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A Bret Harte lexicon ..

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Title:
A Bret Harte lexicon ..
Creator:
Woods, Hernando Jennings, 1921-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
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248 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Cowboys ( jstor )
Legends ( jstor )
Mining ( jstor )
Native Americans ( jstor )
Place names ( jstor )
Poetry ( jstor )
Ranches ( jstor )
Slang ( jstor )
Tules ( jstor )
Words ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- English -- UF
English thesis Ph. D
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Florida, 1952.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 245-247.
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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A BRET HARTE LEXICON













By
HERNANDO JENNINGS WOODS, JR.


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY














UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
August, 1952




























TO















PREFACE


As originally conceived, the present study was to
have been a survey of Bret Harte's vocabulary, with special attention being given to his use of American English. The lexical evidence collected was to have been correlated with that of the �ggaA g AWr iugl.aho After the work of collecting and correlating the material had been under way for some time, however, the R l tloan g appeared. Although the scope of the DA was much more limited than that of the DAE it rendered obsolete much of the evidence devoted to Americanisms in the latter work, and established as valid Americanisms a host of terms not designated as such by the DAF. (Although the DAR did not use the classification , its "W" designation is equivalent to the DA's definition of the term.)
In order to make effective use of the evidence presented in the DA and at the same time to avoid the confusion which would have inevitably resulted from an attempt
to correlate Harte's Americanisms with one work and the remainder of his American English vocabulary with another work, it was necessary to restrict the American English content of the Lexicon to Americanisms only. In the intro-


III










troductory chapters preceding the Lexicon, however, the perspective has been broadened somewhat by the Inclusion of additional material which is only partially represented in the Lexicon.
In this place I should like to acknowledge a debt of gratitude to those who have been most responsible for my being able to bring this work to a successful conclusion. To the members of my supervisory committee, Dr. Fredrick W. Conner, Dr. T. Welter Herbert, Dr. Edwin C. Kirkland, Dr. Alton C. Morris, and especially to the chairman of that committee, Dr. Thomas Pyles, for their patient criticism and guidance, both in the preparation of this study and in other matters, I am deeply grateful. I should like also to thank the authorities of the University for making avail. able to me during my stay at the University of Florida a Graduate Fellowship and a Graduate Assistantahip.
















CONTEW8

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Chapter

I.

II.

III.




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APPENDIX sAo a o a # a o a # BIBLIOGRAPHY . . a # * * a * 0


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CHAPTER I


HARTE AND AMERICAN ENGLISH

Although the divergence of American English from the main body of the language had begun soon after the planting on American soil of the first permanent English settlement, it was not until the second half of the nineteenth century that the full force of the tributary stream began to make itself felt in American literature.1 Not until the emergence after the Civil War of a new school of writers was the real spirit of American English able to rise from the colloquial level and the level of ordinary writing to that commonly denominated "literature." Walt Whitman, Mark Twain, William Dean Howells, Bret Hartel and other writers were to exploit in varying measure the rich language material which America afforded at mid-eentury.
During the first half of the century, American English had undergone a period of growth little less remarkable than that of the new nation which fostered it* The vigorous

l The growth of American English in the nineteenth century and the recognition accorded it in American literature are iven extensive treatment in H. L, Nencken's Tha
A th ed,; New York: Alfred A. Knopf 1936), chap. pp 63. From Mencken's account the brief summary in his chapter is freely adapted.
1










westward expansion of the country had found expression in characteristically vigorous speech. And the vocabulary had been enormously enriched through the formation of new words, the adaptation of old words to new meanings, and through the importation of a host of foreign words.
With the Atlantic seaboard still in thrall to European and English mainers of expression, it was from the West itself that American litcr-t"re was to receive its first major infusion of colloquial idiom. Although he never spoke for all of the West in the sense that Mark Twain was to do, it was Bret Harte, a product of the East, who first pressed into service a large portion of the characteristically western language material.
Just as Harte never succeeded in embodying in his writings the real spirit of the West as did Mark Twain, he likewise never succeeded in giving full expression to the genius of the American people or their language as a whole, as Mark Twain was to do.2 For Barte's own language as it appears in his writings was always governed in a large measure by conformity to the cultivated practice of his native East, which was in turn based upon English literary usage. In short,

2 Comprehensive studies of Mark Twain' s vocabulary areas Robert L. Ramsay and Frances G. Emberson 4, LaZicaz ("University of Missouri Studies," XIII, No. 1;,Columbia, 1938) and Frances G. Emberson,&k TasQ a ("University of Missouri Studies," , No. 3; Columbia, 193ff.










Harte's style differs little from that of his American and English predecessors or his English contemporaries.3 Although he employs the native idiom extensively, Harte usually confines it to the language put into the mouths of his characters. Those of his early writings which are not reportorial are, for an American writer, remarkably free of Americanisms.4 So far as choice of words is concerned, almost any of Harte's early stories might have been written by a budding Irving, Cooper, or Dickens. It was not until he began to make use of the materials afforded by the frontier civilization of California that Harte began to employ Americanisms extensively.
But once he began to work this rich vein of local

material in earnest, Harte found ample opportunity to make use of the stock of language material which he had acquired through his journalistic experience and through direct contact with the pioneers themselves. To impart local color to his stories, Harte had begun as early as 18625 to employ Spanish words in both conversational and descriptive passages; and at the same time he had begun to attempt to reproduce

3 See H. C. Mervin JhA L P (Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Co., 19115, chap. XXI, for an extended analysis.
As used in this study the term Amax1au means "a word or expression that originated in the United States." (Mitford M. Mathews, A Di ona 2 ri 'Pima LChicago: University of Chicago Press, 195), It v.
In "Notes by Flood and Field."










what passed at the time for "Pike" dialect.
When he turned his attention from the struggles of the Spaniard to the mining life of California, Harte began to unearth still another rich vein of language material. The successful reception accorded "The Luck of Roaring Camp," which had appeared in the second issue of the PUrlaz MyJo y
(August, 1868), evidently determined Barte to continue in the same vein, for he contributed to the a during the next three years some of the best stories of the mining camp that he was ever to produce. Shortly after his second major triumph, the dialect poem, "Plain Language from Truthful James," which appeared in the g for September, 1870, Harts responded to the call of the East and left Callfornia, never to return.
While it is true that Harts spent much of the time at his disposal for the remainder of his life in generally unsuccessful attempts to turn his literary talents to new subjects and genres, it was to the "sure-fire" Western material that he inevitably returned. In the first place, the Western short story-as Harts produced it.could be turned out with relative ease, it required little more than a rearranging of stock incidents and characters; and it was immdiately sale. able-in England, at least. To Harts who was constantly in financial difficulties, the opportunity to supplement an always inadequate income by the quickest legitimate means was not often to be ignored.









Then, too, the Western material, which he knew best$ seems to have held an attraction for Earte which no other was able to afford him. Although he produced from time to time many individual pieces with non-California settings,6 these writings would comprise if bound together no more than two volumes of the approximately nineteen volumes of prose in the collected (Hizgrsidqu) edition; or, in pages, less than 700 of a total of 7, 820.
In the field of drama as well, Harte found himself
once again recasting the old California themes "Two Men of Sandy Bar"-a dramatic expansion of the earlier "Mr. Thompson' s Prodigal," with additional characters taken from other stories; in collaboration with Mark Twain, the melodrama, "Ah Sin"--presumably concerning the "heathen Chinee" and his further dealing with the Argonauts;7 with T. Edgar Pemberton,8 "Sue"-a dramatization of "The Judgment of Bolinas Plain"to mention only the plays actually completed and produced.
If, then, Harte was after 1871 himself "reabsorbed in the eastern civilization from which he sprang,"9 it is never6 Chiefly the following groups: a handful of early sketches, two series of burlesques of novels, Eastern tales (using the American Revolution as setting) burlesques depicting Washington bureaucracy, German sketches? English sketches, juvenile stories.
7 No copy of the play is known to be extant.
8 Harte's friend and first biographer.

9George H. McKnight. HogrnEgs a Mkn
(New York: D. Appleton-Century )








6
theless apparent that as a writer he was never reabsorbed in that civilization; that he continued to represent--whether willingly or not-the West which had provided the material for his first success. In writing on and on about California, Harts continued to use, naturally, the language material which he had previously exploited with marked success. Although it has been impossible to adequately illustrate in the Lexicon successive uses of the same termt an examination of the mass of material excluded makes it clear that Harte continued throughout his career to rely heavily upon the same stock of local-color terms which distinguished his early stories. Just as his characters and situations are recognizable as stock characters and stock situations,10 so much of the local-color language of Harte's stories is repetition according to formula.
While it has been shown that Harts never ceased for long in writing about California, and that in so doing he continued to make use of the language material of the West, it is nevertheless true that after 1871 the number of new Americanisms introduced into his stories decreases appreciably. It is doubtful, however, that Hartels leaving California more than partially accounts for his failure to add sub10 Roger Rilus Walterhouse ksI Bag., J iU i Uaja,=d_= glegolr A isILdz iJL = Old
of Fn(P rivate ed.; Chicago: University of Chicago Libraries, 1939), P. 3.








7
stantially to his American vocabulary in later years. A more adequate answer would seem to lie in Harte's preference for material which had already become historical. Although this preference is most clearly marked in his initial choice of Spanish historical and legendary subjects$ it is also true that in writing of the Argonauts Harte was even from the beginning treating material which belonged more to the past than to the present. The later aspects of the development of frontier California held little attraction for Harte-even while he still lived in California. Had he never left California it would still be doubtful that Harte would ever have succeeded in treating contemporary life in Californiaor anywhere else.U
Harte's neglect of the later phases of Western life undoubtedly acted to severely limit his use of Americanisms. The absence from the Lexicon of many terms which had already come into use in Harte's own day in connection with ranching indicates one aspect of the limitation. As examination of the writings themselves will show (and as a comparison of the respective lists preceding the Lexicon will suggest), the ranch setting in Harte' s stories actually occupies an amount of space nearly equal to that given to mining. Yet the word

11 In choosing subject matter for his Eastern Tales Harte once again turned to the past, this time to the perioa of the American Revolution.








8
g (in the modern sense) occurs in Harte's writings only twice, in stories first published in 1897 and 1902 respectively. As applied to one character, Alkali Dick,12 the term has already acquired something of the secondary meaning used to designate "a person who demonstrates for a paying audience the skills of the cowboy." For Alkali Dick had long ago left his western plains and was now "employed by Buffalo Bill to simulate before civilized communities the sports and customs of the uncivilized."13 The second occurrence of the word is nothing more than the reference to the appellation "Inspired Cowboyt" bestowed upon an unlettered frontiersman who had turned preacher.14 Harte's cowhands are in reality not cowboys at all.-they are X j; Mexicans$ not Americans.15 In renching, as in other phases of Western life, Harte had no need to trouble himself with revising his vocabulary to keep pace with changing conditions which had no interest for him,
The same factor which served to limit the size of

12 "The Strange Experiences of Alkali Dick."
13 JM Wz�1�neaa & k arte (20 vols., "Riverside Edition"; Boston: Houghton Mifflin and Company 1902-1914), XVI, 338. Subsequent quotaions from Harte are from this ed., hereafter referred to as ]�kjg..
14 "Mr. MacGlowrie's Widow," &j j nzg* XIX, 106.
15 In a letter to his friend Hatton who was collaborating in the dramatizing of "M'liss," Harte carefully points out that Bonebreaker "should have a Mexican Xmg dress
(QU ggb~y1)* . . (Thj Lettersa~ ks�Usz bar. ed. Geoffrey Bret Harte 4Loston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 192W), p. 352.








9
Harte's American vocabulary, however, served also to increase its effectiveness. Not only was Harts instrumental in introducing to the general American and British reading public a host of new words which were the product of the final phase of American westward expansion; but his repeated use of the same terms undoubtedly gave them a wider currency than they would otherwise have attained. In this connection it is important to bear in mind the fact that during his lifetime Hartels writings enjoyed a degree of popularity entirely disproportionate to their present-day reputation,
If Harte contented himself with representing only one aspect of the American sceneP-the California of the recent past--he was yet able within the limits he set to treat many phases of the bustling life of frontier California, To enumer. ate all of them would require far more space than the present limited discussion can afford. A perusal of the lists preceding the Lexicon will, however, indicate that Van Wyck Brooks is essentially correct in stating that Harte "In one or another of his many stories . * . sketched first or last virinially every phase of this social scene."16 Before he
began to sketch this scene in stories, however, Hart spent several years in observing it and storing up materials for future use.
In the speech habits of the Argonaut the sophisticated

16 la Whta (LNew YorW/








10
young Easterner observed two distinctive features. The first of these was a characteristic freedom of expressions slang was, he found, universal, A second feature was the ease with h4ch the Argonaut adopted into his vocabulary Spanish words and expressions. But the Argonaut had not only mde these practices an Integral part of his speech; he had, Hart* ob.served, sanctified them by engrafting them upon his land as well. The slang which gave spice to his speech served also to distinguish the Argonaut's mining camps1 and the names the Spaniard had affixed to the land before him, he was happy to adopt,.
Not all of the place names in California were of slang or Spanish origin, of course$ but these two classes were the ones which interested Harte most and the ones which he was to make most use of in his later stories. Although only five of the place names in Harte's stories have made their way into the language proper1? (i.e., are recorded by the DA), an account of Harte's interest in and use of the American and Spanish plae names of California will serve as an introduction to the more detailed study of his Americanisms.


17 see p. 16,












CHAPTER II


HARTE AND CALIFORNIA PLACE NAMES

To those of his readers who had little knowledge of California nomenclature, it must have seemed that Harte had often given free rein to his fancy and created place names especially to suit the character of his Argonauts. But for the characters of his fiction Harts did not need to create V unusual place names, for the California pioneers had in fact provided him with an array colorful enough to match any of the exaggerations in character or incident he might choose to make. If Harte created any names for his mining-camp communities, he certainly created none more colorful or unusual than those of his tutors.18 With one important exception, Harts' mining-camp names are representative of most of the types employed in the California mining country during the Gold Rush period.19 If there are in Harte's stories no



18 In creating names for non-existent places, Harte usually depended upon word-play; e.g.t &l. L11 Ask 2 &Awiz aEU, ~I lgni
19 For a statistical analysis of these tes, see H. F' Roup "Place Names of the California Gold Rusht"
gpgl , XXXV (19)), 653-658.









or Ragukaa20 it must be remembered that he had need for respectability where the pioneers did not.
But the diversified nomenclature of California offered another class of names equally well suited to the needs of the local-color writer. Spanish place names, as well as Spanish characters and expressions, gave to Harte's writings a fresh and vivid quality immediately apparent to his Eastern and English audience, In addition$ California geography of the Sixties afforded numerous examples of Indian and pseudo-Indian place names$ as well as those which followed the more familiar patterns of American and English place-naming. Names selected from each of these classest together with a small number obviously named for his fictional characters, constitute the toponymy of Harte's California.
Few writers of fiction have used place names so liberally in their writings as did Earte in his tales of California. For simply using the names at his disposal Harte of course deserves no special credit* Yet Harts realized to a greater extent than most writers the potential value of certain place names for descriptive purposes, In Harte's tales of the Gold Rush geographical accuracy not infrequently suffers at the expense of the connotative values to be derived

20 Ewin G. Gudde, Ca1lfzr�A Pln~gs bma.' A
o(Berkeley The University of California Presst 19) troduction, p. xxi.









from using certain names.21 Miners from another settlement are rarely Just that; they are individualized as the boys from AnelA,22 j El, or Roar1 R. A romance takes place, not Just in a hollow, but in & o . The blustery stage-driver who appears in more than a dozen stories is christened YUke Bill, a name which somehow seems almost as much a part of his character as do his profanity and autocratic manner. To understand the importance Harte attached to place names in his stories, one has only to note the preponderance of titles of the pattern of "The Luck of Roaring Camp" and "The Outcasts of Poker Flat." Although Harte realized the disadvantages inherent in using such lengthy titles,23 he was never able to resist them; they run the gamut of the alphabet from "An Ali Baba of the Sierras" to "The Youngest Prospector in Calaveras."
As early as 1860, in "What's in a Name,"2k Harte

21 Harte' s violations of geographical accuracy are noted by Robert L. Fulton "Glimpses of the Mother Lode," A02ia, XXXIX (March, 191k), 51, 57.
22 The value of this name lies, of course, in its
ironic application to a rough mining settlement. Its origin
had, however, nothing to do with either angels or their opposites; it was simply the camp established by George Angel. See Gudde, QW iAP N p. 11.
23 See Latur, p. 50.
21 George R. Stewart* Jr., A =1A= ft: X '-'E 4X"University of California ications in English," vol. 3, No- 3; Berkeley, 1933), item No. 135.









revealed an interest in California and Western nomenclature. In addition to an article on "American Geographical Names,"25 of the preceding year, Harts printed, in 1865, an editorial, "California Nomenclature,"26 which contains "a brief list of towns . . . composed principally of names which he used later, such as kd P, and P .,27 Further evidence of Harte's early interest in Western place names is found in two series of limericks; the first,28 "rhymed to names of western towns, viz., , V , g ,Gas Valy a& J , N iahtk sZX=, .riae4 ';29 the
30
second, to those of , e, Y , S , and lun.31 In addition, Harte's favorite names for mining camps, Wing4a and �n, both of which had special significance in the vocabulary of the miners,32 were used in fictional sketches contributed to local newspapers before Harte joined the staff of the Qyggln4, in 1868.
The preference he showed for Spanish names in 1860,33
Harte still held when he lectured years later on the Argo25 = ., item No# 167. 26 I=., item No. 306.
27 Z #., s.v. item No. 306. 28 .,f item No. 303, 29 , s.v. item No. 303. 30 a., item No. 330.

31 Ib�., s'v. item No. 330.
32 Winad were frequently employed to divert water for use in mining operations. For sluml. ion, see Lexicon,
33 Stewart, , s.v. item No. 135.










naut. After discussing the Argonaut's slang, Harte continued:

But can we entirely forgive the Argonaut for making
his slang gratuitously permanent, for foisting upon posterity . . . such titles as "One Horse Gulch," "Poker Flat," "Greaser Callon," "Fiddletown, "Murderer's Bar
"and Lsiw "Dead Broke"? The map of California is still ghastly with this unhallowed christening. A tourist may
well hesitate to write "Dead Broke," at the top of his
letter and any stranger would be justified in declining
an invitation to "Murderer's Bar." It seems as if the
early Californian took a sardonic delight in the contrast which these names offered to the euphony of the old pan.
ish titles. It is fortunate that with few exceptions-the counties of the State still bear the soft Castilian labials and gentle vowels. Tuolumne Tulare Yolo, Calaveras, Sonoma, Tehema, Siskyou, and MenAicino, to say nothing 6f
the glorious company of the Apostles who perpetually praise
California through the Spanish calendar. Yet wherever a
saint dropped a blessing, some sinner afterwards squatted,"
with an epithet. Extremes often meet. The omnibuses in San Francisco used to run from Happy Valley to the Mission Dolores. You had to go to Blaises first before you
could get to Purissima. Yet I think the ferocious directness of these titles was preferable to the pinchbeck elegance of "Copperopolisq" "Argentinia," the polyglot monstrosities of "Oroville " of "Placerville " or the remarkable sentiment of "Aomeosburgh" and "Sulietstown."
Sometimes the national tendency to abbreviation was singularly shown. "Jamestown," near Sonora, was always known
as "Jimtowng" and "Moquelumne Hill " after first suffering torture by being spelt with a k," was finally drawn and quartered and now appears on the stage-coach as "Mk Hill." There were some names that defied all conjecture.
The Pioneer coaches changes horses at "Paradox." Why Paradox? No one could tell.3

If there were still any doubt that Harts in fact applauded the exuberance the Argonauts had shown in christening their soil, it would be dispelled by reference to his
deft gibes at the Californian's attempts to make the nomenclature of his state respectable. In "An Episode of Fiddletown," for instance, "Mr. Tretherick brought his blushing

34 lZitaggg, II, Introduction, xxix-xxx.v








16
bride to Fiddletovn, or 'Fideletoun,' as Mrs. T. preferred to call it in her poems."35
In the following list of California place names used by Harte, names preceded by asterisks are those which can be definitely traced to characters in his writings. It is impossible, of course, to say with certainty that every other name in the list actually existed in fact, for many of the
names applied to places by the pioneers were soon replaced and often forgotten. further, it is not impossible that a few of the names listed belong (or did belong) to adjoining states, for Rarte was more interested in the names than in the precise locations they designated.

J ~ 24ung bd n 4 E ZU19 B and
XgZbM tMw, recognized by the DA, are the only names in the list which are Included in the Lexicon as independent entries. However, several other Americanisms are illustrated in the Lexicon by place-name combinations: the attributive tua , which commonly occurs in place names* and most of the generic geographical terms listed under Topography.

Alameda Alkali Station
Alamo American River
Alasco Angel' s (Angels)
Alcatraz Island Aptos Creek

Alder Creek *Atherly

3p. 123.










Bald Mountain Top
Bannock Big Bend Bluff
Ca-hon
Flume City
Pine Flat Black Calon Hills
Spur Range
Blaises

Blazer' s Blue Cement Ridge Bodega
Bootblack Creek Buckeye Cam
Hollow
Mille
Buena Vista
*Bulger's Burnt Ridge
Spring
Butternut Creek Calaveras California Camp Rogue
-ville Cafada City
de la Tentacion
del Pio Zultero
de la Visitacion
del Diablo


Carnada del Diablo Cafion of Los Osos Carquines, Straights of Springs
Woods
Casket Ridge
Cave City Cedar Camp Challenge Hill Chemisal Ridge
Chestnut Ridge Chinese Camp Clarmont Cloverdale
Coast Range Cold Spring Colorado Park
*Conroy' s Hill Contra Costa Cottonwood Creek
Coulterville Crystal Spring Davidson's Crossing Dead Broke
Flat Slope
Deadman's Oulch Deadwood Hill










Dedlow Marsh Devil's Caon
Ford Point
Spur
Dogtovn Donner Lake
*Dov' s Flat Dry Creek Dok Creek Dutch Creek
Flat
Eagle' s (Court) Eden
Eldridge' s Crossing Elko
glktown
Eureka
Gulch Hill
Excelsior City Fair Plains Fiddletown Fisher's Crossing Five Forks
Mile Corner Fort Biggs
Cass
Jackson
Point
Redwood


Four Forks French Camp
Fresno Frisco Galloper's Ridge Geiger Grade Gibbon's Point Gilead
Valley Golden Gate Gold Hill
-ville
Granger' s Gross Valley Greaser Ca'non Grizzly Caffon Hangtovn Happy Valley
*Hays

Haywards Heavytree Crossing
Hill
Hemlock Bill Hickory Hill High Ridge
-town
Horseshoe Bay









Bumbolt Hymettus
Indian Creek
Spring
Jamestovn (Jimtown) Jone aville Jules (Julesburg) Julietstown Keeler's Perry
Klamath Knight' a Ferry La Grange (Lagrange) La Porte (La Port) Laurel Run
Spring
Tree Hill Liberty Hill Lime Point Livermore's Pass Llano de Espiritu Santo LogPort Lone Hand
Mountain
Prairie
Star Mountain Los Gatos
Creek Los Lobos Los Pinos


*LowVi11e Mad River Madroffo Rolow Mariposa Markley s Hill Markleville
Martine
Bend


Marysville Mattingly' a Mill Msndioino Mereed
Canon, Upper Minyo River Mission Creek
Dolores
San Ca mel
San Jose
San Pablo
Valley
Missouri Flat Monte del Diablo
Flat
Monterey
Monument Point Moquelumne Hill (Mok Hill) Mount Diablo
Shasta Mad Flat
Springs










Mugginsville Murderer' s Bar Murphy' s Camp Napa
North Fork Nyets Ford Oakdale
-land
One Horse Gulch Oroville Paradox Payne' s Ridge Pe soadero Petaluma Pico
Pine Clearing
Tree Crossing Placerville Point Diablo
of Pines Poker Flat Port Umpqua Poverty Flat
Hill
Powder River Presidio (of San Francisco), the
Punta de la (limpia) Concepcion


Purlssaima Quicksilver City
Rattler' s Ridge Rattlesnake Bar
Camp
Creek
Red Chief's Crossing
Dog
Flat
Gulch
-lands
Mountain
Rock Range -wood Camp
Reservoir Cai'on
Ridge

Ring Tail Caffon Riverside
Robinson' s Ferry Rockville Rocky Can-on
Ridge
Roaring Camp Romeosburgh Rough-and-Ready
Russian Hill Sacramento
River
Sage Wood Salmon River
San Andreas
Antonio
Bernardino










San Bruno
Mountains
Buena Ventura
Carlos Bay
Diego
Francisco
Gregorto Jeronimo Joaquin
Jose
Leandro Lorenzo
Luis
Obispo
Rey
Mateo
Pablo Bay
Rafael
Sandy Bar
Santa Ana Valley
Barbara
Clara
Valley
Cruz
Range
Ines
Wisea
Saucelito

Sawyer's Bar


Scott' s


Crossing
Dam Ledge Station
Camp
Ferry


Shasta
Shepherdstown Shirt.Tail Canyon Shooter's Bend
-Ville
Shot Up Hill


Sidon
Sierra Flat Nevada Mountains Silveropolis
Simpson's Bar Crossing
Siskyou (Siskiyou) Skinner's Pass Reef
Slumgullion (Center)
*Smith' s Pocket Snake River
Snipe stown Solano Sonoma Sonora Soquel South Hornitos Spanish Gulch Spring Valley
Stanislaus River Stockton Strawberry Station Strong' s Sugar Mill
Sumit Springs
Sutter's Fork
Mill










Sveetvater Sycamore Creek Table Mountain
Ridge Tahoe (Lake) Tamalpais Tasajara City
Creek Valley Tehema Telegraph Hill Ten Mile
Station Thompson's Pass Three Boulders
Pines
Crossing Toddy Flat Tres Pinos Trinidad Tulare Tuolumne Tuttleville Two Mile Bottom Utopia


Vineville Visalia Warensboro Waterloo Watson's Ridge West Woodlands Whale Mouth Point Whiskey Flat Wildcat
Camp
Station Windy Hill Wingdam Woodville Wynyard' s Bar
Gulch


Yerba Buena


Island


Yolo
Yosemite

Yreka Yuba
River
Zip Coon Ledge












CHAPTER III


HARTE AND THE SPANISH LANGAGE

Among American writers of fiction who have made ex. tensive use of Spanish terms in their writings, Bret Hart* occupies a position secondary only to that of Richard Henry Dana,36 But whereas Dana (and other writers who preceded Harts) used Spanish terms incidentally, Harte used them repeatedly in writings which fill more than twenty volumes. In his use of Spanish terms in his early writings, Harts was a linguistic pioneer. His continued use of these terms in conjunction with western materials undoubtedly played a large part in spreading their popularity far beyond the area of their normal use. If Harte did not create the "Western" story of popular fiction, he did supply an important element of its vocabulary.
Soon after his arrival in California# the nineteenyear-old Harte began to succumb to the charm of the old Spanish evilization, whose final stage of decay had only recently been accelerated by the advent of Al diAbl amp.leann and his

36 For a general discussion of the use of Spanish
terms by English and American writers see the Introduction to Harold W. Bentley's A Diat~o roa Spal T Jka9"ILaht =1 Spca Referea~ -t& =~ AMeigaa S3&outh "o lumbla University Studies in English and Comparative Literature"; New York: Columbia University Press, 1932).

23










concept of "manifest destiny." How much time and energy Harte devoted to probing into the actual records left by the old Spanish civilization is a matter for conjecture. In "The Legend of Monte del Diablo" (1863), he cites as authorities "disjointed memoranda, the proceedings of ayuntamientos and early departmental juntas, with other records. . . ."37 In the same place he speaks of his having ransacked "the Spanish archives of Upper California."38 If Harte actually did go to these primary sources for material, he would have needed at least a fair knowledge of the language. Although there is apparently
no evidence to show that he became especially proficient in Spanish, there is evidence to show that he applied himself, at least for a time, to a formal study of it.39
If Harte did not care to explore deeply the mine of material afforded by a past civilization, he did reap a generous harvest from the tailings. History and legend of Spanish California afforded him materials for many early sketches and poems; it provided characters and settings for short stories and longer pieces of the later period.O As early as 1860, in a newspaper article, "What's In a Name,")1 he had

37 Wr�ai., I, 382. 38 1 = .
39 see George R. Stewart Jr., ga. A Ei (Boston, Houghton Mifflin 1., 1931 p. 2a
10 For an accurate and fairly complete tabulation and account of Hartels use of Spanish material, see C. VdzquezArJona, "Spanish and Spanish-American Influences on Bret Harte," kmin baqan4Qi1O, LXXVI (1929), 573-621.
)+1 Stewart, Alblioeral'nv, item No. 135.










shoved a preference for Spanish place names in California, which George R. Stewart, Jr., remarks, is "characteristic of Harte."k2 And in 1902 Harte wrote his last poem, "The Sword of Don Joni," upon a Spanish theme.
It is beyond the scope of this limited study to
enumerate the uses made by Harte of Spanish materials. It is pertinent, however, to note briefly where and how Harte used Spanish terms. In the early poems and sketches treating legendary and early historical events and in the conversational passages of the short stories and novels given to Spanish or Mexican characters, the Spanish terms used are those which retained their "foreign" identity. Although he was far from consistent in his practice, Harte usually Indicated these terms by placing them in italics or, less frequently in quotation marks. In most of the other instances in which they occur, the Spanish terms used are those which had already acquired, or were in the process of acquiring, some status as Americanisms. Most of these terms show spelling modifications indicative of English spelling habits or of changes in pronunciation in accordance with the English treatment of Spanish words, Although Harte shows by his various spellings the uncertainty of the proper pronunciation of words which were still in the process of being domesticated, his spellings usually reflect the most stable or prevalent forms at a given

42 =*., s.v. item No. 135.










period. Two notable exceptions, however, are unz = and vaogs. The first of these Harte almost invariably wrote in the Spanish fashion as g . In the case of the second word his practice shows some vacillation. In one instance only (1878) is the form v used; in most other instances, and even in the popular expression tQ y zach, Harte writes vjk.sg. The latter form with the "long o" sound probably found more favor with Harte because it more nearly approximated the pronunciation which he aeeoiiated with X a the Spanish imperative, which he used quite often in its normal Spanish sense.
The first of Harte's tales of Spanish California to
reach an Eastern audience was "The Legend of Monte del Diablo," which appeared in the October, 1863, issue of the AIJ..~ o . Other tales dealing with the historical and recent past had, however, been published locally. "Notes by Flood and Field" (1862) was one of the earliest in which Harte had made use of the "local color" of the cattle country and agricultural regions which had felt the continued inroads of an ever-increasing number of Americans. An important element of the local color of these sketches is the Spanish vocabulary of the native Z h and the hybrid American-Spanish lingo of his American counterpart. Spanish characters play a less important part in Harte's stories of the mining camp; consequently, the number of Spanish terms employed decreases sharply. In these stories, however, Spanish derivatives con-










tinue to garnish liberally the slangy speech of many charac. ters, from the lowly Chinese laborer with his "no shabbee" (au uka) to the most affluent of San Francisco financiers. Among the later writings, "The Crusade of the Excelsior" is noteworthy in that it contains the largest concentration of
Spanish words used in any single story. Since most of the action of the story occurs in Lower California, Harte finds here ample opportunity to use almost all of his normal stock of Spanish words.
It has been said that Bret Harte knew how to write
about only one subject, California; or, stated more favorably, that "California was all the subject that he ever needed."+3 Be that as it may, the Bret Harte canon includes few stories whose actions take place wholly outside that state; it includes even fewer in which California slang, with its Spanish admixture, does not appear.
If Harte used Spanish terms extensively in his writings, he also used them well. Of Harte, Harold W. Bentley

writes:
As assistant on the editorial staff of the f
gA1o1n ZULn and of the 21dn Era he was instrumental in
promoting that local and Spanish atmosphere which later
became so characteristic of the O kk Jhz of which
he was editor. In Bret Harte's own writings as well as
the writings of others that appeared in the zn.

13 Joseph B. Harrison, hj Iiarko.
ican Writers Series"; New Yorks American Book Company, 191), p. li.










kSpanish words w e'common and used with naturalness and effectiveness.'&
But this is not to say that Harte always used Span-. ish terms with absolute accuracy. The average reader does not demand of a foreign word used in an English context that it retain inviolate its form or meaning; it is sufficient that it be recognizable and that its approximate meaning be immediately apparent. It is apparent from the many variations in spelling and usage that Harte relied chiefly upon an imperfect memory for his Spanish, and that he took little or no pains to check for accuracy. This statement is not intended to apply to those Spanish words used by Spanish or Mexican characters or in situations where the context is plainly Spanish. Similarly, such forms as Radrone and gg. for 2adz= and AIOM may be explained by English M"X='5 and desg.
Especially after his removal to the East and to England Harte was faced with the problem of making his Spanish terms meaningful for an audience to whom they were still a comparative novelty. Occasionally he resorted to the use of an explanatory footnote, but, in those instances in which the significance of a word was not sufficiently clear from its context, he usually provided an J. e explanation.

SBentley, A D g � p. 63.

'5 An Italian loan word, p was thoroughly naturalized in Harte's day, although no longer much used.








29
The list of Spanish terms used by Harts which concludes the present chapter consists of 205 terms, or a total of 239 separate words. As previously explained, many of these words which are used in Spanish contexts show inaccuracies and inconsistencies in spelling. Flrther, those which have become Americanisms show variations reflecting English spelling habits and pronunciations. Thus Iu (14agg) is included even though Harts apparently never used the Spanish spelling. Also included are i sAj , A m , I and a.ae which Harts usually spelled bt cim, deseXg, agLor4 ,146 and A . In addition, a few words included have undergone conversion from one part of speech in Spanish to another part in English. Thus# the Spanish infinitive ugag "to walk, to take a walk" is converted into a noun meaning "a walk, a trip."
A list similar to the present one was compiled by Carlos Vjzquez-Arjona and published in flsna hjjpangUl in 1929.1+7 VA'quez-Arjona's list was composed of 13 terms, or a total of 155 separate words. Certain of the words included in that list have been excluded from the present one.sach words as catalpa, 9 , and AQ atand similar words which either are not Spanish or are not found in contexts

46 Despite its earlier occurrence in British English, this word in the sense in whichHarts uses it is a genuine Americanism. See note 56, p. 1+1.
1 "Spanish and Spanish-American Influences on Brat Harte," LXXVI, 573-621.








30
indicating peculiarly Spanish usage. Conversely, the context has determined the inclusion of other words, such as Al. (a-fu2) and U A& (dA) CA# hich had already come into English from Italian. Also, arbitrarily excluded are those Americanisms derived from Spanish which show, either in pronunclation or in spelling, more than slight deviation from their originals, e.g., IAZIiZ, MUSU ra, Xfgh, ZIIMQO4 (from JA Zgatg, pgn ag, Xana, U=). The last group Is treated in the appropriate place in the following chapter devoted to Harte' s Americanisms.


abogado absurdo adelante adio's adobe agua bendita aguardiente aguinaldo ah, lo que es el niundo i la disposicidn de Usted alameda aloalde al fresco
almar3al Americano (Americana)


amigo apodo arroyo astucia auto de fe ayde m*
ayuntamiento bagatela
banderilla banderillero
bobo bolero
bonanza borrach6n
bronco










buenas noches bueno caballero
ealza
camarada eamsa

oahada cancionero cag6n
oapitki carajo carambe carrooe d. cuatro mulas Casa

castellna chamizal chaparral
ohaqueta chu pe ciertamente cigarito oigarro Oita
eriaturiea comandante compaero


corral corregidor coyote dame do grandeza diablo diligencia Dios y Libertad disefo disparetado dIsposiei6n don
Don Fulano dofis
DOWl Fulans duea
encinal embareadero en tiempos pasados
* spada espadachfn espe o ustorio � studio excelencia
fenfarron fanfarronear fildsofo










fonda frijol gmnealisim graclas
graeioso do teatro guarda
guardia do diana hacienda hasta mahkana hidalgamente hidalgo hilo de famlla hola

imb~eil imprenta Impresor inamorata infelis inmediatamente Junta laso liano

lunetico Madre do Dios madrofio magnfrico


mahlana
manta mantilla manzanita maquinista maraviflo so
mariposa mersOara matador mayordomo
m6dioo mestizs mesquite mira
mison mochila
muchacho (muohacha) mua

MuY
Natividad
naturalmente


obligacion oficial do pollefa padrtn pantiuflo s










pasear patio patrono (patrons)

pelleJo pedn peso

pIcadoi


pinto placer plasa

p00o a poo poco mds d menos poo tiempo polio
poncho por el roy posada posiblemente pre sentimiento presidio primoginita pomposamente pronunciamento pueblo quo bueno


quien so raneheria

ranchero rancho

real reata

recompensa rodeo sabe

Sala sano, solo$ solicito
y secret serape saya

semimae senor

seffora sefforita of
siesta sombrero sotana temblor temperamento tents tienda









tierra templada toreador torero toro tortilla
tes triste tuld uww mina do plat vamos


vaquero vars
va Usted eon ios vigilanela
vientos generales v1iadero viva
viva la reina americana yerba ena












CHAPTER IV


HARTE' S AMERICANISMS

It was found necessary in the preparation of the prest ent study to limit consideration of Harte's Americanisms to those classes of words which are included in the 211gmarX gL grigna,. According to Mitford M. Mathevs, editor of the DA, the tera Amz iezanQm, as it was used in that work, includes three classes of words: "outright coinages . . . words * . * which first became English in the United States; and terms . . . used in senses first given them in American usageo."8
Accepting as authoritative the practice of the DA
meant, of course, excluding from consideration as Americanisms a large class of terms which, according to more liberal interpretations,'l9 would normally be included in the term; it meant excluding archaisms, which-one must agree with H. L. Menckenw-o"constitute one of the most interesting and authentic of all the classes of Americanisms."50 It meant barring

48 A gjAmmjgAan e, Preface, p. v.,
For other definitions and categories of words ineluded in the term by various collectors see Mencken, JbA Mgx4,IAU LBngL, chap. II, pt. 2, pp. 97 103.
50 j=*9 p. 102.








36
from consideration many words and phrases which, because they had abandoned them in times past, had for Englishmen all the force of Americanisms; it meant excluding terms such as 411X (declare), tAU (season), ggjgU, saobu, 1uM (suppose, suspect), , agas, I �" s V& wga,51 which Harte employed in the same way as the terms listed below to give to his stories a peculiarly American flavor*
Harte's Americanisms have been grouped below in lists which are arranged to show (1) his interest in various aspects of America and American life, (2) his use of slang and colloquial English words of American origin, (3) his priority in using certain Americanisms, and (4) his use of possible and probable Americanisms which are not found in the DA but which come within the limits of the DA's definition of A=�gULM. The lists are not, of course, mutually exclusive.



The "Bret Harts Country" extends far beyond the limits of the gold-mining section of California to which the term is usually applied; yet it lies almost wholly within the limits of that State. Whatever else America meant to Herte$ to the readers of his stories it meant the American Far West, the America of the Forty-Niners.

51 As late as 1929 , I tbA iZMI I was believed by one Englishman, at least, to be of American origin. H. L. Mencken includes it among terms taken from a list of Americanisms in J. Y. T. Greig's g liaa'a, (� A lcan Language, pp. 231-232).H Hrte, too, thought it an Americanism; see p. 2.











A. Topographic and Toponymic Terms


adobe (2., 2.b.) alameda alkali alkali desert Americanize (Americanized) Americano arroyo barren
bench bluegrass (Bluegrass)
bluff (a.1) caffada canyon canono) clearing coast (Coast) encinal falda flat


Great Plains gulch gully
Hoosier
Jerseyite Kanaka Nevadan Pike prairial prairie pueblo quarter section tule marsh valda vara Washoe western (Western)


B# Nature

Evidence earlier than that given in the DA is provided in Harte' s use of the following: L1AU &U%�um hwMz b M (in the combination bs rk-bM ootf., not recorded by








38
the DA), and nr.)& b= (2.). Although the DA credits Harte with the first use of Xezba bL= (2.), earlier evidence would seem to be provided in the quotations under ytrg bala

(1.).
1. Faua


abalone buffalo bull coon copperhead coyote


English sparrov Jackass rabbit killdeer plover kingbird milk snake prairie dog


2, Flora


butternut
cardinal flower catalpa ceanothus chami sal chaparral checkerberry Cherokee rose cottonwood fish geranium horse bean (coffee)


Madeira vine madrona manzanita
mariposa mesquite redwood Safrona rose sage
sagebrush scrub oak sea turnip52


52 Not listed by the DA. The the OFD, however, is from Harte (same


only evidence given by
quotation as Lexicon).










C. Spanish Terms end Spanish-American Life

The largest group of Americanisms drawn from nonEnglish stock represented in Harte's writings is that taken
from Spanish 53
In the use of the following terms* Harte supplies the first evidence recorded by the DA: g (2. A.), jAk (n.l), .Ag= (n.), = A (2. A.), 421a,, va1OA, and zba W (2.).54 For two of the preceding, g and yALU, Harte supplies the only evidence given in the DA. Earlier dates than those supplied by the DA will be found in the
Lexicon for the following: , gum, 221U.1 (U., . ), U= (2. a.), r q (y.,.. .) 1=0 aW.), tim ,a VA ,~ and .Zba
Spellings in the following list are those used by the DA (and, hence, the Lexicon). Although no attempt has been made to include all forms, certain variations used by Harte may be found# without comment, in the quotations supplied in the Lexicon.

abalone adobe
abogado aguardiente
adios alameda

n See also Chapter III, Harts and the Spanish Language, pp. 23-31+.
-0+ In regard to the priority of the evidence for ka= (2.), see p. 38.










alcalde alfresco Amereano amigo arroyo ayuntamiento bonanzsa bronco caballero camisa
eaniada canyon capitan
careJo caramba casa chami sal chaparral chaqueta cigarito
cinch


comandante compaefero
corral (I.) corral (X.)
corregidor coyote Don
embarcadero encinal Esooces
falda filibuster fonda
frijol hacienda hidalgo lariat
lasso (.) lass* (z.)
flano madrona


55 An American borrowing from been previously borrowed into English discussion of the American usage see gZ bI4ih Zma IQi EA11sh, p.h


Spanish, had from Italian. For a Bentley, A










maor-doo56 peso
manzanita pinto (A.)
mariposa pinto (,U.)
mesquite placer
mochila plaza
monte poncho
muchacho presidio
mustang pronunciamento
no sabe57 pueblo pasear-5 pungle
padre quien sabe
patio ranch (i.)
peon ranch (X.)

56 An American borrowing from Spanish, had been previously borrowed into English from Italian. e istinction noted by Bentley in the following passage is clearly illustrated in tequotation given in the Lexicon. "The word was used in Europe for 'head butler' or chief servant in charge of the economic administration of a household or an estate. In America the use of the word has been in connection with the haciendas of the Spaniards and Mexicans. . . . In the mind of the American who uses the word it is not synonymous with butler nor chief servant, The word m connotes distinction and authority Just as it did in its early significance in Spain." (A 61, o ] I I g p. i6+

57 "Oddly enough, the negative form, 'no sabe,' was used entirely by the C, as 'no shabbee,' to express a want of comprehension or understanding of the speaker." (I Iu, XIX, 273, s.v. Q .).
The DA's definition of the noun "A trip or excursion " while applicable to most of Harte's uses, is not sufficiently broad. As the second quotation in the Lexicon shows, Harte also used pgse to mean "a walk " one of the meanings assigned by the DA to g , a form not !ound in Harte's writings.










rancheria ranchero
rancho tiara rodeo Sabe (ii.) sabe (Y..) sale savvy sez1or
setora sellorita serape Sierra Sierran (a.)


sombrero
sotana stampede (A.) stampede (z.) temblor tienda tortilla tule valda59 vamoose
vaquero
vara
viva yerba buena


Of the terms in the preceding list# the following twenty have been arranged in descending order of the frequeney of their occurrence in Harte's writings. The numbars following each term Indicate the separate pieces in which each was found, whether singly or multiply.



59 The only evidence cited in the DA for this spelling variant of t&Uk is taken from Harte.










canyon 53 seffor 23
adobe 52 pasear 22
sabs 1+9 mustang 20
vaquero 36 padre 20
corral 35 caballero 19 peon 33 mansanita 19
ranch 29 aguardiente 17
serape 27 casa 17 rancho 25 lasso 17 riata 23 patio 17


Although it is probably not of Spanish origin, the word graAgm deserves consideration in the present discussion because of its connection with Spanish-American life.
Bentley, in discussing the use of this word, says that "Bret Harte specializes . . . L.tZ/ by assigning it to a 'mixed race of Mexican and Indian.' "60 Harte's use of XZXAM is not, however, so narrowly restricted. Usually he uses it to designate a Mexican, or, less frequently, a Mexican of low casts. In a few instances, also, Prosser Is pointedly misused to indicate a Spaniard# as Harts remarks was the practice in California: "He /the Spaniarg/ was called a 'Greaser,' an unctuous reminiscence of the Mexican war, and


SZAAUAX*


60 A ju a z 9 s a j J ,Zaga p. 271, s.v.










applied erroneously to the Spanish Californian, who was "I a Maxican."61 Although the DAts 1836 quotation apparently disproves the contention that g is a reminiscence of
the Mexican War$ Harte' s "unctuous reminiscence" is still as acceptable as any other explanation yet given for the origin of the word.

D. Other Americans

1. Indians and Indian Life

Although his knowledge of Indians and Indian life was by no means extensive, Harte did use occasional Indian
settings and characters in his stories. As one would expect, the California tribes, "Digger Indians," are those whom Harte most frequently mentions.


brave (A.) Cherokee Chinook Chinook Jargon Digger firewater
good Indian Great Spirit


Great White Father Happy Hunting Ground Indian (A.) Indian agent Indian grass
Indian pony Indian summer Indian treaty


61 W�jpugA, II, Introduction, xxx,












Indian village Klamath (Indian) LO

lodge medicine man moccasin Modoe Mohave Paiute paleface
papoose papoose case Pawnee red man


root digger sachem scalp lock scalp (-.) scalping knife Sioux

squaw sweat house wampum war paint warpath
Washoe wigwam


2. Chinese and Chinese Life

The phenomenal success of "Plain Language from Truthful James" was enough to guarantee the admission of bal= ina into the main stream of the Fnglish language. Despite the fact that 9hineg appears to be a natural folk development,62 no evidence of an earlier date than Hartels

62 I.0.9 like P jj ggg and a g which are false singulars formed as a result of mistaking the A of the stem for the sign of the plural. Explanations such as that given in Mencoken' s I meriAU L&g gUA& (p. 462) to the effect that "a false singular is formed from a singular ending in It











use in h Qlagg has so far been adduced; it would appear, therefore, that Harte created QDgg at the same time that he coined the combination. It is interesting to note, also, that in a later poem Harte formed for the false singular 2d= a "regular" plural G . 63
For g gj iarte supplies slightly earlier evidenee than that recorded by the DA.

Chinee John
Chinese quarter John Chinaman
coolieism wash bill heathen Chinee wash house

3. Negroes and Negro Life

Not more than a dozen Negro characters appear in
Harte's writings. Although he presents the Negro in a sympathetic light, as he does most of his characters who represent minority groups, Harte actually knew little of the Negro. As the terms listed below will suggest, Harte's impressions of Negro speech were based in large measure upon the popular the latter being mistaken for a plural" are at best misleading, there being no necessity of the singular form's being mistaken for a plural, or even being known.
63 = is, of course, a kind of "eye dialect."











conceptions fostered by the American blackface minstrel show.

banjo Juba
bone (Brother Bones) nigger luck
breakdown octoroon buck (4,l) patroller
Colored pickanin
Ethiopian (&.)


N. Occupations

1. Mining and Mining Life

The terms in the following list are those which are either directly connected with the mining process or intimately connected with mining life.
Harte is credited by the DA with the first use of the followingt M g Nage, l= (. 1), an g uil, DOW =, &r, jlui3 Eb , A j tng (2.). Slightly earlier dates are assigned in the Lexicon for the same uses of &=h yuL, mU, = g2g, and Sl.uice Z Also, Harte's priority over the evidence supplied by the DA is shown in the Lexicon for beg g (QU.) and kQ��Qa Z=

(=.). The verb-adverb compound w up is not recorded by the DA,

bedrock bottom rook
blind lead cement












claim (i.) clean up (a.)
color

ditch
flume
flume, to go (or be) up the
flume
ground sluicing grub wages gulch (2.) hardpan indication Jump, to Jump a claim lead (1.) locator
mill (a.)
pan, to pan out pay (A*), pay ore pay dirt pay gravel placer


prospect (a.) prospect (.) pro pecting pan prospector quartz
rotten quarts salt (I.) sluice (A.) sluice box sluice robber sluice robbing sluicing
sluagullion stake out (x.) strike (u.) strike (y.)
strike, to strike it strike, to strike it
rick
tailing wash, to wash up











2. Ranching and Farming

Earlier evidence than that given in the DA vill
be found in the Lexicon for the figurative use of the noun ngza1# and for the intransitive use of the verb Zah. A slightly earlier date is supplied in the Lexicon for Harte's use of the adjective p t which is the first evidence given in the DA# All terms in the following list are recorded by the DA# with the exception of buck-Jump, a favorite of Hate ' s.


branding bronco
buck (a, 1
buck (z2) buck-Jump
caballero calico
cinch (g.) clearing corral (a.) corral (z.) cowboy
hacienda


Indian pony lariat mochila morgan
mustang pinto plug
ranch (n.) ranch (Z.) rancbman rancher ranchero ranching











rita stampede (,*. and I.)
round up (x.) vaquero

F. Recreation

The social life of that day was peculiar. Gentlemen made New Year's calls in long boots and red flannel
shirts. In later days the wife of an old pioneer used
to show a chair with a hole through its cushion made by
a entleman caller who sitting down suddenly in bashf confusion, had exploded his revolver. The bestdressed men were gamblers; the best-dressed ladies had
no right to that title. At balls and parties dancing was tabooed owing to the unhappy complications which arose from the disproportionate number of partners to
the few ladies that were present. The ingenious device
of going through a quadrille with a different partner
for each figure sprang from the fertile brain of a
sorely beset San Francisco belle. The wife of an arm
officer told me that she never thought of returning home with the same escort, and not unfrequently was
accompanied with what she called a "full platoon." "I never knew before," she said, "what they meant by 'the
pleasure of X gMp ."' In the multiplicity of
such attentions surely there was safety,
Such was the urban life of the Argonauts...

l. Cards and Gambling

With the exception of the following, all terms
listed below are recorded by the DAt k=-ZagM~, 1i�ta
Mg *, A=. Harte is credited by the DA with the
first use of b (1,2), euchre (,.2), and M 1a&.
For I and a earlier dates than those assigned

6 iI, Introduction, xix.











in the DA will be found in the Lexicon. Earlier evidence than that recorded in the DA will be found in the Lexicon for the figurative use of gA A U( .), and M~ihzIAt
(a,) when used to designate card games.


ante
ante (z.) bluff (.2) board bower buck (11) bucker (1.2) call
check (A.2)f

cold deck cutthroat
draw (a.) euchre (zI.) fall hand go (i.)
Jack pot


to hand in one' s checks


keno-flopper little monte
monte
monte bank monte shop old sledge poker
poker chip poker sharp rake, to rake down royal flush seven up
short card gambler skin game straddle (s.) straight (.)











three card monte vantoon
tiger, to fight the tiger velvet (a.)

2. Other Sports, Games, Amusements

Represented in the following miscellany are terms drawn from sources as diverse as childroen' games and minstrel shows. Perhaps the most interesting group of words, however, is that associated with the rough social life of the mining camp Ajargn, aL , alu A m4 , lux


For & Zwa Harte supplies the first quotation given in the DA. A slightly earlier date is assigned in the Lexicon for Ab1adU (2.) than that given in the DA* For the expression - = (or da1a) Ut Srah the DA credits Marte with the first use. n the Lexicon the sam use is assigned an earlier date, and a slightly earlier variant is also recorded.

banJo breakdown
baseball crab, to turn the crab baseball club crab, to catch a crab
bone (Brother Bones) Ethiopian (a.)










German (s.) hazing jamboree


Juba


melodeon parquet shindig


snell (gut snell) spark (x.) stag dance


tear (a.)


tear (I.), tear round


ten-strike walk-around


0. Rating and Drinking

Their housekeeping was of the rudest kind. For many
months the frying-pan formed their only available cooking-. utensil. It was lashed to the wandering miner's back, like the troubadour's guitar. He fried his bread, his beans, his bacon, and occasionally stewed his coffee, in this single vessel. But that Nature worked for him with a balsamic air and breezy tonics he would have suecumbed. Happily his meals were lew and Infrequent; happily the inventions of his mother East were equal to his needs.. . .. But in the hour of adversity and the moment of perplexity, his main reliance was beans! The conqueror and the conquered fraternized over their fri122.65


aguardlente barbecue Bolivar (n. 20)66 chowchow


cocktail corn juice


corn dodger doggery frijol
gin mill Graham biscuit


groggery


65 Utnga Ii, Intrduction, xxi.

66 The DA credits Harts with the first use of this term.










grub wages hash gymnasium6? horse bean coffee68 Julep
popcorn
rum-and-gum saleratus


saleratus biscuit saleratus bread sling, to sling hash soda fountain straight (a.) tanglefoot tortilla


H. Dress

The Argonaut's dress was peculiar. He was ready if
not skillful with his needle, and was fond of patching
his clothes until the original material disappeared beneath a cloud of amendments. The flour-sack was his
main dependence. When its contents had sustained and 69
comforted the inner man, the husk clothed the outer one.
arctic hickory shirt
boiled shirt moccasin calico (U.) overalls
cami sa patent leather
chaqueta pea cost
duster pea Jacket
havelock poncho hickory serape

67 This combination is not found in the DA.
68 Not recorded in combination by the DA; but see the DA's entry b ut, 5. (3) *b .
69 W, II, Introduction, xxi.










sombrero


stovepipe waterfall


sotana


store clothes

I. Houses and Furnishings


They lived at first in tents and then in cabins. The climate was gracious, and except for the rudest
purposes of shelter from the winter rains, they could have slept out of doors the year round, as many preferred to do. As they grew more ambitious, perhaps a small plot of ground was inclosed and cultivated; but for the first few years they looked upon themselves as tenants at will and were afraid of putting down anything they coula not take away, Chimneys to their cabins were for a long time avoided as having this objectionable feature. Even at this day, deserted miningcamps are marked by the solitary adobe chimneys still left standing where the frame of the original cabin was moved to some newer looation.70


adobe ca sa


piassa


radiator
raneheria


chromo (I.)
hacienda home stead


sala


shanty


house-raising Mexican blanket


shebang
slop joar


patio


70 li lgsta, II, Introduation, xx-xi.










J. Travel and Transportation

For two of the following terms connected with travel and transportation Harte supplies the first evidence recorded by the DAt R (., a.) and ta M3jg1i A42. All terms listed are recorded by the DA except AbAU~bi j".


brakeman buckboard carryall commuter Concord coach cowcatcher dugout embarcadero emigrant wagon

express office expressman fonda gripsack mountain schooner mountain wagon overland mail pack (y%.)

packer


packing
plunger pole (..)
pony express pony express messenger posada prairie schooner

Pullman Pullman sleeping car road agent rockaway Saratoga trunk shanghai (z.) shanghai man sidewheel streetcar

waybill (X.) whistle, to whistle down











KO Business and Monetary Terms

1. Business Terms


boom (jj. ) boom (Z.0 +. boss (s.)


flyer freeze out (n.) freezing out
gouge


share, on shares shoe-peg
shyster store tienda Vhite-pine ham71 wildcat wooden nutmeg


2. Monetary Terms


bottom dollar dime
double eagle greenback half eagle peso
picayune


red cent rocks soad
shilling side slug
spondulies two bits


Not recorded by the DA; apparently a mistake for
xl a& haa.










L. American Life, Social, Political, and Historical


abogado Agricultural Department alealde Americanise auntau iento ballot box stuffer Black Republicanism Bloomerite bluenose boomer
bowie knife buckeye
bummer cache
camp meeting camp meeting ground
carpetbagger carpetbagging caucus Chiv
Christmas (U., 1.)
Christmas tree civil service reform Continental


coolieism corregidor copperhead cowboy
Department of Agriculture Department of Justice derringer dime novel Empire State
Rxcocea executive Executive Mansion
Fenian (Brotherhood) filibuster (a,) Fire Zouave Forty-niner
Fourth Fourth of July
freedman (Freedman' s) Interior Department land grabber land office
Liberty pole lobby (X.)










lobbyist
logroll lynch (X.) lynching mourner' s bench mudsill neutral ground
pardner patroller pole list pot.house pronunciamento ranger rebel reconstruction regulator Republican ring (a.) roundsman Sanitary Sanitary Commission scalawag schoolma am Secretary of the Interior Sharps. lifle


six-shooter slave driver southron (s.) squatter stake, to pull up stakes staket to drive stakes stake# to move stakes State Department States, the stump speaking stump speech tar, to tar and feather tenderfoot
Tree of Liberty Uncle Sam Union the Vigilance Committee
War Department ward politics Webster's spelling book Webster's dictionary Yankee
yellow dog
Yorkino










. Miscellaneous

Listed below are terms which are not included in the preceding lists or in the section following,


ad
bogus (A.) bully (A. ) bully (aft. and A=,) chromo (v.)?2 C.OD.
crank (g.) extra (u.) hayseed (A.)
horse sense


level headed nifty73


putty blower revamp
sidewalk snake (X.) telegram tin can vendue


I. Auut LZd gauRQUau aIa

The rich language material of the American West,
which Harte brought into literary service, consisted of many words which the pioneer had borrowed from the languages of
the non-.nglish speaking peoples with whom he came in contact. It consisted, also, of freshly minted expressions which served to fill the needs of a society confronted with

72 The only evidence cited in the DA for this verb is from Harte.
73 The first evidence in the DA for j is from Harte.










new facts and new ideas. But the pioneer did not confine his
linguistic inventiveness solely to the business of supplying
new words when new words were needed. The same exuberance
which caused him to rearrange old words in new and frequently
striking patterns also caused him to create a host of new
words for which there was no real need.
When the opportunity came for Harte to say something
about the language of the pioneers, it was only natural that
he should speak of its most striking and amusing feature, its
slang. Of the Argonauts he writes:
They took a sardonic delight in stripping all meretricious finery from their speech; they had a sarcastic
fashion of eliminating everything but the facts from poetic or imaginative narrative. With all that terrible
directness of statement which was habitual to them, when they indulged in innuendo it was significantly cruel and
striking. . . . They indulged sparingly in poetry and
illustration$ using only its rude, inchoate form of
slang. Unlike the meaningless cues and catch-words of
an older civilization their slang was the condensed
epigrammatic illustration of some fact fancy, or per,* ception. Generally it had some significant local derivation. The half-yearly drought brought forward the
popular adjuration "dry up" to express the natural climax of evaporated fluency. "Played out" was a reminiscence of the gambling-table, and expressed that hopeless condition when even the operations of chance are suspended. To "take stock" in any statement theory,
or suggestion indicates a pecuniary degree o trustful
credulity. One can hardly call that slang, even though it came from a gambler's lips, which gives such a vivid
condensation of death and the reckoning hereafter as
was conveyed in the expression "handing in your checks."
In those days the slang was universal; there was no occasion to which it seemed inconsistent.74
94W lg, Ii, Introduction$ xxi-xxvii.










In the prefatory note to the Glossary of Far-Western

Terms appended to the collected edition of his writings,75

Harte notes that many of the phrases he has chosen, "although generally accepted in their original meaning have,

in the course of years, become so abridged and condensed as
no longer to convey by their mere terms any comprehensive
idea or awaken any consecutive thought."76 He continues:

That tremendously emphatic Westernism, "You bet,'"
may be offered as an instance. To a foreigner it conveys nothing, although as It first caught the public
fancy in its original form, "You can bet your life on it," it was capable of translation, "You get!" is another instance of this abbreviation. It stood originally as "You get out of this!"--but the abbreviated
form Is unintelligible without this recollection. The
well-kno-wn idyl of the stranger iho awakening one
night at a Califora hotel saw a turglar entering his window, is a case in point, "You get." he said,
leveling his revolver at the intruder. "You bet,"
was the prompt rejoinder of the burglar as he disappeared. Yet these four purely legitimate English
words, each intelligible in themselves are not comprehensible to the average English reader without the omitted portion of the sentence. The well-knov, Californian imperative to silence, "Dry up," was finally
reduced to "Dry," and became meaningless. . . . The saying," to take the cake," which had its origin in the vell-known prize "walk" of the negro waiter, at
the American watering-place hotel, has becoaw popular
in England, but is now known under its delightful
English paraphrase of "taking the Huntley end Palmer,"
the celebrated English cake and biscuit manufacturers.
One can-imagine the future philologist hoplessly involved in this new obscurity, and can conceive that the
eventual doom of all slang may be that it shall become
too recondite rather than too vulgar.7?

75 I., XIX, 267-27k.
76 1=, p. 267.

77 J=.1 pp. 267-268.











Harte was not a scientific student of language, of course. Although he never clearly defines slang, it is obvious from the expressions he chooses to discuss under that heading that he drew no sharp line between slang and colloquial usage. It is probable also that few of his contemporary critics who deplored his frequent use of slang used the term as precisely as it is used today. The following list, therefore, includes both slang and colloquial terms,

bald-headed, to snatch bald-headed
bell, to ring the bll
bet, you bet
big, big Indian

big, big pond
bighead
bone yard
bottom dollar, to go one's bottom dollar
buck, to buck against the tiger

bummer

bum (y..) caboodle
cahoots, in cahoots with

calico (3., 1+J
cavort
chance (3.)
Chiv











cold deck complected conniption coon' s age corn-cracking coyote (l.b.)
crawfi shing dead beat deadhead don't care-.-damn-itivene ss dry up doggery dog (I.) drop, to get the drop on duck (a.) dust (X.)

dust out euchre (r.) fetch

flume, to go up the flume fork, to fork over
freeze (y.) freeze, to freeze to
frozen gas (I.)










go (X.)
go, go it blind go) from the word go
go, it's a go gonene ss gospel sharp gouge
Greaser grit
hair, to have (one) where the hair is short hash
hash ymna silm hardpan, to strike hardpan hard papers
hard-shelled head, to put a head on heathen Chinee heeled hickory highfalutin honest Indian honeyfuggle hump (y.) hunky (a.) ink slinger jackass rabbit











4erusalem
j imminy keep, not to care whether school keeps or not kiyi

knock down (z.) lallygag lay, to lay over light, to light out marble sharp Negro, a nigger in the fence
no sabe old soldier paints to paint the town red pard
peach peter out pick, to pick up pile
plank down play Cx. 4.) play (v. 5.b. (3) (a) played plug (U.)

pot-house previousness
pungle










rail, to ride on a rail raise, to make a raise rake, to rake down rats
riffle, to make the riffle
rooks root, to play roots on rope, to rope in row, to have a hard row to hoe sabe (ao.) sabe (z.) salt (z.) sand
sashay savvy sead
send-off shadbelly shake shebang shebang, the whole shebang shindig shine, to take a shine to show, to have no show shucks










skee siaks
skin (X.) skirmish around skunk (y.) skyugle skyute sling, to sling hash slumgullion small potatoes smarty splendiferous spondulics
stamp (4.) stamping ground staving strap (X.), strapped (a.) strike, to strike it strike, to strike it rich tanglefoot throw, to throw off throw, to throw off on toe, to toe in tony
truck Uncle Sam
vamooso










vamoose, to vamoose the ranch
velvet
wade, to wade in
white
whoop, to whoop (it) up
wildest
yellow dog

Ggti icanisms


Listed below in alphabetical order are those terms for which Harte supplies the first evidence recorded in the DA. Following each term are the respective dates assigned in the DA and in the Lexicon to the quotation cited.

battery (a. 6.), 1871, 1871 Bolivar (. 2.), 1860, 1860
bucker (a,2), 1898, 1897
chromo (z.), 1877, 1877
crab, to turn the crab, 1867, 1865
dust, to dust out, 1871, 1871 euchre (, 2.), 1876, 1875-76
freeze (I. 3.), 1876, 1876
freezing out (2.), 1877, 1877
go, it's a go$ 1878, 1878
grub wages, 188, 1883









min (a. 1), 1879, 1878
nifty, 1865, 1865
pay gravel, 1871, 1869
peach (n. 2.b,), c1870, 1863
pinto (2. A.), 1867, 1865
play (z. I+.), 1871, 1868
poker flat, 1869, 1869
pole (X, 2.0.), 1862, 1862
pre-empt (X. b.), 1876, 1875-76
roaring camp, 1871, 1868
sabe (a.), 1875, 1874
savvy (a.), 1870, 1870
Sierran (2. A.), 1873, 1873
skunk away, 1894, 1894
sluice robbing, 1873, 1870
sluicing (A. 2.), 1869, 1869
sotana, 1877, 1882-83
stake, to move stakes, 1862, 1862
standoff (a. b,)t 1883, 1883
tear-round (1. /sev. Zssz, X. 3./), 1872, 1872
valda, 1871, 1862
whistle, to whistle down, 1869, 1869
yerba buena (2.), 1882, 1882

Earlier evidence than that shown in the DA will be
found in the Lexicon for Harte's use of the following terms.








71
The first date folloving each term is the date assigned to the DA's first quotation. The second is the date assigned to the first quotation given in the Lexicon.

alkali (1.), 1870, 1865
avitor, 1868, 1867
bedrock (2.), 1873, 1869
bell, to ring the bell, 1928, 1893
bottom zock (a&.), 1887, 1886
chaqueta, 1902, 1885
cutthroat (3.b.), 1870, 1865
cold deck (A. tU.), 1880, 1875-76
coolleism, 1870, 1867
corral (. =J.), 1890, 1868
fish geranium, 1865, 1862
freezing out (2.), 1877, 1874
German (1.), 1863, 1860
go, it's a go, 1878, 1860
horse bean, 1909, 1896
kiyi (. t .), 1904, 1898
level (XL. and A. 2.), 1870, 186k
ranch (v. 1. intr.), 1872, 1866
rat (ui. 5. ao), 1890, 1889
sand (n. 1.), 1875, 187sanitary (2.), 186k, 1863
shindig, 1873t 1871










shoulder strap, 1895, 1873
snake-rail fence, 1948, 1888
temblor, 1896, 1875-76
velvet (A.), 1901, 1887
wade, to wade in, 1872, 1863

For the following two terms the first evidence in the DA is of the same date as that given in the Lexicon,

head, to put a head on, 1868
lay, to lay over, 1868

IV# Bubable Amao�~IAuand Sonan ILu i =l )Za PA The following list is made up of terms used in
combinations or in senses not illustrated in the DA, t.t which have for one reason or another some claim to the status of Americanims. 74 M h a 9ZAt is, for instance, an obvious variant of the DA's I t (or UW) th gZah. Similarlyt the adjective a as Harte used it is clearly derived from



big Indian hard papers
buck-jump corn-cracking crab, to catch a crab keno-flopper
dumb ague lallygag (ftang.)
dust (gUA.-Ir-an.) little monte










monte shop rough papers nigger (v.) Lsense not shanghai man recorded/
tula fever
papoose ease
slumgullion Lsense not
pony express messenger recordeW
prairial wash, to wash up
ranch (X. jZ .)

For the following terms the dates supplied in the DA appear to be incorrect.

clear, to clear out sotana
fetch (X. 1.) shoe peg
The date 1877 is assigned by the DA to the quotations illustrating I g gMl j , end g , and the source cited is in each case the volume "s . . " ("Story of Mine, etc."). According to the manuscript bibliography prepared by Charles Masker Kozlay, the individual stories from which each of the DA's quotations is actually taken are all of a later date (1ta g 2U is from "Flip: A California Romance," which appeared in print first in the WLUgow Iild at various dates during July, 1882; getg is from "Found at Blazing Star," first printed in the A I on March 5 and 12, 1882; g is from "At the Mission of San Carmel," which was first printed in the EU & of December 31, 1882, and January 7, 1883). Furthe; Kozlay does not list any of the stories in question among the con-








71+
tents of ZbialgX 2 L Xjas until the 1896 edition. For the 1877 edition and immediately subsequent editions Koslay gives no list of contentsp indicating (according to his usual practice) that the title piece alone made up the entire volume. Also, for "At the Mission of San Carmel," from which .an is taken, Koslay supplies the additional information that the manuscript is dated November 114, 1882.
For a4 a& the DA assigns the date 1876, and indicates the source as "Rj t IM Q ." According to both Kozlay and the DA's bibliography, j Q Z (dated 1879) first appeared in 1878. The story from which the DA's quotation is taken, "The Hoodlum Band," was first published, according to Koslay, in Q~dg3zf Lgg la Z1, January, 1878.
Curiously enough, A U& is also incorrectly entered in the DA. From the context it is plain that Harte meant b e in the DA's sense 1. "A small wooden peg used to fasten shoe soles to the uppers or to each other"; and not in sense 2.t "A variety of Indian corn, or the grains of such corn, somewhat resembling the pegs used in shoemaking." Harte's "honest Connecticut farmer" did not fail to note the resemblance between the corn and the pegs, but he probably saw it in the reverse order:
Nowhere in the valley of the Connecticut the sun shone
upon a more peaceful, pastoral, manufacturing commiunity.
The wooden nutmegs were slowly ripening on the trees, and
the white-pine hams for Western consumption were gracually










rounding into form under the deft manipulation of the
hardy American artisan, The honest Connecticut farmer
was quietly gathering from his threshing-floor the shoepegs, which, when intermixed with a fair proportion of
oats offered a pleasing substitte for fodder to the
effete civilizations of Furope.

The following represent nonce uses and can be called
Americanisms only through courtesy.


Boucicault (1.) oharooal (x.) Christy minstrel crazy quilting party ha sh gymna slum


hayfooted marble sharp phantasmagoriana
Sally Reb skyuts


78 , I, 213.






























LIXICON











ExafAtoz ngu

Terms in the Lexicon are classified as follows: Americanisms (designated by the letter "A" within parentheses), Hispanicisms (designated by the letter "S" vithin parentheses), terms which are both Americanisms and Hispanicisms (designated by the letters "SA" within parentheses), and putative Americanisms (designated by the symbols "?A" within parentheses). Although the symbols of classification are placed as close to the headword of each entry as is consistent with clarity, they refer to all combinations or senses illustrated below.
Because of the fact that most of the entries are Americanisms, the Lexicon is designed to be used in conJunction with the D o Ams ranlga. Therefore, all entries of Americanisms are arranged insofar as possible according to the system of classification used by the DA. This arrangement has permitted the saving of much space in that definitions could be omitted--the DA's definitions being presumed to apply in all *ases except where noted.
In the case of all other entries, definitions are supplied. It was deemed unnecessary, however, to supply for other entries the customary designations indicating parts of speech. For putative Americanisms this infor-










mation would have been superfluous; for Hispanicisms (used in English contexts) it would have been oonfusing. lurtherl although diacritical marks are used with all Hispanicisms which have not become Americanisms, they are used with those Hispanicisms which have also become Americanisms only when their use was consistent with American spelling practices as indicated by the DA.
The order of the evidence given under each entry is as follows, (1) the date of the earliest known publication of the quotation cited, (2) the title of the story, poem, or other piece of writing from which the quotation was taken,
(3) the quotation (freely condensed, with only internal omissions generally indicated by suspension points), (4) within parentheses, arabic numerals (or letter abbreviations and arabic numerals), separated by commas, indicating volume and page in the W�illagg (or other source79) from which the quotation was taken, (5) within square brackets, lexical information or other commentary.
Quotations supplied are not necessarily the earliest available for the term illustrated. Only In cases where the earliest use was felt to be significant was it chosen over later and equally pertinent ones.
The place of original publication for each piece
cited in the Lexicon may be found in the partial bibliography

79 See p. 21).









79
contained in the Appendixt
All abbreviations used in the Lexicon are those of the DA. In aeor4ance with the practice of th DA (and other dictionaries of its kind), stylistic liberties have been taken for the sake of presenting the mterial in the Lexicon In as economical a manner as possible.










Al ,a u. (A)
atriho 1902 "Prosper's 'Old Mother'" /Prosper waA/
ushered at last into a small tank-like sitting room, whose chief decorations consisted of large AD gi shells, (19t162).
a, r. (SA). 1881+ "A Blue Grass Penelope" But why did you send for the abogado Poindexter when my brother called? (1+, 178) LQuoted by DA/
abma (S). Absurd, nonsensical. 1875-76 "Gabriel Conroy" It is said it is not two months that he first came here, and she fell in love with him at the first glance. Absurdo! (13, 238).
ad, Z. (A). 1899 "The Boom in the 'Calaveras Clarion'" You mean well, I know, but the second Dimmidge "ad" was a mistake. (16, 179).
aIg�(S). Forward, go on. 1888 "The Argonauts of
North Liberty" It is finish--Adelante! Dr-r-rive on! (11, 218).
Mdlog, iataL1. (SA). 1871 "In the Mission Garden" Adios, Selior. (12, 105).
Ad , A. (SA)
1. 1882-83 "At the Mission of San Carmel" But lilies
don't look well on the refectory table and against the adobe wall. (3, 393).
bo 1865 "Early Californian Superstitions" It was a low, one-story adobe, with projecting eaves and galleries. (20,147).
2. 1900 "A Widow of the Santa Ana Valley" I saw y.r
stock . . . waddling along, fat as the adobe they were stick-









Ing ino (17, lo).
b. Napo &fk AaU. 1882-83 "At the Mission of San Carmel" It was in this plain that the limitless fields of grain clothed the flat adobe soil. (3, 388),
Aliulturl 1jnr~ . See Iarm.j L 3- Wi) PA&" Uad41A (S) Holy water. 1875-76 "Gabriel Conroy" As she went out she partook of agua bendita. (139 239).
a -le4aMt, a. (BA) 1867 "The Right Eye of the Comndr" Under the malign Influence of Peleg and several glasses of aguardlente the conder lost somvhat of his decorum. (1, 1+01).
a(S) A Nev Year's or Christmas gift. 1882-83 "At the Mission of San Carmel" He put into xy hand gold for an agunaldo. (3, 1o05).
Ah, a a a Al *2.m (s) Ah, the way the world goes. 187 .76 "Gabriel Conroy" Father Felipe . . . took a philosophical pinch of snuff, and muttered-*"Ah lo quae es el sudo .91.A*(139 ,58).

jj JA d anomagd i igL U (8) At your service. 1899 "What Happened at the Fonda" Miss Cota threw out her two arms with a graceful gesture and a profound curtsey, and said,- "A Is disposiion de usted, sefor. " (17, 63).
1 a, a, (SA) 1901 "A Ward of Colonel Starbottle' s"
I am about to take my ward out . . . to--er--taste the air in the Alameda. (19, 136) /Cited by DA, but not attrib. to Hart/.









aal" a6 (SA) 1872 "Concepcion de Arguello" He whose father ii Alealde of his trial hath no fear. (12, 79).
aitzueg, a,. (SA) 1885 "Maruja" The patio retained the Spanish conception of alfriad seclusion. (5, 3),
alA1 ,* (A)
1. 1865 OTaillngs*, Second Notice" He announces his intention to go to Washoe, which Is beautifu11y described as being an "Oasis of sage brush lying in a field of alkali."
(SS, 93).
2.b.(l) Azkal sAsz1. 1890 "A Waif of the Plains" The
transit of the dreary alkali desert . . . Lwau/ but a blurred picture in his memory. (9, 60).
am a (8) Marshy ground where cattle grate. 1884
"A Blue Grass Penelope" LShe woul/ gaze abstractedly from the dark embrasures of her windows across the stretching almarjal to the shining lagoon beyond that terminated the estuary. (4, 181).
Aaaiuzig, U. (SA) 1871 "In the Mission Garden" Come,
salute me the stranger Americano. (12, 104). 1875-76 "Gabriel Conroy" She is Americana. (13, 237).
AZICAxlag, X. Also er id, jt* (A) 1863 "John Chinaman" Yet a neater-fitting boot than that belonging to the Americanized Chinaman is rarely seen on this side of the continent. (14, 221).
a , a. (SA) 1897 "Basta Mahana" Until to-morrow--Amg, alway. (20, +15).









Au, a. (A) 1880 "A Gentlemen of La Porte" I offered
to put it down for a five-dollar ante last night. (20, 202).
wa, I. (A) 1901 "A Buckeye Hollow Inheritance" Uncle Quincy may not have anted up in this matter o' feeling. (18, 19).
AA1UM, A.S
2. In comb: (1) AUILM hglgh (A) 1893 "The Bell-Ringer of Angel's" If you're going to convert me . * * , you might as well make yourself coafortable* As for me, I'l take the anxious bench. (8, 308).
a4a (S). A nickname. 1888 "The Argonauts of North Liberty" This Essmith is like THanson--an apodo-nothing. (11, 217).
agj, z. (A) 1877 "Morning on the Avenues" The other / . . girl/ changed her winged saneals for a pair of "arctics." (1, 96).
szgYxnq I&. (SA) 1869 "Friar Pedro' s Ride" Down the arroyo
sped the flying maid. (12, 100).
asluclA(0) Croft, cunning. 1888 "The Argonauts of North Liberty" No, it was astuteia-a trick, a ruse. (11, 216).
aulA jk (). The burning of a heretic. 1887 "The Crusade of the Rxeelslor" She and Miss Chubb patronize the Mexican school with . . . old novels and books of poetry--of which the padre makes an auto-4a.-ft. (6, 180).
Ajzig, a. (A) 1867 (Til) "Avitor." (12, 281) L4arte probably coined AX1tgz esp. for this poem. The author of the







84
DA' S qot. (1868 SOUQm b=2z1) had doubtless seen Harte' a Poem in the SAM fraZAUaa ha AM1d%1A of Jan. 26, 1867j
Jx AA AL (8) Alas, poor me. 1902 "The Sword of Don J:os" 'Tie hA sword! Ay de ml) (20, 427).
Iax'Asttaw z. (SA) 1863 "The Legend of Monte del Diablo"
Disjointed memoranda, the proceedings of ayuntamientos have been my inadequate authorities. (1, 382).
bag~tgla (S) Bagatelle, trifle. 1885 "Maruja" It is not such bagatela that Faquita is here to relate. (5, 40).
bald-headgdv A.
bo, I& XMIah (.2X) hUI-hoaagd. (A) 1885 "An Apostle of the Tales" I used to be the organist and tenor in our church in the States. I used to snalfoh the sinners bald-headed with that. (4, 330).
ba11 , n. In comb.1 (I) UQb A . (A) 1890 "A Ward of the Golden Gate" That tBaby Senator' . . . was surrounded by his Idiotic vorshipers and toadies and ballotbox stuffers. (7, 220).
baa@ZI (S) Small dart with a bannerol thrust into the nape of a bul. 1895 "The Devotion of Enriquex" He bristled vith banderillas like a hedgehog, but remained vith his haunches against the barrier. (10, 351).
banse11.r o (8) He who sticks the andillas in the bull's neck. 1895 "The Devotion of Enriques" The first bull had entered, and, after a rather brief play with the picadors and banderilleros, was dispatched. (10, 350).










kaaQ, n. (A) 18% "Devil's Ford" You couldn't do anything on a banjo? (1, 316).
baZ Sza., X. (A) 1891 "A First Family of Tasajara" What
did I rig up my shed and a thousand feet of lumber for benches at the barbecue for? (8# 3),
u n. (A)
l.b. 1902 "Dick Boyle's Business Card" Only a big Injin scare at Pine Barrens.... (19, 235).
s , a. (A)
1. 1878 "The Hoodlum Band" He had introduced baseball, blind hooky, marbles, and peg-top among his Indian subjects. (1, 227).
b. 1878 "The Hoodlum Band" A heavy blow on the head from a baseball bat, and the rapid projection of a baseball against his stomach, brought the tutor a limp and lifeless mass to the ground. (1, 216).
2. In comb.o (2) &Ul (a) 1878 "The Hoodlum Band" I
have already organized two caucuses in a baseball club, and bribed the delegates of another. (1# 217).
bialiouz, Zk*1 (A)
6. 1871 "The Babes in the Woods" A man would pull out his battery For anything-maybe the price of whisky. (12, 139) LCited by DA under date 1871, app. from sub-heading
"Big Pine Flat, 187.!/
kgdZook, a. (A)
1. 1902 "An Ali Baba of the Sierras" But it was not the







86
gold of the locality, of the tunnel, of the "bed rock." (17,
334).
2. =tE. 1869 "Tennessee's Partner" To come down to the bed-rock, it's Just this: Tennessee, thar, has played it pretty rough and expensive-like on a stranger. (1, 1+6) &PA's first quot. is 1873.&/
bal, a. (A)
4.d. (1) TZI &j k . 1893 "The Heir of the MeHulishes" Nothing mean about Jimm as an advocate or an arbitrator, either, is there? Rings the bell every time, don't he? (11, 359) LDA's first quot. is 1928J&/
a , A. (A)
1. 1862 "Notes by Flood and Field" Here's the lower bench of the foothills, and here's Altascar's corral, and that white building you see yonder is the casa. (1, 355).
Im, x. (3) = belt, ZM U1 z (A). 1885 "Snow-Bound at Eagle's" Ha'z about ez good es they make 'em--you bet. (5, 201).
b, a. (A)
5. In comb.: (18) at 2 . 1898 "The Desborough Connections" Old Desborough could , . , have 'bought up' or 'bought out' the whole lot of his relatives on this side of the big pond. (16t 267).
XLIda. (?A). = DA's XL 42L, q.v.

1892 "The Conspiracy of Mrs. Bunker" Jim Rider* you know, the Southern banker and speculator, . . . i" a regular big







87
Injin among the 'Chivs.' (8, 430) LNot recorded by DAA/
kbibadq noL CA)
3. 1889 "Captain Jim's Friend" Overpraise for an occasional scrimmage with road agents and flattery from Eastern greenhorns have given them the big head. (5, 386).
P fls 1. Hence A&& ReubpslanLa. (A). 1867 "St. Patrick's Day at Slumgullion Center" Col. Bungstarter then dwelt upon the evils of Black Republicanism and Coolietax. (Fron; 98).
kLW, a. and U. (A)
5. In comb.o (8) I. 1886 "A Millionaire of Roughand-Ready" Times you get so tangled up in follerin' that blind lead o' yours you ain't sensible. (5, 253).
gaozi, ,A. (A). 1878 "The Hoodlum Band" "Fishwomant" screamed the Amaxonian queen. "Bloomerite?" shrieked the mermaid. (1, 221).
lUA, a. (A)
. In comb.o (7) Jma- 1877 "Roger Catron's Friend" Ye want some blue mass--suthin' to onload your liver. (2, 338).
Juegrasmu, A. (A)
5. Attrib. with ugigU. 1884 "A Blue Grass Penelope"
/She wa�/ born . . . in that vast grazing district of Kentucky known as the "Blue Grass" region. (4s 126).
blugn , a. (A)
1. 1891 "A Few Words About Mr. Lowell" Judge Haliburton
had already drawn "Sam Slick," but it was the Yankee re-








88

garded from the "outside,"--as he was wont to aggressively present himself to the neighboring *Blue Noses." (20, 257).
hwtt ZI.L (A) 1895 "In a Follow of the Hills" While I was looking, the whole face o' that bluff bowed over softly
and got clean away somewhar before I knowed it. (10, 43)
1= A--2 (A)

2. 1878 "Two Saints of the Foot-Hills" No ghost kin rake down the pot ag'in the keerds I've got here. This ain't no bluffs (2, 372).
1=, X02 (A)
2. Ai.. 1889 "Captain Jim's Friend" To think that . . yer I am--bluffed again. (5, 371).
h gZd, X. (A)
3. 1895 "In a Hollow of the Hills" And I reckon it's about time, boys, as the game's up, that we handed in our checks, and left the board. (10, 8-9).
k (8) Fool, dunce. 1875-76 "Gabriel Conroy" Sine* he had read the letter, his self-consciousness had centred upon a single thought, expressed to him in a single native word, "Bobo." (13, 120).
k i, A. (A) 1877 "The Man from Solano" It was such a glaring chain, so obviously bogus, that my eyes were fascinated by it. (2, 426).
b , a. In comb.: (11) jh4Z. (A) 1874 "The Fool of Five Forks" There was . . . a general demand for "boiled shirts" and the barber. (2, 4Wo).










klz(S) Spanish dance. 1885 "Snow-Bound at Eagle4's" LI voul have got out and danced a saraband or bolero with you. (5, 219),
i.azi A* (A)
2. 1860 "Ran Away" My outfit . . . was complete. It consisted of . . . &A / a peculiar kind of cake-resembling in shape the almanac cuts of the sun--called a Bolivar.
(20, 73) LDAIs first quot.6/
, n.(SA)
1.* Used attrib. 1878 "With the Entrees" but here two perfunctory listeners suddenly turned toward the other end of the table, where another guest, our Nevada Bonansa lion, was evidently in the full flood of pioneer anecdote and narration. (II, 1l .


2. a,. (A) 1887 "The Crusade of the Excelsior" We look
back upon our concerts and plays, our minstrel entertainments, with the incomparable performances of our friend Crosby as
Brother Bones.... (6, 67).
I"aZd. (A) 1897 "The Ancestors of Peter Atherly" Not sir, she played this yer camp for all it was worth . . ., and now she's lyin' out thar in the bone yard . . . a-roarin' at us in marble. (16, 8).
I= n.2 (A)
2. 1899 "The Secret of Sobriente's Wel" Wells es I was









sayin', he warn't in it nohowt but kept on his regtlar way when the boom was the biggest. (16, 185).
kQ, x.2 (A)
2. 1= 1885 "Snow-Bound at ragle's" Wait till the Ditch is done. , . . Wait till she begins to boom, and then you Just stand round. (5, 201).
4. tX. 1898 "See Yup" See Yup had conceived the brilliant idea of "booming" it on a borrowed capital of five hundred dollars in gold-dust. (16, 159).
bogr$'*2 (A)
1. 1893 "The Heir of the Mculishes" A regular campaign boomer--the old Meohillsh was. (11, 326).
h (S) Great drunkard. 1875-76 "Gabriel Conroy" Borrachon! She was there! (13, 239).
k=, U.I (A)
1. 1899 "Liberty Jones's Discovery" You Jest get back to your scrubbin'--d' ye hear? I'm boss o' this shanty, you bet! (15, 370).
122=, z. U. (A) 1875-76 "Gabriel Conroy" The true democratic impulse . * . "gave us the right to run the machine ourselves and boss the Job." (lI, 121).


6. In comb.t (2) 1Az.. (A) 1891 "The New Assistant at Pine Clearing School" As he's regularly buckled down to the work here, and will go his bottom dollar on it, you can safely leave things to him. (8, 236).










6. In comb.: (10) z. Also fig. 1886 "Devil's Ford" If there's any one es knows how to come square down to the bottom rock without flinchin', it's your high-toned, fash'nable gals. (4, 409). &A's first quot. (fig) is 1887./
, Z. (?A). To adapt to other purposes. 1860
"A Case of Blasted Affections" He was attired In the height of the prevailing fashion and his boots were glossy as the raven's wing. (You may have met that idea of the "raven's wing" as applied to the hair of the human head. I only claim the merit of Boucieaulting it in another situation.) (20, 69).
LNot recorded by DA,/
b , U. (A). 1865 "One Horse Flat" in "Tailings*, See. ond Notice" I have hid the bower, Pardner-I would do thee wrong. (SS, 92).
bg , j A (A)

2. bMog kn~. 1869 "The Outcasts of Poker Flat" But at the head of the gulch, on one of the largest pine-trees, they found the deuce of clubs pinned to the bark with a bowie knife. (1, 26).
b , uo.2 In comb.: (2) MW (b). (A) 187)+ "Guild's Signal" Brakemen and porters glanced ahead, Smiled as the signal sharp, intense, Pierced through the shadows of Providence. (12, 217).
UC&U, X. J. (A) 1895 "The Devotion of Enriquez" The
rodeo-a yearly chase of wild cattle for the purpose of lassoing and branding them--was a rather brutal affair. (10, 3V-8).









DZM , a. (A)
1. 1897 "The Ancestors of Peter Atherly" A sudden childish memory of the great Western plains, and the biers of the Indian "braves" raised on upright poles . . . rushed upon him, (16, 21).
bnak.m, a. (A)
1. 1898 "An omeralda of Rocky Canon" Perhaps the dancing of the girl suggested a negro "break-down" rather than any known sylvan measure. (16, 113).
bigagg, a. and A. (SA)
1. a. 1892 "Busy" It was an evil day! For the bronchos had run away, upset the buggy, and had only been stopped by a brave Americano of an ox,-team. (9, 138).
bw, 10.1
5. In comb.s (11+) aIuaz. (A) 1888 "The Argonauts of North Liberty" But folks get peart and sassy when they're way from hum, and put on es many airs as a buck nigger. (11, 193).
bwk A*" (A)
1. 1899 "What Happened at the Fonda" The first tbuck'
threw him clean into the road, bat didn't stun him. (17, 72).


2. h. (A) 1902 "The Convalescense of Jack Hamlin" As I ain't here to listed to the sisters cackle ye kin put to the buckboard and drive me home es soon es you please. (19, 200).
bwk- .1 (A)









1. be T& jawk Against./ Ithezz. 1893 "An Ingenue of the Sierras" It mout be a young chap from Yolo who bucked agin the tiger at Sacramento. (9, 453).
2. 1=. 1870 "Brown of Calaveras" Why don't you say you want to buck aglin faro? (1, 69). LCted by DA from 1871 volume,/
S1 12 (A)
1. L . 1872 "How Santa Claus Came to Simpson's Bar" Once she bucked, but it was from force of habit; once she shieds but it was from a nev, freshly painted meeting-house. (2, 79).
2. . LWitb/ AIL, Az&1nI�j or t. 1888 "The Argonauts of North Liberty" Bob hounded Johnson and blackmailed him . . . until one day Johnson bucked against It-kicked over the traces. . . . (11# 22.). 1865 "One Horse Flat" in "Tailings*, Second Notice" In the Spring he lightly gambles, . . # holds two aces and he bucks agin three queens. (SS, 92) LPossibly the same as ]a&, z.1 2., q.v., or DA's z.2 1. b., q.v.,/
bk 4.2 (A) 1897 "Uncle Jim and Uncle Billy" The

unfortunate "bucker" was cleared out not only of his gains, but of his original investment. (15, 236) LDA'a first quot. (from 1898 vo3.V
hU~kga, aj. (A)
3. 1877 "An American Haroun al-Raschld" Get off them
flower-beds, you d--d old buckeye, afore I bust your head.









(20, 175).
b, v. (?A) 1899 "What Happened at the Fonda"
Naturally the beast bolted at once, but he managed to hang on by the mane for half a mile or so, when it took to buck-jumpin'. (17, 72) LNot recorded by DA/.
Iaan 2hu (S) Good night. 1892 "Busy" Buenas noches, sector. (9, 158).
b (0) Good, fine. 1882-83 "At the Mission of San Carmel" Will it be said so, think you? Ehl Bueno. (3, 419).
fa1g, a. (A)
1. 1890 "A Waif of the Plains" Hither, Jim hoarsely Informed his companion, the buffaloes came to water. (9, 51).
6. In comb.: (5) s=. 1890 "A Waif of the Plains" It
seemed to be scattered over with half-circular patches, which he pointed out mysteriously as "buffalo chip." (9, 51).
, ,l (A)
1. 1890 "A Waif of the Plains" It himself had once
brought down a "bull" by a bold shot with a revolver. (9, 52).
1Uj, jLA. (A) 1863 "A Lonely Ride" Hope you had a pleasant nap. Bully place for a nice quiet snooze. . .. (1, 338).
b. Used as an exlamation and as an adv. 1863 "How Are You, Sanitary?" Sabre-cuts of Saxon speech, Such as "Bully)" "Them's the peach!" (12, 5).
I&MV X, (A)
1. =. 1896 "Barker's Luck" And it won't do . . . for
us to be seen bumming round with you on the heels of good for-









tune. (10, +07).
me, a. (A)
1. 1865 "The Ruins of San Francisco" The idlers, or 'Bummers,'--a term applied to designate an aristocratic privileged class, who enjoyed immunities from labor# . . . were listlessly regarding the promenaders from the street-corner. (14 , 266).*
Ja11I, a. (A)
1. 1893 "The Home-Coming of Jim Wilkes" There's that old butternut-tree that you shinned up one day when we set the hounds on you. (10, 206).
calw1Lezu, n. (SA) 1872 "Concepcion de Arguello" Vainly
leaning from their saddles, caballerost bold and fleet, plucked for her the buried chicken from beneath their mustang's feet. (12, 80).
gbo g#. (A) 1873 "An Episode of Fiddletown" Colonel Starbottle had remarked, blankly, that . . . she had more soul than the whole caboodle of them put together. (2, 122).
aggbtj A. (A) 1899 "How I Went to the Mines" As I was scarcely able to stand, one of them volunteered to fetch my pack from its "cache" in the bushes four miles away. (18, 2518).
uh1, Ia. (A)
I. I uig1(a) (idh). 1897 "Uncle Jim and Uncle Billy" Like as not, Uncle Billy is still in 'cOhootst 4L�.I.A.bza/ with his old pard. (15, 220).
2. 1890 "A Waif of the Plains" We're cahoots in this




Full Text

PAGE 1

A BRET HARTE LEXICON By HERNANDO JENNINGS WOODS, JR. A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA August, 1952

PAGE 2

TO M. W'. 11

PAGE 3

PREFACE As originally conceived, the present study was to have been a survey of Bret Harteis vocabulary, with special attention being given to his use of American English. The lexical evidence collected was to have been correlated with that of the Dict1Qnerv !J.! E ngli;J!'b. After the work ot collecting and correlating the material had been under way tor some time, however'" the Dlet10nary g! Amer1gan1sm appeared. Although the scope of the DA was much more limited than that of the DAE, it rendered obsolete much of the evidence devoted to American1sms in the latter wark,and established as valid Americanisms a host of terms not designated as such by the DAF. (Although the DAB did not use the clas sification Amer1can1am, its ''+'' designat10n is equivalent to the DAI s definition of the te,rm.) In order to make effective use of the ev1dence presented in the DA and at the same time to avoid the contusion which would have inevitably resulted trom an attempt to correlate Harte' S Americanisms with one work and th remainder of his American English vocabulary with another work, it was necessary to restrict the American English content of the Lex1eon to Americanisms only. In the introi11

PAGE 4

troductory chapters preceding the Lexicon, however, the perspective has been broadened somewhat by the inclusion of additional material which is only partially represented in the Lexicon . In this place I should like to acknowledge a debt ot gratitude to those who have been most responsible for my being able to bring this work to a successful conclusion. To the members ot my supervisory committee, Dr. Fredrick Conner, Dr. T . alter Herbert, Dr. Edwin C . Kirkland, Dr . Alton C . and to the chairman of that committee, Dr . Thomas Pyles, for their patient criticism and guidance, both in the preparation of this study and in other matters, I am deeply grateful. I should like also to thank the authorities of the University for making available to me during my stay at the University of Florida a Graduate Fellowship and a Graduate Assistantship. iv

PAGE 5

DEDICATION " . . . . f • • CONTENtS . . ,. . • • • • • Page 11 PREFACE. • • 41 .. • ; , • . ' • .. • • • • • • .. .. 111 Chapter I. II. III, LEXICON. BAR!E AND AMERIOAN ENGLISH. • • • . ., . HARTE AND OALIJ'ORNtA PLACE' NAMES .. • • • HARTE AND THE SPANISH LANGUAGE, • • • • HARTE' S AMiRICANISMS ••• * •• . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 1 11 23 3; 76 APPEND IX • • • • • • • .. 01 • ,. • ' . .. • • • .. • .. 213 BIBLIOGRAPHY • • • .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . , v

PAGE 6

CHAPTER I HARTE AND AMERICAN ENGLISH Although the diverg, ence of American English from the main body of the language had begun soon aftar the planting on American soil of the first permanent English settlement, it was not until the second half of the nineteenth century that the full force of the tributary stream began to make itself felt in American I1tewsture. 1 Not until the emergence after the Civil War ot a new school of writers was the real spirit of American English able to rise from the colloquial level and the level of ordinary writing to that commonly denominated "11 terature . • " Walt WhItman, Mark Twain, William Dean Howells, Bret Harte, and other writers were to exploit in varying measure the rich language material which America afforded at mid-eentury. During the f1rst half or the century, American Eng11sh had undergone a period of growth little less remarkable than that ot the new nation which tostered it. The v1gorous 1 The growth of American English in the nineteenth century and the recognition accorded it in American litera ture are given extensive treatment in H . L . American , Language (4th ed.; New York: Alfred A . Knopf1 1936), chap . IV, pp. 130 -163. From Mencken's account the brief sum mary in this cha pter is freely adapted . 1

PAGE 7

I 2 westward expansion of the country had found expression in characteristically vigorou s speech . And the vooabulary had been enormously enriched through the formation of new words, the adaptation of old words to new meanings, and through the importation of a host of foreign words . With the Atlantic seaboard still in thrall to Euro pean and English manners of expression, it was from the West i teal! tlvlt Alnerican 11 tC!'att: .re was to receive its first ma jor lnfu ion of colloqu ial idiom . Although he never spoke for all of the West in the sense that Mark Twain was to do, it was Bret Harte,a produot of the East, who first pressed into ser vice a large portion of the characteristioally lan guage material. Just as Harte never suc ce eded in embodying in his writings the real spirit of the Wes as did Mark Twain, he likewise neVer sucoeeded in giving full expression to the genius of the American people or their language as a Whole, as Mark Twain was to do.2 For Hartet s own language , as it ap pears in his writings w s always governed in a large measure by conformity to the cultivated practice ot his native East, which was in turn bas ed upon English literary usage . In short, 2 Comprehensive studies of Mark Twain's v ,ocabulary aret Robert L . Ramsay and Frances G . Emberson , A .Ma.tk .wain Lexicon ("Univers ty of Missouri Studies,n XIII, NO_.1; Colum bia, 1938), and Frances G . Twain s Vocabu1arJ {"University of Missouri Studies," x , No.3; Columbia, 1935 •

PAGE 8

3 ./ Harte's style differs little from that of his American and English predecessors or his English contemporaries.3 Although he employs the native idiom extensively, Harte usually con fines it to the language put into the mouths of his charac ters. Those , of his early writings which are not reportorial are, for an Ameri can writer, remarkably free of Americanisms.4 So far as choice of words is concerned, almost any of Harte's early stories might have been written by a budding Irving, Cooper, or Dickens. It was not until he began to make use of the materials afforded by the frontier civilization of California that Harte began to employ Americanisms extensively. But once he began to work this rich vein of local material in earnest, Harte found ample opportunity to make use of the stock ot language material which he had acquired through his journalistic experience and through direct contact lith t he pioneers themselves. To impart local color to 5 his stories, Harte had begun as early as 1862 to employ Spanish \vords in both conversational and de scriptive pa saage s; and at the same time be had begun to attempt to reproduce 3 See H . O . Merwin Qt Harte (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., chap. XXI, for an extended anal ysi s. 4 As used in this (study, the term means "a word or expression that originated in the United States." (Mitrord M . Mathews, Ii. .Q1 Americanisms LChieago: University of Chicago Press, 1 9 1), I, v . . 5 In "Notes by Flood and Field."

PAGE 9

4 what . passed t the time for "Pike" dialect. When he turned his attention from the struggles of the Spaniard to the mining life of California, arte began to unearth still another rich vein of language material. The suocessful reception aocorded "The tuck of Roaring Camp," whieh had appeared in the second issue of the Oyerlan4 ( August, 1868), eVidently determined arte to continue in the same vein, for he contributed to the Oyq. rliUltl during the next three years some of the best stories of the mining camp tb t he was eVer to produce . Shortly after his second major triumph, the dialect poem, "Plain Language f'rom Truthful James," whioh ap eared in the QverJ,ind f .or September, 1870, arte re sponded to the call of the East and left C l1fornia, never to return. While it 1s true that -arte spent much of' the time at his disposal for the remainder of his life in generally unsuccessful attempts to turn his literary talents to neW subjects and genres, i t \'1aS to the "sure-fire" Western material that he inevitably returned. In the first place, the Western short story--as Harte produced be turned out with relative ease; it required little more than a rearranging of stock incidents and characters; and it was 1mtnediately sale ... able--1n England, at least. To Harte, who was constantly in financial difficulties, the opportunity to supplement an al\,lays inadequate income by the quicke st leg1 t1mate means was not often to be ignored.

PAGE 10

Then, too, the Western material, whioh he knew best, seems to have held an attraction for Harte which no other was able to afford him . Although he produced from time to time many individual pleces with non -California settings,6 these writings would comprise if bound together no more than two volumes of the approximately nineteen volumes of prose in the collected (Riyerside) edition; or, in pages, less than 700 of a total of 7, 820 . In the field of drama as wll, Harte found himself once again recasting the old California themes: "Two en of Sandy Bar"--s dramatic expansion of the earlier "Mr. Thomp son's Prodigal,tt with add ,!;lonal characters tal:en from other stories; in collaboration with Mark Twain, the melodrama, flAh Sin"--presumably concerning the "heathen Chinee" and his fur ... ther dealing with the Argonauts;? with T . Edgar Pemberton,8 " Sue" --a dramatization of "The Judgment of Bolinas Plain"to mention only the plays actually completed and produced. If, then, Harte was after 1871 himself "reabsorbed in the eastern civilization trom \'1hich he sprang, n9 it is never-6 Chiefly the following groups: a handful of early sketches, two series of burlesques of novels, Eastern tales (using the American Revolution as sett ng) , burlesques depicting Washington bureaucracy, German sketches, English sketohes, juvenile stories. 7 No copy of the play is known to be extant. 8 Harte's friend and first biographer. 9 George H . M e ight, MOdern in Makjng ( New York: D . Appleton-Century Company, 192 ), p . 550 .

PAGE 11

6 theless apparent that as a writer he was never reabsorbed in that civilization; that he continued to represent--whether willingly or not--the West which had provided the material for his first success. In writing on and on about California, Harte continued to use, naturally, the language material w hich he had previously exploited with marked success. Although it has been impossible to adequately illustrate in t h e Lexicon successive uses of the same term , an examination of the mass of material excluded makes it clear that Harte continued throughout his career to rely heavily upon the same stock of local-color terms which distinguished his early stories. Just as his characters and situations are, recognizable as stock characters and stock situat10ns,lO so much of the local-color language of Harte's stories 1s repet tion according to for-mula . While it has been shown t hat Harte never ceased for long in writing about California, and t hat in so doing h e continu ed to make of the language material of the West, it 1s nevertheless true that after 1871 the n u mber of new Americanisms introduced into his stories decr aSes ap preciably. It is doubtful, however, that l eaving C alifor nia more than partially accounts for his failure to s ub10 Roger Rilus \
PAGE 12

7 stantially to his American vocabulary in later years. A more adequate answer would seem to 11e in Harte's preference f 'or material which had already become historical. Although this preference is most clearly marked in his initial choice at Spanish historical and legendary bjects, it is also true that in writing ot the Argonauts Harte was even from the beginning treating mate rial which belonged more to the past than to the present. The later aspects of the development ot frontier California held little attraction for Harte-even while be still 1i ved in California, . Had he never le ft California it would still be doubtful that Harte would ever have succeeded in treating contemporary life in California-or anywhere else. 11 Harte's neglect of the later phases of Western life undoubtedly acted to severely limit his use of Americanisms. The absence from the Lexi con of many terms which had already come into use in Harte's own day in connection with ranch ng indIcates one aspect of the limitation. As examination of the writings themselves will sho,,! (and as a comparison of the respective lists preceding the Lexicon will suggest), the / ranch setting in Harte's stories actually occupies an amount of space nearly equal to that given to mining . Yet the word 11 In choosing su bject matter for his Eastern Tales, Harte once again turned to the past, this time to the period of the American

PAGE 13

8 CQWboY (in the modern sense) occurs in Harte's writings only twice, in stor es first published in 1897 and 1902 respectively. As applied to on character, Alkali Dick,12 the term has already acquired ot the secondary me ning used to designate Ita person who demonstr tes tor a paying audienc the skills of the cowboy . " For Alkali Dick had long ago left his western plains and was now "employed by Buffalo Bill to simu... W late betore oivilized communities the sports and customs of the unciv1l1zed.n13 The second occurrence of the word is noth ing more than the reference to the appellation "Inspired Cowboy," bestowed upon an unlettered frontiersman who h d turned preacher.14 Hartet s cowhands are in reality not CO,\,looyS at all--they are vaqueros; Mexicans, not Americans.15 In ranchp ing, as in other phases of Western lite, Harte had no need to trouble himself with rev sing his vocabulary to keep pace with changing conditions which had no interest for him. The same factor which served to limit the size of 12 "The Strange Experiences of Alkali Dick." 13 1WI. Writings W.:t. Harte (20 vols" "Riverside Edition"; Boston: Houghton , Mifflin and Company, 1902-1914), XVI, 338 . Subsequent quotations from Harte are from this ed., hereafter referred to as Writings. 14 "Mr. MacGlowrie's Wido ," Writ1ng, XIX, 106 . 15 In a letter to his friend Hatton, who was collaborating in the dramatizing of "M' liss, It Harte carefully points out that B onebre ker "should have a exican vaquero's dress (W4t..a cowboys) •••• (& betters Q! Harte, edt Geof frey Bret Harte L Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 192Qj), p . 352 .

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9 Harte' s American vocabulary, however , served also to increase its effectiveness. Not only was Harte instrumental in intro ducing to the Ameri can and British reading public a host of ne\oJ words which were the product of the final phase of American westward expansion; but his repeated use of the same terms undoubtedly gave them wider currency than they would otherwise have attained . • In this connection it is im-portant to bear in mind the tact t ha t during his lifetime Harte ' s writings enjoyed a degree of popularity entirely disproportionate to their pre entd y reputation. If Harte contented himself with representing only one aspect of the American scene--the California of the recent past--he was yet able within the limits he set to treat many phases of the bustling life of frontier California. To enumer ate all of them would require far more pace than the present limited discussion can fiord. A perusal of the lists preceding the Lexicon will, however, indicate that Van Wyck B rooks is essentially correct in stating that Harte uln one .or another of his many stories. • • sketc hed first or last virtually every phase of this ocia1 scene.n16 Before he began to sketch this scene in stories, however . , Harte spent several years in observing it and storing up materials for future use. In the speech habits of the rgonaut the sophisticated 16 l:he. Times.o.!. awl (,LNew York/: E . p . Dutton & Co., Inc., 19 7 , p . 27 •

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10 young Easterner observed distinctive features. The first of these was a characteristic freedom of expression: slang was , he found, universal, A second feature was the eaSe with which the Argonaut adopted into his vocabulary Spanish words and expressions. But the Argonaut had not only made these practices an integral part of his speech; he had, Harte observed, sanctified them by engraft1ng them upon his land as well. The slang which gave . spice to his speech served also to distInguish the Argonaut ' s mining oamps, and t e names the Spaniard had affixed to the land before him, he was happy to adopt . Not all of the place. names in California were of slang or Spanish origin, of course, but these two classes were the ones which interested Harte most and the ones ieh he was to make most use of in his later stories. Although only five of the place names in Harte' s stories have made their way into the language properl? (i. e . , are recorded by the DA), an account ot Harte' s nterest in and use of the American and Spanish place namos of California will serve as an introduction to the more detailed study of his Americanisms . l?See p . 16 .

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C HAPTER II HARTE AND C A LIFORNI A PLACE NAMES To those of his readers who had "little kn owledge of California nomenclature, it must have seemed that Harte had often given free re:in to his fancy and created place na mes especially to suit the character of his But for v' the characters of his fiction Harte d i d not need to create unusual place names, for the California pioneers had in fact provided him \-lith an array colorful enoug h to rna tch any of the exaggerations in character or incident he might choose to make. If Harte created any n ames for his minIng-camp communities, he certainly created none more colorful or un-u 81 t h an those of his tutors .. 18 With one important excep ... tion, Hartels mining .... camp names are representative of most of the t ypes e mployed in t h e California mining country during the Gold Rush per1od .. 19 It there are 1n Harte's stories no touseyilles, Pett1<;Qat S11qe, pin<;oemtlght:a, Bloody Gu1chs, 18 In creating names for non-existent places, Harte depende d upon word-play; e .g., Al Ka 11, Assmann'" hlij1sen; Ghoul1 fasA, Ducidbad; K Oh1s1au, P QQt1bad, P :r.::etzel .. Breunstwig, Tm.lyruIslan1a. 19 For a statistical analysis of these typesi se e H . F , R au P 1 " P l a ce N a mes of the California Gold Rush," Q.Q,greph1.ca:t, XXXV (1945'), 653 -658, . 11

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12 or Raggedas Creeks;20 it must be remembered that he had need for respectability where the pioneers did not. But the diversified nomenclature of CalIfornia offered another class of names equally well suited to the needs of the local-color writer. Spanish p l a ce names, as well as Spanish characters and expressions, gave to Harte's writings a fresh and vivid quality immediately apparent to his Eastern and English audience . In addition, California geography of the Six ties afforded numerous examples of Ind1an and pseud o ... Indi n place names, as well as those which followed the more familiar patterns of American and English lace ... naming . Names selected from each of these classes, together with a small number obviously named for his fictional characters, constitute the toponymy of Harte's California. Few writers of fiction have used place names so l1berally in their writings as did Harte in his tales of California. For simply using the names at his disposal Harte of course deserves no speCial credit. Harte realized to a greater extent than most \flri tars the potential value of certain place names for descrlptlve purposes. In Harte'S tales of the Gold Rush geogr phlcal accuracy not infrequently s uffers at t he expense of the connotatiV'e values to be derived 20 E rwin G . Gudda, Callfornla NameS: A GeQgraph Dlctlonary(Berkeley: The University of California Press, Introductlon, p . xxi.

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froll1 using cart in names. 21 l-1 ers from another settlement are rarely just that; they are individualized as the boys from Angel t , 22 PQXetty na.t.t or A romance takes place, not just in a hollow, but in Jltadroiio HPJ-J.oil. The blust ry stage ... driver who a ppears in more than a dozen stories is christened Bill, a name which somehow seems almost as much a part of h1s character as do his profen ty and autocratic manner . To understand the importance Harte attached to place names in his star es, one has only to 13 note the p reponderanoe of titles of the pattern of tiThe Luck of Roaring Camp" and "The Outcasts of Poker Flat. " Although Harte real1zed the disadvantages inherent in using such lengthy t1tles,23 he was never able to resist them; they run the gamut of the alph bet from "An Ali B aba of the 8i-arras" to "The Youngest Prospectorin Calaveras. tI As early as 1860, in U\fuat's in a N , ame, n24 Harte 21 Harte's Violations of geographical accuracy are\ noted by Robert L. Fulton., "Glimpses of the Mother Lode," BOQkman, XXXIX (March, 1914), 51, 57. 22 The value of this name lies, of course, in its ironic application to a rough mining settlement. Its origin had, however, nothing to do with either angels or their op posites; it ias sim ply the camp established by George Angel. See Gudde, Ca11tQrnia Pl@ee N pmes, p. 11. 23 Sea Letters, p. 50. 24 George R . Stewart, Jr. , A Bibliography .Q.! !.:Ug.t ;Harte .lJl. Ma gazine s.a.w1 ewspape:s Q.t California of California Publications in Eng-11sh," vol. 3, No.3; Berkeley, 1933), item No. 135 .

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14 r veal d an intere t in Californ a and lestern nomenclature. In addit on to an article on flAmer can G ographical Nam s,,,25 of the preced ng year, Hart printed, in 1865, an ed tori 1, "Californ a Nomenclature ,n26 wh ch contains ua brief' list of towns • • • com os d pr nCipally of names which he used later, such as !lW! D ,and Poker nul "27 Further ev dence of Harte' s early tnt rest 1n astern place names s found in t 0 ser es of limer c s; the r t,28 nrh ed to names of western towns, v z . , ilnitas, QQlg 1!1ll., Folsom, V , Sonora, Qu,tch, Ferry, the second,3 0 to t ose of PaehecQ, XQlQ, ,nd Tuglumoe .3l In add tion, arte' s favorite names for m n ng camps, ingdam and Slumgullion, both of hich had special sign f canee 1n t e vocabulary of t e miner ,32 were s d in fictional s'etches eontr but to loc 1 ne s ap r b for Harte joined the sta f of the Oxetland n 1868 . The pref rence s owed for Sp n sh names in 1860,33 Hart still held w en e lectured years lat r on t e 025 item No. 167 . 27 lQ1g. , s . v . item No. 306 . 26 l.121.Q.. , 1 tem rIo. 306 . 28 item No. 303 . 29 s . v . i tem No. 303 . 30 item No. 330 . 31 !hia. , s . v . item No. 330 . 32 were frequently employed to divert water for use n mining operat ons . For slumgull10n, SE! Lex con . 33 Ste art, Bibliography, s . v . item No. 135.

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15 naut. fter d scussing t he Argonaut's slang, Harte continued: But can we entirely forgive t he Argonaut for making his slang gratuitously permanent, for foisting upon posterity ••• such titles as "One Horse Gulch," " Poke r Flat," "Greaser Cal1on," "Fiddletown," s Bar, It "and Lsis! "Dead Broke"? The map of California is still ghastly with this unhallowed christening. A tourist may well hesitate t o write "Dead Broke," a t the top of his letter, and any stranger would be justified in declining an invitation to "Murderer's Bar . " It seems as if tne early Californian took a sardonic delight in the cont-rast which these names offered to the euphony of the old Span ish titles. It is fortunate t hat with few exceptions'the counties of the State still bear t he soft Castilian labi als and gentle vowels. Tuolumne, Tulare, Yolo , Sonoma, Tehema, Siskyou, and Mend cino , to say nothing of the glorious company of the Apostles Who perpetually pr se California through the Spanish calendar. Yet wherever a ', saint dropped a blessing, some sinner afterwards squatted" with an epithet. Extremes often meet . The omnibuses 1n "San FranC i sco used to run from H appy Valley to the Misslon Dolores. You had to go to Blaises first before you could get to Purissima. Yet I think the ferocious directness of these titles was preferable to the pinchbeck elegan ce of "CopperopolIs, " "Argentinia," the polyglot mon strosities of "Oroville U of "Placerville " or t he remarkable sentiment of ttRomeosburgh" snd nJulietstown. " S ometimes the national tendency to abbreViation was singularly shown. "Jam estown,fI near Sonora, was always known as "Jimtown," and " M oquelwnne Hill,," after first sufter ing torture by being spelt with a 'k," was finally drawn and quartered and now appears on t he stage-coach as "fuk Hill. " T here were some na mes that def ed all conjecture. The Pioneer coaches changee. horses at "Paradox." Why Paradox? No one co uld If there were still any doubt that Harte 1n fact ap plauded the exuberance the Argonauts had shown in christening their soil, i t would be dispelled by referen ce to his deft gibes at the C lifornlan' s attempts to make t h e nomenclature of his state respectable. In "An Episode of Fiddle ... town," for instance, "Hr . Tretheric k brought his blushing 34 Writings, II, Introduction, . .

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16 bride to Fiddletown, or 'Fideleto ro,' as Mrs. T, preferred to call it in her poems.u35 In the following list of California place names used by Harte, names preceded by asterisks are those mich can be definitely traced to characters in his writings. It ls 1m ... possible, of course, to say With certainty that every other name in the list actually existed :J.n fact, for many of the names applied to places by the pioneers were soon replaced and often forgotten. Further, it is not impossible that few of the names listed belong (or did belong) to adjoining states, for Harte was more interested in the names than in the preoise locations they designated. Frisco, Golden Poker llai, Roarini Qamn, and Yerba !}uena, recognize d by the DA, are the only na mes in the list which are inoluded in the Lexioon as independent entries. However, several other Amer caniem are illustrated in the Lexicon by plaoe-name combinations: the attributive burnt, whioh commonly occurs in place na mes, and most of t h e generic geograph cal terms listed under Top ography . Alameda Alamo Alasoo Alcatraz Island Alder Creek 35 llWl. , p . 123. Alkali Station American River Angel ' s (Angels) Aptos Creek *Atherly

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Bald :t>1ountain Top Bannock Big Bend Bluff' Canon Flume City Pine Flat Black Canon Hills Spur Range Blaises Blazer' s Blue Cement Ridge Bodega Bootblack Creek Buckeye Camp Hill Hollow Mills Buena Vista *Bulger ' s Burnt Ridge Spring Butternut Creek Calaveras California Camp Rogue -ville CaIlada City de la Tentaoion del Pio Multero de la Visitacion del Diablo 17 Canada del Diablo Canon of' Los Osos Carquinez, Straights of' Springs Woods Casket Ridge Cave City Cedar Camp Challenge Hill Chemisel Ridge Chestnut Ridge Chinese Camp Clarmont Cloverdale Coast Range Cold Spring Colorado Park *Conroy sHill Contra Costa Cottonwood Creek Coulterville Crystal Spring Davidson ' s Crossing Dead Broke Flat Slope Deadman's Gulch Deadwood Hill

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Dedlow Marsh Devil's Canon Ford Point Spur DOgtown Donner Lake .Dowts Flat Dry Creek DuCk Creek Dutch Creek Flat Eaglets (Court) Eden Eldridge' s Crossing Elko E lktown Eureka Gulch Rill Excelsior City Fair Plains l4'iddletown Fisher's Crossing Five :Sarks Mile Corner Fort Biggs Cass Jackson Point Redwood Four Forks French Camp Fresno Frisco Galloper's Ridge Geiger Grade Gibbon's Point Gilead Valley Golden Gate Gold Hill ... ville Grangerts Grass Valley Greaser Canon Grizzly Canon Hangtown Happy V .al1ey itlHays Baywards Heavy tree Crossing Htll Hemlock Hill Hlekol'Y Hill High Ridge .town Horseshoe . Bay 18

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Humbolt Hymettus Indian Creek Spring Jamestown (J1mtown) Jonesville Jules (Jule$burg) Julie t stown Keelers Ferry Klamath Knightt s FerrY La Grange (Lagrange) La Porte (La Port) Laurel Run S pring Tree Hill Liberty Hill Lime Point Livermore's Pass Llano de E s piritu Santo Logport Lone H and Mountain Prairie Star Mountain Los Gatos Creek LO$ Lobos Los Pinos *Lowvl11e Mad River M adrono Hollow Mariposa Mark ley'" s Hill Markleville Martinez B end Marysville Mattin gly" s Mill Mendioino Merced Canon" Upper M1nyo Rivet Mission Creek Dolores San Carmel S an Jose S an Pablo Valley l-fissour1 Flat Monte del Diablo Flat Monterey Monument Point 19 Moquelumne Hill (Mok Hill) Mount Diablo Shasta Mud Flat Springs

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Mugglnsv111e Murderer's Bar Murphy's Camp Napa North Fork Nyets Ford Oakdale -land One Horse Gulch Orov111e Paradox Payne's R1dge Pescadero Petaluma Pico Pine Clearing Tree Crossing Plaoerville Point Diablo of Pines Poker Flat Port Umpqua Poverty Flat Hill Powder River Presidio (of San Fran c1sco), the Punta de la (limpla) copelon Purissima Quicksilver City Rattler's Rldge Rattlesnake Bar Camp Creek Red Chiefts Crossing Dog Flat Gulch -lands Mountain Rock Range -wood Camp Reservoir Canon Ridge Rlng Tail Canon Rivers1de Robinson's Ferry Rockvllle Rocky Canon Ridge Roaring Camp Romeo s bur gh Rough-and ... Ready Russian Hill Sacramento River Sage Wood Salmon River San Andreas Antonio Bernardino 20

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San Bruno Mountains Buena Ventura Carlos Bay Diego Francisco Gregorio Jeronimo Joaquin Jose leandro Lorenzo LUis Obispo Rey Mateo Pablo Bay Rafael Sandy Bar Santa Ana Valley Barbars Clara Valley Cruz Rang . a Inez Luisa Saucelito Sawyer ' s Bel' Crossing Dam " Ledge Station Scott' s Camp Ferry Shasta Shepherdstown Shirt-Tail Canyon Shooter's Bend .... ville Shot Up Hill Sidon Sierra Flat 21 Nevada Mountains S11'Veropolls Simpson' , s Bar Crossing SiSkyou (Siskiyou) SkInner's Pass Reef Slumgu1l1on (Center) *Smithts Pocket Snake R1ver Snipesto'Wn Solano Sonoma Sonora Soquel South Hornitos Spanl sh Gul , ch Spring Valley Stani slaus River Stockton Station Strong's Sugar :MI11 Summit Springs Sutter's Fork Mill

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' ... Sweetwater Sycamore Creek Table Mountain RIdge (Lake) Tamalpais Tasajara C1tY' Creek Valley Tehama Telegraph Hill Ten Mile Station Thompsons Pass Three Boulders Pines Toddy Flat Tres Pinos Trinidad Tulape Tuolumne Tuttlevilla Crossing Two Mile Bottom Utopia Vlneville Visalia Warensboro Waterloo Watson ' s Ridge West Woodlands Whale Mouth Point Whiskey Flat Wildcat Camp Station Windy lUll W1ngdam Woodville Wynyardts Bar Gulch Yerba Buena Yolo Yosemite Yreka Yuba River I ,sland Zip Coon Ledge 22

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CHAPTER III UARTE AND THE SPANISH LANGUAGE Among American writers ot fiction who have made extensive use ot Spanish terms in their writings, Bret Harte occupies a position secondary only to that of Riohard Henl"Y Dana.36 But whereas Dana (and other writers who preceded Harte) used SpanIsh terms inCidentally, Harte used them re peatedly in writings which fill more than twenty volumes . In his use of Spanish terms in his early "lri tings, Harte was a linguistic pioneer. His continued use of these terms in conjunction with western materials undoubtedly played a large vt. part in spreading t heir popularity far beyond the area of their normal use 41 If' Hart. e did not create the "Western" story of' popular fiction, h e dld supply an important element of its vocabulary. Soon after hisarrlval in CalIfornia, t h e nineteen year.old Harte began to succumb to the, charm of the old Span ish civillzation, \-lhose final stage of decay had only recently been accelerated by t he advent of 51 diablo amerjcanQ and his 36 For a general discussion of the use of Spanlsh terms by English and American writers, see the Introduction to Harold W . Bentleyts A D1gt1onry Q! Spanish Terms 111 EIl.&-1U.b., .kl11h Special Referen2!i 1Q. American Southwest (UCo_ lumbia University Studies 1n English and Comparative Litera turelt; New Yor k : Columbia Univers ty Press, 1 932). , 23 \

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24 concept of "manifest destiny. tt How c time and energy Harte devoted to probing into the actual records left by the old Spanish civilIzation is a matter for conjecture. In ttThe Leg end of Monte del Dlablotl (1863), he cites as authorIties "disjoInted memoranda, the proceedings of ayuntamientos and early departmental juntas, wIth other records •••• lt37 In the same place he speaks of his having ransacked "the Spanish archives of Upper Callfornia. "38 If Harte actually did go to these primary sources for material, he would have needed at least a fair knowledge of the language, Although there is apparently no evidence to show that he became especially profic1ent in Span1sh, there 1s eVidence to show that he applied himself, at least for a time, to a formal study of 1t.39 If Harte did not care to explore deeply the mine of material afforded by a past civilization, he did reap a generous harvest from the tailings. History and .legend of Span ish California afforded him materials for many early sketches and poems; it provided characters and settings for short stories and longer pieces of the later p rlod. 40 As early as 1860 , in a newspape . r art1cle, flWhat ' s In a Name, f.t4l he had 37 fr1t1ngs, I . , 382 . 38 .nu.g,. 39 See George R . Stewart, Jr. , &lle.: and (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. , 2 . 40 For an ccurate and fairly complete tabulation and account of Harte's use of Spanish material, see C . V4zquez Arjona, IISpanlsh and Span1sh American Influences on Bret Harte," ReynA h1sp8niaPfl, LXXVI (1929), 573 .. 621 . 41 Stewart, B1bliograpuy, item No. 135 .

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25 showed a preference for Spanish place names in California, which George R . Stewart, Jr. , remarks, is "characteristic of Harte.,,42 And in 1902 Harte wrote his last poem, "The Sword of Don Josl," upon a Spanish theme . It is beyond the scope of this limited study to en umerate the uses made by Harte of Spanish It is pertinent, however, to note briefly where and how Harte u sed Spanish terms. In t he early poems and sketches treating legendary and early historical events and in the conversational passages of the short stories and novels given to Span ... ish or Mexican characters, the Spanish terms used are those which retained their "foreign" identity. lthougb he was far from consistent in his practice, Harte usually indicated these terms by placing them in italics or, less frequently, in quotation marks . In most of the other instances in which they oceur, the Spanish terms used are those whioh had already acquired, or were in the process of aoquiring, some status as Americanisms . Most of these terms show spelling modifications indicative of English spellIng habits or of changes in pro nuncistion in accordance with the English treatment of Span ish words . Although Harte shows by his various spellings the uncertainty of the proper pronunciation of words which were still in the process of being domesticated, his s pellings usually reflect the most stable or prevalent forms at a g Yen 42 s . v . item No. 135.

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eriod. notable exceptions, are canyon and vamoose . The first of these Harte almost invariably wrote in the Span1sh fashion as ca'on. In the case of the second his practice shows some vacillation. In one instance only (1878) is the form vamoose used; in most other instances, and even in the opular expression .:tQ. vamoQ ranch, Harte writes vamose.. The latter form with the "long 0" sound probably foun.d more favor with H rte because it more nearly approximated e pronunciation which he aseoci-26 ted with vamos, the Spanish imperative; which he used quite often in its normal Spanish sense. The first of Harte's tales of Spanish California to reach an Eastern audience was "The Legend of onte del Diablo,1I which appeared on the October, 1863, issue of the Atlantic onthlY . Other tIes dealing w1th the historical and recent past had, however, been published locally. "Notes by lood and Fleldll (1862) was one of the earliest in \oJhich Harte had made use of the "local color" of the cattle country and agricultural regions which had felt the continued inroads of ever-incress ng number of Americans . An important element of the lac 1 color of thes sketches is the Spanish vocabulary of the native tanCAro and the hybrid Arner can-Spanish lingo of his American counterpart. Spanish characters play a less portant part in Harte' s stories of the mining camp; consequently, the numb r of Spanish ter s employed decreases sharply. In these stories, however, Spanish derivatives con -

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27 tinue to garnish liberally the slangy speach of many charac ters, from the lowly Chinese laborer with his "no shabbee" to the most affluent of San Francisco financiers. Among the later writings, "The Crusade of the Excelsior" is noteworthy in that it contains the largest concentration of Spanish words used 1n any single story. Since most of the action of' the story occur s in Lower California, Harte finds here ample opportunity to use almost all of his normal stock of Spanish words . It has been said that Bret Harte knew how to write about only one subject, California; or, stated more favorably, that "California was all the subject that he ever needed.,,43 Be that as it may, the Bret Harte csnon includes few stories whose actions take place wholly outside that state; it in cludes even fewer in which California slang, with its Spanish admixture, does not appear. If Harte used Spanish terms extensively in his writings, he also used them well. Of Harte, Harold W . Bentley writes: As assistant on the edi t ,orial staff' of the Northern qalifornian snd of the GQ1den he was instrumental in promoting that local and Spanish atmosphere which later became so characteristic of the Oyerland Montbl y of whlch he was editor. In Bret Harte's own writings as well as the writings of others that appeared in the Oyerland 43 Joseph B . Harrison, Herta: Selections, !lilll Introduction, BibliographY, awl Notei ("Amer ican Writers Series"; New York: American Book Company, 194-1), p . Ii.

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28 Monthly Spanish words and used with naturalness and But this is not to say that Harte always used Span ish terms with absolute accuracy. The average reader does not demand of a foreign word used in an English context that it retain inviolate its form or meaning; it 1s suffioient that it be recognizable and that its approximate meanlng be immediately apparent. It 1s apparent from the many Var ... latlons in spelling and usage that Harte relied chiefly upon an imperfect memory for bis Spanish, and that he took little or no pains to check for accuracy. This statement is not intended to apply to those Spanish words used by Spanish or Mexican characters or in situations where the context is plainly Spanish. Similarly, such forms as padrQne and dese%to for padron and dlsefIo may be explained by English nadrone45' and desJi!n " Especially after his removal to the East and to Eng land Harte was faced with the problem of making his Spanish terms meaningful for an audiEmCe to whom they '-Iere still a comparative novelty. Occasionally he 1'e sorte, d to the use of an explanatory footnote, but, in those instances in 'lt/hlch the significance of a word was not suffiCiently clear from ts context, he 'Usually provided an in textus explanation. 44 Bentley, A Dlgttonary Q! Spanish Terms, p . 63. 4-5' An Italian loan word, padl'Qne \-ras thoroughly nat uralized in Harte's day, although no longer much used.

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29 The list of Spanish terms used by Harte which concludes the present chapter consists of 205 terms, or a total of 239 separate words . As prev10usly explained, many of these words which are used in Spanish contexts show inaccuracies and inconsistencies in spelling. Further, those which have become Americanisms show variations reflecting English spelling hab its and pronunciations. Thus (lasso) is included even though Harte apparently never used the Spanish spelling. Also included are: chamizal, chupe , diseUo , mayoraomo, Teata, and SArape, which Harte usually spelled cb1misal, chupa, desfio, and seraPe. In addition, a few words inoluded have underg one conversion from one " part of speech in Spanish to another part in English. Thus, the S panish infinitive pasear Uto walk, to take a ,,,alk" is converted into a noun meaning tla walk, a trip.tf A list similar to the present one was oompiled by Carlos Vazquez-Arjona and published in Revue bispaniaue in 1929 . 47 Vazquez-Arjona's list was composed of terms, or a total of 155 separate words. Certain of the words eluded in that list have been excluded from the present one._ su ch "lOrds as catalpa, and sonata, and similar "lords which either are not 8 nish or are not found in contexts 46 Despite its earlier occurrence in British English, this word in the sense in which Har t uses it is a genuine Americanism . note 56, p . 41 . 47 "Spanish and Spanish-American Inf1unces on Bret Harte," LXXVI, 573621 .

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30 indicating peculiarly Spanish usage . Conversely, the context has determined the inclusion of other words, such as Al ftesC9 and fA, which had already come into English from Italian. Also, arbitrarily excluded are those Americanisms derived from Spanish whieh showf either in 1'0-nunciation or in spelling, more than slight deviation from their originals, e.g., ler1'At, mangle, ranch, iAlPOOSe (from 14 reete, VCmPs). The last group 1s treated in the appl'Opriate place in the following chapter' devoted to Harte's Americanisms . abogado absurdo adelante adios adobe ague bendita aguard1ente aguinaldo ah, 10 que as e1 mundo a la d1sposic1on de Usted alameda alcalde al fresco almarjal Americano (Americana) amigo spado arroyo astuc1a auto de fe ay de m1 ayuntamiento bagatela bander1l1a bander11le.ro babo bolero bonanza borrachon bronco

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buenss noches eno caballero calza camarada camisa canada canclonero ean6n capitan carajo caramba carroza de cuatro mulas casa castellana c miza l chaparral chaquet chu.pe clerta ante c1garito cigarro cita criatur1ca comandante compallero corral corregidor coyote dams de grandeza diablo dil1gencla Dios y Llbertad d 0 dlsparatado d1spos1c16n don Don Fulano dona Do1ia FUlana enc1nal embarcadero en t1empos pa s ados espada espadachm espejo ustorl0 estudl0 excelencia fanfarron fanfarronear f116sofo 31

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fonda frijol generslis1mo gracias gracioso de teatro guarda guardia de diana hacienda hasta manana h1dalgamente hidalgo h1jo de familia hola imbecil 1mprenta impresol' inamorata 1nfel1z inmediatamente junta laZo llano lunatico Madre de Dios madrono magn:!rico manana manta mantilla manzanita maquinista. marav111oso mariposa , mascara matador mayordomo medico mestiza mezquite mira misfon mochl1a muchacho (muchachs) mula Natividad naturalmente nitro obligac1on ofielal de po11c!a padron pantuflos 32

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asear pat 0 patrono (patrona) pellejo peon peso cedor pico into placer plaza poco a poco poeo mas <> menos poco tiempo pollo poncho por e1 ray osada posiblemente presentim1ento pres1 10 pr1mogen1ta pompos mente pronunc1am1ento pueblo que buena qulen sabe .rancher1a ranchero rancho real reata recompensa rodeo sabe sa.la sano, solQ, sollc1to y secreto sarape saya sem1cuaea "" senor senora senorita s1 siesta sombrero sotana temblor temperamento tente t1enda 33

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tlel'ra texnplada toreador torero toro tortilla tres tr1$te tule una m1na de plata vamos vaquero Val'S Va Usted eon Dics v1gil-encia vientos generales v1il.adero viva viva 1a reins americana yerba buena

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CHAPTER IV HARTE'S AMERICANISMS It was found necessary in the, preparation of the pres ent study to limit considerat10n of Harte's Americanisms to those classes of words which are included 1n the DictiQnary; Amer1s:amisms . According to Mi tford M . Mathews, editor ot the DA, the term Am9t1eanlim, as it was used in that work, includes three Olasses of words: "outright coinages • ,. .. ; words ••• which first became English 1n the United States; and terms • • • used in senses first given them in American usage .tt48 Accepting as authoritative the practice of the DA meant, of course, excluding from consideration as American isms a large class of terms wh1ch, according to more 1nterpretations,49 would normally be 1ncluded in the term; it meant excluding archaisms. whioh* -one must agree with H • . L . Mencken ..... uconstitute one of the most interesting and authen tieo! all the class,es of Americanisms .. ,,50 It meant barring 48 A g.t Amar1ca,nisms, Prefaoe, p . v • . 49 For other daf1n! tions' and o ,ategories of words in cluded in the term by various colleetors, see Mencken, AmetlSHln Lanmege, chap • . II, pt 2, pp. 97-103 . ' ,0 . . p • . l02 .. 35

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from consideration many words and phrases Which, because they had abandoned them in times past, had for Englishmen all the force of American sms; it meant excluding terms such as allow (declare), tall (season), gQtten. greenhorn, guess (suppose, suspect), ornery, posse, whioh Harte em ... ployed in the same way as the terms listed below to give to his stories a peculiarly American flavor. Harte' s Americanisms have been grouped below in lists which are arranged to show (1) h1s interest in various aspects of America and American 11fe, (2) his use of slang and colloquial English words of American origin, (3) his priority 1n using certaln Americanisms" and (4) his use of posslble and probable Americanisms which are not found in the DA but which come within the limits of the DAts definition of i2apism. The lists are not, of course, mutually exclusive. I . Herte' America The "Brat Harte Country" extends far beyond the limits of the gold-mining section of California to which the term 1s usually applied; yet it lies almost wholly within the limits of that State. Whatever else America meant to Harte, to the readers of his stories it meant the American Far West, the America of the Forty-Niners. 51 As late as 1929 iha was believed by one Englishman, at least, to be of American origin. H . L . Mencken includes it among terms taken from a list of American isms in J . Y . T . Greig ' s Breaking Priscien' s can Language) PP. 231-232). Harte, too, thought it an American ism; see p . 02 .

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37 A . Topographic and Toponymfc Terms adobe (2 . , 2 . b . ) Great Plains alameda gulch alkali gully alkali desert Hoosier Americanize (Americanized) Jerseyite Americano Kanaka arroyo Nevadan barren Pike benoh prairial bluegrass (Bluegrass) prairie bluff (n.l) pueblo can ada quarter section canyon (canon) tule marsh olearing valda coast (Coast) vara enai.nal Washoe falda western (Western) flat B " Nature Evidence earlier than that given in the DA is provided in Harte ' s use of the following: geranium, horse (in the combination coffee, not recorded by

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38 the DA), and verba buna (2.,). Although the DA credits Harte with the fil"st use of xerpa t&ena (2.), earlier eVidence 'Would seem to be provided in tbe quotations under xlba meng abalone buffalo bull coo n copperhead coyote butternut cardinal flower oatalpa ceanothus chamiSal chaparral checkerberry ChEtl'Okee rose cottonwood . 1. Fauna 2 . Flora fish g eran1Ull1 horse bean (coftee) English sparrow jeekass. rabbit killdeer plover k1ngbird milk snake pra1rie dog Madeira vine madl'ona mariposa mesquite redwood Sstrona rose sage sagebrush scrub oak sea turn1p52 52 Not l:1stedby the DA. The only evidence given by the OED, however, 1s trom Harte (same quotation as Lexicon) .

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39 C . Spanish Terms and Spanish-American Life The largest group of Americanisms dra,yn from nonEnglish stook represented in nerte's writings 1s that taken trom Spani sh • 53 In the use or the following t erms , Harte supplies the ff:rste"ldenc.e recorded. by the DA: pinto (2 • .a. ),
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40 alealde comandante alfresco'; compaiiero A.Jner1eano corral (n. ) amigo corral ) sTroyo orregidor ayuntamiento coyote bonanza Don bronoo embarcadero caballero encinal cam1s E scoces: canada falda canyon filibuster capitan tonda carajo tr1jol earamba hacienda oasa hidalgo chamisal lariat chaparral lasso (n. ) chaqueta lasso (x..) ciga:rito llano cinch madrona • • 1 55'An American borrowing from Spanish, a1;C:eqg had been previously borrowed into English from Italian. For a d1seu.ss1on of the American usage, see Bentley, A D1tiQnau panj,b 4 enna .1n Engllsh, P . 91.

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41 ajor-domo,6 peso manzanit pinto (4) mariposa pinto (n ) mesquite placer mochila plaza monte poncho muchacho pres dio mustang pl'onunciamento no sabe57 pueblo pasear58 pungle padre quien s be patio r nch ( n . ) peon ranch (::i.) 56 An Ameri can borrowing from Spanish, had been previously borrowed into English from Italian. The distinction noted by Bentley in the following passage 1s clearly illustrated 1n the quotation given in t e Lexicon . "The word was used in Europe for ' head butler' or chief servant in charge of the econom c administration of a household or an estate. In America the use of the word has been in connection with the ha ciendas of tho Spaniards and •••• In the mind of the American who uses the word it is not synonymous with but ler nor chief The word mayordomo connotes distinction and authority just as it did in its early significance in Spain. It ( JJ.t. Spanish Ie:r:m in Englisll. , p . 164, s • v . l1ayordomo • 57 "Oddly enough, the negative form, 'no sabe, was used entirely by the Chine _se, as ino shabbee,' to express a want of comprehension or understanding of the speaker." (!!r11 XIX, 273, s . v . 58 The DAts definition of the noun 12aaeat , ftA trip or excursion,tI while applicable to most of Harte's uses, is not sufficiently bro d . As the second quotation in the Lexicon shows, Harte also used pasear to mean Ita walk," one Qf the meanings assigned by the DA to pasao, a form not found in Hartets writings.

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rancheria ranchero rancho rista rodeo sabe (n. ) sabe (X. ) sala savvy senor senora se1iorlta serape sierra Sierran (a. ) sombrero sotana stampede (n. ) stampede (:v:. ) temblor t1enda tortilla tule valda5'9 vamoose vaquero vara viva yerba buena Of the terms in the preceding list, the following twenty have arranged in descending order of the fre quency of their occurrence in Harte ' s writings. The num bers following each term indicate the separate pieces in which each was found, whether singly or multiply. 42 59 The only evidenceci ted in the D for this spell. ing variant of falda is taken from Harte.

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oanyon 53 adobe 52 sa be 49 vaquero 36 oorra1 35 peon 33 ranch 29 serape 27 l"anoho 25 rista 23 seffor 23 pasear 22 mustang 20 padre 20 caballero 19 manzanita 19 aguardiente 17 casa 17 lasso 17 patio 17 43 Although it is probably not of Spanish origin, the word greAset deserves consideration in the present discus sion because ot its oonneet1 ' on with Spanish-American life. Bentley, in discussing the use ot this word, says that "Brat Harte specializes II _ i L1.t/ by assigning it to a , 'mixed race ot Mexican and Indian. 'rt 60 Harte's use ot grease:c 1s not, however, so narrowly restrieted. Usually he uses it to designate' a Mex.ie.an, or, less frequently, a Mexican of low caste. In a :few instances, also, 1s pOintedly misused to indioate a Spaniard, as Harte remarks was the practice in California: tlH e Lthe was called a 'Greaser,' an unctuous remin scence ot the exican war, and 60 Ii Dlct10nary i2.t XUanisb Terms, p . 271, s v •

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44 applied erroneously to the Spanish Californian, who was a Mex!can. o61 Although the DAts 1836 quotation apparently disproves the contention that greaset is a reminiscence of the Mexican War, Harte's "unctuous reminiscence" still as acceptable as any other explanation yet given for the origin of the word . D . Other Americans 1. Indians and Indian Life Although his knowledge of Indians and Indian life was by no means extensive, Harte did use occasional Indian settings and characters in his stories. As one would ex pect, the California tribes, "Digger Indians," are those whom Harte most fr quent1y mentions . brave (n.) Cherokee Chinook Chinook jargon Digger firewater good Indian Great Spirit Great White Father Happy Hunting Ground Indian (n.) Indian agent Indian grass Indian pony Indian summer Indian treaty 61 lr1tlngs, lIt Introduction, xxx.

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4, Indian village root di.gger Klamath (Indian) sachem to so Ip lock lodge calp (X. ) medicine man scalping knife moccasin Sioux Modoe squaw Mohave sweat house Paiute wampum pale.faee War paint papoose warpath papoose case Washoe Pawnee wigwam red man 2 . Chinese and Chinese Life The phElnomenal success of If Plain Language from Truthful James" was enough to gu rantee the admission of heathen Ch1nae into the main stream of the English language , Despite the fact that Chinee appears to be a natural folk development,62 noevldence' of an earlier date than Herte" s 62 I ,e., 11k PQrtugQE! and JapanP, which are talse singulars formed as a result of mistaking the .i of the stem for the sign of the plural. Explanations such as that given In Mencken's Amer1QM Language (p. 462) to the effec t that fla false singular 1s formed from a singular ending in .i;

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46 use in heathen CbiDie has so tar been adduced, it would appear, therefore, that Harte created at the same time that be COined the combination. It is nterest ng to note, also, that in a later oem Harte tormed for the false sing ular Chinee a ttregulr " plural Ch1nees.63 For cQolieiam Harte supplies slightly earlier evi ... den c e than that recorded by the DA. Chinee ' Chinese quarter coolieism heathen Chinee John J olm Chinaman wash bill wash house 3 . Negroes and Negro Life Not more than a dozen Negro charaoters appear 1n Harte' s wrItings. Although he presents the Negro in a sympathetic l1ght, as he does most of his characters who repre sent minority groups, Harte actually knew little of the Negro . As the terms listed below will suggest, Harte's impressions of Negro peech were based in large mea 1'e upon the popular the latter being mistaken tor. 6 plural" are at best mislead ing, there being no necessity ot the singular torm t s being mi staken for a plural, or e ven be ing lmo m. 63 Chineee Is, ot course, a kind of t'eye dialect.t1

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47 conceptions t , o tered by the American bl ck1'ace minstrel show. banjo bone (Brother breakdown buck Cn.l ) Colored Ethiopian (ll.) E . Occupations ;luba nigger luck octoroon patroller p1ekaninny 1 . Min1ng and Mining Life The t ms in the following list are those which are either directly connected with the mining process or intimately connected 1th mining life, Harte 1s credited by the DA with the first use of the tollcn-11ng: lWges , m1ll.
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claim clean up (n. ) color ditch flume flume, to go (or be) up the flume ground sluicIng grub wages gUlch (2. ) hardpan indioation jump, to jump a claim lead (n.) locator mill (n.) pan, to pan out pay (n.), pay ore pay dirt pay gravel placer prospect (n. ) prospect (Jl. ) prospect1n pan prospector quartz rotten quartz salt (x,-) sluice (n. ) sluice box sluice robber sluice robbing sluicing SlUlllgul110n stake out (X.) strike (n. ) strike <%. ) 48 strike, to strike it strike, to strike it rick tailing wash, to wash up

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2 . Ranching and Farming Earlier evidence than that given in the DA will be found in th Lexicon for the figurative use of the noun corral, and for the intransitive use of the verb ranch. slightly earlier date is supplied in th Lexicon for Harte's use of the adjective Pinto, which is the first evidence given in the DA. All terms in the following Ii t are recorded by the DA, with the exception of buck jump, a favorite of ----Harte ' s . branding bronco buck
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50 rinta stampede (uand X.) round up (:i: .. J vaquero F . Recra tion The social life ot that day was peculiar. men tIl de Ne I Year's calls, in long boots and red tiannel shirts. In later days the wife of an old pioneer used to show chair with a hole through its cushion made by a gentleman caller WhO! s1tting down suddenly in bashful contusion, had exp oded his revolver. The bestdressed m.en were gamblers; the best-dressed ladies had no right to that title. At balls and p rties dancing was tabooed owing to the unhappy complications wich arose from the disproportionate nu mber of partners to the tew ladies that were present. . The ingenious device. of going through a quadrille with a different partner for each figure sprang f'rom 'the fertile brain of a sorely beset San Francisco belle. The Wife of an army ,officer told me that she never thought of returning home with the same escort, nd not unfrequently was accompanied with what she called a nrull platoon. " rtI n v r kne\ be1'ore,tt s ld, "what t h ey meant by 'the pleasure of companY.'" In the multiplicity of sueh attentions surely there \,-las safety. Such was the urban 1ife of the Argonauts •••• 64 1 . Cards and Gambling With the exception o f the follow ng, ,all terms listed below are re'corded by the DA: .. , I1ttl monj;e, Harte is eredi +'ed by the DA 'tori th the f.Irst use of buckv: (n.2), euchre
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in the DA will be 'found in the Lexioon. Earlier than that reeorded 'in the DA will be found in the Lexicon fOl" the figurative use of Cn. ), and fJttb:coat (A. ) 'When used to designate card games. ante (n. ) ante (X.J bluff (n.2) board bower buck (X,l) bucker (n,,2) eall cheok (n.2), to hand in onets checks keno ... little monte monte toonte bank monte shop old sledg' e poker poker chip poker sharp 51 rake, to rake down ,cold deck cutthroat draw (u-) euchre (n. ) full hand go (l!'..) jack pot royal flush seven up short card gambler skin game straddle (n.) straight (n.", )

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three card monte tiger, to fight the tiger vantoon velvet (n. ) 2 . Other Sports, Games, Amusements 52 Represented 1n the following seellanyare terms drawn from sources as diverse as children's games and min strel shows . Perha p s the interesting group of words, however, is that associated with the rough social life of the mining camp : ., shindig, dance, ro\Wd . For b.al:. round Harte supplies the f1rst quotation given in the DA. A slightly earlier date is assigned in the Lexicon for sbindig (2. ) than that given in the DA. For the expression llam (01' QAtch) the DA credits Harte with the first use. In the Lexicon the same use is assigned an earlier date, and a slightly earlier variant 1s s .lso recorded. banjo baseball baseball club bone (Brother Bones) breakdown crab, to turn the crab crab, to catch a crab Ethiopian CA)

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53 German (n. ) snell (gut snell) hazing spark (X. ) jamboree stag dance juba tear (n. ) elodeon tear (X. ) , tear round pf,lrquet ten-strike shindig wal k -around G . Eating and Drinking Their housekeeping was of the rudest kind. For many months the fryingpan formed their only available cook1ngutensil. It was laShed to the "lande _ ng miner ' s back, like the troubadour' s gu1tar. H e tried his bread, his bean s , his bacon, and ocoasionally tawed his coffee, in this single vessel. But that Nature worked for him with a balsamic air and breezy tonics, he would have suc c ed. Ha pily his meals were few and infrequent; happily the inventions of his mother Eas t were equal to his needs. • • • But in the hour of adversity snd the moment of perplexity, his main reliance was beans! The con-6 queror and the conquered fraternized over their frijoles. ' agu rdiente corn dodgel' barbec u e doggery Boliv r (n . 2.)66 frljol c howchow gin mill coc ktail Graham b scuit corn juice groggery 65 II, Introduction, xxi . 66 The DA credits Harte w1th the fir t use of this term.

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grub wages hash gymnas1um67 horSe bean cotfee68 julep popcorn rum ... and-gum saleratus H . Dress saleratus biscuit saleratus bread sling, to sling ha sh soda fountain straight (a. . ) tanglef'oot tortilla The Argonaut's dress was peculiar. e was ready if not skillful with his needle, and was fond of' patching his clothes until the original material disappeared beneath a cloud of' amendments . The flour-sack was his main dependence. When its contents had sustained and 69 comforted the inner man, the husk clothed the outer one, arctic boiled shirt oalico (n.) camlsa chaqueta duster havelock hickory hickory shirt moccasin overalls patent leather pea coat pea jacket poncho serape 67 This combination is not found in the DA. 68 Not recorded in co mbination by the DA; but see the DAf sentry horse, 5 • . (3) *:.b.un. 69 W r 1ting, II, Introduction, xxi.

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sombrero sotana stovepipe watertall store clothes I . Houses and Furnishings They lived at tirst in tents, and then in cabins. 55 The climate was gracious, and except tor the rudest purposes of shelter from the winter rains, they could have slept out of doors the year round, as many preferred to do. As they grew more ambitious, perhaps a small plot of ground was inclosed and cultivated; but for the first tew ye rs they looked upon themselves as tenants at will, and were afraid of putting down anything they could not take away. Chimneys to their cabins were for a long tim e avoided as having t his ob jectionable teature. E ven at this day, deserted miningcamps are marked by the solitary adobe chimneys still lett standing where the trame of the original cabin was moved to some newer location. 70 adobe Casa chromo (n. ) hacienda homestead house -raising xioan blanket patio piazza radiator rancheria sala shanty shebang slop jar 70 Writings, II, Introduction, xx-xxi.

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56 J . Travel and Transportation For two of the following terms connected with travel and tl'ansportat.ion Harte supplies the first eVidence recorded by the DA: (Jt . , c . ) and .t.2. whistle.d2,m. All terms listed are reoorded by the DA except sbanghai mwl. brakeman buckboard carryall commuter Concord coach oowcatcher dugout embarc dero emigrant wagon express otfice expressman fonda grip sack mountain schooner mountain wagon overland mail pack <:y:. ) packer packing plunger pole (:z.) pony express pony express messenger p-o. sada prairie sohoonor pullman pullman sleeping car road agent rockaway Saratoga trunk shanghai (:y:. ) shanghai man sidewheel streetcar waybill (x.. ) whistle, to whistle down

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K . Busln$ss and Monetary Terms 1. Business Terms boom (n. ) boom (:i. . , 4 . ) boss (n.. ) boss
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L . American Life, Soc1al" Political, and Historical a'bogado Agricultural Department alcalde Americanize ayuntamiento ballot box stutfer lack Republi c anism Bloomerite bluenose boomer bowie knife b'uckeye bummer cache camp meeting oamp meeting ground carpetbagger carpetbagging caUQUS Chiv eh1'1 stma s ( n . , 1.) Christmas tree eivil serv1ce reform Continental coo11eism corl'eg1dor copperhead cowboy Department of Agriculture Department of Jus t 'iea derringer dime novel Empire Sta.te Excoees executive Executive Mansion Fenian ( Brotherhood) filibuster (n. ) Fire z.ouav . e Forty-niner Fourth Fourth of July freedman (Freedman's) Interior Department land grabber land office Liberty pole lobby (x. . )

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lobbyist logroll l ynch (x.-) lynching mo'l.trner s benc.h mud sIll neutral ground ps!'dner patroller pole list pot-house pronunciamento ranger rebel reconstruction regulator Republican ring (n.) roundsman Sanitary Sanitary Commission schoolmstam Secretary of the Interior Sharps . j.'1fle six-shooter slave driver Sou thron (n.) squatter 59 stake, to pull up stakes stake, to drive stakes stak e,. to move stakes State Department States, the stump .speaking stulllpspeech tar, to tar and teathe!' tenderfoot Tree of Liberty Uncle Sam Unlon , the, Vigilance Gormn1 ttee' War' Department ward politics Webster's spelling book Webster's d1ctionary Yankee yellow dog Yorkino' ,.

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M . Miscellaneous Listed below are terms which are not included in the preceding lists or in the section following. ad level headed bogus (a.. ) n1f'ty?3 bully (a.. ) punk ) bully (m. and putty chromo (v. )'72 revam p C . O . D . sidewalk crank 1 (n. ) snake (1. . ) extra (n. ) telegram hayseed (A. ) tin can horse sense vendue II. Slau .awl Collogy.;J,. al. Terms . 60 The rich language material of the American \'Jast, which Harte brought into literary service, consisted of' many words which the pioneer had borrowed from the languages of the non-English speaking peoples wi tb 'mom he came in contact. It consisted, also, of freshly minted expressions which served to fill the needs of a sooiety confronted with '72 The only evidence cIted in the DA foI' this verb is from Harte. 73 The first evidence in the DA for nifty 1s from Harte .

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1 new facts nd new ideas. But th pioneer did not confine his linguistic inventiveness solly t o the business of supplying new words, en new words were needed . The same exuberance which caused him to rearrange old word in n wand frequently striking att rns also caused him to create a host of new words for w ieh there was no real need. en tle op ortunity came for rte to say something about th langu ge of th pion ers, it as only natural that he should a of its most striking ndmusing r sture, its slang. f the Argonauts he writes: Th Y too a sardonic delight in strippi g all meretricious finery from their speech; they had a sarcastic rashi n of limin t1ng everything but the facts from po etic or imaginative narrative. With all that terrible directness of statement which was habitual to them, when they indulged in innuendo 1t was significantly cruel and stri n . • • • They indulged sparingly in poetry and illustration, using only its rude, inchoate form of slang. Unlike the meaningless cues and catch ... words of an older c vilization, th,eir slang was the condensed epigrammatic illustration of some fact, fancy, or perce ption . Generally it had some significant local derivation . The half-yearly drought bought forw rd the popular adjuration 'dry up" to express the natural climax at va orated fluency. "Play d outU was a reminiscence of the gambling -table, and expressed that hope less con d t on when even th operations of chance are suspended. To "take stock" in any statement, theory, or indicates a pecuniary degree of trustful credu11ty. One can hardly call that slang, even though it came f om a gambler's lips, which g ves such a v vid condensation of death and the reckoning hereafter as \l1as conveyed in the ex re ssion, t1handing in your checks . fI In those days the slang was universal; there was no occasion to which it seemed inconsistent. 74 74 vritings, II, Introduction, xxvi-xxvii.

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62 In t e prefatory note to the Glossary of Far-\ve stern Terms appended to the collected edition of his writings,?' Harte notes that many of the phrases he has ohosen, "al_ though generally a ccepted i n t heir original m$ n ng have, in the c o rse of yaars, beeome so abridged and ' condensed as no longe r to convey by their mere terms any co mprehensive idea or a a en any eonsecutlV'e thought!,?6 He continues : That tremendously emphatic W e ster-nism , 'You bet!' may be offered as an instance. To a foreigner it conveys not'hing , although as it first caught the public fancy in its original form, ca n bet your life on it, " it Has c pable of translation. "You get:n is an .... other' instance of this It stood origi nally as "You get out of this:"--bUt t e abbreviated orm is 'unintelligible' without this recollection. The well-knom dyl of , t he stranger who, aw k en1ng one night a t 3 California hotel, saw a burglar entering his 'W ndow, 1s a case in pOint. " 0 get ftl he aid, leve ling his at the 1ntruder. "You bet," was ther m t rejoinder of the burglar as he diss peared. Yet these four purely legitimat e English word s , each intelligible in themselves, are not com prehenSible to t he average English reader without t h e omi tted portion of the sentence.. The ve11-0\,111 Cal .... ifornian i mperative to silence,. tlDry up," was finally reduced to "Dry," and became meaningless ••• ,. The SaYing! .. "to take cake," which ha d its origin :in the 'we _l-known prn.ze "'waIg H of the n gro 12 ter, at t he American watering-place hotel, ha s beccme p o pular in Engl nd , but is no", known und e r its deli ghtf'ul Eng lish paraphrase of ntaklng the Huntley End P almer," the celebrat ed English cake and biscuit mar.ufacturers. One'can-imagine the future philologist hopE'lessly in volved in th s nel.J obscurity, an c an c onceive that the eventual doom of all slang may be that it shall become too recond1 te rathe r t , han too vulgar. 77 7, l.J214. , XIX, 267-274 . 76 p . ( . 77 .DU..d. " PP. 267 -268.

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Harte was not a scientific student of 1 nguage, of coursa. Ithough he never clearly defines slang, it is ob-vious from the expressions he choose s to discuss under that heading that he drew no sharp line between slang nd collo quial usage. It is probable also that few of his contemporary critics who deplored his frequent use of slang used the term as precisely as it is used today. he following list, therefore, includes both slang and colloquial terms. bald-head d, to snatch bald-headed b 11, to ring t he bell bet, you bet bi , big Indian big, big pond bighead bone yard bottom dollar, to go one's bottom dollar buc k , to buck against the tiger mmar bum (X. ) oaboodle cahoots, in cahoots with c alico (3 . , • ) cavort chance (3. ) Chiv 3

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cold dec complect ' ed conniption coon's age corn-cracking coyote (l. b .. ) e rrH'1f shing doad beat deedlGad donft care-a -danm ... it.fveness dry up doggery do g (lee) drop, to get the drop on duck ( .) dust (;2:.) dust out eu.chre (:l,.) fetcb flume, to go up the flum.e fotk, to fork over freeze (;z . , ) to freeze to frozen gas (Y .. ) 6

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go (Yo-) go, :go it blind go, trom the word go gOt it's a go goneness gospel sharp goug Greaser grit hair, to have (one) where the hair 1s short bash hash gymnasium hardpan, to strike hardpan hard papers hSl'd ... shelled head, to put a head on heathen Chinee heeled h ekory highfalutin hone:st Indian honeyfuggl6 hump (I,.) hunky (A-) ink slinger jackass rabbit 6,

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jerusalem jimminy keep, not to care whether se 001 kee ' ps or not iyi knock down (:L . ) lal1ygag l a , to ley over light, to out marble sharp NE?gro, a nigger in the fence no s be old soldier pint, to paint the town red p I'd peaeh peter out pick, to pick up pile plank down play (J;. . ) play (v. 5 . b (3) (a) played plug ( . ) pot ... house previousness pungle 66

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rail, to ride on a rail raise, to make a raise rake, to rake down rats rittle, to make the :riffle rocks root, to play rope, to rope row, to have sabe (n) saba (X. ) salt (:\t . ) sand sashay savvy sCad send -off shadbelly shake shebang roots on in a hard row to hoe shebang, the whole shebang shindig shine, to take a shine to show, to have no show shucks 67

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skeesicks skin skirmish around skunk (X. ) skyugle skyute sling, to sling hash slumgulllon small potatoes smarty splendiferou. s spondulics stamp (n.) stamping ground staving strap strapped strIke, to strike it strike, to strike it tangle toot (A) rich throw, to throw off throw, to throw off on toe, to toe 1n tony truck Uncle Sam vamoose 68

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vamoose, to vamoose the ranch velvet wade, to wade in white whoop, to whoop (it) up wildcat . yellow dog III. Harte's Priority in gt Ce:tain Americanisms Listed below in alphabetical order are those terms tor which Harte supplies the first evidence recorded in the DA. Following each term are the respective dates assigned in the DA and 1n the Lexicon to the quotat1' on cited. battery (n. 6 .), 1871, 1871 Bolivar (n. 2 .), 1860, 1860 bucker (n.2), 1898, 1897 chromo (y.), 1877, 1877 crab, to turn the crab, 1867, dust, to dust out, 1871; 1871 euchre Cu. 2 .), 1876, 1875 .. 76 (:y: • 3 , ), 1876, 1876 freezing out (2 .). 1877, 1877 go, it's a go, 1878, 1878 grub wages, 1884, 1883 1 8 65

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mill (u.1 ) t 1879, 1878 nifty, 1865, 1865 pay gravel, 1871, 1869 peach (n. 2.b .), c1870, 1863 pinto (2 • .a.. ), 1867, 1865 play (i.. 4 .J, 1871, 1868 poker flat, 1869, 1869 pole (i.. 2 . 0 .), 1862, 1862 pre -empt (X-b .), 1876, 1875-76 roaring camp, 1871, 1868 sabe ( n .), 1875, 187'4 savvy (n-), 1870, 1870 Sier'1"an (2 . a . ) 1873, 1873 skunk. away, 1894, 1894 sluice robbing, 1873, 1870 sluioing (n. 2 .), 1869, 1869 sotana, 1877, 1882-8;3 stake, to move stakes, 1862, 1862 standoff (n. b.)t 1883, 1883 tearround (n. / :v-. :i. 3./), 1,872, 1872 valda, 1871, 1862 whistle, to whistle down, 1869, 1869 yerba buena (2 .), 1882, 1882 70 Earlier eVidence than that shown in the DA w11l be found in the Lexicon for Harte's use of the following terms.

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71 The first date following each term 1s the date assigned to the DA' s first quotation. The second 1s the date assigned to the first quotation given in the Lexicon . alkali (1.), 1870, 186, aVltor, 1868, 1867 bedrock (2.), 1873, 1869 bell, to ring the bell, 1928, 1893 bottom rock (11&.), 1887, 1886 chaqueta, 1902, 1885 cutthroat (3. b .), 1870, 1865 cold deck (n. 11&.), 1880, 1875-76 coolieism, 1870, 1867 corral (n. !iK.), 1890, 1868 fish geranium, 1865, 1862 freezing out (2.), 1877, 1874 German (1.), 1863, 1860 go, it's a gOt 1878, 1860 horse bean, 1909. 1896 kiy1 (n. trgnet.), 1904, 1898 level (n. and a . 2 .), 1870, 1864 ranch (v. 1 . lntr.), 1872, 1866 rat (n . , . U .), 1890, 1889 sand (n . 1 .), 1875, 1874 sanitary (2 . ) , 1864, 1863 shindig, 1873, 1871

PAGE 77

houlder strap, 1895, 1873 sna 'ke ... rail 19l.J.8, 1888 temblor, 1896, 1875-76 velvet (n.), 1901, 1887 wade, to wade in, 1872, 1863 72 For the following two terms the f11'st evidence in the DA is of the same date .ss that given in the Lexicon . head, to put a head on, 1868 1a1, to lay OVer, 1868 The following l1 st 1 . 9 ms.de up of terms used in combinations or in senses not illustrated in the DA, but which have for one reaSon or another some claim to the status of Americanisms . 1Q. ctgh a. 181 for instance, an obvious variant of the DAt s .t,Q. .tlull (or .b.e,ns1) S1mil,arly, the adJective pra1r;f.aJ, as Harte used it 1s olearly derived from prairie. big Indian buokjUllip crab, to oatch a crab dumb ague dust (quaai-trAns. ) hard papers corn-cracking keno ... tlopper la11ygag (trans. ) 11 t .tle monte

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monte shop nIgger (v. ) Lsense not recordell papoose case rough papers shanghai man tule fever 73 pony expre s s me s se , nge r prairial slumgUllion Lsense not recorde,g/ wash, to wash up ranch (z. trans. ) For the following terms the dates supplied in the DA appear to be incorrect. clear, to olear out sotana , fetch (X. 1.) shoe peg The date l87? is assigned by the DA to the quota tions illustrating .t.Q. cleat .Q.Y.l, fetch, and sotanij , and the source cited 1s in each Case the volume "StOry .Q1 (ltStory of Mine, etc."). According to the manuscript bibliography prepared by Charles Meeker Kozlay, the individual stories from which each of the DA t s quotations is aotually taken are all of a later date (1g, olear 1s from "Flip: A California Romanoe,.fi which appeared in print first in the Glsgow Herald at various dates during July, 1882; ttch 1s from "Found at Bla ,zing Star, It first printed in the IW .wl on March 5 and 12, 1882; otanf) 1s trom "At the Mission ot San Carmel," which was first printed in the W XQr.k S of December 31, 1882, and January 7, 1883) , Furthe:r; Kozley does not list any of the stories in question among the con-

PAGE 79

tents of Stoty gt a until the 1896 edition. For the 1877 and immediately subsequent editions Kozlay gives no list of contents, indicating (aceording to his usual prac ... tIce) that the title piece alone made up the entire volum e . Also, for "At the MIssion of San Car mel," from which sQ'kana is, taken, Kozlay sup plies the additional information t ha t the manuscript 1s dated N ovember 14, 1882 . For lLU the DA a ssigns the date 1876, and in dicates the source as "Dt1l:t b:.2.m l'J& $hQres . " AccordIng to both Kozlay and the DAiS bibliography, Drltt W.m Ii.g. Snores (dated 1879) first appeared in 1878. The story from which the DAis quotation is taken, "The H oodlum Band," was first published, according to Kozlay, in Ogdex' a January, 1878 . Curiously enough, .IJ.i.E. is also inoorrectly entered in the DA. From the context it is plain that Harte meant in theDA" s sense 1 . : flA small wooden peg used to fasten shoe soles to the uppers or to each athel'''; and not in. sense 2'. : ftA variety of Indian earn, or the grains of such coZ'n, somewhat re sembling the pe .gs used in .shoemaking. If Hartet s ffhonest Connecticut farmer'" did not fail to note the resemblance between the oorn and the pegs, but he probably saw it in the reverse order: N owhere in the valley of the Conneoticut the sun shone upon a more peaceful, pastoral, manufacturing community . The wooden nutmegs 'vere . 9lo\>lly ripening on the trees, and the white-pine hams for consumpt i on were gradually

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75 rounding into form under the deft manipulation of the hardy American artisan. The honest Connecticut farmer was quietly gathering from his threshing-floor the shoepegs, which, when intermixed with a fair proportion of . oats, offered a pleasing substitute for rodder to the etiete civilizations of Europe .78 The following repr, e sent nonce use s and can be called Americanisms only through courtes,y_ Boue1cault (X.) charcoal (X.) Christy minstrel crazy quilting party hash gymnasium hayfooted marble sharp phantasmagoriana Sally Reb skyute

PAGE 81

LEXICON

PAGE 82

Term in the Laxicon are as follows: Americanisms (designated by the letter nAt! within paren theses), Hispanioisms (designated by the letter ItS " within parentheses), terms whioh are both Americanisms and Hispanicisms (designated by the letters uSA" wi thin parentheses), and putative Americanisms (designated by the symbol u'?Att within parentheses). Although the symbols of classification are placed as close to the headword of each entry as is consistent 'With clarity, they refer to all combinations or senses illustrated Because of the tact that most of the entries are Americanisms, the Lexicon is designed to be used in oon junction \11 th the Dict1Qnsty S2.t There.". fore, all entries ot Americanisms ave insofar 77 as possible according to the system of classification used by the DA. This arrangement has permitted the saving of much s ace in that definitions could be omitted ..... the DA' ' s definitions being presumed to apply in all cases except noted, In the case of all other entries, definitions are supplied. It was deemed unnecessary, however, to supply for other entries the customary designations indicating parts of s ,peech. , For putative Americanisms this infor ...

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78 mation would have been superfluous; for Hispanio1sms (used in English contexts) it would have baen oonfusing. Further, although diacritical marks are used with all H ispal'lioisms "Thie h have not become Americanisms, they are used with those Hispanicisms which have also become Amer i can1sms only when their use l Ias oon s i stent ,,11th American spelling practices as indicated by the D A . The order of the eVidence give n under each entry 1s as follows: (l) the date of the earliost known pub11cat1on of the quotat1on cited. (2} the t1tle of the story, poem, or other pieeeof writing frOm ",bleh the q otat1on tv6S taken, (3) the quotation (rr ely eondensed, lith ,only internal omission s generally indicated by suspension po1nts),(4) with1n parentheses, arabic numerals (or 1 tter abbrev1a tions and ar bic numerals)t se parated b.Y commas, indicating volume and page in the Wt1t1x;U:s (or other source 79) from which the ' quotation ',as taken, (5) within square b.raokets, lex-leal information or other commentary. Quotations supplied are not necessarily the earliest available for the term illustrated. Only in cases where the earliest use "las tEllt to be significant was 1 t ohosen over later and equally pertinent ones _ The place of original publication for each piece cited in the Lexicon may ns found in the partial bibliography 79 See p " 214 .

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79 con tained in th Append All abbreviations used :!n the Le'xicon are tho s o t t he DA ltl $oeordanoe with the practioe (>! thG DA (and other o t ,its k i nd>' stylistic Uberties hav.e' taken for t h e sak e of presenti ng t he mater' i 'al i n the LexiCon in as eo onomical a manner as possible "

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80 n . (A) attr1b. 1902 ttprosper's ' Old Mother ' " LProsper wav ushered at last into a small tank-like sitting room, hose decorations oonsisted of large abalone shells. (19,162) . abogadQ , n. (8 ). 1884 ttA Blue Grass Penelope" But why did you send for the abogado Poindexter when my brother called? (4, 178) L Quoted by DA.I absurdo ( 8 ) . bsurd, nonsensical. 1875 76 "Gabriel Conroy" It. is said 1 t is not two months that he first came here, and she fell in love with him at the first glance. Absurdo ! (13, .w1, n . (A). 1899 tiThe Boom in the t Cal veras Clarion'" You mean well, I know, but the second Dimmidge "ad" 'Was a mistake. (16, 179) . adelante ( 8 ) . For'\',ard , go on . 1888 "The Argonauts of North Liberty" It 1s finish--Adelante ! Dr ... r ... rive on ! (11, 218) . adios, inter;} . (SA). 1 87 1 uIn the Mission Gardenf' Adios, Senor. (12, 105). adobe , n . (SA) 1 . 1882-83 "At the Mission of S an Carmel" t 1111 s don ' t look well on the refectory table and against the adobe wall. (3, 3 93) . b . 1865 "Early Californian Superstition ., It was a low, one -story adobe , with projecting eaves and galleries. (20,147), 2 . 1900 riA W idow of the Santa Ana Valley" I saw :uuu:. stock • • • waddling long, fat as the dobe they were stick-

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81 Ing 1n. (17, 150) .. b . Esp. agQbe .a.Q1l. 1882-83 "At the Mission of San Carmel" It was in th1s plaIn that the limitless f1elds of grain clothed the tla t adobe s011 . (3 , 388) . Agricultural Department . See de-partment, n . 3 . (1) .. Qe.par;tment g1 AerIcu1ture. Jiil,1A bandita (S) Holy water . 187, -76 "Gabriel Conroy-II As she went out she partook ot agua bandIta, (13, 239) . amardiente, XL. (SA) 1867 "The Right Eye of the Commander" Under the malign influence of Peleg and several glasses of aguardiente the commander lost somewhat of his decorum . (1, '401) • aguinaldo (S) A New Year's or Cbri tmas gift. 1882-83 "At the Mission of San , Carmel" He put into mf band gold for an aguinaldo. (3, 405) . A.b, .lQ ma .iLl umundo (8) Ah, the way the world goes . 1875-76 "Gabriel Conroy" Father Felipe, • • • took a philosophical pinch of snuff, and muttered:--ttAh, 10 que es e1 mudo Lsi,gfI.1I (13, 158). si. lA dispos1ciOn .Wl Dsted (8) At your service. 1899 "What Happened at the Fonda" Miss Cot threw out her two arms with a graceful gesture and a profound curtsey, and 581d,--ttA 1a ' . dlsposicion de usted, senor,. If (17; 63) . alamedA, a . (SA) 1901 "A Ward or Colonel Starbott1e's" I am about to take my ward out • • • to--er--taste tbe air in the Alameda . (19, 136) ICfted by DA, but not attr1b. to Hart.el.

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82 l.caJ,dg, Ih (SA) 1872 t'Concepcion de Arguello" He whose father is ,Alcalde of his trial hath no fear. (12, 79). a1treJJCQ, U" (SA) 1885' rtMaruj "Th p tio 1'6 tained th Spanish conception of s6clus1on. (5, 3). alkali,n. (A) 1 . 186, "Tailings*, Seoond Not1oetf He announoes his in tention to go to lashoe, which is beautifully described as being an "Oasis-of sage brush lying ina field ot alkali." (8S, 93). 2.b.(1) alkali gesert. 1890 fA Wait of the Plains" The transit ot the dreary alkali desert ... " LwaAl but blurred picture in his memory. (9, 60). almarjal (S) Marshy ground where cattle graze .. 1884 ttA Blue Grass PenelopetJ LShe woul.Q.! gaze abstractedly from the dark embrasures of her across the stretching al marjal to the sh1ning lagoon beyond that terminat d the estuary. (4,181). u . (SA) 1871 "In the Mission Garden" Come, salute me the stranger Americana . (12, 104). 1875' -76 "Gabriel Conroy" She 1s Americana . (13, 237). Americanize, :I. Also Americanized, • (A) 1863 ftJohn Chinaman" Yet a neater-fitting boot than that belonging to the Americanized Chinaman 1s rarely seen on this side of the continant, . (1. , 221) . amigo, (SA) 1897 "Hasta Manana" Untiil to-corrow--..-..-.-, alway. (20t 415).

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83 an.:t.it, n. (A) 1880 "A Gentleman of L Porte" I offer d to put it dOl1n for a five-dollar ante 1 t night. (20, 202). .Yo. (A) 1901 "A Buck ye Hollow Inheri tanc " Uncle Quincy may not ha e anted up in this matter 0' fee11ng. (18, 199). 2. In comb: (1) Bnxious bench (A) 1893 "The Bell .. Ringer ot Angel' s" It yo 1re going to convert me ••• , you m1ght as well make yourself comtortable. As for me, I'll tak the anxious bench. (8, 308). apodQ (81 A nickname. 1888 "The Argon ut of North Lib erty" This Essmith is like Huanson--an apQdo .... nothing. (11, 217) • arctlc, n. (A) 1877 "Morning on the Avenues" T h e other • • • L g i 11 changed hel' w1nged for a pair of "arctics." (11, 96). • • arrQ:2:Q, n. (SA) 1869 '''Frlar Pedro's R1de" Down the arroyo sped the flying mald. (12, 100) . astucia (S). Craft, cunning . 1888 "The Argonauts of North Liberty" No, it as astutcia--trick, ruse. (ll, 216). The burning of heretic. 188? "The C sade of the Excelsior" She and Miss Chubb p tronize the Mexioan school ith ••• old nov 1s and bQoks ot poetry--of which the padre ma a s an u to-da-te. (6, 180). AyltQr, n. (A) 1867 (Title) "Av tor." (12, 281) L rt prob bly coined Ayitor esp. for t his poem. The uthor of the

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84 DA' s quot e (1868 sonoma Democrat) had doubtless seen Harte's poem in the .,Q,an FranciscQ Wi Letter of Jall . 26, l867J .u 4. m! (8) Alas, poor me. 1902 "The SWord of Don Jose" 'Tis h1A sword ! Ay de mi ! (20, ayuntamiento , n . (SA) 1863 "The Legend of Monte del Diablo" Disjointed memoranda, the proceedings of ayuntamientos • • • have been my inadequate authorities. (1, 382) . bagatela ( S ) Bagatelle, trifle. 1885 "Maruja" It is not such bagatela that Faquita is here to relate. (5, 40) . baldbeaded, a.. b . IQ. snatch (..1.Jl:k) bald-headed . (A) 1885 "An Apostle of the Tulear! I used to be the organist and tenor in our church in the States. I used to snatch the sinners bald ... headed with that. (4, 330) . ballot, n . In comb. : (1) ballot stuftsr. (A) 1890 "A Ward of the Golden Gate" That ' Baby Senator' ••• was surrounded by his idiotic worsh1pers and toadies and ballotbox stutfers. (7, 220) . banderill ( S ) Small dart with a bannerol thrust 1nto the nape of a bull. 1895 "The Devotion of Enr1quez" He bristled withbander11las like a hedgeho , but remained with his haunches against the barrier. (10, 351) . bnder1llero ( S) He who sticks th bander111s in ths bull' s neck . 1895 "The Devotion of Enriquez" The first bull had entered, and, after a rather brief play with the p1cadors and banderilleros, was d1spatched . (10, 350) .

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85 banjo t n . (A.) 18 . 6 IDevil' s For d It You couldn ' t do anyth1ng on a b njo? (4, 346) . barbe cue, n . (A) 1891 ffA First Family ot Tasajara" What did I rig up my shed and a thousand feet of lumber for benches at the barbecue for? ( 8 , 3). barren, n. 1 . b . 1902 "DIck Boyle's Business Card" Only a bIg Injin scare at Pine BGrrenSf ••• (19. 235) . n . (A) 1. 1878 "The Hoodlum Band" He had introduced baseball, blind hooky, marbles, and peg-top 3mong his Indian subjects. (1 , 227) . b . 1878 "The H o odlum Bandt! A heavy blow on the head from a baseball bat, and the rapid projection of a baseball against his stomach, brought the tutor a limp and lifeless mass to the ground . (1, 216) . 2 . In comb. : (2) (a) 1878 "The Hoodlum Band" I have already organized two Oaucuses 1n a baseball and bribed the delegates of another. (1, 217) . batten, n .1 (A) 6 . 1871 "The Babes in t . he \foods" A man would pullout his battery For anything--maybe the price of whisky . (12, 139) LCited by DA under date 1871, app . from sub ... heading "Big Pine Flat, l8'll.!! bedroQk , n . (A) 1 . 1902 "An Ali Baba of the Sierras" But it was not the

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86 gold of the localIty, of the tunnel" of the "bed rock. " (17, 334) • 2 .J:.1.g.. 1869 "Tenne ssee l s Partnertt To come down to the bed-rock, it's just this: TelUlessee, thar, has played it pretty rough and expensive .. 11ke on a stranger. (1,46) fpAts first quote 1s 1873../ .lW.lf ' n. (A) 4 . d . (1) !Q. l.1n& l.rui 1893 ItTbe Heir of the MeHu11shes" Nothing mean about Jimmy as an advocate or an ar bi trator, ei thar, 1s there, ? Rings the bell every time, don't he? (11, 3;9) /.DA's first quote 1s 1928../ bench. n . (A) 1 . 1862 " Note s by Flood and Fieldtf Herel s the lower bench of the foothills, and here's Altascar's corral, and that white buildIng you see yonder 1s the case. (1, 355). (3) W, l'lm. l2i1 :Q.U (A). 1885 " Snow Bound ,at Eagle t SU He' z about ez good ez they make • em--you bet. (5, 201) • .b,U, a.. (A) 5 . In comb.: (18) W,rumg. 1898 "The DeSborough Con nection su Qld Desborough could ••• have t bought Up1 or tbou ght out' the whole lot of his relatives on this side of the. big p ond . (16, 267>-121& Indin. (?A) . = DA's q . v . 1892 "The Conspiracy of Mrs. Bunker" Jim Rider; you know, the Southern banker and speculator, ••• a regular big

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87 Injin mong the 'Chivs,' (8, 430) LNot recorded by 'blghead. 11(A) 3 . 1889 "Captain Jim ' s Friend" Overpraise for an occa sional scrimmage with road agents nd flattery from Eastern greenhorns have g ven them the big head . (5, 386) . Black Republioan . Henee Bla ck Republicanism . (A). 1867 "St. Patriok' s Day at Slumgu llion Center" Col . Bungstarter then dwelt upon the evils of Black Republicanism and Coolie -1sm. ( Fron7 98) . bllng,. and n . (A) 5 . In comb. : (8) .lJiulg . 1886 "A il110nire of Rough and Ready" Times you get so tangled up in follarin' that b lind lead 0 ' yours you ain' t sensible! (5, 253). Bloomer1te, n . (A). 1878 nTb Hoodlum Bandit ffFlshwoman! " screamed the Amazonian queen . uBloomerite ! " shrieked the mer maid . (1 , 221 ) . lWui , a.. (A) 4 . In comb. : ( 7 ) ma,u. 1877 nUoger Catron* s Friend" Ye want some blue mass--suthln' to on l oad your 11ver. (2, 338) . 'bluegrass, n . ( A ) 5 . Attrib. with regiQn . 1884 IlA Blue Grass Penelope" LSha born • • • 1n that vast grazing district of Kentucky known as the "Blue Grass" region. (4, 126) . bluenQse, n . (A) 1 . 1891 "A Few Words About .t-Utw Lowell" Judge Haliburton • • • had lready drawn "Sam Slick," but it was the Yankee re-

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88 garded from the "outside, IL_ ... as he Y S \iOut to aggressively pl'e sent himself to the neighboring "Blue Noses." (20, 257). bluff, n..1 (A) 1895 t'ln a Hollow at the Hills" vlhile I las looking, the whole face 0 " that bluff bowed over softly ••• and got cle n eway somewhar before ! !mowed ito . (10, 43) . blurf, 11.2 (A)2. 1878 "Two Saints of the No ghost kin rake d.own the pot ag'1n the keerds I've got This aintt no bluff! (2, 372). 12lutf, y'.2 (A) 2 • .1l:1U.. 1889 "Captain Jim ' s Friend" To think that. oyer I am-bluffed again. <" 371). bgarg, n. (A) . . 3 t , 1895' "In a Hollow ot the Hills" And I reCkon itt s a-bout time, boys, as the garnets up, that we handed in our check, and left the board. (10, 8 -9). b.Qlw. ( S ) Fool. dunce . 1875-76 "Gabriel Conroy" Since he had read the letter, his selt-consciousness bad oentred upon a single thought, expressed to him ill a single n tive word, "Bobo," (13, 120) • . bogya, .a. (A) 187? liThe Man from Solano" It was such a glaring ohain, so obviously bogus, th t my eyes 'ofere fascinated by it. (2; 26). boil@d, a.. In comb . ! (11) shirt. (A) 1874 "The Fool of Five Forksff There was • .. • a general demand for "boiled shirtstJ and the barber. (2, 408).

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89 bolero (8) Spanish 188, "Snow-Bound at Eagle's" LI woulJll have got out and danced a saraband or bolero wlth you .. (5', 219) . oliyar, 61'* (A) 2 . 1860 uRan Away" My outfit" •• was complete. It con ... sisted ,of • • • linter alial a peculiar klnd of cake--resem b1ing In s hape the almanac cuts of the sun ..... called a Bollv,ar. (20, 73) LD '9 first bonanza , n. (SA) 4 . Used ettJ:'lb. 1878 "WIth the Entrees" But here two per .... functory listeners suddenly turned toward the other end of the table; where another guest, our Nevada Bonanza 110n, we, s evI dently in the full flood of pioneer anecdote and narration. (11, 144). n. 2 . ,Ul. (A) 1887 "The Crusade ot the Exoelsiorll We look back upon our concerts and plays, our minstrel entertainments, with the incomparable performances of our friend Crosby as Brother Bones •••• (6, 67)., (A) 1897 "The Ancestors of Peter Atherly" No, sir, she played thi9 yer camp for all it was worth ••• , and now she's I11n' out thar in the bone yard ••• a 1'oar1n' at us in marble .. (16, 8). n .2 (A) 2 . 1899 "The Secret of Sobr1snte's ez I was

PAGE 95

sayin', 1 warn t tint ohow,. but kept on his reg'lsI' way w: en the boom was the b ggest" (16, '185). %.2 (A) 90 2. .1885 "Sno -Bo un at tsn Wait till the Ditch 1s done. • • • a t till Qhe begin to boom, and then you just stand roun , (5, 201) .. 4, ,., 1898 " See Yup" See Yup had conceived the brIlliant ide of n om1ng'" t on a b rrow d capital of five hundred dollal's in gold-st . • (16, 159) ri boomet, .2 (A l. 1893 11 he Heir t t e Me ish SU A regular campaign boomer .. the old MoHul! h was. (11, bg?tschPn ( ) Great drunkard . 1875-76 t1Gabr1el Gonroy" Borr c on! She wes there! (13, 239). .1 ( ) 1 . 1899 uLlb rty Jones's Discovery" You jest get back to ,your scrubbin1--d " ye hear? I'm boss 0 ' this shanty, you bet: (15, 370). 7, -.:tr.. (A) 1875-76 "Gabri 1 ConroyU The true demo .... cratic impulse • • • "gave us the right to run the machine . ourselves and boss the job." (14 , 121). n.. 6. In comb.: (2) do115lt . (A.) 1891 "ThE! New Assistsnt at Pine CIa rin School" As he t , s regularly buckled down to the work h re, an will go his bottom doll r on it, you can safely leave things to him (8, 236).

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91 6. In comb.: (10) Also fig. 1886 "Devil's Fordfl It there's any one ez knows how to come square down to the bottom rock without flinohin', it's your high-toned, fash'-I nable (4,409) . LPAts first quote (f1&) is BQucioault, (?A). To adapt to other purposes. 1860 flA Case of Blasted Affeotions" He was , attired In the height of the prevailing fashion and his boots were glossy as the raven's wing . (You may have met that idea of the "raven's wing" as applied to thE! hair of the human head . I only claim thE! merit of Bouclc8ultlng it in another situation. ) (20, 69). L Not recorded by bower, 11. (A). 1865 "One Bor se Flat" in "Tailings., Second ' Notice" I have hid the bower, Pard1ner--I would do thee wrong. (SS, 92). bowie, n. (A) 2 . ijowi knife. 1869 ttThe Outcasts of Poker Flat" But at the head of the gulch, on one of the largest pine-trees, the.}, found the deuce of clubs pinned to the bark with a bowie knife. (1, 26), brake, n.2 In comb. : (2) mm (b). (A) 1874 "Guild s Sig naltt Brakemen and porters glanced ahead, Smiled as the signal sharp, intense, Pierced through thesha'dows of Providence. (12, 217). brand" X . tt. (A) 1895 tiThe Devotion of Enriquez" The rodeo-a yearly chase of wild cattle for the purpose of lassoing and branding them--\vas a rather brutal atrair. (10, 357-8) .

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92 bt&Xe , • ( ) 1 . 1897 "T e Ancestors of Pet r Atherly" A sudden childish mem ry of t gr at stern plains, and the biers ot th Ind an "brav sf! rai ed on upr ght poles him. (16, 21). break -down, n. ( ) • • • ru ed upon 1. 1898"An mera1da ot Roc y Canon" Perbap the danoing of t e gIrl suggested negro ffbre k -down rat r than any known sylvan easur. (16, 113). brgncQ n. d • ( S ) 1. n . 1892 "Susy' It was an vil day l For the broncho had run away, ups t the buggy, and had only b n stopp d by br v reo of n ox-t am. (9, 138) . n .1 , . In comb.: (1 ) • (A) 188 "b gonauts ot Nort h L1 rty" But folks get peart nd assy wh n th Y'r way 1"0 um, an put on z many alrs as a buck nigger. (11, 193). J;m.g,t, .4 (A) 1 . 18 9 t H P ened at the Fond "Th first t buckt thre him clean 1 to th roa, but didn' t tun him . (17, 72) . 2 . ( A ) 1902 tiT e Con a1 scens l1n" s I a n't er to list d to the sisters oackl y kin put to the huc board_ and drive me hom z soon ez you pl a e. (19, 200). Jl..1 ( A ) /

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93 1. b . l:Q. In!.Q.t 1b.e. tiger. 1893 "An Ingenue of the Sierrasrt It mout be a young chap from Yolo who bucked agin the tiger at Sacramento. ( 9 , 453). 2 . 1870 "Brown of Calaveras" fuy don ' t you say you want to buck ag'in faro? (1, 69). LCited by DA from 1871 volume...! .'1.2 ( A ) 1 . 1872 UHo\'J Santa Claus Came to Simpson ' s Bar " Once she bucked, but it Was from force of habit; onoe she shied, but it Was from a new, freshly painted meeting house . (2, 7 9) . 2 . LWitlll a.:t., agaipst, or through. 1888 "The Argo nauts of North Liberty" Bob hounded Johnson and blackmailed hi. m • • • until one day Johnson bucked against i t--kicked over the traces •••• (11, 224) . 1865 "One Horse Flat" in uTailings., Second Notice" In the Spring he lightly gambles, • • • holds two a ces and he bucks agin thr ee Q.ueens. (SS, 92) LPossibly the same 2., q.v., or 1 . b., q .v.../ bucker, n .2 ( A ) 1897 JIm and Uncle Billy" The unfortunate " bucker" was cleared out not only of his gains, but ot his original investment. (1 5,236) LDA's first quote (from 1898 volJ/ buckeYQ, n . ( A ) 3 . 1877 "An Ameri c an Haroun alRasch1d" Get off them flowerbeds , you old buckeye, afore I bust your head .

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94 (20, 175) . 'lmQk-
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tune, (10 , 407). bummer' , n . (A) 95 1. 1865 "The Ruins of San Francisco" The idlers, or 'Bummars,'-"s term applied to designate an aristocratic privileged 01s8, who enjoyed immunities fl'otn labor, ..... ' . were listlessly regarding the promenaders from the street-corners. (11+, 266) , n. (A) 1 . 1893 "The HomeComing of Jim vlilkes" There's that old butternut ... tree that you shinned up one day "lhen we sst the hounds on you. (10, 206). caballer...Q, n . (SA) 1872 uConeepcion de Arguellotl Vainly leaning from their s84d1 St caballeros, bold and fleet, plucked for her the buriad chicken trom beneath their mustang's teet. (12, 80). Sap9Qg1g. n . (A) 1873 fJAnEpisode of Fiddletown" Colonel S tal'bottle had remal'ked, blankly, that •• ., she had BlOl'E! soul than the who ,1e caboodle of them put together. (2, 122). eeshe, n . (A) 1899 tlHow I ent to the Mines" As I was soarcely able to stand, one or them volunteer-ed to fetch my pack trom its flcaohs" in the bushes four miles away. (IS; 25'8). cahoot, n. (A) 1. (.li1th). , 1897 ''Uncle Jim and Uncle B1lly" L1ke a not, Uncle Billy 1 . 8 still in f oahoots L1.A .. , with his old pard. (lS, 220), 2 . 1890 "A Waif' of the Plainsff Welre cahoots in this

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thing! (9, 48). calico, 11. (A) 4 . Jocular. 1863 ttl lis" If you had seen him makin' up to a piea of calico inside, last trip, and she int up to him quite confidential, I guess you'd think he was 1ady-iller. (1, 271) . 5. attr:tb. or .ru!..1.. 1899 tlWhat Happened at the Fonda" Her Rtang wa as distinct and peculiar as herself--a mon grel m re of the extraordinary type known as a "p1nto,tl or "calioo horse, mottled in lavender and pink. (17, 63). 1892 "A Treasure of the Galleon" Sol. Catlin, mounted on a 'cal1co" tstang... dashed among them . (8, 26 ). LCi ted by DA../ Ca11,tornia, • 1 . Use d attrib. or as adj. a . In the namas of, or with reterenc to, ani lsc (6) 11,Q.u. (A) 1885 "Snow-Bound t Fagle1s" There' bear and that shab y, oVE'rgrown c t you call California lion •••• (5, 222). sall., l!'. • ( A ) 2. b. 1878 "T 0 Saints of the Foot-Hil13" Give him my compliments, and tell him , et h kin spend money aster th n I can, I call (2, 366) . ( S) Trousers. 1887 "Tbe Crusade of the Excelsior't Meanwhile, shi t for yo urself in Pepito's serape and calz s. (6, 99) . camarada (8) Comrade, partner. 1064 "The Legend of Devil's

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97 Point It 0 b , e maradosand brothers 11, ... '1 re r ady to race e the r port. •• • (1, 412) • (S) Vale t, steward. 1884 ft Blu Qra s P n lop Ah, yeAl a soldier ot the law, vb t you call an Qliei,. 11c1A, e chief of gendarmes, my star, but not a gentl m , -Q raro to prot ot a lady. ( " 178-179) • u. (SA) 18S, "Maruj " ,Chere erA! glimp ot 1 zy f1 e s, r c11n1ng in the de sh bille of sort silk n y ; 10 C 1 a. and dropping slippers. (;, 26). ___ ( ) 1 . 1875'-76 "G brial Conroy" Your ' sug tion.... em-nat s fro m ral ent!mant debased love t sst nd c mp me tings, and an weaken d by run g\llJl and th oon-tact of 1 g r er je aI's . (14, 19). 2. Used in combs., as • 1874 "De con Joness x ri nee" Why, I stood the joke •• It and th snick r that • • • went round th day I t dow.n th th mourn r in the (20, 38,), n. (SA) 1882 "At the Mission of Sen Carm 1" As Frane1 co, mer tng trom the c ad, put spurs to his mu1 at t e ig t ot the whit washed walls, tonto runted. (3, 401). Canc10UltQ (S) Song book. 1895 ttTbe D vatton ot nr1quez" I h ve got ometh1ng 11 it 1n n old oanclonero I pick d up t boo stall in Boston . (10, 338), ..... D. S ' 9 ganyQll. ganyon, n. (SA)

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98 1 . 1868 tiThe Stage-Driver's Story" Then a lurch to on side, as we hung on the bank of the eanon. (12, 175). 14. ( 8 ) 1869 tlCallfo;rnta's Greeting to Se fsrdcl In simpl r y s 1 te the n,-•• _ he bared hed of El Capitan! (12, 25-26). C(srajo, n. Also ' n intel'j. (SA) 1 87 7 "The story of a Mine" Ooncho r 1sed the bottle to his lIps, took a -long draught, ma e a wry f ee, and eJa late-d,--ttCar jo!" (3, 1). inter.i. ( S ) 1885' 11 I ruj a fI Cal' amba! Senor Captain, .that ale you staring at? (5', 21), . 2 (A) 6. In (lomb. t (8) 1878 fI Heiress of Red Dogtt If ! give ya th t twenty tho'll sand you' 11 throw 1 t allaY in the first skin g m in 'Frisco, and hand it to the first short card-sharp vouill meet. (2, 282). [DA's l8St } entry is .from rte.J cflrd1nal, .n-3. In comb. (2) ;f19iler* (A) 1885' U ruja A few oardinal flower s f 11 like drops of blood before the open Windows of the ballroom. ( 5 , 2,). .. ( ) 1. 1 93 " Sally Dowstl But when Courtland hastened to aSf3Ure her that Drummond not a Uearpetbagger, If ., • • the young lady was scrrce1y more hopeful. (8, 339). n. (A) 2. 1893 " Sally DO\olStl But It d dVise yo' friend, Mr. Drum ..

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99 m nd, 1 he ' s comln _ e1' carpet-bagging, not to trust too mueh t p f S 'reconstruction.' (8. 339). M malns ( ) L rge coach dr en by four IIl\).1 s. 1'S Fa loT .1 r tt All! t as fin cart,qza Sle. Cllstto th t he h ju t passed! (8, 15 ). ca rryell, n. (A) 1. 1894-95 ftCl rence" The vague 0 tl1ne ot bug ies end carry 11 s 1'111 d the long h d b de tl sta ble • ( 9, 304). c ,n. (SA) 1. 1862 "Note by Flood and Field" That 'White yo u s e yonder is t e casa. (1, 355). ilding c (8) Ca t lien (f m 1 ). 1885 ttl.fart j" Y d h r t.lJhe" the oouncil ? 1 dy mother, the hut Pereo from (5, 32). catalna, ut out i n. ( ) 1887 ttTh Oru ad of t e Excel orn Ie and to p what appe red to be a young catalpa, an to md . t the trunk of n enormo s pa s s10n vine.. (6, 87). caycus, n. (li) 1. 1878 tlT Hoodlum Band" I hav all' dy org nized t 0 c ucu s n b seball <:1 b, en bribed ted leg tes of onot, ere (1, 217 .. CEf'lQ;tt, It. (A) 1889 "T e Heritage f Dedlow Marsh" vlon a1' ef Guv'nm nt y tor th m frocks th Kernel's girls w nt vrti • round L gport in last Sund <5, 399). ceanoth'Luh n . ( ) 1885 " lviaruj 1t R e walked rapidly on • • • throu n llcy f ee n t u , until little

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100 thic et 0 eve greens. (5, cement, n . (,A) 1 879 "The Tldns of T b1.e Mountain" That's YOt !--allers dip in' 1-Jest or e st for quartz and the aolor, inste d of keeping on plumb dO\'1!l to the f cement!' (3, 126). c .,]t. (A) 1 • .u:. 1887 .fA Phyllis of the S1t3rras" The Bank ' s behind h:im, and his h tis calked allover the Road. (6,25'+). n .. (SA) 1862 fI otes by Floo and Fieldu ! detect t topn of chi al, W iah show... the tide to have s me-what allen. (1, 367). 1 "3 ' The Legend of :lOuts del Di,ablo" Exoept the occasion 1 p ttoring of a squirrel, or a rustling in the clim .. iss1 bUsh S, th 1'e \-Iers 0 signs 0 life. (1, 388) LC1tad DA from 1867 a anee, n. (A) 3. 1879 "The of Table It's a right smart chance beyond "he Ferry, and pi cs b yond the Hill too. (3, 1 ) . ChD,Darral a.. (SA) 2 . 1869 "'Tennessee's Partner" Th.e cool breez wh1c usu ally' sprang up \ th the go 1ng do m of th sun behind the chap ... al'ral-crested mount in was that evening \/1 thheld fro S ndy Bar., (1, cnaguete, n. ( SA) 1885 "MarujaU L H s a broad red sash round his waist,p rtl 1dden by a long, straight c ...

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101 q tao ••• (5,30). LDA' s fir s t quote s sma:r::cQ;&l, :i,. (if A) To burn s charcoal burns. 1882 ffF11p" had a it ot C reoal r n1n out t r e , and tho' it had been a -smouldering and a-smoking a-hlz1n ' n1 on t o a mont, (I e o'V it didn't ch rco a1 . rth cent. (3, 311). .cPa ck, .. 2 ( A ) (or ) .in Q!lef S oh . 1 69 " . T e . Out ca t s _ latt . , Beneath th s tr e lie the dy .or John Oakhur st , . h streak of bad lue . on the 23<1 ot ovem bel' 185i , and ha dad i his ohecks on the 7th Deeembel', (It 2 6). 185 "In a 10110 ' I of the 111s" And ! r c on t ' s a out time , boy, s t e gam' s p , t at 16 handed our c ha clr.s, and lGft the oard .. (1, -9). n. (A) Also attrib. 1 865 " Hary McGillup' Placin in my 1 P smal l but not ungrateful ro 1 0 check r ... berry lozen , he took t e occasion to repea t 0 tly n my ear t e otto d just ra ped e (1, 211), C n. (A) • 188 ttI n the arqu1n z Woodstf But e t s not aD; he's a C .. -rok reed at th t. . . it C , 79) ., ( ) 1893 " The B EJ11-Ringer of Angel " sIr A l ad f ne and a Chero ee rose c1ambsr d up lIe y . (8, .306). , ( A } Cf. bea tbeu It 1 878 "The Late t Chine utI' g It An bo m s, 9.1 _1 , and crack s, that r hed

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102 g h the tre s, eva led in their ... togs f U1' hundred Chine ! (12, 142). n . and w 2 . n eomb. : ( 6 ) qu rter. ( A ) 1900 "Bohe ian Days n San Franc i co" The r shops--not 81 rJ y s confinQd at th t time to a Ch n e qlsrter--wer e re 1ices of the bezal's of Canton and Peking ..... (18, 146). c n . (A) • 1900 "The I"fe' rmaid of Llghtho'se Point" Porn:rrey called to her _0 Ch nook to stop. (17, 176) . 5. In co . : (3) J'ation. 1900 "The l1ermaid of Lighthouse Pointlt Among hi smaller volumes he h found a travel book o the"O 1nook Jargon," '1 th a Ie icon 0 ny or t e words commonly used by the ort ern e fic tribes. (17, 1'74). lJ.. (A) 1892 " T e Cons :tracy of 1 s . Bunkeru I cal l tee Southern Chive your pets, Uol1! • • • • Jim Rider L.iJJ/ a r gul r b g lnj n among thet C (8, 30) .. . . ' ., C 01lCAQw, n. ( ) 1875 nCon ... \lC us nd the Chin sa C1 ssies" n ajar of cho -chow " properly wi th glng r, even a d is palatable. ( 0, 236). u. ( ) 1.1 6 U A 1.1 on r of Rough -and ... Ready " But I st n't forget to ve you Chris t mas, d man, an l t v got i ri t hel"e 't'11 th me. (" 32:!) . .. __ CA) 1864 "The Chr:tstmas Gift That Came t o Ru ertfl 1 1 's ? <;;; Chr s s -tree just 1 thi, nd

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103 we had been laughing and talking, calling the names of the ohildren who had presents on the tree. (1, 439) . minstrel. (?A).A perfo1?mer in Christy's Min strels. 1885 "Snow-Bound at Eagle ' s" You need not fear to eX ... pose yourself to the fascln tions of the wounded Christy Min ... stral. (5, 165) LNot recorded by OA; but cf. DA'S m1nstrel, n . l . b .. , and Cbr1:atyt i M1nstrels. / cbrQIIlQ, 11. " (A). , 1887 t'A Phyllis of the S 1erra$tt L.j!h&/ wtllls were adornedw1th gorgeousagr1eultural implement circulars, patent medicine calendars, with poly tinted chromos and oheaply illuminated Scriptural text " (6, 284) . shromg, z . (A) I> 1877 tfThe Story of a Mine" Something that could be afterwards lithographed or chromoed. (3, 49) LPA's only chURa (8). Savory stew of potatoes, eggs, cheese, ato. 1862 "Notes by Flood and Field' In a tew minutes t,,/o smoking dishes of chupa with coftee were placed before us, and my men ate rS ,venously. (1, 369) . c1er-tiMme (S). Certainly, IlThen you are raallyeollect .. ing?" ••• trC1ertamente.ft (16 , 78)", QiEar1tQ, n. ( SA). 1875 ... 76 "Gabriel Conroy" Nearly every room and all the piazzas were dim with the yellow haze of burning c1garltos, . (-13, 126)19 cigaln> (S). Cigar. 1877 tiThe Story of a Mine" His late Excellency Lwa:J sitting, not Ifby a sea-coal fire," but with agusrdiente and cigarros. (3, 38).

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104 (;1 c , n . (A) 1 . 189 ftChu ChuH But 'YIn n Fnr1q ez began t o t i g ten the c ne 0 gi t re "'ingul.a r t .lng occurred. (10, 311). c i (. .. ) ingsge e"llt, ap oiltment .. 1 85 JUT 0 o y st have t y c1 tss elselthere. (5, 98) . ,;:r;,,:o..l.....2. ( ) 1 877 IlAn Ameri c n Haroun Al .. R sehie' "If C i1 S r ic R ,tI he murnrured v gualy, n" r e carri d 0 t at I rtins lrg, and e un tion in'roduced in t e Uat:f.ono i'l1.bl can Conv ntion,. so t at no offie h older could ursue hexican r i ers nto th 11' o,m territory except upon t ... ccogn. t10n f Chief Joseph b t e 11 z Go arnm nt, why ... _ u re e fell 1nt.oan une sy slumber. (20, 171). c1'31U, n . ( ) 2 . 1 65 tlOne norse Flat' in tiT ll1ngs*,
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105 clear, In phrase s • 3 . IQ; olear 1882 "F11p" I reckon he'll clear out that ysr Sacramento counterjumpQr. (3, 338) LQuot. dat d 1877 by DA. DAt s second quot e also from Harte (1888)...1 qlea::j.ng, 11. CA) 1 . 1893 " Sally DowalJ Gradually the "Clearings" became larger. (8, 335). IQAst, n. CA) 3 . Shor t forr b .PICiflc CQast. 1878 t'Ret1rlng from Business" The keepe:r L wondere41 wheth"Gl" the Oolonel hadn't a money-mill somewhere where he turned out double eagles nd "slug,s" (the Coast name for tifty dollar gold-pieoes). (20, 188) • QOaktail, n. ( A ) 1 , . , 1885 nSnow-Bound at Eagle'slt By the time the sher r1f gets out his posse they've s .kedaddled, and the leader, like as not, is takln' his qUiet cocktail at the Bank Ex .... change . (5' t 145) • C . O , D , (A) 1875-76 "Gabriel Conroy" All right! send 'em up by express-mark 'em C.-O.D • . (14, 67). Ws;1, A . and m . (A) 1 . In oomb.& (2) 1902 tiThe Convalescenee of Jack Hamlin" So I ran in a cold deck on first time I ever did such a thing in my life. (19, 209). Also fIg. 187, 76 "Gabriel Conroy' You've been hack1nf the keen edge af my .. tlner tee11ns; playint it very low down on my moral and re-

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ligious nature, generally ringtnt in a oold deck on my spiritual condition, tor the last five years. (14, 18). colgr, n . ( A ) 106 1 • . 1874 " A Monte Flat Pastoral" Monte Flat-••• a c onmnmity ,.,herein , to use the local dialect, "theY' got the co lor and struck h rdpan" more frequently th n any other min ing camp_ ( 2 , 229). 1:1&and .transt. 1868 "The Luck of Roaring Camp" nIs that him? " " M ighty small spe c ! en-It " Hasn ' t more ' n got the color. " (1, 4 ) LCtted by DA../ colored, A . (A) 187 7 "An Ameri c an Haroun Al Rasch1d" A co lored messenger doubtf' l l y received the card by the President. (20, 176). n . (A) 1877 "The First Man" The native started for t he back door, ••• and found the car painter at his heels with a six-barreled Colt in his hands •••• (20, 18,). COWCUldante, n . ( SA) 1 867 "The Lost Galleon" Then aid the galleon' s commandante , General Pedro Sobriente ••• , "My pIlot is dead of scu rvy: may I ask the longitude, time, and day?" (12, 108 109) . commuter , n . ( A) l?, "Guild' s Signal" Brisk Y'oung bag -men, tourists fine, Old c ommuters along the line < . " " Oiled as the signal • " • pierced the shadows of Provi dence . (12, 217). c g mpgUero, n (SA) 1 889 itA Knight-Errant of the Foot H:!llstt Pardon, my fr1end ... embraee me .... Conpaftero Ls1/:J y Amigo.

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107 ( 5'. 458). complected, • (A) 1875-76'G briel Conroy" Only 1 st night I had letter, a journey, death, nd a gentleman in clubs, dark eomplected--th t's you . (14, 40). OonCOrd, n. 1 In full CQncord CQach. (A) 1899 1900 "A Belle of Canada City" Mr. Masterson started from a slight doz e in the heavy" lumbering "mountain wagontt which had taken the place of the smart Concord coacb t hat he had left at the last sta-tion. (18 , 45') . conniption, n. In full ((Qooiption rue (A) 1893 "A Protegee of Jack Hamlin's" If A lady," continued Jack with un abashed gravity, "in a sort of conniptIon fit. " (10, 213). continental, A . (A) 3 . b . 1897 'Three Partners" Darned if you don't look like the prof1le stam p ed on a Cont1nentalpenny! (15, 113) . cOQli81s141, n. (A) 1867 "St. Patrick-s Day at Slum gullion tenter" Col . Bungstarter then dwelt upon the viIs of Black R publiean1sm and (Fron, 98) LPA's first quat. is n ( ) 1 . 1893 Y Dows" l!1'hat had been • • • a dewy country lane, mark ed only by a fe l wagon tracks ••• , and indented only by the fain footprints of e crossing fox or coon, was now ••• trampled out of all semblance of its former gra ciousness. (8, 326).

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108 cQpnerheaQ, n . (A) 1 . 1863 "The Copperhead" There is peace in the swamp where the Cop erhead sleeps •••• (12, 20) LHere, as in the poem cited below, Harte identifies the Clv1l War copper with the 2 . 1863 (11tle) "The Copperhead Convention" (20, 3,,). n . , . In combinations denoting foods: (6) dQdgr . (A) 1901 "Lanty Fosterts Mist keu Yet even Lanty was obliged to admit that all this was somewhat incongruous with the baking of "corn dodgers , tJ the frying of fish, the king of beds, and her other household duties •••• (17, 316) . c. Denot ng drinks: (3) jy1c . (A) 1901 "The Land lord of the Big Flume Hotel" T1mes when you ' d h '1sted too much 0 ' this corn juice ••• ye sorter bu'st out rav nl ' (17, 271) . corn-ctack1ng, a. ("tA) Indiusting rust1city. 1897 "The Ancestors of Peter Atherlytl They were "no corn-cracking Hoosi rs," "hayseed pikes," nor "northern Yankee cum." (16, 4) blot recorded by DA; but ct. cQtncracker, n . 1....1 cotta1, n . (SA) 1862 "Not s by Flood and Field" A halt ... hour ' s active s urring brought me to a corral, and a little beyond a house . (1, 346) • .:.1&. 1868 "The L ok of Roaring Camp" Once, having crept beyond his Ilcorral," .. a bedge of tesselated pine boughs, which surrounded is bed,--he dropped over th bank . (1, 11).

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corral, :l. (A) 1 • .t:, . 1897 "The Ancestor of P t r Ather1y" r ve minute from th time of giving the order the straggling train was a fort fied c mp, the horses corra1l d in the centre. - • • • (16, 3 1 ) . abso1 . and transf. 1886 "Devil' s Ford" And when th y sez that the old man • • • , instead o ' trying to corral rich idder ,.. II> s uld stay in Devil"s Ford ••• , I sez to tb m th t it a n t t your tather1 B style. 1 ( , 03). correc1dQr, n . , ( S ) I don't knO\ your courts, your judg , or yo r corr gidor s. (1, 357). 109 cottonwoQd" n . (A) 1890" Wait of th Plain ff They were scending a hill; on either bank grew huge cott n wood "fro which occasionally depended be utiful. soarlet vine. (9" 64) . n . 9 .. In comb : (3) (a). (A) 1865 "Selina S d lla" The f rat object that greeted Edgardo, as he rode up to the station on t e arrival of the tra n, was the body of Burke the Slogger hanging on the oowcatcher. (1, 91) . cQwbQY, n . (A) 1 . 1860 "Story of the Revo1utionlt Every Am r can h s heard of the Legion V. Scouting the astern bank of the. Hudson , they ere a formidable check upon the r vages of tfcow boys" and "rangers" over that country lying between White Plains nd rew York City, known as the "Neutral Ground .t (20,23).

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2. 1897 UThe Strange Experiences of Alkali Dlcku H e was a "cowboy . " (16, 338). 110 ];.. (A) 1902 "The Convalescence ot Jack Hamlin" The consequence was he was coWh ded once in the street, and the second time tarred and feathered nd ridden on a rail out of town. (19, 2 6). QoY:Qte, a . ( SA) 1 1869 (Tit1m) "Coyote" (12, 206). b. Us d of persons. 1877 ftThe First Manu Why, you bome ... sick (20, 184) . n . (A). 3 . b . IQ. .mm (el" .t.b& 186, 'tSur prls1ng Adven ... tures of Master Charles Summerton" H e had been observed .... amusing himself by going through that popular youthful exercise known as "turning the crab. n (14, '203) LQuoted by DA from 1867 lQ. (?A). See quot. 1865 ttThe Adventure of Padre Vicentio" The Padre was constrained to utter a piou ejaculation, h ch hed the disastrous effect of causing the marine eocles to "catch a crab,tt t owing his heels in the all' and his head into t e bottom of the boat. (1, 22) LNot recorded by DA..J crank;, n .1 (A) . 1900 uThe Mermaid of Lighthouse Point" Some • • • also believed that t h e government would not have apPointed tta c;ranktl to a position of responsibility. (17, 164) •

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111 cra fish, Henee araWi'ish;tng . (A),; "The Her tage of Dedlow Marsh" "So ye've bin cl'a\,z ... fishint agin?' said lrfaggie •••• "\-lbofs craw-is in'?' he retorted. L Sha replied..,} ft at' s this backen out o t what you said yesterday?" (5, 30). craU guilting party. (?A). 1888 tlCressyU The attendanoe of r-IcKinstry and Cressy at a u01'8ZY quilting partyU had brought on "blind chills,lI (7, 99) ,LNot recorded by DA; but cf. crazv, A. 2 . (5) gUj,lt, and q uiltj,ng, Il. (4) party./ criatut:LQ. a (8). Infant. 1898 tIThe Passing of Enriquez" The crlatur:1ca, the leet1e child of ourselfs! (16, 82). cutthrQat, n . and (A) 3. b. 0 , game s of chance . 186, tfTailings*, Second Notice" The poet was deceiv d his partner, and , in single game of cut-throat euchre, lost the of hisclaim. ( SS, 93) • .da.ma. !kctandeza ( 8 ) .. Noble lady. , 188? .. "The Crusade of the Excelsior" You are a ..... a-Dama de Grande za!" (6, 62). wt. (A) 1 . 1882 "Flip" Perhaps it' s just. as vlell that you don't rig yourself out for' the benefit of those dead-beats at the Crossing, or any tramp that might hang round the ranch. (3, 325) • deadheaQ . n. ( A ) 4 . Attrih. 1882 f'Found at Blazing Star" The next time a gal like that asks to ride in this yer wagon , I reckon I won' t take the vote of any deadhead passenger. (3. 373).

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112 departmnt, n. 3 . (1) Dpartment .o!. Agriculture, (A) 1877 "An American Haroun Al-Ra chid" The Seer t ry maeI! Lw :;/ bran is ng 8 hug ' e beet from t e Agric 1 r 1 Department. (20, 183). (4) I2.e,partmen:t. 2I. Jhst:toa. (A) 1877 n1'ha Great Patent-Office Fire" W e have not yet heard from t e Dap rtment of Justice. (20, 247 ) • gerringgr, n. (Al 1869 "Th Outcasts of. Poker Flat U And pulseless nd cold, with a D rr1nger by his sid and bullet in his eart. • • t ben 8th the snow lay he who was at once the strongest nd yet the weakest of the outcasts of Poker Flat. 26), gi.a'Q1g (6) Devil. 1863 tiThe Leg nd of Monte del D ahloff By a s gular coincidence, the ul teer I nacio uttered the simple ej cUlation (I, 386) • ........ n . ( A) 1 . 1 3 "In t e Carqu1nez Wood" It 1sn't 0 mue the work of' whiten ••• as it 1s of Greasers, Chinamen, and Diggers, especially Diggers. ( , 79). atttlb. 1865 "Tai11ngs*, eoond Noti c e" He announces his tent on to go to 1 ashoe ••• and affiliate 1 th some Digger sqUElv/_ (S S , 93) . (8) igence, stag'Gooae • 1896 tfA Convert of the f salon" The lum ring wagon and faded di11 ene! stood on an ncl1ne. (10 , 2 3).

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113 n . (A) 1 . 1896 "Barker' s Luck" The only thing w tIl do i to be d--d before e t 11 see you dro dim of into th God-forsaken hole. (10, 406) . noyel. (A) 1866 "Railway Reading" J.Iagazine s, ekly papers, and "DIm Novels" have provIded • , • lIterary r -t lection for the leary t r a veller. ( SS , 75). Libertad ( S) God and Llberty. 1887 "The Cru de of the Excels ortl Presently low opening or g t ay a red, followed by the challenge of a green-jacketed sentry, and the sentence, " Dios y Libert d.1l (6, 56) . dlseiio (S) Desi n, sketch, plan. 1862 "Notes by Flood and Fleld" The boundary line of the old S an sb grant creek, described in th loose hr seology of the d seno beginning ' n the vald or skirt of the hill. (1,347). (8) Extr a Vagant, oolish. 1875 -76 "Gabriel Conroy" It is said it 1s not tlO month t t e f r t c m here, nd she f 11 in love it hm at the fir t lance. Ab surdo! Dispar / t do! (13, 238) ' . qlsposiclo'll ( ) Dispos 1 . 1894 "Chu Chuff I managed to tammer out somet in about the m drono berries be ng at her "d1sposlcion." (10, 319) . ditch, n . ( ) 1 , 1865 "On Horse FlatU in "Talllngs., S econd otic" 0, the empty, em ty itches, nd the rock devo d of ore. (SS , 92) .

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114 z-• b . in mildly profane im rect ons . ( A ) 1879 Twins of Table Mountainf ' Here ' 5 me, tmo hav n't been foo_in' l'ound no gal; and og my ski n if d dnt t think I he I'd on6 singin' u taT! (3, 13 ) . doggery, n . (A) 1891 "A First Fa . 1y of Taa jare" Hal''' court, e bell'eve, was keeping a iron , t ' e1' doggery In Sidon, and disposing 'tan lef'oot' and It junk to the ayfooted Pike Countians of is reclnct. (8, 93) . dQmine, Do. (A) 1 .. 189'1 " A GW Words about Mr. Low 11" And th 1'e 1s 8 1 .. ,.rays a faint r m1n1scence of the "Dom inie" in lit ratu1'e 'Whom We all remember n some hap a or allot a1'! ( 20 , 258), J2Qn, n. (SA) 1886 A Millionaire of Rou.ghand Ready" Doesn't the old d on come here every day, and ain' t his son tle r ght age for M amie ? (5. l!'Ylano ( S ) John Doe. 1888 ftThe Argonauts of lior Liberty" Pos1blemen t e it is nothing--a Don Fulano--or an a podo--Huanson . (11, 216). siQlla ( S) Lady, woman. 1891 "A First Family of A \>lsi t ng peon '.tho recog dzed him inform d him that the dona YISS engaged yl1th a visitor .. (8, 151). :trJdlena ( 8 ) Jane Do • 1890 tIA Ward o! t he Golden Gatetl It was high flight for yo , Hees --Mee s ... -Dona FU1al1a. (7, 0).
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115 Plains" Ta in" :tn, so to speak, ..... the easy dovm.iness, previou sness, and utter don 't-oare .. o-damn tivenes of his eomin yeT, I think tvl0 hundred sin' t too much for im. (9, 83-8 ). slQu:QlJa., 1}.., n., and .aU • • f. In comb . : (6) eogle. (A) 1878 "Retiring from Business" The keeper ..... was once heard to tibsent .. m1ndedly wonder f'lhather the Colonel h dn' t money ... m11l some'\t,bere \' here he turned out double eagl sand I'slugs." (20, 188). dr ,n..2 (A) , _ ;PQkelZ., 1886 ' ''The T ught-Reader 0 Ang Is" as i t eue 1'e 0 draw Out us off in our bloom? (12, 180), , :{. ( ) 3. 891 ft,A First Family of TssajaraO "I' m almost twenty," a d John Milton, color ng ..... flIt snt exactly ving:t.-a ml, t I t stand on it; if I WeI' you I K)uldnl t draw to suoh a hand," said Jacl colly. ( 8 , 95) . dr poker. (A) 1885 t-tSnoVl ... J3ound at Fagle' n The leader • • • LW 10 int i e n1ng to the sheriff oV r draw-po er' , in Seer mento. (" 1 5). n . 3 , b . W (01' _ ...... ) Qll. ( A ) 1899 trA Jack and Jill of the S1 rra 11 So _ time in a man ' life a oman's sure to get the drop on 1m •••• (18, 79). mnn, J: . ( ) 2 . rut .u.. 1900 tfA11dow of the' Santa Ana Valley" Mr.

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116 B r ook s ••• got up the dance . He' s bin round town Can vassin' 11 the women folks and drummin' up likely gals for it. (17, 1 9). I,Q. 5lU. lJ,ll. ( ) 1879 "The T .zins of Tabla Moun-tain" "Dry 't.lp!t1 sharpl y intel'l'Upted Rand ..... (3, 142). Dr ( ) 2 . 1897 " Uncle JIm aId Uncle 111yt If we't been playin' fourhanded , say you ant me agin some other ducks , we'd VG made 'four' 11'1 that deal, n hI isted some money ... e ? (15, 214) • u . ( ) 1 . 1894 "ehu Chuff "Go it, miss, the little dude is gain1n ' on shouted by a drunlten teamster . . ....... once cheeked m e in m i d-career. (10, 322). I ) Clapero , duenna. 1875-16 tt(7abri 1 Conroy" Anl I a c h ld, holy St. Antho ny l that I am to be kept in of .my duty as the hostess of the lessed Trinityt or are you, on Juan , due a? (1 4 , 2). d u gpy'] , • ( A) 1 . 189, "In the Tuls tI H e had only knolVn the ttdug _o u tit or canoe as a means of conveyance across the scant str ams whose fordabl e made e".1I$n those scarcely a neceSSity. (lOt 378). liUQ . (?A) 1874 n'Xlle Fool of Five Forks" But I in' t ell, -iss. I get a sort 0' dumb the ditches, ! think Miss. ( 2 , 414) Leornb. not in DA; but cf. , & . 2 2 .

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117 (6) chill.1 i.. (A) 1.b. With.QUt . 18?1 flThe Hawk's nest" T hen LWalke.r/ up and dusted out ot Sout Horn tos Across t e Long Divide. (12, 155) LQuoted by Qu'uri-tr. 1865 ul-fary McGilluplt I was exposed to a running f re from the Federal pickets of such coarse expressions as, uGo t, Sally Reb," "Dust it,my Confederate (1, 210) LNot in DA; but cf. ! . 1 . intr, l dJ ster , n . (A) 2. 1888 "The Argonauts of North Lib rtyll L Ezekiel waJV quite l.UU!lind ul ••• of the hideous contres t of' h sown long shapeless nankeen duster. (11, 194). embarcaderQ, n. (SA). 1865 ttThe Adventure of Padre V1-cention The fog had not yet reached the hill, and the long . valleys and hillsides of the embarcadero below were g11tt r ing vI th the Ii ght of a populous ci ty. (1, 421) ernie;rQpt, n. (A) 4 .. In comb.: (13) . • 1890 "A aif of the Plainsll The humor st kindly condescended to explain that schooner" was the current slang for an emigrant "lagon. (9, 63) . Empire State.. (A). 1 878 uThe. Dead Politician" Ask the Ward •• who ran the delegate That ran the Empire S tate. (20, 402). encinal, n . (SA) 1875-76 "Gab iel Conroy" He ISS some1vhat relieved at the end of an hoUl' by the • • • rising of the

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dark gr en fringe of the mission orchard and encinal •• (14, 95). English, .i.. and n. 118 • • 3. In the names of birds, (9) s:garrQ,li . (A) 1877 "Morning on the Avenues" Of all early risers, my most importunate, aggressive, and obtrusive companions are the English sparr ws. (11, 92) . tiempos pasado s (8) Formerly. 1887 "The Crusade of the Excelsioru tlA, mine of some kind. " •• Is it good--bueno-you know?" ••• "En t1empos pasados." (6, 105). Esgoggs, 11. (SA) 1887 "The Crusade of the Excel ior t The Churo h--carambal the priests were ever With the Excossas, the aristocrats, and against the Yorkenos, the men of the Republic--the people. (6 , 158) . espada ( 8 ) S word. 189 5 ffThe Devotion of Enriquez" GallIng epithets were flung at him , followed by cries of "Espada!" (10, 351) . espadachfn ( 8 ) Bully. 1902 "The S\'lOrd of Don Jose" Cer tain sneers whic h too free translation might mar, Such as tlHo! Espadacbin!" and "Fantarronear!tt (20, 426). espe3p uGtoriQ ( S ) Burning glass. 1 895 "The Devotion of Enriquez" Those eyes in their glass are as the espejo ustorio, the burning mirror. (10, 342) . eGtudiQ ( 8 ) Study. 1889 "A Knight-Errant of t he Foot Hills" Here is his estudio. (5, 454) . a.. ( A ) 1877 "Morning on the Avenues" The man

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119 who w s ith them ••• h d but hastily washed himself of his Ethiopian presentment, and was still black behind the ears. (11, 19). .. , n . (A) 1 . 1897 ' ncle Jim and Uncle Billy" hoy hod also set habits even in t eir improvidence, lost incalculable and unpr:.yab1e sums to eac other oVer euchre I'egularly every eve ning. (15, 202) . c . 1880 "A Gent1em n of La Porte" The Deputy • • • lost the amount of his month's st pe nd and the Court its en tire ye rly salary to the prisoner, in friendly game of tlcut . t roat euchl'e,," (20, 203) . 2 . 1875 76 "abrial onroy" And w here am I now? E cho answers f Uhers t and passes for a euchre ! (14,19) LD 's first quot..J X . (A) 2 . b . trans!. 1869 "Tennessee's Partnerfl Tennessee smiled, showed his white teeth, and sayin g , tlEuchred , old man!t' held out his hand . (1, 47) . GAceleDoia ( 8 ) . Excellency. 1887 uThe Crusade of t h e E x cels10r" Fear nothing, excel1encia! (6, 75'). executixe,
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120 ( ) 18?7 nAn Amartoan Haroun A1,," R schidf' He too _ _ the nearest -e-oat to the hecut1ve and stopped to look up at the great white edifice he bad eccupled, and thought it strange that it had nev r see m ed so imposing before. (2 0 , 17,). aXpl'EUi$, n. (A) 2 . In comb .. : (13) attice. 1895 "In a Hollow of the Hills" It contained a post ... office, tavern" blacksmith's sho , Itgeneral and express-offieew (10, 30}. expreasman . n . (A) 2 . 1868 " ' Tbe Luck of Roaring Camp' l " Mind, tr said the treasurer, as. he pressed a bag of gold-dust into the express ... man's hand, "the best that can be got II 41 .. (1, 7). extra, n. and 1.i.. (A) 1. 1899 1900 '''A Belle of Canad.a C1tyft Even the toilers in th' dl tc nes had left their work , and were ooIlgl"egs .ted a ... round a m a n 'Who was reading aloud f1'tom a widely margined flextra" of t h e "Caflada City PI' ss.1l (18, tal
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121 Lot recorded by DA; but cr. DAts 1890 fanfat:rOn (8). Bully, 1890 "A \ !Jard of the Golden Gate" It is that waggering ... --t at or a Colonel Pendleton. (7, 303). ta.nfarronear ( S ) . To bully, to brae. 1902 tiThe S word of Don Jose" C rta n sneers '.Ihich too free m ght ch s". o ! . ! fI and 'tFanfarl'oU a1' 1 ft (20, 426) . __ 101;;:.' • ( ) . 1867 (Title) tI S t . P a tri ok' s Day a t S lum gullion Center--Enthusi stie 1eeting of t e Fenian Brother hood . If (Fron, 96) . fgtgh, :[. ( ) 1 . 1682 I oun at Blazing s tar" :r got in another s ot and fetched hi • (3, 357) L tl9ted by D tm d t 187?...I b . 1885 "A Ship of 1 49" That keerlass kind ot hosslaugh jist fatc ed her. ( , 283) . n. , (A) 1. 188? "The Crusade of t e Excels 0 " I dare say they never heard of _ilibust rs like Perkins, nd they couldn' t , comprehend him if they had . (6, 118) . filibuster, x . (A) b . 1893 "The Heil' of the lcHulishes" H e actually got these boys to think it La property titl.a( could be filibuster d i to his (11, 342) . fiwoQ ( 8). Philos9pher. 1898 nTh Passing of Enr quez" I , who m the t1losofQ, if that I am anything l (16, 80).

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122 . ( ) 3 . In co bs. design ting persons or org nizations con -cerned with fire control: (6) • 1877 "The Great P entO 1'1ce iretl Ask aid of the Fire Dep rtments of' San Fr nclseo, Chicago an ew rleans ! (20 , 2 5) . 7 . In isce1laneous combs. : (21) Zouave . 1/ n the Decay of Prof sslonal gging" / "Ch ritable eminiscences" On our first meeting, vhile distractedly turning over the ballads, I erne upon cert in production entitled, I think, tiThe Fire Zouave," and 'lt1 s struck \ i th the t 1y patriotic and American manner in ",hie trZouavett 'Was m de to rhyme in different stan ... zas with "grave , brave , savo and glaive.ff (SSt 16 / 14, 239) • ...... ...w.u,IIIWC.W ... , n . (A) 1 . 1900 tt he farma d of Lighthouse Po1ntll im's rudimentary know1 d e of' eiviliz tion inc udcd "f'ire-'\ator.1f (17, 179) . , . ( ) 4 . In the names of plants: ( 3) eeraniym . 1862 flMe1ons" A fis -gers ium-of 11 plants ltept for the recreation of certainly the greatest 111usion--stragg1ed under the windo • (14 , 188) L D '3 firs' is .tl.a.:t., n . ( A ) 1 . 1886 "Devil' Ford" All the gold they will probably ever see' t Devil's Ford is what they h ve already found or will find on the flat. (4 , 400) .

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123 14. (A) 1. 1878 ' ''Two S ints of the Foot .... Hills" No "jork was done in the d1tc as, in the flu e, nor in the millz. (2, 3?4) . 3 . 1ll. . (or ) W . 1879 ttpeter &chroeder" But t is yer last 1'oo115lness of his has fi:>:ad hlrr.,--sent him up flume, sure! (11, 87) . n. d • ( ) 2 p lll. 1899 uThe Secret of obriente t s at 't'lou1<1 have been only hwnan nature and businesso ef het ad any igold candlesticks! durin them flush times. (16, 1 5). , n .2 ( ) b . On the fly. 18 ') "Snow und at IS gle' sf! You can't prove ny-thing gin them unle s s you. ta e them 'on the fly. I (5, 145) LQuo ed by DA from 1886 volu flYer, n. ( ) 1 . 1879 II etar Gchroeder't I reokon not, old man ••••. But you ight ask 'em just for flyer. (11, 79) . n . (SA) . 1882-83 'At the
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124 Prof'essio al a gi gf1 / " hart table emin!scenc sit H a .,. a t'49 -er, n and had race tly bee blown p in tunnel, o r had all n sh ft, I forget which . ( SS, 17 / 14, 2 0). ____ ,;,;0' • and • ( ) 1 . 186 ) 'The Fourth in th Suburbs" ( 6 , 4 ). ---' ( ) 1 . 1866 "Tb FOU1'th in he Suburbs" In inde enda e of all civic celebration a d display, I hove en the ourth of July at my su ban residence. ( 8 , • (A) d g ) . 4. In comb.: (8 stove. 1 8 9 "The Herit ge of Dedlo rsb" enormous open Franklin stove b twe n the indows, as 1 rg s a chimney , bl zing with driftwood, ave light and heu 0 t e apartment •••• (5, 05). .. , • () sed 1n the pos essiv : 1877 "An eric aroun AIasch1d" I suppose b cause it is wilt up o n L the ruin of frsud--the Fr edman's B nk . (20, 180). (A) • • 1876 ",! 0 1 en of S andy B r" y, the f1rst day Ice here on s necs, the old man froze me so that I couldn't twa depo it out 0 my pocket. (12 , 389). LCited by • 1867 " T he ar 1 Game 0 er th( ' o"y of troclus",in HThe C lifo nia Homer" Epe1us reezing to the mule . (Fron, 95) . • • •

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freez.-out, n .. (A) 2 . 1898 tiThe Passing ot Enriquez" tAJhat you csl11rub bish' f • • eas the rubbish that the Amer1can spaeul tor have dump himself upon them 1n the shaft, the rubbish ot the .... 'freeze-out.' (16, 81). tree W . (/\) 2. 1874 itA Passage 1n the Life of Mr. John Oakhurst" The objeotion, I remember. was urged very eloquently by Watt Sanders, who was supposed to be the inventor of the "!reezing .. outU system of disposing of poor stockholders . • (2, 189) /...DA's first quot. (1877) is from Harte"'; 125 fr1;101, n . (SA) .. 18?7 "The Story of a Mine" The frugal meal ottort11las, frijoles, salt pork, and chooolate w s over. (3, 7 ' ) . frozen, A. (A) 1 . 1896 "Barkerts Luck" The old man: (10, 407). !W.l. hand. ( A ) 2 . 1893 ItThe Bell-Ringer of Angel t Slf \ve keep this cam p 1n check. We hold s full hand, and don't stand no bluffing. (8, 298) . &.U.. 1. (A). 1886 ftVevilt s Fordtf N o--I reckon one 0 " ' the' m fancy groups--one 01 them Latin goddesses that Fair .. fax is always gassint about. (4, 336) • .tWt, interl. and n . (A) 1 . Used in various expressions, as B.U. wbil11k1n(.i). 1900

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"A Niece of Snapshot rry's" Jee whill i ns! ejaculated Bill. (17, 14). 126 eeneral{s1mQ (8). Generalissimo. l88? "The Crusade of the Excelsior" y, this yer revolution is played out, old man; and Generalissimo Leon das P rkins is locked up in the Presidio. (6, 238) . German, • and n . ( ) 1 . 1860 "My Otherself" There rler the h If-dozen pretty girls and numberless nice young omen • • • ; who sang and flirted and danced the tlGerman." (20, 46) LOA's first quot e is 1863"'/ .e:1n, n.2 (AL In comb. : (3) mUl. 1885 "An Apostle of the Tules" Don' t you worry about th t gin-mill and hash ... gymnasium downstairs. (4, 326) . m, n . (A) 2.a. .the. 1893 "The Heir of the cHulishes" I thought I ' d be fair and square 11th you from the word 'go.' (11, 340) . b . .a m . 1860 tiThe Argument of Lurline" dolph ould wed Miss Truenfels, but w snIt it a go? (20, 321) LD 's first quot e (1878) is from .&2., :I. (A) 3 . 1889 "The Heritage of Dedlow rshu You and me, g, kin see nybody l s pile, and go lem fifty thousand better. (5, 413'-6 .1'. 1:Q. gQ. 1:.t. blind. 1889 "A Knight Errant of the Foot-

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127 Hills" \ell, you're going it blind as far as l!..m concerned certaInly, ••• for you donft know • (5, 463). golden, • (A) 3 . b . (.saw..) In names and nicknames: (7) Qa.:t.e.. 1868 " Blow on the Cl1ff" The rollers L rfi,l hastening w1 th im patient stride tOl'Tsrd the Golden Gate . (SS, 43). gonenss, n. ( ). 1874 tiThe Fool of Five Forks" Ya didn't enny of ye ever hev sort of tremb11nl in your legs, --a kind Of shakiness from the knee down? • • • A kind 0 ' sensation ot goneness here, and a kind 0' f elin' as i you might die suddent ! (2, 400) . &Q.O.d Indian" ( A ) 2 . Jocular .. 1887" Dr ft from Redwood C mp" I reckon the oldiers at Fort Cass got sick o' sentiment after those hounds 111ed the Injun agent, and are beg1nn1ng to agree w1 th us t.hat the only" good Injun I 1s a dead one. (5, 364). Q • . ( A) . In comb. : (10) sharp. 1885' "An Apostle of the Tules" You understand they aren't asking you to run in oPPosition to that Gospel sharp. (4, 331). .. __ 50 (?A), 1892 "The Transformation of Buckey Camp" The brilliantly 1 t windows of an equal number of saloons and g robling -houses which glittered through the r in, or, to use the words ot local critic, "Shone seven nights in the eek to the Go pel shops' (8, 284) LNot recorded by DA..J

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gouge, (A) 3.1885 "A ship of 149" He' s regularly gouged me in that ere horsehair spekilation. (4, 230) . 128 gracias ( S) Thanks . 1892 , "The Transformation of Buck eye Camp" Gracias, senor, good a-bye! (8, 280) gracioso teatro ( S ) Theatrical clown . 1895 "The Devotion of Enriquez" She thinks you a clown! --a graoioso de teatro. (10, 340) . graham, n . (A) 2 . (1) graham b1scutt. 1894 "Johnnyboy" Half' a Graham bisou! t in a teacup of milk • • • would eventually 1mpr, ove that st mins necessary for his future Posi t:lon •••• (14, 320) . grescr , n . (A) 1. 1862 " Notes by Flood and Fieldu I remember he in veigbed bitterly against the system of' ranch-holding by the "Greasers,'; as he was pleased to term tbe native Californians. _ (1, 350). great, A . and n . (A) 4 . (Often Qan . ) In misoellaneous combs. : (12) pirlt. 1871 "The Princess Bob and Her Friends" She kne nothing of the Gre t Spirit. (2, 52). (14) White Father. 1887 riA Drift f'rom Redwood Campti The cessenger of the Great White Father h s come to-day, with his and hor se s . (5, 356). 5 . In geographical designations: (10) plsdns. 1890 riA Waif of the PIa nstt This was "The Great PI ins" as they seemed

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to two children • • • 1n the summer of 18,2, ( 9, 1). ueellpagk, n . (A) 1 . 1865 tIThe Vendue of Jefferson Dan atl I 'll take'five dollarsP ... -too b d , I vow! 11e1l, put it in green backs! (20, 376) . 129 3ttr1b. 1871 "Further Language tram Truthful James" We found \vtlllam ••• tilth . ' . , • a dollar greenback in his hand, . (12, 166). &t1l2., n , (A) 6 . grlpsack. 1887 "A PhylliS of the S1err s" You leave that 'ere gripsack where it ls, yo ung man. (6, 336). a .. 2 (A) 1896 "A Night on the Dlv1 , dett You see, Jack, gr1t as he was; was mighty rough style. (15, &rogiry , n . (A) 1. 1863 ftW 11ss" Through rem ote groggeries, restaurants" and saloons; in gambling -hells and dance houses, the rna ster ••• passed and repassed. '1, 241) Ii, grounQ , n . ( A ) 2 . In comb. : (15) sluicing. 1862 "Notes , b y Flood nd Fleld1t It was certainly a hard f ace, and reminded me of the singular effect of t ha t m1ning operation known as "ground sluicing. n ' (1, 3lt7) . n . (A) 4 . In comb. : (13) 1883 "Lett Out on Lone Star Mountain" H e proposed to us white m en to settle down to plain ground slulcHng , making 'grubl wages just like any Chinaman.

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130 (4, 195) LCited by DA from 1884 gyarga ( 8). Take care, beware 1 1892 nsuSYu "Guards ! Mira ! " said the voice in a quicker, lower tone. (9, 151). gyardia lk diana ( 8 ) . veillewatch . 1 8 87 "The Crusade of the Excelsior" u 'When this? • • "Guardia di Diana." (6, 27). gulC A , n . (A) 1 . 1868 tiThe Luck of Roaring Camptt The snow lay dee on the 8ierras •••• E ach gorge and gulch was transforme.d into a tumultuous water-course. ( 1 , 12) . 2 . 1868 "The Luck of Roaring Camp" put the gold into them gulche s , H said Stumpy . (1 t 12 ... 13)
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131 hang;tiI 'f;HlneS:l (?A). Dilatoriness. 1888 UThe Argona uts of North L . bertylt Wot ith Detnorest t s prematoor1ness and YGr own hangfirednes s , it's a good thing that you two \-1Orldly men hey got Joan Salisbury to stand up for Nort Liberty and keep it from b ein' scandalized \)y the ungodly . (11, 231). .a. ( A ) 3. bappy hunting itQyng, . 1871 ftThe Prinoess Bob and her Friends" She kne\i nothing of the Great Sp1rit, and professed ent1r gnoranae of the HappY' Hunt ing Grounds . (2, 52) . n. lli. ( A ) b. In prhases . 1874 tfA I-!onte F lat Pastoral" Monte Flat .. .. a conummity acc ustomed to great expecta t10n and small rea11zationa community wherein,. to use t he 10c'a1 dialect, "they got t he color and struck hardpanrt more frequently than any other tnining camp. (2, 229) . 1 89 3 tlT e BeU .... Ringe r of Angel's" God ... fear1n, f ,or revolver-tearin', it amounts to the same when you co m e dO\nl to the hard pan and bed rock . (8, 298) , W.d panets, ,1:1&. (?A) . Difficult, hard_ 1883 nLett Out on Lone Star Mountalnu Of caul'se, its rather hard papers on us, yo u know, givin" u p everything, so to speak . (4, 200) L Not recorded by DA; but ef. close, a. .. and m . 2 .. (8) papera, .tJJl . , ,and, below, I:SNgh ;gAtaers, ftc,'! hard-she11eg, . • (A) 1 . :.1&. 1900 flA Widot'1 of the Santa Ana Vallayu I a1nt t so hard -shell ed as not to. give neW things a fair trial. (17 . 149) •

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132 ............... , . . ( ) 14 1 91 "In one r R t u ant" Fane a man 0 could y ry ive f t toc sl n lng , (?, 56) . __ (?A) A ch restaurant, ash hou • 1 885 It A ost1 f the Tulestt Don' t you worry bou t th t gin.;, mill and h sh-ymnas um do nst rs,' ( , 326) .. hasta mmena ( L nti1 tomorrOWt au revoir. 1 877 tlThe tory of Mine" Good"night, 0 Don oy 1, nd pI a nt dre ms Hasta MAnana. (3, 55) . HayelQCk., n, ( ) 1873 " Miss Bl nehe 8 ystl ve10ck LlI m e or the Idler t ' c ps. (12, 37). hayf90teg ( ) Rust a, un oph tiaat d . 1891 . I A First Fam -1 1'1 of T j r It H reourt . ' _ • Lwa,V dis ensing f tang1efoot' and s It junk to th h '1 toot Plk Counti ns of hi pr elnct. (8, 93) L ot r corded by o ttrib. 1897 "The Anae tors of P ter At er1y" They wer e " no corn-cracking Hoosl rs,t1 " hay seed 1. es," no trnorthern Yankee scum." (16, 4). 1IoIoWooI_loat n. (A) 189 "Johimyboy" The xuberant 1 yfu1 ... ness of is 1'e110\,1 d nts " • • oee S onal1 took th f rm of foro d blutlons nd cor oral dl comfort, nd w soIled, I am to1 , • az ng.1 ( 1 , 328) . n ( ) ?d. In phras s& (3) 1Q. lU.U. a. ll!iwl QU. 1868 "Tbe 8001 ty Upon the Stanislaus" It is not tl prop r plan For any scientific

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133 gent to whale his And, if a member donft agree with his peculiar whim, To lay for that same member for to "Put ahead fI on him . (12, 132) LDA'. s first quot. 1s 1868.J heathen, n . (A) 2 . beatban 187 0 "Plain Language trom Truthful James" The heathen Chinee is peculiar. (12, 129) fPAtg first quot..! bee1d, i.. (A) 1 . 1879 "The Twins of Table Mountain" "First--are you heelsd?tt Ruth responded to this dialectical inquiry affirm atively, by putting his hand on his revolver. (3, 1?5). hik9ty, n . and A. (A) 7, 1888 "Cressy" The aequlst10n of a few "b11ed Shirts" by Hiram for festive appearances with Creasy painfully re minded her that he had married her in "hickory." (7, 99-100). 1891 "A Night at f Hays ' " He was warming bis hands and placidly ignoring his gaunt arms in their thinly clad "hickory" sleeves. (8, 212) LOtted by DA f'rom 1892 volume..! 8 . In comb. : (14) shirt. 1891 flA First Family of Tasa jars" A few dustel's, overcoats, and fthlckol'Y" shirts Lhung/ on the side walls. (8, 1). blda1gamente (8). NObly, noble-like. 1890 tlA Waif' of the Plains" h e said pleasantly" (9,98). h1dalSQ, lh (SA) 1863 "'rne Legend of l.fonte del Dlablolf His appearance was that of' an elderly hidalgo, dressed in

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134 mourning . (1, 389) . 11lgh'Qlutln, ., n., an d (A) 2 . • and ,m. 1885 itA Ship of ' 49" But as to that d--d old Frenchman Ferrers, in the next 10ft, w th his stuck up airs and hi htalutln' style, we must get quit of h m . (4, 230) . b1gh-tQneg, • (A) 1 . 1886 "Devil' s Ford " If there' s anyone ez knows how to com squ r d to the bottom rock without flinchln' , it' s your high-toned, fash'nable gals. (4, 409) . ll1.1.!J. .de,.famllia ( S), A son of noble parents. 1890 "A Walf of the Plainstt Don Juant s unknown and youthful relation was at once recognized as la familia. (9, 100) . ll.ol.i Hell.o . 1893 "The Mystery of the Hacienda" One day anoth r c ballero, Don Esteban Briones, he came in, nd say, tHola. Don Jorge has forgotten hIs pret-ty girl. ' (10 , 158) • n . (A) l . b . 1863 "The Co perhead Convent onu There were f1 Ids devastated and homest ads n flame . (20, 355). honest, a.. and m . (A) 3 . hQXlest Ingian. 1 889 "The Heritage of Dedlo\'I Marsh" r didn' now-honest n ! (5, 17) . honeytuggle, X . (A) 1 • .u,. 1 897 "The Ancestors of Peter Atherly" He honey fogled me--Sally gregor--out of Fa tter family t han hIs'n"

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135 in Kans s, and skyugled me w y (16, 5) . 2. 1nU,. 1898 " s lomy Jane'. ss' this y r I ' m hesrin' of your doin's OV r at R d Pete' ? Hon yfog1in' th hors -th1 f, eh? (15, 244) . hOQdJJl1Ih n . (A) 1. attrib. 1878 (Title) f'Th Hoodlum Band" (1, 213) . hoodoQ, n . (A) 1 . b . 1893 "Sally Do II It's n gger superstition. It came from Judy, Sally's old nurs • It's part of th ir regu-lar Hoo-doo . (8, 365) . hooky, n . (A) IQ. lll.a.l!: hooty . 1902 "An Ali B ba 0 f the Sierras" "Playin' h ookey ag'in?" said the young lady_ (17, 335) • hgosier, • (A) 1 . 1897 "The Ancestors of Peter Atherly" Th y were "no corn-cracking Hoosi rs," "hays d pik s," nor t'north rn Yankee scum." (16, 4) . horse, n . (A) 5 . In the names of plants: (3) Lattr 1896 " Bark res Luck" f)1 glad to get enough t the end of the day to pay for our soggy biscuits and horsebean coffee. (10,403) LOA' s first quot e is 1909 hotss • (A) 1885 tI ruja" I ' ve run this affair a-bout as delic tely as the best of them , and with a d--d sight more horse sense . (5, 118) . (A) 1898 "Dick Spindler's F mily Chrlst-

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136 lIwlm, x • .tt. and 1886 " eVil's Ford" Come! Hump yourselv gentlemen . (4, 340) . hunky, la . ( ) 1867 liThe Funeral Games Over the ody of Patroclus" in "The Cal fornia Homerff Up jumped Fpelus, hunky boy . (Fron, 95). imbe'c11 (S). Imbecil • 1893 "The Mystery of the Rae endalt fflmbecileln r poded that lively young lady. (10, 155). im;grenta ( 9). Print, printing. 18 9 "What H appened at the Fonda" Ther was the head impr sor of Don Panchos m prenta him elf who h d been there! (17, 61) . imptelor (8). Printer. 1899 "What H ppened at the Fondall There was the head impresor ot Don Pancho ' s 1m.pl' nta him selt who had been therel (17, 61) . inamorata ( 8 ) . Beloved one . 1885" ruja" s ditty was a popular Spanish refrain of some matador t s aristocratic inamorata . (5,64). \ Indi an , 4 . and sttri12. 2 . In th names of animals, or denoting animals be longing to Indians: (8) 1890 itA aif of the PI lnsn LHe waV hanging half on and half off the saddle of n Indian pony . ( 9 , 44). 5 . In combs . relating to gov l'llm ntal d alings In dians. • In si lsr combs . of mOl'e obvious meaning: (6) treaty. 1887 "A Drift From Red ood Camp" Never before h d an Indian treaty been ent red into with such p rfect Itnowledg of the ntent10ns and designs of the hites by the Indians.

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137 (5, 353). Ind1an agent. (A) 188 '?!fA Drift From Redwood C mp' The Government sent an Indian agent to treat with them, in its usual half-paternal. half-aggressive, snd inconsistent policy (5t 3,3). Indian!lli. ( ) 1878 "The Man on the Beach" EVen 1n the midst of their wrangling they straggled on in Indian file to"lard the distant cabin. (2, 304). Indian grass" (A) 1894 tfChu Chuft ConsuelO was ther ! recl1ning t • • in" • t judicious and picturesquely selected couch of scented Indian grass and dry tussocks. (10, 323324) . Ind1QU summr . (A) 1 .. b . trans!. 1867 "The Right Eye of the Commander" In short, it was that glorious Indian summer of Californian history around which so much poetical haze still lingers, (1,. 398-399). Indian yil1ase . • (A) 1 . 1887 "A Drift From Redwood Camp" A centr lized settlement bearing the external signs of an Indian village took the place of their old temporary encampments _ (" 354). 1nd1scation, n . (A) 1882 83 ffAt the. M1ssion of San Car mel" Luckily the fertile alluvium of these valleys, lying parallel with the sea, ot'feIted no tllndications" to attr ct the gold-seekers. (3, 394) LC1te d by DA from 1884 vOlume&l Infe11z ( S) . Unhappy, unfortunate. 1867 "The Right Eye

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138 of th Commander" Infeliz Herm negildo Salvatierra! (1, 403) • .1.nt, n . (A) In comb.: C,) sllnger. 1895 ttFree Silver t Angel'stf ThaI' 1 high-ton d g nts, -sling I' ; thaI' s folks as \>1111 al10 Ye can' t l' 1 off a story onless they've t ught ye ho • (20, 10). inmediatamente ( S), Immediately. 1887 "The er sade of the Exo 1s10r" Tell me quiek, • • • :tmmed1 tamente. (6, 187) . Inter1pr DeI>artment . (A) 1877 "An American Haroun A1Rasch dlf A 1 ttle rafre hed by his dinner, he made his 't>lay to the lnterior Department. (20, 181) . n . (A) 12. b . In the names of animals: (2} -aAI rabbit. 1897 "Uncle Jim and Unole Billy" We had to grub on pine nuts and jackass-rabbits. (15, (A) 1 . 1886 "The Thought-Reader of Ang 1'1 las it taro ••• Or an innocent "Jack pot" that--opened--was to us ez the jaws of the tomb? (12, 180) . jamboree, n . (A) 2 . 187'7 URoger Catron' s Friend" The several losses by poker, the l.-lhiskey bills, and the record of a tt jamboree" at Tooley' 9 • • II were received ldth enthusiast1e oheer by the 8ud1enc • (2, 349) . J' t. (A) 1877 "The First . an" nIl m an orphan, wit out a relative in the world! shouted the J'erseyite. (20, 18,) •

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139 Jerusalem, n. (A) 1 . 1900 u A ace of Snapshot Harry's" Oh, Jeru a1em the Golden ! (17, 14)., • (A) 1899 "A Jack and Jill of the Sierras" ot a drop Ie t, by J1mminy! 65) . lQlm, n ( ) 1 . 1863 tlJolm Chinamanft My acquaintance with John has been m de up of weekly int rviews, involving the adjustm nt of the washing accounts. (14, 222). 2 . In comb. : (5) Chinaman (a). 1863 . (T ' ) tlJolm China-man" (14, 220). JJlb.a., n . (A) 1 . 1871 tiThe Poet of Sierr Flat" She only sttpulated that sh should see the man concession to her f m inine weakness which years of d nCing Juba and wear ng trou sers and boots had not wholly ar dicated from her will! breast. (2, 44-4 5). julep, n . (A) 1888 "Cres y" Ye don ' t keer, I s t pose , to come over to the hotel nd take suthinl? julep or a smash? (7, 0) • ..mm,n, (A) 2 . b . 1896 ffBulgerts Reputationll You see, Bulger wasn ' t going to hev any of his own kind j ump in , his claim here. (10, 372) • ... , n 3 . 1888 IICressylf ttJumpers" LwertJ class of adventur rs

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who, n the b y co of r cognized legal title, "jumped" or fore bly e z d such ortion of squatter' s doma ns 140 as w r not rotected by fencing or uperior orce. (7, 85) • ( 6). Meet ng, s embly' council. 1863 "The L g nd o ont del Diablo" Disjointed memorand , th of a t antos nd e r1y departmental juntas been my nad quat authorities. (1, 382) . proae d ng • • • h v n. (A) 187 "The Man on th B ch" And t e b rb r-(2, 328), t' at little mulatto's n --that ar K n ka? 1: • ( A ) 2 . In colloq. phr ses: (2) nQ1 Qhool Q.l. n.Q.t . 1897 ' ncle Jim and Unol Billy" I suppos you two men tting here comfortabl by the 1', I thout c ng h ther chool k eps or not, wo d call fe t of b c tel' over on ' s claim ' boomin g.' (15,207-208). keno -tloppsr (?A). ?The oper tor of a keno game. 1 87576 "G bri 1 Conroy " It worthy of a short-card sh rp nd a keno flopper, "ih" ch ve, I r gret to s y, lon su p ct d you to be. (1 , 19) LNot recorded by keroeng, n . ( A) 1 . 1865 "The Petrol um Fiend" "B nz1n ," "Co I 0 1," and "ero n" oc 1y I 11 d '1 tamp ny. (2 0 , 101) • killdeer, n . (A) In full killdeer 1210yer. 1861 U H Water _arkn The sap lohrsl boom 0 th bittern, th shr ek of

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the curlew • • • , and syllabled complaint of the "kill deer" plover were beyond th pOleI' 0 written expres ion. (It 322). 141 lUng bird, n.. C). 1863 trW liss" The kingbird, spI's ding his ta 1 like a crimson pennant, beckoned him oDward . (1, 2) . ki-yi, n . 1 (A)' 2 .1898 " S loroy Jans' s K1s tI He calls hims 1 man, skunk in , in t e open and afraid to show ms If xcept th a crowd of other tlKiyi t s" around a house of "lOmen end chil dren. (15, 239). Klamath, n . (A) In full Klamath !n4ians. 1 871 ttThe P!'incsss Bob and Her Friend "She a a amath Ind an. (2, 51). knack, :2:. , ( A ) 2 .187' .... 76 "Gabriel Conroy-It Pay the bill, and don ' t knock down for yourself more than seventy-five pEl' r cent .. (14, 19). Kgdak, n. (A) 1 . 1902 nZut-Ski" I--only't.'1 nted to take you--dth a kodak . ( 18 35'8) . lallxgae, jC,. (A). Ltr.J To talk to, to chatter to. 1877 The others are over at Tras Pinos lally-gseg ng oscommon and trying to rope him n to payoff their wh1skey b1l1s at h1s grocery. (3,14) LDA records no nil use; also, def'n1t1on ot J.n.:tl:.. dOES not lncluda meaning !fto ch tter, talk dIyit' (F. W . Bradley, "A Word-List from South Carolina," Pub11satlQn .Q.f .tha

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s . v . ____ , oeiety, No, 14 LNovember, p . 3, :[ . 1 . 11 n . ( A ) 142 • D s n t ng nd vi ual hav ng to 0' t land: ( ) 889 liT 0 Heritag of D dlow Marsh" Youll go out among t ounds... ez called your fat l' a te and Iandgrabber. (5, 15) • ......... ..x. office. ( ) 1 . 1 77 'T Great t ntO c F r n Jakey Ky r • • . , on th st a1 l' d f 0 th room, sav d the p per the Land Office, went bac k for W h ngton' ord and s ow uppos d to have per shed in th nSf (20, 245) . lariat, n . (A). 1 86 "A M lliona 1'6 of Rough-and -Ready" Don Ca r had all' ad d smounted, nd t ed hi hor to a tr e \ th strong lar at t at un t h s saddl bow. (5, 79). lflEtSQ, n . (SA) . 1869 tlFriar dro's ide" ach wung a 1 " a t a . ' ( 12 , 98) . -.J ..... ' x. (A). 1891 " A First Family of T s j r "I hall be only too glad to ct s Mis CI ment n ' s v qu 1'0, and lasso ar ns ays or keep str gglers in the ro d. (8, 103) . 1891 "The e'\'l Assistant at P n CI a1' ng S choolll These P1 e County b y t y lre runn n g ' n on us ar 1 ttl too b g and s gy for a 1 dy 11k you to las 0 nd thro do\m me n, to sorter control. (8, 235) .

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143 , ( ) 7 .. l.Q. lu .......... _ . oro . 1865' tt iary r,1cG1llup" (Footnote 1) I make no pre ten ion to ne i ting, ut perhaps 14rs . Hard ge can layover that. 0 , of cours M . MeG. (1, 2 ) . ( 8). Soe n. __ , n .2 1 . 1870 TlBrown of C laverns" I t ve got wife ... . . . en t ' ngs s about straight, ond we g t do n to th 1e d, I'm going to send for hor. (1, 70). levee, 11. ( ) 1 . 1898 "\ en the 1JI tel's ere Up at • Jules' ' " A lev e on the bank auld have kept you claar of t a h gh st watermark . (16, 201). level, n . and • (A) 2 . • 1864 tlJohn Burns of Getty g " Cler s th t the Home Gu rd mustered in • • • h iled h m • • • W tb sera s of Iii slangy rapertoitf f ' ''Ho are you, Whi ta Hat?ft tlPtlt her throug ! n tty ou.r e ad t s leve 1 ! U and lI Bu11y for you pi ( 12, 3) LDA ' s first quot e is Lt-. In comb.: (2) , (a). 1893 " The Heir of th Mc-Hulishes' arry Custer, s the consul r membered him, Tas level-he ded , PI' ct cal miner . (11, 329) • __ .... _.... LA • 1 88 Cr ssytl Th n there ' ere the iring of two anvils, t e strains of a brass band; the ho1sting of a new fla' g on the l ' ibert-.r po e (?, 55).

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144 light, X-(AL With advs . and preps. lncolloq,. phrases: (4) .tQ. light mti . 1B90 uA Sappho of Green Springs" Just my luck to have him light ou t as I was b ginning to g t some talk out of him . (6, 418). little monte (?A) . A variation of monte. 1892 uThe Trans formation of Buckeye Camp" Bulstl'ode ' s brother, ez was in Marysville, said there was a woman • • .aZ made 1 t lively for the boys with a game called Little MOnte.' (8, 269) LNot recol"ded by DA..J llano, li. (SA). 1862 "Notes by Flood and Field" Take the llano!--and take this with it. (1, 357) LDA" s 1885 quote is from Harte..! lo., .0.. (A). "In the Carqu1nez Woodsl1 nCall me--Lo . II tlLo, the poor Indian?" (4, 11). lObby, (A). 1877 liThe Story of a 11ne" (Chapter head ing) Who Lobbied For 1'&. (3,. 5'9). Henee lobbying, n . 1877 tiThe Story ot a Don ' t you feel a little ashalned of your ...... your ....... your lobbying-(3, 122) . lQbby1at, n . (A). 1877 uAn American Haroun You infernal old lobbyist; you dare to speak to me when Itve spent thousands of dollars on your kind! (20, lQcaj; 1ou, n . ( A ) 4 , 1892 "The Conspiracy of s . Bunkaru She related how her family had emigrated from Kansas across the plains and had taken up a "loeation" at Contra Costa. (8, 423) .

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145 b. 1877 "The Story of. a l>l1ne n Ah, but ask Jack Bro\<1n over yan if it 1nt t sick th t I am of his original looations. <3, 23) . locator, n . (A) 1877 "Tbe Story of a Mine" It's meself that has put down your name s an original locator. (3, 23) . lodge " (A) 1 4 1887 "A Drift' From Redwood Camp" /laVe of ungov 1'nble fury su.rged up to the very tent poles of Elijah' s lodg and dam nded vang enea . (5, 361) . IOicer, 11. (A) 1861 "High . ater Mark" Her husband is a 10gger,.""'a profitable business 1n a country where the principaloccupation as the manufacture of lumber. (1, 32 ) . logroll, :st. (A). 1887 rtThe Crusade of the Excelsior" Banks has been trying to log-roll the padre. (6, 158) . n . (A) 2 . 1887 "The Crusade of the Excelsior" It I co uld get Hurlstone to do some log-roll! with that padre, his friend, I might get the bill through. (6, 153) . lumbet, 11. ( ) 1 .. 1861 "High .. ater rklt Her husband was a logger,--a profitable siness 1n country where the prinCipal occupa tion 1 s the manufacture of l u mber . (1, 324) . J.un4tlcQ (S). Lun tie. 1889 ".1\ Knight-Errant of the Foot Hills" Me ...... Don Jose Sepulvida-a lunatico! (,,457). lynch. :i: . (A). 1902 uMr. eGlo't-/rie ' s Widow" Better not

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146 let the bretheren hear you talk like that, or they'll lynch you . (19 , 108). lynching, n . (A) 1. 1875 -76 "Gabriel Conroy" u t looks might like"-"Like what?" sk d 1r. R ynor, a little n vously. 'Lynch in f aid the man. (14, 21). W<1eira, n . (A), 2 . l1ade1ra 1893 "The Bell-Ringer of Angel's" Alre dy a few madeira-vines and a Cherokee cse clambered up the g llery. (8, 306) . .Q.. ( S) . other of GOd (u 'ed as an oath). 1877 "The Story of a Millet! dre de Dios, yes. (3, 12). madrona, n. (SA). Also madrOno. 1868 "The Wonderful Spring of San Joaquinrf The trunks of madrono, all aila e, Like pillars of fire starkly stood. (12, 72) . madroUQ, n • (SA). S e emadrona , bove • • • • maBn1t1cQ ( 8). Title ot honor . 189, "The Devotion of Enriquez" The gre t and respeetabl Boston herself, and h r serene, Ven rable onele, and other Boston ' gn1flcoes, have of a truth done me the inexpressible honor to solicit of my degr ded, papistleal onele that she shall come. (10, 358) . ma:Jor-dQmQ, n . (SA) . 1 . 1885 It arujalt "Wb t ! the butler? That Indian-looking fell0 ? A s rvant?tI ••• "Pardon me.. the major -domo. The old confidential serv tor who stands in (" 8). 11. (SA). 1892 "The Tr nsformat1on of Buckeye Camp" I make the Fonda-in my hoo e manana--to-

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morrow . (8, 27 -27,). mlinta ( S). Shawl . 1 8 83 II In t he Carqulne Z \'loods" Sh must now discard the national habit of wearing her shall nmanta" fas ion over her head. ( " ,,). 147 mantilla ( 8 ) . Veil, mant 11a .. 1 897 "Rasta nana" Still you may say: Through your mantl11a--coy nuela ! "Hasta Manana, ami iQ , a1 \ -lay ,; U ( 20, 414) .. manzan!tfh n . (SA) . 1874 ttA Passag e in the Lite of Mr. John OakhurstU It was pretty triangular valley lying at the toot of three slop ng mount ins, dark pines and fantastic with madrono and manzanita. (2, 180) . me
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148 first (7 , 46) . (8). lla querader. 1888 "The rgonaut of No th L!ber-ty" LThere cam.e/ to the window of the coach a mascara . (11, 217) . ( S). Killer. lS95 uThe Devotion of EI1..riqueztl The matador appro ched the bull. (10, 350). (S). S ee __ ' .... (A). 1877 fI he OfficeSeaker" "I suppose that you r . C . , Ir • . Mr . Gashwl ler" ......... It ."Don't mention his name.tI (11, 137) • • cCormick, • ( ? ) . LCyrus H . M cCormick (1809-1884), the inventoV. In the possessive: reapet. 1879 "Old Time a d NewU \fICor-10k's rapers better te c h truths than your old-fashioned cythe. (20, ll-04) L Not re corde d by DA../ - • ( ) . ftA Drift From Redwood Camp" Their medicine-men h d prophesied th t his perfect successor should appe r mir culouly before them. (5, 347-348), ___ ( ) . Physici n . 1888 tlThe Argon uts ot North Liberty" Demorest could not help remarking that he ' lould lose credit as medico -nth the natives unless he rest: ined a public exhibition ot his tastes. (11, 206). .. , n .2 ( ) , 1888 "Cressy" The import"'tion of melodeon for Cressy to play on ha d superinduced an uinnerd rash. It (7, 99).

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n . (SA) comb. : (3) __ 1890 "A alf of th P1 inn If But on reaching it he ound that it was only a t g1e of taller mesquite gr SSe (9 , 12). 149 mestiza ( S). A half-breed (fern . ) 1882-83 " t the s-stem 0 S an Carmel tI She 1 sam stiz , and thou art chIld of th c u ch . (3 , 401) • ........ ___ , • and • (A) .. b . In co b . : ( 3) 1 7 tiThe Ro s e of Tuolumne tf T 0 :101'a pillo s, a ne,,,spaper, and a Mexie n blanket lay on the carpet. (2, 202) . (S). See __ , n . (A) . In comb . : (13) 1873 It, s . Skaggs' s Husbands" And, gliding 11k a lov 1y and innocent milk snal e out of his grasp, She slIpped away. (2, 118) . _ ..... , n .1 (A) 1 . 1878 "Two Saints of the Foot Hills" No ork w s done in the ditches, in t flume , nor in the mills. (2, 374) . LDA' s first quote (from 1879 vo1um 1I m1X.a (S). Behold . 1893 "The Mystery of th Haciend U The other cab lleros say, t ra! hat is this?' (10 , 157). m1s:!Qn (S) • . Mission . 1885 n arujatf l>ry own life was attempted at the Mision sme eVening for 6 s e of some paltry gold piece that I h d imprudently shown. (5, 136). moccasin, • ( ) 1 . 1902 "Dick Boyle ' s Business Card" The Indian •••

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150 p used only to examine another footprint--much more frequentthe smooth tnw rd-toed track of moccasins . (19, 237) . moohi1e, n . (SA). 1862 " Notes by Flood and Field" Alas ! the curves of beauty were concealed by the cumbrous mach11las of the Spanish saddle. (1,353). }fodoc , n. (AL 1877 "The First Man" I was the first white man mong the Modocs. (20, 185) . l-1gbay.e, n . (A). attrib. 1892 "Susyu They were wiry, slender brutes of Moj ve Indian blood, only lately broken to rness. (9, 135). mopi tor, n . (A) 2 . 1866 "The Fourth in the Suburbs" My eldest boy h d been presented ith a model of a nitor, which had a pr c tieable turret that moved by machinery . ( SS, 45). monte, n . (SA) 1 . 1886 "Devil's Ford" A crystal chandelier, which had once lent a fascinating illusion to the game of monte, hung unlIghted in the broad hall. ( , 3;8). 3 . In comb. : ( 1 ) monte lumk. 1863 uM'liss" Then there was a Methodist church, and h rd by monte bank . (1. 236). ( 6) table. 1876 "Two Men of Sandy Bar " The night fter the tobbery, the de ler of a monte-table in Sacramento paid out five thousand doll rs in doubloons . (12, 386) . monte ..abw2.. (?A). An establishment in whIch monte is played. 1895 "The Judgment of Bolinas Plain" One of them cir cus Jumpers stabbed Hal Dudley OVer the table In Dolores

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monte shop 1as' t night. (15, 26,). Morganf , n . (A) 2. 1895 "In the Tulesli The horses 1s t Morgan,' you can bet your life. (10, 389) . mooota1th n . and A . 151 4 . In m1 see llaneous combs.: (13) sQhoQnsn:. 1882 "Flip" Amt10us faces yearned toward It ••• from. the blinding white canvas covers of "mountain schooners . " (3, 295) LC1ted by DA../ mountitn wagQn. ( A). 1899-1900 nA Belle of Canada C1 tyli Mr. Masterson started from a slight doze in the heavy, lum bering tlmountain wagon" which had taken the pI oe of the smart Conoord coach that he had lett at the last st tion. (18" 45) . mourOEl;t, n. (A) 2 . mgy.rners ' bench . 1902 "Mr" l{acGlowrie' s Widowf.f The mourners' bench was crowd d wit 11dly emulating sinners. (19, 107) . lJi&9ha@a (8). A girl. 1877 "The Story of a Mine" Come, snd kiss me. (3, 10). muRbacbSt, ll. ( SA) . 1882 .. 83 nAt the Mission of S nCr .. mel" F the!' Padro had t ken s ' muchacho foundling for adoption. (3, 4-12). mudsill, 11. (A) l . b . 1894-95 "Olarenee" I reckon nobody but a fool or some prying muds!ll ot a Yankee would trust his skin hare. <9, 308) .

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152 mu.l.a. (8). MUle. 1872 .' How Santa Claus Came to Simpson's Bartl u t I ng : }loops! Nula ! GO: (2, 78). mustang, n . (A) l . b . 1875 -76 ffGabriel Conroy" There were the .:few w1ld halfbroken must ng tether d by strong riatas before the veranda ot the long low fonde . (13, 133) . lImZ (8), Very, quite. 1887 "The Crusade of the Excelsior" Ah: Bueno : muy bueno ! (6, 192). NAtividad ( 8 ) . The Nativity. 1882 3 "At the 119910n of San Carmel" It was a year ago, the eve of Natividad. (3, 404-405) • naturalmente (S) . Naturally. 1898 uThe Passing of En riquez" Naturalment 'e, if you turn him round , • • II you are gin. (16, 81). Naglo, nigger, n . and A . ( ) 5 . In comb. : (9) 1869 "The Outcasts of Pol(er Flat" When a man gets a streak ofluck--nlgger-luck, ... he don ' t get tired. (1, 22). 6 . In colloq. phras s: e . A nlgger jn !ha tenoe. 1887 .IA Phyllis of the Sierr SU Sf hen' t soooped up by Jenny Bradley he 'll guess there's a n1gg r 1n the fenoe some here. (6, 289). , neuttal ground . (A) 1 . 1860 I Story ot the Revolution" Every American ha heard of the Legion Scouting the eastern bank of the Hudson, they were formidable check upon t e ravages of

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153 "cowboy It and "r nger It 0 er that country lying between Whit Plain d New York City, known the "Neutr 1 Ground . " (20. 23) • • and A . ( ) . 1877 tiThe Fir t Man" H n't n t1v Indi n nor n t1ve grizzly. but nativ Rev dian. nd he s rigg d out 1n 1mperl 1 style. (20, spellln :1 not rfcorded by tb DA exc t n1tn, • (A) 186, "The T 1e ot Pony" H r co m Bo Y ' ne turnout! S rt! You bet your lit 'tv s t ha t ! Nitty! ( hort tor mom1:1cat). !12, 236) LD' til' tquot...J nigger, l:. (?A). To do m ni 1 work. 1888 nCr 8 yft *What do you ant to do?" ••• "To orkmake 11 1n t my 1 t . Qu1t totent ood and t r home; quit cookin ' d me in' bed t 11 yell r Chin man; quit nu int b bies and dress1n' , m nd undr s in' t mt like g1r1..... nOh '1 1 That ' s another bIg baby to tot round in ehool when I lntt n1ggerIn' at hom . • It (7. 64-6,) LS n not r corded by DA, t of . 3 . ni< 1t.I (8) B by , little one . 1898 nTh Pas 1ng ot nr1quez" th baby ! (16. 82) . and • (A) 3 . • 1874" n L e, th P gan" "No s be! " 1d th imperturbable Hop Slog, t kIng r tug in th t Spanish tor of noncomm1tt 11 m 0 common in C 1itornls. (2, 267). Qb11gQc1@ .(S). Ob1! tion. 1898 " T h P . 1ng ot Enr1qu ztl I b 11 ut in a bond, an obl1gae1gn, th t mr frt nd P ncho

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h 11 co and go 8 h will, (16, 102). ogtorOont n. (A). 1897 nTh Ancestor ot P t r thr1ylf C rt in Ind1 l'l d t ct app r th more trongly a 154 in th c e of th color lin ot th quadroon and ootoroon. (16, 57). MoWoo ..... 1oIioIil (8). Po11e ott1c1 1. 1884 ftA lu Gra s P nelop If Ah, Y ,8 sold1 r of the 1 an poli;1A, chlef of g nd rme protect 8 lady. (4, 178-179). t t you 0 1 • • • LW to sWi, ,,(A) 1 . In ml ellen ous comb : (17) soldl,r. 1877 An Am r1can H roun Al-R ohid" Old 01d1 r h, JIGT vet r friends ••• and '1 t I mind me now t t in boyhood d ys th t rm a u ad to d t1n d of th 1eot1an 1e t tro whioh the ju1e b d n xpress d. (20, ; , . In th nam s of, or 1 th ra at nc, to, g a, danee , (6) ,. 1901 n Buck '1' Hollow Inher1tano " W t 11 just tad 1 dovn to Tomlin on' t th crossro d , and nip and qui t ot old sledg at J eks y's xp n (18, 196) • .QA, Kill. (A) v • 3. In pbr se I (1) a gn J.1, (b). 1867 "The F\m r8l G m S OVer the Body of P troclu " in nTh C 11torn18 Homer" 0, I 81n' on 1tl 0, no, not t ll! (Fron, 95) • ...... ____ , n. (A) (2) 1895 "In the Tules" Mors brcught him p 11' of

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155 overalls and a tthickory shirt." (10, 384) . Qverland .mul. (A) 2 . 1865 "lffuek ... a-Muckfl L H 1./ bare and powerful breast L decorated with a quantity of three-oent postagewstamps which he had despoiled from an Overland Mail stage a few w eks previous. (1. 80) . :I " (A) 1 . tr. 1870 ftCice1yu Her lungs they are stronger now Than the day I packed her and her mothert--Itm darned it I jest know how. (12, 126). 1886 "Devilt s Ford" The mules are peckin' gravel from the river this afternoon. (4, 344). 3 . In oombs. , in some of which the f1rst element is a noun: (10) train. 1899 "A Jack and .1111 of the S1err stl Its red dust LwaI1/ ground by heavy wagons and pack-trains Intoa fine powder . • (18, 67) . paepr, n . (A) 2 . 1878" Ghost of the S1errasti "Juan," he said coolly to one of the Mexican packers, tfquit :roolin' with that r1ata." (2, 436) . pockinS, n. (A) 2.1898 uSalomy Jane's Kissft Her fath r e s house was four miles distant • • " • It had a sitting-room and a parlor organ, whose transportation thither had been marvel of "packlng." (15, 244). padre, n . (SA). 1872 "Conoepc1on de Arguello" L!t wa,a/the fortress, old and quaint, • • • On 1ihose youthful walls the

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156 Padre saw the angel's golden reed. (12, 76). b 1865 tiThe Miraele ot Padre . Junipero" This is the tale that the Chronicle Tells of the wonderful miracle Wrought by the pioUs Padre Serro. (12, 67). 12sg.rOn Patron. 1892 "Susyrt The padron has been ...... perhsps--thrown . (9, 199) . paiuM, x . paint the 12lln m (A) . 1893 "The Heir of the McHulishes" He' s one of them McHu1ishes whose name in them old history times wa ' enough to whoop up the boys and make 'em paint the town red. (11, 326) . Paiute, n . (A) . 1865 "A Ne I California Book; Tai11ngstf Over tnem Lthe plains of Nevad.al glides with stealthy toot The crouching form ot the bold Pl.Ute. (SS; 88). attrlb. 186, The Pi-Ute nation are for Reconstruction to a man. (1, 81) . pa1e;t&ls:e, n . (A) 1 . 1665 tfMuck ... a-Muck" Why does the Pale Face still follow the track of the Red Man?' (It 80). un, st. , (A) 7 . 12 b . 1898 USee Yup" ftC tchee gold-dust when washee tailings. Shabbee?" ••• "Didn't pan out quite so rioh this week, eh?" (16, 156 .. 157) . d . 1878 "Retiring From Business" "Like enough sh ' 11 pan more' n all the rest of the stage put together," growled Cranks, carefully testing the thiokness of the case of a gold watch . (20, 193).

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xaantutlos (8). Slippers. 1899 "What Happened at the Fonda" Ah, the gentleman of the pantuf1os, whose trousers will not remain! (17, 68). n. (A) 1. 1897 "The Ancestors of Peter AtherlyU iJhJ un winking apoose in his siRter' s lap g ve 111s sentiment a momentary hock . (16, 39) . 157 papQQai (?A). A bask t or or dle us d as re ceptacle for a apoase . 1898 "The Pa sin 0 Enriqu zft To my constel'n tion, it l'lU a bark "p poose-case," occupied by a living c ld, swathed and bandaged tter th approv d Indian fashion. (16, 82) LNot recorded by DA../ n . ( ) . 1889 tlA Knight-Errant ot the oot ... H111s" "Look y r, Don Kosay, It he began in a brusque but gu rded vo1ee, ttyou and me 1s pards." (5, 457) . pardner, n. ( ).1869 "Tennesses Partner" I thought I1d just step 1n and see how things was g1tt1n' on with T Messee thar,-... my pardner . • (1, 45), parquet, n. (A). 1865' "Audlencesu It I ere to tell intelligent theatr .goer that their position 1n th parquette or the dress circle transformed them • • • , they lOu1d consider themselv s insulted. ( SS, 59) . pasear, n . (8). 1867 "Our Foreign Corr spondenceft I have just returned from a short passe r into It ly, (Fron, 99) . 1887 "The Crus de of the Excelsiorft You will take a pasear in the garden until the Ange1u rings, my

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son. (6, 126-127). patent .. (A) 158 3 . attrl],h D signat1ng footwear: (1) patent leathe;t bOQts. 1887 rt1'h Crusade of the Excelsiortt His Ihi te, close. fitting and sm 11 patent ... leather boots gave h1 a jaunty, half ... milit ry a1r. (6. , 4). gattQ, n. (SA) 1. 1882-83 "At the Mission of San Carmelu A strong laval" of leather, onions, and stable preceded th entrance of a short, stout vaquero from the little' patio. <3, 400). Rai;rol1er, n . (A). 1893 "Sally Dow ' "Are dey goin' to bring back de old I patter rollers,11 sah?' asked the man, wi th a slight sneer _ • • • 1 The "patrol" Qr local poliee who forme .rly had the surveillance of slaves. (8, 386). patrona ( 8 ) . Patroness. 1893 "The Mystery of' the Hacienda" Of a no !--as the pat1."ona knew--i t was not night for church. (10,152). ;gatronQ (8). Patron. 1887 tiThe Crusade at the Excels10r" The mate wishes to see the patrono. (6, 24) . Pawnee, ll. ( A) 2 . 1877 ttThe First Mann ! was the first man to ake hunting shirts nut at the skin of Pawne : e Indians . • (20, 185') . n . (A) 3 . b . In comb. : (7) QtS1. 1883 "Left Out on Lone Star Mountainfl He just as good as admitted that a lot of work d got to be done afore any pay ora could be realized. (4, 196) .

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( ). 1878 "A Monte Flat Pastor 1" He was going me... w n (2, 224). struck pay -dirt on Furek Hill. g:r;:avel. ( ). 1869 "H r Letter" Oh, w y did pap strike pay In drifting on Poverty Flat? (12, 159) LQuoted by DA from 1871 volume'; peach, • (A) 159 2 .b. 1863 "How Are You, Sanit ry?" Phrases such scamps ay te ch •••• Such as" 1y! " "Them's t e peac !tI (12, 5). L oted by D under d te c1870'; (A) 1862 "Notes by Flood and Field" I borrow pea -coat of one of t he crew , and • • • am doubt ully p r mittd to pass into one 0 the ats. (1, 362) LClted by D .wla jacket. (A) . 186 "The Legend 0 Devil' s Point" A pea -jacket ith exagg rated cuffs, almost as large as th breec es, covered his chest. (1, 411) . pelle :10 ( S ) . Skin, hide. 1895' "The Devotion of Enr quez" S8 nners1ey arbled in musical praise of the pe11el0, or (10, 348) . rulQIl, n . (SA) 1 .1862 nN tes by Flood nd Field' in the ch rge of fe peons. (1, 355). lef.:t/ our horse n . (SA). 1874 "Ramon" I will give ••• Fifte n hundred down, Just to set the rascal' rom Under n ath this h el of nee (12, 90) . peteI', • .1n:tJ;:.. In full .10. 1870 HOW' s Fl t"

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Then t e bar petered o ut, And the boys wouldn't stay. (12, 119). 160 (? ). Humorous variant of phantasmagoria. 1895 tlIn a Hollow of the Hills" 'lli.y, I dont t believe thar was any fire; t as all a piece of that inferno l gnts fatuus p nta magoriana that was played upon us down there! (10, 5) LNot recorded by • ( ). 186, nFrom Balcony" The b leon e s in hieh no one sits, the piazzas on \'lhich no one loun es, are timid advances msdG to a climate whose churlishness we 1'e trying to temper by an ostent tion of confidence. (1 , 21 ) • . nic'M1Qt ( 8). Bull-fighter. 1895 "The Devotion of Enriquez" 'The first bull had ente ed, and, after c;; rather brief play with the piC dol'S and banderilleros, as dispatched. (10, 350). n . and A . (A) 1 . n. 1899 itA Treasure of the Redwoodsu I jest reckon ye doott care a picayune h ther ye strike anything or not. (18, 18) • ....... %. (A) 8 . b . In colloq. phrases: (2) l21sls.1Uh ( ). 1885' "Marujafl ltm not r v ared to say he is a fool •••• Those who try to pick him up for one " •• vill find themselves mist ken . (5, 34). 121cl,sninny;, n. (A). 1899 "The Secret of Sobriente's Wellft I sked 1mi!" he thought I was a p1ckninny to be

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161 frightened by bogies. (16, 189) . ( 8 ) . Wood ee ere 1889 (fA Knight.Errant of the FootHills" LThe ohairman/ keep up a t pp1ng ",1th a ha ar like a very lco. (5 , 453) . p • , n .2 (A) 1 . 1 9, "In the Tul s " tiP1ke --arenf t you?" • • • Whether Mor e did 01did not know that this ourrent CalIfornia s l ang for a denizen of the colic t'J st 1m lied Cl cert in ' contempt, he re lied1mply: ..... " ' m from Pike County, zzour1.tt (10, 383). 1 . 1869 " ' Term ,esse's Partner" Here's seventeen hundred dollars in Coal"se gold and a atch,--it' s about all my pile. (1, 46) . 2 . In slang phrases: (or stake) Qne' D.1l,a . 1878" Ghost o , f the Slerrasl1 They had little faith n the old man, but went their whole pile on th t dog . (2, 435). 1 . 1893 " Sally DO"lSu Much of the way lay through pine-b rren and swampy lIlOod. s \-thleh h d never been cleared or culti .... vated • . (8, 332) . pint,Q, A . and n.. (SA) 1 . Xl1885 "Marujatt He was on the pinto s back and away .. And, al s ! t ere i no horse that can keep up "lith the pinto. a.. 1865 "The AdVentUre of" Padre Vicent10tl Concepcion

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162 • • • W'as reported to have chased the Devil in the shape of a . fleet pinto colt all the way from San Luis Obispo to San Francisco. (1,418) LPAls first quot e {trom 1867 vol.ll placer; n . (SA) 1.1891 itA Night at IHays11f Hay's team were sutticie recruited to follow the flood of immigrating gold-seekers to the p lacers and valleys. (8, 210) . plank, 1 • .;tt . 1885 trAn Apostle of the Tules" They boys • • • are ready to plank the money down if you'll say it's a go. (4, 331). 1!lu; It. (A) 2. 1890 ttA Ward of the Golden Gate" What are you playint me tor, boys? (7, 191) . 4 . oyas1-tt. 1868 uThe Luck of Roaring Camp" It's play .. ing it pretty low down on this yer baby to ring in tun on him that he ain't gaIn' to understand. (1, 8) LCited by DA under Qate 1871. DAt s 1890 quot . • 1581so from Harte",! , . In colloq. or slang phrases, b . With adverbs and (3) .tQ. lU.u .o.tt Lon!, (a) 1867 U'l'wo Saints of the Foot ... Rillsh UebOOs ye went back on her, and shook her, and played off on her, and gave her away. (2, 365'). plaYcli, .a. (A). 1889 "Captain Jim's Friend" I want to tell you that me and Captain Jim 1s played: All this runnln' 0' me a.nd interferin' with me 1s played! (5', 391).

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plaza, n . ( SA) 1 . 1872 tlConcepcion de Arguello" Yearly, down the hillside swee l ng, came the stately c valcade • • • , Bringing days ••• Of bull-baiting on the plaza. (12, Bo). lWa, 11. (A) 2 . lB9lt fiChu Chu" To confer then as to thees horse, 1s no--observe me--a Mexican plug! (10, 309) . plunger, n . (A). 1864 "The Legend of Devil's Pointtt The bow of the plunger, obeying orne mysterious i mpul e, veered slowly around . (1,410) LOA's 1900 quot e is from Harte..! d (S). Gradually, little by little. 1862 " Notes by Flood and Fieldu Poco poco, sefior,--not now. (1, 368) • .ILQ.Q.Q. .maa. d. meno Iii ( S ) . Approxlma tely. lB9l tI In a Pioneer Restauranttl There ..ras probably no earthly reason why the "Poco ' s 0 M enos" Club of S an Francisco sho uld have ever existed. • • • The very n me of our Club--a common Spanish colloquialism, literally ••• Lmean1/ tta little more or less," and LwaJJ/ adopted in California slang to express an unknown quantity. (7, 454) . ' tiempo ( 8 ) . A little while . 1875-76 "Poco tiempo,' said Father Felipe, with a smile . (13, 141). poter, n . (A) 1. 1870 "Brown of Calaveras" Not that he depreciated the sex, .but that he r ecognized therein a deceitful element,

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164-the pursuit of which sometimes drew mankind away from the equally uncertain blandishments of poker. (1, 65') . 2 . In comb.r (1) poker .h1n. 1896 "Barker's Luck" I felt ome strange, disk-like protuberances in my dress suit the other day, but belike they are but poker chips. (10, lt07). .l2.Slh, .:I . ( A ) 2. 11:. c . 1862 "Notes by Flood and Field" estill fought our way forward, rest ng nd rowing by turns, and oftener "poling" the shallo er surf c • (1, 368) LCited by DA..I J2.Qll; n . (A) 2 . a . lU2.ll .J..1.l.. 1887 "Drift From Redwood Camp" Even the headboards of the scant eemetery were consulted to fill the poll-lists. (5', 34-2). polIo (8). Chicken . 1893 tfThe Mystery of the H ciendall He las young, a pol11o--same as Rosita. (10, 156) . POIDPostalI1Einte (8). Pompously . 1875-76 "Gabriel Conroy" OIly (pompo amifnte)'" erything!" (14, 4-0). poncho, n . (SA). 188 flA Blue Grass Penelope" A heavy poncho afforded Tucker a dj.sguise as well as a protection from the rain. (4, 160) . express. (A) 1 . 1860 (Title) "The Pony Express" (20, 320) . 2. Attrib. lith /messenger/. 1897 "Three Partners" That was a pony expres messenger from New York . (15, 118) LNot re-

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corded by DA.aI DOpeoi"l, n . (A) 165' 2 . 1875-76 "Gabriel Conroy" che st distended until his handkerchief and white waistcoat protruded through the breast of his buttoned coat like a bursting grain of flpop ... com.1t (13, 297) . .e.l ( S ) t For thek1ng, in the king' s name. 1874 "For the Kingu "Por e1 Reyl U What matters, indeed, If king or president sucoeed To a country baggard with sloth and greed. (12, 83) . posec;!a., n . ' (SIi). 1891 "A First Family of Tasajaratt There were some exiaans lounging around the posada. (8, LC1ted by DA as follows: 1891 art-e lam Tassajara II. 102 (Bentley), There Were some lounging about the po sada...,1 pQsiblemente (S) , . rossibly, 1888 "The Argonauts of North Libertyll Ah; pos1blements; it is Don 'cardo Demorest you wish? (11, 192) . llQ..t., n . (A) 3 . In comb. : (6) house _ 188? "The Crusade of the Excel sior" if he and the other Americans were engaged in this ridiculous conspiracy, this pot-house rebellion that Father Esteban had spoken of? (6, 217) . pralrialt • ('fA). Pertaining to a prairie • . 1895 "In the Tules" H e found t h e prospect "good" according to his lights and prairial experiences. (10, 378) LNot recorded by

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166 praltl., n. -tA) 1. 1897 uThe Ancestors of Peter At h erlyU bUs ide.ral was to seize this young and innocent girl. . • and bear he r , away ••• on a galloping horse in the dust ot the prairie. (16. 23 ... 2lt). 2. In comb. : (12) !1.t.a. 1897 "The Ancestors of Peter Ather1ytl ere las the old philoso hy which accepted the prai .... rie fi e and cyclone, (16, 200) . d . Designating va ielas used, or suitable for u s , In prairie regions: (5) s chooner. 1895 "In the Tules" The long, nar1'o\'1, hooded w gon, drawn by s'''aying oxen , known ramil ... iar1y a a flpl'air e sehooner, it in which he journeyed aero 5 the plains to Cal fornia 1n '53 , did not help 1s concep tion by that nautIcal figure. (10, 3?8). prairle (A) 1 . 1891 "A First Family o , t Tasajara" Tbis would Imke him as much of the 'pioneer discoverer' as the rattlesnake 'Who first t kes up board and lodgings and then possession in a prairi dog ' s burrow. (8, 93) . (A) . 1873 "Mrs. Skagg ' s Husbandstt The h llside for a mile on either side of Johnson ' s claim was taked out nd pree ' mpted , (2" 102). b . 1875-76 UG briel Conroy" Any other man but me couldn1t hev bin eich a fool as to preempt sich a claim fur gold. (13 , 110) L Quoted by DA . • ..I presenttmiento (S). Pl'esen nt. 1887 nThe Crusade of

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167 the Excelsior" I have since today a preent:1m1enta that him I shall love! (6, 187) . 12t:esidj,o, n . (SA). 1868 "The Angel s" Before me rise the Mission towers, The w its Presidio. (12, 74). I2rev:!.QUsne ss, n . (A). 1890 itA Waif of the Plains" Takin' in, so to speak, • • • the easy dovminess, previousness of his com n yer, I think two hundred ain' t too much for him . (9, 83 84) . nrimo,ni'ta ( S). First born female . 1885 "MarujaU I told thee I \-Jould answer for this 11 ttle pr1mogeni ta with my life. (5,o 38-39). 12rgnun,clamentg, n . (SA), 1887 "The Crusade of the' xcel sior" Two pronunciamt:lntos, rudely printed and posted In the Plaza • • • seemed to leave nothing to oe desired. (6, 226) . pro$I2ect, n . (A) 2 . 18 '96 'Barker's Luck" Then Demore st reckoned • • • we ought to make just one I rospect' on the claim, and stl' ke a single stroke for you, (10, 426). prQsnect, ;l. ( A ) 1 . 1863 UMtlisan A man dressed as a miner • ,. • came 10 ly through th wood • • • • "He,,, are you ... -prospecting, ah?" said the master. (l, 2;8-259), 3 . tt. 1901 rtA Buckeye Hollow Inheritsnceft Wetll come over with you the day you take po se s10n, end ju ttprospect' the Whole blamed shanty, p gsties, and potato patch, for tun. (18, 195) .

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168 Pl:o:nuaQt1ng, 11. (A) b In comb.: . 1897 uThree Partners" Steptoe appeared with p rt at his straggling who were c 1 +'heir easy i nvasion by • • • b at ng loudly upon their t n and pro pecting pans . (15, 195) . . n. ( ), 1863 "MI1ies" Mt11ss, looking back , sa'W t _at her old seat as 'occupied b:1 the hopeful pro pectore (1, 259). nye'Qlp, n . ( SA) 1 . 1888 "The rgonauts of North Libertytf The sun • • • had beamed that day and indeed every day for the whole dry season OVer t red-tiled roffs of that old and hnppi1y ventu ad pueblo. (11 , 191) . Va. ( A ) 1. 1877" SleepingCar Experience" I lay there wand r -\ 1ng a number 0 things: ••• why it would not be as le11 to sit up all night h If a leep in an ordinary passenger car as to lie awake all night in a Pullman? (11, 111) , 2 . In comb. b . Designating va tous typos of railroad passeneer car mlilt by the Pullman ompany: (8) 1877 " A SleepingCarxpor1enoo1l It was in a Pullman sleeping car on a Western road. (11, 111). ( A ) Usu . wi th 1860 "The Argument of Lurline" When old T . s ys, "Pungle down," Count dolph he says, ItStuff. n ( 20 , 321) .

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:mmk, n . (A) 2 . 1900 "Bohemian Days in San Francisco" It was a common thing • • • to get whiff of' their burned punk in the side streets. (18, 146) . putty , n . (A) . In comb. : (1) 1878 "The Hoodlum Band" The bootblack drew tin putty-blower from his pocket, took unerring aim , and nailed in a s1ngle shot the minute hand to the dial. (1, 226) . guarter, n . (A) 169 9 . In comb.: (15) secti
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170 that heated one end of the room, to the monumental bust • • • that hopeles.sly chilled the other. (2, 157). Ull" n . (A) 2 . In phrases: (3) (someone) 1902 The consequence was he was cowhided once in the street, nd the second time tarred and feathered and ridden on a rail out of town. (19, 206) . raise, n.(A) 2. IQ. .a. raiEl . 187? "Roger Catron's Friend II That day he made a raise, gambling, I think. (2, 344) . :I. ( A) 2 " In slang phrase s, e sp . lQ. In. 186, " One Horse F1 t" in "Tailings., Seeond Notice" Bill took up the dice and shook 'em with a sweet seraphic smile, Shook the dice and threw four sixes, and of course raked down the pile. (SS, 92). raugh, ,u.. (A) 1 . 1890 IIA Sappho of Green Springs" You ought to have booted him out of the ranch Lthe editorial room of the "Ex_ celsior Maga:druV on sight. (6, ,4(8). 2, 1862 "llote s by Flood and Field" I remember he inveighed bitterly against the system ot ranch-holding by the flGre,agers,." (1, 350). 3 . In comb.: (5) man. 1893 .IThe Reformation of Jams R eddy" The rough shirt-sleeved ranchman h d developed • • • into an equally blunt but soberly dressed proprietor. (10, 276) .

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171 rangh, :'L. (A) 1 . 1D.tt . 1866 " S tage-Coach Conversations" Ranehin ' out this ay? (20,155) LPA' s first quot e is 1 . Ltr..! 1900 itA ido'" ot the Santa Ana Valley" It caused her to remove to Sant An, here h r old father had feebly ranch d a "quarter section" in the vall y. (17, 147) LIn ense 1 . To oper te a ranch, to farm, the DA records only intt. and guasi-tt. uses; the DAts 2 . It. To put (an animal) on a ranch is the only tt. use tanchet, n. (A) 1 . 1894 .. 95 ftC1 rence" He felt keenly the ironical 1 udits and laughter of his officers over the manifest weakness and vanity 01' the ex-teamster, ex-rancher, ex-actor, and hus band of his old girl sweetheart. (9, 375). ranscheria, n. (SA). 1890 itA 'aif 01' the Plains" lVhy, he's that wrap ad up in book nd study th t he lives lone in big adobe rancherie among a lot 0' Spanish, and he don't keer to see his o\m eount n 1 (9, 91). ranchero, n. (SA). 1865 liE rly Californ1cn Superstlt ons" The spirit 1s lIe d to have be n t at 0 former ranchero who y s hard drinker. (20, 1 6). 19nch1ng, n . (A) . 1885 S now-Bound at Etc gle' stl Then you ' the ch p that' s doln' t at fancy ranchin' over at Eagle's? (5, 144) . rancho, n . (SA). 1865 n rly Cal tornlan Superst tionsll The r ncho of Pedro Feliz was situated in one of tho e lonely

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172 localities; it. ,.;as a lowt one ''''story adobe, with projecting eaves and galleries. (20, 1862 "Notes by Flood and Field" f1J had come on coount of the Espiritu Santo rancho . Wanted to correct the exterior boundaries of township lines, so as to connect with the near exteriors of private grants (1, 347) . n .. (A) 1. 1860 "Story of the Revolution" Fveryone has heard of the Legion .. Soouting the eastern bank of the Hudson, they were a formidable chec k upon the ravages of "cowboys" and "rangers" over that country lying between White PI ins and New York City. (20, 23) . m, (A) 5 .. l2l .. 1889 "A Secret of Telegraph Hlllil She s id to his utter consternation: "Rats!" Had she uttered an 0 th he could not have been more startled than he was by this choice gem of saloon ... slang. (4, 426) • ./.DA' s flrst quot . is ( 5 ) . Spanish coin. 1877 "The Story of a Mine" Show to me no the that has ever made a real of a mine in California .. (3, 25) . reata (8). See rlata .. rebel, n . ( ) 1. 1864 ttJohn Bur of Ge YDW g' You know the rest: How the rebels, beaten and backward pressed, Broke at the tinal charge and ran. (12,. 4). / ..

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173 recompensa (5). Recomp nse, compensation . 1889 itA Knight .. Errant of the Foot-Hills" Play him, trust to me for recompensa, and have no fear .. (5',465') . • (A) 2 . 1865' "Muck-a.,. tuck" Tell your gre t chief in v lash1ng .. ton, the Sachem Andy, that the R d n is retiring •••• Intorm 1m, if you please, that westw rd the star of empIre takes its lay, that the c let of the PiUte nation are for Reconstruction to a man. (1, 81) . m, A . ( A ) 1 . In comb. : (4) man. 1865 u}.bcka -Mucktf Tell your gr at chief in Bshington, the Sachem Andy, that the Red n is retiring before t e footsteps of the adv nturous pioneer. (1, 81). 4.b. In comb. : (2) .2.W1.t.. 1897 UT ae P rtner " l ' v heard him sing away ju t like th t when het been 1 v ng the bo rd ,'11 th f ve thou sand dollar s 1n his pocke t, or going away strIp ed of his 1 st red cent. (15, 1 ) . redl/oog, n . (A) 2 . 1861 "High Water Mark" At the same moment th gre t r dwood tree swung round nd drIfted way with its living cargo into the bl ck night. (1, 327) . reguJ,etor, n . (A) 2 . 1892 "The Transformation of Buckeye Cam " We have alw ys sted th t Buckeye could get along without Vigil nce Committ es or Regulators. (8, 267268) .

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R epubl;t.'cath .,' and . ' ( A ) Also Republ can 1865 "Muck-a-.Ck'1 Tell your great chief 1n Washington , the Sachem Andy, that the Red Man 1 retiring. ' . ' . ' • Inform him . '.. that K laxnath will poll a heavy Republi an vote 1n the f 11", (1, 81). 174 revamp f x .. n,,' 1877 ttThe Story of a Mine The Party in Power and the Party out of Power could do nothing but nend and p tc ; and revamp and cleanse Elnd scour. (3, 61). t1at&; n. ( SA). 1862 "Notes by Flood and Field" I was awakened next morning from a sense of lulled repose snd grateful silence by the cheery voice of George , ,..,ho stood beside my bed ostentatiously twirling e riats. (1, 35'3) . rlttli, ll. (A) 1 • . b . Io. llli (or a.) 1877 ' Well ! that depends retty much on how things pan out, and whether I can make the (2, 376) nn&, n. (A) 1 . 1877 "The Story 01' a Minen The Ring s .. -ahem ! a combination of unprincipled but wealthy p rsons to dei'e t the ends of justice. (3, 39) " egell:t. ( ) l., 1873 "Mrs . Skaggs1s Husbands" Is it a road ag1ntyou expects to see, that you ' folds hup your fands, hand crosses tem like to that? (2, 109) . a . a nd n . (A) 2 . roaring .Q.Wml. 1868 (Title) "The Luck of Roaring Camp"

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(1, 1) LClted by DA from 1871 11. (A) 175 4.b. Usu . pl. 1898 "The Passing of Enriquez" You shall sell many paper, and Urania shall have scoop in much spondu lics and rocks. (16, 78) . rockaway, n . (A) 1 . 1865 uIn the Country" A turn in the rough mount in traIl brings you suddenly upon a vision of smoothly-shaven faces, hats, bright dresses, ribbons nd lIght colored gloves, in a smark LsI! rockaway, drawn by ,e11groomed horses with shining harness. (SS, 20) . rQdQo, n . (SA) 1 . 1895 "The Devotion of Enriquez" The rodeo --a yearly chase of wild cattle for the purpose of lassoing and branding them--\,las a rather brutal affair, and purely a man's function; it was also a family atfa1r--a property stock taking of the great Spanish strangers, partIcularly Americans, found it dIf!iault to gain access to its mysteries and the testa that (10, J,7-358) • n . (A) . In comb. ! (5) digger. 1900 "The Mermaid of Lighthouse Pointtl The solitude around him was people only by Indians,--a branch of the great northern tribe of tlroot .... diggers,"--peaceful and simple 1n their habits. (17 , 164-165) • b . In slang phrases: (3) nJ.a% rQQt:a sm. 1890 "A lvaI!

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of the Plains" He'd hev played roots on them Inj1ns afore they tetched ye . (9, 46) LC1ted by DA..,/ :t. (A) 176 2.h. I.2..t.Q..MJ.n (or 1n:t.2.). 1890 " A Sappho of Green Springs" Of course she's SOIlle old blowzy with frumpled hair trying to rope in a greenhorn with a string of ords and phrases. (6, 408), . totten, a. (A). In comb.: (2) guart*. 1873 tt}.irs,. Skaggs s Husbands" The boys workint round yer passes by and sees the old man grubbin1 away, and no signs 0 ' color, not even rotten quartz. (2, 9,). rQllgb uaners, ru. (?A). Difficult, hard. 1870 "Brown of Calaveras" It' s more 'n six months since \.re've lived to gether, or met, except at meals . It' s mighty rough papers on the head of the house, ain't it? (1, 73) L Not recorded by DA; tnt cf. close, .fl . and .an. 2 . (6 Rapers, .t.;1..g.. , and, above, hal:.d papars,ftg.! round, A . , n . , nrJUl • ., and m . (A) 2 • In comb. : (13) "".wnwl. 187? "Uorning on the A venues" Roundsman 9999 has once or twice followed me blook or t 0 with the evident impression th t I was from a successful evening out. (11, 90) . JL. ( A ) burg1 r returning 1 . b . 1897 "ThG Strange Experiences of Alkali Dick" A later attempt at Paris to tfincarnadinet the neighborhood of the Champs de Mars, and "round up" a number of boulevardiers,

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met with a more disastrous result. (16, 338339) . n . (A). In .colloq. phrases: (1) IQ. .fi .wu: l.Qji m rua. 1868 "The Return of Belisartusf1 Dick Ashley . ' ... lost on the Summit last winter, And Bob has a hard row to hoe . (12, 163) . 177 rQyal, ,a.. (A) . In comb, t (3) tluBll. 1899 n ir. Jack Hamlin ' s Mediation" Seen lIJen holding aces backed dOl-in because they thought they the other man had a royal flushl (15, 338) • .DYll, n . (A). 2 . b , In the names of drinks: r.nm ... ,ang ... ElJJI. 1882 "Flip" This felicitous epithet Lwa]J./ flung out in a generous com ... parison with bis favorite drink, t1rum and gum." (3, 296). nan, n . • (A) 11 . In colloq, phrases: b . Mfm (or .:tb&..un .Q! .. 1862 "Notes by Flood and Field" "Well. , perhaps three thousand head," Cieorge, reflecting. "We don't know; takes five men to look • m up and keep run. " (1, 354) LPA cites no ex amples showing ellipsis.! .u.bsl , n . (A). 1872 "How Santa Claus Came to Simpson's BarH D1dn1 t hey no more than to come round yar ''lith 1ek ness in the house and no provision. (2, 72) i.DA' s first quot. is from Harte (187,).aI x . (SA). 1863 tlW'liss" The law will protect you as tar as it ean,-as far as two men can stand agin a hundred; sabe? (1, 291).

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178 saebtm , n (A) 1, 1888 f'Tha Argonauts of North Liberty" L.I hav.tl the contract tor the hull St te--ep (dally tor Wozun's Universal Injin P naC$Q 6Z cures everything""' .... be1nt had trom a recipe given by a saohem to Dr. Wozunts gr n 'ther. (11,199). 2. 186; "Muck •• ).bek" Tell 'Tour great chief' in VI shing ... ton. the Sachem Andy" that the Red Man is retiring bator the toot steps ot the adventurous pioneer (1t 81)_-Sarrow, Ih (A) .. In full Strano mo.. 1886 "Devil" s Fordn Taking trom his hat thre--cornered pareel, he unfolded a handsome saffrona 1'0 't which he gr valy pres nt d to (4. 402), • .... .-t ll'ltl (A) 1:. 1810 "010611t • Just look round you " -alk 11, rock t and S g -bra h, reek. and lkal!, . (12. , 12lt) . • A. (A) 1:. 1870 ue'1eely" Just look round you, .... a1kal1. , rock. , and sage, S ge .... brush, rock, and alkali . (12, 124). b. 1666 "OUtoropping Come Aga1nfl H r'3 the palm must be awarded to one Lnot1c.e/ which had origin in the sage brush Md might have been wrItten by a .. (SS t 99 ) , . ala, D(SA) , . 1895' tlThe Devotion ot Enriquez" I turniJd away in sorne discomfiture to 301n Enriquez; who was c lmly a Itibg me, With a cigar tt in his mouth, outside the s 1a. (1.3381 ) '

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179 n • . (A) 1 . 1870 tiThe Iliad of Sandy Barlf Old man, thar too much s leratu in that bread! (2, 13) . 2.b. Denot ng various breads: (1) 1887 "A Phyllis of the Sierras" • Sharpe ... . • wa • • • voraciously absorbing his favorite meal of hot sa1eratus bi scui t s 1n butter. ( 6 , 286) 41 (2) bread. 1889 "Cap _ tain Jim ' s Friend" We broke bread" with ap petites unimpaired by restlessness or anxiety. (5, 371) . Sally • (?A),. A female inhabitant of the Confederate States. 1865 "Mary M cGil1upff During a great part of my flight I was to a running fire from the Federal pickets of such coarse expressions as, nGo it, Sally Reb,u ' Dust it, my Cenfederate Beauty." {I, 210) LNot recorded by DA ... I .aall, It. (A) 4 . 1898 USee Y upft See Yap ... II promptly "salted" the tailings by gisttiPutlng so deftly that it appeared to be its natural composition and yield. (16 , 160) • ..wmsi, n. ( A) 1 . 1874 UA Passage in the Life of Mr __ John Oakhul'st' Blank me if I didn't think he was losing his till he walked to position. (2 , 191) LDA* s first quot . (from 1875 V'olume).J sanitar.Y,.a. (A) 2 . (,SlU2.) absol .. 1863 "110\0.1 Are You, Sanitary?"

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180 (12, 5) LDA's first quote is 1864.J • San:1tary CQmm1iQUr 1863 "California to the Sanitary Comndssionlt (20, 362) . JUlWl, iPJ.1citQ y;: secr@tQ . (8) fuolesome, s ngle, sympat etio,. and confidential. 187,-76 nGabriel Conroy" You .are a natural lover. Pardon ! You have the four s t s--'Sano, solo, selicito, y secreta! (13,143) • ( S ) . See atat9g.a, 11. ( A) 3. In comb.: (9) 'kltunJ,r. 1887 "The Crusade of the Excel-sior" A Saratoga trunko obtrusive proportions stood in the centre 0 the peaceful vegetation. (6, 81). ;L. (A). 1896 "Bulgeri s Reputationlt And that be nighted idiot, Tom Rollins, stand1nt there in the ditoh, spattered allover with slumgullion till he looked like a spotted tarrypin, wavin' his fins and sash ying backwards and forrards and sayln1 , 'This way, ladies; this way! (10, 364) • savn, n . (A). 1870 nCh1quita" Hednt t no savey ... hed Briggs& (12, 115) LDA's first ( S) . Upper petticoat, dress, outer skirt. 188283 "At the fission of San Carmel" The boy threw his arm round the supple, stayless little waist, $C. cented only by the belt of the light flounced saya . (3, 402). n (A) 1 . l893 "The Ball-Ringer of Angel's" It was believed

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• • • that thur \llould yet be seen "taking his cocktail like a whltEl man," or "dropping his scads" at draw poker. (8, 292). scalawag, n . (A) 3 . 1884 "A Blue Grass Penelopetf When folks • • • 181 wondered how you could 1e.ave a woman like your w e, and go off wit 1 a scallat>1sy like that gal, I Allers sa d they' d find out there was a reason. (4, 1,9). scalp, n . ( ) 2 . In (9) 1878 uThe Hoodlum 13andll For years the trails leading to their camp were marked by the bone ot teamsters and broke , n wagons, and the trees were decked w1th the dying scalp-locks of women and children. (1, 222). scalp, x . (A) 1 • .u, . 1890 itA fait of' the Plains" A bystander had whIspered a single itlOrd--"Sealped, too! by God! " (9, 40). scalping, n . (A) 4 . In comb. : (2) knife. 1878 ftThe H oodlum Bandfl The boldest of military leaders hesit ted to attack them in their fortresses, and prudently lett the scalping-knives, rifles, powder , and shot provided by a p aternal government for their welfare lying on the ground . (1, 222). icDQolma ' am, n . (A) . 1874 IjThe Fool of Five Forks" One day there drifted into the valley a riotous cavalcade of "schoolmarms;" teaohers of the San Francisco public schools, out for a holiday. (2, 408) .

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182 . ecru}?.Q.M . ( A). 1889 "Captain Jim's Friend" H e came by the futur stage road--at present a thickset jungle of scrub oaks and ferns. (5, 366), turnip. (?A). A seaweed of the gnus Nareocystis, h ving a turnip-shaped protuberance of the stem (OED). 1878 "The n on the Beachll Its trail1n roots were festooned with olinging sem eed and the long, sn ky, undulating stems of the sea-turnip. (2, 316) LNot recorded by DA ,or D.AE; quot. above 1s OED's only n. (A) e. In the names of c bin t members: (5) ... ,g! .th.e.. Inter1Qt _ 1877 nThe Great Patent-Ottice Fire" The per on spoken to was the gentlemanly doorkeeper of th Secretary of the Interior' s own private off10e. (20, 237). (6) gt 1877 "The Great Patent.Office Fire" See that the S"6cretary of the Navy places an ironclad at Pensa cola to bring up the Florida engine. (20, 245). _ (A) 1 . 1899 "A Treasure of the Redwoods" He says itts gett1n' too crowded for him the last settler took up a section three miles oft, (18, 19). semiguac (8). A dance of Moor sh origin. 1895 "The De ... votion of nr quezff I have a vivid recollection of him in the my teries of the sem1cuaca, a somewhat corybant1c dance Wh oh left much to the invention of the performers, and very little to the imagination of the spectator. (10, 333) .

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183 _ ..... __ ..... , n . (A). 2 . 1886 II A Millionaire of Rougb-nd R eady" Consider ble dIsappointment is felt that a more ex tende leave-taking was not possible, and that ••• no portunlty \ s offered for a t send-offt sUitable to t e dition of the parties nd the esteem 1n \'1hich they re held. (5, 288) . se1ior, n . ( 8 ) 1 . 1887 "The rusade of the Excelsior" Itts the first ma te I s order s; but I rc ekon it' s the se or' side t ( 6, 2). 2 . (a). 1862 "Notes by Flood and Field" Senor Altasca rose ith well-bred gravity to receive us. (1, 356) . (b) 1871 tlIn the . ssion Gardentl Old , Senor, old! just as old as the ission . (12, 104) . . (SA)" 1865 "Early Californian Superstitions" In less th n a eek he killed off the old Se ora's poultry, and challenged every cock in t.a neighborhood . (20,145). __ , n. (SA) 1 . 1865 ilEa 1y Californian Superstitions" One moonlit evening • • • a few youthful Se oritas were lounging upon that open colonnade or gallery which is of all Spanish adobe houses. (20, 146) . • ami11ar appurtenance __ O., • (SA). 1865 "The dventure of Padre Vicentio His serapa..Lhad been! transfixed by the d ... abolical harpoon and dragged away in triumph. (1, 18).

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184 $eyen, .a. and n . (A) . In comb . : (15') lW.. 1863 t'M'11s9" "toolt ng up" M stidas, in. her domestic experience, implied. a pro on ad bgence in the bar-room of the hotel, the tedium whereof was be iled by sevanp or euchre. (I, 279) . '" ,11. (A) 5 . In comb . : (2) 12el1y (a). 1894 lIChu C un I will g1f her a 1ay • " • ; 1 t will on the instant prop! t1ate the old shadbelly ,.mo _ h 11 rf'orm the affair. (10, 329). 1. (A) 1 . 18? HAn Ep so a of fiddletown" It' s kinder nat'ril that she ' d get way some day an tampede that theer colt; but thet she should shake Kernel, that she should just shake S Mhat gits me. (2, 137). shanghai, Jl. (A) . 11:. 1901 "Trent' s Trust" Yes, shang ... haied! Hocused ! Drugged at that gin-mill on the wh rf by a lot ot crimps • • • "rho " • • shoved me, blind drunk and helpless, down the steps into a boat. (19, 58). (?A). A sh nghaier. 1901 "Trent's Trust" wharf -rats or shangbai men? (19, 20) .Llot recorded by DA.J shQnty, n. (A) 1 . 1865 uIn the Countl'y" A ride of only a few m:tles would bring yo t rocky canons, hills clot ad primeval TOods, and here nd there a rude cabin or frontier shanty. (SS, 20) •

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185 n . (A) 1 • .Qn (or lmQn) (the) ,tUires .. 1903 itA Pupil of Chestnut Ridge" The Hoovers • • • now retained the son to control the live stock !lon shares. " (19, 227) . sharp, A . (A). As the last term in many more or less temporary eombs. + among which see: gospel, marble, poker sharl2. Shern s , n . (A) 2 . ShatRs r11'lo . 1885 "Snow .. Bound at Eagle'sft The Sharpe ' s rifle put into his hands by the stableman was accompanied by a familiar word of suggestion as to an aqual. (,. 14) • . shebang, n . (A) 1 . 1877 "My Friend the Tramp" The "Shebang" (as my friends. irreVerently termed my habitation) knew him no more. (11, 105). b . Otten in the colloq. phrase whol, she.l>ang • . 1877 "The Great Patent.Office Firett In this yar room I smelt smoke, and lookint ••• round, why, darn my skin af I didn't find the whole shebang in a blaze. -(20, 240) . shill1'ng, 11. -(A). 2 . sh1lling .i1Ae.. , 1861 "Madame Br1m borionft One or two of the mostsagae1ous • ,. . • had taken large and liberal Views 01' society from the shilling side of Broadway . '(20, 80) . sb1ndig, 11. (A) 2 . 1871 The RomanCE! of Madrono Holloto1U uIs this a

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186 dashed Puritan meeting?" ••• "It's no Pike County shindig." (2, 28) LQuoted by DA from 1873 volume..! ahine, n . ( A ) 5 . In colloq. and phrases: (3) 12 a shine 1896 "A Night on the Dividelf They had to get up somethi n g to account for that girl's taking a shine to him . (15, 305L sllOS-PQg, n . (A) 1 . 1867 "The Right Eye of the Commander" Several bushels of shoe-pegs, whioh bore a pleasing resemblance to oats, but Were qui te to the purposes of provender, were dis covered in the stable of the blacksmith. (1, 402) . short cards. (A). Also attrib. 1897 "Three Partners" You ato't goin' to be bac k ed down by a short.card gambler, are yer? (1o , 137) . shoulger, , n . (A). In comb. : (6) otrap. 1873 "Miss Blanche Says" The "shoulder straps" Thought I was pretty. (12, 37) fpA1s first quote is 1863 (within brackets); the seoond, 1895.../ n. (A) 3 . b . In various colloq. phrases: (3) and variants. 1872 " How Santa Claus Came to S impson ' s Bar" Dismal weather, ain' t it? ••• Mighty rough papers on the boys, and no show tor money this seaSon . (2, 68) • . shucK, 11. (A) 3 . b . In phrases, usu. to denote something that 1s poor or \vorthless. 1877 nAn American Haroun Al -Raschidu That Evarts

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ain't worth shucks . (20, 181). shyster, n . ( A) 187 1 • . 1879 "The Twins of Table Mountainfl She's not to blame because her mother drinks, and her tather' s , 8 shyster. (3, 129>-.ai (8). Yes , 1880 ItJerf Briggs's Love Story" 81, serior . (3, 263) . (Al. Also tl'snst. 1885 ttAn A:t:>ostle of the Tules" A large central tent served tor the assembling of the prinoipal congregation, smallsI' tents served tor PI' yer meetings and class-rooms, known to the fa unbelievers as "side-shows." (4, 3,06>-:iigewQlk, n . ( A). 1899--1900 UA Belle of Canada City' A few steps further brought thelJl to the road and the wooden "sidewalk" to Main Street. (18, 27). 11. ( A) 2 " ajcttlb. 1897 "The Man at the Semaphore" On certain days, ot the. month every eye was turned to welcome those gaunt arms w1dely extended at right angles, which meant . "s1dewheel steamer.1t (16, 124) . SltU'r;an, l.i • and n . ( A) 2 • .&,. 1873 "Washington in New JerseyU It 'Was a Sierran solitude, I had encamped. (20 , 216) LQuoted by DA; a secon d quot . Is also from Har te...! (S). Nap . 1890 (fA Waif of the Plains" SUey . " . seemed to have fallen quite naturally into her usu 1 atter-

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noon siesta. (9, 12). 8iQUX, n . C A l attrlb. 1877 UThe Great Patent-Office Fire" I heard them and thought 1 t was only S1 oux d 1 gat10n outsld • (20,. 243) . 188 ( A l . In comb. : (15) shooter. 1880 "Jeff Briggs's Love StoryU Yer ready as ye used to be with a six-shoot r, Jeff? (3, 253) . skeSi!s1 cks, n . (A). 1869 "Miggles" Thar sin' t nobody but him within ten mlle of the shanty, and that ar d--d old skeesicks kno IS it. (1, 31 ) • .ilWl , n . (A) 2 . In comb. : (4) 18?8 "An Heiress of Red Dog " It I give ye that t'1 nty thousand you ' 11 throw it away in the flrst skin game in 'Frisco, . (2, 282). t. . ( ll ) 7 . 1898 flTruthful James and the K1ondlker" Then r1v r begins that the Amazon skins and t he big Mississipp i knocks out. (20, 421). sklrmi sh, y . 1W.. (A). 1877 11 The from Solano tI It 11 skirmish round Wall Street, and sorter lay low . (2, 2?) . sJmnk, ,i.. (A) 1 . 1885 f'An Apostle of the Tu1es" Talk of revivals! You could give that one ... horse s h o ' l in Tasajara a hundred poInts, and skunk them easily. (4, 3 . 1894 "The Sheriff of 81 kyou" You heard hQli

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189 the ne if • • • skunked away with his Whole posse betor on a ghth of my men! (8, 468) LQuoted by DA.../ /:tnt:. / To link, to skulk. 1898 " 8 alomy Janets iss" He called hi elf a man, skunk in t in the op nand afra d to show mself ex cept 'W th a crowd of other I1Kiy1s" around a hOlse of omen and children. (15, 239). prefix. In fanciful slang formations, US'll .. obs. : /skyyte/, Yo. (?A). To go swiftly and suddenly, to tf scoot. tI 1898 n alomy Jane ' s Kissll f.HiJI s1 pped his cords, and ••• then kyuted up the grade . (15, 2 5) LNot recorded by D .aI sp . sJaugle, X,. 1865 "A New Cal fornia Book, Tailings" Leave the hurdy.gurdy halls--The maidens fair that would seuyugle . ( SS, 88) . LOAts 1883 quote i from Harte.al slaye driver. (A) 1 . 1863 tiThe Coppar ead" He coils in the ooze and the drip, L1 e a thong 1dly flung from the slave-driver' s whip . (12, 20). sleddine, n . (A) 2 . t1,g. 1890 ftA S p pbo Green Springs" I guess it's pretty a d sladdin' for her sometimes to get clo'es and grub for the remerly. (6, 428) , sline , Yo. 2 ( A) l.b • .l\lso in slang phra es: (.2) .t2. sling ___ • 1891 "In a P oneer Restaurant" Fancy a man who could pay my whol e year' s lary with five feet of stock slinging hash to m . (7, 456) .

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u . (A) . In combs.: (2) m . 1865 uMiss xtf After firmly emptying the pItcher,. basin" and slop-jar on the b rning bed, I proceeded cautiously to the garden . (1, 109). Wg, n . (A) 190 l . b . 1878 "Retir ng from Bus nass" The keeper Lwonder ' e,g/ whether the Colonel hadn ' t a money-mill someWhere where he turned out do ble e gles and nslugsu (the Coast n me for fifty dollar gold-piece ). (20, 188) . sJJll e,g, n . (A) 1 . 1893 UThe Bell-inger of Angel's" The plac1d rivEil', unstained this point by .mining sluices or mill drift, runs clear under 1 ts eontemplati va shado'V1S. (8, 289 L. 3. In comb. : (2) .b.24. 1814 "The Fool of Five Forks" Mr. Flynn ••• presented respectfully a pieCe of quartz and gold which he bad taken that morning from his own sluice-box. (2, 416) . b . Also (4) 1869 "The Outcasts of Poker FlatU The expatriated party consisted of a young woman . .. , ; an .. other who had won the t1 tIe of tr!>iotbar Shipton; n and "Uncle Billy," a sus ected sluice-robber and confirmed drunkard. (1, 15) LC1ted by DAJ <5') #Q,pb1ng. 1870 "Hr. 'Xhompsonts Prodigal" You \lias speaking of a young man which was hung at Red Dog for sluice-robbing .. (2, 14) L Quoted by DA from 1873 volume /

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slulctnc, n . (A) 2 . 1869 "T nness e's Pertn r It contained rough oblong box,--pp rantly made from 8 section of sluicing. (1, ltB49) LQuoted by DA../ slumgu1 11Qn , n . , ) 1 . 1899 "A Tr a re ot the R dwood n The s tur ted red solI overflow d th brim Ith that liquId ooze known s "slum 1110n," and turned th crystal pool to the eolor ot blood until th so11 as w hed away. (18. 6) . 191 LS nse not recorded by DA/. ythtng orthl s, orthlesan s . 186, tlT flings., S cond Notiee" No ho -w sh or purptut her -th r a1 Helloon, unmtx d with slumgu.111on . (SS, 90) . 1897 nuncl ,Jim and Unel BIlly" Sort r elear him out, you know, ot all the slumgull.1on that' in him . (15, 210) Let. DA' s 2 . and 3..1 .mo.t.. (A) 1868 "The Luck of Roaring Camp" The contribution w r . , • char oteri tic: • • • al1al a 1ungot, (1, ,), ... potQtg. ( ) 2. •. 1n sing, with t daapot/. 1886 n liona! ot Rough-, d lvlny ain' t the to throw 81 t elv huncir d dollar on any of th m lL-pot to d spot J (" 306. 1.t' b eorded bY D J n , an • 1. Jl. 1871 "s v nty N1n tt Know me next tim vh n you e me, on ' t you, old marty? (12, 172) .

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192 sme11idge (?A) . Scent, aromatic properties. 1898 "When the \1aters Were Up at Jules' " "I used to go hunt1nt it tor smel11dge.u ••• t'For rlhat?" ••• tlFor this,"--she thrust the leaves to his nose and then to her own pink nostrils; I1for--for"-she hesitated, and then with a mischievous simulation 01" correctness added, "for the perfum e . " (16, 213) LPo$s1bly the same , as DA's sme11age, q .v.J snake, n . (A) 6 . In comb. : (18) (b) snake-rail tenoe. 1888 "Cressy" Hr. McKinstry ' s ' ''snake rallt • fence 'vas already discernible in the lighter opening of the woods . (7, 23) iDA's first quot e is 1948../ snaka t(A) I . b . transt. and fi.g,. 1886 "Devil's Fordll Miss Christie just snakin' music outer that planner. (4, snell, n . (A). 1901 itA Mercury of the FootH111slt It contained ••• a sheaf ot trout-hooks, th delicate gutsnells. (17, 215) . t2untaln. (A) 1 . 1865 ItAnalt Where are the refreshments 10b seemed like "locusts and wild honeyti to the S unday-school boy, and the marble Itsody" fount,sin, whicht to him, appeared even as the gushing rock, struck by the Mosaic hand? (SS, 37). som'btero, n . ( S A) . 1882-83 "At the Mission o f San Carmeltl The strong breath of the sea was beginning to be telt; in a tew moments more they were facIng it with lowered sombreros

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ana fly ng serapes. (3, 422) . sotana, n . ( S A)" 1882 83 "At the Mission of San Carmel" Running rapidly to Father Pedro's s de, he grasped his (3, 392) LDA' s only quote (dateq IS??t.! 193 SQuthroU, n . (A) . 1865 "Mary 1vlcGilluplt The violation of the Declaration of Independence, 1n the disregard by the North of the Fugitive Slave L8\'1,2 might have provoked a less fiery people than the Southrons. (1t 208) , ( ) b . Also ,tt. 1893 "The of Angel' sit Vlonder what he'd say if he knew it was given to him b y the m n who 'Used to spark his wife only two years ago? (8f 295) . splendiferous, i.. (A) . 1889 "Captain Jim's Friend" It was true that th geological terms were not always correct, and their pronunciation detective, but we accepted such ex traordinary discoveries as "ignus fatuus rock, II It splendiferous drift," "mica twist" (recalling a popular s pecies ot t o aceo), "iron p1rates,tt and "discomposed quartz. " (5, 368) . spondu1i<;s , n . (A). l890IIA Sappho of Green Springs" I see you have got my poetry . 1n . But I don f t see the spondulix that oughter follow. (6 , 411) . spook, D.. (A). 1895 "In a Hollow of the Hills" We' v wasted an hour on those blamed spooks yonder. (10, 6). & . (A) 1 . 1878 "The Latest Chinese Outrage" That made a square fifty To just one 0 ' we. (12 , 142) .

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194 squatter, n . (A) 1 . 1886 "A Millionaire of R ough-snd R e ady" LAlvarado's claim! was met th simple der1sion from the sq atters and miner . (5, 257). 3. In comb. : (2) right. 1892 "'The Conspiracy of Mrs .. Bunker" AfterwardS wet11 settle nth the husband for the price of possession; he has only a squatter's rights. (8, 449) • sguaw, n. (A) 1.1899 tlL1be:rty Jones' s Discovery" There ' s a aqua here .... who will help you . (15, 368) . b . 1887 itA Dr'ift from Redwood Camp" Y ou love h1s Lthe Indian ag ent' squ w. (" 363). n . (A) 3 . b . In comb. : (1) dance . 1897 " Uncle Jim and Uncle Billy-,t A proce ssion of halt a dozen men • . .. , carrying their own whiskey and winding up with a IIstag dance" before the premises, was sufficient to lighten his ec11psed gayety. (15, 220). ,stake, n . (A) 4 , In colloq. phrases: Io. plJlck (or WU, :rut. otten fig, 1895 "In a Hollow at the Hills" If this wesn ' t the only God ... forsaken p l ace where we could div1.de our stuff ithout danger and get it off the highroads, I ' d pull up stakes at once . (10,72) • . b lQ..wLt. (or ar1ye) steMS; also fig. 1862 "Notes by Flood and Field" Wonder Ih r the ole

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man' 11 drive sta as next. (1, 366). stqIte, y'. ( A ) 3 . Usu . with or .Q.Ut.. 1900 ttBohemian Days in San 195 anci co" Calim wer staked out on these airy placers , and my c o u in' s root, being the very next one to the chimney , and presumably rin the lead," las dis osed of to a speculat ve company for a sum. ( 18 , 145) . ____ , n . ( A) 3 . b . Dl. 1 871 trSeve.nty Nine" He h sn' t the stamps , I gu ess, To buy him his extry grub . (12 , 174). 11. (A ) 1. 1897 tiThe Ancestors of Peter Atherlytt The stampede , if suoh it as, as stopped. (16, 31). stampede, jt. ( A ) 1. 1nD:,. 1870 "Cicelytf Who nand hO\tl she stampeded , I didn' t w t for to see. (12, 125). 2 . 1r,. 1869 "The Outcasts of Poker Flat" • Oakhur"t • • • offered t e hypot es stat he had wandered from t camp nd had ace dentally the animals. ( I , 20) t 1887 If A Drift from Red\1ood Camp" I see t ey' ve stampeded both banks of the Minyo River, and sent off a lot Lof Digger to t e reserv tion. ( 5 , 364 ) • • (A) 1 . stamping growd. 1897 "Thre e P :rtnerstf Longing to see you again and the dear old stamping ground a t Heavy Tree ! (15 , 121) .

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n. (A) 1.b. 1883 uIn the Carquinee Woods" I reokon youfd better mak it a for twentywfour hours. (4, 28) LDAt g first. ..v.Mo/II ........ , A. ( A) 196 1 . 0 . Al. 1870 "Brown 'of Calaver SM Itva go a wife--a d --d good one, too, if I do say in th States. (1, 70). ,.0. . 1877"An ari. ean H$roun Al .. Rasch1d" H e look d t hi w tah. and f'ound he bad spent six hours at the State Departm nt. (20. 180) . "and m. . (A) . 1877 "The n from Solano" She ' s just my kind; and will make a stavlnf good wife .. ('2 . 426) . t n. (A ) 1, 1899-1900 " ' Belle of Caned City" There was tbe straightln Street With it new brick block ot "stor StU ending bruptly ag lnst a tangled bluff. (18, 24). 3 . b . D s1gnatlng products purchased at 8 store s dis tinguished, usu. , trom those made at homel (4) gJ.gtys, 1874 nTh Fool of Fiv Forks" ThEIl' was consid 1! . Ie inquiry tor tf stoN olothe s ., tr (2 , stoveR1c, n. (A) 1.; 1880 rt ot La Porte ft H into hi s e bin arid c o s out egfin with a iall. .-a toveplpe, (20, 197). stra4dle, n . ( ) 3 . 1900 "Bohemian Days in San Franei cort t Is t the m n

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I ha make 197 disp1 .... ced to c he IDEl on the arm and wh1speredt tfBetter str ddle and divide your st ko this time . (18 , 140) . .. nd .(A) 1 . .. 1878 UTh Late t Ch re11ev n1 his m1.nd fide s t tit re of a knd. " (12, 142) . e e Outragert omith Lwav t a "straightft should be t 5 . a . 1870 ftc celytl Poetry!--that' s the way some chaps puts an idee, But I takes mine "straight Without sugar," and that' s the mat+.er w th me. (12 , 124) . strap, Jl. • .u:.. Usu . strapped, ... (A) . 1895 UIn a Hollow of th Hills" T ose boys from the valley ...... theytre most alwa y s strapped hen t ey com here. (10, n . (A) 2 . In comb. : (2) ( a). 1865 " Sidewa1kings " Th y pre fer t street cars to -alk ng e t ey think t _ey get long faster. (1 , 23 ) . Xh (A). 2 . 1865 "One Horse Flatt! in u Ta 1 ngs* , Second Not cett In the Spring a young man fancies e is sure to k a strike. (SS, 92) • y . ( ) 3 . 1869 " Her LJettern Oh, why did papa strike pay gravel In dr it ng on Poverty Fl t? (12, 159) . b . !Q. ,atrj,ke ll, also fig. 'striH;e 11 Uh. 1886 "A Mil liona re of ongh and -Re dy" ny, I 've struck t; and struc k it rich! (5, 263).

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198 n. ( ) ,.b. Used in combs . of obvious meaning: (;) sfJeak1ng. 1885 ttSnow-BoU.!ld at Fag et sit Hth the fluent, but somew at exagge"ated pb.raseology of a man trained to Itstumplt spe king" he gave an aCC011r.t of t e robbery. (;, 2 2). (6) • 1893 "The ir of t e H c Hulisl1es" Stump speeches and br ss-bands ,,,,orn t t in it wi th the boys when '18 S around . (11, 326) . sy,gal', n . (A) 2 . b . n comb.: (11) w.n.e.. 187 "Baby Sylvester" Did I see those three large sugar-pine s? (2, 2114). house. (A). l88? 1IA Drift from Red'tiood CampfJ LT e bU11din.&! was a "st1eat ... house, II an .1nsti tution common to nearly all the bor1g nal trih s of California. (5, 345). 8ydne:\?;, n . (AL (2) 1894 "The Sheriff of' Siskyou" T ey lre Sydnoy 'ducks, tic eto -leave men, short car sharps, and snea thieves! ( ,482). tailing, n . (A) 2. nl. 1865 tfOne Horse FlatU in "Tailings*, Second No tice" Dreary gl ams the white quartz tailings lying over One Horse Flat. (SS, 92) . tgnglgf9Qt, • (A) 1. 1891 " A F rst Family of Tasajaralt Elijah Curtis ••• was k aping a frontier doggery in Sidon, and dispensing 'tanglefootf and salt junk to the hayfootad ike Count1ans. (8, 93 • Jl.. (A). IQ. .:tal:. a.wl feather. 1902 "The Convale s -

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199 cence of Jack Hamlin" The consequence was he was cowhided once in the street, and the second time tarred and feathered and ridden on a ral1 out of town . (19 , 206) . n . (A). 1874 tIThe Rose of Tuo1utnnetf My g1rl Jinnyt s jist got back from a little tear up at Robinson's, and ain't inclined to turn in yet. (2, 204) • .t,wu:, (A). In comb.: 3. tear ... rQund. 1872 uHow Santa Claus Came to Simpson's Bartl Maybe ye , t d all like to come over to my house to-night and have a sort of tear round . (2, 68) LDA's only quot telegram, n . (A). 1875 .. ,76 "Gabriel Conroy" He thrust into Starbottle's hand the telegram of the preceding day . (14, 52) . temblor, n . (SA). 1875 ... 76 I1Gabr1el Conroy" The temblor has swallowed him . (14, 94) . 1885 tlJ.faruja" Pereo would be ... lieve that a temblor would swallow up the casa if we sho uld ever forego these customary rites. (5, 20) . 1887 "The Crusade of the Excelsior" That somet .hing was a temblor! An earth quake ! The earth has shaken himself. (6, 187-188). 1888 "The Argonauts of North Liberty" Dona Rosita . . ' . had said it was "earthquake weather," and recalled, with sign of the eross, a certain dreadful day of her childhood, when el temblor had shaken down one of the mission towers . (11,240). LDA's first quot e is temperamento ( 8). Temperament , temper . 1898 tiThe Passing of Enrique z" And believe me, a fear of the effect of 'specu-

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200 lation' upon my comprehend my complexion, my brother? (16, 80) . tenderfoot,11, (A). 1893 "The BellRinger of Angel's" Everybody said he was a milksop, and a tenderfoot. (8, 302) . ten-strike, 11. (A). 1864 ftThe Willows" They were days when my heart was volcanic, And impelled me to frequently roll, And m de me resistlessly roll, Till my ten .. strikes created a panic With the monkey atop of his pole. (12, 283>-tente ( 8 ) . Wait, hold on . 1892 "The Transformation at Buckeye Camp" A soft Spanish, yet somewhat childish voice cried, "Tente . Holt on .'1 (8, 273), tbimble, n. (A) 3 . b . In the names of plants and animals: (1) thimble berry, 1900 "The Youngest Miss Piper' The youngest M1 s Piper leaped upon the rail of a fence, and with the stalk of a thimb1eberry in her mouth swung her small feet to and tro. (17, 127) .. thorn, n. (A). In comb •• tborn a12ple. 1890 itA Waif of the Plains" Jim • • • had inserted a thorn-apple under the neck ot his saddle .. (9, 50) . (A). 2 . three-card monte . , 1875-76 hG.abr1el Conroy" Deyt s play1nl three-card monte in the bah room, rut 'taint no squar game. ( 13 , 224). throw, JC:. (A) 3 . Used call • iith adverbs: (3) tbfoM gtt, (0).

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201 1873 "t{rs. Skaggs's Husbandsu He thre\ol off his liquor \d th a single dexterous movement . of head and elbow, and stood re freshed. (2, 86). (4) .tQ; throy ill..Qll, (a). 1878 itA Ghost of the Sierras" I 've al,\,lays been inclined to throw off on the Cave Clty ghost fOl" that alone. (2, 434) . tieng.s, n . (SA) . 1884 "A Blue Grass Penelope" She had learned • • ' . that a part of the shanty was used as a t1enda or shop for the laborers and rancheros. (4, 1'+9). ttet. ra templag" (S). Temp rate zone, mild climate. , 188? . "The Crusade of the Excelsior" A gradual and gentle s 'cent at the end of two hours brought the cavalcade to a halt upon a rugged with seml ... trop1cal sbrubbery, and here and there la'.,ger trees from the tierra templada in the evergreens or madrono . (6, 105). n.. (A). 2 . c . f*Cht .:tlle. 1(igs::r. 1875 .. 76 tlGabriel Conroy" Yel'l s me, tor instans •• , • ez gambols-gambols very deep""""'jess fights the tiger, wharever and whenever found (14, 14). .:1. (A) 2 . In comb . : (1) :un in, . 1877 1IThe Story of a Minett He handed over the contents of the prselous tin can he had brought with him. (3, 12). (A). In phrases: (2) 1Q4 in (or 1880 ttA Gentleman of La P 'orteU In walking his feet fltoed in, U suggesting an aboriginal anQestry. (20" 201). a . (A) . 1901 "Dan'l Boremrt I thought you allowed

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202 he was a tony teller. (18, 316) . torea<%:Qr (s.). Bull-fighter, toreador. 1894 "Chu Chutl It was so like the velvet-aapped toreador orest of Consuelo herself, that they seemed of one race. (10, 320). wroro (S). Bull-fighter. 1895 "The Dsvot' 1on of En-1'i U$ztl The torero, the man who fights the bull, he is also an acrobat. (10, 340). ,Wg. (8) Bull. 1862 t'Not .as by Flood and Field" UToro!" shouts George, vaquero enthus1asm . (1, 355). jiol'tilla, n . (SA) . 1868 tiThe Pioneers of 'FortyNine'" Her little white te t h Were not unfamiliar with the Nortilla(20, 161). (A) 1 . tr. 1888 "Cres ' syu Tbat" s another big baby to tot Ls1s.! round in school when I ain't niggerin" at home. (7, 6,)" W:a" 11. ( A ) d . In phrases: (1) .tt.a.e. .Q! Liberty. 1866 "The Fourth in the Suburbs" The garden walks "re strewn w t b fragmentary and exploded crackers, whose red outer wrappe 'rs rustle in the breeze, as though they were the autumnal of tho t Tree of' Liberty which flourished so pre-E:lminently at this season. (88. , 44) . ( 8). Three .. 1885' nNarujafl "How much?tt ••• uTres pesos." (5, ,6). triste un. Sad , sorrowful. 1893 "The Mystery of the Hac1endau All the same, Rosita and Vincente are very tr1ste.

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203 (10, 156) . truck, n .l (A) 2 . 1886 ftA Millionaire of Rough-and Ready" Alvin Mu1rady announced his intention of growing potatoes and g rden tltruck.1I (5, 257) • ..m.J&, n . (SA) 1 . 1884 ttA Blue , Grass P , ene1ope" She shuddered slightly, and cast her eyes over the monotonous se of tule and meadow. (4, 145) . 2 . 1872 tI ow Santa Claus Came to Simpson's Bar" The lastmail had been abandoned in the tulea, the r der swimming for his life. (2. 66) . 3 . b . Designating places and areas overgrown with tules: (4) land . 1862 flNotes by Flood and Field" Stretches of tule land ••• are now cleanly erased. (1, 361) . (5) • 1877 "The Story of a Mine" Have you been sleeping again in the tu1e marsha s, or are you up ... set with commissary l'lhiskey? (3, 12). LComb. not recorded by D II texer. A fever believed to be caused by one's living in the tulea. 1892 ttThe Tr nsformation of Buckeye Camp" You know be said we cught to have some L 1hiskey and br ndll in common stock that he could a1\'sys rely upon in emergencies, and for use after the tule fever. (8, 271) . 1895 "In the Tules" had a sharp attack of' Ie fever. (10, 390) . 1li,Q. l2lli, n . ,u,i .. (A). 1888 "Cressy" I sorter agreed with Rupe F11gee that if you took to my ideas and didn't object,

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204 I ' d give him two bitsl every time he'd kern here and help me of an arternoon. (N2ia) 1 Two bit, 1 . twentyf ve cents. (7,13). (S). A silver mine . 1887 flThe Crusade of the Fxcel lor" "Un min a de plata," said the officer s ntentiously. ( 6 , 105) . Uncle Sam. ( ) 1 . 1867 "An Arctic Vision" All ye icebergs make salaam, --You belong to Uncle Sam! (12, 1). union, n. nd • (A) 3 . 1866 "Tbe Fourth in the Suburbs" The fact th t the rebel garrison was composed of giants--who might have been, 1n comper son with the size of th Union ship, roughly esti mated at fifteen feet high--lent an ddition 1 moral effect to the Victory which was to b achieved OVer them . (SS, 45) . volga, • (S ) . 1862 ffNot s by F l ood and Field" still fought our forward, resting and rowing by turns, and oftener "polingn the shallower surf ce, but the old valda, or bench, is till distant. (1, 368) LPA' first quote 1s also from by Flood and Field, " but 1s dated 1871 , the date of the bolume from which the quote was taken. DA' s second quot, . is also from Harte...! vamoose, y.. (A). 1878 ",etiring from Businesstt Fz Old Black allers makes his time , h dn ' t better vamoose? (20, 191 ) • b . vamoose ranch. 1883 "Left Out on Lone Star

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'1ountain" d d you m e it L l solitaire.!.! for?" • .. • "To know if vIet d ma e the breat! we talked about and the ranch. (4, 196). (8). Let t s go. 1a86 uJack of the Tu1e fI You-help me oft '\tJith these togs, and then vamos : (12,194). vantQQ,llt ,,(A). , 1878 tfThe Spelling Bee at Angels" Thar ' s a new game down in Frisco, that az tar ez I can See Bats euchre, poker, nd vantoon. (12,18 ) . 205 n.. (SA)" 1872 tfConcepcion de Arguello" Yearly, down the hillside sWeeping , Oame the stately cavalcade, Bringing revel to joy and comfort to each maid . (12; 80). n . (SA) . 1 . 1863 "The Legend of l-fonte del Diablo" LHe \Jas founJ1/ on the mountain, your Reverence, but a fe\! varas from Where he attacked you. (1, 396). JUt Ustgd Qn QW. ( S ) . God protect you . 1882-83 UAt the l-1iss on of San Carmel " Antonio and Jose found himt • wi th able s sing on his 1 'ps • • • : __ "Va U ted ron Dios. ft (3, 430) . yelva_t, • (A) • • 1 . 1887 tI Phyllis of the Sierras" Put • Mainwaring through as f r as he want s to go. . " • • The Bank ' s behind him, $nd is hatts ch lked allover the Road; but he don ' t care much about being on velvet. That ain' t his style. ( 6 , 251+) •

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206 vengue, n . (A) 1 . 1865 (Title) "T e Vendu of Jefferson D vis" (20, 373) . committee .. (A). e . 1892 "The Transformation of Bucke e C m n e have always boa ted th t Buetey could get along tout Vig lance Comoittees or' egulators. (8, 267268) • v1e1lancia (8). Vigilance. 1887 "The Crusade of the Excelsior" (Chapter) ''Vigil ne II (6, 26) . Vientos generales ( S) , Trade winds. 1882-83 "At the s sion of San Carmel" It was the dy ng breath of the yientQs beyond the llal1. (3, 39 ) It yUladero (S) . Keeper of a vineyard .. 1885 n ruj It It .... had be n more recently used as a vi adero' s cottage. (5,127). nn, . (S ) . 1892 "The Transfo:rmation of Buckeye C mp" ' Ere "Ie are again, boys ! Viva ! (8, 27 ) or x1!a la americana (8). Long 1 ve the American 1887 "The Crusade of the Excels;f.or" T.. cro,\-, roared with an etrus va nd bovine delight that fr g tened her, and with a dozen "Viv a Ie Reyna Americanas ! " she w s hur led . .. .. into the guard-room . (6 , 78) .. Jr.. ( A). !Q. In, 1.D.1Q.. 1863 flHow Are You, 8an1 -tary?tI Phrases such as camps may teach, ..... Such as "Bully! n "Them' s t e peach!" "Wade in, Sanitary!" (12, 5) LDA' s f r t quot e is 1872..ai n . (A) 1 . 1887 tiThe Crusade of th Excelsior" The exact relations

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bet"leen the humorous "walk round, it in which Mont gomery usually made her first entrance, and the volume of Byron she held in he' r hand, dId not trouble Mr. Brimmer. (6, 143) . wampum, n . (A) 207 1 . 1897 "The Ancestors of Peter Atherlytl With the gayly striped blankets lyIng on the ground, the strings of beads, wampum, and highly colored feathers hanging from the trees, and the flickering lights and shadows; it was an innocent and even idyllic picture. (16, 39). n . (A) 2 . b . In comb .. , (13) paint" (also trans!.)" 186, .tMuck_ a-Muck" Around a glittering fire he dimlydlscerned dusky figures dancing. They were in vlar paint. (1, 84) . 1869 "The stranger • • Lbrightenegj through the color which Red Gulch knew facetiously as her "war paint. " (1. 61) LQuoted by DA..J 3 . In comb. : (11) kla.t Department . 187'1 "The Great PatentOffice Fire" Hereafter always use it L"Honorable!l, without reference to the economy practised in the War Department. (20, 241). ntd, a., (A) 2. In comb. : (11) pol1tica. 1893 tiThe Heir of the McHulishes" Big man in the church, I should say? No slouch at a party canvass, or ward politics, eh? (11, 3,9).

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208 wa.:patht 11. (A) l . b • .t.1s.. 188? "A Drift From Redwood Camp" A day of sullen expectancy .... followed the departure of the braves on the warpath.. (5, 361) . X . (A) 2 . In noun (lombs.: (3)lUlJ,.. 18?8 tiThe Latest Chinese Outrage" "It' $ your wash-bill," he, and I ansiers, ''You l1e!" (12, 142). (10) house . 1898 "See Yuptt A few days later I saw Abe Wynford (16 , 153) . • • • com1ng out of See Yup' swash-house .. Dab l.U4, Jt . ('lA). = clean 1m, It. (clean, X " 4 . b . ) 1899 "A Treasure of the Redwoods" To dig for three or four hours 1n the morning, smoke their pipes ., • .. for an hour at noon, take up theiIJ laoors again until sunset, when they "washed uptt and gat ered sufficient gold to pay for their daily wants, was .. • .. the realization of a charming socialistic ideal. (18, 11"",12) L Not recorded by DA..J WasUQg, n . (A) 2 . 1865 IJTail1ngs., Second Notice" Stung by disappointment, he announces bis tntention to go to Washoe, which is beautifully described. ( S8 , 93) . Hashout, n. (A) . 1891 "A First Family of Tas.$jara' tlA free fight or a wbsh-out?" ••• tlA wash-out!"l 1 A m1ning term for the temporary inundat10n of a claim by flood; also used tor the steri11zing effect of flood on fertile. s011. (8, 4 0 ) .

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209 KBtg.:, 11. (A) 1. In oomb.: (7) .tall, (a). 1865' 'tMuck .. _}.bokU "Ye'r not scalped, then! " ...... ffvlhy, that' s her wet rfall! " (1, 85) . waybill, ;[. (A) .. 1863 f'ALonely Ride" Satisfied that I was way-billed and receipted tor, he took no further notice of me. (1, 334) . n . (A) 1 . 1865" ry MeG1l1up" My dislike for the Northern scum was .. • • sho m" at an early age, in the extr me distaste I exhibIted for Webster" s spe111ng -book,--the 'Work of a well known Eastern Abolitionist. (1, 207). 1886 "Devil's Fordfl l just came to anchor in the corner of the sory" • • and took up a rJebstar' s Dictionary that was on the table snd laid it open ... keerless on my knees,. ez if I was sorter oon sultint 1 t . (4, 358) f lie stern, ' . (A) I .b. In comb.: .6tlfe/ii 1887 "A Drift From Redwood Camp" The fresh beauty of this young wife • • appeared to him like a superio1'" creation. (5,359), vhar( , n . (A) 2 . whprf ut" (b). 1901 tlTrent's Trusttt He made his \>lay to the tateful wharf" still deserted exce t by an oOcasional "wharf-rat,"--as thE! longshore vagrant or petty th was called. (19, 12) LQuotad by PA from 1903 vol..! whist,l.e, (A) 2 . IQ. wh1stle (brakes) (or 1869 "ltJha. t the

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210 Engines Said" S Id the Engine from the East: "They who ork best talk the least. s tpose. you "thistle do't'm your brakes. (12, 292) LDA' s first hite, a . and (A) 1 . 1889 "Captain J i m ' s Friend" The feller you 're rellevint • • • 'is a white roan and kne I the ropes. (" 377). . • • wite-pine bam. ( ?A) . :: lth1te hflm. 1878 uThe Hoodlum Band It '!as a quiet Ne i England village • • The looden nutmegs were slowly repening on the trees, and the wbi te-plne hams for stern consumption \llare gradually rounding into form under the deft manipulation of the hardy American a rtisan. (I, 213) " . 'krogop, :L. (A) . lQ "lhg o p II ( orsom,gtijiQg) ,or variants: b . 1898 'The Boom in the 'Calaveras Clarion'lt 'the interests ot their Olm. township were also to be "whooped up . " ( 16 , 161) • .a..I"-_' n . (A) 1. 1887 llA Drift from RedvlOod Oamp" Ho knew that the low bark tents, or igwams , of the Indians were hung with strips of dried salmon. (5 , 345). y11dcat, n . (A) 3 . stRllect , 1864 " The Devil and the Broker" "What do you c a l l this Lfishing for ... . "I cal l it WILD CAT!I! ( 1 , 429} . gress, (A) 2 . 1893 HThe Bell-Ringer of Angel ' slt Between the wood-

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land openings there are glimpses of vivid velvet sward, even t times when the wild oats and "wire-grasses" of the plains are already (8, 289). ylO 0 deA • (A) 1. 1878 nThe Hoodlum Bandu The wooden nutmegs were slowly . ipening on the tr e s, and the \Olh1 te-pine hams for Western consumption were gredually rounding into form . 213) . • (A) 1 . 1891 itA Fe911 ords About Mr. Lowell" He had by no means created the "Yankee" in literature, neither had he been the first to use the Yankee dialect., (20, 257) . 211 d . 1894-95 ttClarenceu I reckon nobody but a fool or some prying mudsll of a Yankee 'WOuld trust his skin here. (9, 308) . (A) 1. 1895 nA Yellow Dog" I never knew why in the Western States of Americ a yellow dog should be proverbially con sidered the a cme of canin degradation and incompetency, nor wythe possession of one should seriously affect the social standing of it posse'ssor. (10, 436) LDA' s second (1895) quote 1s from yerbe bQena. (SA) (.ru.mJ 1890 ' llA Ward of the Golden Gatefl HO\l \'.ould Yerba Buena do , sir? ••• It's tle old Spanish t tIe of the first settlement here. (7, 188)"

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212 2. 1863 " The Yerba Buena" Ever since, \vhere 'er its seed bG SOilln, A Yerb Buena 1s tl good herb knO'WIl . (20, 325) LDA's first quot . (1882) is trom Harte..! Yorl\lnQ , n . (A). 1887 liThe Crusade of the Excels10rtl The C hurch--caramba ! t he priests were ever w th the Excossas, the aristocrats, and against the Yorkenos, the men of th Republic--the people . (6, 158) .

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APPENDIX A PARTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE WRITINGS OF BRET HARTE The following i an lph bet1cal llsting, together with sources and dates of the first publication, of the writings which form the basis of the preceding study: ]1., the writings included in the following collections: I.Wl \vritlngs Sl! Harte (tlRiverside Edltion"; Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1902); Storles and Poems and Other UncQllected .1nu arte cpmpiled Char .1es Meeker KQzlay Ladded volume XX of the Riyerslde EditioQ/(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1914); SketChes g..f. iba SUtles m: Harte lI.tld Matt %wajn (2d ed. ; San Francisco: John Howell , 1927; four selections reprinted by George R . Stewart, Jr. as "Some Bret Harte Satires," Frontier, XIII, 93-101 (January, 1933). The sole purpose for which this bibliography exists is to substantiate the dates assigned to quotations in the Lex1con . Full bibliographieal information concerning Harte's pub11cations may be found in the two pr1nc1pal b1b110graphies upon wh1ch the present listing 1s based: A Sl! 1bA rit1ngs of Harte in 1Ua Magazines Newspape;s g1 California, J.a2Z-J.aZl. ("Un1vers1ty of Ca11forn1a Publications in E ng11sh,tI vol. 3, No.3; Berkeley, 1933), by George R . Stewart, Jr. , and the part1ally ssembled manuscript 213

PAGE 219

214 ography compiled by Charles Meeker Kozlay, which is pre served in the Huntington Library" Also consulted "las 11W Ratte: .Bib1iographigal .a.wl BiogrAphical !la.t.a (The Californ1 Literary Research , SER Projeots 3-F2-197, Monograph No. 10, 1935 bnimeographe.d!>, edited by Joseph Gar. The latter contains a few items not found in the former works, but .its laek of comprehensiveness and .requent errors serl.ously impair its effectiveness. Since the date assigned to quotations in the Lexicon are given only in years, no attempt has been made in this listing to determine the actu.al order of appearance ot"simultaneous" releases where publication dates were in themselves inconclusive. In suoh c ses, both sources are listed. In addition, data concerning the first American public tion of each item initially published abroad has been given whenever pos sible. Roman and arabiC numerals follo dng titles to volume and page locations in the Edition. Titles taken from S,lsetcbee Q!. :tlui. 2d ad., and the Frontier, January, 193.3, are follol'1ed by the abbreviations SS and Fron , and arabiC numerals indicating p ge locations. Although titles are frequently shortened, the form followed is th t appearing in the collections above. Address (Opening of the Ca11f ornla Theatre t San FranCisco , January 19, 1870), XII, 244,. w.a. Ca11tQrn1a, 19 Jan. 1869.

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Daily E Yelling Bulletin (San Francisco), 19 Jan. 1869. Adventure of P adre Vicentl0, The; I, 417. 15 Apr . 186,_ 215 Adventures of John LongbowGt Yeoman, The, XVIII, 307, . Cosmo-pc11tan,. 1901. Atter the Accident, XII, 168", S _criJmer's, Jan • . 1873. Aged Stranger, The, XII, 27. Cal1t.qrn1an, 20 May 186,. Ali Baba of the Sierras, An, XVII, 329 . S aturSlsy; ..... Post, 4 ' Jan . 1902 . Alnescher, XII, 241 . galaXY, Feb . 1877. American Haroun An, XX, 171 . 1:tt F:r1end TramR, London, 187? Among the Books, .SS, 29 . Cal1tornlath 30 Sept. 1865 . Ana, the Time Thlefand a Fable, SS, 33. Ca11tornian, 4 Nov. 1865 . Ancestors of Peter Atherly, The, XVI, 1. 1.W1 jQcstQfS 2! Peter AtlHU:lx, ami Other hales, Leipzig, 1897. Tales g!. Ira1l an4 Boston, 1898 . Answering the Bell, XX, 334. Californian, 14 Oct. 1865 . Apostle of the Tules, An, IV t 306. Longman' May 1865 . Arcadia Revisited, XX, 312. Ca11r9rniau. 22 Jul, 1865. Arctic Vision, XII, 40 . 12e1ly Eyening laa.l1t1n (San Fran ci seo), 8 Apr . 1867 . Argonauts of North Liberty, The, XI, 152 . 1ba Week's (Allahabad), ? Jan . -11 Feb. 1888. !Wi .Q! North L1berty, London, Boston,

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216 Argument of Lurline,' The, XX, 321. Gglden m, 4 Nov. 1860. Artemis in Sierra, XII, 188. lllust;eted Lgngon Summer 1886. Harner's 19 Jun . 1886, AJ.ttemus Ward, XX, 126 , Golden 27 Dec. 1863 . Aspiring Miss De Laine" XI!., 219 . Golden ka, 28 Dec. 1862. At the Haoienda , XII, 97. QYAl!' lan(1, Sept. 1870 . At the Mission of San Carmel, III, 388. 31 Dec. , ? Jan. 1882 .. 83. At the Sepulchre, XX, 310 . Californiau. 15 Oct . 1864. Audiences, SS, 59. CQljtQrnlan, 5 Aug. 1865 . Av1tol', XII, 281 . lliuta Ltte r anQ Ca11fQtn1a AVeltiser (San Francisco), 26 Jan, 1867 . Babes in the oods, The, XII, 139 • . information. Baby Sylvester, II, 244 • ..:t.. N1QhQ1as, Jul, 1874. Bailie 0 ' Perth, The, XX, 296, Golden EtA, 12 Dec. 1858. Ballad of Mr, Cooke, The, XII, 210. Cal1fgmtaD, 11 Nov. 1865 • . Ballad of the Emeu, The,XII, Californian, 28 l-1ay 1864 .. Banks and the Slave Girl, XX, 348. Go14en 26 Oct .. 1862 . Barker's Luck, X, 401. Barkftrts ami Other Stor1es, Boston, 1896 " Battle Autumn, The, XX, 349 . Golden ru, 23 Nov. 1862. Batt,le Bunny, XII, 7. ,Golden W, 5 Oot . 1862. Before the Curtain, XII, 26710 .the. Ga11e9Jl, awl Ban Francisco, 1867 Belle of Cafiada City; A, XVIII, 24. !iAlL y.n, 31 Dec., 7 Jan. 1899-1900 . (h Jan. 1900 .

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Bell-Ringer of Angel's, The, VIII, 289. 25 Nov. 1893 . Bill son's Br de, XX, 383 . To information. 217 18, Birds ot Clrencester, The, XX, 417 . t , , Jan. 1898. Blo'1on the Cllff, A, SS, 41. CalifQ.lnian, 25 Nov. 1865. Blue Grass P nelo et A , IV, 126 • 29 Jun . , 6 Jul. 1884 . Longman's, Jul.Sept . 1884. Boggs on the Hors , XX, 12 . Golden m, 20 May 1860. Bohemian D ys in San Franc sea, XVIII, 134. aturday iYening 20, 27 Jan . 1900. Book for the T mes, A, SS, 73. Californian, 17 Sept. 1864. Boom n the uCalaveras Clarion," The, XVI, 161. Ainslie'a, Nov. 1898 . Boonder, XIV t 211. Qolgen W, 22 Feb, . 1863. Boyt Dog, A , XIV, 199. 30 Jul. 1864 Brown of Calaveras, I, 65 . Oyerland, r . 1870 . Buckeye Hollo Inher tance, A , XVIII, 193 . 1ielt X,Q.tk 21m, 14 Apr. 1901 . Bulger' Reput tion, X, 363. Strand, Feb . 1896 . , 16 Feb. By the Sad Sea Waves, XX, 303. 7 Oct . 1860. Cadet Gray, XII, No Information. Caldwell of Spr ngfi Id, XII, 31. Quarterly Elocutionist, Apr. 1 876 . Calltorn a Hom r, Fron, 95 . Letter Qa11f0tnia vert ar (San Franc sco), 23 Feb . 1867.

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California Madr gal, XII, 291 . Lattet and Califorala Adyertiear (San Francisco), 30 Mar, 1867. 218 Cal1forniats Greeting to S eward, XII, 25 . pa;Llv Eyening !h1l. .... latin ( San Francisco), 2 Jul. California to the Sanitary Commission, XX, 362. Delly n1n& nullet1n (San Francisco), 19 D c . 1863. Captain Jim" s Friend, V, 36'./Ii HetJ,tage , .o.t DedlQW Marsh, and Other Boston , 1889. Caseot Blasted Affections, A, XX, 68. GQlden la, 21 Oct. 1860. Cavalry Song, A, XX, 352. Q.oJAen , 18 Jan. 1863 .. Charitable R eminiseences, XIV, 237 ($r1g1ne l1rr titled uOn the Decay of Professional Begging," c.al1forn1an, 17 Jun. 186,. Charles Dickens, XX, 165_ Qv.;eriang, Jul. 1870. Chatelaine of Burnt Ridge, The, VII, 334. Elstor!,l Christmas 1889. Chicago, XX, 383. Eye:r:y Sa'tJu:gaYt .28 Oct . 1871 . Child' Ghost Story, A, XX" 33 . Qalden 12 Aug. 1860. Ch1qui ta, XI!, 1].5 . Oyerianq, Mar .. 1870. Christmas Gift th t Came to pert, The, I, 437. Qyerlang, Jan. 1871. Chu Chu, X, 306, Ille. S21 Angels, and Qthet S tQrlSHh Boston, 1894. C1cely, XII, 124 . OVetland, Oct . 1870 . Clarence, IX, 284 . . W.k &wl, 25 Nov.-20 Jan. 1894-95.

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Colen so Rhymes for Orthodox Children, XX, 327 Gol,den 14 1863 . Colonel Starpottl for t e Plaintiff, XVII, 230. HarTJI"s MQnthly, Mar. 1901. 219 , Colonel Starbottle' s Client, VII, Colona1 Starbottle' s Client, and Qthe: Pegp1e, Bo ton, 1892. Oompen ation, XX, 405. Iha .Eflttois Ii A.nnY.aJ., Complete Letter Writing, SSt 67. Californian, 19 Aug . 186, . Cone pCion de Arguello, XII, 76. AtlantiQ, May 1872. Confucius and the Chinese Classics, XX, 235. Hast ' s Illustrateg AlmanaQ, 1875. Bridge of Sighs, The, XX, 346. Da1ly Evening Bulletin (San FranCisco), 11 . 1862 . Conspiracy of frs . Bunker, The, VIII, 417 .lUulImQun, 7, 14, 21 Feb. 1892 • .th. . idler, Feb, Mar., Apr. 1892 . Cony lescene of Jaok Hamlin, The, XIX, 183. !.h!l Sphere, 29 Nov. 1902 . Convert of the Mission, A, l, 281. Pearson 'A, Jan. 1896. Copperhead, The, XII, 20 . Golden 29 Mar. 1863 Copperhe d C onvention, The, XX, 355. Daily Evening Bulletin (San FranCisco), 8 Jul. 1863 . Countess, T he, XXr 88. Gol,Qn Eta, 24 r . 1861 . Coyote, XII, 206 . Oyerlang, Jul. 1869. Cressy, VII, 1 . Maem111an's, Aug.-Dec. 1888. Crotalus, XII, 265. k1eekly, 15 Jan. 1887. Crusade of the Excels or, The, VI, 1 • . arper' s Weeklx, 8

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220 14 May 1887. Dan' l Borem, XVIII, 316 . Saturday Eyening 7 Dec, 1901 . De can Jones's Exper ence, XX, 385'. Deacoo Jones ' $ Experience (a chromolithograph, copyright 13 Apr.), 1874. De ad 011 ti can, The, ,401. }21ri t Q.f. .tb4 TiWHh 23 Mar. 1878. Desborough Connections, T e, XVI, 267. S ,7, 1 Aug. 1898 . l:Wl GraphiC, SUmIJer 1898 . Devil and the Broker, The, I, 425'. Ca1.1torn1on, 26 N ov . 1864. Devil's Ford, IV, 33;. ,20 r. y, 6, 13 Jun . 1886 . Devotion of Enriquez, The, X, 332. Cnturx, Nov. 1895' . Dick Boyle ' s Bus ne s Card, XIX, 231. !ell 14, 21 Jul. 1902 . Ib4 GraphiC, Summer 1902 . Dickens in Camp, XII, 209 . Qier1aud, Jul. " 1870 . DicIt Spindler' s Family Christm , rl, Yl.1ndsQr fagaz1n, Dec. 1898 . Dolores, lCnickerbQcke.r, Jan. 1858. Dolly Varden, XII, 2 6. Sacremento Unio.n, 14 Sept . 1872 . Don Diogo or the South, XII, 93. Times, 10 May 1874. Dow's Flat, XII, 118 . Oye:land, Jm. 1870. Drift from Redwood C mp, A, V, 3 2. Scribner's, Dec. 1887. Dwo11eron t e Threshold, The, I, 147. (originally titled " ,tt q,v.). Californian, 15' Jul. 1865 . Early Californian Superstitions, ,144. Californian, 2 Dec. 1865 . Effie, XX, 303 . Golden , 25 N ov . 1860 .

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221 Elise, 296 . Qy:su"J,ang, Sept. 1902. Enoch of Calaveras, The, XX, 40? Amel1can H\U!lQlllisu, Begent and Living, London?, 18971 Episode of Fiddletown, An., II, 121" @ctipne:' s, Aug., Sept • . 1873. Episode of West Woodlands, An, x, 166, Ihtt Grapn.c, Christmas 1893 . Esmeralda of Bocky Canon, .An, XVI, 108. lIetp@l'f . Dec. 1898 . Fable for the 1?imes, A, XX, 360. GQJ..diln m, 2 Aug. 1863. Facts Concerning sMa rschaum, XX, 37. GoldSln Eta, 9 Sept . 1860., Fantine, I, 136. Californian, 4 Nov .. Fate, XII , 213. Oyellan4, Nov. 1868. Few Operatic Criticisms, 5S, '5.CaJ,1f'Qrn1alh 13 r.1al" 1865. Few Words Abou.t Mr. Lowell, A, XX, 256. New RgIieW, S t. 1891. First Brcol!l T a, XX, 333. Ca11.tprni&n, 22 Oct . 1864. First Family of T . sajara, A, VIII, 1. Dec .. 1891. First Man, The, XX, 18lt'l Arg9naut (San FranCisco), 29 . Sept. 1877. Fixing Up an Old House, XX, 129 . Ca11fqrn1an, 16 Jul. 1864. Flag-Staff on Shackleford Island, The, XX, 367. Dally iven1nc Bqllst!n (S n FranCisco), 3 May 1864. Flip: A California R omance, III, 295. Berelg, 1, 8, 15, 22 " 29 Jul. 1882 . X:m ,2, 9, 16 Jul .. 1882 .

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222 Fog Bell, The, XX, 291. Ggldijn Eta, 27 Sept. 1857. Fool or Five Forks, The, II, 397. New I2.tk Tj,mes, 20 Sept . 1 Macmillan's, Oct . 1874. Found at Blazing Star, II t 348. Mar. , A r . 1882 . Mn, 5, 12 1882. n of Youth, The, XX, 283. Gqlden 26 Apr. 1857 . Four Guard ans of Lagrang , The, XV!I, 3404 hll 28 Apr . 1878. Free SilvaI' at Angel 's, XX, 409. Ltet London, 1898. riar Pedro ' d , XII, 98. PYE;!rland. Apr . 1869. From a B ok lr/indow , XIV, 2.27. Golden ka, 8 Mar. a Balcony, XIV, 214 . Californian, 16 Sapt . 1865. Furt er Language rom Truthful Jams t XII, 165 . OVerland, Jan . 1871. Gabr 1 Conroy, XIII, 1 . Ssr1bner ts, Nov .... Aug. 1875 ... 76. Gentleman of La orte, A , XX" 197 . Belgravia, Jul. 1880. 4 Jul. 1880. Geological gal, A, XII, 279. ang CallforniQ AQZ ltlsr (San Franc seo), 27 pre 1867. Ghost of the S err s, A, II, 432 . 3 Mar. 1878 . Ghosts of Stukeley Castle, The, XI, 289. Colonel StarbQttle' s C1lant, Pe2Dle, Boston, 1892 . Ghost that Jim Saw, T e, XII, 170. 21 Feb . 1874 . Goddess, T e, XII, 1 , 8 Nov. 1862 .

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223 Codd •• of the, XfIII. 232. Ibt Strand. Feb. 9 1 • .lSll1ID:." l1li ..... , CQlmln1pn, Ita • 1901. Golly and the Chl' .tiant XVIII, 290. Qp''OOII01''''h Oct. r fentevden, XII, 21'+. ',1IQt1c, Jan. 18724 Gr.at DeadV&od _stIlT, The, III. 26;. AgriWIC". Peo., 1878 Gre t Patent Ott10, 1 'il' , the, XX, 237 Ia lArk iLIa 2 Oct. 1877 . Greypol't Legend, A. XII, 19, Sept. 1871. Or1SilY XII, 20lt . Qltl1ansl, Sept 1869. Guild S1enal, XlI, a17. lid %gB t;t;wn •• Apr. 187'+ Q,q H a"l1etone, I, 122 C,lttAm"ID, 28 Oot. 186,. Half an BoU1' tor. Supper, XII, 25). ,,1eptISh S pt 187 Handsome Ie .8 s.nd"l!l. Doe , It 161. Condln,I,d NOy.l" Boaton, 1871. Ha.ta M$!tana, xx, Og'1QOP1.1tan • . .lUI; 1897. Heunted 11, Tb , I, 188. Cj11toZD11D, 30 Decit 186,. Hawk's Nestt !he. Xtt, 'A1,CACO &t _ 1811. Heire. or aed no" An, II, 280. m1, 8 Dec' , 1878. Veler.y1" Jtn. HaIr ot the Mcftullsbes, T1utt lIt 323 Qen_U .gl.lG1; Oct. 1893. HU! tal 'of lJe410 . . rah th.. t 397 . a .IIk.,.. 29 Jun . 1889. S1ul Graphlo, SUlDIIIeft 1889 • . Her Letter, XII, 157. Qy,r.en4. Dee. 1869. H1gh.Water Mark, I, 322 Ggldon , 6 Jan. 1861 Hi AnSWfJl' to "Her z.. tel'," XII, 160. 1870.

PAGE 229

224 His Wife's Slster, XX, 58. G91den lta, 14 Oct. 1860 . Home-Coming of Jim Wilkes, The, . X, 1 9 7 . A Prot.e'g e .Q.! lW Hamlint, and Other Stprie, Boston, 1894. Hoodlum Band, The, It 213. QQgey' Jan. 1878. How ra You, Sanitary? XII, , . pa1ly (San Francisco), 9 Dec. 1863. How I Went to the Mines, XVIII, 251 . Black and White, Christ mas 1899 . How Reuben Allen 'Saw Life" in San Francisco, XVIII, 114. Frank kAsl1e's Popula. ontbly, May 1900. How Santa Claus Came to Simpson's Bar, II, 66. AtlantlQ, Mar, 1872 . Idyl of Battle Hollow, The, XII, 29 . AtlantiC, Apr. 1872. Idyl of Red Gu1ch,The, I, 5'3. Overland, Dec, 1869. Idyl of the Road, An, XXI, 149. Mar. 1877 . !:!iUi xm .aun, 29 Apr. 1877. Iliad of Sandy Bar, The, II, 1. OVerland, Nov. 1870. Important l-{exlcan Correspondence. , XX, 315 . Californian, 23 Sept. 186, (rejected by Stewart). Improved Aesop, The, XX, 232 . &uta Letter Jam! Cal1fomia Adyert1er (San Francisco), 2 Feb . 1867 . In a Hollow of the Hills, X, 1 . !ell IQJ:k fum, 11, 18, 25' Aug., 1, 8 , 15, 22, 29 Sept. 1895 . In a Pionee' l' Restaurant, VII, 454. Black and White , Christ .. mas 1891 . In Memoriam, XX, 377 . Ca11:Cg:nia ,n, 20 May 1865.

PAGE 230

225 In the Carqu1nez Wood , IV, 1. !l.w! IQxk. , 1, 8, 15, 22, 30 Jul. , ,. Aug. 1883 . Ieongman' Jul.Oct . 1883. In th Country, SS, 19. Ca11tgrnian, 15 Jul. 1865 . In the Mission Garden, XII, 104. WeeklY, 15 Apr. 1871. In the Tu1 s, X, 378 . S ,15 Dec. Strand, D o . 1895 . In the Tunnel, XII, 122 . Oyerlang, r. 1869. Indiscretion of Elsbetb, The, XI, 425. Ladiea' Journal, Aug. 1896. Ingenue of the Sierras, An, IX, 453 • . 7 y Idler, Jun . 1893 . Jack and Jill of the Sierras, A, XVIII, 65. Christmas 1899 . Jack of the Me , XII, 192. HarpfJr ' a l'/eekl,y, 10 Jul. 1886 . Jeff Briggs' s Love Story, III, 183 . New York Sun, 4, 11 Jan. 1880 . Jersey Centenarian, A, XI, 63. Talea Q! 1ha Other Stetches, Boston, 1875 . Jessie, XX, 293. Golden Era, 11 Oct . 1857 . Jim, XII, 112 . Overland, Feb . 1870 . Jimmy1s Big Brother from Cali ornia,. XVII, 104. The Attand, r r . 1900 . J1nny, II, 351 . ,24 Feb . 1878 . John Burns of Gettysburg, XII, 1 . Californian, 9 Jul. 1864 . John Chinaman, XIV, 220. Golden Eta, 5' Apr. 1863 .

PAGE 231

John Jenkins, I, 130. Ca11tornitm, 1 Jul. 1865. Johnny y, XIV, 318. fuUl 1 Jul .. 1894" 226 Johnson's HOld oman,tJ VII, 472 . 22 Nov. 1891. Judgment of Bolinas Plain, The, XV, 262. f.aJJ. Mall, J n ... 1895. Kitty Hawk, XX, 397. , 1iru: T1mea, 1 Jan, 1878. of the Foot.Hills, At V, 52. __ DedlQw 1 , .awl Boston , 1889. "La Femme,tl After the French of • 41chelet, I, 142. Golden ,1 Sept. 1862. Lament of the Ballad-riter, The, XX, 378. Ca11fornian, 7 Oct. 1865 . Landlord of the Big Flume atel, The, XVII, 263. IJ,lustrateg London Ne,\1S, 23, 30 Nov, 1901, Collier's Wee1tly, 21 Dec. 1901. Lanty Foster s l.f1stake, XVII, 310. lliu! Englarui agazine, Dec . 1901 . Latest ChlneseOutrage, The, XII, 142<1 Spirit g! 2 F eb . 1878. Lay of the Launch, A, XX, 364. Ca11fQcnian, 19 N ov . 1864. Left Out on Lone Star Mountain, IV, 192 . NAY. IW.lm, 23 Dec. 1883 . Legend of Cologne, A, XII, 225. Scribner's, Mar. 1879. 1!aJ.grayifh Mar . 1879 . Legend of Devil's Paint, The, I, 408. CelitQrnien, 25 Jun . 1864 .

PAGE 232

227 Legend or Glen ead, The, XX, 395. SCt1bnerts, Nov. 1877. Legend of 140nte del Diablo, The, I, 382. Ajj1iiUtic, Oct . 1863. Legend of ammtstadt, A, XI , 392. N ,22 Dec. 1878. Legends of the ine, The, XII, 294 • 29 Apr . 1866 . Les ons from the Earthquake, XX, 162. Overland, Nov. 1868 . Lethe, XX, 299. Go1slen Er.,a, 1 Jul. 1860. L berty Jone ' s D cove y, XV, 362, 9 Jul. 1899. Lines to a Portrait, by a Superior Person, XX, 415. Century Nov. 1897 . Lines rttten in a PrayerBook, XX, 280. GolClen m, 22 Mar. Lonely Ride, A, I, 332. Eta, 4 Jan. 1863. Lone XII, 240 . Daily Evening Bull tin (Ssn Fran C sco), 19 Feb . 1868. Longfellow , XX, 249, Worgs, Jul. 1882. Lost Galleon, The, XII, 106 . Daily iveniue ( Ssn Francisco), 6 Jun . 1867 . Lost H e re s, The, XX, 83. Golden 24 Feb . 1861. Lost Tails of M latus, The, XII, 287. Cal1tgrn1an, 2 Jun . 1866. Lotha't>l, I, 178. Exery aturslal, 6 May 18 ?1. Love and hyslc, XX, 281. Golden ,12 Apr. 1857 . Luck of RoarIng Camp, T e, I, 1 . OVGcland, Aug. 1868 . Luke, XII , 134. Scribner's, Dec. 1873. Madame Br mborion, , 80 . GolClen 3 F b. 1861 .

PAGE 233

Mad River, XX, 319. Golden m, 26 Jul. 1857. Medrono, XII, 205. Feb . 1869. 228 Maecena of the Pacifi Slop, A, VII, 365. The HerltagQ Qt Deg10w ltarsh, La pzig, 1890 . SgpphQ Q! Spt1nu. , Other :a:,SM,l' Bo ton 7 1891. J.fan and the 110unt ins e, XVI, 252. 29 Jul. 1898. J.fan at the Semaphore, The, XVI, 124 . H.IDl 5 Sept. 1897 . Sept. 1897. Man from Solano, The, II, 423. , 18 Feb,. 1877. mn of No Account, The, I, 339. Goldgn E ,7 Oct. 1860. Man on the Base, The, II, 298 , . He.li XQ.r.t 2:lm, 3, 10 Feb. 1878 . Man ose Yoke Wa Not Easy, Tha , XI, 119 . !!wi Y .:\;m, 1 Apr. 187? I1aruj ; V, 1.. .........-c.a-_ eAklY, 13, 20, 27 Jun., 11 Jul. 1885 . Mary .lcGil1up, I , 204. C , 7 Oat. 1865 . Mary's 1bum, xx, 306 , Cali!ornian, A r . 1880 . Master J hnnyl ext-Door Neighbor, XII, 298 . Timea, 25 Nov. 1877 . M , SS, 49 (also titled "The Dl1eller of the Threshold," q.v.). Cal.if'Qtn1an, 15 Jul. 1865 . Melon, XIV, 187 . 5 Oct . 1862 . Mercury of the Foot.Hi1Is, A " XVII, 202" Illustrate'Q. London 8, 15 Jun. 1901 . COSDlQDol:LtM, Jul. 1901 . l1ermaid of Lighthouse Point, The, XVII , 164 . 11lnstrated 1&n -

PAGE 234

don News, i, Sept . 1900 . Saturday Fyening 22 S pt. 1900 . Midast ooing, XX, 30 • GQlden 26 Aug. 1860. Midsummer, XX, 337. Ca11fQI'nian, 21 Jul. 1866. I, 27. Oyrland, Jun. 1869 . 229 JUll10na re of Roughand-Ready, A, V, 2,0. Illystratad London Christmas 1886. , racle of Padre Junipero, The, XII 67. Evening latin (San Francl co), 16 Jan . 1865. Miss Blanche Says, XII, 36. An FpisQde g,t Fiddletown , a,n.g Skg tahs s, London, 1873 . Miss Edith Helps Things Along, XX, 399 . h Independent. 21 Mar. 1878 . Miss Edith Me as Another Friend, XII, 306. Oct . 1878. Miss Edith Makes It Pleasant for Brother J ok, XII, 304. Sscrjbner'a , Sept. 1878. Mi s Fdith's d st R quest, XII, 301 . T lndependent, 2 Jan. 1878, . M s10n Bells of Monterey, The, XII, 26 • s Later London , 1898. ssion Dol ora s, The, XIV, 208 II GQl.dm m, 22 }. r. 1863 . Miss Mix, I, 03. Californian, 9 Dec. 1865 . Peggy's Protdge , XVIII, 219 . Black White, Christ mas 1901 . '11ss: An Idyl of Red (long ver on), I, 234 . Gol den

PAGE 235

20 Sept.-20 Dect. (no installlllent$ on 22, 29 Nov"" 6 t>ac 1863 . , I Mont. Flat Pastoral, A, II. 224. , Jan. 18?'4-. Moral Vindicator, A, XII, 289. ana" lu1, PQlma, Bos ... ton. 1871. 230 Morn1ng on tha Avenue s. Xl1 9G). 1iell ml, 1+ Mer II: 1677 Motbft:r of Five, At XIV t 290 .... !u.lQIl Aiat 23 'eb • . MountaIn Heart's-if;lS , 'The J XU, 202" OYV1apd, Nov. 1869., Mr. Bil'son. $ H'ousekeeps 1l-. XVIi, k*; Ida " 19 Aug . 1899 Hf. Hatn11n', XV. 306. banls . Lt.1S," amJelal. Jan." Feb. t , Mat. 1$99. Hzi'. Ka-eGl.-DWJ!'let s Wi ow XIX, t:;7. 1902" Nt. Midshipman Bl'ee=y, I. 113. g,,'tgrniaQ, . 2S Nov .. 1865. Hl's. Judge Jenkins, XII, .bu Iet ttl; .w. C,liCAID'. AAutl.or
PAGE 236

231 My Other-8e].t, XXt 44 Golden W, 30 Sept 1860 My Soul XX" 304., epWen kat 1.7 1861. Mystery of the _elends. The, X, 126. fJiU !SIU, D$c . 1893. My Subul'ban Residenctl, XIV, 258. galltQrn.1au, 16 un. 1866 N ighborhoods I Have Mo\fed ftom, . lV. 21tS., 9,litpm!ln, 26 Mayl 4, 11 Jun 1864 . New Assistant at P1:Q$ Clearlng Sohool. The t VIIlt 23"*" ... d Whtta, 9 if 1891, New CaUfornia Bot>k, At SSt 66. gal!tornJ.IU1, 23 Pee. Newport Romance, A, lI,. 191 . Atl,ontl, O(jt. 187l. ieee or an pshot Har:ryt s, At XVII. l . ll1I. ' 'i:,pWo, 10, 17 t 2lt .Mar,i; 1900" Night at "Hays, ' " A, VIII, 209 . • maok and 31 Gat. 1891. 19ht at Wingw.m, A, 1, 374. GQ14tm ka, 18 Nov. 1860., . 19l'lt on the. Divide. At XV t 286. Qrab!;. Christmas 1896 . N!nety.NinQ Guardsmen, The. I. 9$. Qi11to;n.an. 29 Jul. 1865. NN. Beipg a Novel in tbe frencb Parall'aph1C Style. 1,3. Qal1fotnl1n, 9 Spt, 186; . North Be Ch) XII, .286. 2111tun:tan, 11 S pt . • 3.86lt. Note by Flood and laId, I. 34,. 9A14ea It&t 7, 14 Sept. 1862. 50 Titl' t I. 1 . 58. 23 ,Jun. 1866. Oft ScarboroUgh, XII, 4,. ,Q Aug 1878. IQ:Jr. 21 Jul. 1878. or One WhO FeU in Battle, XX, 369. 3 Junlt 18-64. (re' jacte-d by stewart).

PAGE 237

232 Ot William Francls a rtlett, XX, 388. Scribner's, Mar. 1877. Ottic .. 8 ekea-, Tb$,. Xl, 127 . &ut iwl" 22 Jul. 1877. Ogress of 811 et Land, The, I, 430. C,11tQtn1oij, 13 Aug. 1864. Old Camp-Fire, fhe, XII t 2'57. fall. &ll, 3"u1. 1893 . Old Major Explains, The, XII; 23. I1a GQJ,;en Q1n, 21 Y 1871. Old Time and New, XX, 403. .u. Ifaga;1ne, Apr. 1819. On a Cone o ' t the Big Tree s, XII 238. polly E!ening Itul-1" tIQ (San Franc1 seo), 11 r. 1868. On 8 Great Public Instltution, SS, 5. Cq',tQtn1@n, 17 S pt 1864 . On a NaughtY' Little Boy, Sleeping, XX, 309. Cel1torl.l1eu, 17 S.pt. 1864 . On an Extinct Public Institution, S S , lOt Calltom1an, 1 Oct. 1864. On a Pen of Thomas Starr King, XII, '16. CalS,fQrniaD, 1 Ju1" 1865 . On Pretty Glrl at the Opera, XX, 134. Cg1.1totn1ag, S Nov. 1864. On a Vulgar Little Boy, XIV " 224 . QQ;x.itsmiIQ, 15 Oct. 1864. On the D CQ1 of P?otesslonal B4gging, SS, 14 (also titled ACharltable Remin1 eenc s, q,v.). Californian, 17 Jun. 186;, On the L nd1ng, XII, 311. J.,O Feb. 1878. On the S agaei y of the ewtoundland, XX, 81 Colltotn4an,

PAGE 238

Our Foreign Correspondence, Fron, 99 E!IU. a.m\ C 1t9m1g (San Fl'anc1 22 Jun Our Last Otferin , XX, Cgl1torn1an, 22 186$. 233 Our t • XX, 406. lba. writ 1,Sh 29 Aug .. ? / 30 Aug .. ? 188 .. Our Pri flege, XII, 12 . 00l.4.; ,28 1862 . Our Tr vellng Correspondent, Fron, 100. l!e:u. lcItte: iW1 Ca11:QWa (San Franci 00), 13 Jul .. 1867. Outcasts of Poker Flat, The, It 14 . QYe;:lang, .Tan. 1869. Out of a Pioneer's Trunk, 1bl trlng, Jun. 1891. Passage in the Lite of Mr. John Oakhurst, A) II, 171 . T.mes, 28 Sun. 1874 . Pa sing of BfU"iqu .It Th , XVIt 71+ gtnturx MQil;inl , Jun , 1898. PenGlope, XII, 127. OV't1.81lsl, Aug . 1870. of the orthW to Carlyle, XX, 361. DalIx
PAGE 239

234 Poem Deliv red at the P triot1e ExeX-e1sEJ in'the Metro ... pol tan The bet San hEll1e1sQo, lu.ly 4 .. l863t XX, 328", Q2l,gfJB " Jl1l . 1863 , Deliver d on th Fourteenth Ca11forn1 • Adm ss10n into th Un'1ont XlI, 33. Delli iXentnl ijpiJ,s'tn (San renel seo), 9 Se, t. 1 '964. Po m D ,livered on the Ooe ,ion or the Lay ng of' the OornerStone ot th California Deat t numb, nd Blln Asylum, XX" 339 . Dolly EVanlng Bulletin (S n anoi eo' Sept. Poet of Flat, The, 38. AtlInt1g, Jul. 1871. P01\1 Xpress, '.'thel XX" 320. GQ14eJ1 ilAt 1 Jul. 1860. PQPUlar Biographies, xx, 1,0, Cal1tom1an, 12 May 1866. P"onal '" s Cross, XX, 340. QUrUan!l, Aug 1869 Po of L vel Bun, !he, VIII, 188. fhi Strand, Se t . 1891. PrinCess Bob end Ret Fr1 ndst !be, ,1, 5'1 .. Atl;Qnt1g" Dee. 18?1 Private' Honor, A, XV!I t 338, . No infortn tion. Pr1zS'-F!ghter to Hts M stt'e $, Tb6. XX, 305'. QoJAAA U Oot. 1863. Prosper'
PAGE 240

Other Storiest Boston, 19 3. Qu of the Pir te Isle, The t XIV, 269 &. QIlgen Ql. ihA 1886; Boston, 1887. QUeen s D ath,. The, XX, 424. Oct. 1902 .. Question, XX, 297. Golden Eta, 17 J n. 1860. Question of PrIvilege, A" XI!, 17 .. SQl1bner' Ai, Feb. lB9'. Railway Reading, SS, 7;. 9 J n. 1866 Ran '\ ay t XX. 72. Gglden t 4 Nov. 1860. Ramon, X I, 9 • ....... Oct. 18'7'+. Reformation of J m s ddy, The, X:; SerUmal s, May 19. 235 Reinc rnlltion of mit, The, XVI!, 282. lllI.. Gr;mh1Q, Summer 1901. Rejected Stockholder, Th , XX, 3 7. Daily .. (6 n Francisco)} ' 20 Jan. 186 • Rt)11ev ng Gua d, XII, 13. D EYSU11ng Bulleetln (San Francisco), r. 1864. R.tir ng trom BuSiness, XX, 188 . 4111. ArgQpaui (San Francisco), 20 Jul. 1878. Return of the Delisarius, The, XII, 163. Oy,rlanQ, Reveille, The, XI!, 10. Liying ,21 Feb. 1862. R1ght BY. ot the Commander, The, I, 398. Da11X let1n (San rancisco), 1 D c . 1867. Ritualist, Th , XII, 288. LGttAJ Ca11tQru1a AYeEt1ser (San Frane1soo), 2 Feb. 1861. Roger Friend, II, 33,. T1rue, 22 Dec.

PAGE 241

236 1817. lOJn$noe , ot th$ tine, a, XVIti. 168, t!ltU-t",ai Jul. ROJnanee ot Madroft'o Hollow. The. II,2\+-. AtlAntip, Sept. 1811 ... Ros" ot Glenbcg1e, XI, 299. lIax IQK m)., '27 MaY' 1894", 11J,a;&lJirlted LQnAsta lui. Summer Rose ot 1'uolu.nm:e r !he, II 197 Ruin, ot sm Frsnc!.s;o, Thet XlV" a6lt-QAlltQtAillD, 1; pl' 186,. Rupert the litssmbler. XVIII, , 263. 11I1Ung , Apr. 1902., Sab.bath EUJU" 'lbt" XX. 314. Q.l&go='mh , 1 1865. St. Patr1ckts Day at Slumgull10n Center, Fron. 96 Ilia aD4 (San Franctsco) , 23 Mar. St. Whomesl XlI, '+3, D,1;s.v IUn'nc, bllattG (Ban Francisoo), 2; Apr.. l863_ St. ialentins in CeJIU), XX, 12all. beo,nsDll1.1c$1n (S$1l 1 Har 186,. Sally PoW$, Vtll, 326. InAila. lUp,at'Ite4 _IUina, Dct.len. 1893-94 SalQtJJY' lalla $: lias, XV, 238 .. ,1Ilrl. aat 29 May 18 , 98., 0,:U1[,11 t _{h Jun \l 1898. San Francisco, XII. 200. Q.J"l'A. Jul. 1868. San1te17 A, XII, 21. DIll]: bmSol ia11t;1A (San Franc! seo ) , 17 Dec. 1864!'

PAGE 242

Sappho of Bl'een Springs, A 403 .. iJ,ppingQtt' y s 11 b Walker. XIV t ,3-oo!l 16 Nov 1881+. ltin&-manta, Seb lkl xx, 35'6. GoWen ba, 19 Jul. 863" SehellmleU'ennig, xx, 372. alttom1AA, 1 .pI'", 1865. Se!)tch tins to A,S .-; 8 . • , • xx. ... UIZRILZ' ' . 1(on'll1l, oct. 1902. Sec.ond RentS'll of Grand A-rt:IJY, A, XlI, 1'7. StAl1t:0W.Jh 24 1865. S eret of Sohrlentet 8 Well, !h . J xvt. 182, 41o.l11,t.3, Feb 1899. See-t-et 0Teieg;t'aph , IV. 417", tUJltNat14 I,stnqQ!l eva, SUJnJnel' 1889. s. Yup" XVI, 11+4 .. Qalv •• ' 't Jan. 1 . 898. 237 Se etng the Ste mer Qft, XlV t 243. QD.lJ.toru1aP. 21 Oct. 186,_ S.llna It 0tW."firD : PD. 12 A.ug. 1865'. Sa_es, xx, 350. Gol.d@D iU, 11 Jan. 1863. Serenade, XX, 304, 1iGXA ... etta awl AtiVo,tt' (San "'enei eo)" 14 Au,g. 1869 , . Bev4nty.Nip.e:, XII, 172. bI.i igam" Boston, 1871. Sheaf Of Crlt1QisDl, A, SSt 9 ,". Cal.1tc:u:nlaQt 23 DsQ.. 186,. Shel:"1tt or S Skyon, fhe, VI1I. 1+60. liix lin, u,. 18 Feb. Ship of -"'9, A, XV, .2tj, Inel.lsb WUitrajtCe Mig@zil1t, Mar., pl'., May 1.885'l l!P IQ:lt lw., 22 Feb., 1, 18 r. 1885"

PAGE 243

238 Ships, XX, 111. GQ1den Eta. 25 Nov. 1860. S1dewalk1ngs, XIV, 231. 24 Jun. 1865. Sleeping-Car Experience, A, XI, ill. New Y...ru:k .fum, 18 Mar. 1877. Snow-Bound at Eagle's, V, 29 Nov., 6, 13. 20 Dec. 1885. Pictorial W9r1;, Christmas 1885. Society upon the Stanislaus, The, XI!, 132. Lettet And Qal1to;tnia A1lYert1ser (San Francisco), 26 Sept. 1868, "-Song ot the tlCamanche,n XX, 363. Dlv EVening 1&11etin (San Francisco), 16 Jan. 1864. Songs W1tho t Sense, XII, 296. Letter AD4 Aqyert1scr (San Franeiscp), 6 Apr. 1867. South Park, XX, 331. Ca1ltorn1.n, 24 Sept. 1864, Spelling Be1l at Angels, The, Xli. 183. Nov. 1878. Stage-Coach Conversat1pns, XX, 1". Calitornian, 26 May Stage Driver's sto .ry, The, XII, 17, .. N . L.t,su: AW1 torn!, Advtrt1,sor (San Francisco). 11 Apr Station-Master ot Lone Prairie, The, XII, 261. NAw Reyiew, D$C 1889 !U. I2:k 1 . • 1889 . • Stolen Cigar Case, The, XVlllf 279, Saturday EYeninK 24 Nov .. 1900 .. Pear:mnts Magazine, Dec . _ 1900. Stories tor Little Girls, XX, . 103 . • Californian, 20 May 186,. Stories Three, XVIII, 333. SAturday henlng E.sa1, 30 Jun., 7, 14 JUl . • 1900. Story of 8 Mine, Thet tIl, 1 _., Ilut ,,tOll gt A.M1nI., Leipzig,

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239 1877; 'Bo13ton, 1878. StOPj1' of th$ Revolution, XX, 23. 3ul. 1860. Strang ot Alkali D1 k,The, XVI, 338. Jul. 1897 . 1IAK :grt.ml" 2$ Jul. 1897. Student's 286. CQ1dmEta.,'? tJun.18,? Surprising AdventurEJ$ of star Summerton, XlV, 203 • .Q.al ... it2.lA1a;. 2 Sept . 186', 4 Susy = A ,or the Plain.s, , IX., 121" XQ.:k,thm, ?, 11+ , 21, 28 Aug., 4, 18, sGpt 1892. Sword of Don :tosf!, Tn , XX,. 4.2 f., trink Lg.sl;J.t':I Powlar l-lQnttux, JuJ. • 1902 .. fa!ltngs, Second Nc.tieEJ, xxt . 89. !e DeCt-186;. Tale of' a Pony, !he, XII, 234. CAl14Q:tnihln, 3 Jun Itl65' . fale or Truants, A., XVI, 239 . Ciqlden fjonv, 3 ..-10 Jul. 1897. 'relemaehus V-E!r$1ls Mentor, XII. 248. .:sm. 19 May 1878 . a Jun. s Partner, I, 41 . O:v _ t Oat. 1869. Terence Denv111e, I, 197.. 8 Jul. 186,. Thankful Romanoe of the ltrs 1's, xt, 1 . IU IQU 3, 10 , l?, Dew 1876. Thanksgiving R trospsct, ,"J, XX, 3?9PA11A2rnfan , 9 Dec.. 186, . That , brew Jew, XX" 39:! • .Hl. ftienfi b. 1); omu, tendon, 1871. Their Ullc-le trom C 11tol'ni t XI, 2;9. Ulustrat. 9 London _ _ , Christmas 1891. I i

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fhol!lPson ot Angels, XII, 1,2. 10. lQ:lr. Q3m, 25 Mar 1877 baf Mar. 1877 .. thought.R e4er of Ang 1_, Tht, XII, 180 UACQI1'. IttklX , 2; Dec. 1886. 240 Three P rtnerSt XV, 1. %AI. UOtWIst, 2 Jen. 27 Mar. 1891. , IRa 4 pr •• 1,3 Jun. 1897, 1111'8e Vagabonds of fr1nl ad, XVII, 186 .. QG11!I';;: w.. .. lily, 6 Oct. 1900. Through the Sent. Olara Wheat, VIt 3'+1. , a'PRAA QL Q"en BprtDll. IWl Q;th.r R:u1 Boston, 1891. !o 8 ... B1rdt XII, 207 ,QY.I1.OUQ, 1868. 1'0 the PitMan:e Skull, XII, 268. 9'11'QfOtOXh a8 Jul. 1866. Tour1 t fro lnJlamry. A. n. 385. ' Isu$..lm 29 Sept. 1818. hlsfat11t Oct. 1878. Transcendental Valantin , A. XX, 304, No 1ntoration. 1'ransfOfIDa tlon of Buck ye a mp t me, v III, 267" 11m • .•••• t 2 Jul. 1892. treasure t the Galleon, ., VIII. 260. Qg.an,l,St,rbgttl,'s Cl,W. AD4 D..oat 2tbR Elople, Boston, 1892. 'IrealUre ot the Redwoods, A. XVIII. 1.' lY.DSPI fAU.. 8t 15 Jul.. 1899. Trea$U1'el' A.-y, :xx. 326. Gal,elm. ' 8 Mal' 3;863. trent" it bust, XIX, 1. 9mtuu Mac.awe, Sept.t oct., Nov. . . 1901. Truthtul James and the Klondlker, XX, 420. IJ.lUstrl$cui . IQQdQ,Q lui, Chl-istmas 1898.

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Truthtul Jam •• to the Editor, XII, 146 . • 1873 . byat1ng. XX, 290. gp.dlD kit 28 Jun. , 185'7. Twent,. Y ar , XII, 2;U . Qy'rllnA , reb. 1869. 241 TWine ot Table Mount&11l, The, III, 123 . la.tk 17. 24 Aug. 1879 . 'Two Am 1'1cana. xvt, 303,,. XaK lm.. 8 t 15 Aug. 1897. N IPhl0, Summer 1897. 1'lm . . n of Sandy Bar. XXl, 317.:.. . Si1t iMZ •• lk>$ton, 1876. Two Sainte ot the 'oot .. H111st II. ser1lm.,' I, .Apr. 18?8 Two Ship. The. XII, 243. Qgld'n itA. 18 Oot. 863" Uncle Jim and Unol 81117. XV, 202 . xm '. 12 Dec. 1897 . ,Uuat;at,a kgp4QQ ' . Obr1sttna. 189'7. Uncle ,Tub, xx. 422. No information Under gaveSt XVIII, 91. iXlClng fRIi. 30 s p • 1899. Under tbe Clnn ; XX. 404. B.le1:018, Jul. 1879. Xsu:k 2:wa , .) Au!h 1879 . Und r tba Wa.ther, SS, 6 .... QI.',om1rm, 22 Jul .. 186$. Unser Karl, XVI, 361 IQIk l.lA, 21 Nov 1897 .. Ch1'l tma., 1897. Valent1nt t The, XX, 219.. GQJ.,q.p m" 1 Mar. 18 57 " Vendue of Jefferson Davis, '!Chet XX, 373. ((:a;l.1, tOrp,1an., 1, Apr .. 1865 .

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VUw t om • Gtrutan Sp1on, XI . 412. liD 1m &a. 25 May 1879 • . Jun. 1879. 242 Vi,ion ot the Fountatn, A, XVIII, 116., WIt ,$hi. ij;'WCoods, Boston. 1901. Volunte :er stoOklngl A, XX, 3'*5" fioUln; ka.ao Jul. 1.862. Wait or the Pleins, A, IX, 1. A lia1t Qt 1Wl P1l10.1 ltoston, 1890. Wafting t'Or the SMp" 11 371 .. kt11tunla'h 19 Nov. 1864 . Wanderings of Ulys ••. , The, XX, 390. li.U X. lm, 24 Jun 1871. Wan tee, the Pagan. It, 26a . 10;1.',' .,S.pt .. 187'+.# V.nted..-. Pl'l.nter, XX. US. .A11tgjrnl,11h 19 Oct . 18;9. Ward of Colone:'l Stelibottl . , 8, At XIX, 121. Hal).r': I Dec. 1901 Ward of the ,Go1ct.n Gate, A. llI. ll,1UJliiD$'Q .LAndon lWfJ" Summer 1890. VaShlngton, xx., 120. QgW'D kI. 21+ Feb. 186. W •• New Je:rsey, XX, 21; • .til U4d.,1iQlfD, JUUl , Ptbtlt IU$gQI't London, 1873. What !ret Barte Saw, XX, Au 1.041 At l4AdlttolGh ani 0"1% '1$ltqbg" London, 1873. What &ppened at the .Fonela, XVII. ,0., Atalr".X lX'oWS Esa1, 12; 19 1899. What Mt s Edith Saw from Her W1ndolt, XII, 308 .. iDULatl1: Y,:s"s, London , . l898.

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243 What the . Ust Sane, XII. a,6 . IQ.It ;a, 9 Oct. 1898 What the Sang. , XII, 208 . lAlla Q,tk li2l Leipzig. 1874. EphQtUf' Qt laI. lU,1.BiJ.ls, Boston, 18 7 5'. What the Engines Sa1-dt XII. 292. , Qx.J'lgQd, .runt: 1869. \ftu.lt the W()lt lly Sald to Lf. tle B d Rid!ng-Rood, XII, 2$2 gil.a kat l?eb. 1861. ' " When Wa't:ers e1'e Up t "Iu.l.'s' . ' . lVI, 199. wagO., .... . ilL"!" g .pt. 1898 A!n14'.', "go;1n" Sept. 1898. WhO Was-My Quist hi nd? II, 37; l!a .Wb 9 Sept. 1877., Widow 01, the;, S t Ana V 11." A, xvtI, Zb.t etrOnQ y 1900 . iYOQSnsEQs$, 23 Jun. 1900 W1Uowa, The, XIX, 283. QalrtlQl:D'mh 1 Oct. 1864. Wi h the Entr-ees. Xl. ltt2. lWl Ismk.l;lA, 13 Jan. 1878. Wand'rful Spring of $an Joaqutn. The XII, '/0. Qylz;l,an4, ug. 1868. Wr tb of MoDsVldl • Thet XX, 3;3. QQ.J.4tn kat 25' Jan. 1863. W"..,cke:t, Thet XX, 301 . DolUS Iu. 9 6 pt 1860" t 110w Do, A. X. 1+)6, liuL 1QU ilmt 23 Jun. 1895 . Yerba Buena, ftle. XX, 32,. SiPlt4ep ba, '5 Apr. 1863. Young ohin Gray, XI,. 364 . 1iIx 11m, 29 Jen •• , 4 Feb. 18
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244 , ".,-s,d.i'ft the h'obl •• ota., W1ClUt
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BIBLIOGRAPHY Bentley,. Harold W . , A .2!f;pani SA Ierm 111 k -11m, .iUh Snc1g l Refer'encs 1Q. American SQuthn.a:t... Columbia University Studies in English and Comparative Literature. Ne. w York: Columbia Uni versity Press,. 1932 . , Bradley,. F . W . "A \'iord -tfst from South Carolina," J,1catf'.QUs Q.f. Amer1.gan DiAlect SOCiErtI:, No. 14 (November, -1950), pp .. 3 .... '73. , Brooks, Van Wyok. lime s Q!. Melyille lW.Sl Whitman., L New York!: E. Pel Dutton and Co . • , Inc." 1947 . Craigie,. Slr William J.f., . and Hulbert.) James. A Dis;t;f.onary Q( Amiltfean ing1fsb sm l!iatQtiqal Principles 4 . vols .. Chicago; University of Chicago Press. 1938-1944. Embers-on, Frances G . s VQcabulQrYe Univer's1ty ot Missour! Studies, vol. X, No.3.. Columbia: University of Missouri, 193 5 . ____ f and Ramsay t Robe rt L . A.Hm Twa1Q Lexicon. University of Missouri Studies, vol. XIII, N o .. 1 Columb.1a: University of MIssouri, 1938 . Fulton, Robert L . ttGllmpses of the Mother Lode," 'BQQkmeQ, XXXIX (March, 4 9 -57. 245

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246 Gaer, Joseph (ed.). Hatte: B1b1iographica1 The California Research, SERA Projects 2.F2-132 3-F2-197. M onograph No. 10, . , 1935 . (189 mimeographed pages . ) Gudde, E rwin G. California rl.ace N ames: Gographica l Dictionarx. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1949 . McKnight, George C.. Modern English 111 .tlla Making. New York: D . Appleton Century Co., 1928 . Mlrnray, SIr James A. H . , At. Al. A fuu E ng1I h Dictionary gn Hitor1cal Principles. 10 vols. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1884-1928 . Reprinted as t h e Oxford Enc1Ish Dictionarv, In 12 vo1s . plus supplementary vol., 1933 . R aup, H . F . rtPlace N a mes of the CalIfornia Gold Rush,u GeographiCAl R eyiew, XXXV (1945), 653 ... 658. stewart, Jr. , George R . A Bib1.1ogti3PhY .Q.t Writwgs .2.! P.:.U ijart l.u. .t.W1 Magazines NawSl2anera Q! Qaliforn1a, la2Z-laZl. University of California Pub lications in English, vol. 3, No_ 3 . Berkeley, Uni versity of California Press, 1933 . _____ """-_--Hart: A rgQnaut a.wl EXil$!. Bo ston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 931 . /_. " Some Brat Harte Satires," I.lle. Front1r, XIII (January, 1 9 33) , 93 ... 101 .

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247 C. "Spanish and Spanish In ... on Bl'et Barte n RaDle hilPan1gyC; LXXVI 573 .. 621. WalterhouS8; Roger n , Harte, J"g8Ql11n Miller, .and .thi. We . QQlgt : Story: A stud;z in gt Rpnylar 11c$1on. Private ed.; Chioago: University of Chicago Libraries, 1939.

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BIOGRAPHICAL ITEMS Hernando Jennings Wood$, Jr. , was born February 2, 1921, in Columbia , South Carolina, He attended the pub110 schools ot Bishopville, South Carolina, and was grad ueted from Bishopville High Scbool in 1938. He attended College, Newberry, South Carolina, from 1938 to 1940 . From 1941 to 1942 he attended th University of South Carolina. In 1942 he enlisted in the United States Army, and served as an enlisted man in the United States and in the AsiaticPacific Theatre ot Operat .ions. After receiving an honorable discharge from the Army 1n 1946, he resumed his studies at the University of south Caro line, and was graduated 10 1947 with the degree Bachelor of Arts, Cum Laude . From 1947 to 1948 he was enrolled 1n the Graduate SChool of the University of South Carolina, and was granted the degree Master ot Arts 1n 1949. In 1948 he enrolled in the Graduate School of the Univer$1ty of Florida, and began work in Engl1sh and Linguistics leading to the degree Doctor of Philosophy. During the year 1950-1951 he held a Graduate Fellowship, and in 195'2 was a Graduate Assistant in English and C 3 .

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This dissertation was prepared under the direction of the chairman of the candidate's supervisory commIttee and has been approved by all members of the committee. It was submitted to the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate Council and was , approved as partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philo sophy .. August 195'2 Dean, College of Arts and Sciences Dean, Graduate School SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: Chairman