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B. J. Case of Sodus. N. Y., is a large grower and shipper
a e a firm believer of apples and other fruits. Mr. Case is a fir beiever in the value f modern methods for packing and shipping apples and has written his impressions for the Packing House News, which may be found on page four of this issue.


An Illustrated Monthly Publication devoted to Fruit and Vegetable Packing Houses and Other Allied Interests.


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May 1923


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Packing House Lake Alfred Citrus Growers' Association Brogden, Ricketts & Haworth, Tampa, Contractors
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The Only Fruit and Vegetable Packing House Journal in America

Volume II MAY, 1923 Number 5




Contents
PAGE

Some Problems of Producing, Packing and Shipping Apples in
Western New York. By B. J. Case - 4
Something of the problems of growing and marketing apples in Western New York
by a grower and shipper of many years' experience.
National Pecan Growers Exchange, Albany, Georgia. By Win. P. Bullard 5
The plan of the National Pecan Growers' Organization and the grading methods
used, by its president.
Marketing Future Florida Citrus Crops-The Bugaboo of Over
production. By J. C. Chase. 7
Meeting of Florida State Horticultural Society. By T. L. Winton 8
A few notes of the meeting and some observations on the value of the Society to the
State.
Making Millions From Squirrel Food. By-John B. Wallace. -0
An entertaining illustrated article of the California Walnut Growers' Association
and the California Almond Growers' Exchange.
Boosting Nut Sales. By 0. Foerster Schully. 1 3
Mr. Schully seems to think that all the nut growers in the country are not onto
their job. Some interesting facts and figures.
The Paper Shell Pecan Growers Association of Putney, Georgia 14
Another Pecan Growers' Organization whose specialty is packing nuts in vacuum in
tins and glasses.
Another Type of Celery Crate 15
Specifications of the 4 one-wire bound celery crate.
Walnut Fruit Growers Operate' Unique Combination Packing
House. By E. M. Henderson. - -6
Citrus fruits and nuts packed from the same plant. A detailed description of the
method of preparing walnuts for marketing.
Development of the Grape Industry In Florida. By E. L. Zimmerman. 18
Grape production is attracting a lot of attention in Florida just now. Mr. Zimmerman writes optimistically of the future for grapes in Florida.
Floral Parade - - 22
Florida's First Annual Flower Show. An attractive collection of pictures.
A New Citrus Field. By Edna Bennett Stolz. 24
Texas expects to outdistance California and Florida in the production of oranges and
grapefruit some of these days.
A New Safety Basket Fastener. By Seth J. Ferrara, Jr. - 28


Published Monthly by Skinner Machinery Company, Dunedin, Florida, B. C. Skinner, Vice-President and General Manager SUBSCRIPTION RATES
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if more than one copy is mailed to same address. If address on envel4pe is incomplete or incorrect please send correction or addition. Notify us promptly of failure o receiv the NEWS Address All Communications to Skinner Packing House News, Dunedin, Florida Copyright, 1923. Skinner Machinery Company Printed in St. Petersburg. Florida, by The Tourist News Press

~L-zt97







So me Problems of Producing, Packing and Shipping Apples in Western New York By B. 7. CASE


On the south shore of Lake Ontario in New York state is a strip of country extending from Niagara Falls to Oswego, a distance of about one hundred and forty miles in length, and varying in width, that is well adapted to growing apples.
The tempering effect of the waters of Lake Ontario, which is two hundred miles long, and sixty miles wide at its widest point holds the buds back in the spring and wards off late spring frosts, so that apple blossoms have not been killed in this section during the memory of our older people.
This section is favored, as far as climatic conditions are concerned, far more than many other sections. However, the damp conditions, due to being near a large body of water, makes the growth of fungus diseases one of the greatest obstacles to be overcome in growing apples. Especially. are these fungus diseases difficult to control, if the apple trees are planted on land that holds moisture readily, or in a locality that does not have good air drainage.
Apple trees, and apples grow so readily in this section, that it has been noted for the very little intelligent study that the growers have given their orchards in the past. But in recent years. when the apples of much better anpearanci commenced to pour into our Eastern Markets from the Pacific Coast and take our markets away from us. we began to wake up and give these orchards more intelligent care.
We have found that we can grow just as fine apples in appearance as the other sections, and very few can equal the flavor of apples grown along the south shore of Lake Ontario.
The better growers are learning how to keep the apples free from insect injury and fungus growths, how to keep the size of the apples largely between two and one half to three inches in diameter, which are the most desirable sizes for marketing. Also, how to increase the color on the colored varieties. How to read the trees' language, when they are trying to tell us what ingredients they lack for a balanced ration and when they have too much of any kind of food.
It is a noted fact that it requires stiff competition to obtain the best results in any manufacturing concern. The same conditions apply to apple growing. So this section while realizing its naturally favorable conditions, also realizes that other sections are outselling them, even in the nearby markets.
One of the weakest points, in marketing Western New York apples, has been the way most of the apples have been packed. All sizes, from two and one-quarter inches to three inches in diameter going into the same barrel. The largest apples being on the ends of the package and the middle containing the smaller and imperfect apples. Through the influence, of some of the leading growers a grading law was passed in New York State, requiring all apples which are packed in closed packages to be marked on the head end with the minimum size and the grade, and the name and address of the packer.
To size these apples to every one fourth of an inch in diameter by hand was a tedious job and required help with an accurate eye to make any speed, so grading machines have been devised that will size the apples more accurately than any one can by hand. and deliver each size into pockets. Thus lowering the labor cost of packing and still conforming with the law. These machines have been improved as necessity demanded, until now some of them will handle one hundred to two hundred bushels ner hour, delivering the apples into pockets, perfectly sized without bruising, ready to be run into barrels; sorting out the imperfect apples by hand.
Thishas raised the standard pack of New York apples, so that now we do not fear the competition of the Pacific Coast as we look into the future, laying plans for our boys to continue and'develop the business that our fathers started and that we have developed to its present status. Page Four


The development in cold storage plants has eliminated a lot of loss in holding apples for later use. Thus extending the marketing season to practically the whole year.
The Cooperative Packing and Marketing Associations have helped materially in raising the average grade, and extending the shipments to cities and towns that have never before enjoyed a steady supply of good eating and cooking apples.
If the distribution of apples ever attains the efficiency that marketing oranges and bananas now has, so that we could furnish one apple per day in some form to every man, woman and child in the United States, every day in the year, it would require one hundred million barrels, or nearly double the apples ever produced in one year in this country

WHAT CALIFORNIA LEARNED IN FLORIDA
Bill Nye once said that the only way to ascertain a thing was "find out about it." This observation is not as silly as it seems for we listen to rumor and hearsay, we speculate, guess and surmise and form conclusions that a little investigation might dispel. Too many opinions formed in this way become fixtures of belief.
A good proof of this fact is the exchange visits of the Florida and California citrus growers. From these trips, they learned a lot about each other and "unlearned" a lot more. One California visitor who recently returned from Florida very frankly confessed this.
"In Florida we have a real competitor for the citrus industry of the United States," declared C. E. Utt, a prominent Southern California orange grower, who was the principal speaker at a recent meeting of the El Modena and Villa Park farm centers, at Orange. He prophesied a possible exchange or at least an improvement in the method of handling Southern California citrus fruits and a possible delay in the opening of the Valencia orange season. "Florida fruit is gaining favor with the consuming public," said Mr. Utt, "and in some parts of the country, California oranges, in comparing them with those from Florida, are characterized as sour and tasteless. Here in California of course. we believe differently but the fact remains that both are in favor with the consuming public, with a small difference as to choice." That is quite a concession for a Californian, especially an orange grower.
When asked if he believed that the Florida citrus fruits will seriously damage the sale of the California product, Mr. Utt said. "I do not believe Florida will drive us out of the citrus business, but I do believe she will drive us tO improvement in our methods of packing and shipping, and especally in selecting better grade fruit for shipment. Her increased plantings of Velancias will probably result in delaying the opening of the shipping season on that variety here. Florida's strides toward market supremacy have been remarkable in the past few years and they are planting ten acres to our one in citrus fruits, especially grapefruit and Valencia oranges."
Mr. Utt concluded his talk by presenting some figures as to the cost of citrus culture in Florida as compared with California, as well as packing costs, and stressed the point that notwithstanding California's supremacy in the field at the -present time, she should not be caught "napping" but straightway mend her ways, especially as to grading and packing standards.


Lettuce shipments this year from the Salt River Valley of Arizona totalled 531,000 crates, as compared with 155,000 crates the season of 1921. The quality has been very good. The Arizona lettuce crop moves during.the winter and early spring and cutting this year was Made from an estimated total of 1450 acres. The principal growing districts are around Phoenix, in the Salt Iv Valley and near Yim.. a, in the Yuma Valley.






National Pecan Growers Exchange, Albany, Georgia

By WM. P. EULLA4,RD, President


A few years ago a joint committee to organize a co-operative marketing association was appointed by the Georgia-Florida Pecan Growers Association, these being the two leading organizations which meet once a year to discuss cultural, varietal and other problems relating to the growing of pecans.
The National Pecan Growers Exchange was a result of the work of that joint committee and we have been functioning as a purely cooperative marketing association on the California plan for nearly five years. Before we began business I made a trip to California to investigate all those successful cooperative associations in the walnut, almond, citrus fruit, raisins, peaches and other industries, and we have planned our business along their lines; in fact, we are going as closely along the plan of the tremendously successful California Walnut Growers Association as the small difference in our problems will permit. The Exchange has been very successful and is making converts every day. Dealers all wait for the opening prices of the Exchange which is around October 1st when the tonnage of our crop can be determined.
Similar to the California Walnut Growers Association, the National Pecan Growers Exchange proposes to work through locals or sub-Exchanges and it fostered the development of the Albany District Pecan Exchange which is the local or sub-Exchange for Albany and tributary territory. This local Exchange cures, grades, classifies and packs for the National to sell. All sales and collections are made through the National and its policy is to sell to the wholesale trade through the resident brokers just as walnuts and almonds are sold. The National is striving all the time toopen up new markets and has made several shipments to Canada and one to London.
The Albany District Pecan Exchange has been handicapped for room and facilities in which to handle nuts but through the efforts of the National Exchange capital was interested and new property bought and a


fine building erected, the total worth of which is $50,000.00. The local Exchange thus equipped will be able to handle a carload per day during the rush of the harvest. A new style grading machine has been perfected, patented and put in operation that is far superior to anything in use. It is our aim to be up-to-date in every way and a cracking plant of large proportions will be gradually built up in the Albany plant. The growers will require in the future a large cracking plant of their own to take care of the seedlings and off grade nuts.
With the large plant at Albany we will be able to take care of nuts grown within a radius of two hundred miles from Albany for the next few years and the beautiful new property which is 95x169 feet on one of the principal corners in Albany with a private railroad siding holding two cars, has room in which to expand and build up one of the largest pecan handling units in the United States. The National Exchange is entirely democratic throughout and its Board of Directors made up from various sections where the nuts come from. The motto of the Exchange is that it stands for principles and not for individuals or localities, and it is not dominated by any one man or clique of men, but is, as above said, wholly democratic throughout with only one vote to each grower whether big or little. The success of the Exchange is evidenced by the above described building developments of the Albany District Pecan Exchange. People often ask if there is anything in the pecan business and a look into our fine property is an answer to that question.
Although there are many different varieties of pecans yet the Exchange sells few under their individual variety name. To sell all nuts by individual variety would complicate and confuse and therefore in order to eliminate and simplify an unnecessary list of offerings the Exchange has adopted a brand method briefly. described as follows:
Each variety is first graded separately into No. 1 and No. 2 and crackers and put in separate bins. When


shipping we assort or blend in one package all No. 1 size and quality nuts of the various varieties that are of common grade, class, character and quality and which would sell for practically the same price when offered as single varieties. The package thus assorted or blended is sold under the name of Apex brand.
The No. 2 in size and quality of these same varieties is sold under the name of Junior Brand. The Schley variety which is in a class by itself and sells for a much higher price is not blended with others but is sold alone under the name of Queen Brand. This method not only simplifies the selling problem but avoids the difficulty of filling orders for individual varieties when that variety fails as is often the case.
Furthermore, our Brands are registered and when we build up a market for them it cannot be taken away by Tom, Dick and Harry which would be the case if we built up markets for the individual varieties. In other words, the Exchange is operating on behalf of itself and its members and not building up a market for independent operators to take advantage of.
The National Exchange is a pure growers' coperative marketing association without capital stock and not for profit and is operating within both State and National laws. Growers are admitted to membership through a five-year Marketing Agreement similar to all other modern cooperative marketing associations. The National does not confine its operations to Georgia but has many members in Florida and Alabama and some in other states. It is the purpose of the National to extend its operations to every pecan growing section in the United States and establish local or sub-Exchanges in the several growing localities as soon as the production in each will justify, centralizing the production of all of them under the one marketing head.

Youtelum
Where the moonshine comes from is a secret still.


Packing Plant of Albany District Pecan Exchange, Sub-Exchange for the Albany Section of the National Pecan Growers Exchange, at Albany, Georgia Page Five







Skinner 1ackij HouS NewS


Exhibition of fancy berries and cherries at the Berry Festival held at Newberg, Oregon. The different varieties were grown by Mrs. S. E. Brown, and the pack includes raspberries, black caps, and cherries.


SEE NEED OF BETTER GRADING

(By Robert S. Merrill)
Conditions among growers and marketers of fruit in some parts of Canada have reached a crisis, especially where they relate to attempts to capture and hold business in the United States in competition with United States growers.
"Co-operative marketing among fruit growers in Ontario has not been found the success it deserved to be, by any means," says The Saturday Night, a general weekly of Toronto. "This idea found expression at a recent meeting at Guelph Agricultural College, which was devoted largely to the discussion of this question among the members of the Niagara Fruit Growers, Ltd. J. B. Fairbain, an Ontario fruit grower and a member of the company, pointed out that while the Niagara Growers, Ltd., had not gone into liquidation but would probably be reorganized, it was none the less plain that the company had not received the loyal support of its members. 'Many of its members,' he said, 'proved disloyal and some of them dishonest."
"Pledged to delivery to the company, members had sold to outside agencies. Some members had delivered inferior fruits and vegetables to the company while selling their best products elsewhere.
"Niagara Fruit Growers, Ltd., had gone to the trouble and expense of opening up the Chicago market to Canadian products, but when the first carload reached that city it was found to consist of immature peaches, small and green, and that the shipper, according to Mr. Fairbain, was a director of the company. The second Chicago shipment proved good, but the third was as bad as the first. Page Six


"Of course this sort of thing is just plainly dishonest but the pity is that it does not only react against people who would resort to sharp practice, they deserve what they get, but against farmers and fruit growers generally and incidentally give Canadian fruits in foreign markets a black eye."
The co-operative movement has been the salvation of the apple industry in Nova Scotia, and while progress has been made the industry is far from where it should be, according to President G. H. Vroom of the Nova Scotia Fruit Growers' Association, when it met at Middleton, N. S. He spoke of two conditions prevailing in the section known as the Annapolis Valley-insufficient care in picking in the orchard and packing in the fruit houses and the packing and shipping of low grade fruit which barely got through marked No. 3, and spoiled the sale of better stock. He urged putting the fruit on the market in the best condition possible and the most attractive package possible. "It would pay large dealers to follow their fruit to the market," he said, "just to see how it turned out when it was exposed for sale as compared with fruit produced in the other sections of Canada and the United States." The careful handling of apples was also the subject of Professor Blair of the Experimental Farm at Kentville, who told the Nova Scotia growers that fruit should not be dropped in baskets, as the jolt resulted in bruises. In British Columbia the growers of fruits and vegetables are showing a decided tendency to get together on marketing, the inclination taking the form of some sort of central control in shipping. The last two years have been disastrous financially to many growers in the Okanagan Valley and


other districts. A survey of conditions in Canadian markets, among growers and even among housewives showed that the chief evil was lack of stabilization in the apple market. Nobody cared to buy, to any extent last year, because "apple wars" were waging and there was always the probability of a cheaper price the next day. There are 3,300 commercial orchards in the Okanagan Valley, which contain about a million apple trees in addition to other fruits. There are sixty co-operative packing houses, so the interests at stake are considerable.


Convicts Use Packing Machinery
Sorting apples by machinery and packing methods on a ranch near Canon City, Col., under lease to the Colorado State Penitentiary has attracted considerable attention to pro, gressive methods in that state.
A reporter who visited the Mountain View Ranch and saw about forty convicts packing apples in accordance with the requirements of the Northwest or Oregon pack, found it interesting.
"This is the only orchard in the district following the provisions of the Northwest pack. Every apple is sorted by the machine to size and weight and is wrapped in tissue paper as it goes into the box. Winesaps were being sorted and boxed as 'fancy' and 'extra fancy,' the two classifications being deposited by a carrier belt on opposite sides of the machine.
"Under this system of sorting and packing it is known exactly how many apples will go into each box and the number is marked on the box before the fruit is placed in it. The number ranges from 100 to 160, or even more in some cases, according to the division from which they are taken from the compartments of the sorting machine. About 300 boxes a day, or half a carload, are packed each day."
It was estimated this ranch would produce between 10,000 and 12,000 boxes of apples of all sorts, including the summer varieties. Winter varieties are principally Jonathans, Winesaps and Ganos.


Chicago Shipments $90,000,000
The status of Chicago as a fruit and vegetable center is shown by the fact that about 85,000 carloads were han dled there in 1922, an increase ef 10,000 over the previous year. These shipments were valued at $90,000, 000, an increase of $15,000,000.ove 1921. However, there was practicalY no gain in fruit, about 30,000 cal being handled each year. In pota0es 18,000 cars or 1,500 cars less than in 1921,'were handled. The car short age in season was a factor in lessening the arrivals.


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Marketing Future Florida Citrus Crops

The Bugaboo of Overproduction Paper Read by J. C. Chase of Jac4sonvile, at -Xeeting of Florida

State Horticultural Society, at Orlando, Fla., AprilI8, 1923


What the future has in store for us is a most fascinating subject for speculative fancy. It is the part of wisdom to consider the future as it may affect the marketing of the coming crops of Florida citrus fruits. None of us are able to surely penetrate the conditions of next year, to say nothing of the next decade. What more distant seasons have laid up for us involves so much imagination and speculation that it need cause no loss of sleep. A variety of elements enter into the proper consideration of this subject of marketing future crops of Florida citrus fruit and the bugaboo of overproduction. The principal factors in producing and marketing all perishable products are supply, demand, and weather conditions, and frequently weather is the controlling one, as weather conditions affect both supply and demand. Climatic conditions in the producing territory increase or diminish supplies and in the markets favorable weather stimulates a demand while unfavorable weather hinders distribution and frequently turns a limited quantity into an oversupply.
The distribution that is of real service to the producers is the one that makes proper surveys as to the normal maximum and minimum per capita consumption of the whole country and the normal consumption during each part of the season. Such a marketing agency is then competent to advise growers with some degree of accuracy as to what things or conditions influence an increase or decrease in that normal consumption, such as crops of competitive fruits, competitive food, changes in buying power due to fluctuations of prosperity of consumers. Demand for the products often affects values to a greater extent than an increase or decrease in the supply and is always a vital factor in controlling values. It is impractical and would be a violation of both law and moral rights for producers to combine to control and regulate production or acreage. The Providence of God only may and should regulate the size of crops. Consuming demand is regulated by weather conditions, competitive fruits, interest of dealers, such as jobbers and retailers or the energy with which these dealers display and push the sale of the product.
The dealers' interests can best be secured by a stable market, which reduces the chance of loss from market fluctuations and by honest and attractive pack of healthy, sound fruit. Stability of market can be secured by so regulating shipments as to approximately fit the supply to demand. Supply can always be closely estimated by the use of intelligent effort, but the prospective demand can only be based on what is the natural, normal demand and by then deducting or adding the effect of other influences such as advertising, supply and value of competifive foods, trade sentiment and abnormal weather. Weather cannot be predicted but an intelligent study of the other items is always important.
Unquestionably the Volstead Act has greatly increased the normal consumption of fruit as it has increased the demand for all luxuries and for better homes. The enormous amount of money spent for liquor, especially by the great middle class now goes for the better things of life- Some competent authorities estimate that the normaal Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables has been "teased from 20 per cent to 30 per cent by the VolThe maximum of normal consumption of Florida citSfruits will not be known or passed until such a time we cannot sell our whole crop of good fruit at a Profit,
The crying need now is for growers and distributors to "'gnize the fact that consumers want only good, sound o"'ft the best and most palatable varieties. Quality


starts at the tree. It behooves the Florida citrus growers to utilize agencies placed at their disposal by the State and Federal Departments of Agriculture in controlling and overcoming diseases to tree and fruit.
Consumers have become such habitual users of fruits that they are educating themselves as to the quality of fruit and more and more will they discriminate on quality. They will refuse to buy or eat diseased or unsound fruits, and dealers will then rightly refuse to handle it. They will not eat immature or unappetizing fruit. The consumdr today is rapidly learning what to buy and what to leave alone. When growers learn to grow only good eating and undiseased fruit, and packers and distributors learn not to handle fruit known to be fruit of poor carrying quality, and try to represent it as good stock, a great advance will be made. It is important that growers remember many consumers buy by the eye making it necessary to produce fruit of good appearance.
Unhampered transportation, combined with equitable freight rates, are imperative. Well-equipped railroads everywhere that can insure rapid transit of our fruits to all markets, are vital to the certainty of its proper distribution. The whole future prosperity of the Florida citrus industry is dependent on the ability of railroads to render good services.
Good transportation service to perishable products begins with equipment, and equipment means cars especially constructed to give proper carriage either under ventilation or refrigeration to the product with which it is loaded.
Equitable freight rates, lower and adapted to give wider distribution to Florida citrus products, are necessary to the successful marketing of our rapidly increasing volume. Nothing would tend quicker to stem the tide of adverse criticism than immediate and voluntary action on the part of transportation companies in meeting and cooperating with growers and distributors in solving some of the problems that are essential to the prosperity of all.
A bugaboo is defined as anything imaginary-to excite needless fear. The object of this paper is not to ring an alarm bell or cry wolf, but to look facts fairly in the face. The cry of overproduction met the writer forty years ago when he first came to Florida, and was killed by the freeze of 1894-95 and succeeding sold winters. The bugaboo of overproduction met the writer lnClif6rnia in 1896 and is still there-and has come to life again in Florida. However, in spite of, constantly increasing production the past few years will' go on record. as-prosperous to average growers. We must expect lean as well as fat seasons, bending our efforts always to the production of a fine grade fruit of the varieties commanding the highest prices and occupy a place out of reach of any bugaboo.

According to the Department of Agriculture of California, the newly organized Motor Ship Cori~oration of California will commence transporting fresh fruits through the Panama Canal this fall, the company having recently received a permit to begin operations from the State corporation commissioner. The company announces its intention to establish terminals at Wilmington, California and Oakland, and that only latest methods of cooling and handling fruit and vegetables will be used on their ships.

Arica province, Chile, is fast developing a considerable export trade in oranges. There are many packing houses in operation, and 2,228 fruit bearing orange trees in Arica province. The annual packing house output is estimated at from five to six million oranges.
Page Seven






Meeting of Florida State Horticultural Society

Held in Orlando, Florida, April 17-19, 1923

By T. L. W1NT0ffA(_


Upon yours truly has been wished the task of writing up the Thirty-sixth Annual Meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society. This would be a pleasure indeed had I the whole magazine to cover it in, because the sessions of the recent meeting were replete with good things, many interesting and prominent men and women were in attendance, and the papers and discussions offered much opportunity for comment. But being confined inside the borders of one page I can only touch the high spots. This being a nut number, being asked to write of the Florida Horticultural Society in a few paragraphs, I contend, is the hardest nut of all to crack. But here goes.
The sessions of the meeting, with one exception, were held in the Grand Theatre, and were all well attended in spite of the fact that the membership is not as large this year as it has been in others. This because printed publicity was depended upon for securing additional memberships this year instead of the usual custom of securing them by personal solicitation. Throughout the entire meeting interest in the papers and discussions was intense and it was exceedingly evident that a great many people attended the meeting with the idea of getting all the information possible out of it.
The meeting was opened on April 17, at 8:15 p. m. President L. B. Skinner in his opening address touched on many matters of importance to horticulturists in this state, laying stress on the prospects for the development of the avocado industry in Florida, and advocating a Palm Week, during which Floridians would plant anywhere from ten thousand to one hundred thousand palms. This opening meeting was devoted principally to state, highway and home beautification, and the papers were received with an -enthusiasm which showed that those present were in favor of all the beautification possible. Karl Lehmann both entertained and enthused in his characteristic style of address on "Beautifying the Highways," and Dean Alvord gave some very valuable suggestions from his own experiences in "Improving the Home Grounds." If the enthusiasm shown at this meeting would get behind all the suggestions offered then Florida would shortly become the most attractive place in the world.
The first session on April 18 was devoted to propagation methods for citrus and other plants and to grapefruit canning. T. Ralph Robinson of Washington, D. C., gave some reasons for the importance of safe-guarding citrus importations by improved quarantine propagation. John H. Jeffries of the branch Experiment Station at Lake Alfred, gave an interesting talk on "Citrus Propagation Methods." Particularly interesting in connection with this talk were some small citrus trees which had been propagated from cuttings and which were handed around for inspection. A paper that perhaps attracted more attention and discussion than any other one at the meeting was "A New Method for Budding and Grafting Old Citrus and Other Sub-Tropical Trees," by John W. Barney of Palma Sola. Mr. Barney had a convincing exhibit on hand of his work with this method. He explained that the main value of the method was in bringing non-bearing trees into bearing ones in the shortest space of time possible. One of the most interesting and valuable talks of the .entire meeting was made during this morning by Dr. David Fairchild, Agricultural Explorer in Charge of the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction of the Federal Department of Agriculture. Dr. Fairchild told of the plans for the development of the new plant introduction gardens at Chapman Field and the removal of the gardens from their present location on Brickell Avenue, Miami. Chapman Field is located near Miami, is 900 acres in extent, and was used as an aviation training field during the war. Dr. Fairchild explained that it is ideally located in many respects for the work to be carried on. Dr. Fairchild also spoke of the value and importance of the plant introduction work the Government is carrying on, to the horticulturists of Florida and mentioned the great future
Page Eight


there might be in this state for varieties of fruits and trees and shrubs that we know little or nothing of at present.
Much interest was shown in Mr. Seth Walker's paper on "Canning Grapefruit" and in the discussion which fol. lowed. The keynote of this discussion seemed to be that canning grapefruit is both practical and comparatively simple, and that Florida can do with its surplus grapefruit what Hawaii has done with her pineapples.
Two sessions were held during the afternoon of April 18. One in the Grand Theatre was devoted mainly to avocado, banana and pineapple culture. That these fruits are to play an important part in the future horticultural industry of the state was evidenced by the experiences of the speakers and the interest shown by those attending. Several bunches of Florida grown bananas were exhibited, Interest was very keen in the Grape Program held in the Chamber of Commerce building. Papers were given on the insects and diseases of grapes, cultural methods for Florida and the experiences of growers in this state. It appeared that there were many insect and disease pests to trouble grapes in Florida but that the folks at Gainesville are on the job with methods of control. That grapes are being grown successfully in Florida from a commercial standpoint was shown by the experiences of several growers. This session was completed by a trip to the vineyards of Dr. Phillips at Compton, near Orlando. This proved an instructive object lesson of the progress made in grape culture in this state.
The meeting at 8:15 Wednesday was given over to marketing, shipping and packing house problems. Mr. J. C. Chase of Jacksonville explained how unnecessary it was to worry about over-production of citrus. Mr. C. H. Walker of Bartow told of the amazing development of the Citrus Industry, and Mr. H. G. Gumprecht discussed the problem of preventing decay in citrus fruits.
The morning program of April 19 was a miscellaneous one, in which a great deal of interest was shown by a full attendance. Dr. 0. F. Burger of Gainesville spoke of the control of melanose, J. R. Winston of the Department of of Agriculture gave a preliminary report on the use of gas for controlling stem end rot in citrus fruits, W. R. Barger of Washington discussed the coloring of citrus fruits. A rather amusing feature of this part of the program was the discussion which followed. Stem end rot and melanose have some connection and coloring a connection with the use of gas. A volley of questions fired at the three speakers were referred from one to the other, as each was afraid of treading on the others' field. Three papers on fertilizers wound up this session. Perhaps the most inter, esting was the discussion of the relative values of raw and treated phosphates by R. W. Ruprecht of Gainesville.
Citrus fruit quality and Satsumaland held the attention of the audience during the afternoon session of April 19th, The talks on citrus quality and citrus quality as related to stocks attracted lots of attention, but quite the feature of this part of the meeting was the talk of the Satuma country in West Florida popularly known as Satsumaland. The talks by Wm. L. Wilson and others on the development of the citrus industry in West Florida and the growing Of Satsumas for quality and cold resistance were received with exceeding interest, showing very plainly the co-OPerative spirit which exists between West and South Forida. It was very evident that Satsumaland is to play a very important part in the future of the Florida Citrus Industry,
It was decided at the evening meeting to adjourn that night as one or two of the speakers were not present. The meeting was longer than usual and many subjects were covered. A discussion of the relative merits of spraying and dusting for insects was an important part of the program. Mr. W. W. Yothers of the Department of Agr culture gave a paper on the present status of spraying and dusting for the control of insects and H. E. Stevens
(Continued on Page 31)






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TEXAS NEWS
The Valley Product and Cold Storage Co., Inc., of Harlingen, Texas, has incorporated with a capital stock of $15,000. The following are listed as incorporators: R. H. Cameron,
0. W. Jones and H. F. Shaper.

The shipping of spinach is in full swing in the state of Texas, in the sections where it is grown. Laredo, Texas, has shipped slightly more than 600 cars of spinach this season, and it is expected a total of 800 cars will be reached. To date 25 carloads of onions have been shipped but in a short time special trainloads of onions will be moving out of Laredo. Total spinach shipments for Texas for the season were 1909 cars, April 11th.

E. E. Conklin, supervisor of inspection, Bureau of Markets of the Federal Department of Agriculture of the state of Texas with headquarters at Austin, Texas, left recently on a personal inspection of crop conditions at Crystal City and Laredo, Texas, with a view to establishing a joint Federal and State shipping point inspection at the two cities named.

The annual meeting of the Lower Rio Grande Citrus Exchange, scheduled to meet at Harlingen on April 12th, was postponed until the 26th.
An informal meeting was held the 12th of April. Several jobbers and distributors, who handled Valley fruit the past season were present and gave interesting talks on the methods of packing and marketing citrus fruit. All emphasized the quality of the grapefruit raised in the Rio Grande valley, but advised spraying, and more spraying to improve the appearance, as they were compelled to sell the eye instead of the palate. They agreed that the section that was most particular about the spraying, would be the one that produced the best looking fruit.



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The Exchange will either build, or have built for them, several new packing plants at various points in the valley, during the summer, as it is estimated that the production from this field will run between 500 and 700 car loads, next season.

Dr. Youngblood of A. & M. College is in the Rio Grande Valley, deciding on a site for an experiment station, for which an appropriation of $50,000 was made by the last Texas legislature.
Dr. Youngblood has with him, experts on soil analysis, and water engineers who will aid him in selecting a site. The station will be located somewhere on the irrigated land of Hidalgo or Cameron county.
He stated plainly at a meeting of the Citrus Exchange at Harlingen on April 12th that this station would be located without any reference to poltics, and that the analysis of the soil the amount of water available, and the price of the sites proposed by the various communities, were the only factors that would be considered. He said that they expected to use all the scientific knowledge at their command in this work.

With the dredging for a deep sea harbor at Point Isabel on the Gulf, rapidly going on, and the granting of a charter by the secretary of state to the San Antonio and Mexican Railway Co., for a road to the Valley, it begins to look as if some of the dreams for the Rio Grande Valley are about to be realized.
The charter mentioned above is for a road from Three Rivers in Live Oak county to Miranda on the Mexican border. A branch from La Salle county to Laredo is also proposed.
The San Antonio and Rio Grand Traction line also proposes to build from San Antonio to Point Isabel, giving not only another railway to the co A 0 - N 0) 4 0 0 t- 0 0 0 o a 0 0 0 0 0 00 Q 0 0.


Valley but San Antonio a seaport right at her door.
With these two lines proposing to build roads, and the work already begun on the harbor there doesn't seem much doubt that the Valley will soon have three commercial outlets instead of one.

Urge Spinach Buyers to Activity
Through circulars issued by the Booth Packing Company of Baltimore, Md., the company is urging buyers to action. They say: "Buyers are no doubt familiar with the spinach situation in California. We dare say they have been told that the spinach crop there is seriously short, on which account the pack of spinach there will be greatly reduced. California and Maryland pack nearly all of the spinach this country produces. In Maryland the season is late, on which account it will be short and it is feared that the pack here will be very light."

Governor Vetoes Marketing Bill
Governor McCray of Indiana has vetoed the co-operative marketing bill which was recently passed by both houses of the Indiana legislature. In a statement published in Indianapolis papers, the governor gives his objections to the bill and offers to co-operate with the Farm Bureau Federation in the preparation of a bill which will eliminate the objectionable features. The bil, among other provisions, authorized associations to borrow money without limitation as to the amount of corporate indebtedness. This the governor considered unsound. It also provided for an injunction against a member violating his contract and penalties for soliciting or inducing a member to breach his contract. The governor considered these provisions to be violations of State and Federal constitutional guaranties.
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Making Millions F
By JO IIJ B.


The nut has long been the butt of the jokesmiths but it is no joke to hundreds of persons in California where the returns from its sale run into the millions annually. While, owing to the diversity of climate, nearly all varieties of nuts can be grown in the state only two are grown on a commercial scale. These are walnuts and almonds.
Of the two the walnut industry is the larger and the more firmly established, the proportion of nuts annually produced being in a ratio of about five pounds to one. Both are rapidly growing, however, and with an adequate tariff on European nuts the almond industry is in line for a pronounced boom.
The walnut industry owes its tremendous growth and dominant position in trade circles to the same kind of men, and in some instances the very same men, as those who put the citrus industry of California upon such a high plane of efficiency in packing and marketing.
It is believed that the first cuttings of the English walnut were planted in California by the Mission fathers during the latter part of the preceding century but it was not until the influx of white settlers during the gold rush of 1849 that extensive plantings were made. From these first plantings the industry has grown to an acreage of 93,000 an investment value of more than one hundred millions of dollars and an annual production of fifty-five million pounds of nuts.
The English walnut, as the California softshell walnut is generally called, is of Persian lineage. Its history goes back as far as authentic records are available and it undoubtedly was part of the flora of the world during the glacial age. The walnut is grown commercially in China, India, parts of southern Europe and the Pacific slope of the United States.
It derived its name of the English walnut undoubtedly from its position in commerce between India and England as it is not grown commercially in England.
While walnut culture is increasing in the states of Washington and Oregon and some walnuts are also grown in a few favored Eastern states California is the banner state in its production as it produces more than 95 per cent of the total crop grrwn in this country.
The walnut as a commercial proposition has considerable advantages over the growing of citrus fruits even in Southern California. It does not require nearly as much cultivation and irrigation, it is less afflicted with insect pests, it blooms late and thus escapes frost danger and its crop can be held over for as long as a year without appreciable deterioration. The writer has grown both walnuts and naval oranges in the same locality and the walnuts over a period of five years averaged but ten cents a tree less in gross returns than the oranges. This ratio, however, would doubtless be altered in districts where climatic conditions would affect either the nuts or the fruit adversely.
The walnut tree comes into bearing at the age of six years and bears more heavily each season thereafter indefinitely. Walnut trees in California more than fifty years old are still tremendous bearers and trees in Europe seveal centuries old are still bearing.
Although walnuts had been planted in most parts of the state for some time it was not until fifty years ago when the Santa Barbara softshell and the French varieties were introduced that they began to become a commercial product and it was not until about twenty years ago that the industry began to attain any proportion. Its biggest and most rapid growth has been since 1914 when the California Walnut Growers' Association was organized.
There are quite a number of varieties of the soft shell walnut the principal ones of commercial importance being the Placentia, the Ehrhardt, the Eureka, the Franquette, the Chase, the Concord, the Neff, the Prolific and the San Jose.
The walnut harvest in California usually begins about the middle of September and lasts until the middle of November. The nuts grow inside of husks which split on the trees and allow their contents to fall to the ground. Those which do not fall readily are shaken from the trees by means of hooked poles and the husks removed by hand. A
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rom Squirrel Food
WALLACE

certain proportion varying with the kind of weather en. countered during the growing season become afflicted with a bacterial disease known as blight which causes the husks to stick to the shell. Hot weather sometimes burns the nuts and causes what are known as perforated shell These must be sorted out by the grower who also dries and cleans the nuts before they are taken to the packing house, where they are again sorted and resorted.
The first marketing association for the purpose of pack. ing, grading and selling walnuts was organized in 1895 at Rivera, California. The example of these growers was soon followed and eight or ten associations sprang up in different parts of the state. The nuts were then market. ed through brokers who received a six per cent commission on their sales. As a result of the competition between these brokers for the output of the several associations a great many inferior nuts were placed upon the market and California suffered in competition with foreign importations. Prices became very unsatisfactory and with no organized system of grading or distibution the walnut industry became hazardous and non-lucrative.
This condition did not appeal to two young men, one of whom, Carlyle Thorpe, was manager of a walnut association at Santa Paula and the other, H. C. Sharp, was manager of the Saticoy Walnut Growers' Association. They resolved to market their crop direct to the whole sale trade and took steps to establish a high grade pack.
Their success was so immediate and striking that in 1912 a number of associations, including their own, organized the California Walnut Growers' Association for the purpose of marketing their nuts along these same lines
The result of the formation of this association was astonishing. From an average price of 10.5 cents per pound that the growers had received for fourteen years previous to the organization of the California Walnut Growers' Association the price jumped during the next seven years to an average of 17.6 per pound and the total consumption of walnuts in the United States nearly doubled.
The association started with a membership of but fifteen local packing houses controlling only 54 per cent of the crop of the state. Today it controls between eighty and ninety per cent of the total crop.
The association fixes the prices of the nuts every fall and then guarantees its customers against a drop. It alsO guarantees the quality of the nuts fixing a cracking tes of 88 per cent as its standard and it often exceeds its ow guarantee. The standard for a nut to pass in order to be eligible to the Diamond Brand, the trademark under which the association packs its product is as follows: Its kernel must be plump and sound and not too dark In color, it cannot be mouldy, rancid or wormy and the shell must not be split, must have no outward blemish and must be of a clean bright color. To attain this standard a number of inspectors from the main association constantly test the product of the local packing houses. Thse before a Diamond Brand nut reaches the consumer it has been sorted by the grower, by the local packing houses and by the main association.The problem of culls was also met by the associatiiO Formerly the culls had been sold to peddlers who put 5 few good nuts on top and then sold them as first grade, This injured the reputation of the California walnuts with the housewives who bought them. The Association establisbed cracking plants, the largest at the main plant in Los Angeles and two others, one at Santa Ana and the other at Goleta, Calif. The culls are cracked by I" chinery and sorted by a force of some 600 girls. The product is not only marketed to candy manufacturers and soda fountain supply houses but is also sold to wholesae and retail grocers packed in glass containers for hom use.
Through its national advertising the association ha' conducted a campaign of education to prove that the wVl nut is not only a confection but a food and as a result it has doubled the consumption and price of nuts that formerly were sold as culls within a period of seven years.
In addition to its national advertising the association publishes a monthly magazine, containing full infornat'io





















































































lyle Thorpe, manazer of California Walnut Growers' Association. No. 2. Main building of the California Walnut Growers' in Los Angeles, California. The executive offices and the cracking plant are located in this building. No. 3. These cracking machines crack 60,000 pounds of walnuts daily. They can be so delicately adjusted as to completely fracture the "ut injuring the meat, leaving it intact. Nos. 4 and 5. Two views of the sorting rooms, where 700 girls and women work under editions and-at a minimum wage of $16 per week, many earning double that amount.. No. 6. Vacuum capping machine whereauts after being cleaned by brushes and fans are sealed into air-tight cans.
Page Eleveu.









































3. Photograph of a young almond orchard whose fruit some day will find its way into the famous Blue Diamond Almond pools marketed by 3,000 California almond growers through their co-operative organization, the California Almond Growers' Exchange.


as to its transactions and any other news of interest to walnut growers, which it distributes to the individual members of the local associations.
The association also maintains an agent in Europe who keeps it supplied with the latest news about the foreign crops with which California competes. This is a great aid to the association in fixing its prices and conducting its sales campaigns.
The great value of the association as a marketing organization is shown by its ability to sell the product of the grower at an average cost of three per cent.
The other commercial nut of California, the almond, is also marketing through an association of growers called the California Almond Growers' Exchange. This exchange has about 4,000 members and handles approximately 75 per cent of the total crop.
The almond acreage in California is even larger than the walnut acreage comprising more than one hundred thousand acres. The average production per tree is much lighter, however, and much of this acreage is just coming into bearing. The capital investment is figured at around fifty million dollars and the annual production varies from twelve to fifteen million pounds of nuts.
The headquarters of the California Almond Growers' Exchange is at San Francisco but its largest plant is at Sacramento in the heart of the almond growing district.
This plant was erected at a cost of more than $300,000 and is the only one of its kind in the world. It is equipped with automatic machinery for shelling the nuts. The biggest business in almonds is in the shelled nuts and this business has for a long time been in the hands of importers of foreignxnuts who owing to cheap labor in Europe and the favorable rate of exchange were able to undersell the California growers. However, it is believed that the recent tariff placed upon imported nuts will enable the local growers to recover a great deal of this trade and relieve a situation which for a time was nearly disastrous.
The almond tree originated in Asia and is of very ancient lienage, its nuts being mentioned several times in the Bible. Its early history in California is very nebulous Page Twelve


and it was not until recent years that it has grown ti commercial importance. While the almond is grown in nearly all sections of California the greatest acreage is in the northern and central portions.
It is cultivated in a similar manner to most deciduous fruits which it much resembles in appearance and habits. The blossom is of a pink shade and an almond orchard in full bloom is a beautiful sight. Owing to its early blossoming the almond frequenty suffers from late frosts and for that reason is not as reliable a crop maker as the walnut, which blooms after frost danger is usually past.
Like most nuts it has an outer hull which is removed after picking by a specially constructed machine and the inner nut dried upon trays in the sun.
The nuts are harvested by being shaken from the trees with long poles and then gathered from the canvas sheets placed under the trees to catch them. The unshelled nuts are sorted in the packing houses and the others shelled by automatic machines. Unshelled nuts are usually bleached before sacking.
The twelve leading commercial varieties of California grown almonds are the Drake, the Texas, the Golden State, the Ne Plus Ultra, the Nonpareil, the Peerless, the I. X. L., the Hardshell, the Lewelling, the Eureka, the Routier and the Jordan.
Owing to the intense competition encountered from foreign nuts the almond growers have had rather hard sledding. Low prices to meet this competition fr0n abroad where living standards and wages are so much under ours and an occasional fost that cut down the crop have prevented the full measure of prosperity enjoyed by walnut and citrus growers but under more favorable tariff rates the industry is beginning to make great strides. Under the Blue Diamond brand the members of the cooperative marketing association known as the California Almond Growers' Exchange hope to be able to put the almond on the same plane as the English walnut. The fact that much of the land planted to almonds is not always suited to other purposes makes it an essential economic factor in the prosperity of the state.





TT is self-evident that the been the campaign that every
nut industry is sorely in B oosting N ut Sales pound was sold.
I need of efficient organiza- To ignore the individual tion. When nut growers How the Industry Xay Increase Its Pro consumer and to look upon and distributers wake upto its consumption as a bulk enterthis fact and put their real- By 0 FOERSTER SCHULLr prise is a serious error that ization into material prac- y 0 modern distributors are taktice then, and only then, will ing steps to correct. It is they get maximum results from their labors. At present only recently that the yeast people are appreciating the there is little or no effort on their part to place the stamp profit that may be had from the comparatively small sale. of individuality upon their product. For instance, to the But if the reader scorns the idea of going so far afield majority of consumers, a pecan is a pecan, a filbert is a in our observations, we might consider a product which f1bert and so on ad infinitum. The matter of quality is we reviewed in the preceding paragraph-raisins. Forpurely and simply a gamble. merly, anyone who might have suggested packing raisins Time was-and not so long ago, at that--when the fruit so that they could be sold in five-cent lots would have industry was operated on the same basis. A consumer been roundly criticized for his impractical suggestion. would walk into the establishment of a fruit dealer and The "experts" would have pointed out to him that the ask for, say, twenty-five cents' worth of oranges. Just desirable profits of any business are made in the large that! Nothing more. Oranges were simply oranges to sales. Still, with our late readjustment of business valhim. Does the same condition exist today? It does not. ues, the idea has been tried. Not only that, but it has Organization in the fruit industry has achieved far proved highly successful! Within five weeks after the different results. The nondescript product is slowly but advent of the five-cent package of raisins, orders amountsurely being pushed off the market. Today the brand ing to 333,000,000 packages, representing a retail value is equally as important to the immense body of retail of $16,500,000, poured in from all sections of the country buyers as the type of fruit. Type represents flavor, as an eloquent piece of evidence of its practicability. Brand represents quality. Moreover, the profit per pound was greater than if the This miracle is the result of organized emphasis on raisins had been sold in bulk lots-another important feaselection, packing and advertising. Selection, or grading, ture to consider. The flow of such trade alone is responis necessary not only to gain a reputation but to keep it sible for an annual sale of 32,000,000 pounds of raisins. as well. To win and retain the good will of the consumer Perhaps one of the greatest factors which have discoura uniform quality of product must be offered to him at aged the proper packing of nuts is the natural advantage all times. And uniformity can be achieved only by care- that the product has over other and more easily damaged ful grading. products. Careful packing is not demanded-the shells Packing, then, becomes the next essential. The neces- providing adequate protection against the usual type of sity of proper packing cannot be stressed too greatly. injury. While the railroads have been worrying over Without it, the natural product can never become indi- standard specifications for fruit and vegetable crates, so vidual and distinctive. Even with manufactured prod- that the commodities may be shipped with the minimum ucts which bear all the marks of the manufacturer's indi- amount of injury, rates are published readily for edible viduality, weighty thought is given to the subject of pack- nuts packed in barrels, boxes, or crates-specifications ing. What then should be expected of the distributor unstated. A great deal of latitude is allowed the shipper is plainly handicapped by having a striking similarity to in this respect, not only by the railroads, but by exwho wishes to give a distinctive touch to his product which changes, commission merchants and dealers. The result the products of rival distributors? Efficient packing is is that shippers have taken advantage of this latitude by his only salvation. following the lines of the least resistance and forwarding It stands to reason that advertising is necessary for their product to all destinations in the least presentable wide distribution. How else could consumers beyond a form. restricted area know of the product? Here, again, dis- This evident carelessness had militated against the tinctive packing serves the distributor to good stead. It greate c ess h iletater ente gives him a basis on which to signal out his product from greater success of the industry. While other enterprises the score of other similar products. Just as brand rep- are conceiving distinctive packs for their products, nut resents quality, distinctive packing serves as a house for shippers are content with any type of container so long brand; it enables the consumer to associate the product as it holds together until destination is reached. Little with the brand, or no organization has been sought from the marketing It is true, perhaps, that organized distribution has been end and, save in a few instances, chaos is one of the dompushing walnut sales for about eight years, but why inant notes of the trade. walnuts should be signalled out of all other nuts is beyond There is no enterprise that cannot stand expansion. If comprehension. And what organization has done for nut growers and dealers doubt the efficacy of organized walnuts, it can do for other types of nuts. Facts are distribution they have but to review its achievement for facts. California, it seems, realized the value of adver- the California orange industry to eliminate all such doubt. Using this particular product before other states. In In 1907 the orange growers of California banded together former years California supplied about 14,000,000 pounds to push their product to the utmost. The preceding year of the gross 37,000,000 pounds of walnuts consumed in had been a particularly unfortunate one from all angles this country. In 1915 that state realized that greater and the yearly average of about 10,300,000 boxes had results could be achieved with organized distribution and slumped to a figure below 9,000,000. Within two years immediately gave its attention towards effecting this aim. this figure had climbed to almost 14,000,000 boxesWithin six years the consumption of walnuts had climbed exceeding even the best of previous years before the to 87,000,000 pounds, of which California had supplied alarming slump in sales. The height of the achievement more than 41,600,000 pounds-an increase of over 10 per was reached in 1921, when more than 22,100,000 boxes cent of the gross sales. were sold at a profitable figure. Moreover, a reliable Organized distribution holds the portent for nuts as it market had been created for the enormous summer cropheld for raisins. There was a time when California pro- by introducing, to the soft drink places, modern equipduced 22,000,000 pounds of raisins in excess of the local ment to press the juice from the fruit before the cusconsumption. That was in 1913 when the consumption tomers' eyes for orangeade. of the United States was 110,000,000 and the production There are many more uses for nuts-more, if the truth Of California was 132,000,000 pounds. Something had be told, than there are for fruit. Efficient organization, to be done with the surplus. It was up to the California alone, can bring these uses to the attention of the buying Pruit Growers' Exchange to create new uses in general public. The suggestion and explanation of new uses are for the product. They created this demand by advertis- sure to result in increased sales. Tasteful, distinctive lg extensively the deliciousness and wholesomeness of packing will not only increase sales but will also increase raisin pie and bread, and, as an inducement to bakers, sales prices. The ultimate outcome will be a greater aced a new package of the fruit on the market. Be- profit per pound for the grower and distributor. The tween 1913 and 1917 the sale increased beyond even their success that California has had with walnuts can be dupliYlectations. In the latter year California produced cated with other nuts in the various producing states. p26,00,000"Pounds of raisins-and so successful had Which will be the first to start the movement?

Page Thirteen






The Paper Shell Pecan Growers' Association

of Putney, Georgia

The Paper Shell Pecan Growers' Association of Putney, colors and have key openers. These Crown Brand pecan Georgia, is an organization owning a large acreage of meats have been sold in practically every state of the pecan groves in the Albany district of Georgia. They Union. The Western and Pacific States, where little or pack and ship nuts from their own acreage and purchase nothing has been known of the cultivated pecan, have nuts from other grQwers. A feature of this organization been large buyers of these meats. is that they pack a geat part of the crops they handle in
vacuum in glass jars and tins. We hope later to be able "Large shipments have gone into Los Angeles, Cal., to give a detailed illustrated story of the methods of the home of the California Walnut Growers' Exchange. packing and shipping used by this organization. In the "The Paper Shell Pecan Growers' Association has renmeantime the following regarding the Paper Shell Pecan dered a distinct service to pecan growers in showing the Growers' Association, taken from the editorial columns of way to dispose of low grade and surplus crops. There is the Albany (Ga.) Herald of October 20, 1922, will be of a year-'round market for the vacuum packed pecan meats. interest: The vacuum pack preserves the sweetness indefinitely,
The Paper Shell Pecan Growers' Association, with They are convenient for the housewife, and the time is headquarters at Putney, probably not far nt Dougherty county, mar- when every year milkets the nuts from a lions of pounds of pe. large acreage in groves cans will be ofrk e that are among the most cbe marketed in, productive in the Albany this way." district. Last year the
association sold over ney will buy many nuts 300,000 pounds of pe- in addition to its own cans in the shell and crop this fall and winter, 150,000 pounds in vac- [in order to be able to uum packed tins and supply the demand for glass jars. meats in cans and jars.
The cracking of nuts The reception of these by this association and offerings by the public the marketing of care- has been most gratifyfully culled meats in ing, and Mr. Patterson vacuum packages was an states that re-orders enterprise born out of have poured in steadily the problem already re- and in increasing volferred to-that of find- ume. And herein seems ing a market for low to be the solution of the grade nuts. It is recog- whole marketing probnized, of course, that to lem. Pecan meats packed market nuts of inferior in vacuum keep sweet grade in the shell is and fresh indefinitely, not desirable, partic- and when they reach the ularly where it is to the consumer in that condigrowers' interest to tion they are highly maintain prices f or effective advertising standard grades. Just agents for "the King of how the problem is being Nuts." It is hardly to solved, and why its so- be doubted that this delution seemed important. parture in pecan marketis explained as follows ing, which opens up so by J. M. Patterson, pres- auspiciously, will rapident of the Paper Shell idly expand, and that Pecan Growers' Asso- vacuum packed meats ciation: will be found on the
"The cracking and shelves of high - class packing in tins and in grocery stores throughglass vacuum is a dis- out the country. For tinct advance step in the w out the pecan goes marketing of pecans. it stays. Its popularity The Paper Shell Pecan is universal where it is Growers' Association is known. the first and only culti- i. Ten-year-old orchard of Paper Shell Pecan Growers' Association, Putney, A great deal of the vated pecan marketing Ga. 2. J. M. Patterson, President Paper Shell Pecan Growers' Associa- success of the Paper t on. 3 Paper shell pecan orchard at Dewitt, Ga. 4. Loading barrels of er organization that has in- pecans for shipment from warehouse yard of Paper Shell Pecan Growers' Shell Pecan Growers stalled vacuum packing Association. Association has been due machines. These ma- to the care they use in chines are expensve, as are also the tins and glass which handling and the attention given to details and grading the assocation buys by the carload, in packing pecans. Pecans occupy a very important
"The 1921 crop of pecans, while the largest ever pro- place among the commodities of the country grown for duced, had a considerable per cent of low grade pecans. marketing and the work of handling them for sale an The poor quality pecans were largely the late harvested exceedingly important part of the business as a whole. nuts. When the association's officers became aware of
th~s unusual per cent of low grade nuts, it immediately
withdrew pecans in the shell from the market and pro- IN THESE CRAZY DAYS ceeded, at the expense of many thousands of dollars, to The continuous dancing record held by a girl up to install equipment for cracking and packing pecan meats press time is 65 hours and 30 minutes. The record for in vacuum. The packages, glass and tin, are 'the last pushing a broom without a stop, however, holds at 2 imiword' in containers. The tins are lithographed in four utes and 17 seconds.-The Packer.
Page Fourteen













In the last issue of the Packing House News under the heading, "Why Rsk Financial Loss?" we presented specifications of a standard celery crate, together with an illustration of the parts of this crate. The Manatee Crate Company of Manatee, Florida, one of the largest manufacturers of crate material in the South, has called our attention to the fact that they manufacture a standard celery crate of a different type, known as the: 4 One Wire Bound Celery Crate. We have asked them for an illustration of this crate and for the specifications, knowing that readers of the NEWS will be interested in having this informaton in addition to that given


regarding celery crates last month. This crate has been used extensively by the Manatee County Growers' Association and they are very enthusiastic about its qualities. Upon request to this association for their opinion of this type of crate the following information was given: "Beginning with the season of 1921, and continuously since that time, we have been using the wirebound crates and have experienced no trouble whatever on account of breakage in transit. As a matter of fact Since we began the use of these crates 'e have shipped a good many hundred thousand of them, and have never had a claim made on us for breakage. Whereas, prior to our beginning the


Skzj r Ho nn Newqye...


use of these crates we were receiv:ng complaints on a very large proportion of our carload shipments, the breakage running from 1 to 50 crates in each car; a condition which showed it was not entirely the fault of the railroad companies in rough handling; but was quite largely the weakness of the package we were compelled to use, namely, what was generally known as the original veneer crate. You will readily see what a great satisfaction it is to us to feel that our products are being forwarded to markets in a package that is practically a guarantee of safe delivery so far as the package is responsible for such delivery."


Another Type of Celery Crate


An illustration of the 4 One Wire Bound Celery Crate is shown on this page and the specifications follow:
Commodities to be shipped in this container: Celery.
4-One-Wire bound crates must comply with the General Specifications for 4-One boxes (July 15, 1920), and the following detailed specifications: Dimensions: 10x20x22 inches inside
measurements.
Capacity: 4400 cubic inches. Thin Boards: 1-6 inch thick. Top Section: One slat 4 inches wide,
placed in the middle of the top cleat, with 3 inches space on each
side.


Bottom Section: Two slats, each 4
inches wide, spaced:
(1) 2 inch space, (2) slats, (3) 1 inch space, (4) slats,
(5) '/2 inch space.
Side Section: Three slats, each 4
inches wide in each section, space
between slats 4 inches.
Ends: Solid or Slatted: Three slats
4 inches wide by 10 inches long.
Two cleats 11 inches wide by 20 inches long. Slats fastened to
cleats, spaced:
(1) slats, (2) 4 inches space, (3) slats, (4) 4 inches space,
(5) slats.
Binding Wires: 4-15 gage, evenly
spaced.

NEWS FROM NEW YORK CITY MARKETS

New York, April 25.
The Southern Packing Company of Wilmington, N. C., according to an announcement made in this market, not having made satisfactory arrangements to purchase the property and plant of the Cape Fear Packing Company by March 20, the trustee in bankruptcy, E. K. Bryan, on April 30, at the courthouse of New Hanover county, sold at public auction to the highest bidder for cash all of the assets and effects of the Cape Fear Packing Company.

The Hills Brothers Company of this city has bought a large tract of land to the south of Busrah, Mesopotamia, on which dates will be cultivated by thoroughly modern methods. The date gardens are located on the Shatel-Arab, the river formed by the junction of the Tigris and the Euphrates, and the center of the date industry. The entrance of the Hills Brothers Company into the field of date producing marks a distinct step in the development of the date industry.
* * *
The Goldenripe Dehydrating Company of San Francisco, through their local brokers, J. M. McNiece & Co., have introduced into New York the Goldenripe dehydrated prune which has been successfully put on the market in Chicago and other Western cities. They are packed in one-pound cartons.
* * *
James H. Healy, one of the wellknown figures of the produce trade, after an illness of seven weeks, died here on the 18th of April. He is survived by a widow and one son and was associated with J. H. Killough & Co. for twenty-five years, and when that firm discontinued business he organized a company of his own under his name at West street and Park Place. The business will be continued by a nephew who was associated in the business with him.
(Continued on Page 32)
Page Fifteen






Walnut Fruit Growers Operate Unique Combination


Packing House

Nineteen years ago a number of ranchers in California who had planted a few groves of oranges and walnuts in what was then the center of a strip of desert land suitable only for cattle pasture, met to decide what to do about marketing their product. They did not have enough of either oranges or walnuts to warrant building two houses so they decided to combine in one plant. They called their organization the Walnut Fruit Growers' Association.
So well did this unique scheme work out that last summer the association completed the erection, at a cost of more than $70,000, of one of the most modern walnut and citrus packing plants in either industry.
The navel season begins in January and is over by June, Valencias are handled during the summer months, and by October when the walnuts begin to come in the orange season is over. The walnuts, although in point of returns are much the more valuable crop, are packed and shipped in less than two months, so that by January the house is ready to begin on oranges again.
The tonnage of walnuts handled by this house is only exceeded by one house,
that at Puente, which is
an exclusive walnut house, but the Walnut
h o u s e having been
erected since the other,
is more modern in equipment.
The new house is 200
feet long and 145 feet
wide. At the west end
of the building is a
60-foot tower which


* : E. M. HENDERSON

houses the immense walnut bins. The offices are located at the east end with the big storage floors and orange packing machinery between. The basement, which extends under the entire building, is devoted to walnut machinery and storage purposes.
The second floor over the offices is used for the women employees, embracing a rest room, cloak room and hospital room. A special feature is the big roof of sawtooth construction, consisting of vertical skylights so placed that the entire floor is lighted by north light, which is admittedly best to work by, owing to its steadiness and lack of direct sunshine.
Fruit and walnuts are both received at the south side, which is protected by sliding doors as shown in the photos. On the north side is the railroad spur where the cars are loaded.
The plant has a fruit capacity of six cars a day and could easily be enlarged to double that. The district is rapidly growing and new acreage is coming into bearing. The present acreage handled through the association is 2,300 acres of nuts and
925 acres of citrus
fruits, consisting of
navel and Valencia oranges, no lemons being
grown in this district.
The average orange
shipments are around
600 cars a year, which
contrasts with a yearly
shipment of 113 cars
seven years ago when
Manager James Wols-


No. 1. Exterior view of packing house of Walnut Fruit Growers' Association, showing where fruit and nuts axe,xeceivad. No. 2. Interior view showing portion of main floor. To the left in front of the door is the cracking station where the nuts are tested.
In the right middle ground are the scales where the nuts and fruit are weighed. In the background at the extreme left s shown the hopper where the nuts are dumped after being weighed and which conveys them to the basement. No. 3. Baseme showing shaker, blower and sorting table. The motor whicli operates the suction blower is shown in the top center. The light nuts come out of the chute at left center. No. 4 Bins aid graders in the tower. The nuts arrive here from the top Of the tower and are graded automatically into sizes. No. 5. Anothe- view of main floor showing fruit packing machinery in immediste
foreground. Note the fruit bo7-es stacked to the left surrounled by sacked walnuts.
Page Sixteen





tencroft assumed charge of the old house. To Manager Wo1stencroft and Mr. F. M. Bishop, of Santa Ana, Calif., an expert on walnut equipment, who invented many of the new devices in use at this plant, is due the credit for its remarkable efficiency.
The machinery for handling the citrus fruit is located in the northwestern corner of the building, as shown in the interior picture. It is similar to that installed in all modern houses. It is in the handling of nuts, however, that ingenuity in labor-saving devices is especially shown. The walnuts are received at the door shown in the picture. A cracker is stationed there and samples the product as each grower drives up to deliver. Nuts that do not crack 88 per cent are rejected and the grower must re-sort them himself.
The accepted nuts are dumped into the hopper shown at the left of the interior photograph. Vibrating metal strips keep them in motion and prevent them from piling up until they pass into the suction blower located in the basement. This blower is operated by a small electric motor and sucks the nuts without kernels into a side chute. These empty shells are ground up and used to make charcoal.
The blower also separates the light nuts from the good ones and these are sent to the cracking plant in Los Angeles. This machine is the invention of Mr. Bishop. It saves all the handwork in sorting and gives a more perfect separation.
From the blower the nuts travel on to a grading table where girls pick out the "spots" and nuts that will not take the bleach well. The nuts from there go into the bleaching cylinders. The bleaching tanks in which these cylinders revolve are built of cement and contain a bleaching solution consisting of sulphuric acid, chloride of lime and monohydrate crystals. From the bleach the nuts are carried up into the tower by a perpendicular conveyor. There another group of girl sorters pick out the nuts injured or discolored in the bleach. The nuts then drop into revolving wire cages of different sized mesh which grades them for size. A long belt conveyor takes them through a chute at the top of the tower, where they are weighed and dumped into immense bins for drying before being re-sorted and sacked.
The Walnut association has four grades, Fancy, Budded, Soft Shell No. One, Soft Shell No. Two, the grades in the soft shell nuts referring solely to size No. 1, being large, and No. 2 small.
The new house has a capacity of 45 tons of nuts a day and in an average season will handle 900 tons.
The combination packing house of the Walnut Fruit Growers' Association is located at the town of Walnut, which has a population of about 300, and is eight miles west of Pomona and twenty-five miles east of Los Angeles.

APPLE PRODUCTION IN PENNSYLVANIA BY COUNTIES
By YOHN P. CARHA &T
Agricultural experts are of the opinion that the State of Washington has reached its peak in the production of apples and predict, when the census of 1930 is compiled, WIll show that it has fallen below the crops of Pennsyllania, New York and Virginia.
If this forecast proves correct, then that section of Pennsylvania known as the Blue Ridge country, should become the center of apple production in the United States within the next twenty years. Of course, this will depend largely upon the methods used by growers for Packing and marketing. It will also be necessary to remedy some of the present deficiencies in cultural methods
The Blue Ridge district comprises the Cumberland and Shenandoah valley from Harrisburg to Staunton, Va., and takes in the neighboring Piedmont counties east 'i this section. Adam's county is the only Piedmont toltY that naturally belongs with the valley horticul"est ig andincludes portions of Maryland, Virginia and Accordgini.g
Acrigto the 1920 census figures, the State of


Washington advanced to second place in the number of trees, and in 1921 to first place in production. Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia have each continued to plant trees in a conservative manner. From 9,369,486 young trees set out in 1910, these states only dropped to 7,961,913 in 1920. The present rank in the number of bearing trees gives
New York 9,636,698; Washington, 7,964,167; Virginia, 7,385,277; Pennsylvania, 6,981,128. The number of trees which have not yet reached a bearing age, the figures are New York, 2,932,281; Virginia, 2,857,007, and Pennsylvania, 2,603,516.
The accompanying table shows the production of apples in Pennsylvania for the four census years, 1889, 1899, 1909 and 1919 by counties. This information was gathered by the Bureau of Statistics, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, early in October, 1922, and indicates that the total crop of apples in Pennsylvania for 1922 approximates 12,133,500 bushels. The production of apples in Pennsylvania by counties, as described above, are as follows:
1890 1900 1910 1920
Bushels Bushels Bushels Bushels Adams ...................... 100,443 390,631 312,680 742,196
Allegheney ................ 597,638 942,474 224,386 69,998
Armstrong ....... ___ 288,010 445,278 217,773 40,161 Beaver --------------------- 271,490 220,620 93,433 67,670
Bedford ---------------- 237,416 587,093 364,876 152,314
Berks ....................... 173,875 1,252,974 425,903 254,453
Blair ........................ 82,479 405,861 215,686 37,230
Bradford --- .------------ 83,671 536,941 286,587 68,675
Bucks ....................- 283,294 872846 286,90 152,404
Butler ...................... 449,622 528,111 110,354 30,871
Cambria ................... 32,865 263,109 62,214 11,192
Cameron ................... 6,312 9,446 8,583 1,289
Carbon ......................- 10,020 58.218 47,335 42,047
Center _-------------------- 85,976 291,002 202,209 47,724
Chester ................... 124,919 920,204 204,413 148,574
Clarion ..................... 90,170 285,059 81,790 5,611
Clearfield ................ 39,306 125,819 57,854 15,338
Clinton ---------------------- 27,364 134,279 79,595 13,898
C o lu m b ia ---- ............. 3 4 ,4 9 5 2 8 9 ,4 6 5 2 0 8 ,2 5 0 8 3 ,3 2 7
Crawford - ............... 164,632 465,424 273,418 56,795
Cumberland .............. 73,989 357,232 158,216 167,083
Dauphin .................... 82,554 495,547 141,815 61,689
Delaware ................. 16,667 166,020 29,479 32,527
Elk ---------------------------- 3,502 57,428 31,133 5,486
Erie ------------------------ 155,521 484,684 327,971 119,838
Fayette ..................... 126,155 506,415 72,548 32,991
Forest ....................... 4,119 33,900 13,760 771
Franklin ................... 186,881 560,265 359,525 468,205
Fulton ..................... 134,832 177,077 90,683 83,799
Greene ----------------- : .... 205,459 250,780 130,406 49,921
Huntingdon .............. 134,468 356,178 221,203 53,841
Indiana .................. 161,074 223,175 207,105 36,037
Jefferson ................. 43,333 175,875 73,839 10,006
Juniata ................... 59,083 183,543 115,208 62,515
Lackawanna ............. 33,723 257,522 124,440 38,611
Lancaster ................. 196,274 632,208 283,119 169,244
Lawrence ................. 190,746 194,645 69,476 38,470
Lebanon .................... 92,162 335.078 59,856 67,257
Lehigh .................. 83,420 399.697 147,701 120,867
Luzerne .................. 42,289 280,891 240,383 121,316
Lycoming ................ 111,481 286,248 311,922 76,267
McKean ................ 878 131,976 71,196 22,601
Mercer . ................ 262,356 388,575 82,210 73,402
Mifflin ..................... 53,445 148,540 101,863 43,805
Monroe ................... 21,073 173,057 104,849 48,304
Montgomery ............. 78,355 660,371 116,265 90,640
M ontour ................. 19,553 70,650 42,464 8,405
Northampton ............ 31,765 261,986 124,613 81,706
Northumberland ------ 37,547 405,727 227,892 60,785 Perry ...................... 113,434 309,827 163,462 88,433
Philadelphia ..... ..... 3,159 42,610 9,808 4,940 Pike ---------- .......... 18,022 65,635 73,014 18,569
Potter .................. 1,802 201,217 154,705 52,666
Schuylkill ................ 31,751 437,937 152,110 123,443
Snyder ...................... 49,662 219,936 131,595 84,488
Somerset .................. 136,367 500,352 145,511 17,566
Sullivan -----............... 38,940 88,561 96,383 24,391
Susquehanna ............90,619 604,312 294,386 42,904
Tioga ...................... 43,761 405,912 398,588 103,471
Union -------------------_-- 23,045 122,165 92,833 39,914
Venango ................... 108,862 245,426 55,953 6,113
W arren -------------......... 14,445 305,701 196,280 10,118
Washington .......... 403,368 286,126 133,665 77,579 W ayne ...................... 78,213 606,937 300,025 77,598
Westmoreland .......... 349,281 649,053 295,649 65,456 Wyoming ............... .42,317 176,620 120.798 66,179
York -------------........... 178,043 1,112,180 387,795 310,811

Totals ............ 7,552,710 24,060,651 11,048,430 5,512,795

A co-operative potato marketing agency is planned for St. Paul, Minn., which is expected to market 75 per cent of the crop from seven of the Northwestern states.
Page Seventeen


'I


Skirnier P~ckirjHou5eNow~






Development of the Grape Industry In Florida

By E. L. ZIMMERMANS .j
Note: Mr. Zimmerman is an authority on grape culture in Florida and writes entertainingly in the following article regarding the Adapted Varieties. There has been much interest taken in grape culture in Florida in recent years and the industry promises much in this state. This is the first of a series of articles on Grapes in Florida and will be followed shortly by other articles dealing with the actual experi. ences of individual growers, the insect pests and diseases on grapes in this state, and the packing and shipping problems connected with the industry.


VEN the most skeptical are beginning to
realize that grape culture has a future in Florida, and that commercial grape growing in this state is rapidly developing into one of our greatest and most profitable industries. What does not seem to be so generally known is the fact that for'ten years adapted bunch grapes have been a commercial success in Florida, and that year after year the acreage planted to grapes has increased more and more, as they have demonstrated not only their productiveness, their splendid flavor and their remarkable shipping qualities, and as the years have passed by they have also proven that they are long-lived and disease-resistant and thus thoroughly adapted to Florida soil and climatic conditions. Thus the basis has been firmly established for the more rapid development of a great grape growing industry, comparable to that of the citrus industry of the state in magnitude and financial returns.
A number of varieties of what are termed Adapted bunch grapes have been doing well in this state for ten successive seasons and there is reason to believe that the same vines will continue to thrive for several decades, if properly cared for. The fact is that there is a good deal of ignorance concerning growing grapes in Florida despite the fact that more and more acreage vineyards' have been planted and producing fruit on a commercial scale and yielding splendid financial returns year after year for many years.
The varieties of grapes that are short-lived in Florida are Northern, California and European varieties, in fact all varieties which are not adapted to Florida growing conditions. Adapted bunch grapes have proven successful because they possess qualities which make them suited to soil and climatic conditions in this state. For instance, the Carman grape is composed of a combination of several varieties of grapes, one from the north, another from California and the other a native variety of the south. It is what is termed a hybrid grape, formed through crossing the pollen of several varieties, planting the seed from the fruit that developed and selecting the plants which formed a good quality of fruit. The Concord grape is short-lived in Florida, so is the Delaware, the Niagara, the Malaga, the Emperor and other foreign varieties. But the varieties Florida Malaga, hesl honestly advertised as adapted are not short-lived, but possess native qualities which cause them to grow and produce fruit year after year in this state, with reasonable care.
It has been thoroughly proven that the proper varieties for developing a big grape growing industry in Florida are available. It but remains to spread the development of the industry, to plant more and bigger acreages over the state. And this is being done. The plantings have been largely limited by the quantities of adapted plants available. Next season we believe will witness the greatest bunch grape planting season in the history of the industry in Florida by far.
The advantages possessed by the adapted grape grower in Florida are numerous. Principal among them are the superior qualities of grapes grown, the fact that the fruit
Page Eighteen


t wE


ripens from three to six weeks earlier than elsewhere in the United States, the closeness of the big fruit markets of the north and east and the further fact that the general public has been educated to the great value of grapes as a food. Millions of dollars have been expended annually over the country in the past decade, pointing out the food value of grapes and the national prohibition amendment has resulted in added impetus to the grape growing industry everywhere. Owing to the fruit ripening earlier in Florida than elsewhere, this state secures the major advantage in all the advertising and the change in conditions.
When bunch grapes began to be planted in acreage lots nearly a decade ago the question arose, where will you market so many grapes? The answer was that for a number of years the local markets of Florida would absorb practically all of the fruit for the reason that it ripened at a time when other fruits were scarce and for the further reason that people were accustomed to buying bunch grapes and if they could get them earlier, they would be glad to pay substantial prices for them. There was only one difficulty at the beginning and that was that the local fruit dealers were accustomed to paying the small prices for grapes that came on the market later in the season from all over the country and they feared the people would not pay higher prices for Florida grown fruit. Growers of grapes helped solve that problem, however, by peddling the early ripening Florida grapes themselves direct to the consumers, who were willing to pay 30 to 50 cents per pound for the fruit early in the season. Soon the retail dealers discovered that the people were willing to pay more for Florida grown grapes, particularly because the demand for them was greater than the supply. The supply of fruit always ran out before the demand lessened and thus Florida grow', grapes have brought good prices year after year, in spite of the greatly increased supply of grapes each year. The demand for the fruit has grown with the supply and for several years past the average wholesale price for Florida grown grapes over the state has been around 20 cents a pound.
The problem of containers for the fruit was one that had to be solved. For the first few years ordinary tonato baskets were used, with the tomato crates when shipments were to be made. Most of the fruit was marketflavored white bunch ed locally and there were not many n anywhere, long hauls, so that the tomato baskets sufficed for the first few years, though they were not satisfactory be cause it was easy to pluck the fruit off at the corners of the baskets and the crates were too large. High prices for the fruit make a crate of six tomato baskets of Florida grapes come rather high, and this operated against the small fruit dealer buying by the crate.
Then it was decided by an organization of Florida grape growers to try out the two and four pound northern grape basket, such as were used to market grapes in the north. While the smaller baskets proved an advantage in that it brought the selling price per container of fruit down, it was found that the Florida grown grape bunches average too large to pack well in two pound baskets, frequently a single bunch filling a basket and it was impossible to properly pack. Besides, the cost of the baskets, in d00









































section with the high tinctivebasketandcrate freight and express rates, it was decided to adopt a made them too high to basket similar to the togive satisfaction to the _ mato basket, with a capaclocal marketer of Florida ity of five pounds and grown grapes. Some of Left: West Coast Vineyard, seven years old, Adapted Bunch Grapes. closed corners, and a crate these baskets are shown in Right: Florida zrown Red Bunch Grapes. Bottom: Carmen Grapes similar to the tomato one of the illustrations, from Orange county. crate, but cut in two, At a convention of Florida Grape Growers' Association making a half crate. This provides a three-basket crate several years ago it was voted to adopt the California with a capacity of fifteen pounds of grapes, a crate small four-basket crate as a standard for marketing Florida enough to be more attractive to the small fruit merchant, grown grapes for the reasons that the five-pound capacity and possessing advantages in packing and shipping over California square basket gave more room for proper pack- all other containers used heretofore. While the coning of the bigger Florida grape bunches and the four bas- tainer problem may not be permanently solved, it is felt ket crate was smaller than the big six basket tomato that excellent progress has been made. crate. Then it was found that it was impracticable to The problem of marketing in carlots has been met and secure the California crates from eastern factories at solved over the south and west, and conditions in Florida Prices that were satisfactory to Florida grape growers. are similar except not quite so complicated, owing to closeThey were not economical enough and growers were ness to the big markets. Big fruit marketing organizagenerally compelled to resort to the old tomato baskets tions with branches in California have also big fruit marand such smaller baskets as they happened to have on keting branches in Florida and the same markets are hand. This was very unsatisfactory, available under more favorable conditions, since competiBut the increased supplies of Florida grown grapes ren- tion is practically eliminated. The big citrus marketing dered it imperative that some standard basket and crate organizations of the state, in several instances have exbe adopted that would prove satisfactory to Florida mar- pressed themselves as willing to cooperate in the marketketing conditions It was deemed essential first to adopt ing of grapes, using the same organizations that are ema basket and crate for marketing Florida grown grapes ployed in handling citrus fruit, so that while there are that would be distinctive to Florida grape growers, so many details to be arranged and it is necessary to educate that when shipments were made in quantities to northern fruit dealers of the north to the fact that grapes are availand eastern and western markets, the Florida crates and able from Florida earlier in the season than from elsebaskets would at once be recognized as distinctive. It where, yet the main problem has already been solved and was also regarded as necessary to secure if possible bas- it but remains to continue the development so well and kets and crates that could be manufactured economcally substantially begun. il Florida or some place in the south, so as to avoid the The hundreds of Florida acreage vineyards of the presbig freight and express charges for carriage of empty bas- ent will within a few years be increased to thousands of
ets and crates. , large acreage vineyards and the plantings will be measurt a recent meeting of the Florida Grape Growers' As- ed by tens of thousands of acres in bunch grapes annually. sociation the problem was temporarily solved and a comromise was effected, whereby railroad traffic regula- A series of articles on packing house construction will t10ns could be observed and at the same time Florida be a feature commenced in an early issue of the Packing shippers of grapes could have an economical and dis- House News.
Page Nineteen




















Dedicated to the Production of Better Fruit and Vegetables and
to the Use of Up-to-Date Packing Houses and Facilities
THOS. W. HEWLETT --- ----------- Editor

&ervice
The Packing House News thoroughly believes in the spirit of service and in the value and advantages of thinking in terms of service rather than in terms of dollars and cents. It might be said that if service is given the dollars and cents will take care of themselves. It is our ambition to make this publication of service to the thousands of people in this and other countries who are interested in better packing methods, who like to keep informed about what is going on in the packing world, and who can profit from reading of the means adopted by others in getting their produce to the markets. It takes a lot of money and effort to give the kind of service we are giving but somehow or other we feel convinced it is meeting with a full measure of appreciation. Because this appreciation is beginning to take on material form we are planning to make the NEWS more and more of value to our readers and advertisers. We have the only publication in existence covering just the field we do and because of the problems connected with packing, handling and shipping of fruits and vegetables we find more and more the need for covering this field very completely. We hope some day to be able to devote several pages in the NEWS to market and shipping news. Also to devote space to spraying methods and schedules. We have had numerous calls for information on spraying and as time permits we plan to carry current spraying schedules for various insects and diseases in different sections of the country in every issue of the NEWS; for spraying problems are very closely allied to the business of packing, and spraying has much to do with the success of marketing fruits and vegetables. Various other improvements and additions are under consideration and in time we hope to make the Packing House News indispensable to every grower, packer, shipper and buyer of fruits and vegetables in the world.
Of late we have received many letters of commendation from readers of the Packing House News and although it is not our policy to present these letters in the columns of the NEWS, they are deeply appreciated. Some of these letters convince us that we are filling a long-felt want. A few days ago came a letter from a grower in South Africa with a money order for one pound. This grower asked us to enter his subscription for the period covered by the amount enclosed, and stated that the NEWS was just the publication he had been looking for for years. Another interesting letter received during the past month was from an organization in Palestine enclosing an American dollar bill for a year's subscription. It may be truly stated that the sun never sets on the Packing House News, for another subscription received during April was from Peru. One of our advertisers wrote us during April that they had received an inquiry from New Zealand as a result of their advertisement in the February issue.
To come back again to the subject of this editorial the following by Thomas Drier illustrates very plainly the spirit and value of service:
"It pays in dollars and cents to think in terms of service instead of in terms of profit. I am thinking now of what happened to Harry Hope, a young engineer. He had worked for big engineering firms for a dozen years when
Page Twenty


the idea of going into business for himself popped into his mind. He had just about got settled in his new office when he learned that a manufacturer was about to build a $500,000 addition to his plant. Hope and a number of others went after the contract.
"In getting the necessary data upon which to base the estimate, Hope naturally had to give some thought to the production problem of his prospective client. What he learned astonished him. He went to the manufacturer and said, 'Of course, I want to get the job of designing this new addition of yours, but I'll tell you frankly that if I were in your place I wouldn't build it.'
"'Wouldn't build it?' echoed the manufacturer. 'Man, I tell you, I must increase my production!'
" 'That is another story,' answered Hope. 'It is increased production and not a new building that you need. I can show you how to get the production you want with your present plant at a cost not to exeed $40,000.' As a matter of fact, the job was done for $5,000 less.
"Hope killed all his chances at the half-million contract by his suggestion. He threw away his chance at a nice big profit at a time when he needed a big job. Putting service to a client ahead of his own personal profit was rather expensive. Possibly there were moments when he felt tempted to call himself a fool.
"Two years later, however, when that manufacturer wanted to build an $8,000,000 plant in another city, it was Harry Hope who got the job without much argument. He had proved himself on the smaller job and the manufacturer knew he could be trusted.
"There is more magic in service than there ever was in Aladdin's lamp."

'e Floral Parade at Orlando, Florida
The pictures on the center pages of this number speak for themselves. They are an eloquent expression of the splendid initiative the City Beautiful has taken in presenting a floral parade in connection with the meeting of the State Florists' Association held in Orlando during April. We have given prominence to these pictures in the Packing House News because we believe in flower shows and parades, and particularly in the value of a show of flowers in Florida. We do think that this Flower Show should be made an annual state-wide affair wherein individuals and interests from all over Florida could enter displays and get in the procession, so to speak, and not let it be limited to a local affair-and this for a hundred very good reasons. Also that this Flower Show should be held during late February or early March for two good reasons, viz: more flowers could be obtained at this time and orange blossoms could be a feature; and we have hundreds of thousands of tourists with us during the earlier part of the year and they would not only be entertained, but very much impressed by such a spectacle as only Florida could produce. But Orlando and the men who were responsible for the Flower Parade in April are to be congratulated and we hope that they have been encouraged to go after a bigger and better show next year. Florida needs a floral parade, just as she needs an orange week, and we will dwell upon this at length in the next issue, because of the immense advertising value attached to such an event. Florida is known as the "Land of Flowers," and not without reason, but if we are to sustain a reputation as a land of flowers we must produce and show flowers and never let an opportunity slip by to let the rest of the world know that we have thenr, and in abundance.
Florida has needed advertising of the right kind in years past, and she needs it now, and we know of no better form of publicity than could come from an annual flower parade and show, that would be known all over the world for its beauty, charm, fragrance and magnificence. Flowers, perhaps, have a more general appeal than any
(Continued on Page 36)





Skirnier P~ckn~~ Ho~e News


Floral Parade, Florida's First Annual

Flower Show

Held in Orlando, Florida, April 17, 1923

The floral parade staged in Orlando Tuesday afternoon April 17 set a new mark for events of this character in Florida. Sixty-five floats and automobiles decorated with fresh flowers were in line competing for the handsome array of cups awarded by the Orlando Chamber of Commerce. Many of the floats and decorated cars were truly beautiful. The painstaking care with which decorations had been made and the artistic quality of many of the designs drew bursts of applause frequently as the parade passed by the throngs of spectators which crowded the sidewalks and streets of Orlando for blocks along the line of march.
The designs and methods ot decorating were varied to suit the taste of the contestants, the only restrictions laid down being that all decorations must be made with fresh flowers. Some were charming in their comparative simplicity while others were quite complicated in design and arrangement. Eleven hundred gladioli of the Willbrink variety, a beautiful pink blossom were used in the decoration of one float. Gladioli, roses, ferns, bougainvillea and wisteria were among the most popular blossoms used.
The parade was sponsored by the Orlando Chamber of Commerce to mark the opening of the first State Flower Show that afternoon, with the concurrent annual meeting of the Florida State Florists' Association taking place in Orlando at the same time, and the opening session of the thirty-sixth annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society which took place that night in Orlando. The event was liberally press agented but the number of floats which actually put in their appearance in the parade, it is stated, exceeded the best expectations of the promoters.
So successful was the affair and so great an interest did it arouse that plans already are under way to make it an annual feature in Orlando. Preparations have been started for next spring's event and it is hoped to build from this beginning a spring feature for Florida which will deserve to rank well along with the annual tournament of roses in Pasadena, California, and the rose festival in Portland, Oregon. Street pageants of decorated automobiles and floats are the principal features of these two Pacific Coast events. The promoters of the Orlando spectacle have been greatly encouraged by comparisons which have been made by a number of tourists who have witnessed both the Pasadena and Portland events, some having seen them several times. One prominent northern business man who saw the first three Portland parades was outright in his declaration that this, the first spectacle of the sort seriously to be staged in Florida, was, in his opinion, more attractive and more highly perfected than the first three spectacles which Portland staged.
The advantage to the state of such an annual event if it can be developed successfully, is very manifest. Orlando undoubtedly will have the good wishes of all Florida in its effort to build this into a regular annual feature. The committee of the Orlando Chamber of Commerce which had charge of the initial effort, and the individuals of which will take the leadership in next year's spectacle was composed of M. J. Daetwyler, Karl Lehmann, W. ?. Glenn Joe S. McCormick, S. Kendrick Guernsey, C. D. Rime, Frank Kay Anderson.

CALIFORNIA NEWS
Carl V. Newman, who has been manager of the San Jeaquin Fruit Co., at Tustin, and who was formerly at the Limoneira Co.'s properties, is head of the newly formeFrance Citrus Association, which has been formed with a capital stock of $50,000. This association will pick, Pack and ship Valencias from about 500 acres, including


that of the San Joaquin Fruit Company. Last year the group shipped 210 cars of high grade fruit. The association is affiliated with the California Fruit Growers' Exchange.
The Tule River Citrus Association has taken over. the packing-house formerly owned and operated by W. C. Talbot of Clavicle, Tulare County. Mr. Talbot will henceforth ship his fruit through the Tule River Citrus Association, which is affiliated with the California Fruit Growers' Exchange.
The 80-acre citrus grove and plant of Major D. G. Nairn, located in the Deer Creek district of Tulare county, has been sold to Sir Michael Oppenheimer, of London, England. The grove is composed of navels and Valencias. The consideration is understood to have been about $90,000 for the Major's entire plant and grove.
Fire gutted the packing-house of the Citrus Growers' Cash Association of Riverside recently. The flames spread rapidly to freight cars on a nearby siding. Representatives of an insurance company stated that the damage was fairly well covered by policies.
Despite several disastrous years, due to the rail strike, many growers' and packers in the Turlock district are preparing for a big season in cantaloupes, watermelons, casabas, Persians and other varieties of melons. The 1923 season will be exceptionally early from present indications.
A meeting of representative lettuce growers and packers was held recently at Brawley to formulate a standardization bill to be introduced in the present session of the State Legislature. By standardizing the lettuce crate and limiting the amount of ice to be used in packing, the pack will be improved, it is believed, and will produce a better and more easily marketable commodity. By the establishment of definite descriptive terms or designations of the lettuce to be packed and shipped from the Valley, it is thought will create a demand for the product.
Recent events seem to prove that California vegetable growers and packers must pay more attention to quality and standardization of pack, if they are to market at a profit the tremendous crops of the various specialties grown in the Imperial Valley and other sections. For years, California vegetables and fruits met with little competition on the Eastern markets, and there was no great danger of overproduction. Then, with the demand in the East, faults in mis-marketing and shortcomings in quality were overlooked. Of late years, however, new fruit and vegetable growing districts have opened up in many western States, as well as in the East and South, and many have become dangerous competitors to California's producing centers. The time seems ripe, according to general opinion of California fruit experts for a constructive organization of California growers and packers, along the lines that will control acreage, in a measure, and stabilize the market in fostering standards than can be enforced by Federal and State marketing authorities. The bill recently drafted by the lettuce growers and packers in Imperial Valley proposing new quality standards for their output, is the first step in the right direction.
H. 0. Todd, a pioneer date grower and shipper of Coachella Valley, has originated a process for spicing dates and announces that he expects to turn it to advantage in utilizing cull fruit. This, he says, will serve the double purpose of preventing the waste of dates not good enough to go out as first-class fruit, and of keeping inferior dates on the market. He states that he expects to follow the spiced dates with other packed date products.
An estimate of the total spinach pack of the Van Nuys
(Continued on Page 30)
Page Twenty-one







K FLORAl

6Qlorida QDirst a


The First Annual Flower Show was held in Orlando, Florida, begnn'ng April 17th. The Floral Parade,_ a feature of the show, was hel individuals, and prizes were given to each class. 1. Yowell-Drew Co, 1st prize, organizations 2. McCormick-Hanner Lumber C.
prize oraiats Fort Mc ormick-Harmer
6. Angebilt Hotel, 3rd prize, organizations. 7. Rollins College, honorable mention, organizations. 8. Mrs. Leon Fort, 1st plZ e Hardware Co. 14. Sorosis Club. 15. Mrs. W. Jaeger, honorable ment:on, individuals. 16. Fairvilla. 17. Dickson-Ives Co. 18.Wintei
prize, communities. 22. G. D. Cleland, honorable mention, individuals. 23. Mrs. H. M. Voorhis, 2nd prize, individuals. 24. DeSo Ba


moffi-7MT








PARAD P ual glower Sfo,


I I,


Il


iI~


of April 17th. The floats shown above are as follows: There were three classes of entries: organizations, communities, andc 1e mention, organizations. 4. Butt-Guernsey Co., 2nd prize, organizations. 5. Lions' Club, honorable mention, organizations. Sonorab le mention, organizations. 10. C. E. Riddle. 11. The Florida Sun. 12. Kiwanis Club and Day Nursery. 13. Bumby ornerunities. 19. Zeliwood, 1st prize, communities. 20. Violet Dell Nursery, honorable mention, organizations. 21. Maitland, 2nd rnery. 26. Mrs. H. C. Jerome, 3rd prize, individuals.







A NEW CITRUS FIELD

'By EDNA 'BENNETT STOLZ


HERE are few people who know very much about the
citrus industry that is just in the first stages of development in southwest Texas. Fewer still, have ever seen, or had an opportunity of comparing the fruit from this locality with that produced in other fields, and even a lesser number know that citrus fruit can be produced at all in this region.
Pioneering in any business or industry is not easy, and when we look back twenty years, and note the miraculous changes that have taken place in that length of time in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, we only get a vague idea of the obstacles that the early settlers had to overcome to make the valley what it is today.
The strip of land known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley, stretches from the Gulf coast, up the river a distance of one hundred and twenty-five miles. Of this strip, a territory about seventy miles long, extending from Brownsville to Mission, and eighteen miles in width, is citrus land. This land is irrigated and receives its water supply from the Rio Grande, except for the periodical rains, which are few and far between.
The valley is almost isolated from the rest of Texas. Bordered on the north by the sand hills, that stretch for miles in the hot sun, on the east by the Gulf coast without a valley port, on the south by the Rio Grande and uncivilized Mexico, and on the west by an endless wilderness of cactus and brush; the only outlets are the Gulf Coast Line Railroad which enters the valley at Harlingen, and the Old Spanish Trail whereby tourists may get to San Antonio when the roads are passable. The only commercial outet is the railroad, but the writer is pleased to state that the contract for dredging the channel for a deep sea harbor, at what is known in the valley as Point Isabel, was let a short time ago, and will be finished in the next few months. This will give the valley access to other markets and competition of rail and water freight rates, which it has not had before.
Climatically, the valley is eminently suited to the growth of citrus fruit, as there is little danger of trees freezing to the ground. This is mostly due to its location, being the most southern point in the United States where any attempt is made to raise citrus fruit. It is true that the dreaded "norther" sweeps down over the valley as over the rest of Texas, but the vast sand plains on the north minimize the danger of a freeze in most cases. Orchard heaters are not used on an average more than twice a year, and January 12, this year, is the first year in three that the young unprotected trees were damaged in the least and then only temporarily.
The first irrigating plant in the valley was built about sixteen years ago at McAllen. At that time the valley was a wilderness of mesquite brush and cactus which one could only penetrate by way of the Old Spanish Trail or by boat up the Rio Grande. One irrigation project followed another until today they are spaced about six miles apart along the river, and practically the whole Lower Rio Grande Valley, on the Texas side, is under irrigation.
About fourteen years ago, Captain Fitch of San Antonio bought a tract of land near Mercedes to experiment in citrus fruit. He sent to California and Florida for enough grapefruit, orange, lemon and tangerine trees to plant six acres. Up to this time the only citrus trees in the valley were two or three in private yards that were grown from the seed of the Mexican orange and lemon.
About two years later orchards were set out at Mission and McAllen. Since that time the acreage in the valley has doubled and tripled each year, until there are something like 6,500 acres in citrus groves. The largest acreage and present production is at Mission, which is sloganized as the "Home of the Grapefruit."
One of the conditions that has retarded the developPage Twenty-four


I


ment of this industry has been the class of people, induced to locate in this field by the various land companies. They were mostly farmers of the Mississippi Valley and Great Lakes region, who had probably raised some small fruit, such as berries, cherries and perhaps a few peaches and apples. Ninety-five per cent of them had never seen citrus fruit grow, and on coming to the valley, started their groves without any experience. Many of them having always raised corn and small grain were not satisfied, and returned to their former homes, and their land and groves were turned over to other prospects, possibly from the same region and with just as little experience in raising citrus fruit. So it has been the pioneers that came and had the fortitude to stay, that own the bearing groves today.
The season of 1922-23 marks the beginning of the citrus industry of the valley on a commercial scale. Before the last season, all fruit that was not consumed in the Rio Grande Valley was shipped in boxes, by the growers, individually. There were about twenty (20) carloads shipped from the valley the past season, in small shipments and seventy (70) in carload lots.
After the season of 1921-22 the growers began to realize the need of organization, and the importance of putting out a standard brand and pack if they would compete with other citrus fields. Although up to this time they were able to dispose of all their fruit without any trouble,
they knew that as the production increased they would also have to create
a selling organization.
So during the summer of 1922, the Lower Rio Grande Citrus Exchange was organized among the growers, with J. A. Hickman president, 0. E. Stuart vice-president, and H. H. Banker, secretary.
J. A. Hickman, president, and also sales manager, is a man of wide experience in the selling game and perfectly
S capable of handling that end of the exchange. Mr. Hickman was a resident of the valley for several years before he was convinced that the soil was especially adapted to citrus fruit.
Since then he has devoted much time to the study and care of citrus trees and has now thirty acres in groves. A four-year-old grove just coming into bearing is in such perfect condition that he offers a reward to anyone finding scale or other insect therein.
Some trouble was experienced in perfecting this exchange for two reasons. First, the growers had been disposing of their own fruit, and rather successfully. Second, the vegetable exchanges that had operated up and down the valley had been unsuccessful. Some of these were so poorly managed that the grower not only lost his vegetables in some instances, but was called on to pay the freight charges.
In spite of these drawbacks, the organization was finally perfected and handled only the fruit of its members. The refractory growers tried out their theory of marketing, and finding with the increase in population, it would be impossible to handle it by parcel post, many of them applied for membership in the exchange during December and January and asked for pickers to harvest their crop.
To make a success of the exchange, a packing house was necessary. One of the members, H. Raymond ;ills, came forward at this time and offered to promote a packing company if the Lower Rio Grande Citrus Exchange would give him all their fruit to pack. This was readily agreed upon and the Valley Packing Company organized. After a study of packing methods, both in California and Florida, machinery for treating and packing the fruit was installed in a temporary building at Harlingen, and ready for operation on the opening of the season-. Harlingen was chosen as the location for the first Plant





















Every forward step of the chemist has called for years of painstaking effort and the expenditure of vast sums of money. When he realized that the presence of Acid in fertilizer was harmful he turned his microscope and his scientific mind to overcoming this defect. The KREISS PROCESS is his answer to the problem of securing available Phosphate without the use of ACID.
The NON-ACID FERTILIZER & CHEMICAL COMPANY was formed by successful Florida business men for the purpose of placing a BETTER Fertilizer upon the Florida market. A Fertilizer that was free from acid and at the same time contained an ample amount of available phosphate.
The Lakeland plant of this Company has been designed with the purpose of employing every known machine and method serving to save time and money. The saving thus obtained has been used in making a better product at a reasonable price.
Use NAPP Brand Fertilizer. It sweetens and improves the soil,
Our soil expert and research department are at your service.



Non-Acid Fertilizer & Chemical Co.
Manufacturers of Quality Fertilizer With the Acid Left Out


BETTER FERTILIZER MEANS BETTER CROPS


Lakeland,


Page Twenty-five


I.


Florida







Skinner ,9ckm HouSe New.


as it is the gateway through which the only railroad enters the valley.
The fruit of the exchange members goes out under the standard brand of "Valley Sweet." They are endeavoring to so grade and pack their fruit that a reputation may be built for this brand that will be known far and wide.
The packing house at Harlingen has a capacity of three carloads a day. The labor-saving machinery used in larger and older fields, to protect the fruit from jar or bruises, is the kind installed in the first packing plant of the valley. Tourists from California that recently viewed the packing house evidenced surprise to find the most up-to-date methods used right in the first stage of the citrus industry.
The fruit comes from the groves in field boxes after being carefully clipped and handled. Most of it is transported in railroad cars from the various points to the packing plant, although some of the fruit from the nearest points is conveyed in trucks. The fruit is kept in the field boxes until ready to be put through the packing house.
The Brogdexing method is used and when the fruit is placed on the first conveyor, it immediately goes through a machine of slowly revolving brushes. These brushes are soft and will not injure the skin, and are fed the Brogdex from a supply tank automatically. The fruit runs from these brushes on to another slow conveyor, which gives the Brogdex time to soften all scale or foreign matter before it gets to another set of brushes which thoroughly clean and polishes it.
From the polisher, another conveyor carries the fruit to the grading tables, where the culls are eliminated, the
-number ones removed and the number twos and threes separated for their particular conveyor that takes them to the sizer, which drops them according to the size into eparate bins. From these bins the fruit is wrapped in tissue paper bearing the brand of the exchange and packed according to grade and size.
The standard size box is used which is received in "'knock down" form. After they are put together they Are assembled near the grading table and conveyor, that carries them to the packer. When the box is packed, stamped and labeled, it is carried by a conveyor to the press at the end of the sizing tables and the lid is nailed and strapped on, after which it is ready for the car.
No grapefruit is colored at this plant as the Citrus Exchange uses as their slogan, "When It Is Green-Yellow, It Is Ripe." This is also intended to distinguish the valley fruit from that grown in other sections. A few oranges were colored as an experiment during the past ,eason, but the orange part of the citrus industry, in this section is not so well developed owing to the stress put upon grapefruit.
The various machines of the packing company are operated by electricity, each machine with separate attachment, making it possible to save on electricity, as it takes some time for fruit to go through the entire process.
While the writer made an estimate of seventy (70) Pars shipped out of the valley during the season of 192223, only twenty-eight (28) of these were properly treated And packed. These were the fruit of the members of the exchange and were packed at the plant of the Valley Packing Company.
There are a few of the larger growers, who produce from eight to twenty carloads of fruit, who are shipping their own in carload lots. It is not treated in any way before shipping, but is usually polished by hand. One of these growers has a small coloring plant in which he col.ors the lemons from his own orchard. This is the only coloring plant in the valley.
Truly the citrus industry in the Rio Grande Valley is jst in its infancy but the men at the head of the Citrus Exchange are men of vision and see a great future for this industry in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Mr. HickPage Thirty-six


man is looking over the field for the most logical location for the next two or three packing plants, which they have definitely decided to install before another season. The annual meeting of the stockholders was held at Harlingen on the 26th of April, when the directorate of the exchange was elected for the coming year.
The production is expected to double and triple each successive year, as the acreage has done in the past. It will be only a matter of time until all shipping points in the vallew will have a packing house to care for the fruit in its locality.
The Lower Rio Grande Valley is producing fruit that rivals that of California and Florida in quality, but there can never be any rivalry in quantity owing to the smallness of the field.


PACKING OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST CRANBERRIES
IS A GROWING INDUSTRY
Northwest packers in the cranberry district at the mouth of the Columbia River are giving more and more attention to the packing of cranberries. Extreme care must be taken in grading the berries, which, according to authorities, are considered superior to any grown elsewhere. The Pacific coast berries are always recognized


Interior of Dellinger's Packing House near Astoria, Oregon, at the mouth of the Columbia River. Shows cranberry sorting machine.

by the fact that one of the cheeks is lighter in color than the other.
The Northwest cranberry district includes Pacific county, Washington and Clatsop county, Oregon. The packing houses throughout this territory are now using cranberry grading machines, nearly all of them constructed on the same general principle.
The berries are first graded for size, then the soft ones are taken out. Working on the general theory that a sound berry will rebound and leap over a hurdle, the sound berries are separated from the defective. The berries that do not leap over the hurdle are taken out. Having passed over the hurdles, the sound fruit is run over sorting and screening tables, where berries that are not quite up to quality are picked out by carfeu women sorters.
Having sorted the berries thoroughly, the packers put them up in boxes, which for identification purposes are marked only with the grower's number. Practically all of the cranberries in this section are being marketed through the co-operative association known as the Pacific Cranberry Exchange.









Why



continue to sell our citrus fruits


for less money than they are worth?




(e t We, the co-operating growers who market our own fruit through the Florida Citrus Exchange, continue to sell at top prices; grade, pack, quality, and volume considered. S GTEED Your fruit, if you are not a member of the Florida Citrus Exchange, continues to be sold in direct competition with ours, lowering the prices received by all of us.
Practically every car of fruit we sell has to meet considerably lower prices offered to the trade by the non-co-operative and speculative marketing agencies.
We are able to get better prices because of the consumer demand for Sealdsweet grapefruit and oranges, developed by years of consistent advertising, and by reason of our reputation for fair treatment of the trade.
Every Florida grower, whether or not a member of the Florida Citrus Exchange, receives less for his fruit under the present system than it is actually worth. Why continue the destructive methods which produce this result?
Five thousand and more of us who have tried the co-operative idea of marketing and have not found it wanting, invite the other Florida growers to join us in eliminating unwise competition from the citrus industry.
In the Florida Citrus Exchange we have built up an efficient, strong organization which is amply able to secure for every Florida grower all that his fruit is worth, whenever the present plan of selling fruit for less than its real value by many growers is abandoned.


Why not try co-operation instead of competition? Why longer accept for your fruit less than you should receive?


Join the Florida Citrus Exchange and receive the high dollar for your fruit. Consult the manager of the nearest association or sub-Exchange or write the business manager at Tampa, Florida.




lfie FLORIDA

CITRUS EXCHANGE
Page Twenty-seven






A New "Safety" Basket Fastener
By SETH J. FERRARA4, Yr.


A recent invention of interest to farmers, truckers and basket manufacturers is the "LOX-FAS" Basket Fastener, a device consisting of a small piece of sheet metal and a strip of wire, invented by Mr. James F. Kennedy, of Charleston, S. C.
The invention relates generally to fruit and vegetable baskets, but more particularly to the fastener itself. The device is simple, inexpensive and effective in use. It is easily applied and does away with the old methods, such as tin clips, staples, cross wires and nails. Over all this new fastener measures only ten inches in length.
The "LOX-FAS" is more especially designed for use in connection with baskets having surrounding bands forming the upper rims thereof, with covers that have inwardly converging slots extending from the edge, as shown in figure 2. However, these fasteners are equally effective on the present type of basket covers now being manufactured.
In figure 1, the fastener itself is shown. Figure 2 shows the specially designed cover, while figure 3 shows the four operations necessary for the proper adjustment of the fastener.
In figure 3 (a) shows the fastener as it appears before it is put into use.
(b) is the first operation. Here the free end of the sheet metal clip is pushed upward under the edge of the rim band. In (c) the clip is bent up against the rim band and the wires


Fig. I
extended inwardly over the basket top and brought upward between the slats of the cover. (d) shows the wires drawn together and twisted over the cover. Note also, that the upper part of the clip, that in (c) extends above the basket top is now bent outward to form a hook. (e) shows the fastener complete, the ends of the wires being brought down over the edge of the cover and twisted around the hook. (f) shows the fastener in use on another style of container.
To hold the fastener in place, there is a spur in the body of the clip that is forced into the rim band of the basket, as the clip is bent against same.


The number of fasteners per basket should be determined by the farmer according to the contents, but for the average basket, four fasteners are sufficient to hold the cover in place.
The invention of this fastener


F6.2
means a saving of considerable money and worry to the farmer over the loss of truck due to split or broken covers.


PICTURES OF FRUIT PACKING WANTED
By Frank Hilton Madison
A good way to get the next, or rather the coming generation of fruit buyers to insist upon properly graded and properly packed fruit is through the picture departments of the public libraries. That is what a public librarian suggested.
Many public libraries are fairly crying for authentic pictures connected with the food and other industries. These pictures are loaned to the children from the public schools whenever a particular food or industry is being studied. Undoubtedly pictures of the efficient machinery in a packing house would prove of interest, as would spraying scenes and the high spots of fruit growing and marketing in general.
I chanced to invade the children's reading room of one of the small branch libraries in Chicago recently. A sizable filing cabinet stood in one corner. Upon the top of it lay a pile of pictures mounted upon green mats,


about 12x15 inches. One of them was of a food industry and it caught my eye. It had been supplied by one of the big picture services such as furnish the photographs for the daily picture pages and the rotogravure sections of the newspapers. There were many others, so I asked the librarian the purpose.
She explained how the pictures-a collection upon each industry relating to food, clothing or shelter-was called for by different schools in the neighborhood whenever they were studying that industry or studying the geography of the country where that commodity was produced.
Now, in a single year this little branch loaned 10,000 pictures. When you consider that each loan means that not only will a single individual see it but that an entire class will study it, there is quite a circulation.
This is not a practice that is peculiar to Chicago. Librarians all over the country are anxious to get educational pictures relating to the industries which furnish the children with the necessities and luxuries of life.
Of course a fruit packing house could not supply pictures of its activities to libraries all over the country; the expense would be prohibitive. But there are certain cities, to which a large part of the yield is shipped where the children could be taught to tell their parents how the citrus fruits, apples or peaches from a certain part of the country are prepared for shipment with great care. And a dozen photographs, 5x7 or largeror even a smaller number-would be sufficient. In fact, actual photographs are not necessary. Clear pictures from a catalogue or book are satisfactory. But they should have human beings, engaged in the occupations of fruit handling, in them.
The pictures should be large enough to show some detail. They should show trees, care, gathering the fruit and handling. What libraries want is to be able to teach the children about the food products, the journeys that they must travel and every possible step in the handling.
Of course the public libraries are not going to turn themselves into advertising mediums for any product. But pictures must have a paragraph of description beneath them and if the name of a plant is included it is not going to be eliminated. Again, the plant often has a sign upon it which appears in the pictures.
An excellent way in which the fruit or vegetable packing house could ad(Continued on Page 41)


Fig.3


Page Twenty-eight







....inner thePi House New


-Apple Machinery
-Automatic Box Dumping
Machine
-Bags, Picking
-Barrel Heading Press
-Bearings
-Bearings. Bal
-Belting
-Belts, Conveyor
-Belt Supplies
-Blowers
-Box Conveyors
-Box Dumping Machines
-Box Elevator -Box Hatchets
-Box Making Machines -Box Material Conveyor
-Box Makers' Bench
-Box-Nailing Machine
-Box, Press
-Brushes
-Cantaloupe Machinery
-Car Movers -Car Squeeze
-Citrus Machinery
-Clamp Trucks
-Clippers
-Coke Heaters
-Columbia Truck -Conveyors, Box --Conveyors, Drip
-Cucumber Machinery

CHECK THE ITEMS IN


-Crate-Material Elevator
-Drip Conveyor
-Dryers
-Electric Generators
-Electric Motors
-Electric Winding Engine
-Elevating Sprinklers
-Elevators, Platform
-Empty-Box Elevator
-Engines-Gasoline
-Engines-Kerosene
-Engines--Spray
-Fan Ventilating
-Fire Extinguishers
-Fruit Clippers
-Gang Plank
-Generators
-Grading Belt, Canvas
-Grading Belt, Rollers
-Grapefruit Packs and Sizes
-Hatchets, Box
-Heaters, Coke
-Heating Systems for
Drying
-Hoes, Scuffle
-Hose, Spray
-Housings
-Hydraulic Barrel Press
-Ladders
-Lighting Generators
-Machinery, Special Manufacture


-Motors
-Miami Trailers
-Morgan Box Machines
-Movers, Car
-Nailing Machines
-Nail. Strippers
-Onion Machinery
-Orange Packs and Sizes
-Packing House Plans
-Paper Holders
-Peach Machinery
-Pear Machinery
-Pepper Machinery
-Picking Bags
-Picking Ladders
-Plans, Packing House
-Platform Elevator
-Polishers
-Pre-Coloring Equipment
-Press, Barrel
-Pulleys
-Pumps, Packing House
-Pumps, Spray
-Reels, Strapping
-Repair Parts
-Re-Weighing Machine
-Scales
-Scuffle Hoes
--Sizers
-Soaking Tanks
-Special Bearings
--Special-Made Machinery


-Sprayers
-Spraying Specialties
--Spray Engines
-Spray Hose
-Spray Outfits
-Spray Pumps
-Spray Guns
-Spray Pumps, Fittings
-Skinner Sprayers
-Sprayers, Tractor
-Sprinkler Elevators
-Sprinklers
-Squeeze, Car
-Strapping Reel
-Strapping
-Sprocket Wheels
-Sprocket Chain
-Thermometers
-Tomato Machinery
-Transmission
-Trailers, Miami
-Trucks, Auto
-Trucks, Clamp
-Trucks, 4-Wheel
-Vegetable Grading Machinery
-Washer Brushes
-Washers
-Weighing Machines
-Winding Engine for
Elevators
-Wyandotte Cleanser


WHICH YOU ARE INTERESTED IN THIS LIST. USE THE COUPON BELOW


SKINNER MACHINERY COMPANY
World's Largest Manufacturers of Fruit and Vegetable Packing Machinery

BROADWAY, DUNEDIN, FLORIDA


SKINNER


Page Twenty-nine


SAVE TIME---CHECK HERE

Check the items in which you are interested. Tear off this page and return to the Skinner Machinery Company, Dunedin, Florida.

-Send the Skinner Catalogue. -Be sure my name is on your mailSend special literature regarding: ing list.
-Sizers Capacity of our packing plant is
-Polishers ........................ cars a day.
-Coke Heaters (Send floor plans if possible.)
-Trucks We have an orchard with ................
-Supplies acres.
- Dryers W e grow ..............................................
-Sprayers
-Spr yers...............................................................
(mention fruits or vegetables grown)

We are especially interested in: ..................................................


........................................................................................... ............................................. .......


N A M E ......................................................... ................ . ..............................................

A D D R E SS..............................................................................................................................



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SKINN4ER






* -. Skl'er Pckiny Hoce New ,


IDEAL


FERTILIZERS



SPRAY MACHINERY

INSECTICIDES



WRITE FOR

DESCRIPTIVE PRICE LISTS





WILSON & TOOMER

FERTILIZER CO.

JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
ESTABLISHED 1898








C-O-K-E

FOR


GROVE AND ORCHARD HEATING



Growers need experience no difficulty at any time in obtaining a plentiful supply of gas house coke, which may be used in coke heaters for frost protection in groves and orchards and for heating dwellings and other purposes. Our stock is large and shipment can be made promptly. All orders and inquiries given
our very careful attention.




ADAMS, ROWE & NORMAN

COAL AND COKE

BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA


Page Thirty


CALIFORNIA NEWS
(Continued from Page 21)
packing house for the season has placed the output at 600 tons, or about 37,000 cases. With the spinach yet to be packed another 100 tons will be added to the total. Spinach is taking a leading place in the California vegetable products.
Straight carload shipments of Gardena Valley strawberries began to move from the local packing houses during the first week in April, according to Roy E. Harris, an independent packer and shipper operating in the Gardena district. The crop is being picked from 3,200 acres, a substantial increase over that of last year, and is of good quality.
The C. H. Weaver and Son Company, who handle most of the cantaloupes grown at Fallon, Nev., furnisn crates to the grower, which are charged the grower's account. They also furnish field supervisors for the picking and packing and pay the growers every Monday morning for the melons received from them the week before. They also pay the freight charges and subtract 15 per cent commission from the gross sales. This is not a commission deal, as this firm can come back on the growers for crates only and not for freight charges or commission.

The new Steinhardt and Kelly packing house at Mountain View, Calif., has been completed, the opening ceremonies taking place recently, attended by nearly three hundred apricot growers from all parts of the state. This house adjoins the Growers' pre-cooling plant, which assures the safe arrival in New York of matured choice apricots. This year, Steinhardt and Kelly will ship about one hundred cars from the new plant.

The Santa Fe Railroad Company has announced that the ice plant under construction in Bakersfield, Calif., will be ready to handle the fruit and vegetable crops the coming season. It will have a capacity of 350 tons of ice daily and a storage of 24,000 tons.

Several weeks ago, a trial shipment of three pre-cooled cars of head lettuce were shipped to Chicago from Imperial Valley. The pre-cooling consisted of immersing the lettuce in ice water until it was thoroughly cooled, then packing it in crates which were loaded into cars with as little delay as possible. The lettuce reached its destination in excellent condition, and commanded a better price in the market than any other offered at that time.
The success of this experiment may mean the adoption of this method of cooling next year. It would result in a big saving to shippers in the reduction of ice bills, as at present thirty pounds of cracked ice are used in each crate of packed lettuce. As there are 360 crates of lettuce in a car, it can be readily seen that the saving brought about by the new method would be substantial.
Attorney General U. S. Webb recently passed a decision that the Japanese members of the Sunmaid Raisin Growers' Association could not buy stock in the organization. The ruling affects about three hundred Japanese growers who owned vineyards prior to the passage of the alien land law.
A carload of candied orange peel was shipped recently from the Redlands plant of the All Orange Company. This is the first carload of this product to go out. Another citrus by-product, the Sanborn Foods Company, is being started in Redlands, and will be in operation at ani early date.
Assembly Cleveland, of Watsonville, recently introduced a proposed new apple standardization law into the California State Legislature, and it has been referred to the Assembly committee on agriculture. As the bill was drafted after several meetings of apple growers and ship, pers, it is understood that it is favored by both factions In place of grades known as "fancy," "B" and "C" grades, the proposed act will care for "extra fancy," "fancy" and







Ski wer Dadcr THoq eNewy


"C" grades. There are a few minor specifications as to the grades, as well as the phraseology of the act in some points, but it intends to raise the standard through providing an extra fancy grade. It has also the intention of standardizing California grades with those of the Northwest apple shipping sections.
Though the output is conceded to be less than average, the Covina packing-houses are busy packing the orange crop, which, due to the freeze in 1922, is estimated to be about 75 per cent normal. According to the packing-house officials, the fruit averages excellent in quality and the quantity culled out as unfit to pack is so small that it has not been possible to offer any great amount to cull buyers. So far, the market has brought a fair price to the growers and packers.

L. J. Weishaar, Chief of the Bureau of Standardization, California Department of Agriculture, severed his connection with the department May 1. In addition to his active interest in matters of standardization, Mr. Weishaar has been instrumental in the development of Shipping Point Inspection service, which began in California in July, 1920. The growth of this service in two and onehalf years was such that over 15,000 cars were inspected and certified in 1922. Mr. Weishaar has accepted an important position with the Earl Fruit Company, with headquarters in the California Fruit building, Sacramento.

MEETING OF STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
(Continued from Page 8)
on the present status of dusting for diseases. Several growers gave their experiences in dusting citrus trees for the control of insects and diseases. Mr. Wilmon Newell of the State Plant Board talked of the serious aspects of the present quarantine situation and sounded a note of warning that this work must be continued very thoroughly in order to keep dangerous pests out of the state. M. J. Daetwyler of Orlando spoke on citrus varieties. Other instructive papers at this session covered the subjects of grove machinery and irrigation. One of the most important matters taken up by the Society at this meeting was the raising of funds for and sending a committee to Tallahassee to endeavor to safeguard the horticultural interests of the state in regard to the cutting down by he present legislature of funds for the carrying on of the work of the State Plant Board and the Agricultural Experiment Station. Mr. M. G. Campbell of Lake Wales was appointed to take charge of this very important matter. The same officers were elected for the ensuing year as served last year, and Tampa was chosen as the place of meeting for next year. It isn't too late to join the Society, and since membership entitles one to a rather liberal education along horticultural lines for the small sum of $2.00, and as the entire proceedings of the meeting are published in bound form later in the year, there are probably many people in Florida and elsewhere who would like to join. To these People I would offer the suggestion that they wrap two dollars up in a request for membership and mail same to Bayard F. Floyd, Secretary of the Society, at Orlando, Florida.

STRAWBERRY CROP MEETING HIGHEST
EXPECTATIONS
The opening of the strawberry season is regarded as ighy favorable to growers in the state of Louisiana. For a time it was thought that great damage might be done to the crop by the unprecedented cold snaps which that section has been experiencing this spring. But according to the reports of the growers the crop has suffered but little. Even in the northern portion of that $tate and the southern portion of Arkansas, the total amage has been closely estimated below 10 per cent, though first reports had it that the injury was greaty ID excess of that figure.


_ ~ HI


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Sheet Metal Work in all its branches. Handled by expert workers and installed as specified.

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705 Jefferson Street
Office 4963
Phone: Home 84-872 Tampa, Fla.



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! Lumber


Millwork, Windows and Doora,
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Phones: 51-231
P 51-219

6th Avenue and
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Tampa, Florida

Page Thirty-one,


.&_ZL


1










Grounds and Flowers


Softening harsh lines and bringing out all the latent beauty a plot of ground may be made to yield-such is the work
of an expert landscape gardener.
The "Professional Touch" in the finished work is noticeably apparent when our
services are employed.
Write us for suggestions.




Knull Floral Company
Dept. "12"
505 Tampa Street Tampa, Florida


Page Thirty-two


NEWS FROM NEW YORK CITY
MARKETS
(Continued from Page 15)
In sending out their circular to the trade, Higgins & James Company announces that a new corporation has been formed and is now functioning under the name of William A. Higgins & Co., to continue the business. The company, which was originally operated under that name, is one of the oldest of dry fruit jobbing houses. When E. S. James and his son, Leslie, entered the business the name was changed, but when the James withdrew in January the name was not changed because of the legal procedure necessary.

W. G. Becker, manager of the dried fruit department of R. C. Williams & Co., has introduced a new label which has been designed for use on the firm's private label pack of Santa Clara prunes, on their 15-ounce car. ton of 40-50's. The color scheme includes the Royal Scarlet label with blue lettering and a picture of a dish of prunes, all on a white background.

The single icing system of shipping lettuce from Calexico, Calif., to Eastern markets has been declared a success. Cars shipped in that way have realized "premiums" over the regular refrigerated car service. By the new process ice spray under cold air blasts at the time of packing is introduced into the car. It is also necessary to ice while the shipment is in transit. Experiments in shipping other vegetables that way are being made.

A. H. Pfeiffer, general manager of the Pacific Northwest Canning Company of Puyallup, Wash., has been in New York during the latter part of the month to visit his brokers, Butler & Sergeant. Mr. Pfeiffer's company operates the plants of the Puyallup & Summer Fruit Growers' Canning Company, which was a large factor in its day.
* * *
A few cars are arriving daily of the new stock Florida potatoes, and being sold at $14@$15, or one dollar less than they were the second week of April. New Bermudas on the 19th of the month sold at $18 a barrel, where $22 was the price the previous week.
* * *
A local broker taking advantage of every prospect says that he has never seen such a widespread interest in future pumpkins so early in the season. One Middle Western canner reports that he has already sold about 75 per cent of his expected pack. To make sure of adequate supplies of raw stocks some canners have acreages under contract which will be devoted exclusively to pumpkins and watermelons. The latter will be shipped to the produce markets to cut down the overhead on pumpkins.

The Fairdale Canning Company of Bridgeton, N. J., packers of fancy tomatoes, has placed its accounts with the Henry H. Ashenfelter, Inc.







- Skinner ~ ~ I..


FLORIDA NEWS


The following new citrus packing houses are to be built in Florida this summer to be ready for operation next season:
Mr. P. John Hart at Fort Myers, a three-car per day capacity house.
Lakeland Citrus Growers' Association at Lakeland, a ten-car per day capacity house. Crooked Lake Citrus Growers' Association at Crooked Lake, a six-car per day capacity house. Southern Packing Company at Lakeland, a four-car per day capacity house.
Manatee Fruit Company at Sutherland, a four-car per day capacity house.
Gentile Brothers at Haines City, a six-car per day capacity house.
Watermelon seed has been shipped by the carload from Jefferson county during April, where the growing of watermelons for seed has become an industry of considerable proportions. During the first week in April, D. H. Gilbert of Monticello, one of the largest watermelon seed dealers in the country, shipped a carload of 30,000 pounds of Tom Watson seed.

Chase and Company early. in April completed a deal whereby they gained control of the holdings of the Nocatee Fruit Company at Nocatee. According to the Arcadia News: "The trade involves about three hundred acres of groves and the packing house at Nocatee, with all equipment. It is understood that the price was between $350,000 and $400,000."
The Manatee Fruit Company is adding equipment to their citrus packing plant at Palmetto to increase their capacity eight cars a day.
Headquarters for the Florida Waterways Traffic League has been established in the Orlando Mortgage Loan building at Orlando, and a campaign is being waged to obtain at least 10,000 members. The work this league, of which Mr. S. J. Sligh is president, hopes to accomplish, is the deepening of the St. Johns river from Jacksonville to Sanford so as to make a channel 20 feet deep and 200 feet wide in order that fruits and vegetables May be shipped from Sanford in ocean-going vessels without having to be trans-shipped at Jacksonville. Also to construct laterals and feeders to the St. Johns-south, east and west of Sanford.

Canned grapefruit has been moving by the carload from St. Lucie county during March and April. The Polk Canning Company's plant at Vero and the plant of the St. Lucie Products Company at Rio, have been running to capacity. Most of the shipments have gone to California and the Middle West.

James & Sessions, vegetable growers of Bartow, have constructed recently, a tomato packing house at Clewiston, in which to pack the huge crop of tomatoes they are growing in that section.

Shipments of tomatoes from the Everglades section commenced in the latter part of April. It is estimated that the crop from this section will be 1950 cars for this season.
* * *
String beans and cucumbers have been shipped from Sumter county during April at the rate of approximately 100 cars of each, every week.
* * *
The Winter Haven Citrus Growers' Association is add1g considerable new equipment to their packing plant in Oder to increase the capacity for next season.
e o* * *
he output of strawberries for the season of the DeSoto Ounty Strawberry Growers' Association packing house at


Plant an Acreage of Grapes,

Become Financially Independent the Third Year

After Planting.


Hundreds of acres of our Adapted Bunch Grapes were planted in Florida during the season just closed. The average size of the vineyards increased considerably in the past year. More and more wise fruit growers are planting acreages of our Adapted Bunch Grapes, having become convinced of their commercial success in Florida through many years of demonstrations in all sections of the state.
Acreage vineyards of our Adapted Grapes have been yielding highly profitable crops in Florida year after year for upwards of ten years. They have proven to be long-lived varieties of bunch grapes. The delic'ous quality of the fruit has been convincing to the general public since before the great world war. People who speak of commercial grape growing in Florida as in the experimental stage are simply not well informed and have not investigated the actual situation. Florida has arrived as a commercial grape growing state. There but remains the more rapid expansion of the industry. That is Where your opportunity lies.
You don't need to experiment in commercial grape growing in Florida. That has been done for you in the past ten years. It is for you to get into the grape-growing industry and make yourself financially independent.
It does not require many years before you reap satisfactory returns in the Adapted Bunch Grape growing industry in Florida. In eighteen months after planting, with reasonable care, you will get a paying crop of fruit, and in thirty months you will be surprised at the very liberal returns. CAN WE INTEREST YOU in a grape development investment where we do all that is required to bring to you quickly substantial financial returns annually, without your having to bear any responsibility in their care? This means financial independence with only a comparatively small investment within a period of less than three years.


For further information address


Southern Adapted Nurseries

TAMPA, FLORIDA


Business Offices: TAMPA, FLA.


Main Nursery: BARTOW, FLA.


Page Thirty-three










Tomato Packing Machinery Assures Profits


Dust and dirt from the field and stains from spraying detract very much from the
eye appeal of tomatoes, even though they be well packed otherwise.
The picture above illustrates the value of polishing tomatoes. Those in the two
baskets in the rear were not polished-note the spray marks. The tomatoes in the
front baskets were put through a Skinner Tomato Polisher.
Clean fruit and vegetables advertise themselves more effectively.
Nature uses form and color display to attract attention to her products. The
wise grower and shipper puts his produce on the market with all of nature's appeals
displayed to their fullest advantage.
Grading machinery, polishers, sizers and careful packing of fruits and vegetables,
give every package and every piece in each package an advantage in the market over
produce not carefully cleaned, graded, sized and packed.
Write at once for full particulars of Skinner polishing, grading and sizing machinery for Tomatoes and other vegetables.




SKINNER MACHINERY COMPANY


Broadway


Dunedin


Florida


Page Thirty-four






Arcadia was stated to be 48,015 quarts. The shipments of this organization have been successful and they plan to increase their acreage another year.

The Standard Fruit Growers' Exchange has purchased the Beacham groves at Apopka, consisting of nearly 200 acres. This gives the Standard Growers 300 acres in one tract in Orange county, besides other holdings.

A shipment of citrus fruit was sent from Bradentown during April to Gottried Zykan, a merchant of Vienna, Austria, by the Manatee County Growers' Association. Fancy fruit was selected for this 5,000-mile journey-two boxes of fine grapefruit from the famous Kirkhuff-Crouter Grove near Bradentown, and two boxes of Valencia oranges from the Eagle Fruit Company's grove on the Manatee river, being chosen. The fruit was specially and carefully packed for its long journey.

Plant City is to have a grapefruit canning factory ready for operation next season, according to recent advices. New York men are behind this venture and it is expected that the plant will have a capacity of 500 cases a day. This plant, it is said, will can strawberries and vegetables as well as grapefruit.

Orlando has received much favorable publicity this past season through the fact that the S. J. Sligh Fruit Company of that city sent out thousands of boxes of oranges and grapefruit, the wrapper of each containing the following: "Grown and shipped from Orlando, City Beautiful. For information and literature write the Orlando Chamber of Commerce."

Chase & Co. are increasing the capacity of their citrus packing house at Isleworth.

Tomato packing houses in the Manatee section have been busy during April. According to Manager Williams of the Manatee County Growers' Association, the outlook for the crop is good this season. The acreage is larger than it was last year. The tomato packing season will be over about May 25th.

It was predicted by George A. Scott, sales manager of the Florida Citrus Exchange, on April 25th, that only 6 per cent of the orange crop and 20 per cent of the grapefruit was left to ship. The total shipments to this date had been 13,500,000 boxes, equal to the entire shipment last year. Mr. Scott stated that the season's shipments Might go as high as 15,500,000 boxes.

A. S. Herlong of Leesburg is adding new equipment to his packing plant in preparation for a bigger business next year.

Mr. W. C. Sherman, a lumber operator of West Florida and Alabama, has taken over the big mill of the Consolidated Crate and Lumber Company at Lake Wales, and will run this mill to capacity. This mill has been shut down since the winter of 1921-22. Mr. R. F. Innis will manage the plant.

R. P. Burton & Son of Lisbon are adding improvements to their citrus packing plant in anticipation of the need for greater capacity another season.
* * *
According to latest reports Bradentown is to have another grapefruit canning factory before the next citrus shipping season opens. The new plant is to be a subsidiary of the Manatee County Citrus Sub-Exchange.

Citrus fruit exports from South Africa amounted to 290,000 boxes of oranges, 40,000 packages of naartjes, and 10 000 boxes of grapefruit, during the 1922 season. This i one of the best seasons on record, if not the best, for South African packing houses.


Skinner Box Press
With Strapping Reel Attached


The Skinner Box Press with Strapping Reel attached
forms a most convenient and practical combination for pressing and strapping boxes of fruit. Write for
full particulars.
Skinner Machinery Company
Broadway Dunedin Florida



SKINNER

CLAMP

TRUCKS
Skinner Clamp Trucks have been giving satisfactory service In packing houses for a number of years. They are ideally adapted to trucking of field or packed crates of fruits or vegetables in and around the packing plant and for loading out of or
into cars.
They are made in two practical types : one, with long handles for trucking field boxes, and fruit or vegetable crates stacked more than three feet high; the other, with short handles for trucking shipping cases and loading aboard cars.



Write for complete particulars
Skinner Machinery Company F
Broadway Dunedin Florida


Page Thirty-five






















































For Sale By Feed Dealers Everywhere


ADVERTISING PRINTERS

By reason of modern equipment and long experience we are equipped to render a high.
ly satisfactory printing service.
YOUR Printing warrants a craftsmans touch Send It To Rinaldi

Rinaldi Printing Company
107 Lafayette St. Tampa, Florida

Page Thirty-six


TELL THE WORLD WITH SN


Our Outdoor Display Signs are "Different"
in that each is designed by an expert
to convey an idea.


Office and Shop 1612-14-Tampa St.


Tampa, Florida


Jerome Benne-ft


EDITORIALL Y
(Continued from Page 20)
other one thing and their significance is as truly beautiful as their outer form.
Florida has received a lot of unfavorable publicity in the past and recently. Perhaps a more widespread interest in the growing and showing of flowers in this state would serve in a measure to mitigate the stains that have temporarily been placed upon her escutcheon. At any rate, we hope the Florida Flower Parade will be perpetuated.

This Issue and the Next
Because of being crowded with copy we have been forced to leave out several items that we had planned to include in this issue. "The Awakening of Lake Joy," by Riley M. Fletcher Berry, will be continued in the June number. An article on citrus production in Porto Rico which we had also expected to include in this issue, has had to be carried over until the next. A number of pictures taken during the Florida Horticultural Society meeting were received too late for insertion. We have a lot of splendid material for the June Packing House News and only hope that we will have room enough to crowd it all in.

Another Florida Flower Show
Since commenting upon the Flower Show and Parade at Orlando we note that an amateur Flower Show was held in Jacksonville on April 26 and prizes were given for the best displays of various flowers. The Jacksonville Times-Union in its editorial columns the day before the show said: "Flower show, in Riverside, Thursday, ought to show what can be done in the way of flower culture in Florida." We would like to add by way of suggestion that a flower show in every town of any size in the state would be a great stunt, but if every person in the state interested would consolidate their efforts toward a huge statewide Flower Show to be held at some central point early in the year, it would be a better one.

Packing House Inspection
It looks as though it is going to be necessary before very long to adopt some method of packing house inspection under State or Federal laws to prevent the shipping of cull fruits and vegetables and dropped fruit to the markets. Culls and drops shipped from various producing sections, masquerading as first grade produce are found in the markets constantly. It can be readily seen that where one grower or shipper sends culls and drops to the market either marked as graded fruit or mixed with graded fruit, the entire community or section from which he ships is hurt. The situation with respect to shipping culls which have no business in the markets at all, is growing alarming. The Packing House News will take up this problem in detail i, the next issue and in the meantime we would like to have expressions from growers and shippers in all parts of the country as to how it may best be solved.
The Packing House News is considering offering a silver cup to whoever owns the largest orange tree in the world. As the poets say, more of this anon. Next month we will show an illustration of one of the contenders for the title.


Phone 2990




- - - - - jS~I I-I I i~ vii


Sk/iner PacT

Apple Crop in Oregon

By IIEL E. V. DUNN


Oregon produced its greatest apple crop in 1922. Not only was the bumper output of 1921 overtopped in size, but the quality of the present season's fruit was the best average ever known in this territory. The apple crop of the state for the year totaled 7,000,000 boxes valued at $7,300,000. The average low price was low due to the congested condition of the railroads as well as to general financial troubles in other centers. Due to the railroad congestion, Portland shipped direct to Europe more than double the quantity of apples usually sent. Europe, Asia and Africa as well as South American republics received shipments of apples direct from Portland. Apple shipments through the Port of Portland during the past season aggregate 1,000,000 boxes, a gain of about half a million boxes over last year.
Apples of average size number 125 to the box. At this rate, the shipments made by the Port of Portland would furnish an apple a-piece for every man, woman and child in Great Britain, France and Belgium, with many millions left over for those who wanted a second helping. Placed side by side, the apples from the Northwest sent this year through Portland would make a row across the American continent.
The apples go to the Atlantic coast, chiefly New York, and to such European ports as Glasgow, Liverpool, Southampton and London. Every form of modern conveyance brings them to Portland, except perhaps the airplane and probably it will come to that yet. Trucks, river boats and railroads each carry their quota. In cooperation with the Hood River Apple Growers' Association the Port of Portland and the dock commission facilities for storing the apples in warehouses before shipping are being ngorously tested with a view to dettrmining the keeping property of apples of various kinds under various conditions. Ventilated storage room i provided at terminal No. 4 with a capacity of 500,000 boxes of apples. To carry the fruit to the Atlantic Coast and to Europe, ships with large refrigerator spaces are employed.


1922


In spite of the fact that more apples were disposed of this year than ever before, at the end of February it was found that Hood River had approximately 864,000 boxes of apples left over. The Portland Chamber of Commerce decided to co-operate with apple growers of this section which has become world famous for its fruit in an endeavor to "save the grower." So with this official slogan, Apple Week was launched in Portland, February 26 to March 3.
The surplus was due to the greater amount of fruit produced in this section this year and also to the lack of shipping facilities by railroad. A local wool warehouse donated space for the apples which were shipped from Hood River.
Special prices for these fancy apples was a feature of the week. Many Portlanders bought the fruit for shipping to friends in other states. Apples may be shipped by parcel post, but some care is required in the sending. The postal regulations stipulate that packages weighing up to 70 pounds may be accepted for parcel post shipment up to a distance of 300 miles. On the other hand, a weight of not more than 50 pounds will be accepted for shipment to any point reached by the parcel post service. This would include most boxed apples it is believed.
Window displays of boxed apples were featured during Apple Week. One local hotel kept a large bowl full of apples in the lobby bearing a sign "Apple Week-Take One", which kept the bellhops hustling to keep it filled. Department stores and grocery stores all assisted in unloading the surplus.
P. F. Clark, sales manager of the Apple Growers' association of Hood River expressed the hope that the conclusion of apple week in Portland would mean that hereafter to a great extent Portland would be a good market for the choice grades of the fruit usually shipped to eastern states.

It is expected that more than 100 cars of onions will be shipped this season out of McAllen, Texas.


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C. Y. McMULLEN
Florida Ave. Dunedin, Florida Reference: Bank of Dunedin







LABELS

Peach, Apple, Tomato, Plum, Asparagus and Berry Labels. Printed in one to four colors. Packing House and Orchard Tickets, Stationery, etc.

Send for Samples
Prompt Service

The Georgia Post
Knoxville, Ga.


Page Thirty-seven


Terminal at Hood River Oregon. Shipping Point of World Famous Apples of the District


M W f





= &Skz e P ncy~Hoqse NewS



FOUR REASONS WHY CITRUS FRUIT SHIPPERS AND GROWERS SHOULD USE SCIENTIFICALLY CONSTRUCTED ORANGE BOXES
1. Because boxes built on scientific lines are the very highest type of box construction known at this time.
2. Because in scientifically constructed boxes every detail is carefully looked after.
Additional strength is placed at points where needed so that this box is practically
free from breakage.
3. Because a scientifically constructed box is attractive in appearance. The smooth cut veneer and the special grading is such that the box is always attractive.
4. Because citrus fruit growers and shippers have applied science and research to the industry and they have a right to demand a scientifically constructed box for
the shipment of their fruit.

We Manufacture Only High Grade Scientifically Constructed Crate Material. The Best by Test ASK THE SHIPPER WHO IS USING IT
Nocatee Crate Company Manatee Crate Company Nocatee, Florida Manatee, Florida



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From the largest in the state to the smallest we can care for your needs.
Made of extra thick steel, handled by expert welders, our finished product comes up to your expectations.
Air, water, oil, ammonia and ice tanks, in fact a tank for any purpose you may demand can be furnished for immediate delivery. CUSHMAN 4 H. P. VERTICAL We are the largest manufacturers of welded tanks in the South.
A LIGHTWEIGHT (190 lbs), compact, power Write us for our bulletin of useful informaplant. Offering to the farm and home the comforts of light and water. The operating tion-it will go a long way toward solving cost is extremely low and the service reliable, your tank problem. Write us for more detailed information,

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807 Tampa Street Tampa, Florida 1414 Lozano Street Tampa, Florida


Page Thirty-eight





I Skinner Pa~ckin~~ Hou5e New5


PACIFIC NORTHWEST NOTES
The "Hood River Traffic Association" is an organization but recently formed by fruit men of that famous Oregon valley. Its express purpose is to prevent future car shortage as was suffered last season, and it expects to cooperate to this end with similar associations in other fruit districts. In scope, it represents practically the entire tonnage of that section. P. F. Clarke was elected president; W. R. Woolpert, vice-president; R. W. Kelly, treasurer; and C. Leland Smith, secretary and manager.

The firm of Sgobel & Day, third largest handler of fruit in the United States, has decided to enter the upper Hood River valley field. It will build a modern warehouse, fully equipped at Parkdale. Colonel William S. Dowd will be district representative. C. W. McCullaugh, formerly sales manager of the Hood River Apple Growers' Association, is northwest manager for Sgobel & Day.

Because of unsettled market conditions on the Atlantic seaboard, the dried fruit committee of the Oregon Growers' Cooperative Association, in conjunction with the directors of the organization, has decided to wait until quotations are more favorable before attempting to sell any more prunes in that section of the country.

The North Pacific Cooperative Berry Growers (from estimates made by some experienced growers in the association) has figured the average cost of a crate of strawberries.
Value of 1 acre land ready to plant, for instance: $500-Interest on that for 4 years at 8 per cent..$160.00 Taxes for 4 years --------------------.------------ -------------- 40.00
Plants for setting ------------ ............---------------------------- 50.00
Work cultivating, etc., 4 years ----- ..........----------------- 480.00
Depreciation of tools -------------------------------------------- 10.00
Fertilizer, 4 years -------- ------------------- 100.00
Picking, 3 years --------------------------------------------------- 270.00
Crates, 3 years -------- ------------------------------------ ---- 180.00
Transportation to central station -----------.------- ---. 90.00

Total -------------------------------------------------------------- $1,380.00
3 year yield-900 crates-cost the crate ------------ $ 1.53

One of the biggest steps recently taken by berry growers of this territory is the formation of the Federated Berry Growers of the Northwest. This consolidates 11 smaller associations including the North Pacific Cooperafive Berry Growers, the Washington Berry Growers' ass0ciation, the Puyalup & Sumter Fruit Growers' association, the Puget Sound Berry Growers' association, the White River Berry Growers' association, the Big Harbor Berry Growers' association of the State of Washington; the Growers' association of Hood River, the Woodburn Fruit Growers' association, the Berry Growers' Packing company, and the Loganberry Growers' Exchange, of Oregon; and the Berry Growers' Cooperative Union of British Columbia. This represents 7,856 members, all interested in better marketing conditions.

Northwest apple growers should extend markets in South America, according to David R. McGinnis of the South American Trading & Exportation company of Oakland, California. He asserts that he has paid as much as 26c for a single apple there, and has seen them sold for as high as 46c. At the same time with such prices preVailing, buyers could get nothing but "C" quality. Mr. X cGinnis said he believed apples would sell in South America for $7.50 to $10.00 the box.

Algerian citrus fruit is being exported to Southern France in great quantities, according to a recent report. The fruit is mostly oranges and mandarins, with a few emons. The export for 1921 was 12,900 metric tons of fruit, of which all but 74 tons were shipped to France.


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DO YOU GROW CITRUS?
If so, you will be interested in reading the timely, articles which appear each month in
THE CITRUS INDUSTRY
the only exclusive citrus publication, and which covers the citrus field in every line and from every angle.
Federal and state experts and leading growers are regular contributors of practical articles on every phase of citrus culture and marketing problems. The price is only $1 per year. Write for sample copy or mail your subscription to
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Page Thirty-nine









Cantaloupe Packing Machinery


Carefully graded, accurately sized and finely polished cantaloupes bring the very best market prices. A complete outfit of Skinner Cantaloupe Packing Machinery will pay for itself in one season. Write at once for special literature on cantaloupe cleaning, grading and sizing machinery.


SKINNER MACHINERY COMPANY


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A Five in One Packing Outfit
The five in one feature of this Apple 'and Peach Sizer should be of interest to every packer of apples and peaches. The economy of floor space and operating cost is worth con3iderable. Embodied in this one machine are: 1, Sizer; F, Self-feeding Hopper; 3, Cull Belt; 4, Roller Grading Belt; 5, Distributing Belt. Some of the advantages of using this machine are: It is compact and convenient, it handles frui' gently and sizes it accurately, it means less handling of perfect fruits and obtains a larger percentage of choice and fancy grades.
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'Page Forty






Skirnier P~ckin~ Hoc~5e News ~' U


wIJRMES OF FRUIT PACKING WANTED
(Continued from Page 28)
vertise its careful packing and grading would be through the firm that distributes its products in a particular city. The packing house could write the distributor, suggesting that he get in touch with the librarian, offering to furnish a dozen or so pictures. One advantage of this is that it immediately connects the pictures with the actual food supplies of the city-the children will know that they are learning how their own fruit or vegetables come to them. Another advantage is that such a plan often means additional publicity. In most towns and cities the library is given space in the local papers to tell of the arrivals of new books and collections of interest, and there is a general tendency upon the part of libraries to acknowledge the co-operation of business firms. The sources of the food supply are interesting to children. They cannot help but be impressed by the pictured story of the care taken by a progressive packing house to insure quality products reaching the home. They like to "show off" their knowledge to the folks at home. The youngster of today has quite a voice in saying what is bought for the home. And it is also a remarkably short time until they are running homes of their own.

GEORGIA NEWS
The lowly dewberry is going to make Georgia famous or else Georgia is going to make the dewberry famous. One way or the other considerable interest is being taken in the production of this member of the blackberry family. The following men have applied for a charter to form the Georgia Dewberry Growers' association under the cooperative laws of the State: W. H. Brown and A. S. Blount of Vedalia; R. 0. Smith of Bartow; W. C. Pirkle of Baxley; I, T. Brooks of Lumber City; B. P. Ramsey of Louisville, and Max L. McRae of McRae. The principal offices of the organization are to be at McRae.

W. L. Duncan and other growers 4re specializing in Big Stem Jersey sweet potatoes near Lyons. They exP"tto ship a number of carloads.
The following extract from a news item in a recent issue of the Macon Telegraph will interest peanut growers:
"WASHINGTON, April 17.-A deb.nd that the Tariff Commission disbias the application to reopen the legetabe oil schedule came from inWential sources today when W. W.
0ebb, of Hahira, Ga., president of he Georgia Peanut Growers Associain, and L. B. Jackson director of h Georgia State Bureau of M eta, filed with President Harding


and Chairman Marvin of the United States Tariff Commission, a protest on behalf of one hundred thousand peanut farmers of the South against any further tariff agitation.
"The filing of the application to reopen the vegetable oil schedule has frightened many farmers, and if it is docketed for a hearing it will stop the planting of peanuts for this season, for every farmer knows that he cannot raise peanuts without a protective tariff and if our protection is in doubt then we must abandon the crop.
"We want the application for reopening the vegetable oil schedules, now on file, dismissed and public announcement made of it so the farmer can proceed with safety. We are planting approximately 400,000 acres of peanuts in Alabama, 225,000 in Georgia, 200,000 in Texas, 150,000 in Virginia, 125,000 in North Carolina, 125,000 in Florida and fifty thousand in South Carolina and if they will let the tariff alone we can double the acreage. But if there is any disturbance in the tariff it will wipe the industry out of existence."
"Fancy" Potatoes
You may not believe it, but fancy potatoes from Bermuda commanded $20 a barrel in New York this week. "Think of-it!" exclaims a buyer. Not giving him a short answer, we don't want to think of it. Thinking of a price like that makes our head swim.
-Fruit Trade Journal.

A Step in the Right Direction
All success to those Florida potato growers whose heads, hearts and hands are enlisted for improved grading of the product which has commenced rolling from Hastings !-Fruit Trade Journal.

Cuban Pineapple Crop
It is estimated that the pineapple crop in Cuba for the coming season will be approximately 1,000,000 crates. This shows no increase over the crop of last year. It is stated that the pines will be of good keeping quality and principally of the sizes most desirable to dealers, namely 24s, 30s and 36s.

Many Pickers Wanted
The Florida Times-Union under date of April 4 contains the following:
Moore Haven is advertising for two thousand people to come and help gather the tomato crop; Center Hill wants two thousand bean pickers. Florida vegetables are coming along and the people north, east and west are hungry for them.

The day of the mixed grade and size in the same package is about over. The consuming public is discriminating in favor of perfect grade, size and pack.


ORDER EARLY
Time and money are saved by ordering citrus packing machinery early from the Skinner Machinery Company to say nothing of the confusion that results from last minute deliveries because of late orders.


DICK SMITH NAIL STRIPPER
A dependable
packing house device


Page Forty-one


Skinner Machinery Company



















Believed Him Guilty
A country school board was visiting a school and the principal was putting his pupils through their paces.
"Who signed Magna Charta, Robert?" he asked, turning to one boy.
"Please sir, 'twasn't me," whimpered the youngster.
The teacher, in disgust, told him to take his seat; but an old tobaccochewing countryman on the board was not satisfied, so, after a welldirected aim at the cuspidor he said: "Call that boy back. I don't like his manner. I believe he did do it."
Gifted
"I'm afraid, doctor," said Mrs. Jones, "that my husband has some terrible affliction. Sometimes I talk to him for hours, and then find he hasn't heard a word."
"That isn't an affliction, madam," was the weary reply. "That's a gift."
-Ex.
While Worshipping
In front of a Broadway restaurant yesterday we saw a small, ragged urchin watching a girl in the window baking batter-cakes. We thought we detected an air of wistfulness about the lad and our heart was touched.
"Hungry, kid?" we asked.
"Naw!" came his scornful reply. "Can't a feller look at a swell dame without drawin' no crowd?"-Lightning Line.
Nobody Home
Jakie: "Ikey, you should put the curtains down when you kiss your wife; I saw you last night."
Ikey: "The chokes on you, Jakie; I wasn't home last night."--New West Trade.
Taking No Chances
The stingy farmer was scoring the hired man for carrying a lighted lantern to call on his best girl.
"The idea," he exclaimed. "When I was courtin' I never carried no lantern; I went in the dark."
"Yes," said the hired man sadly, "and look what you got."-Clipped.

Where Two Is a Crowd
"Rastus say Pahson Brown done kotch him in Farmer Smith's chicken coop."
"M-m, boy! Don' Rastus feel 'shamed?"
"Nossuh. De pahson am de one feel 'shame. He kain't 'splain how come he done kotch Rastus dar."American Legion Weekly.
Page Forty-two


Going! Going! Gone!
"The bridegroom appeared cool and collected."
"Yes, he didn't seem to realize that he was losing control of himself."-Interstatements.

Logic
"Mamma, why has papa so little hair?"
"Because he does so much thinking."
"But why have you so much?"
"Now, my dear-it is time to go to bed."
The Chaos Makers
A doctor, an architect and a bolshevik were discussing as to the priority of their occupations.
The doctor said:
"When Adam's side was opened and a rib removed to make woman, there was a surgical operationmedicine-was the oldest trade."
The architect said:
"Yes, but when the earth was made out of chaos, there was the building process, the use of materials according to a plan. The architect's is still oldest."
The bolshevik smiled and said:
"But who supplied the chaos?"Farm Life.
The Original Efficiency Expert
Editor Oswald Garrison Villard said at an advertising men's banquet in New York:
"Business men are flighty. They have strange crazes. What a ludicrous craze scientific management was.
"Scientific management was like the old farmer in the malarial swamp district of Maryland.
"The farmer's son withdrew his knife from his mouth one morning, pushed his plate of pie back wearily and said:
"'Pap, my chill's a-comin' on.'
"'Be she?' said the farmer, as he rose briskly. 'Wal, hold her jest a minute till I get the churn fixed up fer ye.' "--Judge
Republican or Sinner
A negro servant girl in Florida approached her boss's husband one day with: "Is you a Republican?"
"Why, no," he replied, "I generally vote the Democratic ticket, in this country, at any rate."
"No, no!" she came back. "I don' mean one of dem kind of 'publicans. I means a notorious republican, what signs papers."


A Man and His Ford
Here is a salesman's report just as it came in to the sales manager: "Me and the Ford not able to work today. Later, Ford better; $6.00 doctor's bill. Me bad off; 25 cents doctor's bill."
Cars and Ships
Little Johnny was seeking information from his father.
"Father," he asked, "freight is goods that are sent by water or land, isn't it?"
"That's right, son."
"Well, then, why is it that the freight that goes by ship is called a cargo, and when it goes by car it is called a shipment?"
And then Johnny wondered why father put on his hat and sauntered outside to get the air.-Stanley Journal.
News from the Suicide Club
A new drink-Aeroplane Cocktail. One drop will kill you.


A smile is a panacea for many ailments: If you are thin, it will make you fat; if you are fat, it will make you pleasant; if you are ugly, it will make you beautiful; if you are sad, it will make you happy, and so on ad infinitum.

If a certain author were seeking a title for a book today to harmonize with "Plain Tales from the Hills," he might choose: "Fancy Tales from the Flats," and. take his plots from the front pages of our daily newspapers.
* * *
They say Volstead is to presents bill at the next Congress which will edge a new word into the Dictionary to take the place of prohibition.

Said Weary Willy to Tired Tim: "Let's start a new rage."
"What 'tis?" said Tim.
"Start an endurance test to see how long we can rest without working.")
'.Fine, it won't take it long to be, come popular."







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This Map of Florida (20" x 30") is given free with one year's subscription to The Tourist News, Florida's Tourist information magazine, and the price is one dollar per year.
Money spent on a trip to Florida is well invested. A dollar spent for The Tourist News, and The Tourist News Map, pays large dividends in pleasure obtained from an increased knowledge of the Sunshine State. This also gives you corresponding privilege with our Florida Information Bureau.

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172-174 Central Avenue St. Petersburg, Fla.
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Street
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PAGE 1

-0,< I-. May 13 .Case of Sodus, N. y_, is a large grower and shipper ofapples and te ris r.Cslsafr believer 1923 in the value of m packing and sipng apeand hs wrten hsn impression ior the Packing House News, which may be found on page four of this issue. An Illustrated Monthly --Publication devoted to -~--Fruit and Vegetable SPacking Houses and Other Allied Interests. \.v\ d
PAGE 2

Packing House Lake Alfred Citrus Growers' Association Brogden, Ricketts & Haworth, Tampa, Contractors Many Florida Citrus Exchange packing houses throughout Southern Florida are examples of beautiful buildings which Interlocking Tile makes possible. 24,000 Interlocking Tile, stuccoed, were used in this building. INTERLOCKING TILE Builds Better Packing Houses Partitions always directly over each other -giving grea test possil su~pporting, strength Saome tile butildi Walls any thick, ess This i Sr inS Ea t Plastey d c on tiler nu ring nlecessary lkiev inerua ed by air pacLe wh ch pkevens condition of het cold o Or C tioneyconibed With individual sir, spaces which make first insulator against heat and cold j 2:5 12.Vnich swall buntl of the Uim tic M ANY of the newer and larger packing houses in Florida have been built of INTERLOCKING TILE because of its outstanding merit and economy. First cost is last cost when you build with INTERLOCKING TILE. INTERLOCKING TILE insures ideal conditions for fruit packing operations. INTERLOCKING TILE helps to maintain uniform temperature, excludes dampness and reduces up-keep. It is fireproof, durable and beautiful. The large units of INTERLOCKING TILE can be laid rapidly at a great saving of labor and mortar. It proves an ideal base for plaster and stucco finish; is also the best material for backing-up face brick. Decorative effects of almost unlimited number can be obtained in the use of INTERLOCKING TILE. Many attractive Florida homes, schools and buildings of every other class have been built of INTERLOCKING TILE, which assures permanence, comfort and beauty, while lowering the cost of insurance. Learn more of the merits and adaptability of this building material, its economy and utility. Ask any user, your local dealer, or write direct for information. Gamble & Stockton Company 327 Laura Street Jacksonville, Florida

PAGE 3

u!tSENEWS The Only Fruit and Vegetable Packing House Journal in America Volume II MAY, 1923 Number 5 C on t e n t s PAGE Some Problems of Producing, Packing and Shipping Apples in Western New York. By B. J. Case -----4 Something of the problems of growing and marketing apples in Western New York by a grower and shipper of many years' experience. National Pecan Growers Exchange, Albany, Georgia. By Wm. P. Bullard 5 The plan of the National Pecan Growers' Organization and the grading methods used. by its president. Marketing Future Florida Citrus Crops--The Bugaboo of Overproduction. By J. C. Chase. ------7 Meeting of Florida State Horticultural Society. By T. L. Winton -8 A few notes of the meeting and some observations on the value of the Society to the State. Making Millions From Squirrel Food. By-John B. Wallace. --10 An entertaining illustrated article of the California Walnut Growers' Association and the California Almond Growers' Exchange. Boosting Nut Sales. By 0. Foerster Schully. -----13 Mr. Schully seems to think that all the nut growers in the country are not onto their job. Some interesting facts and figures. The Paper Shell Pecan Growers Association of Putney, Georgia -14 Another Pecan Growers' Organization whose specialty is packing nuts in vacuum in tins and glasses. Another Type of Celery Crate ------15 Specifications of the 4 one-wire bound celery crate. Walnut Fruit Growers Operate Unique Combination Packing House. By E. M. Henderson. -----6 Citrus fruits and nuts packed from the same plant. A detailed description of the method of preparing walnuts for marketing. Development of the Grape Industry In Florida. By E. L. Zimmerman. -18 Grape production is attracting a lot of attention in Florida just now. Mr. Zimmerman writes optimistically of the future for grapes in Florida. Floral Parade ---------22 Florida's First Annual Flower Show. An attractive collection of pictures. A New Citrus Field. By Edna Bennett Stolz. ---24 Texas expects to outdistance California and Florida in the production of oranges and grapefruit some of these days. A New Safety Basket Fastener. By Seth J. Ferrara, Jr. .--28 Published Monthly by Skinner Machinery Company, Dunedin, Florida, B. C. Skinner, Vice-President and General Manager SUBSCRIPTION RATES Per year .....................$1.00 Single copy ---.................... .10 ADVERTISING RATES UPON APPLICATION Change of address should be reported promptly. Give new and old address. Kindly advise if more than one copy is mailed to same address. If address on envelope is incomplete or incorrect please send correction or addition. Notify us promptly of failure to receive the NEWS Address All Communications to Skinner Packing House News, Dunedin, Florida Copyright, 1923. Skinner Machinery Company Printed in St. Petersburg, Florida, by The Tourist News Press Z ~ ~

PAGE 4

Some Problems of Producing, Packing and Shipping Apples in Western New N On the south shore of Lake Ontario in New York state is a strip of country extending from Niagara Falls to Oswego, a distance of about one hundred and forty miles in length, and varying in width, that is well adapted to growing apples. The tempering effect of the waters of Lake Ontario, which is two hundred miles long, and sixty miles wide at its widest point holds the buds back in the spring and wards off late spring frosts, so that apple blossoms have not been killed in this section during the memory of our older people. This section is favored, as far as climatic conditions are concerned, far more than many other sections. However, the damp conditions, due to being near a large body of water, makes the growth of fungus diseases one of the greatest obstacles to be overcome in growing apples. Especially, are these fungus diseases difficult to control, if the apple trees are planted on land that holds moisture readily, or in a locality that does not have good air drainage. Apple trees, and apples grow so readily in this section, that it has been noted for the very little intelligent study that the growers have given their orchards in the past. But in recent years, when the apples of much better anpearance commenced to pour into our Eastern Markets from the Pacific Coast and take our markets away from us. we began to wake up and give these orchards more intelligent care. We have found that we can grow just as fine apples in appearance as the other sections, and very few can equal the flavor of apples grown along the south shore of Lake Ontario. The better growers are learning how to keep the apples free from insect injury and fungus growths, how to keep the size of the apples largely between two and one half to three inches in diameter, which are the most desirable sizes for marketing. Also, how to increase the color on the colored varieties. How to read the trees' language, when they are trying to tell us what ingredients they lack for a balanced ration and when they have too much of any kind of food. It is a noted fact that it requires stiff competition to obtain the best results in any manufacturing concern. The same conditions apply to apple growing. So this section while realizing its naturally favorable conditions, also realizes that other sections are outselling them, even in the nearby markets. One of the weakest points, in marketing Western New York apples, has been the way most of the annles have been packed. All sizes, from two and one-quarter inches to three inches in diameter going into the same barrel. The largest apples being on the ends of the package and the middle containing the smaller and imPerfect apples. Through the influence of some of the leading growers a grading law was passed in New York State, requiring all apples which are packed in closed packages to be marked on the head end with the minimum size and the grade, and the name and address of the packer. To size these apples to every one fourth of an inch in diameter by hand was a tedious job and required help with an accurate eye to make any speed, so grading machines have been devised that will size the apples more accurately than any one can by hand. and deliver each size into pockets. Thus lowering the labor cost of packing and still conforming with the law. These machines have been improved as necessity demanded, until now some of them will handle one hundred to two hundred bushels ner hour, delivering the apples into pockets, perfectly sized without bruising, ready to be run into barrels; sorting out the imperfect apples by hand. This has raised the standard pack of New York apples, so that now we do not fear the competition of the Pacific Coast as we look into the future, laying plans for our boys to continue and develop the business that our fathers started and that we have developed to its present status. Page Four By B. 7. CASE The development in cold storage plants has eliminated a lot of loss in holding apples for later use. Thus extending the marketing season to practically the whole year. The Cooperative Packing and Marketing Associations have helped materially in raising the average grade, and extending the shipments to cities and towns that have never before enjoyed a steady supply of good eating and cooking apples. If the distribution of apples ever attains the efficiency that marketing oranges and bananas now has, so that we could furnish one apple per day in some form to every man, woman and child in the United States, every day in the year, it would require one hundred million barrels, or nearly double the apples ever produced in one year in this country WHAT CALIFORNIA LEARNED IN FLORIDA Bill Nye once said that the only way to ascertain a thing was "find out about it." This observation is not as silly as it seems for we listen to rumor and hearsay, we speculate, guess and surmise and form conclusions that a little investigation might dispel. Too many opinions formed in this way become fixtures of belief. A good proof of this fact is the exchange visits of the Florida and California citrus growers. From these trips, they learned a lot about each other and "unlearned" a lot more. One California visitor who recently returned from Florida very frankly confessed this. "In Florida we have a real competitor for the citrus industry of the United States," declared C. E. Utt, a prominent Southern California orange grower, who was the principal speaker at a recent meeting of the El Modena and Villa Park farm centers, at Orange. He prophesied a possible exchange or at least an improvement in the method of handling Southern California citrus fruits and a possible delay in the opening of the Valencia orange season. "Florida fruit is gaining favor with the consuming public," said Mr. Utt, "and in some parts of the country, California oranges, in comparing them with those from Florida, are characterized as sour and tasteless. Here in California of course. we believe differently but the fact remains that both are in favor with the consuming public, with a small difference as to choice." That is quite a concession for a Californian, especially an orange grower. When asked if he believed that the Florida citrus fruits will seriously damage the sale of the California product, Mr. Utt said. "I do not believe Florida will drive us out of the citrus business, but I do believe she will drive us to improvement in our methods of packing and shipping. and especially in selecting better grade fruit for shipment. Her increased plantings of Velancias will probably result in delaying the opening of the shipping season on that variety here. Florida's strides toward market supremacy have been remarkable in the past few years and they. are planting ten acres to our one in citrus fruits, especially grapefruit and Valencia oranges." Mr. Utt concluded his talk by presenting some figures as to the cost of citrus culture in Florida as compared with California, as well as packing costs, and stressed the point that notwithstanding California's supremacy in the field at the present time, she should not be caught "napping" but straightway mend her ways, especially as to grading and packing standards. Lettuce shipments this year from the Salt River Valle of Arizona totalled 531,000 crates, as compared with 155,000 crates the season of 1921. The quality has been very good. The Arizona lettuce crop moves during the winter and early spring and cutting this year was made from an estimated total of 1450 acres. The principal growing districts are around Phoenix, in the Salt River Valley and near Yuma, in the Yuma Valley.

PAGE 5

National Pecan Growers Exchange, Albany, Georgia By WM. T. BULLA'RD, President A few years ago a joint committee to organize a co-operative marketing association was appointed by the Georgia-Florida Pecan Growers Association, these being the two leading organizations which meet once a year to discuss cultural, varietal and other problems relating to the growing of pecans. The National Pecan Growers Exchange was a result of the work of that joint committee and we have been functioning as a purely cooperative marketing association on the California plan for nearly five years. Before we began business I made a trip to California to investigate all those successful cooperative associations in the walnut, almond, citrus fruit, raisins, peaches and other industries, and we have planned our business along their lines; in fact, we are going as closely along the plan of the tremendously successful California Walnut Growers Association as the small difference in our problems will permit. The Exchange has been very successful and is making converts every day. Dealers all wait for the opening prices of the Exchange which is around October 1st when the tonnage of our crop can be determined. Similar to the California Walnut Growers Association, the National Pecan Growers Exchange proposes to work through locals or sub-Exchanges and it fostered the development of the Albany District Pecan Exchange which is the local or sub-Exchange for Albany and tributary territory. This local Exchange cures, grades, classifies and packs for the National to sell. All sales and collections are made through the National and its policy is to sell to the wholesale trade through the resident brokers just as walnuts and almonds are sold. The National is striving all the time toopen up new markets and has made several shipments to Canada and one to London. The Albany District Pecan Exchange has been handicapped for room and facilities in which to handle nuts but through the efforts of the National Exchange capital was interested and new property bought and a fine building erected, the total worth of which is $50,000.00. The local Exchange thus equipped will be able to handle a carload per day during the rush of the harvest. A new style grading machine has been perfected, patented and put in operation that is far superior to anything in use. It is our aim to be up-to-date in every way and a cracking plant of large proportions will be gradually built up in the Albany plant. The growers will require in the future a large cracking plant of their own to take care of the seedlings and off grade nuts. With the large plant at Albany we will be able to take care of nuts grown within a radius of two hundred miles from Albany for the next few years and the beautiful new property which is 95x169 feet on one of the principal corners in Albany with a private railroad siding holding two cars, has room in which to expand and build up one of the largest pecan handling units in the United States. The National Exchange is entirely democratic throughout and its Board of Directors made up from various sections where the nuts come from. The motto of the Exchange is that it stands for principles and not for individuals or localities, and it is not dominated by any one man or clique of men, but is, as above said, wholly democratic throughout with only one vote to each grower whether big or little. The success of the Exchange is evidenced by the above described building developments of the Albany District Pecan Exchange. People often ask if there is anything in the pecan business and a look into our fine property is an answer to that question. Although there are many different varieties of pecans yet the Exchange sells few under their individual variety name. To sell all nuts by individual variety would complicate and confuse and therefore in order to eliminate and simplify an unnecessary list of offerings the Exchange has adopted a brand method briefly. described as follows: Each variety is first graded separately into No. 1 and No. 2 and crackers and put in separate bins. When shipping we assort or blend in one package all No. 1 size and quality nuts of the various varieties that are of common grade, class, character and quality and which would sell for practically the same price when offered as single varieties. The package thus assorted or blended is sold under the name of Apex brand. The No. 2 in size and quality of these same varieties is sold under the name of Junior Brand. The Schley variety which is in a class by itself and sells for a much higher price is not blended with others but is sold alone under the name of Queen Brand. This method not only simplifies the selling problem but avoids the difficulty of filling orders for individual varieties when that variety fails as is often the case. Furthermore, our Brands are registered and when we build up a market for them it cannot be taken away by Tom, Dick and Harry which would be the case if we built up markets for the individual varieties. In other words, the Exchange is operating on behalf of itself and its members and not building up a market for independent operators to take advantage of. The National Exchange is a pure growers' coperative marketing association without capital stock and not for profit and is operating within both State and National laws. Growers are admitted to membership through a five-year Marketing Agreement similar to all other modern cooperative marketing associations. The National does not confine its operations to Georgia but has many members in Florida and Alabama and some in other states. It is the purpose of the National to extend its operations to every pecan growing section in the United States and establish local or sub-Exchanges in the several growing localities as soon as the production in each will justify, centralizing the production of all of them under the one marketing head. Youtelurn Where the moonshine comes from is a secret still. -r I __ Packing Plant of Albany District Pecan Exchange, Sub-Exchange for the Albany Section of the National Pecan Growers Exchange, at Albany, Georgia Page Five I

PAGE 6

Skwzer PRckng Howe News Exhibition of fancy berries and cherries at the Berry Festival held at Newberg, Oregon. The different varieties were grown by Mrs. S. E. Brown, and the pack includes raspberries, black caps, and cherries. SEE NEED OF BETTER GRADING (By Robert S. Merrill) Conditions among growers and marketers of fruit in some parts of Canada have reached a crisis, especially where they relate to attempts to capture and hold business in the United States in competition with United States growers. "Co-operative marketing among fruit growers in Ontario has not been found the success it deserved to be, by any means," says The Saturday Night, a general weekly of Toronto. "This idea found expression at a recent meeting at Guelph Agricultural College, which was devoted largely to the discussion of this question among the members of the Niagara Fruit Growers, Ltd. J. B. Fairbain, an Ontario fruit grower and a member of the company, pointed out that while the Niagara Growers, Ltd., had not gone into liquidation but would probably be reorganized, it was none the less plain that the company had not received the loyal support of its members. 'Many of its members,' he said, 'proved disloyal and some of them dishonest.' "Pledged to delivery to the company, members had sold to outside agencies. Some members had delivered inferior fruits and vegetables to the company while selling their best products elsewhere. "Niagara Fruit Growers, Ltd., had gone to the trouble and expense of opening up the Chicago market to Canadian products, but when the first carload reached that city it was found to consist of immature peaches, small and green, and that the shipper, according to Mr. Fairbain, was a director of the company. The second Chicago shipment proved good, but the third was as bad as the first. Page Six "Of course this sort of thing is just plainly dishonest but the pity is that it does not only react against people who would resort to sharp practice, they deserve what they get, but against farmers and fruit growers generally and incidentally give Canadian fruits in foreign markets a black eye." The co-operative movement has been the salvation of the apple industry in Nova Scotia, and while progress has been made the industry is far from where it should be, according to President G. H. Vroom of the Nova Scotia Fruit Growers' Association, when it met at Middleton, N. S. He spoke of two conditions prevailing in the section known as the Annapolis Valley-insufficient care in picking in the orchard and packing in the fruit houses and the packing and shipping of low grade fruit which barely got through marked No. 3, and spoiled the sale of better stock. He urged putting the fruit on the market in the best condition possible and the most attractive package possible. "It would pay large dealers to follow their fruit to the market," he said, "just to see how it turned out when it was exposed for sale as compared with fruit produced in the other sections of Canada and the United States." The careful handling of apples was also the subject of Professor Blair of the Experimental Farm at Kentville, who told the Nova Scotia growers that fruit should not be dropped in baskets, as the jolt resulted in bruises. In British Columbia the growers of fruits and vegetables are showing a decided tendency to get together on marketing, the inclination taking the form of some sort of central control in shipping. The last two years have been disastrous financially to many growers in the Okanagan Valley and kak:a RIF U. other districts. A survey of conditions in Canadian markets, among growers and even among housewives showed that the chief evil was lack of stabilization in the apple market. Nobody cared to buy, to any extent last year, because "apple wars" were waging and there was always the probability of a cheaper price the next day. There are 3,300 commercial orchards in the Okanagan Valley, which contain about a million apple trees in addition to other fruits. There are sixty co-operative packing houses, so the interests at stake are considerable. Convicts Use Packing Machinery Sorting apples by machinery and packing methods on a ranch near Canon City, Col., under lease to the Colorado State Penitentiary has attracted considerable attention to pro. gressive methods in that state. A reporter who visited the Mountain View Ranch and saw about forty convicts packing apples in accordance with the requirements of the Northwest or Oregon pack, found it interesting. "This is the only orchard in the district following the provisions of the Northwest pack. Every apple is sorted by the machine to size and weight and is wrapped in tissue paper as it goes into the box. Winesaps were being sorted and boxed as 'fancy' and 'extra fancy,' the two classifications being deposited by a carrier belt on opposite sides of the machine. "Under this system of sorting and packing it is known exactly how many apples will go into each box and the number is marked on the box before the fruit is placed in it. The number ranges from 100 to 160, or even more in some cases, according to the division from which they are taken from the compartments of the sorting niachine. About 300 boxes a day, or half a carload, are packed each day." It was estimated this ranch would produce between 10,000 and 12,000 boxes of apples of all sorts, including the summer varieties. Winter varieties are principally Jonathans, Winesaps and Ganos. Chicago Shipments $90,000,000 The status of Chicago as a fruit and vegetable center is shown by the fact that about 85,000 carloads were handled there in 1922, an increase of 10,000 over the previous year. These shipments were valued at $90,000,000, an increase of $15,000,000 o0r 1921. However, there was practically no gain in fruit, about 30,000 cars being handled each year. In potatoes 18,000 cars or 1,500 cars less than in 1921,-were handled. The car shortage in season was a factor in lessening the arrivals.

PAGE 7

Marketing Future Florida Citrus Crops The Bugaboo of Overproduction Paper Read by J. C. Case of Jacksonville, at dYCeeting of Florida State Horticultural Society, at What the future has in store for us is a most fascinating subject for speculative fancy. It is the part of wisdom to consider the future as it may affect the marketing of the coming crops of Florida citrus fruits. None of us are able to surely penetrate the conditions of next year, to say nothing of the next decade. What more distant seasons have laid up for us involves so much imagination and speculation that it need cause no loss of sleep. A variety of elements enter into the proper consideration of this subject of marketing future crops of Florida citrus fruit and the bugaboo of overproduction. The principal factors in producing and marketing all perishable products are supply, demand, and weather conditions, and frequently weather is the controlling one, as weather conditions affect both supply and demand. Climatic conditions in the producing territory increase or diminish supplies and in the markets favorable weather stimulates a demand while unfavorable weather hinders distribution and frequently turns a limited quantity into an oversupply. The distribution that is of real service to the producers is the one that makes proper surveys as to the normal maximum and minimum per capita consumption of the whole country and the normal consumption during each part of the season. Such a marketing agency is then competent to advise growers with some degree of accuracy as to what things or conditions influence an increase or decrease in that normal consumption, such as crops of competitive fruits, competitive food, changes in buying power due to fluctuations of prosperity of consumers. Demand for the products often affects values to a greater extent than an increase or decrease in the supply and is always a vital factor in controlling values. It is impractical and would be a violation of both law and moral rights for producers to combine to control and regulate production or acreage. The Providence of God only may and should regulate the size of crops. Consuming demand is regulated by weather conditions, competitive fruits, interest of dealers, such as jobbers and retailers or the energy with which these dealers display and push the sale of the product. The dealers' interests can best be secured by a stable market, which reduces the chance of loss from market fluctuations and by honest and attractive pack of healthy, sound fruit. Stability of market can be secured by so regulating shipments as to approximately fit the supply to demand. Supply can always be closely estimated by the use of intelligent effort, but the prospective demand can only be based on what is the natural, normal demand and by then deducting or adding the effect of other influences such as advertising, supply and value of competitive foods, trade sentiment and abnormal weather. Weather cannot be predicted but an intelligent study of the other items is always important. Unquestionably the Volstead Act has greatly increased the normal consumption of fruit as it has increased the demand for all luxuries and for better homes. The enormous amount of money spent for liquor, especially by the great middle class now goes for the better things of life. Some competent authorities estimate that the nornlal consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables has been creased from 20 per cent to 30 per cent by the Volead Act. The maximum of normal consumption of Florida citrs fruits will not be known or passed until such a time asWe cannot sell our whole crop of good fruit at a The crying need now is for growers and distributors to "regfize the fact that consumers want only good, sound it of the best and most palatable varieties. Quality Orlando, Fla., April T8, 1923 starts at the tree. It behooves the Florida citrus growers to utilize agencies placed at their disposal by the State and Federal Departments of Agriculture in controlling and overcoming diseases to tree and fruit. Consumers have become such habitual users of fruits that they are educating themselves as to the quality of fruit and more and more will they discriminate on quality. They will refuse to buy or eat diseased or unsound fruits, and dealers will then rightly refuse to handle it. They will not eat immature or unappetizing fruit. The consumer today is rapidly learning what to buy and what to leave alone. When growers learn to grow only good eating and undiseased fruit, and packers and distributors learn not to handle fruit known to be fruit of poor carrying quality, and try to represent it as good stock, a great advance will be made. It is important that growers remember many consumers buy by the eye making it necessary to produce fruit of good appearance. Unhampered transportation, combined with equitable freight rates, are imperative. Well-equipped railroads everywhere that can insure rapid transit of our fruits to all markets, are vital to the certainty of its proper distribution. The whole future prosperity of the Florida citrus industry is dependent on the ability of railroads to render good services. Good transportation service to perishable products begins with equipment, and equipment means cars especially constructed to give proper carriage either under ventilation or refrigeration to the product with which it is loaded. Equitable freight rates, lower and adapted to give wider distribution to Florida citrus products, are necessary to the successful marketing of our rapidly increasing volume. Nothing would tend quicker to stem the tide of adverse criticism than immediate and voluntary action on the part of transportation companies in meeting and cooperating with growers and distributors in solving some of the problems that are essential to the prosperity of all. A bugaboo is defined as anything imaginary-to excite needless fear. The object of this paper is not to ring an alarm bell or cry wolf, but to look facts fairly in the face. The cry of overproduction met the writer forty years ago when he first came to Florida, and was killed by the freeze of 1894-95 and succeeding cold winters. The bugaboo of overproduction met the writer in California in 1896 and is still there-and has come to life again in Florida. However, in spite of constantly increasing production the past few years will go on record as prosperous to average growers. We must expect lean as well as fat seasons, bending our efforts always to the production of a fine grade fruit of the varieties commanding the highest prices and occupy a place out of reach of any bugaboo. According to the Department of Agriculture of California, the newly organized Motor Ship Corporation of California will commence transporting fresh fruits through the Panama Canal this fall, the company having recently received a permit to begin operations from the State corporation commissioner. The company announces its intention to establish terminals at Wilmington, California and Oakland, and that only latest methods of cooling and handling fruit and vegetables will be used on their ships. Arica province, Chile, is fast developing a considerable export trade in oranges. There are many packing houses in operation, and 2,228 fruit bearing orange trees in Arica province. The annual packing house output is estimated at from five to six million oranges. Page Seven

PAGE 8

Meeting of Florida State Horticultural Society Held in Orlando, Florida, April 17-19, 1923 By '. L. WJNTOJVQ Upon yours truly has been wished the task of writing up the Thirty-sixth Annual Meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society. This would be a pleasure indeed had I the whole magazine to cover it in, because the sessions of the recent meeting were replete with good things, many interesting and prominent men and women were in attendance, and the papers and discussions offered much opportunity for comment. But being confined inside the borders of one page I can only touch the high spots. This being a nut number, being asked to write of the Florida Horticultural Society in a few paragraphs, I contend, is the hardest nut of all to crack. But here goes. The sessions of the meeting, with one exception, were held in the Grand Theatre, and were all well attended in spite of the fact that the membership is not as large this year as it has been in others. This because printed publicity was depended upon for securing additional memberships this year instead of the usual custom of securing them by personal solicitation. Throughout the entire meeting interest in the papers and discussions was intense and it was exceedingly evident that a great many people attended the meeting with the idea of getting all the information possible out of it. The meeting was opened on April 17, at 8:15 p. m. President L. B. Skinner in his opening address touched on many matters of importance to horticulturists in this state, laying stress on the prospects for the development of the avocado industry in Florida, and advocating a Palm Week, during which Floridians would plant anywhere from ten thousand to one hundred thousand palms. This opening meeting was devoted principally to state, highway and home beautification, and the papers were received with an .enthusiasm which showed that those present were in favor of all the beautification possible. Karl Lehmann both entertained and enthused in his characteristic style of address on "Beautifying the Highways," and Dean Alvord gave some very valuable suggestions from his own experiences in "Improving the Home Grounds." If the enthusiasm shown at this meeting would get behind all the suggestions offered then Florida would shortly become the most attractive place in the world. The first session on April 18 was devoted to propagation methods for citrus and other plants and to grapefruit canning. T. Ralph Robinson of Washington, D. C., gave some reasons for the importance of safe-guarding citrus importations by improved quarantine propagation. John H. Jeffries of the branch Experiment Station at Lake Alfred, gave an interesting talk on "Citrus Propagation Methods." Particularly interesting in connection with this talk were some small citrus trees which had been propagated from cuttings and which were handed around for inspection. A paper that perhaps attracted more attention and discussion than any other one at the meeting was "A New Method for Budding and Grafting Old Citrus and Other Sub-Tropical Trees," by John W. Barney of Palma Sola. Mr. Barney had a convincing exhibit on hand of his work with this method. He explained that the main value of the method was in bringing non-bearing trees into bearing ones in the shortest space of time possible. One of the most interesting and valuable talks of the entire meeting was made during this morning by Dr. David Fairchild, Agricultural Explorer in Charge of the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction of the Federal Department of Agriculture. Dr. Fairchild told of the plans for the development of the new plant introduction gardens at Chapman Field and the removal of the gardens from their present location on Brickell Avenue, Miami. Chapman Field is located near Miami, is 900 acres in extent, and was used as an aviation training field during the war. Dr. Fairchild explained that it is ideally located in many respects for the work to be carried on. Dr. Fairchild also spoke of the value and importance of the plant introduction work the Government is carrying on, to the horticulturists of Florida and mentioned the great future Page Eight there might be in this state for varieties of fruits and trees and shrubs that we know little or nothing of at present. Much interest was shown in Mr. Seth Walker's paper on "Canning Grapefruit" and in the discussion which followed. The keynote of this discussion seemed to be that canning grapefruit is both practical and comparatively simple, and that Florida can do with its surplus grapefruit what Hawaii has done with her pineapples. Two sessions were held during the afternoon of April 18. One in the Grand Theatre was devoted mainly to avocado, banana and pineapple culture. That these fruits are to play an important part in the future horticultural industry of the state was evidenced by the experiences of the speakers and the interest shown by those attending. Several bunches of Florida grown bananas were exhibited, Interest was very keen in the Grape Program held in the Chamber of Commerce building. Papers were given on the insects and diseases of grapes, cultural methods for Florida and the experiences of growers in this state. It appeared that there were many insect and disease pests to trouble grapes in Florida but that the folks at Gainesville are on the job with methods of control. That grapes are being grown successfully in Florida from a commercial standpoint was shown by the experiences of several growers. This session was completed by a trip to the vineyards of Dr. Phillips at Compton, near Orlando. This proved an instructive object lesson of the progress made in grape culture in this state. The meeting at 8:15 Wednesday was given over to marketing, shipping and packing house problems. Mr. J. C. Chase of Jacksonville explained how unnecessary it was to worry about over-production of citrus. Mr. C. H. Walker of Bartow told of the amazing development of the Citrus Industry, and Mr. H. G. Gumprecht discussed the problem of preventing decay in citrus fruits. The morning program of April 19 was a miscellaneous one, in which a great deal of interest was shown by a full attendance. Dr. 0. F. Burger of Gainesville spoke of the control of melanose, J. R. Winston of the Department of of Agriculture gave a preliminary report on the use of gas for controlling stein end rot in citrus fruits, W. R. Barger of Washington discussed the coloring of citrus fruits. A rather amusing feature of this part of the program was the discussion which followed. Stem end rot and melanose have some connection and coloring a connection with the use of gas. A volley of questions fired at the three speakers were referred from one to the other, as each was afraid of treading on the others' field. Three papers on fertilizers wound up this session. Perhaps the most interesting was the discussion of the relative values of raw and treated phosphates by R. W. Ruprecht of Gainesville. Citrus fruit quality and Satsumaland held the attention of the audience during the afternoon session of April 19th. The talks on citrus quality and citrus quality as related to stocks attracted lots of attention, but quite the feature of this part of the meeting was the talk of the Satuma country in West Florida popularly known as Satsumaland. The talks by Win. L. Wilson and others on the development of the citrus industry in West Florida and the growing of Satsumas for quality and cold resistance were received with exceeding interest, showing very plainly the co-operative spirit which exists between West and South Forida. It was very evident that Satsumaland is to play a very Inportant part in the future of the Florida Citrus IndustYIt was decided at the evening meeting to adjourn that night as one or two of the speakers were not present. The meeting was longer than usual and many subjects Were covered. A discussion of the relative merits of sprayllg and dusting for insects was an important part of the program. Mr. W. W. Yothers of the Department of Agriculture gave a paper on the present status of spraying and dusting for the control of insects and H. E. Stevens (Continued on Page 31)

PAGE 9

Skiner PVckig HoqSeNews / TEXAS NEWS The Valley Product and Cold Storage Co., Inc., of Harlingen, Texas, has incorporated with a capital stock of $15 000. The following are listed as incorporators: R. H. Cameron, 0. W. Jones and H. F. Shaper. The shipping of spinach is in full swing in the state of Texas, in the sections where it is grown. Laredo, Texas, has shipped slightly more than 600 cars of spinach this season, and it is expected a total of 800 cars will be reached. To date 25 carloads of onions have been shipped but in a short time special trainloads of onions will be moving out of Laredo. Total spinach shipments for Texas for the season were 1909 cars, April 11th. E. E. Conklin, supervisor of inspection, Bureau of Markets of the Federal Department of Agriculture of the state of Texas with headquarters at Austin, Texas, left recently on a personal inspection of crop conditions at Crystal City and Laredo, Texas, with a view to establishing a joint Federal and State shipping point inspection at the two cities named. The annual meeting of the Lower Rio Grande Citrus Exchange, scheduled to meet at Harlingen on April 12th, was postponed until the 26th. An informal meeting was held the 12th of April. Several jobbers and distributors, who handled Valley fruit the past season were present and gave interesting talks on the methods of packing and marketing citrus fruit. All emphasized the quality of the grapefruit raised in the Rio Grande valley, but advised spraying, and more spraying to improve the appearance, as they were compelled to sell the eye instead of the palate. They agreed that the section that was most particular about the spraying, would be the one that produced the best looking fruit. S0,00 I O,oo if T T E -!J--! [1 11 -A i.A +1~IYI _1 4144 1 Ti1 I vi7 The Exchange will either build, or have built for them, several new packing plants at various points in the valley, during the summer, as it is estimated that the production from this field will run between 500 and 700 car loads, next season. Dr. Youngblood of A. & M. College is in the Rio Grande Valley, deciding on a site for an experiment station, for which an appropriation of $50,000 was made by the last Texas legislature. Dr. Youngblood has with him, experts on soil analysis, and water engineers who will aid him in selecting a site. The station will be located somewhere on the irrigated land of Hidalgo or Cameron county. He stated plainly at a meeting of the Citrus Exchange at Harlingen on April 12th that this station would be located without any reference to poltics, and that the analysis of the soil the amount of water available, and the price of the sites proposed by the various communities, were the only factors that would be considered. He said that they expected to use all the scientific knowledge at their command in this work. With the dredging for a deep sea harbor at Point Isabel on the Gulf, rapidly going on, and the granting of a charter by the secretary of state to the San Antonio and Mexican Railway Co., for a road to the Valley, it begins to look as if some of the dreams for the Rio Grande Valley are about to be realized. The charter mentioned above is for a road from Three Rivers in Live Oak county to Miranda on the Mexican border. A branch from La Salle county to Laredo is also proposed. The San Antonio and Rio Grand Traction line also proposes to build from San Antonio to Point Isabel, giving not only another railway to the M a0 -N' MI + ) .9r0 00 A0 0 0 6 00 c' 0 0 00 Valley but San Antonio a seaport right at her door. With these two lines proposing to build roads, and the work already begun on the harbor there doesn't seem much doubt that the Valley will soon have three commercial outlets instead of one. Urge Spinach Buyers to Activity Through circulars issued by the Booth Packing Company of Baltimore, Md., the company is urging buyers to action. They say: "Buyers are no doubt familiar with the spinach situation in California. We dare say they have been told that the spinach crop there is seriously short, on which account the pack of spinach there will be greatly reduced. California and Maryland pack nearly all of the spinach this country produces. In Maryland the season is late, on which account it will be short and it is feared that the pack here will be very light." Governor Vetoes Marketing Bill Governor McCray of Indiana has vetoed the co-operative marketing bill which was recently passed by both houses of the Indiana legislature. In a statement published in Indianapolis papers, the governor gives his objections to the bill and offers to co-operate with the Farm Bureau Federation in the preparation of a bill which will eliminate the objectionable features. The bil, among other provisions, authorized associations to borrow money without limitation as to the amount of corporate indebtedness. This the governor considered unsound. It also provided for an injunction against a member violating his contract and penalties for soliciting or inducing a member to breach his contract. The governor considered these provisions to be violations of State and Federal constitutional guaranties. 00 ~-LI: I2-F dFI l m4-" 4-i4 _11 Ii IT It l+1 l~l+~+-I Tiz I: 1rhI I-:211 F -Id 8J N. I IiiL T _T Al 1 11 _f rFT RI11T IN W-,--1 1111-Iii --r il W ~ii1~ TkI 1 Hfli 112:1hlWWI 4111 R-[{I'L2m:I" ,iiIzf 'TL ~i I'I ~-11 i~T TT California Citrus Production-Includes All Varieties Page Nine URN 11 11 1 F' + t [ i4 f1,-,5T1:F iw fl:kih-plit, E HA _V NA -FTTI 1 -[1 0k, R 101 IS[ 4 V111 ftl mm "OR LS ii T T Iff HI TT H 1 +1 71 jl 7 _w -11 1-1-k [11 Iti-ti-1-1 11-1 At W N 14k 1 -I J k _; I FRIRMIFTU :1 IT -I IT

PAGE 10

Making Millions From Squirrel Food By JOHN B. W4LLACE The nut has long been the butt of the jokesmiths but it is no joke to hundreds of persons in California where the returns from its sale run into the millions annually. While, owing to the diversity of climate, nearly all varieties of nuts can be grown in the state only two are grown on a commercial scale. These are walnuts and almonds. Of the two the walnut industry is the larger and the more firmly established, the proportion of nuts annually produced being in a ratio of about five pounds to one. Both are rapidly growing, however, and with an adequate tariff on European nuts the almond industry is in line for a pronounced boom. The walnut industry owes its tremendous growth and dominant position in trade circles to the same kind of men, and in some instances the very same men, as those who put the citrus industry of California upon such a high plane of efficiency in packing and marketing. It is believed that the first cuttings of the English walnut were planted in California by the Mission fathers during the latter part of the preceding century but it was not until the influx of white settlers during the gold rush of 1849 that extensive plantings were made. From these first plantings the industry has grown to an acreage of 93,000 an investment value of more than one hundred millions of dollars and an annual production of fifty-five million pounds of nuts. The English walnut, as the California softshell walnut is generally called, is of Persian lineage. Its history goes back as far as authentic records are available and it undoubtedly was part of the flora of the world during the glacial age. The walnut is grown commercially in China, India, parts of southern Europe and the Pacific slope of the United States. It derived its name of the English walnut undoubtedly from its position in commerce between India and England as it is not grown commercially in England. While walnut culture is increasing in the states of Washington and Oregon and some walnuts are also grown in a few favored Eastern states California is the banner state in its production as it produces more than 95 per cent of the total crop grcwn in this country. The walnut as a commercial proposition has considerable advantages over the growing of citrus fruits even in Southern California. It does not require nearly as much cultivation and irrigation, it is less afflicted with insect pests, it blooms late and thus escapes frost danger and its crop can be held over for as long as a year without appreciable deterioration. The writer has grown both walnuts and naval oranges in the same locality and the walnuts over a period of five years averaged but ten cents a tree less in gross returns than the oranges. This ratio, however, would doubtless be altered in districts where climatic conditions would affect either the nuts or the fruit adversely. The walnut tree comes into bearing at the age of six years and bears more heavily each season thereafter indefinitely. Walnut trees in California more than fifty years old are still tremendous bearers and trees in Europe seveal centuries old are still bearing. Although walnuts had been planted in most parts of the state for some time it was not until fifty years ago when the Santa Barbara softshell and the French varieties were introduced that they began to become a commercial product and it was not until about twenty years ago that the industry began to attain any proportion. Its biggest and most rapid growth has been since 1914 when the California Walnut Growers' Association was organized. There are quite a number of varieties of the soft shell walnut the principal ones of commercial importance being the Placentia, the Ehrhardt, the Eureka, the Franquette, the Chase, the Concord, the Neff, the Prolific and the San Jose. The walnut harvest in California usually begins about the middle of September and lasts until the middle of November. The nuts grow inside of husks which split on the trees and allow their contents to fall to the ground. Those which do not fall readily are shaken from the trees by means of hooked poles and the husks removed by hand. A Page Ten certain proportion varying with the kind of weather en. countered during the growing season become afflicted with a bacterial disease known as blight which causes the husks to stick to the shell. Hot weather sometimes burns the nuts and causes what are known as perforated shells, These must be sorted out by the grower who also dries and cleans the nuts before they are taken to the packing house, where they are again sorted and resorted. The first marketing association for the purpose of pack. ing, grading and selling walnuts was organized in 1895 at Rivera, California. The example of these growers was soon followed and eight or ten associations sprang up in different parts of the state. The nuts were then marketed through brokers who received a six per cent comnmission on their sales. As a result of the competition between these brokers for the output of the several associations a great many inferior nuts were placed upon the market and California suffered in competition with foreign importations. Prices became very unsatisfactory and with no organized system of grading or distibution the walnut industry became hazardous and non-lucrative. This condition did not appeal to two young men, one of whom, Carlyle Thorpe, was manager of a walnut association at Santa Paula and the other, H. C. Sharp, was manager of the Saticoy Walnut Growers' Association, They resolved to market their crop direct to the wholesale trade and took steps to establish a high grade pack. Their success was so immediate and striking that in 1912 a number of associations, including their own, organized the California Walnut Growers' Association for the purpose of marketing their nuts along these same lines. The result of the formation of this association was astonishing. From an average price of 10.5 cents per pound that the growers had received for fourteen years previous to the organization of the California Walnut Growers' Association the price jumped during the next seven years to an average of 17.6 per pound and the total consumption of walnuts in the United States nearly doubled. The association started with a membership of but fifteen local packing houses controlling only 54 per cent of the crop of the state. Today it controls between eighty and ninety per cent of the total crop. The association fixes the prices of the nuts every fall and then guarantees its customers against a drop. It also guarantees the quality of the nuts fixing a cracking test of 88 per cent as its standard and it often exceeds its own guarantee. The standard for a nut to pass in order to be eligible to the Diamond Brand, the trademark under which the association packs its product is as follows: Its kernel must be plump and sound and not too dark in color, it cannot be mouldy, rancid or wormy and the shell must not be split, must have no outward blemish and must be of a clean bright color. To attain this standard a number of inspectors from the main association constantly test the product of the local packing houses. Thus before a Diamond Brand nut reaches the consumer it has been sorted by the grower, by the local packing houses and by the main association. The problem of culls was also met by the association. Formerly the culls had been sold to peddlers who put a few good nuts on top and then sold them as first grade. This injured the reputation of the California walnuts with the housewives who bought them. The Association established cracking plants, the largest at the main plant in Los Angeles and two others, one at Santa Ana and the other at Goleta, Calif. The culls are cracked by machinery and sorted by a force of some 600 girls. The pro duct is not only marketed to candy manufacturers and soda fountain supply houses but is also sold to wholesale and retail grocers packed in glass containers for homne use. Through its national advertising the association ha conducted a campaign of education to prove that the wa nut is not only a confection but a food and as a resultit has doubled the consumption and price of nuts that formerly were sold as culls within a period of seven years In addition to its national advertising the association publishes a monthly magazine, containing full information

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_2j~c ~ft A4 44z ASotatICarlyle Thorpe, manager of California Walnut Growers' Association. No. 2. Main building of the California Walnut Growers' double ,!iin Los Angeles, California. The executive offices and the cracking plant are located in this building. No. 3. These shells witho cracking machines crack 60,000 pounds of walnuts daily. They can be so delicately adjusted as to completely fracture the SatWitary cou inurg the meat, leaving it intact. Nos. 4 and 5. Two views of the sorting rooms, where 700 girls and women work under t Sord itions and-at a minimum wage of $16 per week, many earning double that amount.. No. 6. Vacuum capping machine where nuts after being cleaned by brushes and fans are sealed in to air-tight cans. Page Eleven Fs 15N

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1. P h o It 0graph2. View of at. $ 3 5 0,0 00 Ve o l shelling plant mond sorting at Sacramento, Cal-teelcan canifornia, cooper atively crt cel ant of owned by 3,00 Cal-crete central plant of ers who ae membes m chngebfr at rAe of the Caifornia Al-A and Growers' Ex-Calfornia.ce you can eat off the ~~ -loor." 3. Photograph of a young almond orchard whose fruit some day wdll find its way into the famous Blue Diamond Almond pools nlarketed by 3,000 California almond growers through their co-operative organization the California Almond Growers' Exchange. as to its transactions and any other news of interest to walnut growers, which it distributes to the individual members of the local associations. The association also maintains an agent in Europe who keeps it supplied with the latest news about the foreign crops with which California competes. This is a great aid to the association in fixing its prices and conducting its sales campaigns. The great value of the association as a marketing organization is shown by its ability to sell the product of the grower at an average cost of three per cent. The other commercial nut of California, the almond, is also marketing through an association of growers called the California Almond Growers' Exchange. This exchange has about 4,000 members and handles approximately 75 per cent of the total crop. The almond acreage in California is even larger than the walnut acreage comprising more than one hundred thousand acres. The average production per tree is much lighter, however, and much of this acreage is just coming into bearing. The capital investment is figured at around fifty million dollars and the annual production varies from twelve to fifteen million pounds of nuts. The headquarters of the California Almond Growers' Exchange is at San Francisco but its largest plant is at Sacramento in the heart of the almond growing district. This plant was erected at a cost of more than $300,000 and is the only one of its kind in the world. It is equipped with automatic machinery for shelling the nuts. The biggest business in almonds is in the shelled nuts and this business has for a long time been in the hands of importers of foreign nuts who owing to cheap labor in Europe and the favorable rate of exchange were able to undersell the California growers. However, it is believed that the recent tariff placed upon imported nuts will enable the local growers to recover a great deal of this trade and relieve a situation which for a time was nearly disastrous. The almond tree originated in Asia and is of very ancient lienage, its nuts being mentioned several times in the Bible. Its early history in California is very nebulous Page Twelve and it was not until recent years that it has grown to commercial importance. While the almond is grown in nearly all sections of California the greatest acreage is in the northern and central portions. It is cultivated in a similar manner to most deciduous fruits which it much resembles in appearance and habits. The blossom is of a pink shade and an almond orchard in full bloom is a beautiful sight. Owing to its early blossoming the almond frequenty suffers from late frosts and for that reason is not as reliable a crop maker as the walnut, which blooms after frost danger is usually past. Like most nuts it has an outer hull which is removed after picking by a specially constructed machine and the inner nut dried upon trays in the sun. The nuts are harvested by being shaken from the trees with long poles and then gathered from the canvas sheets placed under the trees to catch them. The unshelled nuts qre sorted in the packing houses and the others shelled by automatic machines. Unshelled nuts are usually bleached before sacking. The twelve leading commercial varieties of California grown almonds are the Drake, the Texas, the Golden State, the Ne Plus Ultra, the Nonpareil, the Peerless, the I. X. L., the Hardshell, the Lewelling, the Eureka, the Routier and the Jordan. Owing to the intense competition encountered from foreign nuts the almond growers have had rather hard sledding. Low prices to meet this competition fronl abroad where living standards and wages are so luch under ours and an occasional fost that cut down the croP have prevented the full measure of prosperity enjoyed by walnut and citrus growers but under more favorable tariff rates the industry is beginning to make great strides Under the Blue Diamond brand the members of the cOoperative marketing association known as the California Almond Growers' Exchange hope to be able to put the amond on the same plane as the English walnut. The fact that much of the land planted to almonds is not always suited to other purposes makes it an essential eco nomic factor in the prosperity of the state.

PAGE 13

T is self-evident that the been the campaign that every I nut industry is sorely in B costing N ut Sales pound was sold. need of efficient organizaTo ignore the individual tion. When nut growers consumer and to look upon and distributers wake up to How the Induistiy c59fay Increase Its Trofis consumption as a bulk enterthis fact and put their realBV 0 FOERSTER SCHULL. prise is a serious error that ization into material prac-modern distributors are taktice then, and only then, will ing steps to correct. It is they get maximum results from their labors. At present only recently that the yeast people are appreciating the there is little or no effort on their part to place the stamp profit that may be had from the comparatively small sale. of individuality upon their product. For instance, to the But if the reader scorns the idea of going so far afield majority of consumers, a pecan is a pecan, a filbert is a in our observations, we might consider a product which filbert and so on ad infinitum. The matter of quality is we reviewed in the preceding paragraph-raisins. Forpurely and simply a gamble. merly, anyone who might have suggested packing raisins Time was-and not so long ago, at that-when the fruit so that they could be sold in five-cent lots would have industry was operated on the same basis. A consumer been roundly criticized for his impractical suggestion. would walk into the establishment of a fruit dealer and The "experts" would have pointed out to him that the ask for, say, twenty-five cents' worth of oranges. Just desirable profits of any business are made in the large that! Nothing more. Oranges were simply oranges to sales. Still, with our late readjustment of business valhim. Does the same condition exist today? It does not. ues, the idea has been tried. Not only that, but it has Organization in the fruit industry has achieved far proved highly successful! Within five weeks after the different results. The nondescript product is slowly but advent of the five-cent package of raisins, orders amountsurely being pushed off the market. Today the brand ing to 333,000,000 packages, representing a retail value is equally as important to the immense body of retail of $16,500,000, poured in from all sections of the country buyers as the type of fruit. Type represents flavor. as an eloquent piece of evidence of its practicability. Brand represents quality. Moreover, the profit per pound was greater than if the This miracle is the result of organized emphasis on raisins had been sold in bulk lots-another important feaselection, packing and advertising. Selection, or grading, ture to consider. The flow of such trade alone is responis necessary not only to gain a reputation but to keep it sible for an annual sale of 32,000,000 pounds of raisins. as well. To win and retain the good will of the consumer Perhaps one of the greatest factors which have discoura uniform quality of product must be offered to him at aged the proper packing of nuts is the natural advantage all times. And uniformity can be achieved only by carethat the product has over other and more easily damaged ful grading. products. Careful packing is not demanded-the shells Packing, then, becomes the next essential. The necesproviding adequate protection against the usual type of sity of proper packing cannot be stressed too greatly. injury. While the railroads have been worrying over Without it, the natural product can never become mdistandard specifications for fruit and vegetable crates, so vidual and distinctive. Even with manufactured prodthat the commodities may be shipped with the minimum ucts which bear all the marks of the manufacturer's indiamount of injury, rates are published readily for edible viduality, weighty thought is given to the subject of packnuts packed in barrels, boxes, or crates-specifications ing. What then should be expected of the distributor unstated. A great deal of latitude is allowed the shipper is plainly handicapped by having a striking similarity to in this respect, not only by the railroads, but by exwho wishes to give a distinctive touch to his product which changes, commission merchants and dealers. The result the products of rival distributors? Efficient packing is is that shippers have taken advantage of this latitude by his only salvation. following the lines of the least resistance and forwarding It stands to reason that advertising is necessary for their product to all destinations in the least presentable wide distribution. How else could consumers beyond a form. restricted area know of the product? Here, again, disThis evident carelessness had militated against the tinctive packing serves the distributor to good stead. It T er srlcess bf tilitate ent e gives him a basis on which to signal out his product from greater success of the industry. While other enterprises the score of other similar products. Just as brand repare conceiving distinctive packs for their products, nut resents quality, distinctive packing serves as a house for shippers are content with any type of container so long brand; it enables the consumer to associate the product as it holds together until destination is reached. Little with the brand, or no organization has been sought from the marketing It is true, perhaps, that organized distribution has been end and, save in a few instances, chaos is one of the dompushing walnut sales for about eight years, but why infant notes of the trade. walnuts should be signalled out of all other nuts is beyond There is no enterprise that cannot stand expansion. If comprehension. And what organization has done for nut growers and dealers doubt the efficacy of organized walnuts, it can do for other types of nuts. Facts are distribution they have but to review its achievement for facts. California, it seems, realized the value of adverthe California orange industry to eliminate all such doubt. tising this particular product before other states. In In 1907 the orange growers of California banded together former years California supplied about 14,000,000 pounds to push their product to the utmost. The preceding year of the gross 37,000,000 pounds of walnuts consumed in had been a particularly unfortunate one from all angles this country. In 1915 that state realized that greater and the yearly average of about 10,300,000 boxes had results could be achieved with organized distribution and slumped to a figure below 9,000,000. Within two years immediately gave its attention towards effecting this aim. this figure had climbed to almost 14,000,000 boxesWithin six years the consumption of walnuts had climbed exceeding even the best of previous years before the to 87,000,000 pounds, of which California had supplied alarming slump in sales. The height of the achievement more than 41,600,000 pounds-an increase of over 10 per was reached in 1921, when more than 22,100,000 boxes cent of the gross sales. were sold at a profitable figure. Moreover, a reliable Organized distribution holds the portent for nuts as it market had been created for the enormous summer cropheld for raisins. There was a time when California proby introducing, to the soft drink places, modern equipduced 22,000,000 pounds of raisins in excess of the local ment to press the juice from the fruit before the cusconsumption That was in 1913 when the consumption towers' eyes for orangeade. of the United States was 110,000,000 and the production There are many more uses for nuts-more, if the truth of California was 132,000,000 pounds. Something had be told, than there are for fruit. Efficient organization, to be done with the surplus. It was up to the California alone, can bring these uses to the attention of the buying Fruit Growers' Exchange to create new uses in general public. The suggestion and explanation of new uses are for the product. They created this demand by advertissure to result in increased sales. Tasteful, distinctive Ing extensively the deliciousness and wholesomeness of packing will not only increase sales but will also increase raisin pie and bread, and, as an inducement to bakers, sales prices. The ultimate outcome will be a greater Placed a new package of the fruit on the market. Beprofit per pound for the grower and distributor. The teen 1913 and 1917 the sale increased beyond even their success that California has had with walnuts can be dupli20ectations In the latter year California produced cated with other nuts in the various producing states. M,000000 pounds of raisins-and so successful had Which will be the first to start the movement? Page Thirteen

PAGE 14

The Paper Shell Pecan Growers' Association of Putney, Georgia The Paper Shell Pecan G Georgia, is an organizatio pecan groves in the Alban pack and ship nuts from th nuts from other growers. is that they pack a geat pa vacuum in glass jars and ti to give a detailed illustra packing and shipping used meantime the following reg Growers' Association, taken the Albany (Ga.) Herald of interest: The Paper Shell Pecan headquarters at Putney, Dougherty county, markets the nuts from a large acreage in groves that are among the most productive in the Albany district. Last year the association sold over 300,000 pounds of pecans in the shell and 150,000 pounds in vacuum packed tins and glass jars. The cracking of nuts by this association and the marketing of carefully culled meats in vacuum packages was an enterprise born out of the problem already referred to-that of finding a market for low grade nuts. It is recognized, of course, that to market nuts of inferior grade in the shell is not desirable, particularly where it is to the growers' interest to maintain prices f o r standard grades. Just how the problem is being solved, and why its solution seemed important. is explained as follows by J. M. Patterson, president of the Paper Shell Pecan Growers' Association: "The cracking and packing in tins and in glass vacuum is a distinct advance step in the marketing of pecans. The Paper Shell Pecan Growers' Association is the first and only culti1. vated pecan marketing organization that has installed vacuum packing machines. These machines are expensive, as are the association buys by the "The 1921 crop of pecan duced, had a considerable p The poor quality pecans we rowers' Association of Putney, colors and have key openers. These Crown Brand pecan i owning a large acreage of meats have been sold in practically every state of the y district of Georgia. They Union. The Western and Pacific States, where little or eir own acreage and purchase nothing has been known of the cultivated pecan, have A feature of this organization been large buyers of these meats. rt of the crops they handle in "Large shipments have gone into Los Angeles Cal ns. We hope later to be able L C ted story of the methods of the home of the California Walnut Growers' Exchange, by this organization. In the "The Paper Shell Pecan Growers' Association has renarding the Paper Shell Pecan dered a distinct service to pecan growers in showing the from the editorial columns of way to dispose of low grade and surplus crops. There is October 20, 1922, will be of a year-'round market for the vacuum packed pecan meats. The vacuum pack preserves the sweetness indefinitely. Growers' Association, with They are convenient for the housewife, and the time is probably not far distant when every year mil. lions of pounds of pe. cans will be marketed in this way."' The association at Putney will buy many nuts in addition to its own crop this fall and winter, in order to be able to supply the demand for meats in cans and jars, The reception of these offerings by the public '-.has been most gratifying, and Mr. Patterson states that re-orders have poured in steadily and in increasing volume. And herein seems to be the solution of the whole marketing problem. Pecan meats packed in vacuum keep sweet and fresh indefinitely, A and when they reach the V consumer in that condition they are highly effective advertising agents for "the King of Nuts." It is hardly to Nbe doubted that this departure in pecan marketing, which opens up so auspiciously, will rapidly expand, and that vacuum packed meats will be found on the shelves of high -class grocery stores throughout the country. For wherever the pecan goes it stays. Its popularity is universal where it is known. Ten-year-old orchard of Paper Shell Pecan Growers' Association, Putney, A great deal of the Ga 2. J. M. Patterson. President Paper Shell Pecan Growers' Associasuccess of the Paper t on. 3 Paper shell pecan orchard at Dewitt, Ga. 4. Loading barrels of sr pecans for shipment from warehouse yard of Paper Shell Pecan Growers' Shell Pecan Growers Association. Association has been due to the care they use I1 also the tins and glass which handling and the attention given to details and grading carload. in packing pecans. Pecans occupy a very important s, while the largest ever proplace among the commodities of the country grown for er cent of low grade pecans. marketing and the work of handling them for sale an re largely the late harvested exceedingly important part of the business as a whole. nuts. When the association's officers became aware of this unusual per cent of low grade nuts, it immediately withdrew pecans in the shell from the market and proceeded, at the expense of many thousands of dollars, to install equipment for cracking and packing pecan meats in vacuum. The packages, glass and tin, are 'the last word' in containers. The tins are lithographed in four Page Fourteen IN THESE CRAZY DAYS The continuous dancing record held by a girl up to press time is 65 hours and 30 minutes. The record for pushing a broom without a stop, however, holds at 2 nunutes and 17 seconds.-The Packer.

PAGE 15

U Sizner R5,ckny~Houe News In the last issue of the Packing House News under the heading, "Why Risk Financial Loss?" we presented specifications of a standard celery crate, together with an illustration of the parts of this crate. The Manatee Crate Company of Manatee, Florida, one of the largest manufacturers of crate material in the South, has called our attention to the fact that they manufacture a standard celery crate of a different type, known as the: 4 One Wire Bound Celery Crate. We have asked them for an illustration of this crate and for the specifications, knowing that readers of the NEWS will be interested in having this information in addition to that given regarding celery crates last month. This crate has been used extensively by the Manatee County Growers' Association and they are very enthusiastic about its qualities. Upon request to this association for their opinion Of this type of crate the following information was given: "Beginning with the season of 1921, and continuously since that tunde, e have been using the wirebound crates and have experienced no tlo.le whatever on account of breakage in transit. As a matter of fact sice we began the use of these crates we have shipped a good many hundred thousand. of them, and have never had a claim made on us for breakage. whereas, prior to our beginning the use of these crates we were receiv-ng complaints on a very large proportion of our carload shipments, the breakage running from 1 to 50 crates in each car; a condition which showed it was not entirely the fault of the railroad companies in rough handling; but was quite largely the weakness of the package we were compelled to use, namely, what was generally known as the original veneer crate. You will readily see what a great satisfaction it is to us to feel that our products are being forwarded to markets in a package that is practically a guarantee of safe delivery so far as the package is responsible for such delivery. An illustration of the 4 One Wire Bound Celery Crate is shown on this page and the specifications follow: Commodities to be shipped in this container: Celery. 4-One-Wire bound crates must comply with the G2neral Specifications for 4-One boxes (July 15, 1920), and the following detailed specifications: Dimensions: 10x20x22 inches inside measure ents. Capacity: 4400 cubic inches. Thin Boards: 1-6 inch thick. Top Section: One slat 4 inches wide, placed in the middle of the top cleat, with 3 inches space on each side. Another Type of Celery Crate Bottom Section: Two slats, each 4 inches wide, spaced: (1) 1 inch space, (2) slats, (3) 1 inch space, (4) slats, (5) inch space. Side Section: Three slats, each 4 inches wide in each section, space between slats 4 inches. Ends: Solid or Slatted: Three slats 4 inches wide by 10 inches long. Two cleats 1 inches wide by 20 inches long. Slats fastened to cleats, spaced: (1) slats, (2) 4 inches spac2, (3) slats, (4) 4 inches space, (5) slats. Binding Wires: 4-15 gage, evenly spaced. NEWS FROM NEW YORK CITY MARKETS New York, April 25. The Southern Packing Company of Wilmington, N. C., according to an announcement made in this market, not having made satisfactory arrangements to purchase the property and plant of the Cape Fear Packing Company by March 20, the trustee in bankruptcy, E. K. Bryan, on April 30, at the courthouse of New Hanover county, sold at public auction to the highest bidder for cash all of the assets and effects of the Cape Fear Packing Company. * The Hills Brothers Company of this city has bought a large tract of land to the south of Busrah, Mesopotamia, on which dates will be cultivated by thoroughly modern methods. The date gardens are located on the Shatel-Arab, the river formed by the junction of the Tigris and the Euphrates, and the center of the date industry. The entrance of the Hills Brothers Company into the field of date producing marks a distinct step in the development of the date industry. * The Goldenripe Dehydrating Company of San Francisco, through their local brokers, J. M. McNiece & Co., have introduced into New York the Goldenripe dehydrated prune which has been successfully put on the market in Chicago and other Western cities. They are packed in one-pound cartons. James H. Healy, one of the wellknown figures of the produce trade, after an illness of seven weeks, died here on the 18th of April. He is survived by a widow and one son and was associated with J. H. Killough & Co. for twenty-five years, and when that firm discontinued business he organized a company of his own under his name at West street and Park Place. The business will be continued by a nephew who was associated in the business with him. (Continued on Page 32) Page Fifteen I

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Walnut Fruit Growers Operate Unique Combination Packing House Nineteen years ago a number of ranchers in California who had planted a few groves of oranges and walnuts in what was then the center of a strip of desert land suitable only for cattle pasture, met to decide what to do about marketing their product. They did not have enough of either oranges or walnuts to warrant building two houses so they decided to combine in one plant. They called their organization the Walnut Fruit Growers' Association. So well did this unique scheme work out that last summer the association completed the erection, at a cost of more than $70,000, of one of the most modern walnut and citrus packing plants in either industry. The navel season begins in January and is over by June, Valencias are handled during the summer months, and by October when the walnuts begin to come in the orange season is over. The walnuts, although in point of returns are much the more valuable crop, are packed and shipped in less than two months, so that by January the house is ready to begin on oranges again. The tonnage of walnuts handled by this house is only exceeded by one house, that at Puente, which is an exclusive walnut house, but the walnut h o u s e having been erected since the other, is more modern in equipm ent. The new house is 200 feet long and 145 feet wide. At the west end of the building is a 60-foot tower which : E. M. HENDE.(SoX houses the immense walnut bins. The offices are located at the east end with the big storage floors and orange packing machinery between. The basement, which extends under the entire building, is devoted to walnut machinery and storage purposes. The second floor over the offices is used for the women employees, embracing a rest room, cloak room and hospital room. A special feature is the big roof of sawtooth construction, consisting of vertical skylights so placed that the entire floor is lighted by north light, which is admittedly best to work by, owing to its steadiness and lack of direct sunshine. Fruit and walnuts are both received at the south side, which is protected by sliding doors as shown in the photos. On the north side is the railroad spur where the cars are loaded. The plant has a fruit capacity of six cars a day and could easily be enlarged to double that. The district is rapidly growing and new acreage is coming into bearing. The present acreage handled through the association is 2,300 acres of nuts and 925 acres of citrus fruits, consisting of navel and Valencia or anges, no lemons being grown in this district. The average orang mu *shipments are aroun 600 cars a year, whici imp-IAMM contrasts with a yearl shipment of 113 car seven years ago whet Manager James Wols 100 ZH RF7T. 7---~ No. 1. Exterior view of packing house of Walnut Fruit Growers' Association, showing where fruit and nuts are received. No. 2.t d terior view showing portion of main floor. To the left in front of the door is the cracking station where the nuts are tested. In the right middle ground are the scales where the nuts and fruit are weighed. In the background at the extreme left is shown the hopper where the nuts are dumped after being weighed and which conveys them to the basement. No. 3. Basement, showing shaker, blower and sorting table. The motor whica operates the suction blower is shown in the top center. The light nuts come out of the chute at left center. No. 4 Bins aid graders in the tower. The nuts arrive here from the top of the tower and are graded automatically into sizes. No. 5. Anotheview of main floor showing fruit packing machinery in immediate foreground. Note the fruit bo es stacked to the left surroun led by sacked walnuts. Page Sixteen 9 e

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tencroft assumed charge of the old house. To Manager Wolstencroft and Mr. F. M. Bishop, of Santa Ana, Calif., an expert on walnut equipment, who invented many of the new devices in use at this plant, is due the credit for its remarkable efficiency. The machinery for handling the citrus fruit is located in the northwestern corner of the building, as shown in the interior picture. It is similar to that installed in all modern houses. It is in the handling of nuts, however, that ingenuity in labor-saving devices is especially shown. The walnuts are received at the door shown in the picture. A cracker is stationed there and samples the product as each grower drives up to deliver. Nuts that do not crack 88 per cent are rejected and the grower must re-sort them himself. The accepted nuts are dumped into the hopper shown at the left of the interior photograph. Vibrating metal strips keep them in motion and prevent them from piling up until they pass into the suction blower located in the basement. This blower is operated by a small electric motor and sucks the nuts without kernels into a side chute. These empty shells are ground up and used to make charcoal. The blower also separates the light nuts from the good ones and these are sent to the cracking plant in Los Angeles. This machine is the invention of Mr. Bishop. It saves all the handwork in sorting and gives a more perfect separation. From the blower the nuts travel on to a grading table where girls pick out the "spots" and nuts that will not take the bleach well. The nuts from there go into the bleaching cylinders. The bleaching tanks in which these cylinders revolve are built of cement and contain a bleaching solution consisting of sulphuric acid, chloride of lime and monohydrate crystals. From the bleach the nuts are carried up into the tower by a perpendicular conveyor. There another group of girl sorters pick out the nuts injured or discolored in the bleach. The nuts then drop into revolving wire cages of different sized mesh which grades them for size. A long belt conveyor takes them through a chute at the top of the tower, where they are weighed and dumped into immense bins for drying before being re-sorted and sacked. The Walnut association has four grades, Fancy, Budded, Soft Shell No. One, Soft Shell No. Two, the grades in the soft shell nuts referring solely to size No. 1, being large, and No. 2 small. The new house has a capacity of 45 tons of nuts a day and in an average season will handle 900 tons. The combination packing house of the Walnut Fruit Growers' Association is located at the town of Walnut, which has a population of about 300, and is eight miles west of Pomona and twenty-five miles east of Los Angeles. APPLE PRODUCTION IN PENNSYLVANIA BY COUNTIES By JOHN P. GARHATCT Agricultural experts are of the opinion that the State of Washington has reached its peak in the production of apples and predict, when the census of 1930 is compiled, will show that it has fallen below the crops of Pennsylvania, New York and Virginia. If this forecast proves correct, then that section of Pennsylvania known as the Blue Ridge country, should become the center of apple production in the United States within the next twenty years. Of course, this depend largely upon the methods used by growers or Packing and marketing. It will also be necessary to remedy some of the present deficiencies in cultural Methods. The Blue Ridge district comprises the Cumberland and Shenandoah valley from Harrisburg to Staunton, Va., and takes in the neighboring Piedmont counties east of this section. Adam's county is the only Piedmont county that naturally belongs with the valley horticulturally, and includes portions of Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia. According to the 1920 census figures, the State of Washington advanced to second place in the number of trees, and in 1921 to first place in production. Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia have each continued to plant trees in a conservative manner. From 9,369,486 young trees set out in 1910, these states only dropped to 7,961,913 in 1920. The present rank in the number of bearing trees gives New York 9,636,698; Washington, 7,964,167; Virginia, 7,385,277; Pennsylvania, 6,981,128. The number of trees which have not yet reached a bearing age, the figures are New York, 2,932,281; Virginia, 2,857,007, and Pennsylvania, 2,603,516. The accompanying table shows the production of apples in Pennsylvania for the four census years, 1889, 1899, 1909 and 1919 by counties. This information was gathered by the Bureau of Statistics, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, early in October, 1922, and indicates that the total crop of apples in Pennsylvania for 1922 approximates 12,133,500 bushels. The production of apples in Pennsylvania by counties, as described above, are as follows: 1890 Bushels Adams -.............-------100,443 Allegheney -..------597,638 Armstrong ------------288,010 Beaver-----------------271,490 Bedford -----------237,416 Berks -.... -----------173,875 Blair ------------------82,479 Bradford ---------------83,671 Bucks ----------------283,294 Butler -----------------449,622 Cambria ...-------32,865 Cameron .....-----------6,312 Carbon ------------------10,920 Center ------------------85,976 Chester ---------------124,919 Clarion----------------90,170 Clearfield--------------39,306 Clinton -----------------27,364 Columbia--. ------------34,495 Crawford-------------164,632 Cumberland ------------73,989 Dauphin -----------82,554 Delaware --------16,667 Elk------..----------------3,502 Erie ------------------155,521 Fayette ---------------126,155 Forest ... ........... ..4,119 Franklin ... -----------186,881 Fulton ----------------134,832 Greene ----------------205,459 Huntingdon -------...... 134,468 Indiana----------------...161,074 Jefferson ..---------------43,333 Juniata ----------------59,083 Lackawanna ------------33,723 Lancaster --------------196274 Lawrence--------------190,746 Lebanon ..-------_ 92,162 Lehigh -----.. --------83,420 Luzerne-----------------... 42,289 Lycoming --------------111,481 MVcKean ------------------878 Mercer----------------....262,356 Mifflin------------------.. 53,445 Monroe ----------------21,073 Montgomery---...... 78,355 Montour --------------19,553 Northampton .......... 31,765 Northumberland ...... 37,547 Perry---.............113,434 Philadelphia ---------.--3159 Pike ---------------------18,022 Potter -------------------1,802 Schuylkill ------------31,751 Snyder-----------------.... 49,662 Somerset ----------136,367 Sullivan -----------------38,940 Susquehanna -----------90,619 Tioga----------------43,761 Union------------------23,045 Venango ---------------108,862 warren ----------------14,445 Washington ---------403,368 Wayne -_---------------78,213 Westmoreland --------349,281 Wyoming .. -----------42,317 York .............. -178,043 Totals ----------7,552,710 1900 Bushels 390,631 942,474 445,278 220,620 587,093 1,252,974 405,861 536,941 872,846 528,111 263,109 9,446 58,218 291,002 920,204 28 5.059 125,819 134,279 289,465 465,424 357,232 495,547 166,020 57,428 484,684 506,415 33,900 560,265 177,077 250,780 356,178 223,175 175,875 183,543 257,522 6 32,2 08 194,645 335,078 399,697 280,891 286,248 131,976 388,575 148,540 173,057 660,371 70,650 261,986 405,727 309,827 42,610 65,635 201,217 437,937 219,936 500,352 88,561 604,312 405,912 122,165 245,426 305,701 286,126 606,937 649,053 176,620 1,112,180 24,060,651 1910 Bushe's 312,680 224,386 217,773 93,433 364,876 425,903 215,686 286,587 286,390 110,354 62,214 8,583 47,335 202,209 204,413 81,790 57,854 79,595 208,250 273,418 158,216 141,815 29,479 31,133 327,971 72,548 13,760 359,525 90,683 130,406 221,203 207,105 73,839 115,208 124,440 283,119 69,476 59,856 147,701 240,383 311,922 71,196 82,210 101,863 104,849 116,265 42,464 124,613 227,892 163,462 9,808 73,014 154,705 152,110 131,595 145,511 96,383 294,386 398,588 92,833 55,953 196,280 133,665 300,025 295,649 120.798 387,795 11,048,430 1920 Bushels 742,196 69,998 40,161 67,670 152,314 254,453 37,230 68,675 152,404 30,871 11,192 1,289 42,047 47,724 148,574 6,611 15,338 13,898 83,327 56,795 167,083 61,689 32,527 5,486 119,838 32,991 771 468,205 83,799 49,921 53,841 36,037 10,006 62,515 38,611 169,244 38,470 67,257 120,867 121,316 76,267 22,601 73,402 43,805 48,304 90,640 8,405 81,706 60,785 88,433 4,940 18,569 52,666 123,443 84,488 17,566 24,391 42,904 103,471 39,914 6,113 10,118 77,579 77,598 65,456 66,179 310,811 5,512,795 A co-operative potato marketing agency is planned for St. Paul, Minn., which is expected to market 75 per cent of the crop from seven of the Northwestern states. Page Seventeen Skmaer Vacki House New5 .-& I

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Development of the Grape Industry In Florida By E. L. ZIMMERMAA( Note: Mr. Zimmerman is an authority on grape culture in Florida and writes entertainingly in the following article regarding the Adapted Varieties. There has been much interest taken in grape culture in Florida in recent years and the industry promises much in this state, This is the first of a series of articles on Grapes in Florida and will be followed shortly by other articles dealing with the actual expert. ences of individual growers, the insect pests and diseases on grapes in this state, and the packing and shipping problems connected with the industry. VEN the most skeptical are beginning to realize that grape culture has a future in Florida, and that commercial grape growing in this state is rapidly developing into one of our greatest and most profitable industries. What does not seem to be so generally known is the fact that for ten years adapted bunch grapes have been a commercial success in Florida, and that year after year the acreage planted to grapes has increased more and more, as they have demonstrated not only their productiveness, their splendid flavor and their remarkable shipping qualities, and as the years have passed by they have also proven that they are long-lived and disease-resistant and thus thoroughly adapted to Florida soil and climatic conditions. Thus the basis has been firmly established for the more rapid development of a great grape growing industry, comparable to that of the citrus industry of the state in magnitude and financial returns. A number of varieties of what are termed Adapted bunch grapes have been doing well in this state for ten successive seasons and there is reason to believe that the same vines will continue to thrive for several decades, if properly cared for. The fact is that there is a good deal of ignorance concerning growing grapes in Florida despite the fact that more and more~ acreage vineyards have been planted and producing fruit on a commercial scale and yielding splendid financial returns year after year for many years. The varieties of grapes that are short-lived in Florida are Northern, California and European varieties, in fact all varieties which are not adapted to Florida growing conditions. Adapted bunch grapes have proven successful because they possess qualities which make them suited to soil and climatic conditions in this state. For instance, the Carman grape is composed of a combination of several varieties of grapes, one from the north, another from California and the other a native variety of the south. It is what is termed a hybrid grape, formed through crossing the pollen of several varieties, planting the seed from the fruit that developed and selecting the plants which formed a good quality of fruit. The Concord grape is short-lived in Florida, so is the Delaware, the Niagara, the Malaga, the Emperor and other Florida Malaga, bes foreign varieties. But the varieties grape gro' honestly advertised as adapted are not short-lived, but possess native qualities which cause them to grow and produce fruit year after year in this state, with reasonable care. It has been thoroughly proven that the proper varieties for developing a big grape growing industry in Florida are available. It but remains to spread the development of the industry, to plant more and bigger acreages over the state. And this is being done. The plantings have been largely limited by the quantities of adapted plants available. Next season we believe will witness the greatest bunch grape planting season in the history of the industry in Florida by far. The advantages possessed by the adapted grape grower in Florida are numerous. Principal among them are the superior qualities of grapes grown, the fact that the fruit Page Eighteen ripens from three to six weeks earlier than elsewhere in the United States, the closeness of the big fruit markets of the north and east and the further fact that the general public has been educated to the great value of grapes as a food. Millions of dollars have been expended annually over the country in the past decade, pointing out the food value of grapes and the national prohibition ainendment has resulted in added impetus to the grape growing industry everywhere. Owing to the fruit ripening earlier in Florida than elsewhere, this state secures the major advan. stage in all the advertising and the change in conditions. When bunch grapes began to be planted in acreage lots nearly a decade ago the question arose, where will you market so many grapes? The answer was that for a number of years the local markets of Florida would absorb practically all of the fruit for the reason that it ripened at a time when other fruits were scarce and for the further reason that people were accustomed to buying bunch grapes and if they could get them earlier, they would be glad to pay substantial prices for them. There was only one difficulty at the beginning and that was that the local fruit dealers were accustomed to paying the small prices for grapes that came on the market later in the season from all over the country and they feared the people would not pay higher prices for Florida grown fruit. Growers of grapes helped solve that problem,however, by peddling the early ripening Florida grapes themselves direct to the consumers, who were willing to pay 30 to 50 cents per pound for the fruit early in the season. Soon the retail dealers discovered that the people were willing to pay more for Florida grown grapes, particularly because the demand for them was greater than the supply. The supply of fruit always ran out before the demand lessened and thus Florida grown grapes have brought good prices year after year, in spite of the greatly increased supply of grapes each year The demand for the fruit has grown with the supply and for several years past the average wholesale price for Florida grown grapes over the state has been around 20 cents a pound. The problem of containers for the fruit was one that had to be solved, For the first few years ordinary tomato baskets were used, with the tomato crates when shipments were to be made. Most of the fruit was market. flavored white bunch ed locally and there were not many anyere bn long hauls, so that the tomato haskets sufficed for the first few years though they were not satisfactory be cause it was easY to pluck the fruit off at the corners of the baskets and the crates were too large. High prices for the fruit make a crate of six tomato baskets of Florida grapes collie rather high, and this operated against the small fruit dealer buying by the crate. Then it was decided by an organization of Florida grape growers to try out the two and four pound northern grape basket, such as were used to market grapes in the north. While the smaller baskets proved an advantage in that it brought the selling price per container of fruit down, it was found that the Florida grown grape bunches averaged too large to pack well in two pound baskets, frequent a single bunch filling a basket and it was impossible to properly pack. Besides, the cost of the baskets, in co. t wn

PAGE 19

HU 111 11 l 1 1 l h 1 1 1 1 1 1111 1 1 section with the high freight and express rates, made them too high to give satisfaction to the local marketer of Florida grown grapes. Some of Left: West Coast Vineyard, seven these baskets are shown in Right: Florida grown Red Bun one of the illustrations. from Orange county. At a convention of Florida Grape Growers' Association several years ago it was voted to adopt the California four-basket crate as a standard for marketing Florida grown grapes for the reasons that the five-pound capacity California square basket gave more room for proper packing of the bigger Florida grape bunches and the four basket crate was smaller than the big six basket tomato crate. Then it was found that it was impracticable to secure the California crates from eastern factories at prices that were satisfactory to Florida grape growers. They were not economical enough and growers were generally compelled to resort to the old tomato baskets and such smaller baskets as they happened to have on hand. This was very unsatisfactory. But the increased supplies of Florida grown grapes rendered it imperative that some standard basket and crate be adopted that would prove satisfactory to Florida marketing conditions. It was deemed essential first to adopt a basket and crate for marketing Florida grown grapes that would be distinctive to Florida grape growers, so that when shipments were made in quantities to northern and eastern and western markets, the Florida crates and baskets would at once be recognized as distinctive. It was also regarded as necessary to secure if possible baskets and crates that could be manufactured econoncally in Florida or some place in the south, so as to avoid the big freight and express charges for carriage of empty baskets and crates. At a recent meeting of the Florida Grape Growers' Association the problem was temporarily solved and a comPromise was effected, whereby railroad traffic regulaons could be observed and at the same time Florida shippers of grapes could have an economical and dislo ~, k f )p1-~ It was decided to adopt a basket similar to the toSmato basket, with a capacity of five pounds and n years old, Adapted Bunch Grapes. closed corners, and a crate ch Grapes. Bottom: Carmen Grapes similar to the tomato crate, but cut in two, making a half crate. This provides a three-basket crate with a capacity of fifteen pounds of grapes, a crate small enough to be more attractive to the small fruit merchant, and possessing advantages in packing and shipping over all other containers used heretofore. While the container problem may not be permanently solved, it is felt that excellent progress has been made. The problem of marketing in carlots has been met and solved over the south and west, and conditions in Florida are similar except not quite so complicated, owing to closeness to the big markets. Big fruit marketing organizations with branches in California have also big fruit marketing branches in Florida and the same markets are available under more favorable conditions, since competition is practically eliminated. The big citrus marketing organizations of the state, in several instances have expressed themselves as willing to cooperate in the marketing of grapes, using the same organizations that are employed in handling citrus fruit, so that while there are many details to be arranged and it is necessary to educate fruit dealers of the north to the fact that grapes are available from Florida earlier in the season than from elsewhere, yet the main problem has already been solved and it but remains to continue the development so well and substantially begun. The hundreds of Florida acreage vineyards of the present will within a few years be increased to thousands of large acreage vineyards and the plantings will be measured by tens of thousands of acres in bunch grapes annually. A series of articles on packing house construction will be a feature commenced in an early issue of the Packing House News. Page NineteeD tinctive basket and crate

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Dedicated to the Production of Better Fruit and Vegetables and to the Use of Up-to-Date Packing Houses and Facilities THOS. W. HEWLETT ------------Editor &Fervice The Packing House News thoroughly believes in the spirit of service and in the value and advantages of thinking in terms of service rather than in terms of dollars and cents. It might be said that if service is given the dollars and cents will take care of themselves. It is our ambition to make this publication of service to the thousands of people in this and other countries who are interested in better packing methods, who like to keep informed about what is going on in the packing world, and who can profit from reading of the means adopted by others in getting their produce to the markets. It takes a lot of money and effort to give the kind of service we are giving but somehow or other we feel convinced it is meeting with a full measure of appreciation. Because this appreciation is beginning to take on material form we are planning to make the NEWS more and more of value to our readers and advertisers. We have the only publication in existence covering just the field we do and because of the problems connected with packing, handling and shipping of fruits and vegetables we find more and more the need for covering this field very completely. We hope some day to be able to devote several pages in the NEWS to market and shipping news. Also to devote space to spraying methods and schedules. We have had numerous calls for information on spraying and as time permits we plan to carry current spraying schedules for various insects and diseases in different sections of the country in every issue of the NEWS; for spraying problems are very closely allied to the business of packing, and spraying has much to do with the success of marketing fruits and vegetables. Various other improvements and additions are under consideration and in time we hope to make the Packing House News indispensable to every grower, packer, shipper and buyer of fruits and vegetables in the world. Of late we have received many letters of commendation from readers of the Packing House News and although it is not our policy to present these letters in the columns of the NEWS, they are deeply appreciated. Some of these letters convince us that we are filling a long-felt want. A few days ago came a letter from a grower in South Africa with a money order for one pound. This grower asked us to enter his subscription for the period covered by the amount enclosed, and stated that the NEWS was just the publication he had been looking for for years. Another interesting letter received during the past month was from an organization in Palestine enclosing an American dollar bill for a year's subscription. It may be truly stated that the sun never sets on the Packing House News, for another subscription received during April was from Peru. One of our advertisers wrote us during April that they had received an inquiry from New Zealand as a result of their advertisement in the February issue. To come back again to the subject of this editorial the following by Thomas Drier illustrates very plainly the spirit and value of service: "It pays in dollars and cents to think in terms of service instead of in terms of profit. I am thinking now of what happened to Harry Hope, a young engineer. He had worked for big engineering firms for a dozen years when Page Twenty the idea of going into business for himself popped into his mind. He had just about got settled in his new office when he learned that a manufacturer was about to build a $500,000 addition to his plant. Hope and a number of others went after the contract. "In getting the necessary data upon which to base the estimate, Hope naturally had to give some thought to the production problem of his prospective client. What he learned astonished him. He went to the manufacturer and said, 'Of course, I want to get the job of designing this new addition of yours, but I'll tell you frankly that if I were in your place I wouldn't build it.' "'Wouldn't build it?' echoed the manufacturer. 'Man, I tell you, I must increase my production!' '''That is another story,' answered Hope. 'It is increased production and not a new building that you need. I can show you how to get the production you want with your present plant at a cost not to exeed $40,000.' As a matter of fact, the job was done for $5,000 less. "Hope killed all his chances at the half-million contract by his suggestion. He threw away his chance at a nice big profit at a time when he needed a big job. Putting service to a client ahead of his own personal profit was rather expensive. Possibly there were moments when he felt tempted to call himself a fool. "Two years later, however, when that manufacturer wanted to build an $8,000,000 plant in another city, it was Harry Hope who got the job without much argument. He had proved himself on the smaller job and the manufacturer knew he could be trusted. "There is more magic in service than there ever was in Aladdin's lamp." O-e Floral Parade at Orlando, Florida The pictures on the center pages of this number speak for themselves. They are an eloquent expression of the splendid initiative the City Beautiful has taken in presenting a floral parade in connection with the meeting of the State Florists' Association held in Orlando during April. We have given prominence to these pictures in the Packing House News because we believe in flower shows and parades, and particularly in the value of a show of flowers in Florida. We do think that this Flower Show should be made an annual state-wide affair wherein individuals and interests from all over Florida could enter displays and get in the procession, so to speak, and not let it be limited to a local affair-and this for a hundred very good reasons. Also that this Flower Show should be held during late February or early March for two good reasons, viz: more flowers could be obtained at this time and orange blossoms could be a feature; and we have hundreds of thousands of tourists with us during the earlier part of the year and they would not only be entertained, but very much impressed by such a spectacle as only Florida could produce. But Orlando and the men who were responsible for the Flower Parade in April are to be congratulated and we hope that they have been encouraged to go after a bigger and better show next year. Florida needs a floral parade, just as she needs an orange week, and we will dwell upon this at length in the next issue, because of the immense advertising value attached to such an event. Florida is known as the "Land of Flowers," and not without reason, but if we are to sustain a reputation as a land of flowers we must produce and show flowers and never let an opportunity slip by to let the rest of the world know that we have them, and in abundance. Florida has needed advertising of the right kind in years past, and she needs it now, and we know of no better form of publicity than could come from an annual flower parade and show, that would be known all over the world for its beauty, charm, fragrance and magnificence. Flowers, perhaps, have a more general appeal than any (Continued on Page 36)

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Sklmler PRc&ing HoqseNewS I Floral Parade, Florida's First Annual Flower Show Hed iin Orlando, Florida, April 17, 1923 The floral parade staged in Orlando Tuesday afternoon April 17 set a new mark for events of this character in Florida. Sixty-five floats and automobiles decorated with fresh flowers were in line competing for the handsome array of cups awarded by the Orlando Chamber of Commerce. Many of the floats and decorated cars were truly beautiful. The painstaking care with which decorations had been made and the artistic quality of many of the designs drew bursts of applause frequently as the parade passed by the throngs of spectators which crowded the sidewalks and streets of Orlando for blocks along the line of march. The designs and methods ot decorating were varied to suit the taste of the contestants, the only restrictions laid down being that all decorations must be made with fresh flowers. Some were charming in their comparative simplicity while others were quite complicated in design and arrangement. Eleven hundred gladioli of the Willbrink variety, a beautiful pink blossom were used in the decoration of one float. Gladioli, roses, ferns, bougainvillea and wisteria were among the most popular blossoms used. The parade was sponsored by the Orlando Chamber of Commerce to mark the opening of the first State Flower Show that afternoon, with the concurrent annual meeting of the Florida State Florists' Association taking place in Orlando at the same time, and the opening session of the thirty-sixth annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society which took place that night in Orlando. The event was liberally press agented but the number of floats which actually put in their appearance in the parade, it is stated, exceeded the best expectations of the promoters. So successful was the affair and so great an interest did it arouse that plans already are under way to make it an annual feature in Orlando. Preparations have been started for next spring's event and it is hoped to build from this beginning a spring feature for Florida which will deserve to rank well along with the annual tournanient of roses in Pasadena, California, and the rose festival in Portland, Oregon. Street pageants of decorated automobiles and floats are the principal features of these two Pacific Coast events. The promoters of the Orlando spectacle have been greatly encouraged by comparisons which have been made by a number of tourists who have witnessed both the Pasadena and Portland events, some having seen them several times. One prominent northern business man who saw the first three Portland parades was outright in his declaration that this, the first spectacle of the sort seriously to be staged in Florida, was, in his opinion, more attractive and more highly perfected than the first three spectacles which Portland staged. The advantage to the state of such an annual event if it can be developed successfully, is very manifest. Orlando undoubtedly will have the good wishes of all Florida in its effort to build this into a regular annual feature. The committee of the Orlando Chamber of Commerce which had charge of the initial effort, and the individuals of which will take the leadership in next year's spectacle was composed of M. J. Daetwyler, Karl Lehmann, W. M. Glenn, Joe S. McCormick, S. Kendrick Guernsey, C. D. Kime, Frank Kay Anderson. CALIFORNIA NEWS Carl V. Newman, who has been manager of the San Joaquin Fruit Co., at Tustin, and who was formerly at the Limoneira Co.'s properties, is head of the newly formed France Citrus Association, which has been formed with a capital stock of $50,000. This association will pick, pack and ship Valencias from about 500 acres, including that of the San Joaquin Fruit Company. Last year the group shipped 210 cars of high grade fruit. The association is affiliated with the California Fruit Growers' Exchange. The Tule River Citrus Association has taken over the packing-house formerly owned and operated by W. C. Talbot of Clavicle, Tulare County. Mr. Talbot will henceforth ship his fruit through the Tule River Citrus Association, which is affiliated with the California Fruit Growers' Exchange. The 80-acre citrus grove and plant of Major D. G. Nairn, located in the Deer Creek district of Tulare county, has been sold to Sir Michael Oppenheimer, of London, England. The grove is composed of navels and Valencias. The consideration is understood to have been about $90,000 for the Major's entire plant and grove. Fire gutted the packing-house of the Citrus Growers' Cash Association of Riverside recently. The flames spread rapidly to freight cars on a nearby siding. Representatives of an insurance company stated that the damage was fairly well covered by policies. Despite several disastrous years, due to the rail strike, many growers' and packers in the Turlock district are preparing for a big season in cantaloupes, watermelons, casabas, Persians and other varieties of melons. The 1923 season will be exceptionally early from present indications. A meeting of representative lettuce growers and packers was held recently at Brawley to formulate a standardization bill to be introduced in the present session of the State Legislature. By standardizing the lettuce crate and limiting the amount of ice to be used in packing, the pack will be improved, it is believed, and will produce a better and more easily marketable commodity. By the establishment of definite descriptive terms or designations of the lettuce to be packed and shipped from the Valley, it is thought will create a demand for the product. Recent events seem to prove that California vegetable growers and packers must pay more attention to quality and standardization of pack, if they are to market at a profit the tremendous crops of the various specialties grown in the Imperial Valley and other sections. For years, California vegetables and fruits met with little competition on the Eastern markets, and there was no great danger of overproduction. Then, with the demand in the East, faults in mis-marketing and shortcomings in quality were overlooked. Of late years, however, new fruit and vegetable growing districts have opened up in many western States, as well as in the East and South, and many have become dangerous competitors to California's producing centers. The time seems ripe, according to general opinion of California fruit experts for a constructive organization of California growers and packers, along the lines that will control acreage, in a measure, and stabilize the market in fostering standards than can be enforced by Federal and State marketing authorities. The bill recently drafted by the lettuce growers and packers in Imperial Valley proposing new quality standards for their output, is the first step in the right direction. H. 0. Todd, a pioneer date grower and shipper of Coachella Valley, has originated a process for spicing dates and announces that he expects to turn it to advantage in utilizing cull fruit. This, he says, will serve the double purpose of preventing the waste of dates not good enough to go out as first-class fruit, and of keeping inferior dates on the market. He states that he expects to follow the spiced dates with other packed date products. An estimate of the total spinach pack of the Van Nuys (Continued on Page 30) Page Twenty-one

PAGE 22

FLORAL Q ylorida's Qirst an KA 000 m 494 The First Annual Flower Show was held in Orlando, Florida, beg nning April 17th. The Floral Parade,, a feature of the show, was he d, individuals, and prizes were given to each class. 1. Yowell-Drew Co., 1st prize, organizations,. 2. McCormick-Hanner Lumber Co. -odU 6. Angebilt Hotel, 3rd prize, organizations. 7. Rollins College, honorable mention, organizations. 8. Mrs. Leon Fort, 1st priZe, I dV Hardware Co. 14. Sorosis Club. 15. Mrs. W. Jaeger, honorable men ton, individuals. 16. Fairvilla. 17. Dickson-Ives Co. .winter prize, communities. 22. G. D. Cleland, honorable mention, individuals. -23. Mrs. H. M. Voorhis, 2nd prize, indviduals. 24: DeSoto Beach,

PAGE 23

PARADE ual qjlower S/iou) r ;I, 1/ fonof Api 17th. The floats shown above are as foUows: There were three classes of entries: organizations, communit-es, and n organizations 4. Butt-Guernsey Co., 2nd prize, organizations 5. Lions Club honorable meant on organizations. s orney nsti s1 Zellwood, 1st prize, communities. 20. Violet Dell Nursery, honorable mention, organizat ons. 21. Maitland, 2nd ;SI Fernery. 26. M4rs. H. C. Jerome, 3rd prize, individuals.

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A NEW CITRUS FIELD 'By EDNA BENNE7 STOLZ THERE are few people who know very much about the citrus industry that is just in the first stages of development in southwest Texas. Fewer still, have ever seen, or had an opportunity of comparing the fruit from this locality with that produced in other fields, and even a lesser number know that citrus fruit can be produced at all in this region. Pioneering in any business or industry is not easy, and when we look back twenty years, and note the miraculous changes that have taken place in that length of time in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, we only get a vague idea of the obstacles that the early settlers had to overcome to make the valley what it is today. The strip of land known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley, stretches from the Gulf coast, up the river a distance of one hundred and twenty-five miles. Of this strip, a territory about seventy miles long, extending from Brownsville to Mission, and eighteen miles in width, is citrus land. This land is irrigated and receives its water supply from the Rio Grande, except for the periodical rains, which are few and far between. The valley is almost isolated from the rest of Texas. Bordered on the north by the sand hills, that stretch for miles in the hot sun, on the east by the Gulf coast without a valley port, on the south by the Rio Grande and uncivilized Mexico, and on the west by an endless wilderness of cactus and brush; the only outlets are the Gulf Coast Line Railroad which enters the valley at Harlingen, and the Old Spanish Trail whereby tourists may get to San Antonio when the roads are passable. The only commercial outet is the railroad, but the writer is pleased to state that the contract for dredging the channel for a deep sea harbor, at what is known in the valley as Point Isabel, was let a short time ago, and r y% will be finished in the next few months. This will give the valley access to other markets and competition of rail and water freight rates, which it has not had before. Climatically, the valley is eminently suited to the growth of citrus fruit, as there is little danger of trees freezing to the ground. This is mostly due to its location, being the most southern point in the United States where any attempt is made to raise citrus fruit. It is true that the dreaded "norther" sweeps down over the valley as over the rest of Texas, but the vast sand plains on the north minimize the danger of a freeze in most cases. Orchard heaters are not used on an average more than twice a year, and January 12, this year, is the first year in three that the young unprotected trees were damaged in the least and then only temporarily. The first irrigating plant in the valley was built about sixteen years ago at McAllen. At that time the valley was a wilderness of mesquite brush and cactus which one could only penetrate by way of the Old Spanish Trail or by boat up the Rio Grande. One irrigation project followed another until today they are spaced about six miles apart along the river, and practically the whole Lower Rio Grande Valley, on the Texas side, is under irrigation. About fourteen years ago, Captain Fitch of San Antonio bought a tract of land near Mercedes to experiment in citrus fruit. He sent to California and Florida for enough grapefruit, orange, lemon and tangerine trees to plant six acres. Up to this time the only citrus trees in the valley were two or three in private yards that were grown from the seed of the Mexican orange and lemon. About two years later orchards were set out at Mission and McAllen. Since that time the acreage in the valley has doubled and tripled each year, until there are something like 6,500 acres in citrus groves. The largest acreage and present production is at Mission, which is sloganized as the "Home of the Grapefruit." One of the conditions that has retarded the developPage Twenty-four I U *1 U El ment of this industry has been the class of people, induced to locate in this field by the various land companies. They were mostly farmers of the Mississippi Valley and Great Lakes region, who had probably raised some small fruit, such as berries, cherries and perhaps a few peaches and apples. Ninety-five per cent of them had never seen citrus fruit grow, and on coming to the valley, started their groves without any experience. Many of them having always raised corn and small grain were not satisfied and returned to their former homes, and their land and groves were turned over to other prospects, possibly from the same region and with just as little experience in raising citrus fruit. So it has been the pioneers that came and had the fortitude to stay, that own the bearing groves today. The season of 1922-23 marks the beginning of the citrus industry of the valley on a commercial scale. Before the last season, all fruit that was not consumed in the Rio Grande Valley was shipped in boxes, by the growers, individually. There were about twenty (20) carloads shipped from the valley the past season, in small shipments and seventy (70) in carload lots. After the season of 1921-22 the growers began to realize the need of organization, and the importance of putting out a standard brand and pack if they would compete with other citrus fields. Although up to this time they were able to dispose of all their fruit without any trouble, they knew that as the production increased they would also have to create a selling organization. So during the summer of 1922, the Lower Rio Grande Citrus Exchange was organized among the growers, with J. A. Hickman president, 0. E. Stuart vice-president, and H. H. Banker, secretary. J. A. Hickman, president, and also sales manager, is a man of wide experience in the selling game and perfectly capable of handling that end of the exchange. Mr. Hickman was a resident of the valley for several years before he was convinced that the soil was especially adapted to citrus fruit. Since then he has devoted much time to the study and care of citrus trees and has now thirty acres in groves. A four-year-old grove just coming into bearing is in such perfect condition that he offers a reward to anyone finding scale or other insect therein. Some trouble was experienced in perfecting this exchange for two reasons. First, the growers had been disposing of their own fruit, and rather successfully. Second, the vegetable exchanges that had operated up and down the valley had been unsuccessful. Some of these were so poorly managed that the grower not only lost his vegetables in some instances, but was called on to pay the freight charges. In spite of these drawbacks, the organization was finally perfected and handled only the fruit of its members. The refractory growers tried out their theory of marketing, and finding with the increase in population, it would be impossible to handle it by parcel post, many of them applied for membership in the exchange during December and January and asked for pickers to harvest their crop. To make a success of the exchange, a packing house was necessary. One of the members, H. Raymond Mills, came forward at this time and offered to promote a packing company if the Lower Rio Grande Citrus Exchange would give him all their fruit to pack. This was readily agreed upon and the Valley Packing Company organized. After a study of packing methods, both in California and Florida, machinery for treating and packing the fruit was installed in a temporary building at Harlingen, and ready for operation on the opening of the season. Harlingen was chosen as the location for the first plant

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0GRESS~ 06 Every forward step of the chemist has called for years of painstaking effort and the expenditure of vast sums of money. When he realized that the presence of Acid in fertilizer was harmful he turned his microscope and his scientific mind to overcoming this defect. The KREISS PROCESS is his answer to the problem of securing available Phosphate without the use of ACID. The NON-ACID FERTILIZER & CHEMICAL COMPANY was formed by successful Florida business men for the purpose of placing a BETTER Fertilizer upon the Florida market. A Fertilizer that was free from acid and at the same time contained an ample amount of available phosphate. The Lakeland plant of this Company has been designed with the purpose of employing every known machine and method serving to save time and money. The saving thus obtained has been used in making a better product at a reasonable price. BETTER FERTILIZER MEANS BETTER CROPS Use NAPP Brand Fertilizer. It sweetens and improves the soil. Our soil expert and research department are at your service. Non-Acid Fertilizer & Chemical Co. Manufacturers of Quality Fertilizer With the Acid Left Out Lakeland, Florida Page Twen~ty-five ZZE Z P 4, AD

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Sft&&er Vacmdi Hoc5e New3 as it is the gateway through which the only railroad enters the valley. The fruit of the exchange members goes out under the standard brand of "Valley Sweet." They are endeavoring to so grade and pack their fruit that a reputation may be built for this brand that will be known far and wide. The packing house at Harlingen has a capacity of three carloads a day. The labor-saving machinery used in larger and older fields, to protect the fruit from jar or bruises, is the kind installed in the first packing plant of the valley. Tourists from California that recently viewed the packing house evidenced surprise to find the most up-to-date methods used right in the first stage of the citrus industry. The fruit comes from the groves in field boxes after being carefully clipped and handled. Most of it is transported in railroad cars from the various points to the packing plant, although some of the fruit from the nearest points is conveyed in trucks. The fruit is kept in the field boxes until ready to be put through the packing house. The Brogdexing method is used and when the fruit is placed on the first conveyor, it immediately goes through a machine of slowly revolving brushes. These brushes are soft and will not injure the skin, and are fed the Brogdex from a supply tank automatically. The fruit runs from these brushes on to another slow conveyor, which gives the Brogdex time to soften all scale or foreign matter before it gets to another set of brushes which thoroughly clean and polishes it. From the polisher, another conveyor carries the fruit to the grading tables, where the culls are eliminated, the number ones removed and the number twos and threes separated for their particular conveyor that takes them to the sizer, which drops them according to the size into separate bins. From these bins the fruit is wrapped in tissue paper bearing the brand of the exchange and packed according to grade and size. The standard size box is used which is received in "knock down" form. After they are put together they are assembled near the grading table and conveyor, that carries them to the packer. When the box is packed, stamped and labeled, it is carried by a conveyor to the press at the end of the sizing tables and the lid is nailed And strapped on, after which it is ready for the car. No grapefruit is colored at this plant as the Citrus Exchange uses as their slogan, "When It Is Green-Yellow, It Is Ripe." This is also intended to distinguish the valley fruit from that grown in other sections. A few oranges were colored as an experiment during the past season, but the orange part of the citrus industry, in this section is not so well developed owing to the stress put upon grapefruit. The various machines of the packing company are operated by electricity, each machine with separate attachment, making it possible to save on electricity, as it takes some time for fruit to go through the entire process. While the writer made an estimate of seventy (70) cars shipped out of the valley during the season of 192223, only twenty-eight (28) of these were properly treated and packed. These were the fruit of the members of the exchange and were packed at the plant of the Valley Packing Company. There are a few of the larger growers, who produce from eight to twenty carloads of fruit, who are shipping their own in carload lots. It is not treated in any way before shipping, but is usually polished by hand. One of these growers has a small coloring plant in which he colors the lemons from his own orchard. This is the only coloring plant in the valley. Truly the citrus industry in the Rio Grande Valley is just in its infancy but the men at the head of the Citrus Exchange are men of vision and see a great future for this industry in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Mr. HickPage Thirty-six man is looking over the field for the most logical location for the next two or three packing plants, which they have definitely decided to install before another season. The annual meeting of the stockholders was held at Harlingen on the 26th of Apr'l, when the directorate of the exchange was elected for the coming year. The production is expected to double and triple each successive year, as the acreage has done in the past. It will be only a matter of time until all shipping points in the vallew will have a packing house to care for the fruit in its locality. The Lower Rio Grande Valley is producing fruit that rivals that of California and Florida in quality, but there can never be any rivalry in quantity owing to the smallness of the field. PACKING OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST CRANBERRIES IS A GROWING INDUSTRY Northwest packers in the cranberry district at the mouth of the Columbia River are giving more and more attention to the packing of cranberries. Extreme care must be taken in grading the berries, which, according to authorities, are considered superior to any grown elsewhere. The Pacific coast berries are always recognized Interior of Dellinger's Packing House near Astoria, Oregon, at the mouth of the Columbia River. Shows cranberry sorting machine. by the fact that one of the cheeks is lighter in color than the other. The Northwest cranberry district includes Pacific county, Washington and Clatsop county, Oregon. The packing houses throughout this territory are now using cranberry grading machines, nearly all of them Constructed on the same general principle. The berries are first graded for size, then the soft ones are taken out. Working on the general theory that a sound berry will rebound and leap over a hurdle, the sound berries are separated from the defective. The berries that do not leap over the hurdle are taken out. Having passed over the hurdles, the sound fruit is run over sorting and screening tables, where berries that are not quite up to quality are picked out by careful women sorters. Having sorted the berries thoroughly, the packers put them up in boxes, which for identification purposes are marked only with the grower's number. Practically al of the cranberries in this section are being marketed through the co-operative association known as the Pacific Cranberry Exchange. 6 -amw S

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Why continue to sell our citrus fruits for less money than they are worth? TRADEMAPKj d; ee ZR REGST ERPED) We, the co-operating growers who market our own fruit through the Florida Citrus Exchange, continue to sell at top prices; grade, pack, quality, and volume considered. Your fruit, if you are not a member of the Florida Citrus Exchange, continues to be sold in direct competition with ours, lowering the prices received by all of us. Practically every car of fruit we sell has to meet considerably lower prices offered to the trade by the non-co-operative and speculative marketing agencies. We are able to get better prices because of the consumer demand for Sealdsweet grapefruit and oranges, developed by years of consistent advertising, and by reason of our reputation for fair treatment of the trade. Every Florida grower, whether or not a member of the Florida Citrus Exchange, receives less for his fruit under the present system than it is actually worth. Why continue the destructive methods which produce this result? Five thousand and more of us who have tried the co-operative idea of marketing and have not found it wanting, invite the other Florida growers to join us in eliminating unwise competition from the citrus industry. In the Florida Citrus Exchange we have built up an efficient, strong organization which is amply able to secure for every Florida grower all that his fruit is worth, whenever the present plan of selling fruit for less than its real value by many growers is abandoned. Why not try co-operation instead of competition? Why longer accept for your fruit less than you should receive? Join the Florida Citrus Exchange and receive the high dollar for your fruit. Consult the manager of the nearest association or sub-Exchange or write the business manager at Tampa, Florida. 7ie FLORIDA CITRUS EXCHANGE Page Twenty-seven

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A New "Safety Basket Fastener -By SETH J. A recent invention of interest to farmers, truckers and basket manufacturers is the "LOX-FAS" Basket Fastener, a device consisting of a small piece of sheet metal and a strip of wire, invented by Mr. James F. Kennedy, of Charleston, S. C. The invention relates generally to fruit and vegetable baskets, but more particularly to the fastener itself. The device is simple, inexpensive and effective in use. It is easily applied and does away with the old methods, such as tin clips, staples, cross wires and nails. Over all this new fastener measures only ten inches in length. The "LOX-FAS" is more especially designed for use in connection with baskets having surrounding bands forming the upper rims thereof, with covers that have inwardly converging slots extending from the edge, as shown in figure 2. However, these fasteners are equally effective on the present type of basket covers now being manufactured. In figure 1, the fastener itself is shown. Figure 2 shows the specially designed cover, while figure 3 shows the four operations necessary for the proper adjustment of the fastener. In figure 3 (a) shows the fastener as it appears before it is put into use. (b) is the first operation. Here the free end of the sheet metal clip is pushed upward under the edge of the rim band. In (c) the clip is bent up against the rim band and the wires extended inwardly over the basket top and brought upward between the slats of the cover. (d) shows the wires drawn together and twisted over the cover. Note also, that the upper part of the clip, that in (c) extends above the basket top is now bent outward to form a hook. (e) shows the fastener complete, the ends of the wires being brought down over the edge of the cover and twisted around the hook. (f) shows the fastener in use on another style of container. To hold the fastener in place, there is a spur in the body of the clip that is forced into the rim band of the basket, as the clip is bent against same, FERRARA, 7r. The number of fasteners per basket should be determined by the farmer according to the contents, but for the average basket, four fasteners are sufficient to hold the cover in place. The invention of this fastener \ 1 F1Fi.2 means a saving of considerable money and worry to the farmer over the loss of truck due to split or broken covers. PICTURES OF FRUIT PACKING WANTED By Frank Hilton Madison A good way to get the next, or rather the coming generation of fruit buyers to insist upon properly graded and properly packed fruit is through the picture departments of the public libraries. That is what a public librarian suggested. Many public libraries are fairly crying for authentic pictures connected with the food and other industries. These pictures are loaned to the children from the public schools whenever a particular food or industry is being studied. Undoubtedly pictures of the efficient machinery in a packing house would prove of interest, as would spraying scenes and the high spots of fruit growing and marketing in general. I chanced to invade the children's reading room of one of the small branch libraries in Chicago recently. A sizable filing cabinet stood in one corner. Upon the top of it lay a pile of pictures mounted upon green mats, about 12x15 inches. One of them was of a food industry and it caught my eye. It had been supplied by one of the big picture services such as furnish the photographs for the daily picture pages and the rotogravure sections of the newspapers. There were many others, so I asked the librarian the purpose. She explained how the pictures-a collection upon each industry relating to food, clothing or shelter-was called for by different schools in the neighborhood whenever they were studying that industry or studying the geography of the country where that commodity was produced. Now, in a single year this little branch loaned 10,000 pictures. When you consider that each loan means that not only will a single individual see it but that an entire class will study it, there is quite a circulation. This is not a practice that is peculiar to Chicago. Librarians all over the country are anxious to get educational pictures relating to the industries which furnish the children with the necessities and luxuries of life. Of course a fruit packing house could not supply pictures of its activities to libraries all over the country; the expense would be prohibitive. But there are certain cities, to which a large part of the yield is shipped where the children could be taught to tell their parents how the citrus fruits, apples or peaches from a certain part of the country are prepared for shipment with great care. And a dozen photographs, 5x7 or largeror even a smaller number-would be sufficient. In fact, actual photographs are not necessary. Clear pictures from a catalogue or book are satisfactory. But they should have human beings, engaged in the occupations of fruit handling, in them. The pictures should be large enough to show some detail. They should show trees, care, gathering the fruit and handling. What libraries want is to be able to teach the children about the food products, the journeys that they must travel and every possible step in the handling. Of course the public libraries are not going to turn themselves into advertising mediums for any product. But pictures must have a paragraph of description beneath them and if the name of a plant is included it is not going to be eliminated. Again, the plant often has a sign upon it which appears in the pictures. An excellent way in which the fruit or vegetable packing house could ad(Continued on Page 41) Fig. 3 Page Twenty-eight

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Everything for the Packg vg House -Apple Machinery -Automatic Box Dumping Machine -Bags, Picking -Barrel Heading Press -Bearings -Bearings, Ball -Belting -Belts, Conveyor -Belt Supplies -Blowers -Box Conveyors -Box Dumping Machines -Box Elevator -Box Hatchets -Box Making Machines -Box Material Conveyor -Box Makers' Bench -Box-Nailing Machine -Box, Press -Brushes -Cantaloupe Machinery -Car Movers -Car Squeeze -Citrus Machinery -Clamp Trucks -Clippers -Coke Heaters --Columbia Truck -Conveyors, Box -Conveyors, Drip -Cucumber Machinery -Crate-Material Elevator -Drip Conveyor -Dryers -Electric Generators -Electric Motors -Electric Winding Engine -Elevating Sprinklers -Elevators, Platform -Empty-Box Elevator -Engines-Gasoline -Engines-Kerosene -Engines--Spray -Fan Ventilating -Fire Extinguishers -Fruit Clippers -Gang Plank -Generators -Grading Belt, Canvas -Grading Belt, Rollers -Grapefruit Packs and Sizes -Hatchets, Box -Heaters, Coke -Heating Systems for Drying -Hoes, Scuffle -Hose, Spray -Housings -Hydraulic Barrel Press -Ladders -Lighting Generators -Machinery, Special Manufacture -Motors -Miami Trailers -Morgan Box Machines -Movers, Car -Nailing Machines -Nail Strippers -Onion Machinery -Orange Packs and Sizes -Packing House Plans -Paper Holders -Peach Machinery -Pear Machinery -Pepper Machinery -Picking Bags -Picking Ladders -Plans, Packing House -Platform Elevator -Polishers -Pre-Coloring Equipment -Press, Barrel -Pulleys -Pumps, Packing House -Pumps, Spray -Reels, Strapping -Repair Parts -Re-Weighing Machine -Scales -Scuffle Hoes -Sizers -Soaking Tanks -Special Bearings -Special-Made Machinery -Sprayers -Spraying Specialties -Spray Engines -Spray Hose -Spray Outfits -Spray Pumps -Spray Guns -Spray Pumps, Fittings -Skinner Sprayers -Sprayers, Tractor -Sprinkler Elevators -Sprinklers -Squeeze, Car -Strapping Reel -Strapping -Sprocket Wheels -Sprocket Chain -Thermometers -Tomato Machinery -Transmission -Trailers, Miami -Trucks, Auto -Trucks, Clamp -Trucks, 4-Wheel -Vegetable Grading Machinery -Washer Brushes -Washers -Weighing Machines -Winding Engine for Elevators -Wyandotte Cleanser CHECK THE ITEMS IN WHICH YOU ARE INTERESTED IN THIS LIST. USE THE COUPON BELOW SAVE TIME---CHECK HERE Check the items in which you are interested. Tear off this page and return to the Skinner Machinery Company, Dunedin, Florida. -Send the Skinner Catalogue. Send special literature regarding: -Sizers -Polishers -Coke Heaters -Trucks -Supplies -Dryers -Sprayers -Be sure my name is on your mailing list. Capacity of our packing plant is -..-.-------------cars a day. (Send floor plans if possible.) We have an orchard with acres. We grow ----------------------(mention fruits or vegetables grown) We are especially interested in:-------------------------------------------NAME .. .... ADDRESS .... WRITE PLAINLY SKINNER MACHINERY COMPANY World's Largest Manufacturers of Fruit and Vegetable Packing Machinery BROADWAY, DUNEDIN, FLORIDA SKilkNER Page Twenty-nine &~/Tf (5) SKINNER Sknar Peckinq'Houye NewS

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'2. SkiAmmer Ve ckiiyHoqye New5 CALIFORNIA NEWS (Continued from Page 21) packing house for the season has placed the output at 600 tons, or about 37,000 cases. With the spinach yet to be ID E A L packed another 100 tons will be added to the total Spinach is taking a leading place in the California vegetable FERTILIZERS product. __ Straight carload shipments of Gardena Valley strawberries began to move from the local packing houses during the first week in April, according to Roy E. Harris, an independent packer and shipper operating in the GarSPRAY MACHINERY dena district. The crop is being picked from 3,200 acres, a substantial increase over that of last year, and is INSECTICIDES of good quality. The C. H. Weaver and Son Company, who handle most of the cantaloupes grown at Fallon, Nev., furnish crates to the grower, which are charged the grower's account. They also furnish field supervisors for the picking and WRITE FOR packing and pay the growers every Monday morning for the melons received from them the week before. They DESCRIPTIVE PRICE LISTS also pay the freight charges and subtract 15 per cent commission from the gross sales. This is not a comnission deal, as this firm can come back on the growers for crates only and not for freight charges or commission. The new Steinhardt and Kelly packing house at MounE& O MTILNtain View, Calif., has been completed, the opening cereW IL O &monies taking place recently, attended by nearly three hundred apricot growers from all parts of the state. This FERTILIZER CO. house adjoins the Growers' pre-cooling plant, which assures the safe arrival in New York of matured choice apricots. This year, Steinhardt and Kelly will ship about JACKSONVILLE, FLA. one hundred cars from the new plant. ESTABLISHED 1898 The Santa Fe Railroad Company has announced that the ice plant under construction in Bakersfield, Calif., will be ready to handle the fruit and vegetable crops the coming season. It will have a capacity of 350 tons of ice daily and a storage of 24,000 tons. Several weeks ago, a trial shipment of three pre-cooled cars of head lettuce were shipped to Chicago from Imperial Valley. The pre-cooling consisted of immersing the lettuce in ice water until it was thoroughly cooled, then packing it in crates which were loaded into cars with as little delay as possible. The lettuce reached its destiFOR nation in excellent condition, and commanded a better price in the market than any other offered at that time. The success of this experiment may mean the adoption of this method of cooling next year. It would result in GROVE AND ORCHARD HEATING a big saving to shippers in the reduction of ice bills, as at present thirty pounds of cracked ice are used in each crate of packed lettuce. As there are 360 crates of lettuce in a car, it can be readily seen that the saving brought about by the new method would be substantial. Growers need experience no difficulty at any time in obtaining a plentiful supply Attorney General U. S. Webb recently passed a decisof gas house coke, which may be used in ion that the Japanese members of the Sunmaid Raisin coke heaters for frost protection in Growers' Association could not buy stock in the orgaiizagroves and orchards and for heating tion. The ruling affects about three hundred Japanese dwellings and other purposes. Our stock growers who owned vineyards prior to the passage of the is large and shipment can be made alien land law. promptly. All orders and inquiries given A carload of candied orange peel was shipped recently our very careful attention. from the Redlands plant of the All Orange Company. This is the first carload of this product to go out. Another citrus by-product, the Sanborn Foods Company, is being started in Redlands, and will be in operation at an early date. ADAMS, ROWE & NORMANAssembly Cleveland, of Watsonville, recently introduced a proposed new apple standardization law into the COAL AND COKE California State Legislature, and it has been referred to the Assembly committee on agriculture. As the bill Was BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA drafted after several meetings of apple growers and sbiP BIRMIGHAMpers, it is understood that it is favored by both factions. In place of grades known as "fancy," "B" and "C" grades A the proposed act will care for "extra fancy "fancy" and Page Thirty

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Skier I)cing HoqSe Newy .. .......... "C" grades. There are a few minor specifications as to the grades, as well as the phraseology of the act in some oints, but it intends to raise the standard through providng an extra fancy grade. It has also the intention of standardizing California grades with those of the Northwest apple shipping sections. Though the output is conceded to be less than average, the Covina packing-houses are busy packing the orange crop, which, due to the freeze in 1922, is estimated to be about 75 per cent normal. According to the packing-house officials, the fruit averages excellent in quality and the quantity culled out as unfit to pack is so small that it has not been possible to offer any great amount to cull buyers. So far, the market has brought a fair price to the growers and packers. L. J. Weishaar, Chief of the Bureau of Standardization, California Department of Agriculture, severed his connection with the department May 1. In addition to his active interest in matters of standardization, Mr. Weishaar has been instrumental in the development of Shipping Point Inspection service, which began in California in July, 1920. The growth of this service in two and onehalf years was such that over 15,000 cars were inspected and certified in 1922. Mr. Weishaar has accepted an important position with the Earl Fruit Company, with headquarters in the California Fruit building, Sacramento. MEETING OF STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY (Continued from Page 8) on the present status of dusting for diseases. Several growers gave their experiences in dusting citrus trees for the control of insects and diseases. Mr. Wilmon Newell of the State Plant Board talked of the serious aspects of the present quarantine situation and sounded a note of warning that this work must be continued very thoroughly in order to keep dangerous pests out of the state. M. J. Daetwyler of Orlando spoke on citrus varieties. Other instructive papers at this session covered the subjects of grove machinery and irrigation. One of the most important matters taken up by the Society at this meeting was the raising of funds for and sending a committee to Tallahassee to endeavor to safeguard the horticultural interests of the state in regard to the cutting down by he present legislature of funds for the carrying on of the work of the State Plant Board and the Agricultural Experiment Station. Mr. M. G. Campbell of Lake Wales was appointed to take charge of this very important matter. The same officers were elected for the ensuing year as served last year, and Tampa was chosen as the place of meeting for next year. It isn't too late to join the Society, and since membership entitles one to a rather liberal education along horticultural lines for the small sum of $2.00, and as the entire proceedings of the meeting are published in bound form later in the year, there are probably many people in Florida and elsewhere who would like to join. To these People I would offer the suggestion that they wrap two dollars up in a request for membership and mail same to Bayard F. Floyd, Secretary of the Society, at Orlando, Florida. STRAWBERRY CROP MEETING HIGHEST EXPECTATIONS The opening of the strawberry season is regarded as plghly favorable to growers in the state of Louisiana. For a time it was thought that great damage might be done to the crop by the unprecedented cold snaps which that section has been experiencing this spring. But according to the reports of the growers the crop has Suffered but little. Even in the northern portion of that state and the southern portion of Arkansas, the total damage has been closely estimated below 10 per cent, although first reports had it that the injury was greatly mf excess of that figure. DRAIN PIPES TANKS SKYLIGHTS LETTERS CORNICES NUMERALS Sheet Metal Work in all its branches. Handled by expert workers and installed as specified. Allen Sheet Metal Works 705 Jefferson Street Office 4963 Phone Home 84-872 Tampa, Fla. T. W. RAMSEY Lumber Millwork, Windows and Doors, House Builders' CY Supplies. Phone,: 51-231 51-219 6th Avenue and 17th Street Tampa, Florida Page Thirty-one Florida's Foremost Magazine For Farmers, Truckers, Fruit Growers Deals with every question affecting the production and marketing of Florida's varied crops. Special departments relating to Citrus Problems, Poultry Raising, Co-operative Selling. Ably edited, handsomely illustrated, attractively printed, the FLORIDA GROWER ranks as the State's leading exponent of horticulture and agriculture. No one interested along these lines should be without it. You'll be glad to know the GROWER-make its acquaintance now. SEND TODAY FOR TRIAL SUBSCRIPTION THREE MONTHS (13 BIG ISSUES) 25c Take advantage of this special half-price offer. Send In your name and address with 25c (stamps or coin) and receive the GROWER for 13 weeks, starting with the current issue. Regular subscription $2.00 per year. ihe 0d GROWER Bay Avenue, TAMPA, FLORIDA I IS SV.( ~

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Grounds and Flowers Softening harsh lines and bringing out all the latent beauty a plot of ground may be made to yield-such is the work of an expert landscape gardener. The "Professional Touch" in the finished work is noticeably apparent when our services are employed. Write us for suggestions. Kflull Floral Company Dept. "L" 505 Tampa Street Tampa, Florida Your Teams 0 A Living Wage For the work done by your teams you pay them in feed. If you want honest work give them an honest feed. Old Beck Sweet Feed As compared with money, Old Beck is the IA t A A It is the biggest feed value horses and mules. imped whole oats, d sugar he right pecially which it won't 0 & Er vld Dealers Everywhere GRAIN CO. -Distributors pa, Florida Page Thirty-two in the world today for It is cracked corn, cr green alfalfa meal an house molasses in just t amounts. We use a s treated new molasses makes a green feed and cause colic. For Sale by Fee JACKSON State' Tam NEWS FROM NEW YORK CITY MARKETS (Continued from Page 15) In sending out their circular to the trade, Higgins & James Company announces that a new corporation has been formed and is now functioning under the name of William A. Higgins & Co., to continue the business. The company, which was originally operated under that name, is one of the oldest of dry fruit jobbing houses, When E. S. James and his son, Leslie, entered the business the name was changed, but when the James withdrew in January the name was not changed because of the legal procedure necessary. * W. G. Becker, manager of the dried fruit department of R. C. Williams & Co., has introduced a new label which has been designed for use on the firm's private label pack of Santa Clara prunes, on their 15-ounce carton of 40-50's. The color scheme includes the Royal Scarlet label with blue lettering and a picture of a dish of prunes, all on a white background. * The single icing system of shipping lettuce from Calexico, Calif., to Eastern markets has been declared a success. Cars shipped in that way have realized "premiums" over the regular refrigerated car service. By the new process ice spray under cold air blasts at the time of packing is introduced into the car. It is also necessary to ice while the shipment is in transit. Experiments in shipping other vegetables that way are being made, * A. H. Pfeiffer, general manager of the Pacific Northwest Canning Company of Puyallup, Wash., has been in New York during the latter part of the month to visit his brokers, Butler & Sergeant. Mr. Pfeiffer's company operates the plants of the Puyallup & Summer Fruit Growers' Canning Company, which was a large factor in its day. * A few cars are arriving daily of the new stock Florida potatoes, and being sold at $14@$15, or one dollar less than they were the second week of April. New Bermudas on the 19th of the month sold at $18 a barrel, where $22 was the price the previous week. A local broker taking advantage of every prospect says that he has never seen such a widespread interest in future pumpkins so early in the season. One Middle Western canner reports that he has already sold about 75 per cent of his expected pack. To make sure of adequate supplies of raw stocks some canners have acreages under contract which will be devote exclusively to pumpkins and wvatermelons. The latter will be shipped to the produce markets to cut down the overhead on pumpkins. The Fairdale Canning Conpany Of Bridgeton, N. J-, packers of fancy tomatoes, has placed its accounts with the Henry H. Ashenfelter, Inc. /pal ,,Now c KV9,VW

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Skimier Vzckin(y HoqSe NewS FLORIDA NEWS The following new citrus packing houses are to be built in Florida this summer to be ready for operation next season: Mr. P. John Hart at Fort Myers, a three-car per day capacity house. Lakeland Citrus Growers' Association at Lakeland, a ten-car per day capacity house. Crooked Lake Citrus Growers' Association at Crooked Lake, a six-car per day capacity house. Southern Packing Company at Lakeland, a four-car per day capacity house. Manatee Fruit Company at Sutherland, a four-car per day capacity house. Gentile Brothers at Haines City, a six-car per day capacity house. Watermelon seed has been shipped by the carload from Jefferson county during April, where the growing of watermelons for seed has become an industry of considerable proportions. During the first week in April, D. H. Gilbert of Monticello, one of the largest watermelon seed dealers in the country, shipped a carload of 30,000 pounds of Tom Watson seed. * Chase and Company early in April completed a deal whereby they gained control of the holdings of the Nocatee Fruit Company at Nocatee. According to the Arcadia News: "The trade involves about three hundred acres of groves and the packing house at Nocatee, with all equipment. It is understood that the price was between $350,000 and $400,000." The Manatee Fruit Company is adding equipment to their citrus packing plant at Palmetto to increase their capacity eight cars a day. Headquarters for the Florida Waterways Traffic League has been established in the Orlando Mortgage Loan building at Orlando, and a campaign is being waged to obtain at least 10,000 members. The work this league, of which Mr. S. J. Sligh is president, hopes to accomplish, is the deepening of the St. Johns river from Jacksonville to Sanford so as to make a channel 20 feet deep and 200 feet wide in order that fruits and vegetables may be shipped from Sanford in ocean-going vessels without having to be trans-shipped at Jacksonville. Also to construct laterals and feeders to the St. Johns-south, east and west of Sanford. Canned grapefruit has been moving by the carload from St. Lucie county during March and April. The Polk Canning Company's plant at Vero and the plant of the St. Lucie Products Company at Rio, have been running to capacity. Most of the shipments have gone to California and the Middle West. James & Sessions, vegetable growers of Bartow, have constructed recently, a tomato packing house at Clewiston, in which to pack the huge crop of tomatoes they are growing in that section. Sh *m Shipments of tomatoes from the Everglades section Commenced in the latter part of April. It is estimated that the crop from this section will be 1950 cars for this season, *' String beans and cucumbers have been shipped from Suter county during April at the rate of approximately 100 cars of each, every week. * The Winter Haven Citrus Growers' Association is addng considerable new equipment to their packing plant in Order to increase the capacity for next season. * The output of strawberries for the season of the DeSoto county Strawberry Growers' Association packing house at Plant an Acreage of Grapes, Become Financially Independent the Third Year After Planting. Hundreds of acres of our Adapted Bunch Grapes were planted in Florida during the season just closed. The average size of the vineyards increased considerably in the past year. More and more wise fruit growers are planting acreages of our Adapted Bunch Grapes, having become convinced of their commercial success in Florida through many years of demonstrations in all sections of the state. Acreage vineyards of our Adapted Grapes have been yielding highly profitable crops in Florida year after year for upwards of ten years. They have proven to be long-lived varieties of bunch grapes. The delicious quality of the fruit has been convincing to the general public since before the great world war. People who speak of commercial grape growing in Florida as in the experimental stage are simply not well informed and have not investigated the actual situation. Florida has arrived as a commercial grape growing state. There but remains the more rapid expansion of the industry. That is where your opportunity lies. You don't need to experiment in commercial grape growing in Florida. That has been done for you in the past ten years. It is for you to get into the grape-growing industry and make yourself financially independent. It does not require many years before you reap satisfactory returns in the Adapted Bunch Grape growing industry in Florida. In eighteen months after planting, with reasonable care, you will get a paying crop of fruit, and in thirty months you will be surprised at the very liberal returns. CAN WE INTEREST YOU in a grape development investment where we do all that is required to bring to you quickly substantial financial returns annually, without your having to bear any responsibility in their care? This means financial independence with only a comparatively small investment within a period of less than three years. For further information address Southern Adapted Nurseries TAMPA, FLORIDA Business Offices: TAMPA, FLA. Main Nursery: BARTOW, FLA. Page Thirty-three II g 11

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Tomato Packing Machinery Assures Profits Dust and dirt from the field and stains from spraying detract very much from the eye appeal of tomatoes, even though they be well packed otherwise. The picture above illustrates the value of polishing tomatoes. Those in the two baskets in the rear were not polished-note the spray marks. The tomatoes in the front baskets were put through a Skinner Tomato Polisher. Clean fruit and vegetables advertise themselves more effectively. Nature uses form and color display to attract attention to her products. The wise grower and shipper puts his produce on the market with all of nature's appeals displayed to their fullest advantage. Grading machinery, polishers, sizers and careful packing of fruits and vegetables, give every package and every piece in each package an advantage in the market over produce not carefully cleaned, graded, sized and packed. Write at once for full particulars of Skinner polishing, grading and sizing machinery for Tomatoes and other vegetables. SKINNER MACHINERY COMPANY Broadway Dunedin Page Thirty-four Florida

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Arcadia was stated to be 48,015 quarts. The shipments of this organization have been successful and they plan to increase their acreage another year. * The Standard Fruit Growers' Exchange has purchased the Beacham groves at Apopka, consisting of nearly 200 acres. This gives the Standard Growers 300 acres in one tract in Orange county, besides other holdings. A shipment of citrus fruit was sent from Bradentown during April to Gottried Zykan, a merchant of Vienna, Austria, by the Manatee County Growers' Association. Fancy fruit was selected for this 5,000-mile journey-two boxes of fine grapefruit from the famous Kirkhuff-Crouter Grove near Bradentown, and two boxes of Valencia oranges from the Eagle Fruit Company's grove on the Manatee river, being chosen. The fruit was specially and carefully packed for its long journey. * Plant City is to have a grapefruit canning factory ready for operation next season, according to recent advices. New York men are behind this venture and it is expected that the plant will have a capacity of 500 cases a day. This plant, it is said, will can strawberries and vegetables as well as grapefruit. * Orlando has received much favorable publicity this past season through the fact that the S. J. Sligh Fruit Company of that city sent out thousands of boxes of oranges and grapefruit, the wrapper of each containing the following: "Grown and shipped from Orlando, City Beautiful. For information and literature write the Orlando Chamber of Commerce." * Chase & Co. are increasing the capacity of their citrus packing house at Isleworth. * Tomato packing houses in the Manatee section have been busy during April. According to Manager Williams of the Manatee County Growers' Association, the outlook for the crop is good this season. The acreage is larger than it was last year. The tomato packing season will be over about May 25th. * It was predicted by George A. Scott, sales manager of the Florida Citrus Exchange, on April 25th, that only 6 per cent of the orange crop and 20 per cent of the grapefruit was left to ship. The total shipments to this date had been 13,500,000 boxes, equal to the entire shipment last year. Mr. Scott stated that the season's shipments might go as high as 15,500,000 boxes. A. S. Herlong of Leesburg is adding new equipment to his packing plant in preparation for a bigger business next year. Mr. W. C. Sherman, a lumber operator of West Florida and Alabama, has taken over the big mill of the Consolidated Crate and Lumber Company at Lake Wales, and will run this mill to capacity. This mill has been shut down since the winter of 1921-22. Mr. R. F. Innis will manage the plant. R. P. Burton & Son of Lisbon are adding improvements to their citrus packing plant in anticipation of the need for greater capacity another season. According to latest reports Bradentown is to have another grapefruit canning factory before the next citrus shipping season opens. The new plant is to be a subsidiary of the Manatee County Citrus Sub-Exchange. Citrus fruit exports from South Africa amounted to 290,000 boxes of oranges, 40,000 packages of naartjes, and M000 boxes of grapefruit, during the 1922 season. This is'one of the best seasons on record, if not the best, for South African packing houses. SKINNER CLAMP TRUCKS Skinner Clamp Trucks have been giving satisfactory service in packing houses for a number of years. They are ideally adapted to trucking of field or packed crates of fruits or vegetables in and around the Packing plant and for loading out of or into cars. They are made in two practical types: one, with long handles for trucking field boxes, and fruit or vegetable crates stacked more than three feet high; the other, with short handles for trucking shipping cases and loading aboard cas Write for complete particulars Skinner Machinery Company way Dunedin Florida Broad Page Thirty-five Skinner Box Press With Strapping Reel Attached The Skinner Box Press with Strapping Reel attached forms a most convenient and practical combination for pressing and strapping boxes of fruit. Write for full particulars. Skinner Machinery Company Broadway Dunedin Florida I

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Where the Profit Come S ill/ feeding PRed Comb~ VICC SCRATCH h 3 1 lbof Red Comb fine Chick scratc&plas 11b.of RedCombChickMasfir' wi11prodice11hof flick YOU Can fi2Ure it out yourself For Sale By Feed Dealers Everywhere JACKSON GRAIN COMPANY State Distributors Jacksonville Florida Tampa ADVERTISING PRINTERS By reason of modern equipment and long experience we are equipped to render a high ly satisfactory printing service. YOUR Printing warrants a craftsmans touch Send It To Rinaldi Rinaldi Printing Company 107 Lafayette St. Tampa, Florida Page Thirty-six TELL THE WORLD WI SI Our Outdoor Display Signs are "Different" in that each is designed by an expert to convey an idea. LC.er'ome Benneft Office and Shop 1612-14-Tampa St. Tampa, Florida EDITORIALLY (Continued from Page 20) other one thing and their significance is as truly beautiful as their outer form. Florida has received a lot of unfavorable publicity in the past and recently. Perhaps a more widespread interest in the growing and showing of flowers in this state would serve in a measure to mitigate the stains that have temporarily been placed upon her escutcheon. At any rate, we hope the Florida Flower Parade will be perpetuated. This Issue and the Next Because of being crowded with copy we have been forced to leave out several items that we had planned to include in this issue. "The Awakening of Lake Joy," by Riley M. Fletcher Berry, will be continued in the June number. An article on citrus production in Porto Rico which we had also expected to include in this issue, has had to be carried over until the next. A number of pictures taken during the Florida Horticultural Society meeting were received too late for insertion. We have a lot of splendid material for the June Packing House News and only hope that we will have room enough to crowd it all in. Another Florida Flower Show Since commenting upon the Flower Show and Parade at Orlando we note that an amateur Flower Show was held in Jacksonville on April 26 and prizes were given for the best displays of various flowers. The Jacksonville Times-Union in its editorial columns the day before the show said: "Flower show, in Riverside, Thursday, ought to show what can be done in the way of flower culture in Florida." We would like to add by way of suggestion that a flower show in every town of any size in the state would be a great stunt, but if every person in the state interested would consolidate their efforts toward a huge statewide Flower Show to be held at some central point early in the year, it would be a better one. Packing House Inspection It looks as though it is going to be necessary before very long to adopt some method of packing house inspection under State or Federal laws to prevent the shipping of cull fruits and vegetables and dropped fruits to the markets. Culls and drops shipped from various producing sections, masquerading as first grade produce are found in the markets constantly. It can be readily seen that where one grower or shipper sends culls and drops to the market either marked as graded fruit or mixed with graded fruit, the entire community or section from which he ships is hurt. The situation with respect to shipping culls which have no business in the markets at all, is growing alarming. The Packing House News will take up this problem in detail in the next issue and in the meantime we would like to have expressions from growers and shippers in all parts of the country as to how it may best be solved. The Packing House News is considering offering a silver cup to whoever owns the largest orange tree in the world. As the poets say, more of this anon. Next month we will show an illustration of one of the contenders for the title. Phone 2990

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Apple Crop in Oregon produced its greatest apple crop in 1922. Not only was the bumper output of 1921 overtopped in size, but the quality of the present season's fruit was the best average ever known in this territory. The apple crop of the state for the year totaled 7,000,000 boxes valued at $7,300,000. The average low price was low due to the congested condition of the railroads as well as to general financial troubles in other centers. Due to the railroad congestion, Portland shipped direct to Europe more than double the quantity of apples usually sent. Europe, Asia and Africa as well as South American republics received shipments of apples direct from Portland. Apple shipments through the Port of Portland during the past season aggregate 1,000,000 boxes, a gain of about half a million boxes over last year. Apples of average size number 125 to the box. At this rate, the shipments made by the Port of Portland would furnish an apple a-piece for every man, woman and child in Great Britain, France and Belgium, with many millions left over for those who wanted a second helping. Placed side by side, the apples from the Northwest sent this year through Portland would make a row across the American continent. The apples go to the Atlantic coast, chiefly New York, and to such European ports as Glasgow, Liverpool, Southampton and London. Every form of modern conveyance brings them to Portland, except perhaps the airplane and probably it will come to that yet. Trucks, river boats and railroads each carry their quota. In cooperation with the Hood River Apple Growers' Association the Port of Portland and the dock commission facilities for storing the apples in warehouses before shipping are being rigorously tested with a view to determining the keeping property of apples of various kinds under various conditions, Ventilated storage room is provided at terminal No. 4 with a capacity of 500,000 boxes of apples. To carry the fruit to the Atlantic Coast and to Europe, ships with large igerator spaces are employed. Oregon 1922 In spite of the fact that more apples were disposed of this year than ever before, at the end of February it was found that Hood River had approximately 864,000 boxes of apples left over. The Portland Chamber of Commerce decided to co-operate with apple growers of this section which has become world famous for its fruit in an endeavor to "save the grower." So with this official slogan, Apple Week was launched in Portland, February 26 to March 3. The surplus was due to the greater amount of fruit produced in this section this year and also to the lack of shipping facilities by railroad. A local wool warehouse donated space for the apples which were shipped from Hood River. Special prices for these fancy apples was a feature of the week. Many Portlanders bought the fruit for shipping to friends in other states. Apples may be shipped by parcel post, but some care is required in the sending. The postal regulations stipulate that packages weighing up to 70 pounds may be accepted for parcel post shipment up to a distance of 300 miles. On the other hand, a weight of not more than 50 pounds will be accepted for shipment to any point reached by the parcel post service. This would include most boxed apples it is believed. Window displays of boxed apples were featured during Apple Week. One local hotel kept a large bowl full of apples in the lobby bearing a sign "Apple Week-Take One", which kept the bellhops hustling to keep it filled. Department stores and grocery stores all assisted in unloading the surplus. P. F. Clark, sales manager of the Apple Growers' association of Hood River expressed the hope that the conclusion of apple week in Portland would mean that hereafter to a great extent Portland would be a good market for the choice grades of the fruit usually shipped to eastern states. It is expected that more than cars of onions will be shipped season out of McAllen, Texas. 100 this I Terminal at Hood River Oregon. Shipping Point of World Famous Apples of the District By A'IJIEL 6. /. DUNN Page Thirty-seven USE FE & 0Roach Killer Make This a Roachless Year This clean, dry white powder, prepared especially for roaches, provides a safe, sure method of ridding your home of these filthy, germ-breeding pests. Kills By A Natural Process Sure As the Laws of Nature A remarkable discovery, mysterious in action, wonderful in results. Certain death to roaches -they hunt for it; it suits their appetite exactly. Not poisonous to anything else. Sold With A Money-Back Guarantee Sold only by mail for the simple reason that I want the job of placing it in every home where there are roaches. Hundreds have used it with satisfactory resulted. Send in Your Order Today 2 2 z, Half Full Size Size Boxes Boxes 60c 1.00 C. Y. McMULLEN Florida Ave. Dunedin, Florida Reference: Bank of Dunedin LABELS Peach, Apple, Tomato, Plum, Asparagus and Berry Labels. Printed in one to four colors. Packing House and Orchard Tickets, Stationery, etc. Send for Samples Prompt Service The Georgia Post Knoxville, Ga. Sk,,reEr_1i Hogye@New5, A

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Skliwer Picking House News FOUR REASONS WHY CITRUS FRUIT SHIPPERS AND GROWERS SHOULD USE SCIENTIFICALLY CONSTRUCTED ORANGE BOXES 1. Because boxes built on scientific lines are the very highest type of box construction known at this time. 2. Because in scientifically constructed boxes every detail is carefully looked after. Additional strength is placed at points where needed so that this box is practically free from breakage. 3. Because a scientifically constructed box is attractive in appearance. The smooth cut veneer and the special grading is such that the box is always attractive. 4. Because citrus fruit growers and shippers have applied science and research to the industry and they have a right to demand a scientifically constructed box for the shipment of their fruit. We Manufacture Only High Grade Scientifically Constructed Crate Material. The Best by Test ASK THE SHIPPER WHO IS USING IT Nocatee Crate Company Manatee Crate Company Nocatee, Florida Manatee, Florida WELDED METAL TANKS From the largest in the state to the smallest we can care for your needs. Made of extra thick steel, handled by expert welders, our finished product comes up to your expectations. Air, water, oil, ammonia and ice tanks, in fact a tank for any purpose you may demand can be furnished for immediate delivery. CUSHMAN 4 H. P. VERTICAL We are the largest manufacturers of welded tanks in the South. A LIGHTWEIGHT (190 lbs), compact, power Write us for our bulletin of useful informaplant. Offering to the farm and home the tion-it will go a long way toward solving comforts of light and water. The operating cost is extremely low and the service reliable. your tank problem. Write us for more detailed information. Southern Water Supply Co. AMERICAN WELDING & TANK CO. L. A. Gabel, Mgr. "The Firm That Welds That Satisfies" 807 Tampa Street Tampa, Florida 1414 Lozano Street Tampa, Florida Page Thirty-eight

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SSknnr Pacinl( Hoq5'Nows 5g PACIFIC NORTHWEST NOTES The "Hood River Traffic Association" is an organization but recently formed by fruit men of that famous Sugar Granulated Oregon valley. Its express purpose is to prevent future car shortage as was suffered last season, and it expects to cooperate to this end with similar associations in other fruit districts. In scope, it represents practically the enB L U E S T O N E tire tonnage of that section. P. F. Clarke was elected president; W. R. Woolpert, vice-president; R. W. Kelly, (Copper sulphate) treasurer; and C. Leland Smith, secretary and manager. (98-99%) The firm of Sgobel & Day, third largest handler of fruit in the United States, has decided to enter the upper Hood This is a new product of finely granulated River valley field. It will build a modern warehouse, bluestone, quickly soluble in water and suitfully equipped at Parkdale. Colonel William S. Dowd will able for even distribution around citrus trees be district representative. C. W. McCullaugh, formerly for the correction of die-back and ammoniasales manager of the Hood River Apple Growers' Association. tion, is northwest manager for Sgobel & Day. The price is no more than the kind that you Because of unsettled market conditions on the Atlantic have been using. seaboard, the dried fruit committee of the Oregon GrowWe can supply any quantity for quick shipers' Cooperative Association, in conjunction with the diment from stock. rectors of the organization, has decided to wait until quotations are more favorable before attempting to sell any Ask for sample more prunes in that section of the country. The North Pacific Cooperative Berry Growers (from estimates made by some experienced growers in the association) has figured the average cost of a crate of strawberries. Chase & Company Value of 1 acre land ready to plant, for instance: $500-Interest on that for 4 years at 8 per cent-$160.00 Taxes for 4 years ...........-.-......----------------------------40.00 Our line includes everything for the grower and Plants for setting ..--------..-..-------------------.-....-------50.00 packer-Fertilizers, Box Material, Sprays, etc. Work cultivating, etc., 4 years -------------..----.. 480.00 Depreciation of tools -..----------.-------.. 10.00 1 Fertilizer, 4 years ..............---------....-.--------100.00 Picking, 3 years --------..........-----270.00 Crates, 3 years ...........-.---------------.. ..----------.180.00 Transportation to central station ....... -...-------------90.00 Total -------------------------------$1,380.00 If so, you will be interested in reading the timely articles which appear each month in 3 year yield---900 crates--cost the crate.$ 1.53 THE CITRUS INDUSTRY One of the biggest steps recently taken by berry growthe only exclusive citrus publication, and which ers of this territory is the formation of the Federated covers the citrus field in every line and from every Berry Growers of the Northwest. This consolidates 11 angle. smaller associations including the North Pacific CooperaFederal and state experts and leading growers are tive Berry Growers, the Washington Berry Growers' asregular contributors of practical articles on every sociation, the Puyalup & Sumter Fruit Growers' associaphase of citrus culture and marketing problems. tion, the Puget Sound Berry Growers' association, the The price is only $1 per year. Write for sample White River Berry Growers' association, the Big Harbor copy or mail your subscription to Berry Growers' association of the State of Washington; THE CITRUS INDUSTRY the Growers' association of Hood River, the Woodburn Fruit Growers' association, the Berry Growers' Packing Tampa, Florida company, and the Loganberry Growers' Exchange, of Oregon; and the Berry Growers' Cooperative Union of British Columbia. This represents 7,856 members, all interested in better marketing conditions. Sewerage Disposal Northwest apple growers should extend markets in South America, according to David R. McGinnis of the Scientifically Handled South American Trading & Exportation company of Oakland, California. He asserts that he has paid as much as Our re-inforced concrete Septic Tanks and 26c for a single apple there, and has seen them sold for Sanitary Pit Closets approved by U. S. Public as high as 46c. At the same time with such prices preHealth Service and all State and County "ailing buyers could get nothing but "C" quality. Mr. Boards of Health. 1lcGnis said he believed apples would sell in South America for $7.50 to $10.00 the box. Guaranteed Twenty Years A1 .Write for Plans and Specifications Algerian citrus fruit is being exported to Southern Co. France in great quantities, according to a recent report. HILLSBORO CEMENT PRODUCTS CO. The fruit is mostly oranges and mandarins, with a few 3904 Florida Avenue lemons. The export for 1921 was 12,900 metric tons of Phone 71-257 Tampa, Florida fruit, of which all but 74 tons were shipped to France. Page Thirty-nine

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Cantaloupe Packing Machinery Carefully very best Machinery erature on Broadway, antaloupe Sizer graded, accurately sized and finely polished cantaloupes bring the market prices. A complete outfit of Skinner Cantaloupe Packing will pay for itself in one season. Write at once for special litcantaloupe cleaning, grading and sizing machinery. SKINNER MACHINERY COMPANY Dunedin, Flori Apple and Peach Packing Machinery Built to Save and Make Money A Five in One Packing Outfit The five in one feature of this Apple and Peach Sizer should be of interest to every packer of apples and peaches. The economy of floor space and operating cost is worth considerable. Embodied in this one machine are: 1, Sizer; 2, Self-feeding Hopper; 3, Cull Belt; 4, Roller Grading Belt; 5, Distributing Belt. Some of the advantages of using this machine are: It is compact and convenient, it handles fruit gently and sizes it accurately, it means less handling of perfect fruits and obtains a larger percentage of choice and fancy grades. Ask for particulars Skinner Machinery Company Broadway, Dunedin, Florida Page Forty da 1 Q[[

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SkAmer P5cin HoqseNewS 1,'~> pCTURES OF FRUIT PACKING WANTED (Continued from Page 28) vertise its careful packing and grading would be through the firm that distributes its products in a particular city. The packing house could write the distributor, suggesting that he get in touch with the librarian, offering to furnish a dozen or so pictures. One advantage of this is that it immediately connects the pictures with the actual food supplies of the city-the children will know that they are learning how their own fruit or vegetables come to them. Another advantage is that such a plan often means additional publicity. In most towns and cities the library is given space in the local papers to tell of the arrivals of new books and collections of interest, and there is a general tendency upon the part of libraries to acknowledge the co-operation of business firms. The sources of the food supply are interesting to children. They cannot hell) but be impressed by the pictured story of the care taken by a progressive packing house to insure quality products reaching the home. They like to "show off"' their knowledge to the folks at home. The youngster of today has quite a voice in saying what is bought for the home. And it is also a remarkably short time until they are running homes of their own. GEORGIA NEWS The lowly dewberry is going to mlake Georgia famous or else Georgia is going to make the dewberry fainous. One way or the other considerable interest is being taken in the production of this member of the blackberry family. The following men have applied for a charter to form the Georgia Dewberry Growers' association under the cooperative laws of the State: W. H. Brown and A. S. Blount, of Vedalia; R. 0. Smith of Bartow; W. C. Pirkle of Baxley. J. T. Brooks of Lumber City; B. P.' Ramsey of Louisville, and Max L. McRae of McRae. The principal offices Of the organization are to be at McRae. W. L. Duncan and other growers ire specializing in Big Stem Jersey sweet Potatoes near Lyons. They expect to ship a number of carloads. The following extract from a news lten in a recent issue of the Macon Telegraph will interest peanut growers: "WASHINGTON, April 17.-A delifnsd that the Tariff Commission disIssl the application to reopen the table oil schedule came from inlebtial sources today when W. W. he Geof Hahira, Ga., president of tion'Orgia Peanut Growers Associathen and L. B. Jackson, director of kGeorgia State Bureau of Marets, filed with President Harding and Chairman Marvin of the United States Tariff Commission, a protest on behalf of one hundred thousand peanut farmers of the South against any further tariff agitation. "The filing of the application to reopen the vegetable oil schedule has frightened many farmers, and if it is docketed for a hearing it will stop the planting of peanuts for this season, for every farmer knows that he cannot raise peanuts without a protective tariff and if our protection is in doubt then we must abandon the crop. "We want the application for reopening the vegetable oil schedules, now on file, dismissed and public announcement made of it so the farmer can proceed with safety. We are planting approximately 400,000 acres of peanuts in Alabama, 225,000 in Georgia, 200,000 in Texas, 150,000 in Virginia, 125,000 in North Carolina, 125,000 in Florida and fifty thousand in South Carolina and if they will let the tariff alone we can double the acreage. But if there is any disturbance in the tariff it will wipe the industry out of existence." "Fancy" Potatoes You may not believe it, but fancy potatoes from Bermuda commanded $20 a barrel in New York this week. "Think of it!" exclaims a buyer. Not giving him a short answer, we don't want to think of it. Thinking of a price like that makes our head swim. -Fruit Trade Journal. A Step in the Right Direction All success to those Florida potato growers whose heads, hearts and hands are enlisted for improved grading of the product which has commenced rolling from Hastings!-Fruit Trade Journal. Cuban Pineapple Crop It is estimated that the pineapple crop in Cuba for the coming season will be approximately 1,000,000 crates. This shows no increase over the crop of last year. It is stated that the pines will be of good keeping quality and principally of the sizes most desirable to dealers, namely 24s, 30s and 36s. Many Pickers Wanted The Florida Times-Union under date of April 4 contains the following: Moore Haven is advertising for two thousand people to come and help gather the tomato crop; Center Hill wants two thousand bean pickers. Florida vegetables are coming along and the people north, east and west are hungry for them. The day of the mixed grade and size in the same package is about over. The consuming public is discriminating in favor of perfect grade, size and pack. ORDER EARLY Time and money are saved by ordering citrus packing machinery early from the Skinner Machinery Company to say nothing of the confusion that results from last minute deliveries because of late orders. DICK SMITH NAIL STRIPPER A dependable packin devie Skinner Machinery Company SKINNER COKE HEATERS have positively proven their effectiveness, in protecting orchards and groves from damage by frost. Because of their efficiency, low first cost and economy of operation, they offer the very best means available for insuring fruit trees and truck crops against frost damage. SKINNER COKE HEATERS send out an intense radiant heat that frost can not penetrate, thereby protecting buds, blossoms and the tenderest growth. write at once for full particulars. Skinner Machinery Company Broadway, Dunedin, Florida World's Largest Manufacturers of Fruit and Vegetable Packing Equipment ingU Page Forty-one

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ervedAeh F Feaiber Believed Him Guilty A country school board was visiting a school and the principal was putting his pupils through their paces. "Who signed Magna Charta, Robert?" he asked, turning to one boy. "Please sir, 'twasn't me," whimpered the youngster. The teacher, in disgust, told him to take his seat; but an old tobaccochewing countryman on the board was not satisfied, so, after a welldirected aim at the cuspidor he said: "Call that boy back. I don't like his manner. I believe he did do it." * Gifted "I'm afraid, doctor," said Mrs. Jones, "that my husband has some terrible affliction. Sometimes I talk to him for hours, and then find he hasn't heard a word." "That isn't an affliction, madam," was the weary reply. "That's a gift." -Ex. * While Worshipping In front of a Broadway restaurant yesterday we saw a small, ragged urchin watching a girl in the window baking batter-cakes. We thought we detected an air of wistfulness about the lad and our heart was touched. "Hungry, kid?" we asked. "Naw!" came his scornful reply. "Can't a feller look at a swell dame without drawin' no crowd?"-Lightning Line. * Nobody Home Jakie: "Ikey, you should put the curtains down when you kiss your wife; I saw you last night." Ikey: "The chokes on you, Jakie; I wasn't home last night."-New West Trade. * Taking No Chances The stingy farmer was scoring the hired man for carrying a lighted lantern to call on his best girl. "The idea," he exclaimed. "When I was courtin' I never carried no lantern; I went in the dark." "Yes," said the hired man sadly, "and look what you got."-Clipped. 5 Where Two Is a Crowd "Rastus say Pahson Brown done kotch him in Farmer Smith's chicken coop." "M-m, boy! Don' Rastus feel 'shamed?" "Nossuh. De pahson am de one feel 'shame. He kain't 'splain how come he done kotch Rastus dar."American Legion Weekly. Page Forty-two Going! Going! Gone! "The bridegroom appeared cool and collected." "Yes, he didn't seem to realize that he was losing control of himself."Interstateiments. * Logic "Mamma, why has papa so little hair?" "Because he does so much thinking.", "But why have you so much?" "Now, my dear-it is time to go to bed." * The Chaos Makers A doctor, an architect and a bolshevik were discussing as to the priority of their occupations. The doctor said: "When Adam's side was opened and a rib removed to make woman, there was a surgical operationmedicine -was the oldest trade." The architect said: "Yes, but when the earth was made out of chaos, there was the building process, the use of materials according to a plan. The architect's is still oldest." The bolshevik smiled and said: "But who supplied the chaos?"Farm Life. ..' The Original Efficiency Expert Editor Oswald Garrison Villard said at an advertising men's banquet in New York: "Business men are flighty. They have strange crazes. What a ludicrous craze scientific management was. "Scientific management was like the old farmer in the malarial swamp district of Maryland. "The farmer's son withdrew his knife from his mouth one morning, pushed his plate of pie back wearily and said: "'Pap, my chill's a-conmin' on.' "'Be she?' said the farmer, as he rose briskly. 'Wal, hold her jest a minute till I get the churn fixed up fer ye.' "-Judge * Republican or Sinner A negro servant girl in Florida approached her boss's husband one day with: "Is you a Republican?" "Why, no," he replied, "I generally vote the Democratic ticket, in this country, at any rate." "No, no!" she came back. "I don' mean one of dem kind of 'publicans. I means a notorious republican, what signs papers." A Man and His Ford Here is a salesman's report just as it came in to the sales manager: "Me and the Ford not able to work today. Later, Ford better; $6.00 doctor's bill. Me bad off; 25 cents doctor's bill." Cars and Ships Little Johnny was seeking information from his father. "Father," he asked, "freight is goods that are sent by water or land, isn't it?" "That's right, son." "Well, then, why is it that the freight that goes by ship is called a cargo, and when it goes by car it is called a shipment?" And then Johnny wondered why father put on his hat and sauntered outside to get the air.-Stanley Journal. News from the Suicide Club A new drink-Aeroplane Cocktail. One drop will kill you. A smile is a panacea for many ailments: If you are thin, it will make you fat; if you are fat, it will make you pleasant; if you are ugly, it will make you beautiful; if you are sad, it will make you happy, and so on ad infinitum. .* * If a certain author were seeking a title for a book today to harmonize with "Plain Tales from the Hills," he might choose: "Fancy Tales from the Flats," and. take his plots from the front pages of our daily newspapers. * They say Volstead is to present a bill at the next Congress which will edge a new word into the Dictionary to take the place of prohibition. * *. Said Weary Willy to, Tired Tim: "Let's start a new rage. "What 'tis?" said Tim. "Start an endurance test to see how long we can rest without work ing.""Fine, it won't take it long to become popular."

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MAP OF FLORIDA FREE If you wish to know Florida get The Tourist News Map showing highways, railroads, steamship lines, waterways, and a lot of other information of interest to Tourists. This Map of Florida (20" x 30") is given free with one year's subscription to The Tourist News, Florida's Tourist information magazine, and the price is one dollar per year. Money spent on a trip to Florida is well invested. A dollar spent for The Tourist News, and The Tourist News Map, pays large dividends in pleasure obtained from an increased knowledge of the Sunshine State. This also gives you corresponding privilege with our Florida Information Bureau. The Tourist News 172-174 Central Avenue Sign this Coupon Now! St. Petersburg, Fla. TOURIST NEWS PUBLISHING CO., St. Petersburg, Florida Dear Sirs: Please send me The Tourist News for one year, with Map of Florida, for which I enclose One Dollar (check, stamps, coin). Name Street Town. RItntMs The Tourist News Press prints the Packing House News THE COLLIS MOTOR Now DISTRIBUTED in FLORIDA by THE SKINNER MACHINERY COMPANY of DUNEDIN, FLORIDA Ample Stock of Motors and Parts Available for Immediate Shipment A Sprayer Is No Better Than Its Engine Replace that unsatisfactory or worn out sprayer engine with a "COLLIS," which is known by hundreds of orchardists for its service giving qualities. Why the "COLLIS" is THE POWER for ANY SPRAYER Full 5 H. P. by Actual Test Unit Construction Compactness Light Weight Clutch Pulley-Sprocket Adjustable Speed Control Easily Mounted on-Any Sprayer COMES READY TO GO-AND DOES GO LEARN WHY NOW FROM THE COLLIS COMPANY Manufacturers CLINTON Or IOWA THE SKINNER MACHINERY COMPANY FLORIDA DISTRIBUTORS Broadway Florida Dunedin

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SUPPLIES FOR FARM -DAIRY -PACKING HOUSE o & S Vertical Boilers Leffel Horizontal Boilers Wyandotte Washing Powders Ensilage Cutters Silos Alamo Gas Engines, 2 Cypress Tanks Red Edge Shovels 1-2 to 15 H. P. Coleman Quick-Lite Lamps and Lanterns Complete Line of Dairp Write for Catalog Address Department "S" Supplies Miller-Lenfestey Supply Company Jacksonville Weber and Hickory Wagons McCormick and Deering Mowers and Parts Largest Stock of Harness in South Florida Prices Right' Everything in the Hardware Line You Can Find Here We Appreciate Your Patronage J. B. HARDIN CO. "Your Picture S tory in Leave es Nothing Untold" We Make "Printing Plates" Zinc Line Cuts Zinc Halftones Copper Halftones In One or More Colors Standard Service, Quality and Price CLYDE GLENN CO. 1110 1-2 Franklin St. 2209,Seventh!Avenue Tampa Miami FLORIDA TAMPA, Ybor City, Florida