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Vision as it relates to reading at the college level

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Title:
Vision as it relates to reading at the college level
Creator:
Edgar, David Eugene, 1925-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
152 leaves. : illus. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Academic achievement ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
Colleges ( jstor )
Eyes ( jstor )
Phoria ( jstor )
Reading comprehension ( jstor )
Reading improvement ( jstor )
Reading skills ( jstor )
Screening tests ( jstor )
Visual perception ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Foundations of Education -- UF ( lcsh )
Foundations of Education thesis Ed. D ( lcsh )
Reading (Secondary) ( lcsh )
Vision ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida, 1965.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 142-152.
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
029479368 ( ALEPH )
14279503 ( OCLC )

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VISION AS IT RELATES TO READING

AT THE COLLEGE LEVEL






















By
DAVID EUGENE EDGAR










A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION


..
'I


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


August, 1965














TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE
I. INTRODUCTION ................................. 1

Need for the Study ... ...... ........... 1

Purpose of the Study ..................... 7

The Hypotheses .................................. S

Definition of Terms ..................... ......... .. a

Limitations of the Study ....1. ....... ......... ... 2.

II. HISTORY OF THE PROBLEM ...... .. g..................... 13

Screening of Vision in
Education ...... ....................... 13

Vision and Reading ............ ........... ...... 29

Reading Improvement at
the College Level ....... ..... ................. 39

Factor Analysis of
Vision and Reading ..... ....................... 53

Summary ........... ......................... 60

III. PRELIMINARY STUDIES ..o... ................c........ 62

Preliminary Study A o ........ ge.... .............. 63

Preliminary Study B oo. ......*......... .e. ..... 65

Discussion of the
Preliminary Studies ...................... 68

IV. DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENT ....... .... ... c........ 70

Subjects .. ........ .... .................c... o. 71

Tests ..o ............e ..ec.....c ..... ..c... .... 72









CHAPTER PAGE

The Reading Improvement Course ..................... 78

Treatment of Data .................................. 80

V. RESULTS ........ .................................... 89

General Results ........ 89 Specific Results ....... ...... . ............. 91

VI. DISCUSSION ........................................... 102

Discussion of Hypotheses ........................... 102

General Discussion ................................ 116

VII. SUMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND
CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS ................. 121
Summry . .. . . . . . . .. . ..121

Conclusions ............... ........................ 123

Clinical Considerations ............................ 127

APPENDIX A Vision Glossary ....................... ....... 131

APPENDIX B Forms and Equivalents ....................... ...... 134

APPENDIX C Statistical Data .................... .............. 137

BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................... 141


iii













LIST OF TABLES


TABLE PAGE

1 COEFFICIENTS OF RELIABILITY OF VISION TESTS
COMPILED FROM SELECTED REPORTS ................... 23

2 COMPARISON OF VISION FACTORS IDENTIFIED
BY COOK AND BY ROBINSON AND HUELSMAN ............. 56

3 NUMBER OF STUDENTS FAILING EACH
TELEBINOCULAR SUBTEST ............................ 65

4 PREDICTIONS OF VISUAL PROBLEMS COMPARED
WITH ACTUAL FAILURES OF VISUAL SCREENING TESTS ... 67

5 VISION VARIABLES, AND VISION TESTS
FROM WHICH DERIVED ............................... 84

6 NON-VISION VARIABLES, AND SOURCES
FROM WHICH DERIVED ............................... 87

7 ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX FROM OVERALL
FACTORIZATION (GROUP T. N = 163) 90

8 ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX FROM VISUAL PROBLEM
FACTORIZATION (SUB-GROUP VP, N = 51) ............ 92

9 ROTATED FACTOR LOADINGS FOR VISION
FACTORS (GROUP T, N = 163) ....................... 94

10 CORRELATION BETWEEN VISION VARIABLES AND VARIABLES INDICATING READING SKILLS CHANGE
(GROUP T, N = 163) ...........#.....*0***...ee. 95

13 CORRELATION BETWEEN CERTAIN MENTAL ABILITIES
VARIABLES AND VARIABLES INDICATING READING
SKILLS CHANGE (GROUP T, N = 163) ................. 97

12 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VARIABLES INDICATING PREVIOUS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND VARIABLES INDICATING
READING SKILLS CHANGE (GROUP T, N = 163) ......... 97









TABLE PAGE

13 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VARIABLES INDICATING PREVIOUS
LEVELS OF READING SKILLS AND VARIABLES INDICATING
READING SKILLS CHANGE (GROUP T, N = 163) .......... 97

14 COMPARISON OF VISION FACTORS BETWEEN ALL SUBJECTS
AND SUBJECTS WITH UNORRECTED VISION PROBLEMS ..... 99

15 COMPARISON OF INTERCORRELATIONS BETWEEN VISION
VARIABLES AND VARIABLES INDICATING READING
SKILLS CHANGE FOR TOTAL GROUP (N = 163), AND
VISION PROBLEMS SUB-GROUP (N = 51) ................ 101

16 ACUITY TEST FACTOR LOADINGS REPORTED BY
ROBINSON AND HUELSMAN ON FACTOR C ................. 107

17 COMPARISON OF PRINCIPAL FACTOR LOADINGS OF
VISION FACTORS BETWEEN GROUP T (N = 163)
AND SUB-GROUP VP (N = 51) ......................... 114

i8 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VISION VARIABLES AND VARIABLES
MEASURING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT .................... 119

19 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VISION VARIABLES AND
MEASURED MENTAL ABILITIES ................... . .19













CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION


Need for the Study


The demands upon the reading skills of college students are steadily increasing. It is now estimated that man's knowledge doubles every seven years. And this knowledge is not simply recorded, it is

considered and reconsidered in hundreds of different relationships.

The college textbook is only the beginning for the student

today. Far from containing the accumulated knowledge on any subject, a text is likely to be a reference source to studies in depth despite its summary and commentary. Pauk points out that:

Today's students are confronted with a reading task which differs decidedly from that which
students faced only a decade ago . . The
student mast 'run' to stay abreast fast-develcping
fields and areas by riffling through stacks of
journals, magazines, newspapers, theses, bullstins, and microfilms which contain the findings
of research from various parts of the world.

It is not unusual to hear a college freshman state that the volume of reading assignments is overwhelming. Consider the fate of a student who desires to participate in a reading improvement course but


lWalter J. Pauk, "Basic Skills Needed in College Reading," in J. Allen Figurel (ed.), Reading for Effective Living, IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 3 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1958), p. 44.








2

drops out because he does not dare take the time from his tightly meshed

schedule.

Nor does the problem end with the beginning college students. Spache and Berg2 estimate the average businessman spends fifteen to twenty hours a week reading technical reports, trade journals, and correspondence relating to business. This is only preparation for his job, yet it equals one-half the work-week of a wage earner.

Unable to maintain adequate contact with their field by reading, many professional men return to summer workshops or to graduate study. Bingham3 stated that recent graduates in Electrical Engineering often return to the University of Colorado for advanced study, but must re-enter undergraduate courses to grasp newly-developed concepts.

Conscious of these demands upon students' reading skills, colleges began offering reading improvement courses. Shaw reports only a few programs offered prior to 1950, but by 1960 there were four hundred courses in the colleges of the nation.4 Despite diversity of method and goals, the programs developed to serve millions of students.

A constant demand for careful consideration of aims and methods accompanied the development of programs. Recently Shaw pointed out that

2George D. Spache and Paul C. Berg Better Reading for Business (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 19585, p. 1.

kloyd A. Bingham, Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Colorado, in a personal interview, December, 1964.

4Philip B. Shaw, "College Reading Improvement Programs of the
Future," in J. Allen Figurel (ed.), Changing Concepts of Reading Instruction, IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 6 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1961), p. 48.








3
"the multifarious differences among the nation's college reading programs are well known," but went on to state that the trend of future college

reading improvement programs was away from differences toward eclecticism.5 Shaw also indicated the need for "recognition and acceptance of the principle of a student's sequential reading development from the elementary school through college," and for integration of instruction in

reading into the regular college offering.6

This emphasis upon mass instruction is somewhat in contrast to a concomitant development of the application of clinical techniques to the problems of reading. Raygor notes that only recently has there been a "development of a number of reading clinics in which the personal and emotional problems of the reader are of prime concern.'7 This development is but one aspect of the influence of psychology upon the field of reading.

Spache traces this influence of psychology upon reading from the nineteenth century emphasis on physiology of reading to the present broad definition of reading as one aspect of the growth of the child as

51Ibid., p. 48.

6hilip B. Shaw, "Integration of Reading Instruction with 'Regular' College Offerings," in Emery P. Bliesmer and Albert J. Kingston, Jr. (eds.), Phases of College and Other Adult Reading Programs. NRC Tenth Yearbook (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Reading Center, Marquette University, 1961), p. 122.

7Alton L. Raygor, "The Influence of Psychology on the Field of Reading," in Emery P. Bliesmar and Albert J. Kingston, Jr. (eds.), Phases of College and Other Adult Reading Programs, NRC Tenth Yearbook (Charlottesville, Virginia: Jarman Printing Co., 1961), p. 50.








4

a whole. "Thus the ultimate goal of reading instruction became the modification of the personal and social adjustment of the reader."8

Obviously such broad aims demand careful application of learned principles to reading instruction. Unfortunately classroom and clinical practices have not kept pace with psychological thinking. Spache, noting the continuation of earlier practices and emphases, stated:

The lag of classroom practices behind psychological theory probably indicates that much of our efforts for the next decade or so should be placed
upon improving our instructional procedures and
relating them more closely to the current explanations of the psychological nature of reading.9

Raygor lists several psychological concepts which are fully

available at the present but not applied in the field of reading instruction. Among these are diagnostic and remedial techniques, including the diagnostic syndrome, and statistical tools. In the vital area of individual differences he feels that we have done practically nothing at the college level to fit the curriculum to the needs of the individual.10

A challenge to the clinician in the area of college reading was given by Spache. He reminds us of the necessity for clinicians in college reading to be concerned with variables which influence success in reading improvement. He states:

Clinicians should be productive in identifying
these factors, measuring and weighing their impact,
determining the interactions among factors, and

8
George D. Spache, "Psychological Explanations of Reading,"
in Oscar S. Causey (ed.), Eplorina the Goals of College Reading Programs, SWRC Tenth Yearbook (Fort Worth, Texas: Christian University Press, 1955), pp. 14-22

9Spache Physiological Explanations .... p. 22.

lRaygor, o. cit., pp. 52-53.








5
observing the results of attempts to control
these elements.1I

One of the five categories of factors emphasized by Spache is that of vision and other physical factors. Yet, despite studies pointing to the role which visicn plays in reading, college clinicians tend to ignore its effect upon reading. Three types of errors follow from this neglect, (1) misuse of materials and equipment in an attempt to increase eye-span; (2) misrepresentation of value of improvement courses stemming from ignorance of the physical limitations of the visual processes in reading; and (3) misjudgment of the transfer of training to daily use because of unknown vision problems. Spache states:

In our opinion the college reading technician
faces the responsibility for evaluation of student
vision for the purpose of relating his findings
to instructional practices. As the diagnostician, he should be able to prescribe the type of reading
training which will be most feasible in view of the student's profile . . If his vision screening
methods indicate any unusual variations in the visual profile, the clinician should also assume the responsibility for referring the student for professional examination, and utilizing the inplications of that testing in planning reading training efforts . . In addition the college technician should convey to his reading instructors sufficient information about the visual process to prevent 12
them from repeating . faulty practices ....

While every reading clinician will concede the importance of vision in a student's reading performance, there is a tendency to ignore it in practice. There are several reasons for this neglect, (1) the need to deal with masses of students; (2) the time required to perform

lUGeorge D. Spache, "Clinical Work with College Students," in College-Adult Reading Instruction, IRA Perspectives in Reading I (Newark, Delaware, 1964), p. 135.
12Ibid., p. 143.









adequate visual screening; (3) the relatively small number of students believed to be affected by vision problems; (4) the confused and contradictory reports of the importance of vision to reading success; and

(5) the controversy among vision specialists as to what constitutes adequate correction of vision problems as a base for success in reading.

Obviously the answer to these problems lies in studies which clarify for the reading clinician the role of vision in reading. Research has indicated that the relationship between vision and reading is quite complicated. While some facts have been shown to be significant, these have not been sufficiently defined to be applicable to practice in a reading clinic.

Thus the clinician desiring to consider vision as a factor in reading is forced to make decisions based upon impressions gained through experience. In considering the visual needs of students, he may refer too many or too few to vision specialists, and either decision is wasteful in terms of professional tima, money, or solution to the problem. Moreover, the report of the vision specialist may not be directed toward the student's reading needs. The culmination of such confusion is in the inadvertent recommendation that a student participate in a course of reading improvement quite likely to lead to failure and frustration.

The present study was designed to contribute to the solution of this problem by identifying vision factors and relating these to improvement in reading skills. It is hoped that the clarification of those relationships will help the clinician to test adequately the student's vision and properly apply the test results in specific situations.










Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between vision and change in reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course, and the effect of uncorrected vision problems upon these relationships.

As a means of studying this central purpose, the following problems were considered:

1. Identification of vision factors in a battery
of twelve vision screening tests;

2. Determination of the amount of change in reading skills as a result of a reading improvement
course;

3. Determination of the relationships among vision
factors and changes in reading skills for all
subjects;

4. Determination of the relationships among certain
mental abilities and changes in reading skills
as a result of a reading improvement course;

5. Determination of the relationships between previous academic achievement and changes in reading skills as a result of a reading improvement
course;

6. Determination of the relationships between
initial reading skills and change in reading
skills as a result of a reading improvement
course;

7. Identification of students who have uncorrected
visual problems;

8. Determination of differences in vision factors and
reading skills which are attributable to uncorrected vision problems.

An attempt was made to relate the findings of the study to the problem of counseling students in a reading clinic.










The Hypotheses


In order to fulfill the purposes of the present study, the following hypotheses were tested:

1. There are specific factors which are components
of vision and which are identifiable through
factor analysis of scores on a battery of vision
screening tests given to college students.

2. There are positive relationships between vision
factors, and change in reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course given to
college students.

3. There are positive relationships between levels
of certain mental abilities, and changes in
levels of reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course given to college students.

4. There are positive relationships between previous
academic achievement, and changes in levels of
reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course given to college students.

5. There are positive relationships between initial
levels of reading skills, and changes in levels of reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course given to college students.

6. The nature of vision factors, and their relationships with changes in reading skills, differ among
subjects with uncorrected vision problems and the
total group of subjects.


Definition of Terms


The field of vision testing and vision screening is replete

with technical terms. For this reason a Glossary of Vision Terms has

been prepared as Appendix A.

Other terms used in the present study which are important to

clarity in the discussion of concepts are defined as follows;







9

1. Academic achievement potential is the predicted freshman

grade-point average for a student. This predicted average was determined by the Office of Admissions prior to a student's admission to Stetson University, and is based upon measures of certain mental abilities, previous academic achievement, and other variables.

2. Change in reading skills refers to the difference between scores made on a reading pre-test and on a reading post-test. Change includes both improvement in reading skills and loss of reading skills as a result of the reading improvement course.

3. Factor is used in this study to refer to the product of the statistical procedure of factor analysis, that is, a statistically derived functional unity. Exceptions are made in direct quotations.

4. Initial reading skills refer to the levels of skills in rate of reading and in reading comprehension acquired by the student prior to the reading improvem3nt course. In the present study, these

levels of skills are measured by the Diagnostic Reading Tests, Survey Section, Form A, which was given prior to the course as a pre-test.

5. Mental abilities refer to those characteristics of the

student which are measured by the Verbal section and by the Mathematical section of the Scholastic Aptitude Test prepared by the College Entrance Examination Board. These characteristics are identified, respectively, as Verbal Reasoning Ability and Numerical Reasoning Ability.13

6. Previous academic achievement refers to the level of attainmont in academic studies relative to the peer group with which the student


13College Entrance Eimination Board, Scholastic Aptitude Test (Princeton, New Jersey, 1963).







10

attended high school. In the present study this is measured in terms of high school senior class rank.

7. Reading irmrovernt course refers to a program of study following a prescribed curriculum, designed to improve the reading skill(s) of students enrolled.

8. Relationship refers to systematic co-relation of variables, the degree of which is usually expressed by means of a correlation coefficient. Causality is not implied in either direction, but only concomitant variation.

9. Uncorrected vision problers refer to inferred difficulties in the process of vision identified by failure of one or more vision tests presented by the Ortho-Rat-ar. Standards are from the School Profile, a minimum standard found desirable for students and individuals who do clerical and administrative tasks. The School Profile vas recommended by the Bausch and Lomb Optical Company, developers of the Ortho-Rater, for use in the University of Florida Reading Laboratory and Clinic.14

10. Vision refers to the complex process of seeing and interpreting external stimuli. A brief interpretation might be that it involves ocular uscle coordination, lens accommodation, light transmission through the lens to the retina, retinal impulse transmission to the brain by means of the optic nerves, fusion of the image by the brain, and

perception of meaning in the image.

1Bausch and Lomb Optical Company, by personal letter to Dr. George D. Spache, April 26, 1951.










Limitations of the Str iy


The present study was made at Stetson University, Deland,

Florida, in the fall semester of 1964-65. It is assuned that results

will not be seriously affected by changes occurring in the next five years. Subjects tested were determined to be the poorest readers (as identified by the Cooperative English Test, Reading Comprehension Section, Total Score)15 in the entering freshman class. Caution must therefore be used in applying the findings to students at other levels.

Visual problems are believed by the author to be in themselves a screening factor in education. A higher percentage of academically unselected students would be expected to have uncorrected vision problems (for example, in a large northeastern university). Stetson University is a private, southern, five-year university enrolling approxiately sixteen hundred students. Entrance roquirements indicate its entering freshmen are somewhat more select than, that is, above the level accepted by, the large state-supported universities in Florida. Therefore, the findings of this study probably can be applied to students in r3lectiva four-year institutions and above.

Although Stetson University accepts qualified students of all races, the subjects were predominantly Caucasian. No foreign student completed the course, so interpretation is limited to English-speaking Caucasian students.

15Educational Testing Service, Cooperative Test Division, Cooperative English Tests, Form IC (Princeton, New Jersey, 1960).







12

Of one hundred eighty students scheduled for the course, only one hundred sixty-three could be used as subjects by virtue of coplote data. It is recognized that dropouts from such a course may result from many causes. The author deeply regrets such a loss, feeling that many were consciously or unconsciously reacting to vision problems. Still,

conclusions should perhaps be limited in application to students who complete a similar course in reading improvement. For reasons stated above, however, it is believed that a study of the entire group of one hundred eighty students would reveal higher incidence of vision problems.













CHAPTER II


HISTORY OF THE PROBLEI


The present study has several facets, including screening of vision in educational institutions, the relationship of vision to reading, the improvement of reading at higher educational levels, and factor analysis as a research tool in studying vision and reading. This chapter attempts to give the reader an understanding of these various facets by referring to selected litu.ature in each area.


Screening of Vision in Education


Scientific studies of the relationship of vision to reading

began in Europe in the middle of the nineteenth century. Soon after its introduction in 1862, the Snellen Chart began to be used to masure visual acuity of students in schools. At this time the Chart was the only device available to determine whether or not a student had sufficient keenness of vision to read. It thus became the first accurate means for mass screening of vision in the schools.

Other early studies of vision were concerned primarily with the movement of the eye during reading. Erdmann and Dodge began crude observations by watching one eye of the reader through a telescope. The obvious difficulty with this procedure was the lack of a verifiable record. Emphasis upon securing accurate records led to the application of the photographic method, which %,s gradually improved until the

13








14

researcher was able to obtain a highly accurate record of the positionz of the eyes during movements and pauses, and the durations of those.

Studies of eye moveizent during reading led to several reforms, including the shift of emphasis from oral to silent reading. BecausO accurate records were retained, researchers were able to "analyze the development of reading and to describe the stages of growth of the reading ability."I

The development of visual functions at various grades from

kindergarten to eighth was demonstrated by Park and Burrn. These authors noted that:

because of the lack of complete maturation in the children entering school, many indicate poor vision with little or no fusion or stereopsis,
and poor duction ability. But visual maturity develops rapidly during the first two years of
school.

These understandings of the development of visual functions

led to an accurate means for diagnosing certain problems faced by individual children in learning to road. The studies also point out a definite change in the concept of vision by a large number of specialists in vision, psychology and education. Prior ezhasis, based upon nineteenth century physics, was upon the structure of the eyes, related muscles and nerves. Tests by the machanist were made with the eyes in a static


'Frank N. Freeman, 'rThe Place of Laboratory Exporiment in Educational Researchn Raview of Educational Research, Vol. 4 (January, 1934), p. 97.
2George E. Park and Clara Burri, "Eye Maturation and Reading Difficulties," Journal of Educational Psycholo Vol. 34 (December, 1943), P. 543.








15
position; the goal was exact monocular refraction. Correction involved glasses, medication and surgery; prevention ws precluded by the theory.

In keeping with a general trend in the sciences, the no.w

emphasis was upon the dynamics of vision. The functionalist was concerned with the psycho-physiological process of seeing as a learned task. Tests involved both monocular and binrocular functions at various working distances in order to analyze interferences in binocular functions. Since patterns of seeing were learned, faulty seeing could be corrected through re-education (orthcptics).

Prevention of visual difficulties is the keystone of the program suggested by those uho ehasize
the dynamics of seeing, or seeing as learned .
the functionalist is concerned with the development
of visual readiness for certain seeing tasks .. .3

Betts pointed out that binocular coordination required in reading was not subject to scientific study until the development of mterial on visual sensation and perception and aterial on oculomotor habits.4 Studies at the Shaker Heights Reading Clinic convinced Betts that binocular coordination was essential to rapid and efficient reading habits. Thus he stated:

A one-eyed person with normal acui-y' . has
little or no difficulty with the conf sion of letlets and words. A two-eyed person presents a different problem; not only nust the dominant eya fix
on a word or phrase, bat its companion also must

3Emrtt A. Betts and Agnes S. Austin, Visual Problems of School Children (Chicago, Illinois: Profeszional Press, 1 pp. 77-78.
4Emmett A. Betts, RA Physiological Approach to the Analysis of Reading Difficulties, Educational Research Bulletin, Vol. 13 (June, 1934), p. 164.







16

fix on the same target simultaneously and with as
much procision ..nd spod. In addition to this, the mind must i~ise or conbine tao right-eye and left-eye imges for aoarl perception. Many of our reading problems are traceable to a lack of
coordination between the two eyes and to tha
probable failure of the mind to combine righteye and left-eye pictures for proper interpretation.5

The need for screening tests of visual functioning in addition to the screening of far acuity by msans of the Snellen Chart was shown by the Medical Department of the Shaker Heights Clinic. It was found that "approximately 90 per cent of the non-readers and severely retarded readers (required) medical attention before receiving pedagogical help."6 These students were found to have faulty binocular coordination and astigmatism. Betts determined that seven visual items needed exploration in screening students, including (1) refractive errors, (2) muscle balance, (3) size and shape of ocular images, (4) visual fusion, (5) monocular and binocular eye movemnts, (6) interpupilary distance, and

(7) visual imagery.

Concerned with the lack of availability of convenient tests of visual functions for researchers and educators, Betts devised the Betts Sensation and Perception Tests as a part of the Betts Ready to Read Tests.7 Stereogram slides were placed in the Keystone Ophthalmic Telebinocular so that the left eye could see only its half, and the right eye only its half of the slide. In order to test each eye separately, one half of

51bid., pp. 164-165.

6lbid., p. 165.

7Emett A. Betts, Manual of Directions for Ready to Read Tests (Meadville, Pennsylvania: Keystone View Co., 1934).







17

the slide was left blank of targets; in order to test binocular functions a target was placed before each eye to be fused into a single picture. In this way the eyes functioned situltaneously while the vision of either eye or of both eyes was studied.

So concerned with the need for normal visual sensation and perception was Betts that he stated:

Before entrance to the first grade, every child
should be thoroughly examined by a competent eya
specialist. A certificate of visual readiness to
read should be required. The number of visual aberrations among both able and disabled readers rke
this a randator policy for adoption by all school
administrators.

Many other researchers had voiced concern over the method of

screening vision in public schools. Som authors published tests designed to improve upon the Snellen Chart. Hildreth and Axelson developed an adaptation of the Snellon Chart uhich was designed to motivate young children.9 Eames made available the Eames Eye Test which masured acuity at twenty feet, and also astig~tism, coordination of the eyes, and farsightedness. 10
Ii
Jensen designed the Tests for Color-Blindnces, Vis'l,1 Acuity, Astitisr which provided a measure of two-eyed vision, of color, and of astigzatism as well as of acuity. Although the Jensen and the Ears Tests


%etts, o. tit_. p. 163.

9Gortrudo Hildreth and Aljhild Axelson, "Improved Visual Acuity Tests for Young Children," Teachers College Record, Vol. 40 (December, 1938), pp. 229-236.
10Thom=s H. Eaizes, "Improve=-at in School Eye Testing," Education, Vol. 56 (September, 1935), pp. 14-18.

13Milton B. Jensen, Tests for Color-Blindness, Visual Acuity, Astigmatism (New York: Psychological Corporation, 1935).







18

were not measuring the saw visual functicns and were not of equal validity (Spache12 pointed out the problems related to each test), each was an improvement upon the single measure of acuity.

Aware that educators were dissatisfied with results of vision testing with the Snellen Chart, Oak investigated the efficiency of the Visual Sensation and Perception Tests in identifying school children who needed ocular examination. He concluded that "the Telebinocular sorts out too many cases for practical purposes and . misses cases needing to be referred for ocular attention."13

Two points should be considered with regard to Oak's study. First, the criteria against uhich the Telobinocular was compared were determined by a single ophthalmologist, and though apparently reliable, were not checked for validity. Second, the norms for Bett's tests were designed to screen for children with functional problexn which would affect their reading, rather tIan for the usual criterion of "adequate" vision applied by opthalmologists. Nevertheless, Oak's data showed from 50 per cent to 75 per cent of a random saple of one hundred children failed one or more of the Telebinocular Tests, seemingly a high number.

Betts and Austin replied to the criticism of over-referral

by the Telebinocular by describing a study of one hundred thirteen students:


7corge D. Spache, "Testing Vision,' Education, Vol. 59 (June, 1939), pp. 623-626.

23Lura Oaks, "An Appraisal of the Betts Visual Sensation and Perception Tests as a Sorting Device for Use in Schools," Journal of Educaticnal Psycholomy, Vol. 30 (April, 1939), pp. 241-250.







19

When visual acuity alonLe is considered, the
findings of this study agrac in general with . .
previous investigations . . As findings are
added to the referral woutioe, =ero cases are
referred . . Thero is a cur-lativo effect
of using certain additional tests. For example, 26.55 par cent of 13 cases were referred on the basis of acuity for distance. Additional findings from other tests increased the referrals so that when the six findings i:are used, 66.37 per
cent of the cases were referred.14

Bennett, studying causal elernnts operating among primary grade pupils raking slow progress in learning to read, concluded that 'various types of visual dysfunction ray sometimes contribute to difficulties in reading.u15 This conclusion supported Bett' recoendation that children who failed various visia tests be carefully studied.

Using the Telebinocular according to procedures described by

Betts in the VEanual of Directions, Dalton tested five thousand eight hundred twenty-one students in grades three through twelve. Only 17.6 per cent of the elezontary pupils and only 12 per cent of the high school pupils passed all twelve of the tests. He concluded that "either the test shows an excessive amount of defect or . visual defectiveness is very prevalent among school children.016

Corylications in visual screonin .--As the relation between vision and reading becava more widely recognized, more attention was given to studies which identified various vision defects in students. But these studies indicated the relation between reading and vision was


"Betts and Austin, o. cit., p. 62.

15Chester C. Bennett, An Inpiry into tho Genesis of Poor Reading, Teachers' College Contributors to Eduzation, No. 755 (New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers' College, Columbia University, 1938), p. 106.
L6. M. Dalton, "A Visual Survey of 5000 School Children," Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 37 (October, 1943), pp. 82-83.







20

more co plicated than s3en at first glance; the interpretation of results was complicated by several findings. Batts' findings that able readers also have vision problems was of particular ivoortance.17 It was also determined that an eye deficiency might not always be a liability. :or exmple, Segel reported that "'myo )ia proved advantageous to persons doing certain kinds of work and possibly in facilitating reading.18

A second effect comlicating the relation between reading and vision is that of visual fatigue. A student might be able to control the functions of the eyes for brief periods, for example, in order to pass visual screening tests, but might be unable to operate efficiently over an extended period. Thus Betts rominds us that "given normal visual acuity . the student must have the power to maintain his binocular coordination during the entire period of reading.19 In this sama vein, Park and Burri stated:

If for soma reason tha eyes can no longer
function as a unit, fusion has a tendency to
break, causing potential diplopia, and the resulting interference becomes a disturbing factor
in the process of reading.20

Obviously irvolved in the fatigue effect is the mtivation of

the student. If the student has one or =ore visual problems he may control these over a given period of tir-, despite increasing dis-oomfort, as

17E~ett A. Betts, "A Fnysiological Approach to the Analysis of Reading Difficulties," Educational Research Bulletin, Vol. 13 (June, 1934), P. 163.

ODavid Segel, "Yeasuremsnt of Aptitudes in Specific Fields," Review of Educational Research, Vol. 2 (January, 1941), p. 46.

19Betts, "A Physiological Approach . p. 174.
20George E. Park and Clara Burri, "The Effect of Eya Abnormalities on Reading Difficulty," Journal of Educational Psycholoe, Vol. 34 (October, 1943), p. 540.







21

requirod by his goal. The fact that visual screening is presented as a "test' of vision is sufficient to motivate such a student to exercise control of vision problems during the brief testing period.

Carmichael and Dearborn attempted to determine the effect upon normal subjects of fatigue created by six hours of continuous reading. It is interesting to note that their data indicated a significant increase in the average Keystone Stereopsis scores.

This increase may have been so groat as to
obscure completely a 'fatigue' factor, if it
existed at all. But at this point the differences observed are Itter explained as due more
to practice effect. I

Despite the fact that the Betts' tests did not adapt to the test-retest design, these authors concluded that prolonged visual work "does not bring about any detectable and consistent physical alteration in the visual mechanism which changes the ability of this mchanism to perform in an effective and normal =ys at either the high school or at the college level.22 It would seem, then, that marked decrement in visual functioning during sustained use of the eyes would indicate a visual problem in need of attention since it did not occur in normal subjects.

Visual screening using the Ortho-?ator.-Screening of vision

was also being emphasized in industry. Imus reported a shift of ehasis "from primary concern for first aid following accidents to selection and

21Leonard Carmichael and Walter F. Dearborn, Reading and Visual Fatigue (New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1947), p. 378.
22 Ibid., p. 360.







22

classification of personnel for job p0aee0nt. 23 Too, a great dcad for adequate visual screening cam about through reaquire-nts for rapid screening of inductees into various arizd forces schools during World War II.

To fulfill such needs, other visual screening devices were

produced. One such device was the Bauoch-Lomb Ortho-Rater. The battery of twelve vision tests presented with this instrui-nt was developed in part at the Statistical Laboratory for Vision Tests at Purdue University.24 This battery of standardized precision vision tests was used by staff researchers at Purdue University as a basis for a research approach to industrial problem in vision.

The Bausch and Lomb Optical Conpany published profiles as minimim Ortho-Rater standards for various industrial jobz. As a service to educators, this company recomendcd as a School Profile the same OrthoRater standards as those for individuals u-ho do clerical and administrative tasks. 25 In elementary schools about 35 per cent to 40 per cent of the students were expected to fail this standard.

Several Arrmed Forces studies co:aring the merits of variui vision screening devices were summarized by Imus. The reported

23Henry A. Inns, "Testing Vision in Industry", Reprinted from the Transactions Amrican Acader of Oratnlnole nd Otolarynpolco (January February, 1949), p. 1 of reprint.
24S. Edgar Wirt, "Statistical Laboratory for Vision Tests at Purdue University," Jcixnal ArP.ied Pscholcg7, Vol. 30 (August, 1946), p. 358.
25Bausch and Lomb Optical Comeany, forwarded with lc&ter of transmittal to Dr. George D. Spache, University of Florida, April 26, 1951.







23

coefficients of reliability of the vision tests are shon in Table 1.


TABLE 1

COEFFICIENTS OF -ELIMILITY OF VISION TESTS COMILED FFIA SELECTED BEORTSa

Test0rho- Si& Tele- Clinical Rater Screener binocualar Tests Far vertical phoria .79 .61 .63 .64 Far lateral phoria .87 .80 .75 .8l Binocular far .88-.93 .70 .81-.97 Monocular far .81-.90 .84 .78-.86 80- 97b Depth .83 .57 .79 .62-.72 Binocular near .84-.87 .70 .72 .67 Monocular naar .80-.90 .77 .71 .75-.78 Near vertical phoria .73 .55 .74 Near lateral phoria .81-.92 .83 .85 .90

aReportod by Henry A. Irns, "Testing Vision in Industry," Transactions Anerican Acade of -ht~lmlcl and tnarz,
January February, 1949.
bThe Howard-Dolman Test.


According to these Armed Forces studies, the Bausch-Lomb Ortho-Rater appeared to be the most reliable storeoacopic instrument for screening vision when compared with similar stereoscopic instru=nets. Reliability

of the Ortho-Rater corared favorably with that of clinical tests by ophthalmologists.

A thorough study of an extensive battery of coLrcial visual screening tests and -secially constructed vision tests was conducted by Robinson and Huels=n. The purpose of the study was to select tests of vision to be related to reading achiovezant. Factor loadings revealed







24

that the Ortho-Rater vas a-ng the bet nauring devices for vortical phoria, depth perception, and acuity.26

The controversy over visual screoni socl .-Crane and other ophthalmologists corpared the rsl-ts of screening by stereoscopic machines (Ortho-rPater, Telebinocular, Sight-Scraener) and the Massachusetts Vision Test, using clinical tests of vision as criteria. These authors reported "all of the cor-elations of screening procedures with tha criterion (clinical finding>) are low." 27 The Snollen Chart (note: actually no Snellen Chart was used; th, l assachusetts Vision Test Chart was accepted as equivalent) ard Kassachuestts Vision Test were "the nost efficient or least inefficient of the procedures tested.228

Crane's report, which became widely known as the St. Louis

Study, had the effect of reducing the nurber of stereoscopic screening instruments used in schools. For enlo, on the basis of Crane 's report, the Florida State Board of Health adopted as standard procedure the use of the Atlantic City Test or the Massachusetts Vision Test rather than poloroid or stereos.copic instants The Cozittee on Conservation of Vision of the Florida Medical Association was quoted as saying:

Instnents such as the Telebinocular, SightScreener, and the Ortho-Rter . Lre not suitable for school cy acreeng for tny reasons.
The worst objection . is thzt they refer for

26
2Zelen Y. Robinson and Charles B. Huelsnn, Jr., 'Visual
Efficiency of Progruzs in Learning to Readft in Helen N. Robinson (od.), Clinical Studies n Reading II (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953), pp. 55-59.
27M. M. Crane, et l., Screenin! School h for sual
Defects, Children's Bureau of Publications, No. 345 (Washington, D. C.: United States Governmnt Printing Office, 1954), p. 92.
28Ibid., p. 24.








25

eye o t far too childron whose eyes
are norzl. This has bcn d ;=ncratcd in co
trolled studies such a3 that of Cr eo . ..

Thu in Voluz Couny, Florida., all Koyotone Telbicular insti- ments previasly uzed by veitin- public health .urses woro ,withdrawn. These public schools now u ilie tho -3usotts Vision Test, "E"-Chart, screening only acuity of students at a distance of twenty feet.

Amn g authors who severely criticized Crane s report was Kelly, who pointed out statistical ezeao a ,ell as errors in exporimental design. His objections were raised primarily because the widespread reporting of erroneous conclusions from the study "handicapped the establishment of sound visual screening programs in our schools."30

As early as 1943, Russell, discussing the growth of the theory of interaction betueen viaioa defects and reading habits, pointed out that .
It uo' w fzs the ba-is of ,ny opto:.tri-tz

practices in the adjuot=.-nt of visual difficulties, axid it Lmy ba that oducational psycholo has boze
afflicted with s of the con vatism of orthvcd ophhaolor in its failure to study, from a f'rc anglo, the whole problem of ro-atins b'etoen oadizg abilities and visual defects.31

29Selection of' Ey Sc ecniv i o ratus for Uso in Florida Schools, Florida State Board of Health (Decrzber, 1960).

30Charles R. Kelly, Visual Scre an Child Development
(Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolis- State Teachers College, 1957), pp. 2-11.
3!David H. Russell, "Note on a New Theory about Visual Functioning and Reading Disabilities,' Journal of Educational Psycholo v, Vol. 34, (February, 1943), pp. 115-120.








26

This difference of basic philo-ohy betw-oen the =zdical aid the opto-ntric vision zpeciali-t haz created more or less an izpise in the development of visual scr cning programs fcor schools. But in general there is mdical domination of school screening procedures. Spache states:

County and state public health officials insist
uLzon the use of the co,=pletely inadequate Snellen
Chart because it fits the zdical concept of the
vision process.32

The controversy over the best =-thod for school screening of vision, as well as the implications of such screening, has continued. Aware of the controversy, Taylor suggested screening by questionnaire.33 Initial screening was done by classroom teachers through the Functional Readiness Questionnaire. Students referred by teachers were given The Functional Readiness Inventory, a one-hour series of tests involving the vision focus mechanism and acuity, the dynamic reactions of the divergence and convergence functions, and photographic eye-movement records. Corrective techniques Lsre rsco ndcd for students whose functional readiness was inadequate.
Taylor reported that from a grou7 of three hundred college freshmen, all seventy-eight who made low scores on the Advanced Iowa Silent Reading Tests "had vergence and/or focusing difficulties."

32
George D. Spache, "Classroom Reading and the Visually Ea~dicapped Childt in J. Allen Fig-aral (ed.), Chanrip ConccDts of R~d4.' Instruction, IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 6 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1961), p. 94.

33Earl A. Taylor, E.'. Visul Anormaies, arnd the Fudental Reading Skills (New York: Reading and Study Skills Center, 1959), p. 6.







27

Oly twenty of the seventy eight read with the mechanical ability expected of college studenft3.34 Of forty-four freshmen who made satisfactory scores on the Iowa Silent Reading Tests, it was stated that: Over ono-th rd of the group were found to have vergence and/or accommodative difficulties which could affect their reading performance. Reading
graphs of the grojp revealed . twenty (less
than half) were reading at the college level
mechanically.35

Thus Taylor's data indicate from 50 per cent to 25 per cent of college freshmen have vision problems which affect their reading performance.

Rosenbloom also commented on the use of a checklist of visual symptoms byiteachers to identify pupils needing professional eye care. He stated:

Available research studies suggest that in those
instances where the observations are carried out by a
trained classroom teacher, the use of a carefully
selected checklist of visual symptoms can be a valuable supplement in identifying visual problems.36

However, Spache has pointed out a solution to the choice of

vision screening tests, at least at the elementary school level. He refers to the "developmental approadh" which places emphasis upon careful observation of posture, perceptual-motor-skills, ocular pursuits,

directionality, and visual perception. Spache states: "The developmental



341bid., p.3.

351bid., p.3.

36Alfred A. Rosenbloom, Jr., "Promoting Visual Readiness for Reading," in J. Allen Figurel (ed.), Changing Concepts of Reading Instruction IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol.6 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1961, p. 93.








28

approach offers not clinical tests of viLion, but educationally prognostic tests of significance to reading teachors."37

The developsntal approach to visual screening follows tha

thinking long established in industrial ophthalUlogy. I-as rcainded that "for job placement it is not necessary that the vision screening tests predict the results of clinical tests of vision. If the test predicts performance on the job, that is sufficient.,38

Carrying this reasoning over to vision screening at the college level, the clinician might utilize stereoscopic screening devices to predict performance in reading, rather than need for clinical vision aralysis. The primary requirement of the test battery for this purpose is reliability.

In snnary, it night be said that educational seening of vision has developed along two lines of reasoning. One theory, the rechanistic, emphasizes the staucturo of the eyes and is concerned with the condition of the eyes in a static state. The other thcory, the functionalistic, e=hasizee sing as a learned function involving binocular coordination of the eyes in a dynamic state. The controversy

between adherents to these theories has prevented development of an adequate method of school screening of vision. Consequently, specialists in related fields hav reco anded educationally prognostic tests rather than tests which predict clinical findings.

In the present study the Ortho-Rator is used in an attemt to determine its value as an indicator of functional visual readiness for reading.


3QSpache, 'KVlassroom Reading . . p. 93.

38inus, S. cit.











Thtm


If a student is to road by n of the eyes, then he -i1t have zuf'iciant vision to see the print and to discrin.zte one cy-_bol from another. This is the first and ov-icus relationship between vision and reading, and it led to the uze of the Snellen Chart as a moans for maturing acuity of vision.

EHo.ever, as specialists ought an understanding of the readirg process, they naturally studied more carefuly the operation of the sensory organs utilized. Th3ra caavloacd from these studies an increasing awarenss of, and understanding of, the close relationship between the reading and the vision precezses.

As has been described carlior, the developmnt of photographic records of eye mevre.ntz duz1n- reading I d to a bettor u.orstanding of the reading process. It became obviva3 that if the visicn =echanism were required to perform these pircisa vents any interference would probably retard developen-at in trading.

For this reason educators stressed observations of pupils in the classroom to deterie if zc= of vision problems were apparent. Teachers were asked to report for testing ay child who squinted, could not see the blackboard, had rea and watering eyes, or other symptoms of poor vision. Such observations enabled the discovery of severe vision proble=.

But the devolopment of roadi!g from ooal to silent, froz sIM to rapid, from adjunct to mJor tool in education, changed visual require=ants as well as curriculam. As greater stress was placed upon the








30
vision =-chaniz by contizou rapid. and Sutainod noar-point activity, spaizlisto found ro subtlo viion Pzobli:n affectir roading -"llo. For c zarp, BI ncEtt Said, "thJc z oi o;, p ao, ca si Z c : na ,hotohr roadinZ dizabilitc oten --c1t frcm ninor "imaml defeats of which pupil and teachr =y continue taro. 39

In attempting to discover prodictivo relationships bet,:an

vision and reading, researchers have considered (1) the total act of vision and the total act of reading, (2) specific vision problem anr specific reading skills, and (3) coti2i=tians of vision problena and reading skills.

az~s czphasized tha r ~t nhip between oye o szle Lbalancc, particularly exophoria, and reading difficulties0 As previously noted, Betts developed screening tosts and pointed out reading problems arising from hyperopia, interpupiLt ditanco, and other aspects of developnnt of th3 visual nchanicn young children are learning to read. Betts found that about 10 er cent of seovrely disabled re at the Shaker Heights Clinic d a low dpoth perception level, while all good readers with binoc-alar vinicn ns d the test for st'oropzio. He co-eluded, "Although ster:opcis itseol is not esentia. for the fo.tztion of aoed reading habito, the factors involved do apparently contribute to reading



3%onrott, i2.1 p. 15.

40,,homns H. Ean's, A Coq0ariAon of Ocular Charactoeristics of
Unselected and Reading Disability Casez, Jour-l of 77uc-tTonal Research, Vol. 25 (November, 1932), pp. 211-215.

4f mmtt A. Batt-, 'A Physiolcgical Approach to the Analysis of Reading Difficulties," Educational Research Bnl] ....n, Vol. 13 (June, 1934), p. 171.








31

Witty and Xopal coparod Lroups of poor readers vith nor.

readers in f'adoz throe to six. in both Crouno thz y found sLlr icidance of refractive erasOrs, lossned acuLity, and lateral zcle iblncO, conclung that the one 7viuai roble. .zhich diffe-nt zated the poor readers vas "slow fusion." Dzpito thzo negative findings the utors ronrhcd that "nor:al vision is indubitably essential to n1xmum attainImu, s, Rothney, and Bear described a careful evaluation of vision in reading, using as sub-ects the entire frshan class at Dartnouth College. Mhnen the subjects wore grouped according to diagnosis of ocular defects there were no significant difforoncos anong them in initial perfor;nnce on reading testsin gains on reading tests, or in academic achieveonnt either prior to or during the college freshman yar. The authors stated, "'We have fozd no general important differences in perforiance of vzbjoctz groued _c=ording to the physiological conditions of the eyes.3

Clark, after a 'y of the literature relating to visul. defects and reading disabilities, ccluded that the difference was insignif1cant bet een good and poor readers with regard to the nuber of visual defects .4


42Paul A. ,itty % David Xopl, torophoria and Reading
Disabilities," Jo.ral &f Egutiol choicec v, Vol. 24 (!Narch, 1936), p. 230.

_____7 Joh W. 18,thny, and Robert 1. Bear, An: v1latiou of V T F-tors in Nooing (Fnover, Ie, Ipire: Dartrnouth College Publicatione, 19%), p. 35-4.

44B. Clark, Binocular Pxomalies and Reading Disability,"
Anrican Joual Ophthal1lo, Vol. 23 (October, 1940), pp. 885-891.







32

In a study of over five touzand school childron in grdos

one through eight, Dalton roported, the aw-rag there is no t2.'cant difference . in reading ability or in progress through the grades btwoan pupils with defective vision and. normal Vision.,

A relatively hi&h corrolzticn (r = .465) between total vision scores and "corrected" reading scores was reported by ?ark and Burr!. The authors concluded this correlation indicated "a definite relation between eye abnormalities and reading difficulties." Various eye difficulties showed different degrees of influence on reading ability. Monocular individuals had less trouble with reading, indicating t.at tho mJor role of ocular defocts in causing reading disability lies in disturbance of binocular w.sioa.46

This finding supports the e,.a-sis which Batts placed on binocular functions.47 Imus, Rothney, and Bear also pointed out that "cases o- monocular or alternating vision are notoriously free from subjective troubles until attempts are nade to re-establish binocular uo of the eyes.148

Russell reported inc-eaig emphasis upon the i-torr.ctic>

between reading and vision. Iiis studies led him to believe that just as visual defects may cause poor readin-g skills, ineffective skills and


M. Dalton, "' Visual Surey of 5000 School Children," JounaJl. of Edcation-l PIe~ Vol. 37 (October, 1943), p. 94.

46George E. -.rk and Clara Burrn., 'The Effect of Eye Abnornalities on Reading Difficulty," Journal of Educational P2cho-or, Vol. 34 (October, 1943) p. 429.
47Botts, "A Physiological Approach . pp. 163-174.

48IMs, Rothney, and Be-r, o. cit., p. 35.







33
habits o2 reading L ay be c, o fnctonl viua d.fcctz. Conzzquhnty he listed a o1e of the Lo1cnt 'o-, by writers that =ny Visual d-G-,ctic arc, Ie n9

Robinson pointed to the i=portance of patterning in vi&ual tests which subjects failed. For escape, single failures of lateral phoria at near-point often occurred, but were considered valuable for analysis only if accompanied by failu es in other tests. Failures in depth perception uore, ho-ver, a'ccLdanieU by other failures in all insteices but ono; thus in reading this seems to indat. loss of binocular coordination and to sigral earlier fatigue and decrease in rate of reading.50

Edson, Bond, and Cool- fond no zi!7:dficant differences in reading botwen groups o. czZ*ron -ith rlz. vision and g-oups with defectivo vision. Nor thc;a any igniiicnt diffrenoe b~twsen the dispersions in the dtributios of rcading test scores Lor the children who passed, or uho failed the diffeet visuzal tests.51

The studies described above, illustrate the wide diferences of opinion to be found throughout the literature regarding the relatLon between vision and reading. Authrs seeking guidance front -t'Ly of


gDavid R. Rnse., te on a New Thco about Visual Functiong ad Reading Dicailitiez, Jo 'rr C' Eu tenal Psyholc, Vol. 34 (February, 19D3), p. 116.

5Helen Robinson, "Visual Efficiency a d Rc in't in
C1 ical Stu!e2 in Roc Sp ontnry Eduzti0- :onoraph No. 68 R cgo:University of Chicago Pres, June, 1949), pp. 105-106.
51.U z Coy L. Bond, and Walter W. Cook, Rolatienship between ViSual Cha ctrritics and Specific Silent Reading Skills, Jo. -- 7. of 01atton~l Re Vo. 46 (Fe, ary, 1 :53), p. 455.







,1

relaeed literature e2ress the th l. of co-fuzion prcivailiZ-. t quot-.ing e:an !es of both w zd Lid-ground oinj the degree of reiationsip between vision and reading, Ejberl stated, "In fact an analysis of the literature laves oz in an etrcrz state of' co -ioa*

Such conflictin' resort fron variouz studies hava prevCnted conclusive sttsnts re rdinj tho rQationzhips betwoon vision and reading. Several rasons for the conflict boo apparent. Probably =ost important is that gross defects in vision do not severely affect reading. Gross defects are readily observed and corrected where possible, or lead to co=,ansatory adjustnt on the part of the student. When degee of ocular error is high, it is easier for the student to suppress vision of one eyo, or to altornato vision.

But students uith a-derate visicn probl $ill quite liLzly
be unaware of their euto and s au.re sf the f upon acade e achiovonnt. As Inus, and Bear state, "Slight abno zlitio produce conflicts and iintorp -eations of visual space and perception, 53 problem- which are =uch less unable to self-analysia or to crude observation.

Purthsr difficulty arisas from the pliedd curvilinecr relationships between som vision functions and reading skills. Unless statistical adjutnsts are mde in handling the data, relationships are likely to be underestimated because of a cancelling effect.

5 arguer'ite Eberl, "Visual Training and Reading," in Helen M. Robinson (ed.), Clinical Studios in Rodiing II (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953), p. 141

5Trus, Rothney, and Bear, i. ct., p. 35.








35

Thcs probiaa pozit out the __J for careful conideation of d~~rmn a desgn- In St :f'ng the ii-ain etnhp. n etxa7le of the iora sophisticated study is tha.-t by Robinson Lnd elo-mn. The -jor puJpoze of theeo authors t.az to irnvistigat the t bet -eAn visual efcicy ad reading proress. &o.vr, they recognized t- need to first detcr~ne the adocaoy of the tests to be used. A prelimina-y factor alysis of an e;onsive battC-:y of co=orcial viwual -cc-cng tests, aleIr C- h test- constructed _pecifically for the atudy, led to selection of vision tzst2 to be considered in this study. 'he authors then Lttt::td to relate the selected vision tcsts to rea'ing achieveont. Fivc Ltati-tical procedures were applied to the data, culminating in a ltip-eup factor analysis.

Sevn groups of test cl-eiation coefficients Vere choso, frca the complete = trix of two thousand five hndrod fifty-siz coefficients. Th-se grOIus were identified a- (1) reading, (2) depth, (3) far acuity,

near acuity, (5) eesion, (6) sion, and (7) vertical phoria. The authors concluded tLht:

Certain vi.z2 caitcs .cere identified
thich amear to b aed to remain ..
Centroids rerasnt.... re.I 2d several asoacts of is's1 performance pear to ho retod. This conclusion ofAfe htor:e for identifying a pette
of vi-nal tests thich w2C b zero valuable fozr screening p oses than tho~ee. ucd in preceding
research.54

Kelly also ccvletez a significant study relcotirn vision and reading. Utilizing the Xeystoa Teebinoelar and Gatos Reading Tests, Kelly studied th3 zelatio hip- visual ki!ils and rHading. iis


54Robinson and E elsu, oo. ., p,. 62-63.









data indicated that failuro ji one v il skill will often be rolatid to failure in others, but theIo will not necessarily be related with poor reading shills. There was confir-ation that the iyoptic Student 's generally an abe e-avoraze rc~e4, but the v3e. poorest groups also had zore than average amounts of orpia. This relationship is felt to have boon a source of coni'usion in findins rg-arding the relationship betwcon myopia a= reading skil .55

Hyporopia was in goeral related with poor reading skill-, but when phoria also existed the Ltudents showed pronounced deficiencies in readinz scores. However, thia ralationahip is also confusing, since hyporop-os who were Qxophoric at near-point were btter than average of the total group.56

Kelly suz ri~cd the findings of the study as follow.:

Good rdc tend to have the follc,;izz visual
characteristics: Lypia; straight eyos (no lateral
lance); good ion or no faszon at all (monocuer visicn). Poc-- rderz, on the other had,
tend to L v: hy-c oia; lateral iaalance; ovorco ucion pblen.,. These statements are dn Z ........ differences betoon reading shill ~of gouos having each of the
above vizual chateristica, and average children.57

As a challenge to authors finding no relationship between readI-- and vic=al skills, the ta significant difference reported by Kelly is noted. This was between zyopic children wth no lateral imbalance and hypercpic children with late l imbal anco. "These two groups diffoeed


55Charles R. Kelly, Visua! Soenlnr and Child Deloznt
(Ralairh, North Carolza: North Carolin State Teachers College, 1957), pp. 22-26.

56ibid., p. 26.

57Ibid., p. 35.










moro than a s-.t -r deviation in four-yar roading proficioncy scores,

a difference significant atp lmz than .OC001,.,58

Spache and T-11=n srizcd relatod studies in litoratuzo

which attonpted to relate piic as of vivsual defects to roadng

ability. Briefly, thair i a aro as f....

(1) Fu x Icn: pczv- .on dc!. r.ot occur often, and rdi cos .y b nr l except for slCwr sp~ cn p-obl~~l tond t retard loarning to 7X,;d; good readers hav good fion or no
fusicn at all.

(2) Stsreepui: as vuch i not mqcuircd for reading, but tho degre of fusion ncessary for is az~ovent contribute to acquisition of good
reading hzbits.

(3) ?horias: fidigs a:-o cc. flictiug, but generally
theo child i abl to co.;crge or rerin converged
ha reading proble~o~ Both osephoria arnd e~:ophoria ara a~zociatcd w;h poor roacing scoras,
but u ually in coubinato, with other visual
probLs.

(4) Acuities, zropia, 1-- Gopc ra y unrelated
to r adinj, but rcpe tcnd to be better readers
than hyporc oz.

(5) Suprssion: pai'al or inco 1lto sson
cau~s Ocriouc vio u hndicaps in roading; coplete s~po on outing in one-eyedness :9 improve roadin ability undor such conditions.59








58Ib I, p. 30.

59Ge.orge D. Siache and Chester E. TiLan, "A Con>-arison of the Visual Profiles of Retarded and Non-otardod Readors," Journal of ;velo nta.1 Read Vol. 5 (intor, 1962), pp. lOl-10.









In their co rion ofc rtardcd and non-rotardod readers, Spacha and Tilln conclde h tn tho slQ;-dy:

. londs doFinito ou.-,port to the idca that
dE-fects ro2~gin io i~cli~~
ignzca a~urooo f ixt ..-ot each other
in indicating a u'o2.u in binocu~rr acuity at
near point azng rot Ccd rcacor.

These _udnts wore fou.d to be poorer in left-eye acuity, had lrked differences in acuity betwon tho two eyes, and failed the test of binocular acuity in sgnificant n-ers.61

Referring to a study of the binocular coordination of u veral thousand children needing corrective and ro~dial reading, Taylor found that 95 per cent showed a lack of .uafficient coo-idinatioa and fusion to carry out reading and study activities in a satisfactory manner. He states:

This binocular control must be zaintainad during
the dynamic act of reading. When the reader does not have an adequate amount of binocular control, accurate
word recognition is discouraged in two ways. First
the word form bzcor less distinguishable as the
reader fluctuates in his binocular control. Secondly,
as the reader fights to maintain single binocular
vision, an undue amount of energy is consumed. For many, this expenditure of energy results in visual
fatigue and a general feeling of discomfort which, in
turn, decreases the reader's ability to concentrate
and increases his susceptibility to distraction.

Taylor's coments seem to describe a large number of subjects approaching reading clinics for help.
'Ibid., pp. 108-109.


61Ibid.

62Stanford E. Taylor, "Sensation and Perception: The Complexity of Word Perception," Journal of Develoimental Reading, Vol. 6 (Spring, 1963), pp. 191-192.








39
To summarize, we might state that studies relating vision to reading have been numerous, but findings were conflicting. Major focus has been placed successively upon the relation of visual acuity, then refractive errors, then binocular coordination as these relate to reading. Early attempts to determine visual patterns related to reading failed, but gradually additional information has come to light which helps to explain the conflicting reports.

In the interaction between the visual and the reading processes, either process may affect the other. Gross visual defects may be corrected or compensated for, thus do not tend to affect reading skills; slight abnormalities which affect binocular functioning are related to poor reading. In addition to this curvilinear relationship, fatigue may affect visual function under sustained use, but fatigue is subject to control and dependent upon motivation. Both students and teachers may be unaware of minor vision problems or their effects upon reading.

Nevertheless, some combinations of vision skills are believed to be related to reading. Without doubt there is need for further study to clarify the still-existing confusion.


Reading Improvement at the College Level


In designing a reading improvement program at college level, one must be cognizant of the problems faced by reading specialists in such programs. In 1938 Imus, Rothney, and Bear commented that the growth of interest in the problems of reading performance at the college level was indicated by extensive literature in the field, by appointment of








40
individuals to direct remdial reading programs, by an increased number of courses offered, and by the number of meetings of associations devoted to the reading problems. The authors interpreted these facts as indicative of a fad which would soon die, leaving but a small residual effect upon educational procedure.63

Twenty-seven years later this dire prediction has not yet been fulfilled. Fortunately, there has been continued interest on the part of researchers who felt keenly the need for assisting college students to overcome what they believe is a serious problem. An indication of the serious attitude taken by college administrators is the rapid increase of reading programs offered. Shaw reported that during the 1950-60 decade there was an increase of about four hundred colleges offering reading courses.64 Such expenditures of funds and efforts would appear to be based upon proved value rather than fad. McDonald states:

Rapid dovelop~nt of rendial (corrective)
reading courses for college students has been
spurred by the research studies which show a
close relationship between college success (academic grades) and rading abilities as measured
by one or more reading tests.65

Reading improvement at the college level seems to be important for at least three reasons: (I) the ever-increasing load placed upon


63Imus, Rothney, and Bear, o2. cit., pp. 1-2.
6Philip B. Shaw, "College Reading Improvement Programs of the Future," in J. Allen Figurol (ed.), Changina Concepts of Reading Instruction. IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 6 (New York: Scholastic Mgazines, 1961), pp. 48-51.

65Arthur S. McDonald, "Influence of a College Reading Improvement Program on Academic Performance," Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 48 (March, 1957), p. 171.







41
students, (2) the relatively low reading abilities of college students,

and (3) indications that reading courses help students improve their reading skills.

The increasing reading load placed upon a student is an attept both to cover the rapidly expanding volume of literature in his field, and to have him cognizant of other fields. Libraries no longer number their volumes in thousands, but today hold millions of books, journals, papers, theses, bulletins, and microfilms reporting knowledge from all over the world. The task of today's student is to read and utilize them.

Yet the reading skills of today's college students are not

geared to this demand. Sixty-one per cent of Carter's subjects (college freshmen) reported that their high school teachers had provided no opportunity to improve their reading skills; 70 per cent had not been taught how to critically evaluate a writer's bias and use of preconceived ideas; 68 per cent had not been taught how to read a chapter effectively.66 Halfter and Douglass refer to two-thirds of the entering college population as "inadequate" in college-required reading skills.67

Earl Taylor reports that "over 30 per cent of the . students enrolled in colleges and universities of the country either fail or have great difficulty in meeting the demands of this type of environment."68

66Homer L. J. Carter, "Effective Use of Textbooks in the Reading Program," Oscar S. Causey and William Eller (eds.), Starting and Improving College Reading Programs, NRC Eighth Yearbook (Fort Worth, Texas: Christian University Press, 1959), p. 156.
67Irma T. Halfter and Frances M. Douglass, "Inadequate College Readers," Journal of Developmental Reading, Vol. 1 (Summer, 1958), p. 52.
68Earl A. Taylor, Functional Readiness and School Adjustment (New York: Reading and Study Skills Center, 1956), p. 5.








42

The establishment of remedial and developmental reading programs has been an attempt to improve the level of ability of these students. Entwisle, reviewing reports for twenty-two reading improvement and study skills courses, concluded that such courses are usually followed by significant gains. These observed gains tend to persist, and academic performance is improved.69

Brown stated that improvements of from 30 per cent to 35 per cent may be expected in only five weeks of classwork in remedial reading as described in her study:

In general the better readers improved more
than the poorer readers when absolute increases
are considered. Individual cases of impw8vement
may run as high as 250 per cent or more.

Other authors have pointed out that all students do not improve. Earl Taylor states;

Obviously a great many pupils improve, but
a large number cannot adjust satisfactorily in spite of improvement in reading ability. As is
so often the case . the symptom (the reading
difficulty) is given the attention while the
cause is ignored.71

Thus, one of the problems in organizing a reading program is the selection of subjects who are most likely to make improvement in their reading and study skills. Studies indicate some students derive more from instruction than do others, but there is too little information available to suggest the reasons for such differences in progress.


69Doris R. Entwisle, "Evaluatiormof Study-Skills Courses: A
Review," Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 53 (November, 1960), p. 250.

70Louise Brown, "Development of Reading Rate and Comprehension," Journal of Developmental Reading, Vol. 3 (Autumn, 1959), p. 61.

71Sanford E. Taylor, loc. cit.







43

Schneyer suggested that if the reading instructor is aware of the elements associated with the progress or lack of progress in a reading program he may be of help to his students in at least two ways:

First he will be able to select those students
who are most likely to improve their reading and study skills. Second . the instructor may be able to help those students 0o seem least likely
to benefit from instruction.

Some of the elements impeding progress may be amenable to change, and thus poor readers may prepare themselves to improve their skills at a later tim.

Types of courses.-Subjects selected for reading instruction may be considered for either (1) remedial or (2) developmental instruction. Shaw differentiates between these terms (respectively) as "a gap between a student's achievement and potential" and "a gap between a student's developed ability to met the needs of the past and his ability to meet the more challenging demands of the present." Shaw points out that "only a limited segment of the population needs remedial instruction [while] all of a population can benefit from developmental instruction."73 This seems to be in agreement with the thinking of Halfter and Douglass who emphasize the more advanced thinking-reading skills required at the college level.74

72J. Wesley Schneyer, "Factors Associated with the Progress of
Students Enrolled in a College Reading Program," in J. Allen Figurel (ed.), Challenge and Exeriment in Reading, IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 7 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1962), p. 167.

73Shaw, "College Reading Improvement Program . p. 50.

74Halfter and Douglass, o2. cit., pp. 42-53.







44

It may be generally stated that reading improvement programs at the college level have fallen into three categories: (1) those based upon counseling policies, (2) those emphasizing training by mechanical devices, and (3) those centering instruction upon books or prepared materials. Counseling leads to discussions and evaluations of problems, and to teaching of techniques and methods. Machines are utilized for motivation and establishing "mechanical" skills. Textbooks give information on effective reading and learning, and manuals and materials provide exercises.

Recently the trend has been toward a combination of these approaches, utilizing the best features of each to accomplish a particular task. In the present study the reading improvement program is a combination, utilizing counseling and supported by mechanical devices.

Aims of courses.-However, specific results of these courses are seen to vary as widely as the aims for the courses with a great deal of disagreement as to what is desirable. As Heilman has stated:

Educators at the college level have long been
aware of the fact that many students, who otherwise have the ability to do college work, fail
because of inefficient reading habits . . An
extremely slow rate of reading is one of the problems found most frequently among inadequate
readers .75

Thus rate of reading is a skill singled out for improvement by many courses.



75Arthur Heilman, "Rapid Reading: Uses and Abuses," Journal of Developmental Reading, Vol. 5 (Spring, 1962), pp. 158-159.









Reed reports;

A significant increase in rate of reading without change in comprehension or vocabulary [wnich] suggests that rate is an independent factor in the
reading process. Furthermore, rate will increase
as a result of training, and this increase has som=
degree of perinanence.76Heftel reports that students "who show the greatest aptitude are also the initially fastest readers and will probably profit the most from rate training."77 In the same vein, Weeks stated that in his study, "poor students can improve greatly, sometimes the improvement being quite amazing because they were so slow to start with." On the other hand, the fact that better students tend to make even greater strides "supports the oft-presented view that our better students are loafing along unchallenged and are certainly working below capacity."73

Schick cautions that rate is dependent upon several variables including comprehension of materials read.79 Thus Davis writes:

The measurement of rate of work in reading for
various purposes poses many difficult problems.
Number of words read per minute is in itself a

76jamss C. Reed, "Some Effects of Short-term Training in Reading under Conditions of Controlled Criteria, Journal of Educational Psychol,Vol. 47 (May, 1956), 262.

77Daniel L. Heftel, "Gains in Reading Speed Compared with Academic Aptitude and Initial Rate," Journal of Develointal Reading, Vol. 4 (Spring, 1961), p. 211.
7Lewis E. Weeks, Jr., "Speeding up Reading: A Self-Help
Program for College Freshmen,." Journal of Developmental Reading, Vol. 3 (Autumn, 1959), p. 42.

79George B. Schick, "Progress and Poverty in College and Adult Reading Programs," in J. Allen Figurel (ed.), Challenge and Experirnnt In Reading, IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 7 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1962), p. 56.







46

moaningless score. To be meaningful it must be
associated with a score indicating the extent
of comprehension that has been attained.80

One solution to this dilemma was the efficiency index suggested by Brown, obtained by multiplying rate in words-per-minute by comprehension calculated in per cent.

The efficiency index is a usable concept
it tends to smooth out inconsistencies which may
be introduced by systematic errors . when
either speed or comprehension is used separately.81

Spache, however, notes that the concept tends to hide important information which is indicated by the separate scores.8

Reed notes that short-term training in reading does not yield material differences in comprehension as it does in rate.83 Singer suggests that wherever possible the development of skill in power and rate should be alternated. "In agreement with the meaning theory of learning, understanding or power of reading should be developed first, then efficiency or speed of response next."84 Rankin reports that his students in "the Rate-group not only read faster . but they also improved as much in vocabulary, comprehension, and total reading proficiency as


80Frederick B. Davis,, "Ifeasurement of Improvement in Reading
Skill Courses," in Emery P. Bliesmer and Ralph C. Staiger (eds.), Problems. Programs, and Projects in College-Adult Reading, NRC Eleventh Yearbook (Milwaukee: Reading Center, Marquette University, 1961), p. 39.
81Brown, 2. cit., pp. 59-61.

82George D. Spache in a personal conference.

83Reed, 2R. cit.

84Harry Singer, "Substrata Factor Theory of Reading: Theoretical Design for Teaching of Reading," in J. Allen Figurel (ed.), Challenge and Experiment in Reading, IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 7 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1962), p. 230.







417

the Comprehension-group .... Ile explains that poor comprehension may result fTm many factors including slow reading.85

The important effect of purpose in reading was discussed by Davis. Quoting studies which indicated the variation in rate resulting from change in purpose, he stated: "The measurement of rate of reading vast be made under conditions that unambiguously define, the purpose for which reading is being carried on."86 Davis concluded that techniques comonly uzad for maasux'ng changes in rate of reading brought about by

reading skill courses have been inadequate for the purpose.87

As has been indicated, rate and comprehension are inseparable in the reading process. Although they may be looked upon as separate,88 this view is pointing out that the relationship varies mathematically according to a reader's purpose.89 Rankin has reviewed studies showing correlations ranging from -.47 to .92; such variation is to be expected in the light of flexibility of reading purpose .90

Still many authors debate the value of reading improvement

courses emphasizing rate or comprehension singly. However, the position



85Earl F. Rankin, Jr., "Sequential Emphasis upon Speed and Comprehension in a College Reading Improvement Program," Journal of Develcimental Reading, Vol. 7 (Autumn, 1963), p. 53.

'Tavis, o. cit., pp. 30-31, 36.

871bid., p. 36.
8 ,eed, lo cit.

89Davis, 2. cit... pp. 30-40.

90Rankin, M. cit., pp. 47-50.









taken in the present study is that suggested by Pauk91 and Spache and Berg92 that the student should strive for flexibility, that is, for control of rate and comprehension as required by purpose.

Mechanical dovices.-Tho use of mschanical devices as aids in reading improvement programs has generated a large number of studies. Early devices such as the Metronoscope and Harvard Series of Reading Training Films led to the development of "package" programs. The Perceptoscope and the Controlled Reader are examples of these.93 Miller, reporting practices of two hundred thirty-three colleges, indicated the most-used devices were reading accelerators, the tachistoscope, and films. The Controlled Reader, relatively net at the time, was used zct often for training, but also for motivation and group drill.94

Some of the values of controlled reading were =ntioned by

Earl Taylor. These included improvement of directional attack and return sweep, reducing regressions, broadeninv the span of recognition, and



92Walter J. Pauk, "Basic Skills Needed in College Reading," in J. Allen Figural (ed.), Readirg for Effective Living, IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 3 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1958), p. 44.

92George D. Spacho and Paul C. Berg Better rl-d-fnrg for Businos (New York: ThonnsY. Crowell Co., 1958), pp. 16-17.

93Ed d 1. Fulker, "A Decade of Progress in College and Adult Reading Iiproveznt," in Oscar S. Causey (ed.), Significant Elcments in College and Adult Rzadiz Inrovemnnt, NRC Seventh Yearbook (Fort Worth, Texas: Christian University Press, 1958), pp. 44-48.

94Lyle L. Miller, "Current Use of Workbools and Mechanical Aids,' in Oscar S. Ca usoy and William Eller (eds.), Startig and Imroriz- College ReadinS Prozrg s, NRC Eighth Yearbook (Fort Worth, Texas: Christian University Press, 1959), p. 74.







49
thereby reducing fixation time. In general, basic visual skills were learned and could be developed and improved through use of mechanical devices.95

Concern regarding overemphasis on mechanical devices is expressed by Heilman. He stated:

In the majority of reports mechanical devices
are not appendages . . Rather they seem to be
close to the heart of the program a major or
essential part.9

Earl Taylor feels this indicates misuse of the devices by clinics, since it is recognized that an instrument "can neither teach reading nor replace the teacher."97

In the present study, the Controlled Reader was utilized to

establish the experience of rapid reading with comprehension by overcoming caution, establishing confidence in dealing with vague and indistinct portions of words, and perhaps by improving visual discrimination, as suggested by Spache.98

Interrelation of reading skills and other variables.-Since there is a possibility of relating results of the present study with variables other than reading skills, it is appropriate to consider

95Earl A. Taylor, "The Fundamantal Reading Skil!" Journal Developmental Readin, Vol. 1 (Summer, 1958), p. 26.

96Arthur Heilman, "Now Challenges and Old Proble=- in CollegeAdult Reading, in E=ry P. Bliesmer and Ralph C. Staiger (eds.), Problms, Program and Projects in College-Adult Reading, NRC Eleventh Yearbook (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Reading Center, Marquette University, 1962), p. 212.

97Taylor, "The Fundamental Reading Skil]4" . p. 29.
98George D. Spache, "A Rationale for Mechanical Methods of Improving Reading," in Oscar S. Causey (ed.), Significant Elements in College and Adult Reading Improvement, NRC Seventh Yearbook (Fort Worth, Texas: Christian University Press, 1958), pp. 126-127.







50
findings of other researchers as to these interrelations. Heftol coapared gains in reading rate with academic aptitude and initial rate. After an eight-week, sixteen-session reading improvement course, college undergraduates greatly increased both rate and coprehension of reading material. The rank-order correlation between gain in rarrative rate and academic aptitude was r = .65, p = .01, and between gain in study-type rate and academic aptitude was r = .45, p = .05. Students who ware initially the fastest readers gained most; initially slouest readers gained least. Academic aptitude is =asured by a predictive index, that is, Oa cobination of weighted scores from the freshman guidance examinations which correlated highest with academic success."99

From his study McDonald concluded that progress in reading was related to academic success since "students who completed the Cornell Reading Program significantly surpassed subjects in the control group in regard to cumulative grade point average for the three semesters of the study .. *lOO

In a study of an entire college freshman class, Vinyard and

Massey found that "the linguistic skills of vocabulary, paragraph comprehension, and spelling are related substantially with intelligence. Each of these variables is also related substantially with scholastic success." Much of the strength of the relationships present among these linguistic skills and between the linguistic skills and scholarship was believed by the authors to be due to their common saturation with intelligence.


99Heftel, op. cit., pp. 210-211.
1OOMcDonald, op. cit.., p. 170.







51
Removal of the influence of intelligence "reduces to insignificance the relation between . scholastic proficiency and speed of paragraph comprehension." There remained a moderate relation between vocabulary arn speed of paragraph comprehension.101 These findings were corroborated in later studies.I02

As one might expect, the relationships among reading and nonreading variables were found to be complicated by their interaction. Bloomer demonstrated that students whose intelligence was greater than their reading ability did not improve their reading skills to the extent

of students whose initial reading ability matched their intelligence. He suggested these high capacity students do not feel as sharply the need to read, tending to use other techniques for classroom success.103

Bloomsr s data also demonstrated that while variables other than reading were affected by college reading programs and that "they change concomitantly with reading test gains and produce an increment in academic achievement, they are not related to reading test gains." He recom~nds a re-examiration of programs to determine variables contributing to academic success.104



101Edwin E. Vinyard and Robert B. Bailey, 'Interrelations of
Reading Ability, Listening Skills, Intelligence and Scholastic Achievement,'" Journal of Developmental Reading, Vol. 3 (Spring, 1960), p. 178.

10 Edwin E. Vinyard and Harold W. Massey, "The Intorrolation of Certain Linguistic Skills and Their Relationship with Scholastic Achieve-nt When Intelligence is Ruled Constant," Journal of Educational
Psychology, Vol. 48 (aY, 1957), pp. 270-286.

103Richard H. Bloomer, "The Effects of a College Reading Program on a Random Sampling of Freshmen," Joumnal of Develop-mental Reading, Vol. 5 (Winter, 1962), p. 117.

104Ibid.







52
General trends which appeared in his data are reported by

Kann. Students high in aptitude or high in reading level (comprohension and vocabulary) did not improve in reading level. None of the variables (college aptitude, study habits, initial reading performanco) was related to improvement in reading rate, nor did improvomnt in one reading skill contribute appreciably to improvement in any other reading skill.05 The effects of motivation, interest, and personality are pointed out by Spacho.106

One may summarize the studies of reading improvement at college level by stating that (1) courses have deonstrated their value,

(2) the trend is toward a combined method of instruction, (3) results are geared to purpose and method of instruction, (4) rate of reading can be improved relatively easily, but there is less certainty of ir:proving other reading skills, and (5) there seems to be confusion about the interrelationships arong increase in reading skills and other factors generally related to student success.

In the present study the interrelationships of reading skills (rate and comprehension), academic achievement, verbal ability and mathematical ability (SAT), academic potential(PGA) and vision skills are studied.





105Richard A. Kamman, IAptitudo, Study Habits, and Reading
Improvement," Journal of Developmental Reading, Vol. 6 (Winter, 1963), pp. 85-86.
106George D. Spache, "Clinical Work with College Students," College-Adult Reading Instruction, IRA Perspectives in Reading No. I (Newark, Delaware, 1964), pp. 138-141.










Factor Aralynis of Vision and Readin7.


As studies of vision have increased in dcpth, particularly by those emhasizing the dynamics of vision, it has becoz3 more obvious that many variables wore involved. And in studies relating vision and reading, researchers found confusing interaction of the many variables. For this reason, reported results of these studies hava created a maze of conflicting ideas and beliefs.

As Cattell has observed, in the social sciences:

The researcher is presented with so bewildering a multitude of possible variables that unless
he factorizes to find the inherent organization
an immense waste of effort could (and does)
take placo.107

Thus somo authors have attempted to gain a better understanding of the variables and their interaction by factor analysis of their data. In this way, effort has been made to dete-.ne functionally independent variables and observe their dogree of interaction.

Vision skills.--Unfortunately, there have been few tudies

which report factor analysis of vision skills. Studying the vision of adults, Cook reported a factor analysis of acuity and phoria measuroments obtained by standard clinical techniqus and by commercial screening devices. He concluded that retinal resolution (acuity) is measuredas well as or bette; by screening tests than by wall charts; lateral phoria at far-point is measured more reliably by screening instruments than by the Maddox Rod tests, a clinical device. These conclusions clearly support the use of commercial screening devices such as the Ortho-Rater.

107Raymend B. Cattell, Factor Analysis: An Introduction and Manual for the Pscholorist and Social Scientist (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1952), p. 16.







54

Cook concluded that acuity and depth tests had the following contributing factors: (1) retinal resolution, (2) lens accczodation,

(3) form (letter) perception, (4) resistance to interference, and

(5) depth perception. Phoria easureznts indicated the following factors: (1) lateral phoria, a general factor measured best by screening devices, (2) near lateral phoria (converging efficiency), as measured by screening tests, (3) hyperphoria (vertical phoria and (4) far vertical phoria rest (a change noted on retest).108

Robinson and Huelsman studied the vision of elementarj school children as masured by eighteen vision screening devices. Factor analysis of test scores indicated vision functions were best measured by subtests of various test batteries, but the Ortho-Rater tests were among those with the highest lcadigs.o09

Four factors related to acuity identified by highest loadings were (1) acuity, (2) differentiation between far and =,ar acuity tests,

(3) differentiation between performances by right eye, left eye, both eyes, and (4) an instrument factor. A single factor dopth was eatractd from measures of depth perception, Vaile three other factors wore



1O8Ellsworth B. Cook, "A Factor Analysis of Acuity and Phoria Measurements Obtained by Commercial Screening Devices and by Standard Screening Methods,' Research Project W.6-003-Oll (X-493), Report No. 4 (New London, Connecticut: United States Medical Research Laboratory, U. S. Naval Submrine Base, 1948), in Helen M. Robinson and Charles B.
Huelsman, Jr. (eds.), "Visual Efficiency and Progress in Learning to Read," Clinical Studies ir Readirg I, Supplemental Educational Monograph No. 77 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1953), p. 37.

109Robinson and Huelsman, p. cit., pp. 55-59.









considered artifacts. Phoria factors ware not naiaod because of the nature of the data.11O It has been previously noted that both vertical and lateral phoria functions are curvilinear.

Despite the fact that Robinson's subjects wore oleomentary

school children and Cook's subjects wore adults, important similarities appeared in their data. Three of the four acuity factors were similar, while a fourth was dissimilar because Cook included in his study tests of form perception not utilized by Robinson and Huels=an.

As indicated in Table 2, both authors identified a "general acuity" factor, called retinal resolution by Cook. The second acuity factor was related to differences between far-point and near-point testing, which Cook associated Oith .acconmcdation. The fourth acuity factor seemed to be related to use of an instruzznt for testing, and Cook considered the factor as identifying a resistance to interference.

Robinson and Huolszan's third acuity factor was related by the authors to differences in performances a mong right eye, both eyes, and left eye. This has been referred to by other authors as anisomatropia,111 acuity imbalance, and fusion aiding,112 and acuity difference.l13 Actually the factor might involve several visual problems, including

(1) differences in lens function of the two eyes, such as =yopia and



bibd, pp. 56-58.
"Aar! A. Taylor, Eyc, Visual Abnoralitios and the Fudr ntal Readiy Sk.lls(New York: Reading and Study Skills Center, 1959), p. 101.
112Kelly, g2. cit., p. 5

113Spache and Tillman, 2. ci., p. 106.







56

hyporopia, (2) differences in size and/or shape of inages of the two eyes, whether because cf anisokonia or astigzticn, (3) interference with fusion, and (4) suppression.


TABLE 2

COMARISON OF VISUAL FACTOPS IDITIFIED BY
COOK AND BY ROBISOI1 AND HU EJS I


Factor Cook Robinson and Huelsyn


Acuity factor A retinal resolution acuity Acuity factor B lens accoirodation differentiation between far-near acuity tests

Acuity factor C form (letter) per- differentiation between ception right, left, both eyes Acuity factor D resistance to inter- instrument factor ference

Depth factor depth perception depth

Vertical phoria A hyparphoria Vertical phoria B far vertical phoria rest Lateral phoria A lateral phoria Lateral phorna B near p:horia lateral



In both studies there uas a factor related to depth perception. Robinson and Huols-n declined to nana factors in phoria masurezents, presumably because of the curvilinear nature of the relationships. Cook, it should be noted, indicated two factors in each of the planes of zasurement.

Reading esills.-There has been a greater confusion of variables in studies of reading. Studies in depth have uncovered a variety








57
of variables, and the confusion as to their interaction is evident in related literature. Again there is need to isolate and delineate the variables.

The traditional factor analysis in the area of reading has been designated to determine the factors in reading tests. Generally subjects are given a battery of reading tests, and from the intercorrelations of scores on the many subtests the factors are extracted which account for the variability.

Langsam conducted a factor analysis of reading scores of college women on a battery of reading tests. From the twenty-one variables, five factors were extracted and interpreted as involving (1) ideas and meaning, (2) perception, (3) word fluency, (4) numbers, and (5) seeing relationships .114

A comprehensive battery of reading tests was administered to one hundred college froshmsn by Hall and Robinson. Their analysis yielded six factors. From the loadings of these factors the authors concluded that comprehension, rate of accuracy, and verbal knowledge represent three separate aspects of reading.115

An analysis of scores earned by one hundred forty-one high

school students on a comprehensive battery of reading tests was mdo by


Romalind S. Langsam, "A Factoral Analysis of Reading Ability," Journal of Experimental Education, Vol. 10 (September, 1941), p. 62.

-15dilliam E. Hall and Francis P. Robinson, "An Analytical
Approach to the Study of Reading Skills," Journal of Educational Ps.cholo Vol. 36 (October, 1945), p. 441.








58
Crook. An oblique rotation of the intercorralations yielded (1) a verbal factor for power of reading and (2) a gramar factor for speed.i16

Singer reported five factors from a factor analysis of thirtysix tests. It should be noted, however, that his study varied from the traditional in that tests were selected as appropriate to a given definition of reading. Of the five factors extracted, two involved reading co=prehension and one involved rate of reading.l17

Holmes and Singer broadened their study to include a nunber of domains hypothesized as being relevant to the reading process. Of the eight factors extracted from fifty-four tests, four were related to reading. One was identified as a "verbal knowledge and symbolic reasoning factorit another was a "phonetic word-structure factor.* Two perceptual factors were identified, one related to listening and the other to visual-verbal perception. Whon these factors were related to speed and power as separate tasks, only on the first factor were there significant loadings.118

The eighth factor from the Holmes and Singer study was called

a mechanical interest factor, and is definitely related to Cook's "resistance to interference" factor, and to Robinson's "instrumsnt' factor.

ll6Frances E. Crook, "InterrlationshipBAmong a Group of Language Art Tests," Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 51 (December, 1957), pp. 305-317.
l7Harry Singer, Conceptual Ability in the Substrata Factor Theory of Readiir (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, California, 1961.
38Jack A. Holmes and :arry Siuger, The Substrata Factor Theory: Substrata Factor Difference Underlving Readincy Ability In Kno~nm Gro,3
(Berkeley, California: mimeographed at the University of California, 1961), pp. 258-259.








59

Although the studies described have pointed out relatively

independent factors in vision and in reading, there has boon little effort to relate these. Robinson ana Huolsman utilized multiple-group factor analysis with data from the fifty-nine tests of vision and reading which ware selected. This analysis resulted in the selection of seven groups identified as (1) reading, (2) depth, (3) far acuity,

(4) near acuity, (5) suppression, as measured by binocular reading,

(6) fusion, and (7) vertical phoria.1l9

These data illustrate the reduction in numbers of variables through discovery of their inherent organization as recommended by Cattell.

The experimenter who chooses his variables
on mere hunches nay find that in his blindness
he has taken two or more variables which are
really different manifestations of the same
thing 120

Through factor analysis it is hoped tbt the more pertinent variables will be isolated.

There is clearly soma agreement in vision factors isolated in the studies by Cook and by Robinson, and among authors who have isolated factors in reading. Confusion of factors isolated is seen to be in part related to the tests used to gather data, and to the method of handling data. Confusion has been related to limitations of early methods of factorization. It is believed that these limitations are overcome in the present study.

19Robinson and Huelsman, op. cit., p. 61.

120Cattell, op. cit., p. 16.








60

fl-cause of the diff'iculty of interpretation of the relationships of the factors reported and the reading skills, the present study has been designed to minimize the number of factors in this area. A siznle reading test was administered, with subtests measuring comprehension and rate of reading. These skills have been found to be relatively separate functions of reading.


Surmary


The screening of vision in an educational setting has developed parallel to an understanding of the reading process and its relation to vision. In C-e latter half of the nineteenth century emphasis was upon visual acuity, since l was recognized that a student must be able to see well enough to differentiate letters. Screening for this purpose was adequately accomplished through the use of the Snellen Chart.

As experimentors understood the movements of the eyes during

reading, emphasis began to be placed upon more subtle vision problems which might interfere with reading. Some authors emphasized seeing as a learned function, and recommended screening for prevention as well as for correction of vision and reading problems.

It was not until the stress of modern education upon the

vision mechanism became apparent in the performance of "good readers" that real emphasis was placed upon visual screening. Still, the basic differences in philosophy between vision specialists emphasizing mechanics and function of the eyes has created an impasse in the development of an adequate vision screening method for education.







61

Specialists from related fields have continued to point out

the need for corprohensive visual screening. Recently these recomndations have specified educationally prognostic tests of vision rather than tests designed to predict clinical findings.

It is primarily upon the relationship between vision and reading, that the educator's interest is based. Studies have shown the development of reading affected by the development of vision in students. Whether at primary or college level, both good and poor readers have vision problems likely to affect their reading efficiency.

But the intricacy of the relation between reading and vision has become apparent in the conflicting reports from many researchers. The multitude of variables involved, as well as their interaction under varying circumstances, has led to considerable confusion among specialists of all fields.

A promising method for discovering the functionally independent variables in vision and reading, as well as their degree of interaction, is factor analysis. So= progress has been made in extracting vision factors and reading factors. Unfortunately, few studies have related the two groups of factors.

The present study is an attempt to isolate vision factors in one commercial vision: screening battery, relate these factors to improvement in vision skills as the result of a reading improvement course, and note the effect of uncorrected vision problems. Other factors generally associated with student success will also be related to improvement in reading skills and to vision factors.













CHAPTER III


PRELIM INARY STUDIES


The author's interest in vision has developed over a period of years, and includes a Master's thesis in the area of visual discrinination. Interest in the relationship between vision and reading came about through the experience of working with school children.

While studying the educational problems of school children,

particularly at the eleentary level, the author was impressed with the frequency of unresolved reading problems. All too often a catch-all label such as "emotional blocku or "brain damage* was attached to an otherwise capable student who did not achieve as expected in reading. In an effort to determine reasons for these failures, the author sought assistance from various souoes including vision spocialists. The confusion of ideas in the area indicated a need for study to determine more eictly the relationship between vision and reading. While visual problems could not explain all roading problomo, there was no doubt soon influence which was not being considered in educational diagnosis.

A review of the literature emphasized that reading problems

are present among both good and poor readers. Depending upon the severity of the vision problem, both educators and students might retain


1David E. Edgar, '"Visual Discrimination: Unequal Variation of Critical Comonents of Visual Stimuli" (unpublished Master's thesis, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, 1953).

62







63

WaWare of the effect upon efficiency of learning. Obvicuiy many students do succeed and mnny do fail, but the role of vision remained unkno'n in this division.

In the author's opinion, vision seed to be a selective factor in the success of students throughout their school careers. Vision seenzd to affect a student's success in beginning reading, his adaptation to the academic environment, and his consequent attainment of an educational level appropriate to his ability.


Prolimirary Study A

In the sumer of 1963 a group of one hundred eight students

participated in an eight-week program at Stetson University. The course was designed to be an introduction to the demands of college studies. The students were of two levels: (1) high school graduates not yet accepted by a university because of poor academic achievezmnt, and (2) high school juniors of outstanding achievur.nt who were being considered for early admission to the University.

The program offered these students uas etromly flexible in terms of courses taken, whether or not credit was desired, and whether or not admission to the University was desired. One requirement for all students was participation in the Reading Improvement Course. This course consisted of lectures, workbook exercises, and the Controlled Reader program, HsC Level.2

The Controlled Reader program consisted of forty filmstrips which presented to the group narrative reading materials at the high

2Educational Development Laboratoroeg Inc., Huntington, New York, 1958.









school-college level of rading difficulty. The rate of presentation was determined by the instructor, using as a criterion the successful comprehension of materials by the majority of students. Co.-rehcnsion was =-asured i~mdiatoly follcwing each filmstrip presentation by means of a standard ten-item mltiplo-choice test covering min ideas and details.

A small number of students consistently failed, that is,

anst:red less than 70 per cent of the test items, half or more of the daily comprehension tests accompanying the filmstrips. Investigation revealed that these students h"d scored low on the initial reading teat, and that so=- complained of vi ;on symptoms while reading. It was hypothesized that vision problems might be a cause of minimal reading progress.

Visual screening, using the Keystone Telebinocular, indicated that only four of the twenty-five students tested were able to pass all vision tests. This incidence of vision difficulty is much greater than

one might expect in a college freshman population, and indicates a definite relation between vision problems and lack of progress in a machine-oriented reading improvement program.

The ezphasis upon mehine-orientation is deliberate. The

average gain in vocabulary and rate for the "vision problem!' group, as measured by a standardized reading test,3 was greater than that for the entire student group. Seemingly the reading problem was associated with comprehension or rate of reading material presented by xachine at far3The Nelson-Denny Reading Test, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston,
Massachusetts.







65
point. Obviously this tentative conclusion cannot be suported, since visual screening vas not carried out for the entire g-oup.

Table 3 indicates the nu-or of students who failed each Tolebinocular subtest. Analysis of the vision problc of those students indicates the majority of failures were on the fusion subtest. Mc'i than one-third of the students filed one or more phoria subtests, but few students had uncorrected acuity problen.. It is interesting to note that vision problems ranged in difficulty from use of old proscriptions to complete suppression of one eye because of vertical phoria.


TABLE 3

NIJNBER OF STUDENTS FAILING EACH TELEBINOCULAR SUBTEST (N=25)


Phoria Acuity

Vertical, Far 3 Right, Far 2 Vertical, Near 3 Right, Near 0 Lateral, Far 3 Loft, Far 0 Lateral, Near 9 Left, Near 0

Fusion Stereopsis

Fusion, Far 10 Stereopsis i
Fusion, Near 20



Prolinr-ary Study B


In the s==r of 1964 a grou? of thirty-eight secondary students frcm the Gainesville, Florida, area public schools participated in a reading improve-snt program at ths University of Florida Reading Laboratory and Clinic. The students attended one-hour sessions two afternoons per week for six weeks, but were allowed to remain in the Clinic as long as they desired to utilize the equipment.







66

The subjects ranged in grade level from ninth to twelfth grades. All work was individual and voluntary. The instructor =da recoandations on the bsis of prc-lests and remined avaiable for consultation. Although roco ndations toro =do, no effort waz :do to ensure completion of an assignatnt, and students were often observed doing work which appealed to thez oreo

The course could include assignzents in texts on reading and study skills, and exercises in reading and vocabulary workbooks. There were exercises in prepared folders in the areas of Rapid Reading, Reading in the Content Fields, Spelling, Word Study, and Work Habits. Also available were the SRA Reading Laboratory4 and the EDL Controlled Reader programs for junior high and high school-college levels.

An attempt was zade to pradict failure of vision screening

tests by utilizing the follc'dng criteria: (1) beginning reading level,

(2) beginning rate, and izprov ,nt in comprehension and rate on the Controlled Reader, and (3) .u ,r of sessions on the Controlled Reader. Beginning reading level was asured b tha Diagnostic Reading Test, Survey Section Form F,5 and :udzd zasures of rate of rcading, story coprehension, paragraph conprohensionr, and vocabulary. Beginning rate c the Controlled Reader was assigned by the instructor on the basis of the reading pre-test score.




4Science Research Associates, Chicago, 1957.
5Comnttee on Diagnostic Reading Tests, Inc., Mountain Eome, North Carolina, 1950.







67
Thirty-one ox the students w3r available for visual screening with the Bausch-Lomb Ortho-Rator and the Spache Binocular Reading Test.6

Predictions were made by the author without knowledge of visual screening results. The results of the predictions are presented in Table 4.


TABLE 4

PREDICTIONS OF VISUAL PROBLD WITH ACTUAL
FAILURES OF VISUAL SCRZNIG TESTS
No test One o =re Quastionable

Prediction failed ktS faftled vision T-aI

Correct 16 1 2 19 Incorrect 4 5 12 Total 20 4 7 31



In general, the predictions w ere incorrect more often than if visual problems were ignored. Predictions were correct 60 per cent of the time, when vision problons ware considered, but would have been correct 67 per cent of the ti=3 in f visual problems were ignored. It was predicted that thirteen students would fail vision screening tests; four students actually failed, and seven students had questiozablo scores on one or more vision tests.

Further analysis of the data revealed the following variables which affected the predictions:

(I) Age and grade of students, which determined
preovious training in reading and affected


6Keystone View Co., Meadville, Pennsylvania, 1955.






68

level of slill dviop-nt, thus the subject's abilities to utilize filstrips of the difficulty used;

(2) Students controlled their oim work which, when
related to interest, attitudes, and persozlity,
seriously affected the reer of filriztrips
read and amount of worL- done;

(3) Filmstrip projection wzs at near-point, requiring consideration of different vision variables
frcm those used when far-point projection is
presented;

(4) Exerience of the clinician with specific populations seriously affects the quality of the
predictions.


Discussion of the Prelirinary Studieq


These studies pointed out several problems involved in the

relationship between vision and reading. In Study A, students wero able to show improvement on a standardized reading test despite failure to show improvement on daily e=rcises using the Controlled Reader. This implies that vision problems may interfere with certain types of reading activities and not with others. Students my also have been able to control vision problems during testing which are relatively minor but which interfere with daily reading activities.

It is sig ificazt to note, however, that college students

exhibit all levels of vision problems. Two subjects were unaware that

they ware suppressing the vision of one eye; other students were "getting by with prescriptions long out of date and inadequate. Soms students wore contact lenses for cosmetic purposes despite resulting diplopia or distracting discomfort. But most students with vision problems were







69

uniawro of thair possible offcet upLo their academic progress, and --ore unaware of any solution to the diloe.

Study B pointed out the groat need for careful e:qrirznta1 design in studying the relationship botwon vision and read.ing. The exparimznter must select subjects carefully, standardize the mthod of instruction, and utilize a refined statistical procedure.

Most important, hover, is the indication of need for basic research to identify both vision variables and reading variables, and to discover the degree and type of interrelation among them.













C!EATER IV


DESIGN OF Ta =E?-aL-T


Briefly, this study is designed to discover (1) the relationships which ezist between vision factors derived from a battery of vision screening tests, and change in reading skills resulting from

reading improvezent instruction, and (2) the effect of uncorrected vision problems upon these relationships.

From the entering freshman class at Stetson University one hundred eighty subjects were chosen, on the basis of relatively low reading skills, to participate in the present study. These subjects were given a reading test to discover initial level of reading skills. A reading improve=znt co' se .-s than i-ven to all subjects. A reading post-test indicated change in levels of reading skills as a result of

the course. Individual tests of vision skills were =asurad using the Ortho-Rater.

The present chapter uill describe (1) the subjects and the method of selection of these subjects, (2) the tests selected and the administration of these tests, (3) the Reading Improvement Course given to all subjects, and (4) treatment of the data.













The subjects of this study entered Stetson University, Deland,

Florida, as freshmen in the fall of 1964. The entire entering freshman class was given the Cooperative English Tests, Form IC (college level)1 as a part of the regular freshman orientation procedure. A tentative selection of two hundred thirteen students was made on the basis of a cutoff score of one hundred sixty-five on the total Reading Comprehension scale. This was approximately the lower 40 per cent of the freshman class in reading skills, as selected by the Cooperative English Tests, Reading Comprehension section.

Those students who were selected as low in reading skills were notified of their scores, and rank in class with relation to reading skills. The Reading Improvemont Course was announced, and the students advised that they could be required to attend. However, a second reading test was to be administered, and students who scored high and who

did not desire to attend the Reading Improvement Course could be dismissed by the course instructor.

The tentatively selected students were then given the Diagnostic Reading Test, Survey Section: Upper Level Form A.2 One hundred eighty students were finally selected for the Reading Improvement Course on the basis of relatively low scores on the Cooperative Reading Test, relatively low scores on the Diagnostic Reading Test, and willingness to


'Educational Testing Service, Cooperative Test Division (Princeton, New Jersey, 1960).
2Committee on Diagnostic Reading Tests, Inc., Mountain Home, North Carolina, 1950.







72

attend the course. The one hundred eighty subjects selected consisted of eighty-five males and seventy-eight females. Their average age was eighteen; average Verbal Score on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)

was 78.3649 (raw score) and average Quantitative Score on the SAT was 92.6041 (raw score).3

Of the one hundred eighty students who began the Reading Improvement Course, one hundred sixty-three became the subjects for the present study because complete data were available. Eighty-five were males and seventy-eight were females. Seventeen students could not be used as subjects because they either did not attend a sufficient number of class periods, did not take the visual screening test, or were absent when the reading post-test was administered.

Tests

As has been previously mentioned, the Cooperative English Test is a regular part of the freshm n orientation proceedings at Stetson University. These tests were recorded on IBM answer sheets, and machine

scored and checked. Scores were punched on the individual pupil data cards, which were the source of information for this study. Initial selection of students lw in reading skills was made on the basis of the Total Reading Comprehension score.

The Cooperative English Test is recognized as a well-conceived and well-executed test "within the limits of its objectives."4

3College Entrance Exmination Board, Scholastic Aptitude Test, administered by Educational Testing Service (Princeton, New Jersey, 1963).

4J. B. Stroud, "Reading Comprehension: Cooperative English
Test," Review No. 497, in Oscar K. Buros (ed.), The Third Mental Measurements Yearbook (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 19,49), p. 526.







73
Reliability is reported as better than .90 for total score by Bear who stated:

These are among the besttestj for measuring reading comprehension of the usual types of
subject matter but should be supplemented by som other test if measures of the pupils' usual rates
are desired.5

The second reading test administered was the Diagnostic Reading Test, Survey Section: Upper Level Form A. This test was designed to give a relatively brief indication of reading abilities. Tho time required for administration of all three subtests is forty minutes, with Story Comprehension requiring fifteen minutes, Vocabulary requiring ten minutes, and Paragraph Comprehension requiring fifteen minutes.

The Story Comprehension subtest consists of a story in the

area of biological science, to be read by the student within seven minutes. Rate of Reading is measured by noting the number of lines read in the first three minutes. Students are then allowed eight minutes to answer twenty multiple-choice questions about the content. Number of correct answers is used as the measure of Story Comprehension. Rate of Reading is computed by converting number of lines read in three minutes to words-per-minute, by =-ans of a table provided.

The second subtest of the Diagnostic Reading Test is a measure of Vocabulary. The subtest consists of sixty items, wherein the student is required to fit one of five given words to a given definition. Relative ranking of the students by raw score on this subtest was used as a


5Robert M. Bear, Comprehension: Cooperative English Test," Review No. 497, in Oscar Buros (ed.), The Third Mental Measurements Yearbook (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1949), pp. 525-526.







74

diagnostic measure, but the scores otherwise formed no part of the data. This decision was made because the Vocabulary subtest is seen to be highly affected by rate of reading.6

The third subtest of the Diagnostic Reading Test is a measure of Paragraph Comprehension. The student is required to read four selections consisting of one or more paragraphs. Each selection is followed by five multiple-choice questions, which test the reader over the content of the paragraph(s). Number of correct answers from the possible twenty items is used as a meat;ure of Paragraph Comprehension.

As has been previously noted, the Diagnostic Reading Test,

Form A, was used as one criterion for selection of students to participate in the Reading Improvea.nt Course. This test also served as a reading pre-test, that is, a raasure of the levels of reading skills which each subject had attained prior to participating in the Reading Improvement Course.

The Diagnostic Reading Test, Survey Section, For D, was used as a reading post-test, that is, as a measure of the levels of reading skills for each subject after participating in the Reading Improvement

Course. The differences between the raw scores on the relative subtests we used as a measure of change in levels of reading skills as a result of participation in the Reading Improvement Course.

Turnbull reported that the rate and comprehension subtests of the Diagnostic Reading Test, Survey Section, have a reliability of about .80, while the Vocabulary subtest has a reliability of about .85. He


6Reed, loc. cit.








75

summarizes his comments by stating, "the Survey Section stands already as one of the better instruments for the evaluation of over-all reading ability."7 Weitz cautioned that the subtest scores of the Survey Section of the Diagnostic Reading Test might not be sufficiently reliable for individual diagnosis.8

The battery of twelve tests used to screen vision was designed as Occupational Vision Tests to be used with the Ortho-Rater.9 This battery of tests was developed and validated by the Bausch and Lomb

Scientific Bureau in collaboration with the Statistical Laboratory for Vision Tests at Purdue University. The standardized vision tests were then used as a basis for routine and special studies of vision in industry.10

As previously noted in Chapter II, the Ortho-Rater test battery is highly reliable and valid when compared with other stereoscopic vision screening instruments.11 For this reason, educators and clinicians




?William W. Turnbull, "Diagnostic Reading Tests," Review
No. 531, in Oscar K. Buros (ed.), The Fourth Mental Measurennts Yearbook (Highland Park, New Jersey: The Gryphon Press, 1953), p. 572.
8enry Weitz, "Diagnostic Reading Tests," Review No. 531, in Oscar K. Buros (ed.), The ourth YentgI Measuremnts Yearbook (Highland Park: The Gryphon Press, 1953), p. 575.

Bausch and Lomb Optical Company, Rochester, New York, 1944.

lOirt, loc. cit.
llHerry A. Imus, "Testing Vision in Industry," Reprinted from the Transactions American Academy of Ophthalmolozy and Otolaryngoloy (January February, 1949), p. 2 of reprint.







76

becam interested in its use as a vision screening device in schools. Bausch-Loe. recommended a School Profile for use with adult students which was identical with norms for individuals doing clerical and administrative tasks in industry.

Robinson and Huelsman, in a thorough study of cozzarcial visual screening devices for use with school children, found the tests presented by the Ortho-Rater to be among the best measuring devices for those visual abilities they are intended to measure. This conclusion was based upon a factor analysis of fifty-nine tests of vision.12

Each of the twelve tests presented by the Ortho-Rater is designed to represent one aspect of visual performance or of visual skill. The skills measured and the sequence of presentation are listed below: F:7-Point Near-Point

1. Phoria, Vertical 8. Acuity, Both 2. Phoria, Lateral 9. Acuity, Right
3. Acuity, Both 10. Acuity, Left
4. Acuity, Right 11. Phoria, Vertical
5. Acuity, Left 12. Phoria, Lateral
6. Depth
7. Color Discrimination

Tests at far-point are at the optical equivalent of eight meters (about twenty-six feet) from the subject; tests at near-point are at the optical equivalent of fourteen inches from the subject.

There are six tests of acuity, all of which are administered without closure or occlusion of either eye, by means of separate, but fusible, test fields. The three acuity test slides are duplicated, except for target location, at far-point and near-point. "These tests

12Helen M. Robinson and Charles B. Huelsman, Jr., "Visual Efficiency and Progress in Learning to Read," in Helen 1. Robinson (ed.), Clinical Studies in Reading II (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953), pp. 40-50.







77

classify subjects finely at both high and low levels of acuity. Approxi=ately normal distributions may be expected on all of these acuity tests.I'3 Scores on these subtests range from zero through fifteen. Vision acuity equivalents of the levels of these tests are indicated in Appendix B.

There are four tests of phoria, two presented at far-point, and two at near-point. Each of the tests of phoria extends from one extrems through the normal to the other extrem. The tests of vertical phoria are calibrated in steps of one-third prism diopter in the midrange, and one-half prism diopter towrd both ends of the range. The test of lateral phoria is calibrated in units of one and one-half prism diopters. Approximately norra1 distributions are to be expected from all four phoria tests.

The test of Depth Perception is made only at far-point. Units of measurement are unique to the test, and ara not equal, since they classify subjects more finely at the more difficult levels.

The test of Color Discrimination is also made only at farpoint. The test classifies subjects finely only at low levels of color discrimination ability.

The norms for all Ortho-Rater tests have been established by the technique of determining cutoff scores to eliminate the largest number of poor achievers. As such, these norms do not attempt to predict success or failure on corresponding clinical tests.


13Bausch and Lomb Optical Company, Standard Practice in the Adrnistration of the Bausch and Lomb Occupational Vision Tests with the Ortho-Rater (Rochester, New York: A589, III, 49, 1941), p. 6.








78

The Ortho-Rat-r tests of visicn were administered by appointmnt to indlvidual subjects. The time required to administer each test ,was about twenty minutes. In administering the Ortho-Rater tests of vision, staard practice was fo d where subjects wore corrective lenses. If glasses were worn all the time, all tests were made with the subject wearing the correction. If glasses were worn only for reading, only near-point tests were made while the subject wore the correction. If glasses were worn only for distance, only far-point tests were made while the subject wore the correction. Special attention was given to record the point of stabilization of the arrow in the lateral phoria tests. Scores on the Ortho-Rater Tests were recorded on a specially designed Individual Vision Profile (see Appendix B).


The Reading Improvement Course

The Reading Improvement Course consisted of twelve class

periods of approximately fifty minutes each. The students were allowed to enter one of six groups which met three afternoons per week. Each group of approximately thirty students attended three class periods per week for four successive weeks.

The first half of each period was devoted to rate increase.

A total of twenty-four filmstrips was presented using the EDL Controlled Reader, High School-College Series.14 Each filmstrip was followed immediately by a standard ten-question test of comprehension. Answers were recorded on a prepared answer sheet (see Appendix B). Each


14Educational Development Laboratories, Huntington, New York, 1958.








79

student scored his o'uz test as soon as it was completed. Filmstrips were presented to the group at a rate of reading determined by the instructor. Although an attempt was made to increase the rate by twentyfive words per minute for each filmztrip, successful comprehension by the majority of the group was considered.

The goal of the rate training was freely discussed with the students. It was hoped to have each student achieve a 50 per cent increase in word-by-word reading of narrative material. The problem of transferring rate increase from projected material to textbook reading was discussed, and suggestions for practice were made.

The second half of each class period was devoted to instructions in reading flexibility. Lectures and demonstrations helped explain various methods of selective reading. Study techniques were discussed as these apply to the various content fields. An attempt was made to have each student practice the utilization of purpose to determine method of reading in his daily work.

The slowing effect of continuous study was explained, and recommendations made for counteracting this effect. The techniques of selective reading for specific types of comprehension were demonstrated, and practiced. Subjects were requested to practice, at first, on materials other than regular class assignments; later, practice was requested on class assignments.

During the entire Reading Improvement Course emphasis was

made upon comprehension geared to a selected purpose utilizing a specific method or methods of reading.














ELcauno of tho confusion which has accompanied attempts to ralate vislon and reading, it was decided to identify through factor analysis the significant variables operating. Other statistical methods have failed to identify those variables which are significant, and failed to indicate the degree of interaction of variables.

Factorization was therefore used in an attempt to obtain "a new order of variables and concepts on the relations among which . to begin forming hypotheses .. .15 In this way an effort was made to determine functionally independent factors as the source of discussion of data, rather than intuition.

Vision variables.--Since tests of phoria measure muscle imbalance on either side of a theoretical "normal" posture of the eyes, each of the tests of phoria presented by the Ortho-Rater extends from one extreme of the scale through the normal to the other extreme of the scale. Raw scores from these tests would thus present a U-shaped pattern when plotted along some measure of usable binocular vision.

In order to minimize this curvilinearity, the raw scores from phoria tests were rescaled as deviations from an assumed best, or normal score (see Individual Vision Profile, Appendix B). These deviations indicate a degree of imbalance of the habitual posture of the eyes at the distance represented.


15Raymond B. Cattell, Factor Analysis: An Introduction and
Manual for the Psychologist and Social Scientist (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1952), p. 17.







81

I r.o vartical phcrla, the nor=l sccre is taken to be 5, the cn.. of the tozt scale, and scoros toward either extrems of the scale indicate =scl Lba lance in t.a vertical plane (hyperphoria). In lateral pho-ia, the zor-al score uns ta!n as 8, the center of the test scale, with scores toward either extreme of the scale measuring muscle imbalance in the lateral plane (esophoria and exophoria).

Four phoria deviation scales were derived in this way: (1) Vertical Phoria Deviation Far, (2) Vertical Phoria Deviation Near, (3) Lateral Phoria Deviation Far, and (4) Lateral Phoria Deviation Near (see Table 5).

Similarly, tests of acuity measure on either side of what is

considered normal vision. Normal vision is usually taken to be 20/20 on the Snellen Scale, and corresponds to the raw score 10 on the OrthoRater acuity tests.16 Deviation scores are therefore any score below normal, or above normal acuity.

There is not the sae meaning attached to the normal acuity measure as to the normal phoria measure. There is no true biological normal acuity, but this is more an average score. There is, however, the confusion surrounding the problems of hyperopia and ryopia which clinical experience has indicated to be significant in the relationship between vision and reading. The acuity deviation scales are an attempt to eliminate the effects of hyperopia and myopia.

Six acuity deviation scales were derived in this way: (1) Acuity Deviation Both Far, (2) Acuity Deviation Right Far, (3) Acuity


16Visual acuity equivalents of the levels of these tests are indicated in Appendix B.








82

Deviation Loft Far, (4) Acuity Dav zLa Both Near, (5) Acuity Devia. E 'car, aad- (6) Acuity Deviation Left Near (see Table 5).

f.3 =ntioned above, haxcners have pointed out the signific:nce of hI-oropia azn zopla in relation to reading achievemsnt. The

Hyperopia-I~ropia variable is an attempt to measure the difference between these two tendencies in each subject.

Myopic tendency is obtained by adding acuity deviations below 10 on all scales at far-point to acuity deviations above 10 on all scales at near-point. Hyperopic tendency is obtained by ade'i-ng acuity deviations above 10 on all scales at far-point to acuity deviations below 10 on all scales at near-point. The Hyperopia-Myopia variable is the difference, that is, hyperopic tendency minus myopic tendency.

A positive score indicates pure hyperopia, that is, acuity

deviations which have been reduced by the amount of myopic tendency. A negative score indicates pure myopia, that is acuity deviations which have been reduced by the amount of hyperopic tendency. However, in the study all signs have been eliminated in the factor analysis to minimize the curvilinear relation.

Thus the Hyperopic-Myopic variable is a purified deviation from normal vision, from which has been eliminated the effects of (1) poor over-all acuity and (2) excellent over-all acuity (see Table 5).








83

Bccauee of tho -orance ascribed to "acuity imbalance" by Kelly17 and to "acuity di"fference" by Spache and Tillanl8 an Acuity Imbalance variable was deterinod at both near-point and far-point. Acuity IL!zaance Far is the difference between the raw scores on the Acuity, Right Eye and the Acuity, Left Eye subtests given at far-point. Acuity Imbalance Near is the difference between the raw scores on the Acuity, Right Eye and the Acuity, Left Eye subtests given at near-point (see Table 5).

Non-vision variables.-Three variables were taken from the

Diagnostic Reading Test, Survey Section: Upper Level Form A, which was given as a reading pre-test. The test was given to determine the levels of reading skills which each subject had attained prior to participating in the reading improvement course. These variables are (1) Reading Rate,

(2) Reading Story Comprehension, and (3) Reading Paragraph Comprehension.

The Reading Rate variable consists of the rate of reading in words-per-minute at which each student read the material presented in the Story Comprehension subtest during the three-minute timed period. The Reading Story Comprehension variable is the raw score from the Story Comprehension subtest, that is, the number of correct answers attained on the questions involving story comprehension.



17Charles R. Kelly, Visual Screening and Child Development (Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State Teachers College, 1957), p. 2.

l8George D. Spache and Chester E. Tillman, "A Comparison of the Visual Profiles of Retarded and Non-retarded Readers," Journal of Devolopr ntal Reading, Vol. 5 (Winter, 1962), p. 108.










TIOLS 5


VIS-ON VrJt3 :ES, AND VISION TESTS
.r~~r~,jr.Yr IX


Variable Variable Vizion tests from
number name which derived


Vertical Phoria Deviation, Far

Vertical Phoria Deviation, Near Lateral Phoria Deviation, Far Lateral Phoria Deviation, Near Acuity Deviation
Both, Far Acuity Deviation Both, Near Acuity Deviation Right, Far Acuity Deviation Right, Near Acuity Deviation Left, Far Acuity Deviation Left, Near Acuity Imbalance Far


Acuity Imbalance
Near


Hyperopia-Myopia


Vertical Phoria Test, Farpoint, deviation from 5

Vertical Phoria Test, Nearpoint, deviation from

Lateral Phoria Test, Farpoint, deviation from 8

Lateral Phoria Test, Nearpoint, deviation from 8

Acuity, Both eyes, Farpoint, deviation from 10

Acuity, Both Eyes, Nearpoint, deviation from 10

Acuity, Right eye, Farpoint, deviation from 10

Acuity, Right eye, Nearpoint, deviation from 10

Acuity, Left eye, Farpoint, deviation from 10

Acuity, Left eye, Nearpoint, deviation from 10

Raw score difference between acuity, Right eye, Far and acuity, Left eye, Far-point

Raw score difference between acuity, Right eye, Far and acuity, Left eye, Near-point

Hyperopic tendency minus Myopic tendency, utilizing six acuity scales








85

The Reading Paragraph Comprehension variable is the raw score from the Paragraph Comprehension subtest, that is, the number of correct answDi~s attained on the questions involving paragraph comprohension. These variables were intended to represent the level of reading skills attained prior to reading instruction (see Table 6).

The Diagnostic Reading Test, Survey Section; Upper Level

Form D was given as a reading post-test to determine change in reading

skills as a result of the Reading Improvement Course. Three variables were derived from the differences between the reading pre-test and the reading post-test scores. These variables were (1) Rate Change, (2) Story Comprehension Change, and (3) Paragraph Comprehension Change.

Thus Rate Change is the difference (loss or gain) between

reading rate on the pre-test and reading rate on the post-test. Story Comprehension Change and Paragraph Comprehension Change were derived in the same way. These variables were intended to represent change in reading skills attributable to the Reading Improvement Course (see Table 6).

Four additional variables were derived from the records in the Admissions Office of Stetscn University. These variables were (1) Class Rank, (2) Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) Verbal, (3) Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) Ylthenatical, and (4) Predicted Grade Average (PGA).

Class Rank, Converted is the variable derived from the student's ranki:- in their respective high school senior clazses on the basis of grade-point average. The rankings were converted to a standard scale ra ;ing from a low of twenty to a high of eighty, with a ran of fifty, a scale designed to coincide with the range of scores of the Scholastic








86

Aptitude Test (SAT). This variable is intended to be a measure of academic achievement.

The SAT Verbal variable is taken directly from studonts' scoro3: on the Verbal section of the SAT, which was administered duri; the senior year of high school. The variable is intended to be a measure of basic verbal ability.

The SAT Mathematical variable is taken directly from students' scores on the Mathematical section of the SAT. The variable is intended to be a measure of basic mathematical reasoning ability.

The PGA variable is the Predicted Grade Average determined for each student by regression equation prior to his admission to Stetson University. The equation includes weighted amounts of the SAT Verbal score, the SAT Mathematical score, senior class rank, and English Co=, position scores.19 The range of the scores is from 1.00 to 4.00. This variable is intended to be a measure of college academic achievement potential (see Table 6).


19Four equations ware used as follows:

(1) For men with English Copposition scores,
PGA = .3316 Class Rank 4.0 SAT -V -t- .98 SAT-14
+ 6.0 CEEB English Composition 1.37003.

(2) For man without English Composition scores,
PGA = .3305 Class Rank + 6.0 SAT -V-t- 1.12 SAT-M
1.44515.

(3) For women with English Composition scores,
PGA = .4615 Class Rank -t- .82 SAT -V + .45 SAT-M
+ 1.64 CEEB English Composition 3.01929.

(4) For women without English Composition scores,
PGA = .4923 Class Rank + 1.92 SAT -V +1 .70 SAT-M
3.03620.











TABLE 6

NON-VISION VARIABLES, AND SOURCES
FROM WHICH DERIVED


Variable Variable Source of variable number name


Reading Rate Reading Story Comprehension

Reading Paragraph Comprehension Class Rank, Converted


SAT Verbal SAT Mathematical


Predicted Grade Average


Rate Change



Story Comprehension Change


Paragzaph Comprehension Change


Diagnostic Reading Pro-test,
Rate in words-per-minute

Diagnostic Reading Pro-test,
Story comprehension raw score

Diagnostic Reading Pro-test, Paragraph comprehension raw score

Rank in senior class by gradepoint average, converted to standard score

Scholastic Aptitude Test, Verbal section, raw score

Scholastic Aptitude Test, Mathematical section, raw score

Predicted Grade Average, from regression equations utilizing several scores

Difference (gain-loss) between Pre-test and Post-test Reading Rate

Difference (gain-loss) betwcan Pro-Test and Post-test Reading Story Comprehension

Difference (gain-loss) betwoen Pro-test and Post-test Reading Paragraph Comprehension








88

Statistical analvsis.-The raw scores for each of the one

hundred sixty-three subjects were converted to the appropriate variable scales and recorded on Data Coding Sheets prepared by the University of Florida Computing Center. Scores on the twenty-three variablo were punched into standard eighty-column IBM cards.

A principal axis factor analysis with Varimax rotation was

carried out, utilizing the IBM 709 Digital Computer and the RPAFAV prog.. The RPAFAV program is a three-step program involving (1) the computation of the correlation matrix, (2) principal axis factor analysis, and (3) normalized Varimax rotation.

Those subjects with uncorrected vision problems were then selected from the total group of one hundred sixty-three subjects. A sub-group of fifty-one subjects was,. found to have failed one or -ore of the vision tests presented by the Ortho-Rater. The scores of these fifty-one subjects on the twenty-three variables were factorized, again using the RPAFAV program.

Results from these analyses are contained in Chapter V.














CHAPTER V


RESULTS


The results of the statistical analysis of the data will be presented in this chapter. General results will be presented first, then specific results as these apply to the hypotheses. Six hypotheses were to be tested, and presentation of specific results will follow the order in which these hypotheses were listed in Chapter I.


General Results


Over-all factorization.--The first factor analysis was of the scores of all subjects (Group T) on the twenty-three variables. A ccplete correlation matrix of the tuenty-three variables is presented in Appendix C.

Nine factors were precipitated in the principal axis factor

analysis. Varimax rotation produced the Rotated Factor Matrix presented In Table 7. The cornmmality for each variable, and the per cent of common variance for each factor are included in Table 7.

Visual disorder factorization.--The scores of a sub-group of fifty-one subjects who had uncorrected visual problems (Sub-group VP) were then factorized. A complete correlation matrix of the twenty-three variables is presented in Appendix C.







TABLE 7


ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX


FROM OVERALL FACTORIZATION (GROUP T,


Variables
# Name

1 Reading Rate
2 Rdg. Story Comprehen. 3 Rdg. Parag. Comprehen. 4 Vert. Phoria Dev., Far 5 Vert. Phoria Dev., Near 6 Lateral Phoria Dev., Far
7 Lateral Phoria Dev., Near
8 Acuity Dev., Both, Far 9 Acuity Dev., Both, Near 10 Acuity Dev. Right, Far 11 Acuity Dev. Right, Near 12 Acuity Dev. Left, Far 13 Acuity Dev. Left, Near 14 Acuity Imbalance, Far 15 Acuity Imbalance, Near 16 Class Rank 17 SAT Verbal 18 SAT Mathematical 19 PGA
20 Hyperopia-Myopia 21 Rate Change 22 Story Comprehen. Change 23 Parag. Comprehen. Change

Sum of Squared Loadings Per cent of common variance


Rotated Factor Loadings
1 2 3 4 5


-. 04
.08 .08
-.07
.01 .06 .00 .62 .15
.54 .05
.56 .17 .22 .01
-. 03
.01
.03 .00 .67
-.10
-.05
- .01


.01
-.02
.06
.52
.31 .50 .19
-.07
- .01
- .05
.04 .07
-.06
.08 .10
.00 .07
-.08
-.01
.05
- .01
.16 .04


-.02
. 04
.05
.17 .15
-.02
- .03
- .05
- .04
.39 .64
23 .21 68
.73
- .05
.11
- .08
-.08
.02
-.07
.01 04


1.57 .72 1.75 15.36 7.08 17.08


.02 .05 .06
- .07
.04
-.01
- .01
.21 .63
.04 .20
.12 .60
-.13
.07
.00
.06
- .06
.13
.06
.05
-.06
-.01


.48
-.01
.03
-.02
-.10
.08 .05 .03
-.03
-.08
-.11
.33 .02
.20 .07
-.11
S04
.05
-.05
-.01
- .42
.02 .01


6 7 8 9


.01 .07 .13
-.03
-.10
.00 .13
- .06
.09
- .09
-.20
.14
-.03
.09
- .01
.85 .10
.12 .75 .00
.11
.03 .09


.03 .69
.26
-.07
.11
-.12
-.05
.13 .14
.03 .08 .02
- .02
- .02
-.04
.00
.02 .00 .10 .00 .07
-.61
-.08


.01 .19 .69
-.13
-.19
.13
.14
-.03
-.05
.00
-.01
.12 .11
.05
-.05
-.02
.06
-.06
.06 .05 .00
-.09
-.56


.02 .07 .04
.05 .02
- .09
.02 .03
.05 .04 .13
-.09
-.02
-.14
.00 .07 .68 .68 .42
.03
- .03
.05
.02


.92 .62 1.47 1.02 .97 1.19 10.23 9.03 6.06 14.37 9.93 9.53 11.61 100.0


N=163)








91

Twelve factors were precipitated in the principal a:.s factor analysis. Varimax rotation produced the Rotated Factor hItrix prosCntad in Table 8. The corzmnality for each variable, and the per cent of co:rmon variance for each factor are also included in Table 8.


Specific Results


Hypothesis I.-The first hypothesis stated that specific factors which are components of vision are identifiable through factor analysis of scores on a battery of vision screening tests given to college students.

The over-all factor analysis elicited nine factors, four of which had highest loadings for those variables which were derived fro. vision tests. The rotated factor loadings for these four factors are presented in Table 9.

Hypothesis II.--The second hypothesis stated that there are

positive relationships between the principal variables for vision factors, and changes in levels of reading skills as a result of a reading izprovamsnt course given to college students.

These relationships are approached from the point of view of

the correlations between variables derived from vision tests and variables indicating changes in levels of reading skills. These correlations are presented in Table 10.

Hypothesis III.-The third hypothesis stated that there are positive relationships between levels of certain mental abilities and

changes in levels of reading skills as a result of a reading improverent course given to college students.
















TABLE 8

ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX FROM VISUAL PROBLEM
FACTORIZATION (SUB-GROUP VP, N-51)


Variables Rotated Factor Loadings
# Name 1 2 3 2 5

1 Reading Rate -.09 .07 .09 .23 .09 2 Rdg. Story Comprehen. .04 -.05 .00 .80 .17 3 Rdg. Parag. Comprehen. .07 .10 .10 .30 V9 4 Vert. Phoria Dev., Far -.18 -.18 -.04 .07 -.17
5 Vert. Phoria Dev., Near -.11 .09 -.02 .08 -.09 6 Lateral Phoria Dev., Far .04 .00 -.01 .00 .07 7 Lateral Phoria Dev., Near -.17 -.02 .08 .04 .01 8 Acuity Dev. Both, Far .62 .15 -.03 .24 .18 9 Acuity Dev. Both, Near .02 .69 .00 .14 .07 10 Acuity Dev. Right, Far .35 .10 -.13 .08 .02 11 Acuity Dev. Right, Near -.19 .02 -.26 .10 .04 12 Acuity Dev. Left, Far .67 .20 .03 .07 -.06 13 Acuity Dev. Left, Near .17 .68 -.08 -.08 .07 14 Acuity Imbalance, Far .23 .05 .06 .03 -.20 15 Acuity Imbalance, Near -.06 .01 -.02 -.12 .02 16 Class Rank -.07 -.09 .84 -.03 -.05 17 SAT Verbal -.15 .12 .16 -.02 .11 18 SAT Mathematical .08 -.10 .18 .01 -.03 19 PGA -.11 .06 .59 .01 -.01 20 Hyperopia-Myopia .73 -.01 -.08 .02 .19 21 Rate Change -.14 .14 .06 14 -.11 22 Story Comprehension Change -.10 -.11 .05 -.63 -.05 23 Parag. Comprehension Change -.16 .07 .11 -.05 -.67

Sum of Squared Loadings 1.81 1.14 1.27 1.33 2.15


12.13 7.65 8.52 8.93 14.41


Per cent of Common Variance

















TABLE 8 (continued)


Rotated Factor Loadings h2
6 7 8 9 10 11 12


.09 -.08
.11 .06 .20 -.02
.27 .13 .02 .01 .50 -.05
.10 -.01
-.03 .05
-.10 -.03
-.01 -.05
-.15 -.02
.18 .03 .12 -.06
.16 -.10
-.13 -.08
-.02 .17
.01 .12
-.08 .80
.00 .57 .03 .02 .02 -.17
.06 .05
-.01 .02

.53 1.09


-.08
.06 .04 .31 .09
-.04
-.15
-.16
-.13
.26 60
.34 .25 .81 .81
-.02
.07
-.12
-.09
-.04
-.16
.03 .11

2.16


.06 -.08 -.01 .59 .01 -.05 .02 .09 .15 -.06 -.08 .21 .02 -.13 .43 .08
-.12 .07 .65 -.07 .00 -.02 .03 .03
-.22 -.34 -.34 -.17
-.17 .38 .01 .00 .05 .08 .08 .02
-.12 .63 .03 -.06 .03 .46 .17 -.05 .03 -.04 -.16 .27 .07 -.01 -.03 -.06
.03 .04 -.02 .13 .02 .11 .13 -.01 .09 -.10 -.04 .02 .72 -.04 -.09 -.01
.07 .01 .06 .05 .38 .11 -.03 .04
-.08 .10 -.06 -.07
.07 -.08 -.01 -.49
.03 -.12 -.06 -.01
-.02 -.07 .07 -.04


.99 .84 .79


5.53 6.65 5.62 5.27


.46 .70 .70 .50
.48 .27 .38 .71 .55 .65 .75 .75
60 .80 .73 .78
63 .72
86 .60 .38
.46 .52

13.95

100.00


3.53 7.26 14.46

















TABLE 9

ROTATED FACTOR LOADINGS FOR VISION
FACTORS (GROUP T, N=163)


Variables Rotated Factor Loadings
Name 1 2 3 4

1 Reading Rate -.04 .01 -.02 .02 2 Rdg. Story Comprehen. .08 .01 .04 .05 3 Rdg. Parag. Comprehen. .08 .06 .05 .06 4 Vert. Phoria Dev., Far -.07 .52 .17 -.07 5 Vert. Phoria Dcv., Near .01 .31 .15 .04 6 Lateral Phoria Dev., Far .06 .50 -.02 -.01 7 Lateral Phoria Dev., Near .00 .19 -.03 -.01 2 Acuity Dev. Both, Far .62 -.07 -.05 .21 9 Acuity Dev. Both, Near .15 -.01 -.04 .63 10 Acuity Dev. Right, Far .54 -.05 .39 .04 11 Acuity Dev. Right, Near .05 .04 .64 .20 12 Acuity Dev. Left, Far .56 .07 .23 .12 13 Acuity Dev. Left, Near .17 -.06 .21 .60 14 Acuity Imbalance, Far .22 .08 .63 -.13 15 Acuity Imbalance, Near .01 .10 .73 .07 16 Class Rank -.03 .00 -.05 .00 17 SAT Verbal .01 .07 .11 .06 13 SAT Mathematical .03 -.08 -.08 .06 19 PGA .00 -.01 -.08 13 20 Hyperopia-Myopia .67 .05 .02 .06 21 Rate Change -.10 -.01 -.07 .05 22 Story Comprehension Change .05 .16 .01 .06 23 Parag. Comprehension Change .01 .04 .04 .01















TABLE 10

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VISION VARIABLES AND VARIABLES INDICATING READING SKILLS CHANGE
(GROUP T, N = 163)


Vision Variables Reading Skills Change

# Name #21 #22 #23 Rate Story Comp. Para. Co-p. Change Change Chang e

4 Vert. Phoria Dev., Far -.07 .19 .12 6 Lat. Phoria Dev., Far .00 .15 -.07 8 Acuity Dev. Both, Far -.06 -.14 -.02 10 Acuity Dev. Right, Far -.10 -.06 -.01 12 Acuity Dev. Left, Far -.14 -.04 -.03 14 Acuity Imbalance, Far -.09 .04 .04

20 Hyperopia-Myopia -.12 -.01 -.02

5 Vert. Phoria Dev., Near .05 -.02 .09 7 Lat. Phoria Dev., Near .00 .09 .05 9 Acuity Dev. Both, Near .06 -.11 .02 11 Acuity Dev. Right, Near -.09 -.05 .01 13 Acuity Dev. Left, Near .02 -.06 -.06 15 Acuity Imbalance, Near .07 .05 .05




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VISION AS IT RELATES TO READING AT THE COLLEGE LEVEL By DAVID EUGENE EDGAR A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA August, 1%5

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TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 Need for tha Study 1 Purpose of the Study 7 The Hypotheses 8 Definition of Terms 8 Limitations of the Study H II. HISTORY OF THE PROBLEM 13 Screening of Vision in Education 13 Vision and Reading 29 Reading Improvement at the College Level 39 Factor Analysis of Vision and Reading 53 Summary 60 III. PRELIMINARY STUDIES 62 Preliminary Study A 63 Preliminary Study B 65 Discussion of the Preliminary Studies 68 IV. DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENT 70 Subjects 71 Tests 72 ii

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CHAPTER PAGE The Reading Improvement Course 78 Treatment of Data 80 V. RESULTS 89 General Results 89 Specific Results 91 VI. DISCUSSION 102 Discussion of Hypotheses 102 General Discussion 116 VII. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS 121 Summary 121 Conclusions 123 Clinical Considerations 127 APPENDIX A Vision Glossary 131 APPENDIX B Forms and Equivalents 134 APPENDIX C Statistical Data 137 BIBLIOGRAPHY 141 iii

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PAGE 23 56 65 67 84 87 90 92 94 95 97 97 LIST OF TABLES COEFFICIENTS OF RELIABILITY OF VISION TESTS COMPILED FROM SELECTED REPORTS COMPARISON OF VISION FACTORS IDENTIFIED BY COOK AND BY ROBINSON AND HUELSMAN NUMBER OF STUDENTS FAILING EACH TELEBINOCULAR SUBTEST PREDICTIONS OF VISUAL PROBLEMS COMPARED WITH ACTUAL FAILURES OF VISUAL SCREENING TESTS . VISION VARIABLES, AND VISION TESTS FROM WHICH DERIVED NON-VISION VARIABLES, AND SOURCES FROM WHICH DERIVED ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX FROM OVERALL FACTORIZATION (GROUP T, N = 163) ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX FROM VISUAL PROBLEM FACTORIZATION (SUB-GROUP VP, N s 51) ROTATED FACTOR LOADINGS FOR VISION FACTORS (GROUP T, N r 163) CORRELATION BETWEEN VISION VARIABLES AND VARIABLES INDICATING READING SKILLS CHANGE (GROUP T, N = 163) CORRELATION BETWEEN CERTAIN MENTAL ABILITIES VARIABLES AND VARIABLES INDICATING READING SKILLS CHANGE (GROUP T, N = 163) CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VARIABLES INDICATING PREVIOUS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND VARIABLES INDICATING READING SKILLS CHANGE (GROUP T, N ; 163) iv

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TABLE PAGE 13 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VARIABLES INDICATING PREVIOUS LEVELS OF READING SKILLS AND VARIABLES INDICATING READING SKILLS CHANGE (GROUP T, N z 163) 97 14 COMPARISON OF VISION FACTORS BETWEEN ALL SUBJECTS AND SUBJECTS WITH UNCORRECTED VISION PROBLEMS 99 15 COMPARISON OF INTERCORRELATIONS BETWEEN VISION VARIABLES AND VARIABLES INDICATING READING SKILLS CHANGE FOR TOTAL GROUP (N r 163), AND VISION PROBLEMS SUB-GROUP (N = 51) 101 16 ACUITY TEST FACTOR LOADINGS REPORTED BY ROBINSON AND HUELSMAN ON FACTOR C 107 17 COMPARISON OF PRINCIPAL FACTOR LOADINGS OF VISION FACTORS BETWEEN GROUP T (N = 163) AND SUB-GROUP VP (N = 51) 114 18 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VISION VARIABLES AND VARIABLES MEASURING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 119 19 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VISION VARIABLES AND MEASURED MENTAL ABILITIES 119 v

PAGE 6

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Need for the Study The demands upon the reading skills of college students are steadily increasing. It is now estimated that manÂ’s knowledge doubles every seven years. And this knowledge is not simply recorded, it is considered and reconsidered in hundreds of different relationships. The college textbook is only the beginning for the student today. Far from containing the accumulated knowledge on any subject, a text is likely to be a reference source to studies in depth despite its summary and commentary. Pauk points out that: TodayÂ’s students are confronted with a reading task which differs decidedly from that which students faced only a decade ago .... The student mast Â’run' to stay abreast fast-developing fields and areas by riffling through stacks of journals, magazines, newspapers, theses, bulletins, and microfilms which contain the findings of research from various parts of the world. 1 It is not unusual to hear a college freshman state that the volume of reading assignments i3 overwhelming. Consider the fate of a student who desires to participate in a reading improvement course but ^Walter J. Pauk, "Basic Skills Needed in College Reading," in J. Allen Figurel (ed.), Reading for Effective Living IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 3 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1958), p. 44. 1

PAGE 7

2 drops out becauso he doss not dare take the time from his tightly mashed schedule Nor does the problem end with the beginning college students. Spache and Borg* estimate the average businessman spends fifteen to twenty hours a week reading technical reports, trade journals, and correspondence relating to business. This is only preparation for his job, yet it equals one-half the work-week of a wage earner. Unable to maintain adequate contact with their field by reading, many professional man return to summer workshops or to graduate study. Bingham^ stated that recent graduates in Electrical Engineering often return to the University of Colorado for advanced study, but must re-enter undergraduate courses to grasp newlydeveloped concepts. Conscious of these demands upon students reading skills colleges began offering reading improvement courses. Shaw reports only a few programs offered prior to 1950, but try I960 there were four hundred courses in the colleges of the nation.^ Despite diversity of method and goals, the programs developed to serve millions of students A constant demand for careful consideration of aims and methods accompanied the development of programs. Recently Shaw pointed out that ^George D. Spache and Paul C. Borg. Better Reading for Busi ness (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1958), p. 1. ^Lloyd A. Bingham, Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Colorado, in a personal interview, December, 1964. ^Philip B. Shaw, n College Reading Improvement Programs of the Future, w in J. Allen Figurel (ed.), Changing Concepts of Reading Instruction IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 6 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1961), p. 48.

PAGE 8

3 "the multifarious differences among the nation’s college reading programs are well known,” but went on to state that the trend of future college reading improvement programs was away from differences toward eclecticism. Shaw also indicated the need for "recognition and acceptance of the principle of a student’s sequential reading development from the elementary school through college," and for integration of instruction in reading into the regular college offering. 0 This emphasis upon mass instruction is somewhat in contrast to a concomitant development of tbs application of clinical techniques to the problems of reading. Rsygor notes that only recently has there been a "development of a number of reading clinics in which the personal and n emotional problems of the reader are of prime concern." This development is but one aspect of the influence of psychology upon the field of reading. Spache traces this Influence of psychology upon reading from the nineteenth century emphasis on physiology of reading to the present broad definition of reading as one aspect of the growth of the child as Ibid., p. 48. ^Philip B. Shaw, "Integration of Reading Instruction with •Regular' College Offerings," in Emery P. Bllesmer and Albert J. Kingston, Jr. (eds.), Phases of College and Other Adult Reading Programs NRC Tenth Yearbook” (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Reading Center, Marquette University, 1961), p. 122. ^Alton L. Raygor, "The Influence of Psychology on the Field of Reading," in Emery P. Bliesmar and Albert J. Kingston, Jr. (ed3.). Phases of College and Other Adult Reading Programs NRC Tenth Yearbook (Charlottesville, Virginia: Jarman Printing Co., 1961), p. 50.

PAGE 9

4 a whole. "Thus the ultimate goal of reading instruction became the g modification of the personal and social adjustment of the reader." Obviously such broad aims demand careful application of learned principles to reading instruction. Unfortunately classroom and clinical practices have not kept pace with psychological thinking. Spache, noting the continuation of earlier practices and emphases, stated: The lag of classroom practices bohind psychological theory probably indicates that much of our efforts for the next decade or so should be placed upon improving our instructional procedures and relating them more closely to the currant explanations of the psychological nature of reading. 9 \ Raygor lists several psychological concepts which are fully available at the present but not applied in the field of reading instruction. Among these are diagnostic and remedial techniques, including the diagnostic syndrome, and statistical tools. In the vital area of individual differences he feels that we have done practically nothing at the college level to fit the curriculum to the needs of the individual. ^ A challenge to the clinician in the area of college reading was given by Spache. He reminds us of the necessity for clinicians in college reading to be concerned with variables which influence success in reading improvement He states: Clinicians should be productive in identifying these factors, measuring and weighing their impact, determining the interactions among factors, and George D. Spache, "Psychological Explanations of Reading," in Oscar S. Causey (ed.), Exploring the Goals of College Reading Programs SWRC Tenth Yearbook (Fort Worth, Texas: Christian University Press, 1955), pp. 14-22 ^Spache, Physiological Explanations ^Raygor, op. cit., pp. 52-53. • • . p 22

PAGE 10

5 observing the results of attests to control thesa elements. One of the five categories of factors emphasized by Spach9 is that of vision and other physical factors. Yet, despite studies pointing to the role which vision plays in reading, college clinicians tend to ignore its effect upon reading. Three types of errors follow from this neglect, (l) misuse of materials and equipment in an attempt to increase eye-span; (2) misrepresentation of value of improvement courses stemming from ignorance of the physical limitations of the visual processes in reading; and (3) mis judgment of the transfer of training to daily use because of unknown vision problems. Spache states: In our opinion the college reading technician faces the responsibility for valuation of student vision for the purpose of relating his findings to instructional practices. As the diagnostician, he should be able to prescribe the type of reading training which will be most feasible in view of the student’s profile .... If his vision screening methods indicate any unusual variations in the visual profile, the clinician should also assume the responsibility for referring the student for professional examination, and utilizing the implications of that testing in planning reading training efforts .... In addition the college technician should convey to his reading instructors sufficient information about the visual process to prevent them from repeating . faulty practices .... While every reading clinician will concede the importance of vision in a student’s reading performance, there is a tendency to ignore it in practice. There are several reasons for this neglect, (l) the need to deal with masses of students; (2) the time required to perform ^George D. Spache, "Clinical Work with College Students,” in College-Adult Reading Ins true tier. IRA Perspectives in Reading I (Newark, Delaware, 1964), p. 135. ^Ibid., p. 143.

PAGE 11

6 adequate visual screening; (3) the relatively small number of students believed to be affected by vision problems; ( 4 ) the confused and contradictory reports of the importance of vision to reading success; and (5) the controversy among vision specialists as to what constitutes adequate correction of vision problems as a base for success in reading. Obviously the answer to these problems lies in studies which clarify for the reading clinician the role of vision in reading. Research has indicated that the relationship between vision and reading is quite complicated. While some facts have been shown to be significant, these have not beon sufficiently defined to be applicable to practice in a reading clinic. Thu3 the clinician desiring to consider vision as a factor in reading is forced to make decisions based upon i repressions gained through experience. In considering the visual needs of students, he may refer too many or too few to vision specialists, and either decision is wasteful in terms of professional time money, or solution to the problem. Moreover, the report of the vision specialist may not be directed toward the studentÂ’s reading needs. The culmination of such confusion is in the inadvertent recommendation that a student participate in a course of reading improvement quite likely to lead to failure and frustration. The present study was designed to contribute to the solution of this problem by identifying vision factors and relating these to improvement in reading skills. It is hoped that the clarification of these relationships will help the clinician to test adequately the student's vision and properly apply the test results in specific situations.

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7 Purpose of tho Study The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between vision and change in reading shills as a result of a reading improvement course, and the effect of uncorrected vision problems upon these relationships. As a naans of studying this central purpose, the following problems were considered: 1. Identification of vision factors in a battery of twelve vision screening tests; 2. Determination of the amount of change in reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course ; 3. Determination of the relationships among vision factors and changes in reading skills for all subjects; 4. Determination of the relationships among certain mental abilities and changes in reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course; 5. Determination of the relationships between previous academic achievement and changes in reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course; 6. Determination of the relationships between initial reading skills and change in reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course; 7. Identification of students who have uncorrected visual problems; 8. Determination of differences in vision factors and reading skills which are attributable to uncorrected vision problems. An attest was made to relate the findings of tho study to the problem of counseling students in a reading clinic.

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8 The Hypotheses In order to fulfill the purposes of the present study, the following hypotheses were tested: 1. There are specific factors which are components of vision and which are identifiable through factor analysis of scores on a battery of vision screening tests given to college students. 2. There are positive relationships between vision factors, and change in reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course given to college students. 3. There are positive relationships between levels of certain mental abilities, and changes in levels of reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course given to college students. 4. There are positive relationships between previous academic achievement, and changes in levels of reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course given to college students. 5. There are positive relationships between initial levels of reading skills, and changes in levels of reeding skills as a result of a reading improvement course given to college students. 6. The nature of vision factors, and their relationships with changes in reading skills, differ among subjects with uncorrectad vision problems and the total group of subjects. Definition of Term3 The field of vision test ing and vision screening is replete with technical terms. For this reason a Glossary of Vision Terms has been prepared a 3 Appendix A. Other terms used in the present study which are important to clarity in the discussion of concepts are defined as follows:

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9 1. Academic achieve rent potential is the predicted freshman grade-point average for a student. This predicted average was determined by the Office of Admissions prior to a studentÂ’s admission to Stetson University, and is based upon measures of certain mental abilities, previous academic achievement, and other variables. 2. Change in reading skills refers to the difference between scores made on a reading pre-test and on a reading post-test. Change includes both improvement in reading skills and lo33 of reading skills as a result of the reading improvement course. 3. Factor is used in this study to refer to the product of the statistical procedure of factor analysis, that is, a statistically derived functional unity. Exceptions are made in direct quotations. 4. Initial reading skills refer to the levels of skills in rate of reading and in reading comprehension acquired by the student prior to the reading improvement course. In the present study, these levels of skills are measured by the Diagnostic Heading Tests, Survey Section, Fora A, which was given prior to the course as a pre-test. 5. Mental abilities refer to those characteristics of the student which are measured by the Verbal section and by the Mathematical section of the Scholastic Aptitude Test prepared by the College Entrance Examination Board. These characteristics are identified, respectively, 13 as Verbal Reasoning Ability and Numerical Reasoning Ability. 6. Previous acr-.der.~dc achievement refers to the leva! of attainment in academic studies relative to the peer group with which the student ^College Entrance Examination Board, Scholastic Aptitude Test (Princeton, New Jersey, 1963)

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10 attended high school. In the present study this is measured In terms of high school senior class rank. 7. Reading improvement tout so refers to a program of study following a prescribed curriculum, designed to improve the reading skill(s) of students enrolled. 8. Relationship refers to systematic co-relation of variables, the degree of which is usually expressed by means of a correlation coefficient. Causality is not implied in either direction, but only concomitant variation. 9. Uncorrected vision problems refer to Inferred difficulties in the process of vision identified by failure of one or more vision tests presented by the Ortho-Rater. Standards are from the School Profile, a tt! standard fo und desirable for students and individuals who do clerical and administrative tasks. The School Profile was recommended by the Bausch and Lomb Optical Company, developers of the Ortho-Rater, for use in the University of Florida Reading Laboratory and Clinic.^ 10. Vision refers to the complex process of seeing and interpreting external stimuli. A brief interpretation might be that it involves ocular muscle coordination, lens accommodation i light transmission through the lens to the retina, retinal Impulse transmission to the brain by means of the optic nerves, fusion of the image by the brain, and perception of meaning in the image. ^Bausch and Lamb Optical Company, by personal letter to Dr. George D. Spache, April 26, 1951.

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11 Limitations of the Study The present study was made at Stetson University, Deland, Florida, in the fall semester of 1964-65. It is assumed that results will not be seriously affected by changes occurring in the next five years. Subjects tested were determined to be the poorest readers (as identified by the Cooperative English Test, Reading Comprehension Section, Total Score) ^ in the entering freshman class. Caution must therefore be used in applying the findings to students at other levels. Visual problems are believed by the author to be in themselves a screening factor in education. A higher percentage of academically unsalectod students would be expected to have uncorrected vision problems (for example, in a large northeastern university). Stetson University is a private, southern, five-year university enrolling approximately sixteen hundred students. Entrance requirements indicate its entering freshmen are somewhat more select than, that is, above the level accepted by, the large statesupported universities in Florida. Therefore, the findings of this study probably can be applied to students in r elective four-year institutions and above. Although Stetson University accepts qualified students of all races, the subjects were predominantly Caucasian. No foreign student completed the course, so interpretation is limited to English-speaking Caucasian students. ^Educational Testing Service, Cooperative Test Division, Cooperative English Tests, Fora IC (Princeton, New Jersey, I960).

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12 Of one hundred eighty students scheduled for the course, only one hundred sixtythree could be used as subjects by virtue of complete data. It i3 recognised that dropouts from such a course nay result from many causes. The author deeply regrets such a loss, feeling that many were consciously or unconsciously reacting to vision problems. Still, conclusions should perhaps bo limited in application to students who complete a similar course in reading improvement. For reasons stated above, however, it is believed that a study of the entire group of one hundred eighty students would reveal higher incidence of vision problems.

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CHAPTER II HISTORY OF THE PROBLEM iha Peasant study has several facets, including screening of vision in educational institutions, the relationship of vision to reading, tha improvement of reading at higher educational levels, and factor analysis as a research tool in studying vision and reading. This chapter attempts to give the reader an understanding of these various facets by referring to selected literature in each area. Screenin'? of Vision in Education Scientific studies of the relationship of vision to reading began in Europe in tna middle of the nineteenth century. Soon after its introduction in lco2, tno Snellen Chart began to be used to measure visual acuity of students in schools. At this time the Chart was the only device available to determine whether or not a student had sufficient keenness oi vision to read. It thus became the first accurate means for mass screening of vision in the schools. Outer early studies of vision were concerned primarily with the movement of tha eye during reading. Erdmann and Dodge began crude observations by watching one eye of the reader through a telescope. The obvious difficulty with this procedure wa 3 the lack of a verifiable record. Emphasis upon securing accurate records led to the application of the photographic method, which was gradually improved until the 13

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14 researcher was able to obtain a highly accurate record of the positions of the eyes during movements and pauses, and the durations of these. Studies of eye movement during reading led to several reforms, including the shift of emphasis from oral to silent reading. Because accurate records were retained, researchers were ablo to "analyze the development of reading and to describe the stages of growth of the reading ability. The development of visual functions at various grades from kindergarten to eighth was demonstrated by Park and Burri. Those authors noted that: ... because of the lack of complete maturation in the children entering school, many indicate poor vision with little or no fusion or stereepsis, and poor duction ability. But visual maturity develops rapidly during the first two years of school. These understandings of the development of visual functions led to an accurate means for diagnosing certain problems faced by individual children in learning to read. The studies also point out a definite change in the concept of vision by a large number of specialists in vision, psychology and education. Prior emphasis, based upon nineteenth century physics, was upon the structure of the eyas, related muscles and nerves. Tests by the mechanist were made with the eyes in a static ^Frank N. Freeman, "The Place of Laboratory Experiment in Educational Research," Pevicw of Educational Research Vol.*4 (January. 1934), p. 97. 2 George E. Park and Clara Burri, "Eye Maturation and Reading Difficulties," Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 34 (December. 1943), p. 543.

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15 position; the goal was exact monocular refraction. Correction involved glasses, dedication and surgery; prevention was precluded by the theory. In keeping with a general trend in the sciences, the now emphasis was upon the dynamics of vision. The functionalist was concerned with the p3ycho— physiological process of seeing as a learned task. Tests involved both monocular and binocular functions at various working distances in order to analyze interferences in binocular functions. Since patterns of seeing were learned, faulty seeing could ba corrected through re-education (orthoptics). Prevention of visual difficulties is the keystone of the program suggested by those who emphasize the dynamics of seeing, or seeing as learned . the functionalist is concerned with the development of visual readiness for certain seeing tasks . .3 Betts pointed cut that binocular coordination required in reading was not subject to scientific study until the development of material on visual sensation and perception and material on oculomotor habits."^ Studies at the Shaker Heights Reading Clinic convinced Betts that binocular coordination was essential to rapid and efficient reading habits. Thus he stated: A one-eyed person with normal acuity . has little or no difficulty with the confusion of letlets and words. A two-eyed person presents a different problem; not only must the dominant eye fis on a word or phrase, but its companion also must 3 ^Emmett A. Betts and Agnes S. Austin, Visual Problems of School Children (Chicago, Illinois: Professional Press, 1942 ) pp 77-78 ^Emmett A. Betts, "A Physiological Approach to the Analysis of Reading Difficulties,” Educational Research Bulletin, Voi. 13 (June, 1934), P. 164.

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16 fix on the same target simultaneously and with a3 much precision and speed. In addition to this, the mind must fuse or combine the right-eye and left-eye images for normal perception. Many of our reading problems are traceable to a lack of coordination between the two eyes and to the probable failure of the mind to combine righteye and left-eye pictures for proper interpretation. 5 The need for screening tests of visual functioning in addition to the screening of far acuity by means of the Snellen Chart was shown by the Medical Department of the Shaker Heights Clinic. It was found that "approximately 90 per cent of the non-readers and severely retarded readers (required) medical attention before receiving pedagogical help."^ These students were found to have faulty binocular coordination and astigmatism. Betts determined that seven visual items needed exploration in screening students, including (1) refractive errors, (2) muscle balance, (3) size and shape of ocular images, (4) visual fusion, (5) monocular and binocular eye movements, (6) interpupilary distance, and (7) visual imagery. Concerned with the lack of availability of convenient tests of visual functions for researchers and educators, Betts devised the Betts Sensation and Perception Tests as a part of the Betts Ready to Read Tests ? Stereogram slides were placed in the Keystone Ophthalmic Telebinocular so that the left eye could see only its half, and the right eye only its half of the slide. In order to test each eye separately, one half of ^ Ibid., pp. 164-165. 6 Ibld p. 165. ^Emmett A. Bett3, Manual of Directions for Heady to Read Test3 (Meadville, Pennsylvania: Keystone View Co., 1934).

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17 the slide was left blank of targets; in order to tost binocular functions a target was placed before each eye to be fusod into a single picture. In this way the eyes functioned simultaneously while the vision of either eye or of both eyes was studied. So concerned with the need for normal visual sensation and perception was Betts that he stated: Before entrance to the first grade, every child should be thoroughly examined by a competent eye specialist. A certificate of visual readiness to read should be required The number of visual aberrations among both able and disabled readers rake this a mandatory policy for adoption by all school administrators Many other researchers had voiced concern over the method of ucrooning vision in public schools. Some authors published tests designed „o improve upon the Snellen Chart. Hildreth and Axelson developed an adaptation ot too Snellen Chart which was designed to motivate young 9 luames made available the Eames Eye Test which measured acuity at twenty feet, and also astigmatism, coordination of the eyas, and farsightedness.”^ Jensen^ designed the Tests for Color-Blindness. Visual Acuity Astigmatism which provided a measure of two-eyed vision, of color, and of astigmatism as wo ml as of acuity. Although the Jensen and the Eames Tests ^Betts, o£. cit., p. 163. o Gertrude Hildreth and Aljhild Axelson, ’’Improved Visual Acuity Tests for Young Children." Teachers College Record. Vol. AO (December. 1933), pp. 229-236. 10 Thomas E. Eames, "Improvement in School Eye Testing." Education. Vol. 56 (September, 1935), pp. 14-18. “^Milton B. Jensen, Tests for Color-Blindness, Visual Acuity Astigmatism (New York: Psychological Corporation, 1935 )~

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18 were not measuring tho same visual functions and were not of equal validity (Spacho^ pointed out tho problems related to each test), each was an improvement upon tho single measure of acuity. Aware that educators were dissatisfied with results of vision testing with tho Snollon Chart, Oak investigated tho efficiency of the Visual Sensation and Perception Tests in identifying school children who needed ocular examination. He concluded that "the Telebinocular sorts out too many cases for practical purposes and . misses cases needing to be referred for ocular attention. Two points should be considered with regard to Oak’s study. First, the criteria against which the Telobinocular was compared were determined by a single ophthalmologist, and though apparently reliable, were not checked for validity. Second, the norms for Bett’s tests were designed to screen for children with functional problems which would affect their reading, rather than for the usual criterion of "adequate" vision applied by opthalmologists. Nevertheless, Oak’s data shewed from 50 per cent to 75 per cent of a random sample of one hundred children failed one or more of the Telebinocular Tests, seemingly a high number. Betts and Austin replied to the criticism of over-referral by the Telebinocular by describing a study of one hundred thirteen students: “^George D. Spache, "Testing Vision," Education, Vol. 59 (June, 1959), pp. 623-626. -Lura Oaks, "An Appraisal of the Betts Visual Sensation and Perception Tests as a Sorting Device for Use in Schools," Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 30 (April, 1939), pp. 241-250.

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19 When visual acuity alone is considered, the findings of this study agree in general with . previous investigations .... As findings are added to the referral routine, nor a cases are referred . . There is a cumulative effect of using certain additional tests. For example 26.55 per cent of 113 cases were referred on the basis of acuity for distance. Additional findings from other tests increased the referrals so that when the six findings ware used, 66.37 per cent of the cases were referred.-^ Bennett, studying causal elements operating among primary grade pupils caking slou progress in learning to read, concluded that "various types of visual dysfunction cay some times contribute to difficulties in reading. This conclusion supported Bett's recommendation that children who failed various' vision tests be carefully studied. Using the Telebinocular according to procedures described by Betts in the Manual of Directions, Dalton tested five thousand eight hundred twenty-one students in grades three through twelve. Only 17.6 per cent of the elementary pupils and only 12 per cent of the high school pupils passed all twelve of the tests. He concluded that "either the test shows an excessive amount of defect or . visual defectiveness is very prevalent among school children."^ 0 Complications in visual screening. — As the relation between vision and reading became more widely recognized, more attention was given to studies which identified various vision defects in students. But these studies indicated the relation between reading and vision wa3 ^Betts and Austin, op. cit . p. 62. ^Chester C. Bennett, An Inquiry into the Genesis of Poor Reading Teachers* College Contributors to Education, No. 755 (Mew York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers* College, Columbia University, 1938), p. 106. l6 M. M. Dalton, "A Visual Survey of 5000 School Children," Journal of Educational Research, Voi. 37 (October, 1943), pp. 82-83.

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20 more complicated than seen at first glance; the interpretation of results was complicated by several findings. Batts' findings that able readers also have vision problems was of particular importance. It was also determined that an eye deficiency might not always be a liability. For example, Segel reported that "myopia proved advantageous to persons doing certain kinds of work and possibly in facilitating reading.' A second effect complicating the relation between reading and vision is that of visual fatigue. A student might be able to control the functions of the eyes for briof periods, for example, in order to pass visual screening tests, but might be unable to operate efficiently over an extended period. Thus Betts reminds us that "given normal visual acuity . the student must have the power to maintain his binocular coordination during the entire period of reading."^ In this same vein. Park and Burri stated: If for soma reason the eye3 can no longer ^ function as a unit, fusion ha3 a tendency to break, causing potential diplopia, and the resulting interference becomes a disturbing factor in the process of reading. 2 ^ Obviously involved in the fatigue effect is the motivation of the student. If the student has one or more visual problems he may control these over a given period of time, despite increasing discomfort, as ^Emmett A. Betts, "A Physiological Approach to the Analysis of Reading Difficulties," Educational Research Bulletin. Vol. 13 (June, 1934), p. 163. ^David Segel, "Measurement of Aptitudes in Specific Fields," Review of Educational Research Vol. 2 (January, 1941), p. 46. ^Betts, "A Physiological Approach . p. 174. ^George E. Park and Clara Burri, "The Effect of Eye Abnormalities on Reading Difficulty," Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 34 (October, 1943), p. 540.

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21 required by his goal. The fact that visual screening is presented as a "test" of vision i3 sufficient to motivate such a student to exercise control of vision problems during the brief testing period. Carmichael and Dearborn attempted to determine the effect upon normal subjects of fatigue created by six hours of continuous reading. It is interesting to note that their data indicated a significant increase in the average Keystone Steraopsi3 scores. This increase may have been so great as to obscure completely a 'fatigue factor, if it existed at all. But at this point the differences observed are better explained as duo more to practice effect.^" Despite the fact that the Betts' tests did not adapt to the test-ratast design, these authors concluded that prolonged visual work "does not bring about any detectable and consistent physical alteration in the visual mechanism which changes the ability of this mechanism to perform in an effective and normal way" at either the high school or at 22 the college level. It would seem, then, that marked decrement in visual functioning during sustained use of the eyes would indicate a visual problem in need of attention since it did not occur in normal subjects. Visual careening using the Ortho-Bator — Screening of vision was also being emphasised in industry. Imus reported a shift of emphasis "from primary concern for first aid following accidents to selection and 21 Leonard Carmichael and Walter F. Dearborn, Renoir? and Visual Fatigue (New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1947), p. 373. 22 Ibid., p. 360.

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22 classification of personnel for job placement.” 2 5 Too, a groat demand for adequate visual screening cane about through requirements for rapid screening of inductees into various armed forces schools during World War II. To fulfill such needs, other visual screening devices were produced. One such device vas the Bausch-Lomb Ortho-Rater. The battery of twelve vision tests presented with this instrument was developed in part at the Statistical Laboratory for Vision Tests at Purdue University.'"^ This battery of standardized precision vision tests was used by staff researchers at Purdue University as a basis for a research approach to industrial problems in vision. The Bausch and Lomb Optical Company published profiles as minimum Ortho-Rater standards for various industrial jobs. As a service to educators, this company recommended as a School Profile the same OrthoRater standards as those for individuals who do clerical and administra25 tive tasks. In elementary schools about 35 per cent to 40 per cent of the students were expected to fail this standard. Several Armed Forces studies comparing the merits of various vision screening devices were summarized ty Inns. The reported 21 "Henry A. Imas, “Testing Vision in Industry,” Reprinted from the Transactions American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology (January February, 1949), p."l of reprint. 2 %. Edgar Wirt, “Statistical Laboratory for Vision Tests at Purdue University, 1 Journal Applied Psychology Vol. 30 (August, 1946), p. 358. 25 Bausch and Lomb Optical Company, forwarded with letter of transmittal to Dr. George D. Spacho, University of Florida, April 26, 1951.

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23 coefficients of reliability of the vision tests are shown in Table 1. TABLE 1 COEFFICIENTS OF RELIABILITY OF VISION TESTS COMPILED FROM SELECTED REP0RTS a Test Far vertical phoria Far lateral phoria Binocular far Monocular far Depth Binocular near Monocular near Near vertical phoria Near lateral phoria OrthoSightRater Screener .79 .61 .87 .80 .88-. 93 .70 .81-. 90 .84 .83 .57 .84-. 87 .70 .80-. 90 .77 .73 .55 .81-. 92 .83 TeleClinical binocular Tests .63 .64 .75 .81 .81-. 97 .78-. 86 .80-. 97, 79 .62-. 72“ ,72 .67 ,71 .75-. 73 .74 85 .90 61 Reported by Henry A. Ims, "Testing Vision in Industry" Academy ofJNohthalrolcgy md Otol r^ -r January February, 1949. ^The Howard -Dolman Test. According to these Armed Forces studies, the Bausch-Lcmb Ortho-Rater appeared to be the most reliable stereoscopic instrument for screening vision when compared with similar stereoscopic instruments. Reliability of the Ortho-Rater compared favorably with that of clinical tests by ophthalmologist s A thorough study of an extensive battery of commercial visual screening tests and specially constructed vision tests was conducted by Robinson and Euelssam. The purpose of the study was to select tests of vision to be related to reading achievement Factor leadings revealed

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24 that the Ortho-Rater was among tho best measuring devices for vertical phoria, depth perception* and acuity. 2 The, controversy over visual screening in schools — Crane and other ophthalmologists coopered the results of screening by stereoscopic machines (Ortho— Rater, Telebinoeular, Sight-Scraener) and the Massachusetts Vision Test, using clinical tests of vision as criteria. These anchors reported !, all of the correlations of screening procedures with criterion (clinical findings) are low."*"^ The Snellen Chart (note: actually no Snellen Chart was used; tho Massachusetts Vision Test Chart was accepted as equivalent) and Massachusetts Vision Test were "the moot efficient — or least inefficient — of tho procedures tested." 20 Crane* o report, which became widely known as the St. Louis Study, had the effect of reducing the number of stereoscopic screening instruments used in schools. For sample, on the basis of Crane’s report, the Florida State Board of Health adopted as standard procedure the use of the Atlantic City Test or the Massachusetts Vision Test rather than poloroid or stereoscopic instruments. Tho Committee on Conservation of Vision of the Florida Medical Association was quoted as saying: Instruments such as the Telebinoeular, SightScreener, and the Ortho-Rater . are not suitable for school eye screening for many reasons. The worst objection ... is that they refer for 2A Helen K. Robinson and Charles B. Euelsmun, Jr., "Visual Efficiency of Progress in Learning to Read," in Helen M. Robinson (cd.). Clinical Stud5.es in Reading II (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953), pp. 55-59. 27 M. M. Crane, et al, Screening School Children for nsual Defects Children’s Bureau of Publications, No. 345 (Washington, D. C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1954), p. 92. 28 Ibid ., p. 24.

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25 ys examinations far too many children whoso eyas ara normal. This has baen demonstrated in controlled studios such as that of Crane . ^ Thus in Volusia County, Florida, all Keystone Telebinocular instruments previously used by visiting public health nurses were withdrawn. These public schools now utilise tho Massachusetts Vision Test, '‘E n -Chart, screening only acuity of students at a distance of twenty feet. Among authors who sevaraly criticized Crane's report was Kelly, uao pointed out statistical, errors as well as errors in experimental design. His objections were raised primarily because the widespread reporting of erroneous conclusions from the study "handicapped the establishment of sound visual screening programs in our schools. 1 "3 As early as 1943, Russell, discussing the growth of the t boozy of interaction between vision defects and reading habits, pointed out that: It now forms the basis of many optometrists 1 practices in the adjustment of visual difficulties, and it may be that educational psychology has been afflicted with some of the conservatism, of orthodox ophthalmology in its failure to study, from a frond angle, the whole problem of relations between reading abilities and visual defects. 31 2Q_ Selection of Eye Screening Apparatus for Uso in Florida Schools Florida State Board of Health (December, I960) •^Charles R. Kelly, Visual Screening and Child Development (Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State Teachers College, 1957), pp. 2-11. 31 David H. Russell, "Note on a New Theory about Visual Functioning and Reading Disabilities," Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 34 (February, 1943), pp. 115-120.

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26 This difference of basic philosophy between the nodical and the optometric vision specialists has created acre or less an impasse in the development of visual screening programs for schools. But in general there is medical domination of school screening procedures. Spache states: County and state public health officials insist upon the use of the completely inadequate Snellen Chart because it fits the modical concept of the vision process.^ 2 The controversy over the bast method for school screening of vision, as well as the implications of such screening, has continued. Aware of the controversy, Taylor suggested screening by questionnaire ^ Initial screening was done by classrooa teachers through the Functional Readiness Questionnaire. Students referred by teachers ware given The Functional Readiness Inventory, a one-hour series of tests involving the vision focus mechanism and acuity, the dynamic reactions of the divergence and convergence functions, and photographic eye-movement records. Corrective techniques were recommended for students whose functional readiness was inadequate. Taylor reported that from a group of three hundred college freshmen, all seventy-eight who made low scores on the Advanced Iowa Silent Reading Tests "had vergonee and/or focusing difficulties." 32 George D. Spache, "Classroom Reading and the Visually Handicapped Child," in J. Allen Figurel (ed.), Changing Concents of Reading Instruction IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 6 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1961), p. 94. 33g a rl A. Taylor, Byes, Visual Anomalies, and the Fundamental Reading Skills (New York: Reading and Study Skills Center, 1959), p. 6.

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27 Silly twenty of the seventy — eight read with the mechanical ability expected of college students. 34 Of forty-four freshmen who cade satisfactory scores on the Iowa Silent Reading Tests, it was stated th a t: Over one-third of the group were found to have verge nee and/or accommodative difficulties which could affect their reading performance. Reading graphs of the grojp revealed . twenty (less than half) were reading at the college level mechanically. 35 Thus Taylor.’ s data indicate from 50 per cent to 25 per cent of college freshmen have vision problems which affect their reading performance. Rosenbloom also commented on the use of a checklist of visual symptoms byyteachers to identify pupils needing professional eye care. He stated: Available research studies suggest that in those instances where the observations are carried out by a trained classroom teacher, the use of a carefully selected checklist of visual symptoms can be a valuable supplement in identifying visual problems. 3& However, Spache has pointed out a solution to the choice of vision screening tests, at least at the elementary school level. He refers to the "developmental approach" which places emphasis upon careful observation of posture, perceptual-motor-skills, ocular pursuits, directionality, and visual perception. Spache states: "The developmental 34 Ibid. p.3. 35 Ibid ., p.3. 3&Alfred A. Rosenbloom, Jr., "Promoting Visual Readiness for Reading," in J. Allen Figurel (ed.). Changing Concepts of Reading Instruction IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol.6 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1961;, p. 93.

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28 approach offers not clinical tests of vision, but educationally prognostic tests of significance to reading teachers. The developmental approach to visual screening follows the thinking long established in industrial ophthalmology. Imus reminded that "for job placement it is not necessary that the vision screening tests predict the results of clinical tests of vision. If the teat predicts performance on the job, that is sufficient. Carrying this reasoning over to vision screening at the college level, the clinician might utilise stereoscopic screening devices to predict performance in reading, rather than need for clinical vision analysis. The primary requirement of the test battery for thi3 purpose is reliability. In summary, it might be said that educational screening of vision has developed along two lines of reasoning. One theory, the mechanistic, emphasises the structure of the eyes and is concerned with the condition of the eyes in a static state. The other theory, the functionalistic, emphasises seeing as a learned function involving binocular coordination of the eyes in a dynamic state. The controversy between adherents to these theories has prevented development of an adequate method of school screening of vision. Consequently, specialists in related fields have recommended educationally prognostic tests rather than tests which predict clinical findings. In the present study the Ortho-Hater is used in an attempt to determine its value as an indicator of functional visual readiness for reading •'•'Spaehe, '-Classroom Reading . . p. 93. 3%mus, op clt

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29 Vision and Rs.ad.ir? If a student is to road by moans of the eyes, then ho must .uSve sufficient vision to see the print and to discriminate one symbol fro.ui anotnor • cams is the lurst and obvious relationship botweea vision and reacting, and it led to the us of the Snellen Chart as a means for measuring acuity of vision. However, as specialists sought an understanding of the reading process, they naturally studied more carefully the operation of the sensory organs utilized. There developed from, these studies an increasing awareness of, and understanding of, the cle>3 relationship between the reading and the vision processes. As has been described earlier, the development of photographic records of eye movements during reading led to a better understanding of the reading process. It became obvious that if the vision mechanism were required 'to perform these precis movements any interference would probably retard development in reading. For this reason educators stressed observations of pupils in the classroom to determine if symptoms of vision problems were apparent. Teachers were asked to report for tasting any child who squinted, could not see the blackboard, had red and watering eyes, or other symptoms of poor vision. Such observations enabled the discovery of severe vision problems. But the development of reading from oral to silent, from slow to rapid, from adjunct to major tool in education, changed visual requirements as wall as curriculum. As greater stress was placed upon th

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30 vision mechanism by continuous, rapid, and sustained near— point activity, specialists found nor subtle vision problems affecting reading skills. For example Bennett said, "the question of pedagogical significanco i_ whether reading disabilities often result from minor visual defects of which pupil and teacher nay continue unaware.^ In attempting to discover predictive relationships between vision and reading, researchers have considered (l) the total aet of vision and the total act of reading, (2) specific vision problems an d specific reading s ki lls, and (3) combinations of vision problems and reading skills Barnes emphasized the relationship between oyo muscle imbalance, particularly exophoria, and reading difficulties/ 0 As previously noted, Betts developed screening tests and pointed out reading problems arising from hyperopia, interpupilary distance, and other aspects of development of the visual mechanism when young children are learning to read. Betts found that about 10 per cent of severely disabled readers at the Shaker Heights Clinic had a low depth perception level, while all good readers with binocular vision passed the test for stsrsopsis. Ha concluded, r; Although stereopsis itself is not essential for the formation of good reading habits, the factors involved do apparently contribute to reading success. '"^Bennett, op. cit 15. ^Thomas H. Eames, “A Comparison of Ocular Characteristics of Unselected and Reading Disability Cases, 15 Journal of Educational Research Vol. 25 (November, 1932), p p. 211-215. ^Emmett A. Betts, “A Physiological Approach to the Analysis of Reading Difficulties," Educational Research Bulletin Vol. 13 (June, 1934), p. 171.

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31 Witty and Kopel compared groups of poor readers with normal readers in grades three to six. In both groups they found similar incidence of refractive errors, lessened acuity, and lateral muscle imbalance, concluding that the one visual problem which differentiated the poor reauers was Sxow fusion. 11 Daspits these negative findings the authors remarked that "normal vision is indubitably essential to maximum attainment."^ 2 Imus, Rothney, and Bear described a careful evaluation of vision in reading, using as subjects the entire freshman class at Dartmouth College When the subjects were grouped according to diagnosis of ocular defects there were no significant differences among them in initial performance on reading tests, in gains on reading tests, or in academic achievement either prior to or during the college freshman year. The authors stated, "Wo have found no general important differences in performance of subjects grouped according to the physiological conditions of the eyes." -4 ^ Clark, after a survey of the literature relating to visual defects and reading disabilities, concluded that the difference was insignificant between good and poor readers with regard to the number of visual defects. 42paul A. Witty and David Kopel, "Eeterophoria and Reading Disabilities, “ Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 24 (Karen, 1936), p. 230. 4^ henry A. Imus, John W. Rothney, and Robert M. Bear, An Evaluation of Visual Factors in Reading (Hanover, New Hampshire: Dartmouth College Publications, 1933), pp. 35-48. Clark, "3inocular Anomalies and Reading Disability," American Journal Ophthalmology Vol. 23 (October, 1940), pp. 835-891.

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32 In a study of over five thousand school children in grades one through eight, Dalton reported, "On the average there is no significant diiference ... in reading ability or in progress through the grades between pupils with defective vision and normal vision. "45 A relatively high correlation (r = .465) between total vision scores and '’corrected" reading scores was reported by Park and Burri. The authors concluded this correlation indicated "a definite relation between eye abnormalities and reading difficulties." Various eye difficulties showed different degrees of influence on reading ability. Monocular individuals had less trouble with reading, indicating that the major role of ocular defects in causing reading disability lies in disturbance of binocular vision. 46 Thi3 finding supports the emphasis which Betts placed upon binocular functions. 4*7 Imus, Rothney, and Bear also pointed out that "cases of monocular or alternating vision are notoriously free from subjective troubles until attempts are made to re-establish binocular use of the ayes. "42 Russell reported increasing emphasis upon the i.nterg.cticr; between reading and vision. His studies led him to believe that just as visual defects may cause poor reading skills, ineffective skills and ^*M. M. Dalton, "A Visual Survey of 5000 School Children," Journal of Education:! Research Vol. 37 (October, 1943), p. 94. 4George E. Park and Clara Burri, "The Effect of Eye Abnormalities on Reading Difficulty," Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 34 (October, 1943), p. 429. 4~3etts, "A Physiological Approach . pp. 163-174 • 4lmus, Rothney, and Bear, 02. cit . p. 35.

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33 habits of reading may bo causes of functional visual defects. Consequently ho listed as one of the important conclusions expressed by writers that many visual dysfunctions are learned Robinson pointed to tho importance of patterning in visual tests which subjects failed. For example, single failures of lateral phoria at near-point often occurred, but were considered valuable for analysis only if accompanied by failures in other tests. Failures in depth perception were, however, accompanied by other failures in all instances but onej thus in reading this seems to indicate loss of binocular coordination and to signal earlier fatigue and decrease in rate of reading. 5 ^ Edson, Bond, and Cook found no significant differences in reading between groups of children with normal vision and groups with defective vision. Nor was there any significant difference between the dispersions in the distributions of reading test scores for the children who passed, or who failed the different visual tests. The studies described above illustrate the wide differences of opinion to be found throughout the literature regarding the relation between vision and reading. Authors seeking guidance from study of ^David H. Russell, "Note on a New Theory about Visual Functioning and Reading Disabilities, Journal of Educational Psyeholcfry Vol. 34 (February, 1943), p. 116, 50 Helen M. Robinson, n Visual Efficiency and Reading,” in Clinical Studies in Reading I ., Supplementary Educational Monograph No. 6S (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, June, 1949), pp. 105-106. 52 W. Edson, Guy L. Bond, and Walter W. Cook, "Relationship between Visual Characteristics and Specific Silent Reading Skills,” Journal of kducatrlonai Re; roh. Vol. 46 (February, 1953), p. 455.

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34 recced literature express the feeling of confusion prevailing. After quwvj.ng examples of both extremes and Eid-ground rogerding the degree of relationship between vision and reading, Eberl stated, "In fact an analysis of the literature leaves one in an extrema state of confusion. n ^ 2 Such conflicting reports from various studies have prevented conclusive statements regarding the relationships between vision and coveral reasons for the conflict become apparent. Probably most important is that gross defects in vision do not severely affect reading. Gross defects are readily observed and corrected where possible, or lead to compensatory adjustment on the part of the student. When the degree of ocular error is high, it is easier for the student to suppress vision of one eye, or to alternate vision. But students with moderate vision problems will quite likely be unaware of their existence, and less aware of the effect upon academic achievement. As Inus, Rothney, and Bear state, “Slight abnormalities Pi.oduce cc„i licts and misinterpretations of visual space and perception, problems wnich are much less amenable to self-analysis or to crude observation. Further difficulty arises from the implied curvilinear relationships between some vision functions and reading skills. Unless statistical adjustments are made in handling the data, relationships are likely to be underestimated because of a cancelling effect. ^ ^Marguerite Eberl, "Visual Training and Reading," in Helen M. Rooinson (ed.y, C-inical Studies in Reading IT (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953), p. 141 "imus, Rothney, and Bear, op. cit., p. 35.

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35 iiios3 problems point out the need for careful consideration of experimental design in studying the vision-reading relationship. An example of the more sophisticated study is that by Robinson and Huelsman. -ne major purpose of these authors was to investigate the relationship between visual efficiency and reading progress. However, they recognised th3 need to first determine the adequacy of the tests to be used. A preliminary factor analysis of an extensive battery of commercial vrcual screening tests, along with tests constructed specifically for tne study, led to selection of vision tests to be considered in this study. The authors then attempted to relate the selected vision tests o0 fading achievement. Five statistical procedures were spoiled to the data, culminating in a multiple— group factor analysis. Seven groups of test correlation coefficients were chosen from the complete matrix of two thousand five hundred fifty-six coefficients. Those groups were identified as (l) reading, (2) depth, (3) far acuity, (4) near acuity, (5) suppression, (6) fusion, and (7) vertical phoria. The authors concluded that: Certain visual characteristics were identified which appear to be related to reading .... Centroids representing reading and several aspects of visual performance appear to be related. This conclusion offers hope for identifying a pattern of visual tests which will be more valuable for screening purposes than those used in preceding research. 54 Kelly also completed a significant study relating vision and reading. Utilising the Keystone Telebinocular and Gatos Reading Tests, Kelly studied the relationships among visual skills and reading. His ^Robinson and Huelsman, oo. cit.. pp. 62-63.

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data indicated that failure in one visual skill will often be related to failure in others, but these will not necessarily be related with poor reading skill3. There was confirmation that the myoptic student is generally an above-average reader, but the very poorest groups also had core than average amounts of myopia. This relationship is folt to have been a source of confusion in findings regarding the relationship between myopia and reading skills. 25 hyperopia was in general related with poor reading skills, but when phoria also existed the students showed pronounced deficiencies in reading scores. However, this relationship is also confusing, since hyperope3 who were exophoric at near-point were better than average of the total group. 20 Kelly summarised the findings of the study as follows: Good readers tend to have the following visual characteristics: myopia; straight eyes (no lateral imbalance); good fusion or no fusion at all (monocular vision) Poor readers, on the other hand, tend to have: hyperopia; lateral imbalance; overconvergence; fusion problems. These statements are based upon many highly significant differences between reading skills of groups having each of the above visual characteristics, and average children. 57 As a challenge to authors finding no relationship between reading and visual skills, the most significant difference reported by Kelly is noted. This was between myopic children with no lateral imbalance and hyperopic children with lateral imbalance. "These two groups differed 55 Charles R. Kelly, Visual Screening and Child Development (Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State Teachers College, 1957), pp. 22 26

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37 Eora than a standard deviation in four-year reading proficiency scores, a difference significant at £ less than .00001 l" 58 Spache and Tillman summarized related studies in literature which attempted to relate specific areas of visual defects to reading ability. Briefly, their findings are as follows: (1) Fuel on: poor fusion does not occur often, and reading scores may be normal except for slower speed; fusion problems tend to retard learning to read; good roaders have good fusion or no fusion at all. (2) Stereopsis: as such is not required for reading, but the degree of fusion necessary for its achievement contributes to acquisition of good reading habits. (3) Phorias: findings are conflicting, but generally the child unable to converge or remain converged has reading problems. Both esophoria and excphoria are associated with poor reading scores, but usually in combination with other visual problems (4) Acuities, myopia, hyperopia: generally unrelated to reading, but myopes tand to be better roaders than hyperepos. (5) Suppression: partial or incomplete suppression causes serious visual handicaps in reading; complete suppression ro suiting in one-eyedness mnv improve reading ability under such conditions.-^ 5S Ibid., p. 36. cq •^George D. Spache and Chester E. Tillman, "A Comparison of the Visual Profiles of Retarded and Non-Retarded Readers," Journal of hevelopmsatal Reacting Vol. 5 (Winter, 1962), pp. 101-103.

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33 In their comparison of retarded and non-rotarded readers, Spache and Tillman conclude that tho study: . Iend3 definite support to the idea that defects resulting in fusion difficulties are strongly related to reading difficulty. The three significant differences found support each other in indicating a weakness in binocular acuity at near point among retarded readers.^ These students wore found to be poorer in left-eye acuity, had marked differences in acuity between the two eyes, and failed the te3t of binocular acuity in significant numbers. Referring to a study of the binocular coordination of several thousand children needing corrective and remedial reading, Taylor found that 95 per cent showed a lack of sufficient coordination and fusion to carry out reading and study activities in a satisfactory manner. He states: Thi3 binocular control must be maintained during the dynamic act of reading. When the reader doe3 not have an adequate amount of binocular control, accurate word recognition is discouraged in two ways. First the word form becomes less distinguishable as the reader fluctuates in his binocular control. Secondly, as the reader fights to maintain single binocular vision, an undue amount of energy is consumed. For many, thl3 expenditure of energy results in visual fatigue and a general feeling of discomfort which, in turn, decreases the reader's ability to concentrate and increases his susceptibility to distraction. Taylor's comments seem to describe a large number of subjects approaching reading clinics for help. ^ Ibid . pp. 108-109. 6l Ibid. ^Stanford E. Taylor, "Sensation and Perception: The Complexity of Word Perception," Journal of Developmental Reading Vol. 6 (Spring, 1963), pp. 191-192.

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39 To summarize, we might state that studies relating vision to reading have been numerous, but findings were conflicting. Major focus has been placed successively upon the relation of visual acuity, then refractive errors, then binocular coordination as these relate to reading. Early attempts to determine visual patterns related to reading failed, but gradually additional information has come to light which helps to explain the conflicting reports. In the interaction between the visual and the reading processes, either process may affect the other. Gross visual defects may be corrected or compensated for, thu3 do not tend to affect reading skills; slight abnormalities which affect binocular functioning are related to poor reading. In addition to this curvilinear relationship, fatigue may affect visual function under sustained use, but fatigue is subject to control and dependent upon motivation. Both students and teachers may be unaware of minor vision problems or their effects upon reading. Nevertheless, some combinations of vision skills are believed to be related to reading. Without doubt there is need for further study to clarify the still -existing confusion. Reading Improvement at the College Level In designing a reading improvement program at college level, one must be cognisant of the problems faced by reading specialists in such programs. In 1933 Irnus, Rothney, and Bear commented that the growth of interest in the problems of reading performance at the college level was indicated by extensive literature in the field, by appointment of

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40 individuals to direct remedial reading programs, by an increased number of courses offered, and by the number of meetings of associations devoted to the reading problems. The authors interpreted these facts as indicative of a fad which would scon die, leaving but a small residual effect upon educational procedure. ^3 Twenty— seven years later this dire prediction has not yet been fulfilled. Fortunately, there has boon continued Interest on the part of researchers who felt keenly the need for assisting college students to overcome what they believe is a serious problem. An indication of the serious attitude taken by college administrators is the rapid increase of reading programs offered. Shaw reported that during the 1950-60 decade there was an increase of about four hundred colleges offering reading courses. 0 ^ Such expenditures of funds and efforts would appear to be based upon proved value rather than fad. McDonald states: Rapid development of remedial (corrective) reading courses for college students has beon spurred by the research studies which show a close relationship between college success (academic grades) and reading abilities as measured by one or more reading tests. Reading improvement at the college level seems to be important for at least three reasons: (l) the ever-increasing load placed upon ^Imu3, Rothney, and Bear, op cit .. pp. 1-2. ^Philip B. Shaw, "College Reading Improvement Programs of the Future," in J. Allen Figurel (ed.), Changing Concepts of Reading Instruc tion. IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 6 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1961), pp. 48-51. ^Arthur S. McDonald, "Influence of a College Reading Improvement Program on Academic Performance," Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 48 (March, 1957), p. 171.

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41 students, (2) the relatively low reading abilities of college students, and (3) indications that reading courses help students improve their reading skills. The increasing reading load placed upon a student is an attempt both to cover the rapidly expanding voluxca of literature in his field, and to have him cognizant of other fields. Libraries no longer number their volumes in thousands, but today hold millions of books, journals, papers, theses, bulletins, and microfilms reporting knowledge from all over the world. The task of todayÂ’s student is to read and utilize them. Yet the reading skills of today's college students are not geared to this demand. Sixty-one per cent of Carter's subjects (college freshmen) reported that their high school teachers had provided no opportunity to improve their reading skills; 70 per cent had not been taught how to critically evaluate a writer's bias and use of preconceived ideas; 63 per cent had not been taught how to read a chapter effectively.^ Half ter and Douglass refer to twothirds of the entering college population as "inadequate" in college-required reading skills.^ Earl Taylor reports that "over 30 per cent of the . students enrolled in colleges and universities of the country either fail or have great difficulty in meeting the demands of this type of environment." ^Komer L. J. Carter, "Effective Use of Textbooks in the Reading Program," Oscar S. Causey and William Eller (eds.), Starting and Improving College Reading Programs NRC Eighth Yearbook (Fort Worth, Texas: Christian University Press, 1959), p. 156. ^Irma T. Halfter and Frances M. Douglass, "Inadequate College Readers," Journal of Developmental Reading Vol. 1 (Summer, 1958), p. 52. 68 Sarl A. Taylor, Functional Readiness and School Adjustment (New York: Reading and Study Skills Center, 1956), p. 5.

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42 The establishment of remedial and developmental reading programs has been an attempt to improve the level of ability of these students. Entwisle, reviewing reports for twenty— two reading improvement and study skills courses, concluded that such courses are usually followed by significant gains. These observed gains tend to persist, and academic performance is improved. ^9 Brown stated that improvements of from 30 per cent to 35 per cent may be expected in only five weeks of classvork in remedial reading as described in her study: In general the better readers improved more than the poorer readers when absolute increases are considered. Individual cases of improvement may run as high as 250 per cent or more.'^ Other authors have pointed out that all students do not improve. Earl Taylor states: Obviously a great many pupils improve, but a large number cannot adjust satisfactorily in spite of improvement in reading ability. As is so often the case . the symptom (the reading difficulty) is given the attention while the cause is ignored. 171 Thus, one of the problems in organizing a reading program is the selection of subjects who are most likely to mala improvement in their reading and study skills. Studies indicate some students derive more from instruction than do others, but there is too little information available to suggest the reasons for such differences in progress. ^Doris R. Entwisle, "Evaluations of Study-Skills Courses: A Review," Journal of Educational Research Vol. 53 (November, I960), p. 250. 70 Louise Brown, "Development of Reading Rate and Comprehension," Journal of Developmental Reading Vol. 3 (Autumn, 1959), p. 61. ^Sanford E. Taylor, loc cit.

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43 Schneyer suggested that if the reading instructor is aware of the elements associated with the progress or lack of progress in a reading program he may be of help to his students in at least two ways: First ho will be able to select those students who are most likely to improve their reading and study skills. Second ... the instructor may be able to help those students who seem least likely to benefit from instruction.' Soma of the elements impeding progress may be amenable to change, and thus poor readers may prepare themselves to improve their skills at a later tima. Types of courses .— —Subjects selected for reading instruction may be considered for either (l) remedial or (2) developmental instruction. Shaw differentiates between these terms (respectively) as n a gap between a student's achievement and potential" and "a gap between a student's developed ability to meet the needs of the past and his ability to iiset the more challenging demands of the present." Shaw points out that "only a limited segment of the population needs remedial instruction £whilej all of a population can benefit from developmental instruct! on ^ This seems to be in agreement with the thinking of Halfter and Douglass who emphasise the more advanced thinking-reading skills required at the college level. ^ 72 j. Wesley Schneyer, "Factors Associated with the Progress of Students Enrolled in a College Reading Program," in J. Allen Figurel (ed.). Challenge and E;-roeriment in Reading IRA Conference Proceeuings, Vol. 7 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1962), p. 167. 7 3shaw, "College Reading Improvement Program . p. 50. 7 %alfter and Douglass, op. cit pp. 42-53.

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44 It may bo generally stated that reading improvement programs at the college level have fallen into three categories: (l) those based upon counseling policies, (2) those emphasizing training by mechanical devices, and (3) those centering instruction upon books or prepared materials. Counseling leads to discussions and evaluations of problems, and to teaching of techniques and methods. Machines are utilized for motivation and establishing "mechanical” skills. Textbooks give information on effective reading and learning, and manuals and materials provide exercises. Recently the trend has been toward a combination of thoss approaches, utilizing the best features of each to accomplish a particular task. In the present study the reading improvement program is a combination, utilizing counseling and supported by mechanical devices. Aims of courses .— However, specific results of these courses are seen to vary as widely as the aims for the courses with a great deal of disagreement as to what is desirable. As Heilman has stated: Educators at the college level have long been aware of the fact that many students, who otherwise have the ability to do college work, fail because of inefficient reading habits .... An extremely slow rate of reading i3 ons of the problems found most frequently among inadequate readers.^ Thus rate of reading is a skill singled out for improvement by many courses. ^Arthur Heilman, "Rapid Reading: Uses and Abuses," Journal of Developmental Reading Vol. 5 (Spring, 1962), pp. 15S-159.

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45 Rood reports: A significant increase in rate of reading without change in comprehension or vocabulary C which U suggests that rat is an independent factor in the reading process. Furthermore, rate will increase as a result of training, and this increase has sene degree of permanence .76 Heftel reports that students "who show the greatest aptitude are also the initially fastest readers and will probably profit the most from rate training. In the same vein, Weeks stated that in his study, "poor students can improve greatly, sometimes the improvement being quite amazing because they were so slow to start with.” On the other hand, the fact that better students tend to make evon greater strides "supports the oft-presented view that our better students are loafing along unchallenged and are certainly working below capacity."^ Schick cautions that rate is dependent upon several variables including comprehension of materials read.^9 Thus Davis writes: The measurement of rata of work in reading for various purposes poses many difficult problems. Number of words read per minute is in itself a ^Jamss C. Reed, "Some Effects of Short-term Training in Reading under Conditions of Controlled Criteria," Journal of Educational Psychol ogy Vol. 47 (May, 1956), 262. ^Daniel L. Heftel, "Gains in Reading Speed Compared with Academic Aptitude and Initial Rate,” Journal of Developmental Reading Vol. 4 (Spring, 1961), p. 211. ^^Louis E. Weeks, Jr., "Speeding up Reading: A Self-Help Program for College Freshmen," Journal of Developmental Reading Vol. 3 (Autumn, 1959), p. 42. ^George B. Schick, "Progress and Poverty in College and Adult Reading Programs,” in J. Allen Figurel (od.). Challenge and Eynerlrant in Reading IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 7 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1962), p. 56.

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46 meaningless score. To be meaningful it must be associated with a score indicating the extent of comprehension that has been attained. 60 One solution to this dilemma was the efficiency index sug— guoocu by t>rown, obtained by multiplying rate in words-per-ninute by comprehension calculated in per cent. The efficiency index is a usable concept ... it tends to smooth out inconsistencies which may be introduced by systematic errors . when either speed or comprehension is used separately. 61 Spach3, however, notes that the concept tends to hide important information which is indicated by the separate scores.^ Reed notes that short-term training in reading does not yield material differences in comprehension as it does in rato.63 Singer suggests that wherever possible the development of skill in power and rate should be alternated. "In agreement with the meaning theory of learning, understanding or power of reading should be developed first, then efficiency or speed of response next." s 4 Rankin reports that his students in "the Rate-group not only read faster ... but they also improved as much in vocabulary, comprehension, and total reading proficiency as ^Frederick Davis, "Measurement of Improvement in Reading Skill Courses," in Emery P. Bliesmer and Ralph C. Staiger (eds.), Problems. Programs, and Projects in College-Adult Reading NRC Eleventh Yearbook (Milwaukee: Reading Center, Marquette University, 19ol), p. 39, 81 i 82, Brown, op. cit., pp. 59-61. George D. Spache in a personal conference. ^%eed, op. cit S ^Harry Singer, "Substrata Factor Theory of Reading: Theoretical Design for Teaching of Reading," in J. Allen Figurel (ed.). Challenge and Experiment in Reading IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 7 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1962), p. 230.

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47 tho Comprohen3 ion-grGup ....Â’' He explains that poor cozqprehension nay result frca many factors including slow reading. 8 5 The important effect of purpose in reading was discussed by Davis. Quoting studies which indicated the variation in rate resulting from change in purpose, ho stated: "The measurement of rate of reading must be made under conditions that unambiguously define, the purpose for which reading is being carried on. nS Davis concluded that techniques commonly used for measuring changes in rate of reading brought about by reading skill courses have been inadequate for the purpose.^ 7 A3 has been indicated, rate and comprehension are inseparable in the reading process. Although they may be looked upon as separate,^ this view is pointing out that the relationship varies mathematically according to a reader's purpose.^ Rankin has reviewed studies showing correlations ranging from -.47 to .92; such variation is to be ejected in the light of flexibility of reading purpose Still many authors debate the value of reading improvement courses emphasizing rate or comprehension singly. However, the position gr "uarl ?. Rankin, Jr., "Sequential Emphasis upon Speed and Comprehension in a College Reading Improvement Program," Journal of Develcnm3ntal Readin'? Vol. 7 (Autumn, 1963), p. 53. ^Davis, on. cit., pp. 30-31, 36. S7 Ibid.. p. 36. SS Reed, loc. cit. 89 'Davis, on. cit., pp. 30-40. ^Rankin, op cit . pp. 47-50.

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48 taken in the present study is that suggested by Pauk^ and Spache and 92 Berg that the student should strive for flexibility, that is, for control of rate and comprehension as required by purpose. Mechanical devices — Th use of Eschanical devices as aids in reading improvement programs has generated a large number of studies. Early devices such as the Me trono scope and Harvard Series of Reading Training Films led to the development of "package" programs. The Perceptcscop and tho Controlled Reader are examples of these. ^ Killer, reporting practices of two hundred thirty-three colleges, indicated the most-used devices were reading accelerators, the tachistoscope, and films. The Controlled Reader, relatively new at the time, was usod most often for training, but also for motivation and group dr ill. ^ Some of the values of controlled reading were mentioned by Earl Taylor. These included improvement of directional attack and return sweep, reducing regressions, broadening the span of recognition, and ^Walter J. Pauk, "Basic Skills Needed in College Reading," in J. Allen Figure 1 (ed.), Reading fox* Effective Living IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 3 (New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1958), p. 44^George D. Spache and Paul C. Eerg, Better Reading for Busi ness (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1958), pp. 16-17. ^Edmund N. Fulker, "A Decade of Progress in College and Adult Reading Improvement," in Oscar S. Causey (ed.). Significant Elements in College and Adult Reading Improvement NRC Seventh Yearbook (Fort Worth, Texas: Christian University Press, 1958), pp. 44-48. %Lyle L. Killer, "Current Use of Workbooks and Mechanical Aids," in Oscar S. Causey and William Eller (eds.). Starting and Inrovir? College Reading Programs NRC Eighth Yearbook (Fort Worth, Texas: Christian University Press, 1959), p. 74*

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49 thereby reducing fixation tics. In general, basic visual skills were learned and could be developed and improved through use of mechanical devices. 95 Concern regarding overemphasis on mechanical devices is expressed by Heilman. He stated: In the majority of reports mechanical devices are not appendages .... Rather they seem to be close to the hea^t of the program a major or essential part. 9 Earl Taylor feels this indicates misuse of the devices by clinics, since it is recognized that an instrument "can neither teach reading nor replace the teacher. "97 In the present study, the Controlled Reader was utilized to establish the experience of rapid reading with comprehension by overcoming caution, establishing confidence in dealing with vague and indistinct portions of words, and perhaps by improving visual discrimination, as suggested by Spache.9 Interrelation of reading skills and other variables — Since there is a possibility of relating results of the present study with variables other than reading skills, it is appropriate to consider 06 Earl A. Taylor, "The Fundamental Reading Skilly" Journal Developmental Readin-? Vol. 1 (Summer, 1958), p. 26. 'Arthur Heilman, "New Challenges and Old Problems in CollegeAdult Reading," in Emery P. Bliesmer and Ralph C. Steiger (eds.). Problems Programs, and Projects in College-Adult Reading NEC Eleventh Yearbook (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Reading Center, Marquette University, 1962), p. 212. ^Taylor, "The Fundamental Reading Skills," . p. 29. ^George D. Spache, "A Rationale for Mechanical Methods of Improving Reading," in Oscar S. Causey (ad.), Significant Elements in Col lege and Adult Reading Improvement NRC Seventh Yearbook (Fort Worth, Texas: Christian University Press, 1953), pp. 126-127.

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50 findings of other researchers as to these interrelations. Heftol conpared gain3 in reading rate with academic aptitnde and initial rate. After an eight-week, sixtosn-session reading improvement course, college undergraduates greatly increased both rate and comprehension of reading material. The rank-order correlation between gain in narrative rate and acadenic aptitude was r = .65, p = .01, and between gain in study-type rate and academic aptitude was r = .45, p .05. Students who were initially the fastest readers gained nest; initially slowest readers gained least. Academic aptitude is measured by a predictive index, that is, B a combination of weighted scores from the freshman guidance examinations which correlated highest with academic success.”*^ From his study McDonald concluded that progress in reading was related to academic success since "students who completed the Cornell Reading Program significantly surpassed subjects in the control group in regard to cumulative grade point average for the three semesters of the study . . R “^0 In a study of an entire college freshman class, Vlnyard and Massey found that n the linguistic 3kills of vocabulary, paragraph comprehension, and spelling are related substantially with intelligence. Each of those variables is also related substantially with scholastic success.” Much of the strength of th3 relationships present among these linguistic skills and between the linguistic skills and scholarship was believed by the authors to be due to their common saturation with intelligence. ^Heftel, op. cit., pp. 210-211. ^%cDonald, on. cit .. p. 170.

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51 Removal of the influence of intelligence "reduces to insignificance the relation between . scholastic proficiency and speed of paragraph comprehension.” There remained a moderate relation between vocabulary and speed of paragraph comprehension. J '~ These findings were corroborated in later studies. 102 As one might expect, the relationships among reading and nonreading variables were found to be complicated by their interaction. Bloomer demonstrated that students whose intelligence was greater than their reading ability did not improve their reading skills to the extent of students whose initial reading ability matched their intelligence. He suggested these high capacity students do not feel as sharply the need to read, tending to use other techniques for classroom success. ^3 Bloomer data also demonstrated that while variables other than reading were affected by college reading programs and that "they change concomitantly with reading test gains and produce an increment in academic achievement, thoy are not related to reading test gains.” He recommends a re-examination of programs to determine variables contributing to academic success. “ A Edwin E. Vinyard and Robert B. Bailey, ”Interrelations of Reading Ability, Listening Skills, Intelligence and Scholastic Achievement,” Journal of Developmental Reading Vol. 3 (Spring, I960), p. 173. 102 Edwi n E. Vinyard and Harold W. Massey, "The Interrelation of Certain Linguistic Skills and Their Relationship with Scholastic Achievement When Intelligence is Ruled Constant,” Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 43 (May, 1957), pp. 270-236. •^Richard H. Bloomer, ”The Effects of a College Reading Program on a Random Sampling of Freshmen," Journal of Developmental Reading Vol. 5 (Winter, 1962), p. 117. 10 4lbid.

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52 General trends which appeared in his data are reported b y Ka ma Students high in aptitude or high in reading level (comprehension and vocabulary) did not improve in reading level. None of the variables (college aptitude, study habits, initial reading performance) was related to improvement in reading rate, nor did improvement in one reading shill contribute appreciably to improvement in any other reading 105 skill. The effects of motivation, interest, and personality are 106 pointed out by Spacho One may summarize the studies of reading improvement at college level by stating that (l) courses have demonstrated their value, (2) the trend is toward a combined method of instruction, (3) results are geared to purpose ami method of instruction, ( 4 ) rate of reading can be improved relatively easily, but there is less certainty of improving other reading skills, and (5) there seems to be confusion about tho interrelationships among increase in reading skills and other factors generally related to student success. In the present study the interrelationships of reading skills (rate and comprehension) academic achie voids nt, verbal ability and mathematical ability (SAT), academic potential (PGA) and vision skll3 are studied. ^Richard A. Kamman, "Aptitude, Study Habits, and Reading Improvement,” Journal of Developmental Reading Vol. 6 (Winter, 1963 ), pp. 35-85. 106 George D. Spache, "Clinical Work with College Students,” College-Adult Reading Instruction IRA Perspectives in Reading No. I (Newark, Delaware, 1964), pp. 133-141.

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53 Factor Analysis of Vision, and Rgr.dj-.7i? As studios of vision have increased in depth, particularly by those emphasizing the dynamics of vision, it has become more obvious that many variables were involved. And in studies relating vision and reading, researchers found confusing interaction of the many variables. For this reason, reported results of these studies have created a maze of conflicting ideas and beliefs. As Cattail has observed, in the social sciences: The researcher is presented with so bewildering a multitude of possible variables that unless he factorizes to find the inherent organisation ... an immense waste of effort could (and does) take place. Thus some authors have attempted to gain a better understanding of the variables and their interaction by factor analysis of their data. In this way, effort has been made to determine functionally independent variables and observe their degree of interaction. Vision skills — Unfortunately, there have been few studies which report factor analysis of vision skills. Studying the vision of adults, Cook reported a factor analysis of acuity and phoria measurements obtained by standard clinical techniques and by commercial screening devices. He concluded that retinal resolution (acuity) is measured, as well as or better by screening tests than by wall charts; lateral phoria at far-point is measured more reliably by screening instruments than by the Maddox Rod tests, a clinical device. These conclusions clearly support the use of commercial screening devices such as the Ortho-Rater. ‘^Raymond B. Cat tell. Factor Analysis: An Introduction and Man ual for the Psychologist and Social Scientist (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1952), p. 16.

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54 Cook concluded that acuity and depth teste had tho following contributing factors: (l) retinal resolution, (2) lens accommodation, (3) fora (letter) perception, (4) resistance to interference, and (5) depth perception. Pkoria measurements indicated the following factors: (l) lateral phoria, a general factor measured best by screening devices, (2) near lateral phoria (converging efficiency), as measured by screening tests, (3) hyperphoria (vertical phoria), and (4) far vertical phoria rest (a change noted on retest) Robinson and Huelsman studied the vision of elementary school children as measured by eighteen vision screening devices. Factor analysis of test scores indicated vision functions were best measured by subtests of various test batteries, but the Ortho-Eater tests were among those with the highest loadings. Four factors related to acuity identified by highest loadings were (l) acuity, (2) differentiation between far and near acuity tests, (3) differentiation between performances by right ye, left eye, both eyes, and (4) an instrument factor. A single factor depth was extracted from measures of depth perception, while three other factors were ^%llsworth B. Cook, "A Factor Analysis of Acuity and Phoria Measurements Obtained by Commercial Screening Devices and by Standard Screening Methods,” Research Project NM-003-011 (X-493) Report No. 4 (New London, Connecticut: United States Medical Research Laboratory, U. S. Naval Submarine Base, 1946), in Helen M. Robinson and Charles B. Huelsman, Jr. (eds.), "Visual Efficiency and Progress in Learning to Read," Clinical Studies in Reading II Supplemental Educational Monograph No. 77 (Chicago : Uaiversity of "Chicago 1953), p. 37. ^Robinson and Huelsman, on. cit., pp. 55-59.

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55 considered artifacts. Phoria factors wore not named because of the nature of the data. ^ It has been previously noted that both vertical and lateral phoria functions are curvilinear. Despite the fact that Robinson's subjects were elementary 3chool children and Cook's subjects were adults, important similarities appeared in their data. Three of the four acuity factors were similar, while a fourth was dissimilar because Cook included in hi3 study tests of form perception not utilised by Robinson and Huelsman. As indicated in Table 2, both authors identified a "general acuity" factor, called retinal resolution by Cook. The second acuity factor was related to differences between far-pcint and near-point testing, which Cook associated with accommodation. The fourth acuity factor seemed to be related to use of an instrument for testing, and Cook considered the factor as identifying a resistance to interference. Robinson and Huelsman's third acuity factor wa3 related by the authors to differences in performances among right eye, both eyes, and left eye. This has been referred to by other authors as anisometropia,^" 1 acuity imbalance, and fusion aiding, and acuity difference Actually the factor might involve several visual problems, including (l) differences in lens function of the two eyes, such as myopia and n Ibid.. pp. 56-53. -•-“•Sari A. Taylor, Eyes. Visual Abnormalities and tho Fundamental Reading Skills (New York: Reading and Study Skills Center, 1959), p. 101. 112 Kelly, on cii „ p. 5 ^Spache and Tillman, op cit., p. 106.

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56 hyperopia, (2) differences in size and/or shape of images of the two eyes, whether because of anisekonia or astigmatism, (3) interference with fusion, and (4) suppression. TABLE 2 COMPARISON OF VISUAL FACTORS IDENTIFIED BI COOK AND BY ROBINSON AND HUELSMAN Factor Cook Robinson and Euelsnan Acuity factor A retinal resolution acuity Acuity factor B lens accommodation differentiation between far-near acuity tests Acuity factor C form (letter) perdifferentiation between ception right, left, both eyes Acuity factor D resistance to interference in stress' nt factor Depth factor depth perception depth Vertical phoria A hyperphoria Vertical phoria B far vertical phoria rest Lateral phoria A lateral ohoria Lateral phoria B near phoria lateral In both studies there was a factor related to depth perception Robinson and Huolsuaa declined to name factors in phoria measurements, presumably because of the curvilinear nature of the relationships. Cook it should be noted, indicated two factors in each of the planes of measurement. Rssdirrr skills — There has been a greater confusion of variables in studies of reading. Studies in depth have uncovered a variety

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57 of variables, and the confusion as to their interaction is evident in related literature. Again there is need to isolate and delineate the variables. The traditional factor analysis in th3 area of reading has been designated to determine the factors in reading tests. Generally subjects are given a battery of reading tests, and from the intercorrelations of scores on the many subtests the factors are extracted which account for the variability. Langsam conducted a factor analysis of reading scores of college women on a battery of reading tests. From the twenty-one variables, five factors ware extracted and interpreted as involving (l) ideas and meaning, (2) perception, (3) word fluency, ( 4 ) numbers, and (5) seeing relationships A comprehensive battery of reading tests was administered to one hundred college freshmen by Hall and Robinson. Their analysis yielded six factors. From the leadings of these factors the authors concluded that comprehension, rate of accuracy, and verbal knowledge represent three separate aspects of reading. An analysis of scoros earned by one hundred forty-one high school students on a comprehensive battery of reading tests was made by "^Rosalind S. Langsam, W A Pactoral Analysis of Reading Ability," Journal of Erreerirasntal Education Vol. 10 (September, 1941), p. 62. ^%illiam E. Hall and Francis P. Robinson, "An Analytical Approach to the Study of Reading Skills," Journal of Educational Psy chology Vol. 36 (October, 1945), p. 441.

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58 Crook. An oblique rotation of tho intercorrelations yielded (l) a verbal factor lor power of reading and (2) a grammar factor for speed. Singer reported five factors from a factor analysis of thirtysix tests. It should bo noted, however, that his study varied from tho traditional in that tests were selected a3 appropriate to a given definition of reading. Of the five factors extracted, two involved reading comprehension and one involved rato of reading. Holmes and Singer broadened their study to include a number of domains hypothesised as being relevant to the reading process. Of the eight factors extracted from fifty-four tests, four were related to reading. One was identified as a ’’verbal knowledge and symbolic reasoning factor np another was a "phonetic word-structure factor." Two perceptual factors were identified, ono related to listening and the other to visual-verbal perception. When these factors wore related to speed and power as separate tasks, only on the first factor were there significant leadings. Lj - The eighth factor from the Holmes and Singer study was called a mechanical interest factor, and is definitely related to Cook's "resistance to interference" factor, and to Robinson's "instrument" factor. 116 Frances E. Crook, "Interrelationship Among a Group of Language Art Tests," Journal of Educational Research Vol. 51 (December, 1957), pp. 305-317. 117 Harry Singer, Conceptual Ability in the Substrata Factor Theory of Reading (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, California, 1961). 113 ‘ Jack A. Holmes and Harry Singer, The Substrata Factor Theory : Substrata Factor Difference Underlying Reading Ability in Known Groups (Berkeley, California: mimeographed at the University of California, 1961), pp. 258-259.

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59 Although tho studies described have pointed out relatively independent factors in vision and in reading, there has been little effort to relate these. Robinson and Huolsman utilized multiple-group factor analysis with data from the fifty-nine tests of vision and reading which were selected. This analysis resulted in the selection of seven groups identified as (l) reading, (2) depth, (3) far acuity, (4) near acuity, (5) suppression, as measured by binocular reading, (6) fusion, and (7) vertical phoria.“'^ These data illustrate the reduction in numbers of variables through discovery of their inherent organization as recommended by Cat to 11. The experimenter who chooses his variables on mere hunches may find that in his blindness he has taken two or more variables which are really different manifestations of the same thing. Through factor analysis it is hoped that the more pertinent variables will be isolated. There is clearly soma agreement in vision factors isolated in the studies by Cook and by Robinson, and among authors who have isolated factors in reading. Confusion of factors isolated is seen to bo in part related to the tests -used to gather data, and to the method of handling data. Confusion has been related to limitations of early methods of factorization. It is believed that these limitations are overcome in the present study. ^Robinson and Huelsman, op. cit .. p. 61. 120 Cattell, op. cit .. p. 16.

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60 because of the difficulty of interpretation of the relationships of the factors reported and the reading skills, the present study has been designed to minimize the number of factors in this area. A single reading test was administered, with subtosts measuring comprehension and rate of reading. These skills have been found to be relatively separate functions of reading. Surma rv The screening of vision in an educational setting has developed parallel to an understanding of the reading process and its relation to vision. In t; e latter half of the nineteenth century emphasis was upon visual acuity, since it was recognized that a student must be a ble to see well enough to differentiate letters. Screening for this purpose was adequately accomplished through the use of the Snellen Chart. As experimentors understood the movements of the eyes during reading, emphasis began to be placed upon more subtle vision problems vhich might interfere with reading. Some authors emphasized seeing as a learned function, and recommended screening for prevention as well as for correction of vision and reading problems. It was not until the stress of modern education upon the vision mechanism became apparent in the performance of "good readers" that real emphasis was placed upon visual screening. Still, the basic differences in philosophy between vision specialists emphasizing mechanics and function of the eyes has created an impasse in the development of an adequate vision screening method for education.

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61 Specialists from related fields have continued to point out the need for comprehensive visual screening. Recently these recommendations have specified educationally prognostic tests of vision rather than tests designed to predict clinical findings. It is primarily upon the relationship between vision and reading that the educator's interest is based. Studies have shown the development of reading affected by the development of vision in students. Whether at primary or college level, both good and poor readers have vision problems likely to affect their reading efficiency. But the intricacy of the relation between reading and vision has become apparent in the conflicting reports from many researchers. The multitude of variables involved, as well as their interaction under varying circumstances, has led to considerable confusion among specialists of all fields. A promising method for discovering the functionally independent variables in vision and reading, as well as their degree of interaction, is factor analysis. Soma progress has been made in extracting vision factors and reading factors. Unfortunately, few studies have related the two groups of factors. The present study is an attempt to isolate vision factors in one commercial vision screening battery, relate these factors to is improvement in vision skills as the result of a reading improvement course, and note the effect of uncorrected vision problems. Other factors generally associated with student success will also be related to improvement in reading skills and to vision factors.

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CHAPTER III PRELIMINARY STUDIES liio author’s interest in vision has developed over a period of years, and includes a Master’s thesis^ in tho area of visual discrimination. interest in the relationship between vision and reading cam about through tho experience of working with school children. While studying tho educational problems of school children, particularly at the elementary lovel, tho author was impressed with tho frequency of unresolved reading problems. All too ofton a catch-all label such as "emotional block” or "brain damage” was attached to an otherwise capable student who did not achieve as expected in reading. In an effort to determine reasons for these failures, tho author sought assistance from various sources including vision specialists. The confusion of ideas in the area indicated a need for study to determine more exactly the relationship between vision and reading. While visual problems could not explain all reading problems, there was no doubt seme influence which was not being considered in educational diagnosis. A review of' the literature emphasized that reading problems are present among both good and poor readers. Depending upon the severity of the vision problem, both educators and students might remain “David E. Edgar, "Visual Discrimination: Unequal Variation of Critical Components of Visual Stimuli" (unpublished Master's thesis. Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, 1953). 62

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63 unaware of tha effect upon efficiency of learning. Obviously aany students do succeed and Easy do fail, but the role of vision remained unknown in this division. j.n the authorÂ’s opinion, vision seeded to be a selective factor in the success of students throughout thair school careors. Vision seemed to affect a student's success in beginning reading, his adaptation to the academic environment, and his consequent attainment of an educational level appropriate to his ability. Preliminary Study J In tho summer of 1963 a group of one hundred eight students participated in an eight-week program at Stetson University. The course was designed to be an introduction to tho demands of colloge studies, iho students wore of two levels: (l) high school graduates not yet accepted by a university because of poor academic achievement, and (2) high school juniors of outstanding achievement who were being considered for early admission to tho University. The program offered these students was extremely flexible in terms of courses taken, whether or not credit was desired, and whether or not admission to the University was desired. Ono requirement for all studonts was participation in tho Reading Improvement Course. This course consisted of lectures, workbook exercises, and the Controlled Reader program, EsC Level. 2 The Controlled Rsadar program consisted of forty filmstrips which presented to the group narrative reading materials at the high Educational Development Laboratories, Inc. Huntington. New York, 1953.

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64 school-college level of reading difficulty. The rate of presentation vas determined by the instructor, using as a criterion the successful comprehension of materials by the majority of students. Comprehension uas measured immediately following each filmstrip presentation by means of a standard ten-item, multiple -choice test covering main ideas g rsd details. A small number of students consistently failed, that is, answered less than 70 per cent of the test items, half or more of the daily comprehension tests accompanying the filmstrips. Investigation revealed that these students had scored low on the initial reading test, and taut some complained of vision symptoms while reading. It was hypothesised that vision problems sight be a cause of minimal reading progress. Visual screening, using the Keystone Telebinocular, indicated that only four of the twenty-five students tested were able to pass all vision tests. This incidence of vision difficulty is much greater one might aspect in a college freshman population, and indicates a definite relation between vision problems and lack of progress in a machine-oriented reading improvement program. The emphasis upon machine-orientation is deliberate. The average gain in vocabulary and rate for the "vision problem'* group, as msasured by a standardised reading test,^ was greater than that for the entire student group. Seemingly the reading problem was associated with comprehension or rate of reading material presented by machine at far3 The Nelson-Denny Reading Test, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts.

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65 point. Obviously thi3 tentative conclusion cannot bo supported, since visual screening was not carried out for the entire group. Table 3 indicates the number of students who failed each Telebinocular subtest. Analysis of the vision problems of those students indicates the majority of failures were on the fusion subtest. Mere than one— third of the students failed one or more phoria subtests, but few students had uncorrected acuity problems. It is interesting to note that vision problems ranged in difficulty from use of old prescriptions to complete suppression of one eye because of vertical phoria. TABLE 3 NUMBER OP STUDENTS FAILING EACH TELEBINO CULAR SUBTEST (N=25) Phoria Acuity Vertical, Far 3 Right, Far 2 Vertical, Near 3 Right, Near 0 Lateral, Far 3 Left, Far 0 Lateral, Near 9 Left, Near 0 Fusion Stereoosis Fusion, Far 10 Stereopsis 1 Fusion, Near 20 Preliminary Study 3 In the summer of 1964 a group of thirty-eight secondary students from the Gainesville, Florida, area public schools participated in a reading improvement program at the University of Florida Reading Laboratory and Clinic. The students attended one-hour sessions two afternoons per week for sis weeks, but were allowed to remain in the Clinic as long as they desired to utilize tho equipment.

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66 The subjects ranged in grade level from ninth to twelfth grades. All work was individual and voluntary. The instructor made recommendations on the basis of pre-tests and remained available for consultation. Although recommendations were made, no effort was mado to ensure completion of an assignment, and students were often observed doing work which appealed to them more. The course could include assignments in texts on reading and study skills, and exercises in reading and vocabulary workbooks. There were exercises in prepared folders in the areas of Rapid Reading, Reading in tho Content Fields, Spelling, Word Study, and Work Habits. Also available were the SRA Reading Laboratory^ and the EDL Controlled Reader programs for junior high and high school-collage levels. An attempt was cads to predict failure of vision screening tests by utilising the following criteria: (l) beginning reading level, (2) beginning rate, and improvement in comprehension and rats on the Controlled Reader, and (3) number of sessions on tho Controlled Reader. Beginning reading level was measured by the Diagnostic Reading Test, Survey Section Form F,^ and included measures of rate of reading, story comprehension, paragraph comprehension, and vocabulary. Beginning rate on the Controlled Reader was assigned by the instructor on the basis of the reading pre-test score. / Science Research Associates, Chicago, 1957. 5 Committee on Diagnostic Reading Tests, Inc., Mountain Home, North Carolina, 1950.

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67 Thirty-one of the students were available for visual screening Vi oh tno Bausch-Lomb Ortho— Rater and the Spache Binocular Reading Tost Predictions were made by the author without knowledge of visual screening results. The results of the predictions are presented in Table 4 TABLE 4 PREDICTIONS OF VISUAL PROBLEMS COMPARED WITH ACTUAL FAILURES OF VISUAL SCREENING TESTS Prediction No test failed One ox’ more tssts failed Questionable vision Total Correct 16 1 2 19 Incorrect 2 1 12 Total 20 4 7 31 In general, the predictions were incorrect more often than if visual problems were ignored. Predictions were correct 60 per cent of the tins, when vision problems were considered, but would have been correct 67 per cent of the time if visual problems were ignored. It was predicted that thirteen students would fail vision screening tests; four • students actually failed, and seven students had questionable scores cn one or more vision tests. Further analysis of the data revealed the following variables which affected the predictions: (l) Age and grade of students, which determined previous training in reading and affected ^Keystone View Co., Meadville, Pennsylvania, 1955.

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63 level of skill development thus the subjects abilities to utilize filmstrips of the difficulty vised; (2) Students controlled their own work which, when related to interest, attitudes, and personality, seriously affected the number of filmstrips read and amount of work done; (3) Filmstrip projection was at near-point, requiring consideration of different vision variables from those used when far— point projection is presented; (4) Experience of the clinician with specific populations seriously affects tho quality of the* predictions. Discussion of the Preliminary Studies ihese studios pointed out several problems involved in the relationship between vision and reading. In Study A, students wero able to show improvement on a standardised reading test despite failure to show improvement on daily exercises using the Controlled Reader. This isplies that vision problems may interfere with certain types of reading activities and not with others. Students may also have been able to control vision problems during testing which are relatively minor but which interfere with daily reading activities. It is significant to note, however, that college students omnibit all levels of vision problems. Two subjects were unaware that they were suppressing the vision of one eye; other students were n getting by” with prescriptions long out of date and inadequate. Some students wore contact lenses for cosmetic purposes despite resulting diplopia or distracting discomfort. But most students with vision problems were

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69 unaware of tiloir Possible effect upon their academic progress, and were unaware of any solution to the di leans. Study B pointed out the great need for careful experimental design in studying the relationship between vision and reading. The experimenter must select subjects carefully, standardise the method of instruction, and utilise a refined statistical procedure. Most important, however, is the indication of need for basic research to identify both vision variables and reading variables, and to discover the degree and type of interrelation among them.

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CHAPTER IV DESIGN OP THE EXPERIMENT Briefly, this study is designed to discover (l) the relationships which exist between vi3ion factors derived from a battery of vision screening tests, and change in reading skills resulting from reading improvement instruction, and (2) the effect of uncorrected vision problems upon these relationships From the entering freshman class at Stetson University one hundred eighty subjects were chosen, 'on the basis of relatively low reading skills, to participate in the present study. These subjects were given a reading test to discover initial level of reading skills. A reading improvement course was then given to all subjects. A reading post-test indicated change in levels of reading skills as a result of the course. Individual tests of vision skills were measured using the Ortho-Rater The present chapter will describe (l) the subjects and the method of selection of these subjects, (2) the tests selected and the administration of these tests, (3) the Reading Xnprovement Course given to all subjects, and (4) treatment of the data. 70

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71 Subjects Tha subjects of this study entered Stetson University, Deland, Florida, as freshman in the fall of 1964. The entire entering freshman class was given the Cooperative English Tests, Form IC (college level) 1 as a part of the regular freshman orientation procedure. A tentative selection of two hundred thirteen students was made on the basis of a cutoff score of one hundred sixty-five on the total Reading Comprehension scale. This was approximately the lower 40 per cent of the freshman class in reading skills, as selected by the Cooperative English Tests, Reading Comprehension section. Those students who were selected as low in reading skills were notified of their scores, and rank in class with relation to reading skills. The Reading Improvement Course was announced, and the students advised that they could be required to attend. However, a second reading test was to be administered, and students who scored high and who aid not desire to attend the Reading Improvement Course could be dismissed by the course instructor. The tentatively selected students were then given the Diagnostic Reading Test, Survey Section: Upper Level Form A.^ One hundred eighty students were finally selected for the Reading Improvement Course on the basis of relatively low scores on the Cooperative Reading Teat, relatively low scores on the Diagnostic Reading Test, and willingness to Educational Testing Service, Cooperative Test Division (Princeton, New Jersey, I960) 2 Committee on Diagnostic Reading Tests, Inc., Mountain Horae, North Carolina, 1950.

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72 attend the course. The one hundred eighty subjects selected consisted of eighty-five rales and seventy-eight females. Their average age was eighteen; average Verbal Score on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) was 7S.3&49 (raw score) and average Quantitative Score on the SAT was 92.6041 (raw score) Of the one hundred eighty students who began the Reading Improvement Course, one hundred sixty-three became the subjects for the present study because complete data were available. Eighty-five were males and seventy-eight were females. Seventeen students could not be used as subjects because they either did not attend a sufficient number of class periods, did not take the visual screening test, or were absent when the reading posttest was administered. Tests As has been previously mentioned, the Cooperative English Test is a regular part of tho freshmen orientation proceedings at Stetson University. These tests were recorded on IBM answer sheets, and machine scored and checked. Scores were punched on the individual pupil data cards, which were the source of information for this study. Initial selection of students lew in reading skills was made on the basis of the Total Reading Comprehension score. The Cooperative English Test is recognized as a well-conceived and well-executed test "within the limits of its objectives. "4 ^College Entrance Examination Board, Scholastic Aptitude Test, administered by Educational Testing Service (Princeton, New Jersey, 1963). ^J. B. Stroud, "Reading Comprehension: Cooperative English Te3t," Review No. 497, in Oscar K. Buros (ed.). The Third Mental Measure ments Yearbook (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1949), p. 526.

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73 Reliability is reported as better than .90 for total score by Bear who stated: These are among the best [tests? for measuring reading comprehension of the usual types of subject matter but should bo supplemented by some other test if measures of the pupilsÂ’ usual rates are desired. 5 The second reading test administered was the Diagnostic Reading Test, Survey Section: Upper Level Form A. This test was designed to give a rolatively brief indication of reading abilities. The time required for administration of all three subtest3 is forty minutes, with Story Comprehension requiring fifteen minutes. Vocabulary requiring ten minutes, and Paragraph Comprehension requiring fifteen minutes. The Story Comprehension subta3t consists of a story in the area of biological science, to be read by the student within seven minutes. Rate of Reading is measured by noting the number of lines read in the first throe minutes. Students are then allowed eight minutes to answer twenty multiple-choice questions about the content. Number of correct answers is used as the measure of Story Comprehension. Rate of Reading is computed by converting number of lines read in three minutes to words-psr-minute, by moans of a table provided. The second subtest of the Diagnostic Reading Test is a measure of Vocabulary. The subtest consists of sixty items, wherein the student is required to fit one of five given vord3 to a given definition. Relative ranking of the students by raw score on this subtest was used as a ^Robert M. Bear, r 0 Comprehension: Cooperative English Test," Review No. 497, in Oscar A. Bures (ed.), The Third Mental Measurements Yearbook (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1949), pp. 525-526.

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74 diagnostic measure, but the scores otherwise forced no part of the data. This decision was cade because the Vocabulary subtest is seen to be highly affectod by rate of reading.^ The third subtest of the Diagnostic Reading Test is a maasuro of Paragraph Comprehension. The student is required to read four selections consisting of one or more paragraphs. Each selection is followed by five multiple-choice questions, which test the reader over the content of the paragraphs ) Number of correct answers from the possible twenty items is used as a measure of Paragraph Comprehension. As has been previously noted, the Diagnostic Reading Test, Form A, wa 3 used as one criterion for selection of students to participate in tha Reading Improvement Course. This test also served as a reading pre-test, that is, a measure of the levels of reading skills which each subject had attained prior to participating in the Reading Improvement Course. The Diagnostic Reading Test, Survey Socti an. Form D, was used as a reading post-test, that is, as a measure of the levels of reading skills for each subject after participating in the Reading Improvement Course. The differences between the raw scores on the relative subtosts were used as a measure of change in levels of reading skills as a result of participation in the Reading Improvement Course. Turnbull reported that the rate and comprehension subtests of the Diagnostic Reading Tost, Survey Section, have a reliability of about .80, while the Vocabulary subtest has a reliability of about .85. He ^Roed, loc cit.

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75 summarizes his cooes nts by stating, "the Survey Section stands already as one of the better instruments for the evaluation of over-all reading 7 ability.” Weitz cautioned that the subtest scores of the Survey Section of the Diagnostic Reading Test might not be sufficiently reliable for individual diagnosis.^ The battery of twelve tests used to screen vision was designed as Occupational Vision Tests to be used with the Ortho-Rater. 9 This battery of test 3 was developed and validated by the Bausch and Lcnb Scientific Bureau in collaboration with the Statistical Laboratory for Vision Tests at Purdue University. The standardized vision tests were then used as a basis for routine and special studies of vision in industry. 10 As previously noted in Chapter II, the Ortho-Rater test battery is highly reliable and valid when compared with other stereoscopic vision screening instruments. 11 For this reason, educators and clinicians ^William W. Turnbull, "Diagnostic Reading Tests,” Review No. 531, in Oscar K. Buros (ed.). The Fourth Mental Measurements Yearbook (Highland Park, New Jersey: The Gryphon Press, 1953), P. 572. %enry VIeitz, “Diagnostic Reading Test3,” Review No. 531, in Oscar X. Buro3 (ed.). The Fourth Mantel He a sure rants Yearbook (Highland Park: The Gryphon Press, 1953), p. 575. %ausch and Lonb Optical Company, Rochester, New York, 1944. 1C \jirt, loc. cit. ^Henry A. Imus, “Testing Vision in Industry,” Reprinted from the Transactions American Academy of Oohthalitolo rrv and Otolaryngology (January February, 1949), p. 2 of reprint.

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76 became interested in its use as a vision screening device in schools. Bausch-Lomb recommended a School Profile for uso with adult students which was identical with norms for individuals doing clerical and administrative tasks in industry. Robinson and Huelsman, in a thorough study of commercial visual screening devices for uso with school children, found the tests presented by the Ortho-Rater to be among the best measuring devices for those visual abilities they are intended to measure. This conclusion was based upon a factor analysis of fifty-nine tests of vision. 12 Each of the twelve tests presented by the Ortho-Rater is designed to represent one aspect of visual performance or of visual skill. The skills measured and the sequence of presentation are listed below: Fe.r-Point Near-Point 1. Phoria, Vertical 8. Acuity, Both 2. Phoria, Lateral 9 Acuity, Right 3 Acuity, Both 10 Acuity, Left 4. Acuity, Right 11. Phoria, Vertical 5 Acuity, Left 6. Depth 7 Color Discrimination 12. Phoria, Lateral Tests at far-point are at the optical equivalent of eight meters (about twenty-six feet) from the subject; tests at near-point are at the optical equivalent of fourteen inches from the subject. There are six tests of acuity, all of which are administered without closure or occlusion of either eye, by xssans of separate, but fusible, test fields. The three acuity test slides are duplicated, except for target location, at far-point and near-point. "These tests 12 Helen M. Robinson and Charles B. Huelsman, Jr., "Visual Efficiency and Progress in Learning to Read," in Helen M. Robinson (ed.). Clinical Studies in Reading II (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953), pp. 40 50

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77 classify subjects finely at both high and low levels of acuity. Approximately normal distributions may bo expected on all of these acuity tests. Scores on these subtests range from zero through fifteen. Vision acuity equivalents of the levels of these tests are indicated in Appendix B. There are four test 3 of phoria, two presented at far-point, and two at near-point. Each of the tests of phoria extends xrem ono extreme through the normal to the other extreme. The tests of vertical phoria are calibrated in stops of ons-third prism diopter in the midrange, and one-half prism diopter toward both ends of the range. The test of lateral phoria is calibrated in units of one and one-half prism diopters. Approximately normal distributions are to be expectea xr^m all four phoria tests. The test of Depth Perception is made only at far-point. Units of measurement are unique to the test, and are not equal, since they classify subjects more finely at the more difficult levels. The test of Ctolor Discrimination is also made only at farpoint. The test classifies subjects finely only at low levels of color discrimination ability. The norms for all Ortho-Rater tests have been established by the technique of determining cutoff scores to eliminate the largest number of poor achievers. As such, these norms do not attempt to predict success or failure on corresponding clinical tests. ^Bausch and Lomb Optical Company, Standard Practice^ in jfng Administration of the Bausch and Lonb Oc f^ ional he Ortho-Rater (Rochester, New Yorh; A5S9, III 49, 1944), P.

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73 The Ortho-Rater tests of vision vers administered by appointment to individual subjects. The time required to administer each test vas about twenty minutes. In administering the Ortho-Rater tests of vision, standard practice was followed where subjects wore corrective lenses. If glasses were worn all the time, all tests were made uith the subject wearing the correction. If glasses were worn only for reading, only near-point tests were made while the subject wore the correction. If glasses were worn only for distance, only far-point tests were made while the subject wore the correction. Special attention was given to record the point of stabilization of the arrow in the lateral phoria tests. Scores on the Ortho-Rater Tests were recorded on a specially designed Individual Vision Profile (see Appendix B). The Reading Improvement Course The Reading Improvement Course consisted of twelve class periods of approximately fifty minutes each. The students were allowed to enter one of six groups which met three afternoons per week. Each group of approximately thirty students attended three class periods per week for four successive weeks. i The first half of each period was devoted to rate increase. A total of twenty-four filmstrips was presented using the EDL Controlled Reader, High School-College Series. 1 ^ Each filmstrip was followed immediately by a standard ten-question test of comprehension. Answers were recorded on a prepared answer sheet (see Appendix B). Each 1958. ^Educational Development Laboratories, Huntington, New York,

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79 student scored ads ova tost as soon as it was completed. Filmstrips were presented to the group at a rate of reading determined by the instructor. Although an attempt was made to increase the rate by twentyfive words per minute for each filmstrip, successful comprehension by the majority of the group was considered. The goal of the rate training was freely discussed with the students. It was hoped to have each student achieve a 50 per cent increase in word-by-word reading of narrative material. The problem of transferring rate increase from projected material to textbook reading was discussed, and suggestions for practice were made. The second half of each class period was devoted to instructions in reading flexibility. Lectures and demonstrations helped explain various methods of selective reading. Study techniques were discussed as these apply to the various content fields. An attempt was made to have each student practice the utilization of purpose to determine method of reading in his daily work. The slowing effect of continuous study was explained, and recommendations made for counteracting this effect. The techniques of selective reading for specific types of comprehension were demonstrated, and practiced. Subjects were requested to practice, at first, on materials other than regular class assignments} later, practice was requested on class assignments. During the entire Reading Improvement Course emphasis was made upon comprehension geared to a selected purpose utilizing a specific method or methods of reading.

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so Tro.-.trant of Because of the confusion which has accompanied attempts to relate vision and reading, it was decided to identify through factor analysis the significant variables operating. Other statistical methods have failed to identify those variables which are significant, and failed to indicate the degree of interaction of variables. Factorization was therefore used in an attempt to obtain "a new order of variables and concepts on the relations among which . to begin forming hypotheses . In this way an effort was made to determine functionally independent factors a3 the source of discussion of data, rather than intuition. Vision variables — Since tests of phoria noasure muscle imbalance on either side of a theoretical "normal* posture of the eyes, each of the tests of phoria presented by the Ortho-Rater extends from one extreme of the scale through the normal to the other extreme of the scale. Flaw scores from these tests would thus present a U-shaped pattern when plotted along some measure of usable binocular vision. In order to minimize this curvilinearity, the raw scores from phoria tests were rescaled as deviations from an assumed best, or normal score (see Individual Vision Profile, Appendix B). These deviations indicate a degree of imbalance of the habitual posture of the eyes at the distance represented. ^Raymond B. Cattail, Factor Analysis: An Introduction and Manual for the Psychologist and Social Scientist (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1952), p. 17.

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81 In the vertical pheria, the normal score is taken to bo j>, the center of the tost scale, and scores toward either extreme of tho scale indicate muscle imbalance in the vertical plane (hyperphoria). In lateral pheria, the normal score was taken as 8, the center of the test scale, with scores toward either extrema of the scale measuring muscle imbalance in the lateral plane (esophoria and exophoria) Four phoria deviation scales were derived in thi3 way: (l) Vertical Phoria Deviation Far, (2) Vertical Phoria Deviation Rear, (3) Lateral Phoria Deviation Far, and (4) Lateral Phoria Deviation Near (see Table 5). Similarly, tests of acuity measure on either side of what is considered normal vision. Normal vision is usually taken to be 20/20 on the Snellen Scale, and corresponds to the raw score 10 on the OrthoRater acuity tests.^ Deviation scores are therefore any score below normal, or above normal acuity. There is not the sam9 meaning attached to the normal acuity measure as to the normal phoria measure. There is no true biological normal acuity, but this is more an average score. There is, however, the confusion surrounding the problems of hyperopia and myopia which clinical experience has indicated to be significant in the relationship between vision and reading. The acuity deviation scales are an attempt to eliminate the effects of hyperopia and myopia. Six acuity deviation scales were derived in this way: (l) Acuity Deviation Both Far, (2) Acuity Deviation Right Far, (3) Acuity •‘-^Visual acuity equivalents of the levels of these tests are indicated in Appendix B.

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82 Deviation Loft Far, ( 4 ) Acuity Deviation Both Near, (5) Acuity Deviation Right Rear, and (6) Acuity Deviation Loft Rear (see Table 5). As mentioned above, researchers have pointed out the significance of hyperopia and myopia in relation to reading achievement. The Hyperopia-Myopia variable is an attempt to measure the difference between these two tendencies in each subject. Myopic tendency is obtained by adding acuity deviations below 10 on all scales at far-point to acuity deviations above 10 on all scales at near-point. Hyperopic tendency is obtained by adding acuity deviations above 10 on all scales at far-point to acuity deviations below 10 on all scales at near-point. The Hyperopia-Myopia variable is the difference, that is, hyperopic tendency minus myopic tendency. A positive score indicates pure hyperopia, that is, acuity deviations which have been reduced by the amount of myopic tendency. A negative score indicates pure myopia, that is acuity deviations which have been reduced by the amount of hyperopic tendency. However, in the study all signs have been eliminated in the factor analysis to minimize the curvilinear relation. Thus the Hyperopic-Myopic variable is a purified deviation from normal vision, from which has been eliminated the effects of (l) poor over-all acuity and (2) excellent over-all acuity (see Table 5).

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83 Because of the importance ascribed to "acuity imbalance" by Kelly 17 and to "acuity difference" by Spache and Tillman 13 an Acuity Imbalance variable was determined at both naar-point and far-point. Acuity Imbalance Far is the difference between the raw scores on the Acuity, Right Eye and the Acuity, Left Eye subtests given at far-point. Acuity Imbalance Near is the difference between the raw scores on the Acuity, Right Eye and the Acuity, Left Eye subtests given at near-point (see Table 5). Non-vision variables — Three variables ware taken from the Diagnostic Reading Test, Survey Section: Upper Level Form A, which was given as a reading pre-test. The test was given to determine the levels of reading skills which each subject had attained prior to participating in the reading improvement course. These variables are (l) Reading Rate, (2) Reading Story Comprehension, and (3) Reading Paragraph Comprehension. The Reading Rate variable consists of the rate of reading in words-per-minute at which each student read the material presented in the Story Comprehension subtest during the three— minute timed period. The Reading Story Comprehension variable is the raw score from the Story Comprehension subtest, that is, the number of correct answers attained on the questions involving story comprehension. 17 'Charles R. Kelly, Visual Screening and Child Development (Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State Teachers College, 1957), p. 2. -^George D. Spache and Chester E. Tillman, "A Comparison of the Visual Profiles of Retarded and Non-retardod Readers," Journal of Devolcnmsr.tal Reading Vol. 5 (Winter, 1962), p. 108.

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VUi numl 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 £4 TABLE 5 VISION VARIABLES, AND VISION TESTS FROM WHICH DERIVED Variable Vision tests from name which derived Vertical Phoria Deviation, Far Vertical Phoria Test, Farpoint, deviation from Vertical Phoria Deviation, Near Vertical Phoria Test, Nearpoint, deviation from j> Lateral Phoria Deviation, Far Lateral Phoria Test, Farpcint, deviation from 8 Lateral Phoria Deviation, Near Lateral Phoria Test, Nearpoint, deviation from 8 Acuity Deviation Both, Far Acuity, Both eyes, Farpoint, deviation from 10 Acuity Deviation Both, Near Acuity, Both Eyes, Nearpoint, deviation from 10 Acuity Deviation Right, Far Acuity, Right eye, Farpoint, deviation from 10 Acuity Deviation Right, Near Acuity, Right eye. Nearpoint, deviation from 10 Acuity Deviation Left, Far Acuity, Left eye, Farpoint, deviation from 10 Acuity Deviation Left, Near Acuity, Left eye, Nearpoint, deviation from 10 Acuity Imbalance Far Raw score difference between acuity. Right eye. Far and acuity, Left eye, Far-point Acuity Imbalance Near Raw score difference between acuity. Right eye. Far and acuity. Left eye, Near-point Hyperopia-Myopia Hyperopic tendency minus Myopic tendency, utilizing six acuity scales

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85 The Reading Paragraph Comprehension variable is the raw score from the Paragraph Comprehension subtest, that is, the number of correct answers attained on the questions involving paragraph comprehension. These variables were intended to represent the level of reading skills attained prior to reading instruction (see Table 6). The Diagnostic Reading Test, Survey Section: Upper Level Form D was given as a reading post-test to detormino change in reading skills as a result of the Reading Improvement Course. Three variables were derived from the differences between the reading pre-test and the reading post-test scores. These variables were (l) Rate Change, (2) Story Coup rehens ion Change, and (3) Paragraph Comprehension Change. Thus Rate Change is the difference (loss or gain) between reading rate on the pre-test and reading rate on the post-test. Story Comprehension Change and Paragraph Comprehension Change were derived in the same way. These variables were intended to represent change in reading skills attributable to the Reading Improvement Course (see Table 6). Four additional variables were derived from the records in the Admissions Office of Stetson University. These variables were (l) Class Rank, (2) Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) Verbal, (3) Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) Mathematical, and (4) Predicted Grade Average (PGA). Class Rank, Converted is the variable derived from the student's rankirgs in their respective high school senior classes on the basis of grade-point average. The rankings were converted to a standard scale ranging from a low of twenty to a high of eighty, with a mean of fifty, a scale designed to coincide with the range of scores of the Scholastic

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86 Aptitude Test (SAT) This variable is intended to be a measure of academic achievement. The SAT Verbal variable is taken directly from students* scores on the Verbal section of the SAT, which was administered during the senior year of high school. The variable is intended to be a measure of basic verbal ability. The SAT Mathematical variable is taken directly from students’ scores on the Mathematical section of the SAT. The variable is intended to be a measure of basic mathematical reasoning ability. The PGA variable is the Predicted Grade Average determined for each student by regression equation prior to his admission to Stetson University. The equation includes weighted amounts of the SAT Verbal score, the SAT Mathematical score, senior class rank, and English Composition scores. ^-9 The range of the scores is from 1.00 to 4*00. This variable is intended to be a measure of college academic achievement potential (see Table 6 ). •^Four equations were used as follows: (1) For men with English Composition scores, PGA = .3316 Class Rank 4.0 SAT -V + .93 SAT-M 1 6.0 CEEB English Composition 1.37003. (2) For men without English Composition scores, PGA = .3305 Class Rank + 6.0 SAT -V-r 1.12 SAT-M 1.44515. (3) For women with English Composition scores, PGA = .4615 Class Rank -f.82 SAT -V + .45 SAT-M + 1.64 CEEB English Composition 3.01929. ( 4 ) For women without English Composition scores, PGA r .4923 Class Rank + 1.92 SAT -V 4 .70 SAT-M 3.03620.

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87 TABLE 6 NON-VISION VARIABLES, AND SOURCES FROM WHICH DERIVED Variable number Variable name Source of variable 1 Reading Rate Diagnostic Reading Pre-test, Rate in word s -p e r-minut e 2 Reading Story Comprehension Diagnostic Reading Pre-test, Story comprehension raw score 3 Reading Paragraph Comprehension Diagnostic Reading Pre-test, Paragraph comprehension raw score 16 Class Rank, Converted Rank in senior class by grade point average, converted to standard score 17 SAT Verbal Scholastic Aptitude Test, Verbal section, raw score 18 SAT Mathematical Scholastic Aptitude Test, Mathematical section, raw score 19 Predicted Grade Average Predicted Grade Average, from regression equations utilising several scores 21 Rate Change Difference (gain-loss) between Pre-test and Post-test Reading Rate 22 Story Comprehension Change Difference (gain-lo3s) between Pre-Test and Post-test Reading Story Comprehension 23 Paragraph Comprehension Change Difference (gain-lcss) between Pre-test and Post-test Reading Paragraph Comprehension

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83 Statistical analysis — The raw scores for each of the one hundred sixty-three subjects were converted to the appropriate variable scales and recorded on Data Coding Sheets prepared by the University of Florida Computing Center. Scores on the twentythree variables were punched into standard eighty-column IBM cards. A principal axis factor analysis with Varimax rotation was carried out, utilising the IBM 709 Digital Computer and the RPAFAV program. The RPAFAV program is a three-step program involving (l) the computation of the correlation matrix, (2) principal axis factor analysis, and (3) normalized Varimax rotation. Those subjects with uncorrected vision problems were then selected from the total group of one hundred sixtythree subjects. A sub-group of fifty-one subjects vase found to have failed one or more of the vision tests presented by the Ortho-Rater. The scores of these fifty-one subjects on the twenty-three variables were factorized, again using the RPAFAV program. Results from these analyses are contained in Chapter V.

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CHAPTER V RESULTS The results of the statistical analysis of the data will be presented in this chapter. General results will be presented first, then specific results as these apply to the hypotheses. Six hypotheses were to be tested, and presentation of specific results will follow the order in which these hypotheses were listed in Chapter I. General Results Over-all factorisation — The first factor analysis was of the scores of all subjects (Group T) on the twenty-three variables. A complete correlation matrix of the twenty-three variables is presented in Appendix C. Nine factors were precipitated in the principal axis factor analysis. Varimax rotation produced the Rotated Factor Matrix presented in Table 7. The commonality for each variable, and the per cent of common variance for each factor are included in Table 7. Visual disorder factorization — The scores of a sub-group of fifty-one subjects who had uncorrected visual problems (Sub-group VP) were then factorised. A complete correlation matrix of the twenty-three variables is presented in Appendix G. S9

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ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX FROM OVERALL FACTORIZATION (GROUP T, N=163) 90 CO vo o o r-4 O t— 4 o r—4 o o o CN r—4 o o o CO r—4 r— 1 O r—4 O o CO C/I i 1 l i i 1 1 r—4 M r—4 O •H CO r— 1 CO Csl o 00 UO co CO 00 1—4 co CN o r—4 uo uo i — i CN CM r—4 CM vD UO > ri r o CO 54 a o 54 • • G G fa fa 4—1 4-1 n *> 3 3 r— 4 54 cu > > p Q 4-1 4-1 fa fa 4-> 4-1 G G r—4 CO • 3 •r-4 > JZ a 3B G G o o co 00 M-4 G4 G O CO •r-4 £ G 3 g B O p p CO CO W PQ •r4 •H G G £ £ G cu G r* 3 3 •r—4 3 O u •r4 •H Pd Pd p p CO CO •H o rG O O 54 2 ; a CJ CO CO 5-i 5-4 r* ** r-4 r—4 4-1 fa G 54 p g 3 4-1 • •r-4 •r-4 O O CO CO CO fa G 54 Cu B > CO fa to 5-4 1*4 fa ,_c > > > > > > 33 p fa r—4 H 1 GO a. g OD o Pd u CO O o fa fa G G G G G G h g 3 CO G co 3 g O G o o U fa fa p p p p p p M M co 33 •r4 3 o o 54 to j-i CO fa fa r—4 r—4 Pd 5-4 4-1 fa fa cj 3 34 3 CO fa CO CO PO fa Po fa fa fa fa fa G CO o O 3 O •r4 • 5-4 u 4-1 4-> 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 C/I > fa 5-4 fa to cr 33 • • 4- 4-1 G G •r-4 •t— 4 •r-4 •r-4 •t-4 •r4 •r-4 •r-4 C/I G G 54 3 CO 4-1 Q to CO 54 5-i 4-1 4-1 3 Zj 3 3 3 3 3 3 CO H H < a4-1 O 54 3 > p p c <
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91 Twelve factors were precipitated in the principal axis factor analysis. Varimax rotation produced the Rotated Factor Matrix presented in Table 3. The commonality for each variable, and the per cent of common variance for each factor are also included in Table 8. Specific Results Hypothesis I .— The first hypothesis stated that specific factors which are components of vision are Identifiable through factor analysis of scores on a battery of vision screening tests given to college students. The over-all factor analysis elicited nine factors, fear of which had highest loadings for those variables which were derived from vision tests. The rotated factor leadings for these four factors are presented in Table 9. Hypothesis II .— The second hypothesis stated that there are positive relationships between the principal variables for vision factors, and changes in levels of reading skills as a result of a reading Improvement course given to college students. These relationships are approached from the point of view of the correlations between variables derived from vision tests and variables indicating changes in levels of reading skills. These correlations are presented in Table 10. Hypothesis III .— The third hypothesis stated that there are positive relationships between levels of certain mental abilities and changes in levels of reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course given to college students.

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92 TABLE 8 ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX FROM VISUAL PROBLEM FACTORIZATION (SUB-GROUP VP, N-5I) # Variables Rotated Factor Loadings Name 1 2 3 2 5 1 Reading Rate -.09 .07 .09 .23 .09 2 Rdg. Story Comprehen. .04 -.05 .00 .80 .17 3 Rdg. Parag. Comprehen. .07 .10 .10 .30 .69 4 Vert. Phoria Dev., Far -.18 -.18 -.04 .07 -.17 5 Vert. Phoria Dev., Near -.11 .09 -.02 .08 -.09 6 Lateral Phoria Dev., Far .04 .00 -.01 .00 .07 7 Lateral Phoria Dev. Near -.17 -.02 .08 .04 .01 8 Acuity Dev. Both, Far .62 .15 -.03 .24 .18 9 Acuity Dev. Both, Near .02 .69 .00 .14 .07 10 Acuity Dev. Right, Far .35 .10 -.13 .08 .02 11 Acuity Dev. Right, Near -.19 .02 -.26 .10 .04 12 Acuity Dev. Left, Far .67 .20 .03 .07 -.06 13 Acuity Dev. Left, Near .17 .68 -.08 -.08 .07 14 Acuity Imbalance, Far .23 .05 .06 .03 -.20 15 Acuity Imbalance, Near -.06 .01 -.02 -.12 .02 18 Class Rank -.07 -.09 .84 -.03 -.05 17 SAT Verbal -.15 .12 .16 -.02 .11 18 SAT Mathematical .08 -.10 .18 .01 -.03 19 PGA -.11 .06 .59 .01 -.01 20 Hyperopia -Myopia .73 -.01 -.08 .02 .19 21 Rate Change -.14 .14 .06 .14 -.11 22 Story Comprehension Change -.10 -.11 .05 -.63 -.05 23 Parag. Comprehension Change -.16 -.07 .11 -.05 -.67 Sum of Squared Loadings 1.81 1.14 1.27 1.33 2.15 Per cent of Common Variance 12.13 7.65 8.52 8.93 14.41

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93 TABLE 8 (continued) Rotated Factor Loadings h£ 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 .09 -.08 -.08 .06 .11 .06 .06 .01 .20 -.02 .04 .15 .27 .13 .31 .02 .02 .01 .09 -.12 .50 -.05 -.04 .00 .10 -.01 -.15 -.22 -.03 .05 -.16 -.17 -.10 -.03 -.13 .05 -.01 -.05 .26 -.12 -.15 -.02 .60 .03 .18 .03 .34 .03 .12 -.06 .25 .07 .16 -.10 .81 .03 -.13 -.08 .81 .02 -.02 .17 -.02 .09 .01 .12 .07 .72 -.08 .80 -.12 .07 .00 .57 -.09 .38 .03 .02 -.04 -.08 .02 -.17 -.16 .07 .06 .05 .08 .03 -.01 .02 .11 -.02 .53 1.09 2.16 .83 3.53 7.26 14.46 5.58 oo o 1 -.01 .59 .46 -.05 .02 .09 .70 -.06 -.08 .21 .70 -.13 .43 .08 .50 .07 .65 -.07 .48 -.02 .03 .03 .27 -.34 -.34 -.17 .38 .38 -.01 .00 .71 .08 .08 .02 .55 .63 .03 -.06 .65 .46 .17 -.05 .75 -.04 -.16 .27 .75 -.01 -.03 -.06 .60 .04 -.02 .13 .80 .11 .13 -.01 .73 -.10 -.04 .02 .78 -.04 -.09 -.01 .63 .01 .06 .05 .72 -.11 -.08 .04 .86 .10 -.06 -.07 .60 -.08 -.01 -.49 .38 -.12 -.06 -.01 .46 -.07 .07 -.04 .52 .99 .84 .79 13.95 6.65 5.62 5.27 100.00

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# 1 2 3 4 5 & 7 O O 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 TABLE 9 ROTATED FACTOR LOADINGS FOR VISION FACTORS (GROUP T, N=163) Variables Name Reading Rate Rdg. Story Comprehen. Rdg. Parag. Comprehen. Vert. Phoria Dev., Far Vert. Phoria Dev., Near Lateral Phoria Dev. Far Lateral Phoria Dev. Near Acuity Dev. Both, Far Acuity Dev. Both, Near Acuity Dev. Right, Far Acuity Dev. Right, Near Acuity Dev. Left, Far Acuity Dev. Left, Near Acuity Imbalance, Far Acuity Imbalance, Near Class Rank SAT Verbal SAT Mathematical PGA Hyperopia -Myopia Rate Change Story Comprehension Change Parag. Comprehension Change Rotated Factor Loadings 1 2 3 4 -.04 .01 -.02 .02 .08 -.01 .04 .05 .03 .06 .05 .06 -.07 .52 .17 -.07 .01 .31 .15 .04 .06 .50 -.02 -.01 .00 .19 -.03 -.01 .62 -.07 -.05 .21 .15 -.01 -.04 .63 .54 -.05 .39 .04 .05 .04 .64 .20 .56 .07 .23 .12 .17 -.06 .21 .60 .22 .08 CO vO -.13 .01 .10 .73 .07 -.03 .00 -.05 .00 .01 .07 .11 .06 .03 CO o 1 CO o 1 -.06 .00 -.01 -.08 .13 .67 .05 .02 .06 -.10 -.01 -.07 .05 -.05 .16 .01 -.06 -.01 .04 .04 -.01

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95 TABLE 10 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VISION VARIABLES AND VARIABLES INDICATING READING SKILLS CHANGE (GROUP T, N = 163) # Vision Variables Name #21 Rate Change Reading Skills #22 Story Comp. Change Change #23 Para Comp Change 4 Vert. Phoria Dev., Far -.07 .19 .12 6 Lat. Phoria Dev., Far .00 .15 -.07 8 Acuity Dev. Both, Far -.06 -.14 -.02 10 Acuity Dev. Right, Far -.10 -.06 -.01 12 Acuity Dev. Left, Far -.14 -.04 -.03 14 Acuity Imbalance, Far -.09 .04 .04 20 Hyperopia -Myopia -.12 -.01 -.02 5 Vert. Phoria Dev., Near .05 -.02 .09 7 Lat. Phoria Dev., Near .00 .09 .05 9 Acuity Dev. Both, Near .06 -.11 .02 11 Acuity Dev. Right, Near -.09 -.05 .01 13 Acuity Dev. Left, Near .02 -.06 -.06 15 Acuity Imbalance, Near -.07 .05 .05

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96 These relationships are shown in the correlations between those variables derived from scores on the Scholastic Achievement Test and those variables indicating changes in levels of reading skills. Table 11 presents these correlations. Hypothesis IV — The fourth hypothesis stated that there are positive relationships between previous academic achievement and changes in levels of reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course given to college students. These relationships are shown through the correlations between the variables indicating previous academic achievement (Class Rank, Converted and Predicted Grade Average) and those variables which indicate changes in levels of reading skills. Table 12 presents these correlations. Hypothesis V .— The fifth hypothesis stated that there are positive relationships between initial levels of reading skills and changes in levels of reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course given to college students. These relationships are indicated by the correlations between variables derived from the reading pre-test and variables derived from the reading posttest. Table 13 presents these correlations. Hypothesis VI — The sixth hypothesis stated that the nature of vision factors, and their relationships with changes in reading skills, differ between subjects with ur. corrected vision problems and the total group of subjects. The results presented under Hypothesis I indicated that four factors precipitated from the scores of all subjects on the twenty-three variables had highest loadings on variables derived from vision tests.

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97 TABLE 11 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CERTAIN MENTAL ABILITIES VARIABLES AND VARIABLES INDICATING READING SKILLS CHANGE (GROUP T, N = 163) Mental Abilities Reading Skills Change Variables Variables #21 #22 #23 # Name Reading Story Comp. Paragraph Rate Change Change Comp Change 17 SAT Verbal .02 .05 .04 18 SAT Mathematical -.02 .03 .01 TABLE 12 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VARIABLES INDICATING PREVIOUS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND VARIABLES INDICATING READING SKILLS CHANGE (GROUP T, N = 163) Academic Achievement Reading Skills Change Variables Variable #21 #22 #23 # Name Reading Story Comp Paragraph Rate Change Change Comp Change 16 Class Rank, Converted .13 .03 .09 19 PGA .09 -.03 .07 TABLE 13 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VARIABLES INDICATING PREVIOUS LEVELS OF READING SKILLS AND VARIABLES INDICATING READING SKILLS CHANGE (GROUP T, N = 163) Previous Reading Reading Skills Change Variables Skills Variables #21 #22 #23 # Name Reading Story Comp, Paragraph Rate Change Change Comp Change 1 Reading Rate -.35 -.05 .01 2 Reading Story Comprehension .04 -.63 -.07 3 Reading Paragraph Comprehens ion .01 -.18 -.61

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93 Of the twelve factors precipitated from scores of the visual disorder sub-group, six factors had highest loadings on variables derived from vision tests. This comparison of the nature of vision factors between subjects with uncorrected vision problems and the total group of subjects is presented in Table 14. The relationships between vision factors and change in reading skills for the total group of subjects were presented under Hypothesis II by means of correlations between selected variables (see Table 10). In order to compare the changes in reading skills between the total group of subjects and those subjects with uncorrected vision problems, the correlations for both groups are presented in Table 15. Only the results of the statistical analysis have been presented in this chapter. An analysis of the results, including discussion and implication, will be presented in Chapter VI.

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99 TABLE 14 COMPARISON OF VISION FACTORS BETWEEN ALL SUBJECTS AND SUBJECTS WITH UNCORRECTED VISION PROBLEMS # Variables Rotat :ed Factor Loadings Group T Name 1* 4 3 2 1 Reading Rate -.04 .02 -.02 .01 2 Reading Story Comprehension .08 .05 .04 -.01 3 Reading Para. Comprehension .08 .06 .05 .06 4 Vertical Phoria Dev., Far -.07 -.07 .17 .52 5 Vertical Phoria Dev., Near .01 .04 .15 .31 & Lateral Phoria Dev. Far .06 -.01 -.02 .50 7 Lateral Phoria Dev., Near .00 -.01 -.03 .19 8 Acuity Deviation Both, Far .62 .21 -.05 -.07 9 Acuity Deviation Both, Near .15 .63 -.04 -.01 10 Acuity Deviation Right, Far .54 .04 .39 -.05 11 Acuity Deviation Right, Near .05 .20 .64 .04 12 Acuity Deviation Left, Far .56 .12 .23 .07 13 Acuity Deviation Left, Near .17 .60 .21 -.06 14 Acuity Imbalance, Far .22 -.13 .68 .08 15 Acuity Imbalance, Near .01 .07 .73 .10 16 Class Rank -.03 .00 -.05 .00 17 SAT Verbal .01 .06 .11 .07 18 SAT Mathematical .03 -.06 -.08 -.08 19 PGA .00 .13 -.08 -.01 20 Hyperopia -Myopia .67 .06 .02 .05 21 Reading Rate Change -.10 .05 -.07 -.01 22 Story Comprehension Change -.05 -.06 .01 .16 23 Paragraph Comp Change -.01 -.01 .04 .04 -'Numbers indicate order in which the factors appear in each rotated factor matrix.

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100 TABLE 14 ( continued ) Rotated Factor Loadings Sub-group VP 1 10 2 8 11 6 -.09 -.08 .07 -.08 -.01 .09 .04 -.05 -.05 .06 .02 .11 .07 -.06 .10 .04 -.08 .20 ‘ -.18 -.13 -.18 .31 .43 .27 -.11 .07 .09 .09 .65 .02 .04 -.02 .00 -.04 .03 .50 -.17 -.34 -.02 -.15 -.34 .10 .62 .38 .15 .16 -.01 -.03 .02 .08 .69 -.13 .08 -.10 .35 .63 .10 .26 .03 -.01 -.19 .46 .02 .60 .17 -.15 .67 -.04 .20 .34 -.16 .18 .17 -.01 .68 .25 -.03 .12 .23 .04 .05 .81 -.02 .16 1 o .11 .01 .81 .13 -.13 -.07 -.10 -.09 1 o K> -.04 -.02 -.15 -.04 .12 .07 -.09 .01 .08 .01 -.10 -.12 .06 -.08 .11 .11 .06 -.09 -.08 .00 .73 .10 -.01 -.04 -.06 .03 -.14 -.08 .14 .16 -.01 .02 -.10 -.12 -.11 .08 -.06 .06 -.16 -.07 -.07 .11 .07 -.01

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CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION The purpose of the present study vas to determine the relationships between vision and changes in reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course, and the effect of uncorrected vision problems upon these relationships. Six hypotheses were to be tested; therefore a specific discussion relates the findings to these hypotheses, following the order of their presentation in Chapter I. A general discussion follows which considers other aspects of the study not specifically related to the hypotheses. Discussion of Hypotheses Hypothesis I The first hypothesis stated that specific factors which are components of vision are identifiable through factor analysis of scores on a battery of vision screening tests given to college students. Factor analysis of the scores of all subjects on the twentythree variables elicited nine factors, four of which had highest leadings for those variables derived from vision tests. These four factors are discussed in an order which lends itself to easy interpretation. The interpretations are for ths most part based upon principal variables. 102

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that is, variables with rotated factor loadings of plus or minus .50 cr greater. Factors are named on the basis of those test scores which would contribute to high factor loadings when considering the direction of the rotated factor loadings. Factor T-l:^ Acuity Deviation. Far — The rotated factor leadings and intercorrelations for the principal variables for this factor are as follows: No. Variable Loading r #10 £12 £20 8 Acuity Deviation Both, Far .62 .40 .40 .38 10 Acuity Deviation Right, Far .54 .25 .40 12 Acuity Deviation Left, Far .56 .44 20 Hyperopia-Myopia .67 The principal variables for this factor are Hyperopia-Myopia and three acuity variables at far-point. Apparently the method of deriving the Hyperopia-Myopia variable served to emphasize the icportance of far-point acuity deviations in measuring hyperopia and myopia. Because the principal loadings were positive on all acuity variables measured by acuity deviations at far-point, thi 3 factor has been called Acuity Deviation. Far It accounts for 15.35 per cent of the common variance extracted from the matrix by all nine factors. By comparison with the findings of Cook 2 it is probable that this factor would be related to two factors he namsd Retinal Resolution and Lens Accommcc ;ion Robinson and Huelsman described their first factor simply as Acuity since ^This designation of factors indicates the group of subjects involved and the order of appearance in the rotated factor matrix. HnnV 1 r\r>

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104 in their study the factor had leadings on both near-point and far-point acuity tests. ^ In both named studies, a second factor differentiated by sign between near-point and far-point acuity tests. Factor T-4; Acuity Deviation. Near — The rotated factor loadings and intercorrelations for the principal variables for Factor T-4 are as follows: No. Variable Loading r 9 Acuity Deviation Both, Near .63 m m .41 .14 13 Acuity Deviation Left, Near .60 .24 (11 Acuity Deviation Right, Near .20) The principal variables for this factor are derived from positive loadings on tests of binocular acuity deviation at near-point and of left eye acuity deviation at near-point. The factor is therefore called Acuity Deviation. Near It is the companion factor to Factor T-l. The presence of both factors points out the importance of measurements of acuity at both near-point and far-point in a vision screening battery. Although a weaker factor than its coup anion, this factor accounts for 9.03 per cent of the common variance extracted from the matrix. As noted above, studies by Cook and by Robinson and Huelsman described acuity factors, on8 of which differentiated between vision tests at near-point and at far-point. It is believed that Factors T-l %len M. Robinson and Charles B. Huelsman, Jr., ‘'Visual Efficiency and Progress in Learning to Read," in Helen M. Robinson (ed.). Clinical Studies In Reading II (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953), p. 58.

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105 and T-4 specifically identify acuity as an important area of vision, and just as specifically point out the importance of acuity measures at both distances. It should be noted that both acuity factors have principal variables derived from tests of binocular acuity. Also, the relatively low intercorralations among binocular acuity variables and monocular acuity variables indicate the necessity for considering these as separate contributors to the acuity factors. Too, the importance of binocular vision for reading has been emphasised by researchers for ovor thirty years. These facts serve to emphasize the need for including tests of binocular acuity in a vision screening battery. Factor T-3; Acuity Imbalance — The rotated factor loadings and intercorrelations for the principal variables for this factor are as follows : No., Variable Loading r 15 Acuity Difference, Near .73 m gn. .53 .50 14 Acuity Difference, Far .63 .32 11 Acuity Deviation Right, Near .64 The principal variables for this factor are derived from positive loadings on measures of imbalance in acuity of the two eyes, one at nsarpoint and one at far-point, and the measure of right eye acuity deviation at near-point. The factor is called Acuity Imbalance Acuity Imbalance is the strongest factor precipitated, in that it accounts for 17.03 per cent of the total variance extracted from the matrix.

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106 Kelly included measures of Acuity Imbalance in his study, but felt the narrow range measured by the variable contributed to its unreliability. Despite this, he suggested imbalance in acuity "may be an important visual function."^ Spache and Tillman found that acuity difference between the two eyes at near-point differentiated between retarded and non-retarded readers. ^ The findings of these authors are definitely supported by the presence of Factor T-3, and suggests the value of considering Acuity Imbalance in clinical studies. Further evidence of the importance of unequal acuity of the separate eyes is found in the contributions of these variables to Factor T-4 as well as to Factor T-3. Right eye acuity deviations contribute much less to the factor Acuity Deviation. Near and are definitely associated with Acuity Imbalance at both distances. This supports the findings of Spache and Tillman, who suggested retarded readers might prefer the right eye. A reason for such preference might now be hypothesized. Cook did not find evidence for the importance of acuity differences between the two eyes; indeed the study did not consider such differences. However, Robinson and Huelsman describe a factor which "differentiates among performances by right eye, both eyes, and left eye. The data presented by these authors are reproduced in Table 16, ^Charles R. K>-lly, Visual Screening and Child Development (Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State Teachers College, 1957), pp. 4, 5, 24. George D. Spache and Chester E. Till m a n "A Comparison of the Visual Profiles of Retarded and Non-retarded Readers," Journal of Developmental Reading Vol. 5 (Winter, 1962), pp. 101-109. ^Robinson and Huelsman, op. clt . p. 53.

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107 and reveal that this conclusion is true for the Ortho-Rater tests only for Grade VII. Acuity Imbalance may, then, be a functional development related to educational misuse of the vision mechanism. TABLE 16 ACUITY TEST FACTOR LOADINGS REPORTED BY ROBINSON AND HUELSMAN ON FACTOR C Ortho-Rater Test Grade IV Grade VII Binocular acuity, far 17 37 Right eye acuity, far 12 34 Left eye acuity, far 13 -10 Binocular acuity, near 38 23 Right eye acuity, near 15 39 Loft eye acuity, near 11 -11 Factor T-2; Phoria. Far — The rotated factor loadings and correlations for this factor are as follows: No. Variable Loading r 4 Vertical Phoria Deviation, Far .52 £6 .27 iti a .23 .07 6 Lateral Phoria Deviation, Far .49 .10 .12 (5 Lateral Phoria Deviation, Near .31) .07 (7 Vertical Phoria Deviation, Near .19) The principal variables for this relatively weak factor are derived from positive loadings on far-point measures of phoria. The Phoria. Far factor accounts for only 7.08 per cent of the common variance extracted from the correlation matrix. Although far-point measures of vertical and lateral phoria are the major contributors to this factor, the intercorrelations

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108 indicate near-point tests to be measuring unrelated, if loss important, entities. One must conclude that, in the total group, far-point measures of phoria are more important than those at near-point, while at reading distance lateral phoria is more important than vertical phoria. The weakness of this factor probably stems from (l) the narrow range of the vertical phoria measure, and (2) the recognized unreliability of lateral phoria measures, and is evidenced by the low commonalities of the primary variables. Thus, in a battery of vision screening tests, the clinician might expect to include at least far phoria measures, while recognising the separate contributions of near phoria tests when time is available to include them. Cook reported four factors derived from measures of phoria: (1) lateral phoria, measured best by commercial screening devices, (2) near lateral phoria, as measured by screening tests, (3) hyperphoria (vertical phoria), and (4) a factor related to change in vertical phoria after re st ^ The phoria factor in the present study is general, and the first three factors described by Cook. Perhaps it should be recalled that Robinson and Euelsmaa made no attempt to elicit and name phoria factors, assumedly because of the curvilinear nature of these measures. It is hoped that the use of deviation scores in the present study has in part eliminated the problem, and allowed a clear picture of the contribution of phoria variables to be shown in a single general factor, 7 'Cock, loc. cit.

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109 Hypothesis I seems adequately supported by the precipitation of four factors which identify relatively independent components of vision. From thirteen variables derived from ten vision tests, three acuity factors and one phoria factor have been identified. Hypothesis II The second hypothesis stated that there are positive relationships between vision factors, and changes in levels of reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course given to college students. The correlations between these variables have been presented in Table 10. In general. Hypothesis II was not supported by the data, since all correlations were very low. While one might observe general trends such as (l) negative relationships between acuity deviations and Rate Change, (2) negative relationships between acuity deviations and Story Comprehension Change, and (3) positive relationships between phoria variables and Story Comprehension Change, these are obviously only minor trends and not supported by significant correlations. Hypothesis III The third hypothesis stated that there are positive relationships between levels of certain mental abilities and change in levels of reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course given to college students. The correlations between the mental abilities measured by the Scholastic Aptitude Test and change in levels of reading skills are as follows:

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110 Reading Rate Story Comp. Change Change Verbal Reasoning .02 .05 Quantitative Reasoning -.02 .03 Paragraph Como, Change .04 .01 Hypothesis III was not supported by the data. Change in levels of reading skills apparently is independent of both verbal ability and quantitative ability at the college freshman level This might well be because at this educational level the measured abilities are relatively homogeneous. A second consideration is that all these students probably have verbal and quantitative ability beyond a necessary mi nimum for success and changes in levels of reading skills are dependent upon other variables. Hypothesis IV The fourth hypothesis stated that there are positive relationships between previous academic achievement and change in levels of reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course given to college students. The correlations between the variables indicating prior academic achievement (Class Rank, Converted) and predicted academic achievement (Predicted Grade Average), and variables indicating reading skills changes are shown below: Reading Rate Story Comp. Paragraph Change Change Comp. Change Class Rank, Converted .13 .03 .09 Predicted Grade Average .09 -.03 .07 Hypothesis IV was not supported by the data.

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Ill The consistent low correlations indicate that changes in reading skills are also independent of previous academic achievement, at least at the college freshman level. It was expected that a paragraph comprehension measure, which requires a study-type approach, would correlate positively with academic achievement. With these subjects, however, there was no relationship between the two. As anticipated. Predicted Grade Average was seen to correlate highly (r = .73) with prior academic achievement. For this reason its relationship with changes in reading skills was noted. Changes in reading skills were also found to be independent of the PGA variable, as they were of the components entering into the equations. Hypothesis 7 The fifth hypothesis stated that there are positive relationships between initial levels of reading skills and changes in levels of reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course given to college students. The correlations between initial reading skills and changes attributed to the reading improvement course are shown below: Rate Story Comp. Paragraph Comp. Change Change Change Reading Rate -.35 -.05 Reading Story Comp. .04 -.63 Reading Paragraph Comp. .01 -.18 .01 -.07 -.61 %"n8 four regression equations used to predict grade point averages included Class Rank, Converted, and two equations included English Composition scores, SAT Verbal and SAT Quantitative scores were also included.

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112 This hypothesis i3 refuted by the data. The only significant correlations are negative rather than positive, indicating that students initially lowest in a reading skill would cake the greatest change in that skill. This emphasis is necessary since change in any single reading skill is apparently independent of changes in other reading skills. Support for the independence of each reading skill is derived from the fact that each of three of the nine factors elicited has highest loadings on one reading skill and its related change. The rotated loadings for these factors are listed below: Factor T-5 Reading Rate Factor T-7 Factor T-3 Reading Story Reading ParaComp. graph Changs Reading Rate .48 Rate Change -.42 Reading Story Comprehension .69 Story Comprehension Change -.61 Reading Paragraph Coup. Paragraph Comp. Change .69 -.56 On the basis of these data the clinician might expect students to make gain3 in any one reading skill without greatly affecting the level of performance on other reading skills. As Spache has suggested, the clinician might also expect the law of diminishing returns to operate in his instruction of students in reading.^ This conclusion is supported by the opposing signs for factor loadings on the reading skills factors, and by the negative correlations ^George D. Spache, "Clinical Work with College Students," in College-Adult Reading Instruction IRA Perspectives in Reading I (Newark, D elaware, 1964), p. 138.

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113 between the reading skills variables. Thus the student initially highest in a reading skill would be expected to gain least in that skill. One must, however, apply this finding with care to the skill Reading Rato, since the correlation between this variable and Rate Change is relatively low. The clinician might expect this lew correlation since he is aware of the many influences upon reading rate. Hypothesis VI The sixth hypothesis stated that (l) the nature of vision factors, and (2) their relationships with changes in reading skills, differ between the total group of subjects, and subjects with uncorrected vision problems. The discussion under Hypothesis I pointed out the four vision factors which were precipitated from scores of the total group of one hundred sixty-three subjects on twenty-three variables. When scores for Sub-group VP were factorized, a total of six vision factors was precipitated. In Table 17 it is possible to see the major differences in vision factors between these two groups. For the vision problem sub-group, right eye acuity at farpoint becomes a more important measure, as seen in the presence of a specific factor for this variable. An indication of the reason for this importance is seen in the negative correlations (Appendix C) right eye acuity at far-point had with initial reading rate, all reading skills changes, academic achievement, and mental abilities. The tendency toward negative relationships was present in the total group, but it was

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COMPARISON OF PRINCIPAL FACTOR LOADINGS OF VISION FACTORS BETWEEN GROUP T (N=163) AND SUB-GROUP VP (N-51) 114 60 c •iH co cm r^CO ON CO rH r— 4 O r-. vO O v£> P VO co oo o 0 • • • • • • • • • o p u 03 Pm p > C U P U o 03 0 03 •H 0 o Pm 4-1 & 3-4 u 03 03 6C •rl Pm i 3-4 C > c 0) P o O (D o o ** 3 -u •H P •H c 03 C/1 o U 4-1 03 •rH 0 03 > 03 i—4 3-4 Pm •H 4-1 •rH 03 O > •H > P a; D a B P o O o M <1 i—4 > 03 4-1 4-1 u 4-1 3- •H r* •H •iH CL) 0 6£ 3 4- o *H O O 03 P <1 < P 60 c •H cm o > P 03 03 a 0 B P Pm P P M >> > > 03 4-> 4-1 4-1 •H •H •H •H 3-i 3 0 3 O o O O P < < < P uo co o <1* 3-i 3-i 3-4 0 3-i 3-4 3-4 Pi 3-4 0 u 0 3-4 P 0 34 3-i 3-4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 P P 0 0 IS P P P P P p • C/3 •% *\ ** ** ** > ** 0 4-1 4-1 r\ r\ 0 0 4-1 • 0 • • i—4 0 P 4-> P r~| P 4—1 O o ,3 > P > > P 0 •iH 4-1 60 'Hb 4-1 4-4 a 0 60 0 0 0 03 B P o 0 •r-4 •p4 O 0 o 0 •H P 0 P P •p4 03 O P P P P P P 3-i J-l P •rH 3_j 0 0 0 3-4 0 0 03 ^ • . • • 4-4 P • •iH O •r-4 • H > > > > > > > 4-1 P > 3-i rP 34 3-4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 •rH •rH 0 O P O O •H Q P P P P P P P Q P P P i—4 P P P O Po >i Po >> Po 0 3-i 4-1 4-1 4-1 4- 4-1 4-1 4—> 4.) 4-1 • 3-i • • 0 *.H •H •H •H •H *H •H •iH •H 4-1 0 4-1 4-1 P 3 3 3 0 3 0 0 3 3-4 4-1 3-1 3-4 >> 0 o o O O O o o O 0 0 0 0 P < <2 <2 2 <2 <2 <2 <2 < > P > > =iio oo CM o o ON CO uO i—4
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115 ; gnif icaatly higher (p .05)*^ with subjects who had uncorrected vi3ion problems. This finding is related to that made by Spacho and Tillman who concluded that retarded readers wore poorer in leftaye acuity. -1 "^ A third difference in the nature of vision factors between the total group and subjects with unconnected vision problems is in the area of phoria. For the total group, Phoria Far was the only factor with high loadings on phoria variables. However, for subjects with uncorrected vision problems, vertical phoria emerged as a valuable measure. This was evidenced by the elicitation of the Vertical Phoria factor. There was higher loading on vertical phoria at near-point, but vertical phoria at far-point was sufficiently high to be considered as contributing. There was also a substantial correlation (r = .38, p = .01) between the nearpoint and far-point measures. Slight changes in the correlations between vertical and lateral phoria variables between the two groups indicated minor trends. These are shown in the correlations listed below: H #5 #6 #7 Vertical Phoria, Dev., Far Vertical Phoria, Dev., Near Lateral Phoria, Dev., Far Lateral Phoria, Dev., Near There was an increasing trend toward negative relationships between vertical and lateral phoria for subjects with uncorrected vision problems. ^• C Ghi square, corrected for continuity, equals 5.2. •^Spache and Tillman, oo. cit., p. 109.

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116 Vertical phoria at the two distances tended to become more highly correlated; lateral phoria at the two distances remained uncorrelated. These facts indicate that vertical phoria measures at both distances, and lateral phoria measures at both distances are valuable for complete screening of vision. If only one vertical phoria measure is to be included, this should be at near-point, rather than at far12 point as in one commercial instrument. The Acuity Deviation. Near factor remained relatively unchanged between the two groups, even to the amount of variance accounted for from, the correlation matrices. Acuity Imbalance also remained the strongest factor in terms of the amount of variance accounted for. The relationship between acuity imbalance and right eye acuity at near-point continued as an indication of the importance of difference in acuity between the two eyes. General Discussion There were several important aspects of the present study which were not considered in the discussion related specifically to the hypotheses. One of these was the relation which vision has to prior levels of reading skills. For the total group of subjects, there were no significant relationships between previously attained reading skills and any vision variable. This was also true for the Vision Problem sub-group. "^The Keystone Telebinocular measures vertical phoria only at far-point.

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117 As has been previously mentioned, for the total group of subjects there were no significant correlations between vision variables and changes in levels of reading skills as a result of the reading improvement course. For subjects with uncorrected vision problems, however, there were several significant correlations. Paragraph Comprehension Change was significantly related to vertical phoria at far-point (r = .27, p .05). But probably the most meaningful correlations are negative between binocular acuity deviations at far-point and both measures of reading comprehension. These correlations indicate that for subjects of the Vision Problem sub-group deviations in binocular acuity at far-point interfere with change in Story Comprehension (r r -.40, p = .01) and with Paragraph Comprehension change (r = -. 32 p .02). Although the differences were not significant, students in Subgroup VP were initially higher in all reading skills, but made less gain than the total group in rate of reading, while gaining more in story comprehension. A plausible explanation is that these students must expend more effort controlling defective vision, and reach a peak rate sooner than the general student population. Slower rate enables more emphasis upon comprehension, which is the mode of compensation enabling the student with uncorrected vision problems to continue in higher education. A second difference in the two groups of subjects was the relation which vision has to academic achievement. The correlations

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118 between these two types of variables are listed in Table 18. For the total group of subjects there was practically no indicated relationships between variables measuring academic achievement and vision variables. Possible consideration should be given to (l) the small positive relationship between deviations in binocular acuity at near-point and Predicted Grade Average, and (2) to the small negative relationship between Class Rank and right eye deviations at near-point. Students with uncorrected vision problems generally tended to indicate more and higher negative correlations (p = .05)^ between vision and measures of academic achievement. Particularly important were the negative correlations between right eye acuity deviations and academic achievement. This emphasis upon right eye acuity was maintained throughout the study by various measures. The relationships between the measured mental abilities and vision should also be considered. Correlations between these two typ>es of variables are shown in Table 19. Again, the correlations were not sufficiently high to be significant. However, there was a trend (not significant)^ toward negative correlations between visual deviations and measured mental abilities. The subjects with uncorrected vision problems indicated higher negative correlations between the two types of variables. It was especially noticeable that the highest negative correlations were between verbal ability and (l) the variables indicating deviations in binocular acuity and in right eye acuity at far— point, and (2) lateral phoria deviations at reading distance. l^Chi square, corrected for continuity, equals 5.04. ^Chi square, corrected, equals 2.56.

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119 TABLE 18 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VISION VARIABLES AND VARIABLES MEASURING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT #16 Class Rank Variables Group T Sub-gp. VP # Name 4 Vert. Phoria Dev., Far 5 Vert. Phoria Dev., Near 6 Lateral Phoria Dev., Far 7 Lateral Phoria Dev., Near 8 Acuity Dev. Both, Far 9 Acuity Dev. Both, Near 10 Acuity Dev. Right, Far 11 Acuity Dev. Right, Near 12 Acuity Dev. Left, Far 13 Acuity Dev. Left, Near 14 Acuity Imbalance, Far 15 Acuity Imbalance, Near 20 Hyperopia-Myopia -.04 -.04 -.03 .11 -.06 .09 -.07 -.18 .01 -.08 -.01 -.04 -.01 -.02 -.03 -.04 .11 -.14 -.07 -.22 -.30 -.04 -.18 .04 -.03 -.13 #19 PGA Group T Sub-gp. VP -.03 .04 -.08 -.12 -.05 -.03 .06 .06 .01 -.11 .19 .05 -.07 -.29 -.08 -.25 .06 -.02 .01 -.04 -.08 -.12 -.08 -.14 .01 -.17 TABLE 19 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VISION VARIABLES AND MEASURED MENTAL ABILITIES # 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 20 Variables Name Vert. Phoria Dev., Far Vert. Phoria Dev., Near Lateral Phoria Dev., Far Lateral Phoria Dev., Near Acuity Dev. Both, Far Acuity Dev. Both, Near Acuity Dev. Right, Far Acuity Dev. Right, Near Acuity Dev. Left, Far Acuity Dev. Left, Near Acuity Imbalance, Far Acuity Imbalance, Near Hyperopia -Myopia #17 Verbal #18 Quantitative Group T Sub-gp. VP Group T Sub-gp. VP .04 .00 .03 -.18 -.04 -.01 .08 -.19 .02 -.25 .04 .09 .06 -.19 .13 .04 .02 .00 .07 .13 .02 .02 .09 .03 .05 -.15 -.01 .09 .04 .01 -.11 -.08 -.01 -.03 .04 .09 .01 -.05 .00 -.08 -.04 -.12 -.02 .04 -.08 -.17 -.11 -.17 -.05 -.16 .01 .04

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120 When scores for all subjects were factorized, a single cental ability factor was precipitated which had highest factor loadings on measures of both verbal and quantitative ability. Factorization of Subgroup VP scores precipitated two factors, one related to Verbal ability and the second related to quantitative ability (see below). The correlations under the two conditions (also listed below) indicate that the verbal and quantitative abilities are significantly less related in the sub-group with vision problems. One possible explanation for this difference lies in the fact that there were almost twice as many female as male subjects with uncorrected vision problems. A second possible explanation is in the condensation technique utilized by subjects with uncorrected vision problems. Quantitative reasoning does not require rapid reading, but verbal reasoning requires a wide reading experience for the development of vocabulary and method. These subjects may functionally separate the two types of reasoning because of emphasis upon the separate approach required of them. Group T Sub-group VP Variable Loading r Loading r #17 SAT Verbal .68 ^ .72 -12 #18 SAT Quantitative .68 .SO* ** ^Factor VP-9 **Factor VP-7 There were the expected correlations between the measured mental abilities and the Predicted Grade Average variable (see Appendix C). These high correlations are of course due to the inclusion of the mental ability scores in the regression equations used for prediction of grade averages.

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CHAPTER VII SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS Summary The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationships between vision and change in the levels of reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course, and the effect of uncorrected vision problems upon these relationships. Six hypotheses were to be tested by factor analysis of the scores of selected subjects on a series of tests. In order to accomplish this purpose, one hundred eighty subjects were selected from the entering freshman class at Stetson University. The subjects were the poorest readers in the class as selected by the Cooperative English Test, Reading Comprehension Total Score. All subjects were given individual vision screening using a battery of twelve vision tests presented by the Ortho-Rater. These subjects were also given a carefully prepared reading improvement course emphasizing (l) increase in rate of reading by machine training, and (2) flexibility in reading, utilizing various methods according to purpose. The Diagnostic Reading Test, Form A was used as a reading pre-test to measure the initial level of reading skills. Form D of the DRT was used as a reading post-test to measure changes in levels of reading skills attributable to the reading improvement course. 121

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122 A total of one hundred sixty-three subjects completed the reading improvement course and all tests. Scores from ten vision tests were translated to ten deviation scales, and three derived scales. A total of thirteen vision variables was thus available. The Diagnostic Reading Test, Form A raw scores were used as a measure of initial reading skills. Differences between raw scores on the DRT Form D and the DRT Form A were used as reading change scores which were attributable to a Reading Improvement Course. From these tests six reading variables were thus available. The Office of Admissions at Stetson University made available the subjects 1 scores on the Verbal and Mathematical sections of the Scholastic Aptitude Test, the subjectsÂ’ high school class rank, and predicted grade averages. Scaled scores on the SAT Verbal and Mathematical sections were used as two variables measuring mental abilities. Class ranks were converted to a standard scale, and used as a measure of academic achievement. Predicted grade averages were used as a multi-test indication of potential academic achievement. Thus the scores of one hundred sixty-three subjects on twentythree variables were factorized utilizing the RPAFAV program for the IBM 709 Computer. The three steps in the program produced the correlation matrix, the principal axis factor analysis, and the Varimax rotation. Nine factors were precipitated in this factorization. A total of fifty-one subjects was selected who failed one or more of the vision screening tests administered. Scores by these

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123 subjects on the twenty-three variables were factorized utilizing the same computer program. Twelve factors were precipitated in this factorization. The results from the two factorizations were presented in detail in Chapter V and in Appendix C. General results were presented, and specific results given as these related to the six hypotheses. In Chapter VI a detailed discussion of these findings was given as they related to the hypotheses, and to general questions raised in the survey of the literature. Conclusions Vision tests — One of the preliminary steps to comparison of vision and reading is obtaining adequate, easily available vision tests. Factorization of the scores of all subjects on a commercially available screening battery precipitated four vision factors, while factorization of the scores of the vision problem sub-group precipitated six vision factors. Analysis of these data led to the following conclusions regarding vision screening: (1) There are relatively independent measures of vision function for subjects at the college freshman level; (2) Acuity at far-point and acuity at near-point are sufficiently independent to be measured separately; (3) Tests of binocular acuity are important measures to be included in a vision screening battery;

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124 (4) Imbalance of acuity of the two eye 3 is an important and relatively independent derived measure which might indicate functional development related to educational misuse of the vision mechanism; (5) Phoria measures at far-point are the most valuable phoria measures, although nearpoint tests measure relatively separate, if less important entities; (6) Vision functions may differ in inportance for subjects who have uncorrected vision problems, for example, right eye acuity and vertical phoria assume greater importance in the vision of these subjects. Vision and reading — Reading skills and changes in reading skills were, for the total group of subjects, practically independent of vision functions. The presence of uncorrected vision problems in subjects apparently did increase the relationships between binocular acuity and reading comprehension changes. let, despite the fact that subjects with uncorrected vision problems tended to be initially higher in all reading skills, they made less gain in rate and more gain in story comprehension than did the group as a whole. These differences were not significant. It was concluded that, at the level of reading performance of these subjects, vision functions were not a determining factor in the levels of reading skills attained, or in the change in the levels of reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course. These subjects had apparently been able to compensate for any uncorrected vision problems which were present. However, when faced with rapid increase in reading skills, subjects with uncorrected vision problems were required to expand greater effort controlling defective vision. This effort

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125 prevented rapid rate increase and placed emphasis upon comprehension, a method believed to be the mode of compensation enabling these subjects to continue in higher education. Vision and non-reading measures — For the total group of subjects there were no meaningful relationships between vision functions and academic achievement or measured mental abilities. For subjects with uncorrected vision problems, however, there was a significant trend toward negative correlations between vision deviations and both academic achievement and measured mental abilities. It was concluded that, for the general freshman population, vision was not related to academic achievement or measured mental abilities. However, uncorrected vision problems tended to interfere with subjects' academic achievement, and with their performance on measures of mental ability. This conclusion is drawn bearing in mind the many compensatory adjustments made by subjects under the stresses of cultural demands Reading and non-vision measures .— The correlations between both initial reading skills and reading skills change and (l) measured mental abilities, and (2) previous academic achievement were for all practical purposes nonexistent. It was concluded that change in the levels of reading skills as a result of a reading improvement course is independent of verbal and quantitative cental abilities, and of previous academic achievement. It is believed that these college freshmen have verbal and quantitative abilities beyond requirements for success, and changes in reading skills are dependent upon other variables, for example, motivation.

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126 Reading skills changes were found to be negatively related to previous levels of reading skills. And each of three of the factors precipitated was specific to one reading skill and its concomitant change. It was concluded that reading skills changes are subject to the law of diminishing returns, that is, one might expect the initially lowest student to gain relatively more and the initially highest student to gain relatively less in reading skills. These facts must be applied with considerable caution to reading rate, since there are so many influences upon this skill. General considerations — One consistent trend pervaded the data in this study. Right eye acuity was seen to be an important differentiating measure between the total group and the vision problem subgroup. Right Acuity Deviation. Far was a specific factor precipitated in the factorization of scores of subjects with uncorrected vision problems, and in this factorization there was a significant (p = .01)*' increase in the number of negative correlations between right eye acuity deviations and (l) initial reading skills, (2) reading skills changes, (3) academic achievement measures, and (4) mental abilities measures. For both groups, right acuity deviations were significantly correlated with acuity imbalance at near-point and far-point. It was concluded that deviations in right eye acuity are highly important as an indication of adverse effects of vision problems upon academic-type activities. Such deviations apparently are not as easily controlled by the subject, and interfere with efficiency in continued near-point activities. ^Chi square, corrected for continuity, equals 11.4.

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/ 127 The Hyp eropla-Myopia variable appeared to be an important derived measure, but its exact role in the study was difficult to determine. There were minor negative correlations with initial reading rate and with all reading skills changes. Hyperopia-Myopia was the principal variable in the strongest factor elicited in both factorizations. Hyperopia-Myopia had significant positive correlations with the three measures of acuity deviation at far-point. It was concluded that purified hyperopic and myopic tendencies 2 are important measures in vision. This type of derived measure utilizing various tests may be an answer to the reading clinicianÂ’s problem of determining the effects of vision upon reading. Clinical Considerations Generally speaking, normal vision does not have a great effect upon the academic-type activities of college freshmen. However, a surprising number of these students do have uncorrected vision problems. These latter students have been able to compensate for vision problems throughout high school studies, but soon begin to feel the pressure of long-term, continuous demands which the college curriculum makes upon the vision mechanism. Symptoms range from tired eyes to excessive bodily tension preventing concentration. Listed below are some considerations for the reading clinician which have emerged from the present study: ^he deviation of this variable is explained on pages 82-83.

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128 (1) Commercially available vision screening instruments, such as the Ortho-Rater, which offer a battery of vision tests, are necessary to adequately screen vision of students. Vision screening should be done with the primary purpose of understanding the potential of the student for reading improvement, and the secondary purpose of referral to a vision specialist for correction. Where clinical referrals are made, close communication is required to relate corrections to the reading needs of the student ; (2) Include monocular measures of acuity for each eye as well as binocular acuity tests; all tests should be given at far-point as well as at reading distance; (3) Imbalance of acuity of the two eyes is an important consideration. There is an apparent relationship between right eye deviations at near-point and acuity imbalance. Where deviations are outside recommended norms for adults, this relationship increases, and tends to be negatively related to gain in reading rate. Right eye acuity deviations are seemingly more difficult to control, and therefore interfere more with academictype activities; (4) A derived measure of Hyperopia-Myopia is an important clinical consideration. The functionally derived measure used in the present study correlated highly with all far-point acuity measures. There tended to be minor negative relationships between Hyperopia-Myopia and change in levels of reading shills, especially Paragraph Comprehension Change. A thorough study of these relationships should be continued; (5) Reading improvement at the college freshman level is apparently independent of verbal and quantitative ability, and of prior academic achievement. Students who have reached this academic level seem to be endowed beyond a nrirrimrm level required for progress;

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129 (6) At this level, reading skills are relatively independent of each other, and the clinician might expect gain in one skill without great effect upon other skills; (7) Gains in reading skills appear to be negatively related to initial levels of reading skills, therefore the clinician might expect diminishing returns from reading instruction. Students initially low in these skills would be expected to gain relatively more than students initially high in reading skills. Rate of reading must, of course, be considered in the light of the many affecting variables. (8) The student with uncorrected vision problems is probably more rigid in his reading habits because of the necessity for a compensating control of vision. When placed in a reading improvement course, he probably will not gain as rapidly in rate, but he will reach a peak rate more quickly. His mode of compensation might well be to emphasize comprehension, particularly of the study-type requiring slower rate and additional effort One technique for combating this situation is emphasis upon skimming, or reading for ideas, so that the intense vision control is relaxed in favor of less critical images. A concomitant increase in rate is required to maintain the relaxed visual method. The technique obviously reduces comprehension initially, but can be utilized for many reading assignments. It will also lead the student toward flexibility in reading, a necessary part of college reading skills.

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APPENDICES

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APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF VISION TERMS Accommodation: a change in "the focus of the lens of the eye when changing the point of regard from far to near or vice versa; measured in units of power called the diopter. Acuity: a measure of the smallest perceptible detail in black and white at a specified distance. Acuity imbalance : a difference in the acuity of the two eyes; see Anisometropia. Anisometropia : a difference in the refractive power of the two eyes; there are very few people without some degree j however, there is a native ability to tolerate and adapt to the difference if it is not large. Anisekonia: a difference in the size and shape of the ocular images without a significant degree of anisometropia. Astigmatism: a refractive error of the lens of the eye causing the light rays going into the eye to focus in different planes. Binocular vision: vision involving images from both eyes; see Fusion. Binocular coordination: movement of the two eyes together by means of the ocular muscles. Color discrimination: a measure of the latest difference between colors, in different combinations, that can be perceived entirely apart from the need to recognize, name, or match specific colors. Convergence: turning the eyes inward, crossing, in order to see a near object as a single image. Depth perception: a measure of the minimum perceived difference in distance of two objects when all cues are eliminated except binocular parallax (the differential in the triangulation of the visual axes for the two different distances). Diopter: a unit of measure of power of (l) accommodation of the lens of the eye, or (2) prescribed lenses. 131

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132 Diplopia: doubling of vision. Divergence: turning the eyes out in order to see a more distant object as a single image. Ductions: muscular ability of the eyes to diverge and converge. Esophoria: a tendency toward overconvergence. Exophoria: a tendency toward underconvergence. Far-point: at a distance from the eyes, with convergence relatively relaxed; for the Ortho-Eater, an optical distance of eight meters, approximately twenty-six feet. Fusion: combining the Images of both eyes into a single stereoscopic image. Hyperopia: far-sighted; a refractive error of the lens of the eye causing far objects to be seen more clearly than near objects. Interpupillary distance: the distance between the pupils of the eyes across the bridge of the nose. Lateral imbalance: habitual faulty posturing of the eyes, causing underconvergence or overconvergence; imbalance of the ocular muscles in the lateral plane creating difficulty of fusion of two images. Lateral phoria; the lateral angle between the axes of the two eyes; a measure of lateral imbalance. Maddox Rod Test: a crude clinical measure of ocular imbalance. Monocular vision: vision with one eye, as measured by a common test; or exclusive of frequent use of only one eye in normally binocular tasks; see Suppression. Muscle imbalance: habitual faulty posturing of the ocular muscles in the vertical or lateral plane; see Phoria. Myopia: near-sighted; a refractive error of the lens of the eye causing near objects to be seen more clearly than far objects. Near-point: at approximate reading distance; for the Ortho-Rater, an optical distance of fourteen inches from the subject. Overconvergence: a tendency to turn the eyes inward too far (crossing) when viewing an object binocularly; see Lateral imbalance.

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133 Ortho-Rater: an instrument which presents a battery of standardized precision vision tests produced by the Bausch and Lomb Optical Company and standardized for industry by the Statistical Laboratory for Vision Tests at Purdue University. Phoria: a measure indicating the lateral and vertical angles between the axes of the two eyos when they are not required to maintain coincidence on any single point of fixation, but with the eyes focused for a specific distance. Each phoria scale extonds from one extreme through the normal to the other extreme. Stereopsis: the ability to receive impressions of relief, solidity, and tri-dimensionality, achieved through depth perception. Suppression: a functional disorder wherein the visual sensations from one eye are not utilized in image perception. Underconvergence: a tendency to turn the eyes outward too far when viewing an object binocular ly; see Lateral imbalance. Vergence: lateral movement of the eyes inward or outward in the lateral plane in order to regard objects at varying distances. Vertical imbalance: habitual faulty posturing of the eyes in the vertical plane, creating difficulty of fusion of the two images. Vertical phoria: the vertical angle between the axes of the two eyes; a measure of vertical imbalance.

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APPENDIX B l VISUAL ACUITY EQUIVALENTS OF ORTHO-RATER ACUITY LEVELS Test Item Number Visual Angle Visual Snellen Acuity Notation A.M.A. 1 10.0' 20/200 20% 2 5.0' 20/100 49% 3 3.33' 20/67 67.5% 4 2.5' 20/50 76.5% 5 2.0' 20/40 84.5% 6 1.67' 20/33 88.5% 7 1.43' 20/29 92.5% 8 1.25’ 20/25 95.5% 9 1.11' 20/22 • 98% 10 1.0' 20/20 100% 11 .91' 20/18 101.5% 12 .83' 20/17 103% 13 .77' 20/15 104% 14 .71' 20/14 105.5% 15 .67' 20/13 106.5% 134

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135 APPENDIX B 2 INDIVIDUAL VISION PROFILE Name_ Date_ Group Use of glasses: none reading only distance only full-time number of years Contact lenses: yes no (check one) Directions: With glasses, use X; without glasses, use 0. Raw score on top of line; deviation score below line. Far-Point Vertical Phoria Lateral Phoria Acuity, Both Acuity, Right Acuity, Left Stereopsis Color Vertical Phoria Lateral Phoria Acuity, Both Acuity, Right Acuity, Left X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 NearPoint X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Comments :

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136 APPENDIX B 3 NAME READING SECTION 1-1 1-2 2-1 2-2 3-1 3-2 Last First Circle One FILMSTRIP ANSWER SHEET Film No. Rate Comp 123456789 10 COMMENTS •

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# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 137 APPENDIX C l INTERCORRELATION MATRIX, GROUP T (N=163) Variables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Name Reading Rate Reading Story 1.00 Comprehens ion Reading Paragraph -.05 1.00 Comprehension Vertical Phoria .07 .39 1.00 Deviation, Far Vertical Phoria -.07 -.04 -.09 1.00 Deviation, Near .02 -.03 -.04 .23 1.00 Lateral Phoria Deviation, Far Lateral Phoria .08 -.06 .08 .27 .10 1.00 Deviation, Near .01 .06 .14 .07 -.07 .12 1.00 Acuity Deviation Both, Far Acuity Deviation .01 .12 .07 -.10 .05 -.01 -.08 1.00 Both, Near .05 .14 .07 -.06 .06 -.05 .00 .23 1.00 Acuity Deviation Right Far Acuity Deviation -.04 .04 .08 -.06 .11 .02 -.03 .40 .13 1.00 Right Near Acuity Deviation -.05 .08 .06 .14 .16 -.04 -.04 .04 .14 .40 Left, Far .13 .11 .17 .00 -.04 .12 .05 .40 .13 .25 Acuity Deviation Left, Near Acuity Imbalance, -.05 .07 .10 -.08 -.03 .02 .00 .24 .41 .14 Far .06 .04 .10 .14 .06 .09 .01 .01 -.11 .41 Acuity Imbalance, Near .02 -.01 -.01 .21 .15 .01 -.02 -.01 -.01 .24 Class Rank -.01 .03 .11 -.04 -.04 -.03 .11 -.06 .09 -.07 SAT Verbal .05 .12 .11 .04 .03 -.04 .08 .02 .04 .06 SAT Mathematical .02 -.05 -.06 -.01 .04 -.11 -.01 .04 .01 .00 PGA .00 .17 .23 -.03 -.08 -.05 .06 .01 .19 -.07 Hyperopia-Myopia -.08 .10 .09 .01 -.02 .04 .04 .38 .15 .40 Rate Change Story Comprehen-.35 .04 -.01 -.07 .05 .00 .00 -.06 .06 -.10 sion Change Paragraph Compre-.05 -.63 -.18 .19 -.02 .15 .08 -.14 -.11 -.06 hens ion Change .01 -.07 -.61 .12 .09 -.06 .05 -.02 .02 -.01

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138 APPENDIX (continued) 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1.00 .07 1.00 .24 .28 1.00 .32 .46 .14 1.00 .50 .22 .21 .53 1.00 -.18 .01 -.08 -.01 -.04 1.00 .13 .02 .07 .02 .09 .11 1.00 -.04 -.02 -.08 -.11 -.05 .13 .48 1.00 -.08 .06 .01 -.08 -.08 .73 .34 .40 1.00 .07 .44 .14 .10 .04 -.01 .05 .01 .01 1.00 -.09 -.14 .02 -.09 -.07 .13 .02 -.01 .09 -.12 1.00 -.05 -.04 -.06 .04 .05 .03 .05 .03 -.03 -.01 -.10 1.00 .01 -.03 -.06 .04 .05 .09 .04 .01 .07 -.02 .02 .14 1.00

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139 APPENDIX C 2 INTERCORRELATION MATRIX, SUB-GROUP VP (N=51) Variables # Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 1 Reading Rate 2 Reading Story Comprehension 3 Reading Paragraph Comprehens ion 4 Vertical Phoria Deviation, Far 5 Vertical Phoria Deviation, Near 6 Lateral Phoria Deviation, Far 7 Lateral Phoria Deviation, Near 8 Acuity Deviation Both, Far 9 Acuity Deviation Both, Near 10 Acuity Deviation Right Far 11 Acuity Deviation Right, Near 12 Acuity Deviation Left, Far 13 Acuity Deviation Left, Near 14 Acuity Imbalance, Far 15 Acuity Imbalance, Near 16 Class Rank 17 SAT Verbal 18 SAT Mathematical 19 PGA 20 Hyperopia-Myopia 21 Rate Change 22 Story Comprehension Change 23 Paragraph Comprehension Change 1.00 .26 1.00 .33 .48 1.00 ,04 .14 -.05 1.00 .07 .04 -.11 .38 1.00 .10 .09 .19 .16 .01 .06 .07 .04 -.11 -.29 .02 .19 .19 -.31 .01 17 .05 .15 -.17 .12 16 .05 .00 OO o 1 .03 12 .08 -.04 .20 .20 15 .14 .17 -.05 -.16 07 -.09 .13 -.11 .04 01 .09 .03 .30 .01 11 -.06 -.03 .25 .13 10 -.04 .07 -.02 -.03 06 .01 .24 .00 -.18 06 .09 -.06 .09 .01 08 .05 .14 .04 -.12 15 .09 .16 -.17' -.14 29 .04 -.13 -.09 .08 16 -.72 -.17 .07 -.10 05 -.12 -.70 .27 .11 1.00 .04 1.00 .04 -.21 1.00 -.07 1 o Ln .15 1.00 .03 -.34 .54 .15 1.00 -.11 -.30 -.02 .04 .50 .12 -.15 .43 .06 .26 .11 -.04 .19 .49 .16 .04 -.18 -.05 -.10 .33 -.13 -.24 -.16 -.11 .24 -.04 .11 -.14 -.07 -.22 -.01 -.19 -.25 .09 -.19 -.08 -.03 .09 -.05 -.08 -.03 .06 -.11 .05 -.29 -.04 -.12 .56 .11 .35 .05 .21 -.07 .15 -.10 .07 .09 -.40 -.21 -.16 -.06 .05 -.32 -.10 -.08

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140 APPENDIX C 2 (continued) 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1.00 -.07 1.00 .12 .39 1.00 .44 .60 .30 1.00 .64 .19 .23 .65 1.00 -.30 -.04 -.18 .04 -.03 1.00 .04 .00 .13 .02 .03 .20 1.00 -.12 .04 -.17 -.17 -.16 .28 .12 1.00 -.25 -.02 -.04 -.12 -.14 .72 .53 .65 1.00 -.11 .49 .06 .09 -.09 -.13 -.15 .04 -.17 1.00 -.12 -.26 .05 -.18 -.11 .05 .13 -.18 -.02 -.10 -.10 -.09 -.02 .05 .14 .11 .07 .05 .09 -.06 .01 -.03 -.13 .24 .06 .16 .05 .01 .11 -.28 1.00 -.14 1.00 .11 .09 1.00

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Bausch and Lomb Optical Company. Standard Practice in the Administration of the Bausch and Lomb Occupational Vision Tests with the Ortho-Rater Rochester, New York: A589, III, 1944. Bear, Robert M. "Reading Comprehension: Cooperative English Test," Review No. 497, in Oscar K. Buros (ed.). The Third Mental Measurements Yearbook New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1949. Bender, Irving E., et si. Motivation and Visual Factors Hanover, New Hampshire: Dartmouth College Publications, 1942. Bennett, Chester C. An Inquiry into the Genesis of Poor Reading Teachers* College Contributions to Education, No. 755. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers' College, Columbia University, 1938. Berg, Paul C. "Methods and Materials in College and Adult Reading Programs," College-Adult Reading Instruction IRA Perspectives in Reading No. I. Newark, Delaware, 1964* Betts, Emmett A. "A Physiological Approach to the Analysis of Reading Difficulties," Educational Research Bulletin Vol. 13. June, 1934. Manual of Directions for Ready to Read Tests Meadville, Pennsylvania: Keystone View Co., 1934* and Agnes S. Austin. Visual Problems of School Children Chicago, Illinois: Professional Press, 1942. Bloomer, Richard H. "The Effects of a College Reading Program on a Random Sampling of Freshmen," Journal of Developmental Reading Vol. 5. Winter, 1962. Brown, Louise. "Development of Reading Rate and Comprehension," Journal of Developmental Reading Vol. 3. Autumn, 1959. Bryant, N. Dale. "Contra-indications for Rapid Reading Training," in Eric L. Thurston and Lawrence Hafner (eds.), Nsw Concepts in College-Adult Reading NRC Thirteenth Yearbook. Milwaukee: Reading Center, Marquette University, 1964 • 142

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143 Carmichael, Leonard and Walter F. Dearborn. Re nding and Visual Fatigue New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1947. Carroll, Hazel Horn and Stanton P. Thalberg, "The Role of Reading Films," in Oscar S. Causey and William Eller (eds.). Starting and Improving College Reading Prograrao NRC Eighth Yearbook. Fort Worth, Texas: Christian University Press, 1959. Carter, Homer L. J. "Effective Use of Textbooks in the Reading Program," in Oscar S. Causey and William Eller (eds.). Starting and Improving College Reading Programs NRC Eighth Yearbook. Fort Worth, Texas: Christian University Press, 1959. Cattail, Raymond B. Factor Analysis: An Introduction and Manual for the Psychologist and Social Scientist New York: Harper and Brothers, 1952. Clark, B. "Binocular Anomalies and Reading Disability," American Journal of Ophthalmology Vol. 23. October, 1940. College Entrance Examination Board, Scholastic Aptitude Test. Princeton, New Jersey, 1963. Committee on Diagnostic Reading Tests, Inc. Mountain Home, North Carolina, 1950. Cook, Ellsworth B. "A Factor Analysis of Acuity and Phoria Measurements Obtained by Commercial Screening Devices and by Standard Screening Methods," Research Project NM-003-011 (X-493), Report No. 4 (New London, Connecticut: United States Medical Research Laboratory, U. S. Naval Submarine Base, 1948), in Helen M. Robinson and Charles B. Huelsman, Jr. (eds.), "Visual Efficiency and Progress in Learning to Read," Clinical Studies in Reading II Supplemental Educational Monograph No. 77 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1953), p. 37. Crane, M. M., et al. Screening Children for Visual Defects ChildrenÂ’s Bureau of Publications, No. 345. Washington, D. C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1954. Crook, Frances E. "Interrelationships Among a Group of Language Art Tests," Journal of Educational Research Vol. 51. December, 1957. Dailey, John T. "College Entrance Examination Board, Scholastic Aptitude Test," in Oscar K. Buros (ed.), The Fifth Mental Measure ment Yearbook Highland Park, New Jersey: The Gryphon Press, 1959.

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144 Dalton, M. M. "A Visual Survey of 5000 School Children, Journal_of Educational Research Vol. 37. October, 1943. Davis, Frederick B. "Measurement of Improvement in Reading Skill Courses," in Emory P. Bliesmer and Ralph C. Staiger (eds.), Problems, Programs, and Projects in College-Ad ult Reading, NRC Eleventh Yearbook. Milwaukee; Reading Center, Marquette University, 1961. Dearborn, Walter F. and H. M. Leverett. "Visual Defects and Reading," Journal of Experimental Education Vol. 14 March, 1945. Dechant, Emerals. "Some Unanswered Questions in the Psychology of ReadIng, w in Oscar S. Causey and William Eller (eds*), Starting and Improving College Reading Programs NRC Eighth Yearbook. Fort Worth, Texas; Christian University Press, 1959. Duggan, John M. and Paul H. Hazlett, Jr. Predicting College Grades. Princeton, New Jersey, 1961. Eames, Thomas H. "A Comparison of Ocular Characteristics of Unselected and Reading Disability Cases," Journal of Education al Research, Vol. 25. November, 1932. Eames Eye Test West Somerville, Massachusetts, 1933. "Improvement in School Eye Testing," Education Vol. 56. September, 1935. Eberl, Marguerite. "Visual Training and Reading," in Helen M. Robinson (ed.), Clinical Studies in Reading II Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953. Edgar, David E. "Visual Discrimination: Unequal Variation of Critical Components of Visual Stimuli" (unpublished Master's thesis, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, 1953). Edson, W., Guy L. Bond and Walter W. Cook. "Relationship between Visual Characteristics and Specific Silent Reading Skills," Journal of Educational Research Vol. 46 February, 1953. Educational Development Laboratories, Inc. Huntington, New York, 1958. Educational Testing Service, Cooperative Test Division, Cooperative English Tests, Form IC. Princeton, New Jersey, I960.

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145 Entwislo, Doris R. "Evaluations of Study-Skills Covirses: A Review, Journal of Educational Research Vol. 53. November, I960. Freeman, Frank N. "The Place of Laboratory Experiment in Educational Research, Review of Educational Research Vol. 4* January, 1934. Fulker, Edmund N. "A Decade of Progress in College and Adult Reading Improvement," in Oscar S. Causey (ed.), Significant Elements in College and Adult Reading Improvement NRC Seventh Yearbook. Fort Worth, Texas: Christian University Press, 1958. Gilbert, Luther C. "Functional Motor Efficiency of the Eyes and Its Relation to Reading," University of California Publications in Education Vol. 40. October, 1953. "Saccadic Movements as a Factor in Visual Perception in Reading," Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 50. January, 1959. "Speed of Processing Visual Stimuli and Its Relation to Reading," Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 50. January, 1959. Halfter, Irma T. and Frances M. Douglass. "Inadequate College Readers," Journal of Developmental Reading Vol. 1. Summer, 1958. Hall, William E. and Francis P. Robinson. "An Analytical Approach to the Study of Reading Skills," Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 36. October, 1945. Harris, Albert J. How to Increase Reading Ability New York: David McKay, 1961. Heftel, Daniel L. "Gains in Reading Speed Compared with Academic Aptitude and Initial Rate," Journal of Developmental Reading Vol. 4. Spring, 1961. Heilnan, Arthur. "New Challenges and Old Patterns in College-Adult Reading," in Emory P. Bliesmer and Ralph C. Staiger (eds.), Problems. Programs, and Projects in College-Adult Reading NRC Eleventh Yearbook, Milwaukee: Reading Center, Marquette University, 1962. "Rapid Reading: Uses and Abuses," Journal o f Developmental Reading ." Vol. 5. Spring, 1962.

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146 Hildreth, Gertrude and Aljhild J. Axelson. "Improved Visual Acuity Tests for Your.g Children," Teachers Collage Record Vol. 40. December, 1933* Holmes, Jack A. and Harry Singer. "Theoretical Models and Trends Toward Here Basic Research in Reading," Review of Educational Research Vol. 34. January, 1964. The Substrata Factor Theory: Substrata Factor Difference Underlying Reading Ability In Known Groups Berkeley, California: mimeographed at the University of California, 1961. Humber, Wilbur J. "The Relationship between Roading Efficiency and Academic Success in Selected University Curricula," Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 35. January, 1944. Imus, Henry A. "Testing Vision in Industry," Reprinted from the Transactions American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology January February, 1949. and John W. M. Rothney and Robert M. Bear. An Evaluation of Visual Factors in Reading Hanover, New Hampshire: Dartmouth College Publications, 1933. Jensen, Milton B. Tests for Color-Blindness. Visual Acuity. Astigmatism New York: Psychological Corporation, 1935. Kamman, Richard A. "Aptitude, Study Habits, and Reading Improvement," Journal of Developmental Reading Vol. 6. Winter, 1963. Kelly, Charles R. Visual Screening and Child Development Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State Teachers College, 1957. Keystone View Co. Meadville, Pennsylvania, 1955. Langsam, Rosalind S. "A Factorial Analysis of Reading Ability," J ournal of Experimental Education Vol. 10. September, 1941. Letson, Charles T. "The Future of Rapid Reading," in Emery P. Bliesmer And Ralph C. Staiger (eds.). Problems. Programs, and Projects in College-Adult Reading NRC Eleventh Yearbook. Milwaukee: Reading Center, Marquette University, 1961-62. Malmquist, Eve. Factors Related to Reading Disabilities in the First Grade of the Elementary School Stockholm, Sweden, 1958.

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147 McDonald, Arthur S. '‘Influence of a College Reading Improvement Program on Acadomic Performance," Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 48. March, 1957. Miller, Lyle L. "Current Use of Workbooks and Mechanical Aids," in Oscar S. Causey and William Eller (eds.), Starting and Improv ing College Reading Programs NRC Eighth Yearbook. Fort Worth, Texas: Christian University Press, 1959. Morse, W. C., et al. Studies in the Psychology of Reading University of Michigan Monograph No. 4. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1951. Oaks, Lura. "An Appraisal of the Betts Visual Sensation and Perception Tests as a Sorting Device for Use in Schools," Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 30. April, 1939. Park, George E. and Clara Burri. "Eye Maturation and Reading Difficulties," Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 34. December, 1943. "The Effect of Eye Abnormalities on Reading Difficulty," Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 34* October, 1943. "The Relationship of Various Eye Conditions and Reading Achievement," Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 34* May, 1943. Pauk, Walter J. "Basic Skills Needed in College Reading," in J. Allen Figurel (ed.), Reading for Effective Living IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 3. New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1958. Rankin, Earl F., Jr. "Sequential Emphasis upon Speed and Comprehension in a College Reading Improvement Program," Journal of Develop mental Reading Vol. 7. Autumn, 1963. "The Relationship between Reading Rate and Comprehension," in Emery P. Bliesmar and Ralph C. Staiger (eds.), Problems Programs, and Projects in College-Adult Reading NRC Eleventh Yearbook. Milwaukee: Reading Center, Marquette University, 1962. Raygor, Alton L. "The Influence of Psychology on the Field of Reading," in Emery P. Bliesmer and Albert J. Kingston (eds.), Phases or College and Other Adult Reading Programs NRC Tenth Yearbook. Charlott sville Virginia: Jarman Printing Co., 1961.

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149 Shaw, Philip B. "College ReadingInprovemant Programs of the Future," in J. Allen Figurel (ed.), Changing Concepts of Reading Instruction IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 6. New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1961. "Integration of Reading Instruction with Â’Regular* College Offerings," in Emory P. Bliesmsr and Albert J. Kingston, Jr. (eds.), Phases of College and Other Adult Reading Programs NRC Tenth Yearbook. Milwaukee: Reading Center, Marquette University, 1961. Singer, Harry. Conceptual Ability in the Substrata Factor Theory of Reading (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, California, 196l). "Substrata Factor Theory of Reading: Theoretical Design for Teaching of Reading," in J. Allen Figurel (ed.), Challenge, and Experiment in Reading IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 7. New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1962. Smith, Donald E. P. "Clay Idols in the Reading Business," in Oscar S. Causey and William Eller (eds.). Starting and Improving College. Reading Programs Fort Worth, Texas: Christian University Press, 1959. Smith, Henry P. and Emerald V. Dechant. Psychology in Teaching Reading Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1961. Smith, Nila B. College-Adult Reading Instruction IRA Perspectives in Reading No. I. Newark, Delaware, 1964. "What Have We Accomplished in Reading? A Review of the Past Fifty Years," in Walter B. Barbe (ed.), Teaching Students : Selected Materials New York: Oxford University Press, 1965. Spache, George D. "A Rationale for Mechanical Methods of Improving Reading," in Oscar S. Causey (ed.). Significant Elements _in College and Adult Rending Improvement NRC Seventh Yearbook. Fort Worth, Texas: Christian University Press. March, 1958. "Classroom Reading and the Visually Handicapped Child," in J. Allen Figurel (ed.), Changing Concepts of Reading Instruction IRA Conference Proceedings, Vol. 6. New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1961. "Clinical Work with College Students," in College-Adult. Reading Instruction IRA Perspectives in Reading No. I. Newark, Delaware, 1964.

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152 Wi^ty, Paul and David Kopel. "Factors Associated with the Etiology of Reading Disability," Journal of Educational Research Vol. 29. February, 1936. "Hotorophoria and Reading Disabilities," Journal of Educational PavcholQrt7 Vol. 24. March, 1936.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH David Eugene Edgar was born August 3, 1925, at Fordyce, Arkansas. In June, 1943, Be was graduated from Fordyce High School. From 1943 until 1947 he served in the United States Navy as a fighter pilot. Following his release to inactive duty, he entered Southern Methodist University, where he majored in Clinical Psychology. In June, 1951, he received the degree of Bachelor of Art3, and in June, 1953, he received the degree of Master of Arts from Southern Methodist University. He continued his graduate studies at the University of Colorado and worked for two years in Denver, Colorado, while obtaining his teaching certificate. During the school year 1955-56 he was Counselor at the Emily Griffith Opportunity School for the Denver Public Schools. He was School Psychologist, then Coordinator, Exceptional Child Program, for the Volusia County, Florida Board of Public Instruction. From February, 1961, until the present time he has pursued his work toward the degree of Doctor of Education. During this time he worked as a graduate assistant in the Reading Laboratory and Clinic, and taught at Stetson University. David Eugene Edgar is married to the former Margaret Isabel Bingham and is the father of three children. He is a member of Florida Education Association, Florida Psychological Association, Florida Association of School Psychologists, and Delta Kappa Epsilon.

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This dissertation was prepared under the direction of the chairman of the candidateÂ’s supervisory committee and has been ap*v proved by all members of that committee. It was submitted to the Dean of the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education. August 14, 1965 Dean, Graduate School C-i/. TXpIis.