arabs) equally representing the criterion for age, sex, and culture for the study.

The pilot study showed that subjects could understand and rate the questionnaire items without difficulty.





69


However, the mean score for agreement was well above the midpoint on the five-point Likert Scale and there were no Extremelrynimoortant (1) and few Very Unimoortant (2) choices. So the negative end of the scale was changed to Somewhat Imoortant. See Appendix A for the rest of the scale point descriptions.

The next concern was to maintain integrity of the

questionnaire when translated from the English language to the Arabic language and to make the two forms equivalent. To establish this the following procedures were used:

(a) Separate copies of the English version of the

questionnaire were given to four judges (two

professors and two graduate students) to translate into Arabic. These judges were selected by

the following criteria. All were from social

sciences and education at the University of Florida and all spoke Arabic as their native

language.

(b) The judges' translations were compared for each

item and the translation that occurred most frequently and/or was the most appropriate for Libyan dialect was then used in a composite

Arabic version.

(c) The composite questionnaire was then given to a

fifth judge who met the same criteria as the

other judges. This judge was asked to translate






70


the questionnaire from Arabic back to English.

To prevent any bias, the original English version

was withheld from this judge.

(d) The translation was then compared to the original

English version by the dissertation committee and

approved for use after very minor changes.

Table 7 gives a summary picture of the distribution of item scores on the questionnaire. In actual application it can be seen that the means are near the center point of the five-point scale. Thus, it is apparent that ratings were not piled up at the extremes for the items. Of course, a few such as Belief in God, did pile up at the Important end of the scale for the Libyans. Standard deviations are large enough to confirm that responses to items were well dispersed, hence, not seriously skewed.



Data Collection

The young subjects (n = 218) used in this study

volunteered to fill out the questionnaire during their individual classes. Of this young group, the majority agreed to take home a second (and in some cases, third or fourth) questionnaire (n = 372 copies distributed) and administer it to an elderly relative (parent, grandparent or other relative). These "interviewers" were instructed to read aloud the items if necessary, as well as record the responses of the older relatives. The questionnaires were






71


Table 7. Distribution of Grand Means and Standard
Deviations for Questionnaire Items


Sample

Young Libyan Males Old Libyan Males Young Libyan Females Old Libyan Females Young American Males Old American Males Young American Females Old American Females


N

53 55 55

54 51 50 59 51


Arithmetic Mean


Arithmetic Mean Total Range

3.45 1.91-4.91 3.25 2.11-4.95 3.30 2.11-4.98 3.18 2.06-4.93 3.25 1.82-4.49 3.11 2.05-4.61 3.42 2.22-4.12 3.34 2.04-4.93


Std. Deviation Total Range .62 0.30-1.55 .64 0.23-1.66 .65 0.13-1.53 .66 0.26-1.47 .64 0.79-1.51 .45 0.65-1.48 .63 0.90-1.55 .59 0.80-1.52






72


then to be returned by mail to the researcher in the supplied envelopes. It was felt that these young subjects could not know what would typify a "right" or "wrong" answer on the questionnaire.

This method of data collection for the older subjects was used for several reasons. First, it was felt that the young subjects' familiarity with the older subjects would lessen this group's resistance to the questionnaire. Second, this method would avoid problems due to pre-existing health or literacy conditions. Third, this procedure provided a broader geographic sampling by increasing the possible localities for testing by allowing the young subjects to take the questionnaire home.

A total of 590 questionnaires were administered in this study with 428 (72.5%) returned. The American sample's (male and female, young and old) return rate was 71.3, while that for the Libyan sample was 73.8.



Limitation of the Research Design

Survey design commonly is used for life satisfaction studies. Factors associated with life satisfaction cannot be controlled by the experimenter because they are wholelife factors. Therefore, experimental designs have not been used in the area of life satisfaction. High death rate among the elderly is another reason that justifies using survey rather than longitudinal designs in this area.





73


Survey research, however, is far from useless. It enables the.researcher to become broadly knowledgeable about the social environment that contains the factors he or she is testing. It is preferred because it provides a great deal of information economically.

Often, there is considerable difference between what

people say and how they really behave. Questionnaire items. tell us what people say about themselves, and while not always valid, do provide information. There is no convenient way to assess correlates of life satisfaction except to ask for opinions.

To answer the questionnaire items, the young must

project themselves into the future, or put themselves in the place of an elderly person living now. This speculative task will produce what they think would be important and will differ from what is important for the aged. The responses of youth will be inaccurate, as judged by the criterion of what is (or will be) important for the aged; still, there is no other information that they can give us. Logically, then, differences between the responses of young and old cannot be attributed wholly to what is important to them.

There are many reasons the older subjects may respond to the questionnaire with misleading responses. Some are illiterate and, even though helped by oral administration, may make mistakes by not being able to refer to the written





74


material. Some of the aged have sensory handicaps that could lead to misunderstanding. Others may be confused because of mental decline, especially the subjects who need oral administration, or may be reluctant to express true opinions in front of the examiner (friend or relative).



Analysis of Data

All data were transferred to coding sheets. The 44

scores from the questionnaire, along with the three scores designating subject sample characteristics for the subject (culture, sex, age) were punched on a single IBM card for each subject.

First, subscale scoring of the instrument was explored. Factor analysis is the appropriate procedure. After trying to develop subscales without success, it was decided that all further analyses would be based upon all 44 questionnaire items.

Several step-wise multiple regression equations were developed to explore the relationships between the questionnaire items and the sample characteristics. A separate analysis was made of the different subject sample characteristics (culture, sex, age).

The findings reported in Chapter IV, Results, are organized to emphasize differences in the three major subject samples. Tables are presented to show the order of importance for items that distinguish one sample from another. These three different sections examine:





75


1. The differences in cultures that prevented the

combining of samples from different cultures, and 2. The differences in sex that made it necessary to

consider separately the findings and implications

for men and women, and

3. The differences between Young and Old, which is

the main focus of the dissertation.













CHAPTER IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION



The basic data of this research consist of the responses from subjects in each of the eight subject samples to the questionnaire asking them to indicate how important each of the listed 44 correlates of life satisfaction would be to people over 65 years of age. The data can be summarized in terms of tables of the mean rating for each of the 44 correlates of life satisfaction for each of the eight samples. Examination of these individual tables would be meaningful and comparisons among them could be made. However, the volume of data is so great that most readers would prefer to examine the same data but assembled to simplify comparisons of the samples, first by culture, then sex, and then by age. These tables of comparison are presented shortly in the main text.

Eight tables of the means for the 44 items, in rank order of importance for each sample, are presented in Appendix B as Tables B.l through B.8. The intercorrelations of the samples across the 44 means for items were calculated for a factor analysis. The highest correlation was .95 between the responses of American Young Male and Female subjects. The corresponding value for the responses





77


of Libyan Young subjects was .80 between Male and Female subjects. The responses of Old American Male and Female subjects correlated .91, while the corresponding value for the responses of Libyan subjects of that age group was .90.

Culture was the most important determinant for responding to the questionnaire. By merging the four Libyan samples and then merging the four American samples, the cultural differences are preserved. American subjects agreed with each other most often, with an average intercorrelation of .83. The intercorrelation among Libyan subject responses averaged .78. However, the average intercorrelation between the Libyan and American subject responses was only .41.

Factor analysis of the matrix of the eight samples confirms the two strong cultural factors. Table 8 gives Varimax factor loadings that illustrate the differences and similarities between samples. The first factor had heaviest loadings for the Young Libyan samples, both Male and Female, with even higher loadings for the Old Libyan subjects, so it is called the Old Libyan factor.

The second factor shows heaviest loadings for the

Young American subjects, both Male and Female, along with large loadings for the Old American subjects. Because loadings are heavier for the Young subjects, it is called the Young American factor, with emphasis on culture rather than age. The third factor shows moderate loadings for






78


TABLE 8. Varimax Rotated Factors of the Responses
by Eight Subject Samples


Factors
Subject Responses Old Young Self-Centered
Libyan American Basic Physical Needs

Libyan Young Male .05 .74 .46

Libyan Old Male .25 .90 .03

Libyan Young Female .34 .83 .27

Libyan Old Female .16 .91 .00



American Young Male .96 .17 -.04

American Old Male .71 .34 .53

American Young Female .94 .22 .01

American Old Female .85 .19 .41





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for the Yo ng Libyan Male sample, the Old American Male sample, an Old American Female sample. The factor seems to show th focus of concern is on the subjects' own welfare. oung American Males and Females, imbued with humanism, o not load on this factor. This factor is tentativel named Self-Centered Basic Physical Needs. Rotation t oblique simple structure did not change the nature of hese three factors and what they reveal about the eight amples.

Following the results of testing the null hypotheses derived fr m stepwise regression analysis will be a separate a alysis, consisting of three sections, each dealing wi i one of the null hypotheses and containing four table each. Associated discussion will set forth the import :it differences in responses between subject samples. 11 tables of differences between culture, sex, and age, t be presented following the results, are based upon data iat showed overall statistically significant difference .

The r sults of testing the null hypotheses, as derived from regre- s3ion analysis, are first presented in detail.

The ni nber of variables (correlates of life satisfaction) that qere allowed to enter each stepwise regression equation wt :e limited to the number sufficient to produce a P (.001.





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Results of Testingthe Null H ypt heses



Results of TestinqHypothesis One

The predominating differences noted between samples from the Libyan subjects and from the American subjects permit the combination of subsamples of different sex and age within each culture. Thus, only one regression analysis was generated for cultural difference and it gave an overall o value of less than .001 with 10 correlates of life satisfaction in the equation. This information appears in Table 9, along with descriptions of the items.

The first null hypothesis of this study states that none of the differences in subject samples, consisting of different cultures, will lead to significantly different responses in perceived correlates of life satisfaction. In order to examine hypothesis 1, several stepwise multiple regression equations were developed to explore the relationship between the 44 correlates of life satisfaction and the sample characteristics. To restate the original hypothesis:

HO : There will be no statistically significant differences between Libyan and American responses shown when the four age and sex samples (Young Male, Old Male, Young Female, Old Female) are compared separately.

The results of testing hypothesis 1 are illustrated by






81


TABLE 9. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup
Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Culture Differences Between
Libyans and Americans


Regression
Items F-Ratio Slope Description

1 13.61 .046 Being Needed By Others

4 12.50 .046 Associating With Younger
People

6 12.17 -.050 Understanding Oneself

11 17.82 -.052 Living With Relatives

12 84.21 -.129 Believing In God

13 28.90 .075 Having Good Food

24 53.21 -.091 Being Able To Tell Others
What To Do

40 19.27 .054 Expecting Adequate Income
In Future

41 17.47 .054 Having A Few Close Friends

44 14.86 -.051 Visiting With Close Friends


*Libyan = 1, American 10,417, D = .001


= 2. F-ratio = 64.12, d.f. =






82

Table 9, which combines all four subject samples relevant to this hypothesis. Separate tables for each of the four subject samples will be presented in more detail in the discussion section, using a separate analysis. Details about the differences between subject samples (culture, sex, and age) will be presented in separate analyses in the discussion section, and illustrated there by Tables 18-29.

Tables 9-17, obtained from stepwise multiple regression analysis, show the items that discriminate between samples. So, Table 9 shows that the correlate Being Needed By Others (1)1 entered the equation first and has a coefficient with a positive sign. The sign indicates that this first term in the prediction equation adds to the value of the predicted y, that is, the contribution is in the direction of y = 2, which is the coded score for Americans. The second item, Associating With Young People (4), also has a positive sign so it is in the American direction. The third variable listed, Understanding Oneself

(6), has a negative coefficient so a high score on it causes a reduction in the predicted y value, so it is associated with Libyans who are coded 1.




1Capitalization of the first letter of each word of a correlate of life satisfaction will be employed to make it easier for the reader to recognize when the proper noun name of an item is intended, rather than being common words in a sentence.





83


As indicated in Table 9, the overall F-ratio of 64.12 has a corresponding p value of less than .001. The hypothesis attributing differences between cultures to chance is rejected. The differences between cultures will be described in detail in the discussion section of this chapter. Subsequent tables will also be presented here without discussion of the discriminating items.



Results of Testing Hypothesis Two

Tables 10 through 13 deal with testing the null

hypothesis related to sex differences. To restate the original hypothesis:

HO2 There will be no statistically significant differences between Male and Female responses shown

when the four culture and age samples (Libyan Young,

Libyan Old, American Young, American Old) are compared separately.

Since the differences in responses by sex were found to be less pronounced than cultural differences, it was necessary to examine observed differences between samples who are of the same culture and age, but differ in sex. The first two analyses were made for Libyan subjects and produced overall F-ratios that have corresponding p values of less than .001. The second two analyses, for Americans, produced F-ratios that also have p values of less than .001.

The differences between sexes were small enough to be accounted for by only a few items in each of the four sex






84


TABLE 10. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Sex Differences Between the Libyan Young


Regression
Items F-Ratio Slope Description

11 52.89 -.202 Living With Relatives

33 7.21 .079 Having Work To Do


*
Male = 1, Female = 2. F-ratio = 29.63, d.f. = 2,105, P = .001





TABLE 11. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Sex Differences Between the Libyan Old


Regression
Items F-Ratio Slope Description

4 3.90 .079 Associating With Younger
People

5 18.98 -.146 Having Good Living
Arrangements

15 5.14 -.117 Living With Spouse

36 3.34 -.066 Feeling Healthy


Male = 1, p = .001


Female = 2.


F-ratio = 9.75, d.f. = 4,104,






85


TABLE 12. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Sex Differences Between the American Young


Regression
Items F-Ratio Slope Description

1 8.74 .164 Being Needed By Others


*
Male = 1, Female = 2. F-ratio = 8.74, d.f. = 1,108, P = .001





TABLE 13. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Sex Differences Between the American Old


Regression
Items F-Ratio Slope Description

24 9.65 -.112 Being Able To Tell Others
What To Do

32 13.00 .150 Being Physically Strong


*
Male = 1, Female = 2. F-ratio = 9.09, d.f. = 2.98, = .001






86

differences regression analyses. In the case of differences between American Young Male and Female subjects, only one item, Being Needed By Others (1) entered the equation (F-ratio with p greater than .001). The lower overall discrimination between sexes for the Americans and the smaller number of discriminating differences are consistent with discussion of the tables to be presented in the discussion section of this chapter as to how closely the present generation of American college students resemble one another regardless of sex.

The largest difference between subject samples, as

indicated by the size of overall F-ratio, is between Young Libyan Male and Female subjects. The null hypothesis attributing differences between Males and Females to chance is rejected.



Results of Testing Hypothesis Three

The last four tables, Tables 14-17, deal with testing the null hypothesis related to age differences. To restate the original hypothesis:

HO3 There will be no statistically significant differences between Young and Old responses shown when the

four culture and sex samples (Libyan Male, Libyan

Female, American Male, American Female) are analyzed

separately.

All four analyses had F-ratios with corresponding p values











TABLE 14. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Age Differences Between Libyan Males


Regression
Items F-Ratio Slope Description

3 12.66 .094 Being Independent

4 11.86 -.097 Associating With Younger
People

11 46.00 -.174 Living With Relatives

15 15.94 .133 Living With Spouse


*
Old = 1, Young = 2. F-ratio = 26.66, d.f. = 4,103, p = .001





TABLE 15. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Age Differences Between Libyan Females


Regression
Items F-Ratio Slope Description

5 8.01 -.083 Having Good Living
Arrangements

17 7.42 .090 Watching TV And Listening
To Radio

36 25.46 -.175 Feeling Healthy


*
Old = 1, Young = 2. F-ratio = 16.72, d.f. = 3,105, p = .001




Full Text

PAGE 1

CORRELATES OF LIFE SATISFACTION AMONG OLDER LIBYANS AND AMERICANS BY BASHIR LAM IN SHEBANI A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1984

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In the Name of "God" Most Gracious, Most Merciful To my Parents

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Copyright 1984 by Bashir Lamin Shebani

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks and gratitude are expressed first to Almighty "God" most gracious, most merciful. This study has been made possible through the cooperation of many people who have given unselfishly of their time and effort. Sincere gratitude is expressed to Dr. Hannelore L. Wass, chairperson of the supervisory committee. The author is especially grateful for her advice in formulating the problems and for her constant help and supervision of the study from its inception to its completion. Her encouragement provided the stimulus which caused the author to pursue a Certificate in Gerontology and a doctoral degree in educational psychology. The author is deeply indebted to Dr. Wilson H. Guertin whose guidance, demanding encouragement, patience, and time given so generously made this study an interesting learning experience. Thanks are due to him for adherence to objective quantitative research methods and discipline which helped the author deliver this study. Appreciation is expressed to the other member of the Committee, Dr. Robert Blume, for his guidance, inspiration, and understanding. iv

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Thanks and appreciation are expressed to Dr. Donald Avila and Dr. Arthur White for their inspiration, guidance and support. Grateful recognition is given to Dr. Azza Guertin and Dr. Hassan Zaitun for their participation in determining the validity of the Questionnaire. Sincere gratitude is expressed to all students and their elderly relatives in Libya and in the U.S.A. who served as subjects for this study. The author is grateful to his country and his people who have given him this opportunity to further his education, in particular to the University of Garyounis in Benghazi, Libya. Thanks are expressed to the author's parents, brothers, sisters, and children for their moral support. Appreciation is extended to all friends who helped in any way in completing this study. Finally, the author is deeply grateful to his wife for her constant encouragement, support, and understanding. v

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv LIST OF TABLES viii ABSTRACT xi CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of the Problem 1 Development of the Problem 5 Existing Theories of Aging .*!!!!!.*] 10 Hypotheses of this Study [Â’*** 20 Psychological Hypotheses 20 Null Hypotheses 22 Limitations of the Study 22 II LITERATURE REVIEW 24 Sex and Life Satisfaction 25 Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Life Satisfaction. 26 Age and Life Satisfaction 27 Single Variable Studies .... 30 Multiple Variable Studies * 30 Assessment Instruments 32 Combined Approaches 34 Assessments as Value Judgements 35 The Cultural Context [ 35 International Studies 36 Intr a-Cul tural Studies [ 39 Cross-Cultural Studies Â’Â’Â’ 40 Middle-Eastern Studies 45 Summary .!!!!!!!!!! 50 vi

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CHAPTER page III DESIGN OF THE STUDY 53 Sample 54 Instrumentation 57 Data Collection 70 Limitation of the Research Design 72 Analysis of Data 74 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 76 Results of Testing the Null Hypotheses 80 Results of Testing Hypothesis One 80 Results of Testing Hypothesis Two 83 Results of Testing Hypothesis Three 86 Discussion 89 Cultural Differences 89 Sex Differences 98 Age Differences 107 V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 130 Conclusions 130 Recommendations 136 Physical and Material Correlates of Life Satisfaction 137 Social Relations and Activities 139 Psychological Correlates of Life Satisfaction. 139 APPENDICES A QUESTIONNAIRE IN ENGLISH AND ARABIC 141 B RANKED IMPORTANCE OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS 150 REFERENCES 1 58 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 168 vii

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LIST OF TABLES . Tai3 -*e Page 1. Age Distribution of the Subject Samples 55 2. Academic Sources of Young Libyan Subjects 56 3. Academic Sources of Young American Subjects 58 4. Summary Table of Correlations of Major Life Satisfaction Variables with Subjective WellBeing 61 5. Relationship of Selected Variables with Life Satisfaction 62 6. Selected Correlates of Satisfaction, Personal Adjustment, Positive Self-Concept, Self-Esteem, "Morale," or Other Indicators of Psychological Well-Being 63 7. Distribution of Grand Means and Standard Deviations for Questionnaire Items 71 8. Varimax Rotated Factors of the Responses by Eight Subject Samples 78 9. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Culture Differences Between Libyans and Americans.. 81 10. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Sex Differences Between the Libyan Young 84 11. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Sex Differences Between the Libyan Old 84 12. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Sex Differences Between the American Young 85 viii

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Table Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Sex Differences Between the American Old Page 13. 85 14. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Age Differences Between Libyan Males 87 15. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Age Differences Between Libyan Females 87 16. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Age Differences Between American Males 17. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Age Differences Between American Females 88 18. Cultural Differences Between Responses of Libyan and American Young Male Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio 90 19. Cultural Differences Between Responses of Libyan and American Old Male Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio 94 20. Cultural Differences Between Responses of Libyan and American Young Female Subjects Ordered by size of t-Ratio 96 21. Cultural Differences Between Responses of Libyan and American Old Female Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio 99 22. Sex Differences Between Responses of Libyan Young Male and Libyan Young Female Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio 100 23. Sex Differences Between Responses of Libyan Old Male and Libyan Old Female Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio 102 24. Sex Differences Between Responses of American Young Male and American Young Female Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio 104 IX

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Ta bl e Page 25. Sex Differences Between Responses of American Old Male and American Old Female Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio 105 26. Differences Between Responses of Young and Old Libyan Male Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio.... 108 27. Differences Between Responses of Young and Old Libyan Female Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio.. 118 28. Differences Between Responses of Young and Old American Male Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio.. 124 29. Differences Between Responses of Young and Old American Female Subjects Ordered by Size of tRatio 128 B.l. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life Satisfaction for Libyan Young Male Subjects 150 B.2. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life Satisfaction for Libyan Old Male Subjects 151 B.3. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life Satisfaction for Libyan Young Female Subjects 152 B.4. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life Satisfaction for Libyan Old Female Subjects 153 B.5. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life Satisfaction for American Young Male Subjects 154 B.6. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life Satisfaction for American Old Male Subjects 155 B.7. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life Satisfaction for American Young Female Subjects.... 155 B.8. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life Satisfaction for American Old Female Subjects 157 x

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy CORRELATES OF LIFE SATISFACTION AMONG OLDER LIBYANS AND AMERICANS By Bashir Lamin Shebani August, 1984 Chairperson: Dr. Hannelore L. Wass Major Department: Foundations of Education A questionnaire consisting of 44 correlates of life satisfaction for the elderly, developed by the author, and a biographical information questionnaire were administered to a sample of college students and their aged relatives in Benghazi, Libya, and Gainesville, Florida. The 44 correlates of life satisfaction are a personal inventory questionnaire consisting of two parts, Part I demographic information (age, sex, and culture) and Part II the 44 correlates of life satisfaction representing four broad categories — physical and material correlates, social relations, activities, and psychological correlates. Four-hundred twenty-eight subjects, 217 Libyans and 211 Americans, with age and sex equally distributed, xi

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comprised the overall sample. Subjects rated the correlates of life satisfaction in order of their importance for the elderly, or perceived importance in the case of young subjects. The primary statistical technique used was stepwise multiple regression analysis. Sub-scale scoring of the instrument was explored first. Subsequently, several multiple regression equations were developed to examine the statistical significance of the relationships between the correlates of life satisfaction and the nature of the samples. Finally, separate analyses were made for the different samples by culture, sex, and age. Twelve tables indicating important differences in responses between subject samples are presented. All differences among culture, sex, and age were found to be overall statistically significant. Libyan and American subject differences permitted the combination of sub-samples of different sexes and ages within each culture. Thus, only one regression analysis for cultural differences was generated. its overall jo value was less than .001, with 10 correlates of life satisfaction entered into the equation. The hypothesis attributing differences in responses between cultures to chance was rejected. Statistically significant sex and age differences were also found . Xll

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The primary recommendation, based upon the results of this study, is that cross-cultural application of data should be viewed as highly questionable. Other recommenda tions for social planning for the care of the aged, based on responses categorized by age and sex, are also provided This is the first study in Libya that focused on aspects of aging and hopefully will provide the beginning of extensive future gerontological research there. xiii

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem Adjustments to aging, particularly those associated with life satisfaction in old age, have been studied extensively in Western countries, including the United States. However, little research has been done about life satisfaction among the aged in the Middle East, and none among the aged in Libya specifically. To complicate matters, much of the existing knowledge in Western countries appears to be inapplicable and not generalizable to the Libyan context, due to vast cultural differences. Research is, therefore, needed to discover how much, if any, of the Western research findings can be generalized to Libyan society, and if not, to determine what accounts for the differences in life satisfaction between Libyans and aged Americans. To accomplish this, cross-cultural study of Americans and Libyans is necessary. When considering such cross-cultural comparisons, differences in cultural practices pertaining to the aged in both countries must be recognized since they are likely to affect tne findings considerably. One possible source of difference concerns the management of physical needs of the 1

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2 elderly, as the satisfaction of basic physical needs has been found to be an important correlate of life satisfaction at all ages. Various ways of dealing with the physical needs of the aged have been developed in the United States. Most prominent among them are convalescent and nursing homes, geriatric facilities, retirement villages, home meal delivery programs, and special public transportation. However, the appropriateness of such measures for Libyan society is yet to be evaluated. To answer the questions regarding the suitability of such services and facilities for aged Libyans, it is necessary to assess their perceptions of their needs. It is not enough to decide for them what facilities and services should be available. Instead, we need to determine what older Libyans view as factors that contribute to their life satisfaction. Additionally, as a rapidly developing country, Libya must look beyond the present. Identifying the perceived correlates of life satisfaction of today's aged will provide only part of the picture. Anticipation of what the correlates of life satisfaction will be for the aged of tomorrow is possible only through assessing today's young as to how important they perceive various correlates of life satisfaction will be when they are aged. Thus, for more complete information, a study of life satisfaction must include the perceptions of the young as well as the old.

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3 Finally, we do not know if Libyan men and women will agree in their perception of correlates of life satisfaction for the aged. For example, the Libyan man may perceive "being an important person" as a correlate of life satisfaction, whereas the Libyan woman, due to social and cultural conditioning, may find this to be of little value. Differences between the sexes in anticipated correlates of life satisfaction may dictate special social planning for different environments to meet differing, sex— specific needs, i.e., providing continuing contact with the professional world for a man who feels that "being an important person" is a necessary correlate of life satisfaction. Therefore, it is important to consider both intra— cultural , as well as cross-cultural factors. The purpose of this study was to add to the body of knowledge in life satisfaction through examining the following issues: First, cross-cultural data from Libyan and American subjects were scrutinized to determine if differences in perceived correlates of life satisfaction exist on the basis of culture. Previous cross-cultural studies allude to the possibility of generalizing results from one culture to another. This study was undertaken to determine if such generalization is applicable. Secondly, sex differences in perceived correlates ® ^ satisfaction that may occur in one culture were If such differences exist among males and examined .

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4 females, social planners must be cognizant of such in order to provide services that will meet the needs of both sexes. Further , the question of whether women and men respond differently to the questionnaire items in the different cultures was examined. Third, the same two-fold approach was used to examine age differences. Initially, differences in perceived correlates of life satisfaction were analyzed on the basis of age, in terms of young and old. Then the results were compared on the basis of culture, Libyan and American, in order to determine if differences exist, and if so, whether they are due to age or culture. Any discrepancies due to youth having different perceptions of perceived future correlates of life satisfaction may have marked implications for social planning to meet the future elderly populations' needs . In order to fulfill the criterion of determining whether data can be applied cross-culturally , data from both cultures are necessary. Currently, Libya lacks factual gerontological data, particularly in terms of life satisfaction. The results were intended to facilitate Libyans' understanding of the needs of the elderly within their society, as well as to provide knowledge regarding possible differences in the factors affecting life satisfaction of Libyans, as opposed to Americans; males, as opposed to females; and young, as opposed to old. it was hoped that

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this study would be the beginning of extensive future research . 5 Development of the Problem Since the turn of the century, the aged have been the fastest growing segment of the population worldwide. The ever-increasing life expectancy of people everywhere, but especially in modern and rapidly modernizing countries, is a result of better health care and disease control due to technological advances. The world population of those 65 years of age and older has increased significantly for both developed and less-developed countries, reaching 129 million in less-developed countries in 1980, equaling the number of elderly in developed countries. Estimates for the year 2000 predict that 58 percent of the aged (229 million) will then reside in less-developed countries, leaving only 42 percent (167 million) in developed countries (U.N., 1980). Currently, the American proportion of the aged in the population is 11 percent (U.S. Bureau of Census, 1983, p. 27), as opposed to 5.9 percent in Libya (World Almanac, 1983, p. 540), with the discrepancy largely due to Libya's birth rate being proportionately higher. Age is an underlying dimension of social organization, for in all societies the relations between individuals and groups are regulated by age (Eisenstadt, 1971; Neugarten, 1968). Awareness of this and of the inevitable effects of

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6 these increasing numbers of older persons on the social structure of societies has resulted in the accumulation of gerontological data by medical researchers, psychologists, and sociologists. However, in spite of the fact that an increasing majority of the aged will live in less-developed countries (U.N., 1980), few studies have been conducted within these countries to identify social needs, nor have any studies of American and Libyan-Arabic persons been conducted. The purpose of this study was to initiate such cross-cultural study, specifically, to examine the correlates of life satisfaction. A brief description of Libyan-Arabic culture is offered below for those who may be unfamiliar with such. Libya is situated in North Africa. Its size is 1,760,000 square kilometers (two and one-half times the size of the American state of Texas). it is bordered on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, on the east by Egypt and Sudan, on the south by Sudan, Chad, and Niger, and on the west by Algeria and Tunisia. A 1979 census showed a total Libyan population of 3,245,000 (Roberts, 1979), which is composed of Arabs, Tabu, Negroes, Tawarks, and Barbars, all of whom are Moslems. Due to the low percentage of minority groups, 6 percent, the country is considered to be homogeneous. These minorities are well integrated into Libyan culture, despite the discouragement of intermarriage by ancient tradition. The official language is Arabic (Attir, 1981).

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7 Libya has been exposed to several civilizations during its history, including the Phoenician, Roman, and Greek civilizations. These civilizations built several coastal cities whose remains still exist today. Moslems dominated Libya in the 17th century A.D., and as a result, it became an Arab-Moslem nation. in 1911, Italian forces invaded Libya and established themselves in the country after a long, bloody war. when the Allies won the Second World War, Libya was put under British and French military administration. As a result of this, Britain, France, and the United States developed air bases and other military installations in Libya. On December 24, 1951, Libya became an independent country through a United Nations resolution, and was to be ruled by a pro-Western king. At that time, Libya was categorized as one of the poor nations in the world (U.N., 1950), with no visible chance of improvement. Then composed of more than one million illiterate people, and with few college graduates, the country was poor in literacy as well as income, which was then fifty dollars £er annum . However, during the late 1960 's, oil explorations brought the beginnings of hope for economic development of the nation . On the first of September, 1969, a new political system was instituted, changing Libya from a monarchy to a republic. On March 2, 1977, the official name of the country became "The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya." The

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8 revolution sought to make Libya a modern socialized nation, grounded in Islamic law and values, free of foreign domination, and dedicated to Arab unity. The growth in financial resources that resulted from oil explorations and export has provided a better standard of living and general increase in the economic level of Libyan citizens. However, Libya has an economy that involves more than just oil production. One of its most interesting projects is an attempt to grow food in the desert. Other projects include educational and cultural reforms (Hahn, 1981). The most pressing problems that face Libya today are those centering around the economic system, social services, and formal educational standards that will meet both the needs of the country as a whole, as well as the capabilities and aspirations of its people. One of those problems is planning that will meet the needs of the elderly. The normal social expectation in Libya is that elderly persons will be cared for by their grown children. The ideal family system is one in which young men remain in the household of their parents after marriage. The Libyan family has traditionally been characterized by its pattern of extended family relationships, with families living either within one household, or in separate homes in close proximity to each other. Interpersonal and intergenerational relationships, as well as the interdependence among the members of the family, are, therefore, given great

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9 emphasis. The Libyan elderly face no threat to their physical survival within the extended family framework. However, Libyan society is experiencing vast cultural and social changes in its move from a rural, semi-agricultural society to one in which technology and industry influence nearly every aspect of life. This change tends to break up the extended family in favor of the nuclear family unit. Rapid urbanization causes much migration of young people to urban centers, in search of a higher standard of living. The resulting physical distance is causing the aged in Libya to become increasingly self-sufficient, contrary to established Arabic custom. in the absence of other forms of provisions for old age security, however, there remains a great emphasis upon having children to ensure such security. The Glorious Qur'an emphasizes the respect that children are to accord aged parents, as illustrated by the following verses from Chapter XVII: (23) The Lord hath decreed that ye worship none save Him, and (that ye show) kindness to parents. if one of them or both of them attain to old age with thee, say not "fie" unto them, nor repulse them, but speak unto them a gracious word. (24) And lower unto them the wing of submission through mercy, and say: "My Lord! Have mercy on them both as they did care for me when I was little." (Qur'an 17:23,24) Additionally, Islamic teachings, with their broader concepts of family solidarity, provide for care of the elderly in the absence of children by extending the responsibility

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10 for care of the aged to nephews, grandsons, and others of the extended family network. Continuity is established through provisions of Islamic law which dictates the division of property among all children upon the death of the father. Even during his lifetime, whatever property he owns is typically held in common with his children. There is considerable variation in actual practice however, depending upon such things as geographic region, economic level, and individual preferences. Urbanization and the increasing proportion of aged in the population, along with other rapid developments in the country, are bringing about the social changes previously mentioned. Planning needs to be consistent with social values, yet recognize the constant changes in them. Such planning will also have to incorporate a sound theoretical base. Existing Theories of Aging Intensive investigations have been conducted during the last two decades concerning the biological, psychological, and sociological correlates of individual life satisfaction, especially among the elderly. The results reveal discrepancies. One reason for discrepancies in the findings of these investigations is the concept of life satisfaction, which is difficult to measure as there are probably several dimensions operating within this concept, in addition to numerous possible correlates. Additional

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11 discrepancies in findings exist because of the controversy in social gerontology as to which of the two theories, the activity or the disengagement theory, represents more accurately the desired mode of adjustment in old age. The disengagement theory, as originally posed by Cumming and Henry (1961) posits that disengagement is a natural rather than an imposed process, which is voluntary, desirable, and beneficial to both the individual and to society. According to this theory of aging, there takes place an inevitable, mutual disengagement between the aging person and society. The person gradually withdraws, socially and psychologically, with increasing age. This process is seen as having two important results. First, the process is seen as socially functional because society is thus able to draw in new people of energy and competence to replace the aged. Secondly, the aged individual's disengagement is seen as resulting ultimately in increased morale. This is facilitated by the release from social pressures which is allegedly concurrent with disengagement. Withdrawal is seen as conserving the elderlys' dwindling energy, thus leading to greater physical and psychological well-being. This theory does take into account the disjunctive guality of the passage into old age. This disjunctive quality is indicative of a change in the balance of social and personal spheres. To the extent that the theory

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12 recognizes that old age is different from middle age, indeed a developmental stage in its own right, and marked by substantial shifts in the equilibrium of life forces, the change in the balance of spheres indicative of disjunction is recognized. The individual is seen as able to function better with decreased activity levels, since his or her needs also decrease, congruent with the belief that the sources of psychological well-being carry different definitions at different developmental stages. The disengagement theory thus emphasizes the synchrony of timing of social and individual change. Those excluded from Cumming and Henry's original study (1961) included the elderly who had no alternative to social withdrawal, such as the institutionalized, the extremely poor, or the physically or psychologically impaired . A majority of researchers have argued against the disengagement theory, especially the second part of the theory which proposes that a disengaged individual displays a higher degree of psychological well-being and higher morale. Havighurst, Neugarten, and Tobin (1968) analyzed the same data used by Cumming and Henry and concluded that decreased activity and interaction are not a mutual process between the elderly and society, are neither natural, beneficial, nor desirable for the individual or the society. Palmore (1975) demonstrated the undesirability of

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13 disengagement in a study which concluded that disengaged people tend to be unhappier , lonelier, sicker, and die sooner than more active people. Other criticisms of the theory include the argument that it does not allow for individual variation. Maddox (1964) pointed out that when age is held constant, there are substantial variations in the indicators of social and psychological disengagement displayed. Further, individuals who do disengage display different patterns and rates of disengagement. Disengagement theory does not account for such individual variation, nor does it treat possible new activities such as second careers or involvement in voluntary or religious organizations (Cowgile, 1972). Other opponents of the disengagement theory argue that it addresses only the quantity of social relations and ignores the kinds and quality of these relations. They claim that the elderly may retain meaningful activities and eliminate only the less pleasurable ones. Adequate testing of the disengagement hypothesis must involve specific hypotheses concerning the conditions under which individual disengagement occurs. Streib and Schneider (1971) suggest that people deal with declining capacities by differential disengagement, withdrawing from some activities in order to increase, maintain, or minimize the decline of involvement in other activities. Conversely, several studies (Rose, 1964; Atchley, 1971; Roman and Taietz, 1967; Carp, 1968)

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14 indicate that withdrawal is due solely to lack of opportunity for continued involvement, thus making disengagement involuntary . Technical problems with the disengagement theory have also been cited. Hochschild (1975, p. 567) concluded that Cumming and Henry posed an important question: How is age related to engagement in social life? However, he sees their results as suffering from three problems. First, the major thesis can be shown to be false. Second, their major variables are composed of sub-parts that do not vary in a unitary way. Third, they ignore the meanings people attach to their roles. Hochschild concluded by presenting an alternative proposal to solve those problems. The precedent for modifying the disengagement theory was set by Cumming himself (1963), and further modifications have been proposed by numerous researchers (Havighurst et al . , 1968; Carp, 1968; Lowenthal and Boler , 1965; Maddox, 1966; Palmore, 1968; Rose, 1964; and Tallmer and Kutner , 1969). Not a modification, but rather a complete reversal of position is embodied in the activity theory. This theory sees withdrawal as involuntary and imposed by society upon individuals, usually against their desires. As proposed by Havighurst and Albrecht (1953) the activity theory stresses that successful aging is related to maintaining reasonable activity levels and substituting new roles for those lost through retirement or death of a spouse. The criterion for

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15 a reasonable activity level subsumes being as much as possible like one is at middle age, as well as being successful in finding substitutions for those activities that have been curtailed or eliminated. That middle age is chosen for the comparative criterion illustrates the different way in which this theory approaches the relationship between the personal and the social sphere. Presupposing that this relationship remains constant as the person progresses from middle age to old age precludes treating passage into old age as having a disjunctive quality. Personal orientations are seen as stable. Current research supporting the activity theory includes that of Neugarten and Hagested (1976) whose results indicate that if an individual has been active, involved, and satisfied through life, and if the environment continues to provide opportunities for similar involvement, a resulting high degree of life satisfaction is facilitated. This perspective suggests that psychological well-being is a function of the degree to which an individual can maintain patterns of activity. Kuypers and Bengtson (1973) attempt to determine why, rather than if , continuing activity is desirable. They suggest that the aged are expected to live up to the American ideal of rugged individualism, to fulfill the requirements of the work ethic.

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16 Another theory, the role exit theory, says essentially the same thing as the activity theory, but from a more sociological perspective (Blau, 1973). Old age is described as a time when a number of roles are terminated and when substitutes must be found. A role exit is defined as the cessation of a stable pattern of social interaction. Age is characterized by many such exits. When one exit follows another in rapid succession, as they often do in old age, the cumulative effect can be devastating, thus the emphasis on finding substitute roles. Older people must adjust to conditions that are not generally characteristic of other stages of life, namely, the increased probability of illness and impending death, in addition to restrictions imposed by society. These unique conditions include 1) retirement from full-time employment, 2) withdrawal from active community and organizational leadership, 3) breaking up of marriage through a spouse's death, 4) loss of an independent household, 5) loss of interest in distant goals and plans, and 6) physical distance of children and grandchildren. Additionally, physical ailments may curtail activities, as may a reduced income. Most role exits signal the end of lifetime attachments. Role exit describes only part of the process, however, for the individual's adjustment to losses through finding new interests is also necessary. When an

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17 individual is successful in finding replacements, the process is one of both role exit and subsequent renewal , as mandated by the activity theory. All of these theories describe changes and adjustments that are central to the later years of life. Although most research substantiates the tenets of the activity theory and considers it to be the best way for the aged to transcend the physical and cognitive declines and role exits of old age, the cultural bias favoring the activity theory must be taken into account, as well as individual variation. This cultural bias and individual variation is stressed by Dibner (1975). He states "the activity theory fits the prevailing American ethic of activity, work, and productivity as human ideals, while disengagement can be seen as an appropriate adjustment mode for many aging persons although the process does not fit the society's ideal (p. 83) . Individual variation was also studied by Neugarten, Havighurst and Tobin (1968), Richard, Livson and Peterson (1962), and Streib (1971). Conclusions from these studies substantiate the importance of individual variation by suggesting that successful aging is primarily dependent upon the individual's personality. For example, a passivedependent personality may enjoy passive disengagement while a person with an achievement-oriented personality may consider role replacement as important. Maddox (1968) and Neugarten (1965) treat the question of those individuals

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18 who have been happily involved in personal interests without much social interaction throughout their lives, and conclude that to mandate the activity theory as the most desirable way of adjusting to old age is undesirable. Therefore, all of these theories have limitations. Neither major theory accounts for the empirical relationship extant between social activity, personality type, psychological well-being, and social respect for the elderly. Although neither disengagement nor activity theories are directly concerned with respect for the elderly, it is nevertheless as important a variable as cultural bias. Withdrawal from social roles and diminished social interaction are associated with a lower amount of social respect for the elderly, especially when a society values youth, competition, and independence (McArdle and Yeracar is , 1981 ) . Other research concerned with the issue of individual variation includes the ethnographic literature which illustrates similar patterns of activity among the elderly in preindustr ial and present day societies, with some persons choosing to remain active and others choosing a sedentary life . Williams and Wirths (1965) point out that successful aging is possible in any lifestyle, but that it is often more difficult for people whose lifestyles revolve around either their jobs or their spouses to the exclusion of other commitments.

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19 Older persons choose the combination of activities that offer them the most egoinvolvement and that are most congruent with their long-established value patterns and self-concepts. What is not so readily apparent is how much their value patterns and self-concepts are influenced by societal ideals. A pilot study conducted by the Chicago group (Havighurst, Munnichs, Neugarten, and Thomae , 1969) in collaboration with a group of European investigators collected pilot data for a large-scale study of patterns of retirement. They adapted the methods used in the Kansas City studies of adult life and gathered data on patterns of role activity and life satisfaction for 50 men aged 70 75 in each of six cities: Bonn, Chicago, Milan, Nijmegen, Vienna, and Warsaw. The preliminary results reveal that over and above individual differences, patterns of role behavior varied systematically by city of residence and by former occupation (half of the men in each city were retired school teachers; half retired steelworkers). The data suggested, to a higher degree than anticipated, that even in industrialized centers in modern Western societies, differences in cultural traditions and value systems produce systematic variations in patterns of social interaction in the aged. The data also suggested that the same general level of positive relationship between level of activity and life satisfaction existed as that found in the Kansas City sample.

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20 Thus, we see that every person ages in a manner unique to himor herself, in an intricate pattern of interaction with environment in accordance with long established needs and values, and as influenced by cultural dictates. To the extent that cultural values play any role at all in determining which hypothesis is deemed the most accurate reflection of successful aging, conclusions cannot be reached at this point with any certainty. Results regarding the cross-cultural applicability in this area must be evaluated before determining which theory, if any, is superior. Hypotheses of This Study Two separate sets of hypotheses, psychological and null hypotheses, were formulated. Psychological Hypotheses !• (a) If differences exist between young and old Libyans in perceived correlates of life satisfaction for the aged, these differences will be understandable in terms of the Arab/Libyan culture and the rapid social changes therein. (b) if differences exist between young and old Americans in perceived correlates of life satisfaction for the aged, these differences will be understandable in terms of the American culture, which is to be seen as representative of Western culture .

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21 II* (s) If differences exist between the perceptions of Libyan males and females in perceived correlates of life satisfaction, these differences will be understandable because of sex differences related to cultural conditioning and, when taken together, will suggest social change that will meet the needs of both males and females, living together or separately in the next generation of aged . (b) if differences exist between the perceptions of American males and females in perceived correlates of life satisfaction, these differences will be understandable because of sex differences related to cultural conditioning and, when taken together, will suggest social change that will meet the needs of both males and females, living together or separately in the next generation of aged . III. (a) If differences exist between young and old Libyans in perceived correlates of life satisfaction for the aged, the differences will be useful in augmenting social change to meet the needs of the coming generation of aged. (b) If differences exist between young and old Americans in perceived correlates of life satisfaction for the aged, the differences will be useful in augmenting social change to meet the needs of the coming generation of aged.

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Null Hypotheses The null hypotheses of the study were as follows. Generally stated, none of the differences in subject samples, consisting of different cultures, sexes, and ages, will lead to significantly different responses to the questionnaire. H 0 1 : There will be no statistically significant differences between Libyan and American responses shown when the four age and sex samples (Young Male, Old Male, Young Female, Old Female) are compared separately. H 0 2 : There will be no statistically significant differences between male and female responses shown when the four culture and age samples (Libyan Young, Libyan Old, American Young, American Old) are compared separately. H 0 3 : There will be no statistically significant differences between young and old responses when the four culture and sex samples (Libyan Male, Libyan Female, American Male, American Female) are compared separately. Limitations of the Study Several limitations are inherent within the design of this study. The sample used was not randomly drawn from the total populations; thus, it would be inappropriate to

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23 generalize the findings to other populations. Selection of the aged sample may admit further bias as the young subjects not only filled out their questionnaires but also administered the questionnaires to one or both of their parents or grandparents, who comprised the aged sample in both countries. Furthermore, since this study is not longitudinal, there are no means of identifying variables that might have affected the results of the testing, and will only tell us what young people perceive correlates of life satisfaction will be when they are aged. Actually, once they reach that stage their perceived correlates may change. if a similar pattern of perceived correlates of life satisfaction could be traced longitudinally, then any differences in responses between young and old currently would be attributable only to current differences in age, and not to the changes in youth stemming from rapid social change . Another limitation lies with the concept of life satisfaction itself, which is difficult to operationalize and particularly so between two different culture groups. Thus, a different instrument could produce different results. Finally, there may be a question of nonequivalence of measurement across differing age, cohort, sex, or cultural lines.

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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in later life span development. This interest has increased as the elderly have become an ever-increasing segment of the world population. The political influence of any group increases with its numbers, thus making governments more receptive to committing time and funds to larger groups. This pattern is reflected in the recent interest in gerontological research. The correlates of life satisfaction among the elderly, as summarized by pertinent literature, that are most relevant to this study include age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES). These correlates and their relation to the specific problem at hand, therefore, needed to be examined. Further, a review of available literature in the area of cross-cultural research has revealed a lack of studies dealing with the life satisfaction of both Americans and Arabic cultures. Thus, the present study might be considered a pioneer in this field which has until now escaped the attention of educational researchers in spite of its importance for international understanding. 24

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25 Therefore, the purpose of this review was two-fold. First, to provide a review of literature by relevant variables, including age, sex, and SES, and second, to examine available studies by culture. This section of the review progresses from international studies in general, which reflect Western and Eastern viewpoints, to the existence of intra-cultural variation, and then to available cross-cultural studies. The review then ends with a summation of available Middle Eastern research, to give an idea of the need for further study. The reader is invited to compare cultural studies through an amplification of the relative merits of single and multiple variable studies, as well as an extensive discussion of the instrument used to measure correlates of life satisfaction. Sex and Life Satisf a ction The few studies that compare life satisfaction between aged men and aged women find no significant differences (Kutner, Fanshel, Togo, and Langner, 1956; Lawton, 1972; Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin, 1961). However, in a more recent study Kimmel (1979) emphasized the importance of sex as a variable affecting life satisfaction and questioned the validity of applying the research and theories of adult development which were based primarily on men directly to women.

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26 In accounting for these disparate results two factors must be considered. First, the studies finding no significant differences between the sexes did not provide for distinctions among subgroups, such as marital status or employment. Second, the viability of cross-cultural application must be evaluated. Given that much of the research literature in adult development is based on the study of men, and that the issue at hand here deals with two divergent cultures, and thus divergent cultural roles which are sex— specif ic , it cannot be concluded on the basis of early Western studies that there are no significant differences in the ways in which elderly men and women view correlates of life satisfaction. Therefore, more comparison studies are needed. Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Life Satisfaction Although many studies have found a strong association between SES and life satisfaction, the strongest relationship has been consistently found at the lower end of the social spectrum (Bultena, 1969; Cutler, 1973; Edwards and Klemmack, 1973; Kivett, 1976; Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin, 1961). Another variable is time reference. It has been found to be of more importance in conjunction with SES when evaluated by long term circumstances rather than satisfaction at the moment (Kutner, Fanshel , Togo, and Langner, 1956; Palmore and Luikart, 1972; Edwards and

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27 Klemmack, 1973). Thus, we see that 3ES , while an important and perhaps causal factor at all times and social levels, is most strongly related to life satisfaction among the poor and when viewed longitudinally. Edwards and Klemmack (1973) concluded that SES is one of three variables that are the best life satisfaction predictors, with the other two being perceived as health status, and continuing contact with the working world through informal participation. These findings parallel those of Larson (1978), who reviewed 30 years of life satisfaction research and concluded that subjective wellbeing is consistently most strongly related to health, socioeconomic factors, and degree of social interaction. It should be noted that both of these summaries are in accordance with the activity theory, rather than the disengagement theory. However , care should be taken that conclusions drawn from this always take into account individual perceptions of activity. Age and Life Satisfaction Studies that suggest that chronological age is of importance in ordering the social and psychological data of human development view adulthood as marked by passages, transitions, and "mid-life" crises, often negative. At the same time, 'older adults, like all others, are worthy, capable individuals of great value to society, and their

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28 educational development is worthy of the best efforts that can be exerted" (Wass and West, 1977, p. 414). This educational development should clarify the situations which are supposed to affect all human beings at specific ages, usually at decade or mid-decade points. Levinson (1978) focused on one such early stage, that of men's "early adulthood" (ages 17-45) which is reported to be as crisisridden as adolescence and marked by many age-related changes. Erikson (1950) who continued his stage theory of psychosexual development into adulthood and hypothesized that there are problems with the development of a person which endure through a number of crises in adulthood, found the major problem of this early adulthood stage to be that of intimacy versus isolation. The second adult stage, beginning around 40, involves generativity versus stagnation, and finally, during late adulthood and old age comes the conflict of integrity versus despair. In contrast to this view, others such as Neugarten and Datan (1973) suggest that chronological age is not a meaningful index by which to order the social and psychological data of adulthood. Differences and changes are seen as emerging from a combination of biological and social factors rather than from age. Thus, we see that the relationship between age and life satisfaction is controversial. While Mason (1954) showed negative correlation between age and life satisfaction, Cameron (1967) reported no correlation

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29 between the two factors, and Meltzer (1963) has suggested a positive correlation. Further, in cases in which a negative correlation is found between greater age and increased life satisfaction, the results have been determined to be related not so much to age as to the factors related to increasing age. Such factors include death of a spouse, decreased finances and levels of social activity due to retirement and declining health. When statistical controls are employed to equalize the factors associated with aging, the negative correlation becomes much less pronounced (Edwards and Klemmack, 1973; Kivett, 1976). The general failure to achieve clear and consistent correlational data may be largely due to failure to recognize the multidimensionality of attitudes. Other variables and correlates, as well as age, are responsible for life satisfaction. Examples of these variables include health, income, activity level, and self-knowledge (Kaplan, 1971). While Levinson (1978) focusing on men, found age to be a relevant variable, he also concluded that there are other variables that affect life satisfaction and the nature of changes in life, or that might interact with age, such as sex, race, marital status, income, education, and health. These conclusions lead logically to the comparison of undimensional and multidimensional constructs.

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Single Variable Stud i e s 30 Many studies have used single variable correlations other than age to predict the level of an individual's life satisfaction. Such studies have looked at self-rated health (Snider, 1980); the effect of transportation (Holley, 1978); the type of primary relationships (Zeglen, 1976); the type of housing (Carp, 1975); and voluntary associations (Cutler, 1981) of the individuals studied. Two further studies looked at the differences in religiosity (Johnson, 1978), and urban-rural dwelling (Sauer, Shehan, and Baymel , 1976) and found them to be independent of life satisfaction. Thus, it appears that these variables provide no better prediction than the single variable, age, which has been previously believed to predict life satisfaction. The reason for this may be the exclusion of very important covariables from the study, such as age and culture, which together with the variable under study, might increase accuracy of prediction. Multiple Variable Studies The inclusion of some of the related variables is not enough. For example, bivariate or multivariate models are often used to describe relationships of one or more independent or predictor variables to the dependent or criterion variable. The choice of these variables is too

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31 frequently guesswork, and the usual educational psychology variables are either too vague and too poorly defined to produce significant results, or they, are situation specific, and thus the next investigator obtains contradictory results. Attempting to elucidate relationships among weak variables with high-powered multivariate techniques is ineffective. The employment of factor analysis in multiple variable studies is necessary in order to develop the most promising data-based concepts, which are then fed into the multivariate equations to check their value. Guertin (1961), in a study of attitudes toward aging, made an early attempt to establish dimensionality through use of factor analysis . Researchers who have considered the life satisfaction construct as being multidimensional rather than unidimensional include Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin (1961), who approached this concept by means of their well-known LSIA (Neugarten' s Life Satisfaction Index, Scale A). Other examples are the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale (Bradburn, 1969), and the Philadelphia Geriatric Morale Scale (Lawton, 1972). Such a focus is required in this study since its interest lies, in part, with the question of whether the same factors will be of similar importance in different cultures, age, or sexual categories, while not holding the same importance as the other variables under consideration. This can only be tested by using such a multidimensional approach.

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32 Assessment Instruments Several approaches have been employed to measure the domain of life satisfaction for older people. Research began with attempts to assess people's adjustment (Cavan, Burgess, Havighurst, and Holdhamer, 1949; Havighurst, 1957). These early measures defined self-satisfaction in terms of adjustment within specified domains of a person's life, such as work, health, or religion. They were criticized for having a bias towards people with a specific, idealized, external life situation (Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin , 1961 ) . More recent measures have defined life satisfaction as an internal construct, independent of exterior conditions of a person's life. However, the danger exists that reverse biases could arise, with a consequential over-reliance upon the subjective. Internal constructs represent a range of conceptualizations, illustrated by both multidimensional and unidimensional constructs. The multidimensional constructs include LSIA (Neugarten et al . , 1961), the PCG Morale Scale (Lawton, 1972), and the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale (Bradburn, 1969). Others consider life satisfaction a unidimensional construct, for example, the Kutner Morale Scale (Kutner, Fanshel, Togo, and Langner, 1956), the life satisfaction scale of the Cornell study of retirement (Thompson, Streib, and Kosa, 1960), Havighurst and

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33 Albrecht's Scale of Happiness (1953), as well as single item measures of satisfaction (Spreitzer and Snyder, 1974) and happiness (Kivett, 1976). A few investigators (Kuhlen, 1948; Lebo, 1953, Poliak, 1948; Rose, 1955) have used direct self-reports of self-satisfaction. Although they are vulnerable to conscious and subconscious psychological defenses, those self-reports have not been checked for validation against more objective criteria. Kutner's Morale Scale (Kutner et al., 1956) is based on responses to seven items such as "On the whole, how satisfied are you with your way of life today?" Problems with this instrument are non-validation against an external criterion, assumption that life satisfaction is undimensional , and language difficulties in use with populations other than the one originally studied (Kutner et erl . , 1956, p. 303; Morrison and Kristjanson, 1958). The Morale Index (Cumming, Dean, and Newell, 1958) is a final example of life satisfaction as a unidimensional construct. This index is based on few and unreliable items which are validated against small samples of cases, and it appears to be a unidimensional scale reflecting conformity to the status quo . Multidimensional and unidimensional constructs alike have measures which differ in the time limits available for respondents, and the extent of evaluative comparisons with others, one's past experience, or one's conception of how things might be (Larson, 1978).

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Combined Approaches One approach to the problems of instrumentation, stated previously, is to combine social criteria of success (external activity) with internal frame of reference (individual evaluation). For the former, the greater the social participation and the less the deviation from one's middle age activity pattern, the greater one's self-satisfaction. For the latter, the individual is the only proper judge of his or her satisfaction, so that the value judgement of the investigator, and the importance of deviation from the middle-age activity pattern, are both minimized. Several instruments do combine both approaches. For instance, the Chicago Attitude Inventory (Cavan, Burgess, Havighurst, and Holdhamer , 1949; Havighurst, 1957) emphasizes feelings of satisfaction, but also depends upon high levels of activity. The Solamon-Conte Life Satisfaction in the Elderly Scale (SCLSES), a newly developed, multifactor scale for measuring life satisfaction (Solamon and Conte, 1981), examines the influence of eight factors: pleasure in daily activity, meaningfulness of life, goodness of fit between desired and achieved goals, mood, love, selfconcept, financial security, perceived health, and social contact. The first five are similar to the Morale Scale developed at the Philadelphia Geriatric Center (LSR) (Lawton, 1972), while the remaining three factors are drawn from the work of Spreitzer and Snyder (1974). The eight

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35 factors were decided upon based on a principal axes factor analysis with varimax rotation. Assessments as Value Judgements An additional problem inherent in any instrument is that of definitions. For example, the operational definitions of self satisfaction include "successful aging," "adjustment," "competence," "morale," and "happiness." Consequently, different criteria and different measurement techniques are employed. Rosow (1963) and several others criticized these attempts at definition and measurement mainly because they are inextricably involved with value j udgements . The Cultural Context One of the problems in rating scales developed by others or oneself is the cultural bias involved. in the United States, self-satisfaction tends to be avowed and feelings of unhappiness disavowed, with the result that most people will tend to rate their own self-satisfaction as too high. The implications for cross-cultural generalization are apparent. Even the life satisfaction measure ( LSI A ) created by Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin (1961) which stands out as being the most significant attempt to assess the general concept of well-being as it appears in aging populations, cannot be generalized to other cultures. Though this appears to be the most frequently used

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36 and, therefore, the most carefully scrutinized and revised of all such instruments, this scale is apparently not applicable when generalized to other cultures, such as Libya, due to its undimensionality. Rao and Rao (1981) failed to prove LSIA multidimensionality using exploratory factor analysis. International Studies To plan good cross-cultural research it is necessary to be familiar both with the findings of others and with the methodological problems they have encountered. Current studies are available from many countries, both developed and less-developed countries. Below are examples of research studies pertinent to less-developed countries. Goldstein and Beal (1982) conducted a field study in rural areas of India, including Nepal, Sherpa, and Tibet. They presented evidence that the process of modernization can have a negative impact on the elderly in even the most remote third world settings, even when those settings themselves are not modernized, or are in the process of modernization in any of the normal uses of that concept. The authors demonstrate in their report the manner in which modernization in India has profoundly changed household family organization and found that elderly in those rural areas, despite the high level of activity, wealth, social and economic status, were greatly dissatisfied with their situation .

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37 African studies include one by Vanderwiele (1982) who did a study that presented a questionnaire to 630 Senegales secondary school students, requesting their opinions regarding various periods in the life of an individual (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age) in terms of happiness, freedom, financial security, health, etc. Periods given the most favorable comments were adolescence and adulthood, while the most unfavorable comments were reserved for old age. A summation of Latin American research is provided by Finley (1981) who presents a review of the literature focusing on aging in those countries that emphasize work in gerontology and the social sciences. His literature review has been translated into English from Spanish and Portugese, and includes an unpublished study undertaken in Bogota by Garcia and Gomez (1981). This study involved older, institutionalized, lower class men in 15 group counseling sessions of 90 minutes each. They found significant improvements in self-concept, social interaction, and activity participation following these sessions. A further study reviewed by Finley which focuses on intracul tural variation is discussed in that section. Western studies in countries other than the U.S.A. include one based in Paris. Cool (1980) indicated that old people in traditional or non-industrial cultures, by being embedded in a cohesive social structure of extended

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38 families, are accorded security in old age and have alternative roles and activities. She explored the question of whether older adults fare as well in industrialized cities and found variation and complexity among elderly Parisian informants who had migrated from rural Corsica. Cool concluded that ethnic identity is an important resource which can provide a basis for continuing activity in an urban setting . Some international studies are concerned with the validity of applying the existing theories to cultures outside of those in which they were formulated. Vatuk (1980) studied withdrawal and disengagement as a cultural response to aging in India, exploring the disengagement hypothesis in a cultural context different from that in which it was developed. Given that Hindu scriptures mandate a withdrawal in old age, she expected the theory to be reflected in the life of Indians. She concluded that the ideal of withdrawal in India does not mean cessation of social activity, but rather it is a norm which encourages the old to transfer resources and burdens to the young, leaving the young to care, love, and respect their parents who should be more concerned with spiritual affairs. In actual practice this transfer can result in an increase in activity levels, though in different areas.

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39 In tr a-Cul tur al Studies Two available studies which consider the question of intra-cultural variation differentiate between respondents on the basis of age, SES, and place of residence (rural/ urban). The cultures represented are Hispanic and Asian. Dulcey and Ardila (1981), published in an edited volume by Finley (1981), selected 40 items from the original Tuckman and Lorge (1953) 137-item questionnaire designed to tap negative stereotypes, misconceptions, and over-generalized beliefs about old people, and translated them into Spanish for use in Bogota, Colombia, with 400 subjects. Two hundred subjects were elderly persons, 100 institutionalized, lower-middle-class older people, and 100 institutionalized upper-middle-class elderly. The other 200 subjects consisted of 100 second year students at an uppermiddle-class university, and 100 from a lower-middle-class university. The findings of this study show that college students had more positive attitudes towards aging than the elderly themselves, with the most positive attitudes being held by upper-middle-class students, and the most negative by the institutionalized lower— middle-class elderly. Concerning Asian intra-cultural variation. Ikies (1980) studied traditional patterns of the aged in Chinese society, particularly in contemporary Hong Kong as an urban industrial society. Industrialization forced Western Europe to develop special programs and services to meet

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40 emerging needs of the elderly. Similar changes in Hong Kong have not been accompanied by compensatory changes. However, the existing urban networks still carry out a much heavier burden than their rural predecessors, differing in many aspects such as personal safety, public security, public opinion, and privacy. These differences suggest that aging in Hong Kong is frought with insecurity which will persist for quite some time. Ikies' (1980) conclusions are based on the examination of three separate contexts of the culture, in order to explain variation. She sees the dimension of intr a-cul tural variation as of special importance in large and complex societies, such as China . Cross-Cultural Studies One problem of cross-cultural studies is that cultural differences are not considered in most measurement scales. More investigations related to this subject are required. The structure of Neugarten's Life Satisfaction Index, when examined in a heterogeneous national sample, even within the culture, did not support the original configuration. There is, however, some support for an alternative structure of the LSIA that utilizes a subset of the items (Hoyt and Creech, 1983 ) . A few culturally related studies have been conducted showing inconsistencies of results as solely related to inconsistencies of the variables used in

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41 relation to life satisfaction. With these considerations in mind, let us review the available cross-cultural research . Vandewiele (1982) studied the views of high school students concerning the best periods in the life of the Senegalese. Adolescence and adulthood were most preferred. A similar study was conducted with Americans by Borges and Dutton (1976). They report that the best year selected by subjects over 25 were years past; however, the particular year chosen increased with the respondent's age until age 65, at which point there was a slight decline from "34" (cited by the 49-65 year olds) to "32" (cited by the 65+ group) . Subjects younger than 24 chose best years which were above their own age, while most subjects over 25 chose their best years below their own age, but above the 24-year-point. The responses grew increasingly differentiated as a function of both the age level being evaluated and the respondent's age. Goldman and Goldman (1981) devised a comparative study regarding how children view old people and the causes of aging, with participating children from Australia, England, North America, and Sweden aged 5-15 years. Children were interviewed about physical and sexual development and were asked to identify old age in terms of specific age. With the exception of the North American sample, only a small percentage of subjects in this age group reported any

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42 positive features of aging. Results indicated that while children generally developed a realistic identification by nine years of age, the English-speaking countries showed increasing realism with increasing age (Australian children were the least realistic). Swedish children made more realistic assessments earlier. Overall, the majority of characteristics attributed to old people, categorized as physical, psychological, socioeconomic, and sexual, were seen as negative. Comparisons among English-speaking countries can also reveal dramatic differences. Luszcz (1982) administered Palmore s Facts of Aging quiz to 166 first— year university students ranging in age from 17 to 49 years, and 52 thirty-year-old Australian undergraduates. He found a higher degree of similarity in factual knowledge among these students regardless of age difference, as well as fewer misconceptions and biases, than those found in the United States by Palmore. Regarding gender in cross-cultural studies, Norman, Murphy, Gilligan, and Vasudev (1982) did cross-sectional studies of sex differences and interpersonal relationships, sampled in the United States and India. They found consistent sex differences in a number of relationships with life satisfaction, with females mentioning a higher number of interpersonal relationships than males. Life span patterns regarding the number of relationships were also

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43 sources of difference for men and women aged 19 to 31 years. At age 35 there was seen a convergence in the number of relationships mentioned by both sexes. Whether positive attitudes toward the age are more prevalent in developed or less-developed countries has also been researched cross-cultur ally . Arnhoff, Leon, and Lorge (1964) selected 100 items reflecting generally negative stereotypes, misconceptions, and overgeneralized oeliefs about the elderly from the widely used attitude scale of 137 items developed by Tuckman and Lorge (1953). To indicate whether or not the statements are generally true of "old people" required a straight yes or no response. Samples of 108 to 420 college students from India, Greece, Japan, Sweden, Puerto Rico, and the United States participated in this study. Results indicate that attitudes toward the aged are more positive in more modern nations. Although possible reasons for these discrepant results have been discussed in other studies, it is apparent that additional cross-cultural studies of attitudes toward the aged are required before a clear understanding of the factors involved will be possible. Two studies which contradict the above findings should also be mentioned, especially in light of the fact that one of the most direct measures of the status and prestige of the aged is attitudes held by the younger members of the society toward them. Bengtson, Dowd, Smith, and Inkeles

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44 (1975) undertook a secondary analysis of three items on aging from a 438-item modernity questionnaire used in other, earlier studies by Inkeles and Smith (1974). The sample of this study consisted of 5,450 males between the ages of 18 and 32 from six developing countries (Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, India, Nigeria, and another MiddleEastern country. Two items were emphasized and used across all six of these nationalities. The items were "Some people say that a boy learns the deepest and most profound truths from old people; others say that a boy learns most from books and in school, what is your opinion?"; and "Some people look forward to old age with pleasure, while others dread (fear) the coming of old age. How do you personally feel about the coming of old age?" Results in this study indicated that positive attitudes toward the aged were associated with low levels of technological modernization, while negative attitudes were associated with nations (such as Argentina and Chile) which were more modern . The second study which contradicts Arnhoff, Leon, and Lorge's results (1964) is a social psychological study conducted by Diaz-Guer r er o (1975). This study asked 298 Mexican high school students and 340 North American college students to check off on a list of 60 items which kinds of people and occupations were worthy of respect. They found that in Mexico "the two extremes of the age continuum, the elderly and the very young, hold the highest status in the

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45 society: they are given respect, power, and love" (Diaz-Guer rero , 1975). Even though old men are highly respected in both societies, they receive significantly more respect in Mexico, as do other members of the family such as grandfathers, uncles, and aunts. The disparity of results is but one illustration of the pressing need for further cross-cultural studies. Middle-Eastern Studies To understand in which direction beginning gerontological studies in the Middle East are pointed, a separate section has been devoted to them. McCabe (1979) has conducted an anthropological investigation regarding the status of aging women in the Middle East. The researcher chose a village in southern Lebanon for her study which was guided by a developmental psychology approach to human aging. The hypothesis was that a reversal of the typical sex roles of women and men exists in later life. The researcher examined the life stages of females (from infants to the very old) using the methods of participant observation. The interview, an "Arabized" Thematic Apperception Test, and (Cantril's) Self-Anchoring Striving Scale (to assess life satisfaction) were employed to attain the research goals. One of the general conclusions reached in this study was that "a rural Lebanese woman is indeed powerful and dominant vis-a-vis the

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46 Lebanese man throughout her life, but increasingly with age. Moreover, women in late middle age in this Lebanese community experience greater life satisfaction than men" (McCabe, 1979, pp. 365-369). However, it must be realized that these conclusions, due to intr a-cul tural variation previously discussed, cannot be generalized to fit the entire Lebanese culture. This is especially true in light of the fact that Lebanon is a heterogeneous, rather than a homogeneous society. Also, the subjects who participated in this study were not identified clearly enough. There are no specific criteria given and methods described for the selection of the sample with the exception of the age category. Finally, there is a communication difficulty with respect to using her instrument in another culture. The reliabilty of administering it to subjects in a different culture, with a different language and traditions, was not explored; therefore, misinterpretations may occur because of misunderstanding. In a different area of Lebanon, Dajani (1973) conducted a study to discover the relationships between media exposure, mobility, literacy, and political participation. This researcher administered a multiple choice questionnaire using stratified quota consisting of 144 subjects representing two religious communities in Lebanon — the Shiite Moslems and the Maronite (Catholic) Christians. The researcher controlled four variables in his study: 1)

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47 religious affiliation or ethnicity, 2) socioeconomic class, as defined by the indices, 3) community of residence, and 4) age group. Three age groups were studied with the first one including teenagers, the second including people between 22 and 35 years old, and the third including those 38 years old and older. The results of this study indicated that the older subjects, who because of their seniority in terms of age, had more freedom than the other age groups, were more exposed to the media and more mobile than the other, age groups. The problem of applying any of these conclusions to the present study is found in the limitations imposed by the loose definitions of age in the last category. The researcher does not make clear the extent of range in those 38 years old and older, and thus the category is too broad to be of use. In other parts of the Middle East Siassi and Fozouni (1982) examined the relationship between aging and psychiatric distress levels of older and younger populations in Iran. The researchers present drug utilization rates as well as the results of psychiatric tests on older and younger populations of psychiatric patients and drug addicts. Siassi and Fozouni conclude that the elderly use available psychiatric and drug abuse services much less frequently than the younger population does. However, one is left to theorize as to why. is it due to a lack of geriatric specialists in these areas? Or perhaps the high

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48 ideals which are a part of the elderly's status prevent them from seeking help, and give them a negative attitude toward these services. The former opinion was found to be indicative of this population by Jacobson and Juthani ( 1978 ) who concluded: "Although the elderly have a higher incidence of mental illness than other groups, their need for psychiatric services is not being met adequately. This situation could be improved by providing psychiatrists with a broader education in aging and more extensive supervised experience in treating mentally ill old people at an early stage of their training" (Jacobson and Juthani, 1977 , p. 408 ). The authors of this study have described their program of training second year residents in psychiatry who are given regular assignments, under supervision, in the multiservice nursing home in Lebanon. They conclude that those students become more knowledgable about the aging process because of the better understanding of the effect of physical, emotional, and social factors which affect mental health in later life. In addition to this special competence, a greater interest in treating the aging mentally ill has also been found. The authors discuss the pressing need for such training programs and their value as a means of encouraging psychiatrists to take a more active and responsible role in treating the aged. In addition to the need for more specialized services, a study undertaken in Iraq demonstrates the need for

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49 additional physical settings for the aged. Al-Hi-lali (1982) undertook a study in which he interviewed both the aged themselves and the officials who administer the currently available social services for the aged and concluded that plans to develop homes in all areas of Iraq should be instituted . In an Egyptian study undertaken by Fadel-Girgis (1983) elderly respondents endorsed the construction of more retirement homes. There are currently only 34 such facilities in Egypt, to serve an elderly population of over one million (General Population Census of November, 1976, Cairo) . Further , that population is expected to increase by 94% between 1980 and 2000 (United Nations Population Division, 1980). Special problems facing social planners in Egypt include the emigration of many of these elderly persons' children. Emigration was encouraged by the Egyptian government in the 1950's and 1960 's to counteract overpopulation. Many middle-aged parents whose young adult children emigrated during that time are now aged and without family support systems. Indeed, one-third of the institutionalized respondents in this study reported that all of their children lived abroad. Thus, there would be many instances where government assisted home care would not be feasible. The results of these studies should be considered in evaluating the instrument to be used for further assessments, as well as developing social policy for the future.

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50 Summar y Through a review of available studies and their methodologies, it can be concluded that further research must take current discrepancies into account. In terms of the variables, though both Larson (1978) and Edwards and Klemmack (1973) agree that SES is one of the three most important correlates which determine life satisfaction, no such agreement exists in the area of sex or age. With regard to sex as a variable, the paucity of research available on the life satisfaction of aged women reflects the need for further study to achieve the goals of social planning which will meet any sex-specific needs, as outlined in Chapter I. This study was undertaken to determine the existence of any such sex-specific needs and, until the results are evaluated, there is an obvious danger in generalizing to females studies which are conducted on male respondents. Studies which emphasize age reflect a high degree of discrepancy due to a general failure to delineate whether age itself, or the factors associated with age, are responsible for the results achieved. This area requires extremely careful analysis, since age, while a single variable, encompasses a multitude of related effects which must be evaluated separately before conclusions can be reached with any certainty. Only after analysis

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51 is completed can a synthesis, i-n terms of multivariate studies, be achieved. The instrument used to achieve a clear conceptualization of life satisfaction is seen as having changed its focus from an external construct in early research, to an internal construct in more recent research. The necessity of maintaining a measure of objectivity, to ensure philosophical tenability, has been seen as possible through the use of forced choice items and external validation. in addition, a value-free instrument is needed as is evaluation of an instrument's cross-cultural applicability. To evaluate the relevance of studies to Middle Eastern countries it is helpful to classify them as from developed countries or less-developed ones. At the same time, attention must be paid to whether the population studied was typical of that country. The major discrepancy that occurs after such an evaluation is the disagreement as to whether the aged are accorded more respect in developed or lessdeveloped nations. Completing the review is a section devoted to current Middle-Eastern research that illustrates the focus of present studies. That focus includes studies that utilize as variables sex, age as related to mobility, age as related to utilization of available social services, and satisfaction with available physical settings.

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52 This study was aneffort to expand the body of knowledge in the Middle-Eastern context, as well as to determine its effectiveness for cross-cultural generalization.

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CHAPTER III DESIGN OF THE STUDY Questionnaire responses to the correlates of life satisfaction were the data to be examined for the various subsamples. The independent variables were culture (Libyan and American), sex (Male and Female),"*' and age (Young and Old) . Analysis was focused on the differences between young and old subjects. However, it was necessary to first see if the culture and sex characteristics of the samples were such important sources of variance in responding that they could not be combined into a composite Young and a composite Old sample. Null Hypotheses In general, it was hypothesized that none of the differences in subject samples, consisting of different cultures, sexes, and ages, would lead to significantly different responses to the questionnaire. Specifically, three null hypotheses were formulated: Capitalization of the first letter denotes the word refers to the proper-noun name for the sample and that the wora is not a common noun. For example. Males means that subsample, while males refers to men in the population. 53

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54 1. There will be no statistically significant differences between Libyan and American responses when the four age and sex samples (Young Male, Old Male, Young Female, Old Female) are compared separately. 2. There will be no statistically significant diferences between Male and Female responses when the four culture and age samples (Libyan Young, Libyan Old, American Young, American Old) are compared separately. 3. There will be no statistically significant differences between Young and Old responses when the four culture and sex samples (Libyan Male, Libyan Female, American Male, American Female) are compared separately. Sample A total of 428 subjects were used in this study. Of these, 217 subjects were Libyan and 211 were American. Libyans . The younger Libyan subjects (53 males and 53 females) ranged in age from 18-24 years with a mean age of 19.51 years. They were enrolled in undergraduate education, philosophy, sociology, and psychology courses in the College of Arts and Education at Garyounis University, Benghazi, Libya in May, 1983 (see Tables 1 and 2). The older Libyan subjects (55 males and 54 females) ranged in age from 65 to

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TABLE 1. Age Distribution of the Subject Samples Sample N Mean Age Rang in Years Young Libyan Males Young Libyan Females Subtotal Old Libyan Males Old Libyan Females Subtotal Young American Males Young American Females Subtotal Old American Males Old American Females Subtotal Total 53 19.13 18-24 55 19.98 18-24 108 19.51 55 72.71 65-88 54 72.26 65-93 T09 72.48 51 21.69 18-24 59 22.12 18-24 110 21.90 50 71.40 65-89 51 72.90 65-94 101 72.18 428

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TABLE 2. Academic Sources of Young Libyan Subjects 56 rHl 4J 03 C 4-> 0 o O Eh O ro CN 00 ro LO 00 rH CN OD 00 CO in S-l aj u-i Cu o rH CN rH rH cn JJ c rH co cO OJ -Hi o o in CPi CN O U EH *H rH CN rH rH rH 4Jl co! CU I o -u I c CO &J 04 •H o l-H a* rin •vD cn rin rro lo o C •h co co • 03 O • — • z CJ o CN CN O ro ro rro co KO i ! 0 >i O H 0 C O > C CD 4J >1 •H -H -H cn co >i CO f-H CD JC +j o •H >1 c cn CD CO u a co JO CO cn £ cn o o rH l-l o 4-> O cn o •*H ( — ( 04 O CD 4J rH cn H U i-H c •H rH -u> O •H — H o CJ 03 4-J o o-i <0 co u SH O CO JO o > c •H u •H 1 — 1 C 0> -rH co O -H O O c cO 0 A 0 EH CO M O TO CD O 3 >, •H JO •H 03 4J x: D O O o jo o TO CO U 04 JO M CO K4 O O O 0 JO cn • rH cn OD •V T3 0^ Q 04 cn nr cn 63 w 63 < 319 53 55 108 100

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57 92 years of age, with a mean age of 72.48 years. See Table 1 for age distributions. Most of these subjects were related to the younger subjects tested (parents, grandparents, or other older relatives). Amer icans . The younger American subjects (51 males and 59 females) ranged in age from 18 to 24 years with a mean age of 21.90 years. These subjects were enrolled in undergraduate educational courses in the Department of Foundations of Education at the University of Florida during the Spring semester of 1983 (see Tables 1 and 3). The older American subjects (50 males and 51 females) ranged in age from 65 to 93 years of age, with a mean of 72.18 years. Most of these subjects were related (parents, grandparents, or other older relatives) to the young subjects tested. Instrumentation A personal inventory questionnaire (see Appendix A) was administered to all subjects. This questionnaire consists of two parts. Part I contains demographic information (age, sex, and culture). Part II consists of 44 correlates of life satisfaction representing four broad categories identified as relating to life satisfaction. These categories are: I. Physical and material correlates, II. Social relations, III. Activities, and iv. Psychological correlates. They were derived from the life

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TABLE 3. Academic Sources of Young American Subjects 53 4-) (0 C 4-> CM CM in fO p c •H to (0 tn CO o VO • 03 CN CN rH o — 1 CJ 03 c 1 (t) c fO C •H c o 4-1 •rH c N'H c c 4H D -C 4-1 -rH >1**H *H *rH rH to a 1-1 (0 4-1 Sh 4J rH 4J 4-> O T3 3 3 (13 O ro 0) 03 •rH rH CU CO . — 1 o -u u •rH C O Eh •rH (3 fC3 a w o < U O D x: 4 h Cl) > T3 •HT) W O *H -o p o s w w E W D CQ 4J CO m VO O ^r ro ro o 4-1 Cu p p p p a> Q a p p p w cu cu p VO CO VO VO o • • • • • 00 ro ro o rH CM rH rH o rH LO VO VO in i I o rH CN rH " 1 rH rH oo CN CN 00 i — i i — 1 < — 1 LO CN •^r r~ rH rH LO 03 i — 1 co tn 00 CN CO CO CN CM 1 — 1 ro 4J C d) 43 E i — 1 P Qu <0 >1 > O 4J 4J c cn O rH c c o o u a> a; cu •H 1 — ! u > o o 4J O 0) (0 CO to x: c P a) 0) CJ o (0 i — i rH 3 >i E -u o o T3 tO D C T3 't: CU P cn to c
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59 satisfaction literature with a major emphasis upon activity theory and disengagement theory. Because there is no existing cross-culturally appropriate scale, the researcher designed one to meet the needs of the current study. Special care was taken to assure the equivalence of questionnaires in both languages. The correlates of life satisfaction used were obtained, tested, and evaluated in the following manner: Forty-four correlates of life satisfaction were chosen from the psychology and sociology of aging literature because they characterize areas of concern to the older population as a whole and others because they are sexspecific. Also used in this selection were the two major theories of gerontology: Activity Theory, developed by Havighurst and Albrecht, 1953; and Disengagement Theory by Cumming and Henry, 1961. These two major theories have recently become the subject of inquiry in relation to areas related to life satisfaction. Larson (1978) reviewed 30 years of research on the "Subjective Well-Being for the Population of Americans over 60." "Well-Being" is a catchall term covering satisfaction and happiness in life as a whole, high morale, personal adjustment, good attitude toward life, competence, and what Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin (1961) called "successful aging." On the basis of the 70 references listed in his paper, Larson concluded

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60 that subjective well-being is consistently most strongly related to health, socioeconomic factors, and degree of social interaction. Larson presented a table in his paoer summarizing his findings. It will be presented in this study as Table 4 (Larson, 1978, p. 116). In addition to the Larson studies, life satisfaction was reported to be positively correlated to good health by Loeb, Pincus and Mueller (1963), Marshall and Eteng (1970), Zibbell (1971), Falkman (1972), Grithens (1975), Gerber (1976), Wolk and Telleen (1976), Sauer, Shehan, and Baymel (1976), Toseland and Sykes (1977); to self-related health by Snider (1980); and to income by Toseland and Sykes (1977) and Kivitt (1976). Edwards and Klemmack (1973) explored the relationship between 22 variables and life satisfaction and concluded that socioeconomic status is one of three variables that are the best life satisfaction predictors, with the other two being perceived as wealth, status, and continuing contact with the working world, through informal participation (see Table 5). Adams (1971) listed 53 correlates of satisfaction and found three main categories of these correlates. These are biological, psychological and sociological, and each particular correlate can be associated with decrements or increments of life satisfaction (see Table 6 ) .

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61 TABLE 4. Summary Table of Correlations of Major Life Satisfaction Variables with Subjective Well-Being Life Situation Variable Cor relati Coef f icie Health, physical disability .2 to .4 Socioeconomic variables .1 to .3 Age .0 to .1 Race .0 to .1 Sex .0 to .1 Employment .0 to .1 Marital status .1 to .2 Transportation .1 to .2 Housing .1 to .2 Social activity .1 to .3 Source: Larson, R. (1978). Thirty years of research on the subjective well-being of older Americans. Journal of Gerontology . 33(1), p. 116.

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62 TABLE 5. Relationship of Selected Variables with Life Satisfaction Variable Correlation Coefficient Socioeconomic Status Education . 24 Income . 33 Occupational status .12 Background Characteristics Age -.14 Sex -.01 Marital status . 14 Family size . 10 Time in area . 07 Community size -.02 Retired (head of household) -.06 Formal Participation Voting Voluntary association Church-related activities .05 .24 .19 Informal Familial Participation Visit relatives Visit children Informal Nonf amil ial Participation Visit neighbors . 16 Phone others . 13 Number of neighbors .09 Number of friends Health .04 Perceived health .19 Number of ailments last month . 06 Number of ailments last year -.07 Source: Edwards, J.N., & Klemmack, D.L. (1973). Correlates of life satisfaction: A re-examination. Journal of Gerontology , 28_(4), p. 499 .

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TABLE 6. Selected Correlates of Satisfaction, Personal Adjustment, Positive Self-Concept, SelfEsteem, "Morale," or Other Indicators of Psychological Well-Being2 ( + ) (-) (-) ( 0 ) (-) ( + ) (-) (-) (-) (-) ( + ) (+) ( + ) ( + ) ( 0 ) ( + ) ( + ) ( + ) (+) ( + } ( + ) ( + ) (+) ( + ) Biological Correlates good health (Jeffers & Nichols, 1961; Loeb et al 1963; Marshall i Eteng , 1970) physical disability (Lowenthal & Holer , 1965) advancing age (Kutner et al. ( 1956) advancing age (Maddox & Eisdorfer, 1962; Philblad & McNamara, 1965) t0 ° r 80 or thereafter (Loeb et al . , O J ) Psychological Correlates PeC 1962 t° n ° f health aS " good " ( Hansen & Yoshioka, PeC phUlips? f 1961 ) 33 "° ld " (HanSen ‘ Ioshioka ««> c ° ntraocin9 aipman ' »«> perception of relative deprivation (Phillips, 1961) feeiing of inadequacy by males or of rejection by females (Lieberman, 1960) 1 vocabulary^of motives" to justify low status (Gillesf avorable pre-retirement attitude (Thompson, 1953) P r ®~ co " c ®P tlo n of retirement (Thompson, 1958) belief m afterlife (Jeffers & Nichols, 1961) Sociological Correlat es; Personal Characteristics rural-urban residence (Hansen & Yoshioka, 1962) high socioeconomic status (Kutner et al . , 1956) 9 Etang? a i970) (HanSSn & Yoshioka ' Marshall & high income ^(Hansen & Yoshioka, 1962; Marshall & Eteng, 1970; Thompson, Streib & Kosa, 1963) “ lntenance (Lloyd, 1955; Loeb et al . , 19 63 ) 1953 adeqUaCy (Hansen & Yoshioka , 19ST;-Thorapson , home ownership (Hansen & Yoshioka, 1962) supported independence from family (Townsend, 1963) living alone, but not isolated (Loeb et al . , 1963) Sociological C orrelates; Roles and Role Changes continuity of life styles (Williams & wirths, 1965)

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TABLE 6 Continued (+) retaining past patterns of living (zbvorwski & Eyde , 1962) (+) higher role counts (Lipman & Smith, 1968; Tobin & Neugarten, 1961) (+) large social life span (Lipman, 1961; Tobin & Neugarten, 1961) (+) being married (Hansen & Yoshioka, 1962; Kutner at al . , 1956) (-) widowhood (Lopata, 1968; Lowenthal, 1965) ( + ) being employed (Hansen & Yoshioka, 1962; Kutner et al. , 1956) (-) retirement (Kutner _et al . , 1956; Lipman, 1961; Loeb et al., 1963; Lowenthal, 1965; Thompson, 1958 ) (+) retirement for females (Loeb et al . , 1963) ( + ) retirement for non-whites (Lloyd~1955 ) (+) length of retirement to 3-7 years, (-) thereafter (Marshall & Eteng, 1970) (+) if made preparations for retirement (Marshall & Eteng, 1970 ) (+) if retirement is voluntary (Thompson et al . , 1963) (0) if retirement is voluntary (Lowenthal, 19"65) (-) if reluctant to retire (Thompson, 1958) (-) if retired because of "poor health" (Marshall & Eteng, 1970 ) (+) if household tasks are assumed, by males, after retirement (Lipman, 1961) Sociological Correlates; Social Relations and Activities (+) high level of interaction (Anderson, 1967b; Lipman, 1961; Tobin, 1961) ( + ) high level of engagement (Lipman, 1961) (+) high level of activity (Maddox & Eisdorfer, 1962) (+) high level of social relations (Davis, 1962; Rosow, 1967 ) (+) high age density of neighborhood (Rosow, 1967) (+) if member of a reference group (Phillips, 1961) (+) if in a "useful contribution climate" (Filer & O'Connell, 1962) (+) high friendship association (Lemon et al., 1969; Lloyd, 1955) (-) loss of friends (Lopata, 1968) (-) inability to make new friends (Lopata, 1968) (+) if satisfied with amount of contact with friends and relatives (Loeb et al . , 1963) (+) high interpersonal relations with children, relatives and friends (Kutner et_ al_. , 1956) (+) if member of family group (Townsend, 1963) (0) level of association with relatives, neighbors, or formal or solitary activities (Lemon et. _al. , 1969 ) Source: Adams, D. (1971) . Correlates of satisfaction among the elderly. Gerontologist , 11 , p. 56. 2 All references in Table 6, pp. 63-64, will be found in the original article.

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65 Life satisfaction for older people was reported to have pos itive correlations with self-esteem by Vancoevering (1973) and Peterson (1974); with social class by Gerber (1976); with better housing by Carp (1975); with good transportation by Cutler (1975); with primary relationships by Zeglen (1976); and with social integration by Liang and Fairchild ( 1980 ) . Palmore and Luikart, in their study of health and social factors related to life satisfaction (1972), found that self-rated health was the strongest variable related to life satisfaction, and that activity, such as the involvement in social organization, was the second. Belief in internal control was the third strongest variable. They found that income and education were more strongly related to satisfaction among the younger middle-aged and among those with below average incomes. Also, they found that married persons have a higher level of life satisfaction than persons who are not married. McClelland (1982) found that positive self-concept is shown to be correlated with life satisfaction for the old people . Consideration of the above literature and other studies mentioned in the literature review in this study, suggests that many areas are correlated with life satisfaction of old people. The four broad areas chosen to be sampled with the questionnaire are as follows:

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66 — — gjH§.i^L.A nd material correl ates . Items to sample correlates were devised with regard to the available studies presented in this work. These correlates of life satisfaction were carefully chosen to fit both countries, the U.S.A. and Libya. This area is represented by the items below: 1. Feeling healthy 2. Having an adequate income 3. Having medical assistance available 4. Owning property 5. Having good food 6. Having good transportation 7 . Having good clothing 8. Having good living arrangements 9. Expecting an adequate income in the future 10. Being physically strong 11. Having privacy in your living quarters -L 1 • §o cjal relations . Opportunities for social interactions in both countries were considered. Family relations and friendships are emphasized in this questionnaire because this is where the social interaction occurs for the Libyan-Arab. This area is represented by the 11 items below: 1. Having children to be proud of 2. Living close to children 3. Having many friends

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67 4. Having a few ' close friends 5. Living with spouse 6. Living with friend ( s) 7. Living with relatives 3. Asssoci ating with older people 9. Having friendly neighbors 10. Living in the same community as 11. Associa ting with younger people HI • Ac t ivity . There are some kinds of activities that relate to old people, but that do not occur in both cultures, such as going on a cruise, dancing and other leisure activities and, therefore, were excluded from the questionnaire. The 11 items below were selected to represent this area. 1 . Using one ' s mind 2. Being able to travel 3. Watching good TV and listening to radio programs 4. Reading good books 5. Helping others in various ways Making new friends Participating in social organizations Visiting with close friend(s) Attending church/mosque Being physically active Having work to do 6 7 8 , 9, 10 . 11 .

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68 IV. Psychological needs. Self-concept and selfesteem, as well as spiritual fulfillment, are psychological needs in all societies. As self-esteem generally requires validation by others, the majority of items deal with psychological correlates requiring interaction. The 11 items below were selected to represnt this area. 1. Feeling loved by others 2. Being able to tell others what to do 3. Being respected by others 4. Being independent 5. Having a good education 6. Being respected for one's knowledge 7. Having an important job 8. Being an important person 9. Understanding oneself 10. Believing in God 11. Being needed by others The 44 items or correlates of life satisfaction classified into the four broad areas of concern were written on separate cards, shuffled to ensure random presentation and then typed in the order drawn. This pilot questionnaire was then administered to 40 subjects (20 Americans and 20 Arabs) equally representing the criterion for age, sex, and culture for the study. The pilot study showed that subjects could understand and rate the questionnaire items without difficulty.

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69 However, the mean score for agreement was well above the midpoint on the five-point Likert Scale and there were no Extremely Unimportant (1) and few Very U nimportant (2) choices. So the negative end of the scale was changed to Somewhat Important . See Appendix A for the rest of the scale point descriptions. The next concern was to maintain integrity of the questionnaire when translated from the English language to the Arabic language and to make the two forms equivalent. To establish this the following procedures were used: (a) Separate copies of the English version of the questionnaire were given to four judges (two professors and two graduate students) to translate into Arabic. These judges were selected by the following criteria. All were from social sciences and education at the University of Florida and all spoke Arabic as their native language . (b) The judges' translations were compared for each item and the translation that occurred most frequently and/or was the most appropriate for Libyan dialect was then used in a composite Arabic version. (c) The composite questionnaire was then given to a fifth judge who met the same criteria as the other judges. This judge was asked to translate

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70 the questionnaire from Arabic back to English. To prevent any bias, the original English version was withheld from this judge. (d) The translation was then compared to the original English version by the dissertation committee and approved for use after very minor changes. Table 7 gives a summary picture of the distribution of item scores on the questionnaire. In actual application it can be seen that the means are near the center point of the five-point scale. Thus, it is apparent that ratings were not piled up at the extremes for the items. Of course, a few such as Belief in God, did pile up at the Important end of the scale for the Libyans. Standard deviations are large enough to confirm that responses to items were well dispersed, hence, not seriously skewed. Data Collection The young subjects (n = 218) used in this study volunteered to fill out the questionnaire during their individual classes. Of this young group, the majority agreed to take home a second (and in some cases, third or fourth) questionnaire (n = 372 copies distributed) and administer it to an elderly relative (parent, grandparent or other relative). These "interviewers" were instructed to read aloud the items if necessary, as well as record the responses of the older relatives. The questionnaires were

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71 Table 7. Distribution of Grand Means and Standard Deviations for Questionnaire Items Arithme tic Mean Std. Deviation Sample N Total Range Total Range Young Libyan Males 53 3.45 1.91-4.91 .62 0.30-1.55 Old Libyan Males 55 3.25 2.11-4.95 .64 0.23-1.66 Young Libyan Females 55 3.30 2.11-4.98 .65 0.13-1.53 Old Libyan Females 54 3.18 2.06-4.93 .66 0.26-1.47 Young American Males 51 3.25 1.82-4.49 .64 0.79-1.51 Old American Males 50 3.11 2.05-4.61 .45 0.65-1.48 Young American Females 59 3.42 2.22-4.12 .63 0.90-1.55 Old American Females 51 3.34 2.04-4.93 .59 0.80-1.52

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72 then to be returned by mail to the researcher in the supplied envelopes. It was felt that these young subjects could not know what would typify a "right" or "wrong" answer on the questionnaire. This method of data collection for the older subjects was used for several reasons. First, it was felt that the young subjects' familiarity with the older subjects would lessen this group's resistance to the questionnaire. Second, this method would avoid problems due to pre-existing health or literacy conditions. Third, this procedure provided a broader geographic sampling by increasing the possible localities for testing by allowing the young subjects to take the questionnaire home. A total of 590 questionnaires were administered in this study with 428 (72.5%) returned. The American sample's (male and female, young and old) return rate was 71.3, while that for the Libyan sample was 73.8. Limitation of the Research Design Survey design commonly is used for life satisfaction studies. Factors associated with life satisfaction cannot be controlled by the experimenter because they are wholelife factors. Therefore, experimental designs have not been used in the area of life satisfaction. High death rate among the elderly is another reason that justifies using survey rather than longitudinal designs in this area.

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Survey research, however, is far from useless. It enables the . researcher to become broadly knowledgeable 73 about the social environment that contains the factors he or she is testing. It is preferred because it provides a great deal of information economically. Often, there is considerable difference between what people say and how they really behave. Questionnaire items, tell us what people say about themselves, and while not always valid, do provide information. There is no convenient way to assess correlates of life satisfaction except to ask for opinions. To answer the questionnaire items, the young must project themselves into the future, or put themselves in the place of an elderly person living now. This speculative task will produce what they think would be important and will differ from what jjs important for the aged. The responses of youth will be inaccurate, as judged by the criterion of what is (or will be) important for the aged; still, there is no other information that they can give us. Logically, then, differences between the responses of young and old cannot be attributed wholly to what is impor tant to them. There are many reasons the older subjects may respond to the questionnaire with misleading responses. Some are illiterate and, even though helped by oral administration, may make mistakes by not being able to refer to the written

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74 material. Some of the aged have sensory handicaps that could lead to misunderstanding. Others may be confused because of mental decline, especially the subjects who need oral administration, or may be reluctant to express true opinions in front of the examiner (friend or relative). Analysis of Data All data were transferred to coding sheets. The 44 scores from the questionnaire, along with the three scores designating subject sample characteristics for the subject (culture, sex, age) were punched on a single IBM card for each subject. First, subscale scoring of the instrument was explored. Factor analysis is the appropriate procedure. After trying to develop subscales without success, it was decided that all further analyses would be based upon all 44 questionnaire items. Several step-wise multiple regression equations were developed to explore the relationships between the questionnaire items and the sample characteristics. A separate analysis was made of the different subject sample characteristics (culture, sex, age). The findings reported in Chapter IV, Results, are organized to emphasize differences in the three major subject samples. Tables are presented to show the order of importance for items that distinguish one sample from another. These three different sections examine:

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75 1. The differences in cultures that prevented the combining of samples from different cultures, and 2. The differences in sex that made it necessary to consider separately the findings and implications for men and women, and 3. The differences between Young and Old, which is the main focus of the dissertation.

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CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The basic data of this research consist of the responses from subjects in each of the eight subject samples to the questionnaire asking them to indicate how important each of the listed 44 correlates of life satisfaction would be to people over 65 years of age. The data can be summarized in terms of tables of the mean rating for each of the 44 correlates of life satisfaction for each of the eight samples. Examination of these individual tables would be meaningful and comparisons among them could be made. However, the volume of data is so great that most readers would prefer to examine the same data but assembled to simplify comparisons of the samples, first by culture, then sex, and then by age. These tables of comparison are presented shortly in the main text. Eight taoles of the means for the 44 items, in rank order of importance for each sample, are presented in Appendix 3 as Tables B.l through B.8. The intercor relations of the samples across the 44 means for items were calculated for a factor analysis. The highest correlation was .95 between the responses of American Young Male and Female subjects. The corresponding value for the responses 76

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77 of Libyan Young subjects was .80 between Male and Female subjects. The responses of Old American Male and Female subjects correlated .91, while the corresponding value for the responses of Libyan subjects of that age group was .90. Culture was the most important determinant for responding to the questionnaire. By merging the four Libyan samples and then merging the four American samples, the cultural differences are preserved. American subjects agreed with each other most often, with an average intercorrelation of .83. The intercorrelation among Libyan subject responses averaged .78. However, the average intercor relation between the Libyan and American subject responses was only .41. Factor analysis of the matrix of the eight samples confirms the two strong cultural factors. Table 8 gives Varimax factor loadings that illustrate the differences and similarities between samples. The first factor had heaviest loadings for the Young Libyan samples, both Male and Female, with even higher loadings for the Old Libyan subjects, so it is called the Old Libyan factor. The second factor shows heaviest loadings for the Young American subjects, both Male and Female, along with large loadings for the Old American subjects. Because loadings are heavier for the Young subjects, it is called the Young American factor, with emphasis on culture rather than age. The third factor shows moderate loadings for

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78 TABLE 8. Varimax Rotated Factors of the Responses by Eight Subject Samples Subject Responses Factors Old Libyan Young American Self-Centered Basic Physical Needs Libyan young Male .05 .74 .46 Libyan Old Male .25 .90 .03 Libyan Young Female . 34 .83 .27 Libyan Old Female .16 .91 .00 American Young Male .96 .17 -.04 American Old Male .71 .34 .53 American Young Female .94 .22 .01 American Old Female .85 .19 .41

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79 for the Yo ng Libyan Male sample, the Old American Male sample, an Old American Female sample. The factor seems to show th focus of concern is on the subjects' own welfare. oung American Males and Females, imbued with humanism, o not load on this factor. This factor is tentativel named Self-Centered Basic Physical Needs. Rotation t oblique simple structure did not change the nature of hese three factors and what they reveal about the eight amples. Following the results of testing the null hypotheses derived fr m stepwise regression analysis will be a separate a alysis, consisting of three sections, each dealing wi h one of the null hypotheses and containing four table: each. Associated discussion will set forth the import nt differences in responses between subject samples. 711 tables of differences between culture, sex, and age, t< be presented following the results, are based upon data lat showed overall statistically significant differences . The results of testing the null hypotheses, as derived from regret 3ion analysis, are first presented in detail. The ni nber of variables (correlates of life satisfaction) that vere allowed to enter each stepwise regression equation were limited to the number sufficient to produce a £ . 001 .

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80 Results of Testing the Nul l Hy pothese s Results of Testing H y pothesis One The predominating differences noted between samples from the Libyan subjects and from the American subjects permit the combination of subsamples of different sex and age within each culture. Thus, only one regression analysis was generated for cultural difference and it gave an overall jo value of less than .001 with 10 correlates of life satisfaction in the equation. This information appears in Table 9, along with descriptions of the items. The first null hypothesis of this study states that none of the differences in subject samples, consisting of ^iffsrent cultures, will lead to significantly different responses in perceived correlates of life satisfaction. In order to examine hypothesis 1, several stepwise multiple regression equations were developed to explore the relationship between the 44 correlates of life satisfaction and the sample characteristics. To restate the original hypothesis: H0 1 : There will be no statistically significant differences between Libyan and American responses shown when the four age and sex samples (Young Male, Old Male, Young Female, Old Female) are compared separately. The results of testing hypothesis 1 are illustrated by

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81 TABLE 9. Multi Membe Satis Libya pie Regression to Identify Subgroup rship from the 44 Correlates of Life faction: Culture Differences Between ns and Americans Regression Items F-Ratio Slope Descr ipt ion 1 13.61 .046 Being Needed By Others 4 12.50 .046 Associating With Younger People 6 12.17 -.050 Understanding Oneself 11 17.82 -.052 Living With Relatives 12 84 . 21 -.129 Believing In God 13 28.90 .075 Having Good Food 24 53.21 -.091 Being Able To Tell Others What To Do 40 19.27 .054 Expecting Adequate Income In Future 41 17.47 .054 Having A Few Close Friends 44 14.86 -.051 Visiting With Close Friends *Libyan = 1, American = 2. F-ratio = 64.12, d.f. = 10,417, p = .001

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82 Table 9, which combines all four subject samples relevant tnis hypothesis. Separate tables for each of the four subject samples will be presented in more detail in the discussion section, using a separate analysis. Details about the differences between subject samples (culture, sex, and age) will be presented in separate analyses in the discussion section, and illustrated there by Tables 18-29. Tables 9-17, obtained from stepwise multiple regression analysis, show the items that discriminate between samples. So, Table 9 shows that the correlate Being Needed By Others ( 1 ) ^ entered the equation first and has a coefficient with a positive sign. The sign indicates that this first term in the prediction equation adds to the value of the predicted y, that is, the contribution is in the direction of y = 2, which is the coded score for Americans. The second item. Associating with Young People (4), also has a positive sign so it is in the American direction. The third variable listed. Understanding Oneself (6), has a negative coefficient so a high score on it causes a reduction in the predicted y value, so it is associated with Libyans who are coded 1. ^Capitalization of the first letter of each word of a correlate of life satisfaction will be employed to make it easier for the reader to recognize when the proper noun name of an item is intended, rather than being common words in a sentence .

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83 As indicated in Table 9, the overall F-ratio of 64.12 has a corresponding £ value of less than .001. The hypothesis attributing differences between cultures to chance _is rejected . The differences between cultures will be described in detail in the discussion section of this chapter . Subsequent tables will also be presented here without discussion of the discriminating items. Results of Testing Hypothesis Two Tables 10 through 13 deal with testing the null hypothesis related to sex differences. To restate the original hypothesis: HC >2 There will be no statistically significant differences between Male and Female responses shown when the four culture and age samples (Libyan Young, Libyan Old, American Young, American Old) are compared separately. Since the differences in responses by sex were found to be less pronounced than cultural differences, it was necessary to examine observed differences between samples who are of the same culture and age, but differ in sex. The first two analyses were made for Libyan subjects and produced overall F -ra tios that have corresponding £ values of less than .001. The second two analyses, for Americans, produced F-ratios that also have £ values of less than .001. The differences between sexes were small enough to be accounted for by only a few items in each of the four sex

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84 TABLE 10. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Sex Differences Between the Libyan Young Regression Items F-Ratio Slope Description 11 52.89 -.202 Living With Relatives 33 7.21 .079 Having Work To Do Male = 1, Female = 2. F-ratio = 29.63, d.f. = 2,105, TABLE 11. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Sex Differences Between the Libyan Old Regression I terns F-Ratio Slope Description 4 3.90 .079 Associating With Younger People 5 18.98 -.146 Having Good Living Arrangements 15 5.14 -.117 Living With Spouse 36 3.34 -.066 Feeling Healthy Male = 1 , p = .001 Female = 2. F-ratio = 9.75, d.f. = 4,104,

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85 TABLE 12. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Sex Differences Between the American Young Regression I terns F-Ratio Slope Description 1 8.74 .164 Being Needed By Others Male = £ = .001 1, Female = 2. F-ratio = 8.74, d.f. = 1,108, TABLE 13. Multiple Regression Membership from the Satisfaction: Sex D American Old to Identify Subgroup 44 Correlates of Life ifferences Between the Regression Items F-Ratio Slope Description 24 9.65 -.112 Being Able To Tell Others What To Do 32 13.00 .150 Being Physically Strong Male = 1, Female = 2. F-ratio = 9.09, d.f. = 2.98, £ = .001

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86 differences regression analyses. In the case of differences between American Young Male and Female subjects, only one item, Being Needed By Others (1) entered the equation (F-ratio with £ greater than .001). The lower overall discrimination between sexes for the Americans and the smaller number of discriminating differences are consistent with discussion of the tables to be presented in the discussion section of this chapter as to how closely the present generation of American college students resemble one another regardless of sex. The largest difference between subject samples, as indicated by the size of overall F-ratio, is between Young Libyan Male and Female subjects. The null hypothesis attributing differences between Males and Females to chance is rejected. Results of Testing Hypothesis Three The last four tables, Tables 14-17, deal with testing the null hypothesis related to age differences. To restate the original hypothesis: HO^ There will be no statistically significant differences between Young and Old responses shown when the four culture and sex samples (Libyan Male, Libyan Female, American Male, American Female) are analyzed separately. All four analyses had F-ratios with corresponding £ values

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87 TABLE 14. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Age Differences Between Libyan Males Regression Items F-Ratio Slope Description 3 12.66 .094 Being Independent 4 11.86 -.097 Associating With Younger People 11 46.00 -.174 Living With Relatives 15 15.94 .133 Living With Spouse *Old = 1, Young = 2. F-ratio = 26.66, d.f. = 4,103, £ = .001 TABLE 15. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Age Differences Between Libyan Females Regression Items F-Ratio Slope Description 5 8.01 -.083 Having Good Living Arrangements 17 7.42 .090 Watching TV And Listening To Radio 36 25.46 -.175 Feeling Healthy *Old = 1, Young = 2. F-ratio = 16.72, d.f. = 3,105, P = .001

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88 TABLE 16. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Age Differences Between American Males Regression I terns F-Rat io Slope Description 3 8.55 -.102 Being Independent 28 14 . 34 • 111 Attending Church 44 20.13 -.166 Visiting With Close Friends * Old = £ = .001 1, Young = 2. F-rat io = 14.59, d.f. = 3.97, TABLE 17. Multiple Regression to Identify Subgroup Membership from the 44 Correlates of Life Satisfaction: Age Differences Between American Females Regression Items F-Ratio Slope Description 1 22.71 -.196 Being Needed By Others 28 7.09 .080 Attending Church *Old = £ = .001 1, Young = 2. F-r atio = 13.10, d.f. = 2,107,

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89 of less than .001. Again, the largest F-ratios were for Libyans, between Young and Old Males. This reflects the changes taking place in the society because, in constrast to the Old, the Young Males are the college students actively pursuing their futures in the modern world. The null hypothesis attributing differences between responses for Young and Old to chance is rejected. Discussion Cultural Differences As mentioned previously, the differences between cultures in subjects' responses were significant and hypothesis one was rejected. Additional analyses were made to detail the differences between American and Libyan subjects' responses and are presented in Tables 18-29. This section deals with a comparison of the responses of the Libyan and the American subjects in the two different age samples and the two different sex samples. It was assumed that sizable differences would be found that could be attributed to cultural differences and, therefore, that the data for each cultural sample should be analyzed separately. Results of the analysis supports the wisdom of this decision. Of course, the largest difference between culture lies in the area of religion. Table 18 reveals that the

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90 TABLE 18. Cultural Differences Between Responses of Libyan and American Young Male Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio NO. ITEM MEANS DIFFERENCE t-RATIO DESCRIPTION Libyan Amer . 11 Living with relatives 4.57 1.82 2.74 16.05 41 Having a few close friends 1.91 3.80 -1.90 8.96 24 Being able to tell others what to do 3.85 1.98 1.87 8.47 12 Believing in God 4.91 3.12 1.79 8.33 28 Attending church 4.23 2.59 1.64 7.35 3 Being independent 2.23 3.61 -1.38 5.69 26 Living close to children 4.23 3.00 1.23 5.44 25 Reading good books 3.47 2.59 0.88 3.50 1 3eing needed by others 3.32 4.14 -0.82 3.44 38 Having privacy in living 2.96 3.73 -0.76 3.33 40 Expecting adequate income in future 2.96 3.76 -0.80 3.31 7 Having friendly neighbors 3.96 3.27 0.69 3.20 19 Having good clothing 3.32 2.55 0.77 3.15 17 Watching TV and listening to radio 2.87 2.08 0.79 3.04 33 Having work to do 3.06 3.71 -0.65 2.73 34 Being physically active 3.08 3.61 -0.53 2.50 22 Feeling loved by others 4.04 4.49 -0.45 2.37 35 Having children to be proud of 4.13 3.57 0.56 2.33 37 Having an adequate income 3.25 3.75 -0.50 2.29 30 Living in same community as relatives 3.13 2.55 0.58 2.27 27 Having good transportation 3.72 3.29 0.42 1.99 31 Having good education 3.34 2.80 0.54 1.91 2 Owning property 2.87 2.41 0.46 1.83 13 Having good food 3.83 3.45 0.38 1.78 8 Helping others in various ways 3.66 3.25 0.41 1.73 15 Living with spouse 3.81 3.39 0.42 1.62 29 Making new friends 3.25 2.88 0.36 1.60 18 Associating with older people 3.38 3.02 0.36 1.56 21 Being able to travel 2.60 2.98 -0 . 38 1.44 9 Having medical assistance available 4.15 4.43 -0.28 1.35 6 Understanding oneself 3.96 4.14 -0.17 0.77 14 Participating in social organizations 3.11 2.94 0.17 0.70 20 Having many friends 3.42 3.27 0.14 0.67 16 Being respected by others 4.15 4.02 0.13 0.65 43 Being respected for one's knowledge 3.42 3.27 0.14 0.57 4 Associating with younger people 2.91 2.80 0.10 0.41 10 Having an important job 2.49 2.59 -0.10 0.36 39 Living with friends 2.45 2.37 0.08 0.34 5 Having good living arrangements 3.77 3.82 -0.05 0.24 44 Visiting with close friends 3.72 3.67 0.05 0.23 36 Feeling healthy 3.87 3.90 -0.03 0.16 42 Being an important person 2.96 2.98 -0.02 0.07 23 Using one's mind 4.15 4.14 0.01 0.07 32 Being physically strong 3.25 3.25 -0.01 0.04

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91 Young Libyan Male subjects rate Believing In God (12) at the top of correlates of life satisfaction, with a mean of 4.91, while the mean for the American subjects is only 3.12. Only slightly less important is Attending Church/ Mosque (28) which the Young Libyan Males also rate as more important than do the American subjects. The reader is reminded that Appendix B contains the complete list of correlates of life satisfaction in rank order of importance for each of the eight subject samples (Tables B.l through B.8). As a support system and satisfier of most psychological needs, the Libyan home and family predominates. In contrast, the broken home in America is very common and even intact homes often manifest discontent and instead of supplying satisfaction, amplify disappointment. The differences between the two cultures for Young Male subjects shows that Libyan subjects rate as more important Living With Relatives (11), with an extremely high mean of 4.57 compared with the mean rating of 1.82 by American subjects. Similarly, the Young Libyan Male subjects rate as more important: Living Close To Children (26), Having Friendly Neighbors (7), and Living In Same Community As Relatives (30). In Libyan society, there is a tradition of accepting the responsibility for one another. The aged can count on the family to look after them, and a high value is placed on caring for elderly family members.

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92 In contrast to the close personal family interactions valued by the Libyans in the study, the American Young Male subjects give more importance to Having A Few Close Friends (41), Feeling Loved By Others (22), and Being Needed By Others (1). Rapid modernization in Libya undoubtedly has had a backlash effect, resulting in the Libyan respondents placing a high value on maintaining family relationships. The Young Libyan Male rates higher than the American: Having Children To Be Proud Of (35) and Being Able To Tell Others What To Do (24). These endorsements reflect Arab pride which the young will try to preserve in these changing times. The Young American Male subjects rated Being Independent (3) and Having Privacy In Living (38) higher than did their Libyan counterparts, perhaps due to the extremely high divorce rates in the United States. Wariness of close family ties is an echoing theme in American responses. Both cultures show a materialistic concern for having things, but the Libyan Young Male is more specific in what is important to him: Reading Good Books (25), Having Good Clothing (19), and Watching TV And Listening to Radio (17). Perhaps these things are valued more by the Young Libyan Male because they are harder to obtain in Libya, whereas they are taken for granted in the United States. Correlates of life satisfaction rated highest by American Young Male subjects are: Having Adequate Income

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93 (37), Expecting Adequate Income In Future (40), Having Work To Do (33), Being Physically Active (34), and Being Able To Have Privacy In Living (38). These are all less specific than the comforts and conveniences chosen as more important by the Libyans. Table 19 shows cultural differences in the responses of Old Males. This table resembles the one for Young Males very closely. In fact, the differences between Libyans and Americans for Young and Old Males shown in the tables correlate .82. To avoid repeating comments on the cultural differences already mentioned for the previous table, only items with different directions between the Young and the Old will be discussed. Comparison of the Old Males in the two cultures shows that the Libyan subjects emphasize more Being An Important Person (42) and understanding Oneself (6). Having Good Living Arrangements (5) is also more important to the Old Libyan subjects than to Old American subjects. The Old Libyan's endorsement of these three items suggests that behind them lie attempts to maintain patriarchal pride, rather than a genuine commitment. The American Old Male subjects rate as more important Having Good Food (13) and Having Good Transportation (27). Americans have come to expect more from an affluent society. Libyans still count their blessings one-by-one .

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94 TABLE 19. Cultural Differences Between Responses of Libyan and American Old Male Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio NO. ITEM MEANS DIFFERENCE tRAT 10 DESCRIPTION Libyan Amer . 12 Believing in God 4.98 3.80 1.18 5.61 42 Being an important person 3.89 2.52 1.37 5.48 24 Being able to tell others what to do 3.93 2.60 1.33 4.93 43 Being respected for one's knowledge 3.89 2.74 1.15 4.57 15 Living with spouse 4.47 3.62 0.85 4.32 6 Understanding oneself 4.22 3.30 0.92 3.93 40 Expecting adequate income in future 2.62 3.44 -0.82 3.39 16 Being respected by others 4.35 3.58 0.77 3.27 35 Having children to be proud of 4.13 3.34 0.79 3.25 9 Having medical assistance available 3.35 4.12 -0.77 3.20 13 Having good food 3.11 3.74 -0.63 2.S6 27 Having good transportation 2.89 3.58 -0.69 2.77 23 Using one's mind 4.15 3.52 0.63 2.54 44 Visiting with close friends 3.35 2.80 0.55 2.28 41 Having a few close friends 2.45 3.02 -0.57 2.18 5 Having good living arrangements 3.91 3.44 0.47 2.04 36 Feeling healthy 3.51 3.96 -0.45 1.92 14 Participating in social organizations 2.35 2.82 -0.47 1.88 37 Having an adequate income 3.18 3.64 -0.46 1.89 4 Associating with younger people 2.11 2.54 -0.43 1.87 39 Living with friends 2.65 2.22 0.43 1.73 1 Being needed by others 3.69 3.28 0.41 1.52 11 Living with relatives 2.89 2.50 0.39 1.43 22 Feeling loved by others 4.05 3.72 0.33 1.39 8 Helping others in various ways 2.93 3.26 -0.33 1.39 34 Being physically active 3.00 3.32 -0 .32 1.35 25 Reading good books 2.64 2.98 -0.34 1.30 21 Being able to travel 2.84 2.52 0.32 1.23 17 Watching TV and listening to radio 2.71 2.40 0.31 1.24 26 Living close to children 3.22 2.94 0.28 1.04 28 Attending church 3.75 3.46 0.29 1.00 30 Living in same community as relatives 2.73 2.96 -0.23 0.90 10 Having an important job 2.27 2.50 -0.23 0.85 7 Having friendly neighbors 3.25 3.04 0.21 0.83 38 Having privacy in living 2.93 3.10 -0.17 0.74 20 Having many friends 2.87 3.06 -0.19 0.72 18 Associating with older people 2.93 2.78 0.15 0.61 3 Being independent 2.78 2.92 -0.14 0.56 2 Owning property 2.89 2.74 0.15 0.56 19 Having good clothing 2.78 2.92 -0.14 0.54 32 Being physically strong 3.22 3.10 0.12 0.49 33 Having work to do 3.16 3.08 0.08 0.34 31 Having good education 2.91 2.98 -0.07 0.27 29 Making new friends 2.98 3.04 -0.06 0.22

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95 Table 20 deals with the cultural differences in responses found for Young Females. As expected, the Libyan Young Females place Believing In God (12) at the top of the list of importance, followed farther down by Attending Church/Mosque (28). The Young Females' responses indicating the importance of Living With Relatives (11) is stronger for Libyans than it is for Americans. The greater importance given to a wide variety of items indicates the more diffuse way the American Young Female subjects satisfy their social needs. Items higher in importance for the Young American Female subjects are: Associating With Young People (4), Having Many Friends (20), Having A Few Close Friends (41), Being Needed By Others (1), Feeling Loved By Others (27), and Participating In Social Organizations (14). With the break-up of the home and family, the Young American Female respondents fear that as they age they may lose these less focused ways of satisying social needs and then would be left with nothing. The Young Libyan Female respondents affirm the greater importance of correlates of life satisfaction generally valued in their society. Items more important for the Young Libyan Female respondents than for the American sample are: Being Respected By Others (16), Being Able To Tell Others What To Do (24), and Having Children To Be Proud Of ( 35 ) .

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96 TABLE 20. Cultural Differences Between Responses of Libyan and American Young Female Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio HO. ITEM MEANS DIFFERENCE tRAT 10 DESCRIPTION Libyan Amer . 12 3elieving in God 4.95 3.37 1.57 8.04 24 3eing able to tell others what to do 3.58 2.20 1.38 6.22 41 Having a few close friends 2.47 3.88 -1.41 6.20 1 Being needed by others 3.33 4.59 ' -1.27 5.30 40 Expecting adequate income in future 2.45 3.78 -1.33 5.29 3 Being independent 2.42 3.56 -1.14 5.11 38 Having privacy in living 3.04 3.86 -0.83 3.37 11 Living with relatives 2.98 2.05 0.93 3.64 28 Attending church 3.98 3.14 0.85 3.37 20 Having many friends 2.69 3.44 -0.75 3.36 4 Associating with younger people 2.47 3.19 -0.71 2.99 9 Having medical assistance available 3.87 4.46 -0.53 2.84 14 Participating in social organizations 2.84 3.51 -0.67 2.82 22 Feeling loved by others 4.07 4.61 -0.54 2.68 37 Having an adequate income 3.15 3.78 -0.63 2.67 35 Having children to be proud of 4.11 3.53 0.53 2.65 2 Owning property 2.15 2.63 -0.48 2.19 16 Being respected by others 4.49 4.17 0.32 2.00 10 Having an important job 2.11 2.56 -0.45 1.94 15 Living with spouse 3.53 3.95 -0.42 1.86 31 Having good education 3.00 2.56 0.44 1.79 7 Having friendly neighbors 3.75 3.36 0.39 1.54 30 Living in same community as relatives 3.40 3.02 0.38 1.45 6 Understanding oneself 4.11 3.81 0.30 1.40 13 Having good food 3.33 3.64 -0 .32 1.38 5 Having good living arrangements 3.84 4.10 -0.27 1.35 17 Watching TV and listening to radio 2.40 2.14 0.26 1.27 18 Associating with older people 3.02 3 . 29 -0.27 1.16 34 Being physically active 3.29 3.56 -0.27 1.16 23 Using one's mind 4.11 4.34 -0.23 1.06 19 Having good clothing 3.07 2.83 0.24 1.04 43 Being respected for one's knowledge 3.82 3.58 0.24 1.01 33 Having work to do 3.58 3.78 -0 . 20 0.90 26 Living close to children 3.22 3.42 -0.21 0.80 39 Living with friends 2.27 2.46 -0.18 0.74 44 Visiting with close friends 3.73 3.85 -0.12 0 .52 42 Being an important person 3.29 3.15 0.14 0.51 8 Helping others in various ways 3.67 3.56 0.11 0.49 36 Feeling healthy 4.18 4.25 -0.07 0.39 29 Making new friends 3.25 3.15 0.10 0.38 25 Reading good books 2.80 2.88 -0.08 0.34 32 Being physically strong 3.29 3.36 -0.07 0.27 21 Being able to travel 2.82 2.80 0.02 0.09 27 Having good transportation 3.44 3.42 0.01 0.06

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97 The Young Libyan Female makes fewer demands for material things as opposed to Young American Female respondents who rank the following correlates of life satisfaction as most important for the aged: Owning Property (2), Having An Adequate Income (37), Expecting Adequate Income In The Future (40), Being Independent (3), Being Able To Have Privacy In Living (38), and Having Medical Assistance Available (9). Since the differences in responses between cultures shown by the Old Females in Table 20 correlate .83 with those for the Young Females, the main cultural differences need not be repeated in discussing this table. Only two of the 25 salient cultural differences in responses between Old Female samples are not affirmed by the Young Females (Table 20). These will be examined. The Old Libyan Female subjects feel that Living With Friends (39) is more important than do the Young Female subjects. Older Libyan females reject living alone, are not accustomed to it, and would rather live with a friend if they can't live with family. The importance the Young American Female subjects gave to Living With Friends (39) may relate to the prevalance of living with men without being married. The Old American Female subjects feel that Having Good Transportation (27) is more important than do the Libyans. But the Old American Female subjects depend upon

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98 transportation to keep from being cut off from their businesses, contacts, and friends as they are growing older . Sex Differences The present section deals with a comparison of the Males and the Females for the two different age samples for Libyans and the two for Americans. Hypothesis two assumed that these sex differences would be sizeable and, therefore, data from each sex sample should be analyzed separately. Results of the analysis confirm the wisdom of this procedure. Libyan Young Female subjects are finding their freedom and they love it. They fear losing it, especially when they are old. Accordingly, the Females regard as less important than do the Male subjects: Living With Relatives (11), Living Close To Children (26), and Having Many Friends (20) (see Table 22). On the other hand, Male subjects cling desperately to the family, fearing the loss of it through technological and accompaning social change. The Male subjects may not be as dedicated to the family in practice as they say they are, but probably have a genuine fear of losing "the good old days." Female subjects tend to be somewhat relieved over the social changes that permit them to have greater autonomy in their lives.

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99 TABLE 21. Cultural Differences Between Responses of Libyan and American Old Female Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio NO. ITEM MEANS DIFFERENCE t-RATIO DESCRIPTION Libyan Amer . 24 Being able to tell others what to do 3.94 2.04 1.91 8.55 42 Being an important person 4.06 2.35 1.70 7.69 36 Feeling healthy 3.09 4.20 -1.10 5.77 40 Expecting adequate income in future 2.48 3.96 -1.48 5.74 37 Having an adequate income 2.91 4.10 -1.19 5.01 13 Having good food 2.87 3.96 -1.09 4.99 11 Living with relatives 3.39 2.24 1.15 4.96 3 Being independent 2.35 3.43 -1.08 4.93 12 Believing in God 4.93 4.04 0.89 4.59 27 Having good transportation 2.78 3.82 -1.05 4.50 5 Having good living arrangements 2.87 3.80 -0.93 3.35 9 Having medical assistance available 3.54 4.39 -0.86 3.77 38 Having privacy in living 2.91 3.75 -0.84 3.41 32 Being physically strong 2.96 3.73 -0.76 3.39 35 Having children to be proud of 4.17 3.49 0.68 3.20 33 Having work to do 2.81 3.51 -0 .69 2.83 34 Being physically active 3.24 3.82 -0.58 2.55 4 Associating with younger people 2.43 3.00 -0.57 2.53 43 Being respected for one's knowledge 3.59 3.00 0.59 2.45 17 Watching TV and listening to radio 2.98 2.41 0.57 2.36 41 Having a few close friends 2.81 3.41 -0 . 60 2.33 20 Having many friends 2.44 2.94 -0.50 2.29 6 Understanding oneself 4.28 3.84 0.43 2.11 39 Living with friends 2.57 2.06 0.52 2.11 16 Being respected by others 4.24 3.80 0.44 2.04 26 Living close to children 2.74 3.22 -0.47 1.97 15 Living with spouse 4.06 3.65 0.41 1.83 2 Owning property 2.52 2.96 -0.44 1.76 10 Having an important job 2.06 2.43 -0.38 1.74 19 Having good clothing 2.46 2.82 -0.36 1.61 28 Attending church 4.04 3.61 0.43 1.55 7 Having friendly neighbors 3.17 3.49 -0.32 1 . 49 25 Reading good books 2.69 3.04 -0.35 1.41 31 Having good education 2.70 3.00 -0.30 1.14 21 Being able to travel 2.78 3.02 -0.24 1.07 30 Living in same community as relatives 2.74 2.96 -0.22 1.02 29 Making new friends 2.89 3.10 -0.21 0.93 14 Participating in social organizations 2.74 2.96 -0.22 0.88 22 Feeling loved by others 4.31 4.16 0.16 0.76 23 Using one's mind 4.15 3.98 0.17 0.74 44 Visiting with close friends 3.06 3.22 -0.16 0.68 8 Helping others in various ways 3.28 3.35 -0.08 0.33 18 Associating with older people 3.09 3.16 -0.06 0 . 26 1 Being needed by others 3.74 3.78 -0.04 0.17

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ion TABLE 22. Sex Differences Between Responses of Libyan Young Hale and Libyan Young Female Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio NO. ITEM MEANS DIFFERENCE t-RATIO DESCRIPTION Male Female 11 Living with relatives 4.57 2.98 1.58 7.09 26 Living close to children 4.23 3.22 1.01 4.02 20 Having many friends 3.42 2.69 0.72 3.16 2 Owning property 2.87 2.15 0.72 2.79 41 Having a few close friends 1.91 2.47 -0 .57 2.57 25 Reading good books 3.47 2.82 0.65 2.53 13 Having good food 3.83 3.33 0.50 2.21 33 Having work to do 3.06 3.58 -0.53 2.07 17 Watching TV and listening to radio 2.87 2.40 0 . 47 1.97 16 Being respected by others 4.15 4.49 -0.34 1.94 40 Expecting adequate income in future 2.96 2.45 0.51 1.88 4 Associating with younger people 2.91 2.47 0.43 1.69 43 Being respected for one's knowledge 3.42 3.82 -0.40 1.56 36 Feeling healthy 3.37 4.18 -0.31 1.55 IS Associating with older people 3.38 3.02 0 . 36 1 .49 10 Having an important job 2.49 2.11 0.38 1.41 27 Having good transportation 3.72 3.44 0 . 28 1.34 31 Having good education 3.34 3.00 0 . 34 1.28 9 Having medical assistance available 4.15 3.87 0 . 28 1 . 18 42 Being an important person 2.96 3.29 -0.33 1.17 15 Living with spouse 3.81 3.53 0 . 23 1.15 24 Being able to tell others what to do 3.85 3.58 0 . 27 1.12 23 Attending church 4.23 3.98 0.24 1.05 14 Participating in social organizations 3.11 2.84 0 . 23 1.04 30 Living in same community -as relatives 3.13 3.40 -0 . 27 0.99 19 Having good clothing 3.32 3.07 0 . 25 0.98 7 Having friendly neighbors 3.96 3.75 0 . 22 0.91 34 Being physically active 3.08 3.29 -0 . 22 0.89 12 Believing in God 4.91 4.95 -0.04 0 . 78 3 Being independent 2.23 2.42 -0.19 0.76 21 Being able to travel 2.60 2.80 -0 . 2G 0.75 39 Living with friends 2.45 2.27 0 . 13 0.69 6 Understanding oneself 3.96 4.11 -0.15 0.61 37 Having an adequate income 3.25 3.15 0.10 0.40 38 Having privacy in living 2.96 3.04 -0.07 0.31 5 Having good living arrangements 3.77 3.84 -0.06 0.26 23 Using one's mind 4.15 4 . 11 0.04 0 . 19 32 Being physically strong 3 .25 3.29 -0.05 0 .13 22 Feeling loved by others 4.04 4.07 -0.03 0.16 35 Having children to be proud of 4.13 4 .11 0.02 0.11 8 Helping others in various ways 3 . 66 3.67 -0.01 0.05 44 Visiting with close friends 3.72 3.73 -0.01 0.04 29 Making new friends 3.25 3.25 -0.01 0.0 3 1 Being needed by others 3.32 3 .33 -0.01 0.02

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101 Female subjects more strongly endorse Having A Few Close Friends (41). They feel that it is important for them to choose how they will live and with whom they will associate. To be sure they can maintain their freedoms, they are more ready to work in old age than are the men and attach more importance to Having Work To Do (33). The correlation of differences between the Young and the Old Libyan sex samples is very low. This is expected since any contention between sexes will be over different things, depending upon the age of the people disagreeing. Currently, rapid changes in Libyan society are liberating the young women and provoking a conservative backlash reaction in the young men. Quarrels between the aged men and women would be expected to be few and not intense since they exist in the continuing security of the home and family. Thus, it is not surprising to find that there are only two salient differences in Table 23 showing sex differences in Old Libyan subjects. Male subjects give more importance to Having Good Living Arrangements (5) and Living With Spouse (15). Both the Old Male and Female samples are reconciled to living the old way and have not had to accept modernization to the point that it disrupts their lives together. The old ways have provided mutual rewards for the couple through carrying out the traditional family roles. They are content, although some progressives would say that "they don't know any better."

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102 TABLE 23. Sex Differences Between Responses of Libyan Old Male and Libyan Old Female Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio ITEM NO. DESCRIPTION MEANS DIFFERENCE tRAT 10 Male Female 5 15 11 26 3 36 20 2 14 8 4 12 33 19 41 22 43 44 28 37 17 34 32 13 10 31 42 9 13 16 40 27 7 29 6 39 21 1 35 25 38 24 30 23 Having good living arrangements Living with spouse Living with relatives Living close to children Being independent Feeling healthy Having many friends Owning property Participating in social organizations Helping others in various ways Associating with younger people Believing in God Having work to do Having good clothing Having a few close friends Feeling loved by others Being respected for one's knowledge Visiting with clos»e friends Attending church Having an adequate income Watcjomg TV and listening to radio Being physically active Being physically strong Having good food Having an important job Having good education Being an important person Having medical assistance available Associating with older people Being respected by others Expecting adequate income in future Having good transportation Having friendly neighbors Making new friends Understanding oneself Living with friends Being able to travel Being needed by others Having children to be proud of Reading good books Having privacy in living Eeing able to tell others what to do Living in same community as relatives Using one ' s mind 3.91 2.87 1.04 4.33 4.47 4.06 0 .42 2.57 2.89 3.39 -0.50 1.98 3.22 2.74 0.48 1.31 2.78 2.35 0.43 1.80 3.51 3.09 0.42 1.77 2.87 2.44 0 .43 1.69 2.89 2.52 0 . 37 1.64 2.35 2.74 -0 . 40 1.58 2.93 3.28 -0.35 1.52 2.11 2.43 -0.32 1.48 4.98 4.93 0.06 1.39 3.16 2.81 0.35 1.38 2.78 2.46 0.32 1.37 2.45 2.81 -0.36 1.35 4.05 4.31 -0 . 26 1.29 3.89 3.59 0.30 1.23 3.35 3.06 0.29 1.22 3.75 4.04 -0 . 29 1.18 3.18 2.91 0.27 1.17 2.71 2.98 -0 . 27 1.11 3.00 3.24 -0 .24 1.06 3.22 2.96 0 . 26 1.06 3.11 2.87 0 . 24 1.03 2.27 2.06 0 . 22 0 . 97 2.91 2.70 0.21 0.77 3.89 4.06 -0.16 0.72 3.35 3.54 -0.19 0.70 2.93 3.09 -0.17 0.66 4.35 4 . 24 0 .10 0 .57 2.62 2.43 0.14 0.55 2.89 2.78 0.11 0 .44 3.25 3.17 0.09 0.38 2.98 2.89 0.09 0.37 4 . 22 4 . 28 -0.06 0 . 32 2.65 2.57 0.08 0.30 2.84 2.78 0.06 0 .26 3.69 3.74 -0.05 0.20 4 .13 4 . 17 -0 .04 0 . 19 2.64 2.69 -0.05 0 .19 2.93 2.91 0.02 0.09 3.93 3.94 -0.02 0.07 2.73 2 .74 -0 .01 0.06 4.15 4.15 -0.00 0.01

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103 Sex differences between Male and Female subjects in the Young American sample are different from those of either of the two Libyan comparisons just presented. These differences for Young Americans are not correlated appreciably with those differences for Libyans presented in the previous two tables. Since current American trends de-emphasize sex roles and promote equality, it could be predicted that there would be little disagreement between the sexes for the Young American samples. The four salient differences in Table 24 are: Being Needed 3y Others (1) and Participating In Social Organizations (14). These two correlates of life satisfaction reflect the American woman's greater commitment to socializing and to humanism. She wants to wear out and not rust out. The two other differences show her need for security: Living With Spouse (15) and Attending Church/Mosque (28). After being liberated she probably envisions missing some of the security and satisfaction that the home offers to the aged. Turning to the sex differences between the Old American samples, we find still a different set of disagreements (see Table 25). These differences most closely (r = .37) resemble those differences between sexes for the Young Libyan samples. This would suggest that disagreement between the Old sex samples has elements of dissatisfaction with conventional sex roles. Young American subjects

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104 TABLE 24. Sex Differences Between Responses of American Young Male and American Young Female Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio NO. ITEM MEANS DIFFERENCE t-RATIO DESCRIPTION Male Female 1 Being needed by others 4.14 4.59 -0.46 2.88 14 Participating in social organizations 2.94 3.51 -0.57 2.60 15 Living with spouse 3.39 3.95 -0.56 2.32 23 Attending church 2.59 3.14 -0.55 2.26 30 Living in same community as relatives 2.55 3.02 -0.47 1.87 26 Living close to children 3.00 3.42 -0.42 1.84 36 Feeling healthy 3.90 4.25 -0.35 1.80 5 Having good living arrangements 3.82 4 . 10 -0.28 1.74 6 Understanding oneself 4 . 14 3.81 0.32 1.68 4 Associating with younger people 2.80 3.19 -0.38 1.66 8 Helping others in various ways 3.25 3.56 -0.30 1.51 43 Being respected for one's knowledge 3.27 3.58 -0.30 1.33 19 Having good clothing 2.55 2.83 -0.28 1.26 18 Associating with older people 3.02 3.29 -0.27 1.22 29 Making new friends 2.88 3.15 -0 . 27 1.19 24 Being able to tell others what to do J. .98 2.20 -0.22 1.10 11 Living with relatives 1.82 2.05 -0.23 1.07 2 Owning property 2.41 2.63 -0 . 22 1.03 23 Using one ' s mind 4 .14 4.34 -0.20 1.01 31 Having good education 2.30 2.56 0 . 24 0.93 13 Having good food 3.45 3.64 -0 . 19 0.90 25 Reading good books 2.59 2.30 -0.21 0.90 12 Believing in God 3.12 3 . 37 -0 . 26 0.89 44 Visiting with close friends 3.67 3.85 -0.13 C .86 20 Having many friends 3.27 3 .44 -0.17 0.31 1 5 Being respected by others 4.02 4.17 -0.15 0.80 38 Having privacy in living 3.73 3.36 -0.14 0.69 22 Feeling loved by others 4 .49 4.61 -0.12 0.63 42 Being an important person 2.98 3.15 -0.17 0.63 27 Having good transportation 3.29 3.42 -0.13 0 .59 32 3eing physically strong 3 . 25 3.36 -0 . 10 0 .43 21 Being able to travel 2.98 2.83 0.10 0.41 39 Living with friends 2.37 2.46 -0.09 0 . 39 33 Having work to do 3.71 3.78 -0.07 0 .37 7 Having friendly neighbors 3.27 3.36 -0.03 0 .35 41 Having a few close friends 3.30 3.88 -0.03 0.35 34 Being physically active 3.61 3.56 0.05 0.24 17 Watching TV and listening to radio 2.08 2.14 -0 .06 0.24 3 Being independent 3.61 3.56 0.05 0 .23 37 Having an adequate income 3.75 3.78 -0.03 0 . 17 9 Having medical assistance available 4.43 4 . 46 -0 .03 0 . 15 10 Having an important job 2.59 2.56 0.03 0.13 40 Expecting adequate income in future 3.76 3.78 -0.01 C . 07 35 Having children to be proud of 3.57 3.58 -0.01 0.0 3

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105 TABLE 25, Sex Differences Between Responses of American Old Male and American Old Female Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio NO. ITEM MEANS DIFFERENCE t-RATIO DESCRIPTION Male Female 32 Being physically strong 3.10 3.73 -0.63 2.80 38 Having privacy in living 3.10 3.75 -0.65 2.63 3 Being independent 2.92 3.43 -0.51 2.25 6 Understanding oneself 3.30 3.84 -0.54 2.17 24 Being able to tell others what to do 2.60 2.04 0.56 2.14 34 Being physically active 3.32 3.82 -0.50 2.11 40 Expecting adequate income in future 3.44 3.96 -0.52 2.07 21 Being able to travel 2.52 3.02 -0.50 1.93 4 Associating with younger people 2.54 3.00 -0.46 1.90 37 Having an adequate income 3.64 4 . 10 -0.46 1.87 23 Using one 1 s mind 3.52 3.98 -0.46 1.83 7 Having friendly neighbors 3.04 3.49 -0 .45 1.83 1 Being needed by others 3.28 3.78 -0.50 1.33 33 Having work to do 3.03 3.51 -0.43 1.81 22 Feeling loved by others 3.72 4.16 -0 . 44 1 .78 44 Visiting with close friends 2.80 3.22 -0.42 1.75 18 Associating witn older people 2.78 3.16 -0.3*8 1.60 41 Having a few close friends 3.02 3.41 -0.39 1.58 5 Having good living arrangements 3 . 44 3.80 -0.36 1.57 9 Having medical assistance available 4.12 4.39 -0.27 1.47 36 Feeling healthy 3.96 4 . 20 -0 . 24 1.24 2 6 Living close to children 2.94 3.22 -0.28 1.13 27 Having good transportation 3 . 53 3.32 -0.24 1.08 13 Having good food 3.74 3.96 -0 . 22 1.06 43 Being respected for one's knowledge 2.74 3.00 -0.26 1.03 11 Living with relatives 2.50 2.24 0.26 1.03 1 6 Being respected by others 3.58 3.80 -0.22 C . 37 12 Believing in God 3.80 4.04 -0 . 24 0.35 2 Owning property 2.74 2.96 -0 . 22 0.77 39 Living with friends 2.22 2.06 0.16 0.70 42 Being an important person 2.52 2.35 0.17 0 .69 35 Having children to be proud of 3 . 34 3.49 -0.15 0 .61 14 Participating in social organizations 2.82 2.96 -0.14 0 . 56 20 Having many friends 3.06 2.94 0.12 0.53 28 Attending church 3.46 . 3.61 -0.15 0. 48 3 Helping others in various ways 3.26 3.35 -0.09 0 . 40 19 Having good clothing 2.92 2.82 0 . 10 0.39 1 0 Having an important job 2 .50 2.43 0 .07 0 .26 29 Making new friends 3.04 3.10 -0.06 0.25 25 Reading good books 2.98 3 .04 -0.06 0.23 15 Living with spouse 3.62 3 .65 -0.03 0 .11 31 Having good education 2.98 3.00 -0.02 0 .08 17 Watching TV and listening to radio 2.40 2.41 -0.01 0.05 30 Living in same community as relatives 2.96 2.96 -0.00 0.00

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106 appear to have worked through their sex role disagreements rather well. The Old American samples reflect more resistance to change and adaptation to new ways, resulting in confusion about role changes. It is the Young who are going through this confusion in Libya. They feel the effects of social disruption associated with changing sex roles. The Old Libyans have been largely isolated from the social changes so they don't reflect confusion similar to the Old American samples. The Old American Female sample appears disappointed by men's failure to provide family support and are determined to do for themselves. Older American Female subjects emphasize Being Physically Strong (32), Being Physically Active (34), Being Independent (3), and Being Able To Have Privacy In Living (38). While the Libyan home is still preserved despite recent social changes, the American home has been heavily hit by divorce. The Old American Female subjects have seen many of their friends divorced at middle age, if they themselves have not experienced such. They feel that they can no longer count on the man. Women live longer than men and they must be prepared for widowhood. They have seen the effects of inflation. It is simply prudent for the Old American Female subjects to be prepared to be self-sufficient. They acknowledge this by giving more importance than the Male subjects to Expecting Adequate Income In Future ( 40 ) .

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107 Age Di f ferences The Young Libyan Male subjects show several important differences in rating correlates of life satisfaction, in comparison with the Old sample (see Table 26). The mean for the Young sample on Living With Relatives (11) was very high, 1.68 points higher than for the Old. Not only is this a large difference compared to the mean ratings on the other items, but it is by far the largest difference for all subject samples on any of the items. The magnitude of this difference reflects the terror with which the Young view the breaking up of the home in modern society. The relatives and family still meet the needs of the Old adequately. The Old subjects are satisfied but the Young subjects, in contemplating the future, fear that older persons will be deserted and isolated. Living Close To Children (26) produced the second largest difference between Young and Old Libyan samples. Again, the Young subjects showed extreme concern over the living arrangements of the aged in the future when society has suffered the break-up of the family. Many of the Young subjects actually may wonder if they will be the ones who will be deserted by their children in later life. The Young subjects recognize through their own experiences that changes are occurring in Libya, separating youth from their parents. Now they are going to college and many live away from home. In their excursions away from home,

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108 TABLE 26. Differences Between Responses of Young and Old Libyan Male Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio NO. ITEM MEANS DIFFERENCE tRAT 10 DESCRIPTION Younq Old 11 Living with relatives 4.57 2.89 1.68 7 .70 26 Living close to children 4.23 3.22 1.01 4.34 27 Having good transportation 3.72 2.89 0.83 3.70 42 Being an important person 2.96 3.89 -0.93 3.62 15 Living with spouse 3.81 4 . 47 -0 . 66 3.37 13 Having good food 3.83 3.11 0.72 3.36 4 Associating with younger people 2.91 2.11 0.80 3.35 14 Participating in social organizations 3.11 2.35 0.77 3 . 23 25 Reading good books 3.47 2.64 0.84 3.19 7 Having friendly neighbors 3.96 3.25 0.71 3.12 9 Having medical assistance available 4.15 3.35 0.81 3 .12 8 Helping others in various ways 3.66 2.93 0.73 3.02 41 Having a few close friends 1.91 2.45 -0 . 55 2.35 3 Being independent 2.23 2.78 -0.56 2 . 18 20 Having many friends 3.42 2.87 0.54 2 .14 19 Having good clothing 3.32 2.78 0.54 2 .08 28 Attending church 4.23 3.75 0.48 2.07 18 Associating with older people 3.38 2.93 0 .45 1 .95 43 Being respected for one's knowledge 3.42 3.89 -0.43 1 . 33 12 Believing in God 4 .91 4.98 -0.03 1.71 31 Having good education 3 . 34 2.91 0 . 43 1.57 30 Living in same community as relatives 3.13 2.73 0 . 4G 1.55 3 6 Feelinghealthy 3.37 3.51 0 . 36 1.53 44 Visiting with close friends 3.78 3.35 0 . 37 1.53 1 Being needed by people 3.32 3.69 -0 . 37 1 .42 40 Expecting adequate income in future 2.96 2.62 0.34 ’ i . 3 5 6 Understanding oneself 3.96 4 . 22 -0 .26 1.14 29 Making new friends 3.25 2.98 0 . 26 1 . G 4 1 6 Being respected by others 4.15 4 . 35 -0 .19 0 .99 21 Being aole to travel 2.60 2 .84 -0 . 23 0 «-3 9 10 Having an important job 2.49 2.27 0 . 22 0 . 79 39 Living with friends 2.45 2 .65 -0 . 20 0 . 78 17 Watching TV and listening to radio 2.87 2.71 0.16 0.63 5 Having good living arrangements 3.77 3.91 -0.14 0.61 33 Having work to do 3.06 3 . 16 -0 . 11 0.42 24 Being able to tell others what to do 3.85 3.93 -0 .06 0.33 34 Being physically active 3.08 3 .00 0.03 0.33 37 Having an adequate income 3.25 3. IS 0 .06 0.27 36 Having privacy in living 2.96 2.93 0 .03 0.15 32 Being physically strong 3.25 3 . 22 0.03 0.11 2 Owning property 2.87 2.89 -0.02 0.09 22 Feeling loved by others 4.04 4 .05 -0.02 0.03 23 Using one ' s mind 4.15 4.13 0.01 0.03 35 Having children to be proud of 4.13 4 .15 0.00 0.02

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109 they are tempted by many material aspects of modern life. Going home to stay would mean sacrificing some of these advantages. Many recognize that they will be living and working in different regions of the country or even outside of Libya in the future. Some also must recognize that these ever-widening horizons will divert their future children to selfish pursuits, leaving less time for family concerns . The Young sample seems to recognize that their society does not now provide acceptable alternatives for the aged to live outside the family. There are very few homes for the aged in Libya. Those that exist are based upon medical needs or supply minimal care for the indigent and incompetent. Until recently there has been almost no attempt to meet the psychological needs of the aged in social institutions. The Young doubt that society will provide suitable institutions in the future and so place more importance on the correlates of life satisfaction involving Living With Or Close To Relatives. The Young sample fears, and many others believe, that changes in society are in the direction of breaking up the family. If this is true, it is necessary to plan now to develop institutions to meet the psychological needs of the aged in the future. The hospital or poorhouse clearly are wrong models for such planning. Only with careful early planning can homes for the aged be developed and receive

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110 acceptance by those in need of them. Such facilities must be made psychologically attractive and be satisfying, in order to get the public to accept them as a viable alternative to home care. It is apparent from these present findings that the acceptance of any facilities for the aged will be related to how closely they are integrated with the community and how successful they are in sustaining close ties with the family. Furthermore, the facilities must provide an emphasis on close inter-relationships. The third largest difference, related to the variable of age, is Having Good Transportation (27). The Young see the availability of transportation as a partial solution to the neglect of family in order to pursue other interests. If you have ready transportation, you can stretch yourself further and spend more time on work and recreational interests and yet go home to spend time with family. When you work in the city, you can go home by automobile whenever you wish to or need to. The use of the automobile and other transportation also permits families living in different locations to visit and maintain close relationships and supply mutual support. Readily available transportation assures one of being able to see relatives and friends, especially when one is older and retired. It also helps prevent the panic of being cut off from important work.

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Ill The fourth largest difference found in this sample is Being An Important Person (42). With a mean of 4.47 for the Old Males, it is second in importance only to Believing in God (12). In a traditional society, the role of the patriarch is vital for older men. They are important because the family revolves around them. They know that without them the wheel would have no hub, and would fall apart. By filling this role, their psychological needs are well met and they cannot conceive of the family functioning without them. The Young have not experienced the full importance of the patriarch's role because they have not lived it. The Young have learned to entertain themselves with other pleasures and would be loathe to give them up to take on a father's responsibilities. They are still too young to understand that playing the role is satisfying even though the role-player may be inconvenienced and forced to forego some of his simpler pleasures. Social planning for the future care of the aged in this society must be cognizant of the importance of keeping elderly males responsible for themselves as well as for others. Any well-intentioned efforts to provide care for and protect the aged man must not relieve him of responsibilities completely. Since the Young showed a failure to understand this importance of retaining responsibility in the aged, they need to be reminded of it by the forces that initiate social planning. The danger is that the youthful

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112 professionals who do the actual planning will miss this point and supply facilities that will not meet this very important need of older males. The item Living With Spouse (15) is related to Being An Important Person (42). The wife is the one who carries out the activities which meet the needs of the family, under the husband's command. Without her, the husband is a boss without an employee. He gains a lot of satisfaction through being the boss of a going enterprise. He not only feels worthwhile but he also is assured of having his physical needs met. That the Old find living with a spouse is a very important correlate of life satisfaction is not surprising because they have fully experienced the gratifications. In contrast. Young Males have not played the husband role and can only vicariously appreciate the gratifications it provides. Thus, they assign less value to the importance of Living With Spouse. It should be noted that some of the aged have lost their wives and this would lead them to emphasize the importance of what they have lost. In Arabic society, it is not easy to find a woman to take the place in the family of a mother who raised the children and provided a home for all. How provisions in social planning can be made to meet the needs of a widower for his lost companion is a difficult issue. However, there needs to be a recognition that some acceptable substitution must be provided.

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113 Next come a group of correlates of life satisfaction that the Young think are more important than do the Old. Here we have the affluent new generation who worry about Having Good Food (13). The Old grew up in the pre-oil days when life in Libya was at a marginal subsistence level. Now the Old are pleased with the food, Having Medical Assistance Available (9), and Having Good Clothing (19). The Young hold higher expectations. No doubt, youthful planners will give adequate consideration to the physical and material needs of the aged. First, the youthful generation of today is disposed to give importance to physical things, and secondly, it is easier to develop and meet physical needs than psychological. Reading Good Books (25) is seen as more important by the Young, as would be expected from a college sample. Nevertheless, reading is becoming increasingly more important in the society. Many of today's Libyan elderly are illiterate, but the aged 50 years from now will be largely literate. The literacy rate has increased since 1960 from 25 percent to 75 percent in 1979. No doubt, youthful and educated planners will make library provisions for the aged because of their own literary backgrounds. Having Friendly Neighbors (7) and Helping Others In Various Ways (8) are correlates of life satisfaction seen as more important by the Young. They are aware that in the shift to modernization the mutual support provided by

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114 friendly neighbors may be lost. At present, the neighbors are like family. If you need help, it is available from them. Should you be required to entertain more guests than you can provide for in your smaller house, your neighbor's house will be at your disposal. This system made survival in the adversity of the desert possible. As the abundance of material goods increases, the need for helpful friends and neighbors diminishes. Conscious effort must be made to perpetuate this tradition, especially in an institutional setting . The Young view social needs as more important than do the Old. Such correlates of life satisfaction include: Associating With Young People (4), Participating In Social Organizations (14), Having Friendly Neighbors (7), and Having Many Friends (30). Two explanations help clarify why the Young think these are more important than do the Old. First, modern male youth is learning to engage in social activities that are outside the family and, therefore, they do not realize that the family is satisfying enough to make the more trivial social activities unnecessary. Second, the Young subjects de-emphasize the importance of Having A Few Close Friends (41). This correlate of life satisfaction is valued more by the Old. This difference emphasizes the realization of the importance of close personal relations with a few people as contrasted with the more superficial interactions mentioned

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115 above. When people actually experience their older years they understand the value of a few close friends. The Young rate the item only 1 . 91 , the lowest of all 44 items. This suggests a readiness to substitute more superficial relations for deeper ones. The acceptance of other social relationships by the Young is encouraging. It appears that when they are old they will accept such social activities more readily than today's aged population. The Young will, in the future, be able to substitute such activities to obtain satisfactions traditionally obtained by the patriarchal role. Thus, it appears that, in the future, it will be easier for the aged to adjust to leaving home and substituting social activities found in an institution for activities left behind. Providing for social relationships as an important goal in the planning of social institutions will be necessary, in view of how much the aged are giving up to go to an institution . Having Medical Assistance Available ( 9 ) was more important for Young Libyan subjects than for Old. Medical services currently available probably are judged as inadequate by the Young. Naturally the Old, who grew up without needed medical attention, are favorably impressed by current services. It is easy to see how different their backgrounds are because of the recent rapid increases in available services. In 1969 there was only one physician

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116 for 2,588 people, whereas by 1976 there was one physician for each 800 people. Medical assistance for the elderly, as provided by geriatric clinics, hospitals, and rehabilitation therapists, is coming to be expected by Young Libyan subjects. They see it more as their right to have these services, rather than as a fortunate benefit. Planners will have to work toward providing and expanding nursing, medical, and ancillary therapeutic services for the aged in a variety of settings. Professional training in gerontology and gerontological nursing and therapy needs to be incorporated into the Libyan professional curriculum. Being Independent (3), in the sense of being able to look after oneself, was more important for the Old subjects than for the Young. This is explained in part by the feeling of the younger subjects that the older man should be looked after as a reward, because he has spent his life looking after others. However kindly meant, this sympathetic view ignores the basic Arabic-Libyan pride which mandates that men should look after themselves. The Young rate independence as less important than the Old, suggesting that when they are older they will find it somewhat easier to give up some of the independence that is inevitably lost in becoming institutionalized. Nonetheless, it is important for social planning to keep in mind the traditional pride of the Arab male in feeling he is independent.

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117 One would expect the Old sample, with their traditional values, would feel that Attending Church/Mosque (28) was more important than would the Young. Findings in the opposite direction can be explained as a reaction to the threat of the break up of society that is so feared by the Young sample. They are fighting against succumbing to worldly temptations and against being too busy to attend to religious obligations. They are busy with studies and other activities and soon will be occupied in their professions. Social planners need to recognize the longing of the Libyan people for protecting the traditional religious practices from the inroads of modern materialism. Though Western models could undoubtedly be found which utilize such considerations, the large cultural differences revealed by this study indicate that crossapplying theories and models lacks efficacy. Table 27 shows the differences in means between Young and Old Female Libyan subjects of the importance given to the correlates of life satisfaction. Whereas the Libyan Male sample showed 17 salient differences (t-ratio greater than 2.00) between Young and Old, the Libyan Female sample had only 11 salient differences. Only five of these 11 differences overlap with the ones for Males. However, eight of these 11 differences are in the same direction as for Males. The correlation between the Male and Female Libyan samples over the 44 differences between Young and

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118 TAELE 27. Differences Between Responses of Young and Old Libyan Female Subjects Ordered by Size of t-Ratio NO. ITEM MEANS DIFFERENCE tRAT 10 DESCRIPTION Young Old 36 Feeling healthy 4.18 3.09 1.09 5.35 5 Having good living arrangements 3.84 2.87 0.97 3.78 33 Having work to do 3.85 2.31 0.77 3.07 42 Being an important person 3.29 4.06 -0.76 3.00 44 Visiting with close friends 3.73 3.06 0.67 2.37 27 Having good transportation 3.44 2.78 0.66 2.72 19 Having good clothing 3.07 2 .46 0.61 2.70 30 Living in same community as relatives 3.40 2.74 0.66 2.56 17 Watching TV and listening to radio 2.40 2.98 -0.53 2.52 7 Having friendly neighbors 3.75 3.17 0.58 2.40 15 Living with spouse 3.53 4.06 -0.53 2.39 13 Having good food 3.33 2.87 0.46 1.88 26 Living close to children 3.22 2.74 0.48 1.70 11 Living with relatives 2.98 3.39 -0.41 1.59 08 Helping others in various ways 3.67 3.28 0 . 39 1.58 24 Being able to tell others what to do 3.58 3.94 -0.36 1.55 2 Owning property 2.15 2.52 -0.37 1.55 16 Being respected by others 4.49 4 . 24 0.25 1.55 1 Being needed by others 3.33 3.74 -0.41 1.43 29 Making new friends 3.25 2.89 0.37 1 . 35 32 Being physically strong 3.29 2.96 0.33 1.34 41 Having a few close friends 2.47 2.81 -0 . 34 1 . 34 9 Having medical assistance available 3.87 3.54 0 . 34 1.32 22 Feeling loved by others 4.07 4.31 -0 . 24 1.19 31 Having good education .3.00 2.70 0 . 30 1.15 39 Living with friends 2.27 2.57 -0 . 30 1.12 20 Having many friends 2.69 2 .‘4 4 0 . 25 1.08 37 Having an adequate income 3.15 2.91 0 . 24 0.94 43 Being respected for one's knowledge 3.82 3.59 0 . 23 0.91 6 Understanding oneself 4.11 4.28 -0 .17 0.82 38 Having privacy in living 3.04 2.91 0.13 0.53 25 Reading good books 2.32 2 . 69 0.13 0 .52 12 Believing in God 4.95 4.93 0.02 0 .41 14 Participating in social organizations 2.34 2.74 0.10 0.35 13 Associating with older people 3.02 3.09 -0.07 0 . 29 35 Having children to be proud of 4.11 4.17 -0.06 0 . 29 3 Being independent 2.42 2 . 35 0.07 0 . 28 10 Having an important joo 2.11 2 .06 0 . C 5 0 . 24 23 Attending church 3.98 4.04 -0.06 0 .22 34 Being physically active 3.29. 3 . 24 0.05 0 . 21 4 Associating with younger people 2 . 47 2.43 0.05 0.20 23 Using one ' s mind 4.11 4 . 15 -0.04 0 . 13 40 Expecting adequate income in future 2.45 2 .48 -0.03 0 . 10 21 Being able to travel 2.80 2 . 78 0.02 0 . 10

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119 Old gave r = .36. This shows that while there is some overlap between the two samples, there is even more uniqueness. This affirms the wisdom of obtaining data from both sexes and of analyzing the data separately. The results of the analysis should suggest different considerations in social planning in providing need satisfaction for both sexes . First to be examined will be the Female sample differences that were similar for the Male sample. Just as noted earlier with Young Males, the Young Females underemphasize Being Important (42) and Living With Spouse (15). They have not yet fully experienced the satisfactions of being a wife and mother. The Old know the rewards and satisfactions that accompany concern over the welfare of the family. The Young see these concerns as a burden without sufficient compensation or reward. The Libyan matriarch needs to interact with her husband and have the responsibilities of a housekeeper. Social planners must come to a better recognition of these needs so they can help the institutionalized female retain her role and the self-respect that goes with it. Even though the aged generally become less capable, they must be encouraged to retain a feeling of importance. There is the very real danger that youthful planners will deliberately try to provide relief from the burdens of being a wife and mother. The sentiment motivating such

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120 planning would be laudable, but the consequences would be devastating . As with the Libyan Male subject responses, we find that the Young Female subjects also tend to overemphasize the importance of more superficial social relations as substitutes for family responsibilities that the Old sample enjoys. Accordingly, the Young rate as more important the following correlates of life satisfaction: Visiting With Close Friends (44), Living In The Same Community As Relatives (32), and Having Friendly Neighbors (7). As explained for the Male sample, two rather different things may account for this emphasis on the part of the Young Female sample. First, they fear not being close enough to loved ones as the country grows and personal relationships recede in importance. Secondly, the modern Young Female subjects are learning to engage in social relationships outside of the family and have learned that they can be rewarding . From the emphasis on more superficial relationships, it can be inferred that the aged of the future will be able to substitute such, in part, for the loss of their roles as family members. Thus, the woman of the future should be able to adjust more easily to the change in social role that comes with being cared for in social facilities.

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121 Like the Libyan Male subjects, the Young Female subjects tend to view as more important the correlate Having Good Transportation (27). The Old operate in the traditional Arab-Libyan society where women function within their own homes and others come to them. They do not have the outside connections and responsibil i i t ies that the Males and modern women have. Should the aged women of the next generation be institutionalized they will require transportation and will not be content to be confined. They will want to be able to maintain relationships with the many friends they have made in their active lives away from home. Another correlate of life satisfaction that the Young Female subjects view as more important than the Male subjects is Having Good Living Arrangements (5). The Old function as wives and mothers and obtain satisfaction from it. The more materialistic considerations of the home are not really as important to them in providing satisfaction as they are to the Young sample. The Young have learned to require more convenience in their living to replace, in part, the satisfactions of family life. Modern women in Libya probably will find it easier to accept the impersonal but convenient surroundings of institutions. Still, it is apparent that design of the institution not be just physical but incorporate input from knowledgeable social planners .

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122 Having Good Clothing (19) also is seen as more important by Young Female subjects. With the shedding of traditional drab clothing it is expected that women in the future will show more concern about clothing. The Libyan Young Female subjects also emphasize the importance of Feeling Healthy (36) and Having Work To Do (33). The Young seem to believe that being unhealthy and unable to work characterize the aged. The Old, being more realistic, are not very concerned about these matters. It would also appear that as modern woman moves away from the wife-mother role, she substitutes other activities which involve work and responsibility. Providing to meet these psychological needs must be kept in mind in doing social planning for the aged, both Male and Female. Also, as mentioned in connection with the Male sample, the new generation is going to demand better medical and para-medical care for the aged. Facilities and programs are lacking in most fields related to the welfare of the aged. Programs and facilities that can reduce the physical deterioration associated with aging are needed, for example, health spas, fitness centers, weight control and nutrition centers, and physical rehabilitation centers. Modern women will probably need to continue working until retirement. Therefore, provisions for child care for young working women should be made. When she has reached retirement age, her skills should not be ignored,

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123 but programs allowing her to continue working, part-time or volunteer services, should be instituted. Analysis of these correlates of life satisfaction reveal that the social planning to meet the needs of Libyan Females would be similar to that for Males. Architectural structuring that permits preservation of the husband-wife pairs is essential. The Female subjects differed from the Male subjects in only one important way. They find Watching TV And Listening To Radio (17) more important than do the Young. The Old Females are reasonably content in their present circumstances, so they indulge in passive leisure-time activities such as watching TV and listening to the radio. Were they more desperate for social relations, they would engage in more active pursuits that would bring them into contact with others. It appears that in the future, when the present Young sample are institutionalized aged, they will be less content with these passive asocial activities. Implications for social planning are obvious. Table 28 shows the differences in rating the correlates of life satisfaction among the Young versus the Old Male American subjects . The differences in this table correlate -.46 with those in the previous Table 26 for Libyan Male subjects. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the American differences for Male subjects apart from those for Libyans.

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124 TABLE 28. Differences Between Responses of Young and Old American Male Subjects Ordered by Size of t~Ratio MO. ITEM MEANS DIFFERENCE t-RATIO DESCRIPTION Young Old 44 Visiting with close friends 3.67 2.80 0.87 4.07 6 Understanding oneself 4.14 3.30 0.84 3 . 57 22 Feeling loved by others 4.49 3.72 0.77 3.46 1 Being needed by others 4.14 3.28 0 .36 3 .46 41 Having a few close friends 3.80 3.02 0.78 3.27 28 Attending church 2.59 3.46 -0.37 3.15 3 Being independent 3.61 2.92 0.69 2.95 11 Living with relatives 1.82 2.50 -0.63 2.85 33 Having work to do 3.71 3.08 0.63 2.80 38 Having privacy in living 3.73 3.10 0.63 2.69 23 Using one ' s mind 4.14 3.52 0.62 2 .65 24 Being able to tell others what to do 1.98 2.60 -0.62 2 .42 12 Believing in God 3.12 3.80 -0.68 2 . 29 43 Being respected for one's knowledge 3.27 2.74 0.53 2.18 16 Being respected by others 4.02 3.58 0 . 44 1.34 42 Being an important person 2.98 2.52 0.46 1.30 21 Being able to travel 2.98 2.52 0.46 1.78 5 Having good living arrangements 3.82 3.44 0.38 1.76 9 Having medical assistance available 4.43 4.12 0 . 31 1.66 30 Living in same community as relatives 2.55 2.96 -0.41 1.61 19 Having good clothing 2.55 2.92 -0 . 37 1.53 25 Reading good books 2.59 2.98 -0.39 1.53 40 Expecting adequate income in future 3.76 3 . 44 0 .32 1.41 13 Having good food 3 .45 3.74 -0 . 29 1.32 34 3eing physically active. 3.61 3 . 32 0 . 29 1.30 17 Watching TV and listening to radio 2.08 2 . 40 -0 .32 1 . 25 2 Owning property 2.41 2.74 -0 . 33 1.21 27 Having good transportation 3.29 3.53 -0 . 29 1.19 4 Associating with younger people 2.80 2.54 0.26 1.10 13 Associating with older people 3.02 2.78 0.24 1.00 20 Having many friends 3.27 3.06 0 . 21 0.98 7 Having friendly neighbors 3.27 3.04 0.23 0 .95 15 Living with spouse 3.39 3.62 -0.23 0.83 35 Having children to be proud of 3.57 3 . 34 0 . 23 0.37 29 Making new friends 2.88 3.04 -0 .16 0 . 63 39 Living with friends 2.37 2.22 0 . 15 0 . 58 31 Having good education 2.80 2.98 -0.13 0.55 32 Being physically strong 3.25 3.10 0.15 0.65 14 Participating in social organizations 2.94 2.82 0 .12 0.46 37 Having an adequate income 3.75 3 . 64 0.11 0 .46 10 Having an important job' 2.59 2.50 0.09 0 . 34 36 Feeling healthy 3.90 3 .96 -0 .06 0 . 27 2 6 Living close to children 3.00 2.94 0.06 0 .23 3 Helping others in various ways 3.25 3.26 -0.01 0.02

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125 The Young American Male sample places much heavier emphasis on personal relationships and love than do the Old. They ascribe more importance to all of the following: Visiting With Close Friends (44), Feeling Loved By Others (22), Being Needed By Others (1), and Having A Few Close Friends (41). There is the suggestion that the Young are echoing the predominant philosophy of their college of education and of the times, humanism. This humanism would have at its apex self-actualization, a concept focusing on self-interests, and would account for the greater importance the Young sample assigned to Understanding Oneself (6), Using One's Mind (23), and Being Respected For One's Knowledge (43). Social planning will be needed to meet these needs to the degree that they are becoming soundly based psychological needs in the culture instead of only words and flying banners. Self-interests are frequently actualized through relationships. There is little doubt that the Young are interacting with many people and fear losing their ties to society as they grow old. This need for giving and receiving love outside of the family seems to be a continuing trend which should facilitate adaptation to institutionalized living. Institutionalization need not mean uselessness, and close relationships in institutions should be encouraged. The Protestant work ethic appears more strongly in the ratings by the Young than the Old. Perhaps the Old sample

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126 are less idealistic and less eager to put forth the effort to impress themselves or others. The Young subjects judge Having Work To Do (33) as more important. While the Old sample is not as ready to endorse the importance of working, they are loathe to relinguish the boss role. Thus, the Old subjects see Being Able To Tell Others What To Do (24) as more important than do the Young. This apparent conflict with not endorsing work can be explained by the need to retain the boss role as a compensation for feeling useless as they try to enjoy the leisure of retirement earned by many years of hard work. Also, the Young sample may tend to feel that the aged are not competent to direct others . Privacy is another correlate of life satisfaction emphasized by the Young. Being Independent (3) and Being Able To Have Privacy In Living (38) were judged as more important by the Young subjects. In contrast, the Old subjects thought that Living With Relatives (11) was not such a bad idea. The direction of change suggests that the next generation of institutionalized aged will require more privacy and independence than is now provided. There seems to be some contradiction in the Young sample emphasizing the need for giving and receiving love, yet having a need for privacy and independence, stemming from the value placed on individualism in the U.S.A. When one is young, independence is a choice which can become

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127 isolating in old age. Also, the physical limitations of old age imply some degree of dependence. Probably the Young American of today will look very much like the Old sample by the time they reach their age. Thus, there are very few strong implications in these data for social planning for future aged Americans. Lastly, the Young subjects rate religion as less important than do the Old. Attending Church/Mosque (28) and Believing In God (12) are more important for the Old sample. Could it be that there is an increasing faith as the Young grow older? Or is this diminution in the importance of religion now appearing in the Young a genuine cultural change? Perhaps a little of both explanations is closest to the truth. Table 29 shows the differences in rating correlates of life satisfaction by the Young versus the Old American Female subjects. Since the differences in this table correlate .63 with those of the previous table for American Male subjects, point by point discussion would be redundant. Also, of the nine items showing salient differences (t-ratio greater than 2.00) between Young and Old American Females, six items are in the same direction as for Young and Old American Male subjects. Of the 14 salient differences for Males, all but two are in the same direction for the Female. Being Able To Tell Others What To Do (24) had slightly more importance

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128 TABLE 29. Differences Betvreen Responses of Young and Old American Female Subjects Ordered by Size of t-F.atio NO. ITEM MEANS DIFFERENCE t-RATIO DESCRIPTION Younq Old 1 Being needed by others 4.59 3.78 0.81 4.07 42 Being an important person 3.15 2.35 0.80 3 . 30 44 Visiting with close friends 3.85 3.22 0.63 2 . 69 14 Participating in social organizations 3.51 2.96 0.55 2 .65 43 Being respected for one's knowledge 3.53 3.00 0.58 2.47 12 Believing in God 3.37 4.04 -0.67 2.46 20 Having many friends 3.44 2.94 0 . 50 2.36 22 Feeling loved by others 4.61 4.16 0.45 2 .22 41 Having a few close friends 3.88 3.41 0.47 2.06 27 Having good transportation 3.42 3.82 -0.40 1.94 39 Living with friends 2.46 2.06 0.40 1.73 31 Having good education 2.56 3.00 -0 . 44 1.76 16 Being respected by others 4 . 17 3.80 0.37 1.72 32 Being physically strong 3.36 3.73 -0.37 1.71 28 Attending church 3.14 3.61 -0.47 1.69 5 Having good living arrangements 4.10 3.80 0.30 1.66 23 Using one ' s mind 4.34 3.98 0.36 1.62 13 Having good food 3.64 3.96 -0 .32 1.56 37 Having an adequate income 3.78 4 . 10 -0 .32 1 .44 2 Owning property 2.63 2.96 -0 .33 1 .44 15 Living with spouse 3.95 3.65 0.30 1.32 33 Having work to do 3.78 3.51 0.27 1.25 17 Watching TV and listening to radio 2.14 2.41 -0 . 28 1.25 34 Being physically active 3.56 3.82 -0 . 26 1.21 ZC Reading good books 2.30 3.04 -0 . 24 1 .04 3 Helping others in various ways 3.56 3.35 0.21 1.00 2 o Living close to children 3.42 3 . 22 0 . 21 0.98 4 Associating with younger people 3.19 3 .00 0.19 0.30 ii Living with relatives. 2.05 2.24 -0.13 0.79 24 Being able to tell others what to do 2.20 2.04 0.16 0.78 40 Expecting adequate income in future 3.73 3.96 -0 . 18 0.75 3 Being independent 3.56 3.43 0 . 13 0.63 13 Associating with older people 3.29 3.16 0 .13 0.61 7 Having friendly neighbors 3.36 3.49 -0.13 0.53 21 Being able to travel 2.88 3.02 -0.14 0 .57 10 Having an important job 2.56 2.43 0.13 0.56 38 Having privacy in living 3.36 3 .75 0 .12 0 .55 35 Having children to be proud of 3 . 53 3 . 49 0 .09 0 .41 9 Having medical assistance available 4.46 4 . 39 0.07 0 . 38 36 Feeling healthy 4 . 25 4 . 20 0 .06 0 . 34 30 Living in same community as relatives 3.02 2.96 0.06 0 . 24 29 Making new friends 3.15 3 . 10 0.05 0 . 24 6 Unde r s tana ing oneself 3.81 3 .34 -0.03 0 .14 19 Having good clothing 2.83 2 .32 0.01 0.03

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129 attached to it by the Young Female subjects than by the Old Female subjects. But the Old Male subjects gave it much more importance than did the Young, a reversal. It appears that the Old American Female subject is less concerned about maintaining a boss role and is more realistic about having responsibilities when she is old. The other exception to Male-Female differences between Young and Old subjects is on Understanding Oneself (6). Both Young and Old Female subjects strongly endorsed understanding oneself. The Old American Male subject was much less impressed with the importance of this item, probably indicating a more practical concern with satisfying self-interests, whereas the Young Male subject is more idealistic . Items that were salient for Female subjects but not for Males were: Being An Important Person (42), Participating In Social Organizations (14), and Having Many Friends (20). All these differences between Young and Old Female subjects were in the direction of the Young Females judging them as more important. These differences appear to be associated with the liberation of women from the home so they can participate in more recreational and work activities. Women probably will come to demand more significant social activities for the aged and they will not tolerate depersonalization and isolation.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions The results of this investigation provide evidence that seems to justify the following conclusions: I. There are significant differences in responses between Libyans and Americans when the four age and sex samples (Young Male, Old Male, Young Female, Old Female) are analyzed separately. These differences reflect the traditional outlook of the Libyan subjects in terms of the Arabic culture and the rapid social change therein, as well as the liberal outlook of the American subjects, in terms of perceived correlates of life satisfaction for the aged. The American culture can be seen as representative of Western culture. The limited value of Western studies when applied to other cultures is thus posited. II. There are significant differences in responses between Males and Females when the four culture and age samples (Libyan Young, Libyan Old, American Young, American Old) are compared separately. These differences in perceived correlates of life satisfaction for the aged are understandable because of sex 130

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131 differences related to cultural conditioning. Social planners in both countries must recognize this to meet the needs of both males and females, living together or separately in the next generation of aged. III. There are significant differences in responses between Young and Old subjects when the four culture and sex samples (Libyan Male, Libyan Female, American Male, American Female) are compared separately. These differences between Young and Old Libyan subjects and Young and Old American subjects in perceived correlates of life satisfaction for the aged will be useful in augmenting social change to meet the needs of the coming generation of aged. That differences in response to questionnaire items were larger across cultural, rather than age or sex, lines has marked implications for the validity of applying research findings cross-culturally . Social planners in Libya (and other developing countries) would, therefore, do well not to implement wholesale current Western gerontological practices. Formulating guidelines for acceptance of cross-cultural applicability of research findings will be an on-going process, for which this study has attempted to lay a foundation. The specific areas of differences in which cultural responses were divergent include importance of religious life and of living with relatives, both of which Libyans rated as much more important than did Americans.

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132 Conversely, Americans rated higher Being Independent (3) and social items that related to "others" rather than " family. " Though both samples rated material conveniences as important, the Young Libyan Males rated specific material items, whereas the Young American Males chose more generalized items. For example, Having Good Clothing (19), as opposed to Having Adequate Income (37). Interestingly, this dichotomy reverses with age. The older sample of Libyan Males rated generalized items as of more importance (Having Good Living Arrangements), while older American Males valued specific items (Having Good Transportation) . The responses of the Young American Females resemble those of the Young American Males and somewhat those of the Old Libyans. The older Libyan Females emphasize the importance of religion and family, as do both Young and Old Libyan Males. The Young American Females stress independence and generalized material conveniences, items similarly stressed by their Male counterparts. The older Female sample in Libya concurred with the younger Females except for the importance they gave to Living With Friends (39) and Being An Important Person (42), both of which are seen as necessary substitutes for an inevitable breakdown, due to age and death, of family security .

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133 The area of differences due to gender also exposes cultural differences. The most marked difference is the general agreement of Young Americans of both sexes as opposed to the general disagreement of Young Libyans of the two sexes. Young Libyan Males regard those correlates of life satisfaction relating to the family as most important, whereas the Young Libyan Females often chose items exemplifying alternatives to family life. The differences may be explained by a conservative backlash Young Libyan Males have created to deal with social pressures inherent in the role changes that occur with rapid modernization of the country. Similarly, Young Americans of both sexes can be seen to have reached a degree of agreement in perception of correlates of life satisfaction due to a continuing emphasis on egalitarianism, and especially a current emphasis on equality for women. It should be noted, however, that the items that do show disagreement in this sample (Being Needed By Others, Participation in Social Organizations, Living With Spouse, and Attending Church/Mosque, all of which the females rated as more important) reflect a still present distinction of women as being more caring than men. In terms of the aged samples, as analyzed on the basis of gender, Old Libyans manifest a similarity of opinion that parallels that of the American Young, while the older Americans, like the Young Libyans, disagree substantially.

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134 Thus, a pattern of reversal is again reflected. The older American Females, like the younger Libyan Females, see independence as of importance, as opposed to the older Libyan Females and Males, and younger Libyan Males, all of whom stress family life. Age accounts for the greatest discrepancy in responses on any single item Living With Relatives (11). Young Libyan Males rated that item much higher in importance than did Old Libyan Males. In fact, the difference is greater than for any other item or sample. Young Libyan Males also emphasized Living Close To Children (26), which provided the second largest difference in responses (see Table 26). Overall, the Young Libyan Male emphasized social activities and material abundance in addition to family life, as opposed to the older Libyan Males who stressed independence . The factor that most united the responses of the American subjects grouped by age was that of Understanding Oneself (6), which three of the four American samples stressed. The dissenting sample was the population of older American Males. When comparing Young and Old Females, the Young were found to emphasize social activities more than did the aged. When comparing Young and Old Males, the Young sample chose items relating to personal relationships other than family, and items dealing with intelligence, whereas the older population stresed telling others what to do, family, and religion.

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135 The number of salient differences noted in the subjects' responses to the 44 correlates of life satisfaction, by category, is one way of providing a general overview. Those salient differences were as follows: On the basis of age, 17 salient differences in responses were noted between Young and Old Libyan Males, and 11 between Young and Old Libyan Females, as opposed to 14 salient differences between Young and Old American Males, and nine between Young and Old American Females. On the basis of sex, two salient differences were displayed for Libyan Old of both sexes, and seven salient differences for American Old of both sexes, as opposed to eight differences for Libyan Young of both sexes, and four differences for American Young of both sexes. In terms of culture, 20 salient differences were noted between Libyan and American Young Males, 16 between Libyan and American Young Females, 18 between Libyan and American Old Males, and 12 between Libyan and American Old Females . Two interesting facts emerged from the welter of this study, in addition to the inapplicability of cross-cultural generalization of research findings. First, one finds a repeated pattern of agreement between the Libyan Young and the American Old, and between the American Young and the Libyan Old. This finding may be an illustration of the polar opposites of the present social atmospheres reflected by these two countries. For example, the Libyan Young

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136 and the American Old concur in their emphasis upon material items, because they spent their formative years in eras of prosperity. Conversely, the American Young who see the need for conservation, and the Libyan Old, who are used to limited resources, also agree. The second interesting fact to emerge is that the largest difference noted in the category of sex, as well as the largest difference noted in the category of age, was between Libyan respondents exclusively, rather than between Americans, or Americans and Libyans. That the most significant differences in both categories occurred between Libyan respondents leads one to posit that the cultural changes in Libya during this century have been much more drastic than concurrent cultural change in America, leading to more divergent views among Libyans. Additionally, education may play a large role in this divergence, in that the changes in the Libyan educational system have been equally drastic, and accompany the larger cultural change. Recommendations Four general recommendations resulting from the conclusions of this study are offered: 1. Libya should emphasize original research in gerontology since it is so evidently lacking, and since existing cross-cultural studies appear not to reflect the specific needs of the Libyan population.

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137 2. Educational reforms that emphasize gerontology should be instituted in all medical, social, and psychiatric fields. 3. Libyan social planners should be made aware of this study, as well as other studies which will hopefully appear in the near future, and apply the results in instituting social services for the elderly. At the same time, they should continue to study Western research to prevent insularity of knowledge. 4. Western researchers and social planners should be made aware that cross-cultural application of research findings presents problems that may not be easily resolved, so that more attention will be directed to this area. Further recommendations, relating specifically to the 44 correlates of life satisfaction, include the following: Health care should be viewed as an integration of mind, body, and spirit, and this integration should be reflected in the administration of social services for the aged, with social planners and health care professionals working toward soundly based goals. Physical and Material Correlates of Life Satisfaction Special training in gerontology, emphasizing prevention and the unique problems of the aged, is necessary. Of special importance is nutrition. Many aged have

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138 nutritional deficiencies because they have insufficient income to purchase food. Other physical problems such as diminished sensory reception, partial paralysis, and dental problems may be quite distressing. Difficulty in locomotion and unsteadiness lead to the failure to gain satisfaction because activities are avoided. Safety standards for both institutionalized and domiciliary residents are also necessary for personal well-being. Given that prolonging independence in the community setting is a goal for the elderly, the primary material considerations are housing and transportation. The private household and the institution should be seen as complementary, not as diametric opposites. Halfway houses, shortterm boarding care when medically indicated, increased home health care programs, and foster care are all alternatives which bridge the gap between the private home and the institution. Physical settings which compensate for loss of mobility and prevent isolation will require proximity to and availability of medical facilities, public transportation, and shopping, religious, and recreational facilities. Additionally, assurance of an adequate income to maintain one's household is a necessity. The pension system should ensure an acceptable standard of living for the elderly, preserving dignity and self-sufficiency. These are minimum necessities.

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139 Social Relations and Activities These needs include interaction with family or friends and recreational activities. Interests outside of the home need to be encouraged and facilitated, requiring adequate transportation and income. Part-time employment is endorsed. In institutions, visiting privileges should be flexible, and recreational activities should extend beyond the physical setting of the institution itself. The traditional spirit of strong family contacts, which still exists in Libya, should be preserved by every means the country can provide to enhance the family's ability to care for its' elderly members. Psychological Correlates of Life Satisfaction These needs are so closely related to the other two categories that fulfillment of the above recommendations would do much towards fulfilling them. Of particular interest here is spiritual fulfillment, removal of the institutional stigma, and early detection of mental illness in the aged. Education is of prime importance in this area, not only public education for all concerning the aged, but also continuing educational opportunities for the aged themselves.

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APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE IN ENGLISH AND ARABIC

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QUESTIONNAIRE This questionnaire is going to be used as a part of ray study for the doctoral degree in Educational Psychology at the University of Florida. The results of the study will be evaluated on an aggregate level. All responses will be held strictly confidential. your participation in this study is kindly appreciated. Overall success is dependent upon a positive response fromyou and other participants. Please fill in the blanks below, then kindly respond to the questions in the pages that follow. I would like to thank you in advance for your time and cooperation. Sincerely, Bashir L. Shebani AGE: SEX: Male , Female MARITAL STATUS: Single Highest Grade Reached: Separated or Married , Divorced , Widowed None Primary Middle 1-6 7-9 High School Undergraduate 10 12 College Graduate Health Status: How would you best describe your state of health for someone of your age? Very Poor Poor Average Good Very Good

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142 Below is a list of several things which many people believe affec satisfaction with life. In your opinion how important is each o these in providing a satisfying life for a person over 65 vears o age ? Factor (or things) SOMEWHAT IMPORTANT 1. Being needed by others. 2. Owning property. 3. Being independent. 4. Associating with younger people. 5. Having good living arrangements . 6. Understanding oneself. 7. Having friendly neighbors . 8. Helping others in various ways. 9. Having medical assistance available. 10. Having an important job . 11. Living with relatives. 12. Believing in God. 13. Having good food. 14. Participating in social organizations . 15. Living with spouse. 16. Being respected by others. MODERATELY QUITE VERY IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT EXTREMELY IMPORTANT 17. Watching TV and listening to radio programs. Ml tt»ft

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143 Fac 18. 19. 20 . 21 . 22 . 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. toe (or things) SOMEWHAT MODERATELY QUITE VERY IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT Associating with older people. Having good clothing. Having many friends. Being able to travel. Feeling loved by others. Using one ' s mind . Being able to tell others what to do. Reading good books. Living close to children . Having good transportation . Attending church. Making new friends. Living in the same community as your relatives . Having good education. Being physically strong . EXTREMELY IMPORTANT 33. Having work to do.

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144 Factor (or things) SOMEWHAT MODERATELY QUITE VERY IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT 34. Being physically active. 35. Having children to be proud of. 36. Feeling healthy. 37. Having an adequate income . 38. 3eing able to have some privacy in your living quarters. 39. Living with friends. 40. Expecting that you will have an adequate income in the future. 41. Having a few close friends . 42. Being an important person . 43. Being respected for one's knowledge. 44. Visiting with close friend ( s) . EXTREMELY IMPORTANT

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APPENDIX B RANKED IMPORTANCE OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS

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NO. 12 11 26 23 16 9 23 35 22 7 6 36 24 13 15 5 27 44 8 25 43 20 18 31 19 1 32 37 29 30 14 34 33 42 40 38 4 17 2 21 10 39 3 41 TABLE B.l. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life Satisfaction for Libyan Young Male Subjects ITEM DESCRIPTION MEAN SD Believing in God 4.91 0.30 Living with relatives 4.57 0.72 Living close to children 4.23 0.99 Attending church 4.23 1.12 Being respected by others 4 .15 1.08 Having medical assistance available 4.15 1.13 Using one's mind 4 .15 1.12 Having children to be proud of 4.13 1.18 Feeling loved by others 4.04 1.02 Having friendly neighbors 3.96 1.04 Understanding oneself 3.96 1.36 Feeling healthy 3.37 1.11 Being able to tell others what to do 3.85 1.22 Having good food 3.83 1.01 Living with spouse 3.81 1.27 Having good living arrangements 3.77 1.31 Having good transportation 3.72 1.03 Visiting with close friends 3.72 1.20 Helping others in various ways 3.66 1.31 Reading good books 3.47 1.37 Being respected for one's knowledge 3.42 1.35 Having many friends 3.42 1.15 Associating with older people 3.38 1 .21 Having good education 3.34 1.37 Having good clothing 3.32 1 . 38 Being needed by others 3.32 1.42 Being physically strong 3.25 1 . 36 Having an adequate income 3.25 1.19 Making new friends 3.25 1.22 Living in same community as relatives 3.13 1 . 36 Participating in social organizations 3.11 1.25 Being physically active 3.08 1.22 Having work to do 3.06 1 . 39 Being an important person 2.96 1.41 Expecting adequate income in future 2.96 1.37 Having privacy in living 2.96 1.27 Associating with younger people 2.91 1.42 Watching TV and listening to radio 2.87 1.37 Owning property 2 .87 1 .40 Being able to travel 2.60 1.45 Having an important job 2.49 1 .55 Living with friends 2.45 1.32 Being independent 2.23 1 . 37 Having a few close friends 1.91 1 .04 150

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151 TABLE B.2. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life Satisfaction for Libyan Old Male Subjects NO. ITEM DESCRIPTION MEAN SD 12 Believing in God 4.98 0.13 15 Living with spouse 4.47 0.66 16 Being respected by others 4.35 0.95 6 Understanding oneself 4.22 0.94 23 Using one's mind 4.15 1.16 35 Having children to be proud of 4.13 1.11 22 Feeling loved by others 4.05 1.13 24 Being able to tell others what to do 3.93 1.23 5 Having good living arrangements 3.91 0.99 43 Being respected for one's knowledge 3.89 1.27 42 Being an important person 3.89 1 . 24 28 Attending church 3.75 1.29 1 Being needed by others 3.69 1.27 36 Feeling healthy 3.51 1.32 44 Visiting with close friends 3.35 1.32 9 Having medical assistance available 3.35 1.53 7 Having friendly neighbors 3.25 1.31 26 Living close to children 3.22 1.40 32 Being physically strong 3.22 1.29 37 Having an adequate income 3.18 1 .22 33 Having work to do 3.16 1.27 13 Having good food 3.11 1.21 34 Being physically active 3.00 1 .17 29 Making new friends 2.98 1.41 8 Helping others in various ways 2.93 1.20 38 Having privacy in living 2.93 1.10 13 Associating with older people 2.93 1.13 31 Having good education 2.91 1.47 27 Having good transportation 2.89 1.29 11 Living with relatives 2.39 1 .44 2 Owning property 2.89 1.15 20 Having many friends 2.87 1.47 21 Being able to travel 2.84 1.26 19 Having good clothing 2.78 1.30 3 Being independent 2.78 1.27 30 Living in same community as relatives 2.73 1.35 17 Watching TV and listening to radio 2.71 1.24 39 Living with friends 2.65 1.35 25 Reading good books 2.64 1.35 40 Expecting adequate income in future 2.62 1.27 41 Having a few close friends 2.45 1.37 14 Participating in social organizations 2 . 35 1.22 10 Having an important job 2.27 1.28 4 Associating with younger people 2.11 1.01

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152 TABLE B.3. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life Satisfaction for Libyan Young Female Subjects NO. ITEM DESCRIPTION 'MEAN SD 12 Believing in God 4.95 0.23 16 Being respected by others 4.49 0.69 36 Feeling healthy 4.18 0.98 35 Having children to be proud of 4.11 1.05 6 Understanding oneself 4.11 1.15 23 Using one's mind 4.11 1.18 22 Feeling loved by others 4.07 1.20 28 Attending church 3.98 1.30 9 Having medical assistance available 3.87 1.31 5 Having good living arrangements 3.84 1.18 43 Being respected for one's knowledge 3.82 1.33 7 Having friendly neighbors 3.75 1.42 44 Visiting with close friends 3.73 1.28 8 Helping others in various ways 3.67 1.40 24 Being able to tell others what to do 3.58 1.26 33 Having work to do 3.58 1.24 15 Living with spouse 3.53 1.29 27 Having good transportation 3.44 1.15 30 Living in same community as relatives 3.40 1.45 1 Being needed by others 3.33 1.66 13 Having good food 3.33 1.33 34 Being physically active 3.29 1.30 32 Being physically strong 3.29 1.33 42 Being an important person 3.29 1.50 29 Making new friends 3.25 1.59 26 Living close to children 3.22 1.56 37 Having an adequate income 3.15 1.41 19 Having good clothing 3.07 1.23 38 Having privacy in living 3.04 1.22 18 Associating with older people 3.02 1.30 31 Having good education 3.00 1.37 11 Living with relatives 2.98 1.48 14 Participating in social organizations 2.84 1.50 25 Reading good books 2.82 1.32 21 Being able to travel 2.80 1.28 20 Having many friends 2.69 1.23 4 Associating with younger people 2.47 1.23 41 Having a few close friends 2.47 1.25 40 Expecting adequate income in future 2.45 1 .44 3 Being independent 2.42 1.26 17 Watching TV and listening to radio 2.40 1.06 39 Living with friends 2.27 1.39 2 Owning property 2.15 1.28 10 Having an important job 2.11 1.24

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MO. 12 22 6 16 35 23 15 42 28 24 1 43 9 11 8 34 7 18 36 44 17 32 38 37 29 5 13 33 41 21 27 26 14 30 31 25 39 2 40 19 20 4 3 10 153 TABLE B.4. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life Satisfaction for Libyan Old Female Subjects ITEM MEAN SD DESCRIPTION Believing in God 4.93 0.26 Feeling loved by others 4.31 0.91 Understanding oneself 4.28 1.00 Being respected by others 4.24 0.97 Having children to be proud of 4.17 1.06 Using one's mind 4.15 1.14 Living with spouse 4.06 1.00 Being an important person 4.06 1.14 Attending church 4.04 1.29 Being able to tell others what to do 3.94 1.19 Being needed by others 3.74 1.35 Being respected for one's knowledge 3.59 1.27 Having medical assistance available 3.54 1.34 Living with relatives 3.39 1.17 Helping others in various ways 3.24 1.20 Being physically active 3.28 1.20 Having friendly neighbors 3.17 1.08 Associating with older people 3.09 1.42 Feeling healthy 3.09 1.14 Visiting with close friends 3.06 1.16 Watching TV and listening to radio 2.98 1.32 Eeing physically strong 2.96 1.23 Having privacy in living 2.91 1.32 Having an adequate income 2.91 1.23 Making new friends 2.89 1.22 Having good living arrangements 2.87 1.47 Having good food 2.87 1.20 Having work to do 2.81 1.36 Having a few close friends 2.81 1.42 Being able to travel 2.78 1.08 Having good transportation 2.78 1.37 Living close to children 2.74 1 . 36 Participating in social organizations 2.74 1 . 39 Living in same community as relatives 2.74 1.12 Having good education 2.70 1.31 Reading good books 2.69 1.36 Living with friends 2.57 1.41 Owning property 2.52 1.22 Expecting adequate income in future 2.48 1 .33 Having good clothing 2.46 1.13 Having many friends 2.44 1 .16 Associating with younger people 2.43 1.21 Being independent 2.35 1.22 Having an important job 2.06 1.04

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NO. 22 9 1 6 23 16 36 5 41 40 37 38 33 44 3 34 35 13 15 27 7 20 43 32 8 12 13 26 21 42 14 29 31 4 25 26 10 19 30 2 39 17 24 11 TABLE B . 5 . 154 Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life Satisfaction for American Young Male Subjects ITEM DESCRIPTION MEAN SD Feeling loved by others 4 . 49 0 . ,92 Having medical assistance available 4. 43 0 . 98 Being needed by others 4. 14 0 . ,96 Understanding oneself 4. 14 0 . ,92 Using one's mind 4. 14 0 . ,96 Being respected by others 4. 02 0 . ,97 Feeling healthy 3. 90 1 , .06 Having good living arrangements 3. 82 0 . ,79 Having a few close friends 3. 80 1 . .11 Expecting adequate income in future 3. 76 1 , .09 Having an adequate income 3. 75 1 , .04 Having privacy in living 3. 73 1 , .06 Having work to do 3. 71 1 , .01 Visiting with close friends 3. 67 1, .01 Being independent 3. 61 1 , .10 Being physically active 3. 61 0 , .94 Having children to be proud of 3. 57 1. .28 Having good food 3. 45 1 , .15 Living with spouse 3. 39 1 , .36 Having good transportation 3. 29 1 , .14 Having friendly neighbors 3. 27 1 . .15 Having many friends 3. 27 1 , .00 Being respected for one's knowledge 3. 27 1 , .15 Being physically strong 3. 25 1, .25 Helping others in various ways 3. 25 1. .07 Believing in God 3. 12 1 , .51 Associating with older people 3. 02 1 , .12 Living close to children 3. 00 1 , .28 Being able to travel 2. 98 1 , .22 Being an important person 2. 98 1 .26 Participating in social organizations 2. 94 1 .27 Making new friends 2. 88 1 .09 Having good education 2. 80 1 .48 Associating with younger people 2. 80 1 .10 Reading good books 2. 59 1 .20 Attending church 2. 59 1 .15 Having an important job 2. 59 1 .17 Having good clothing 2. 55 1 .10 Living in same community as relatives 2 . 55 1 .25 Owning property 2. 41 1 .13 Living with friends 2. ,37 1 .04 Watching TV and listening to radio 2. ,08 1 .28 Being able to tell others what to do 1 . ,98 1 .03 Living with relatives 1 . ,82 0 .99

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NO. 9 36 22 37 12 23 13 40 6 34 27 16 5 1 38 32 15 28 33 35 7 3 41 8 44 26 18 29 25 21 31 4 43 14 2 30 20 19 10 17 42 11 39 24 155 TABLE B.6. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life Satisfaction for American Old Male Subjects ITEM DESCRIPTION MEAN SD Having medical assistance available 4.39 0.96 Feeling healthy 4.20 0.80 Feeling loved by others 4.16 1.19 Having an adequate income 4 . 10 1.20 Believing in God 4.04 1.36 Using one's mind 3.98 1.17 Having good food 3.96 1.04 Expecting adequate income in future 3.96 1.31 Understanding oneself 3.84 1.10 Being physically active 3.82 1.14 Having good transportation 3.82 0.99 Being respected by others 3.80 1.20 Having good living arrangements 3.80 0.98 Being needed by others 3.78 1.29 Having privacy in living 3.75 1.20 Being physically strong 3.73 1.08 Living with spouse 3.65 1.26 Attending church 3.61 1.52 Having work to do 3.51 1.16 Having children to be proud of 3.49 1.10 Having friendly neighbors 3.49 1.14 Being independent 3.43 1.02 Having a few close friends 3.41 1.20 Helping others in various ways 3.35 1.11 Visiting with close friends 3.22 1.25 Living close to children 3.22 1.10 Associating with older people 3.16 1.07 Making new friends 3.10 1.08 Reading good books 3.04 1.22 Being able to travel 3.02 1.22 Having good education 3.00 1 . 36 Associating with younger people Being respected for one's knowledge 3.00 1.11 3.00 1.22 Participating in social organizations 2.96 1.17 Owning property 2.96 1 . 34 Living in same community as relatives 2.96 1.09 Having many friends 2.94 1.07 Having good clothing 2.82 1.16 Having an important job 2.43 1 . 17 Watching TV and listening to radio 2.41 1.15 Being an important person 2.35 1.13 Living with relatives 2.24 1.21 Living with friends 2.06 1.08 Being able to tell others what to do 2.04 1.09

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NO. 22 1 9 23 36 16 5 15 41 38 44 6 37 40 33 13 43 35 8 3 34 14 20 27 26 12 7 32 18 4 42 29 28 30 21 19 25 2 31 10 39 24 17 11 156 TABLE B.7. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life Satisfaction for American Young Female Subjects ITEM DESCRIPTION MEAN SD Feeling loved by others 4. 61 0. ,91 Being needed by others 4 . 59 0. ,65 Having medical assistance available 4 . 46 0 . ,82 Using one's mind 4 . .34 1. .14 Feeling healthy 4 . 25 0 . ,98 Being respected by others 4 . , 17 1. .00 Having good living arrangements 4 . , 10 0. ,88 Living with spouse 3. ,95 1 , .12 Having a few close friends 3. ,83 1. .18 Having privacy in living 3. ,86 1 , .06 Visiting with close friends 3. ,85 1 , .20 Understanding oneself 3. ,81 1 , .11 Having an adequate income 3. ,78 1. .10 Expecting adequate income in future 3. ,78 1 , .22 Having work to do 3. ,78 1. .10 Having good food 3. ,64 1 , .09 Being respected for one's knowledge 3. , 58 1, .22 Having children to be proud of 3. ,58 1 . .10 Helping others in various ways 3. ,56 1 , .04 Being independent 3. ,56 1 , .12 Being physically active 3. ,56 1 , .15 Participating in social organizations 3. ,51 0 . .97 Having many friends 3 , .44 1 , . 15 Having good transportation 3, .42 1 , .16 Living close to children 3, ,42 1, .12 Believing in God 3. .37 1 , .48 Having friendly neighbors 3, . 36 1 , .27 Being physically strong 3, . 36 1 , .19 Associating with older people 3, . 29 1 , .13 Associating with younger people 3. . 19 1 , .32 Being an important person 3. .15 1 , .41 Making new friends 3. .15 1 , .28 Attending church 3. .14 1 .38 Living in same community as relatives 3, .02 1 .37 Being able to travel 2 , .88 1 . 30 Having good clothing 2, .83 1 .25 Reading good books 2, .80 1 .21 Owning property 2 .63 1 .05 Having good education 2 . 56 1 .25 Having an important job 2 . 56 1 .24 Living with friends 2 .46 1 .26 Being able to tell others what to do 2 . 20 1 . 10 Watching TV and listening to raoio 2 .14 1 . 17 Living with relatives 2 .05 1 .22

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TABLE B.8. Ranked Importance of Correlates of Life Satisfaction for American Old Female Subjects NO. ITEM DESCRIPTION MEAN SD 9 Having medical assistance available 4.12 0.90 36 Feeling healthy 3.96 1.09 12 Believing in God 3.80 1.48 13 Having good food 3.74 1.05 22 Feeling loved by others 3.72 1.28 37 Having an adequate income 3.64 1.26 15 Living with spouse 3.62 1.24 16 Being respected by others 3.58 1.39 27 Having good transportation 3.58 1.26 23 Using one ' s mind 3.52 1.34 28 Attending church 3.46 1.59 40 Expecting adequate income in future 3.44 1.21 5 Having good living arrangements 3.44 1 .33 35 Having children to be proud of 3.34 1.35 34 Being physically active 3.3 2 1.25 6 Understanding oneself 3.30 1.39 1 Being needed by others 3.28 1.47 8 Helping others in various ways 3.26 1.24 32 Being physically strong 3.10 1.16 38 Having privacy in living 3.10 1.27 33 Having work to do 3.08 1.23 20 Having many friends 3.06 1.19 7 Having friendly neighbors 3.04 1.32 29 Making new friends 3.04 1.24 41 Having a few close friends 3.02 1.29 31 Having good education 2.98 1.24 25 Reading good books 2.98 1 .36 30 Living in same community as relatives 2.96 1.31 26 Living close to children 2.94 1.33 19 Having good clothing 2.92 1.32 3 Being independent 2.92 1.24 14 Participating in social organizations 2.82 1.35 44 Visiting with close friends 2.80 1.12 18 Associating with older people 2.78 1.28 2 Owning property 2.74 1.55 43 Being respected for one's knowledge 2.74 1.31 24 Being able to tell others what to do 2.60 1.50 4 Associating with younger people 2.54 1.31 21 Being able to travel 2.52 1.37 42 Being an important person 2.52 1.31 10 Having an important job 2.50 1.45 11 Living with relatives 2.50 1.36 17 Watching TV and listening to radio 2 . 40 1.31 39 Living with friends 2.22 1.22

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH The author, Bashir Lamin Shebani, was born May 5, 1945, at Marbat's village, Misurata district, in Libya. He received his secondary school certificate from Misurata Secondary School in 1966. He received his teaching certificate from Nassar Institution of Teachers at Benghazi in 1968. From 1963 1971 he was appointed as a teacher in Misurata Elementary Schools and Benghazi Middle Schools. The author started his undergraduate work at the University of Libya at Benghazi in the Faculty of Arts and Education in 1968, and in 1972 he received his 3achelor of Arts and Education degree majoring in Arabic language. Before he came to the University of Florida in March, 1974 he was a teacher of Arabic language at Benghazi Middle and High Schools. He received his Master of Education degree from the University of Florida in 1975. From 1975 1977 he was appointed as a Supervisor at the Ministry of Education in Libya. From 1977 1980 he taught at the University of Garyounis in the Faculty of Arabic Language and Islamic Studies at Elbecha Campus and at the Faculty of Arts and Education at the Main Campus in Benghazi. He lectured on the subject of educational psychology, methods of teaching, and the science of education. In September, 168

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169 1980 he started his studies at the University of Florida and continued his work for the doctorate in educational psychology. A Certificate in Gerontology was awarded to the author in 1982. He has a scholarship from Gar-Younis University. The writer likes reading, traveling, and helping and associating with others, especially the elderly. Mr. Bashir Lamin Shebani is married to Salha Mohammed who is working in the field of education. She is a teacher of English language in the middle schools of Benghazi. The author is the father of six daughters and one son. Permanent Address: P.O. Box 32716 Benghazi, Libya

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. annelore L. Wass, Chairperson Professor Foundations of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Professor Foundations of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. — Robert Blume Professor General Teacher Education This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Foundations of Education in the College of Education and to the Graduate School, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. August, 1984 Chairman, Foundations of Education Dean for Graduate Studies and Research