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Skinner packing house news

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Title:
Skinner packing house news
Creator:
Skinner Machinery Company
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly
regular
Language:
English
Edition:
v.2 no.4 Apr. 1923

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Subjects / Keywords:
Farm produce -- Packaging -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

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Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began in 1922
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: Volume 2, number 12 (December 1923)
General Note:
"The only fruit and vegetable packing house journal in the United States".

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University of Florida
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Florida Dept. of Agriculture & Consumer Services Division of Plant Industry
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The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
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029132610 ( ALEPH )
956378310 ( OCLC )
2016226511 ( LCCN )
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S1 .S55 ( lcc )

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auloung mistnds~ ie as ao n e Packing leaders of the Fruit Packing and Shipping Industry.

An Illustrated Monthly Publication devoted to Fruit and Vegetable Packing Houses and Other Allied Interests.













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Phone 3681


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The Only Fruit and Vegetable Packing House Journal in America

Volume II APRIL, 1923 Number 4




Contents
PAGE

Horticultural Week at Orlando, Florida 4
Meetings of the State Horticultural Society, State Florists' Association and State
Flower Show to be held in Orlando week of April 16.

Packing Celery at Sanford, Florida. By Thos. W. Hewlett 5
An inspiring story of the success of the Sanford Farmers' Exchange.

Robert C. Paulus 6
A few paragraphs regarding the General Manager of the Oregon Growers' Co-operative
Association.
Packing Houses of W. E. Lee & Company. By T. L. Winton 7
One of the large independent packing and shipping concerns in Florida.
Citrus Production, Packing and Shipping in the Isle of
Pines. By M. L. McSweeney 8
Mr. McSweeney writes entertainingly of the Citrus Industry and its development on
the "Gem Isle of the Caribbean."
Taking the Fright Out of Freight. By Peggy Poe --I
This writer wants to make a dry country dryer. Some interesting facts and figures
regarding dehydration.
Packing Pineapples in Florida. By Frank B. Goodwin 12
The pineapple industry is being revived in Florida. In this article Frank B. Goodwin
tells of the Florida method of packing "pines."
The Awakening of Lake Joy. By Riley M. Fletcher Berry -5

An entertaining bit of fiction with a setting in a citrus packing house.
Citrus Fruit Crates With Detach Tops Defined. By 0. Foerster Schully 16
About a citrus crate that has become popular in some sections of the country.

Citrus Packing House Construction. By C. F. Dunham, Jr. i8
A valuable article by an architect which will be read with much interest.
Editorially 20 Packing and Shipping Prunes. By Ariel E. V. Dunn - - 24
Something of the achievements of the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association.
Why Risk Financial Loss. By A. R. Harrison - 26
Celery and pineapple crate specifications. Railroad people will like this story.
Ex-Laughs - 42



Published Monthly by Skinner Machinery Company, Dunedin, Florida, B. C. Skinner, Vice-President and General Manager (fi . SUBSCRIPTION RATES
III, ~~~~Per year .................. ....$1.00
Single COPY.................--------.10
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Change of address should be reported promptly. Give new and old address. Kindly advise
if more than one copy is mailed to same address. If address on envelope is incomplete or
Z incorrect please send correction or addition. Notify us promptly of failure to receive the NEWS

Address All Communications to Skinner Packing House News, Dunedin, Florida Copyright, 1923. Skinner Machinery Company Printed in St. Petersburg. Florida, by The Tourist News Press r






Horticultural Week At Orlando, Florida

O]eetings qt the State Horticultural Society, Stale Florists' Association and State Flower Show


The week of April 16 will be Horticultural Week in Orlando. Three important meetings that are of particular importance to the horticulturists of the state will be held there at that time. On Monday, April 16, the Florida State Florists' Association opens its second annual session, which continues through the afternoon of Tuesday, April 17.
State Flower Show
At noon on Tuesday, April 17, the First Annual State Flower Show opens. The opening event of the show is to be a floral parade held under the auspices of the Orlando Chamber of Commerce. Many towns and organizations outside of Orlando will participate with floats and automobiles decorated with natural flowers.
The number of entries for exhibits at the Flower Show is quite large, and the show promises to be well worth seeing. Entry is made according to class, the three classes being exhibits by professionals, by business houses and by amateurs. A number of florists from outside the state are sending exhibits for the show. A series of cups and other awards are being offered and competition for these prizes will be sharp.
The Flower Show is an event of particular importance to the state. While Florida is known as the Land of Flowers and the woods and fields abound with flowers (not always shows) at practically all times of the year, the number of flowers grown around the home and in the gardens is not at all what it should be. The purpose of the State Flower Show is to encourage the growing of more flowers and the beautification of homes and highways.
State Horticultural Society The opening session of the thirty-sixth annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society will be at 8 p. m. on Tuesday evening, April 17. The meeting continues through Wednesday and Thursday closing at Friday noon. Three sessions a day will be held on L. B. Sk'nner, President Flor Wednesday and Thursday.
The speakers for the program this year include many technical men in addition to a large number of growers. Some of the addresses are as follows: H. E. Stevens, Ft. Myers"The Present Status of Spraying and Dusting for
the Control of Citrus Diseases." W. W. Yothers, Orlando"The Present Satus of Spraying and Dusting for
the Control of Citrus Insects and Pests." Dr. 0. F. Burger, Gainesville"Melanose of Citrus Fruits and Its Control." Max Waldron, Crooked Lake-I
"Lightning Injury to Citrus Trees." J. C. Chase, Jacksonville"Marketing Future Florida Citrus Crops-the Bugaboo of Over-production." Page Four


id


C. H. Walker, Bartow'Developments Personally Seen in the Florida Citrus
Industry."
Frank P. Goodman, Lake Alfred"What Northern Investors in Florida Are Looking
For."
S. F. Poole, Lake Alfred"Stationary Spray Outfits." J. R. Winston, Orlando"Control Measures for Stem End Rot." W. R. Barger, Washington, D. C."The Coloring of Citrus Fruits."
Geo. Burnham, Lakeland"Some Essentials fur Growing Grapes in Flor. ida."
Dr. S. A. Sylvester, Lakeland"Our Experience in Grow. ing Grapes and Their Re. sults."
Geo. Merrill, Gainesville"Guarding Our Horticul. tural Industries." J. R. Watson, Gainesville"Insects and Other Pests of Grapes."
T. Ralph Robinson, Washington, D. C."Safeguarding Citrus Im. portations by Improved Quarantine Propagation." Wilmon Newell, Gainesville"Serious Aspects of the Present Quarantine." Wm. Gomme, Bartow"The Growing of Grapes In Polk County." Dean Alvord, Clearwater"Beautifying the Home Grounds."
Irving Yarnell, Lake Wales"State and Highway Beautification." M. J. Daetwyler, Orlando"A Discussion of Citrus Stocks and Varieties." C. S. Donaldson, Avon Park"Personal Experiences in Avocado Growing." Wm. Sessoms, Chipley"Satsuma Orange Culture in Northwest Florida." H. G. Clayton, Gainesville"Some Problems of the Satsuma Orange Grower. 7John Barney, Palma Sola"A New Method for Bud" a State Horticultural Society ding and Grafting old Citrus Trees." J. H. Jeffries, Lake Alfred"Citrus Propagation Methods." A. 0. Kay, Ft. Pierce
"The Moisture Content of Soils Near Wilting Citrus Trees and the Results from the Application of sinai
Amounts of Water."
H. G. Gumprecht, Bradentown"Prevention of Decay in Citrus Fruit." W. E. Sexton, Vero"Some Packing House Problems." W. H. Phipps, Valrico"The Dusting of Citrus Trees for Disease and Is
sect Control."
In addition to these papers, there will-be addresses On the-subjects of Citrus Fruit Products, the Canning Of
(Continued on Page 30)






Packing Celery At Sanford, Florida


T/he Sanford Farmers' exchange

Bv'THOS. W. HEWLETT


ELERY literally forms a carpet over the
territory immediately surrounding Sanford, generally known throughout Florida as the "Celery City," for no matter whether you approach by railroad, on the highways from either direction, or by boat along the picturesque St. Johns river, acre after acre of luscious green celery radiates in a vast expanse in all directions at this time of the year, and you wonder where in all the world are enough people to consume it. Such a mistaken idea, however, is quickly dispelled, when you are told that Sanford celery brings big returns and that thousands of carloads are shipped every season to eager markets. Florida, we learn, is running a very close race with one or two other states in this country for second place in the quantity production of celery. Sanford leads in the state in production, being way ahead of any other section in Florida.
Growing celery is not a poor man's game, and neither is it a vocation likely to lead to success to one not thoroughly familiar with the intricate business of raising celery. We say this, because some readers might get false impressions from reading this article since it is a story of great success. But success generally means the overcoming of difficulties, the enduring of hardships and, in this case, also the investment of much capital. We are told that it costs somewhere in the neighborhood of $700 an acre to produce celery at Celery Packed. Sanfo Sanford, and since celery land is very valuable and high priced, it is very easily seen that to be able to even commence the lucrative pursuit of celery growing one must first have money. Then the present successful state of the celery industry wasn't always. The pioneers and those engaged in the cultivation of celery at Sanford today have passed through many trying years in order to bring the industry to its present splendid condition. The control of diseases and insects, fertilization and cultivation, irrigation, and packing and


rd


marketing, are problems that have had to be overcome. But this is not a story of growing celery but of packing it and this end of the industry as practiced by one organization which, at the present time, only handles a part of the total amount grown at Sanford.
The Sanford Farmers' Exchange is a co-operative organization composed of 30 large grower members. It was organized about four years ago, is affiliated with the Florida Citrus Exchange and employs the Citrus Exchange marketing machine to market its products.
The celery packing house and pre-cooling plant, owned and operated by the Sanford Farmers' Exchange, is one of the most unique packing houses in this country and incidentally iq the only complete celery packing and pre-cooling plant in existence.
It was the writer's pleasure to visit this packing house recently, during one of its busiest days, and the impression gained from even a casual inspection was to the effect that if ever efficiency and positive results were being obtained in grading, packing and handling methods, they were being accomplished here. The entire plant was a veritable hive of industry. Colored labor is used almost exclusively and over 200 workers were busy unloading, washing, sorting, packing, handling and loading celery for shipping the day we were visiting. The panorama of celery being brought in fresh from the field, quickly washed and packed, and traveling in an unceasing stream from one end of the long packing house to the other, in packed crates, on a chain Farmers' Exchange. conveyor; passing through the precooler and op into the iced cars at the rate of a carload every hour and a half-was a sight to make even the most skeptical, as to-the value of modern packing methods, sit up and take notice. We were told that visitors from other celery producing sections of ,the United States have been amazed at the degree of success attained by this plant in packing celery by up-to-date methods and at the speed with which the product is put through the packing and pre-cooling processes.
(Continued on Page 22)


Pack:ng and Pre-Cooling Plant of Sanford Farmers' Exchange


Page Five





ROBERT C. PAULUS

Fruit Gromer and General Manager of the Oregon Qrolvers' Co-operative associationn.


N UNCANNY mastery
of figures, a remarkable familiarity with a great diversity of products grown in this section of the country, and an ace-high standing with Coast bankers, are the fundamental qualifications which have made Robert C.
Paulus the guiding geinus of the co-operative movement in the fruit and vegetable market of the Pacific Northwest.
Just 12 years ago marked the inception of the Oregon Growers' Cooperative Association and Mr. Paulus stepped into the boots of general manager at that time, filling the office with remarkable success. Actual knowledge of the products together with unusual ability as a fruit salesman has enabled him to carry on the enormous task of marketing Northwest produce.
And so today, although only thirtyfour years of age, Mr. Paulus stands as a big figure in the packing and shipping industry of this territory. Success which has come to this man so early is typical of that which has come to many self-made men, for Mr. Paulus started as a bookkeeper for the Salem Fruit Union and performed every function in that organization until elevated to the management. Thus, step by step, he advanced to his present position, his vast amount of experience in every branch of the business enabling him to direct such a big work with an understanding hand.
Due greatly to the efforts of Mr. Paulus, the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association was formed in the fall of 1919. It was organized in response to a demand among fruit growers in all parts of Oregon for a better marketing system. High prices for one year followed by low prices during the next two years had been the formula for a long period. The co-operative movement came in response to a demand from the growers for what seemed to be a living wage annually rather than a continuance of the old system.
The growth of the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association was very rapid from the first, and today there are 2,300 members scattered throughout Western Oregon from Medford in the Rogue River Valley where shipping pears and apples are grown, to the Umpqua Valley which produces prunes and apples, into the Williamette Valley where every kind of commercial fruit from berries, cherries, pears, prunes and apples are produced, on into the Dalles country in eastern Oregon, where grapes, apricots, cherries and shipping prunes predominate.
Page Six


The Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association has a splendid system of fruit packing houses handling every type of packing and storage. The plants are equipped with modern machinery, and are operated from the central office at Salem through district managers.
Over 20,000,000 pounds of dried prunes were sold and distributed over the world in 1922. These were shipped to 88 carload markets, including every country in Europe excepting Ireland, and Northwest fruit growers have a haunting notion that there would have been more peace and less strife in that troublesome land if Mistland prunes had been used.
The association markets all of its Oregon prunes under the brand name of "Mistland." National advertising campaigns are being conducted. Thus Oregon producers are joining the banner of California Co-operatives in the tremendous task of creating new markets for state products through national advertising. The only hope for the growers is wider distribution, better quality, more steady returns, and more co-operation.
The Oregon growers did a little in excess of $2,500,000.00 worth of business in 1922. The association packs in the dried, canned and fresh state. It operates the finest string of packing houses in the Northwest. In all, there are 35,000 acres of orchard behind the Mistland banner.
Mr. Paulus, the executive who has planned the work of the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association and superintended its activities, is an extremely modest man. He owns a large prune orchard at Salem, Oregon, and makes his home in the city of Salem, which is headquarters for the organization. Mr. Paulus claims supremacy in only one line-fishing. A hobby in the West is synonomous to fishing, he contends. His wide acquaintance with brokers and fruit buyers gives him a knowledge of fruit selling conditions beyond the "ken of average men."

FLORIDA NEWS
Last year the grape was our second most important revenue producing fruit and a concerted effort is being made by the Grape Growers' Association of this state to vastly increase its acreage in Florida.

The U. S. Department of Agriculture says there will be a large decrease in early cabbage in both Florida and Texas this spring, also a slight decrease in the acreage of celery. Lettuce in Florida shows 3,765 acres in 1923, compared with 3,135 in 1922. Early potatoes show a decrease to 19,768 acres, compared with 28,240 in 1922. Florida strawber-


ries show 3,693 acres with a prospec. tive yield of 8,981,376 quarts in 1923 compared with 4,275,520 quarts in 1922. Tomatoes will show a large increase.-States Marketing Bureau,

Dry ventilator cars which have been used to ship tomatoes will be to some extent replaced on the East Coast after April first, when icing will be used in a limited number of cases The icing plants at Miami, Florida City and Fort Pierce, which have been handling the citrus fruits, will also handle the tomatoes.

On February 12, the American Fruit Growers, Inc., shipped two cars of grapefruit to Manila. Another car is being sent and it is felt that a regular market will be developed in the near future. The fruit goes by way of Seattle.

P. F. Ratliff of Bowling Green has received a letter from the Pacific Fruit and Produce Company, of Spn. kane, Wash., complimenting him very highly upon the pack and condition of strawberries received by them from him in Florida.

Orlando has a new industry, the canning of grapefruit hearts. The company is being backed by Will H. Craig, of Noblesville, Ind. George D. Moffatt, Jr., is superintendent of the work, which is temporarily being carried on in the packing house of S. J. Sligh.

A 5,000,000 quart strawberry crop which will bring to the city more than a million dollars is in sight for Plant City. The supply is still strong with a fair demand. The price is holding up well.

The Orange County Citrus SuExchange plans within the next few months to build in Orlando a canning factory for grapefruit hearts. The plant will be co-operative and the product will be known as "Seald hearts."

All packing plants at Goulds have been busy during the tomato seasn. The crop has been estimated at 1,500 cars. A large acreage is being packed by outside operators.

The directors of the Dade County Citrus Sub-Exchange are planning to own and operate their own grapefruit canning factory. Plans are not Y definitely matured but it is expected that the factory will follow the gen eral lines of the one at Eagle Lake

Miami tomato shippers are picking their crops just past the turn and it is hoped that in this way the s0P ments will be better able to meettbe cold weather which they encounter It is pointed out that the green t mato cannot stand the cold which O1" slightly turned can. With the ref'w erator shortage continuing everl means is being tried to move the Crop with the least possible loss.






PACKING HOUSES OF W. E. LEE & CO.

B, T. -_. WINTON


Florida is noted for the splendid type of its citrus pack- tion and their knowledge of the fruit and vegetable packing houses and the pride of the citrus growers in their ing and shipping business from every angle, and in part fruit as exemplified by the great amount of care taken in to the up-to-date methods used by them in packing and this state to grade and pack oranges, grapefruit and tan- handling the products they ship. A recent addition to gerines. Millions of dollars are invested in packing their equipment is a brand new packing house at Palmetto houses and machinery for packing in on the Ellenton Road. This new plant Florida, and that this investment is of tile construction, is 200 feet long brings commensurate returns is proven and modernly equipped in every reby the extent and success of the citrus spect. industry in this state today.
W. E. Lee, or William Edward Lee to
The three packing houses shown in be exact, president of the W. E. Lee the illustration below are among the Company, is one of the largest and finest of our Florida citrus packing most successful individual growers of houses and the company that owns
them one of the largest car-lot distrib- fruits and vegetables in Florida. He uting organizations for fruit and veg- owns or controls over 1,000 acres of etables in the state, as well as one of groves and produced more than 200,the concerns taking greatest pride in 000 boxes of citrus fruit during 1922. its pack. The W. E. Lee Company, W. E. Lee has been actively interested Inc., has its headquarters in Plant in the fruit and vegetable industry City, and the present organization was since he was 14 years old. He was perfected on August 1st, 1922. This born at Helena, Georgia, on February company operates fourteen or fifteen 8, 1893, was educated in Alabama, and other packing houses, at strategic is a graduate of the Alabama Polypoints in the citrus belt of Florida, be- technic Institute. He is a director of sides those shown in the illustration on several banks in South Florida and his this page. They pack and ship fruits, interests are large and varied. Among vegetables and melons for growers, other things he is Mayor of Plant City, handling these commodities on much having been elected to this office in the same order as many other large 1919. packing and shipping organizations. The three citrus packing houses The brands packed by the W. E. Lee illustrated on this page were built for Company are: "Yellow Kid," "Pretty the 1922-1923 season. They are all of Baby," and "Good Nature." w. E. Lee metal construction, well arranged with
Although the present organization of room for expansion. The W. E. Lee the W. E. Lee Company is comparatively new it has met Company handles a wide range of produce, keeping them with much success, growth has been rapid and plans have busy practically the year 'round. Quality of pack and been made to further extend its facilities for operations the range and extent of their operations has assured sucduring coming fruit and vegetable seasons. This success cess for this organization in the markets. Vegetables and is due in part to the excellent personnel of the organiza- melons will be shipped by them following the citrus season.




























Auburndale Lake Garfield LeeCo
Page Seven






Citrus Production, Packing and Shipping In the Isle of Pines

By ,AC. L. W(SWEENEY


ITUATED between longitude 82' 24' and
83' 41' west, and latitude 21� 28' 15", 210 58' north, lies a most beautiful tropical island, fast growing into prominence bei~ cause of the increasing popularity of its
citrus fruits. Just fifty miles directly south of Cuba at that island's narrowest part is the island that in June of 1494 Christopher Columbus put in for water and food on his second voyage of discovery and which he christened "The Isle of the Evangelist," this name being changed later to the Isle of Pines, so called because of the tall pines scattered throughout the flat plains between the mountains.
It is not in the writer's power to describe in words just how picturesque the Isle of Pines really is, but in order to give the readers of the Packing House News an idea of its peculiar tropical properties and its scenic effect, it is well to draw a description of the island proper.
The area of the Isle of Pines is estimated at 900,000 acres. The southern portion, containing some 300,000 acres, is locally designated as "The South Coast." It is a wilderness. There nature has set the stage for dramas of piracy and smuggling, and, legend has it, that the South Coast is the shore where pirates of olden days buried their loot-therefrom derives the name sometimes applied to the island, "Treasure Island." On this coast are found large forests of hard wood of highly prized varieties.
The northern part of the island, consisting of 600,000 acres, is a plain, now almost perfectly level, now rolling in undulations that rarely reach thirty feet above the general elevation of 75 to 125 feet above tide. Rising .abruptly from these plains are mountains of pure crystalline marble, which, when cut into statuary forms, is perfect in color and smoothness; and on the slopes of the Ceiba hills are the American-owned citrus groves in five, ten, twenty and even larger acreage. They dot the country around Nueva Gerona, the port and capital of the island, and at Columbia, Santa Barbara and Santa Fe; they are green on the white sands of Los Indios and San Pedro.
Excellent roads run from town to town connecting the groves into a perfect chain. These roads are made simply by clearing, ditching and crowning the surface which is covered with mal pais gravel, very valuable for road material. This material covers practically the entire island and, with the exception of the wonderful climate-the coldest weather this winter being 56 Fahrenheit-is the island's best natural asset, making transportation of fruit over the roads to the port of Nueva Gerona an easy job.
Scattered over the island there are the small arroyos or rivers, along which are found native fruit trees such as mangos, caimitos, aguacates, sapotes, wild orange trees. There are shrubs everywhere, the scrawniest of which bloom, in white and in yellow especially, and adding to this is found the statuesque Royal Palm in large numbers.
Isle American Owned.
Practically ninety-five per cent of all this is owned by Americans who have made of the island a perfect American colony, and made of the natives strangers in their own governed territory.
In 1898 the signing of the Treaty of Paris put an end to the Spanish-American War and immediately certain alert Americans, presuming that the Isle of Pines had become American territory by virtue of Article II in that treaty ceding to the United States "Porto Rico and all other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies," began an American occupation of the isle. They bought great tracts of land from Cuban and Spanish owners which were laid out in smaller parcels and resold to settlers who were assured that it was American soil. But in 1902, when the American Military Government
Page Eight


of Cuba withdrew, leaving the first Republic of Cuba constituted, the Isle of Pines found itself still administered as a part of Havana province, just as it had always been. The Americans made protest to Washington, but no recog. nition of the isle as American territory was obtained. Yet the Platt Amendment to the Constitution of Cuba provides that title to the Isle of Pines shall be left to future adjustment by treaty between the United States and Cuba. Two treaties relinquishing ownership to Cuba have failed of ratification in the American congress.
The Americans on the island, claiming ownership of ninety-five per cent of all lands and every citrus grove and pineapple field, are fighting for the defeat of these treaties.
However, American residents, numbering some 2,700, have made the Isle of Pines an American community in all save political status, they having nothing to say whatever in the government. Acres and acres of citrus groves have been planted by them which are today producing for American markets thousands of boxes of oranges and grapefruit, besides shipments to Cuba of pineapples, limes, lemons and tangerines. Quite a large acreage of vegetables is also planted and peppers, eggplants and tomatoes are shipped to New York, Chicago and even Florida markets annually.
The citrus groves on the Isle of Pines do not differ in many ways from those in Florida. Improvements, homes and fencing are all similar, but there is a presumption that the planting and cutivating of groves on the isle differ in many ways from Florida, so the writer has secured sufficient data to show how the groves are planted and cultivated, as well as approximate figures of the cost of establishing a grove, the cost of marketing the fruit and the average return sales of shipments.
Soil.
There are many varieties of soil on the isle. Soil at the base of the hills is usually of superior quality, due, probably, to deposits brought down the slopes by rains. Usually where one finds "natives" living, or indications (generally in the shape of mango trees in groves) that they have resided there, the soil is good, though whether it is so by reason of their cultivation of it, or because they know how to select fertile spots, is hard to decide.
Along the banks of the streams there is a vegetable mould good for truck gardening, but all the land used for citrus fruit culture must be fertilized and this is done every year in the early fall.
Preparation and Cultivating.
There is also infinite variety in the methods followed on the Isle of Pines of preparing for the setting out Of trees. The virgin land, after being cleared, is ploughed and sometimes left to sun-months, in some cases, and in some instances it is heavily limed, but growers differ as to opinion about doing this. Again, some do not, for reasons of their own, plough their land at all, but just simply stake off, dig holes, plump in their trees and cul, tivate only with a hoe around the base of the tree. Ths is done only in rare cases, the majority of groves being well ploughed and cleared of all shrubbery and grass by means of monthly-and sometimes Ye�eragutib ting and harrowing.
Some growers have adopted extreme clean cultivation, in the dry season especially, declaring that a dust mulch keeps the soil from cracking if it has any tendeneY so to do, and even in the wet season tolerating only veg' tation enough to prevent washing in the rains.
Strange to say, just as there are good groves in every sort of soil, so there are good groves which have bees evolved by every sort of system; or lack of system, P0s' sible. Nothing short of persistent total neglect see,'i really to kill a grove on the Isle of Pines.











ceene S


0


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This is the way trees bear fruit on the "Gem Isle of the Caribbean." 2. Showing grove and palms growing together. 3. Section O-acre Isle of Pine grove. 4. Docks at Los Indos. S.- Wild. but it will be bearing delicious fruit in two years. 6. Isle Grapefruit. ercan home built in Spanislh design. 8. A three-year-old grove of ten acres, costine to date $6,800.

Page Nine


1


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Skinner PVcVciif4 Hoise INews


Fertilization and Cost.
Fertilizer, as above stated, is found necessary, no matter in what part of the isle the grove is located. An average, based on costs of several growers, shows that thirty pounds of fertilizer per tree are used-there are seventy trees to the acre-yearly at a cost of from $50 to $60 per ton for fertilizer and an aggregate cost of $90 per acre for fertilizing and caring for citrus trees.
An estimate based on figures furnished by some of the oldest growers on the island, shows that it takes from $5,000 to $8,000 to establish a ten-acre grove, from the preparation of the land until the time that fruit is marketed. These figures include the cost of land at $35 per acre, and land can be bought at that price now in acreages as large as may be desired.
Yield and Returns.
The average yield per acre of grapefruit is ninety boxes; oranges averaging one hundred and forty boxes per acre. These averages are based on 1920, 1921 and 1922 yields and do not include culls or dropped fruit, but actual shipments.
Shipments to northern markets in 1920 show a total of 185,453 boxes of citrus fruits. In 1921 there was a decrease in shipments due to heavy rains, the total being 158,776 boxes. In 1922 shipments were larger than ever before, reaching 217,731 boxes. The majority of these shipments go to three or four commission houses in New York and one in Chicago, among them being F. Opolinsky, who receives about one-half of the island's entire crop, Manniello Bros., and Mayrsohn, Gargiulo & Amendola and Mills Brothers of Chicago.
Reports on shipments at random from commission men's account sales show:
Cost of Marketing.
(Per Box)
Duty and entrance into the United States .......... $ .70
Forwarding agent's commission ..............................03
Freight ---------..--._.-- .................---------------------- ----------- . 68
Cartage on market .....--------------------------------------------- . 11
Average Consulor Papers .......................................... .01
Total .....--------...........----------- -----------................... $1.53
It is estimated that on a selling price of $3.50 per box the cost will average $3.05, including merchant's commission.
Returns.
Based on averages received from the largest shippers of fruit from the island, the crop of 1922, up until the tariff went into effect, netted the growers from $1.50 to $1.75 per box. This average shows that selling prices on the New York market of grapefruit from the island was from $3.00 to $7.00-and a general average of $4.55.
After the tariff went into effect the additional cost to the grower was so great that shipments were stopped to a very large per cent and have just been resumed. One can easily estimate what a great loss this was, due to over-ripening fruit and the great amount that dried up from being left too long on the trees.
Shipping Facilities.
The biggest trouble the grower of the Isle of Pines has facing him is securing better shipping facilities. Fruit consigned to the New York market is handled five times before being sold by the commission house. After being loaded on ships here it is carried to Batabano, Cuba, and there loaded on cars which are carried to Havana where the fruit is reloaded on ships for New York.
During the heavy shipping season the growers find trouble in securing means for handling all of their fruit. The steamship company plying between Nueva Gerona and Batabano has but two ships that can be placed into service. This causes a much larger waste of fruit from over-ripening and dropping than would be the case if shipping facilities were so that the crop could be cared for without having to await the return of a ship.
Page Ten


Packing Houses.
Just recently the writer made trips to four packing houses on the island. All of these houses are within a few miles of Nueva Gerona, the shipping port of the island, and pack from some of the best groves here. An average, obtained from combined figures of the four houses, shows that they pack from eight hundred and fifty acres, which represents eighty-nine grove owners. They have a daily packing capacity of two thousand crates, the four houses packing during the past season 65,014 crates of fruit.
These houses employ fifty-nine people and pay on an average of twenty-five cents per hour for their labor.
Packing Process.
The packing process of the four houses is alike in every respect.
The fruit is first placed in curing rooms-there are three of these at each packing house-that are heated to such a temperature as to only allow the fruit a slow heat that colors and cures the skins. After it is cured it is then conveyed to washers. The washing process was at one time considered not practical in that the fruit rotted, but the fruit is completely dried after leaving the washer by means of a dryer that is simple but effective. The fruit is carried along very slowly by' rollers through the dryer. There are four steam pipes running the entire length under the dryer and air pipes running across every two feet at the top. This dryer runs the full width of the packing house and it takes the fruit fifteen minutes to pass through it, coming out warm and completely dry. There is no danger of fruit rotting when washed and dryed by this process.
The fruit is then carried to revolving brushes by means of a conveyor similar to that used by saw mills for carrying away saw dust; it is then conveyed by similar means from the brushes to the polisher, which is a belt with six rows of small brushes running the entire length of the belt. These brushes are paraffined, giving the fruit a clean, polished skin. The brushes then carry the fruit to the sizing machines where it is separated into two grades and packed.
The fruit shipped from the Isle of Pines to American markets is so sweet, clean looking and tree ripened that the popularity and demand for it will grow in large strides, and when better shipping facilities are procured
-look out Florida and California!


THE ROARING STREET
By R. A. Couchman

Let me work in an office that stands by a street
Where the torrent of business rolls by;
Where the roars of the street urge the world's flying feet,
Where you think as you eat-on the fly.
Let me work as I listen to great motor trucks
Rumble past me, shaking the ground;
Let them bump on the cobbles till rattles and bobbles
Drown out every commonplace sound.
Let me hear irn the grind of the street-car's wheels
And the clatter of sharp-shod mules
The music of toil, of the world's busy broil,
The ballad of Life's busy tools.

Where the trucks shift to low as they swing into Main
With their cut-outs opened up wide; gran Where the dray-horses strain for their ration of
Here's the place where the world hits its stride!
Every noise is a thrill if you like the great mill
Where the grist is us poor human clods;
For the purpose we fill is just grist for that millThe Street-the mill of-the Gods.






TAKING THE FRIGHT OUT OF FREIGHT
By PEGGr POE


Taking the fright out of freight, surely means taking the weight out of freight. For it is by the pound that horror and desperation are created in the soul of the producer when he ships his wares. Be it short haul or long haul, too often the producer must scrape the kettle to feed the savage appetite of the roaring creature which hauls his goods.
But Progress and Science, mother and god-mother to humanity, are coming to the rescue along with the perfecting of auto motion, air traffic and wave sounds. Progress says: "Dry your shipment before you ship it," and dry ideas are popular or at least in force in the country today. There is no reason why the shipper should not listen to Progress. It's no new idea. The Egyptians dried food thousands of years ago. Perhaps they realized how foolish it would be to force their camels to carry tons of water over the desert when it would be easy to add the water when the produce reached its destination.
Progress says dry your produce. Science says do it correctly, and profitably. Uncle Sam, in this thoughtfulness for his people, has wise men (and there are more than three of them) working on the subject of dehydration. They have tested out every method, searched out every country and studied its progress in the science of dehydration. They have followed the development of this ancient science of saving food for Man and they tell us


For the use of the Army, Navy and hospitals our government has lately placed an order for dehyrated foods, spending something like ten million dollars for it. This order went to American and Canadian dehydrating plants.
Eight million pounds of raw Irish potatoes were thrown on the dumps of New York last winter, potatoes frosted and decayed in shipping. All these could have been saved.
A barrel of dehydrated food left from the Boer War in Africa was used fourteen years after, so why shouldn't Progress tell us to dry our potatoes? Ten cars of them could be shipped nicely in one car, with the water left out, and their usefulness assured for years and years. Enough vegetables to make soup for 40 people can be put into a one-pound carton.,
Everything that is edible can be dried-apples, string beans, beets, carrots, cauliflower, celery, corn ON THE COB, cherries, onions, parsnips, peaches, pears, potatoes, prunes, pumpkin, rhubarb, spinach, tomatoes, oranges, lemons, horseradish, and so on. Tomatoes which net so much waste to the grower and shipper, can be dried and made into catsup years after. Or the tomatoes can be made into a delightful powder which the housewife can use for soup. So with pumpkins; she may use a box of pumpkin flour, use a spoonful for a pie and have the rest whenever she wishes to use it-maybe next year.


Dehydrating Plant, Norwalk, Ohio. Bringing in the Pumpkins.


that in a few years we will laugh at the thought of men picking their beans green, adding four or five times their weight in water, adding the expense of a.tin can and then yelling their heads off when they shipped that can of green beans to New York, paying dearly for the water which the .careful housewife pours down the sink. The housewife and producer pay for 10 ounces of green beans, 10 ounces of water 3 % ounces of tin can-a total of 23 % ounces plus cost of hauling and danger of spoiling. The whole can could have been dehydrated down to one ounce of solid food and could have been packed into a light Paper carton.
The U. S Bureau of Chemistry says that by 1950 our foods, or the method of caring for them, will have changed. Even the humble potato will no longer be car.ied home in the cumbersome peck measure, but rather in a neat litle wax package of dried product.
Nor will the producer take a ton of green peas, add enough water to bring the weight to 4,000 pounds, put It in heavy, expensive cans, place the cans in heavy ooden boxes, put up a fight with the carrier and listen I dismay to the consumer. Instead, the producer will ry the peas down to 250 pounds, place them in light Paper boxes and send them with a hopeful heart to the ends of the earth by rail or perhaps by aeroplane.


But it is safe to say, that once having made pie from the dehydrated product, she will use it again and again, for all the sweetness and delicious flavor is there, minus that undesired ingredient, pumpkin water.
The market for dehydrated products is growing rapidly. It is fast becoming known to American housewives (with the U. S. Government spending hundreds of thousands of dollars to educate them) that dehydrated foods give them the most, the best and the safest food for their money. They are beginning to learn that danger lurks in canned foods unless they are given perfect care. They are learning that the long cooking necessary to preserve food, and the great heat necessary to kill the mold germ also kills the vital parts of the food.
Dehydrating food does not mean SIMPLY DRYING IT. Modern science has discovered a method of treatment which is simple-a method which does not destroy the cell of the food, which does not destroy the color or the flavor. It is a method of gently taking the water from the food and leaving it with all the wholesomeness of the fresh product. The highest grade of dehydrated food can only be produced by a process in which there is perfect control of temperature, humidity and air flow. Foods in the raw are made up of a multitude of cells
(Continued on Page 36)
Page Eleven






































PACKING PINEAPPLES IN FLORIDA
By FRANK B. GOODWINJ


What is generally recognized as the Pineapple Belt of Florida is a narrow section on high sandy land fronting on the Indian River of St. Lucie County, about twenty-five miles in length, extending from the city of Fort Pierce to Stuart, Florida. The Florida East Coast Railroad runs along this ridge through the pineapple fields to pick up loaded cars on the sidings, or local shipments. Further down the coast in Dade County, north of Miami, more plantations are found in a small way. The East Coast section grows the hardy Red Spanish va- NOTE: The pineapp in Florida somewhere a
riety, which is a short, stubby had a rapid rise unti pineapple, with great shipping when the crop exceed, qualities. Other varieties grown nually. From that tim in a small way are the Abbaka, of the industry was aln so than its developmen
Sugar Loaf, Pina Blanca, Smooth tributed to various cat Cayenne, Porto Rico. All but haps to what is com said by scientists to b
the Red Spanish are longer in nematode. Worn out shape, much more delicious, free other producing count from fibre in the meat and can have also received part of the industry. Since
be eaten with a spoon. However, apple production in Flo they are so tender and full of few, express shipments juice that they cannot be held for loads. It is confidenti dustry will in a few yes
any great length of time 'or was. Much interest is shipped very far north success- East Coast, new experi, fully. are being tried to ov other problems are be
Some of the larger plantation the attention just now pineapple fields are laid out in production in Florida, r be interested in Mr. G
blocks, generally about 50 by 100 other page may be f feet, with four-foot trails around pineapples in the Isle each block, with a narrow-gauge issues of the NEWS wq garding pineapples in
tramroad about every five blocks, Islands, and other place which runs from the fields to the packing house along the railroad siding. The help in general is Nassau or Bahama negroes, as they are better able to stand the sharp blades of the plants and have the knack of breaking the pineapple from the plant without making a plug where it is broken off. Plugged pineapples are culls and leave an opening in the stem where blue mould can start or let air into the core so that it sours.
A team of pickers is generally made up of two pickers,
Page Twelve


a catcher, and a couple of loaders. The pickers wear a pair of canvas chaps (like cowboy chaps), a long pair of canvas mittens, and a wide brim straw hat. They enter the fields, wading through and pick all yellow fruit and matured shipping fruit, which is green in color, and throw it to the catcher, who is in the trail between the blocks. He puts them in a bushel basket. The loader takes the basket to the tram car. This tram car is a platform arrangement with four wheels, propelled by engine or pushed by a couple e industry was started of negroes to the packing house. ound the year is6o and
the years 1909-1910, The pines are taken out of the d a million crates an- baskets at the house and laid in until 1917 the decline
ost as rapid if not more large deep bins, with all the butts
* This decline was at- or stem ends facing the packer, ses but principally per- crowns away from the packer. only known as "wilt,"
caused by a species of This is so that the packer will not soil, competition from injure his hands from the sharp es, high freight rates, thorns on the crown as he is packif the blame for the fall
1917 the annual pine- ing. The packer has a bench that ida has crept up from a just holds a packing crate, also to over a hundred car- a paper rack. He selects the expected that the ins be larger than it ever size of pineapple for the pack he being taken in it on the is about to make, puts the fruit ents that promise much on the paper board with the rcome the "wilt," and
ng solved. Because of crown extending over about four being paid to pineapple inches in the large sizes, and rolls aders of the NEWS will the paper around the pine, foldodwin's article. On anund a short article on ing the end under, making it of Pines, and in later ready for the crate. will give some data re- Pineapples are very easilY orto Rico, the Hawaiian
.-Editor. graded as the most exposed part are faced toward the packer, and defects, bruises or plugged ends can be noted at a glance.
The crown of a pineapple is very important as it must be uniform in length, and have a clear green color. All colored fruit are ripes, which may be a reddish yellow or plain yellow in color. These are packed as ripesad shipped to nearby markets, such as North Florida, Geo0gia and the Carolinas.
All pineapples are packed in six sizes: Eighteen to the


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ed
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e ri
e
ri
y

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Photos by Florida Photographic Concern
pik. -.Dunscomhs Plantation., Stuart, Fla. 2. Picked and placed in the avenues for haung to packing house. 3. Picking "Pines." icicer.oss the fruit to catchers in the avenues. 4. Motor car for transporting pines from field to packing house. Fort Pierce.
A Utilizing horses and motor power in hauling "Pines" from field to packing house. 6. Interior of packing house, Fort Pierce. 7. L'." Packing house in the olden days. 8. Ready for shipment. 9. Packs of "30's" and "24's." 10. Three pack of "30's." 1. Lmg cars, Fort Pierce. 12. Loading a car. 13. United States Department of Agriculture, Pre-cooling Plant.
Page Thirteen


"%M







Ski ner Packf House NewS


42 Size PacK


1-3-5-7- Layers Z-4-6PINEAPPLE PACKS


crate, twenty-fours, thirties, thirty-sixes, forty-twos and forty-eights, and are marked as such on each crate. In normal conditions, the 18s, 24s, 30s are Fancy, while the 36s, 42s and 48s are Choice grades and discounted from the Fancy. In late years the 18 size is almost out of the deal, and the 36 size is considered Fancy. The Red Spanish variety is packed from the side of the crate, crown in, butts or stem end out. The Abbaka or Smooth Cayenne variety is packed from the end of the crate in the large sizes, as they are much longer than the Red Spanish.
Pineapples are usually packed in threes, alternate layers of pineapples resting in the spaces between the layer below so that one pineapple will not be resting on top of another. See diagrams above. The cover of the crate is always nailed down tight, generally with an excelsior packing mat between the fruit and the cover to prevent bruising, there being no attempt at a bulge pack. Pineapples have a strong tendency to shrink in size as they cool off from the heat of the field on being picked. Consequently it is a practice to allow the fruit to rest in the packing house for several hours before being packed. This helps to eliminate a slack pack and resultant bruising which would occur if the pines were packed the moment they were brought in from the field.
Pineapple wrapping paper is usually about fourteen by fourteen inches and of the best quality, sometimes being waxed or oiled. Some of the bigger growers have their brand stamped on the wraps, but the greater part of the fruit is wrapped in plain wrappers, the brand being stamped or labeled only on the end of the crate. The Page Fourteen


name of the grower and the location of the plantation is generally stamped on the side of the crate.
Pineapples after being packed are loaded in refrigerator or ventilated cars and usually loaded seven across the car, top up, brand end out. Three hundred crates is considered a minimum load. However, it is up to the buyer and shipper as to the number above this that may be placed in the car.

MEXICAN BANANAS TO BE IMPORTED
Weekly shipments of 20,000 bunches of Mexican bananas are expected to be made from Vera Cruz direct to New Orleans by July of this year, reports the Amer ican consul at that station. It is estimated that approI, mately 5,000 acres are now bearing in the State of Oaxaca with another 5,000 to come in by July. About 100 Spanish planters are engaged in this industry along the Papaloapan river, about five miles from Vera Cruz.
It is estimated that a shipment can be cut, put on cari and be on the steamer in 15 hours under favorable conditions, and in not over 24 hours at the most, at a cost of 85 cents a bunch in American currency. The fruit can be landed in New Orleans four days after cutting, The only uncertainty of making contracts for regulO deliveries of larger cuttings hinges on the problem If transportation out of Vera Cruz, where labor distur bances have recently been frequent.

Yield per acre of potatoes in England and Wales in 1922 estimated at 261 bushels compared with 195 bushel' in 1921.







THE AWAKENING OF LAKE JOY

By 'ILEY M. FLETCHER BERRI


Miss Althea Adams sniffed delicately as she took a morning constitutional around the little Florida lake. It was near noon but Miss Althea, systematic in every detail of daily life, had lunch already prepared for Sallie-Mae, her niece, and herself and could take time to enjoy her walk.
"I suppose," she said to herself, "that this 'sweetness on the desert air' is the 'yellow jessamine' about which Sallie-Mae raves so extravagantly." She consulted a book carried in the picturesque basket swung from her arm. "Ah, just as I thought: not really jessamine, but 'gelsemium.' The carelessness of the younger generation! Now, dear Amos would have looked it up at once." She gulped, then added: "But I must not let myself think of him."
So Miss Althea was calm when she arrived at a sandy road cutting at right angles into the graceful, pinestrawed lake drive. There she paused and gazed east where, half a city block distant, a big building stood squarely out on a double railroad track. The sun was in the little spinster's eyes and she frowned as she cogitated: "Sallie-Mae said the Lake Joy packing house was like frosted silver. Perhaps it is but I should have preferred it to be in an emerald green, white-blossoming, sweet-scented grove. The orange industry is so ideal it should be entirely a thing of beauty. But under this silver sheeting is undoubtedly a heart of gold."
Two big trucks stopped at the platform of the packing house and, Miss Adams' curiosity being roused as she saw golden-laden crates carefully lifted off, she daintily crossed the tracks and mounted the steps of the long platform. Somewhere within the big building Sallie-Mae, her erstwhile school teacher niece, was packing oranges; some place near by, of course, Barrett Copley was superintending packing house affairs. Miss Althea did not approve of Barrett but as Barrett had invited her to visit the place and ignorance was such a disgrace, it was her duty to investigate. Indeed, she had come to Florida primarily to find out every single thing about "that impudent fellow who had presumed to ask Sallie-Mae to marry him," and this, necessarily, included the packing house. She stepped inside the big door. Then, involuntarily, for an instant, she stood still.
It was the most wonderful moving picture she had ever seen. And, at first, it seemed a picture, only: not real. Fascinated, she watched the golden and bronze fruit emptied on an inclined runway, picked up by an endless belt of gently gliding wooden rollers and carried forward to be washed in water-filled vats. "It is like magic," she thought, as she saw the gold and bronze balls push each other forward and ascend another set of rollers where stiff brushes cleaned and brightened the moving fruit, then sent it on to a warm, en- closed, metal drying-box. From this, both dried and polished, the glowing spheres, as if alive, quietly moved along on felt-covered rollers, offering themselves to girls who swiftly and surely sorted them.
Miss Althea only glimpsed the various processes: details were merely mosaic bits wrought into a wonderful whole. But her eyes were keen, her mind quick, and her memory more tenacious than even Sallie-Mae's. So she sensed that inferior fruit was being taken out and, when she stepped a little farther into the building, grasped I that there was grading and grouping of differently colored orunges. Then came what seemed wizardry indeed: the automatic sizing of the juicy spheres, for the smaller ones dropped quickly and safely onto the canvas bottoms of voting bins beneath, while larger fruit travelled on and ots ovl accord dropped through larger holes. The


daintily precise little spinster watched, too, the girl packers deftly twisting white squares of lettered tissue paper over the fruit and then, quite frankly, sniffed again, for there was an enticing combination of fruit fragrance and the delicate, clean, woody perfume of the pale-gold boxes waiting to receive the oranges.
Yes, the gently moving streams of gold and bronze, the soft hum of machinery and voices were more than picturesque; vitally alive. Miss Althea forgot the objections she had advanced "up north," when her niece had informed her of her plans to pack oranges in Florida, and before she was aware of it, had stopped right by SallieMae and the girl had laughingly called: "Hello, Aunt Althea!"
"I only came for a moment," fluttered Miss Althea. Barrett insisted, you know, that I should look in. It is nearly lunch time now, so I must not linger. Come home as soon as you can. Good-bye." But as she turned toward the big doorway, someone laughed more loudly than Sallie-Mae had laughed, and said in almost the same words, "Hello, Miss Althea!" She jumped. Such a laugh was too hearty for comfort. Barrett was indeed anything but what her ex-fiancee had been: "Dear Amos!"
"Won't you let me show you the packing house, Miss Althea?" But she declined and Copley accompanied her to the door where they stood for a moment looking out over Lake Joy. "What
a lovely spot it is," began
Miss Althea. "With my
face toward that heavenly


"What a lovely spot it is," began Miss Althea
bit of blue and my back toward man's creations I can-" The rumbling grunts of lean, lithe creatures slipping into the shadows beneath the packing house platform interrupted her.
"Brazenly rooting around h'e 'as if they owned the place!" exclaimed Copley savagely. "I'm sick of these razorback hogs!" And he flung a convenient cull at them. "Let me take you across the tracks, Miss Althea, and make sure that those creatures are well out of your way."
"Now that," thought Althea, "is more like dear Amos!"
Miss Althea gone, Copley stood looking moodily across (Continurd on Page 35)
Page Fifteen







Citrus Fruit Crates With Detach Tops Defined

Ay 0. FOERSTER _SCHULLY


In the November issue of this publication there was published one of my articles on the standard citrus fruit crate with a secure or permanent top. By secure or permanent top is meant a top which, in addition to being nailed at each end, is securely fastened to a center panel and bound by a metal, birch or fibre strip not less than 19 inches in length securely nailed to each side of the crate with one 4d cement coated nail.
For those of our readers who are not entirely familiar with the standard specifications of the citrus fruit crate with the detach top, which differs from the citrus fruit crate with the secure or permanent top, this article is printed. While this latter type of crate is looked upon with some disfavor by a number of fruit growers it is, nevertheless, greatly preferred by a number of others, and until carrier legislation has stamped its use as illegal, there is little doubt in the mind of the writer that a large percentage of fruit will continue to be shipped in it.
Its inside measurements are identical with those of the former type, namely:12x12x24 inches, and its capacity is also 3,456 cubic inches. Other specifications are as follows:
Top-Detach Top: One or two pieces not less than 3-16
inch thick, 1114 inches wide, if in one piece; not less than 514 inches wide, if in two pieces and 27 inches long, except where bulge pack is used to be not less than 271/ inches long and not to exceed 27 3-8
inches and nailed flush with cleats. A veneer cleat not less than Y, inch thick and 1 inches wide to be fastened to each end of the top with staples of not less than 20-gauge wire driven through veneer and securely clinched, not less than three long or six short
stapes to each end cleat.
Sides: One or two pieces not
less than 1-16 inch thick, 11I4 inches wide, if in one piece; not less than 514
inches wide, if in two pieces, and 27 inches long.
Bottom: Same as sides, except that they may consist of
from one to four pieces.
Panels or Ends: Two end and two center panels (or
ends) made of one piece not less than 1-16 inch
thick.
Cleats: Twelve cleats not less than 13-16 inch thick by
7-8 inch wide by 12 inches long.
Binding Wires: Five-not less than 15-gauge, with wires
Nos. 1, 3 and 5 attached to cleats, wire No. 2 4 inches from No. 1, and wire No. 4 4 inches from
No. 5.
Staples: On wires Nos. 1, 3 and 5 in the sides and bottom sections not less than four staples each 16gauge by 1 1-8 inches long, driven home astride the binding wire through the slats and into the cleats; on the top section not less than four staples each 16-gauge by 1 1-8 inches long driven astride the binding wire into the cleats. On wires Nos. 2 and 4 in the sides and bottom sections not less than four staples each 18-gauge by 7-16 inch long, driven astride the binding wire and firmly clinched in the slats. The distance between staples in any section
shall be approximately two inches.
Making Up: Fold the blank with the three top cleats in
place and twist binding wires Nos. 1, 3 and 5 together in pairs, the twisted portion on each pair of wires to be not less than % inch long and to have not less than four tight twists. The rough ends to be removed and twisted portion knocked flat against the side of the crate parallel with the binding wires.
Twists to be made on the side of the crate approximately % inch from the upper edge to the cover of the crate. The two end panels to be fastened in
Page Sixteen


place on the outside of the outside cleats with either five 16-gauge by 13-16 inch long staples or five cement coated 2d nails in each side cleat, staples or nails to be securely driven. It is not necessary to fasten the two center panels to the middle set of
cleats.
Closing: The Detach Top to be securely nailed at each
end with not less than four cement coated 4d nails driven securely through veneer cleats and slats into top cleats. Wires Nos. 2 and 4 then to be brought over the top and the ends twisted together in pairs
in the same manner as wires Nos. 1, 3 and 5.
Wood, Veneer or Sawed: To be of seasoned pine or gum
or wood of equal strength, of sound material, free
from injurious knots.
Pack: When the bulge pack is used the bulge above the
center head must not exceed 1 inches with oranges
and 2 inches with grapefruit.
Tangerine Crate: Construction to be as per specifications for the standard size box, except that dimensions should be 12x6x24 inches inside measurements.
Attention is called to the accompanying illustration of the crate in its finished state. It will be seen that in order to meet the standard requirements wires Nos. 1, 3 and 5 pass beneath the top, while wires Nos. 2 and 4 encircle the entire crate.
In my previous article I remarked that the Southern Freight Rate Committee, under its Submittal No. 7526, was considering charging 120 per cent of the published rate on citrus fruit packed in containers conforming with the standard specifications to be paid on shipments packed in containers which do not conform with the standard specifications, from points in Florida to all destinations. Since the publication of the article in question, the Southern Freight Rate Committee-now known as the Southern Freight Association-has changed chairmen and various officers. While efforts are being made to clear outstanding matters from their records, no steps have been taken, to my knowledge, to approve the suggested change in rates.
The containers mentioned in both articles are to be used for shipping oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, lemons, limes and kumquats. In succeeding articles, I shall give the standard specifications of various other crates. Among these, particular reference will be made to the cantalouPe musk melon crate and the essential differences between the Norfolk and Florida types.
As it is to the interest of all shippers of fruit to knO' the standard specifications of containers, it is suggested that close attention be paid to the measurements both in the articles already published and those now in prepar tion; they are authentic in every detail. Who can tell but that they may serve you to good stead in the settle ment of a claim involving hundreds of dollars and repre' senting months of hard labor? To know is to profit.

CORRECTION
Attention is called to an error in the caption under the illustration on page eleven. This should read Norwalk Iowa, instead of Norwalk, Ohio.

Advices from Washington to the effect that Mario county growers may secure a tomato inspector, if they will co-operate with the Florida State Marketing BureSU, is hailed with interest in and around Ocala. The advan tages of standard grades in competition with nondesc ip packing are easily apparent and the Marion countY t mato growers hope soon to have a steady demand for thSr product because of its uniformity.







Skd'rer Vac

CALIFORNIA NEWS

j. W. C. Pogue of Exeter, fruit grower and packinghouse operator, is organizing a company to erect a tencar-per-day pre-cooling plant. Mr. Pogue is signing up grape and other fresh-fruit men. His plan calls for the signatures of 125 growers, before the building can be started. If a sufficient number of growers sign, the plant is expected to be erected by April or May, in order to take care of the crop of early peaches and plums this season. About 1,500 cars of fresh fruit are shipped out of Exeter during the year.
The seven big packing houses of the San Antonio Fruit Exchange are all open for the season's orange and lemon business, and are shipping out 100 cars of oranges a week. This amount will be gradually increased, according to the officials.
Six hundred and forty carloads of oranges, an increase of nearly one hundred cars over last season, will be shipped by the Anaheim Citrus Fruit Association this year, according to a statement made by W. H. Schurrman, manager of the packing house. The association has resumed packing after being idle for a time.
* * *
Prominent orange shippers and packers of the Redlands district attended the recent conference of the American Fruit and Vegetable Shippers' Association at Chicago, to present their demands for better transportation of the orange crop. Among them were C. M. Brown, F. C. Fitzgibbon and A. M. Pratt. According to Mr. Brown, who is interested in the shipping of grapes from Coachella and cantaloupes from Imperial Valley, 31 percent of the locomotives of the railroads are now out of commission, the conditions being worse in the East than in the West.
M. Mivata, S. Sato, T. Tanaka, S. Ikemura and Y. Aovama, all Japanese, are incorporators and directors of the Independent Growers' Association of Imperial Valley. The association has been formed to grow, pack and ship vegetables, especially cantaloupes. Articles of Incorporation have been filed.
* * *
In the closing up of last season's business for the Beaumont Fruit Growers and Packers' Association, A. H. Smith, general manager, made the following interesting report: "The business for 1922 has nearly doubled that of 1921. It was found necessary to enlarge the packhouse to double its original capacity, to accommodate the fruit. The tonnage packed and handled in 1922 follows: apples, 1,325,870 pounds; cherries, 380,427 pounds; peaches, 413,090 pounds; prunes and plums, 227 and 692 pounds; pears, 986,776 pounds; apricots, 28,900 pounds, and various other fruits, 24,573 pounds, totaling 3,438,328 pounds. While worms cut the apple tonnage down to a great extent, last year showed an increase of over 700 tons of packed fruit over that of the previous year.
New machinery is being installed at the Redlands plant of J. H. Strait & Company. The equipment is being so arranged that apples can be handled at certain seasons when there are no oranges to pack.
C. E. Gross, secretary and manager of the Santiago Orange Growers' Association, reported at the recent annual meeting that the cash receipts were $1,546,400.26 from 927 carloads, or 426,147 packed boxes. This was an increase of 22 percent during the year. He estimated that the pre-cooling plant has saved the growers $103,441 in three years.
The American Fruit Growers' Whittier packing house rising equipped with new machinery. House Manager A.E. Sherwood states that the plant will be ready for the Valencia season.
Gross returns of $393,696.43, and a net return to growers of $306,408.31 for 1922 were reported by Secre-


tary-Manager J. D. Spennetta at the annual meeting of the Foothill Valencia Growers held at Orange recently. The shipments of the season, which is classed as a "particularly difficult" one, were 206 cars of Valencias and fifty-two cars of lemons.
Representative Imperial Valley lettuce growers met at Brawley recently to take steps toward preventing the recurrance of the market demoralization which was caused by the shipping of immature lettuce during the early part of the season. Those in attendance took the blame upon themselves, and voted to adopt a bill, which is to be presented to the California legislature, calling for the standardization of crates and the limiting of the cracked ice contents of the crate to sixty pounds. The bill was adopted unanimously.
The Federal grading system for lettuce was voted inefficient as it does not distinguish the quality of the lettuce as to state of maturity, thus precluding any chance for government prosecution for misbranding. The bill called for the marking of crates to designate the state of maturity, under "headed lettuce" and "immature lettuce," which would supply the necessary evidence for prosecution if the crates were misbranded. In limiting the ice content to sixty pounds, those who drafted the bill hope to eliminate its use as a "filler." Over 3,500 cars of lettuce were shipped from the Valley before March 1.
The growth of the citrus industry in Central California is attested by the recent expenditure of $30,000 by the Lindsay Packing Company, affiliated with the California Fruit Growers' Exchange, for new equipment. The packing plant has been expanded into a building covering an area of 100x350 feet, which is given entirely to the packing of several hundred carloads of oranges and lemons annually.
The interesting feature of the new plant is their method of obtaining labor during the packing season, which only lasts a few weeks in the district. Competent labor is difficult to secure for the short packing season, so the Lindsay plant let the contract for labor to the Betz Packing Company, a concern which operates from Washington to the Imperial Valley, packing apples during the season in Washington and other commodities in various districts into which they are hired to bring their operatives. Thus, the labor is kept busy at all times, and they are able to hold competent men, who, with transportation paid from place to place, and with a steady job ahead, are glad to give their best efforts.
The Lindsay Packing Company maintains a lodging house for employees during the packing season, and through the Fruit Growers' Supply Company, a subsidary of the California Fruit Growers' Exchange, buys materials, and sprays the orchards of their members. Through timely and intelligent management, they have earned the title of the "most efficient company in Central California."

ANOTHER "LARGEST ORANGE TREE" FOUND IN CALIFORNIA

Answering the challenge of other contenders to the title of "the largest citrus tree," a distinction now claimed for a seedling orange on the Cram place in East Highlands, and also for another seedling on the E. B. Norman ranch at Duarte, G. W. Sandilands of the Anaheim Orange and Lemon Association, states that J. H. Brunsworth of Anaheim now has the "prize" tree. The tree, he states, has yielded nearly 700 boxes of fruit, almost two carloads, since it came into bearing, and that the average annual yield could be placed at twenty boxes for average trees. Mr. Brunsworth recently measured this giant tree, and found it to be thirty feet in spread, twentyfive feet high, and five feet two inches around the bole, a foot from the ground. At one time it was forty feet high, but fifteen feet were cut off the top, to permit fumigating, there being no "tent" large enough in dimensions to cover it for that purpose.
Page Seventeen


_ 'A I .
.- -xi - --.






CITRUS PACKING HOUSE CONSTRUCTION
�By C. F. D UNHAM, .I


The packing house is now a recognized essential to any citrus growing community where a large quantity of fruit is grown that must be rapidly handled and properly packed. Such a building is either financed by an association whose members have citrus holdings in the community, or is a private enterprise. The plant thus provided is completely equipped with citrus machinery to treat and handle all fruit in the most approved manner, and to crate it in first-class shape ready for shipping.
In selecting a location for a packing house, a site must be chosen near a railroad, or close enough to one so that a spur can readily be run in. This spur is brought up alongside the shipping platform, which is usually located at the rear end of the house. If a site can be had on a slope, or where the railroad is elevated sufficiently above grade to permit a ground floor to be placed on a level with the grade, and a second floor on a level with the shipping platform, an arrangement can be worked out that is more compact than the one-floor house. A building of this type will prove more imposing and pleasing by its height than a one-floor structure covering a greater area, and building cost will be reduced over the one-floor type. The one-floor house has the advantage of not requiring elevator conveyors to carry the fruit from floor to floor, and in it a more logical arrangement of machinery can be worked out.
The outward appearance of the packing house is something that has been generally neglected. As a rule, such a place is usually considered nothing more than a factory building or an industrial plant, and as such the proposition is turned over to some too practical builder who gives appearances the least consideration. As a consequence, the architecture of the building suffers, and the final result is far from pleasing. When we consider oranges, grapefruit and other citrus fruits, the pride of our Florida communities, it is imperative that the outward appearances of such buildings should be attractive architecturally to properly reflect the pride of the community. A pleasing design, that catches the public eye, is a fitting index to the character of the community that evinces a pride in itself, leaving a lasting impression and a stamp of approval on the minds of the public who see it. Such favorable advertising will soon pay for any extra expense and effort that may be involved in securing such a structure. Contrary to general belief, architectural treatment and service requires but little additional outlay; in fact, it frequently involves no new or additional materials, but simply resolves itself into the arrangement of them in a pleasing composition. In all cases, the proper amount of architectural treatment is desired. Care should always be taken not to make this type of structure over ornamental.
The materials generally used for the exterior walls are brick, brick surfaced with stucco, tile, tile surfaced with stucco, and sometimes concrete. Frame walls might be used, but are hardly substantial enough for proper use in this class of structure, and do not show the stability desired. In the use of materials for the outside, it is natural that we should use those that are most typical of the climate. Stucco is particularly adapted to, and associated with Southern buildings. What can be more imposing and attractive than an exterior of brilliant, cleancut, white stucco, gleaming forth amid the green of the orange groves? Such a structure stands out truly as a landmark to the citrus industry. The simplest treatment of the stucco surfaces has given the best results. The plain, natural white of the material alone, applied in smooth and rough casts, will produce the most desirable effects. This has proven more satisfactory than the use of an integral color in the stucco, or the painting of colors on it. For instance, a dash finish might well form the surfacing for major wall expanses, while a smooth sand finish might be used for decorative panels, pilaster caps and other points of accent. Such plain surfaces possess the property of reflecting the colors of the sky and surrounding landscape, thereby presenting an ever changing appearance.
Hollow tile is the best backing material for the stucco, Page Eighteen


forming a better bond than brick, and possessing tenperature resisting and damp proofing qualities. The most economical backing, however, is sand-lime brick. Due to local manufacture, such bricks can be secured at low cost. Furthermore, the natural white color of the brick provides a light-colored interior surface, which is highly desirable for brightening the inside. This will prove a saving over other materials that would have to be plastered or painted to procure the same results. Sand-lime brick is an absorbent material and should not be used for walls below grade. When it is used, concrete or an impervious brick should be carried to a foot above grade before using the sand-lime bricks.
An exterior of a good quality of face brick is substantial but more costly. Hollow clay tile is very permanent, but the natural surface of the tile left exposed is less favored for external finish. When used the tiles must be laid perfectly, the units carefully worked out, and uniform in color and size to make an attractive exterior. With the use of these darker materials it will be necessary to provide more light to offset the darker walls inside.
Something that should never be overlooked on the exterior of a packing house is the provision of suitable panels, properly placed to display to the best advantage the name and insignia of the firm or the growers' association. These are usually painted on, but built-up metal letters are more durable and distinctive. Such spaces should be provided on all elevations that are prominent to the public view.
The interior of a packing house must be suitably arranged, compactly constructed, abundantly lighted and properly ventilated. In the arrangement of the house a close co-operation with the machinery man will enable the designer to so place his columns that they will least interfere with the machinery layout, and to place the different units of the plant in such relation to admit of the most direct handling and uninterrupted progress of the fruit from washing to nailing the crates.
The illustration in the first column on the opposite page shows a first-class packing house of the basement type. The fruit from the groves is unloaded at the basement platform, and comes out crated on the second floor shipping platform at the rear. The basement floor is of concrete. The platform is level with this floor. Ample space is provided in the basement for storage. The fruit is washed and polished here and carried on belt elevator conveyors to the second floor. Here it is sorted, sized and crated as it passes from the front to the rear. Above this floor, second bay from the rear end, is a mezzanine floor, crosswise of the building, where crates are stored. These are fed to the packers below by conveyors. The crates are made in the basement and conveyed to the mezzanine where they are stacked ready for use. The crate material is brought by rail, taken from the cars and sent down chutes to the basement. These chutes lead from trap doors in the shipping platform. The basement walls below the grade are' concrete. The exterior is stucco On sand-lime brick. The second floor is covered with two thicknesses of one-inch flooring laid on wood joists supported by steel girders. The steel girders permit Of longer spans, resulting in fewer columns in the basement. The overhead lighting is provided by a monitor in the center of the roof, which is scarcely visible from the ground. An illustration of the one-floor type of packing house is shown in the second column on the opPOsit' page.
The average packing house needs but two rows Of columns lengthwise of the building. These support the roof and monitor overhead. The monitor is of frame CODstruction and rises high enough above the main roof to take single sash on each side. These sash are center pivoted, arranged in groups, and each group is operated by a gang opener controlled from the main floor. The ends of the monitor are louvred, A monitor of this type is an ideal means of furnishing light and ventilation where most needed. However, in houses covering a large areo, a roof of the saw-tooth type is more adaptable.






.... Ski znner Packiq House New5 ' "


The deep roof trusses, Howe trusses, once used, are now generally supplanted by three-member trussed girders. These are adaptable to the spans mostly encountered, and are of sufficient strength for all the roof trussing. They can be used to advantage in floor trussing, taking care of spans in mezzanines and basements that would ordinarily require closer spacing of columns. The total depth of this trussed-girder construction is about one-fourth that of the Howe truss type. Consequently, the use of such trussing results in reduced height of outside walls, and considerable saving in cost. This decreased height also brings the monitor, or overhead lighting, from


its accustomed lofty position to a lower point where the angle of lighting is more satisfactory, and far better results in illumination are obtained. The trussed-girder consists mainly of three wood beams with a truss rod and clips at the center of the girder. The two outside members are continuous for the full length of the span; the center member is divided at the middle, and these ends elevated to a distance of about three-fourths the depth of the beam. The center rod is equipped with top and bottom wrought iron clips, the top clip encases the center elevated beam, while the bottom clip encases the two bottom beams. The assembly is then tightly bolted together and the truss rods securely drawn up. The joists can be supported on top of the lower members, if a level surface is wanted, and on top of the sloping member, if a roof slope is needed. For lighting a packing house, the outside windows should be placed about five feet above the floor. This height will throw the light farther into the interior, and remove the blinding glare from the eyes of the worker. This gives much relief to the eyes when one considers that there are windows on every outside wall. Strong drafts are also prevented at the working level. These windows should be as large as it is possible to operate them conveniently. These windows function best when they are center pivoted, with the bottoms swinging out. Windows built this way are less costly than double hung ones, and provide a maximum amount of ventilation, shed rain when open, and are out of the way of the working space, preventing breakage and interference. With windews arranged in this manner, and a monitor overhead as described, the fresh air enters the windows in the outside walls, passes through the packing house, going up'ard and out through the monitor openings, furnishing splendid ventilation above the heads of the workers. This lighting and ventilating arrangement with light-colored inside walls, will give an adaquately lighted and ventilated interior.
The receiving platform should be about thirty inches high, which is the proper height for unloading fruit. The supporting piers of the receiving platform should be set back about twelve inches from the edge of the platform t? Protect them from the wheels of the trucks. A sufficient number of large doors should open on to this platform.
The shipping platform should be about forty-eight inches high, which is the proper height for loading into freight cars. The doors on to it should be spaced about


forty feet apart from center to center of doors, which is approximately the distance apart of the doors in a line ot freight cars. This will permit a direct line of handling from the house to the cars. All platform door jambs should be equipped with angle irons at the corners to a height of about four feet, to protect them from trucking. The front edge of the platform should be similarly protected. The platform should be strongly constructed to withstand the heavy loading of stacked crates of fruit. It is also advisable to protect the platforms with awnings to keep them from rotting, and to protect any fruit that might be stacked upon them from the sun and rain. The steel drop door is the most compact method of closing the openings, because it is always entirely out of the way when open. If funds will not warrant the use of them, sliding doors are the next best. When sliding doors are used guards should be provided into which the door can run, so that materials can be piled against them without interfering with their operation.
So far, we have dealt only with the working space. The office space should embody a general office, a large directors' room, and a superintendent's office. These should have toilet accommodations for men and women. The best method of heating these, and one that will add a touch to the architectural treatment of the interior, is the fireplace. The superintendent's office should overlook the workers, preferably placed in one corner of the working space. A line of windows in the partitions facing the working space will afford a splendid range of vision from his office.
In designing packing houses, a factor that is by all means not to be overlooked, is the growth of the citrus industry. New groves are always being planted, and production is continually on the increase. This means that the capacity of packing houses is soon outgrown, and added facilities are required. So it is well to provide a means of readily extending the existing plant when occasion demands it. This subject should be given due attention when the original plans are made, so that further additions will not mar the architectural appearance of the building, thereby preventing the unsightly, tacked-on affairs that are so frequently seen. If the side on which the extension is to be built is not a prominent or conspicious elevation, a temporary frame partition may be constructed. If such temporary walls should prove too unsightly, or come on an important elevation, large openings can be constructed, outlined with straight masonry joints, properly Enteled over, so that they may be removed with little effort, and without disturbing the


adjoining walls. These openings can be made numerous and large enough to provide ample communication for all future additions, and at the same time will not mar the external appearance of the walls in which they are placed.
This article has not covered buildings of the fire resisting types, such as steel and reinforced concrete framed structures, which are desirable when the involved additional costs can be met, but it has given descriptions of the practical and substantial types of packing houses of ordinary construction, the types that, in the majority of cases, will be built with the funds that usually will be found available.
Page Nineteen



















Dedicated to the Production of Better Fruit and Vegetables and
to the Use of Up-to-Date Packing Houses and Facilities

THOS. W. HEWLETT -- ----------- Editor

Standardization
We are getting closer and closer to the age of standardization in packing and presenting produce for marketing. Just how much country-wide standardized methods of preparing and handling fruits and vegetables for the market, mean to both the producer and the dealer, has never been fully realized, but gradually and surely this knowledge is soaking in. To the producer, standardized grades and packs offer an incentive to grow better products of the soil for they insure a fair price for all grades. Better products will get better prices and thus competition will always be fostered because of the encouragement given to one grower to obtain better grades than his neighbor. Standardization in the long run reduces the cost of packing and handling. A lot of lost motion is done away with, markets are stabilized, waste is eliminated, distribution problems are helped, and a lot of produce that should never go to the markets is not shipped. To the dealer the advantages of standardization are manifold, but perhaps they may all be summed up in the phrase, "He knows what he's getting."
Marketing organizations, Federal and State Departments of Agriculture, County Agents, Farm Bureaus, State Marketing Bureaus, individual buyers and shippers are all helping toward the general adoption of standard grades and packing methods. The two great factors that have brought about the big impetus that has been given to standardization in recent years-and one of these has been caused by the other-are the success attained by those organizations and individuals that have adopted standard grades and packs, and the pressure brought to bear by the dealers, who have been quick to see the advantage of standardized packs in fruits and vegetables.
Standardizing the grade, size and pack of all fruits and vegetables in this country is a huge problem, but one which many factors are working hard upon to solve. Production-distribution-selling, will all be on a much sounder basis once standardization of all farm products has been accomplished.

Florida estate Horticultutal Societp
Someone has said that the growth of any organization depends upon the service it renders to the community in which it is located. If it does not serve any good purpose, it cannot exist, and in proportion to the service it renders, it grows. This is especially true of the Florida State Horticultural Society. The growth of this organization has been very rapid in recent years, because it serves a real purpose in the state. Every fruit grower of Florida should be a member of the Florida State Horticultural Society and share in the benefits he can receive from this organization, and at the same time assist in its work.
Mr. L. B. Skinner, president of the society, recently stated that the meeting at Orlando this year would be one of much more than usual interest. The program is varied, complete and interesting. Problems of great importance to Florida growers are to come up for discusPage Twenty


sion at this meeting. Mr. Skinner urges that every member of the society, who possibly can, attend the meeting this year. "A full attendance," he states, "will help and strengthen the society in many ways."
Fruit growers and everyone in Florida and out of it interested in horticultural matters should rally to the support of the State Society. Horticulture constitues Florida's largest and most important industry, and the Horticultural Society-acting as it does as a clearing house for all sorts of problems connected with horticulture-is of immense benefit and importance to the state. Everyone who can should attend the meeting this year, and those who cannot should send the membership fee, which is only $2.00, to the secretary in Orlando and in so doing aid in the moral and financial support of the great work this society is carrying on.

Value of Uniform Grading of Farm Products
Under the above heading the U. S. Department of Agriculture gives some interesting reasons why careful and uniform grading is important-as follows:
1.-Higher returns depend largely upon better grading and packing.
2.-Uniformly good quality stimulates increased consumption and demand.
3.-The brand or label that always represents uniformly good quality reaps the benefit.
4.-High standards consistently adhered to build good will and create confidence on the part of the trade and the public.
5.-Standard grades properly used promote honesty and fair dealing and discourage the careless and unscrupulous packer.
6.-Standard grades enable the grower to realize a premium for care, honesty, and good judgment.
7.-Standard grades provide a common language with which to describe quality, condition, maturity, size and all the factors that go to make up the value of a given shipment.
8.-Standard grades serve as a fair and equitable basis for contracts, inspections and adjustment of claims.

(hat Have You?
Recent news items state that orange trees grow so large in California that they are compelled to cut the tops offand cabbages get so tall in the Island of Jersey that they make walking sticks. fishpoles and one thing and another out of them. NEXT!

It has been, through the ages, the universal custom of mankind in every kind of endeavor to put the best foot foremost. Many growers in Florida are reversing this philosophy. Culls, drops and low grade citrus fruit only are displayed on the highways for sale to tourists and passersby. Florida produces too much fine fruit and has too much at stake to allow such a harmful practice to continue without some effort being made to stop it.
Fruit packing schools were conducted during March in Ontario, Canada. Fruit packing schools, where standard grades and packs could be taught, in fruit producing sections of the United States, would be a great step forward in the march toward the general adoption of better packing methods and certainly would aid in the efficiency of many packing houses.

It is encouraging to note that the Government of South Africa has established new citrus fruit regulations for the purpose of preventing the shipment of inferior fruit to British markets. California and Florida might well adopt some such measures to keep their own low grade fruit from being shipped to U. S. markets.





Am'zer R3,ckiiyHoq5e New5


THE PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY ON
THE ISLE OF PINES

Since planting of pineapples began on the Isle of Pines in 1901, Hawaii has had a rival in the way of growing and producing a first-grade pineapple. The largest pineapple ever seen in Boston was shipped from the Isle of Pines and was placed on exhibition in the show window of a large store in that city and afterwards sold for $7.50. This was a very large variety and is no longer used here, the small commercial varieties being planted because they are more suitable for canning and shipping.
While the pineapple industry on the Isle is not nearly as large as it was several years ago, it is reviving and a large acreage is planted this year. Receipts from five thousand pines, about an acre in area, amounting to $1,985 from the sale of the fruit and sucker slips, are indicative of the value of reviving this valuable crop.
The majority of pines grown on the Isle of Pines are either canned and shipped into the States or sold on the local market or in Cuba. The fruit that is packed and shipped is handled entirely by hand and is packed with much care. The fruit is wrapped in tissue paper and packed with an average of twenty-four to the crate. Much care must be taken in packing because the crown-end or sucker slips must be left on the fruit for it to keep, and this necessitates careful packing to avoid breaking these crowns.
The most interesting part of the industry is the canning factories and machinery and method used in canning the pines. First the ends are cut from the pines, after which a machine pierces them through the heart, holding the fruit for further operations. A planer peels the fruit thinly enough to remove the "eyes," and a "corer" turns the inedible heart out. Then there is another machine which sizes and slices the product. When the prepared pineapple is placed in the can a certain amount of natural jiice fs added. Then the cans enter a sort of runway which carries them through a "barrel," or "exhaust," driving the air from them by heat, after which the cans quickly pass to the canning machine, which uses neither solder nor acid, the lid being clamped on by automatic seamers Out of the machine then comes the canned pineapple, each can dropping automatically into a revolving receiver, a huge basket of steel which Presently passes its load to a cooling t1nk with a capacity of 1,600 cans. After that the product is ready for labeling and boxing.
. The smooth Cayenne, the brand of Pines used generally on the island o,,are very good for canning and hopping They carry well and are PlentY small enough to can, weighing 0n an average of four pounds. The pines shipped from the Isle of


Pines to the States have always received a ready and high market, in fact they are considered much better than the Hawaii pineapple and for this reason the growers are going after the crop in even larger scales than heretofore. The packing method of fruit is yet crude when the method used in packing citrus fruit is considered, but machinery will be used as soon as the market is built up and the production warrants. At present, as above stated, the fruit is all packed by hand, carefully. The crates used in packing are one foot wide, two feet high, three feet long. This crate is made on the island.
It is usually very truthfully said that there is no money in pineapples, but it has been demonstrated that for the intelligent grower of an exceptionally fine pineapple who has, furthermore, the business ability to get the pines, once he has grown them, properly placed on the market, there is money in pineapples on the Isle of Pines.
McL. McSWEENEY.

PEACH BLOSSOM FESTIVAL AT
,,FORT VALLEY, GA.
March 22 marked the successful close of the second Peach Blossom Festival held at Fort Valley, Georgia. Notwithstanding the unfavorable weather during the few days preceding the festival day, preparations went forward and a clear, sunshiny day was the reward.
Following speeches by prominent Georgians, a parade of floats, symbolic of the industry and agriculture of the State of Georgia, led the throngs to the barbecue grounds, where over three miles of tables were bountifully supplied with the barbecued meat of 245 hogs, 10 beeves, 10 sheep, 3,000 loaves of fresh bread, 800 gallons of hot coffee, thousands of pickles and other dainties.
"Georgia's Crowning Glory," the pageant, was the feature of the day. Over seven hundred people took part in it. Following the presentation by Miss Georgia of History to the Court, brilliant scenes appeared as History rapidly and accurately unfolded the rich tapestries of Georgia's past. First came the Indians, followed by the Spaniards under De Soto, and then the Colonists seeking freedom from oppression. A quaint and delightful feature of the Colonial scene was the dancing of the minuet by the Colonial dames and their escorts.
The arrival of the Continental soldiers to the tune of "Yankee Doodle" and the salute to the thirteen-starred flag occasioned applause. The entrance of Wesleyan College, the oldest female college in America, was followed by the passing of the Old South, its entrance heralded by "Dixie" and its feature of "Old Black Joe,"' by Uncle Joe Cotton, aged negro, and a real relic of slave days.
The Ku Klux Klan represented Re-


construction Days and was followed by the introduction of prominent men and women who have been identified with the growth of Georgia and the New South. Lanier, the poet, was there; Joel Chandler Harris-"Uncle Remus"-whom all children love; Ty Cobb, premier in baseball, and lastly, Mrs. Felton, the first woman senator.
The Spirit of Georgia then summoned Agriculture before the Royal Pair, and dainty solo and group dances were executed by characters typifying the Sun, Rain, Wind, Blossoms, Birds, Butterflies, Fruits, ,egetables and Nuts.
Followed the battle with the destructive forces that assail the peach and cotton, and the drill of the younger generation of the Fort Valley farmers in their victorious conquest which was heartily applauded.
The pageant was concluded by the crowning of Georgia with a coronet of peach blossoms, the scene taking place in a veritable peach orchard of boughs carried by young ladies.
Approximately 25,000 were visitors to Fort Valley, crowding the little city to overflowing. Among the visitors were 100 commission men from the large market centers who were met in Macon and conveyed by autos to the festival.
Already preparations are being made for a bigger and better pageant next year, and already the Peach Blossom Festival bids fair to rival the Rose Carnival at Pasadena and the Cherry Blossom Festival of Japan.

Wants Louisiana Orange Industry
Development of the Satsuma orange industry in Southwestern Louisiana is urged by the Lake Charles American Press, which declares that the success of T. S. Granberry in fifteen years' experimenting with the Satsuma on cut-over pine lands from thirty to sixty miles north of St. Charles is "a declaration of independence for discouraged prairie rice farmers and cut-over land owners who for a hundred years have made only a bare living. These points are urged:
Cut-over pine lands are peculiarly adapted to Satsuma oranges.
Trees will bear well in three years after planting.
A temperature as low as 12 degrees above, while causing the loss of one crop, will not kill the trees.
Trees bear from 500 to 1,000 each, according to age.
A crop on one acre of land, requiring one year in which to grow and be harvested, is worth a crop of virgin pine timber on the same size tract of land -which required one hundred years to mature.
It requires very little capital to start in the business of growing Satsumas, the cultivation and harvesting of them requires very little and very light labor compared to the lumbering industry or even ordinary farming.
Page Twenty-one





PACKING CELERY AT SANFORD, FLORIDA
(Continued from Page 5)


Scenes in Packing Plant of Sanford Farmers' Exchange: 1-Washing celery. 2-Packing Celery. 3-Celery being conveyed to Pre-Cooler. 4--Celery passing through cold water pre-cooling device. By this system it only takes 28 minutes to pre-cool celery. The only system of its kind in the world. 5--Load.'ng celery in freight cars.


This packing plant was completed by February, 1922, at a cost of $120,000. The original house was 300 feet in length but a recent addition has increased the size considerably and has increased the capacity 40 per cent.
The great possibilities of the plant were clearly demonstrated during the first season's operations when 500 cars of celery were successfully put through the plant, for while some pre-cooling of vegetables had been done in a limited way before, this was the first organized attempt to carry out the whole process of packing, precooling and icing celery, and the entire plant was unique in plans, machinery and development.
It took lots of faith and courage to prompt the building of such a plant, because numerous methods and machinery had to be originated and developed for the particular work of packing celery, and at the beginning the whole working arrangement was an experiment-an experiment, however, that turned out to be a successful and profitable one for the experimenters.
The plant consists of the main building for storage and packing; a complete ice plant with a capacity of 30 tons and a 700-ton brick cork-insulated ice storage room; precooling rooms and facilities; a warehouse and a commissary. Two 150 h.p. Fairbanks Morse oil-burning engines furnish power for conveyors, ice plant, refrigeration and electricity. Standard crates are used and are made in their own mill.
The plant is located on a nine-acre plot owned by the Farmers' Exchange on a spur of the A. C. L. Railway about four miles east of Sanford.
One of the most unique features of the house is the
Page Twenty-two


cold water pre-cooling device which was originated and built in this plant and is the only one of its kind in the world. By this system the packed crates of celery are conveyed slowly under running water with a temperature


Field of Celery, Sanford, Florida
of 36 degrees, each package taking 28 minutes to be come thoroughly pre-cooled. With this system it is P05 sible to pre-cool and load a car of celery, 336 crates every hour and a half; whereas, with the old cold ai storage room system, still in use everywhere else, it take






S Sikchwer ) xcki Hou eNws
~ 1,1ows


from fifteen to nineteen hours. They have a cold air pre-cooling room, fitted with pipes according to the old custom, which is used sometimes for storing celery as it comes from the field, or for accommodating special orders or odd sizes of celery. It has a capacity of four cars a day.
The present plant has 14 packing booths and a capacity of over fifteen cars a day. In packing, each grower is given a booth, a packing crew and a number and he may observe his own crop being packed if he wishes.


Pack:nz booths and conveyor to pre-coo:er


Each grower during a certain day delivers his celery in the rough from the field and each grower having celery packed through the plant during that day participates in every car loaded during the day according to grade. The celery from each grower is checked on the conveyor as it is carried from the packing booth to the pre-cooler. This is a pooling system that has worked out very satisfactorily and eliminates any thought of prejudice in the minds of the grower members. The process of picking and packing as practiced by the Sanford Farmers' Exchange is as follows: When celery is ready to harvest, generally two weeks after having enclosed it in the bleaching paper, the wire wickets are first taken off and the paper is removed with a machine which rolls it tightly. A two-wheeled knife, propelled by one man, is then used to cut the celery just below the surface of the ground. Women "strippers" then come along and strip off the outside leaves of the celery and stack it in piles, ready for the two or three men helpers who lay the celery evenly in wooden forms containing a web strap which is buckled tightly around the celery in the forms. The strapped bundles are then removed from the forms and stacked four or five deep on flat-bottomed trucks or wagons, these conveying the celery to the packing house.
On arrival at the packing and pre-cooling plant the celery is dumped immediately into wooden tubs, ten feet long by three feet wide, and three feet deep, the strap being removed as this is done.
Women washers then wash the celery in these tubs and or it out onto tables in sizes ranging from three dozen to eight dozen to the crate. Other women then remove the few remaining unfit leaves from the celery and lay it clovenient to the bunchers" hands. The bunchers pick up the celery, one stalk at a time, and place it in forms that will hold one dozen stalks. These forms have a wooden clamp worked with a foot-lever which presses do ," tightly on the celery, while strong cotton tape, gen'ily in gay colors, is tied tightly around it both at to i lct end and about midway up the stalks, making a Saii baock of celery that is very compact and handsome inu appearance.
The large dozen-bunches are placed side by side in a standard celery crate that will just contain them, and the crates are carried on a chain conveyor to the water precooler and, coming out of this, they are loaded direct into Well iced cars and started on their journey to the markets. Celery goes in the car at a temperature of 36 to 38 degrees, Therefore, all latent heat has been removed before


shinning and rendering unnecessary any re-icing en route.
The celery is graded in the field before it is cut, and like grades are sent to the different portions of the packing house that are set aside for them. Solid cars of each grade are packed.
The smallest sizes are bunched into celery hearts and tied with a colored tape. The tops are cut off of these, making a very compact and attractive small bunch, which goes to the fanciest hotels trade, as a rule. The hearts are packed tightly in the same kind of crates and subjected to the same treatment as the larger celery.
The celery through this plant carries the U. S. No. 1 stamp as to grade and pack, an inspector from the Federal Government having given the necessary time to inspection in the plant to secure such a grade and pack as can justly take the U. S. No. 1 stamp, which is the highest given to celery.
After the cars of celery are loaded the car door is closed and sealed and a card is hooked on the ice bunker reading: "Pre-cooled-Do Not Re-Ice." Celery from this house has been arriving in the markets in A-No. 1 condition and buyers are highly enthusiastic over the advantage possessed by "Stag" brand celery, over celery handled by ordinary methods.
There have been so many advantages demonstrated by the methods adopted by the Sanford Farmers' Exchange in packing and handling celery, that it is hard to know just which is the most important. This is the first attempt at the standardization of celery grades. This gives the buyer and dealer in celery an advantage. If all celery growers packed and shipped by standard grading methods, the big buyers would be saved the expense of keeping a man in the field to watch what they were buying, and the smaller buyers could compete favorably with the b'g ones because much of the gamble in buying would be eliminated.
Sanford Farmers' Exchange members are obtaining a much better price for their celery than is being obtained


Icing Cars

by outside growers. This condition has been brought about through careful packing, standardized grades and efficient refrigeration and the resultant confidence instilled in the minds of the buyers, for "Stag" brand celery. The Exchange members are not only getting more profit per acre, but are paying for a large packing house without knowing it.
Packing under cover gives a threefold advantage: More celery to the acre. Packing in the sun and wind causes a certain amount of shrinkage and wilting which is eliminated where it is packed under cover in the cool. Celery packed in the field is likely to be dirty and carelessly sized, if at all, and does not present so pleasing a first appearance in the market as well washed celery from a packing house. Labor much prefers the cool shade of a packing house to the glaring hot sun of the field.
The Sanford Farmers' Exchange has formed an alli(Continued on Page 40)
Page Twenty-three





PACKING AND SHIPPING PRUNES
Through
THE OREGON GROWERS' CO-OPERATIVE ASSOCIATION By ARIEL E. V. DUNN


The Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association, which was organized in 1919 in its present form and name, during its three years of operation has built up markets for its fruit products, not only in this country, but abroad. Besides, it is making some money every year for its members and building up a permanent reputation.


Packing plant of the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association xt Newburg, Ore., the center of the berry growing district, 35 miles southwest of Portland. One of the best equipped of the chain operated by the association.
This is a record of which to be proud, considering the big problems which any co-operative organization has to face. Perhaps the most difficult thing of all is to "sell" the co-operators themselves. The farmers must be convinced that there is nothing to it but for the growers to agree to turn in their produce and have "the man" sell it for them with no middleman's costs, and then turn back the money.
The reason that so many co-operative organizations fail is that they refuse to face the fact that they must take the big business chance even as does the independent buyer, packer, wholesaler and jobber. Not unlike many others, the Oregon growers had a hard time during the first year-in fact, it was a veritable nightmare to the association.
B u t experience during
that year taught the association that it must be far more than a mere selling organization. It must be a manufacturer, a transportation ex- Apple Packing plant at Ro pert, an international advertising agency, a judge of morality, an apostle of better cultural methods and a financier.
The problems in the states of Oregon and Washington are much similar, and there has always been a friendly feeling between growers in these neighboring states of the Northwest. Although technicalities of law prohibit the two states forming a joint co-operative association for the handling of farm products, the Washington Growers' Co-operative Association and the Oregon association are practically one. Their methods of packing are similar and the best products of both states are sent out to the world under the brand name "Mistland."
More than one-half the prunes produced in the Pacific Northwest last season was handled by these two cooperative associations. The Oregon Growers handled 21,000,000 pounds in the dried form while the Washington Growers took care of 7,500,000 pounds. The individual growers dry their own prunes after which the dried product is brought to the nearest plant owned by the Oregon Growers' Packing Association operated in conjunction with the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association.
Page Twenty-four


S5


Thus the packing process does not really begin in the packing plant but rather in the harvesting and drying of the fruit by the farmer. Inasmuch as the standard for fruit is high for admittance to the packing corporation, every care must be taken in drying to produce a product which will be accepted as high quality.
Although the packing process is not the same in differ. ent sections of western Oregon and in Washington, the general plan of operation is much the same.
In the drying process which is done under the supervision of the individual grower or a group of growers, the old Oregon tunnel is coming more and more into use, The tunnel is sloping varying in length from 16 to 36 feet with 13 slides to the tunnel. The tunnel allows for a 2x3 tray. The prunes are placed in the tunnel at the largest end, after they have been washed and dipped in a solution of hot water, or hot water lye which checks the skin causing openings permitting quicker evaporation. After washing, the fruit is placed on trays and spread evenly one layer deep. The trays are put into the tunnel and as one tray is taken out other trays are pushed down into place from the top. The heat is raised to about 170 degrees when the prunes are pronounced ready to be taken out of the tunnel. Ordinarily it takes 24 to 36 hours to put the prunes through this operation.
The prunes usually dry down to a proportion of three to one. The trays are then stacked and allowed to cool, after which the soft or cracked prunes are picked out by hand. The prunes are removed from the trays to a table where they are sacked to be hauled to the packing plant.
The Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association has five large prune dryers in sections of western Oregon where there is a shortage of privately operated dryers. These dryers have been built at The Dalles, Devers, Carlton, Sheridan and Sutherlin. A
44 tunnel is used-one of the
largest in the state.
In all, the association has
22 well equipped packing
plants, nine of which pack
prunes. These plants are
located at The Dalles, Yamhill, Forest Grove, ScottS
Mills, Salem, Creswell, Myrtle Creek, Sutherlin, and
Riddle.
As the fruit is received at
the door of the packing plant
and before receipts are issued
eburg (Southern Oregon) to the individual grower, an inspection is made of the
sacked prunes and if, according to the person receiving for the Association the prunes meet with the standard requirements, they are weighed-in and graded. After grading, the grower is given a weight receipt and a copy sent to the main office of the Oregon Growers' Co-oper-


Packing House at Medford (Southern Oregon) showing cold stOr" plant and (to theleft) view of new saw-tooth roof being adOPted




ative Association at Salem, capital city of the state. As has been mentioned before, only first class fruit properly dried will be admitted to the prune packing plants of the association. The Oregon Growers' Association allows an advance to the farmer soon after delivery of the fruit to the plant. This year it is 2 1/- c per pound, followed with another within 1 1'2 months later to cover harvesting. The fruit brought in is stacked in sacks until the grading is done.
Last October, all the association plants were operating day and night in packing prunes. Each grower's lot is kept separately until a grade sheet is issued showing the exact grades in each size. The individual grower gets a copy of this sheet and is paid according to the size of the fruit. Inasmuch as the grower's name does not appear on the prune sacks, but rather his number, the graders do not know whose fruit they are grading, and anyway, would have little time to think of favoring any particular growers as the grading is done so fast. In grading, the waste prunes are weighed out against the individual grower's number.
A series of screens graduated from eight to ten-sixteenths inch up to about one and one-half inch are used in the grading. The screens are of heavy sheet metal attached to a frame support by rocker arms and operated by an eccentric
which gives a
throw to the
prunes, causing
them to move on
the screen until
the proper sized
hole is reached,
whereupon they
drop into a system of bins.
By means of
an inverted
V-shaped blending board located
in each bin, the
operator can regulate the size or
grade. Each
grade is based
upon the number
of prunes per
pound, i. e., the
count of prunes
for every pound.
A 40-50 grade or
size would be a
pound of prunes
testing between
40 and 50, and if
the number was
39 or 51 they
would be classed
in the 30-40 or This boat is full of prunes literally. I the 50-60 grade has built up a prune market in England that respectively, in direct from-Portland Ocean shipments. The man in charge of the grader sets the blending boards so they yield a grade on the "8 point"-for example, after a series of tests a certain bin runs 46, he then adjust the board so as to take more prunes from the next grade smaller which would be 50-60, until the 40-50 tests 48 prunes to the pound. Each grade is weighed and the total for each "buggy" or wheelbarrow is entered on the grade sheet. After the prunes are weighed, they are placed in bins on the second floor for the next and final step in packing. Once put into bins, the identity of the fruit is forever lost. Since one lot of prunes which are not of first quality could easily cause a serious lsin careful inspection is a necessity in the first steps of

While in the bins the prunes equalize in moisture content to a great degree, but there is a limit even in this, eco the reason for an insistent demand for conformity i the prunes as they are received at the plant from the driers.


Ch ta


The Mistland pack has become famous principally because the processing has been very carefully done, coupled with the efforts of the association to pack only quality fruit. In the "processing," the prunes pass through a large steam chamber where they are superheated and thoroughly washed. This thoroughly sterilizes the fruit product, for not only do the prunes pass through live steam but in doing so, they are sprayed with boiling water.
Besides cleansing and sterilizing the fruit, the processing gives it a refreshened appearance, although steam only is used-no chemicals. This two-minute steam bath adds slightly to the weight of the fruit, offering an opportunity for unscrupulous packers to injure business by attempting to put too much steam into the prunes. The fruit cools slightly after emerging and drops through a chute to a bin, from which it is boxed and weighed. The boxes which are of clean new pine wood, lined with glassine which is folded over the top by hand, pass from the scales by gravity conveyor or belt system, to the press which compresses the fruit for the lidding machine, which in turn nails them.
In packing the fruit, it is also necessary to blend or mix the grades, so as to obtain a final test approaching the 10 point or the limit of the next grade smaller. This is done before the
fruit enters the ~processor. In
grading the 8
point system is
used-40-50's are
graded out 48which allows a
slight variation
without danger of
overrunning into
another size when
the prunes are
processed.
When packing
a quantity of the
next smaller
grade, 50-60's are
mixed with the
40-50's to bring
up the test to 49
o r thereabouts.
This blending results in additional
profits for the
members since a
portion of the
smaller sizes are
combined w i t h
the larger sizes.
The labels giving
the size are
stamped on the
e Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association b o x e s w h e n kes Oregon prunes by the millions of pounds packed.
It generally
takes the fruit 24 to 36 hours to cool, with some processors, 48 hours. The boxes are always piled upside down for the reason that they are filled at the scales from the bottom side principally to hold the glassine paper in position, and to compress the prunes flatly against it, all of which makes a very attractive appearance when opened from the top. The labels and stencils are also placed upside down, corresponding to the position of the box, in order that the boxes will be opened properly.
The boxes are "staggered" in the pile so as to provide space for ventilation and quick cooling. When a shipment is to be made, several sizes and as many lots, are generally loaded in one car. Each box is stenciled the lot number and each lot is loaded separately. All boxes for export shipment are strapped in bundles of two at the plant or dock.
In the packing of the Mistland prunes, which represent to Oregon what the Sunkist or Sunsweet brands of (Continued on Page 33)
Page Twenty-five






WHY RISK FINANCIAL LOSS?

cle, and Pineapple Crate Specifications By A. R. HARRISON


Considerable difficulties have arisen of late between shippers and the railroads anent the matter of claims. It is an erroneously conceived idea in the minds of some shippers that the roads, in general, are tyrannical bodies, organized and operated for the sole purpose of squeezing the maximum grade of rates from a patron, maltreating and damaging his freight, and squirming out of their justly creditable obligations when he presents a claim for loss or damage. Nothing could be further from the truth.
Lack of space prohibits an extensive discussion of the rate question. It is sufficient to say reputable proof could be produced upon demand by a number of lines showing conclusively that they would willingly and eagerly reduce their rates below the existing scale if they were permitted to do so. One must remember that in railroading, as in any other business, the element of competition enters largely into the concerted activities and, after all, the individual with the lowest price, all else being equal, is the one who gets the business.
As for the matter of claims, every road supports, at a great expense, a department whose mission in life is to see that all just claims are paid as promptly as possible. Naturally, every claim must be investigated and because of unavoidable delays in correspondence, t h i s investigation may stretch over several months. But once the validity of the claim is established, it is p a i d immediately and in full.
It may be argued that the roads might handle freight more carefully. That is quite true; but to assure th e maximum of care, the rates would have to be Standard Cele increased to provide additional funds for additional labor to carry the freight to and from box cars with kid gloves. Kid gloves, at this time of year, are rather expensive.
Briefly stated, freight is freight-and for that reasson will always be subjected to a certain amount of rough treatment. Anticipating this, the roads, with the approval of the Interstate Commerce Commission, and under the supervision of the various territorial freight assocations and bureaus, have contrived standard crates which are supposed to withstand successfully the expected treatment of freight. If the freight is shipped in one of these standard crates and leaves the point of origin in good condition and is received at the point of destination in a damaged condition, the railroad handling the freight is responsible for the damage and will pay the claim without argument. However, when the shipper ignores the rules of the current tariffs and sends his merchandise on its trip in a crate that does not conform to standard specifiPage Twenty-six


cations, he has no one but himself to blame when the road refuses-with justification-to pay his claim for damages.
It is, therefore, of paramount interest to shippers to know these specifications to avoid damage to his freight. For the benefit of our readers who are not thoroughly familiar with the standard celery and pineapple crates, we quote their dimensions and all other details governing them below:
Celery Crate (Standard No. 1)
Dimensions: 10x20x22 inches inside measurements. Capacity: 4,400 cubic inches. Heads: Two heads, 10x20 inches, made of head sticks not less than 13-16 inch thick and 11/4 inches wide. Panels: Two panels, made of one piece not less than 3-16 inch thick securely nailed to head sticks with not less than six No. 16-gauge 7-8 inch wire nails on the 10-inch sides and not less than four No. 16-gauge 7-8 inch wire n ails across the 20-inch sides (total, 16 nails.) Slats: Nine slats, three on each side, one on top and two on bottom not less than 4 inch thick, 4 inches w i d e and 24 inches long.
Making Up: Securely nail slats to head
sticks with not less than three cement coated 4d nails at each slat end. Wood Veneer or Sawed: To be seasoned pine or gum or wood of equal strength, of sound material, free from injurious knots.
Celeray Crate (Standard No. 2)
y Crate. Parts. Dimensions: 101 20x22 3-8 in ches inside measurements. Capacity: 4,350 cubic inches. Two Ends: Each end to comprise of two corner posts
l14x1'4x20 inches, two top and bottom slats 13-16x 3%x10 inches long, one middle slat 3-8x3%x10 inches long.
Note: The corner posts may be two inches shorter or two inches longer to accommodate the height of the celery. Slats (Sides, Top and Bottom): Nine slats, three 0n
each side, one on top and two on bottom, not less than 3-8 inch thick, 3 % inches wide and 24 inches
long.
Making Up: All end slats 13-16 inch thick shall be
nailed to corner posts with two 6d wire nails at each end. All 3-8 inch slats shall be nailed to corner Post with two 4d cement coated nails at each end of each
slat.


ry





Skinner P~ckn~HouSeNewS l~r I 'I


Wood, Veneer or
Sawed: To be of
seasoned pine or gum or wood of equal strength, of s o u n d material, and free from injurious knots.


.7


Go-I - I U! I I
I Jl . I ' IJ _


Pineapple Crate
Dimensions: 10/2xl2x
3 i n c h es inside 1,
measurements.
Capacity: 4,158 cubic Diagram of car loaded w;
inches.
Heads: Three heads, T
10%/2x12 inches Ir-..
made with head |I___.___________1- _I_sticks not less' I I.
than 13-16 inch-- I. ."
thick and 11/ in- __ _ _ __ _ _ _1 _ _I _ _1
ches wide.
Panels: End heads one
panel inside, center heads two panels not I e s s
than 3-16 inch Diagram of car loaded wii
thick securely nailed to head
sticks by not less--vthan four No. 16- r
gauge 7-8 inch
wire nails across I I
the 12 inch sides '",.
(total, 10 nails). I The veneer m a ybe stapled on with 1 3
eight double
pointed staples 7-8 _._.
inch long made
from N o. 18- Diagram of car loaded wi
gauge wire.
Slats: E'ght slats not less than 4 inches wide by 36 inches long, not less than 4 inch thick.
Making Up: Securely nail to heads with not less than
eight cement coated 4d nails to each slat, i.e., three cement coated 4d nails in each end and two cement
coated 4d nails in the middle of each slat.
Wood, Veneer or Sawed: To be of seasoned pine or gum
or wood of equal strength, free from injurious knots.
In shipping carload lots, when the car is packed by the shipper, care must be exercised to load the freight in a way that will least invite deterioration. For instance, celery crates, shipped under refrigeration, should be loaded in accordance with the accompanying diagram.
The railroad directions for the loading is that the crates in the first layer must be loaded on the edge, tops up, lengthwise in the car, with proper space between the rows for circulation of cold air; the crates should extend from end to end of the car, completely filing the floor Space. Each cross layer must be securely stripped, strips to be nailed to the front and back of the upper side of each crate. All other tiers must be loaded and stripped in the same manner.
Any additional crates must be loaded lengthwise on top of the last layer along the side walls of the car and Must be braced with strips and must be so placed in the tar so that the circulation of cold air may not be ob!tructed. The stripping should be not less than one-half loch thick and one inch wide. One end of each strip Should rest against the side of the car, alternating from oee side to the other with each strip. When the floor space is not completely filled, bracing lust be used, or the vacant floor space in the doorway m ust be filled by using a sufficient number of crates prop.ToY secured to prevent the load from shifting. The direcons for loading pineapples under both ventilation and refrigeration are essentially the same. The accompanying


th pneapp'es in standard crates under ventilation.


th p*neapp'es in standard crates under refrigeraton.


th ce:ery in standard crates un .ler refrgerat'on
illustrations show the arrangement of the crates in the cars.
There is an element of unpleasantness-whether real or imagined-in all claims. All claims that are refused payment by the railroads represent a financial loss to the shipper. It is therefore incumbent upon him to eliminate, if possible, the danger of damage or at least, the danger of being denied payment of his claims. The only sure way of doing this is to comply with the standard specifications of crates, packing and loading as required by the lines. When he has done this and damage does occur to his freight, a shipper will find that his claims will be passed for payment with the regularity of clock-work.


Standard Pineapple Crate. Parts.
Page Twenty-seven







THE ACCOUNTING DEP


Being the Eighth of a Series of Articles Regarding the Skinner Factory and Organization
-4 ~. M.


The Accounting Department of the Skinner Machinery Company fully realizes its opportunity to be of service to customers. Just as the Sales, Engineering and Production Departments exercise their ingenuity in designing efficient machinery for the better handling of fruits and vegetables in order to minimize packing house operation costs, so does this Department recognize its responsibility in accurate cost finding. Its duty is to devise and put into practice methods for reducing manufacturing costs for the benefit of customers, thereby carrying out the House policies which are based on the theory that no institution has a right to exist unless it performs a service.
The Accounting Department of the Skinner Machinery Company is very much up-to-date, both in personnel and mechanical equipment. The sincerity of the management in preaching the Gospel of Efficiency in the handling of fruits and vegetables is proven in the fact that no item of equipment is too expensive for the Accounting Department provided it adds efficiency and decreases costs.
Mr. Mewborn's duties as chief accountant include the supervision of the work of the other members of the Accounting Department. It is said that figures never lie but they can become so confused and out of balance sometimes that it takes an expert accountant such as Mr. Mewborn is to disentangle them and put them back on the right track. It is in such experiences as this that the other members of his department appreciate his help in getting their books


N. T. McLean


Miss N. A. Cushing


straight. Mr. Mewborn's duties also include the alalysis of expense and other accounts and the arranging of reports and statistics in such shape that they can be quickly grasped by the General Manager.
Mr. Webb is timekeeper and has charge of the factory ledger. He keeps the accounting records of the manufacturing processes showing the cost of the finished product. His accounts supply the information upon which the analysis of cost is based.
Mr. McLean is in charge of the dePage Twenty-eight


Mac


C. L. Mewborn


tail stores ledger and the cost sales records, in addition to assisting in the purchase and storage of material. He keeps the statistical records of the cost department, analyzing and comparing actual production costs with standard costs and pointing out discrepancies and deficiencies to the management.
The customers' and general ledgers are in charge of
Miss Cushing,
who has been
with the Company since it
commenced business. Miss
Cushing is not
only a competent bookkeeper
but has an intimate knowledge
of the business.
G. P. Webb She has been recording transactions with a
large percentage of the customers for a number of years and has watched many of them grow from small growers, packing their fruit by the crudest methods, to be owners of or the heads of some of the largest fruit handling organizations in the country. She naturally has taken a very great deal of interest in this development.
Mr. W. A. Jones is a recent addition to the Accounting Department force. Mr. Jones has been working in the storeroom for some time, but is now assisting Mr. McLean in handling


ARTMENT

hinery Company,




materials and requisitions for supplies.
The growth of the Skinner Machinery Company has been rapid in recent years and a full-fledged accounting department has been a necessary development. This department has kept pace with the growth of the company and has grown from requiring the services of one bookkeeper to those of an expert accountant and four assistants.
Mr. Mewborn is constantly putting his department upon a more efficient basis. For instance, recent rapid growth of the business of the Skinner Machinery Company has given him occasion to entirely revamp the cost system used. Foreign business, branching into the deciduous fruit territory, the manufacturing of vegetable packing machinery and the handling of new lines by the Sales Department have caused many new classifications in the accounting system.
The Accounting Department ceoperates with the Sales Department in many ways and the system used is so arranged that a report may be given the Sales Department at any time showing whether the territory in which any salesman is working is productive or non-productive.


k~l N"1IF-


During 1922 the Skinner Machinery Company used 120,314 carriage and machine bolts, 13,000 lag screws and 83,856 flat and round head wood screws in the manufacture of machinery.
During 1922 the Skinner Machinery Company used 11,392 lbs. of horsehair and 29,595 lbs. of Tampico in the manufacture of brushes.
During 1922 the Skinner Machinery Company used 11 cars of lumber in making 32,974 two and a quarterinch bushed rollers.
During 1922 the Skinner Machinery Company used 26 cars of 1x3 and 3x8 lumber in the manufacture of packing house equipment.
During 1922 the Skinner Machinery Company foundry made 107,629 castings with an estimated weight Of 1,291,546 lbs.
During 1922 the Skinner Machinery Company among other thing, used 10,400 nails, 69,715 ft of canvas belting, 17,500 ft. of padding, 11,560 ft. of wire for bins, and 27,000 ft. of fibre strapping.
During 1922 the Skinner viachi" ery Company made 1382 complete machines and in connection with these used 673 pulleys, 12 engines, and 276 motors.








SSkzth ne r t&e P acciinHooesNewe






[Everythbzg for the Packihg House


-Apple Machinery
-Automatic Box Dumping
Machine
-Bags, Picking
-Barrel Heading Press
-Bearings
-Bearings, Ball
-Belting
-Belts, Conveyor
-Belt Supplies
-Blowers
-Box Conveyors
-Box Dumping Machines
-Box Elevator -Box Hatchets
-Box Making Machines -Box Material Conveyor
-Box Makers' Bench -Box-Nailing Machine
-Box, Press
-Brushes
-Cantaloupe Machinery
-Car Movers -Car Squeeze
-Citrus Machinery
-Clamp Trucks
-Clippers
-Coke Heaters
-Columbia Truck -Conveyors, Box -Conveyors, Drip
-Cucumber Machinery

CHECK THE ITEMS IN


-Crate-Material Elevator
-Drip Conveyor
-Dryers
-Electric Generators
-Electric Motors
-Electric Winding Engine
-Elevating Sprinklers
-Elevators, Platform
-Empty-Box Elevator
-Engines-Gasoline
-Engines-Kerosene
-Engines-Spray
-Fan Ventilating
-Fire Extinguishers
-Fruit Clippers
-Gang Plank
-Generators
-Grading Belt, Canvas
-Grading Belt, Rollers
-Grapefruit Packs and Sizes
-Hatchets, Box
-Heaters, Coke
-Heating Systems for
Drying
-Hoes, Scuffle
-Hose, Spray
-Housings
-Hydraulic Barrel Press
-Ladders
-Lighting Generators
-Machinery, Special Manufacture


-Motors
-Miami Trailers
-Morgan Box Machines
-Movers, Car
-Nailing Machines
-Nail Strippers
-Onion Machinery
-Orange Packs and Sizes
-Packing House Plans
-Paper Holders
-Peach Machinery
-Pear Machinery
-Pepper Machinery
-Picking Bags
-Picking Ladders
-Plans, Packing House
-Platform Elevator
-Polishers
-Pre-Coloring Equipment
-Press, Barrel
-Pulleys
-Pumps, Packing House
-Pumps, Spray
-Reels, Strapping
-Repair Parts
-Re-Weighing Machine
-Scales
-Scuffle Hoes
-Sizers
-Soaking Tanks
-Special Bearings
-Special-Made Machinery


-Sprayers
-Spraying Specialties
-Spray Engines
-Spray Hose
-Spray Outfits
-Spray Pumps
-Spray Guns
-Spray Pumps, Fittings
-Skinner Sprayers
-Sprayers, Tractor
-Sprinkler Elevators
-Sprinklers
-Squeeze, Car
-Strapping Reel
-Strapping
-Sprocket Wheels
-Sprocket Chain
-Thermometers
-Tomato Machinery
-Transmission '
-Trailers, Miami
-Trucks, Auto
-Trucks, Clamp
-Trucks, 4-Wheel
-Vegetable Grading Machinery
-Washer Brushes
-Washers
-Weighing Machines
-Winding Engine for
Elevators
-Wyandotte Cleanser


WHICH YOU ARE INTERESTED IN THIS LIST. USE THE COUPON BELOW


SAVE TIME---CHECK HERE
Check the items in which you are interested. Tear off this page and return to the Skinner Machinery Company, Dunedin, Florida.

-Send the Skinner Catalogue. -Be sure my name is on your mailSend special literature regarding: ing list.
-Sizers Capacity of our packing plant is
- Polishers --------------------- cars a day.
-Coke Heaters (Send floor plans if possible.)
-Trucks We have an orchard with .............
-Supplies acres.
- Dryers We grow ---------------_.......---------------------- Sprayers ..............................................................
(mention fruits or vegetables grown)

W e are especially interested in: -------_.......... ..............................................................





N A M E ................................................................................................. ......................

ADDRESS .......... ......................................................................... ....................





(4) WRITE PLAINLY





SKINNER MACHINERY COMPANY
SKINNER World's Largest Manufacturers of Fruit and Vegetable Packing MachineryBo W , U D , L I


BROADWAY, DUNEDIN, FLORIDA




Page Twenty-nine





HORTICULTURAL WEEK AT (. ORLANDO, FLORIDA
., i.s(Continued from Page 4)
Grapefruit, Citrus Fertilizers, Orna. /mentals, Pecans, Grove Machinery, pa and the Growing of Quality Fruit,
-c ~ Membership For the information of those who may not be acquainted with the society and its work, any person may become a memeber, and everybody, whether members or not, are invited to attend the meetings at Orlando. The society is the big clearing house for ideas concerning the growing of citrus and other fruits and of ornamentals. The speakers on the programs are conservative growers who have had years of experience in For the work done by your teams you their respective lines; and technical
pay them in feed. If you want honest work men who are doing research work on give them an honest feed. the problems with which the growers have to contend.
During its 36 years of existence, Old Beck Sweet Feed the society has been the leader in the
As compared with money, Old Beck is the development of all lines of horticulture in Florida. Included in its memgold standard. It is tie biggest feed value bership of nearly two thousand are in the world today for horses and mules, the most successful growers in the
It is cracked corn, crimped whole oats,
green alfalfa meal and sugar
house molasses in just the right
amounts. We use a specially 0'
treated new molasses which makes a green feed and it won't
cause colic.
For Sale by Feed Dealers Everywhere


JACKSON GRAIN CO.

State Distributors

1Tampa, Florida






QU ALITY SERVICE Bayard F. Floyd, Sec.etary Florida State Horticultural Society

state. The complete proceedings of KEEN BUSI N C MEN USEeach annual meeting are published in book form and a copy is furnished
each member.
0 All of the details that are necessary to become a member is to send the secretary at P. 0. Box 719, Orlando, Florida, two dollars in payment of the annual membership fee. Every citrus grower, avocado grower, grape grower, banana grower, pineapple S m o TroIm grower, flower grower and fern grower in Florida should be a memTRU-KS ber of the society.
The railroads in Florida have granted a reduced rate of one and one-half fares for the round trip for INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COMPANY members who wish to attend the
meeting at Orlando. Those who wish OF AMERICA to take advantage of this rate should
write Bayard F. Floyd, Secretary, o 434 East Bay Street Jacksonville, Florida 719, Orlando, for an identificatioO
certificate which is necessary in order to obtain a ticket at this rate.
Page Thirty








SKINNER CUCUMBER GRADER











The Skinner Cucumber Grading and Packing Bins provide: Self-feeding hopper to receive cucumbers from field crates. Roller conveyor belts to elevate cucumbers from convenient hopper height to grading table height and discharging to canvas distributor. Two canvas distributors, each arranged to carry two grades of cucumbers when desired. Bins to hold cucumbers for packing. The Bin divisions are movable and will usually divide into bins four feet wide. Two movable divisions in each bin may be used to make three compartments. The illustration shows machine with 50 feet of bin front space and 12 feet of grading space. It is driven with three-quarter horse-power motor.
Write For Prices


SKINNER MACHINERY COMPANY
Broadway Dunedin Florida


SKINNER BOX CONVEYOR


With Individual Motor Drive


The Skinner Box Conveyor equipped with individual motor drive makes it possible to eliminate all shafting in the packing house. Heretofore, both conveyors and sizers have been driven from a line shaft necessitating clutches on each conveyor and on the line shaft for each sizer. Write at once for full particulars of the Skinner Box Conveyor with individual motor drive.

SKINNER MACHINERY COMPANY
Broadway Dunedin Florida


Page Thirty-one


i
Page Thirty-one






SSkzrer l~ckig House, News ;.


PACIFIC NORTHWEST NOTES


PRINTING FOR



PACKING HOUSES




Our printing for packing
houses we believe to be as good in its way as the Skinner line of machinery-and we are glad to
testify "that's going some."

We serve several of the largest
citrus growers' associations in Florida and numerous "independent" packing houses with the greater part of their needs in
the printing line.

The satisfactory quality of our
work is shown by the fact that most of these valued customers have been with us for many years. We know we can equally
please others in the same field.

We turn out good printing by
every modern process for all legitimate purposes. The printing we do is planned to produce results and we render complete service where desired--designing illustrations, writing "copy"
and looking after other details.


Write us for further information. We shall be glad to send
you samples of our work.




ARNOLD

PRINTING COMPANY
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA




DISTI NCTIVIDUALITY
REGISTERED U. S PATENT OFFICE


The erection of a packing plant at a cost of about $100,000 has been announced by the Northwest Canning Company, operating at Salem, Oregon. The packing plant will be operated in connection with the Northwest Fruit Producers' Company, successors to the Phez Company. During the fruit season it will employ between 150 and 200 persons.
An important conference of growers and shippers interested in the apple crop moving through the Portland gateway was held in Portland recently. The gathering was called to discuss accomplishments, failures and corrective measures regarding shipping. The visitors were guests of the commisson of public docks. One of the important questions under discussion was whether full cold storage was more desirable for warehousing than ventilated storage, and with cold storage whether fruit should not first be pre-cooled.
A. W. Stone, president of the Hood River Apple Growers' Association, spoke on storage facilities as did H. R. Clark of the same assocition. R. H. McNary of Salem, representing the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association, declared much trouble could be averted if cold storage was available at Portland for assembling water shipments.
G. B. Hegardt, chief engineer of the dock commission, and F. C. Knapp of the commission, who presided over the discussion, invited the shippers to send a few cars of apples to the ventilated storage warehouse just completed at terminal No. 4, to be handled free as a means of thoroughly testing the plant, even if the apples were not disposed of until June.
Apples are the best Oregon fruit at this time of the year, and are to be obtained in the local market at unusually low prices for this late in the season. There is a good supply, especially of the Hood River variety.

The car shortage problem during the past season was a serious one for Oregon growers. One cause is said to be the use of the car facilities by California wine-grape growers, a question which is causing more or less agitation by the Oregon farmer. Bert Johnson, manager of the Oregon Apple Company of Monroe, recently started much discussion when he asserted that the more legitimate business of apple growing should have precedence, in allocation of refrigerator cars, to that of vineyards, virtually enlisted in vetoing Volstead's renowned legislation. Mr. Johnson declared that before Volstead became the national figure that he is now, grapes ran from $7 to $15 a ton. During the last season the maximum price paid was $225 a ton, although probably $100 would be near the average price. Although admitting that the vineyards of California are contributing to countrywide evasions of the Volstead act, and incidentally aiding in creating a car shortage when the Oregon apple crop would move to market, local growers and transportation authorities fail to see just how the wine-grape industry of the southern state is to be checked, as there is no law against the culture of the vine.
Clarke county (Wash.) held Better Prune Day March 3 and hundreds of growers throughout the district met for a conference. Questions of how to increase production and at the same time raise the quality level were discussed. Drying methods, orchard care, including fer tilization and pruning, were other phases under discuss as well as marketing.
C. W. McCullagh, northwestern manager of Sgobel Day of New York City, returned from Chicago recently, He attended the annual convention of the Western Fruit Jobbers and sold 28 carloads of apples while in the ',windy city." Since returning from his trip to Chicago, Mr. Md Cullagh made a trip to Hood River to check up on apple situation there.


Page Thirty-two






Skiner PZXCkny House News


PACKING AND SHIPPING PRUNES
(Continued from Page 25)

fruit mean to California, and Sealdsweet to Florida, careful handling in the field, proper drying, and painstaking care in the packing house are necessary operations to produce clean, high grade fruit which will satisfy demands from all parts of the world.
Nor does the responsibility for marketing end for the association with the packing. This last season, the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association found a market fur 12,000,000 pounds of prunes in Europe and in Atlantic seaboard ports, shipping from the Port of Portland by way of the Panama Canal. The boxes were all inspected on the Portland docks by unbiased inspectors of the Northwest Packers' Association. Inspection was made for size, quality and net weight per box before the inspector's seal is placed on the package, thus preventing any dispute on arrival.
An active advertising campaign is waged by the association on the Mistland prunes, a tax of 1-10c per pound being guaranteed by the growers for this purpose. The advertising includes space taken in newspapers and sign board advertising. Large signs are found on the elevated railways in New York City advocating the eating of the Mistland prunes, while in the same city which is said to have a Jewish population of 1,500,000, a great deal of space is taken in Jewish papers printed in Yiddish. The reason for this special appeal to the Jewish people is their liking for the Oregon prune which is satisfyingly sweet. In lower Canada or Quebec where most of the population is composed of French Canadians, space is taken in French newspapers as well as in the English papers. Thus, throughout North America, the quality of Mistland prunes is heralded.
The activities of the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association are by no means confined to the packing and marketing of prunes. Apples and pears are two other products which are handled in large quantities. The association has its distinct zones of production in Western Oregon, each under the care of expert supervisors and each district has its own board of advisors, who know its own special problems. In Southern Oregon apples and pears are its specialty, in the Umpqua valley, prunes and apples, while the Willamette valley produces largely prunes, berries and cherries, and The Dalles division handles vegetables as well as assorted fruits.
The district management is delegated to men who have a comprehensive knowledge of conditions in their particular territories. Earl Pearcy is manager for the Willamette Valley district; C. R. Thompson for The Dalles district; Ray Yocum, the Umpqua Valley; Noel Davis, the Grants Pass district; and James Edmiston, the Rogue River district. The officials have absolute control over perations and are responsible for the pack in the district la which they are in charge.
.embership in the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association entails a membership fee of $10.00, an acreage membership of $10.00 per acre for all the signatory bearsng area, and the actual cost of handling each crop. This last item runs to an average charge of about 5 per cent for all of the crop. "

Tasmanian Fruit
Tasmania exported to England this past season which hs just closed, '1,352,553 bushels of apples. A large tonnage of apples has been dried at Tasmania this past eaOn, it being estimated that 300,000 bushels were used for this purpose. It is expected that Tasmania will export to England this season 10,000 boxes of dried apples.

Food Exposition in Denmark
A national Danish food exposition will be held at Fredelica, Denmark, from April 7 to 15. All kinds of food PIucts, including packing materials and canning ma'h"ery, will be exhibited.


Quality Fertilizer
With the Acid Left Out
We hold the exclusive right in Florida for manufacturing

Non-Acid Phosphate
by the
KREISS PROCESS.
Which is the result of years of experimentation to perfect a method of eliminating acid from fertilizers.
In the manufacture of our complete fertilizers we not only eliminate the use of acid, but we are using a larger proportion of the more lasting organic ammonias than is customarily used in fertilizers. Thus, with our non-acid phosphate we are able to produce a more balanced and better form of fertilizer.
Write for prices and further information.

Non-Acid Fertilizer
AND

Chemical Company
Manufacturers of
"Quality Fertilizers 'with the Acid Left Out"
1 st Avenue Lakeland, Florida

Page Thirty-three


TELL THE WORLD WITH SIGNS1~f


Well Designed Outdoor Display

Signs Conspicuously Placed


Office and Shop z612-14 Tampa St.


Tampa, Florida


Phone 2990


Jerome Benneft


v






Sk.rne P knHo1ee


Skinner Apple and Peach Sizer


A thoroughly efficient machine able to take care of five
different packing house operations, including: Self-feeding hopper, roller grading belt, cull belt, sizer and distributing
system.
Your fruit handled on such a machine is bound to top the
market and bring you an increase in profits which will soon take
care of the purchase price.
The use of the Skinner Apple and Peach Sizer will cut your
labor bill in two.
Write for complete information regarding Apple and Peach Packing Machinery

Skinner Machinery Company
Broadway Dunedin Florida


LADDERS
Strongest and Lightest


This picture shows a load of Skinner Fruit Picking Ladders ready for
delivery.
Skinner split-pole ladders are light and strong. They are
carefully made of selected cypress wood. The rungs are made of best grade pine for the purpose. Ladders are furnished from 12 to 40 feet in length and are priced by the foot. Write for prices on the lengths you require. Order now and be prepared
when you need ladders.
Address all orders or inquiries to

Skinner Machinery Company
Broadway Dunedin Florida


Page Thirty-four


Large Pears
This box of Bartlett Pears is one of a truck load for the Los Angeles market, packed and shipped out from the


packing house of the Beaumont Fruit Growers' Association. A special lot of fruit weighing from 12 to 18 ounces each.

New Fruit Terminal in Ohio
When a new $240,000 fruit terminal is completed by the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Company on Front street, between Elm and Plum streets, in Cincinnati, Ohio, it is believed that Florida and California fruits will be sent there for further eastern distribution, commission men say. Four tracks with a capacity of eighteen cars will be provided at the outset.

What Michigan Growers Shipped
Exclusive of shipments by motor trucks, which it is believed would almost double the amount, 5,000 cars of apples were shipped last season from Michigan to points outside the state, according to reports received by Commissioner of Agriculture J. A. Doelle. Peach shipments were 1,573 cars.
Shipping-Point Inspection Service on
Watermelons
Shipping-point inspection on watermelons will be available to Georgia shippers this season under a co-oper, ative agreement between the Georgia State Bureau of Markets and the Bu, reau of Agricultural Economics Of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The inspections will be based upon the average weight of the melons and upon freedom from disease. StatFederal certificates will be issued showing the quality and condition Of the watermelons at time of shipment
-U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.

Grades for Oranges Recommended il
California
Tentative grades for oranges have been recommended by the California State Department of Agriculture, and joint Federal and State inspectio certificates based on these grades are being issued on oranges shipped tO eastern markets. It is estimated that 1,000 cars will be inspected this sea son in accordance with these StW' grades. Heretofore oranges hae been sold by brand rather than bY grade.-U. S. Dept. of Agriculture,






S* SkAhmer VackminyHoqSe NewS


THE AWAKENING OF LAKE 1OY
(Continued from Page 15)
and up the tracks where, fifty feet beyond, the little Lake Photostat Service Joy station stood. But it was hardly more than a figurehead. Packing house products went directly into waiting For cars and the station sheltered prospective passengers. There was no Sunday train and the "daily" that importantly snorted and clanged its arrival at four did not re- Architects turn until four in the morning. Train travel out of Lake Joy was distinctly discouraged. "Why doesn't someone Abstract Companies do something to build up this neck of the woods?" growled Copley. "I haven't time!"
The few houses strung at wide and irregular intervals Engineers around the tiny lake boasted two flivvers and two trucks. Civil and Mechanical Yet it was an empty boast since Barrett himself owned one of the flivvers and the truck was packing house prop- Land Companies erty. The second flivver belonged to Miss Mollie Madison who "mothered" all the girls and women of the Public Accountants packing house who were "from away," and on semiweekly trips Miss Mollie "accommodated" (at so much Real Estate Dealers per) the women residents who shopped in the hamlet of Royalton, three miles distant. The men of the neighborhood were mostly too elderly or too much of invalids The above professional and business men will to exert themselves more than by a daily half-circle or a find the Photostat solves, in a satisfactory weekly circle of the lake. The packing house men em- manner many copying problems that arise ployees could easily walk to Royalton, but further than daily. this they were discouraged from going save on holidays and Sundays when the huge trucks were subsidized for what they had at first rather contemptuously termed Our Photostate Department "Sunday-School excursions" under Copley, with Miss Mol- is at your service lie and the women employees who cared to go, and an additional chaperon in the person of Miss Annie Plummer, Write on your Setter-head for detailed information the elderly housekeeper of the men's boarding house where Barrett Copley himself lived. Address
These and other smothering details of life at Lake Joy PHOTOSTAT DEPARTMENT flooded Barrett's brain as Miss Althea disappeared. "To think," he groaned, "of all I meant to do here and how Sk hi little I have really accomplished. I thought my army inner M achinery Co. training would furnish enough efficiency to work miracles at once, on top of my general knowledge of citrus, of DUNEDIN, FLORIDA machinery and men. But evidently there will never be a town here if it depends upon me. There's no time for anything but packing house problems. But," he finished aloud, "it is wonderful work and worth the effort even if the town doesn't materialize. That can wait. It doesn't SKINNER SCUFFLE HOE matter so much."
"Oh doesn't it!" Sallie-Mae, hurrying ahead of the noon "home rush," smiled sarcastically as she flew by. "Here, wait a minute. Jump into my flivver. It's quicker and I never see you nowadays alone." "Really!" Sallie-Mae's tone was dangerously quiet.
"I simply don't have time for more than the packing house," said Barrett evenly, "and we agreed, you know, that it must come first. It is a great work, this business Of marketing fruit, you must admit." "It is," acquiesced Sallie-Mae laconically.
"But," went on Barrett, "I don't want you to work in the packing house now that your aunt ha's come. I only Promised that you might do it for a while until-" he hesitated.
"Until I could help you wake up Lake Joy and put it on the map-make you head of the community; Board of Trade president, mayor anything but a door-mat." "Look here, Sallie-Mae," broke in Barrett. "You're too tired. I knew this work wasn't the right thing." "Well, it is. I've been having the time of my life." Sallie-Mae was very emphatic. "It is no harder than teaching and I get the climate I've always longed for. Also, I have had a rest from Amos. But now that Aunt The Skinner Scuffle Hoe weeds and cultivates tea is here her good cooking is rejuvenating me still at the same time, leaving a fine mulch. Each e. I have decided to boom Lake Joy by my own ef- stroke covers a strip twelve inches wide and fors since you have no time to help and you think it three feet long. One of the handiest tools dent matter. No, thanks, I prefer to walk." that can be used around grove, garden or field.
As a matter of fact, Sallie-Mae was near "the breaking point . "I had a right to think Barrett could be with me often, she reflected bitterly that evening when, immedi- SKINNER MACHINERY CO., Broadway, Dunedin, Fla.
(Continued on Page 38)
Page Thirty-five






Ski wer I)(xck_ f Hoqe New ....


IDEAL


FERTILIZERS


SPRAY MACHINERY

INSECTICIDES



WRITE FOR

DESCRIPTIVE PRICE LISTS





WILSON & TOOMER

FERTILIZER CO.

JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
ESTABLISHED 1898







C=O=K=E

FOR


GROVE AND ORCHARD HEATING


Growers need experience no difficulty at any time in obtaining a plentiful supply of gas house coke, which may be used in coke heaters for frost protection in groves and orchards and for heating dwellings and other purposes. Our stock is large and shipment can be made promptly. All orders and inquiries given
our very careful attention.



ADAMS, ROWE & NORMAN

COAL AND COKE

BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA


Page Thirty-six


Taking the Fright Out of Freight
(Continved f'om Page ir)
which contain the color, the flavor and the food value of the product. If these cells are made to give up their moisture, slowly, gently, they simply shrink like a sponge and refill again in the same manner when put into water. This gentle shrinking is caused by sweating, and in so doing there must be perfect control of the heat used.
One of the most successful methods of dehydrating uses the tunnel type of dryer. Hundreds of this type of plant are in operation throughout the country. There is scarcely a community in the United States which could not profitably, both for the farmer and for the operator, support one of these plants. There need not be any unkind competition with the canners. The dehydrating plant can be operated in connection with the canning plant. The operating expense is very low. The furnaces burn a low grade of fuel and require no exceptionally skilled labor. Of course, the slicing and cleaning machines are up to date. The plants can be constructed in mammoth proportions or in small units and may be made to work the year around.
Lemonade made from the dried product has no equal and the lemons may be dried in the winter along with oranges which find many uses in confections.
The illustration shows a dehydrating plant at Norwalk, Iowa. It is worthy of notice because it is being promoted in a state which has given little thought to saving its green produce, being content to raise corn and to canning a few articles of food. This plant has been promoted by men who know that it will be necessary even for Iowa farmers, who are kings among landmen, to give ear to the demand of the world for food. And also high-priced land and high taxes make utmost production a necessity. The company which built this plant will build many more through out the state. It has a store in Des Moines which handles nothing but dehydrated foods, and it ships a great percentage of its products to Europe. The Norwalk plant was completed last fall. It is of brick and modern in every way. During the summer months and while the plant was under construction representatives of the company worked among the farmers and when the plant was completed in the fall the pumpkin crop was ready for dehydration. To the farmers accustomed to having their produce painstakingly culled the fact that no culling except for decay was necessary was an innovation. There was no endless string of freight cars to order and pay for and there was no discouraging reports from glutted markets. Their pumpkin was washed, sliced and dried and then ground into a pale golden flour which was far superior to the kind from which mother used to make her famed pies. The seeds of the better pumpkins were saved and turned back to the farmers for the next planting.
This spring the plant will dry spinach and other early vegetables as fast as the farmers and the season deliver them. The world at large will be given the dried product not needed at lbome.
Any community can make its produce seasonable at any time of the year, and can help to save this country many million dollars a year in freight shipments by using dehydration. It is on the grower that most of the burden falls of transporting eighty per cent of the weight of his produce needlessly. Water is heavy and the rate on that eighty per cent which is carted around the world with the twenty per cent of real food is responsible for many wails and possibly some cussing. Progress and Science say: "Put up a dehydrating plant and take the fright out of your freight."
The Unkindest Cut of All!
A Negro handy man was cutting grass with a shbrP sickle and was unfortunate enough to cut off a toe. The poor darkey was brought to the doctor who on seeing injury exclaimed:
"Good heavens, George, did you do that with one slice?"t "Doc," mournfully replied the Negro, "you sho' don think I took another crack at it?"






* kinner % dci iiHouse Now5

MARKETING THROUGH NORTH PACIFIC
CO-OPERATIVE BERRY GROWERS' ASSN.
Oregon, especially that portion west of the Cascade Florida's Forem ost mountains, is admirably adapted to the raising of all kinds of small fruits, but marketing these fruits has al- M magazine ways been a problem confronting growers.
Last year an organization was formed by Oregon and For Farmers, Truckers, Fruit Growers Washington berry raisers to experiment with co-operative marketing methods. The president of the North Pacific Co-operative Growers' Association, Dr. E. S. Barnes, has Deals with every question affecting the production and marketing of Florida's varied crops. Special dejust given a report of the first years' activities. He says: partments relating to Citrus Problems, Poultry Raising,
"With all the faults and crudities of a first-year opera- Co-operative Selling.
tion of an organization such as ours, so much has been Ably edited, handsomely illustrated, attractively accomplished that is worth while, that now at the end, printed, the FLORIDA GROWER ranks as the State's or nearly so, we, who have had the details of the work leading exponent of horticulture and agriculture. No in hand feel that we are justified in feeling we have made one interested along these lines should be without it.
You'll be glad to know the GROWER-make its at least a moderate success even in the first year. acquaintance now.
"In the first place, we started the somewhat difficult
matter of financing an organization without money and SEND TODAY FOR TRIAL SUBSCRIPTION without credit. It is safe to say that the individual THREE MONTHS (13 BIG ISSUES) growers without the framework, at least, of an organization, could never have accomplished this; but the organi- 25C zation did it in spite of the fact that we were told we did not have a banking proposition and that it could not be done, but we did it. Take advantage of this special half-price offer. Send
"We were told we could not finance our sugar deal, in your name and address with 25c (stamps or coin) b e iand receive the GROWER for 13 weeks, starting with but we did it. the current issue. Regular subscription $2.00 per year.





GROWER

Bay Avenue, TAMPA, FLORIDA





re CYPRESS TANKS

All Kinds and Sizes
Strawberries at Newberg Berry Festival, representing the type Of famous Northwest berry products being marketed by North Pacific Co-operative Growers' Association. Newberg is a berry center twenty miles south of Portland, Oregon.
"We were told we could not finance our crates, but FOR PACKING HOUSES we did it.
"We were told we could not finance the barreling of FOR ORANGE GROVES Itr own berries, but we did it. And I want to emphasize the fact that we did these things as a co-operative organi- FOR TRUCK FARMS zlti0n, standing together; we could never have done them as individuals FOR COUNTRY HOMES
"We financed some cannery operations that the caninesie themselves could not have done. This because of FOR CITY HOMES un organization
"Probably the brightset spot in our operations this FOR RAIN WATER CISTERNS Year was our barreling operations. This year was probibly the most difficult marketing year that the berry business has ever known. Fruit has possibly suffered more than its share, but we in the Northwest have probably Let Us Know the Size of Tank You Require sufered less than any other fruit section in the country, lid that due entirely to the fact that we were organized.
"We have been able to accomplish this so far at the
h'It plant overhead of any organization, I suppose, that . Son haseoPerated on the scale or covered the territory we G . M . Box 5
"Iam told by one of the members of a poultry or- P.O. Box 5 git in a neighboring state that their office overed11 00 Ouan office equipment alone), was something like 4100. Our gross is something like $700 or $800. Our PALATKA, FLORIDA la'lling plant equipment was somewhere between $300
(Continued on Page 39)

Page Thirty-seven






Skkrer ~ckri ~~79


Paints Oil

Glass Turpentine

Varnish Mortar Putty Colors

Lead Brushes Etc.




PERRY PAINT & GLASS CO.

Office and Factory

East End East Lafayette St.
P. 0. Box 2750 Tampa, Fla.






Sewerage Disposal

Scientifically Handled
Our re-inforced concrete Septic Tanks and Sanitary Pit Closets approved by U. S. Public Health Service and all State and County
Boards of Health.
Guaranteed Twenty Years
Write for Plans and Specifications

HILLSBORO CEMENT PRODUCTS CO.
3904 Florida Avenue
Phone 71-257 Tampa, Florida




Southern Box and Basket

Company
Manufacturers of

Wooden Boxes-.-Box Shooks
Bushel Baskets Write Us Your Needs
102 Poplar St. , Macon, Ga.



Page Thirty-eight


NEW PACKING HOUSE AT FULLERTON, CALIF,
The orange packing house recently completed for the Bastanchury ranch at Fullerton, California, is said to be the most modern and efficient plant of its kind in the State. The building was designed and erected complete for the owners by Hamm & Grant, Inc., engineers, of Los Angeles, who specialize in packing houses and pre. cooling plants.
The building contains one story and basement, and is 130x135 feet in plan, giving a floor area of 35,100 square feet, including basement. The basement has a clear height of 12 feet, and the first floor of 14 feet.


The basement has a solid cement floor and concrete walls, and is ventilated by continuous, mechanically op. erated hinged shutters, set just below floor level, which is approximately four feet above grade. The building is framed entirely of structural steel, with a full sawtooth roof specially designed for ventilation and for ample north light through steel sash. The main floor is housed in with hollow tile and steel sash. This house was erected at a cost to the owner of approximately $1.25 per square foot of floor area.
The basement is connected with the adjacent lemon packing house by a reinforced concrete tunnel passing under the railroad siding. Through the tunnel the lemons are brought to the basement of the new building for storage.

THE AWAKENING OF LAKE JOY
(Continued from Page 35)
ately after supper, she went to bed. "Only last August, when we became engaged, he thought it a wonderful P1l for me to come down and learn by actual experience something of his work so I could understand better how to help him in his problems. I was willing not to marry for a year, as Aunt Althea asked, and proposed myself that we should keep the engagement a secret so he should not feel handicapped, but-good gracious, between di. rectors and employees and the everlasting upholding Of Barrett's lofty standards: model boarding house, 'moral atmosphere,' etc., where shall I ever come in?"
The soft opening of the front door into the living r0nS, off which her bedroom lay, stopped her brooding.
"Glad to see you," said Miss Althea. "It's only nine and my niece is asleep."
"It's my first chance and I want to hear more aboutt Amos. You say he was murdered, and his body never found?" It was Miss Mollie who spoke. "How ro. mantic! I had a romance, too, so I sympathize, but bis name was Jacob."
"Come out under the stars while we talk. it is wars and I'm discovering new stellar friends every night, , Miss Althea again, "and they seem to bring Amos nearer,
"Heavens! I did hope Aunt Althea had left Amosoa home. She hasn't mentioned him to me once this whole week. But now-Miss Mollie's Jacob will resuscitate NM! I shall go stark mad if I don't find something despeohbi to do!" After which, being nineteen and thorough healthy, Althea's niece fell asleep.
(To be Continued)





~~kil'mer I dkiff House News5..


MARKETING THROUGH NORTH PACIFIC
CO-OPERATIVE BERRY GROWERS ASS'N. Send For Free Sample Copy
(Continued from Page 37)
and $400, which is an overhead of less than 17 cents a barrel for the year's operation and we have the equip- e and Stockman ment left, good for many more thousand barrels.
"We have barreled 2,870 50-gallon barrels, 22 10- Jacksonville, Florida gallon barrels, and 505 5-gallon friction top cans.
"In fact, we have done just what we hoped to do,
and that was to save all the berries, which is an absolute Devoted to agricultural progress in impossibility without an organization, as the only berries we can sell in a year such as the past, with the canneries Florida and the Southeast. The leading only partially operating, are the berries that the fresh market will consume, and that is not to exceed 40 per farm and live-stock paper of the section. cent of the crop.
"Now there have been a good many places that the Special departments for citrus and organization has not worked as smoothly as we could have wished, but no one knows them any better than the small fruit growers. Feature articles by executive committee that has had the immediate details dairy and poultry specialists. Developof the work in hand this year, and we are at work now perfecting plans that we believe will eliminate a vast ment and marketing problems handled percentage of the rough spots for the coming year. For instance, we are tryingto work out a plan whereby each by experts. district will control its district affairs, reducing the selling cost to a great extent on their fresh fruit. After the fresh berry season is over and the minimum on barreled Semi-Monthly, $1.00 per year; and canned stuff is established, and the market reaches three months, 25 cents. SAMPLE that minimum, each district can order its share of these COPY FREE. Write for one today. products immediately placed on the market and sold.
"We are now planning for the barreling of the fruit in the districts. We believe this to be a policy which will save the growers a big amount of money each year, The as the activities operated as adjuncts to production, are vastly different from like activities operated by private Jacksonville, Florida organization for personal profit.
"It is a long story and one of disaster, from the 31/2 and 4 cents paid the unorganized growers of loganberries in one of the loganberry districts of the Pacific Coast, to 40 cents a pound paid for the same berries over a Pennsylvania grocer's counter. It is a condition that we as growers cannot exist under, for we cannot afford to raise the berries for 3:/2 and 4 cents any more than our friends heet M etal W ork in Pennsylvania can afford to eat them at 40 cents.
"We started at the beginning of the year, new and We know Sheet Metal Working and untried. We had no credit; we got our pre-season money install it according to specifications that we might complete our organization; we financed the various activities enumerated above, and by being Drain Pipes, Skylights, Cornices, prompt at our banks, we have built up a credit for the Letters and Numerals coming year which, had we accomplished nothing else, is well worth what it has cost us." I Allen Sheet Metal W orks

TEXAS NEWS 705 Jefferson Street Office 4963
The Co-operative Packing and Provision Company has Phone: Home 84-872 Tampa, Fla. recently been organized at San Antonio, Texas, and has purchased a tract of seven acres of land near the tracks of the I. G. N. and Southern Pacific lines at San Antonio, and plan the erection of a modern up-to-date canning factory. The Chicago Packing House Construction Company will supervise the construction and installation of the D Y R plant, which will be equipped for the canning of fruits DO Y u CITRUS? and vegetables, and in addition for the canning of meats If so, you will be interested in reading the timely ofall kinds, It is expected to complete the plant by June articles which appear each month in i to take care of part of this year's crop.
*THE CITRUS INDUSTRY
A canning factory is now under construction at Chris- the only exclusive citrus publication, and which toval, Texas, 21 miles south of San Angelo, Texas, with covers the citrus field in every line and from every H- A. Shaw, Walker Hale and S. Shipley, all of Christoval, angle. T xas, as directors of the new canning facory. The plant Federal and state experts and leading growers are will have a daily capacity of 2,000 cans of fruit and vege- regular contributors of practical articles on every tables, and will be built as to easily permit of expansion phase of citrus culture and marketing problems. to meet increased demands. The new cannery is one of The price is only $1 per year. Mail your subscrip,he flrst of its kind in that section of the state of Texas, tion to and has already contracted for four carloads of No. 2 Sans, and orders have been placed already for more than THE CITRUS INDUSTRY
the, start.ans of its output, so it is destined to grow from Tampa, Florida

Page Thirty-nine






Ski'rer VacPiT Hoqe NewS ,





SKINNER SANDPROOF SPRAYER

FOR BETTER SPRAYING

















The Skinner SANDPROOF Sprayer is a combination of many good sprayer features.
The Strine Adjustable Plunger used in this sprayer may be obtained on no other sprayer made. The machine is absolutely sandproof. All working parts of engine
and pump are enclosed in oil.

SKINNER MACHINERY COMPANY
Write for Catalog
Broadway Dunedin Florida



PACKING CELERY AT SANFORD, FLORIDA (Cont'd from Page 23)
ance with big growers in other sections of the country who have agreed to produce celery for marketing to the same buyers who are taking the Sanford organization's crop. These growers have agreed to use the same standards and methods of packing as the Sanford Farmers' Exchange. This alliance was formed to insure buyers and dealers a supply of graded and pre-cooled celery the year 'round and to prevent the boycotting of these dealers by disgruntled competitors during the period of the year when the Sanford Farmers' Exchange had no celery to place on the market. The Sanford celery season, of course, only lasts a few months in the early part of the year. Following the celery season they pack and ship other products such as peppers, tomatoes and sweet corn.
The Sanford Farmers' Exchange has done nothing that other organizations could not have accomplished. They have worked hard; invested their faith and money; had Packing booth showing washing bin, packing benches, etc.
Page Forty






g SkAner IVc]'

ORDER

EARLY!

Besides the discount that is offered to citrus packing house men who place their orders for new machinery early there is much to be gained by ordering next season's packing house needs well in advance. All Skinner Machinery is carefully and sturdily built and time is required for careful construction. Last-minute orders mean costly delays in delivery in many cases. Wise packers will figure their packing house needs for 1923-24 now and place their orders at once so as to share in all the benefits to be derived from so doing.

Skinner Machinery Company Broadway, Dunedin, Florida


SKINNER COKE HEATERS have pssitively proven their effect,' eness, in Protecting orchards and grove-; from -damage by frost. Because of their efficiency, low first cost and economy of operation, they offer the V'ry best means available for insuriag fruit trees and truck crops against frost damage. SKINNER COKE REATERS send out an intense radiant heat that frost can not penstkate, thereby protecting buds, blossons and the tenderest growth. Write at once for full particulars. Skinner Machinery Company Broadway, Dunedin, Florida World's Largest Manufacturers of Fruit and Vegetable Packing S Equipment .


the courage of their convictions and are now reaping a well-earned reward. They have pioneered in a difficult undertaking and have blazed a trail that others may follow, but being first in the field are the first to taste of success. There has been nothing spectacular about the work carried on so successfully. They have worked for their own benefit, of course, but in so doing have benefited many others and the industry of growing celery generally. The undertaking is not finished by any means nor have all the problems connected with it been solved, but-and this is certain-they have made a clean-cut demonstration that standardized and careful packing methods pay big dividends.
Perhaps the best proof of the success of the methods employed by the Sanford Farmers' Exchange is the fact that the present plant is to be duplicated-on the West Side of Sanford in the near future; ground has already been purchased and broken for this site-with practically no modifications.

NEWS FROM NEW YORK MARKET

The shipping of fresh vegetables from the States of Sinaloa and Mayarit, Mexico, to this country is at its height and the products are beginning to come through to New York and to Canada. Tomatoes are received in greater numbers than anything else. It is said that most of the growers are native Californians, although there are many, some going from Arizona to grow and pack vegetables.

An experimental shipment of souvenir navel oranges arrived here recently from California. The shipment consisted of one carload containing 1,215 boxes, with each containing 28 oranges, and sold for 95 cents and $1.05 per box. At the present time it is claimed here that boxes are too large for direct purchase by local consumers.

Inquiries have been received from shippers of Egyptian onions as to the prospects of the Texan crop and probable date of first shipments.

The business which was formerly conducted by Garcia Trading Corporation has been taken over by Unanue & Lopez, who represent the well known Spanish firm "Spanish Growers and Producers" of Bilbao, Spain.
* * 5'
The continued advance in the price of lumber is one of the subjects of discussion on the market today and how it will affect the packer, since it adds to the selling cost considerably. It appears to be the opinion that wooden boxes are getting too high in price and might be substituted by fibre, and some canners are quoting in paper containers.


Cantaloupe

Packing

Machinery
Every cantaloupe grower and shipper will be interested in Skinner Cantaloupe Sizers and Cleaners. Carefully sized, attractive cantaloupes bring better prices and insure repeat orders for the same kind. Skinner Cantaloupe Packing Machinery does the work of sizing and cleaning very effectively and at half the cost of hand labor. Write for special literature of Skinner Cantaloupe Packing Machinery.


Box Hatchets


Clark's Box Hatchets are full polished and etched. Forged tool steel of finest quality. Square poll. Oval scored head. Second growth hickory handle. Very best hatchet made for packing house work. Order from Skinner Machinery Company. N o s - .- . . . . ..-- - - - - - - - - - - - - _- - - 1 2 3
Number of scores ........ 13 15 15 Length of blade, inch 3 3 4 Width of cut, inch ...... 21/ 21/s 21/s Wt. dz. with hdl. lbs..15 17 18





The Cooper

Fruit Wrap

Holder

Holds from one to 1,600 wraps. Attachable to any ordinary paper holding box. Extra needles with every holder. Weight 3:V4 ozs. Folds up and can be carried in vest pocket. Will last a lifetime. Increases speed of user. Ask for prices.

SKINNER MACHINERY CO.
Broadway, Dunedin, Florida


Page Forty-one



















Do As Doctors Do.
"Hey, Bill!"
"What is it?"
"Your doctor's out here with a flat tire."
"Diagnose the case as flatulency of the perimeter, and charge him accordingly," ordered the garage man. "That's the way he does biz."

Emphasizing the Point.
A preacher was describing the "bad place" to a congregation of naval cadets.
"Friends," he said, "you've seen molten iron running out of a furnace, haven't you? It comes out white hot, sizzling and hissing. Well-"
The preacher pointed a long, lean finger at the lads.
"Well," he continued, "they use that stuff for ice cream in the place I have been speaking of."-London Tit-Bits.

Too Much Void.
And old nigger wished to pick a quarrel with another nigger. Nigger No. 1 swore and stormed at Nigger No. 2, and kept on swearing and storming, hoping to provoke him. Nigger No. 2 said not a word, but kept at his work. Nigger No. 1 swore and stormed more. Nigger No. 2 said not a word. Nigger No. 1 frothed still more. Nigger No. 2 still silent. Nigger No. 1 got desperate and said, "Look here, you kinky-headed, flatnosed, slab-footed nigger, I warns yo', before God, don't you keep givin' me none o' your damned silence!"-Humorist (London).

Taking No Chances.
Battered and bunged up, displaying two black eyes and a torn shirt, a recruit came into his tent late at night.
"What happened to you?" asked the corporal.
"Nawthin. Just had a mixup with that sentry on No. 3."
"How'd that happen?"
"Well, when he yelled, 'Halt, who's there,' and I said, 'General Pershing,' he ups and gives me a butt stroke to the shin, jabs my ribs until they creaked, blackens my eyes so I can hardly see and, what's worse, tears that new shirt I just drew this morning."
"Well, why didn't you tell him who you were?"
"My Gawd, man, if he does that to Pershing, what the h-1 do you think he'd do to me?"--Ex.
Page Forty-two


It All Depends.
"To what do you attribute your great age?" asked the city visitor of Grandpa Eben Hoskins.
"I can't say yit," answered Grandpa cautiously. "They's several patent medicine fellers dickerin' with me."
-Printers Ink.

Buzz, Buzz.
"My husband is troubled with a buzzing noise in his ears; *hat would you advise?"
"I would advise him to go to the seashore for a month or two."
"But he can't get away."
"Then you go."

Not With Prayer.
"What are you doing in the kitchen, Thomas?" inquired the inquisitive wife.
"I'm opening a can of tomatoes if you particularly wish to know," he impatiently rejoined.
"And what're you opening it with?"
"Why, with a can opener. Did you think I was using my teeth," he added savagely.
"Oh, no, dear," she sweetly replied, "I know you are not opening it with prayer."-Infantry Journal.

Showing Proper Respect.
At one occasion a gentleman had occasion to give his servant a tendollar bill. "Now, my man, how much money have I given you?"
"A ten-dollar William, sir," said the servant.
"A ten-dollar William!" exclaimed the gentleman.
"Yes, sir," said the servant; "I'm not familiar enough with it to call it Bill."-Exchange.

The Wonders of Literature.
"Pa, this story says the news took her breath away," started Clarence.
"Read on, son, the next paragraph will probably tell you she caught her breath," snapped pa.-Ex.

It Didn't Exist
"Where you gwine, nigger?" said one colored gent to another as he flew by with much velocity.
Said the flying Ethiopian, "They's foteen cocookluxers, 'leben sheriffs. seben policemen and a hundred whitt folks coming down the road after me, and where I'm gwine ain't!"


Not Guilty
Traveler: "Your son just threw a stone at me."
Irishman: "Did he hit you?"
Traveler: "No."'
Irishman: "Well, then he wasn't my boy."-Selected.

Suited the Curate
A Hyde Park orator returning home flushed with his efforts, and also from certain spirituous causes, found a mild curate seated opposite in the tramcar.
"It may interest you to know," he said truculently, "that I don't believe in the existence of 'eaven." The curate merely nodded, and went on reading his newspaper.
"You don't quite realize what I'n trying to make clear. I want you to understand that I don't believe for a single, solitary moment that such a place as 'eaven exists."
"All right, all right," answered the curate pleasantly, "go to hell, only don't make quite so much fuss about it."-Tattler.

In Case of Accident
A Virginian, recently elected judge and feeling keenly the responsibilities of his exalted position, was coming on horseback along a road in a remote section of his district. He saw a smoke on a hillside.
"Boy," he said to a lad who was loafing alongside the road, "is that smoke up there from a still?"
"Yes, sir, I reckon it is," the boy replied.
"What are they making up there"
"Might be makin' some apple brandy."
The judge jumped from his horse, "Here, boy," he said, "hold this horse. I'm going up there and stop that. They can't flout the law in that man', ner in my district."
The boy took the reins, and the judge climbed the fence and started towards the smoke. After he had gone a few steps the boy shouted:
"Oh, mister!"
"What is it?" asked the judge.
"Effen you don't come back, what must I do with the horse?"-Clpped.

Soon Be Time for This
"Johnny, where have you been? Have you been playing baseball?"
"Yes'm."
"Didn't I tell you to beat the rugs?"
"No'm, you told me: to hang the rug, and beat it."










BROGDEX


METHOD


"Fruit to the consumer in as perfet condition as when it leaves the tree."



Which would be your preference if you were buying these from a stand?


The grower, by the use of the Brogdex Method on his fruit is assured of a minimum of loss through shrinking and a maximum price on account of the appearance of his fruit on the market.

The packer and shipper has the guess-work eliminated from his pack. He knows his fruit will arrive on the market with a full pack and will please the buyer in appearance and weight and he is saved the expense of pre-cooling.

The jobber does not need cold storage for his Brogdexed fruit. He need not dispose of the fruit during a depressed market and he can command the market with Brogdexed fruit in comparison with un-Brogdexed fruit.

The consumer is always interested in getting attractive and finely flavored fruit. It will also enable him to buy by the box where heretofore he could only buy by the half dozen.

For information regarding equipment, list ot packers, etc., address



Bogdeex Company

General Offices
501-10 I. W. Hellman Bldg., Los Angeles, California


Branch Office Winter Haven, Florida


Factory Palms, California


TOURIST NEWS PRESS, PRINTERS. ST. PETERSBUR~G, FLORIDA











SERVICE WORTH WHILE


e�A TISFA C Ti ON A L WAYS


We Occupy the Entire Building


INVEST a part of your savings in HOME COMFORTS and you will find it will pay you HANDSOME DIVIDENDS in more pleasant home surroundings. TRY IT; your wife will appreciate it, and it will go a long way toward cementing the love of home in the hearts of your children.


These Four Departments Are at Your Service


Furniture

We feature quality home furnishings and having had fifteen years' experience it enables us to offer you well chosen pieces or suites from America's leading factories. Quantity buying places these goods in your hands at the lowest possible prices.
We are sole agents for Karpen and Berkey and Gay furniture.



Floor Coverings
We feature WHITTALL rugs and carpets and in addition to this well-known line we offer a complete selection of Axminsters, Wiltons, Velvets, Grass and Fiber. We are connected with a resident buyer in New York and can secure for you anything in floor coverings for any size job on short notice.


Draperies

This department is at your service in numerous ways. Our Interior Decorator has complete charge of this department and besides assisting you in your choice of materials will suggest the proper color schemes for each room and will also plan the draperies, so that you can have each room treated as it properly should be. This service is free of cost.



China

Over twenty patterns of open stock dinnerware in stock at all times assures you of a selection from which it is easy to make a choice. Glassware of all kinds and novelty goods will also be found in this department.


Our Complete Spring Showing of Summer Furniture Now On Display


Tarr Furniture Companp, Inc.

"Everything for the Home."

Member Tampa Retail Dealers' Transportation Association




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PAGE 1

V D -f* Lr 19 32Mr. Robert C. Paulus, fruit grower and general manager of the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Associatiun, although 1923 ~a young man, stands as a big figure in the PackingI and hipingIndustry of the Northwest. Mr. Paulus is today widely recognized as one of the N4 leaders of the Fruit Packing and Shipping Industry. ______ -An Illustrated Monthly --Publication devoted to V Fruit and Vegetale Packing Houses and Other Allied Interests.

PAGE 2

/, n%1%. Sales and Service OWEN-FRANKLIN MOTOR CO. 104 Lafayette St. Phone 3681 Tampa, Fla. WATER SYSTEMS Cushman "Does More Lighting Plants Pumps-Engines and Irrigation Your requirements can be cared for by Southern Water Supply Co. L. A. Gabel, Mgr. 807 Tampa St. Tampa, Florida T. W. RAMSEY Lumber Millwork, Windows and Doors House Builders' Supplies 51-231 Phones 51-219 6th Ave. and 17th St. LABELS FOR ALL PURPOSES StUPERIOR SHVILLE, TEO* MANUFACTUPRS..A ,LL PURPOSo GRS DC TISING LIT1ah tU The best way of all to advertise fruit and vegetable products is to use attractive LABELS Write BRANDAU-CRAIG-DICKERSON CO. Manufacturers of .pbels, Cthographers, Pictorial and Color Printing and E engraving NASHVILLE, TEN NESSE E TAMPA, FLORIDA

PAGE 3

--The Only Fruit and Vegetable Packing House Journal in America Volume II APRIL, 1923 Number 4 C on te nt s PAGE Horticultural Week at Orlando, Florida -----4 Meetings of the State Horticultural Society, State Florist<' Association andl State Flower Show to he held in Orlando week of April 16. Packing Celery at Sanford, Florida. By Thos. W. Hewlett -5 An inspiring story of the success of the Sanford Farmers' Exchange. Robert C. Paulus --------6 A few paragraphs regarding the General Manager of the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association. Packing Houses of W. E. Lee & Company. By T. L. Wanton --One of the large independent packing and shipping concerns in Florida. Citrus Production, Packing and Shipping in the Isle of Pines. By M. L. McSweeney ------8 Mr. McSweeney writes entertainingly of the Citrus Industry and its development on the "Gem Isle of the Caribbean." Taking the Fright Out of Freight. By Peggy Poe ----ii This writer wants to make a dry country dryer. Some interesting facts and figures regarding dehydration. Packing Pineapples in Florida. By Frank B. Qoodwin ---12 The pineapple industry is being revived in Florida. In this article Frank 13. Goodwin tells of the Florida method of packing "pines." The Awakening of Lake Joy. By Riley M. Fletcher Berry ---15 An entertaining bit of fiction with a setting in a citrus packing house. Citrus Fruit Crates With Detach Tops Defined. By 0. Foerster Schully -z6 About a citrus crate that has become popular in some sections of the country. Citrus Packing House Construction. By C. F. Dunham, Jr. --18 A valuable article by an architect which will be read with much interest. Editorially ---------20 Packing and Shipping Prunes. By Ariel E. V. Dunn ---24 Something of the achievements of the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association. Why Risk Financial Loss. By A. R. Harrison -----26 Celery and pineapple crate specifications. Railroad people will like this story. Ex-Laughs ------Published Monthly by Skinner Machinery Company, Dunedin, Florida, B. C. Skinner, Vice-President and General Manager SUBSCRIPTION RATES Per year -................$1.00 Single copy .-......-................ .10 ADVERTISING RATES UPON APPLICATION Change of address should be reported promptly. Give new and old address. Kindly advise if more than one copy is mailed to same address. If address on envelope is incomplete or incorrect please send correction or addition. Notify us promptly of failure to receive the NEWS Address All Communications to Skinner Packing House News, Dunedin, Florida Copyright, 1923. Skinner Machinery Company Printed in St. Petersburg, Florida, by The Tourist News Press ..77! IMP'11

PAGE 4

Horticultural Week At Orlando, Florida ,Meetings oJ the State Horticultural Society, State Florists' -Association and State Flower Show The week of April 16 will be Horticultural Week in Orlando. Three important meetings that are of particular importance to the horticulturists of the state will be held there at that time. On Monday, April 16, the Florida State Florists' Association opens its second annual session, which continues through the afternoon of Tuesday, April 17. State Flower Show At noon on Tuesday, April 17, the First Annual State Flower Show opens. The opening event of the show is to be a floral parade held under the auspices of the Orlando Chamber of Commerce. Many towns and organizations outside of Orlando will participate with floats and automobiles decorated with natural flowers. The number of entries for exhibits at the Flower Show is quite large, and the show promises to be well worth seeing. Entry is made according to class, the three classes being exhibits by professionals, by business houses and by amateurs. A number of florists from outside the state are sending exhibits for the show. A series of cups and other awards are being offered and competition for these prizes will be sharp. The Flower Show is an event of particular importance to the state. While Florida is known as the Land of Flowers and the woods and fields abound with flowers (not always shows) at practically all times of the year, the number of flowers grown around the home and in the gardens is not at all what it should be. The purpose of the State Flower Show is to encourage the growing of more flowers and the beautification of homes and highways. State Horticultural Society The opening session of the thirty-sixth annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society will be at 8 p. m. on Tuesday evening, April 17. The meeting continues through Wednesday and Thursday closing at Friday noon. Three sessions a day will be held on L. B. Sk nner, President Flor Wednesday and Thursday. The speakers for the program this year include many technical men in addition to a large number of growers. Some of the addresses are as follows: H. E. Stevens, Ft. Myers"The Present Status of Spraying and Dusting for the Control of Citrus Diseases." W. W. Yothers, Orlando"The Present Satus of Spraying and Dusting for the Control of Citrus Insects and Pests." Dr. 0. F. Burger, Gainesville"Melanose of Citrus Fruits and Its Control." Max Waldron, Crooked Lake"Lightning Injury to Citrus Trees." J. C. Chase, Jacksonville"Marketing Future Florida Citrus Crops-the Bugaboo of Over-production." Page Four id C. H. Walker, Bartow'Developments Personally Seen in the Florida Citrus Industry." Frank P. Goodman, Lake Alfred"What Northern Investors in Florida Are Looking For." S. F. Poole, Lake Alfred"Stationary Spray Outfits." J. R. Winston, Orlando"Control Measures for Stein End Rot." W. R. Barger, Washington, D. C."The Coloring of Citrus Fruits." Geo. Burnham, Lakeland"Some Essentials for Growing Grapes in Florida." Dr. S. A. Sylvester, Lakeland"Our Experience in Grow. ing Grapes and Their Re. sults." Geo. Merrill, Gainesville"Guarding Our Horticultural Industries." J. R. Watson, Gainesville"Insects and Other Pests of Grapes." T. Ralph Robinson, Washington, D. C."Safeguarding Citrus Importations by Improved Quarantine Propagation." Wilmon Newell, Gainesville"Serious Aspects of the Present Quarantine." Win. Gomme, Bartow"The Growing of Grapes 6 In Polk County." Dean Alvord, Clearwater"Beautifying the Home Grounds." W, Irving Yarnell, Lake Wales"State and Highway Beautification." M. J. Daetwyler, Orlando"A Discussion of Citrus Stocks and Varieties." C. S. Donaldson, Avon Park"Personal Experiences ID Avocado Growing." Win. Sessoms, Chipley"Satsuma Orange Culture in Northwest Florida." H. G. Clayton, Gainesville"Some Problems of the Satsuma Orange Grower. 'MJohn Barney, Palma Sola"A New Method ford a State Horticultural Society ding and Grafting old Citrus Trees." J. H. Jeffries, Lake Alfred"Citrus Propagation Methods." A. 0. Kay, Ft. Pierce"The Moisture Content of Soils Near Wilting Citru Trees and the Results from the Application of Sina Amounts of Water." H. G. Gumprecht, Bradentown"Prevention of Decay in Citrus Fruit." W. E. Sexton, Vero"Some Packing House Problems." W. H. Phipps, Valrico"The Dusting of Citrus Trees for Disease and Insect Control." In addition to these papers, there will be addresses n the subjects of Citrus Fruit Products, the Canning I (Continued on Page 30)

PAGE 5

Packing Celery At Sanford, Florida The Sanford Farmers' Cxchange BvI'HOS. W. HEWLETT ELERY literally forms a carpet over the territory immediately surrounding Sanford, generally known throughout Florida as the "Celery City," for no matter whether you approach by railroad, on the highways from either direction, or by boat along the picturesque St. Johns river, acre after acre of luscious green celery radiates in a vast expanse in all directions at this time of the year, and you wonder where in all -the world are enough people to consume it. Such a mistaken idea, however, is quickly dispelled, when you are told that Sanford celery brings big returns and that thousands of carloads are shipped every season to eager markets. Florida, we learn, is running a very close race with one or two other states in this country for second place in the quantity production of celery. Sanford leads in the state in production, being way ahead of any other section in Florida. Growing celery is not a poor man's game, and neither is it a vocation likely to lead to success to one not thoroughly familiar with the intricate business of raising celery. We say this, because some readers might get false impressions from reading this article since it is a story of great success. But success generally means the overcoming of difficulties, the enduring of hardships and, in this case, also the investment of much capital. We are told that it costs somewhere in the neighborhood of $700 an acre to produce celery at Celery Packed. Sanfo Sanford, and since celery land is very valuable and high priced, it is very easily seen that to be able to even commence the lucrative pursuit of celery growing one must first have money. Then the present successful state of the celery industry wasn't always. The pioneers and those engaged in the cultivation of celery at Sanford today have passed through many trying years in order to bring the industry to its present splendid condition. The control of diseases and insects, fertilization and cultivation, irrigation, and packing and rd marketing, are problems that have had to be overcome. But this is not a story of growing celery but of packing it and this end of the industry as practiced by one organization which, at the present time, only handles a part of the total amount grown at Sanford. The Sanford Farmers' Exchange is a co-operative organization composed of 30 large grower members. It was organized about four years ago, is affiliated with the Florida Citrus Exchange and employs the Citrus Exchange marketing machine to market its products. The celery packing house and pre-cooling plant, owned and operated by the Sanford Farmers' Exchange, is one of the most unique packing houses in this country and incidentally i the only complete celery packing and pre-cooling plant in existence. It was the writer's pleasure to visit this packing house recently, a during one of its busiest days, and the impression gained from even a casual inspection was to the effect that if ever efficiency and positive results were being obtained in -grading, packing and handling methods, they were being accomplished here. The entire plant was a veritable hive of industry. Colored labor is used almost exclusively and over 200 workers were busy unloading, washing, sorting, packing, handling and loading celery for shipping the day we were visiting. The panorama of celery being brought in fresh from the field, quickly washed and packed, and traveling in an unceasing stream from one end of the long packing house to the other, in packed crates, on a chain Farmers' Exchange. conveyor; passing through the precooler and or into the iced cars at the rate of a carload every hour and a half-was a sight to make even the most skeptical, as to the value of modern packing methods, sit up and take notice. We were told that visitors from other celery producing sections of the United States have been amazed at the degree of success attained by this plant in packing celery by up-to-date methods and at the speed with which the product is put through the packing and pre-cooling processes. (Continued on Page 22) Packing and Pre-Cooling Plant of Sanford Farmers' Exchange Page Five

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ROBERT C. PAULUS Fruit gro-Yer and general Manager of the Oregon growers Co-operative -Association. N UNCANNY mastery of figures, a remarkable familiarity with a great diversity of products grown in this section of the country, and an ace-high standing with Coast bankers, are the fundamental qualifications which have made Robert C. Paulus the guiding geinus of the co-operative movement in the fruit and vegetable market of the Pacific Northwest. Just 12 years ago marked the inception of the Oregon Growers' Cooperative Association and Mr. Paulus stepped into the boots of general manager at that time, filling the office with remarkable success. Actual knowledge of the products together with unusual ability as a fruit salesman has enabled him to carry on the enormous task of marketing Northwest produce. And so today, although only thirtyfour years of age, Mr. Paulus stands as a big figure in the packing and shipping industry of this territory. Success which has come to this man so early is typical of that which has come to many self-made men, for Mr. Paulus started as a bookkeeper for the Salem Fruit Union and performed every function in that organization until elevated to the management. Thus, step by step, he advanced to his present position, his vast amount of experience in every branch of the business enabling him to direct such a big work with an understanding hand. Due greatly to the efforts of Mr. Paulus, the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association was formed in the fall of 1919. It was organized in response to a demand among fruit growers in all parts of Oregon for a better marketing system. High prices for one year followed by low prices during the next two years had been the formula for a long period. The co-operative movement came in response to a demand from the growers for what seemed to be a living wage annually rather than a continuance of the old system. The growth of the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association was very rapid from the first, and today there are 2,300 members scattered throughout Western Oregon from Medford in the Rogue River Valley where shipping pears and apples are grown, to the Umpqua Valley which produces prunes and apples, into the Williamette Valley where every kind of commercial fruit from berries, cherries, pears, prunes and apples are produced, on into the Dalles country in eastern Oregon, where grapes, apricots, cherries and shipping prunes predominate. Page Six The Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association has a splendid system of fruit packing houses handling every type of packing and storage. The plants are equipped with modern machinery, and are operated from the central office at Salem through district managers. Over 20,000,000 pounds of dried prunes were sold and distributed over the world in 1922. These were shipped to 88 carload markets, including every country in Europe excepting Ireland, and Northwest fruit growers have a haunting notion that there would have been more peace and less strife in that troublesome land if Mistland prunes had been used. The association markets all of its Oregon prunes under the brand name of "Mistland." National advertising campaigns are being conducted. Thus Oregon producers are joining the banner of California Co-operatives in the tremendous task of creating new markets for state products through national advertising. The only hope for the growers is wider distribution, better quality, more steady returns, and more co-operation. The Oregon growers did a little in excess of $2,500,000.00 worth of business in 1922. The association packs in the dried, canned and fresh state. It operates the finest string of packing houses in the Northwest. In all, there are 35,000 acres of orchard behind the Mistland banner. Mr. Paulus, the executive who has planned the work of the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association and superintended its activities, is an extremely modest man. He owns a large prune orchard at Salem, Oregon, and makes his home in the city of Salem, which is headquarters for the organization. Mr. Paulus claims supremacy in only one line-fishing. A hobby in the West is synonomous to fishing, he contends. His wide acquaintance with brokers and fruit buyers gives him a knowledge of fruit selling conditions beyond the "ken of average men.'' FLORIDA NEWS Last year the grape was our second most important revenue producing fruit and a concerted effort is being made by the Grape Growers' Association of this state to vastly increase its acreage in Florida. * The U. S. Department of Agriculture says there will be a large decrease in early cabbage in both Florida and Texas this spring, also a slight decrease in the acreage of celery. Lettuce in Florida shows 3,765 acres in 1923, compared with 3,135 in 1922. Early potatoes show a decrease to 19,768 acres, compared with 28,240 in 1922. Florida strawberries show 3,693 acres with a prospect. tive yield of 8,981,376 quarts in 1923 compared with 4,275,520 quarts in 1922. Tomatoes will show a large increase.-States Marketing Bureau. * Dry ventilator cars which have been used to ship tomatoes will be to some extent replaced on the East Coast after April first, when icing will be used in a limited number of cases, The icing plants at Miami, Florida City and Fort Pierce, which have been handling the citrus fruits, will also handle the tomatoes. On February 12, the American Fruit Growers, Inc., shipped two cars of grapefruit to Manila. Another car is being sent and it is felt that a regular market will be developed in the near future. The fruit goes by way of Seattle. * *k P. F. Ratliff of Bowling Green has received a letter from the Pacific Fruit and Produce Company, of Spo. kane, Wash., complimenting him very highly upon the pack and condition of strawberries received by them from him in Florida. * Orlando has a new industry, the canning of grapefruit hearts. The company is being backed by Will l. Craig, of Noblesville, Ind. George D. Moffatt, Jr., is superintendent of the work, which is temporarily being carried on in the packing house of S J. Sligh. A 5,000,000 quart strawberry crop which will bring to the city more than a million dollars is in sight for Plant City. The supply is still strong with a fair demand. The price is holding up well. * The Orange County Citrus SubExchange plans within the next few months to build in Orlando a canning factory for grapefruit hearts. The plant will be co-operative and the product will be known as "Sealdhearts." * All packing plants at Goulds have been busy during the tomato season The crop has been estimated at 1,500 cars. A large acreage is being packed by outside operators. The directors of the Dade CountY Citrus Sub-Exchange are planning to own and operate their own grapefruit canning factory. Plans are not Ye! definitely matured but it is expected that the factory will follow the gel' eral lines of the one at Eagle Lake. * Miami tomato shippers are picking their crops just past the turn and it is hoped that in this way the shi? ments will be better able to meet the cold weather which they encounted, It is pointed out that the green to* mato cannot stand the cold which 011 slightly turned can. With the refig' erator shortage continuing even. means is being tried to move the 'rop with the least possible loss.

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PACKING HOUSES OF W. E. LEE & CO. Bv T. (,. JJITO Florida is noted for the splendid type of its citrus packing houses and the pride of the citrus growers in their fruit as exemplified by the great amount of care taken in this state to grade and pack oranges, grapefruit and tangerines. Millions of dollars are invested in packing houses and machinery for packing in Florida, and that this investment brings commensurate returns is proven by the extent and success of the citrus industry in this state today. The three packing houses shown in the illustration below are among the finest of our Florida citrus packing houses and the company that owns them one of the largest car-lot distributing organizations for fruit and vegetables in the state, as well as one of the concerns taking greatest pride in its pack. The W. E. Lee Company, Inc., has its headquarters in Plant City, and the present organization was perfected on August 1st, 1922. This company operates fourteen or fifteen other packing houses, at strategic points in the citrus belt of Florida, besides those shown in the illustration on this page. They pack and ship fruits, vegetables and melons for growers, handling these commodities on much the same order as many other large packing and shipping organizations. The brands packed by the W. E. Lee Company are: "Yellow Kid," "Pretty Baby," and "Good Nature." Although the present organization of the W. E. Lee Company is comparatively new it has met with much success, growth has been rapid and plans have been made to further extend its facilities for operations during coming fruit and vegetable seasons. This success is due in part to the excellent personnel of the organization and their knowledge of the fruit and vegetable packing and shipping business from every angle, and in part to the up-to-date methods used by them in packing and handling the products they ship. A recent addition to their equipment is a brand new packing house at Palmetto on the Ellenton Road. This new plant is of tile construction, is 200 feet long and modernly equipped in every respect. W. E. Lee, or William Edward Lee to be exact, president of the W. E. Lee Company, is one of the largest and most successful individual growers of fruits and vegetables in Florida. He owns or controls over 1,000 acres of groves and produced more than 200,000 boxes of citrus fruit during 1922. W. E. Lee has been actively interested in the fruit and vegetable industry since he was 14 years old. He was born at Helena, Georgia, on February 8, 1893, was educated in Alabama, and is a graduate of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute. He is a director of several banks in South Florida and his interests are large and varied. Among other things he is Mayor of Plant City, having been elected to this office in 1919. The three citrus packing houses illustrated on this page were built for the 1922-1923 season. They are all of E. Lee metal construction, well arranged with room for expansion. The W. E. Lee Company handles a wide range of produce, keeping them busy practically the year 'round. Quality of pack and the range and extent of their operations has assured success for this organization in the markets. Vegetables and melons will be shipped by them following the citrus season. Auburndale Lake Garfield Page Seven LeeCo

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Citrus Production, Packing and Shipping In the Isle of Pines By 3(. L. -6SWE ENEMY ITUATED between longitude 82* 24' and 830 41' west, and latitude 21' 28' 15", 210 58' north, lies a most beautiful tropical island, fast growing into prominence because of the increasing popularity of its citrus fruits. Just fifty miles directly south of Cuba at that island's narrowest part is the island that in June of 1494 Christopher Columbus put in for water and food on his second voyage of discovery and which he christened "The Isle of the Evangelist," this name being changed later to the Isle of Pines, so called because of the tall pines scattered throughout the flat plains between the mountains. It is not in the writer's power to describe in words just how picturesque the Isle of Pines really is, but in order to give the readers of the Packing House News an idea of its peculiar tropical properties and its scenic effect, it is well to draw a description of the island proper, The area of the Isle of Pines is estimated at 900,000 acres. The southern portion, containing some 300,000 acres, is locally designated as "The South Coast." It is a wilderness. There nature has set the stage for dramas of piracy and smuggling, and, legend has it, that the South Coast is the shore where pirates of olden days buried their loot-therefrom derives the name sometimes applied to the island, "Treasure Island." On this coast are found large forests of hard wood of h-ghly prized varieties. The northern part of the island, consisting of 600,000 acres, is a plain, now almost perfectly level, now rolling in undulations that rarely reach thirty feet above the general elevation of 75 to 125 feet above tide. Rising abruptly from these plains are mountains of pure crystalline marble, which, when cut into statuary forms, is perfect in color and smoothness; and on the slopes of the Ceiba hills are the American-owned citrus groves in five, ten, twenty and even larger acreage. They dot the country around Nueva Gerona, the port and capital of the island, and at Columbia, Santa Barbara and Santa Fe; they are green on the white sands of Los Indios and San Pedro. Excellent roads run from town to town connecting the groves into a perfect chain. These roads are made simply by clearing, ditching and crowning the surface which is covered with mal pais gravel, very valuable for road material. This material covers practically the entire island and, with the exception of the wonderful climate-the coldest weather this winter being 56 Fahrenheit-is the island's best natural asset, making transportation of fruit over the roads to the port of Nueva Gerona an easy job. Scattered over the island there are the small arroyos or rivers, along which are found native fruit trees such as mangos, caimitos, aguacates, sapotes, wild orange trees. There are shrubs everywhere, the scrawniest of which bloom, in white and in yellow especially, and adding to this is found the statuesque Royal Palm in large numbers. Isle American Owned. Practically ninety-five per cent of all this is owned by Americans who have made of the island a perfect American colony, and made of the natives strangers in their own governed territory. In 1898 the signing of the Treaty of Paris put an end to the Spanish-American War and immediately certain alert Americans, presuming that the Isle of Pines had become American territory by virtue of Article II in that treaty ceding to the United States "Porto Rico and all other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies," began an American occupation of the isle. They bought great tracts of land from Cuban and Spanish owners which were laid out in smaller parcels and resold to settlers who were assured that it was American soil. But in 1902, when the American Military Government Page Eight of Cuba withdrew, leaving the first Republic of Cuba constituted, the Isle of Pines found itself still administered as a part of Havana province, just as it had always been. The Americans made protest to Washington, but no recognition of the isle as American territory was obtained. Yet the Platt Amendment to the Constitution of Cuba provides that title to the Isle of Pines shall be left to future adjustment by treaty between the United States and Cuba. Two treaties relinquishing ownership to Cuba have failed of ratification in the American congress. The Americans on the island, claiming ownership of ninety-five per cent of all lands and every citrus grove and pineapple field, are fighting for the defeat of these treaties. However, American residents, numbering some 2,700, have made the Isle of Pines an American community in all save political status, they having nothing to say whatever in the government. Acres and acres of citrus groves have been planted by them which are today producing for American markets thousands of boxes of oranges and grapefruit, besides shipments to Cuba of pineapples, limes, lemons and tangerines. Quite a large acreage of vegetables is also planted and peppers, eggplants and tomatoes are shipped to New York, Chicago and even Florida markets annually. The citrus groves on the Isle of Pines do not differ in many ways from those in Florida. Improvements, homes and fencing are all similar, but there is a presumption that the planting and cutivating of groves on the isle differ in many ways from Florida, so the writer has secured sufficient data to show how the groves are planted and cultivated, as well as approximate figures of the cost of establishing a grove, the cost of marketing the fruit and the average return sales of shipments. Soil. There are many varieties of soil on the isle. Soil at the base of the hills is usually of superior quality, due, probably, to deposits brought down the slopes by rains. Usually where one finds "natives" living, or indications (generally in the shape of mango trees in groves) that they have resided there, the soil is good, though whether it is so by reason of their cultivation of it, or because they know how to select fertile spots, is hard to decide. Along the banks of the streams there is a vegetable mould good for truck gardening, but all the land used for citrus fruit culture must be fertilized and this is done every year in the early fall. Preparation and Cultivating. There is also infinite variety in the methods followed on the Isle of Pines of preparing for the setting out of trees. The virgin land, after being cleared, is ploughed and sometimes left to sun-months, in some cases, and in some instances it is heavily limed, but growers differ as to opinion about doing this. Again, some do not for reasons of their own, plough their land at all, but just simply stake off, dig holes, plump in their trees and cultivate only with a hoe around the base of the tree. This is done only in rare cases, the majority of groves being well ploughed and cleared of all shrubbery and g-ass by means of monthly-and sometimes oftener--cultiv and harrowing. Some growers have adopted extreme clean cultiva tion, in the dry season especially, declaring that a dust mulch keeps the soil from cracking if it has any tendency so to do, and even in the wet season tolerating only vege tation enough to prevent washing in the rains. Strange to say, just as there are good groves in every sort of soil, so there are good groves which have been evolved by every sort of system, or lack of system, Pos' sible. Nothing short of persistent total neglect sees really to kill a grove on the Isle of Pines.

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'V 'V I' N, V 41 "I % 'V <
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Slowner Vz ckdnY House News Fertilization and Cost. Fertilizer, as above stated, is found necessary, no matter in what part of the isle the grove is located. An average, based on costs of several growers, shows that thirty pounds of fertilizer per tree are used-there are seventy trees to the acre-yearly at a cost of from $50 to $60 per ton for fertilizer and an aggregate cost of $90 per acre for fertilizing and caring for citrus trees. An estimate based on figures furnished by some of the oldest growers on the island, shows that it takes from $5,000 to $8,000 to establish a ten-acre grove, from the preparation of the land until the time that fruit is marketed. These figures include the cost of land at $35 per acre, and land can be bought at that price now in acreages as large as may be desired. Yield and Returns. The average yield per acre of grapefruit is ninety boxes; oranges averaging one hundred and forty boxes per acre. These averages are based on 1920, 1921 and 1922 yields and do not include culls or dropped fruit, but actual shipments. Shipments to northern markets in 1920 show a total of 185,453 boxes of citrus fruits. In 1921 there was a decrease in shipments due to heavy rains, the total being 158,776 boxes. In 1922 shipments were larger than ever before, reaching 217,731 boxes. The majority of these shipments go to three or four commission houses in New York and one in Chicago, among them being F. Opolinsky, who receives about one-half of the island's entire crop, Manniello Bros., and Mayrsohn, Gargiulo & Amendola and Mills Brothers of Chicago. Reports on shipments at random from commission men's account sales show: Cost of Marketing. (Per Box) Duty and entrance into the United States .............$ .70 Forwarding agent's commission .........-.......... .03 Freight ............--..-....-............................... .68 Cartage on market ..------. -----._-.................................. .11 Average Consulor Papers ---------........-----------. .01 Total .....---------------------------------... ............ $1.53 It is estimated that on a selling price of $3.50 per box the cost will average $3.05, including merchant's commission. Returns. Based on averages received from the largest shippers of fruit from the island, the crop of 1922, up until the tariff went into effect, netted the growers from $1.50 to $1.75 per box. This average shows that selling prices on the New York market of grapefruit from the island was from $3.00 to $7.00-and a general average of $4.55. After the tariff went into effect the additional cost to the grower was so great that shipments were stopped to a very large per cent and have just been resumed. One can easily estimate what a great loss this was, due to over-ripening fruit and the great amount that dried up from being left too long on the trees. Shipping Facilities. The biggest trouble the grower of the Isle of Pines has facing him is securing better shipping facilities. Fruit consigned to the New York market is handled five times before being sold by the commission house. After being loaded on ships here it is carried to Batabano, Cuba, and there loaded on cars which are carried to Havana where the fruit is reloaded on ships for New York. During the heavy shipping season the growers find trouble in securing means for handling all of their fruit. The steamship company plying between Nueva Gerona and Batabano has but two ships that can be placed into service. This causes a much larger waste of fruit from over-ripening and dropping than would be the case if shipping facilities were so that the crop could be cared for without having to await the return of a ship. Packing Houses. Just recently the writer made trips to four packing houses on the island. All of these houses are within a few miles of Nueva Gerona, the shipping port of the island, and pack from some of the best groves here. An average, obtained from combined figures of the four houses, shows that they pack from eight hundred and fifty acres, which represents eighty-nine grove owners. They have a daily packing capacity of two thousand crates, the four houses packing during the past season 65,014 crates of fruit. These houses employ fifty-nine people and pay on an average of twenty-five cents per hour for their labor. Packing Process. The packing process of the four houses is alike in every respect. The fruit is first placed in curing rooms-there are three of these at each packing house-that are heated to such a temperature as to only allow the fruit a slow heat that colors and cures the skins. After it is cured it is then conveyed to washers. The washing process was at one time considered not practical in that the fruit rotted, but the fruit is completely dried after leaving the washer by means of a dryer that is simple but effective. The fruit is carried along very slowly by rollers through the dryer. There are four steam pipes running the entire length under the dryer and air pipes running across every two feet at the top. This dryer runs the full width of the packing house and it takes the fruit fifteen minutes to pass through it, coming out warm and completely dry. There is no danger of fruit rotting when washed and dryed by this process. The fruit is then carried to revolving brushes by means of a conveyor similar to that used by saw mills for carrying away saw dust; it is then conveyed by similar means from the brushes to the polisher, which is a belt with six rows of small brushes running the entire length of the belt. These brushes are paraffined, giving the fruit a clean, polished skin. The brushes then carry the fruit to the sizing machines where it is separated into two grades and packed. The fruit shipped from the Isle of Pines to American markets is so sweet, clean looking and tree ripened that the popularity and demand for it will grow in large strides, and when better shipping facilities are procured -look out Florida and California! THE ROARING STREET By R. A. Couchman Let me work in an office that stands by a street Where the torrent of business rolls by; Where the roars of the street urge the world's flying feet, Where you think as you eat-on the fly. Let me work as I listen to great motor trucks Rumble past me, shaking the ground; Let them bump on the cobbles till rattles and bobbles Drown out every commonplace sound. Let me hear iii the grind of the street-car's wheels And the clatter of sharp-shod mules The music of toil, of the world's busy broil, The ballad of Life's busy tools. Where the trucks shift to low as they swing into Ma With their cut-outs opened up wide; Where the dray-horses strain for their ration of grain, Here's the place where the world hits its stride! Every noise is a thrill if you like the great mill Where the grist is us poor human clods; For the purpose we fill is just grist for that millThe Street-the mill of the Gods. Page Ten

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TAKING THE FRIGHT OUT OF FREIGHT By PEGGY POE Taking the fright out of freight, surely means taking the weight out of freight. For it is by the pound that horror and desperation are created in the soul of the producer when he ships his wares. Be it short haul or long haul, too often the producer must scrape the kettle to feed the savage appetite of the roaring creature which hauls his goods. But Progress and Science, mother and god-mother to humanity, are coming to the rescue along with the perfecting of auto motion, air traffic and wave sounds. Progress says: "Dry your shipment before you ship it,'' and dry ideas are popular or at least in force in the country today. There is no reason why the shipper should not listen to Progress. It's no new idea. The Egyptians dried food thousands of years ago. Perhaps they realized how foolish it would be to force their camels to carry tons of water over the desert when it would be easy to add the water when the produce reached its destination. Progress says dry your produce. Science says do it correctly, and profitably. Uncle Sam, in this thoughtfulness for his people, has wise men (and there are more than three of them) working on the subject of dehydration. They have tested out every method, searched out every country and studied its progress in the science of dehydration. They have followed the development of this ancient science of saving food for Man and they tell us 1For the use of the Army, Navy and hospitals our government has lately placed an order for dehyrated foods, spending something like ten million dollars for it. This order went to American and Canadian dehydrating plants. Eight million pounds of raw Irish potatoes were thrown on the dumps of New York last winter, potatoes frosted and decayed in shipping. All these could have been saved. A barrel of dehydrated food left from the Boer War in Africa was used fourteen years after, so why shouldn't Progress tell us to dry our potatoes? Ten cars of them could be shipped nicely in one car, with the water left out, and their usefulness assured for years and years. Enough vegetables to make soup for 40 people can be put into a one-pound carton. Everything that is edible can be dried-apples, string beans, beets, carrots, cauliflower, celery, corn ON THE COB, cherries, onions, parsnips, peaches, pears, potatoes, prunes, pumpkin, rhubarb, spinach, tomatoes, oranges, lemons, horseradish, and so on. Tomatoes which net so much waste to the grower and shipper, can be dried and made into catsup years after. Or the tomatoes can be made into a delightful powder which the housewife can use for soup. So with pumpkins; she may use a box of pumpkin flour, use a spoonful for a pie and have the rest whenever she wishes to use it-maybe next year. Dehydrating Plant, Norwalk, Ohio. Bringing in the Pumpkins. that in a few years we will laugh at the thought of men Picking their beans green, adding four or five times their weight in water, adding the expense of a tin can and then Yelling their heads off when they shipped that can of green beans to New York, paying dearly for the water which the .careful housewife pours down the sink. The housewife and producer pay for 10 ounces of green beans, 10 ounces of water 3 % ounces of tin can-a total of 23 % Ounces plus cost of hauling and danger of spoiling. The Whole can could have been dehydrated down to one ounce of solid food and could have been packed into a light Paper carton. The U. S. Bureau of Chemistry says that by 1950 our foods, or the method of caring for them, will have changed. Even the humble potato will no longer be carFed home in the cumbersome peck measure, but rather in a neat litle wax package of dried product. nNor will the producer take a ton of green peas, add einough water to bring the weight to 4,000 pounds, put It in heavy, expensive cans, place the cans in heavy Wooden boxes, put up a fight with the carrier and listen Sdistmay to the consumer. Instead, the producer will dry the peas down to 250 pounds, place them in light Paper hoxes and send them with a hopeful heart to the ends of the earth by rail or perhaps by aeroplane. But it is safe to say, that once having made pie from the dehydrated product, she will use it again and again, for all the sweetness and delicious flavor is there, minus that undesired ingredient, pumpkin water. The market for dehydrated products is growing rapidly. It is fast becoming known to American housewives (with the U. S. Government spending hundreds of thousands of dollars to educate them) that dehydrated foods give them the most, the best and the safest food for their money. They are beginning to learn that danger lurks in canned foods unless they are given perfect care. They are learning that the long cooking necessary to preserve food, and the great heat necessary to kill the mold germ also kills the vital parts of the food. Dehydrating food does not mean SIMPLY DRYING IT. Modern science has discovered a method of treatment which is simple-a method which does not destroy the cell of the food, which does not destroy the color or the flavor. It is a method of gently taking the water from the food and leaving it with all the wholesomeness of the fresh product. The highest grade of dehydrated food can only be produced by a process in which there is perfect control of temperature, humidity and air flow. Foods in the raw are made up of a multitude of cells (Continued on Page 36) Page Eleven

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1j< A A ftf PACKING PINEAPPLES IN FLORIDA BY FR ANK B. GOODWP:A( What is generally recognized as the Pineapple Belt of Florida is a narrow section on high sandy land fronting on the Indian River of St. Lucie County, about twenty-five miles in length, extending from the city of Fort Pierce to Stuart, Florida. The Florida East Coast Railroad runs along this ridge through the pineapple fields to pick up loaded cars on the sidings, or local shipments. Further down the coast in Dade County, north of Miami, more plantations are found in a small way. The East Coast section grows the hardy Red Spanish vaNOTE: The pineal) in Florida somewhere riety, which is a short, stubby had a rapid rise unt pineapple, with great shipping when the crop excee qualities. Other varieties grown nually. From that ti in asmal areof the industry was al in a small way are the Abbaka, so than its developed Sugar Loaf, Pina Blanca, Smooth tributed to various ca Cayenne, Porto Rico. All but haps to what is com said by scientists to b the Red Spanish are longer in nematode. Worn out shape, much more delicious, free other producing coun from fibre in the meat and can have also received pan of the industry. Sine be eaten with a spoon. However, apple production in Fl they are so tender and full of few express shipments juice that they cannot be held for loads. It is confident dustry will in a few ye any great length of time or was. Much interest is shipped very far north successEast Coast, new expert fully are being tried to o other prohiems are bSome of the larger plantation the attention just now pineapple fields are laid out in production in Florida, be interested in Mr. G blocks, generally about 50 by 100 other page may be f feet, with four-foot trails around pineapples in the Isle each block, with a narrow-gauge issues of the NEWS w garding pineapples in tramroad about every five blocks, Islands, and other place which runs from the fields to the packing house along the railroad siding. The help in general is Nassau or Bahama negroes, as they are better able to stand the sharp blades of the plants and have the knack of breaking the pineapple from the plant without making a plug where it is broken off. Plugged pineapples are culls and leave an opening in the stem where blue mould can start or let air into the core so that it sours. A team of pickers is generally made up of two pickers, Page Twelve a catcher, and a couple of loaders. The pickers wear a pair of canvas chaps (like cowboy chaps), a long pair of canvas mittens, and a wide brim straw hat. They enter the fields, wading through and pick all yellow fruit and matured shipping fruit, which is green in color, and throw it to the catcher, who is in the trail between the blocks. He puts them in a bushel basket. The loader takes the basket to the tram car. This ple industry was started around the year 1860 and il the years 1909-1910, ed a million crates anrie until 1917 the decline most as rapid if not more nt. This decline was atuses but principally permanly known as "wilt," e caused by a species of soil, competition from ries, high freight rates, of the blame for the fall e 1917 the annual pinerida has crept up from a to over a hundred carly expected that the inars be larger than it ever being taken in it on the ments that promise much overcome the "wilt," and being solved. Because of being paid to pineapple readers of the NEWS will oodwin's article. On anound a short article on of Pines, and in later e will give some data rePorto Rico, the Hawaiian es.-Editor. tram car is a platform arrangement with four wheels, propelled by engine or pushed by a couple of negroes to the packing house. The pines are taken out of the baskets at the house and laid in large deep bins, with all the butts or stem ends facing the packer, crowns away from the packer. This is so that the packer will not injure his hands from the sharp thorns on the crown as he is packing. The packer has a bench that just holds a packing crate, also a paper rack. He selects the size of pineapple for the pack he is about to make, puts the fruit on the paper board with the crown extending over aboutfoul inches in the large sizes, and rolls the paper around the pine, fold ing the end under, making it ready for the crate. Pineapples are very easily graded as the most exposed parts are faced toward the packer, and defects, bruises or plugged ends can be noted at a glance. The crown of a pineapple is very important as it niuSt be uniform in length, and have a clear green color. All colored fruit are ripes, which may be a reddish yellow 1 plain yellow in color. These are packed as ripes an shipped to nearby markets, such as North Florida, Georgia and the Carolinas. All pineapples are packed in six sizes: Eighteen to the

PAGE 13

/ne in //ni -a' .93 Photos by Florida Photographic Concern I. Dunscomb's Plantation, Stuart, Fla. 2. Picked and placed ii Pickers toss the fruit to catchers in the avenues. 4. Motor car for A failizing horses and motor power in hauling "Pines" from field Loadim packing house in the olden days. 8. Ready for shipment. ng cars, Fort Pierce. 12. Loading a car. 13. United States r the avenues for hauling to packing house. 3. Picking "Pines." transporting pines from field to packing house. Fort Pierce. to packing house. 6. Interior of packing house, Fort Pierce. 7. 9. Packs of "30's" and "24's." 10. Three pack of "30's." 11. Department of Agriculture, Pre-cooling Plant. Page Thirteen ac king

PAGE 14

WI Skiaer _Pckii HouSeNewS 18 Size PacK /A No. 1&3 Layers Z & 4 30 Size PacK I3--5 Layers 2 & 4 42 Sixe PacK L&.yers 2-4-624 Size PacK /A No. 19. 3 Layers 2&4 36 Site PacK Layers 2-4-, Is Si7-e Pal
PAGE 15

THE AWAKENING OF LAKE JOY Bv '(JLEI' ill. FLE CHER BERR2 Miss Althea Adams sniffed delicately morning constitutional around the little F was near noon but Miss Althea, systematic of daily life, had lunch already prepared her niece, and herself and could take tin walk. "I suppose," she said to herself, "that on the desert air' is the 'yellow jessamir Sallie-Mae raves so extravagantly." S book carried in the picturesque basket s arm. "Ah, just as I thought: not really 'gelsemium.' The carelessness of the young Now, dear Amos would have looked it up gulped, then added: "But I must not let him." So Miss Althea was calm when she arr road cutting at right angles into the strawed lake drive. There she paused where, half a city block distant, a big squarely out on a double railroad track. in the little spinster's eyes and she frow tated: "Sallie-Mae said the Lake Joy pac like frosted silver. Perhaps it is but I s ferred it to be in an emerald green, w sweet-scented grove. The orange industry should be entirely a thing of beauty. silver sheeting is undoubtedly a heart of Two big trucks stopped at the platform house and, Miss Adams' curiosity being saw golden-laden crates carefully lifted crossed the tracks and mounted the steps form. Somewhere within the big building erstwhile school teacher niece, was packin place near by, of course, Barrett Copley v ing packing house affairs. Miss Althea of Barrett but as Barrett had invited I place and ignorance was such a disgrace, to investigate. Indeed, she had come marily to find out every single thing ab dent fellow who had presumed to ask Salli him," and this, necessarily, included the She stepped inside the big door. Then, in an instant, she stood still. It was the most wonderful moving picture she had ever seen. And, at first, it seemed a picture, only: not real. Fascinated, she watched the golden and bronze fruit emptied on an inclined runway, picked up by an endless belt of gently gliding wooden rollers and carried forward to be washed in waterfilled vats. "It is like magic," she thought, as she saw the gold and bronze balls push each other forward and ascend another set of rollers where stiff brushes cleaned and brightened the moving fruit, then sent it on to a warm, enclosed, metal drying-box. From this, both dried and polished, the glowing spheres, as if alive, quietly moved along On felt-covered rollers, offering themselves to girls who swiftly and surely sorted them. Miss Althea only glimpsed the variou tails were merely mosaic bits wrought i whole. But her eyes were keen, her min memory more tenacious than even Sallie Sensed that inferior fruit was being take she stepped a little farther into the b that there was grading and grouping of di 'ranges. Then came what seemed wiza automatic sizing of the juicy spheres, for dropped quickly and safely onto the ca waiting bins beneath, while larger fruit of its Own accord dropped through lar as she took a lorida lake. It in every detail for Sallie-Mae, e to enjoy her this 'sweetness e' about which he consulted a wung from her jessamine, but ger generation! at once." She myself think of ived at a sandy graceful, pineand gazed east building stood The sun was ned as she cogiking house was hould have prehite-blossoming, y is so ideal it But under this gold." daintily precise little spinster watched, too, the girl packers deftly twisting white squares of lettered tissue paper over the fruit and then, quite frankly, sniffed again, for there was an enticing combination of fruit fragrance and the delicate, clean, woody perfume of the pale-gold boxes waiting to receive the oranges. Yes, the gently moving streams of gold and bronze, the soft hum of machinery and voices were more than picturesque; vitally alive. Miss Althea forgot the objections she had advanced "up north," when her niece had informed her of her plans to pack oranges in Florida, and before she was aware of it, had stopped right by SallieMae and the girl had laughingly called: "Hello, Aunt Althea!" "I only came for a moment," fluttered Miss Althea. Barrett insisted, you know, that I should look in. It is nearly lunch time now, so I must not linger. Come home as soon as you can. Good-bye." But as she turned toward the big doorway, someone laughed more loudly than Sallie-Mae had laughed, and said in almost the same words, "Hello, Miss Althea!" She jumped. Such a laugh was too hearty for comfort. Barrett was indeed anything but what her ex-fiancee had been: "Dear Amos!" "Won't you let me show you the packing house, Miss Althea?" But she declined and Copley accompanied her to the door where they stood for a moment looking out over Lake Joy. "What of the packing a lovely spot it is, began roused as she Miss Althea. "With my off, she daintily face toward that heavenly of the long platSallie-Mae, her g oranges; some i as superintenddid not approve er to visit the it was her duty to Florida priout "that impue-Mae to marry packing house. voluntarily, for s processes: dento a wonderful d quick, and her -Mae's. So she n out and, when uilding, grasped fferently colored rdry indeed: the the smaller ones nvas bottoms of travelled on and ger holes. The "What a lovely spot it is," began Miss Althea bit of blue and my back toward man's creations I can-" The rumbling grunts of lean, lithe creatures slipping into the shadows beneath the packing house platform interrupted her. "Brazenly rooting around here as if they owned the place!" exclaimed Copley savagely. "I'm sick of these razorback hogs!" And he flung a convenient cull at them. "Let me take you across the tracks, Miss Althea, and make sure that those creatures are well out of your way." "Now that," thought Althea, "is more like dear Amos!" Miss Althea gone, Copley stood looking moodily across (Continued on Page ') 1age Fifteen

PAGE 16

Citrus Fruit Crates With Detach Tops Defined -By 0. FOERT87'Ik SCHULJL Y In the November issue of this publication there was published one of my articles on the standard citrus fruit crate with a secure or permanent top. By secure or permanent top is meant a top which, in addition to being nailed at each end, is securely fastened to a center panel and bound by a metal, birch or fibre strip not less than 19 inches in length securely nailed to each side of the crate with one 4d cement coated nail. For those of our readers who are not entirely familiar with the standard specifications of the citrus fruit crate with the detach top, which differs from the citrus fruit crate with the secure or permanent top, this article is printed. While this latter type of crate is looked upon with some disfavor by a number of fruit growers it is, nevertheless, greatly preferred by a number of others, and until carrier legislation has stamped its use as illegal, there is little doubt in the mind of the writer that a large percentage of fruit will continue to be shipped in it. Its inside measurements are identical with those of the former type, namely:12x12x24 inches, and its capacity is also 3,456 cubic inches. Other specifications are as follows: Top-Detach Top: One or two pieces not less than 3-16 inch thick, 11/1 inches wide, if in one piece; not less than 51/4 inches wide, if in two pieces and 27 inches long, except where bulge pack is used to be not less than 271/ inches long and not to exceed 27 3-8 inches and nailed flush with cleats. A veneer cleat not less than 1/4 inch thick and 1 % inches wide to be fastened to each end of the top with staples of not less than 20-gauge wire driven through veneer and securely clinched, not less than three long or six short stapes to each end cleat. Sides: One or two pieces not less than 1-16 inch thick, 11%'/t inches wide, if in one piece; not less than 51 /. inches wide, if in two pieces, and 27 inches long. Bottom: Same as sides, except that they may consist of from one to four pieces. Panels or Ends: Two end and two center panels (or ends) made of one piece not less than 1-16 inch thick. Cleats: Twelve cleats not less than 13-16 inch thick by 7-8 inch wide by 12 inches long Binding Wires: Five-not less than 15-gauge, with wires Nos. 1, 3 and 5 attached to cleats, wire No. 2 4 /, inches from No. 1, and wire No. 4 4 % inches from No. 5. Staples: On wires Nos. 1, 3 and 5 in the sides and bottom sections not less than four staples each 16gauge by 1 1-8 inches long, driven home astride the binding wire through the slats and into the cleats; on the top section not less than four staples each 16-gauge by 1 1-8 inches long driven astride the binding wire into the cleats. On wires Nos. 2 and 4 in the sides and bottom sections not less than four staples each 18-gauge by 7-16 inch long, driven astride the binding wire and firmly clinched in the slats. The distance between staples in any section shall be approximately two inches. Making Up: Fold the blank with the three top cleats in place and twist binding wires Nos. 1, 3 and 5 together in pairs, the twisted portion on each pair of wires to be not less than % inch long and to have not less than four tight twists. The rough ends to be removed and twisted portion knocked flat against the side of the crate parallel with the binding wires. Twists to be made on the side of the crate approximately % inch from the upper edge to the cover of the crate. The two end panels to be fastened in Page Sixteen place on the outside of the outside cleats with either five 16-gauge by 13-16 inch long staples or five ce. ment coated 2d nails in each side cleat, staples or nails to be securely driven. It is not necessary to fasten the two center panels to the middle set of cleats. Closing: The Detach Top to be securely nailed at each end with not less than four cement coated 4d nails driven securely through veneer cleats and slats into top cleats. Wires Nos. 2 and 4 then to be brought over the top and the ends twisted together in pairs in the same manner as wires Nos. 1, 3 and 5. Wood, Veneer or Sawed: To be of seasoned pine or gum or wood of equal strength, of sound material, free from injurious knots. Pack: When the bulge pack is used the bulge above the center head must not exceed 1' inches with oranges and 2 % inches with grapefruit. Tangerine Crate: Construction to be as per specifications for the standard size box, except that dimensions should be 12x6x24 inches inside measurements. Attention is called to the accompanying illustration of the crate in its finished state. It will be seen that in order to meet the standard requirements wires Nos. 1, 3 and 5 pass beneath the top, while wires Nos. 2 and 4 encircle the entire crate. In my previous article I remarked that the Southern ciation-has changed Freight Rate Committee, under its Submittal No. 7526, was considering charging 120 per cent of the published rate on citrus fruit packed in containers conforming with the standard specifications to be paid on shipments packed in containers which do not conform with the standard specifications, from points in Florida to all destinations. Since the publication of the article in question, the Southern Freight Rate Committee-now known as the Southern Freight Assochairmen and various officers. While efforts are being made to clear outstanding matters from their records, no steps have been taken, to my knowledge, to approve the suggested change in rates. The containers mentioned in both articles are to be used for shipping oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, lemons, limes and kumquats. In succeeding articles, I shall give the standard specifications of various other crates. Among these, particular reference will be made to the cantaloupemusk melon crate and the essential differences between the Norfolk and Florida types. As it is to the interest of all shippers of fruit to knO the standard specifications of containers, it is suggested that close attention be paid to the measurements both in the articles already published and those now in preparation; they are authentic in every detail. Who can tel but that they may serve you to good stead in the settlement of a claim involving hundreds of dollars and representing months of hard labor? To know is to profit. CORRECTION Attention is called to an error in the caption under the illustration on page eleven. This should read Norwall Iowa, instead of Norwalk, Ohio. Advices from Washington to the effect that Mari5 county growers may secure a tomato inspector, if they will co-operate with the Florida State Marketing Bureu is hailed with interest in and around Ocala. The advam tages of standard grades in competition with nondescripi packing are easily apparent and the Marion county to inato growers hope soon to have a steady demand for the" product because of its uniformity.

PAGE 17

SkAiher Vocki Houe News CALIFORNIA NEWS j. W. C. Pogue of Exeter, fruit grower and packinghouse operator, is organizing a company to erect a tencar-per-day pre-cooling plant. Mr. Pogue is signing up grape and other fresh-fruit men. His plan calls for the signatures of 125 growers, before the building can be started. If a sufficient number of growers sign, the plant is expected to be erected by April or May, in order to take care of the crop of early peaches and plums this season. About 1,500 cars of fresh fruit are shipped out of Exeter during the year. *' The seven big packing houses of the San Antonio Fruit Exchange are all open for the season's orange and lemon business, and are shipping out 100 cars of oranges a week. This amount will be gradually increased, according to the officials. * Six hundred and forty carloads of oranges, an increase of nearly one hundred cars over last season, will be shipped by the Anaheim Citrus Fruit Association this year, according to a statement made by W. H. Schurrman, manager of the packing house. The association has resumed packing after being idle for a time. *, * Prominent orange shippers and packers of the Redlands district attended the recent conference of the American Fruit and Vegetable Shippers' Association at Chicago, to present their demands for better transportation of the orange crop. Among them were C. M. Brown, F. C. Fitzgibbon and A. M. Pratt. According to Mr. Brown, who is interested in the shipping of grapes from Coachella and cantaloupes from Imperial Valley, 31 percent of the locomotives of the railroads are now out of commission, the conditions being worse in the East than in the West. M. Mivata, S. Sato, T. Tanaka, S. Ikemura and Y. Aovama, all Japanese, are incorporators and directors of the Independent Growers' Association of Imperial Valley. The association has been formed to grow, pack and ship vegetables, especially cantaloupes. Articles of Incorporation have been filed. * In the closing up of last season's business for the Beaumont Fruit Growers and Packers' Association, A. H. Smith, general manager, made the following interesting report: "The business for 1922 has nearly doubled that of 1921. It was found necessary to enlarge the packhouse to double its original capacity, to accommodate the fruit, The tonnage packed and handled in 1922 follows: apples, 1,325,870 pounds; cherries, 380,427 pounds; peaches, 413,090 pounds; prunes and plums, 227 and 692 Pounds; pears, 986,776 pounds; apricots, 28,900 pounds, and various other fruits, 24,573 pounds, totaling 3,438,328 pounds. While worms cut the apple tonnage down to a great extent, last year showed an increase of over 700 tons of packed fruit over that of the previous year. New machinery is being installed at the Redlands plant of J. H. Strait & Company. The equipment is being so arranged that apples can be handled at certain seasons when there are no oranges to pack. C. E. Gross, secretary and manager of the Santiago Orange Growers' Association, reported at the recent annual meeting that the cash receipts were $1,546,400.26 from 927 carloads, or 426,147 packed boxes. This was an increase of 22 percent during the year. He estimated that the pre-cooling plant has saved the growers $103,441 in three years. The American Fruit Growers' Whittier packing house being equipped with new machinery. House Manager k. E. Sherwood states that the plant will be ready for the Valencia season. gr ross returns of $393,696.43, and a net return to owers of $306,408.31 for 1922 were reported by Secretary-Manager J. D. Spennetta at the annual meeting of the Foothill Valencia Growers held at Orange recently. The shipments of the season, which is classed as a "particularly difficult" one, were 206 cars of Valencias and fifty-two cars of lemons. Representative Imperial Valley lettuce growers met at Brawley recently to take steps toward preventing the recurrance of the market demoralization which was caused by the shipping of immature lettuce during the early part of the season. Those in attendance took the blame upon themselves, and voted to adopt a bill, which is to be presented to the California legislature, calling for the standardization of crates and the limiting of the cracked ice contents of the crate to sixty pounds. The bill was adopted unanimously. The Federal grading system for lettuce was voted inefficient as it does not distinguish the quality of the lettuce as to state of maturity, thus precluding any chance for government prosecution for misbranding. The bill called for the marking of crates to designate the state of maturity, under "headed lettuce" and "immature lettuce," which would supply the necessary evidence for prosecution if the crates were misbranded. In limiting the ice content to sixty pounds, those who drafted the bill hope to eliminate its use as a "filler." Over 3,500 cars of lettuce were shipped from the Valley before March 1. * The growth of the citrus industry in Central California is attested by the recent expenditure of $30,000 by the Lindsay Packing Company, affiliated with the California Fruit Growers' Exchange, for new equipment. The packing plant has been expanded into a building covering an area of 100x350 feet, which is given entirely to the packing of several hundred carloads of oranges and lemons annually. The interesting feature of the new plant is their method of obtaining labor during the packing season, which only lasts a few weeks in the district. Competent labor is difficult to secure for the short packing season, so the Lindsay plant let the contract for labor to the Betz Packing Company, a concern which operates from Washington to the Imperial Valley, packing apples during the season in Washington and other commodities in various districts into which they are hired to bring their operatives. Thus, the labor is kept busy at all times, and they are able to hold competent men, who, with transportation paid from place to place, and with a steady job ahead, are glad to give their best efforts. The Lindsay Packing Company maintains a lodging house for employees during the packing season, and through the Fruit Growers' Supply Company, a subsidary of the California Fruit Growers' Exchange, buys materials, and sprays the orchards of their members. Through timely and intelligent management, they have earned the title of the "most efficient company in Central California." ANOTHER "LARGEST ORANGE TREE" FOUND IN CALIFORNIA Answering the challenge of other contenders to the title of "the largest citrus tree," a distinction now claimed for a seedling orange on the Cram place in East Highlands, and also for another seedling on the E. B. Norman ranch at Duarte, G. W. Sandilands of the Anaheim Orange and Lemon Association, states that J. H. Brunsworth of Anaheim now has the "prize" tree. The tree, he states, has yielded nearly 700 boxes of fruit, almost two carloads, since it came into bearing, and that the average annual yield could be placed at twenty boxes for average trees. Mr. Brunsworth recently measured this giant tree, and found it to be thirty feet in spread, twentyfive feet high, and five feet two inches around the bole, a foot from the ground. At one time it was forty feet high, but fifteen feet were cut off the top, to permit fumigating, there being no "tent" large enough in dimensions to cover it for that purpose. Page Seventeen ~-,------~ ( 94

PAGE 18

CITRUS PACKING HOUSE CONSTRUCTION BY ('. F. D LNH AM, Jr. The packing house is now a recognized essential to any citrus growing community where a large quantity of fruit is grown that must be rapidly handled and properly packed. Such a building is either financed by an association whose members have citrus holdings in the community, or is a private enterprise. The plant thus provided is completely equipped with citrus machinery to treat and handle all fruit in the most approved manner, and to crate it in first-class shape ready for shipping. In selecting a location for a packing house, a site must be chosen near a railroad, or close enough to one so that a spur can readily be run in. This spur is brought up alongside the shipping platform, which is usually located at the rear end of the house. If a site can be had on a slope, or where the railroad is elevated sufficiently above grade to permit a ground floor to be placed on a level with the grade, and a second floor on a level with the shipping platform, an arrangement can be worked out that is more compact than the one-floor house. A building of this type will prove more imposing and pleasing by its height than a one-floor structure covering a greater area, and building cost will be reduced over the one-floor type. The one-floor house has the advantage of not requiring elevator conveyors to carry the fruit from floor to floor, and in it a more logical arrangement of machinery can be worked out. The outward appearance of the packing house is something that has been generally neglected. As a rule, such a place is usually considered nothing more than a factory building or an industrial plant, and as such the proposition is turned over to some too practical builder who gives appearances the least consideration. As a consequence, the architecture of the building suffers, and the final result is far from pleasing. When we consider oranges, grapefruit and other citrus fruits, the pride of our Florida communities, it is imperative that the outward appearances of such buildings should be attractive architecturally to properly reflect the pride of the community. A pleasing design, that catches the public eye, is a fitting index to the character of the community that evinces a pride in itself, leaving a lasting impression and a stamp of approval on the minds of the public who see it. Such favorable advertising will soon pay for any extra expense and effort that may be involved in securing such a structure. Contrary to general belief, architectural treatment and service requires but little additional outlay; in fact, it frequently involves no new or additional materials, but simply resolves itself into the arrangement of them in a pleasing composition. In all cases, the proper amount of architectural treatment is desired. Care should always be taken not to make this type of structure over ornamental. The materials generally used for the exterior walls are brick, brick surfaced with stucco, tile, tile surfaced with stucco, and sometimes concrete. Frame walls might be used, but are hardly substantial enough for proper use in this class of structure, and do not show the stability desired. In the use of materials for the outside, it is natural that we should use those that are most typical of the climate. Stucco is particularly adapted to, and associated with Southern buildings. What can be more imposing and attractive than an exterior of brilliant, cleancut, white stucco, gleaming forth amid the green of the orange groves? Such a structure stands out truly as a landmark to the citrus industry. The simplest treatment of the stucco surfaces has given the best results. The plain, natural white of the material alone, applied in smooth and rough casts, will produce the most desirable effects. This has proven more satisfactory than the use of an integral color in the stucco, or the painting of colors on it. For instance, a dash finish might well form the surfacing for major wall expanses, while a smooth sand finish might be used for decorative panels, pilaster caps and other points of accent. Such plain surfaces possess the property of reflecting the colors of the sky and surrounding landscape, thereby presenting an ever changing appearance. Hollow tile is the best backing material for the stucco, Page Eighteen forming a better bond than brIck, and possessing temperature resisting and damp proofing qualities. The most economical backing, however, is sand-lime brick. Due to local manufacture, such bricks can be secured at low cost. Furthermore, the natural white color of the brick provides a light-colored interior surface, which is highly desirable for brightening the inside. This will prove a saving over other materials that would have to be plastered or painted to procure the same results. Sand-lime brick is an absorbent material and should not be used for walls below grade. When it is used, concrete or an impervious brick should be carried to a foot above grade before using the sand-lime bricks. An exterior of a good quality of face brick is substantial but more costly. Hollow clay tile is very permanent, but the natural surface of the tile left exposed is less favored for external finish. When used the tiles must be laid perfectly, the units carefully worked out, and uniform in color and size to make an attractive exterior. With the use of these darker materials it will be necessary to provide more light to offset the darker walls inside. Something that should never be overlooked on the exterior of a packing house is the provision of suitable panels, properly placed to display to the best advantage the name and insignia of the firm or the growers' association. These are usually painted on, but built-up metal letters are more durable and distinctive. Such spaces should be provided on all elevations that are prominent to the public view. The interior of a packing house must be suitably arranged, compactly constructed, abundantly lighted and properly ventilated. In the arrangement of the house a close co-operation with the machinery man will enable the designer to so place his columns that they will least interfere with the machinery layout, and to place the different units of the plant in such relation to admit of the most direct handling and uninterrupted progress of the fruit from washing to nailing the crates. The illustration in the first column on the opposite page shows a first-class packing house of the basement type. The fruit from the groves is unloaded at the basement platform, and comes out crated on the second floor shipping platform at the rear. The basement floor is of concrete. The platform is level with this floor. Ample space is provided in the basement for storage. The fruit is washed and polished here and carried on belt elevator conveyors to the second floor. Here it is sorted, sized and crated as it passes from the front to the rear. Above this floor, second bay from the rear end, is a mezzanine floor, crosswise of the building, where crates are stored. These are fed to the packers below by conveyors. The crates are made in the basement and conveyed to the mezzanine where they are stacked ready for use. The crate material is brought by rail, taken from the cars and sent down chutes to the basement. These chutes lead fromt trap doors in the shipping platform. The basement walls below the grade are concrete. The exterior is stucco OD sand-lime brick. The second floor is covered with twO thicknesses of one-inch flooring laid on wood joists supported by steel girders. The steel girders permit 01 longer spans, resulting in fewer columns in the basement. The overhead lighting is provided by a monitor in the center of the roof, which is scarcely visible from the ground. An illustration of the one-floor type of packing house is shown in the second column on the opposite page. The average packing house needs but two rows of columns lengthwise of the building. These support the roof and monitor overhead. The monitor is of frame colstruction and rises high enough above the main roof to take single sash on each side. These sash are center pivoted, arranged in groups, and each group is operate by a gang opener controlled from the main floor. The ends of the monitor are louvred. A monitor of this type is an ideal means of furnishing light and ventilation where most needed. However, in houses covering a large area, a roof of the saw-tooth type is more adaptable.

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SkrnerPacking Hou~e New5 The deep roof trusses, Howe trusses, once used, are now generally supplanted by three-member trussed girders. These are adaptable to the spans mostly encountered, and are of sufficient strength for all the roof trussing. They can be used to advantage in floor trussing, taking care of spans in mezzanines and basements that would ordinarily require closer spacing of columns. The total depth of this trussed-girder construction is about one-fourth that of the Howe truss type. Consequently, the use of such trussing results in reduced height of outside walls, and considerable saving in cost. This decreased height also brings the monitor, or overhead lighting, from -II --its accustomed lofty position to a lower point where the angle of lighting is more satisfactory, and far better results in illumination are obtained. The trussed-girder consists mainly of three wood beams with a truss rod and clips at the center of the girder. The two outside members are continuous for the full length of the span; the center member is divided at the middle, and these ends elevated to a distance of about three-fourths the depth of the beam. The center rod is equipped with top and bottom wrought iron clips, the top clip encases the center elevated beam, while the bottom clip encases the two bottom beams. The assembly is then tightly bolted together and the truss rods securely drawn up. The joists can be supported on top of the lower members, if a level surface is wanted, and on top of the sloping member, if a roof slope is needed. For lighting a packing house, the outside windows should be placed about five feet above the floor. This height will throw the light farther into the interior, and remove the blinding glare from the eyes of the worker. This gives much relief to the eyes when one considers that there are windows on every outside wall. Strong drafts are also prevented at the working level. These windows should be as large as it is possible to operate them conveniently. These windows function best when they are center pivoted, with the bottoms swinging out. Windows built this way are less costly than double hung ones, and provide a maximum amount of ventilation, shed rain when open, and are out of the way of the working space, preventing breakage and interference. With windows arranged in this manner, and a monitor overhead as described, the fresh air enters the windows in the outside walls, passes through the packing house, going upward and out through the monitor openings, furnishing splendid ventilation above the heads of the workers. This lighting and ventilating arrangement with Fght-colored inside walls, will give an adaquately lighted and ventilated interior. The receiving platform should be about thirty inches high, which is the proper height for unloading fruit. The suPporting piers of the receiving platform should be set back about twelve inches from the edge of the platform t? protect them from the wheels of the trucks. A suffiiet number of large doors should open on to this platform. The shipping platform should be about forty-eight inches high, which is the proper height for loading into freight cars. The doors on to it should be spaced about forty feet apart from center to center of doors, which is approximately the distance apart of the doors in a line oi freight cars. This will permit a direct line of handling from the house to the cars. All platform door jambs should be equipped with angle irons at the corners to a height of about four feet, to protect them from trucking. The front edge of the platform should be similarly protected. The platform should be strongly constructed to withstand the heavy loading of stacked crates of fruit. It is also advisable to protect the platforms with awnings to keep them from rotting, and to protect any fruit that might be stacked upon them from the sun and rain. The steel drop door is the most compact method of closing the openings, because it is always entirely out of the way when open. If funds will not warrant the use of them, sliding doors are the next best. When sliding doors are used guards should be provided into which the door can run, so that materials can be piled against them without interfering with their operation. So far, we have dealt only with the working space. The office space should embody a general office, a large directors' room, and a superintendent's office. These should have toilet accommodations for men and women. The best method of heating these, and one that will add a touch to the architectural treatment of the interior, is the fireplace. The superintendent's office should overlook the workers, preferably placed in one corner of the working space. A line of windows in the partitions facing the working space will afford a splendid range of vision from his office. In designing packing houses, a factor that is by all means not to be overlooked, is the growth of the citrus industry. New groves are always being planted, and production is continually on the increase. This means that the capacity of packing houses is soon outgrown, and added facilities are required. So it is well to provide a means of readily extending the existing plant when occasion demands it. This subject should be given due attention when the original plans are made, so that further additions will not mar the architectural appearance of the building, thereby preventing the unsightly, tacked-on affairs that are so frequently seen. If the side on which the extension is to be built is not a prominent or conspicious elevation, a temporary frame partition may be constructed. If such temporary walls should prove too unsightly, or come on an important elevation, large openings can be constructed, outlined with straight masonry joints, properly Enteled over, so that they may be removed with little effort, and without disturbing the adjoining walls. These openings can be made numerous and large enough to provide ample communication for all future additions, and at the same time will not mar the external appearance of the walls in which they are placed. This article has not covered buildings of the fire resisting types, such as steel and reinforced concrete framed structures, which are desirable when the involved additional costs can be met, but it has given descriptions of the practical and substantial types of packing houses of ordinary construction, the types that, in the majority of cases, will be built with the funds that usually will be found available. Page Nineteen I L~i~ ~'l/ I I I

PAGE 20

F' Dedicated to the Production of Better Fruit and Vegetables and to the Use of Up-to-Date Packing Houses and Facilities THOS. W. HEWLETT ------------Editor Standardization We are getting closer and closer to the age of standardization in packing and presenting produce for marketing. Just how much country-wide standardized methods of preparing and handling fruits and vegetables for the market, mean to both the producer and the dealer, has never been fully realized, but gradually and surely this knowledge is soaking in. To the producer, standardized grades and packs offer an incentive to grow better products of the soil for they insure a fair price for all grades. Better products will get better prices and thus competition will always be fostered because of the encouragement given to one grower to obtain better grades than his neighbor. Standardization in the long run reduces the cost of packing and handling. A lot of lost motion is done away with, markets are stabilized, waste is eliminated, distribution problems are helped, and a lot of produce that should never go to the markets is not shipped. To the dealer the advantages of standardization are manifold, but perhaps they may all be summed up in the phrase, "He knows what he's getting." Marketing organizations, Federal and State Departments of Agriculture, County Agents, Farm Bureaus, State Marketing Bureaus, individual buyers and shippers are all helping toward the general adoption of standard grades and packing methods. The two great factors that have brought about the big impetus that has been given to standardization in recent years-and one of these has been caused by the other-are the success attained by those organizations and individuals that have adopted standard grades and packs, and the pressure brought to bear by the dealers, who have been quick to see the advantage of standardized packs in fruits and vegetables. Standardizing the grade, size and pack of all fruits and vegetables in this country is a huge problem, but one which many factors are working hard upon to solve. Production-distribution-selling, will all be on a much sounder basis once standardization of all farm products has been accomplished. Florida State Horticultural Societp Someone has said that the growth of any organization depends upon the service it renders to the community in which it is located. If it does not serve any good purpose, it cannot exist, and in proportion to the service it renders, it grows. This is especially true of the Florida State Horticultural Society. The growth of this organization has been very rapid in recent years, because it serves a real purpose in the state. Every fruit grower of Florida should be a member of the Florida State Horticultural Society and share in the benefits he can receive from this organization, and at the same time assist in its work. Mr. L. B. Skinner, president of the society, recently stated that the meeting at Orlando this year would be one of much more than usual interest. The program is varied, complete and interesting. Problems of great importance to Florida growers are to come up for discusPage Twenty sion at this meeting. Mr. Skinner urges that every member of the society, who possibly can, attend the meeting this year. "A full attendance," he states, "will help and strengthen the society in many ways." Fruit growers and everyone in Florida and out of it interested in horticultural matters should rally to the support of the State Society. Horticulture constitues Florida's largest and most important industry, and the Horticultural Society-acting as it does as a clearing house for all sorts of problems connected with horticulture-is of immense benefit and importance to the state. Everyone who can should attend the meeting this year, and those who cannot should send the membership fee, which is only $2.00, to the secretary in Orlando and in so doing aid in the moral and financial support of the great work this society is carrying on. Value of Uniform Grading of Farm Products Under the above heading the U. S. Department of Agriculture gives some interesting reasons why careful and uniform grading is important-as follows: 1.-Higher returns depend largely upon better grading and packing. 2.-Uniformly good quality stimulates increased consumption and demand. 3.-The brand or label that always represents uniformly good quality reaps the benefit. 4.-High standards consistently adhered to build good will and create confidence on the part of the trade and the public. 5.-Standard grades properly used promote honesty and fair dealing and discourage the careless and unscrupulous packer. 6.-Standard grades enable the grower to realize a premium for care, honesty, and good judgment. 7.-Standard grades provide a common language with which to describe quality, condition, maturity, size and all the factors that go to make up the value of a given shipment. 8.-Standard grades serve as a fair and equitable basis for contracts, inspections and adjustment of claims. What Have You? Recent news items state that orange trees grow so large in California that they are compelled to cut the tops offand cabbages get so tall in the Island of Jersey that they make walking sticks. fishpoles and one thing and another out of them. NEXT! It has been, through the ages, the universal custom Of mankind in every kind of endeavor to put the best foot foremost. Many growers in Florida are reversing this philosophy. Culls, drops and low grade citrus fruit only are displayed on the highways for sale to tourists and passersby. Florida produces too much fine fruit and has too much at stake to allow such a harmful practice to continue without some effort being made to stop it. Fruit packing schools were conducted during March in Ontario, Canada. Fruit packing schools, where standard grades and packs could be taught, in fruit producing sections of the United States, would be a great step for ward in the march toward the general adoption of better packing methods and certainly would aid in the efficiency of many packing houses. It is encouraging to note that the Government of South Africa has established new citrus fruit regulations for the purpose of preventing the shipment of inferior fruit to British markets. California and Florida might well adopt some such measures to keep their own low grade fruit from being shipped to U. S. markets.

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h, THE PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY ON THE ISLE OF PINES Since planting of pineapples began on the Isle of Pines in 1901, Hawaii has had a rival in the way of growing and producing a first-grade pineapple. The largest pineapple ever seen in Boston was shipped from the Isle of Pines and was placed on exhibition in the show window of a large store in that city and afterwards sold for $7.50. This was a very large variety and is no longer used here, the small commercial varieties being planted because they are more suitable for canning and shipping. While the pineapple industry on the Isle is not nearly as large as it was several years ago, it is reviving and a large acreage is planted this year. Receipts from five thousand pines, about an acre in area, amounting to $1,985 from the sale of the fruit and sucker slips, are indicative of the value of reviving this valuable crop. The majority of pines grown on the Isle of Pines are either canned and shipped into the States or sold on the local market or in Cuba. The fruit that is packed and shipped is handled entirely by hand and is packed with much care. The fruit is wrapped in tissue paper and packed with an average of twenty-four to the crate. Much care must be taken in packing because the crown-end or sucker slips must be left on the fruit for it to keep, and this necessitates careful packing to avoid breaking these crowns. The most interesting part of the industry is the canning factories and machinery and method used in canning the pines. First the ends are cut from the pines, after which a machine pierces them through the heart, holding the fruit for further operations. A planer peels the fruit thinly enough to remove the "eyes," and a "corer" turns the inedible heart out. Then there is another machine which sizes and slices the product. When the prepared pineapple is placed in the can a certain amount of natural juice is added. Then the cans enter a sort of runway which carries them through a "barrel," or "exhaust," driving the air from them by heat, after which the cans quickly pass to the canning machine, which uses neither solder nor acid, the lid being clamped on by automatic seamers. Out of the machine then comes the canned pineapple, each can dropping automatically into a revolving receiver, a huge basket of steel which presently passes its load to a cooling tank with a capacity of 1,600 cans. After that the product is ready for labeling and boxing. .The smooth Cayenne, the brand of Pines used generally on the island low, are very good for canning and shipping. They carry well and are Plenty small enough to can, weighing on an average of four pounds. The pines shipped from the Isle of Pines to the States have always received a ready and high market, in fact they are considered much better than the Hawaii pineapple and for this reason the growers are going after the crop in even larger scales than heretofore. The packing method of fruit is yet crude when the method used in packing citrus fruit is considered, but machinery will be used as soon as the market is built up and the production warrants. At present, as above stated, the fruit is all packed by hand, carefully. The crates used in packing are one foot wide, two feet high, three feet long. This crate is made on the island. It is usually very truthfully said that there is no money in pineapples, but it has been demonstrated that for the intelligent grower of an exceptionally fine pineapple who has, furthermore, the business ability to get the pines, once he has grown them, properly placed on the market, there is money in pineapples on the Isle of Pines. McL. McSWEENEY. PEACH BLOSSOM FESTIVAL AT FORT VALLEY, GA. March 22 marked the successful close of the second Peach Blossom Festival held at Fort Valley, Georgia. Notwithstanding the unfavorable weather during the few days preceding the festival day, preparations went forward and a clear, sunshiny day was the reward. Following speeches by prominent Georgians, a parade of floats, symbolic of the industry and agriculture of the State of Georgia, led the throngs to the barbecue grounds, where over three miles of tables were bountifully supplied with the barbecued meat of 245 hogs, 10 beeves, 10 sheep, 3,000 loaves of fresh bread, 800 gallons of hot coffee, thousands of pickles and other dainties. "Georgia's Crowning Glory," the pageant, was the feature of the day. Over seven hundred people took part in it. Following the presentation by Miss Georgia of History to the Court, brilliant scenes appeared as History rapidly and accurately unfolded the rich tapestries of Georgia's past. First came the Indians, followed by the Spaniards under De Soto, and then the Colonists seeking freedom from oppression. A quaint and delightful feature of the Colonial scene was the dancing of the minuet by the Colonial dames and their escorts. The arrival of the Continental soldiers to the tune of "Yankee Doodle" and the salute to the thirteen-starred flag occasioned applause. The entrance of Wesleyan College, the oldest female college in America, was followed by the passing of the Old South, its entrance heralded by "Dixie" and its feature of "Old Black Joe," by Uncle Joe Cotton, aged negro, and a real relic of slave days. The Ku Klux Klan represented Reconstruction Days and was followed by the introduction of prominent men and women who have been identified with the growth of Georgia and the New South. Lanier, the poet, was there; Joel Chandler Harris-"Uncle Remus"-whom all children love; Ty Cobb, premier in baseball, and lastly, Mrs. Felton, the first woman senator. The Spirit of Georgia then summoned Agriculture before the Royal Pair, and dainty solo and group dances were executed by characters typifying the Sun, Rain, Wind, Blossoms, Birds, Butterflies, Fruits, Vegetables and Nuts. Followed the battle with the destructive forces that assail the peach and cotton, and the drill of the younger generation of the Fort Valley farmers in their victorious conquest which was heartily applauded. The pageant was concluded by the crowning of Georgia with a coronet of peach blossoms, the scene taking place in a veritable peach orchard of boughs carried by young ladies. Approximately 25,000 were visitors to Fort Valley, crowding the little city to overflowing. Among the visitors were 100 commission men from the large market centers who were met in Macon and conveyed by autos to the festival. Already preparations are being made for a bigger and better pageant next year, and already the Peach Blossom Festival bids fair to rival the Rose Carnival at Pasadena and the Cherry Blossom Festival of Japan. Wants Louisiana Orange Industry Development of the Satsuma orange industry in Southwestern Louisiana is urged by the Lake Charles American Press, which declares that the success of T. S. Granberry in fifteen years' experimenting with the Satsuma on cut-over pine lands from thirty to sixty miles north of St. Charles is "a declaration of independence for discouraged prairie rice farmers and cut-over land owners who for a hundred years have made only a bare living. These points are urged: Cut-over pine lands are peculiarly adapted to Satsuma oranges. Trees will bear well in three years after planting. A temperature as low as 12 degrees above, while causing the loss of one crop, will not kill the trees. Trees bear from 500 to 1,000 each, according to age. A crop on one acre of land, requiring one year in which to grow and be harvested, is worth a crop of virgin pine timber on the same size tract of land which required one hundred years to mature. It requires very little capital to start in the business of growing Satsumas, the cultivation and harvesting of them requires very little and very light labor compared to the lumbering industry or even ordinary farming. Page Twenty-one Skzm'er Packg HouSe NewS

PAGE 22

PACKING CELERY AT SANFORD, FLORIDA (Continued from Page 5) 'K., '-"/0 0 if -, A .p. "'~ ' Scenes in Packing Plant of Sanford Farmers' Exchange: I-Washing celery. 2-Packing Celery. 3-Celery being conveyed to Pre-Cooler. 4--Celery passing through cold water pre-cooling device. By this system it only takes 28 minutes to pre-cool celery. The only system of its kind in the world. 5-Load:ng celery in freight cars. This packing plant was completed by February, 1922, at a cost of $120,000. The original house was 300 feet in length but a recent addition has increased the size considerably and has increased the capacity 40 per cent. The great possibilities of the plant were clearly demonstrated during the first season's operations when 500 cars of celery were successfully put through the plant, for while some pre-cooling of vegetables had been done in a limited way before, this was the first organized attempt to carry out the whole process of packing, precooling and icing celery, and the entire plant was unique in plans, machinery and development. It took lots of faith and courage to prompt the building of such a plant, because numerous methods and machinery had to be originated and developed for the particular work of packing celery, and at the beginning the whole working arrangement was an experiment-an experiment, however, that turned out to be a successful and profitable one for the experimenters. The plant consists of the main building for storage and packing; a complete ice plant with a capacity of 30 tons and a 700-ton brick cork-insulated ice storage room; precooling rooms and facilities; a warehouse and a commissary. Two 150 h.p. Fairbanks Morse oil-burning engines furnish power for conveyors, ice plant, refrigeration and electricity. Standard crates are used and are made in their own mill. The plant is located on a nine-acre plot owned by the Farmers' Exchange on a spur of the A. C. L. Railway about four miles east of Sanford. One of the most unique features of the house is the Page Twenty-two cold water pre-cooling device which was originated and built in this plant and is the only one of its kind in the world. By this system the packed crates of celery are conveyed slowly under running water with a temperature ele Field of Celery, Sanford, Florida of 36 degrees, each package taking 28 minutes to become thoroughly pre-cooled. With this system it is POs sible to pre-cool and load a car of celery, 336 crates, every hour and a half; whereas, with the old cold air storage room system, still in use everywhere else, it taks

PAGE 23

Skzzrer Packin8g 4,..-.. from fifteen to nineteen hours. They have a cold air pre-cooling room, fitted with pipes according to the old custom, which is used sometimes for storing celery as it comes from the field, or for accommodating special orders or odd sizes of celery. It has a capacity of four cars a day. The present plant has 14 packing booths and a capacity of over fifteen cars a day. In packing, each grower is given a booth, a packing crew and a number and he may observe his own crop being packed if he wishes. SI Pack:nff booths and conveyor to pre-coo'er Each grower during a certain day delivers his celery in the rough from the field and each grower having celery packed through the plant during that day participates in every car loaded during the day according to grade. The celery from each grower is checked on the conveyor as it is carried from the packing booth to the pre-cooler. This is a pooling system that has worked out very satisfactorily and eliminates any thought of prejudice in the minds of the grower members. The process of picking and packing as practiced by the Sanford Farmers' Exchange is as follows: When celery is ready to harvest, generally two weeks after having enclosed it in the bleaching paper, the wire wickets are first taken off and the paper is removed with a machine which rolls it tightly. A two-wheeled knife, propelled by one man, is then used to cut the celery just below the surface of the ground. Women "strippers" then come along and strip off the outside leaves of the celery and stack it in piles, ready for the two or three men helpers who lay the celery evenly in wooden forms containing a web strap which is buckled tightly around the celery in the forms. The strapped bundles are then removed from the forms and stacked four or five deep on flat-bottomed trucks or wagons, these conveying the celery to the packing house. On arrival at the packing and pre-cooling plant the celery is dumped immediately into wooden tubs, ten feet long by three feet wide, and three feet deep, the strap being removed as this is done. Women washers then wash the celery in these tubs and sort it out onto tables in sizes ranging from three dozen to eight dozen to the crate. Other women then remove the few remaining unfit leaves from the celery and lay it convenient to the bunchers' hands. The bunchers pick UP the celery, one stalk at a time, and place it in forms that will hold one dozen stalks. These forms have a wooden clamp worked with a foot-lever which presses down tightly on the celery, while strong cotton tape, generally in gay colors, is tied tightly around it both at the root end and about midway up the stalks, making a solid block of celery that is very compact and handsome In appearance. The large dozen-bunches are placed side by side in a Standard celery crate that will just contain them, and the crates are carried on a chain conveyor to the water preCooler and, coming out of this, they are loaded direct into Well iced cars and started on their journey to the markets. Celery goes in the car at a temperature of 36 to 38 degrees, Therefore, all latent heat has been removed before H o s c N ews ,Q shinning and rendering unnecessary any re-icing en route. The celery is graded in the field before it is cut, and like grades are sent to the different portions of the packing house that are set aside for them. Solid cars of each grade are packed. The smallest sizes are bunched into celery hearts and tied with a colored tape. The tops are cut off of these, making a very compact and attractive small bunch, which goes to the fanciest hotels trade, as a rule. The hearts are packed tightly in the same kind of crates and subjected to the same treatment as the larger celery. The celery through this plant carries the U. S. No. 1 stamp as to grade and pack, an inspector from the Federal Government having given the necessary time to inspection in the plant to secure such a grade and pack as can justly take the U. S. No. 1 stamp, which is the highest given to celery. After the cars of celery are loaded the car door is closed and sealed and a card is hooked on the ice bunker reading: "Pre-cooled-Do Not Re-Ice." Celery from this house has been arriving in the markets in A-No. 1 condition and buyers are highly enthusiastic over the advantage possessed by "Stag" brand celery, over celery handled by ordinary methods. There have been so many advantages demonstrated by the methods adopted by the Sanford Farmers' Exchange in packing and handling celery, that it is hard to know just which is the most important. This is the first attempt at the standardization of celery grades. This gives the buyer and dealer in celery an advantage. If all celery growers packed and shipped by standard grading methods, the big buyers would be saved the expense of keeping a man in the field to watch what they were buying, and the smaller buyers could compete favorably with the b-g ones because much of the gamble in buying would be eliminated. Sanford Farmers' Exchange members are obtaining a much better price for their celery than is being obtained ,~ '4 2 4, Icing Cars by outside growers. This condition has been brought about through careful packing, standardized grades and efficient refrigeration and the resultant confidence instilled in the minds of the buyers, for "Stag" brand celery. The Exchange members are not only getting more profit per acre, but are paying for a large packing house without knowing it. Packing under cover gives a threefold advantage: More celery to the acre. Packing in the sun and wind causes a certain amount of shrinkage and wilting which is eliminated where it is packed under cover in the cool. Celery packed in the field is likely to be dirty and carelessly sized, if at all, and does not present so pleasing a first appearance in the market as well washed celery from a packing house. Labor much prefers the cool shade of a packing house to the glaring hot sun of the field. The Sanford Farmers' Exchange has formed an alli(Continued on Page 40) Page Twenty-three

PAGE 24

PACKING AND SHIPPING PRUNES Through THE OREGON GROWERS' CO-OPERATIVE ASSOCIATION By ARIEL E. I'. DUNN The Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association, which was organized in 1919 in its present form and name, during its three years of operation has built up markets for its fruit products, not only in this country, but abroad. Besides, it is making some money every year for its members and building up a permanent reputation. U I I II Packing plant of the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association at Newburg, Ore., the center of the berry growing district, 35 miles southwest of Portland. One of the best equipped of the chain operated by the association. This is a record of which to be proud, considering the big problems which any co-operative organization has to face. Perhaps the most difficult thing of all is to "sell" the co-operators themselves. The farmers must be convinced that there is nothing to it but for the growers to agree to turn in their produce and have "the man" sell it for them with no middleman's costs, and then turn back the money. The reason that so many fail is that they refuse to face the fact that they must take the big business chance even as does the independent buyer, packer, wholesaler and jobber. Not unlike many others, the Oregon growers had a hard time during the first year-in fact, it was a veritable nightmare to the association. co-operative organizations El Thus the packing process does not really begin in the packing plant but rather in the harvesting and drying of the fruit by the farmer. Inasmuch as the standard for fruit is high for admittance to the packing corporation every care must be taken in drying to produce a product which will be accepted as high quality. Although the packing process is not the same in different sections of western Oregon and in Washington, the general plan of operation is much the same. In the drying process which is done under the supervision of the individual grower or a group of growers, the old Oregon tunnel is coming more and more into use. The tunnel is sloping varying in length from 16 to 36 feet with 13 slides to the tunnel. The tunnel allows for a 2x3 tray. The prunes are placed in the tunnel at the largest end, after they have been washed and dipped in a solution of hot water, or hot water lye which checks the skin causing openings permitting quicker evaporation. After washing, the fruit is placed on trays and spread evenly one layer deep. The trays are put into the tunnel and as one tray is taken out other trays are pushed down into place from the top. The heat is raised to about 170 degrees when the prunes are pronounced ready to be taken out of the tunnel. Ordinarily it takes 24 to 36 hours to put the prunes through this operation. The prunes usually dry down to a proportion of three to one. The trays are then stacked and allowed to cool, after which the soft or cracked prunes are picked out by hand. The prunes are removed from the trays to a table where they are sacked to be hauled to the packing plant, The Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association has five large prune dryers in sections of western Oregon where there is a shortage of privately operated dryers. These dryers have been built at The Dalles, Devers, Carlton, Sheridan and Sutherlin. A 44 tunnel is used-one of the largest in the state. -~ I J h1U B u t experience during that year taught the association that it must be far more than a mere selling organization. It must be a manufacturer, a transportation exApple Packing plant at Roseburg (Southern Oregon) pert, an international advertising agency, a judge of morality, an apostle of better cultural methods and a financier. The problems in the states of Oregon and Washington are much similar, and there has always been a friendly feeling between growers in these neighboring states of the Northwest. Although technicalities of law prohibit the two states forming a joint co-operative association for the handling of farm products, the Washington Growers' Co-operative Association and the Oregon association are practically one. Their methods of packing are similar and the best products of both states are sent out to the world under the brand name "Mistland." More than one-half the prunes produced in the Pacific Northwest last season was handled by these two cooperative associations. The Oregon Growers handled 21,000,000 pounds in the dried form while the Washington Growers took care of 7,500,000 pounds. The individual growers dry their own prunes after which the dried product is brought to the nearest plant owned by the Oregon Growers' Packing Association operated in conjunction with the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association. Page Twenty-four In all, the association has 22 well equipped packing plants, nine of which pack prunes. These plants are located at The Dalles, Yamhill, Forest Grove, Scotts Mills, Salem, Creswell, Myrtle Creek, Sutherlin, and Riddle. As the fruit is received at the door of the packing plant and before receipts are issued to the individual grower, an inspection is made of the sacked prunes and if, according to the person receiving for the Association the prunes meet with the standard requirements, they are weighed-in and graded. After grading, the grower is given a weight receipt and a copy sent to the main office of the Oregon Growers' Co-oper4Ak Packing House at Medford (Southern Oregon) showing cold stora plant and (to the left) view of new saw-tooth roof being adoPt r 11 e y ei ;o W

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ative Association at Salem, capital city of the state. As has been mentioned before, only first class fruit properly dried will be admitted to the prune packing plants of the association. The Oregon Growers' Association allows an advance to the farmer soon after delivery of the fruit to the plant. This year it is 2 1/4,c per pound, followed with another within 1 % months later to cover harvesting. The fruit brought in is stacked in sacks until the grading is done. Last October, all the association plants were operating day and night in packing prunes. Each grower's lot is kept separately until a grade sheet is issued showing the exact grades in each size. The individual grower gets a copy of this sheet and is paid according to the size of the fruit. Inasmuch as the grower's name does not appear on the prune sacks, but rather his number, the graders do not know whose fruit they are grading, and anyway, would have little time to think of favoring any particular growers as the grading is done so fast. In grading, the waste prunes are weighed out against the individual grower's number. A series of screens graduated from eight to ten-sixteenths inch up to about one and one-half inch are used in the grading. The screens are of heavy sheet metal attached to a frame support by rocker arms and operated by an eccentric which gives a throw to the prunes, causing them to move on the screen until the proper sized hole is reached, whereupon they drop into a systen of bins. By means of a n i n v e r t e d V-shaped blending board located in each bin, the operator can regulate the size or grade. Each grade is based upon the number of prunes per pound, i. e., the count of prunes for every pound. A 40-50 grade or size would be a pound of prunes testing between 40 and 50, and if the number was 39 or 51 they would be classed in the 30-40 or This boat is full of prunes literally. the 50-60 grade has built up a prune market in England that respectively. in direct from-Portland Ocean shipments. The man in charge of the grader sets the blending boards so they yield a grade on the "8 point"-for example, after a series of tests a certain bin runs 46, he then adjust the board so as to take more prunes from the next grade smaller which would be 50-60, until the 40-50 tests 48 prunes to the pound. Each grade is weighed and the total for each "buggy" or wheelbarrow is entered on the grade sheet. After the prunes are weighed, they are placed in bins on the second floor for the next and final step in packing. Once put into bins, the identity of the fruit is forever lost. Since one lot of prunes which are not of first quality could easily cause a serious 10Ss, careful inspection is a necessity in the first steps of Packing. While in the bins the prunes equalize in moisture content to a great degree, but there is a limit even in this, hnc"te the reason for an insistent demand for conformity IDl the prunes as they are received at the plant from the driers. The Mistland pack has become famous principally because the processing has been very carefully done, coupled with the efforts of the association to pack only quality fruit. In the "processing," the prunes pass through a large steam chamber where they are superheated and thoroughly washed. This thoroughly sterilizes the fruit product, for not only do the prunes pass through live steam but in doing so, they are sprayed with boiling water. Besides cleansing and sterilizing the fruit, the processing gives it a refreshened appearance, although steam only is used-no chemicals. This two-minute steam bath adds slightly to the weight of the fruit, offering an opportunity for unscrupulous packers to injure business by attempting to put too much steam into the prunes. The fruit cools slightly after emerging and drops through a chute to a bin, from which it is boxed and weighed. The boxes which are of clean new pine wood, lined with glassine which is folded over the top by hand, pass from the scales by gravity conveyor or belt system, to the press which compresses the fruit for the lidding machine, which in turn nails them. In packing the fruit, it is also necessary to blend or mix the grades, so as to obtain a final test approaching the 10 point or the limit of the next grade smaller. This The Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association takes Oregon prunes by the millions of pounds is done before the fruit enters the processor. In grading the 8 point system is used-40-50's are graded out 48which allows a slight variation without danger of overrunning into another size when the prunes are processed. When packing a quantity of the next s m a 11 e r grade, 50-60's are mixed with the 40-50's to bring up the test to 49 o r thereabouts. This blending results in additional profits for the members since a portion of the smaller sizes are combined w i t h the larger sizes. The labels giving t h e s i z e a r e stamped on the boxes when packed. It generally takes the fruit 24 to 36 hours to cool, with some processors, 48 hours. The boxes are always piled upside down for the reason that they are filled at the scales from the bottom side principally to hold the glassine paper in position, and to compress the prunes flatly against it, all of which makes a very attractive appearance when opened from the top. The labels and stencils are also placed upside down, corresponding to the position of the box, in order that the boxes will be opened properly. The boxes are "staggered" in the pile so as to provide space for ventilation and quick cooling. When a shipment is to be made, several sizes and as many lots, are generally loaded in one car. Each box is stenciled the lot number and each lot is loaded separately. All boxes for export shipment are strapped in bundles of two at the plant or dock. In the packing of the Mistland prunes, which represent to Oregon what the Sunkist or Sunsweet brands of (Continued on Page 33) Page Twenty-five

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WHY RISK FINANCIAL LOSS? le',' and PlTineapp/e Crate Specifcafiolls By A. R. HARRISON Considerable difficulties have arisen of late between shippers and the railroads anent the matter of claims. It is an erroneously conceived idea in the minds of some shippers that the roads, in general, are tyrannical bodies, organized and operated for the sole purpose of squeezing the maximum grade of rates from a patron, maltreating and damaging his freight, and squirming out of their justly creditable obligations when he presents a claim for loss or damage. Nothing could be further from the truth. Lack of space prohibits an extensive discussion of the rate question. It is sufficient to say reputable proof could be produced upon demand by a number of lines showing conclusively that they would willingly and eagerly reduce their rates below the existing scale if they were permitted to do so. One must remember that in railroading, as in any other business, the element of competition enters largely into the concerted activities and, after all, the individual w i t h the lowest price, all else being equal, is the one who gets the business. As for the matter of claims, every road supports, at a great expense, a department whose mission in life is to see that all just claims are paid as promptly as possible. Naturally, every claim must be investigated and because of unavoidable delays in correspondence, t h i s investigation may stretch over several months. But once the validity of the claim is established, it is p a i d immediately and in full. It may be argued that the roads freight more carefully. That is quite true; but to assure t h e maximum of care, the rates Standard Cel would have to be increased to provide additional funds for additional labor to carry the fre-ght to and from box cars with kid gloves. Kid gloves, at this time of year, are rather expensive. Briefly stated, freight is freight-and for that reasson will always be subjected to a certain amount of rough treatment. Anticipating this, the roads, with the approval of the Interstate Commerce Commission, and under the supervision of the various territorial freight associations and bureaus, have contrived standard crates which are supposed to withstand successfully the expected treatment of freight. If the freight is shipped in one of these standard crates and leaves the point of origin in good condition and is received at the point of destination in a damaged condition, the railroad handling the freight is responsible for the damage and will pay the claim without argument. However, when the shipper ignores the rules of the current tariffs and sends his merchandise on its trip in a crate that does not conform to standard specifiPage Twenty-six ery cations, he has no one but himself to blame when the road refuses-with justification-to pay his claim for damages. It is, therefore, of paramount interest to shippers to know these specifications to avoid damage to his freight. For the benefit of our readers who are not thoroughly familiar with the standard celery and pineapple crates, we quote their dimensions and all other details governing them below: Celery Crate (Standard No. 1) D imensions: 10x20x22 inches inside measurements. Capacity: 4,400 cubic inches. Heads: Two heads, 10x20 inches, made of head sticks not less than 13-16 inch thick and 114 inches wide. Panels: Two panels, made of one piece not less than 3-16 inch thick securely nailed to head sticks with not less than six No. 16-gauge 7-8 inch wire nails on the 10-inch sides and not less than four No. 16-gauge 7-8 inch wire n a i s across t h e 20 -inch sides (total, '3 'X16 nails.) Slats: Nine slats, three on each side, one on top and two on bottom not less than 14 inch thick, 4 inches w i d e and 24 inches long. Making Up: Securely nail slats to head sticks with not less than three cement coated 9~ 4d n a i I s a t each slat end. Wood Veneer or Sawed: To be seasoned pine o r g U Dm 0 r wood of equal strength, of sound material, free froni i n i ju r i o us5 knots. R Celeray Crate (Standard No. 2) Crate. Parts. Dimensions: 10 ches inside measurements. Capacity: 4,350 cubic inches. Two Ends: Each end to comprise of two corner posts 11/x11/4x20 inches, two top and bottom slats 13-16x 33%x10 inches long, one middle slat 3-8x3 Y1x10 inches long. Note: The corner posts may be two inches shorter or two inches longer to accommodate the height of the celery. Slats (Sides, Top and Bottom): Nine slats, three on each side, one on top and two on bottom, not less than 3-8 inch thick, 3% inches wide and 24 inches long. Making Up: All end slats 13-16 inch thick shall be nailed to corner posts with two 6d wire nails at each end. All 3-8 inch slats shall be nailed to corner posts with two 4d cement coated nails at each end of each slat.

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Skanner Packin House Newy W ood, Veneer or Sawed: To be of seasoned pine or gum or wood of equal strength, of s o u n d material, and free from injurious knots. Pineapple Crate Dimensions: 10 /2 xl2x 33 i n c h es inside measure ents. Capacity: 4,158 cubic inches. Heads: Three heads, 10/x12 in c h e s made with h e a d ''I -I I: TFEE L [.. D:agram of car loaded with p-neapp'es in standard crates under ventilation. I: T sticks not less than 13-16 i n c h thick and 11, inI ches wide. IL Panels: End heads one panel inside, center heads two panels not less than 3-16 inch Diagram of car loaded with p neapp'es in standard crates under refrigerat: thick s e c u r e I y nailed to head sticks by not less than four No. 16gauge 7-8 inch wire nails across the 12 inch sides (total, 10 nails). The veneer may be stapled on with eight double pointed staples 7-8 1______________ r____32______ inch long in a d e f r o m N o .18Diagram of car loaded with celery in standard crates un dev refr geiat on gauge wire. Slats: E'ght slats not less than 4 inches wide by 36 inillustrations show the arrangement of th ches long, not less than %i inch thick. cars. Making Up: Securely nail to heads with not less than There is an element of unpleasantnes eight cement coated 4d nails to each slat, i.e., three or imagined-in all claims. All claims t cement coated 4d nails in each end and two cement payment by the railroads represent a fina coated 4d nails in the middle of each slat. shipper. It is therefore incumbent upon h Wood, Veneer or Sawed: To be of seasoned pine or gum if possible, the danger of damage or at l or wood of equal strength, free from injurious knots. of being denied payment of his claims. In shipping carload lots, when the car is packed by the way of doing this is to comply with the shipper, care must be exercised to load the freight in a cations of crates, packing and loading as way that will least invite deterioration. For instance, lines. When he has done this and damag celery crates, shipped under refrigeration, should be his freight, a shipper will find that his loaded in accordance with the accompanying diagram. passed for payment with the regular ty o The railroad directions for the loading is that the crates in the first layer must be loaded on the edge, tops up, lengthwise in the car, with proper space between the rows for circulation of cold air; the crates should extend from end to end of the car, completely filling the floor space. Each cross layer must be securely stripped, strips d to be nailed to the front and back of the upper side of each crate. All other tiers must be loaded and stripped in the same manner. Any additional crates must be loaded lengthwise on top of the last layer along the side walls of the car and most be braced with strips and must be so placed in the Car so that the circulation of cold air may not be obItructed. The stripping should be not less than one-half inch thick and one inch wide. One end of each str:p Should rest against the side of the car, alternating from One side to the other with each strip. When the floor space is not completely filled, bracing Must be used, or the vacant floor space in the doorway must be filled by using a sufficient number of crates propel secured to prevent the load from shifting. The directs for loading pineapples under both ventilation and reigeration are essentially the same. The accompanying Standard Pineappe Crate. P on. e crates in the s-whether real hat are refused ncial loss to the im to eliminate, east, the danger The only sure standard specifirequired by the e does occur to claims will be f clock-work. arts. Page Twenty-seven r ~ F -M'-0 .]I

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THE ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT Being the Eighth of a Series of Articles Regarding the Skinner Machinery Company, Factory and Organization 'Bv QA. M. The Accounting Department of the Skinner Machinery Company fully realizes its opportunity to be of service to customers. Just as the Sales, Engineering and Production Departments exercise their ingenuity in designing efficient machinery for the better handling of fruits and vegetables in order to minimize packing house operation costs, so does this Department recognize its responsibility in accurate cost finding. Its duty is to devise and put into practice methods for reducing manufacturing costs for the benefit of customers, thereby carrying out the House policies which are based on the theory that no institution has a right to exist unless it performs a service. The Accounting Department of the Skinner Machinery Company is very much up-to-date, both in personnel and mechanical equipment. The sincerity of the management in preaching the Gospel of Efficiency in the handling of fruits and vegetables is proven in the fact that no item of equipment is too expensive for the Accounting Department provided it adds efficiency and decreases costs. Mr. Mewborn's duties as chief accountant include the supervision of the work of the other members of the Accounting Department. It is said that figures never lie but they can become so confused and out of balance sometimes that it takes an expert accountant such as Mr. Mewborn is to disentangle them and put them back on the right track. It is in such experiences as this that the other members of his department appreciate his help in getting their books %< ~ ___ -x N~> -v -\ C. L. Mewborn tail stores ledger and the cost sales records, in addition to assisting in the purchase and storage of material. He keeps the statistical records of the cost department, analyzing and comparing actual production costs with standard costs and pointing out discrepancies and deficiencies to the management. The customers' and general ledgers are in charge of Miss Cushing, I N. T. McLean Miss N. A. Cushing straight. Mr. Mewborn's duties also include the alalysis of expense and other accounts and the arranging of reports and statistics in such shape that they can be quickly grasped by the General Manager. Mr. Webb is timekeeper and has charge of the factory ledger. He keeps the accounting records of the manufacturing processes showing the cost of the finished product. His accounts supply the information upon which the analysis of cost is based. Mr. McLean is in charge of the dePagre Twenty-eight who has been with the Company since it commenced busn ess. Miss Cushing is not only a competent bookkeeper but has an intimate knowledge of the business. G. P. Webb She has been recording transactions with a large percentage of the customers for a number of years and has watched many of them grow from small growers, packing their fruit by the crudest methods, to be owners of or the heads of some of the largest fruit handling organizations in the country. She naturally has taken a very great deal of interest in this development. Mr. W. A. Jones is a recent addition to the Accounting Department force. Mr. Jones has been working in the storeroom for some time, but is now assisting Mr. McLean in handling materials and requisitions for supplies. The growth of the Skinner Machinery Company has been rapid in recent years and a full-fledged accounting department has been a necessary development. This department has kept pace with the growth of the company and has grown from requiring the services of one bookkeeper to those of an expert accountant and four assistants. Mr. Mewborn is constantly putting his department upon a more efficient basis. For instance, recent rapid growth of the business of the Skinner Machinery Company has given him occasion to entirely revamp the cost system used. Foreign business, branching into the deciduous fruit territory, the manufacturing of vegetable packing machinery and the handling of new lines by the Sales Department have caused many new classifications in the accounting system. The Accounting Department cooperates with the Sales Department in many ways and the system used is so arranged that a report may be given the Sales Department at any time showing whether the territory in which any salesman is working is productive or non-productive. 0 During 1922 the Skinner Machinery Company used 120,314 carriage and machine bolts, 13,000 lag screws and 83,856 flat and round head wood screws in the manufacture of machinery. During 1922 the Skinner Machinery Company used 11,392 lbs. of horsehair and 29,595 lbs. of TamPiCO in the manufacture of brushes. During 1922 the Skinner Machinery Company used 11 cars of lumber in making 32,974 two and a quarterinch bushed rollers. During 1922 the Skinner Machinery Company used 26 cars of 1x3 and 3x8 lumber in the manufacture of packing house equipment. During 1922 the Skinner Machinery Company foundry made 107,629 castings with an estimated weight of 1,291,546 lbs. During 1922 the Skinner Machinery Company among other things used 10,400 nails, 69,715 ft. of canvas belting, 17,500 ft. of padding, 11,560 ft. of wire for bins, and 27,000 ft. of fibre strapping. During 1922 the Skinner Machinery Company made 1382 complete machines and in connection with these used 673 pulleys, 12 engines, and 275 motors.

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Summer Vack'iyNfloqSe NewS Everything for the Pachvg House -Apple Machinery -Automatic Box Dumping Machine -Bags, Picking -Barrel Heading Press -Bearings -Bearings, Ball -Belting -Belts, Conveyor -Belt Supplies -Blowers -Box Conveyors -Box Dumping Machines -Box Elevator -Box Hatchets -Box Making Machines -Box Material Conveyor -Box Makers' Bench -Box-Nailing Machine -Box, Press -Brushes -Cantaloupe Machinery -Car Movers -Car Squeeze -Citrus Machinery -Clamp Trucks -Clippers -Coke Heaters -Columbia Truck -Conveyors, Box -Conveyors, Drip -Cucumber Machinery -Crate-Material Elevator -Drip Conveyor -Dryers -Electric Generators -Electric Motors -Electric Winding Engine -Elevating Sprinklers -Elevators, Platform -Empty-Box Elevator -Engines-Gasoline -Engines-Kerosene -Engines-Spray -Fan Ventilating -Fire Extinguishers -Fruit Clippers -Gang Plank -Generators -Grading Belt, Canvas -Grading Belt, Rollers -Grapefruit Packs and Sizes -Hatchets, Box -Heaters, Coke -Heating Systems for Drying -Hoes, Scuffle -Hose, Spray -Housings -Hydraulic Barrel Press -Ladders -Lighting Generators -Machinery, Special Manufacture -Motors -Miami Trailers -Morgan Box Machines -Movers, Car -Nailing Machines -Nail Strippers -Onion Machinery -Orange Packs and Sizes -Packing House Plans -Paper Holders -Peach Machinery -Pear Machinery -Pepper Machinery -Picking Bags -Picking Ladders -Plans, Packing House -Platform Elevator -Polishers -Pre-Coloring Equipment -Press, Barrel -Pulleys -Pumps, Packing House -Pumps, Spray -Reels, Strapping -Repair Parts -Re-Weighing Machine -Scales -Scuffle Hoes -Sizers -Soaking Tanks -Special Bearings -Special-Made Machinery -Sprayers -Spraying Specialties -Spray Engines -Spray Hose -Spray Outfits -Spray Pumps -Spray Guns -Spray Pumps, Fittings -Skinner Sprayers -Sprayers, Tractor -Sprinkler Elevators -Sprinklers -Squeeze, Car -Strapping Reel -Strapping -Sprocket Wheels -Sprocket Chain -Thermometers -Tomato Machinery -Transmission -Trailers, Miami -Trucks, Auto -Trucks, Clamp -Trucks, 4-Wheel -Vegetable Grading Machinery -Washer Brushes -Washers -Weighing Machines -Winding Engine for Elevators -Wyandotte Cleanser CHECK THE ITEMS IN WHICH YOU ARE INTERESTED IN THIS LIST. USE THE COUPON BELOW SAVE TIME---CHECK HERE Check the items in which you are interested. Tear off this page and return to the Skinner Machinery Company, Dunedin, Florida. -Send the Skinner Catalogue. Send special literature regarding: -Sizers -Polishers -Coke Heaters -Trucks -Supplies -Dryers -Sprayers -Be sure my name is on your mailing list. Capacity of our packing plant is --------------.------cars a day. (Send floor plans if possible.) We have an orchard with ........ acres. We grow ....................... (mention fruits or vegetables grown) We are especially interested in: NAME.................................................................. ADDRESS............................................................... SKINNER MACHINERY COMPANY World's Largest Manufacturers of Fruit and Vegetable Packing Machinery BROADWAY, DUNEDIN, FLORIDA 10EN R& (SKINNERI Page Twenty-nine (4) WRITE PLAINLY SKINNER %G ; 1 1) j

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ft ~ -4 -'I i'I. I // ,~ gr ..-' .. ii / P Your Teams A Living Wage For the work done by your teams you pay them in feed. If you want honest work give them an honest feed. Old Beck Sweet Feed As compared with money, Old Beck is the gold standard. It is the biggest feed value in the world today for horses and mules. ed corn, crimped whole oats, a meal and sugar ses in just the right 10 Ve use a specially v molasses which i en feed and it won't r Sale by Feed Dealers Everywhere CKSON GRAIN CO. State Distributors Tampa, Florida It is crack green alfalfa house molas amounts. treated ne makes a gre cause colic. Fo JA 'U A HORTICULTURAL WEEK AT ORLANDO, FLORIDA (Continued from Page 4) Grapefruit, Citrus Fertilizers, Orna. mentals, Pecans, Grove Machinery and the Growing of Quality Fruit. Membership For the information of those who may not be acquainted with the society and its work, any person may become a member, and everybody, whether members or not, are invited to attend the meetings at Orlando. The society is the big clearing house for ideas concerning the growing of citrus and other fruits and of ornamentals. The speakers on the programs are conservative growers who have had years of experience in their respective lines; and technical men who are doing research work on the problems with which the growers have to contend. During its 36 years of existence the society has been the leader in the development of all lines of horticulture in Florida. Included in its membership of nearly two thousand are the most successful growers in the Bayard F. Floyd, Secretary Florida Horticultural Society State state. The complete proceedings of each annual meeting are published in book form and a copy is furnished each member. All of the details that are necessary to become a member is to send the secretary at P. 0. Box 719, Orlando, Florida, two dollars in payment of the annual membership fee. Every citrus grower, avocado grower, grape grower, banana grower, pineapPle grower, flower grower and fen grower in Florida should be a mem ber of the society. The railroads in Florida have granted a reduced rate of one and one-half fares for the round trip for members who wish to attend the meeting at Orlando. Those who Wish to take advantage of this rate should write Bayard F. Floyd, Secretary, B0s 719, Orlando, for an identificai certificate which is necessary in order to obtain a ticket at this rate. Page Thirty QUALITY SERVICE KEEN BUSINESS MEN USE T O RVCffM"5 TR UCKS INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COMPANY OF AMERICA 434 East Bay Street Jacksonville, Florida a

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SKINNER CUCUMBER GRADER The Skinner Cucumber Grading and Packing Bins provide: Self-feeding hopper to receive cucumbers from field crates. Roller conveyor belts to elevate cucumbers from convenient hopper height to grading table height and discharging to canvas distributor. Two canvas distributors, each arranged to cairy two grades of cucumbers when desired. Bins to hold cucumbers for packing. The Bin divisions are movable and will usually divide into bins four feet wide. Two movable divisions in each bin may be used to make three compartments. The illustration shows machine with 50 feet of bin front space and 12 feet of grading space. It is driven with three-quarter horse-power motor. Write For Prices SKINNER MACHINERY COMPANY Broadway Dunedin Florida SKINNER BOX CONVEYOR a With Individual Motor Drive The Skinner Box Conveyor equipped with individual motor drive makes it possible to eliminate all shafting in the packing house. Heretofore, both conveyors and sizers have been driven from a line shaft necessitating clutches on each conveyor and on the line shaft for each sizer. Write at once for full particulars of the Skinner Box Conveyor with individual motor drive. SKINNER MACHINERY COMPANY Dunedin Florida I Broadway Page Thirty-one

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Skihwzer Dackin8 HouSeNews PRINTING FOR PACKING HOUSES Our printing for packing houses we believe to be as good in its way as the Skinner line of machinery-and we are glad to testify "that's going some." We serve several of the largest citrus growers' associations in Florida and numerous "independent" packing houses with the greater part of their needs in the printing line. The satisfactory quality of our work is shown by the fact that most of these valued customers have been with us for many years. We know we can equally please others in the same field. We turn out good printing by every modern process for all legitimate purposes. The printing we do is planned to produce results and we render complete service where desired--designing illustrations, writing "copy" and looking after other details. Write us for further information. We shall be glad to send you samples of our work. ARNOLD PRINTING COMPANY JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA DISTI NCTIVIDUALITY REGISTERED U. S PATENT OFFICE The erection of a packing plant at a cost of about $100,000 has been announced by the Northwest Canning Company, operating at Salem, Oregon. The packing plant will be operated in connection with the Northwest Fruit Producers' Company, successors to the Phez Company. During the fruit season it will employ between 150 and 200 persons. ** An important conference of growers and shippers interested in the apple crop moving through the Portland gateway was held in Portland recently. The gathering was called to discuss accomplishments, failures and corrective measures regarding shipping. The visitors were guests of the commisson of public docks. One of the important questions under discussion was whether full cold storage was more desirable for warehousing than ventilated storage, and with cold storage whether fruit should not first be pre-cooled. A. W. Stone, president of the Hood River Apple Growers' Association, spoke on storage facilities as did H. R. Clark of the same assocition. R. H. McNary of Salem, representing the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association, declared much trouble could be averted if cold storage was available at Portland for assembling water shipments. G. B. Hegardt, chief engineer of the dock commission, and F. C. Knapp of the commission, who presided over the discussion, invited the shippers to send a few cars of apples to the ventilated storage warehouse just completed at terminal No. 4, to be handled free as a means of thoroughly testing the plant, even if the apples were not disposed of until June. Apples are the best Oregon fruit at this time of the year, and are to be obtained in the local market at unusually low prices for this late in the season. There is a good supply, especially of the Hood River variety. * The car shortage problem during the past season was a serious one for Oregon growers. One cause is said to be the use of the car facilities by California wine-grape growers, a question which is causing more or less agitation by the Oregon farmer. Bert Johnson, manager of the Oregon Apple Company of Monroe, recently started much discussion when he asserted that the more legitimate business of apple growing should have precedence, in allocation of refrigerator cars, to that of vineyards, virtually enlisted in vetoing Volstead's renowned legislation. Mr. Johnson declared that before Volstead became the national figure that he is now, grapes ran from $7 to $15 a ton. During the last season the maximum, price paid was $225 a ton, although probably $100 would be near the average price. Although admitting that the vineyards of California are contributing to countrywide evasions of the Volstead act, and incidentally aiding in creating a car shortage when the Oregon apple crop would move to market, local growers and transportation authorities fail to see just how the wine-grape industry of the southern state is to be checked, as there is no law against the culture of the vine. Clarke county (Wash.) held Better Prune Day March 3 and hundreds of growers throughout the district "et for a conference. Questions of how to increase production and at the same time raise the quality level were discussed. Drying methods, orchard care, including fertilization and pruning, were other phases under discussion as well as marketing. *I C. W. McCullagh, northwestern manager of Sgobel & Day of New York City, returned from Chicago recently. He attended the annual convention of the Western Fruit Jobbers and sold 28 carloads of apples while in the "windy city." Since returning from his trip to Chicago, Mr. cCullagh made a trip to Hood River to check up on the apple situation there. Page Thirty-two I! h 1>.* PACIFIC NORTHWEST NOTES

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~r'ii 'I ~Skine, PACKING AND SHIPPING PRUNES (Continued from Page 25) fruit mean to California, and Sealdsweet to Florida, careful handling in the field, proper drying, and painstaking care in the packing house are necessary operations to produce clean, high grade fruit which will satisfy demands from all parts of the world. Nor does the responsibility for marketing end for the association with the packing. This last season, the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association found a market for 12,000,000 pounds of prunes in Europe and in Atlantic seaboard ports, shipping from the Port of Portland by way of the Panama Canal. The boxes were all inspected on the Portland docks by unbiased inspectors of the Northwest Packers' Association. Inspection was made for size, quality and net weight per box before the inspector's seal is placed on the package, thus preventing any dispute on arrival. An active advertising campaign is waged by the association on the Mistland prunes, a tax of 1-10c per pound being guaranteed by the growers for this purpose. The advertising includes space taken in newspapers and sign board advertising. Large signs are found on the elevated railways in New York City advocating the eating of the Mistland prunes, while in the same city which is said to have a Jewish population of 1,500,000, a great deal of space is taken in Jewish papers printed in Yiddish. The reason for this special appeal to the Jewish people is their liking for the Oregon prune which is satisfyingly sweet. In lower Canada or Quebec where most of the population is composed of French Canadians, space is taken in French newspapers as well as in the English papers. Thus, throughout North America, the quality of Mistland prunes is heralded. The activities of the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association are by no means confined to the packing and marketing of prunes. Apples and pears are two other products which are handled in large quantities. The association has its distinct zones of production in Western Oregon, each under the care of expert supervisors and each district has its own board of advisors, who know its own special problems. In Southern Oregon apples and pears are its specialty, in the Umpqua valley, prunes and apples, while the Willamette valley produces largely prunes, berries and cherries, and The Dalles division handles vegetables as well as assorted fruits. The district management is delegated to men who have a comprehensive knowledge of conditions in their particular territories. Earl Pearcy is manager for the Willamette Valley district; C. R. Thompson for The Dalles district; Pay Yocum, the Umpqua Valley; Noel Davis, the Grants Pass district; and James Edmiston, the Rogue River district. The officials have absolute control over operations and are responsible for the pack in the district in which they are in charge. Membership in the Oregon Growers' Co-operative Association entails a membership fee of $10.00, an acreage membership of $10.00 per acre for all the signatory bear1ng area, and the actual cost of handling each crop. This last item runs to an average charge of about 5 per cent for all of the crop. Tasmanian Fruit Tasmania exported to England this past season which has just closed, 1,352,553 bushels of apples. A large tonnage of apples has been dried at Tasmania this past ,o it being estimated that 300,000 bushels were used for this purpose. It is expected that Tasmania will export to England this season 10,000 boxes of dried apples. Food Exposition in Denmark A national Danish food exposition will be held at Frederica Denrnark, from April 7 to 15. All kinds of food Products, including packing materials and canning machinery, Will be exhibited. TELL THE WORLD WITH SIGN5M Well Designed Outdoor Display Signs Conspicuously Placed Office and Shop 1612-14 Tampa St. Phone 2990 Tampa, Florida Quality Fertilizer With the Acid Left Out We hold the exclusive right in Florida for manufacturing Non-Acid Phosphate by the KREISS PROCESS Which is the result of years of experimentation to perfect a method of eliminating acid from fertilizers. In the manufacture of our complete fertilizers we not only eliminate the use of acid, but we are using a larger proportion of the more lasting organic ammonias than is customarily used in fertilizers. Thus, with our non-acid phosphate we are able to produce a more balanced and better form of fertilizer. Write for prices and further information. Non-Acid Fertilizer AND Chemical Company Manufacturers of "Quality Fertili. ers 'ith the Acid Left Out" 1 st Avenue Lakeland, Florida Page Thirty-three [CJeroM'e,,Benn jt,"j' q r Packing HogSeNews

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i "z Saaaer Packing Hougye New5 Skinner Apple and Peach Sizer A thoroughly efficient machine able to take care of five different packing house operations, including: Self-feeding hopper, roller grading belt, cull belt, sizer and distributing system. Your fruit handled on such a machine is bound to top the market and bring you an increase in profits which will soon take care of the purchase price. The use of the Skinner Apple and Peach Sizer will cut your labor bill in two. Write for complete information regarding Apple and Peach Packing Machinery Skinner Machinery Company Broadway Dunedin Florida LADDERS Strongest and Lightest This picture shows a load of Skinner Fruit Picking Ladders ready for delivery. Skinner split-pole ladders are light and strong. They are carefully made of selected cypress wood. The rungs are made of best grade pine for the purpose. Ladders are furnished from 12 to 40 feet in length and are priced by the foot. Write for prices on the lengths you require. Order now and be prepared when you need ladders. Address all orders or inquiries to Skinner Machinery Company Broadway Dunedin Florida Large Pears This box of Bartlett Pears is one of a truck load for the Los Angeles market, packed and shipped out from the packing house of the Beaumont Fruit Growers' Association. A special lot of fruit weighing from 12 to 18 ounces each. New Fruit Terminal in Ohio When a new $240,000 fruit terminal is completed by the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Company on Front street, between Elm and Plum streets, in Cincinnati, Ohio, it is believed that Florida and California fruits will be sent there for further eastern distribution, commission men say. Four tracks with a capacity of eighteen cars will be provided at the outset. What Michigan Growers Shipped Exclusive of shipments by motor trucks, which it is believed would almost double the amount, 5,000 cars of apples were shipped last season from Michigan to points outside the state, according to reports received by Commissioner of Agriculture J. A Doelle. Peach shipments were 1,573 cars. Shipping-Point Inspection Service on Watermelons Shipping-point inspection on watermelons will be available to Georgia shippers this season under a co-oper ative agreement between the Georgia State Bureau of Markets and the Bureau of Agricultural Economics Of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The inspections will be based upon the average weight of the melons and upon freedom from disease. StateFederal certificates will be issued showing the quality and condition of the watermelons at time of shipment, -U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Grades for Oranges Recommended io California Tentative grades for oranges have been recommended by the California State Department of Agriculture, and joint Federal and State mspectiol certificates based on these grades are being issued on oranges shipped to eastern markets. It is estimated that 1,000 cars will be inspected this season in accordance with these State grades. Heretofore oranges ha been sold by brand rather than by grade.-U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Page Thirty-four 40 \l' II 9

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rkner PVcki2g HoqSe News THE AWAKENING OF LAKE IOY (Continued f om Page /5) and up the tracks where, fifty feet beyond, the little Lake Joy station stood. But it was hardly more than a figurehead. Packing house products went directly into waiting cars and the station sheltered prospective passengers. There was no Sunday train and the "daily" that importantly snorted and clanged its arrival at four did not return until four in the morning. Train travel out of Lake Joy was distinctly discouraged. "Why doesn't someone do something to build up this neck of the woods?" growled Copley. "I haven't time!" The few houses strung at wide and irregular intervals around the tiny lake boasted two flivvers and two trucks. Yet it was an empty boast since Barrett himself owned one of the flivvers and the truck was packing house property, The second flivver belonged to Miss Mollie Madison who "mothered" all the girls and women of the packing house who were "from away," and on semiweekly trips Miss Mollie "accommodated" (at so much per) the women residents who shopped in the hamlet of Royalton, three miles distant. The men of the neighborhood were mostly too elderly or too much of invalids to exert themselves more than by a daily half-circle or a weekly circle of the lake. The packing house men employees could easily walk to Royalton, but further than this they were discouraged from going save on holidays and Sundays when the huge trucks were subsidized for what they had at first rather contemptuously termed "Sunday-School excursions" under Copley, with Miss Mollie and the women employees who cared to go, and an additional chaperon in the person of Miss Annie Plummer, the elderly housekeeper of the men's boarding house where Barrett Copley himself lived. These and other smothering details of life at Lake Joy flooded Barrett's brain as Miss Althea disappeared. "To think," he groaned, "of all I meant to do here and how little I have really accomplished. I thought my army training would furnish enough efficiency to work miracles at once, on top of my general knowledge of citrus, of machinery and men. But evidently there will never be a town here if it depends upon me. There's no time for anything but packing house problems. But," he finished aloud, "it is wonderful work and worth the effort even if the town doesn't materialize. That can wait. It doesn't matter so much." "Oh doesn't it!" Sallie-Mae, hurrying ahead of the noon "home rush," smiled sarcastically as she flew by. "Here, wait a minute. Jump into my flivver. It's quicker and I never see you nowadays alone." "Really!" Sallie-Mae's tone was dangerously quiet. "I simply don't have time for more than the packing house," said Barrett evenly, "and we agreed, you know, that it must come first. It is a great work, this business of marketing fruit, you must admit." "It is," acquiesced Sallie-Mae laconically. "But," went on Barrett, "I don't want you to work in the packing house now that your aunt has come. I only Promised that you might do it for a while until-" he hesitated. "Until I could help you wake up Lake Joy and put it on the map-make you head of the community; Board of Trade president, mayor-anything but a door-mat." "Look here, Sallie-Mae," broke in Barrett. "You're too tired. I knew this work wasn't the right thing." "Well it is. I've been having the time of my life." Sallie-Mae was very emphatic. "It is no harder than teaching and I get the climate I've always longed for. Also, I have had a rest from Amos. But now that Aunt Althea is here her good cooking is rejuvenating me still more I have decided to boom Lake Joy by my own eforts since you have no time to help and you think it doesn't matter. No, thanks, I prefer to walk." As a matter of fact, Sallie-Mae was near "the breaking often," sI had a right to think Barrett could be with me she reflected bitterly that evening when, immedi( Continued on Page 38) Photostat Service For Architects Abstract Companies Engineers Civil and Mechanical Land Companies Public Accountants Real Estate Dealers The above professional and business men will find the Photostat solves, in a satisfactory manner many copying problems that arise daily. Our Photostate Department is at your service Write on your letter-head for detailed information Address PHOTOSTAT DEPARTMENT Skinner Machinery Co. DUNEDIN, FLORIDA SKINNER SCUFFLE HOE The Skinner Scuffle Hoe weeds and cultivates at the same time, leaving a fine mulch. Each stroke covers a strip twelve inches wide and three feet long. One of the handiest tools that can be used around grove, garden or field. Write for prices SKINNER MACHINERY CO., Broadway, Dunedin, Fla. J Page Thirty-five ~r )j

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Skirner R5,ckiipy House, Ne5 y Taking the Fright Out of Freight (Continved fi Ro 'Page /i ) ID E A L which contain the color, the flavor and the food value of the product. If these cells are made to give up their moisture, slowly, gently, they simply shrink like a sponge and refill again in the same manner when put into water, FE R T IL IZ E R S This gentle shrinking is caused by sweating, and in so doing there must be perfect control of the heat used. One of the most successful methods of dehydrating uses the tunnel type of dryer. Hundreds of this type of SPRAY MACHINERY plant are in operation throughout the country. There is scarcely a community in the United States which could IN ECTICIDES not profitably, both for the farmer and for the operator, II support one of these plants. There need not be any unkind competition with the canners. The dehydrating plant can be operated in connection with the canning plant. The operating expense is very low. The furnaces burn a low grade of fuel and require no exceptionally skilled labor. WRITE FOR Of course, the slicing and cleaning machines are up to date. The plants can be constructed in mammoth proporDESCRIPTIVE PRICE LISTS tions or in small units and may be made to work the year around. Lemonade made from the dried product has no equal and the lemons may be dried in the winter along with oranges which find many uses in confections. The illustration shows a dehydrating plant at Norwalk, Iowa. It is worthy of notice because it is being promoted W ILSON & TOOM ER in a state which has given little thought to saving its green produce, being content to raise corn and to canning a few articles of food. This plant has been promoted by men who know that it will be necessary even for Iowa farmers, who are kings among landmen, to give ear to the demand JACKSONVILLE, FLA. of the world for food. And also high-priced land and ESTABLISHED 1898 high taxes make utmost production a necessity. The company which built this plant will build many more throughout the state. It has a store in Des Moines which handles nothing but dehydrated foods, and it ships a great percentage of its products to Europe. The Norwalk plant was completed last fall. It is of brick and modern in every way. During the summer months and while the plant was under construction representatives of the cornpany worked among the farmers and when the plant was completed in the fall the pumpkin crop was ready for dehydration. To the farmers accustomed to having their produce painstakingly culled the fact that no culling except for decay was necessary was an innovation. There FOR was no endless string of freight cars to order and pay for and there was no discouraging reports from glutted markets. Their pumpkin was washed, sliced and dried and then ground into a pale golden flour which was far GROVE AND ORCHARD HEATING superior to the kind from which mother used to make her GROVE__ANDORCHARD________famed pies. The seeds of the better pumpkins were saved and turned back to the farmers for the next planting. This spring the plant will dry spinach and other early vegetables as fast as the farmers and the season deliver Growers need experience no difficulty at them. The world at large will be given the dried product any time in obtaining a plentiful supply not needed at home. of gas house coke, which may be used in Any community can make its produce seasonable at coke heaters for frost protection in any time of the year, and can help to save this country groves and orchards and for heating many million dollars a year in freight shipments by using dwellings and other purposes. Our stock dehydration. It is on the grower that most of the burden is large and shipment can be made falls of transporting eighty per cent of the weight of his promptly. All orders and inquiries given produce needlessly. Water is heavy and the rate on that our very careful attention. eighty per cent which is carted around the world with the twenty per cent of real food is responsible for many wails and possibly some cussing. Progress and Science say: "Put up a dehydrating plant and take the fright olt ADAMS, ROWE & NORMAN of your freight."Unindest Cut of All! COAL AND COKE .A Negro handy man was cutting grass with a sharP sickle and was unfortunate enough to cut off a toe. The poor darkey was brought to the doctor who on seeing the BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA injury exclaimed: .9c" "Good heavens, George, did you do that with one slice,: "Doc," mournfully replied the Negro, "you sho' don't think I took another crack at it?" Page Thirty-six

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Skirner Pckii oye New5 MARKETING THROUGH NORTH PACIFIC CO-OPERATIVE BERRY GROWERS' ASSN. Oregon, especially that portion west of the Cascade mountains, is admirably adapted to the raising of all kinds of small fruits, but marketing these fruits has always been a problem confronting growers. Last year an organization was formed by Oregon and Washington berry raisers to experiment with co-operative marketing methods. The president of the North Pacific Co-operative Growers' Association, Dr. E. S. Barnes, has just given a report of the first years' activities. He says: "With all the faults and crudities of a first-year operation of an organization such as ours, so much has been accomplished that is worth while, that now at the end, or nearly so, we, who have had the details of the work in hand feel that we are justified in feeling we have made at least a moderate success even in the first year. "In the first place, we started the somewhat difficult matter of financing an organization without money and without credit. It is safe to say that the individual growers without the framework, at least, of an organization, could never have accomplished this; but the organization did it in spite of the fact that we were told we did not have a banking proposition and that it could not be done, but we did it. "We were told we could not finance our sugar deal, but we did it. I ffiI i i i I1 I i i i ['11ilii i 11111 2 3 1A 1 0 1'1 8 9i II Strawberries at Newberg Berry Festival, representing the type of famous Northwest berry products being marketed by North Pacific Co-operative Growers' Association. Newberg is a berry center twenty miles south of Portland, Oregon. "We were told we could not finance our crates, but we did it. "We were told we could not finance the barreling of our own berries, but we did it. And I want to emphasize the fact that we did these things as a co-operative organization, standing together; we could never have done them as individuals. "We financed some cannery operations that the canneies themselves could not have done. This because of Our organization "Probably the brightset spot in our operations this Year as our barrelng operations. This year was probably the most difficult marketing year that the berry business has ever known. Fruit has possibly suffered more than its share, but we in the Northwest have probably Sofered less than any other fruit section in the country, nd that due entirely to the fact that we were organized. le We have been able to accomplish this so far at the las Plant overhead of any organization, I suppose, that haoperated on the scale or covered the territory we have. !" am told by one of the members of a poultry orhanization in a neighboring state that their office overhead (I me an office equipment alone), was something like 000 Our gross is something like $700 or $800. Our barreling plant equipment was somewhere between $300 (Continued on Page .),,)) Florida's Foremost Magazine For Farmers, Truckers, Fruit Growers Deals with every question affecting the production and marketing of Florida's varied crops. Special departments relating to Citrus Problems, Poultry Raising, Co-operative Selling. Ably edited, handsomely illustrated, attractively printed, the FLORIDA GROWER ranks as the State's leading exponent of horticulture and agriculture. No one interested along these lines should be without it. You'll be glad to know the GROWER-make its acquaintance now. SEND TODAY FOR TRIAL SUBSCRIPTION THREE MONTHS (13 BIG ISSUES) 25c Take advantage of this special half-price offer. Send in your name and address with 26c (stamps or coin) and receive the GROWER for 13 weeks, starting with the current issue. Regular subscription $2.00 per year. GROWER Bay Avenue, TAMPA, FLORIDA Page Thirty-seven CYPRESS TANKS All Kinds and Sizes FOR PACKING HOUSES FOR ORANGE GROVES FOR TRUCK FARMS FOR COUNTRY HOMES FOR CITY HOMES FOR RAIN WATER CISTERNS Let Us Know the Size of Tank You Require G. M. Davis & Son P. 0. Box 5 PALATKA, FLORIDA

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I Skier P ckinyHou New57771 Paints Oil Glass Turpentine Varnish Mortar Putty Colors Lead Brushes Etc. PERRY PAINT & GLASS CO. Office and Factory East End East Lafayette St. P. 0. Box 2750 Tampa, Fla. Sewerage Disposal Scientifically Handled Our re-inforced concrete Septic Tanks and Sanitary Pit Closets approved by U. S. Public Health Service and all State and County Boards of Health. Guaranteed Twenty Years Write for Plans and Specifications HILLSBORO CEMENT PRODUCTS CO. 3904 Florida Avenue Phone 71-257 Tampa, Florida Southern Box and Basket Company Manufacturers of Wooden Boxes-Box Shooks Bushel Baskets Write Us Your Needs 102 Poplar St. Macon, Ga. NEW PACKING HOUSE AT FULLERTON, CALIF. The orange packing house recently completed for the Bastanchury ranch at Fullerton, California, is said to be the most modern and efficient plant of its kind in the State. The building was designed and erected complete for the owners by Hamm & Grant, Inc., engineers, of Los Angeles, who specialize in packing houses and pre. cooling plants. The building contains one story and basement, and is 130x135 feet in plan, giving a floor area of 35,100 square feet, including basement. The basement has a clear height of 12 feet, and the first floor of 14 feet. The basement has a solid cement floor and concrete walls, and is ventilated by continuous, mechanically operated hinged shutters, set just below floor level, which is approximately four feet above grade. The building is framed entirely of structural steel, with a full sawtooth roof specially designed for ventilation and for ample north light through steel sash. The main floor is housed in with hollow tile and steel sash. This house was erected at a cost to the owner of approximately $1.25 per square foot of floor area. The basement is connected with the adjacent lemon packing house by a reinforced concrete tunnel passing under the railroad siding. Through the tunnel the lemons are brought to the basement of the new building for storage. THE AWAKENING OF LAKE JOY (Continued from Page 35) ately after supper, she went to bed. "Only last August, when we became engaged, he thought it a wonderful plan for me to come down and learn by actual experience something of his work so I could understand better how to help him in his problems. I was willing not to marry for a year, as Aunt Althea asked, and proposed myself that we should keep the engagement a secret so he should not feel handicapped, but-good gracious, between directors and employees and the everlasting upholding of Barrett's lofty standards: model boarding house, 'moral atmosphere,' etc., where shall I ever come in?" The soft opening of the front door into the living room, off which her bedroom lay, stopped her brooding. "Glad to see you," said Miss Althea. "It's only nin and my niece is asleep." "It's my first chance and I want to hear more about Amos. You say he was murdered, and his body never found?" It was Miss Mollie who spoke. "How romantic! I had a romance, too, so I sympathize, but his name was Jacob." "Come out under the stars while we talk. It is war% and I'm discovering new stellar friends every night," thV Miss Althea again, "and they seem to bring Amos nearer. "Heavens! I did hope Aunt Althea had left Amos f home. She hasn't mentioned him to me once this wl week. But now-Miss Mollie's Jacob will resuscitate hil! I shall go stark mad if I don't find somethingthosPg h4 to do!" After which, being nineteen andthooug healthy, Althea's niece fell asleep. (To be Continued) Page Thirty-eight

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~r .1k,. MARKETING THROUGH NORTH PACIFIC CO-OPERATIVE BERRY GROWERS ASS'N. (Continued from Page 37) and $400, which is an overhead of less than 17 cents a barrel for the year's operation and we have the equipment left, good for many more thousand barrels. "We have barreled 2,870 50-gallon barrels, 22 10gallon barrels, and 505 5-gallon friction top cans. "In fact, we have done just what we hoped to do, and that was to save all the berries, which is an absolute impossibility without an organization, as the only berries we can sell in a year such as the past, with the canneries only partially operating, are the berries that the fresh market will consume, and that is not to exceed 40 per cent of the crop. "Now there have been a good many places that the organization has not worked as smoothly as we could have wished, but no one knows them any better than the executive committee that has had the immediate details of the work in hand this year, and we are at work now perfecting plans that we believe will eliminate a vast percentage of the rough spots for the coming year. For instance, we are trying to work out a plan whereby each district will control its district affairs, reducing the selling cost to a great extent on their fresh fruit. After the fresh berry season is over and the minimum on barreled and canned stuff is established, and the market reaches that minimum, each district can order its share of these products immediately placed on the market and sold. "We are now planning for the barreling of the fruit in the districts. We believe this to be a policy which will save the growers a big amount of money each year, as the activities operated as adjuncts to production, are vastly different from like activities operated by private organization for personal profit. "It is a long story and one of disaster, from the 3 1/2 and 4 cents paid the unorganized growers of loganberries in one of the loganberry districts of the Pacific Coast, to 40 cents a pound paid for the same berries over a Pennsylvania grocer's counter. It is a condition that we as growers cannot exist under, for we cannot afford to raise the berries for 3 1/2 and 4 cents any more than our friends in Pennsylvania can afford to eat them at 40 cents. "We started at the beginning of the year, new and untried. We had no credit; we got our pre-season money that we might complete our organization; we financed the various activities enumerated above, and by being prompt at our banks, we have built up a credit for the coming year which, had we accomplished nothing else, is well worth what it has cost us." TEXAS NEWS The Co-operative Packing and Provision Company has recently been organized at San Antonio, Texas, and has purchased a tract of seven acres of land near the tracks of the I. G. N. and Southern Pacific lines at San Antonio, and plan the erection of a modern up-to-date canning factory. The Chicago Packing House Construction Company will supervise the construction and installation of the plant, which will be equipped for the canning of fruits and vegetables, and in addition for the canning of meats of all kinds. It is expected to complete the plant by June 1to take care of part of this year's crop. A canning factory is now under construction at Christoval, Texas, 21 miles south of San Angelo, Texas, with H. A. Shaw, Walker Hale and S. Shipley, all of Christoval, Texas, as directors of the new canning facory. The plant Will have a daily capacity of 2,000 cans of fruit and vegetables, and will be built as to easily permit of expansion to meet increased demands. The new cannery is one of the first of its kind in that section of the state of Texas, and has already contracted for four carloads of No. 2 'ar, and orders have been placed already for more than 150,'000 cans Of its output, so it is destined to grow from the start. Send For Free Sample Copy The Farmer and Stockman Jacksonville, Florida Devoted to agricultural progress in Florida and the Southeast. The leading farm and live-stock paper of the section. Special departments for citrus and small fruit growers. Feature articles by dairy and poultry specialists. Development and marketing problems handled by experts. Semi-Monthly, $1.00 per year; three months, 25 cents. SAMPLE COPY FREE. Write for one today. The Farmer and Stockman Jacksonville, Florida 3kzer I5ckin( Hoq5eNewS 77~~\ u -C Sheet Metal Work We know Sheet Metal Working and install it according to specifications Drain Pipes, Skylights, Cornices, Letters and Numerals Allen Sheet Metal Works 705 Jefferson Street Office 4963 Phone: Home 84-872 Tampa, Fla. DO YOU GROW CITRUS? If so, you will be interested in reading the timely articles which appear each month in THE CITRUS INDUSTRY the only exclusive citrus publication, and which covers the citrus field in every line and from every angle. Federal and state experts and leading growers are regular contributors of practical articles on every phase of citrus culture and marketing problems. The price is only $1 per year. Mail your subscription to THE CITRUS INDUSTRY Tampa, Florida Page Thirty-nine

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Skinner P5ckinyHoqyeNew5 PACKING CELERY AT SANFORD, FLORIDA (Cont'd from Page 23) ance with big growers in other sections of the country who have agreed to produce celery for marketing to the same buyers who are taking the Sanford organization's crop. These growers have agreed to use the same standards and methods of packing as the Sanford Farmers' Exchange. This alliance was formed to insure buyers and dealers a supply of graded and pre-cooled celery the year 'round and to prevent the boycotting of these dealers by disgruntled competitors during the period of the year when the Sanford Farmers' Exchange had no celery to place on the market. The Sanford celery season, of course, only lasts a few months in the early part of the year. Following the celery season they pack and ship other products such as peppers, tomatoes and sweet corn. The Sanford Farmers' Exchange has done nothing that other organizations could not have accomplished. They have worked hard; invested their faith and money; had Page Forty Packing booth showing washing bin, packing benches, etc. SKINNER SANDPROOF SPRAYER FOR BETTER SPRAYING The Skinner SANDPROOF Sprayer is a combination of many good sprayer features. The Strine Adjustable Plunger used in this sprayer may be obtained on no other sprayer made. The machine is absolutely sandproof. All working parts of engine and pump are enclosed in oil. SKINNER MACHINERY COMPANY Write for Catalog Broadway Dunedin Florida

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'E V. Skinner Dackng Hoqys!e NewS I SAVP.D BOTr YME AND MONEV BY PLACING ORDER EARLY! Besides the discount that is offered to citrus packing house men who place their orders for new machinery early there is much to be gained by ordering next season's packing house needs well in advance. All Skinner Machinery is carefully and sturdily built and time is required for careful construction. Last-minute orders mean costly delays in delivery in many cases. Wise packers will figure their packing house needs for 1923-24 now and place their orders at once so as to share in all the benefits to be derived from so doing. Skinner Machinery Company Broadway, Dunedin, Florida SKINNER COKE HEATERS have Positively Proven their effect -eness, Protecting orchards and groves from damage by frost. Because of their efficiency, low first cost and economy of operation, they offer the very best means available for insuring fruit trees and truck crops against frost damage. SKINNER COKE HEATERS send out an intense radiant heat that frost can not penetrate, thereby protecting buds, blosgems and the tenderest growth. Write at once for full particulars. Skinner Machinery Company Broadway, Dunedin, Florida World's Largest Manufacturers of Fruit and Vegetable Packing Equipment N, the courage of their convictions and are now reaping a well-earned reward. They have pioneered in a difficult undertaking and have blazed a traIl that others may follow, but being first in the field are the first to taste of success. There has been nothing spectacular about the work carried on so successfully. They have worked for their own benefit, of course, but in so doing have benefited many others and the industry of growing celery generally. The undertaking is not finished by any means nor have all the problems connected with it been solved, but-and this is certain-they have made a clean-cut demonstration that standardized and careful packing methods pay big dividends. Perhaps the best proof of the success of the methods employed by the Sanford Farmers' Exchange is the fact that the present plant is to be duplicated-on the West Side of Sanford in the near future; ground has already been purchased and broken for this site-with practically no modifications. NEWS FROM NEW YORK MARKET The shipping of fresh vegetables from the States of Sinaloa and Mayarit, Mexico, to this country is at its height and the products are beginning to come through to New York and to Canada. Tomatoes are received in greater numbers than anything else. It is said that most of the growers are native Californians, although there are many, some going from Arizona to grow and pack vegetables. * An experimental shipment of souvenir navel oranges arrived here recently from California. The shipment consisted of one carload containing 1,215 boxes, with each containing 28 oranges, and sold for 95 cents and $1.05 per box. At the present time it is claimed here that boxes are too large for direct purchase by local consumers. * Inquiries have been received from shippers of Egyptian onions as to the prospects of the Texan crop and probable date of first shipments. The business which was formerly conducted by Garcia Trading Corporation has been taken over by Unanue & Lopez, who represent the well known Spanish firm "Spanish Growers and Producers" of Bilbao, Spain. The continued advance in the price of lumber is one of the subjects of discussion on the market today and how it will affect the packer, since it adds to the selling cost considerably. It appears to be the opinion that wooden boxes are getting too high in price and might be substituted by fibre, and some canners are quoting in paper containers. Cantaloupe Packing Machinery Every cantaloupe grower and shipper will be interested in Skinner Cantaloupe Sizers and Cleaners. Carefully sized, attractive cantaloupes bring better prices and insure repeat orders for the same kind. Skinner Cantaloupe Packing Machinery does the work of sizing and cleaning very effectively and at half the cost of hand labor. Write for special literature of Skinner Cantaloupe Packing Machinery. Box Hatchets Clark's Box Hatchets are full p01ished and etched. Forged tool steel of finest quality. Square poll. Oval scored head. Second growth hickory handle. Very best hatchet made for packing house work. Order from Skinner Machinery Company. Nos. ................. I 2 3 Number of scores.....13 15 15 Length of blade, inch 3 3 4 Width of cut, inch.. 2/ 2/8 2% Wt. dz. with hdl. lbs..15 17 18 The Cooper Fruit Wrap Holder Holds from one to 1,600 wraps. Attachable to any ordinary paper holding box. Extra needles with every holder. Weight 314 ozs. Folds up and can be carried in vest pocket. Will last a lifetime. Increases speed of user. Ask for prices. SKINNER MACHINERY CO. Broadway, Dunedin, Florida Page Forty-one

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e r Do As Doctors Do. "Hey, Bill!" "What is it?" "Your doctor's out here with a flat tire." "Diagnose the case as flatulency of the perimeter, and charge him accordingly," ordered the garage man. "That's the way he does biz." Emphasizing the Point. A preacher was describing the "bad place" to a congregation of naval cadets. "Friends," he said, "you've seen molten iron running out of a furnace, haven't you? It comes out white hot, sizzling and hissing. Well-" The preacher pointed a long, lean finger at the lads. "Well," he continued, "they use that stuff for ice cream in the place I have been speaking of."-London Tit-Bits. Too Much Void. And old nigger wished to pick a quarrel with another nigger. Nigger No. 1 swore and stormed at Nigger No. 2, and kept on swearing and storming, hoping to provoke him. Nigger No. 2 said not a word, but kept at his work. Nigger No. 1 swore and stormed more. Nigger No. 2 said not a word. Nigger No. 1 frothed still more. Nigger No. 2 still silent. Nigger No. 1 got desperate and said, "Look here, you kinky-headed, flatnosed, slab-footed nigger, I warns yo', before God, don't you keep givin' me none o' your damned silence!"-Humorist (London). Taking No Chances. Battered and bunged up, displaying two black eyes and a torn shirt, a recruit came into his tent late at night. "What happened to you?" asked the corporal. "Nawthin. Just had a mixup with that sentry on No. 3." "How'd that happen?" "Well, when he yelled, 'Halt, who's there,' and I said, 'General Pershing,' he ups and gives me a butt stroke to the shin, jabs my ribs until they creaked, blackens my eyes so I can hardly see and, what's worse, tears that new shirt I just drew this morning." "Well, why didn't you tell him who you were?" "My Gawd, man, if he does that to Pershing, what the h-I do you think he'd do to me?"-Ex. Page Forty-two It All Depends. "To what do you attribute your great age?" asked the city visitor of Grandpa Eben Hoskins. "I can't say yit," answered Grandpa cautiously. "They's several patent medicine fellers dickerin' with me." -Printers Ink. Buzz, Buzz. "My husband is troubled with a buzzing noise in his ears; what would you advise?" "I would advise him to go to the seashore for a month or two." "But he can't get away." "Then you go." Not With Prayer. "What are you doing in the kitchen Thomas?" inquired the inquisitive wife. "I'm opening a can of tomatoes if you particularly wish to know," he impatiently rejoined. "And what're you opening it with?" "Why, with a can opener. Did you think I was using my teeth," he added savagely. "Oh, no, dear," she sweetly replied, "I know you are not opening it with prayer."-Infantry Journal. Showing Proper Respect. At one occasion a gentleman had occasion to give his servant a tendollar bill. "Now, my man, how much money have I given you?" "A ten-dollar William, sir," said the servant. "A ten-dollar William!" exclaimed the gentleman. "Yes, sir," said the servant; "I'm not familiar enough with it to call it Bill. "-Exchange. The Wonders of Literature. "Pa, this story says the news took her breath away," started Clarence. "Read on, son, the next paragraph will probably tell you she caught her breath," snapped pa.-Ex. It Didn't Exist "Where you gwine, nigger?" said one colored gent to another as he flew by with much velocity. Said the flying Ethiopian, "They's foteen cocookluxers, 'leben sheriffs. seben policemen and a hundred whitt folks coming down the road after me, and where I'm gwine ain't!" Not Guilty Traveler: "Your son just threw a stone at me." Irishman: "Did he hit you?" Traveler: "No." Irishman: "Well, then he wasn't my boy."-Selected. Suited the Curate A Hyde Park orator returning home flushed with his efforts, and also from certain spirituous causes, found a mild curate seated opposite in the tramcar. "It may interest you to know," he said truculently, "that I don't believe in the existence of 'eaven." The curate merely nodded, and went on reading his newspaper. "You don't quite realize what I'm trying to make clear. I want you to understand that I don't believe for a single, solitary moment that such a place as 'eaven exists." "All right, all right," answered the curate pleasantly, "go to hell, only don't make quite so much fuss about it. "-Tattler. In Case of Accident A Virginian, recently elected judge and feeling keenly the responsibilities of his exalted position, was coming on horseback along a road in a remote section of his district. He saw a smoke on a hillside. "Boy," he said to a lad who was loafing alongside the road, "is that smoke up there from a still?" "Yes, sir, I reckon it is," the boy replied. "What are they making up there?" "Might be makin' some apple brandy." The judge jumped from his horse. "Here boy," he said "hold this horse. I'm going up there and stop that. They can't flout the law in that manner in my district." The boy took the reins, and the judge climbed the fence and started towards the smoke. After he bad gone a few steps the boy shouted: "Oh, mister!" "What is it?" asked the judge. "Effen you don't come back, what must I do with the horse?"-ClippedSoon Be Time for This enq "Johnny, where have you been? Have you been playing baseball?" "Yes'm." "Didn't I tell you to beat the rugs?" "No'm, you told me: to hang the rug, and beat it."

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BR OGD EX METHOD "Fruit to the consumer in as Perfe condition as when it leaves the tree." Which would be your preference if you were buying these from a stand? ~sNO 1 1Kk The grower, by the use of the Brogdex Method on his fruit is assured of a minimum of loss through shrinking and a maximum price on account of the appearance of his fruit on the market. The packer and shipper has the guess-work eliminated from his pack. He knows his fruit will arrive on the market with a full pack and will please the buyer in appearance and weight and he is saved the expense of pre-cooling. The jobber does not need cold storage for his Brogdexed fruit. He need not dispose of the fruit during a depressed market and he can command the market with Brogdexed fruit in comparison with un-Brogdexed fruit. The consumer is always interested in getting attractive and finely flavored fruit. him to buy by the box where heretofore he could only buy by the half dozen. It will also enable For information regarding equipment, list ot packers, etc., address Company General Offices 501-10 I. W. Hellman Bldg., Los Angeles, California Branch Office Winter Haven, Florida Factory Palms, California TOURIST NEWS PRESS. PRINTERS. ST. PETERSBURG. FLORIDA Bnro gd%;x n D~ _IMe Y B

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SERVICE WORTH WHILE SA TIeFA C Ti ON A L WA YS We Occupy the Entire Building INVEST a part of your savings in HOME COMFORTS and you will find it will pay you HANDSOME DIVIDENDS in more pleasant hoane surroundings. TRY IT; your wife will appreciate it, and it will go a long way toward cementing the love of home in the hearts of your children. These Four Departments Are at Your Service Furniture We feature quality home furnishings and having had fifteen years' experience it enables us to offer you well chosen pieces or suites from America's leading factories. Quantity buying places these goods in your hands at the lowest possible prices. We are sole agents for Karpen and Berkey and Gay furniture. Floor Coverings We feature WHITTALL rugs and carpets and in addition to this well-known line we offer a complete selection of Axminsters, Wiltons, Velvets, Grass and Fiber. We are connected with a resident buyer in New York and can secure for you anything in floor coverings for any size job on short notice. Our Complete Spring Showing of Draperies This department is at your service in numerous ways. Our Interior Decorator has complete charge of this department and besides assisting you in your choice of materials will suggest the proper color schemes for each room and will also plan the draperies, so that you can have each room treated as it properly should be. This service is free of cost. .China Over twenty patterns of open stock dinnerware in stock at all times assures you of a selection from which it is easy to make a choice. Glassware of all kinds and novelty goods will also be found in this department. Summer Furniture Now On Display Tarr Furniture Companp, Inc. "Everything for the Home." Member Tampa Retail Dealers' Transportation Association