Citation
Canal Zone postage stamps

Material Information

Title:
Canal Zone postage stamps
Creator:
Tatelman, Edward I. P
Canal Zone
Canal Zone Postal Service
Donor:
Panama Canal Museum
Place of Publication:
Balboa Heights, Canal Zone
Publisher:
Canal Zone Postal Service, Canal Zone Government
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
439 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Postage stamps -- Panama -- Canal Zone ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
"This book, with the exception of Supplements II and III, was written for the Canal Zone Government by Edward I.P. Tatelman."--P. vii.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
UF Government Documents Collection
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
028419429 ( ALEPH )
17172590 ( OCLC )
87460744 ( LCCN )
Classification:
HE6185.C24 T38 1961 ( lcc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text


CANAL
zOnE
POSTAGE
S TAMPS














CANAL

ZONE


POSTAGE


STAMPS

Gf of the Panama luseum








PUBLICATION OF


ZONE POSTAL SERVICE ZONE GOVERNMENT HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE


CANAL CANAL
BALBOA





































Printed at
PRINTING PLANT MOUNT HOPE. C. Z.
1961


H


















































Gov. W. E. Potter of the Canal Zone Government hand-canceling a first day
cover November 17, 1957, at the ceremonies honoring the 75th anniversary of the founding of the Gorgas Hospital and the issuance of the 3-cent
commemorative stamp celebrating this day.















FOREWORD


Philately is one of our most interesting hobbies. It also has a distinct educational value. Here on the Canal Zone the stamp collector's attention is drawn to one of the richest sagas in the history of the United States, the man-made funnel through which flows the commerce of the world.
The postal history and stamps of the Canal Zone Government vividly reflect the early trials, heartbreaking failures and glorious completion of the Panama Canal. These bits of postage depict the ingenious planners, scenes of their work and the determined "canal diggers" accomplishments.
This booklet is an account of the birth and growth of the Canal Zone Government's postal system and its stamps. I trust it will help us to know and build upon our great heritage.


W. E. POTTER,
Governor.



























This book, with the exception of Supplements II and III, was written for the Canal Zone Government by Edward I. P. Tatelman.
Supplements II and III, covering postage stamps issued subsequent to January 1, 1960, were written and added to the original manuscript by the office of the Director of Posts.

E. F. UNRUH,
Director of Posts.


VII

















CONTENTS
CHAPTER Page I. Early Isthmian Communication-Mail "Via Panama"..........1
II. French Efforts ........................................ 17
III. The United States Assumes Construction ................. 27
IV. The Canal Zone ...................................... 37
V. Establishment of First Canal Zone Post Offices............ 45
VI. Canal Zone's First Series ............................... 55
VII. Postal Inspection ...................................... 65
VIII. Second Regular Series ................................. 69
IX. Taft Agreement ...................................... 75
X. Third Regular Series .................................. 87
XI. Fourth Regular Series ................................. 97
XII. Fifth Regular Series ................................... 103
XIII. Sixth Series .......................................... 111
XIV. Seventh Regular Series ...............................117
XV. First Postage Dues .................................... 129
XVI. Second Series of Postage Dues .......................... 137
XVII. Ninth Ordinary Series ................................. 143
XVIII. Tenth Ordinary Series ................................. 149
XIX. Eleventh Ordinary Series .............................153
XX. Abrogation of the Taft Agreement ....................... 157
XXI. An Emergency Creation ............................... 161
XXII. Manufacture of Specially Designed Canal Zone Stamps..... 165 XXIII. Canal Zone Stamp Committee .......................... 173
XXIV. Twelfth Series..................................... 177
XXV. Third Postage Due Series .............................. 189
XXVI. Fourth Postage Due Series........................... 195
XXVII. Thirteenth Series ..................................... 199
XXVIII. Fourteenth Series-Permanent Issue ...................... 203
XXIX. First Air Mail (Provisional) Series ........................ 229
XXX. Fifth Postage Due Series ..............................237
XXXI. Second Air Mail Series-First Definitive .................. 241
XXXII. Sixth Postage Due Series-First Permanent ................ 249
XXXIII. Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Commemoratives ...............255
XXXIV. Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Series-Commemorative Air Mails. 265 XXXV. Second Fractional Series ................................269
XXXVI. Official Stamps ....................................... 275
XXXVII. Fifteenth Permanent Series-5-Cent John F. Stevens........ 287
XXXVIII. Barro Colorado Commemorative-10-Cent Stamp ..........295
XXXIX. "Gold Rush Centennial" Commemorative Series-3-Cent, 6-Cent, 12-Cent, and 18-Cent Stamps................299
XL. West Indian Labor Commemorative-10-Cent Stamp.........305


Ix







CONTENTS
CHAPTER Page
XLI. Second Definitive Air Mail Series-"Globe and Wing" Issue.. 309
XLII. 3-Cent Stamp Commemorating 100th Anniversary of Panama
Railroad ......................................... 317
XLIII. Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Gorgas Hospital-3-Cent Commemorative ...................................... 325
XLIV. Sixteenth Ordinary Series-4-Cent "Ancon" Stamp..........333
XLV. Theodore Roosevelt Centennial-4-Cent Commemorative
Stam p ........................................... 341
XLVI. Postal Stationery-Stamped Envelopes .................... 347
XLVII. Booklet ............................................. 369
XLVIII. Canal Zone Precanceled Stamps ......................... 379
XLIX. Of Postal People and Post Offices ........................ 389
L. World War I Tax Stamp Proof .......................... 397
LI. Canal Zone Railway Post Office, Seapost, and Paquebot
M arkings ........................................ 403
SUPPLEMENT
I. Some Canal Zone Philatelic Flights and Fancies ........... 415
II. Fiftieth Anniversary of the Boy Scouts of America-4-Cent
Commemorative Stamp ............................ 431
III. Seventeenth Ordinary Series-4-Cent "Administration Building" Stamp ...................................... 437













INTRODUCTION


In recent years our postage stamps have taken on additional interests other than those for which they are created. We know that they are primarily revenue and denote receipts for money paid. When these receipts, these tiny bits of gummed paper, are attached in the correct amount to letters or packages, we are paying for expected and anticipated service to be performed by our postal service. This the employees have performed in a remarkably courteous and efficient manner considering the large volume of business handled.
Today our stamps are designed with a thought to the background and the history of the stamp issuing jurisdiction. Countries place thereon pleasing scenes, flowers, buildings, and other interesting subjects. Even in as small an area as the Canal Zone there is much of great interest to all throughout the world including the stamp collector.
One of the purposes of this booklet is to describe and explain the subjects shown on the stamps of the Canal Zone Government. We shall also relate some of the particulars of each issue, especially those we believe to be of general interest to everyone and including certain basic data for stamp collectors. It is not intended that this booklet be so complete in detail as to satisfy the "expert" or so-called "specialist." It shall be, however, as broad in scope as possible.
Whenever possible, mention shall be made of "first days," places of issue, amounts printed, and plate numbers. If known, the designers and modelers shall be named, as well as the engravers and others engaged in the stamp's creation. Reference shall be incorporated to the many post offices on stilts along the old Panama Railroad "line" as well as the newer concrete and glass structures. As in one sense this is a story of the Canal Zone Postal Service we would of course be remiss if we did not mention the pioneers who established and the men who have administered and handled the postal needs of the Canal Zone communities.

EDWARD I. P. TATELMAN


XI




















Chapter I


EARLY ISTHMIAN COMMUNICATION

Mail "Via Panama"
























































"VIA PANAMA"-I844 prepaid letter from Bourdeaux, France to Lima, Peru "via Panama."






































Letter forwarded by Corwine Bros. & Co., Panama, New Granada. Amos B. Corwine was U.S. Consul at Panama and in 1848 was created Mail Agent.























































Another Lima letter "Via Panama" forwarded by Smith & Lewis bearing
Crown postmark "Paid at Panama."































Earliest known "Pan. & San Fran. SS." letter per S.S. "Georgia,"
November 13, 1850.


A "Pan. & San Fran. S.S." letter dated June 23, 1851 "Via Panama"
addressed to the Paymaster General of the United States Army.


6


















PAOIPIC ,M A#L STEAMSHIP'COMPANY,
FORW IVAK, A"P NNW ORLEANS,: via PAN
De.parture frrnw %rw*4w*V *harrt
TE ACWXC 'NAIL STEAMSHIP COMPANY'A STEAMER
W1INV'IULP SCOTT,
2,000tOni, SIMON Bf UMT1 Esq.,, commander,
WD leave for PANAMA, with Pas.ngers and the GREAT THROUGH MAIL, touching ait M3Nonterey,, San Diego, and Ac.apuleo, on
Thursday Morning, Dec. lst# st 9 o'clock.
&tf4'!fet Security and- Speed !-1V6 Sicknes* on this
Route 1-'Twenty-Fire Miles by Raibroad!
The Isthmus is entirely free froim Sickness of any kind, and the Cruces road thoroughly repaired. The Transit can now be made with comfort and ease in fortyeight hours.
Treasure for shipment will be taken at the lowest rates, and received at the office until Wednesday Midnight, Nov. 30th. For freight or assage apply to E~. FLINT, Agent,
nov28' Corner 6f Sacramnento. and Leidesdorff streets.

$A0 FR-AM4C 15coCO H o4ICLF rc3






7 .....





















































An independent line "Ahead of the Mails" cover.































A "'Steam Panama" in an elliptical marking is seen on this cover also bearing
the seal of the Consulate of the United States of America.


A letter forwarded by Adams & Co.'s Express, J. M. Freeman, their agent, April 8, 1854.































A "Via Panama" by Royal Mail Steam Packet addressed to London and carrying the circular "South America via Panama" canceling mark.


Letter addressed to Washington per "Guatemala via Panama" April 22, 1860,
which was forwarded by the Hurtado Bros. of Panama.


10






























Letter bearing oval Pacific Express Company Panama and Aspinwall marking.


Letter addressed in care of Tracy Robinson at Aspinwall, United States of Colombia in May 1868.


11






























A clear example of United States postal agencies abroad is this letter
bearing the postmark of the U.S. postal agency, Panama, dated
December 22, 1876.


A Wells Fargo & Co. envelope posted at San Francisco, Calif., June 18,
1874, for Kingston, Jamaica, per "Constitution" "Via Panama."


12














Chapter I

EARLY ISTHMIAN COMMUNICATION

Mail "Via Panama"

On September 29, 1513, Vasco Ndifiez de Balboa and his bedraggled men, peering to the South and West through the early morn's mist from atop a lofty Darien peak, excitedly viewed a great expanse of water. Soon after receiving word of this discovery of the Pacific Ocean, King Ferdinand ordered that a line of posts be established from sea to sea. Thus, upon the heels of Balboa's great discovery, came into being a transisthmian system of communication.
Acla, where Balboa was later beheaded, was ironically selected as the Atlantic terminus. In 1519 the terminus was changed to Nombre de Dios.
A settlement was commenced at what is now known as Old Panama in August 1517 which became a city by royal decree in September 1521 and the Pacific terminus of the Camino Real. From this point westward and northward, each but a day's travel apart, were established the missions for worship, rest, and exchange of communications that eventually reached into what is now southwestern United States, including the west coast thereof.
About 1534, a route by water for shallow-draft vessels was established from Nombre de Dios along the Caribbean coast and up the Chagres River to Cruces as an adjunct to the cobblestoned Transisthmian Highway. With Las Cruces on the Chagres less than 20 miles from the Pacific Ocean, it was natural that a royal decree be issued directing that this area be examined for the purpose of ascertaining the most convenient means of effecting communication between the Chagres River and the Pacific. With the ensuing negative report of Governor Pascual Andagoya this early idea of an Isthmian waterway died almost aborning.
The population of the Isthmus of Panama grew and enjoyed a great era of prosperity. For 300 years its terminal cities were centers of business activity. The warehouses at Portobelo burst at their seams with goods from Europe to be exchanged for the products of Central America and South America and then there was specie from Peru also. Portobelo's trade fairs became famous the world over. And with all this business, transisthmian communications grew proportionately.
At the turn of the nineteenth century,, as Spain's hold on her American empire relaxed, the prosperity of the Isthmus waned. Vessels sailed around Cape Horn and that great cobbled road across the Isthmus fell prey to tropical weather and the encroaching jungle.
Local potentialities were not, however, wholly forgotten. In 1829 a Connecticut Yankee named Silas Burrows advertised monthly mail carriage to Panama via Cartagena by packet brigs from New York. It was his intention to establish a further line between Panama and Callao and develop his business with the whalers and sealers of the Pacific. Although this plan was not realized,


13







it brought to light the real need for an isthmian route for communication with the Pacific.
The Postmaster General of the United States wrote to the Secretary of the Navy in July 1847 asking that warships, when homeward bound, call at the Isthmus for mail. At the same time the Consul at Panama was instructed to forward letters whenever transportation was available.
At the end of the year 1840, the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, chartered earlier that year, received a mail subsidy from the British Government and commenced service to South America with two steamers, the "Peru" and the "Chile." In 1842 the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company commenced operations to the Caribbean and in 1846 this line extended its mail service to the mouth of the Chagres. By cayuco up the river to Las Cruces and thence by mule to Panama City, mail service to Callao and Valparaiso was established. Thus was accomplished the first organized and regularly operated mail service from Europe to the west coast of South America via Panama. These last two words, "via Panama," in variations are to be seen on many old letters thus carried.
About this same time the United States was negotiating a treaty with the Republic of New Granada concerning isthmian transit. It was concluded December 12, 1846, ratified, and proclaimed June 12, 1848. Among many matters relating to "Peace, Amity, Navigation, and Commerce" the government of New Granada gave to the citizens of the United States of America the right to enjoy exemptions, privileges, and immunities in that part of New Granada denominated the Isthmus of Panama from its southernmost extremity to the boundary of Costa Rica as if they were citizens of New Granada. This "equality of favors" was to be extended to passengers, correspondence, and merchandise of the United States in transit across this territory.
The latter half of the nineteenth century saw the expansion and growth of our western frontier to the waters of the Pacific. This was followed by new industry, trade, and agriculture. Transportation to this newly-acquired area become a problem and regular means of communication a national responsibility. There were four main routes between 1850 and 1870 from the east coast of the United States to the California shores. Around Cape Horn; by rail to the Missouri River, then overland by trail and road; by way of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec across Mexico; (for a short time across Nicaragua); or by way of Panama.
Many Acts of Congress were passed in the next two decades authorizing expenditures for the carriage of mail from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific and beyond via the Chagres River and across the Isthmus of Panama. One bid was received from an ex-Postmaster General who held office under both Presidents Jackson and Van Buren. He would not however assume the responsibility of transporting the mail across Panama. On April 21, 1847, one Jabez M. Woodward, in addition to his bid for Pacific coast carriage of the mails, offered to carry it from Panama to the Chagres for $5,000. 0. H. Throop offered his services for monthly transisthmian mall delivery for $2,492 and almost double that amount for fortnightly crossings. But in spite of all efforts, the United States Post Office Department, without sufficient funds, could not set up dependable mail communication between our coasts.
Mail carriage on both oceans was in the hands of mail agents aboard steamers touching at the mouth of the River Chagres and Panama City. Because of the hazardous conditions, there was still no provision for transportation of mail across the Isthmus. The Pacific Mail Steamship Company finally accepted an


14







extension of its Pacific Mail contract to include this Isthmus of Panama carriage for an additional $2,900 per year. Conditions, however, were still not satisfactory as this company had no permanent agent at Chagres and mail often missed steamer connections. The government of New Granada undertook the transisthmian mail service late in 1849 and Amos B. Corwine, United States Consul at Panama, was created mail agent at $500 per year. The carriage of the mail across the Isthmus, however, was let to local business firms and again delivery became a problem. From March 13, 1850, until the government of New Granada was released from its mail carrying contract, December 13, 1851, the United States paid $70,585.31 for the transportation of mail across the Isthmus.
When the 49'ers began their California rush to riches, they made the Isthmus their main mode of transcontinental travel. The need of a railroad became more pressing daily and every effort was expended toward its construction. Through coastal quagmire and jungle overgrowth crews labored to overcome almost insurmountable obstacles. It has been stated that there is a dead Chinaman for each crosstie in the road. This is an exaggeration, of course, but the hastily constructed hospitals were always filled to capacity and quinine was an article of daily diet to offset the dreaded fevers.
On the first of October 1851, almost a year and a half after commencement of construction at Aspinwall (now Colon), Gatun was reached-a bare 7 miles of railroad but an auspicious beginning. Steamers with passengers California bound still touched at Chagres but with passenger carriage to Gatun a fact, many of the vessels dropped anchor at Navy Bay off Aspinwall.
The Post Office Department now entered into a contract with the Panama Railroad to carry mail commencing January 1, 1852 from Aspinwall to Panama. The rate was 22 cents per pound for first-class matter. With the railroad's completion on January 27, 1855, the contract was re-negotiated with the Panama Railroad agreeing to transisthmian mail service for the fiat sum of $100,000 per year. With the expiration of ocean mail contracts June 30, 1860, the agreement was terminated. Thereafter the mail was carried and paid for by weight with the annual sums up to 1867 ranging from $25,000 to $37,500.
When the transcontinental railroad was completed to California in 1869, much of the mail between United States coasts previotsly carried "via Panama" took the overland route. Vessels called less frequently at Aspinwall and the city of Panama. Communication between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts across the Isthmus lessened but did not cease. It was sort of enjoying a well-earned rest prior to greater days in the offing.
"Via Panama" had played a tremendous role in linking the world and assisting in the growth of the lands bordering on the Pacific Ocean from the State of Washington to the Republic of Chile.
The originators and promoters. of the Panama Railroad Company were three far-visioned and intrepid individuals; William H. Aspinwall, Henry Chauncey, and John L, Stephens. It was their undaunted belief, together with Col. J. M. Totten's tropical engineering background, that created a transisthmian railway with its way stations and ensuing settlements. Since Aspinwall played such an important part in everything pertaining to the creation of the railroad, it was decided to name the new town on Navy Bay (Bahia de los Navios) on the Atlantic side after him. The Republic of Colombia, however, thought it should be named Colon (Columbus) after the great discoverer, who incidentally careened one of his smaller vessels for scraping at the mouth of Sweetwater Rivet in Navy Bay.


15







The Bogota Government steadfastly refused to honor mail sent to Aspinwall and the Colombian postal people said that mail so addressed would not be delivered. Since it was her right to name towns within her domain as she desired, Aspinwall, Colombia; Colon-Aspinwall; and Colon (Aspinwall) mail ultimately was directed to Colon, Colombia, now Colon, Republic of Panama.


16
















Chapter II


FRENCH EFFORTS


17






























A Panama Railroad Co. Aspinwall letter, stampless, with a Crown cancel "Paid at Colon."


An April 1892 cancel at Emperador, Canal de Panama.



19



















































A French Canal Company letter heading with the writer's home address as Culebra, Colombie.


20































A new Panama Canal Company letterhead in 1899.


Letter mailed at the city of Panama bearing Canal de PanamA within the canceling circle.

21
























































Courtesy of the Christopher Columbus Library, Pan American Union, Washington, D.C.





22














Chapter II

FRENCH EFFORTS

After his triumph in Egypt with the Suez Canal, Ferdinand de Lesseps was not one to rest upon his laurels, and they were many. Looking westward as did Christopher Columbus to that ever-challenging water passage to the South Sea, de Lesseps no doubt envisioned another canal and additional fame, one joining the stormy Atlantic with the calm Pacific. And without a questionable thought decided that it was his job by predestination.
In 1877, Lt. Lucien Napoleon Bonaparte Wyse and M. Reclus of the French Navy spent some time in Panama making surveys and other pertinent examinations for the ostensible purpose of laying plans for a canal across the Isthmus. The following year at Bogoti, a concession was granted Lieutenant Wyse by the Colombian Government for the digging of a canal from the Atlantic coast along the Chagres River and valley across the divide to Panama.
Things, canal-wise, really commenced to pop in France. Interest ran high. An International Canal Congress was called for May 1879, and the Panama route was adopted. La Compagnie Generale du Canal Oceanique de Panama was formed with M. de Lesseps at its head. Lieutenant Wyse's concession was purchased for 10 million francs. M. de Lesseps, his wife and three children arrived at Colon, December 30, 1879. Two days later, New Year's of 1880, on the mud fiats at the mouth of the Rio Grande River, Ferdinande, M. de Lesseps' young daughter, pitched the point of a pickax in the soil of Tierra Firme and the great Canal enterprise was officially begun.
Adolphe Godin de Lepinay, a talented French civil engineer, had proposed a lock-type canal impounding the Chagres River. This was essentially adopted by the Isthmian Canal Commission 26 years later. De Lesseps, based upon his Suez experience, favored a sea-level canal, much to his later consternation.
Mail, bearing French stamps, addressed to the eager adventurers, commenced to arrive from those left behind.
De Lesseps, upon arrival at Panama, was 70 years of age, exceptionally active, and vigorous, with convincing and smiling manners. His confidence was great, and there was no doubt regarding the sincerity of his efforts. Unfortunately, he did not possess the administrative abilities necessary to accomplish so great and difficult a work. He was easily imposed upon, wrongly advised, and lacked the practical knowledge to overcome the many newer obstacles which he did not have to meet at the Suez. Mistakes were many, money was squandered, and work improperly supervised.
M. de Lesseps personally toured the world in attempts to raise subscribers to enable him to continue the project. It was apparently good money after bad, no sooner raised than spent. Indifference, incompetence, and greed spelled failure. On December 14, 1888, the Compagnie Universelle went into receivership.


23








News of the French failure numbed the Isthmus. More than 20,000 West Indian laborers were thrown into confusion. Their means of subsistence gone, and no way to get home. Some stayed. With a land so fertile there was no fear of starvation. Most, however, were repatriated in whatever floating equipment could be chartered.
To this day, rusty machinery, buried dump trucks, buckets, scoops, and other French equipment is still turned up close to the Mindi Dairy by the Boy Scouts in "the graveyard of France's past ambitions."
Down perhaps, but not out, the French formed a new canal organization in 1894 called the Compagnie Nouvelle du Canal de Panama. Old excavators were repaired, machinery cleared of mud and oiled, and again digging commenced. Operations in Culebra Cut were continued with a few cubic yards of dirt moved daily'. But it became evident that the object of the renewed efforts was solely to retain the concessions granted by Colombia until the United States became the willing customer of all French rights and equipment. That is, if Congress would cease debating the question and make up its mind as to the canal route to follow-Nicaragua or Panama. Too, the price had to be right.
The French asked $109,141,500. Admiral Walker's commission, after due investigation, thought $40,000,000 was right.
On May 9th, 1900, the House of Representatives passed a bill authorizing the construction of a canal at Nicaragua. The Senate defeated this by a bare handful of votes. And thus it see-sawed, with President McKinley's death adding to the confusion of selecting the canal site. In the meanwhile, no terms could be reached with Colombia regarding control of a strip of land across the Isthmus. One can well imagine the "behind-the-door" lobbying to gain favor for one route or the other.
The Mount Pelee volcanic disaster and propaganda to the effect that Momotombo was rumbling brought the earthquake question into the argument. Nicaragua's President cabled denials that Momotombo was active. Bunau-Varilla, to whom the success of the Panama route became an obsession, visited stamp dealers purchasing as many Nicaraguan stamps as he could depicting Momotombo in an active state. He pasted one on a printed price of paper carrying the words "An official witness to the volcanic nature of Nicaragua." These sheets bearing their self-serving testimony found their way to the hands of each member of the United States Congress. It was a very timely and colorful bit of propaganda. Its influence upon our legislators is questionable. Stamp collectors, however, take note of the fact that a stamp played a part in the canal-site selection.
From the time that the great Liberator Sim6n Bolivar paved the way to independence for many Central and South American countries in the early 19th century, Panama had tried several different forms of government. In 1903 it was a department or state in the Republic of Colombia. Far removed from tlhe seat of government at Bogoti, it always felt itself out of touch and mind with the center of officialdom. Aggrieved, restless, and dissatisfied with being left out in the cold during all the canal negotiations, and for other reasons, the Department of Panama did not hide its feelings.
While Colombia was playing hot and cold in its negotiations with the United States for a canal territorial grant, a strong group of Panama nationals felt that if Panama were free, all of the $10,000,000 which the United States was offering Colombia, as well as the proposed annual payment of $250,000 would be


24








Panama's to do with as she wished. It certainly appeared as if a revolution was brewing. The Bogota Government had received warning after warning that Panama would act unless Colombia did something to provide for the canal's construction.
On November 3, 1903, under the leadership of Dr. Manuel Amador Guerrero, the Department of Panama declared itself independent of Colombia. The bloodless revolution was successful. President Theodore Roosevelt promptly recognized the new government. Bunau-Varilla was named Panama's first Minister to Washington. He and Secretary of State Hay signed a treaty which the Senate of the United States immediately ratified. The French Canal Company received its $40,000,000 and the United States assumed the momentous task of completing the Panama Canal.


25




















Chapter III


THE UNITED STATES ASSUMES
CONSTRUCTION


27































































29














































Post Office, Empire, C.Z. December 1904.













30














Chapter III

THE UNITED STATES ASSUMES CONSTRUCTION

The American dream, then the realization of becoming the constructors of the Canal linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, was something to excite every citizen of the United States. Impatience and urgency to commence the task spread from Washington to the most remote and smallest town in the country.
President Theodore Roosevelt did not waste any time in appointing the Isthmian Canal Commission after the signing of the treaty between the United States and Panama on November 18, 1903. This Commission was to function under the authority of the War Department. In a letter to the Commission from the White House dated March 8, 1904, he said, in part,
"I have appointed you . to undertake the most important and also the most formidable engineering feat that has hitherto been attempted. You are to do a work which, ... will reflect high honor upon this nation, ... will be of incalculable benefit, not only to this nation, but to civilized mankind.


"It (the work) is to be done as expeditiously as possible, and as economically as is consistent with thoroughness . .
"You will take measures to secure the best medical experts for this purpose
(sanitation and hygiene) .
"The plans are to be carefully made with a view to the needs not only of the moment, but of the future . .
"You are to secure the best talent .
"*What this nation will insist upon is that results be achieved."
This letter was read at the first meeting of the Commission held in the Corcoran Building, Washington, D.C., March 22, 1904, and a copy ordered made for and delivered to each member.
The Commission was composed of Adm. J. G. Walker, U.S.N., Chairman, who brought to the Board a background of Canal survey work in Nicaragua and Panama and a rugged leadership; Maj. Gen. George W. Davis, U.S.A. (retired) who had headed the difficult organization of government in Puerto Rico after the Spanish-American War; Benjamin Harrod, William H. Burr, William Barclay Parsons, and Carl Ewald Grunsky, outstanding civil engineers; and Frank J. Hecker, business consultant. S. E. Redfern was appointed temporary secretary. These gentlemen, impelled to action, met in Washington daily from early morning to late afternoon. Many were the views expressed and varied matters debated, discussed, approved, or tabled.
One thought which received unanimous approval upon being voiced was that a trip to the Isthmus of Panama to view the property purchased was imperative. Arrangements for the voyage were immediately made and the Commission sailed from New York on the Panama Railroad steamship, "Allianca," March 29, 1904.


31








Prior to sailing it was agreed to seek the services of Col. William Crawford Gorgas of Cuba fame as a sanitary and hygiene expert and to have him accompany the Commission to Panama.-No better choice for the difficult job could have been made. Drs. Louis A. La Garde, noted medical administrator, and John W. Ross, M.C., U.S.N., were also employed. The latter was an expert in the field of yellow fever and malaria, which had done so much to defeat the French efforts.
Continuing with their meetings aboard the "Allianca," the Commission decided to employ a chief engineer. John F. Wallace, a prominent and highly respected railroad engineer, was tendered the office and accepted it May 5, 1904.
The arrival of the Commission at Colon, April 5, 1904, was a shattering experience. Thousands of people were living in termite-eaten shanties on stilts. Rickety boardwalks laid on mire, made each step taken thereon a hazardous one. Squalor and filth made an incredible sight. Cristobal, a peninsula at the south end of Front Street, constructed from fill by the French, stood in comparative clean contrast. Here was situated the French Administration Building, close behind the present Pier 10, a hotel, and some residences on clean, palm-lined causeways. After setting up headquarters in the French resident director's home, arrangements were made to view the "dig."
Abandoned labor camps and sleepy townsites were passed along the Panama Railroad "line" and again the sight beheld by the Commission members was a most discouraging one with abandoned dredges, rust-eaten machinery, warehouses all heaped with wasted and rotted supplies.
At the city of Panama, which was comparatively genteel, clean, and cosmopolitan, a most cordial reception was given the party by the president of the newly formed Republic, Dr. Manuel Amador Guerrero. To the Commission was expressed every good wish for the success of the great undertaking.
Many ensuing visits were paid to the various abandoned French projects and sites for the purpose of assessing their value for future undertakings. The Alhajuela and Gamboa Saddle Dams were traversed, a trip through Culebra made, the machine shop at Bohio surveyed, a repair shop and spoil dump at Tabernilla seen, the labor camp at San Pablo surveyed, and the Las Cascadas engine shops and round houses and the huge Gorgona repair shops were inspected.
Although there was considerable evidence of spoilage, waste, and extravagance, there was much to be said to the advantage of the original enterprise and efforts of the French. Almost two-fifths of Culebra had been dug, a beautiful hospital reposed high on Ancon Hill; and closer scrutiny of the yards and warehouses revealed much equipment which could be salvaged. There was also the Panama Railroad Company, by no means the least of the assets without which the Canal could not have been dug. Added to these were the multitudinous heaps and files of plans, maps and drawings covering years of research. Our government did not buy a white elephant. While on the Isthmus, the Commission continued its meetings at the offices of the resident director, and these were attended by Maj. William "Black and Lt. Mark Brooke, Corps of-Engineers, U.S.A., who were on the Isthmus.
The Commission departed from Colon for the United States on the S.S. Yucatan," April 20th. The physical features of the line of the Canal had been inspected and points of important works especially noted. It was decided that organized field parties would be employed for additional study with stress upon the importance of thoroughness.
32








Convening in their new rooms at the Evening Star Building, Washington, the Commission met again May 4, 1904. In an undramatic and calm, business-like voice, Chairman Walker announced the receipt of the following telegram:

Panama, May 4, 1904
Isthmian, Washington:
Property taken over seven thirty this morning.
BROOKE.

There is no record of the response of the other members of the Commission, who were in -full attendance, to this cryptic and important message. No excitement, no enthusiasm, no acclaim or flag-waving. Instead, and in his usual manner, Chairman Admiral Walker prepared and sent to Lieutenant Brooke a cablegram, as follows:

Isthmian, Colon:
Continue organization and work, present compensation. General Daivis and paymaster, with funds. Sail tenth.
WALKER.

The United States was now dedicated to complete the great task undertaken 25 years earlier and left unfinished.
Many reports were received by the Commission and many resolutions adopted, all with regard to organization and better and quicker means of tackling the enormous job. Sanitation of the Canal Zone, so sorely needed, was in the expert hands of Colonel Gorgas. General Davis was directed and empowered to use the employees on the Isthmus to the best advantage and to employ and fix the compensation of whatever additional help was needed to expeditiously and properly continue the work. He was also authorized to purchase such materials and supplies as needed. A committee consisting of Commissioners Burr and Grunsky were authorized to employ engineers, surveyors, and assistants and to provide their necessary equipment.
At the Commission's meeting of May 16, 1904, the Chairman announced that Maj. Gen. Geo. W. Davis and party, consisting of
Maj. W. M. Black, Corps of Engineers, U.S.A.
Ernest Lagarde, Jr., at salary of $2,000 per year.
E. C. Tobey, Paymaster, U.S.N., at $3,700 per year.
Richard L. Sutton, M.D., U.S.N.
Mason E. Mitchel, stenographer, at $125 per month.
Geo. Reynolds Shanton, at $150 per month.
Chas. L. Stockelberg, at $100 per month, and
Jeremiah Corcoran at $100 per month.
had sailed May 10th, 1904, for Colon on the "City of Washington."
In a letter to Secretary of War William Howard Taft, May 9, 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt outlined the Convention and Acts of Congress leading up to the acquisition of the property of the New Panama Canal Company, a description thereof, and a delineation of the lands and waters granted by the Republic of Panama. The President stated that under the Act of Congress approved April 28, 1904, the payment to the Republic of Panama of the $10,000,000 as stipulated in the Canal Convention had been made, and the New Panama


33








Canal Company had received the $40,000,000 agreed upon as the purchase price of all its rights and properties. In the name of the United States of America, he was thus authorized to take possession of and occupy the zone of land and land under water at the Isthmus of Panama to a width of 10 miles, "extending to the distance of 5 miles on each side of the central line of the route of the Canal . This is the area which became known as and is still called the Canal Zone.
The Isthmian Canal Commission was charged with the active prosecution of the digging, construction, and completion of the Canal and to assist in the creation and organization of a government protecting the inhabitants in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property, and religion. The laws of the land which were in existence February 26, 1904, were to be continued in force. Recounting the great principles of government necessary as the very basis to our existence as a nation and deemed essential to the rule of law and the maintenance of order, the President decreed that the first amendments to our Constitution be given full force and effect in the Canal Zone.
Under the supervision and the direction of the Secretary of War, subject to the limitations of law and the conditions contained in the President's letter, the Isthmian Canal Commission was authorized:
a. To legislate on all rightful subjects not inconsistent with the laws and treaties of the United States.
b. To raise and appropriate revenues. Since the sale of postage stamps is a means of revenue collection, this is no doubt the initial and enabling source of authority for Canal Zone postage stamps.
c. To enact sanitary ordinances. It was the desire of the President that every possible effort be made to protect the workmen, to obliterate yellow fever and malaria, and banish other fatal diseases as far as possible.
d. To establish a civil service.
e. To make all needed surveys, borings, designs, plans, and specifications of the engineering and other works required and to supervise the execution of them.
f. To make and cause to be executed all necessary contracts.
g. To acquire lands essential and needed for the excavation and completion of the canal.
h. To establish a proper and comprehensive system of accounting and bookkeeping, and of more than little importance
i. To make requisition on the Secretary of War for funds as needed from time to time.
No group or body of men embarking upon any enterprise had a more clear-cut definition of the work to be done nor greater authority to do it.
Maj. Gen. George W. Davis, U.S.A. (retired), a member of the Commission who had already visited the Isthmus of Panama, was appointed Governor of the Isthmian Canal Zone. He was to assume full executive authority in the name of the President of the United States, see that the laws were faithfully executed, that possession of the territory was maintained, and if necessary in the event of sudden exigency to call upon the military to render assistance.
Due to transfers and resignations there were many changes in the membership of the Isthmian Canal Commissions. Because some of the Commissioners are subjects used on the Canal Zone's definitive stamps these changes are recorded.
The first Commission appointed by President Roosevelt after purchase of the New French Canal Company was the ono heretofore listed and headed by Rear Adm. John G. Walker, U.S.N. (retired).
The second Isthmian Canal Commission was appointed April 1, 1905, with Theodore P. Shonts, Chairman; Chas. R. Magoon, Governor of the Canal Zone;


34








John F. Wallace, Chief Engineer; Rear Adm. Mordecai T. Endicott, Brig. Gen. Peter C. Hains, Col. Oswald H. Ernst, and Benjamin M. Harrod of the first Commission.
John F. Stevens was appointed Chief Engineer succeeding Mr. Wallace June 30, 1905, became a member June 30, 1906, and later became Chairman, succeeding Mr. Shonts, on March 4, 1907. Jackson Smith and Colonel Gorgas became members February 14, 1907; Col. George W. Goethals, March 4, 1907; Maj. David DuBois Gaillard, Maj. William L. Sibert, and Adm. H. H. Rousseau, March 16, 1907.
The third Isthmian Canal Commission was appointed April 1, 1907. The members were Col. George W. Goethals, now Chairman and Chief Engineer, Lt. Col. W. L. Sibert, Maurice H. Thatcher, Rear Adm. H. H. Rousseau, Lt. Col. David DuBois Gaillard, Lt. Col. H. F. Hodges, and Col. W. C. Gorgas. Jackson Smith resigned September 14, 1908, and Richard L. Metcalfe was added August 9, 1913. This committee as a whole functioned until the passage of the Panama Canal Act of 1912 with the members acting as a sort of staff to Colonel Goethals, the Chairman.
Colonel Gorgas' labors to make and keep the Canal Zone healthy had begun in May 1904. Many were his discouragements. Delays in ordering supplies and in the delivery of medicines and equipment, were indeed disheartening. Despite the fact that three-quarters of the Isthmian populace appeared to be infected with malaria, his relentless fight against the mosquito was finally won. The last case of yellow fever was reported in May 1906. A standing reward of fifty dollars was offered to any employee of the Health Department reporting a case in any section of the Zone. After that date it went unclaimed.
The battle against malaria, a bit tougher, was also won. Although the menace was not entirely eradicated, systematic fumigation, clearing of ditches and drains, spraying of streams, cutting of brush and weeds, screening of homes, and a supply of quinine to all who desired it reduced malaria to an extent that compared favorably with the United States. The quinine cocktail became a daily drink and habit at all Isthmian Canal Commission government-operated hotels and clubhouses. All America was proud of the great triumph of health over disease and the wonderful job accomplished by Colonel Gorgas and his workers.
When General Davis first inspected the Canal after it was taken over from the New French Canal Company, there were less than 200 employees on the payroll. With a preliminary outline of the immediate work ahead, it was quickly apparent that this meager force had to be augmented in great numbers. Engineers, doctors, nurses, artificers of all classes and types, and thousands of ordinary but exalted ditch diggers, had to be employed, and quickly. The call went out and its echo resounded throughout the world. Thousands of young, eager, adventure-seeking men applied and soon were Isthmian-bound. Americans, West Indians, Spaniards and men of other European countries.
Working conditions, as has been noted, were not of the best. The housing was poor, sanitary conditions bad, recreation facilities practically nil, and there were more saloons than churches and schools. Many an employee, even the boldest, took one look at his surroundings upon landing and inquired about the departure of the next vessel.
American ingenuity and money soon speedily devised and supplied healthful recreation and other needs. As hastily as they could be arranged for and con-


35








structed came the hospitals with free medical care, schools, police and fire protection, chapels along the line of construction, courts, barracks, and houses for families. Clubhouses were set up and managed by the YMCA upon the suggestion of President Roosevelt. These government-built recreation centers had billiard rooms, bowling alleys, gyms, libraries, soda fountains, and sponsored basketball and baseball teams. Town bands were organized among the employees, and orchestras to play for Saturday night dancing. An employee soon enjoyed everything, or nearly everything, he had back home.
Despite all that was being done to make life pleasant for the newly-arrived canal digger, there was still one facility lacking. That branch of service which could take some of the lonesomeness out of one's life. That which could add a smile and pleasure to his daily work. The receipt of mail from home, for the postal service of the Republic of Panama had ceased operating on the Zone. So on June 20, 1904, Governor Davis dispatched a cable to Rear Adm. John G. Walker, Chairman of. Isthmian Canal Commission, Washington, D.C., urging the immediate*establishment of a postal service within the Canal Zone.


36




















Chapter IV


THE CANAL ZONE


37























































Mr. Henry L. Donovan, Civil Affairs Director, Canal Zone Government, and
under whom the Canal Zone postal system functions, delivering a first day cover with the Gorgas Hospital Commemorative stamp thereon to Gov. W. E. Potter of the Canal Zone Government, November 17, 1957.





39


























































40














Chapter IV

THE CANAL ZONE

The Canal Zone, extending 5 miles on each side of the channel axis, encompasses an area of approximately 553 square miles, with Gatun Lake, until recently the world's largest man-made body of water, covering 163 square miles. From deep water in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific, the Canal is 50 miles long and ranges in width from 500 to 1,000 feet. Directionally, it runs from northwest to southeast, with Cristobal on the Atlantic side being 33.5 miles north and 27 miles west of Balboa on the Pacific. Because of the gooseneck shape of the Isthmus, the sun appears to be performing astronomical back flips by rising in the Pacific Ocean and setting in the Atlantic.
A vessel's transit, north to south, commences at the Cristobal breakwater. Here the ship is met by customs, quarantine, immigration, and other officials and under the guidance of a pilot, commences passage. It is 6 miles to the first set of locks at Gatun and about a mile before reaching them can be seen the old French Cut diagonally crossing the present canal. Cut through a wild root-spreading mangrove swamp, it is not difficult to see many of the backbreaking hardships of the early railroad pioneers and the Canal diggers.
Proceeding southward, Gatun Locks is the first of the three twin sets of locks transited. A vessel is raised or lowered 85 feet in three steps. Each lock chamber is 1,000 feet long and 110 feet wide. The average canal transit requires 52,000,000 gallons of water. As a vessel approaches the lock's walls, cables are taken aboard from small electric locomotives called "mules," running on cogs. The "mule" operator, in answer to hand signals from the pilot, holds the vessel in place and tows the ship through the chambers. It is indeed a strange experience when aboard to see your ship being raised a little more than 28 feet in each of 3 flights-a water escalator on a grand scale.
To the right of Gatun Locks can be seen the mile and a half long earth, dam and spillway holding the Chagres River waters. It is the valley of this river which is followed for 23 miles to Gamboa. This is the northern end of the Culebra Cut of construction days where the dike was blown permitting the water to fill the huge earthen cleavage. Today it is called Gaillard Cut in honor of Col. David DuBois Gaillard, C.E., U.S.A., the engineer who had charge of this difficult excavation task. This is where the "oldtimers" made the dirt fly and where one can appreciate the enormity of the job so well done. Just prior to reaching the Pedro Miguel Locks, one passes Gold Hill on the left, the highest point along the Cut with Contractors' Hill on the right. Beside both fof these hills in the past, earth movements have resulted in slides temporarily curtailing passage. With cutting, sluicing and dredging, the slopes have gradually been cut back and passage is now unimpeded.
At the southern end of Gaillard Cut the one step Pedro Miguel Locks lowers a vessel southbound 31 feet to Miraflores Lake. This small body of water, a mile


41








wide, brings us to the Miraflores Locls of 2 steps, the last in the series, and then out into the sea-level reach taking us to the Balboa inner harbor 3 miles away. Passing Sosa Hill with its ball and cone signals displayed, it is now but 5 miles to the Pacific sea buoy and another daily, commonplace, silent, efficient, and safe transit has been made in about 8 hours.
In 1903 the newly-created Republic of Panama by treaty granted the United States in perpetuity the use, occupation, and control of a zone of land and land under water for the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation, and protection of the Canal. This zone was to be of a width of 10 miles extending to a distance of 5 miles on each side of the center line of the Canal, beginning in the Caribbean Sea 3 marine miles from mean low watermark, and extending to and across the Isthmus into the Pacific Ocean to a distance of 3 marine miles from mean low watermark, excluding the cities of Panama and Colon and the harbors adjacent to such cities. Within this zone, the United States was granted all the rights, power, and authority which it would possess and exercise if it were the sovereign of the territory within which the zone is located, to the entire exclusion of the exercise by the Republic of Panama of any such sovereign rights, power, or authority.
The Canal's construction, after the earlier failure, and successful operation after its opening August 15, 1914, was made possible by this early mutually satisfactory and beneficial treaty. It has brought commercial, economic, and trade advantages to all.
The primary object and purpose of the Canal is to afford a dependable, uninterrupted, efficient transit of vessels. This is of vital concern not alone to the maritime interests of the world; but in a lesser degree to those on the Zone whose livelihood and general welfare are dependent upon these transits. Operationally, there is the pilot force and marine traffic controllers aids to navigation, docks and cargo handling, dredging, power plants, lock control and operations, and many other involved agencies.
Although not directly connected with ships' transits, but nevertheless essential in the over-all operation, was the establishment of government within the Canal Zone. This included municipal services such as police and fire protecfion, housing, retail stores, and any and all facilities found in a going modern community of approximately 40,000 people.
The Spooner Act of 1902, among other things, called for the creation of the Isthmian Canal Commission which was the governing body during construction days. This was supplanted in April 1914 by the Panama Canal Act. Under this law an independent governmental agency was established called The Panama Canal. This organization included both the operation and maintenance of the Canal and the civil government within the Canal Zone. The Panama Railroad Company, an adjunct of The Panama Canal, was charged with handling not only its own steamship and railway affairs but most of the business matters conducted by and related to the Canal. The Panama Railroad Company was made a Federal Government Corporation in 1948.
On July 1, 1951, under the provisions of Public Law 841, all Canal operations were transferred to the Panama Railroad Company and it was renamed the Panama Canal Company. At the same time, the civil government functions of The Panama Canal were consolidated and molded ir-to a unit known as the Canal Zone Government.
There are thus two parts to the present organization, the Canal Zone Govern-


42








ment and the Panama Canal Company. Regardless of how many times the Congress may change the names, the purpose of its existence since the last shovelful of dirt was thrown into a dump car and the Cut filled with water, is still to move ships from one ocean to the other. Both operating units are headed by a single individual who is Governor of the Canal Zone and President of the Panama Canal Company. The President of the United States appoints the Governor, subject to confirmation by the Senate, and he is ex officio President of the Panama Canal Company.
The Panama Canal Company operates as a self-sustaining corporate body. Among its obligations are its own operating expenses, the net cost of civil government, and interest and depreciation charges on the United States Government's investment in the Canal. To meet these financial obligations, the law provides a formula for the establishment of the rate of tolls for vessels using the Canal. This is done on a net tonnage basis on each 100 cubic feet of shipping space usable for revenue purposes. Merchant vessels pay 90 cents a ton for laden ships and 72 cents a ton for ships in ballast. The average vessel usually pays between $4,500 and $5,000 for transit.
The Secretary of the Army is designated Stockholder of the Panama Canal Company, and he appoints a Board of Directors of 13 members, the managing body of the corporation.
The Canal Zone Government, as an independent government agency, is under the direct supervision of the President of the United States who has delegated this authority to the Secretary of the Army. It operates on appropriated funds, although the net cost of its operation is returned to the United States Treasury by the Panama Canal Company.
The operations of the Canal Zone Government differ little in its effect on home and community life from the results of the governing authority of the average United States town. The Government performs the usual and normal functions of both State and city. These include a public school system from kindergarten to junior college, public health, hospitals, and sanitation, courts, police and fire protection, public roads; immigration and customs, and far from the least of public services, the postal system, post offices and postage stamps.
Within the Canal Zone Government structure, the postal administration, headed by a Director of Posts, functions under the Director, Bureau of Civil Affairs. The latter reports directly to the Governor of the Canal Zone.


43
























Chapter V


ESTABLISHMENT OF FIRST CANAL ZONE
POST OFFICES


45
































Canal Zone Post Office-La Boca, 1904


The Ancon Post Office as it appeared in 1936, which, when designed as a post
office in 1904, made use of an old French Canal Company dwelling.


48














Chapter V

ESTABLISHMENT OF FIRST CANAL ZONE POST OFFICES
The receipt and local distribution of mail on the Canal Zone as well as its dispatch was a recognized must if the "canal diggers" arriving in 1904 were to remain and be kept happy. Although the establishment of post offices was but one of the myriads of problems facing the first Canal administration, it was nevertheless of such importance as to cause Gen. George W. Davis to cable Admiral Walker on June 20, 1904, as follows:

Isthmian,
Washington:
Must immediately institute a mail service upon Zone. Have appointed acting postmasters Cristobal, Gatun, Bohio, Gorgona, Bas Obispo, Empire, Culebra, La Boca, Ancon, which should be officially designated United States post offices. Cristobal and Ancon money order. Request Post Office Department and Superintendent Posts report to me with equipment, blanks, instructions, supply of United States postage stamps surcharged Canal Zone, Panama. I send names
of postmasters by mail Wednesday.
DAVIS.
The contents of this cable were included in a letter sent to Admiral Walker from Culebra the same day. In this letter, Governor Davis elaborated upon the bleakness of the postal situation thus:
The necessity of putting our postal service on its feet is, of course,
pressing as the postal service of the Republic has ceased in the Zone.
For sometimes past I have been having the baggage agents on the trains
deliver official mail to our several stations, but now I must handle the mail of the people who inhabit the Zone. As a matter of immediate and pressing necessity that mail will be carried if it is simply franked so that the name of the sender can be identified, for we have no postage stamps
for present use.
I saw in a press dispatch-a few days ago a statement to the effect that
the Post Office Department had decided to establish U.S. mail service
on the Zone.
The plan in view at present is to utilize the railroad station agents as
postmasters in most cases. They have houses and means for taking care of their business and time enough to attend to it. Of course, later on it will be necessary to have separate postmasters, but they can manage it
for the present.
That there should be two money order offices here goes without saying.
Ancon, it seems to me, is a suitable name for the Canal establishment that must grow up on the slope of Ancon (probably encompassing Quarry Heights and* Balboa Heights) and including La Boca, and Cristobal is a suitable name for the new port at the Colon end of the Canal, and these
are the two money order offices that I have in mind.


47









I hope no time will be lost in establishing the United States postal
service, as it will take some time to get stamps printed, and as it would probably not be proper to issue United States stamps for the Zone at first, until we have legislation, we could overcome the difficulty by having a supply of United States stamps surcharged with the words "Canal Zone," and then accounts can be kept separate. If the United States proposes to operate this postal service separate and distinct from the Zone, well and good, I have no objection, of course, and in that case
they will not come under my control.
Respectfully,
(sgd) GEORGE W. DAVIS,
Governor.
Since postal service rendered by the Republic of Panama had come to an end and the Canal Zone had not yet established its own, it has been a mystery as to the manner of this letter's dispatch, the stamps it bore, and how postmarked. It appears that the only post offices maintained by the Republic of Panama from Colon to Panama across the Isthmus at this time were those at the terminal cities. Two employees of these post offices, the brothers Ezequiel and Mateo Ayala, were charged with carrying the mail between these cities and were authorized to accept "any loose letters" handed to them along the line. There is no indication as to whether or not they rode the trains of the Panama Railroad together or in opposite directions. They were the pioneer counterparts of our railway mail clerks.
On June 21, 1904, Governor Davis sent a follow-up to Chairman Walker in which he named those selected to act as postmasters and their offices.
Ancon..........................FERNANDO GUTIERREZ
Culebra.................................E. A. PALMER
Empire ......................... ALEXANDER GENETEAU
La Boca............................ J. ST. CLAIR HUNT
Bohio........................MANUEL DOMINGO ABELLO
Gorgona............................. HENRY SAWLEY
Matachin......................JOSEPH DUNCAN EDWARDS
Gatun...............................PEDRO CORRERA V.
Cristobal............................. ISAAC CAMPBELL
Since this listing of proposed post offices in the cable of the 20th, it was discovered that Bas Obispo had no railroad agent so Matachin within a short distance of this point on the Chagres River was designated in its place. An immediate change of postmasters at Ancon occurred even before the first named had an opportunity to serve. Julio Quijano was appointed vice Fernando Guti6rrez. There was little difficulty in bonding the postmasters as all were working for the Panama Railroad Company and most were already under bond.
Governor Davis decried the laxness and inefficiency of handling mail up to this time. He stated that the system of the local government which carried on the mail service was very primitive and unsatisfactory. This could be ascribed to the fact that Panama having established its independence from Colombia less than a year before hardly had an opportunity to organize its own postal system.
A mail carrier passed over the "line" (Panama Railroad) each way once
a day, carrying on his person any letters that were for delivery. These letters he handed to the policeman at the stations where the train stopped, and the policeman attended to the delivery of the letters, if he could find the person addressed. In some cases, when the policeman was not at hand, the mail was left on the platform for anybody to come and help


48









himself as he pleased. Of course, all that business has to stop. I shall establish a system of waybills and receipts for packages of mail matter delivered at the different points, and hold the agent responsible for the delivery of the mail, but, until postage stamps are available, I shall not attempt to make any collections of payment for carrying or delivering
letters.
Negotiations were immediately begun between Governor Davis of the Canal Zone and His Excellency Toma's Arias, Minister of Government for the Republic of Panama, for the purpose of securing postage stamps from the Republic of Panama for the Canal Zone's temporary use.
With President Amador Guerrero's approval, Mr. Arias proposed to furnish Panama stamps surcharged "C.Z." in such quantities as may be required for 20 percent of their face value in gold. As Colombian currency which the Panama stamps carried was worth only half of United States money, the cost of the stamps was actually 40 percent of their shown value in silver. "Face" was in pesos and centavos of the Colombian monetary system. Since Colombian currency was exchanged at the rate of two to one, silver for gold, it appears that the stamps were actually offered at 40 percent "face" of silver value.
Mr. E. C. Tobey, Paymaster, U.S.N., and Chief of Materials and Accounts, personally handled the negotiating for Governor Davis. As it was the Governor's desire that mail facilities in the Canal Zone be developed without further delay and believing that the Panama proposition was reasonable, Mr. Tobey recommended to the Governor that the authorities of Panama be communicated with at once and that arrangements be concluded for the overprinting of the stamps and their delivery.
Confirming the verbal arrangements made by Mr. Tobey, Governor Davis in a letter to Mr. Arias of June 23, 1904, expressed his gratification for the offered use of Panama's stamps until such time as stamps of the United States might be provided for use in the Canal Zone. He then asked for stamps in the following denominations: $500 in 10-cent stamps, $400 in 5-cent stamps, and $100 in 2-cent stamps. This interchangeable monetary designation can be confusing unless we keep in mind that a Colombian silver peso was worth 50 cents in our gold dollar system and their centavo half of our cent.
His Excellency Mr. Arias was asked to direct that each of the stamps be surcharged with the words CANAL ZONE so that their use could be controlled and limited to the Zone itself. It was understood that as soon as the postage stamps of the United States were supplied from Washington, any of the Panama stamps unsold would be returned. To lend authenticity to the exchange of letters between the Canal Zone and Washington, Secretary of War William Howard Taft issued an order by the direction of the President on June 24, 1904, establishing the nine post offices heretofore named and specifying the duties of the Governor with relation to postal matters. The towns "Crystobal" and "Boheo" were incorrectly spelled but properly changed to "Cristobal" and "Bohio" within a few days.
Creating Cristobal and Ancon money order offices, the Secretary went on:
The Governor of the Canal Zone is hereby authorized to appoint postmasters for the post offices herein established and fix compensation
thereof, subject to the approval of the Isthmian Canal Commission.
The Governor of the Canal Zone is directed to formulate a plan for a
practical and efficient postal service in said Canal Zone, and including such measures and provisions of the postal service of the United States as are not inapplicable to the conditions of law and fact existing in the


49









Canal Zone, and to report said plan to the Chairman of the Isthmian Canal Commission for such action as the discretion of the Commission
shall approve.
Pending establishment of the postal service by act of the Commission
or other competent authority, the Governor of the Canal Zone is hereby authorized to establish post offices at such additional places in the Canal Zone as in his judgment the interests of the public require, and to appoint postmasters therefor and fix their compensation, subject to the approval
or other action thereon by the Isthmian Canal Commission.
The Governor was also authorized to adopt and enforce such temporary regulations and to employ such assistants as the exigencies of the service required.
Then on June 24, 1904, at the Executive Office, Culebra, Canal Zone, Gov. ernor Davis issued the following order:
Paymaster E. C. Tobey, U.S.N., Treasurer of the Canal Zone, is charged
with the work of establishment and operation of the Postal Service in the
Canal Zone.
He will issue instructions from time to time as may be necessary. All
postmasters, mail messengers and mail superintendents will report to
Paymaster Tobey.
The accompanying notice is published for the information of all concerned. It will be posted in a conspicuous place in each post office.

(sgd) GEORGE W. DAVIS,
Governor.

Paymaster Tobey, it is recalled, accompanied Governor Davis in the latter's second visit to the Isthmus, May 14, 1904, on the S.S. "City of Washington." His job of establishing and operating the postal service on the Zone was but one of many duties as Treasurer and Chief of Materials and Supplies. He was a veteran of the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection, and later of World War I. In the Philippines he assisted in the Islands' fiscal organization. He was with the Panama Canal organization until late in 1905. After retiring from the Navy as a captain in 1921, he became president of the United States Claims Commission in Great Britain, later a vice president of the United American Steamship Lines, and then president of the Merritt-Chapman & Scott Corporation. He died July 16, 1932.
Governor Davis' notice stated that a temporary arrangement with the Republic of Panama had been made for the use of Panama stamps surcharged CANAL ZONE. The populace was warned not to purchase more of those stamps than were required for immediate use, as, after receipt of the United States stamps, those of the Republic of Panama, surcharged CANAL ZONE, would not be valid, either for use within the Canal Zone or for redemption. 'The notice continues:
Postal rates, in Panama stamps surcharged as above, at their nominal
value in Colombian silver, will be as follows:
Domestic matter, including mail for the United States and its possessions-Guam, Philippine Islands, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Tutuila, Canal
Zone; also to Canada, Cuba, Mexico and Republic of Panama.
1st Class-Letters and all sealed matter, five cents (40 percent of this
figure would be 2-cents gold) for each ounce (30 grammes) or fraction.
There were additional provisions for newspapers, miscellaneous printed matter, foreign mail, and packets.
Paymaster Tobey, in getting the service under way, was out on the "line" on


50









June 24, 1904, instructing the postmasters in their duties and leaving with them a copy of "Instructions to Postmasters and Postal Messengers.'"
Instructions to Postmasters and Postal Messengers
1.-Panama stamps, properly surcharged, will be furnished postmasters,
who will receipt therefor to Paymaster E. C. Tobey, U.S.N., Treasurer of
the Zone.
2.-The rates of postage to be charged are prescribed in the notice accompanying these instructions, which will be posted in a conspicuous
place by each postmaster.
3.-On Saturday of each week each postmaster will render to the
Treasurer of the Zone a statement showing sales of stamps for the week,
remittances, balance on hand in cash, and unsold stamps.
4.-Remittances covering sales up to and including Saturday vill be
made on the following Monday of each week.
5.-Mail matter received for transmission, with insufficient postage or
without postage, will have marked on it by the postmaster the words "Postage Due," followed by the amount of postage due. The postmaster receiving such mail matter will collect the amount due, affixing stamps
for that amount and canceling them.
6.-The following extract from Order No. 551 of the Postmaster-General
of the United States, dated June 2, 1904, will be observed by postmasters:
Letters sent by soldiers, sailors, and marines in the United States
service, located in the United States or any of its possessions, addressed to places in the United States or any of its possessions, when endorsed "Soldier's letter," "Sailor's letter," or "Marine's letter," as the case may be, and signed thereunder either with facsimile handstamp or in writing, with his official designation, by a field or staff officer, post or detachment commander, to whose command the soldier belongs, or by a surgeon or chaplain at a hospital where he may be; and in the navy and marine service, by any commissioned officer attached to the vessel, or officer commanding a hospital or detachment ashore, may be dispatched to destination without prepayment of postage, and only the single
rate of postage shall be collected on delivery.
7.-Postmasters will provide convenient receptacles, properly secured,
for the receipt of mail at such times as their offices are closed.
8.-The post offices at Cristobal and Ancon will be open for the sale
of stamps, and receipt and delivery of mail, from 7 to 11:30 a.m., and from 1:30 to 6 p.m., daily; all other offices will be open for these purposes for at least fifteen minutes before and after train-time, and longer if
necessary.
9.-Local mail for points within the Zone will be sent direct to the
places to which addressed. Such mail will be made into separate packets
y the postmaster, and each packet properly addressed.
10.-Mail received by postmasters addressed to the city of Panama and
other points in the Republic of Panama reached from that city will be sent, in a separate packet, to the postmaster at Ancon. That postmaster
will deliver such mail to the postmaster of the city of Panama.
11.-Mail addressed to the city of Colon and other points in the Republic
of Panama reached from that city, will be sent to the postmaster at Cristobal, who will deliver it to the postmaster at Colon.
12.-Mail addressed to Mexican and Central and South American points
on the Pacific Coast will be sent, in a separate packet, to the postmaster
at Ancon, to be delivered to the postmaster of Panama.
13.-Mail addressed to Mexican and Central and South American and
West Indian post offices, which are reached by direct steamship connection from Coon will be sent, in a separate packet, to the postmaster at
Cristobal who will deliver it to the postmaster at Colon.
14.-Mail addressed to points in the United States and its possessions,
and to all foreign countries other than those named in paragraphs 12 and 13, will be sent, separately wrapped, to the postmaster at Cristobal. All


51








such mail will be enclosed by the postmaster at Cristobal in a sealed bag, properly addressed, and will be forwarded by him to the postmaster of
the city of New York.
15.-Two railway mail messengers will make the round trip from Panama to Colon and Colon to Panama each day, one starting from each end of the line at eight o'clock in the morning and returning to the city from
which he started at two forty-five o'clock in the afternoon.
16.-The mail messengers will report to the postniasters at Ancon and
Cristobal, respectively, at seven o'clock in the morning and one-thirty o'clock in the afternoon. They will receive from these postmasters all packages of mail for the line and for the other end of the route, giving a receipt to the postmaster for each package. They will deliver packages of mail to the postmasters at the places to which addressed, taking a receipt for each package delivered, and will receive packages of mail from postmasters along the line, giving a receipt for each package. Upon arrival at the end of their route, they will convey the mail in their charge to the post office at Cristobal or Ancon, as the case may be, taking a receipt
from the postmaster for each package delivered.
Arrangements have been made with the Panama Railroad Company to have the trains arriving at Colon at 10:45 a.m. and 5:45 p.m., slow down opposite Cristobal-Colon, in order to enable the
messenger to get off.
A vehicle will be provided at Panama for the transfer of the
messenger with his mail at 10:45 a.m. and 5:45 p.m. from the
railroad station to the Ancon post office.
17.-Mail will be delivered to the postmasters at Panama and Colon
by the postmasters at Ancon and Cristobal twice a day, and a proper
receipt will be taken for each package so delivered.
18.-Mail sent to New York by the postmaster at Cristobal will be
forwarded by the Panama Railroad Company's steamers, and a proper receipt will be taken from the purser of the steamer on which forwarded
for each bag of mail delivered to him.
19.-Promptly on the arrival of mail steamers at Colon and Panama the
postmasters at Cristobal and Ancon, respectively, will take measures to secure such mail matter as may be addressed to their offices or to other post offices within the Zone. After assorting it, such mail will be forwarded
in the same manner as local mail.
20.-A supply of canvas bags will be furnished to each postmaster, to
be used in forwarding mail to other post offices. Each package of mail to be forwarded will be placed in one of these bags, and the bag will be
securely tied and addressed.
This is another indication of the competence and thoroughness of Mr. Tobey which entailed the creation of a workable postal system with its many facets within a minimum of time.
On June 25, 1904, from Culebra, Canal Zone, Governor Davis wrote His Excellency Tomfis Arias, Minister of Government, clarifying the matter of interchange of mails between the Republic of Panama and the Zone:
Letters and other mail matter originating in the Republic of Panama,
addressed to any person in the Zone will be forwarded to the destination, provided it bears the necessary stamps of the Republic at its domestic rate of postage. Vice versa, letters and other mail matter originating in the Zone, destined for points in the Republic, will be forwarded to and delivered provided such matter bears the necessary postage stamps of the Zone, at the domestic rate of postage. In other words, a letter originating in Panama, addressed to a person in Culebra, and weighing not more than one ounce, will be forwarded to its destination, provided it bears a 5-cent Panama stamp; and conversely, a letter originating at Culebra, addressed to a party in Panama, and weighing not more than one ounce, will be forwarded to its destination, provided it bears a 2-cent (gold) stamp of the United States postal system, or, temporarily, a 5-cent stamp of the
Republic of Panama, surcharged with the words CANAL ZONE.

52








To this, Mr. Arias, the same day, answered that copies of the Postal Tariff, which were attached to Governor Davis' letter, were received and forwarded to the post offices of the Republic. Too, that the tariff had been provisionally adopted as expressed in the Governor's letter.
The initial shipment of stamps received by Mr. Tobey consisted of 2,500, 2-cent stamps; 8,000, 5-cent stamps; and 5,000, 10-cent stamps. This is shown in Mr. Tobey's memorandum of accountability addressed to the Governor dated June 28, 1904:
Sir:
I respectfully report that I have received from the Republic of Panama,
the following postage stamps, surcharged CANAL ZONE: 2,500 2-cent $50.00 Col. Silver 8,000 5-cent $400.00 Col. Silver 5,000 10-cent $500.00 Col. Silver I have charged myself with the value of the stamps received nine
hundred and fifty dollars ($950.00) and hold myself accountable to the
United States in this sum.
Very respectfully,
E. C. TOBEY, U.S.N.,
In Charge of Post Office Dept.

On July 12, 1904, Governor Davis asked Minister Arias for 600 more of the 5-cent, 300 of the 10-cent, and 200 of the 2-cent stamps. The same day, 100 of the 2-cent, 500 of the 5-cent, and 250 of the 10-cent were delivered.
The young, but virile government of the Canal Zone thus had its postal administration created, post offices established, postmasters appointed, and stamps available for use.
The Canal Zone postal administration is unique in its establishment and operation. It has its own postal regulations, yet the United States regulations are applicable. Its postal laws are contained in both the Federal Statutes and the Canal Zone Code. It does not belong to the Universal Postal Union but adheres to its policies. It is not within the United States Post Office Department, but like that organization, is a unit of the United States Government. Its stamps are engraved and printed by the United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing in Washington.


53-























Chapter VI


CANAL ZONE'S FIRST SERIES


55















































Block of six of the first stamp issued by the Canal Zone
Postal System purchased at the Gatun Post Office the first day it opened, June 25, 1904 by Mr. Joseph Stilson, Sr. The Postmaster insisted upon canceling them since they were sold to be used for postage
only.










56

























overprint double.


Pair of the 5-cent Canal Zone stamp, the second one
in the first series also purchased by Mr. Stilson on opening day of the Gatun Post Office.
CANAL ZONE is overprinted diagonally reading down.


57
































Block of twelve of the 10-cent yellow stamp of the first series showing
the many positions of the CANAL ZONE overprint.


This strip of three found in 4an Old Panama collection is presumed to
be an "essay'" of this series. The overprint is authentic and the
color of the ink of the "02" and "2" matches the overprint.


58




























The only known existing first day cover hand-canceled at Culebra, Canal
Zone, June 24, 1904. Courtesy of Mr. Rudolph B. Weiler.


Canal Zone's first three stamps on a single cover maile4 5 days after the opening of the La Boca Post Office.


59










































Attached to the above envelope is a 10-cent stamp on a Washington House, Colon, R.C. letterhead and mailed from Cristobal, Canal Zone, July 11, 1904. The Washington House was on the same site which is now occupied by the Washington
Hotel, Republic of Panama.


60














Chapter VI

CANAL ZONE'S FIRST SERIES

1904, June 24
The first three stamps of the Canal Zone are of extreme interest for within a period of less than 7 months, from November 2, 1903, until June 24, 1904, they served the postal needs of three stamp-issuing jurisdictions.
Originally they were of the 1892-1896 issue of Colombia. When the Republic of Panama gained its independence, proud of its birth and newly-acquired nationality, it obliterated the engraved word COLOMBIA at the top of this stamp with a solid horizontal bar of red and added PANAMA in the same color on each side of the stamp. Then by agreement between the Republic of Panama and the Canal Zone, Mr. Tomas Arias, Minister of Government, furnished Governor Davis for the use of the Canal Zone's Postal Administration, quantities of these same stamps overprinted CANAL ZONE horizontally in roman capitals. The overprinting was done by means of a rubber hand stamp with blue-black ink before delivery to Mr. Tobey of the Canal Zone.
These stamps were originally manufactured for Colombia by the American Bank Note Company which has its main office in New York City.
There were several Panama issues used in the first few years by the Canal Zone and in many different printings. Today the early issues are still a philatelic stew with many of the ingredients still a mystery. It must have been a printer's nightmare.
In the so-called third Panama issue, the word PANAMA read both up and down. In the fourth Panama issue, the word PANAMA read up on the left side of the stamp and down on the right. The third Panama series had three different printings of which the first was not used with the Canal Zone overprint. The second printing was used in 8-cent overprints on the 50 centavos stamps used in the December 12, 1904 to 1906 Canal Zone overprints. The Republic of Panama did not have use for an 8-cent stamp but the Canal Zone used it for registration fee.
The third overprinting was that one which was overprinted and used for the lowest denomination of the first Canal Zone issue. The Panama printer to whom the job was given apparently did not have sufficient "A's." Panama appears twice on each stamp necessitating 6 "A's" and this had to be multiplied by 50 to make up the printing form covering 50 stamps. This accounts for the many inverted "V's" and inverted "Y's" and the different fonts found in this printing. This was corrected in the fourth Panama printing. The only values of the third series used by the Canal Zone were the 2-cent (the first stamp of the Canal) and 50-cent stamps (the 8-cent overprints of the 1904-1906 series).
There were 100 stamps to the sheet in Panama's third series third printing. The printing form however covered but 50 stamps. The operator did not split the sheet but after running the upper half, ingeniously turned the sheet around


61








to complete the job on the lower half. Thus there are as many stamps with both PANAMA's reading up as there are with both PANAMA's reading down. All varieties in the printing are thus duplicated, stamp No. 1 in the sheet is the same as stamp No. 100 and No. 50 the same as No. 51.
There were many different printings in the fourth series and in different amounts for each denomination varying with the demands of the service. They were overprinted as needed.
Stamps of Panama's fourth series were used on the second (5-cent) and third (10-cent) Canal Zone stamps issued June 24, 1904, the 2-cent, 5-cent, 10-cent of 1905, and the 8-cent on 50-cent issues of 1906.
Each Panama printing in this issue has its own characteristics; the bar obliterating COLOMBIA may differ in width and color shades, the distance between the bar and the words PANAMA may differ, and the letters themselves may present different shapes and fonts. In general, however, PANAMA in the third printing as on the first Canal Zone stamp, is 13 mm. long by 13/4 mm. high, and in the second and third stamps of the Canal's first series, PANAMA in larger letters is 15 mm. long by 2 mm. high.
We thus have Panama's provisional stamps overprinted with the words CANAL ZONE in one line of roman capitals as the Canal Zone Government's first issue. The overprint, as has been noted, was applied by the Republic of Panama before the stamps' delivery to the Zone's postal authorities. This was done by means of a rubber handstamp with blue-black ink. As it is not too difficult a task to create counterfeit overprints, and as it appeared to some a simple matter to increase the value of a 2-cent stamp one hundred fold, this occurred on the Canal's early issues. The collector of these items should therefore be on guard when obtaining one of these early classics. Not only are there spurious overprints in existence, but some of the bolder counterfeiters attempted to copy the first post office cancellations.
An item from the First Annual Report of the Governor of the Canal Zone will assist a bit in clearing the "overprint" question.
In view of the fact that charges have been made to the effect that
counterfeit Panama Zone postage stamps have been sold to stamp collectors, the statement seems appropriate that no officer of the Zone Government ever had anything to do with the surcharging of the Panama stamp, or ever had in his possession any unsurcharged stamps that were owned by the Zone Government, or ever had in his possession any of
the rubber stamps or type used in surcharging.
A short time after the United States overprints arrived on the Isthmus, there was a destruction of the remainder of the Canal Zone overprinted Panama provisionals. This was accomplished September 15, 1904, in the presence of E. C. Tobey, Treasurer; J.,M. Keedy; and George R. Shanton, Chief of Police; 700 5-cent stamps and 304 10-cent stamps were burned.
These first stamps are of a map design geographically depicting the area of the new Republic of Panama substantially the same as the State or Department of Panama while still a part of the Colombian Republic. The word ANTILLAS is written across the Caribbean in the upper portion with PACIFICO in the lower part. CENTAVOS is across the bottom of the stamp with the denomination in figure boxed and centrally bordering and above CENTAVOS.
Perf. 12.
The dimensions of the CANAL ZONE overprint are given in millimeters.


62








CANAL .................91/4 mm.
ZONE .................... 71/ mm.
Space between words ....... 11/4 mm.
CANAL ZONE...........18 mm.
Height of letters...........21/2 mm.
Quantity
Denomination Color Supplied Destroyed Issued
2-cent Rose Carmine 2,600 2,600 5-cent Blue 8,500 700 7,800 10-cent Yellow 5,200 304 4,946 On July 13, 1904, a supply of United States stamps was received and four days later, July 17, 1904, the useof the Panama provisional stamps was discontinued.


63






















Chapter VII


POSTAL INSPECTION


65

















Chapter VII

POSTAL INSPECTION

1904, June 29.
There was an interesting inspection tour of the Canal Zone's infant postal system made on June 29, 1904, by E. B. Knight of the Department of Revenues. His comprehensive report to Paymaster Tobey follows:
I beg to submit the following report, in connection with the establish
ment of post offices in the Canal Zone:
In accordance with your instructions, I proceeded to the post office at
Ancon, and on arrival there at 6:55 a.m., found that the mail for New York had not yet been sorted from the local mail. At my request, the postmaster turned over the mail to me and I sorted out the letters and newspapers for New York, placing same in two small empty money bags.
I kept these bags open for mail until 7:40 a.m., at which time they were closed and sealed. Before closing the bags at this hour, I inquired of the postmaster if there was any more mail for New York in his possession. He replied in the negative. At 7:45 a.m., I left Ancon post office with the mail
for the Railroad station, and at 8:05 a.m., the train left for Colon.
On arrival at the post office at Cristobal, at 10:55 a.m., I found that the
postal agent there, Mr. Campbell, had got about three-fourths of the New York mail all postmarked and placed in a large sack which he had secured from the Colon post office. I emptied the two bags of mail which I had brought from the Ancon post office, and Mr. Campbell and myself stamped each letter with the Cristobal postmark, and counted same. At 11:30 a.m., I closed and sealed the mail bag for New York. At 11:55 a.m., I delivered the bag of mail to the purser of the S.S. "Seguranca" and had him sign for same in a book provided by Postmaster Campbell for that
purpose, and also took duplicate receipt, which is herewith attached.
At 12:15 p.m., I returned to the post office at Cristobal and sent the
following telegram to you:
All mail aboard steamer. One bag from here, containing 433 letters, 46 cards and 20 packages. Everything O.K. Stamps urgently
needed.
At 2:45 p.m., I left for Panama, where I arrived at the Administration
Building.
In this connection, I desire to make the following remarks and suggestions:
Delivery of mail bags to the steamers: I was notified by the Panama Railroad Company that it is not in accordance with their regulations for the pursers of their steamers to give receipts for mail for New York.
The rules of the Railroad are, that the bags of mail should be delivered on the pier to the Freight Agent of the Railroad, Mr. P. E. Cruchley, who will give receipt for the bags, and in turn deliver them to the purser of
the steamer.
Post office at Cristobal: The present location of this office is very inconvenient, and much valuable time is lost in transferring the mails from the train to the office. I would respectfully suggest that the cottage situated right at the entrance to Cristobal, on the Waterfront, be utilized as a post office. This house is Within a stone's throw of the railroad landing


67








at Cristobal, and considerably shortens the distance to the pier as compared with the present location of the post office. In this connection, I would also respectfully suggest that Postmaster Campbell be furnished an assistant, as the duties of the office are such as to require a second
party.
Mail service along.the line: Would it not be desirable to supply the
Postal Agent on the train, Pascal, with a limited number of stamps, so that he would be able to receive mail from persons at stations where there
are no post offices? This is especially true of Tavernilla.
After reading this complete report, which contained little by way of criticism and much to indicate the excellent manner of operations, it appears that the postal administration had gotten off on a business-like and efficient manner which continues to this day.
On the same day, June 29, 1904, that Mr. Knight was making his inspection of the process of mail dispatch, Admiral Walker, Chairman of the Isthmian Canal Commission, received a letter from the Postmaster General of the United States stating that he had detailed Mr. Lawrence Leatherman, Inspector-inCharge of the Boston Division of Post Office Inspection, and Post Office Inspector A. A. Smith, to assist the Governor of the Panama Canal Zone in organizing a postal service.
These gentlemen arrived on the Isthmus July 13 and brought with them the numerous forms and other printed material used by the United States Post Office Department necessary to bridge the emergency gap.


68



















Chapter VIII


SECOND REGULAR SERIES


69












































Second regular series.


71
































PANAMA overprinted on United States stamps
of the 1902-1903 issue.


Postal Card with the 1-cent and 2-cent stamps of this series with
"Empire" and "Culebra" cancellations of December 11, 1904.


72














Chapter VHI

SECOND REGULAR SERIES

1904, July 18.
On July 2, 1904, 12 tin-lined wooden boxes were shipped by registered mail from the United States Postage Stamp Agency, Washington, addressed to the Isthmian Canal Commission, C/o Panama Railroad Company, Pier 57, West 27th St., New York. These were to be delivered to Gen. George W. Davis, Governor of the Canal Zone, by United States Post Office Inspector Lawrence Leatherman, their custodian. When they arrived on the Isthmus July 13, 1904, Governor Davis was considerably put out at this apparently exaggerated amount of postage. In a letter to Chairman Walker he said,
If you have any record of any request from me or any person serving
under me for 10-million stamps, or any other specific number, I should
be very glad if you would send me a copy of it.
It does appear at first blush to be an enormous quantity. If one considers, however, that the contemplated plans of the Canal's construction called for an ultimate labor force of more than 40,000 persons, the idea of using so many stamps is not too farfetched. Only five of the cases were opened and the remainder stored. The total face value of the stamps came to $390,000. From the five cases opened, $26,000 worth of stamps of all denominations were removed. They were placed on sale July 18, and removed from sale December 11, 1904. Through September, $1,448.55 worth of stamps were sold; in October $655.64; November $562.33, and in December up to closing on the 11th, $1,603.68 worth, for a total of this entire issue of but $4,270.20. The stamps of this second series are overprinted on United States stamps of the regular issue of 1902-1903 with the exception of the Washington 2-cent shield stamp of 1903.
The overprints appear vertically in two lines of small capitals, CANAL ZONE on the left and PANAMA on the right, both words reading upwards. The overprint was applied at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, D.C., by a 100 subject electrotype plate in black ink, the same as for Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and other possessions, which had been prepared in the immediately preceding years.
Due to broken type or poor inking, there exist in this series some broken and imperfect letters but no major varieties. The measurements of the overprint are as follows: CANAL ................................8 mm.
Space............. ...........1 mm.
ZONE .................................. 6 mm.
CANAL ZONE ......................... 16 mm.
Width between Canal Zone and Panama...10 mm.
PANAMA ............................*12: mm.


73







Perf. 12
Denomi- Quantity nation Color Subject Sent Destroyed Issued
1-cent Green Franklin 1,000,000 956,262 43,738 2-cent Red Washington 5,000,000 4,931,586 68,414 5-cent Blue Lincoln 2,000,000 1,979,142 20,858 8-cent Dark Lilac Martha Washingtoix 1,000,000 992,068 7,932 10-cent Light Brown Webster 1,000,000 992,144 7,856 In the presence of the Director of Posts, Tom M. Cooke, W. B. Starke, Auditor, Isthmian Canal Commission, Edward J. Williams, and the Executive Secretary, H. D. Reed, the remainders were destroyed by burning on January 2 and 3, 1906.


74



















Chapter IX


TAFT AGREEMENT


75



























































Early cancellations and unusual postmarkings.



77

























































Early cancellations and unusual postmarkings.

78
























































Early cancellations and unusual postmarkings.


79






















































Early cancellations and unusual postmarkings.



80





















































Early cancellations and unusual postmarkings.


81























































Early cancellations and unusual postmarkings.


82











































Early cancellations and unusual postmarkings.


83
























































Early cancellations and unusual postmarkings.


84














Chapter IX

TAFT AGREEMENT

United States Postmaster General H. C. Payne in his Order No. 551 dated June 2, 1904, established rates of postage and outlined conditions for the transmission of mail matter to and from "Possessions of the United States." Among other matters, the order stated thaf the Canal Zone was to be included in the term "Possessions of the United States" along with the Philippines, Guam, and other Pacific island groups, and further, that the domestic rates of postage applied. The application of these rates was effective with the Canal's first issue and the regulations and instructions of Mr. Tobey to the newly-appointed postmasters so directed.
These relatively low postal rates were immediately taken advantage of by many citizens of Panama. Governor Davis noted in his first report that, "the postal service has been a great convenience and appears to have been patronized somewhat by the merchants and other residents of Panama and Colon, who could forward their mail to the United States at the rate of 2-cent United States currency per ounce, instead of 10-cent local currency (5-cent U.S. currency) per half-ounce."
The Governor's rather mild comment discloses a situation which became quite irritating to the young Republic. With the advent of the new rates, the residents of Colon had but to walk across the street to purchase their stamps at greatly reduced rates for equivalent service and do their mailing in Cristobal. At Panama City the situation was similar with the Panama merchants and others walking over to Ancon within the Zone.
This wholly unexpected and unforeseen result was that the postal revenues which had heretofore gone to the Republic of Colombia at Bogota, but which the infant government now sorely needed for its establishment, were greatly diminished. Perhaps ninety percent of the mailing populace of Panama resided in the terminal cities of Panama City and Colon.
This situation and others of a similar nature that had developed no doubt needed immediate attention, so President Theodore Roosevelt, after consultation with the Secretary of State, sent his Secretary of War, William H. Taft, to the Isthmus to arbitrate the differences. Secretary Taft sailed from Pensacola, Fla., November 22, 1904.
Negotiations were begun immediately upon the Secretary's arrival and continued in Panama City until all questions were resolved and complete accord reached December 3, 1904. On this same date an Executive Order was issued by the Secretary of War concerning tariffs, customs, and posts. The Taft Agreement, as it affects the Postal Service, is contained in Section 7 of this Order:
The Executive Order of June 24, 1904, concerning the establishment
of post offices and postal service in the Canal Zone, is modified and
supplemented by the following provisions:
All mail matter carried in the territory of the Canal Zone, to or through


85







the Republic of Panama, to the United States and to foreign countries shall bear stamps of the Republic of Panama, properly crossed by a printed mark of the Canal Zone Government, and at rates the same as those imposed by the government of the United States upon its domestic and foreign mail matter, exactly as if the United States and the Republic of Panama for this purpose were common territory. The authorities of the Canal Zone shall purchase from the Republic of Panama such stamps as the authorities of the Canal Zone desire to use in the Canal Zone at forty per centum of their face value; but this order shall be inoperative unless the proper authorities of the Republic of Panama shall by suitable arrangement with the postal authorities of the United States provide for the transportation of mail matter between post offices on the Isthmus of Panama and post offices in the United States at the same rates as are now charged for domestic postage in-the United States; except all mail matter lawfully franked and enclosed in tfhe so-called penalty envelopes of the United States Government concerning the public business of the United States which shall be carried free, both by the governments of Panama and the Canal Zone; provided, however, that the Zone authorities may, for the purpose of facilitating the transportation of through mail between the Zone and the United States in either direction, enclose such through mail properly stamped or lawfully franked in sealed mail pouches which shall not be opened by the authorities of the Republic of Panama in transit, on condition that the cost of transportation of such mail pouches
shall be paid by the Zone government.
In commenting on the new agreement, Secretary Taft said:
In the matter of posts, having secured a reduction of the postage
between the United States and the Isthmus to two cents, it seemed wise to provide for the use of Panama rather than United States stamps, and by securing to Panama as profit forty percent of the gross receipts by the Zone authorities for postal purposes. This may be too large a concession, as far as the United States is concerned, because the posts will probably be operated at a loss within the Zone, but the reduction of the postage between the United States and Panama is a benefit of very considerable importance secured to the people of the United States. There is a general impression in the United States even now that the rate to Panama is 2 cents. Minister Barrett said that he was in receipt of a great many letters stamped with 2-cent stamps, on each of which letters he had to pay an
additional 3 cents....
The Taft Agreement continued in force until May 28, 1924, when it was abrogated by the United States effective June 1, 1924. Discussion as to the termination of the Agreement was begun as early as 1913. It was but a temporary affair to provide a workable arrangement to cover the Canal's construction period. We paid Panama, for stamps purchased under the Taft Agreement, $263,647.43, up to December 31, 1913. The figure no doubt doubled at the time the Canal Zone ceased selling Panama's stamps, June 30, 1924. This sum of money went far to bolster the early economic difficulties of the young Republic. The arrangement, however, was not a satisfactory one in connection with the rising complex relationship between the neighboring governments.
While the effective date of the Agreement's dissolution was June 1, 1924, the Panama overprints were sold in the Canal Zone post offices until June 30, 1924. At this latter date, there were still so many of these Panama overprinted stamps in the hands of Canal Zone people and organizations that in a special order, Mr. Crede H. Calhoun, Chief of the Division of Posts, directed that they be honored for postage purposes until August 31, 1924, and would thereafter become invalid.
On July 1, 1924, when the United States overprints went on sale and until August 31, 1924, the Canal Zone postal authorities thus honored both Panama and United States overprinted stamps.
86




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EKBMVA0DQ_P8VKLD INGEST_TIME 2017-03-04T00:59:30Z PACKAGE AA00048433_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES



PAGE 1

CAnAL ZOnE POSTAGE STAMPS

PAGE 3

CANAL ZONE POSTAGE STAMPS PUBLICATION OF CANAL ZONE POSTAL SERVICE CANAL ZONE GOVERNMENT BALBOA HEIGHTS, CANAL ZONE

PAGE 4

Printed at PRINTING PLANT MOUNT HOPE, C. Z. 1961 1I

PAGE 5

Gov. W. E. Potter of the Canal Zone Government hand-canceling a first day cover November 17, 1957, at the ceremonies honoring the 75th anniversary of the founding of the Gorgas Hospital and the issuance of the 3-cent commemorative stamp celebrating this day. MI

PAGE 7

FOREWORD Philately is one of our most interesting hobbies. It also has a distinct educational value. Here on the Canal Zone the stamp collector's attention is drawn to one of the richest sagas in the history of the United States, the man-made funnel through which flows the commerce of the world. The postal history and stamps of the Canal Zone Government vividly reflect the early trials, heartbreaking failures and glorious completion of the Panama Canal. These bits of postage depict the ingenious planners, scenes of their work and the determined "canal diggers" accomplishments. This booklet is an account of the birth and growth of the Canal Zone Government's postal system and its stamps. I trust it will help us to know and build upon our great heritage. W. E. POTTER, Governor. V

PAGE 9

This book, with the exception of Supplements II and III, was written for the Canal Zone Government by Edward I. P. Tatelman. Supplements II and III, covering postage stamps issued subsequent to January 1, 1960, were written and added to the original manuscript by the office of the Director of Posts. E. F. UNRUH, Director of Posts. VII

PAGE 11

CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I. Early Isthmian Communication-Mail "Via Panama. .1 II. French Efforts. 17 III. The United States Assumes Construction. .27 IV. The Canal Zone. 37 V. Establishment of First Canal Zone Post Offices .45 VI. Canal Zone's First Series. 55 VII. Postal Inspection. 65 VIII. Second Regular Series. 69 IX. Taft Agreement. 75 X. Third Regular Series. 87 XI. Fourth Regular Series. 97 XII. Fifth Regular Series. 103 XIII. Sixth Series. 111 XIV. Seventh Regular Series. 117 XV. First Postage Dues. 129 XVI. Second Series of Postage Dues. 137 XVII. Ninth Ordinary Series. 143 XVIII. Tenth Ordinary Series. 149 XIX. Eleventh Ordinary Series. 153 XX. Abrogation of the Taft Agreement. 157 XXI. An Emergency Creation. 161 XXII. Manufacture of Specially Designed Canal Zone Stamps. . 165 XXIII. Canal Zone Stamp Committee. 173 XXIV. Twelfth Series. 177 XXV. Third Postage Due Series. 189 XXVI. Fourth Postage Due Series. 195 XXVII. Thirteenth Series. 199 XXVIII. Fourteenth Series-Permanent Issue 203 XXIX. First Air Mail (Provisional) Series 229 XXX. Fifth Postage Due Series 237 XXXI. Second Air Mail Series-First Definitive 241 XXXII. Sixth Postage Due Series-First Permanent 249 XXXIII. Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Commemoratives. .255 XXXIV. Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Series-Commemorative Air Mails. 265 XXXV. Second Fractional Series. .269 XXXVI. Official Stamps .275 XXXVII. Fifteenth Permanent Series-5-Cent John F. Stevens 287 XXXVIII. Barro Colorado Commemorative-10-Cent Stamp. 295 XXXIX. "Gold Rush Centennial" Commemorative Series 3-Cent, 6-Cent, 12-Cent, and 18-Cent Stamps. 299 XL. West Indian Labor Commemorative-10-Cent Stamp 305 IX

PAGE 12

CONTENTS CHAPTER Page XLI. Second Definitive Air Mail Series-"Globe and Wing" Issue. 309 XLII. 3-Cent Stamp Commemorating 100th Anniversary of Panama Railroad 317 XLIII. Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Gorgas Hospital-3-Cent Commemorative. 325 XLIV. Sixteenth Ordinary Series-4-Cent "Ancon" Stamp 333 XLV. Theodore Roosevelt Centennial-4-Cent Commemorative Stam p 341 XLVI. Postal Stationery-Stamped Envelopes 347 XLVII. Booklet 369 XLVIII. Canal Zone Precanceled Stamps 379 XLIX. Of Postal People and Post Offices 389 L. World War I Tax Stamp Proof 397 LI. Canal Zone Railway Post Office, Seapost, and Paquebot M arkings. 403 SUPPLEMENT I. Some Canal Zone Phihatelic Flights and Fancies. .415 II. Fiftieth Anniversary of the Boy Scouts of America-4-Cent Commemorative Stamp. 431 III. Seventeenth Ordinary Series-4-Cent "Administration Building" Stamp. 437 X

PAGE 13

INTRODUCTION In recent years our postage stamps have taken on additional interests other than those for which they are created. We know that they are primarily revenue and denote receipts for money paid. When these receipts, these tiny bits of gummed paper, are attached in the correct amount to letters or packages, we are paying for expected and anticipated service to be performed by our postal service. This the employees have performed in a remarkably courteous and efficient manner considering the large volume of business handled. Today our stamps are designed with a thought to the background and the history of the stamp issuing jurisdiction. Countries place thereon pleasing scenes, flowers, buildings, and other interesting subjects. Even in as small an area as the Canal Zone there is much of great interest to all throughout the world including the stamp collector. One of the purposes of this booklet is to describe and explain the subjects shown on the stamps of the Canal Zone Government. We shall also relate some of the particulars of each issue, especially those we believe to be of general interest to everyone and including certain basic data for stamp collectors. It is not intended that this booklet be so complete in detail as to satisfy the "expert" or so-called "specialist." It shall be, however, as broad in scope as possible. Whenever possible, mention shall be made of "first days," places of issue, amounts printed, and plate numbers. If known, the designers and modelers shall be named, as well as the engravers and others engaged in the stamp's creation. Reference shall be incorporated to the many post offices on stilts along the old Panama Railroad "line" as well as the newer concrete and glass structures. As in one sense this is a story of the Canal Zone Postal Service we would of course be remiss if we did not mention the pioneers who established and the men who have administered and handled the postal needs of the Canal Zone communities. EDWARD I. P. TATELMAN XI

PAGE 15

Chapter I EARLY ISTHMIAN COMMUNICATION Mail "Via Panama" 1

PAGE 17

"VIA PANAMA"-1844 prepaid letter from Bourdeaux, France to Lima, Peru' 4via Panama." 3

PAGE 18

-11 Letter forwarded by Corwine Bros. & Co., Panama, New Granada. Amos B. Corwine was U.S. Consul at Panama and in 1848 was created Mail Agent. 4

PAGE 19

/0 4 cl. 'l '. -~ 146 \ ON Another Lima letter "Via Panama" forwarded by Smith & Lewis bearing Crown postmark "Paid at Panama." 5

PAGE 20

1414 /k Earliest known "Pan. & San Fran. S.S." letter per S.S. "Georgia," November 13, 1850. A "Pan. & San Fran. S.S." letter dated June 23, 1851 "Via Panama" addressed to the Paymaster General of the United States Army. 6

PAGE 21

PACIFIC MAIL STEAMSHIP COMPANY. FOR 4W YORK AND NEW ORLEANS, via PANVUA Departure froma SroadwSy Wharf. THE PACIFIC MAIL STEAMSHIP COMPANY'S STEAMER WIN FIELD SCOTT, 2,000 tons, SIMON F. BLUNT, Esq., commander, Will leave for PANAMA, with Passengers and the GREAT THROUGH MAIL, touching at Monterey, San Diego, and Acapulco, on Thursday Jorniug, Dee. lot, at 9 o'clock. Safety Security and Speed !-No Sickness on this Route !-Twenty-Five Miles by Railroad! The Isthmus is entirely free from Sickness of any kind, and the Cruces road thoroughly repaired. The Transit can now be made with comfort and ease in fortyeight hours. Treasure for shipment will be taken at the lowest rates, and received at the office until Wednesday Midnight, Nov. 30th. For freight or passage apply to E. FLINT, Agent, nov28' Corner of Sacramento and Leidesdorff streets. 14Ft~rC150 HWr~jL7

PAGE 22

/7 / /7n (m i~ 4' An independent line "Ahead of the Mails" cover. 8

PAGE 23

I-A C ; sT? A "Steam Panama" in an elliptical marking is seen on this cover also bearing the seal of the Consulate of the United States of America. DPi AA A letter forwarded by Adams & Co.'s Express, J. M. Freeman, their agent, April 8, 1854. 9

PAGE 24

A "Via Panama" by Royal Mail Steam Packet addressed to London and carrying the circular "South America via Panama" canceling mark. S4r, Letter addressed to Washington per "Guatemala via Panama" April 22, 1860, which was forwarded by the Hurtado Bros. of Panama. 10

PAGE 25

Letter bearing oval Pacifc Express Company Panama and Aspinwall marking. , Lettr adresed n cre f Trcy obisonat Apinall Unied tats o Cooba nMy 88 41

PAGE 26

2037 A clear example of United States postal agencies abroad is this letter bearing the postmark of the U.S. postal agency, Panama, dated December 22, 1876. Ua A Wells Fargo & Co. envelope posted at San Francisco, Calif., June 18, 1874, for Kingston, Jamaica, per "Constitution" "Via Panama." 12

PAGE 27

Chapter I EARLY ISTHMIAN COMMUNICATION Mail "Via Panama" On September 29, 1513, Vasco Ndnhez de Balboa and his bedraggled men, peering to the South and West through the early morn's mist from atop a lofty Darien peak, excitedly viewed a great expanse of water. Soon after receiving word of this discovery of the Pacific Ocean, King Ferdinand ordered that a line of posts be established from sea to sea. Thus, upon the heels of Balboa's great discovery, came into being a transisthmian system of communication. Acla, where Balboa was later beheaded, was ironically selected as the Atlantic terminus. In 1519 the terminus was changed to Nombre de Dios. A settlement was commenced at what is now known as Old Panama in August 1517 which became a city by royal decree in September 1521 and the Pacific terminus of the Camino Real. From this point westward and northward, each but a day's travel apart, were established the missions for worship, rest, and exchange of communications that eventually reached into what is now southwestern United States, including the west coast thereof. About 1534, a route by water for shallow-draft vessels was established from Nombre de Dios along the Caribbean coast and up the Chagres River to Cruces as an adjunct to the cobblestoned Transisthmian Highway. With Las Cruces on the Chagres less than 20 miles from the Pacific Ocean, it was natural that a royal decree be issued directing that this area be examined for the purpose of ascertaining the most convenient means of effecting communication between the Chagres River and the Pacific. With the ensuing negative report of Governor Pascual Andagoya this early idea of an Isthmian waterway died almost aborning. The population of the Isthmus of Panama grew and enjoyed a great era of prosperity. For 300 years its terminal cities were centers of business activity. The warehouses at Portobelo burst at their seams with goods from Europe to be exchanged for the products of Central America and South America and then there was specie from Peru also. Portobelo's trade fairs became famous the world over. And with all this business, transisthmian communications grew proportionately. At the turn of the nineteenth century,, as Spain's hold on her American empire relaxed, the prosperity of the Isthmus waned. Vessels sailed around Cape Horn and that great cobbled road across the Isthmus fell prey to tropical weather and the encroaching jungle. Local potentialities were not, however, wholly forgotten. In 1829 a Connecticut Yankee named Silas Burrows advertised monthly mail carriage to Panama via Cartagena by packet brigs from New York. It was his intention to establish a further line between Panama and Callao and develop his business with the whalers and sealers of the Pacific. Although this plan was not realized, 13

PAGE 28

it brought to light the real need for an isthmian route for communication with the Pacific. The Postmaster General of the United States wrote to the Secretary of the Navy in July 1847 asking that warships, when homeward bound, call at the Isthmus for mail. At the same time the Consul at Panama was instructed to forward letters whenever transportation was available. At the end of the year 1840, the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, chartered earlier that year, received a mail subsidy from the British Government and commenced service to South America with two steamers, the "Per"' and the "Chile." In 1842 the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company commenced operations to the Caribbean and in 1846 this line extended its mail service to the mouth of the Chagres. By cayuco up the river to Las Cruces and thence by mule to Panama City, mail service to Callao and Valparaiso was established. Thus was accomplished the first organized and regularly operated mail service from Europe to the west coast of South America via Panama. These last two words, "via Panama," in variations are to be seen on many old letters thus carried. About this same time the United States was negotiating a treaty with the Republic of New Granada concerning isthmian transit. It was concluded December 12, 1846, ratified, and proclaimed June 12, 1848. Among many matters relating to "Peace, Amity, Navigation, and Commerce" the government of New Granada gave to the citizens of the United States of America the right to enjoy exemptions, privileges, and immunities in that part of New Granada denominated the Isthmus of Panama from its southernmost extremity to the boundary of Costa Rica as if they were citizens of New Granada. This "equality of favors" was to be extended to passengers, correspondence, and merchandise of the United States in transit across this territory. The latter half of the nineteenth century saw the expansion and growth of our western frontier to the waters of the Pacific. This was followed by new industry, trade, and agriculture. Transportation to this newly-acquired area become a problem and regular means of communication a national responsibility. There were four main routes between 1850 and 1870 from the east coast of the United States to the California shores. Around Cape Horn; by rail to the Missouri River, then overland by trail and road; by way of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec across Mexico; (for a short time across Nicaragua); or by way of Panama. Many Acts of Congress were passed in the next two decades authorizing expenditures for the carriage of mail from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific and beyond via the Chagres River and across the Isthmus of Panama. One bid was received from an ex-Postmaster General who held office under both Presidents Jackson and Van Buren. He would not however assume the responsibility of transporting the mail across Panama. On April 21, 1847, one Jabez M. Woodward, in addition to his bid for Pacific coast carriage of the mails, offered to carry it from Panama to the Chagres for $5,000. 0. H. Throop offered his services for monthly transisthmian mail delivery for $2,492 and almost double that amount for fortnightly crossings. But in spite of all efforts, the United States Post Office Department, without sufficient funds, could not set up dependable mail communication between our coasts. Mail carriage on both oceans was in the hands of mail agents aboard steamers touching at the mouth of the River Chagres and Panama City. Because of the hazardous conditions, there was still no provision for transportation of mail across the Isthmus. The Pacific Mail Steamship Company finally accepted an 14

PAGE 29

extension of its Pacific Mail contract to include this Isthmus of Panama carriage for an additional $2,900 per year. Conditions, however, were still not satisfactory as this company had no permanent agent at Chagres and mail often missed steamer connections. The government of New Granada undertook the transisthmian mail service late in 1849 and Amos B. Corwine, United States Consul at Panama, was created mail agent at $500 per year. The carriage of the mail across the Isthmus, however, was let to local business firms and again delivery became a problem. From March 13, 1850, until the government of New Granada was released from its mail carrying contract, December 13, 1851, the United States paid $70,585.31 for the transportation of mail across the Isthmus. When the 49'ers began their California rush to riches, they made the Isthmus their main mode of transcontinental travel. The need of a railroad became more pressing daily and every effort was expended toward its construction. Through coastal quagmire and jungle overgrowth crews labored to overcome almost insurmountable obstacles. It has been stated that there is a dead Chinaman for each crosstie in the road. This is an exaggeration, of course, but the hastily constructed hospitals were always filled to capacity and quinine was an article of daily diet to offset the dreaded fevers. On the first of October 1851, almost a year and a half after commencement of construction at Aspinwall (now Colon), Gatun was reached-a bare 7 miles of railroad but an auspicious beginning. Steamers with passengers California bound still touched at Chagres but with passenger carriage to Gatun a fact, many of the vessels dropped anchor at Navy Bay off Aspinwall. The Post Office Department now entered into a contract with the Panama Railroad to carry mail commencing January 1, 1852 from Aspinwall to Panama. The rate was 22 cents per pound for first-class matter. With the railroad's completion on January 27, 1855, the contract was re-negotiated with the Panama Railroad agreeing to transisthmian mail service for the flat sum of $100,000 per year. With the expiration of ocean mail contracts June 30, 1860, the agreement was terminated. Thereafter the mail was carried and paid for by weight with the annual sums up to 1867 ranging from $25,000 to $37,500. When the transcontinental railroad was completed to California in 1869, much of the mail between United States coasts previously carried "via Panama" took the overland route. Vessels called less frequently at Aspinwall and the city of Panama. Communication between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts across the Isthmus lessened but did not cease. It was sort of enjoying a well-earned rest prior to greater days in the offing. "Via Panama" had played a tremendous role in linking the world and assisting in the growth of the lands bordering on the Pacific Ocean from the State of Washington to the Republic of Chile. The originators and promoters. of the Panama Railroad Company were three far-visioned and intrepid individuals; William H. Aspinwall, Henry Chauncey, and John L. Stephens. It was their undaunted belief, together with Col. J. M. Totten's tropical engineering background, that created a transisthmian railway with its way stations and ensuing settlements. Since Aspinwall played such an important part in everything pertaining to the creation of the railroad, it was decided to name the new town on Navy Bay (Bahia de los Navios) on the Atlantic side after him. The Republic of Colombia, however, thought it should be named Colon (Columbus) after the great discoverer, who incidentally careened one of his smaller vessels for scraping at the mouth of Sweetwater Rivet in Navy Bay. 15

PAGE 30

The Bogota Government steadfastly refused to honor mail sent to Aspinwall and the Colombian postal people said that mail so addressed would not be delivered. Since it was her right to name towns within her domain as she desired, Aspinwall, Colombia; Colon-Aspinwall; and Colon (Aspinwall) mail ultimately was directed to Colon, Colombia, now Colon, Republic of Panama. 16

PAGE 31

Chapter II FRENCH EFFORTS 17

PAGE 32

u a

PAGE 33

4ASPINWALL9 A Panama Railroad Co. Aspinwall letter, stampless, with a Crown cancel "Paid at Colon." An April 1892 cancel at Emperador, Canal de PanamnA. 19

PAGE 34

G);',PA 6N E UNEREE DU, CAA ITRO:NI A French Canal Company letter heading with the writer's home address as Culebra, Colombie. 20

PAGE 35

COXPAGZ EOVVS 'C Ds PAYAA 7, Rue Louis-lrand, 7 PARIS SERVICE TECHNI r"_ 6 AA -AA new Panama Canal Company letterhead in 1899. C 7-,, R Da 21 C Geor enA C? aortrampton, / IJGLAPD. "via fw ora" Letter mailed at the city of Panama bearing Canal de PanamA within the canceling circle. 21

PAGE 36

POSTAGEo STMrO HE REPUBLIC (F NICARAGUA. An official witness of the volcanic activity on the Isthlms of Nicaragua, )win t~ n eathqtakefollow'ing anl eruption of thle v olcano tob se he bakgroud harf and the locomotive (to be see in th forix 4)~athron into thlke with alaIrge qu11antity of akr of coffee, Onl 24t of~ a 4, 2,at I N1 (Iri 110I Tvr&of Gr-anada, anid JJemocra cur o wo cargua paprs.Seet Lso) Acz7 Yor1k Sun Of 12th Of -1une,12) / e Courtesy of the Christopher Columbus Library, Pan American Union, Washington, D.C. 22

PAGE 37

Chapter II FRENCH EFFORTS After his triumph in Egypt with the Suez Canal, Ferdinand de Lesseps was not one to rest upon his laurels, and they were many. Looking westward as did Christopher Columbus to that ever-challenging water passage to the South Sea, de Lesseps no doubt envisioned another canal and additional fame, one joining the stormy Atlantic with the calm Pacific. And without a questionable thought decided that it was his job by predestination. In 1877, Lt. Lucien Napoleon Bonaparte Wyse and M. Reclus of the French Navy spent some time in Panama making surveys and other pertinent examinations for the ostensible purpose of laying plans for a canal across the Isthmus. The following year at Bogot4, a concession was granted Lieutenant Wyse by the Colombian Government for the digging of a canal from the Atlantic coast along the Chagres River and valley across the divide to Panama. Things, canal-wise, really commenced to pop in France. Interest ran high. An International Canal Congress was called for May 1879, and the Panama route was adopted. La Compagnie Generale du Canal Oceanique de Panama was formed with M. de Lesseps at its head. Lieutenant Wyse's concession was purchased for 10 million francs. M. de Lesseps, his wife and three children arrived at Colon, December 30, 1879. Two days later, New Year's of 1880, on the mud flats at the mouth of the Rio Grande River, Ferdinande, M. de Lesseps' young daughter, pitched the point of a pickax in the soil of Tierra Firme and the great Canal enterprise was officially begun. Adolphe Godin de Lepinay, a talented French civil engineer, had proposed a lock-type canal impounding the Chagres River. This was essentially adopted by the Isthmian Canal Commission 26 years later. De Lesseps, based upon his Suez experience, favored a sea-level canal, much to his later consternation. Mail, bearing French stamps, addressed to the eager adventurers, commenced to arrive from those left behind. De Lesseps, upon arrival at Panama, was 70 years of age, exceptionally active, and vigorous, with convincing and smiling manners. His confidence was great, and there was no doubt regarding the sincerity of his efforts. Unfortunately, he did not possess the administrative abilities necessary to accomplish so great and difficult a work. He was easily imposed upon, wrongly advised, and lacked the practical knowledge to overcome the many newer obstacles which he did not have to meet at the Suez. Mistakes were many, money was squandered, and work improperly supervised. M. de Lesseps personally toured the world in attempts to raise subscribers to enable him to continue the project. It was apparently good money after bad, no sooner raised than spent. Indifference, incompetence, and greed spelled failure. On December 14, 1888, the Compagnie Universelle went into receivership. 23

PAGE 38

News of the French failure numbed the Isthmus. More than 20,000 West Indian laborers were thrown into confusion. Their means of subsistence gone, and no way to get home. Some stayed. With a land so fertile there was no fear of starvation. Most, however, were repatriated in whatever floating equipment could be chartered. To this day, rusty machinery, buried dump trucks, buckets, scoops, and other French equipment is still turned up close to the Mindi Dairy by the Boy Scouts in "the graveyard of France's past ambitions." Down perhaps, but not out, the French formed a new canal organization in 1894 called the Compagnie Nouvelle du Canal de Panama. Old excavators were repaired, machinery cleared of mud and oiled, and again digging commenced. Operations in Culebra Cut were continued with a few cubic yards of dirt moved daily. But it became evident that the object of the renewed efforts was solely to retain the concessions granted by Colombia until the United States became the willing customer of all French rights and equipment. That is, if Congress would cease debating the question and make up its mind as to the canal route to follow-Nicaragua or Panama. Too, the price had to be right. The French asked $109,141,500. Admiral Walker's commission, after due investigation, thought $40,000,000 was right. On May 9th, 1900, the House of Representatives passed a bill authorizing the construction of a canal at Nicaragua. The Senate defeated this by a bare handful of votes. And thus it see-sawed, with President McKinley's death adding to the confusion of selecting the canal site. In the meanwhile, no terms could be reached with Colombia regarding control of a strip of land across the Isthmus. One can well imagine the "behind-the-door" lobbying to gain favor for one route or the other. The Mount Pelee volcanic disaster and propaganda to the effect that Momotombo was rumbling brought the earthquake question into the argument. Nicaragua's President cabled denials that Momotombo was active. Bunau-Varilla, to whom the success of the Panama route became an obsession, visited stamp dealers purchasing as many Nicaraguan stamps as he could depicting Momotombo in an active state. He pasted one on a printed price of paper carrying the words "An official witness to the volcanic nature of Nicaragua." These sheets bearing their self-serving testimony found their way to the hands of each member of the United States Congress. It was a very timely and colorful bit of propaganda. Its influence upon our legislators is questionable. Stamp collectors, however, take note of the fact that a stamp played a part in the canal-site selection. From the time that the great Liberator Sim6n Bolivar paved the way to independence for many Central and South American countries in the early 19th century, Panama had tried several different forms of government. In 1903 it was a department or state in the Republic of Colombia. Far removed from the seat of government at Bogota, it always felt itself out of touch and mind with the center of officialdom. Aggrieved, restless, and dissatisfied with being left out in the cold during all the canal negotiations, and for other reasons, the Department of Panama did not hide its feelings. While Colombia was playing hot and cold in its negotiations with the United States for a canal territorial grant, a strong group of Panama nationals felt that if Panama were free, all of the $10,000,000 which the United States was offering Colombia, as well as the proposed annual payment of $250,000 would be 24

PAGE 39

Panama's to do with as she wished. It certainly appeared as if a revolution was brewing. The Bogota Government had received warning after warning that Panama would act unless Colombia did something to provide for the canal's construction. On November 3, 1903, under the leadership of Dr. Manuel Amador Guerrero, the Department of Panama declared itself independent of Colombia. The bloodless revolution was successful. President Theodore Roosevelt promptly recognized the new government. Bunau-Varilla was named Panama's first Minister to Washington. He and Secretary of State Hay signed a treaty which the Senate of the United States immediately ratified. The French Canal Company received its $40,000,000 and the United States assumed the momentous task of completing the Panama Canal. 25

PAGE 41

Chapter III THE UNITED STATES ASSUMES CONSTRUCTION 27

PAGE 43

r As r >> >>.>v3-' laJ 2'93 + "3> y 3+ 29

PAGE 44

# -, 44
PAGE 45

Chapter III THE UNITED STATES ASSUMES CONSTRUCTION The American dream, then the realization of becoming the constructors of the Canal linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, was something to excite every citizen of the United States. Impatience and urgency to commence the task spread from Washington to the most remote and smallest town in the country. President Theodore Roosevelt did not waste any time in appointing the Isthmian Canal Commission after the signing of the treaty between the United States and Panama on November 18, 1903. This Commission was to function under the authority of the War Department. In a letter to the Commission from the White House dated March 8, 1904, he said, in part, "I have appointed you . to undertake the most important and also the most formidable engineering feat that has hitherto been attempted. You are to do a work which, . will reflect high honor upon this nation, . will be of incalculable benefit, not only to this nation, but to civilized mankind. "It (the work) is to be done as expeditiously as possible, and as economically as is consistent with thoroughness . "You will take measures to secure the best medical experts for this purpose (sanitation and hygiene) . "The plans are to be carefully made with a view to the needs not only of the moment, but of the future . "You are to secure the best talent . "What this nation will insist upon is that results be achieved." This letter was read at the first meeting of the Commission held in the Corcoran Building, Washington, D.C., March 22, 1904, and a copy ordered made for and delivered to each member. The Commission was composed of Adm. J. G. Walker, U.S.N., Chairman, who brought to the Board a background of Canal survey work in Nicaragua and Panama and a rugged leadership; Maj. Gen. George W. Davis, U.S.A. (retired) who had headed the difficult organization of government in Puerto Rico after the Spanish-American War; Benjamin Harrod, William H. Burr, William Barclay Parsons, and Carl Ewald Grunsky, outstanding civil engineers; and Frank J. Hecker, business consultant. S. E. Redfern was appointed temporary secretary. These gentlemen, impelled to action, met in Washington daily from early morning to late afternoon. Many were the views expressed and varied matters debated, discussed, approved, or tabled. One thought which received unanimous approval upon being voiced was that a trip to the Isthmus of Panama to view the property purchased was imperative. Arrangements for the voyage were immediately made and the Commission sailed from New York on the Panama Railroad steamship, "Allianca," March 29, 1904. 31

PAGE 46

Prior to sailing it was agreed to seek the services of Col. William Crawford Gorgas of Cuba fame as a sanitary and hygiene expert and to have him accompany the Commission to Panama. No better choice for the difficult job could have been made. Drs. Louis A. La Garde, noted medical administrator, and John W. Ross, M.C., U.S.N., were also employed. The latter was an expert in the field of yellow fever and malaria, which had done so much to defeat the French efforts. Continuing with their meetings aboard the "Allianca," the Commission decided to employ a chief engineer. John F. Wallace, a prominent and highly respected railroad engineer, was tendered the office and accepted it May 5, 1904. The arrival of the Commission at Colon, April 5, 1904, was a shattering experience. Thousands of people were living in termite-eaten shanties on stilts. Rickety boardwalks laid on mire, made each step taken thereon a hazardous one. Squalor and filth made an incredible sight. Cristobal, a peninsula at the south end of Front Street, constructed from fill by the French, stood in comparative clean contrast. Here was situated the French Administration Building, close behind the present Pier 10, a hotel, and some residences on clean, palm-lined causeways. After setting up headquarters in the French resident director's home, arrangements were made to view the "dig." Abandoned labor camps and sleepy townsites were passed along the Panama Railroad "line" and again the sight beheld by the Commission members was a most discouraging one with abandoned dredges, rust-eaten machinery, warehouses all heaped with wasted and rotted supplies. At the city of Panama, which was comparatively genteel, clean, and cosmopolitan, a most cordial reception was given the party by the president of the newly formed Republic, Dr. Manuel Amador Guerrero. To the Commission was expressed every good wish for the success of the great undertaking. Many ensuing visits were paid to the various abandoned French projects and sites for the purpose of assessing their value for future undertakings. The Alhajuela and Gamboa Saddle Dams were traversed, a trip through Culebra made, the machine shop at Bohio surveyed, a repair shop and spoil dump at Tabernilla seen, the labor camp at San Pablo surveyed, and the Las Cascadas engine shops and round houses and the huge Gorgona repair shops were inspected. Although there was considerable evidence of spoilage, waste, and extravagance, there was much to be said to the advantage of the original enterprise and efforts of the French. Almost two-fifths of Culebra had been dug, a beautiful hospital reposed high on Ancon Hill; and closer scrutiny of the yards and warehouses revealed much equipment which could be salvaged. There was also the Panama Railroad Company, by no means the least of the assets without which the Canal could not have been dug. Added to these were the multitudinous heaps and files of plans, maps and drawings covering years of research. Our government did not buy a white elephant. While on the Isthmus, the Commission continued its meetings at the offices of the resident director, and these were attended by Maj. William Black and Lt. Mark Brooke, Corps of Engineers, U.S.A., who were on the Isthmus. The Commission departed from Colon for the United States on the S.S. "Yucatin," April 20th. The physical features of the line of the Canal had been inspected and points of important works especially noted. It was decided that organized field parties would be employed for additional study with stress upon the importance of thoroughness. 32

PAGE 47

Convening in their new rooms at the Evening Star Building, Washington, the Commission met again May 4, 1904. In an undramatic and calm, business-like voice, Chairman Walker announced the receipt of the following telegram: Panama, May 4, 1904 Isthmian, Washington: Property taken over seven thirty this morning. BROOKE. There is no record of the response of the other members of the Commission, who were in full attendance, to this cryptic and important message. No excitement, no enthusiasm, no acclaim or flag-waving. Instead, and in his usual manner, Chairman Admiral Walker prepared and sent to Lieutenant Brooke a cablegram, as follows: Isthmian, Colon: Continue organization and work, present compensation. General D1wis and paymaster, with funds. Sail tenth. WALKER. The United States was now dedicated to complete the great task undertaken 25 years earlier and left unfinished. Many reports were received by the Commission and many resolutions adopted, all with regard to organization and better and quicker means of tackling the enormous job. Sanitation of the Canal Zone, so sorely needed, was in the expert hands of Colonel Gorgas. General Davis was directed and empowered to use the employees on the Isthmus to the best advantage and to employ and fix the compensation of whatever additional help was needed to expeditiously and properly continue the work. He was also authorized to purchase such materials and supplies as needed. A committee consisting of Commissioners Burr and Grunsky were authorized to employ engineers, surveyors, and assistants and to provide their necessary equipment. At the Commission's meeting of May 16, 1904, the Chairman announced that Maj. Gen. Geo. W. Davis and party, consisting of Maj. W. M. Black, Corps of Engineers, U.S.A. Ernest Lagarde, Jr., at salary of $2,000 per year. E. C. Tobey, Paymaster, U.S.N., at $3,700 per year. Richard L. Sutton, M.D., U.S.N. Mason E. Mitchel, stenographer, at $125 per month. Geo. Reynolds Shanton, at $150 per month. Chas. L. Stockelberg, at $100 per month, and Jeremiah Corcoran at $100 per month. had sailed May 10th, 1904, for Colon on the "City of Washington." In a letter to Secretary of War William Howard Taft, May 9, 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt outlined the Convention and Acts of Congress leading up to the acquisition of the property of the New Panama Canal Company, a description thereof, and a delineation of the lands and waters granted by the Republic of Panama. The President stated that under the Act of Congress approved April 28, 1904, the payment to the Republic of Panama of the $10,000,000 as stipulated in the Canal Convention had been made, and the New Panama 33

PAGE 48

Canal Company had received the $40,000,000 agreed upon as the purchase price of all its rights and properties. In the name of the United States of America, he was thus authorized to take possession of and occupy the zone of land and land under water at the Isthmus of Panama to a width of 10 miles, "extending to the distance of 5 miles on each side of the central line of the route of the Canal . This is the area which became known as and is still called the Canal Zone. The Isthmian Canal Commission was charged with the active prosecution of the digging, construction, and completion of the Canal and to assist in the creation and organization of a government protecting the inhabitants in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property, and religion. The laws of the land which were in existence February 26, 1904, were to be continued in force. Recounting the great principles of government necessary as the very basis to our existence as a nation and deemed essential to the rule of law and the maintenance of order, the President decreed that the first amendments to our Constitution be given full force and effect in the Canal Zone. Under the supervision and the direction of the Secretary of War, subject to the limitations of law and the conditions contained in the President's letter, the isthmian Canal Commission was authorized: a. To legislate on all rightful subjects not inconsistent with the laws and treaties of the United States. b. To raise and appropriate revenues. Since the sale of postage stamps is a means of revenue collection, thisis no doubt the initial and enabling source of authority for Canal Zone postage stamps. c. To enact sanitary ordinances. It was the desire of the President that every possible effort be made to protect the workmen, to obliterate yellow fever and malaria, and banish other fatal diseases as far as possible. d. To establish a civil service. e. To make all needed surveys, borings, designs, plans, and specifications of the engineering and other works required and to supervise the execution of them. f. To make and cause to be executed all necessary contracts. g. To acquire lands essential and needed for the excavation and completion of the canal. h. To establish a proper and comprehensive system of accounting and bookkeeping, and of more than little importance i. To make requisition on the Secretary of War for funds as needed from time to time. No group or body of men embarking upon any enterprise had a more clear-cut definition of the work to be done nor greater authority to do it. Maj. Gen. George W. Davis, U.S.A. (retired), a member of the Commission who had already visited the Isthmus of Panama, was appointed Governor of the Isthmian Canal Zone. He was to assume full executive authority in the name of the President of the United States, see that the laws were faithfully executed, that possession of the territory was maintained, and if necessary in the event of sudden exigency to call upon the military to render assistance. Due to transfers and resignations there were many changes in the membership of the Isthmian Canal Commissions. Because some of the Commissioners are subjects used on the Canal Zone's definitive stamps these changes are recorded. The first Commission appointed by President Roosevelt after purchase of the New French Canal Company was the one heretofore listed and headed by Rear Adm. John G. Walker, U.S.N. (retired). The second Isthmian Canal Commission was appointed April 1, 1905, with Theodore P. Shonts, Chairman; Chas. R. Magoor, Governor of the Canal Zone; 34

PAGE 49

John F. Wallace, Chief Engineer; Rear Adm. Mordecai T. Endicott, Brig. Gen. Peter C. Hains, Col. Oswald H. Ernst, and Benjamin M. Harrod of the first Commission. John F. Stevens was appointed Chief Engineer succeeding Mr. Wallace June 30, 1905, became a member June 30, 1906, and later became Chairman, succeeding Mr. Shonts, on March 4, 1907. Jackson Smith and Colonel Gorgas became members February 14, 1907; Col. George W. Goethals, March 4, 1907; Maj. David DuBois Gaillard, Maj. William L. Sibert, and Adm. H. H. Rousseau, March 16, 1907. The third Isthmian Canal Commission was appointed April 1, 1907. The members were Col. George W. Goethals, now Chairman and Chief Engineer, Lt. Col. W. L. Sibert, Maurice H. Thatcher, Rear Adm. H. H. Rousseau, Lt. Col. David DuBois Gaillard, Lt. Col. H. F. Hodges, and Col. W. C. Gorgas. Jackson Smith resigned September 14, 1908, and Richard L. Metcalfe was added August 9, 1913. This committee as a whole functioned until the passage of the Panama Canal Act of 1912 with the members acting as a sort of staff to Colonel Goethals, the Chairman. Colonel Gorgas' labors to make and keep the Canal Zone healthy had begun in May 1904. Many were his discouragements. Delays in ordering supplies and in the delivery of medicines and equipment, were indeed disheartening. Despite the fact that three-quarters of the Isthmian populace appeared to be infected with malaria, his relentless fight against the mosquito was finally won. The last case of yellow fever was reported in May 1906. A standing reward of fifty dollars was offered to any employee of the Health Department reporting a case in any section of the Zone. After that date it went unclaimed. The battle against malaria, a bit tougher, was also won. Although the menace was not entirely eradicated, systematic fumigation, clearing of ditches and drains, spraying of streams, cutting of brush and weeds, screening of homes, and a supply of quinine to all who desired it reduced malaria to an extent that compared favorably with the United States. The quinine cocktail became a daily drink and habit at all Isthmian Canal Commission government-operated hotels and clubhouses. All America was proud of the great triumph of health over disease and the wonderful job accomplished by Colonel Gorgas and his workers. When General Davis first inspected the Canal after it was taken over from the New French Canal Company, there were less than 200 employees on the payroll. With a preliminary outline of the immediate work ahead, it was quickly apparent that this meager force had to be augmented in great numbers. Engineers, doctors, nurses, artificers of all classes and types, and thousands of ordinary but exalted ditch diggers, had to be employed, and quickly. The call went out and its echo resounded throughout the world. Thousands of young, eager, adventure-seeking men applied and soon were Isthmian-bound. Americans, West Indians, Spaniards and men of other European countries. Working conditions, as has been noted, were not of the best. The housing was poor, sanitary conditions bad, recreation facilities practically nil, and there were more saloons than churches and schools. Many an employee, even the boldest, took one look at his surroundings upon landing and inquired about the departure of the next vessel. American ingenuity and money soon speedily devised and supplied healthful recreation and other needs. As hastily as they could be arranged for and con35

PAGE 50

structed came the hospitals with free medical care, schools, police and fire protection, chapels along the line of construction, courts, barracks, and houses for families. Clubhouses were set up and managed by the YMCA upon the suggestion of President Roosevelt. These government-built recreation centers had billiard rooms, bowling alleys, gyms, libraries, soda fountains, and sponsored basketball and baseball teams. Town bands were organized among the employees, and orchestras to play for Saturday night dancing. An employee soon enjoyed everything, or nearly everything, he had back home. Despite all that was being done to make life pleasant for the newly-arrived canal digger, there was still one facility lacking. That branch of service which could take some of the lonesomeness out of one's life. That which could add a smile and pleasure to his daily work. The receipt of mail from home, for the postal service of the Republic of Panama had ceased operating on the Zone. So on June 20, 1904, Governor Davis dispatched a cable to Rear Adm. John G. Walker, Chairman of Isthmian Canal Commission, Washington, D.C., urging the immediate establishment of a postal service within the Canal Zone. 36

PAGE 51

Chapter IV THE CANAL ZONE 37

PAGE 53

Mr. Henry L. Donovan, Civil Affairs Director, Canal Zone Government, and under whom the Canal Zone postal system functions, delivering a first day cover with the Gorgas Hospital Commemorative stamp thereon to Gov. W. E. Potter of the Canal Zone Government, November 17, 1957. 39

PAGE 54

CA RIO, A0rQ co 5J.A A N N d -A-rraoruja' htert t so Tian A 40 ISTMIN ANA GOMS5 Area o Getu".,ke r balos A CAL' Marli ,~p 40

PAGE 55

Chapter IV THE CANAL ZONE The Canal Zone, extending 5 miles on each side of the channel axis, encompasses an area of approximately 553 square miles, with Gatun Lake, until recently the world's largest man-made body of water, covering 163 square miles. From deep water in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific, the Canal is 50 miles long and ranges in width from 500 to 1,000 feet. Directionally, it runs from northwest to southeast, with Cristobal on the Atlantic side being 33.5 miles north and 27 miles west of Balboa on the Pacific. Because of the gooseneck shape of the Isthmus, the sun appears to be performing astronomical back flips by rising in the Pacific Ocean and setting in the Atlantic. A vessel's transit, north to south, commences at the Cristobal breakwater. Here the ship is met by customs, quarantine, immigration, and other officials and under the guidance of a pilot, commences passage. It is 6 miles to the first set of locks at Gatun and about a mile before reaching them can be seen the old French Cut diagonally crossing the present canal. Cut through a wild root-spreading mangrove swamp, it is not difficult to see many of the backbreaking hardships of the early railroad pioneers and the Canal diggers. Proceeding southward, Gatun Locks is the first of the three twin sets of locks transited. A vessel is raised or lowered 85 feet in three steps. Each lock chamber is 1,000 feet long and 110 feet wide. The average canal transit requires 52,000,000 gallons of water. As a vessel approaches the lock's walls, cables are taken aboard from small electric locomotives called "mules," running on cogs. The "mule" operator, in answer to hand signals from the pilot, holds the vessel in place and tows the ship through the chambers. It is indeed a strange experience when aboard to see your ship being raised a little more than 28 feet in each of 3 flights-a water escalator on a grand scale. To the right of Gatun Locks can be seen the mile and a half long earth, dam and spillway holding the Chagres River waters. It is the valley of this river which is followed for 23% miles to Gamboa. This is the northern end of the Culebra Cut of construction days where the dike was blown permitting the water to fill the huge earthen cleavage. Today it is called Gaillard Cut in honor of Col. David DuBois Gaillard, C.E., U.S.A., the engineer who had charge of this difficult excavation task. This is where the "oldtimers" made the dirt fly and where one can appreciate the enormity of the job so well done. Just prior to reaching the Pedro Miguel Locks, one passes Gold Hill on the left, the highest point along the Cut with Contractors' Hill on the right. Beside both of these hills in the past, earth movements have resulted in slides temporarily curtailing passage. With cutting, sluicing and dredging, the slopes have gradually been cut back and passage is now unimpeded. At the southern end of Gaillard Cut the one step Pedro Miguel Locks lowers a vessel southbound 31 feet to Miraflores Lake. This small body of water, a mile 41

PAGE 56

wide, brings us to the Miraflores Locls of 2 steps, the last in the series, and then out into the sea-level reach taking us to the Balboa inner harbor 3 miles away. Passing Sosa Hill with its ball and cone signals displayed, it is now but 5 miles to the Pacific sea buoy and another daily, commonplace, silent, efficient, and safe transit has been made in about 8 hours. In 1903 the newly-created Republic of Panama by treaty granted the United States in perpetuity the use, occupation, and control of a zone of land and land under water for the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation, and protection of the Canal. This zone was to be of a width of 10 miles extending to a distance of 5 miles on each side of the center line of the Canal, beginning in the Caribbean Sea 3 marine miles from mean low watermark, and extending to and across the Isthmus into the Pacific Ocean to a distance of 3 marine miles from mean low watermark, excluding the cities of Panama and Colon and the harbors adjacent to such cities. Within this zone, the United States was granted all the rights, power, and authority which it would possess and exercise if it were the sovereign of the territory within which the zone is located, to the entire exclusion of the exercise by the Republic of Panama of any such sovereign rights, power, or authority. The Canal's construction, after the earlier failure, and successful operation after its opening August 15, 1914, was made possible by this early mutually satisfactory and beneficial treaty. It has brought commercial, economic, and trade advantages to all. The primary object and purpose of the Canal is to afford a dependable, uninterrupted, efficient transit of vessels. This is of vital concern not alone to the maritime interests of the world; but in a lesser degree to those on the Zone whose livelihood and general welfare are dependent upon these transits. Operationally, there is the pilot force and marine traffic controllers aids to navigation, docks and cargo handling, dredging, power plants, lock control and operations, and many other involved agencies. Although not directly connected with ships' transits, but nevertheless essential in the over-all operation, was the establishment of government within the Canal Zone. This included municipal services such as police and fire protection, housing, retail stores, and any and all facilities found in a going modern community of approximately 40,000 people. The Spooner Act of 1902, among other things, called for the creation of the Isthmian Canal Commission which was the governing body during construction days. This was supplanted in April 1914 by the Panama Canal Act. Under this law an independent governmental agency was established called The Panama Canal. This organization included both the operation and maintenance of the Canal and the civil government within the Canal Zone. The Panama Railroad Company, an adjunct of The Panama Canal, was charged with handling not only its own steamship and railway affairs but most of the business matters conducted by and related to the Canal. The Panama Railroad Company was made a Federal Government Corporation in 1948. On July 1, 1951, under the provisions of Public Law 841, all Canal operations were transferred to the Panama Railroad Company and it was renamed the Panama Canal Company. At the same time, the civil government functions of The Panama Canal were consolidated and molded into a unit known as the Canal Zone Government. There are thus two parts to the present organization, the Canal Zone Govern42

PAGE 57

ment and the Panama Canal Company. Regardless of how many times the Congress may change the names, the purpose of its existence since the last shovelful of dirt was thrown into a dump car and fhe Cut filled with water, is still to move ships from one ocean to the other. Both operating units are headed by a single individual who is Governor of the Canal Zone and President of the Panama Canal Company. The President of the United States appoints the Governor, subject to confirmation by the Senate, and he is ex officio President of the Panama Canal Company. The Panama Canal Company operates as a self-sustaining corporate body. Among its obligations are its own operating expenses, the net cost of civil government, and interest and depreciation charges on the United States Government's investment in the Canal. To meet these financial obligations, the law provides a formula for the establishment of the rate of tolls for vessels using the Canal. This is done on a net tonnage basis on each 100 cubic feet of shipping space usable for revenue purposes. Merchant vessels pay 90 cents a ton for laden ships and 72 cents a ton for ships in ballast. The average vessel usually pays between $4,500 and $5,000 for transit. The Secretary of the Army is designated Stockholder of the Panama Canal Company, and he appoints a Board of Directors of 13 members, the managing body of the corporation. The Canal Zone Government, as an independent government agency, is under the direct supervision of the President of the United States who has delegated this authority to the Secretary of the Army. It operates on appropriated funds, although the net cost of its operation is returned to the United States Treasury by the Panama Canal Company. The operations of the Canal Zone Government differ little in its effect on home and community life from the results of the governing authority of the average United States town. The Government performs the usual and normal functions of both State and city. These include a public school system from kindergarten to junior college, public health, hospitals, and sanitation, courts, police and fire protection, public roads; immigration and customs, and far from the least of public services, the postal system, post offices and postage stamps. Within the Canal Zone Government structure, the postal administration, headed by a Director of Posts, functions under the Director, Bureau of Civil Affairs. The latter reports directly to the Governor of the Canal Zone. 43

PAGE 59

Chapter V ESTABLISHMENT OF FIRST CANAL ZONE POST OFFICES 45

PAGE 60

/ 44 FAr vi The~~~Caa Zone Post Office-L Bocaapeaedi 19 04 we esge saps office in 1904, made use of an old French Canal Company dwelling. 48

PAGE 61

Chapter V ESTABLISHMENT OF FIRST CANAL ZONE POST OFFICES The receipt and local distribution of mail on the Canal Zone as well as its dispatch was a recognized must if the "canal diggers" arriving in 1904 were to remain and be kept happy. Although the establishment of post offices was but one of the myriads of problems facing the first Canal administration, it was nevertheless of such importance as to cause Gen. George W. Davis to cable Admiral Walker on June 20, 1904, as follows: Isthmian, Washington: Must immediately institute a mail service upon Zone. Have appointed acting postmasters Cristobal, Gatun, Bohio, Gorgona, Bas Obispo, Empire, Culebra, La Boca, Ancon, which should be officially designated United States post offices. Cristobal and Ancon money order. Request Post Office Department and Superintendent Posts report to me with equipment, blanks, instructions, supply of United States postage stamps surcharged Canal Zone, Panama. I send names of postmasters by mail Wednesday. DAVIS. The contents of this cable were included in a letter sent to Admiral Walker from Culebra the same day. In this letter, Governor Davis elaborated upon the bleakness of the postal situation thus: The necessity of putting our postal service on its feet is, of course, pressing as the postal service of the Republic has ceased in the Zone. For sometimes past I have been having the baggage agents on the trains deliver official mail to our several stations, but now I must handle the mail of the people who inhabit the Zone. As a matter of immediate and pressing necessity that mail will be carried if it is simply franked so that the name of the sender can be identified, for we have no postage stamps for present use. I saw in a press dispatch a few days ago a statement to the effect that the Post Office Department had decided to establish U.S. mail service on the Zone. The plan in view at present is to utilize the railroad station agents as postmasters in most cases. They have houses and means for taking care of their business and time enough to attend to it. Of course, later on it will be necessary to have separate postmasters, but they can manage it for the present. That there should be two money order offices here goes without saying. Ancon, it seems to me, is a suitable name for the Canal establishment that must grow up on the slope of Ancon (probably encompassing Quarry Heights and Balboa Heights) and including La Boca, and Cristobal is a suitable name for the new port at the Colon end of the Canal, and these are the two money order offices that I have in mind. 47

PAGE 62

I hope no time will be lost in establishing the United States postal service, as it will take some time to get stamps printed, and as it would probably not be proper to issue United States stamps for the Zone at first, until we have legislation, we could overcome the difficulty by having a supply of United States stamps surcharged with the words "Canal Zone," and then accounts can be kept separate. If the United States proposes to operate this postal service separate and distinct from the Zone, well and good, I have no objection, of course, and in that case they will not come under my control. Respectfully, (sgd) GEORGE W. DAVIS, Governor. Since postal service rendered by the Republic of Panama had come to an end and the Canal Zone had not yet established its own, it has been a mystery as to the manner of this letter's dispatch, the stamps it bore, and how postmarked. It appears that the only post offices maintained by the Republic of Panama from Colon to Panama across the Isthmus at this time were those at the terminal cities. Two employees of these post offices, the brothers Ezequiel and Mateo Ayala, were charged with carrying the mail between these cities and were authorized to accept "any loose letters" handed to them along the line. There is no indication as to whether or not they rode the trains of the Panama Railroad together or in opposite directions. They were the pioneer counterparts of our railway mail clerks. On June 21, 1904, Governor Davis sent a follow-up to Chairman Walker in which he named those selected to act as postmasters and their offices. Ancon. FERNANDO GUTIERREZ Culebra E. A. PALMER Empire. ALEXANDER GENETEAU La Boca J. ST. CLAIR HUNT Bohio. MANUEL DOMINGO ABELLO Gorgona. HENRY SAWLEY Matachin. JOSEPH DUNCAN EDWARDS Gatun. PEDRO CORRERA V. Cristobal .IsAAC CAMPBELL Since this listing of proposed post offices in the cable of the 20th, it was discovered that Bas Obispo had no railroad agent so Matachin within a short distance of this point on the Chagres River was designated in its place. An immediate change of postmasters at Ancon occurred even before the first named had an opportunity to serve. Julio Quijano was appointed vice Fernando Guti6rrez. There was little difficulty in bonding the postmasters as all were working for the Panama Railroad Company and most were already under bond. Governor Davis decried the laxness and inefficiency of handling mail up to this time. He stated that the system of the local government which carried on the mail service was very primitive and unsatisfactory. This could be ascribed to the fact that Panama having established its independence from Colombia less than a year before hardly had an opportunity to organize its own postal system. A mail carrier passed over the "line" (Panama Railroad) each way once a day, carrying on his person any letters that were for delivery. These letters he handed to the policeman at the stations where the train stopped, and the policeman attended to the delivery of the letters, if he could find the person addressed. In some cases, when the policeman was not at hand, the mail was left on the platform for anybody to come and help 48

PAGE 63

himself as he pleased. Of course, all that business has to stop. I shall establish a system of waybills and receipts for packages of mail matter delivered at the different points, and hold the agent responsible for the delivery of the mail, but, until postage stamps are available, I shall not attempt to make any collections of payment for carrying or delivering letters. Negotiations were immediately begun between Governor Davis of the Canal Zone and His Excellency Tomis Arias, Minister of Government for the Republic of Panama, for the purpose of securing postage stamps from the Republic of Panama for the Canal Zone's temporary use. With President Amador Guerrero's approval, Mr. Arias proposed to furnish Panama stamps surcharged "C.Z." in such quantities as may be required for 20 percent of their face value in gold. As Colombian currency which the Panama stamps carried was worth only half of United States money, the cost of the stamps was actually 40 percent of their shown value in silver. "Face" was in pesos and centavos of the Colombian monetary system. Since Colombian currency was exchanged at the rate of two to one, silver for gold, it appears that the stamps were actually offered at 40 percent "face" of silver value. Mr. E. C. Tobey, Paymaster, U.S.N., and Chief of Materials and Accounts, personally handled the negotiating for Governor Davis. As it was the Governor's desire that mail facilities in the Canal Zone be developed without further delay and believing that the Panama proposition was reasonable, Mr. Tobey recommended to the Governor that the authorities of Panama be communicated with at once and that arrangements be concluded for the overprinting of the stamps and their delivery. Confirming the verbal arrangements made by Mr. Tobey, Governor Davis in a letter to Mr. Arias of June 23, 1904, expressed his gratification for the offered use of Panama's stamps until such time as stamps of the United States might be provided for use in the Canal Zone. He then asked for stamps in the following denominations: $500 in 10-cent stamps, $400 in 5-cent stamps, and $100 in 2-cent stamps. This interchangeable monetary designation can be confusing unless we keep in mind that a Colombian silver peso was worth 50 cents in our gold dollar system and their centavo half of our cent. His Excellency Mr. Arias was asked to direct that each of the stamps be surcharged with the words CANAL ZONE so that their use could be controlled and limited to the Zone itself. It was understood that as soon as the postage stamps of the United States were supplied from Washington, any of the Panama stamps unsold would be returned. To lend authenticity to the exchange of letters between the Canal Zone and Washington, Secretary of War William Howard Taft issued an order by the direction of the President on June 24, 1904, establishing the nine post offices heretofore named and specifying the duties of the Governor with relation to postal matters. The towns "Crystobal" and "Boheo" were incorrectly spelled but properly changed to "Cristobal" and "Bohio" within a few days. Creating Cristobal and Ancon money order offices, the Secretary went on: The Governor of the Canal Zone is hereby authorized to appoint postmasters for the post offices herein established and fix compensation thereof, subject to the approval of the Isthmian Canal Commission. The Governor of the Canal Zone is directed to formulate a plan for a practical and efficient postal service in said Canal Zone, and including such measures and provisions of the postal service of the United States as are not inapplicable to the conditions of law and fact existing in the 49

PAGE 64

Canal Zone, and to report said plan to the Chairman of the Isthmian Canal Commission for such action as the discretion of the Commission shall approve. Pending establishment of the postal service by act of the Commission or other competent authority, the Governor of the Canal Zone is hereby authorized to establish post offices at such additional places in the Canal Zone as in his judgment the interests of the public require, and to appoint postmasters therefor and fix their compensation, subject to the approval or other action thereon by the Isthmian Canal Commission. The Governor was also authorized to adopt and enforce such temporary regulations and to employ such assistants as the exigencies of the service required. Then on June 24, 1904, at the Executive Office, Culebra, Canal Zone, Gov-. ernor Davis issued the following order: Paymaster E. C. Tobey, U.S.N., Treasurer of the Canal Zone, is charged with the work of establishment and operation of the Postal Service in the Canal Zone. He will issue instructions from time to time as may be necessary. All postmasters, mail messengers and mail superintendents will report to Paymaster Tobey. The accompanying notice is published for the information of all concerned. It will be posted in a conspicuous place in each post office. (sgd) GEORGE W. DAVIS, Governor. Paymaster Tobey, it is recalled, accompanied Governor Davis in the latter's second visit to the Isthmus, May 14, 1904, on the S.S. "City of Washington." His job of establishing and operating the postal service on the Zone was but one of many duties as Treasurer and Chief of Materials and Supplies. He was a veteran of the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection, and later of World War I. In the Philippines he assisted in the Islands' fiscal organization. He was with the Panama Canal organization until late in 1905. After retiring from the Navy as a captain in 1921, he became president of the United States Claims Commission in Great Britain, later a vice president of the United American Steamship Lines, and then president of the Merritt-Chapman & Scott Corporation. He died July 16, 1932. Governor Davis' notice stated that a temporary arrangement with the Republic of Panama had been made for the use of Panama stamps surcharged CANAL ZONE. The populace was warned not to purchase more of those stamps than were required for immediate use, as, after receipt of the United States stamps, those of the Republic of Panama, surcharged CANAL ZONE, would not be valid, either for use within the Canal Zone or for redemption. The notice continues: Postal rates, in Panama stamps surcharged as above, at their nominal value in Colombian silver, will be as follows: Domestic matter, including mail for the United States and its possessions-Guam, Philippine Islands, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Tutuila, Canal Zone; also to Canada, Cuba, Mexico and Republic of Panama. 1st Class-Letters and all sealed matter, five cents (40 percent of this figure would be 2-cents gold) for each ounce (30 grammes) or fraction. There were additional provisions for newspapers, miscellaneous printed matter, foreign mail, and packets. Paymaster Tobey, in getting the service under way, was out on the "line" on 50

PAGE 65

June 24, 1904, instructing the postmasters in their duties and leaving with them a copy of "Instructions to Postmasters and Postal Messengers." Instructions to Postmasters and Postal Messengers 1.-Panama stamps, properly surcharged, will be furnished postmasters, who will receipt therefor to Paymaster E. C. Tobey, U.S.N., Treasurer of the Zone. 2.-The rates of postage to be charged are prescribed in the notice accompanying these instructions, which will be posted in a conspicuous place by each postmaster. 3.-On Saturday of each week each postmaster will render to the Treasurer of the Zone a statement showing sales of stamps for the week, remittances, balance on hand in cash, and unsold stamps. 4.-Remittances covering sales up to and including Saturday will be made on the following Monday of each week. 5.-Mail matter received for transmission, with insufficient postage or without postage, will have marked on it by the postmaster the words "Postage Due," followed by the amount of postage due. The postmaster receiving such mail matter will collect the amount due, affixing stamps for that amount and canceling them. 6.-The following extract from Order No. 551 of the Postmaster-General of the United States, dated June 2, 1904, will be observed by postmasters: Letters sent by soldiers, sailors, and marines in the United States service, located in the United States or any of its possessions, addressed to places in the United States or any of its possessions, when endorsed "Soldier's letter," "Sailor's letter," or "Marine's letter," as the case may be, and signed thereunder either with facsimile handstamp or in writing, with his official designation, by a field or staff officer, post or detachment commander, to whose command the soldier belongs, or by a surgeon or chaplain at a hospital where he may be; and in the navy and marine service, by any commissioned officer attached to the vessel, or officer commanding a hospital or detachment ashore, may be dispatched to destination without prepayment of postage, and only the single rate of postage shall be collected on delivery. 7.-Postmasters will provide convenient receptacles, properly secured, for the receipt of mail at such times as their offices are closed. 8.-The post offices at Cristobal and Ancon will be open for the sale of stamps, and receipt and delivery of mail, from 7 to 11:30 a.m., and from 1:30 to 6 p.m., daily; all other offices will be open for these purposes for at least fifteen minutes before and after train-time, and longer if necessary. 9.-Local mail for points within the Zone will be sent direct to the places to which addressed. Such mail will be made into separate packets by the postmaster, and each packet properly addressed. 10.-Mail received by postmasters addressed to the city of Panama and other points in the Republic of Panama reached from that city will be sent, in a separate packet, to the postmaster at Ancon. That postmaster will deliver such mail to the postmaster of the city of Panama. 11.-Mail addressed to the city of Colon and other points in the Republic of Panama reached from that city, will be sent to the postmaster at Cristobal, who will deliver it to the postmaster at Colon. 12.-Mail addressed to Mexican and Central and South American points on the Pacific Coast will be sent, in a separate packet, to the postmaster at Ancon, to be delivered to the postmaster of Panama. 13.-Mail addressed to Mexican and Central and South American and West Indian post offices, which are reached by direct steamship connection from Co on, will be sent, in a separate packet, to the postmaster at Cristobal who will deliver it to the postmaster at Colon. 14.-Mail addressed to points in the United States and its possessions, and to all foreign countries other than those named in paragraphs 12 and 13, will be sent, separately wrapped, to the postmaster at Cristobal. All 51

PAGE 66

such mail will be enclosed by the postmaster at Cristobal in a sealed bag, properly addressed, and will be forwarded by him to the postmaster of the city of New York. 15.-Two railway mail messengers will make the round trip from Panama to Colon and Colon to Panama each day, one starting from each end of the line at eight o'clock in the morning and returning to the city from which he started at two forty-five o'clock in the afternoon. 16.-The mail messengers will report to the postniasters at Ancon and Cristobal, respectively, at seven o'clock in the morning and one-thirty o'clock in the afternoon. They will receive from these postmasters all packages of mail for the line and for the other end of the route, giving a receipt to the postmaster for each package. They will deliver packages of mail to the postmasters at the places to which addressed, taking a receipt for each package delivered, and will receive packages of mail from postmasters along the line, giving a receipt for each package. Upon arrival at the end of their route, they will convey the mail in their charge to the post office at Cristobal or Ancon, as the case may be, taking a receipt from the postmaster for each package delivered. Arrangements have been made with the Panama Railroad Company to have the trains arriving at Colon at 10:45 a.m. and 5:45 p.m., slow down opposite Cristobal-Colon, in order to enable the messenger to get off. A vehicle will be provided at Panama for the transfer of the messenger with his mail at 10:45 a.m. and 5:45 p.m. from the railroad station to the Ancon post office. 17.-Mail will be delivered to the postmasters at Panama and Colon by the postmasters at Ancon and Cristobal twice a day, and a proper receipt will be taken for each package so delivered. 18.-Mail sent to New York by the postmaster at Cristobal will be forwarded by the Panama Railroad Company's steamers, and a proper receipt will be taken from the purser of the steamer on which forwarded for each bag of mail delivered to him. 19.-Promptly on the arrival of mail steamers at Colon and Panama the postmasters at Cristobal and Ancon, respectively, will take measures to secure such mail matter as may be addressed to their offices or to other post offices within the Zone. After assorting it, such mail will be forwarded in the same manner as local mail. 20.-A supply of canvas bags will be furnished to each postmaster, to be used in forwarding mail to other post offices. Each package of mail to be forwarded will be placed in one of these bags, and the bag will be securely tied and addressed. This is another indication of the competence and thoroughness of Mr. Tobey which entailed the creation of a workable postal system with its many facets within a minimum of time. On June 25, 1904, from Culebra, Canal Zone, Governor Davis wrote His Excellency TomAs Arias, Minister of Government, clarifying the matter of interchange of mails between the Republic of Panama and the Zone: Letters and other mail matter originating in the Republic of Panama, addressed to any person in the Zone will be forwarded to the destination, provided it bears the necessary stamps of the Republic at its domestic rate of postage. Vice versa, letters and other mail matter originating in the Zone, destined for points in the Republic, will be forwarded to and delivered provided such matter bears the necessary postage stamps of the Zone, at the domestic rate of postage. In other words, a letter originating in Panama, addressed to a person in Culebra, and weighing not more than one ounce, will be forwarded to its destination, provided it bears a 5-cent Panama stamp; and conversely, a letter originating at Culebra, addressed to a party in Panama, and weighing not more than one ounce, will be forwarded to its destination, provided it bears a 2-cent (gold) stamp of the United States postal system, or, temporarily, a 5-cent stamp of the Republic of Panama, surcharged with the words CANAL ZONE. 52

PAGE 67

To this, Mr. Arias, the same day, answered that copies of the Postal Tariff, which were attached to Governor Davis' letter, were received and forwarded to the post offices of the Republic. Too, that the tariff had been provisionally adopted as expressed in the Governor's letter. The initial shipment of stamps received by Mr. Tobey consisted of 2,500, 2-cent stamps; 8,000, 5-cent stamps; and 5,000, 10-cent stamps. This is shown in Mr. Tobey's memorandum of accountability addressed to the Governor dated June 28, 1904: Sir: I respectfully report that I have received from the Republic of Panama, the following postage stamps, surcharged CANAL ZONE: 2,500 2-cent $50.00 Col. Silver 8,000 5-cent $400.00 Col. Silver 5,000 10-cent $500.00 Col. Silver I have charged myself with the value of the stamps received nine hundred and fifty dollars ($950.00) and hold myself accountable to the United States in this sum. Very respectfully, E. C. TOBEY, U.S.N., In Charge of Post Office Dept. On July 12, 1904, Governor Davis asked Minister Arias for 600 more of the 5-cent, 300 of the 10-cent, and 200 of the 2-cent stamps. The same day, 100 of the 2-cent, 500 of the 5-cent, and 250 of the 10-cent were delivered. The young, but virile government of the Canal Zone thus had its postal administration created, post offices established, postmasters appointed, and stamps available for use. The Canal Zone postal administration is unique in its establishment and operation. It has its own postal regulations, yet the United States regulations are applicable. Its postal laws are contained in both the Federal Statutes and the Canal Zone Code. It does not belong to the Universal Postal Union but adheres to its policies. It is not within the United States Post Office Department, but like that organization, is a unit of the United States Government. Its stamps are engraved and printed by the United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing in Washington. 53

PAGE 69

Chapter VI CANAL ZONE'S FIRST SERIES 55

PAGE 70

Block of six of the first stamp issued by the Canal Zone Postal System purchased at the Gatun Post Office the first day it opened, June 25, 1904 by Mr. Joseph Stilson, Sr. The Postmaster insisted upon canceling them since they were sold to be used for postage only. 56

PAGE 71

Fair of the first Canal Zone stamp, the right one with CANAL ZONE overprint double. Pair of the 5-cent Canal Zone stamp, the second one in the first series also purchased by Mr. Stilson on opening day of the Gatun Post Office. CANAL ZONE is overprinted diagonally reading down. 57

PAGE 72

9 0 / T .A A ,-U04 iu -,NAL Block of twelve of the 10-cent yellow stamp of the first series showing the many positions of the CANAL ZONE overprint. This strip of three found ill 4n old Panama collection is presumed to be an "essay" of this series. The overprint is authentic and the color of the ink of the "02" and "T" matches the overprint. 58

PAGE 73

-\ N The only known existing first day cover hand-canceled at Culebra, Canal Zone, June 24, 1904. Courtesy of Mr. Rudolph B. Weiler. N 4 II Canal Zone's first three stamps on a single cover mailed 5 days after the opening of the La Boca Post Office. 59

PAGE 74

WASHINGTON P. R. R. C r P. CANAVAGGIO COLON W8C Attached to the above envelope is a 10-cent stamp on a Washington House, Colon, R.C. letterhead and mailed from Cristobal, Canal Zone, July 11, 1904. The Washington House was on the same site which is now occupied by the Washington Hotel, Republic of Panama. 60

PAGE 75

Chapter VI CANAL ZONE'S FIRST SERIES 1904, June 24 The first three stamps of the Canal Zone are of extreme interest for within a period of less than 7 months, from November 2, 1903, until June 24, 1904, they served the postal needs of three stamp-issuing jurisdictions. Originally they were of the 1892-1896 issue of Colombia. When the Republic of Panama gained its independence, proud of its birth and newly-acquired nationality, it obliterated the engraved word COLOMBIA at the top of this stamp with a solid horizontal bar of red and added PANAMA in the same color on each side of the stamp. Then by agreement between the Republic of Panama and the Canal Zone, Mr. Tomis Arias, Minister of Government, furnished Governor Davis for the use of the Canal Zone's Postal Administration, quantities of these same stamps overprinted CANAL ZONE horizontally in roman capitals. The overprinting was done by means of a rubber hand stamp with blue-black ink before delivery to Mr. Tobey of the Canal Zone. These stamps were originally manufactured for Colombia by the American Bank Note Company which has its main office in New York City. There were several Panama issues used in the first few years by the Canal Zone and in many different printings. Today the early issues are still a philatelic stew with many of the ingredients still a mystery. It must have been a printer's nightmare. In the so-called third Panama issue, the word PANAMA read both up and down. In the fourth Panama issue, the word PANAMA read up on the left side of the stamp and down on the right. The third Panama series had three different printings of which the first was not used with the Canal Zone overprint. The second printing was used in 8-cent overprints on the 50 centavos stamps used in the December 12, 1904 to 1906 Canal Zone overprints. The Republic of Panama did not have use for an 8-cent stamp but the Canal Zone used it for registration fee. The third overprinting was that one which was overprinted and used for the lowest denomination of the first Canal Zone issue. The Panama printer to whom the job was given apparently did not have sufficient "A's." Panama appears twice on each stamp necessitating 6 "A's" and this had to be multiplied by 50 to make up the printing form covering 50 stamps. This accounts for the many inverted "V's" and inverted "Y's" and the different fonts found in this printing. This was corrected in the fourth Panama printing. The only values of the third series used by the Canal Zone were the 2-cent (the first stamp of the Canal) and 50-cent stamps (the 8-cent overprints of the 1904-1906 series). There were 100 stamps to the sheet in Panama's third series third printing. The printing form however covered but 50 stamps. The operator did not split the sheet but after running the upper half, ingeniously turned the sheet around 61

PAGE 76

to complete the job on the lower half. Thus there are as many stamps with both PANAMA's reading up as there are with both PANAMA's reading down. All varieties in the printing are thus duplicated, stamp No. 1 in the sheet is the same as stamp No. 100 and No. 50 the same as No. 51. There were many different printings in the fourth series and in different amounts for each denomination varying with the demands of the service. They were overprinted as needed. Stamps of Panama's fourth series were used on the second (5-cent) and third (10-cent) Canal Zone stamps issued June 24, 1904, the 2-cent, 5-cent, 10-cent of 1905, and the 8-cent on 50-cent issues of 1906. Each Panama printing in this issue has its own characteristics; the bar obliterating COLOMBIA may differ in width and color shades, the distance between the bar and the words PANAMA may differ, and the letters themselves may present different shapes and fonts. In general, however, PANAMA in the third printing as on the first Canal Zone stamp, is 13 mm. long by 1% mm. high, and in the second and third stamps of the Canal's first series, PANAMA in larger letters is 15 mm. long by 2 mm. high. We thus have Panama's provisional stamps overprinted with the words CANAL ZONE in one line of roman capitals as the Canal Zone Government's first issue. The overprint, as has been noted, was applied by the Republic of Panama before the stamps' delivery to the Zone's postal authorities. This was done by means of a rubber handstamp with blue-black ink. As it is not too difficult a task to create counterfeit overprints, and as it appeared to some a simple matter to increase the value of a 2-cent stamp one hundred fold, this occurred on the Canal's early issues. The collector of these items should therefore be on guard when obtaining one of these early classics. Not only are there spurious overprints in existence, but some of the bolder counterfeiters attempted to copy the first post office cancellations. An item from the First Annual Report of the Governor of the Canal Zone will assist a bit in clearing the "overprint" question. In view of the fact that charges have been made to the effect that counterfeit Panama Zone postage stamps have been sold to stamp collectors, the statement seems appropriate that no officer of the Zone Government ever had anything to do with the surcharging of the Panama stamp, or ever had in his possession any unsurcharged stamps that were owned by the Zone Government, or ever had in his possession any of the rubber stamps or type used in surcharging. A short time after the United States overprints arrived on the Isthmus, there was a destruction of the remainder of the Canal Zone overprinted Panama provisionals. This was accomplished September 15, 1904, in the presence of E. C. Tobey, Treasurer; J. M. Keedy; and George R. Shanton, Chief of Police; 700 5-cent stamps and 304 10-cent stamps were burned. These first stamps are of a map design geographically depicting the area of the new Republic of Panama substantially the same as the State or Department of Panama while still a part of the Colombian Republic. The word ANTILLAS is written across the Caribbean in the upper portion with PACIFICO in the lower part. CENTAVOS is across the bottom of the stamp with the denomination in figure boxed and centrally bordering and above CENTAVOS. Perf. 12. The dimensions of the CANAL ZONE overprint are given in millimeters. 62

PAGE 77

CANAL.9. mm. ZONE. .1. 7/2 mm. Space between words 1 mm. CANAL ZONE.18 mm. Height of letters .2. 2 mm. Quantity Denomination Color Supplied Destroyed Issued 2-cent Rose Carmine 2,600 2,600 5-cent Blue 8,500 700 7,800 10-cent Yellow 5,200 304 4,946 On July 13, 1904, a supply of United States stamps was received and four days later, July 17, 1904, the use/of the Panama provisional stamps was discontinued. 63

PAGE 79

Chapter VII POSTAL INSPECTION 65

PAGE 81

Chapter VII POSTAL INSPECTION 1904, June 29. There was an interesting inspection tour of the Canal Zone's infant postal system made on June 29, 1904, by E. B. Knight of the Department of Revenues. His comprehensive report to Paymaster Tobey follows: I beg to submit the following report, in connection with the establish ment of post offices in the Canal Zone: In accordance with your instructions, I proceeded to the post office at Ancon, and on arrival there at 6:55 a.m., found that the mail for New York had not yet been sorted from the local mail. At my request, the postmaster turned over the mail to me and I sorted out the letters and newspapers for New York, placing same in two small empty money bags. I kept these bags open for mail until 7:40 a.m., at which time they were closed and sealed. Before closing the bags at this hour, I inquired of the postmaster if there was any more mail for New York in his possession. He replied in the negative. At 7:45 a.m., I left Ancon post office with the mail for the Railroad station, and at 8:05 a.m., the train left for Colon. On arrival at the post office at Cristobal, at 10:55 a.m., I found that the postal agent there, Mr. Campbell, had got about three-fourths of the New York mail all postmarked and placed in a large sack which he had secured from the Colon post office. I emptied the two bags of mail which I had brought from the Ancon post office, and Mr. Campbell and myself stamped each letter with the Cristobal postmark, and counted same. At 11:30 a.m., I closed and sealed the mail bag for New York. At 11:55 a.m., I delivered the bag of mail to the purser of the S.S. "Seguranca" and had him sign for same in a book provided by Postmaster Campbell for that purpose, and also took duplicate receipt, which is herewith attached. At 12:15 p.m., I returned to the post office at Cristobal and sent the following telegram to you: All mail aboard steamer. One bag from here, containing 433 letters, 46 cards and 20 packages. Everything O.K. Stamps urgently needed. At 2:45 p.m., I left for Panama, where I arrived at the Administration Building. In this connection, I desire to make the following remarks and suggestions: Delivery of mail bags to the steamers: I was notified by the Panama Railroad Company that it is not in accordance with their regulations for the pursers of their steamers to give receipts for mail for New York. The rules of the Railroad are, that the bags of mail should be delivered on the pier to the Freight Agent of the Railroad, Mr. P. E. Cruchley, who will give receipt for the bags, and in turn deliver them to the purser of the steamer. Post office at Cristobal: The present location of this office is very inconvenient, and much valuable time is lost in transferring the mails from the train to the office. I would respectfully suggest that the cottage situated right at the entrance to Cristobal, on the waterfront, be utilized as a post office, This house is within a stone's throw of the railroad landing 67

PAGE 82

at Cristobal, and considerably shortens the distance to the pier as compared with the present location of the post office. In this connection, I would also respectfully suggest that Postmaster Campbell be furnished an assistant, as the duties of the office are such as to require a second party. Mail service along the line: Would it not be desirable to supply the Postal Agent on the train, Pascal, with a limited number of stamps, so that he would be able to receive mail from persons at stations where there are no post offices? This is especially true of Tavernilla. After reading this complete report, which contained little by way of criticism and much to indicate the excellent manner of operations, it appears that the postal administration had gotten off on a business-like and efficient manner which continues to this day. On the same day, June 29, 1904, that Mr. Knight was making his inspection of the process of mail dispatch, Admiral Walker, Chairman of the Isthmian Canal Commission, received a letter from the Postmaster General of the United States stating that he had detailed Mr. Lawrence Leatherman, Inspector-inCharge of the Boston Division of Post Office Inspection, and Post Office Inspector A. A. Smith, to assist the Governor of the Panama Canal Zone in organizing a postal service. These gentlemen arrived on the Isthmus July 13 and brought with them the numerous forms and other printed material used by the United States Post Office Department necessary to bridge the emergency gap. 68

PAGE 83

Chapter VIII SECOND REGULAR SERIES 69

PAGE 85

4 -4 Second regular series. 71

PAGE 86

14 emmanmumme1886 44 1 <*4. 1498! CANAL ZONE PANAMA overprinted on United States stamps of the 1902-1903 issue. :*ibica del.I A ~ 77 Postal Card with the 1Icent and 2-cent stamps of this series with "Empire" and "Culebra" cancellations of December 11 1904. 72

PAGE 87

Chapter VIII SECOND REGULAR SERIES 1904, July 18. On July 2, 1904, 12 tin-lined wooden boxes were shipped by registered mail from the United States Postage Stamp Agency, Washington, addressed to the Isthmian Canal Commission, c/o Panama Railroad Company, Pier 57, West 27th St., New York. These were to be delivered to Gen. George W. Davis, Governor of the Canal Zone, by United States Post Office Inspector Lawrence Leatherman, their custodian. When they arrived on the Isthmus July 13, 1904, Governor Davis was considerably put out at this apparently exaggerated amount of postage. In a letter to Chairman Walker he said, If you have any record of any request from me or any person serving under me for 10-million stamps, or any other specific number, I should be very glad if you would send me a copy of it. It does appear at first blush to be an enormous quantity. If one considers, however, that the contemplated plans of the Canal's construction called for an ultimate labor force of more than 40,000 persons, the idea of using so many stamps is not too farfetched. Only five of the cases were opened and the remainder stored. The total face value of the stamps came to $390,000. From the five cases opened, $26,000 worth of stamps of all denominations were removed. They were placed on sale July 18, and removed from sale December 11, 1904. Through September, $1,448.55 worth of stamps were sold; in October $655.64; November $562.33, and in December up to closing on the 11th, $1,603.68 worth, for a total of this entire issue of but $4,270.20. The stamps of this second series are overprinted on United States stamps of the regular issue of 1902-1903 with the exception of the Washington 2-cent shield stamp of 1903. The overprints appear vertically in two lines of small capitals, CANAL ZONE on the left and PANAMA on the right, both words reading upwards. The overprint was applied at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, D.C., by a 100 subject electrotype plate in black ink, the same as for Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and other possessions, which had been prepared in the immediately preceding years. Due to broken type or poor inking, there exist in this series some broken and imperfect letters but no major varieties. The measurements of the overprint are as follows: CANAL. 8% mm. Space. 1 m m ZONE. 6% mm. CANAL ZONE 16 mm. Width between Canal Zone and Panama. 10% mm. PANAMA 12/ mm. 73

PAGE 88

Perf. 12 DenomiQuantity nation Color Subject Sent Destroyed Issued 1-cent Green Franklin 1,000,000 956,262 43,738 2-cent Red Washington 5,000,000 4,931,586 68,414 5-cent Blue Lincoln 2,000,000 1,979,142 20,858 8-cent Dark Lilac Martha Washingtoin 1,000,000 992,068 7,932 10-cent Light Brown Webster 1,000,000 992,144 7,856 In the presence of the Director of Posts, Tom M. Cooke, W. B. Starke, Auditor, Isthmian Canal Commission, Edward J. Williams, and the Executive Secretary, H. D. Reed, the remainders were destroyed by burning on January 2 and 3, 1906. 74

PAGE 89

Chapter IX TAFT AGREEMENT 75

PAGE 91

X-44 Ah t o Aft NO a -ls PRIVATE USE.V $144 P Early cancellations and unusual postmarkings. 77

PAGE 92

CA I -i V sA. '14 hAsN 33 Early cancellations and unusual postmarkings. 78

PAGE 93

AW6 4% ' t H )'/ / 4'VtD 4 A4444'4 \' *$tt' 4A4* Y .4 "4 4 -' -t 9 H 1 v 4k ,< 49 4494 'A4*-**'Y Early S anelatd n qqt Cnsa eostactg 7 4WPM Early cancellations and unusual postmarkings. 79

PAGE 94

WAR DEPARTMENT CAMP E. S.'OTIS Cm Cmead C. Z U W 048) CO MP AN 4CO1~L1~CT~W, Akt CA 4J' Early cancellations and unusual postmarkings. 80

PAGE 95

tV-t 4tTMJAN CANAL COMMISSION 4 Early cancellations and unusual postmarkings. 81

PAGE 96

I% Early cancellations and unusual postmarkings. 82

PAGE 97

r9 44 4 V4 Early cancellations and unusual postmarkings. 83

PAGE 98

PAY~ Of -VP U, Early cancellations and unusual postmarkings. 84

PAGE 99

Chapter IX TAFT AGREEMENT United States Postmaster General H. C. Payne in his Order No. 551 dated June 2, 1904, established rates of postage and outlined conditions for the transmission of mail matter to and from "Possessions of the United States." Among other matters, the order stated thaf the Canal Zone was to be included in the term "Possessions of the United States" along with the Philippines, Guam, and other Pacific island groups, and further, that the domestic rates of postage applied. The application of these rates was effective with the Canal's first issue and the regulations and instructions of Mr. Tobey to the newly-appointed postmasters so directed. These relatively low postal rates were immediately taken advantage of by many citizens of Panama. Governor Davis noted in his first report that, "the postal service has been a great convenience and appears to have been patronized somewhat by the merchants and other residents of Panama and Colon, who could forward their mail to the United States at the rate of 2-cent United States currency per ounce, instead of 10-cent local currency (5-cent U.S. currency) per half-ounce." The Governor's rather mild comment discloses a situation which became quite irritating to the young Republic. With the advent of the new rates, the residents of Colon had but to walk across the street to purchase their stamps at greatly reduced rates for equivalent service and do their mailing in Cristobal. At Panama City the situation was similar with the Panama merchants and others walking over to Ancon within the Zone. This wholly unexpected and unforeseen result was that the postal revenues which had heretofore gone to the Republic of Colombia at Bogota, but which the infant government now sorely needed for its establishment, were greatly diminished. Perhaps ninety percent of the mailing populace of Panama resided in the terminal cities of Panama City and Colon. This situation and others of a similar nature that had developed no doubt needed immediate attention, so President Theodore Roosevelt, after consultation with the Secretary of State, sent his Secretary of War, William H. Taft, to the Isthmus to arbitrate the differences. Secretary Taft sailed from Pensacola, Fla., November 22, 1904. Negotiations were begun immediately upon the Secretary's arrival and continued in Panama City until all questions were resolved and complete accord reached December 3, 1904. On this same date an Executive Order was issued by the Secretary of War concerning tariffs, customs, and posts. The Taft Agreement, as it affects the Postal Service, is contained in Section 7 of this Order: The Executive Order of June 24, 1904, concerning the establishment of post offices and postal service in the Canal Zone, is modified and supplemented by the following provisions: All mail matter carried in the territory of the Canal Zone, to or through 85

PAGE 100

the Republic of Panama, to the United States and to foreign countries shall bear stamps of the Republic of Panama, properly crossed by a printed mark of the Canal Zone Government, and at rates the same as those imposed by the government of the United States upon its domestic and foreign mail matter, exactly as if the United States and the Republic of Panama for this purpose were common territory. The authorities of the Canal Zone shall purchase from the Republic of Panama such stamps as the authorities of the Canal Zone desire to use in the Canal Zone at forty per centum of their face value; but this order shall be inoperative unless the proper authorities of the Republic of Panama shall by suitable arrangement with the postal authorities of the United States provide for the transportation of mail matter between post offices on the Isthmus of Panama and post offices in the United States at the same rates as are now charged for domestic postage in the United States; except all mail matter lawfully franked and enclosed in the so-called penalty envelopes of the United States Government concerning the public business of the United States which shall be carried free, both by the governments of Panama and the Canal Zone; provided, however, that the Zone authorities may, for the purpose of facilitating the transportation of through mail between the Zone and the United States in either direction, enclose such through mail properly stamped or lawfully franked in sealed mail pouches which shall not be opened by the authorities of the Republic of Panama in transit, on condition that the cost of transportation of such mail pouches shall be paid by the Zone government. In commenting on the new agreement, Secretary Taft said: In the matter of posts, having secured a reduction of the postage between the United States and the Isthmus to two cents, it seemed wise to provide for the use of Panama rather than United States stamps, and by securing to Panama as profit forty percent of the gross receipts by the Zone authorities for postal purposes. This may be too large a concession, as far as the United States is concerned, because the posts will probably be operated at a loss within the Zone, but the reduction of the postage between the United States and Panama is a benefit of very considerable importance secured to the people of the United States. There is a general impression in the United States even now that the rate to Panama is 2 cents. Minister Barrett said that he was in receipt of a great many letters stamped with 2-cent stamps, on each of which letters he had to pay an additional 3 cents. . The Taft Agreement continued in force until May 28, 1924, when it was abrogated by the United States effective June 1, 1924. Discussion as to the termination of the Agreement was begun as early as 1913. It was but a temporary affair to provide a workable arrangement to cover the Canal's construction period. We paid Panama, for stamps purchased under the Taft Agreement, $263,647.43, up to December 31, 1913. The figure no doubt doubled at the time the Canal Zone ceased selling Panama's stamps, June 30, 1924. This sum of money went far to bolster the early economic difficulties of the young Republic. The arrangement, however, was not a satisfactory one in connection with the rising complex relationship between the neighboring governments. While the effective date of the Agreement's dissolution was June 1, 1924, the Panama overprints were sold in the Canal Zone post offices until June 30, 1924. At this latter date, there were still so many of these Panama overprinted stamps in the hands of Canal Zone people and organizations that in a special order, Mr. Crede H. Calhoun, Chief of the Division of Posts, directed that they be honored for postage purposes until August 31, 1924, and would thereafter become invalid. On July 1, 1924, when the United States overprints went on sale and until August 31, 1924, the Canal Zone postal authorities thus honored both Panama and United States overprinted stamps. 86

PAGE 101

Chapter X THIRD REGULAR SERIES 87

PAGE 102

s

PAGE 103

44 4t A LEc A N'j t Q E > EI 0 N E &QII 1-NJ,-~ UN N Stamps of the third regular series. 89

PAGE 104

CAN A 11" C ANA ZON 0 N I CANAL CANAL Z N E ZONE GkALL I4NA A NT 4 N EA1 Stamps of the third regular series. 90

PAGE 105

ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION ANCON HOSPITAL ANCOW, CANAL ZONK WTHMUS OF PANAMA OMCIAL RustafU M'~A A (,a 0, N r idfA. N hFT N\A. 'C A Envelopes bearing stamps of the third regular series. 91

PAGE 106

er .va see. A A ~ fs L L E Oh G A A 546'7 Ce" / / 56351 .r cx Envelopes bearing stamps of the third regular series. 92

PAGE 107

Chapter X THIRD REGULAR SERIES 1904, December 12 to September 1906. Pursuant to the Taft Agreement the Canal Zone again commenced using Panama overprints on December 12, 1904. Once more the stamp collector finds himself in the confusion and maze of the many overprints and printings of the Panama stamps. The basic stamps are with some exceptions the same as used in the First Canal Zone Series. The exceptions are the first 1and 2-cent stamps of this series with the REPUBLIC OF PANAMA engraved across the top in the design of the otherwise similar map stamp. Unfortunately the Republic of Panama did not have enough prints which would have alleviated the necessity of the messy overprinting. This was the Panama Commemorative Issue of 1905 and has the inscription, 3 DE NOVIEMBRE DE 1903 in a curved panel beneath the straight REPUBLIC OF PANAMA. The 50-cent ochre stamp of the Colombian 1892-1896 series was added later with an 8-cent overprint. When this series was placed on sale, the Director of Posts, in a memorandum to all postmasters, said: You are further instructed that these stamps will be sold for their face value in gold; Colombian silver will be accepted for payment for postage at the rate of two for one. There were all together five denominations in this series; one 1-cent, two 2-cent, one 5-cent, one 10-cent, and five 8-cent overprints on the 50-cent ochre. Few stamp issues have given the stamp collector such a wealth of varieties and material but at the same time presented so many complications. The stamps of Panama were overprinted CANAL ZONE in two lines of Roman capitals from copper faced type. The needs of the post offices at this time could not be anticipated nor could the supply of any given particular stamp be guaranteed. This led to small quantities of each value being printed. With stamp sales more active than thought, the demand for more stamps was almost constant. The wearing of the type caused resetting five times giving us six different settings. The CANAL ZONE was applied locally in black ink and the plate set up to overprint a sheet of 100 stamps in one operation. It would appear that a variety or error once showing would thus be constant. This, however, is not the case. As the type wore or became damaged, it was attended to, if noticed, for the succeeding setting. There are excellent specialized catalogs in the market which carry the major varieties of this issue and we shall not attempt to list the many seen. There are however some general characteristics of each Canal Zone setting worth mentioning. First Setting, December 12, 1904 The distinctive error of this first stage or setting is the turning sideways of the letter "L" in stamp No. 68 on the printing of the 2-cent stamp. The letter 93

PAGE 108

no doubt loosened in the form during the printing. It is claimed that 920 of these errors were recovered and destroyed. Few exist. The loosened plate also resulted in the "ON" of "ZONE" dropping below the level of "Z and E." This occurs in both the 1and 2-cent stamps. Many broken letters exist in this stage, one example being a partially missing bottom stroke of the "L" in CANAL on Stamp No. 4 of the sheet making the word appear to be CANAI. The "L" in CANAL also shifted and increased the space between A-L on Stamp No. 41. Second Setting, May 4, 1905 A completely new plate was put in use for the Canal Zone overprinting issued on May 4, 1905. Most of the broken letters which occurred in the first setting were replaced by new slugs but other varieties took their places. The "E" of ZONE on stamp No. 33 looks like an "F;" the "L" in CANAL on stamp No. 42 has the lower bar missing and the "N" is broken on stamp No. 65. Third Setting, November 1905 The most distinctive stamp and variety in this setting is No. 48. ZONE appears in antique type instead of the usual Roman capitals. Fourth Setting, February 1906 This state is more or less the same as the third setting except that the word CANAL is now found in antique type instead of ZONE. The stamp this time is No. 26. Fifth Setting, March 1906 In the make-up of this plate, all the broken letters previously noted were replaced. Other irregularities however did show. Stamp No. 32 has an antique "Z;" No. 33 a broken "E;" "L" is antique on No. 42; "N" antique on No. 65; CANAL antique on No. 26, and ZONE antique on No. 48. Sixth Setting, August 1906 Stamp No. 33 in this stage was apparently corrected. The "E," antique type, in the fifth setting, has been changed to a roman capital. There is now also an antique "Z" on stamps Nos. 42 and 45 as well as on No. 32. About the only general statement of differentiation to be made regarding the CANAL ZONE overprinting in the Third Series is that the first three printings are sharp and clear, whereas the last three are dull and often fuzzy. The basic stamps of this Third Issue were supplied by the Republic of Panama after the overprinting of the Bar and PANAMA had been accomplished by way of a 50-subject plate to one half of a sheet at a time. Here we again are accosted by the many varieties described in the First Issue and "then some." First, there are varieties of the overprint shades. Some are called carmine red, some rose carmine, then dull vermillion or carmine vermillion. Not a hobby, it is assured, for one with lack of color sense. The Bars also differ in width and spacing above the words PANAMA. Errors are many. PANAMA is misspelled in about every manner possible. In the different printings will be found ANAMA, PANAM, PANAAM, PAMANA and even PANAWA. To add to the general complexity of this issue as if there already were not sufficient complications, the Canal Zone authorities asked Panama for a supply 94

PAGE 109

of 8-cent stamps for registration fee purposes. For this purpose the regular 50-cent stamp of Panama was used. On this stamp was added the 8-cent surcharge to the already overprinted Bar and PANAMA. In the many printings of the 8-cent surcharge there will be found four different types of "8." Many of these stamps, although issued more than 50 years ago, are still on the market. A collector can have considerable, fun trying to place each in its proper category and printing. Perf. 12 December 12, 1904: CANAL measures 14 mm. in length. ZONE measures 11 mm. in length. The letters are 2 mm. high. The space between the words is 3 mm. Denomination Quantity 1-cent 319,800 2-cent. 367,500 2-cent. 150,000 5-cent 400,000 10-cent. 64,900 8-cent. 27,900 8-cent. 400 8-cent. 19,600 8-cent. 17,500 8-cent 19,000 95

PAGE 111

Chapter XI FOURTH REGULAR SERIES 97

PAGE 112

;~; CA 1 CNA L 4 C ANAL Z ZON R ZONt r A FZONF CkANIA L, CANA C CANA 1, ZZN 0 Nlt ZON CANAL CANAL CANAL ZON ZN E ZON C ANAL ,cA",NAL1 ZONE NE 2 e 2 CANN4 L 6 CANALt Z~ I','N 2 k 2 Staimps of the fourth regular series. 98

PAGE 113

Cs elmC 44g 444 Envelopes bearing stamps of the fourth regular series. 99

PAGE 114

4 E IP Envelopes bearing stamps of the fourth regular series. 100

PAGE 115

Chapter XI FOURTH REGULAR SERIES 1906, April. As the Canal's construction work progressed and gained momentum, there was a continuous influx of employees. Employment agencies had been established in many cities of the United States and the West Indies and these provided men and women; doctors, nurses, clerks, engineers, and laborers from all ends of our country and the islands of the Caribbean. One of the first thoughts of most of these Isthmian newcomers. was to inform the folks back home of their arrival with perhaps a word or two containing their first impressions of this different country. They found going post offices with genial clerks who no doubt had quite a time explaining the Canal's peculiar overprinted stamps. So well did the early employees patronize the Canal Zone post offices however that the administration had a difficult time supplying the postmasters with sufficient stamps. This was in part due to the fact, as we earlier related, that the Canal Zone ordered its postage from Panama. Sometimes Panama was short of stamp material. And this is what occurred in the early months of 1906. Both the Canal Zone and the Republic of Panama had exhausted their supply of 1and 2-cent stamps. The Republic of Panama had ordered a new permanent set but there was some delay of delivery along the line which resulted in the acute shortage. Thus, when the Canal Zone administration requested that a supply of 1and 2-cent stamps be supplied, Panama offered the Canal Zone some of the provisionals of the First and Third Series. Mr. Tom Cooke, Director of Posts, did not take very kindly to the continued use of these three-time overprinted and surcharged messy stamps and so wrote Governor Magoon: This will create what every Post Office Department endeavors to avoidnumerous classifications of stamps with diversity of surcharges upon them, and it will commence to look as though the entire system was being maintained exclusively for the purposes of stamp dealers. A copy of this letter was sent to the Foreign Office of the Republic. In a few days and after an exchange of correspondence, Panama furnished the Canal Zone with a supply of stamps of the 1892-1896 map series, Department of Panama, Colombia. These were of the 20-centavos and 1-peso values and were delivered to the Canal without any overprinting. The necessary overprinting was then performed at the Isthmian Canal Commission's printing plant. There were three separate printings of each denomination. The overprinting was done in black ink in settings of 50 stamps or half sheets. The word COLOMBIA at the top of the stamp and the value at the bottom were each obliterated with a 2 mm.-wide horizontal bar. The word PANAMA in small antique capitals reads up on the left and down on the right and measures 10% mm. x 1 mm. The words CANAL ZONE in large antique capitals are in 101

PAGE 116

two lines. CANAL measures 12 x 2 mm. and ZONE 9 x 2 mm. The denomination 1-ct. measures 8/2 x 2 mm. in the first and third printings; and 8 x 2 mm. in the second. All the 2-cts. denominations measure 10 x 2 mm. These denomination measurements include the period. The space between the Bars also differs with the printings. In the first printing it is 17 and 18 mm.; the second, 161/2, 17, and 17 mm., and the third setting, 16% and 17 mm. There are, of course, innumerable varieties in these repeated printings of a single issue due to type wear and letters loosening, followed by form tightening. Some of the different spacings have already been mentioned. The "one" of 1 et. in the first and third printings is a bit shorter and thicker than the "one" in the second setting. There are small accents on "A's" in PANAMA other than the last "A" where it belongs if properly spelled. In the first printing of the 1-cent and 2-cent stamps, one or two spaces will show between "Z" and "0" in ZONE on stamps Nos. 12 and 62. In the second printing of the 1-cent value, CANAL is 1 mm. below the top Bar. "Z" and "0" of ZONE are widely spaced in stamps Nos. 36 and 86 in both the 1-cent and 2-cent values. There is also an abundance of accented "A's" in PANAMA. The word CANAL on stamps No. 50 and 100 in the third overprinting measuring 13 mm. in both values is the outstanding characteristic of this setting. The "P" and the "A" of PANAMA widely spaced in stamp No. 49 making PANAMA measure 11 mm., is peculiar to this setting. It also has the spaced C-A of CANAL and spaced Z-O of ZONE. One or more accented "A's" of PANAMA exist as well in this printing as in the others. Perf. 12. Date of Issue and Quantity 1-cent 2-cent April 1906. Type 100,000 Type 200,000 May 1906. a. 100,000 a. 200,000 September 1906. b. 300,000 b. 50,000 102

PAGE 117

Chapter XII FIFTH REGULAR SERIES 103

PAGE 119

U p" At r--leg 0 iL Fifth regular series. 105

PAGE 120

ROTHMIAN CANAL COMMIS$I CANAL ZONE. ft. -sN'e fHMIAN CANAL. COMMISSION of)KmRrg Pf 9;VNa 4t 7 "j.6 -7-7 W&M$V4 CNAL OMM $S#Q 6'106

PAGE 121

ts" IVN %4 RM4 A 10 > 44 V ~sr 444' 4t44 '\ Q>4\ I \<\'uk"K4 ~s T >"~ K' Kx5 ~> MAY"~'t~j '
PAGE 122

Sr. M .w a a T right 'sJN.G'etadt hsrgti .M ane.Bhn n ewe J. e s t sM 4 dA4 Group of Canal Zone postal employees taken at the United States District Court House Ancon Canal Zone in 1909d Seated in the front row from left to right: Mr. McGow~ian, who was assistant to Tom Cooke; Mrs. J. J. Gilbert, Postmistress at Matachin; Herman Gudger, Jr., Col. Tom Cooke, and Mrs. Olga Frost. Behind Mr Gudger is Miss Sola Gorham. To her right is J Gilbert and to his right is A M. Warner. Behind and between J J Gilbert is Stacey Russell. Over Miss Gorham's left shoulder is Humphrey Marshall, a great-grandson of Chief justice John Marshall. Behind him is W. B. Taylor. To the extreme left of the second to last row is Abel Hunter. Second from the right, third row from the rear, is Gerald Bliss. Others in the photograph are E. M. Fechtig, Fred Gorham, Tomn Whiting, Tannehill, Farrell, and Penney. 108

PAGE 123

Chapter XII FIFTH REGULAR SERIES 1906, October-1907 This is the series of the Republic of Panama so anxiously awaited in the early months of 1906. It is Panama's first portrait series and was engraved and printed by the Hamilton Bank Note Company of New York. The ornate frames and colors of each value differ but the portraits in the centers of all are black. The denominations now read in "Balboas" and "centesimos" replacing "pesos" and "centavos," an effect of the changeover from a silver to a gold standard. There were many orders of these stamps and the color shades and the paper used differed with the orders. The first printings were on a soft, thick, creamy colored paper and the later printings of the lower values were on a thin, hard, and whiter paper. To Vasco N6ifiez de Balboa, that intrepid colorful discoverer, the first European to view the Pacific Ocean, goes the honor of having his portrait, the first, placed upon the stamps of the Republic of Panama, the 1-cent value of this series. Overcoming the almost impenetrable jungle with its tremendous obstacles on the morning of September 25, 1513, from a lofty peak in the Darien country. Balboa was rewarded with a view of the Mar del Sur or the great Pacific Ocean. His rewards were many and his honors high. But the politics of the conquistadores was a jealous and tough game. In January 1519, upon conspiracy charges presented by Pedrarias Davila, Balboa's glorious but all too short career came to an untimely end. Antonio Fernandez de C6rdoba appears on the 2-cent stamps of this series. A few months after Henry Morgan sacked the original or old City of Panama, Fernandez de C6rdoba arrived to assume the head of government with the title of President and Captain-General. He governed from December 1671 until his death on April 8, 1673. The founding of the new City of Panama some 12 miles from Old Panama occurred during his administration. Justo Arosemena (born, 1817-died, 1896) appears in the vignette of the 5-cent stamp. He was a jurist, diplomat, and distinguished writer. He stands as one of the most illustrious personalities of the Department of Panama. He helped create the Sovereign State of Panama and its Constitution of 1863. Modesty alone prevented his becoming president of Colombia. Minister to France and England, and in 1879 and 1880 he was Colombia's Minister to the United States. From 1888 until his death February 23, 1896, he was attorney for the Panama Railroad Company. Manuel Jos6 Hurtado (born, 1821-died, 1887) is considered Panama's most distinguished educator. He appears on the 8-cent stamp of this Series. Trained as a civil engineer at the University of Paris, Don Manuel, however, chose education as his life's work. In 1868, he became the Director of the first governmentsupported institution of learning. He gave lands for the construction of schools 109

PAGE 124

and money for their maintenance. In 1870 he established the first public library. A year later, the Men's Normal School was his creation. In 1872, Hurtado was named President of the Provincial Council for Education and in 1877, Director of Public Instruction. For a time Manuel Hurtado served on the Board of the French Canal Company. Jos6 de Obaldia (born, 1806-died, 1889) was one of Panama's most distinguished statesmen. Senator, governor, vice president, and president of Colombia on five different occassion. From 1834 to 1838 while a member of the Congress at Bogota, Obaldia gave strong support for the construction of an Isthmian waterway and the survey being made by the Biddle-Thiery party sent to the Isthmus by U.S. President Andrew Jackson. He appears on the 10-cent stamp. The CANAL ZONE overprinting was done at the Isthmian Canal Commission Printing Office in the Administration Building (Station A, Ancon) Cathedral Plaza, City of Panama. The first 20,000 of the 2-cent stamps were printed in October 1906 with the words CANAL ZONE reading up. The following month, in the next printing, the plate was inadvertently reversed and the overprinting read downwards. The Director of Posts, when notified of this change, ordered all future printings to be accomplished with the words CANAL ZONE reading down, and further directed that an additional 30,000 2-cent stamps be printed with the words reading up so as to avoid the creation of a short-issue item. There are some errors in this series as in many overprinting jobs; double surcharges, some reversed, letters missing and such. Sheets of some value exist imperforate between either horizontally or vertically. With various modifications, mainly in the border designs, these portrait stamps remained current until 1924. The overprint was set up in two lines and the measurements are as follows: CANAL 13 mm. long ZONE. 10 mm. long Distance between. 7 mm. Letters. 2/ mm. high Perf. 12 Denomination Color Subject Quantity Remarks 1-cent Jan. '07 Blue green & black Balboa 2,000,000 Reading down 2-cent Oct. '06 Scarlet & black C6rdoba 50,000 Reading up 2-cent Nov. '06 Scarlet & black C6rdoba 2,370,000 Reading down 5-cent Dec. '06 Blue & black J. Arosemena 1,390,000 Reading down 8-cent Dec. '06 Dark lilac & black Hurtado 170,000 Reading down 10-cent Dec. '06 Violet & black Obaldia 250,000 Reading down 110

PAGE 125

Chapter XIII SIXTH SERIES 111

PAGE 126

&

PAGE 127

4 e N SA Stamps and cover of the Sixth Series. 113

PAGE 128

Photograph taken in 1912 of administrative heads and some employees of the Canal Zone Postal Service. Left to right, front row: Gerald D. Bliss, Postmaster at Pedro Miguel; Richard L. Metcalfe, Chief, Civil Affairs; Tom M. Cooke, Director of Posts; second row: Anselm M. Warner, William G. Taylor; third row: George E. Le Mire, Abel A. Hunter, Hal B. Cooper; back row: John W. Tannehill, Fred L. Gorham, Cullen D. Thaxton, and Garfield 0. Gilbert. Nearly all of these were postmasters. We are grateful to Frank E. Greene an "oldtimer" for this picture. 114

PAGE 129

Chapter XIII SIXTH SERIES 1909, January-May The portraits of the stamps in the last series are continued here with the exception of the 1-cent Balboa. Panama, however, ordered these stampsfrom the American Bank Note Company of New York. The sheets contain 100 subjects and the size of the stamps are identical with the Hamilton output, 21 mm. by 26 mm. and perforated twelve. However, new designs were employed primarily differing in the frames. The'same plate was used in overprinting this Series as in the Fifth Series, the printing being performed at the Isthmian Canal Commission Press. There are some broken letters and the widely-spaced C-A in CANAL exists in all values. All measurements of the stamps and overprints are the same as in the preceding issue. Perf. 12 Denomination and color Issued Subject Quantity 2-cent rose May 20, 1909 Cordoba 500,000 5-cent blue and black May 28, 1909 J. Arosemena 200,000 8-cent violet and black May 25, 1909 Hurtado 50,000 10-cent dark violet and black Jan. 19, 1909 Obaldia 100,000 115

PAGE 131

Chapter XIV SEVENTH REGULAR SERIES 117

PAGE 132

&

PAGE 133

* # Type I Type II Type IV Type V 119

PAGE 134

IConktes mo N a Type IlIE 120

PAGE 135

Type I Type Il Type III Type IV Type V 12-1

PAGE 136

T2< && 14 Type I 122

PAGE 137

;AA 3 4 u4 Type 11 Type IV 123

PAGE 138

S -I v774 124

PAGE 139

Chapter XIV SEVENTH REGULAR SERIES 1909, November 8, 1921 The basic stamps of this Series are the same as those described in the Sixth Series with the exception of the 1-cent Balboa, which has been added. This one stamp is green in color with the usual portrait centered in black as in the Sixth Series. "REPUBLIC OF PANAMA" in capitals is arched across the top .and "UN CENTESIMO DE BALBOA" at the bottom of the stamp and between the numerals "1," is now in two lines instead of three matching the designs of the Sixth Series. "American Bank Note Co. N.Y." appears at the very bottom of each stamp in small caps. The denominations of the stamps are 1-cent, 2-cent, 5-cent, 8-cent, and 10-cent. This series was in use between 1909 and 1924. Considering its many years of use, it is surprising how uniform the paper quality and color persisted. In January 1909, Mr. Tom Cooke, Director of Posts, suggested that the manufacturers of Panama's stamps overprint those stamps which were to be supplied the Canal administration with the words "CANAL ZONE." This would save time and expense, he explained. This was also about the time that it was planned to move the Isthmian Canal Commission printing plant, which had been doing the overprinting, to Mount Hope (Monkey Hill), an industrial area on the outskirts of Cristobal. This suggestion of Mr. Tom Cooke resulted in a letter being sent to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, June 9, 1909, by Mr. Jo. C. S. Blackburn, head of the Department of Civil Administration which read: "I have the honor to enclose a copy of a note addressed by the Director of Posts of the Canal Zone to the Superintendent of Posts and Telegraphs at Panama, under date of January 11, submitting an estimate of the stamps and postal cards which will be needed by the Canal Zone Postal Service during the next two years. This estimate was submitted in pursuance of an understanding between the Superintendent of Posts and Telegraphs and the Director of Posts that these stamps would be purchased by the Panama Government from the manufacturers already surcharged with the words "CANAL ZONE," and would be delivered so surcharged to the Zone postal service upon proper requisition from time to time as they were needed. It is understood that they can be purchased by the Republic surcharged by the manufacturer without additional cost to the Republic, and this action, if taken, will result in considerable saving, both in time and money, on the part of the Canal Commission especially as the Commission printing plant where the stamps are now surcharged was recently transferred to Cristobal. "I enclose a 1-cent stamp indicating the manner of surcharge and I shall be obliged if your Excellency's Government will consider the desirability of ordering the stamps as suggested in the attached note." This was answered by Mr. Lewis immediately agreeing with pleasure to the proposition presented and that his government would act accordingly regarding 125

PAGE 140

the Canal's request for the overprinted stamps. Thus, the reason for this series and the beginning of another "specialist's" field day. The first stamps under this arrangement were received by the Canal Zone on October 1, 1909, and were issued November 8, 1909, in the denominations of 1-cent, 2-cent, 5-cent, and 10-cent. On March 18, 1910, the 8-cent value was placed on sale. From the maze of varieties and types of "CANAL ZONE" overprints in this series there emerges five major types. Four of these were applied by the American Bank Note Company before shipment of the basic stamp stock to Panama. One type was done by the Panama Canal Press at Mount Hope during acute stamp shortages when it became necessary to surcharge Panama's basic stamps of this Series. No attempt will be made here to list the many different spacings or measurements found in the different overprint types. We shall, however, list the major characteristics of each type. There were so many hundreds of thousands, even to the millions of each type printed that it is very likely that the average collector will come across some of the different types. TYPE I came into being on November 8, 1909, and appears on the 1-cent, 2-cent, 5-cent, and 10-cent stamps. The letter "C" of "CANAL" has serifs at both the top and bottom. The "L" has a slanting serif as do the letters "Z" and "E" of "ZONE." On March 18, 1910, the 8-cent value of this type was issued. TYPE II. The first overprint of this type was on the 2-cent and 5-cent denominations issued December 1912. The "C" of "CANAL" has a serif at the top only. The letters "L" and "E" have vertical serifs, the "Z" still remains slanted. The oval of the letter "0" of "ZONE" leans to the left. In July 1913 the 1-cent stamp was added to this type and in February 1916 the 10-cent stamp joined this grouping. TYPE III. The first overprinting of this type at the Panama Canal Press, Mount Hope, was done in December 1915 on the 1-cent and 5-cent stamps. The lettering does not appear to be as bold and firm as in the other types. The lower bars of the letters "L," "Z," and "E" definitely appear thinner. During August 1920, the 2-cent stamp appeared with this type. TYPE IV. During January1918, the 1-cent value of this type was issued. The main characteristics are the thickened "C" of "CANAL" particularly the bottom are and the lengthening of the middle bar of "E" in "ZONE" so that all bars appear even. In November 1918, the 2-cent denomination was issued and in April 1920 the 5-cent value was added to this type. TYPE V. In September 1920, the 2-cent scarlet and black stamp of this Series appeared in smaller type with a flat "A" top. This stamp was joined by the 1-cent and 5-cent values in April 1921. Somewhere along the line of the many printings of this type, the "E" of "ZONE" was loosened apparently in the entire form, with the result that a "dropped E" appears profusely. Perf. 12 Denomination and color Issued Type Subject Quantity 1-cent green and black Nov. 8, 1909 I Balboa 4,000,000 2-cent scarlet and black Nov. 8, 1909 I C6rdoba 4,000,000 5-cent blue and black Nov. 8, 1909 I Arosemena 2,000,000 8-cent violet and black Mar. 18, 1910 I Hurtado 200,000 10-cent violet and black Nov. 8, 1909 I Obaldia 100,000 126

PAGE 141

Denomination and color Issued Type Subject Quantity 1-cent green and black July 1913 II Balboa 3,000,000 2-cent scarlet and black Dec. 1912 II C6rdoba 7,500,000 5-cent blue and black Dec. 1912 II Arosemena 2,300,000 10-cent violet and black Feb. 1916 II Obaldia 200,000 1-cent green and black Dec. 1915 III Balboa 249,400 2-cent scarlet and black Aug. 1920 III C6rdoba 181,000 5-cent blue and black Dec. 1915 III Arosemena 149,700 1-cent green and black Jan. 1918 IV Balboa 2,000,000 2-cent scarlet and black Nov. 1918 IV C6rdoba 2,000,000 5-cent blue and black April 1920 IV Arosemena 500,000 1-cent green and black April 1921 V Balboa 1,000,000 2-cent scarlet and black Sept. 1920 V C6rdoba 3,000,000 5-cent blue and black April 1921 V Arosemena 500,000 1911-1914-10-cent on 13-cent and the 10-cent stamp. The first of these two stamps of a 13-cent denomination was ordered by the Canal Zone postal administration for use as a combined 5-cent postage fee and 8-cent registration fee. Before a single stamp, however, was used the denomination of the stamp was ordered changed to 10-cent. There were 500,000 stamps in the original order and since they were already overprinted "CANAL ZONE" by the American Bank Note Company, the shipment went to the Panama Canal Press at Mount Hope for the new value, "10 cts.", surcharge. The stamp is of the early Panama map design; grayish or slate in color, rectangular, measuring 21 7/8 mm. by 24 1/4 mm. with the over print "CANAL ZONE" in small capitals reading up and with the value "10 cts-." printed in black. The second stamp of this series is similar to the first except for the denomination change in the engraved stamp. It became a 10-cent stamp and thus did not require the value overprint. On April 25, 1911, Mr. Cooke, Director of Posts, in estimating the Canal Zone's postal needs for a two-year period, said: "I attach hereto a specimen of a 1-cent, 2-cent, 5-cent, and 10-cent stamp (no doubt, the overprinted portrait stamps herebefore mentioned in this chapter) now used in the Canal Zone, and would suggest that, if possible, no change be made in the design of the new stamps or in the manner in which surcharged, (little did the Director of Posts dream of the philatelic holiday made of the different types of overprints) with the exception of course, that the new 10-cent stamps be made up of that denomination, and not 13-cent, thereby making it unnecessary to resurcharge them '10 cts.'." We mention the estimates here as these two stamps are coupled with the preceding ones of this chapter. The amounts mentioned were: 2,000,000-1-cent; 2 ,000,000-2-cent; 1,000,000-5-cent; and 200,000-10-cent stamps. This shipment in its entirety was delivered to the Canal Zone thus: July 29, 1911, 700,000 -1-cent and 350,000-2-cent stamps; August 22, 1911, 1, 3 00,000-1-cent; 1,650,000-2-cent; 1,000,000-5-cent; and 200,000-10-cent stamps. Perf. 12 Denomination Color Issued Shipped 10-cent on 13-cent Slate Jan. 14, 1911 496,700 10-cent Slate Jan. 6, 1914 200,000 127

PAGE 142

9

PAGE 143

Chapter XV FIRST POSTAGE DUES 129

PAGE 145

N< Early examples of the "Postage Due" rubber stamp as applied to sheets or part sheets of 1906-1907 Portrait Series. 131

PAGE 146

POSTAGE by .o 6 m Early examples of the "Postage Due" rubber stamp as applied to sheets or part sheets of 1906-1907 Portrait Series. 132

PAGE 147

United States Postage Dues overprinted "Canal Zone" March 11, 1914. 133

PAGE 148

MR I MAR It 134

PAGE 149

Chapter XV FIRST POSTAGE DUES 1914, March 11, 12. Prior to 1914 there were no postage due stamps in either the Panama or Canal Zone's postal systems. Postmasters or postal clerks merely ascertained the amount due, affixed ordinary stamps when the letters were claimed and paid for, cancelled the stamp and delivered the letter. Due to the economic plight of the folks back home in Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad, St. Lucia, Martinique or any one of the many Caribbean islands, a good bit of the mail was received on the Canal in the early days with "10-cent postage due." Another reason could have been the sender's lack of knowledge as to the proper amount of postage to affix. This still persists. These postage due letters became so numerous that Gerald Bliss, Postmaster at Pedro Miguel, is said to have conceived the idea of precancelling a whole sheet of ordinary values to obviate the necessity of rubber-stamping each stamp separately as used. This was done by using a regular postage due rubber stamp. In order to take in as much of the vertical stamp as possible, the sheet was precancelled in a diagonal position. This postmaster's provisional postage due was, of course, not satisfactory. There are no doubt as many different cancelling markings as there were postage due rubber stamps. We have even seen an example of postage due cancels on an ordinary stamp by way of a piece of cork and smudge of a thumb. Most of the stamps noted and known receiving these provisional postage due markings were those of the 1906-1907 Portrait Series. On July 29,1911, Tom M. Cooke, Canal Zone Director of Posts, wrote to the Third Assistant Postmaster of the United States and asked whether or not it would be possible for the Bureau of Engraving and printing to supply the Canal Zone with United States postage due stamps in the 1-cent, 2-cent, and 10-cent denominations overprinted "CANAL ZONE." Although the answer was in the affirmative, nothing was done to consummate the deal for a couple of years. A Canal Zone committee was appointed December 8, 1913, to ascertain and report the best method of collecting postage due and whether or not this would in any way conflict with the postal agreement with Panama. On December 31, 1913, the committee, in a letter signed by Mr. Cooke, reported to the head of the Department of Civil Administration to the effect that: (1) It was desirable to have a distinctive postage due stamp for the protection of postal revenue. (2) United States postage due stamps used for that purpose on the Zone would not violate the Taft Agreement. (3) All mail matter carried in the Canal Zone would bear Panama stamps postmarked Canal Zone, and (4) That such postage due stamps would not be used other than in a post office of the mail matter's destination and not to carry mail. 135

PAGE 150

With the Committee's report and its approval by Mr. John K. Baxter, head of the Department of Civil Administration, 100,000 each of the three values were ordered on January 19, 1914, and received on the Zone March 3d, and issued March 11th or 12th. These comprise the second stamp order from the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the first having been for the Canal Zone Second Series. The values were 1-cent, 2-cent, and 10-cent of the 19100-1912 issue of regular United States postage dues. The color is rose carmine for all values, watermarked USPS single line and perforated 12. These were printed from flat plates of 400 subjects and issued in quarter-size sheets of 100. The 1-cent and 10-cent values appear on star plates which had vertical gutters of 2 mm. and 3 mm. The "CANAL ZONE" overprint is in black ink and was applied to the lower portion of the stamp. It consists of tall, block letters, 17 mm. long by 3 mm. high, reading diagonally up to the right. In some positions the "E" or last letter appears vertical, due no doubt to a loosened letter. Perf. 12 Denomination Color Quantity 1-cent Rose carmine 23,533 2-cent Rose carmine 32,312 10-cent Rose carmine 92,493 136

PAGE 151

Chapter XVI SECOND SERIES OF POSTAGE DUES 137

PAGE 152

tN 138

PAGE 153

14t 414 139

PAGE 154

4Je 414 140

PAGE 155

Chapter XVI SECOND SERIES OF POSTAGE DUES 1915, March 24 to 1919 Although Panama had no postage due stamps to this date, the ordering from the United States and use of such stamps by the Canal Zone Government commenced an exchange of letters between these governments which continued for almost a year. Panama claimed a contravention of the Taft Agreement whereas the Canal's Director of Posts contended that the Agreement referred solely to stamps used for the "prepayment of postage." Mr. C. A. McIlvaine, Executive Secretary of the Canal Zone, finally culminated the voluminous exchange by writing the Republic of Panama on April 25, 1914, that her claim would be upheld and that Panama would be paid forty percent of the face of the Postage Due overprints and further, "I presume that if this payment is made, the Republic of Panama will not object to the use of the surcharged United States 'postage due' stamps until the supply is exhausted." Panama stated that she would issue a special series of postage due stamps and that the "Canal Zone" overprinting cost would also be borne by her. This appeared satisfactory to the Canal Zone with the proviso, however, that the Canal Zone receive the . entire issue of these postage due stamps . for its use, as . it is not desired that any sheets of this issue fall into the hands of dealers." It was also agreed that any remaining United States overprinted postage dues would be destroyed before a joint Panama-United States committee. Subsequently, on March 24, 1915, 50,000-1-cent, 50,000-2-cent, and 200,000 -10-cent stamps, comprising the entire issue of Panama's first postage due stamps, were received by the Canal Zone. They were manufactured by the American Bank Note Company, came in sheets of 100, and were perforated 12. The stamps are all dark brown. The 1-cent is horizontally rectangular measuring 29 mm. by 191/4 mm. The center design is of an old Spanish fort beneath which is engraved Fort of San Lorenzo, Chagres. This is the fort successfully attacked by that feared buccaneer, Captain Henry Morgan. The inscription, however, is in error. The scene depicted is the gate to the San Geronimo Castle, Portobelo, Panama. This fort too was unsuccessful in withstanding the onslaught of the doughty swashbuckler. The 2-cent and 10-cent denominations are upright rectangles measuring 19Y4 mm. by 29 mm. The 2-cent stamp shows the Admiral of the Ocean Sea, Cristobal Colon, his right hand resting on the shoulder of an Indian maiden. The beautiful statue was the gift of Empress Eugenie of France during the French Canal days. Like the great discoverer, the statue has also done considerable traveling. After its arrival from France it was placed in front of the De Lesseps Building in Old Cristobal. When the Washington Hotel was completed in 1912, it was moved to a beautiful circle facing the ocean he so bravely 141

PAGE 156

sailed. Now it occupies a position on the central mall of Broadway in Colon. The 10-cent value has a portrait of Pedro J. Sosa (1851-1898), one of Panama's greatest engineers. A graduate of Rennselaer Polytechnic Institute, he returned to his homeland to join Lucien Bonaparte Wyse and Armand Recluse in their Isthmian survey to establish an interocean Canal route. Later he became one of the chief engineers of the French Canal Company and played a conspicuous part in the important work accomplished. A prominent hill and signal station at the entrance of Balboa Harbor from which can be seen much of the Pacific approach to the Canal and the terminal cities is named for this pioneer Canal engineer. Sosa and his small son, on their way to France, were drowned in the ill-fated sinking of the S.S. "Bourgogne," July 15, 1898. The "Canal Zone" overprint, dark blue, on these first Panama-furnished postage dues, appears in two lines reading up. "CANAL" measures 10 mm. and "ZONE" 81/2 mm., distance between the words 9 mm. On September 29, 1915, another series of postage dues was ordered. The basic stamps were the same; the overprint, however, was to be done in large numerals and in red ink. It appears that some of the postal clerks had difficulty reading the smaller engraved numerals. The stamps were returned to the United States for the overprinting and were received by the Canal Zone on November 12, 1915. The color of the overprint and the inclusion of a tall, thin numeral between "CANAL" and "ZONE" are the only changes from the previous printing. The numeral is 9 mm. high. The "10" cent overprint contains two separate spacings between the "1" and the "0;" the first measures 1 mm. and the second 2% mm. On November 18, 1919, the Canal ordered 50,000 each of the 2-cent and 4-cent postage dues from Panama with the request that they be surcharged in red ink and with large figures. Before the arrival of these from the American Bank Note Company the need became acute and Panama was asked to furnish 20,000 each of these denominations with the overprinting to be accomplished by the Panama Canal Press. This was done in early December 1919. The numerals are "2" and "4" in heavy block type 9 mm. high. The basic Panama 4-cent postage due has a central design of the National Palace of Panama. Perf. 12 Denomination Color Quantity Remarks 1-cent Dark brown 50,000 2-cent Dark brown 50,000 10-cent Dark brown 200,000 1-cent on 1-cent Dark brown 60,614 2-cent on 2-cent Dark brown 98,600 2-cent on. 2 -cent Dark brown 52,198 Heavy numeral 4-cent m 4-cent Dark brown 35,695 Heavy numeral 10-cent an 10-cent Dark brown 175,548 Two spacings 142

PAGE 157

Chapter XVII NINTH ORDINARY SERIES 143

PAGE 158

4

PAGE 159

0-1A ~1~4~-5 ~& 4"4 4 ~ i A7 &A 414

PAGE 160

T~-1 Jj ]4l 146

PAGE 161

Chapter XVII NINTH ORDINARY SERIES 1915, March 1 In 1914, by presidential decree, an issue of commemorative stamps was ordered printed by Panama for the opening of the Panama National Exposition which was to take place in 1915. The Canal was pleased to participate in this celebration. The American Bank Note Company surcharged 100,000 each of the 1-cent, 2-cent, and 5-cent stamps and 50,000 of the 10-cent stamps for use by the Canal Zone. They were placed on sale March 1, 1915. These stamps are not alone noted for their historical engravings but for their beauty of color and design; ornate in colored frame with central subject in black. They are rectangular in form, 33% mm. long and 22 mm. high. The 1-cent denomination has a green frame with a relief map in the center showing the route of the Panama Canal, from the Pacific at the right to the Atlantic, with Catun Lake at its final elevation. The 2-cent value in rose red or carmine shows Balboa as he stepped into the waters of the Pacific Ocean taking possession of that great body of water in the name of God and his king. The three flights or steps of the Gatun Locks looking south or upstairs are shown on the 5-cent stamp. The frame is blue and the picture is entitled "EXCLUSAS DE GATUN." The word for Locks should read "ESCLUSAS" with an "S" instead of an "X." Each Canal Zone collector having this item is thus assured of a legitimate error. The design of the 10-cent orange stamp shows Culebra Cut later officially named Gaillard Cut after the engineer in charge of this tough excavation job. This view looks north with the construction town of Empire showing just above and to left center (west) of the old suspension bridge. About a year later the need for higher valued stamps arose in the Zone and Mr. John K. Baxter, Director of Posts, requested Panama stamps of the denominations of 12-cent, 15-cent, and 24-cents. Official Panama Canal pictures were again furnished Panama as subjects for the stamps. By Decree No. 164 of September 30, 1916, these three stamps were authorized for use by the Canal Zone. They went on sale at all Canal Zone post offices January 1917. The 12-cent stamp, red violet and black, shows the S.S. "Panama," August 11, 1914, the third vessel to completely transit the Canal prior to the official opening; she is headed south in the Cut and is a bit north of Gold Hill. The 15-cent value, turquoise and black, shows the vessel in Culebra on her return trip north with the Continental Divide and Gold Hill in the upper right corner of the design. The S.S. "Cristobal," sister-ship of the S.S. "Panama," is shown on the 24-cent stamp in Gatun Locks, March 11, 1915. This vessel made the first unofficial Canal transit on August 3, 1914. The color of the stamp is yellowish brown and black. 147

PAGE 162

Fifty-cent and dollar value stamps were requested of the Panama Government on November 29, 1919, and again official photographs were furnished which were relayed to the American Bank Note Company. They were received, overprinted, and put on sale by the Canal Zone on September 4, 1920. The 50-cent stamp, orange and black, shows the huge graving dock at Balboa with the SS "General George W. Goethals" (SS "Grunewald") and the SS "W. C. Gorgas" (SS "Prinz Sigismund") in Drydock, April 16, 1917. The Mechanical Division or Shops are shown at the right of the dock. The dollar denomination of this series is in purple and black. It shows the U.S. Naval Collier "Nereus" in the upper eastern chamber of the Pedro Miguel Locks headed north. The town of Pedro Miguel, a beehive during construction days and now practically demolished, is on the right or east with Luisa Hill in the background. The "CANAL ZONE" overprints on the stamps of the 1-cent to 24-cent values are the same as Type II of the Seventh Series and are in dark blue. The 50-cent and $1.00 denominations are surcharged in black and have the Type V, flat "A," overprint. Some difference in spacings may be noted. Perf. 12 Denomination Color Quantity 1-cent Dark green and black 100,000 2-cent Carmine and black 100,000 5-cent Blue and black 100,000 10-cent Dark orange and black 50,000 12-cent Red violet and black 314,914 15-cent Turquoise blue and black 130,000 24-cent Yellowish brown and black 170,000 50-cent Orange and black 6,645 $1.00 Dark purple and black 23,014 148

PAGE 163

Chapter XVIII TENTH ORDINARY SERIES 149

PAGE 164

*d 44 7, Moun Hop pritin o 1-en Vaaro o ovr 7L to Mount Hope printing on I-cent Vallarino on cover. 150

PAGE 165

Chapter XVIII TENTH ORDINARY SERIES 1921, November 13-1924 Like all her Latin American neighbors, Panama, in 1921, celebrated the centenary of her independence from Spain by issuing a set of postal stamps. The Canal Zone was again asked if she would join in this postal manifestation and Mr. C. A. McIlvaine, the Executive Secretary, replied that the Canal Zone would be pleased to join her neighbor. The engraving of this portrait and scenic series was very finely done by the American Bank Note Company. The 1-cent green stamp has a central design portraying Pr6cer Jos6 Vallarino (born 1792-died 1864), born in Los Santos, Panama. This grandee was a leading statesman of his day, a close friend of the great liberator, Sim6n Bolivar, and a champion of liberty. In 1821 he signed the Act declaring his country free of Spanish domination. The old "Land Gate" of Panama is shown on the 2-cent carmine-red stamp of this series. The "Land Gate" was located in what is now the center of the city of Panama and separated the "Inside" or aristocracy from the "Outside" or bourgeoisie. Curfew rang at 9:00 p.m., closing the gate to all traffic until sunrise. The 5-cent blue stamp is an oblong one in horizontal format and the only one of this series not bearing a portrait or picture. It contains a portion of a letter written by General Sim6n Bolivar to General Jose de Fabrega on February 1, 1822. Its words are blazoned in Panama's history. "Panama's Declaration of Independence is the most glorious monument that any American province can offer history. Everything is covered therein: justice, generosity, policy, and national interest." The red-violet 10-cent stamp has a divided center showing the old "Cabildo" Municipal Building of 1821 on the left half and the Municipal Palace of 1921 on the right half. The latter building is still serving the municipality of the city of Panama. A well-known and beautiful landmark appears on the 15-cent light blue stamp. On an allegorical and ornate base in front of the Santo Tomis Hospital stands the imposing monument to Balboa. It is close to Panama Bay and faces the Pacific Ocean. General Tomis Herrera (born 1804-died 1854), patriot and hero of Panama, is shown on the 24-cent black-brown stamp. At the age of 17 when Panama declared its independence, young Herrera was a lieutenant in its patriotic army. Through constant and distinguished service he rose to the rank of general. On November 18, 1840, when Panama declared her emancipation from Colombia, General Herrera was elected president. Upon reincorporation with Colombia, he became Governor of the Province of Panama. Many offices and honors were his Assemblyman, Minister of War, Senator, and Commander in Chief of government forces. During an uprising in 1853, he was made provisional president 151

PAGE 166

of Colombia. Brave General Herrera gloriously died of wounds on December 4, 1854, after leading a victorious army to the restoration of constitutional government. The last stamp of this series, the 50-cent black, depicts another great hero of Panama, Pr6cer Jos6 de Faibrega (born 1781-died 1852). It was General Fibrega to whom Bolivar wrote the passage appearing on the 5-cent stamp. Embracing the army as a career, he became an officer in the Royal Militia of Spain. It was his fortune while in temporary command of the Royal Province of Panama to proclaim its independence of Spain, November 28, 1821. He repeatedly held the posts of Governor of Veraguas and Governor of Panama. As Bolivar is known as the liberator of the northern part of South America, so history names Fabrega the liberator of Panama. This series of stamps was manufactured and overprinted by the American Bank Note Company. The normal overprint in black is that which heretofore was called Type V in the preceding series. There appears a variation of this on the 1-cent Vallarino which was done at the Panama Canal Press, Mount Hope, Canal Zone, and which is called Type III. The 5-cent blue stamp also appeared in a larger red overprint reading up in black and small red and black overprints of Type V. These are believed to be essays and not to have been regularly issued. The initial order placed by the Canal Zone for these stamps overprinted "CANAL ZONE" were: 1,500,000-1-cent; 1,000,000-2-cent; 2 50,000-5-cent; 100,000-10-cent; 50,000-15-cent; 2 5,000-24-cent; and 10,000-50-cent stamps. Almost immediately however Panama received an additional order to supply the postal needs of the Canal for a year. This was for an additional: 1,000,000 -1-cent; 2,000,000-2-cent; 500,000-5-cent; 2 50,000-10-cent; 100,000-15cent; 50,000-24-cent; 25,000-50-cent; 10,000-1-cent (24's) booklets; 25,000 -2-cent (12's) booklets; 50,000-1-cent postal cards; 50,000-1-cent stamped envelopes, and 50,000-2-cent stamped envelopes. Perf. 12 Denomination Color Quantity Comment 1-cent Green 1,000,000 1-cent Green 50,000 Mount Hope Printing 2-cent Carmine red 2,000,000 5-cent Deep blue 213,072 10-cent Red violet 225,000 15-cent Light blue 70,000 24-cent Black brown 50,000 50-cent black 14,600 152

PAGE 167

Chapter XIX ELEVENTH ORDINARY SERIES 153

PAGE 168

'4 t< 88 10 44 .E~ F . AT%.

PAGE 169

Chapter XIX ELEVENTH ORDINARY SERIES 1924, February Sometime in the latter part of 1923, the Republic of Panama informed the Canal Zone that it was contemplating the use of her Coat of Arms (Escudo) for the central design of a new series of stamps. The order was being placed with the American Bank Note Company and the Canal administration was queried regarding her estimates and stamp requirements for the year. The "CANAL ZONE" overprints of this issue arrived during January and February, 1924, and the following denominations and quantities were delivered to the Canal Zone: Denomination Quantity Denomination Quantity 1-cent 500,000 1-cent postcards 150,000 2-cent 1,000,000 1-cent envelopes 150,000 5-cent 250,000 2-cent envelopes 250,000 10-cent 75,000 1-cent booklets (24's) 5,000 12-cent 50,000 2-cent booklets (12's) 30,000 15-cent 25,000 2-cent booklets (24's) 5,000 24-cent 10,000 50-cent 5,000 $1.00 5,000 At the request of the Panama Postal Administration, February 27, 1924, the Canal Zone furnished them with 600 overprinted examples of each value and the 1-cent postal cards.These were supposedly for transmittal to the Universal Postal Union at Berne, Switzerland. Later in this year, however, sets of the entire issue from 1-cent to $1.00 were offered for sale in London, Paris, and Panama though not all denominations had been placed on sale through regular channels. The Canal Zone administration sold only the 1-cent and 2-cent stamps of this coat-of-arms series between first day of sale in February and July 1, 1924, when the United States overprinted stamps came into use. It is a fact that the Canal Zone never issued the 5-cent to $1.00 values for postal use and none were sold to the public over the post office counters. Perf. 12 Denomination Color Quantity 1-cent Dark green 24,153 2 -cent Vermillion 370,240 155

PAGE 171

Chapter XX ABROGATION OF THE TAFT AGREEMENT 157

PAGE 173

Chapter XX ABROGATION OF THE TAFT AGREEMENT As early as December 16, 1910, the Canal Zone Government felt that the reasons leading to the Taft Agreement and our purchase of stamps from the Republic of Panama had now ceased to exist. (See chapter IX.) The young republic was now firmly established, its budget balanced, its revenues steadily increasing with growing business and the initial arrangement at any rate was but a temporary one. So wrote John K. Baxter, Director of Posts, to the Chairman of the Isthmian Canal Commission, Col. George W. Goethals. He also stated that our own postal system was yearly and continuously going into the "red" by reason of this apparent added "subsidy" to the Republic. It cost $188,152.41 to operate the Division of Posts during fiscal 1909-1910 and the revenues amounted to $106,804.45. Deducting almost $60,000 which the Canal paid Panama, i.e. 40% of the face value of Panama's stamps purchased, from the cost of operation would go far in balancing his postal budget. Mr. Baxter thus concluded that efforts should be made to remove this purchase clause from the Taft Agreement. In 1914, Mr. Baxter again called this matter to the attention of the Executive Secretary and pointed out that for the two-year period, 1913-1914, Panama's revenues were estimated at $7,682,428 and her appropriations for the same period aggregated $7,986,732. The Executive Secretary was also directed to the fact that the Canal Zone postal administration had a deficit for the fiscal year of $65,000, most of which went for the purchase of stamps. Mr. Crede H. Calhoun, Director of Posts succeding Mr. Baxter, continued these efforts to cease purchasing our stamps from the Republic showing that for fiscal 1921 the cost of operating the Canal Zone post offices was $192,549.91 and the revenues $155,160.46. During this fiscal year, the Panama Canal paid Panama $40,000 for stamps which could have been manufactured by our own Bureau of Engraving and Printing for about $2,000. The Canal's postal system could thus be self-sustaining. The exchange of letters and discussions in this regard continued not only within the Canal organization but broadened in scope and effect to include the Secretary of State, Secretary of War, the United States Postmaster General, and the Comptroller General of the United States. As a result of these intra and interdepartmental discussions, a recommendation was made to Congress by President Warren G. Harding in September 1922, that the Taft convention be abrogated. The effective date was at first set for May 1, 1924, but upon further negotiations with the Republic of Panama regarding the purchase of the "leftover" stamps, the date set was June 1, 1924. President Calvin Coolidge subsequently issued an Executive Order proclaiming its effect as of that day and the agreement made between Secretary of War Taft and the Republic of Panama was dissolved. 159

PAGE 174

On July 2, 1924, Mr. C. A. McIlvaine, Executive Secretary of the Panama Canal, wrote to Dr. Eusebio Morales, Panama's Secretary of Foreign Relations, as follows: You are informed that effective July 1, 1924, the United States postage stamps surcharged "CANAL ZONE" were placed in use in the post offices of the Canal Zone on account of the abrogation of the Taft Agreement. As soon as accounts of the postmasters have been audited the question of the final settlement with your Government for Panama stamps surcharged "CANAL ZONE" used in the Canal Zone postal service, will be taken up with you. At the same time I shall take up the matter of the disposition of the Panama stamps surcharged "CANAL ZONE" now in the hands of the Collector (Treasurer's office) of the Panama Canal. Stamps stocks were inventoried, audits made, and negotiations entered into which were subjected to considerable correspondence and discussion between the governments for 13 years. The sum of $16,623.20 was finally agreed upon as just and equitable and on March 5, 1937, the settlement was submitted to the Comptroller General of the United States for decision. In his transmittal letter, Mr. W. R. Kromer, Comptroller of the Panama Canal, said, I do not think there is any question that the United States Government owes the Republic of Panama for the cost of engraving the postage which was not used, because Panama ordered the postage in good faith to meet the demand from the Canal Zone post offices, and the order which was in the hands of the engravers at the time the (Taft) agreement was abrogated could not be stopped. The postage was shipped to Panama and I am informed that Panama was compelled to pay the engravers . On June 15, 1937, the Comptroller General answered, In view of the explanation so made, it now appears that the Republic of Panama is entitled to payment in the amount claimed ($16,623.20) and the adjustment as proposed is authorized. Case atop case of mint postage stamps, postal cards and envelopes in their original packages as received from the American Bank Note Company, were turned over to the Panama Canal by the Panama Government on June 18, 1937. Their face value was $407,568.19 and their present philatelic catalog value would no doubt pay for the construction of a super rocket to the moon. The final step before closing this most interesting philatelic score of years was the manner of the stamps' destruction. It was decided to burn them. Since there were so many this was accomplished in part at the Gorgas Hospital crematory and part in an annealing oven of Mechanical Division, Balboa. Witnessing the burnings on August 14 and 16, 1937, were Mr. S. C. Russell, Postal Inspector; Mr. W. L. Scofield, Chief Inspector of the Panama Canal representing the Comptroller; and Mr. L. C. Warner, representing the Panama Canal Collector of the Treasurer's Office. 160

PAGE 175

Chapter XXI AN EMERGENCY CREATION 161

PAGE 177

Chapter XXI AN EMERGENCY CREATION 1924, April With all the "to do" negotiations, discussions and such prior to the Canal Zone receiving its United States overprints, it occured to the wide-awake Director of Posts, Mr. C. H. Calhoun, that the Canal could be placed in somewhat of a stamp predicament. Due to the possibility of the Taft Agreement's abrogation becoming effective any day during the months of April, May, or June 1924, Panama did not want to order excessive supplies of stamps. Although the Canal had queried the Bureau of Engraving and Printing regarding costs of overprinting United States issues with "CANAL ZONE" and supply dates, there existed the possibility that the Taft Agreement would become nullified before the Canal could be furnished with the "CANAL ZONE" overprints. That condition would create a stamp void. Mr. Calhoun telephoned Mr. A. P. E. Doyle, Printer, Panama Canal Press, Mt. Hope, and asked if the plant could furnish a stamp, something acceptable for the purpose of postage, to cover an emergency of short duration should one arise. Mr. Doyle, arising to the challenge, answered in the affirmative and the creation of the ungummed sewing machine perforated "swastika and Canal Zone seal" essay which later was fashioned into a card (January 1925) and envelope (October'24,1924), was the result. These proposed stamps were never printed in quantity nor placed on sale as notification was received that the United States postage stamps overprinted "CANAL ZONE" had been forwarded by registered mail on the 19th of April. In a letter dated April 28, 1924, to Mr. Doyle, Mr. Calhoun said, "Confirming telephone conversation with your office, you are informed that it will not be necessary to have emergency supply of Canal Zone stamped paper made up by your plant . Please forward under registered cover, to this office, all proofs of proposed stamps or stamped paper which may now be in your custody." 163

PAGE 179

Chapter XXII MANUFACTURE OF SPECIALLY DESIGNED CANAL ZONE STAMPS 165

PAGE 181

NT Designing Room-Engraving Division. Preparing a Canal Zone Postage Stamp Die. 167

PAGE 182

CM tJ~n > 00.o 0

PAGE 183

Chapter XXII MANUFACTURE OF SPECIALLY DESIGNED CANAL ZONE STAMPS Nearly all the stamps used by the Panama Canal folks until the United States "CANAL ZONE" overprint Series of 1924 came into being were printed by the Ameridan Bank Note Company. Under the Taft Agreement (chapter IX), they were purchased from the Republic of Panama for whom they were manufactured. The exceptions were the Second Series "CANAL ZONE" overprints on the regular United States 1902 set, the First Postage Dues which were printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing of Washington, and the Fifth Series printed by the Hamilton Bank Note Company. The Canal Zone postal administration planned to make immediate use of United States overprints again when the Taft Agreement was abrogated and to this end the following letter was written: BALBOA HEIGHTS, C.Z., May 11, 1921. Third Assistant Postmaster General, Division of Finance, Washington, D.C. SIR: In accordance with the provisions of an Executive Order issued December 3, 1904-one of the orders of the so-called Taft Agreement-the Government of Panama supplies the Canal Zone Postal Service with stamps and stamped paper surcharged "Canal Zone" at 40 per centum of the face value of such stock. It is possible that a new agreement will be made within the next few months between the United States and Republic of Panama, which will annul the provisions of the Executive Order by which we are governed, and such being the case, this Administration would like to adopt United States postage surcharged "Canal Zone," similar to the surcharged postage supplied for the United States Postal Administration at Shanghai, China, as described in paragraph 17, page 30, of the United States Postal Guide for July 1920. However, we would not care to use all of the denominations now supplied by your Administration, but it is requested that you please advise me at your earliest convenience what would be the cost for supplying this Administration with the following items: 1,000,000 1-cent stamps 1,500,000 2-cent stamps 500,000 5-cent stamps 100,000 10-cent stamps 50,000 12-cent stamps 25,000 15-cent stamps 40,000 30-cent stamps 5,000 50-cent stamps 169

PAGE 184

10,000 $1.00 stamps 10,000 1-cent postage due stamps 25,000 2-cent postage due stamps 30,000 10-cent postage due stamps 10,000 stamp books each containing 24 1-cent stamps 40,000 stamp books each containing 12 2-cent stamps 5,000 stamp books each containing 24 2-cent stamps 100,000 postal cards size No. 8 75,000 1-cent stamped envelopes, size No. 5, white 200,000 2-cent stamped envelopes, size No. 5, white 25,000 2-cent stamped envelopes, size No. 8, white In your reply please advise the least number of days required to fill the order after receipt, and if possible, have quotations furnished covering the cost, or estimated cost, of each item above enumerated. Respectfully, C. H. CALHOUN, Director of Posts. On May 25, 1921, the Third Assistant Postmaster General replied to this letter stating that the inquiry had been referred to the Purchasing Agent of the United States Post Office Department. He further added, It is deemed proper to add that this office can see no good reason why postage stamps surcharged "CANAL ZONE" could not be furnished at cost of manufacture plus surcharging which would be approximately 25-cents per thousand stamps, in the event a future agreement is made authorizing the Canal Zone Postal Service to use such stamps. There was considerable correspondence thereafter between the Canal Zone Postal Administration, the United States Post Office Department, the Canal Zone Purchasing Agent in Washington, and other agencies involved, until the Agreement was finally abrogated. On April 19, 1924, the first order from the Canal Zone for overprinted United States stamps was completed and shipped, arriving on the Zone, April 29, 1924. Thus did the Bureau of Engraving and Printing become the printing plant producing postage stamps for the Canal Zone, which it has continued to do in a most efficient manner to this day. In the Canal's business dealings with the Bureau, Mr. Henry J. Holtzclaw, the Director, and his able staff have been cooperative and friendly and all orders have been filled with dispatch despite the 2,000 miles separating the offices of the Canal Zone's Director of Posts and the Director of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing in Washington. When a general subject for a stamp has been chosen by the Canal Zone Stamp Committee and drawings or sketches made of the subject matter by the architect of the Canal Zone, they are then forwarded to the Governor of the Canal Zone for approval. Subject to alteration or change if necessary, the designs are then sent to the Bureau for execution. All of the Canal Zone's postage stamps are produced by the intaglio or recess printing method giving the subject depth which increases the design's beauty many times. The first step towards a stamp production is the preparation of a large scale model from which the engravers will work. In this the Bureau follows the initial sketches or drawings supplied by the Canal Zone as closely as possible. This model is usually photographically reduced to stamp size in black and white. When a model has been approved by the Governor, the master die is next started in steel by the engravers, an important and highly skilled step in the stamp's 170

PAGE 185

creation. When the die is completed, an impression in the color requested is made which is sent to the Canal Zone for approval. Upon the approved die proof's return to the Bureau, the die is hardened and a transfer roll or rolls made taking up one or more reproductions of the die. This is the means of multiplying a single engraving as many times as needed for the making of the plates. Depending upon the size, denomination and stamp design, the plates are made to print 100, 200, 280, 360, or 400 subjects. All stamps of the Canal Zone to date have been printed on the so-called 4-plate flatbed power presses which are most efficient in their workmanship. They ink, wipe, polish, take the impression, and remove the printed sheet with machine precision. The Canal Zone stamps are then fed into perforators, examined, counted, wrapped, packed, and a a final step, shipped. 171

PAGE 187

Chapter XXIII CANAL ZONE STAMP COMMITTEE 173

PAGE 188

The Canal Zone Stamp Committee grouped at one of its regular meetings, July 21, 1959. Seated is James Marshall, Acting Civil Affairs Director, and other members of the committee standing from left to right are: Earl F. Unruh, Director of Posts; Paul M. Runnestrand, Executive Secretary of the Canal Zone Government; Hugh W. Cassibry, who represents the philatelists on the stamp committee; Gerald A. Doyle, Jr., Chief, Architectural Branch, Panama Canal Company, and Judge Edward I. P. Tatelman. 174

PAGE 189

Chapter XXIII CANAL ZONE STAMP COMMITTEE Prior to 1928, there was little, if any, use for interdepartmental conferences regarding the Canal Zone stamp designs. In general, the Canal Zone Government purchased its stamps from the Republic of Panama up to June 30, 1924. From July 1, 1924 to October 1, 1928, and even later, the United States Government furnished its stamps. When the Canal Zone decided to create a definitive series, the question of appropriate design was developed by way of inter-office memoranda between the Governor, the Executive Secretary, the Director of Posts, Office Engineer, and the Postal Inspector. After several such exchanges, the subject design, usually a portrait, was transmitted to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for completion and printing. The first actual drawings and designs originating and submitted by a Canal Zone employee were for the Air Mail Series of 1931. Then followed those for the 3-cent Goethals stamp of 1934. Mr. Meade Bolton, Architect, Panama Canal, was requested by Mr. C. A. McIlvaine, Executive Secretary, to do the work. Thereafter, photographs were again used until Mr. Virgil D. Westbrook of the Office of Engineers submitted official photographs and original drawings for the beautiful "Before and After" Series of 1939. In a memorandum to Gov. J. C. Mehaffey, July 24, 1946, Col. F. H. Wang, Executive Secretary, suggested that the policy of using likenesses of former members of the Isthmian Canal Commission on Canal Zone postage stamps which had been established by Col. Meriweather Walker when the latter was Governor (1928-1932) be reviewed. Colonel Wang thought this propitious in view of the fact that there remained on the Isthmus people who had first-hand knowledge of those who rendered distinguished and outstanding service in the planning, construction, and operation of the Canal. Although not always members of the Commission, their accomplishments were so substantial as to merit similar recognition. On August 19, 1946, the Governor not only approved the Executive Secretary's suggestion, but followed by appointing Col. James G. Steese, C.E., U.S.A.; Mr. Crede H. Calhoun, Director of Posts, and Mr. Cambridge M. Lupfer to comprise a stamp advisory committee. This committee commenced functioning almost immediately for on September 24, 1946, Mr. Lupfer submitted the following memorandum: The records indicate that the following members of various Isthmian Canal Commissions have resided and served on the Isthmus, but have not been honored in the Canal Zone permanent postage stamp series: Maj. Gen. George W. Davis (Governor, member of Isthmian Canal Commission March 8, 1904 to May 23, 1905). John F. Wallace (Chief Engineer, member of Isthmian Canal Commission April 1, 1905 to June 28, 1905). 175

PAGE 190

Charles E. Magoon (Governor, member of Isthmian Canal Commission May 24, 1905 to October 12, 1906). Maurice H. Thatcher (member of Isthmian Canal Commission May 6, 1910 to August 8, 1913). Richard L. Metcalfe (member of Isthmian Canal Commission August 9, 1913 to March 31, 1914). The dates of service as shown are subject to check. Mr. Thatcher is still living. It is not certain about Mr. Metcalfe-if living, he would be 85 at this time. The committee again met on December 10, 1946, and recommended to the Governor that the proposed -cent, 1 -cent, and 25-cent stamps of the permanent series carry the likenesses of Governor Davis, Governor Magoon, and Mr. Wallace. With this action the committee apparently adjourned "sine die." Mr. E. C. Lombard, Acting Executive Secretary, on January 21, 1949, requested the following to serve as a stamp design committee: Mr. James Marshall, Director of Posts, to act as chairman, Mr. Meade Bolton, Architect, Panama Canal, and Judge Edw. I. P. Tatelman to represent the philatelists. This committee was asked to recommend a new design for the 2-cent stamp and to review the advisability of issuing a Canal Zone stamp commemorating the services of the thousands of employees of all nationalities who participated in the construction of the Panama Canal from 1904 to 1918. Recommendations were made as requested after stated and periodic meetings and stamps were issued. Since the Canal Zone probably issues fewer stamps annually than any other stamp-issuing jurisdiction, this committee's meetings thereafter were few and as needed only. Mr. Leo C. Page succeeded Mr. Bolton upon the latter's retirement, April 30, 1949, from government service, and Mr. Jack Buechele, also of the Engineers and an architect, took over when Mr. Page left the Office Engineers by way of retirement on March 14, 1956. Anticipated congressional action on first class and air postage rate revision caused Gov. W. E. Potter to reappoint Messrs. Marshall and Tatelman to the stamp design committee on February 27, 1957, and to add Mr. Paul M. Runnestrand, Executive Secretary, to represent the Governor, and Mr. Wells Wright to represent the designers or Office Engineers. On February 7, 1958, Mr. Hugh W. Cassibry was appointed to the committee vice Judge Tatelman. This is a currently functioning committee and when meetings are called by Mr. Marshall, Chairman, they are usually also attended ex officio by Mr. Gerald Doyle, architect, under whose supervision the more recent stamps have been designed, and Mr. Earl F. Unruh, Director of Posts, who, as Budget Officer for the Postal Division, controls the purse strings of the pouch from which the funds are allocated for the new issues. 176

PAGE 191

Chapter XXIV TWELFTH SERIES 177

PAGE 192

AA Flat "A" "Canal Zone" overprints on United States stamps of the 1922-23 issue. 178

PAGE 193

Lk CANAL )ZONE Flat "A" "Canal Zone" overprints on United States stamps of the 1922-23 issue. 179

PAGE 194

CAN' ~ A ~i 4NAt A N A L NA L CAN AN J Showing "Canal Zone" Sharp "A" overprinted stamps as distinguished from the Flat "A." 180

PAGE 195

%j 0~ ee K \ A > CNA Showing "Canal Zone" Sharp "A" overprinted stamps as distinguished from the Flat "A." 181

PAGE 196

CA N, I, NA t I& 41 ''AN Showing "Canal Zone" Sharp "A" overprinted stamps as distinguished from the Flat "A." 182

PAGE 197

Chapter XXIV TWELFTH SERIES 1924, July 1, to 1934 The die was now cast for another interesting series of Canal Zone stamps. Instead of the overprints appearing on the stamps of Panama, they appear on the 1922 issue of United States stamps. Peculiarly, the overprint is almost of the same size and dimensions. On June 25, 1924, Mr. C. H. Calhoun, the Director of Posts, issued Circular No. 54 reading: To All Postmasters: NEW ISSUE OF POSTAGE STAMPS All Panama postage stamps and other stamped paper, surcharged "CANAL ZONE" will be withdrawn from sale at the close of business on June 30th, and no sales of such stamped paper shall be made after that date. To replace the present issue of postage stamps there will be issued to postmasters, without requisition by them therefor, United States postage stamps, surcharged "CANAL ZONE," in denominations of 1-cent, 2-cent, 5-cent, 10-cent, 12-cent, 15-cent, 30-cent, 50-cent, and $1.00; postage due stamps in denominations of 1-cent, 2-cent, and 10-cent; 1-cent postal cards; and stamped envelopes in denominations of 1-cent and 2-cent. Stamp books will not be available for sale until a later date. Though none of the old issue of stamps shall be sold after June 30th, they shall nevertheless be valid for postage until and including July 31. Stamps of the old issue in the hands of the public after July 1st, and until August 1st, may be either used for postage or exchanged for other stamps of the new issue but shall in no case be redeemed for cash. Stamped envelopes, unsoiled and in good condition which have not been specially printed by the purchaser, will be exchanged for an equal number of envelopes of the new issue or for postage stamps. If exchanged for postage stamps, only the face value of the stamps on the envelopes will be allowed in exchange. Likewise, postal cards of the old issue may be exchanged for new cards or postage stamps, provided the cards are unsoiled and in good condition. Stamped envelopes and postal cards which have been specially printed for the purchasers will be recognized as valid until the stocks thereof have been consumed regardless of the date, but will not be redeemed or exchanged. Stamped paper which has been exchanged or redeemed will be forwarded to this office, carefully wrapped, with the monthly stamp account for July, accompanied by an invoice thereof on Form 1106-1 and the amount thereof shall be entered as a credit on the statement as in the case of stamped envelopes redeemed. In no case shall any of the old issue of stamped paper be redeemed or exchanged after July 31st. After August 1st, mail matter with stamps other than those of the new issue affixed shall be treated as unpaid according to sections 39 and 41 of the Canal Zone Postal Guide. Stamps other than those of the new issue shall not in such cases be canceled. However, as noted above, stamped envelopes and postal cards, specially printed, shall continue to be recognized as valid until the present stocks have been exhausted even 183

PAGE 198

though such envelopes and postal cards are used after July 31st. After June 30th the widest possible publicity shall be given to the provisions regarding the discontinuance of the use of the old issue of stamps and the provisions for their exchange for stamps of the new issue. Patrons who are known to have purchased large quantities of stamped paper should be individually notified. No stamps shall be exchanged after July 31st without prior authority from this office, and it should be distinctly understood that exchange shall not be made in any event unless the stamped paper presented for exchange is in perfect condition. The attention of Postmasters is directed to section 183 of the Canal Zone Postal Guide which provides that sales of stamps to collectors and other unusual sales shall be specially reported to this office. C. H. CALHOUN, Director of Posts. A following circular dated August 4, 1924, extended the time for use or exchange of the Panama overprints until August 31, 1924. And so ended the extremely interesting 20-year period of the Canal Zone's purchase and use of Panama's stamps. When the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, D.C., received the first orders from the Canal Zone for United States overprints, it was natural that the orders be filled from whatever was currently available at the Bureau. Thus in early 1924 the United States Ordinary Issue of 1922-1923 was current. Although there are 21 denominations in this United States Series, the Canal Zone used only the 1-cent, 2-cent, 5-cent, 10-cent, 12-cent, 15-cent, 30-cent, 50-cent, and $1.00 stamps. The 1 /2-cent Nathan Hale and the 1 -cent Warren G. Harding fractionals were added April 15, 1925 consistent with the change of postal rates effective that date. The 3-cent and 14-cent stamps were also added on that date. The 17-cent Wilson stamp and the 20-cent stamp were received on April 5, 1926, the 17-cent stamp for use as a combined registration fee with ordinary postage. These values were used over a period of years and come with different types of overprints, perforations, and in from one to several printings of each. The changes came about as stated owing to the Canal Zone receiving whatever United States stock was on hand or was being made for the United States Post Office Department. Some of the United States stamps were printed from flat plates and some from curved plates and the types of the overprints are readily distinguished by flat or sharp "A's" in "CANAL" of "CANAL ZONE." Occassionally an odd order required a special printing of the basic stamp but these were very infrequent. The Canal Zone postal administration did not intend to use these United States overprints permanently. In a letter to the Chief of Office, Panama Canal, Washington, on November 14, 1924, Mr. C. A. McIlvaine, Executive Secretary, requested that estimates be obtained for a newly designed Canal Zone series ranging from a 1-cent stamp to a $1.00 one and to invite estimates too for postage dues, postal cards, and booklets. This, however, was not followed by any additional action. In a letter earlier that year to Mr. Frank E. Greene, a construction-day employee and ardent collector, Mr. Calhoun said, "It cannot be definitely stated how long United States surcharged stamps will be used in the Canal Zone. It is probable, however, that they will continue to be used for at least one year." The initial order was thus meant to cover that length of time. TYPE I, FLAT "A" Overprintings When the Bureau of Engraving and Printing received the first batch of 184

PAGE 199

linotype slugs from the Government Printing Office, it was found that the type was almost a duplicate of the style of overprint used by the American Bank Note Company on Panama's issues for the Canal Zone. The United States type was a bit larger and the Bureau's setting read horizontally whereas the last Canal Zone overprint on Panama stamps read up. The first overprinting became generally known to the stamp collector as the "Flat A" or "Type I" overprint to distinguish it from the succeeding style or "Sharp A." Printing forms were set up with sufficient "CANAL ZONE" combinations in two lines consistent with the number of subjects in a sheet, i.e., 100, 200, 360, or 400. These first forms were used repeatedly and covered shipments to the Zone commencing with the first on April 19, 1924 to the fractionals early in 1925 and the 14-cent stamp on May 19, 1925. It was not long before the wear of the letters or slugs was evident. This is particularly noted in the printings made to fill orders after the first shipments. With impressions printed on almost 8,000,000 stamps, it is not unreasonable to expect moderate to hard wear from the contact of the relatively soft type metal on paper. The normal spacing between "CANAL" and "ZONE" is 9 mm. There will be found, however, spacings varying from 8 mm. to 10 mm. Variations in the spacing between the overprints of adjacent stamps may also be found, that is, from the "L" in "CANAL" of one stamp to the "C" of "CANAL" in the next stamp. It is indeed a reflection to the benefit of the printers that but one major error was found on this type. "ZONE" was found inverted in position 30 of the lower left panes in the 1-cent and 12-cent denominations. The two line black (red on the -cent) overprints on all of the "Type I Flat A" denominations measures: CANAL. 11 mm. ZONE. 8 mm. Height of letters. 2 mm. Spacing between words. . 9 mm. The stamps measure ideally .75 by .85 of an inch but will be commonly found to differ from this in actual specimens. The border designs of the values up to the 14-cent American Indian stamp are alike. The portrait is set in a panelled oval center. Above and within the curved panel appear the words "UNITED STATES POSTAGE" in white roman letters. On a narrow ribbon below the rim of the oval appears the name or designation of the vignette. The denominations appear in the lower left and lower right corners set in small ovals with the word "CENTS" between the numerals. All of the "Flat A" overprints on these United States stamps are perforated 11. The 15-cent stamp of this Series bears a likeness of the Statue of Liberty set in a somewhat elongated oval. All other features are comparatively the same as the lower values. The 30-cent, 50-cent, and $1.00 stamps are of the same size and style as the lower denominations but with the longer measurement running horizontally. The central subjects, a Buffalo, Arlington Amphitheatre and the Lincoln Memorial thus appear in a panel enclosed half circle. Where there were two printings, the first is normally clean, black and bright. The second is recognized by a sometimes smudged, gray overprint due to the worn letters. 185

PAGE 200

1924, July 1 Type I, Flat "A," Overprint Flat Press-Perf. 11 Denomination Color Subject Quantity %-cent Sepia Nathan Hale 399,500 1 -cent Green Benjamin Franklin 1,985,000 1%-cent Light brown Warren G. Harding 180,599 2 -cent Carmine George Washington 2,975,000 5 -cent Dark blue Theodore Roosevelt 500,000 10 -cent Orange yellow James Monroe 60,000 12 -cent Maroon Grover Cleveland 80,000 14 -cent Blue American Indian 100,000 15 -cent Dark gray Liberty 55,000 30 -cent Olive brown Buffalo 40,000 50 -cent Lilac Arlington Amphitheatre 25,000 $1.00 Purple brown Lincoln Memorial 10,000 1925, June 27, to 1928 TYPE II, SHARP "A" Overprintings The basic stamps with the Type II, Sharp "A" overprint are also of the United States 1922 ordinary series and come in the following denominations: 2-cent, 3-cent, 5-cent, 10-cent, 12-cent, 14-cent, 15-cent, 17-cent, 20-cent, 30-cent, 50-cent, and $1.00. The 3-cent Lincoln and the 20-cent Golden Gate stamps of this series were overprinted in this type along with the 17-cent Wilson issue of 1925. The %-cent and 1%-cent denominations were not ordered during the use of this second style of type. The 3-cent Lincoln occurs in the same upright oval design as the other denominations from 1-cent to 15-cent whereas the 17-cent and 20-cent values are in a horizontal format with semi-circular centers. In the shipment of the Canal Zone order for stamps received June 27, 1925, it was noticed that the 3-cent Lincoln bore a somewhat different "CANAL ZONE" overprint. The style of the letters was slightly changed and the tops of all "A's" of "CANAL" were pointed. This type of overprint, to distinguish it from its predecessor, became generally called the TYPE II, SHARP "A." This was the first stamp to appear with these sharp "A's." As in the Type I printings, where there were more than one, the first, as a general rule, was neat, clean, and black, whereas the second or following printings were dull and gray showing signs of slug or letter wear. One of the most interesting errors of this entire series was almost immediately found after issuance of the 3-cent Lincoln, the overprint, reading ZONE-ZONE. This was on stamp No. 18 of the lower right pane. When the Canal officials became aware of this misprint they immediately examined the entire stock for remaining errors and found and destroyed 400 of the 500 possible errors. With an almost errorless score in the overprinting of Type I, it was too much to expect of human effort and machines with the many stamps made, that the Type II overprints would be as good. There are many more errors and varieties in the second type. There are inverts, "ZONE" only, "CANAL" only, "ZONECANAL" and many broken letters. The spacings between the words also vary from the normal 9'mm. and the words "CANAL" and "ZONE" shift to either left or right relative to one another. The basic stamps were recessed printed on flatbed presses from line-engraved flat plates, 100 or 400 subjects depending upon the particular item. Unwatermarked white wave paper was used. The 2-cent to 15-cent stamps are vertically 186

PAGE 201

rectangular, 19 mm. x 22 mm., the 17-cent to $1.00 stamps horizontally rectangular, 22 mm. x 19 mm. The overprint is in two horizontal black lines, except the 17-cent stamp, which is in red. The overprint measurements are: CANAL. 11 mm. long ZONE. 9 mm. long Letters. 2 mm. high Spacing between words. 9 mm. The spacing between words on the 2-cent value is 11 mm. 1925, June 27, to 1928 TYPE H, SHARP "A" OVERPRINTS Denomination Color Subject Quantity 2-cent Carmine Washington 1,100,000 3-cent Prussian blue Lincoln 199,200 5-cent Dark blue Roosevelt 1,343,147 10-cent Orange yellow Monroe 99,510 12-cent Maroon Cleveland 58,062 14-cent Blue American Indian 55,700 15-cent Dark gray Liberty 204,138 17-cent Black Wilson 199,500 20-cent Carmine red Golden Gate 259,807 30-cent Olive brown Buffalo 154,700 50-cent Lilac Arlington Amphitheatre 13,533 $1.00 Purple brown Lincoln Memorial 20,000 1927, January to May 9 ROTARY PRESS PERF. 10 x 10 Prior to January 1927, all of the stamps issued by the Panama Canal and supplied by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing were printed on flatbed presses. Commencing in 1927 the Bureau began using the United States series of 1922, up to the 10-cent value, printed on rotary presses. The overall designs of the rotaries are the same as their respective denominations in the "FLAT A" and "SHARP A" flat press sets. They were printed on unwatermarked paper and perforated 10. The measurements of the overprint, in millimeters, follow: CANAL. 11% ZONE. 9 Height of letters. 2% Space between words. 9 The 2-cent stamp of this set is the only one which had two printings. The second printing is distinguishable because of the 10-mm. spacing between the words. 1927, January to May 9 ROTARY PRESS PERF. 10 x 10 TYPE U, SHARP "A" OVERPRINT Denomination Color Subject Quantity 2-cent Carmine George Washington 1,290,000 3-cent Red violet Abraham Lincoln 239,000 10-cent Orange yellow James Monroe 128,400 187

PAGE 202

1927, June 28, to 1933 ROTARY PRESS 11 x 10Y It was noted in the first part of this chapter that the Bureau of Engraving and Printing filled orders for Canal Zone stamps by overprinting and shipping whatever United States stamps were available in the denominations desired. Thus, when the United States changed from the perforated 10 rotaries to the 11 x 101/2 perforations, it followed that the Canal Zone received its supplies in this type of stamp. With the exception of the Washington 3-cent stamp which was added to this set January 14, 1933, all the others in this group are of the same United States 1922 series heretofore used. The central design of this 3-cent Washington stamp is the famous Atheneum painting by Gilbert Stuart but without the 1732 and 1932 bicentennial dates, the stamp being an adaptation of the 2-cent 1932 United States Washington Bicentennial series. The stamps again are recessed printed on rotary presses from line engraved 400 subject curved plates on unwatermarked paper and, as the others, issued. in sheets of 100. The overprint is the same as the perforated 10 x 10 rotary with the exception of the spacings between the words on the 1-cent and 2-cent stamps. On the 1-cent stamp, it measures 7 mm. and on the 2-cent, 10 mm. All other values show a 9 mm. spacing. ROTARY PRESS 11 x 10 DenomiQuantity nation Issue Date Color Subject Issued 1-cent June 28, 1927 Green Benjamin Franklin 434,892 2-cent June 28, 1927 Carmine red George Washington 1,628,195 3-cent Feb. 1931 Red violet Abraham Lincoln 1,250,000 3-cent Jan. 14, 1933 Red violet George Washington 3,150,000 5-cent Dec. 13, 1927 Blue Roosevelt 60,000 10-cent July 1930 Orange yellow Monroe 119,800 14-cent Jan. 14, 1933 Blue American Indian 104,800 188

PAGE 203

Chapter XXV THIRD POSTAGE DUE SERIES 189

PAGE 204

&

PAGE 205

. # -I ~~e 0 ,s Blocks showing Flat and Sharp "A" overprinted "Canal Zone" on United States Postage Dues of the 1894 Series. 19

PAGE 206

4~ 1 t44 4T4, A Blocks showing Flat and Sharp "A" overprinted "Canal Zone" on United States Postage Dues of the 1894 Series. 192

PAGE 207

Chapter XXV THIRD POSTAGE DUE SERIES 1924, July 1 Returning again to the abrogation of the Taft Agreement in 1924, we find that with the withdrawal of the Panama stamps for ordinary or regular use, the overprinted postage dues of the Republic were also withdrawn. So with the first shipment of United States ordinary postage, there was also received on the Canal Zone three denominations, 1-cent, 2-cent, and 10-cent, of United States Postage Dues of the 1894 series. These were put in use July 1, 1924. All the stamps of this United States 1894 series are supposed to be deep claret; the 1-cent, however, is a deep rose in the flat-topped overprint and all the sharp pointed overprints are also deep rose. The denomination is a large white numeral centered within an oval of geometric-lathed work. A small "U" appears in the upper left hand corner and an "S" of similar size in the upper right. "Postage Due" appears between two semicircular border lines above the numeral and the denomination in words below. The stamps are unwatermarked, .875" x .72" in size and perforated 11. The "CANAL ZONE" overprint was applied by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing using the same type forms as for the regular postage at this time and the first type used was the so-called "FLAT A." The measurements of the overprint follow: CANAL. 11 mm. long ZONE 8 mm. long Height of letters 2 mm. Spacing between words 9 mm. Whereas the normal spacing between vertical rows of the 1-cent, 2-cent, and 10-cent denominations is 2 mm., some 10-cent sheets printed from the 1910 "Star" plates appear with 3 mm. spacings. 1925, June 24 to December 1, 1927 When the second order for overprinted United States postage due stamps arrived on the Zone, June 24, 1925, it was found that the overprint was of the Type II or "Sharp A." This order as for the preceding one comprised three values. Additional requisitions of these stamps were received March 22, 1926, September 26, 1927, and December 1, 1927. The measurements of this overprint are: CANAL. 11 mm. long ZONE. 9 mm. long Height of letters 21/4 mm. Spacing between words 9 mm. There were two or more printings for some of the denominations. Thus again we have the clear, sharp impression on the first printing and the later dull, gray 193

PAGE 208

overprint. No varieties appeared on the Type I overprinting but on the "SHARP A" type, there appeared the words "CANAL" and "ZONE" in a different font or type. "ZONE-ZONE" appears in all denominations of the first printing. The third printing of the 10-cent carried the major error appearing on one full sheet and that was "CANAL ZONE" double. Perf. 11 Denomination Color Quantity Overprints 1-cent Deep rose 10,000 Type I Flat A 2-cent Deep claret 25,000 Type I Flat A 10-cent Deep claret 30,000 Type I Flat A 1-cent Deep rose 80,000 Type II Sharp A 2-cent Deep rose 146,430 Type II Sharp A 10-cent Deep rose 153,980 Type II Sharp A 194

PAGE 209

Chapter XXVI FOURTH POSTAGE DUE SERIES 195

PAGE 210

~t44 toP 31 A 0'' 196

PAGE 211

Chapter XXVI FOURTH POSTAGE DUE SERIES 1925, February During the first days of February 1925, in checking the stock of postage dues, the Director of Posts discovered that the July 1, 1924 issue was being rapidly depleted. To cover this shortage, and as an emergency measure, he ordered the overprinting of 1-cent, 2-cent, and 10-cent ordinary stamps of the Twelfth Series already overprinted with "CANAL ZONE" in Type I or Flat "A," with the additional words "POSTAGE DUE." The work was accomplished at the Panama Canal Press, Mount Hope, C.Z. The overprint of "POSTAGE DUE" was applied in two lines of small serifed capitals. The dimensions of the overprint are: POSTAGE. 15 %mm. long DUE. 6% mm. long Height of letters. 2 mm. Spacing between words 1 mm. There are no varieties of the 1-cent and 2-cent denominations. The 10-cent value has appeared with "POSTAGE DUE" double, the "E" of "POSTAGE" missing and one stamp has been found with the "AGE" of "POSTAGE" unprinted. The overprinting was in red on the 1-cent and 10-cent stamps, and in blue on the 2-cent stamp. See Twelfth Series for basic stamps. Denomination Color Quantity 1-cent Green 10,000 2-cent Carmine 21,325 3-cent Orange Yellow 39,819 197

PAGE 213

Chapter XXVII THIRTEENTH SERIES Liberty Bell Commemorative 199

PAGE 214

CAVALA CANAL ?P $ \ M.A* W. FrenAh, 3?.0 Box 0 Anean 0. First Day Cover. 200

PAGE 215

Chapter XXVII THIRTEENTH SERIES Liberty Bell Commemorative 1926, July 4 This chapter should fundamentally be an extremely short one because it involves only one stamp. But due to some interesting correspondence commencing with the initial order and ending with a patriotic outburst in writing by one of the older Canal postmasters, we believe it rates more space. The basic stamp of this series, the 2-cent United States Sesquicentennial Commemorative was issued May 10, 1926, in Philadelphia, Pa.; Boston, Mass.; and Washington, D.C. It was an advance item in the celebration of the 150th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776, and for the opening of the Exposition in Philadelphia. The stamp is horizontally rectangular and measures .84 by 1.44 inches. It is red and of the 2-cent value. The central design is the Liberty Bell entrance to the exposition grounds in Philadelphia with "UNITED STATES POSTAGE" above in a circular panel and "SESQUICENTENNIAL EXPOSITION" in a straight line across the top. With the many Pennsylvanians residing on the Canal Zone urging all Americans to get behind the issuance of a Canal Zone overprint of this historical stamp, a preliminary requisition was sent to Washington, May 13, 1926. The Third Assistant Postmaster General under date of June 8, 1926, wrote Mr. Flint, Chief of the Washington Office of the Panama Canal, as follows: I have received your request of June 1, . for 300,000-2-cent Sesquicentennial Commemorative stamps to be surcharged "CANAL ZONE" and beg to advise you that under ordinary circumstances this Department does notapprove the surcharging of commemorative stamps. However, in view of the historical character of this stamp and the special interest which has undoubtedly been taken in the Canal Zone in the Sesquicentennial, an exception will be made in this instance and a tentative order will be drawn on the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, D.C., for the stamps requested. This should not be taken as a precedent in future requests for the surcharging of later issues of commemorative postage stamps. Shipment was received on the Zone June 29, 1926. On Saturday, July 3d, the stamps were distributed to the different Canal Zone post offices. Saturday was a regular 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. workday in those days. Sunday was. the 4th of July and Monday the 5th equally celebrated because of the 4th falling on a Sunday. There was thus some misunderstanding as to when the stamps were to be placed on sale. It appears that Mr. A. A. Hunter, Postmaster, Balboa, and a zealous patriot, informed a few collectors that he would be in the post office on Sunday, the 4th, to attend to the regular outgoing dispatches. Too, that if they desired Sesquicentennial stamps, he would make the sales. This he did, and for this he was censured by the Director of Posts. In answering Mr. Calhoun's letter, Mr. Hunter said: 201

PAGE 216

. . The cover shown by Mr. Huchins is undoubtedly one of three of four under cover of which I sent letters to my son on the morning of July fourth . I called his attention to the stamps used and also to the machine cancellation, which was the first used on any letters sent him. In this connection, . I called up your office a few minutes before 4 o'clock on July 3d and Mr. Wang answered the phone. I asked him . whether or not there was any restriction as to when they should be sold. He then answered that they were being sent out that afternoon and that there was no restriction as to their sale. I then passed this information to Mr. Prager, and told him that if he would come to the office at seven o'clock (apparently July 3d) I would sell him the stamps he wished. I further told him that I would be at the office at eight o'clock the next morning and he could bring his mail then and that it would be worked, the local placed in boxes and the outgoing made ready for dispatching at the first opportunity . Mr. Prager's mailing list contains about thirteen hundred names . Later I called Mr. Leonard, Mr. Harris, and Mr. Fuller and gave them the same information I had given Mr. Prager. The only reason I called no one else was because I did not think of any one who would be interested. (Mr. A. W. French and a few others were told by those earlier mentioned-Ed.) Sunday morning shortly after eight o'clock Mr. Prager brought in his mail and that from the others, a small amount, was found in the regular drops. All of this mail was postmarked 9 a.m., July 4th, and all other mail found in the drops up to nine o'clock. This was not exceptional or out of the ordinary as the drops are cleaned every Sunday and holiday morning by nine o'clock and all mail found therein is postmarked on that date. This is necessary on account of local mail and to catch mail for dispatch to Central and South America. Had I received the information which I did from your office a little earlier I would have seen that the Clubhouse, the Army and Navy Y.M.C.A., and the Community House each had a supply of these stamps on sale July 4th, as I regard their use on that day as laudable expression of patriotic sentiment. I do not consider that there was anything irregular or improper in the sale of these stamps or of the postmarking of mail on which they were used on July fourth, and it is not contrary to any instructions received from your office. At a later date some envelopes came to light with this "Liberty Bell" overprint bearing a "GATUN" July 4 cancel. The Canal Zone overprint on this United States Sesquicentennial stamp is the same Type 11, Sharp "A" heretofore noted. The dimensions of the words follow: CANAL. 11 mm. long ZONE. 9 mm.long Height of letters. 2/ mm. Spacing between words 4% mm. There are no major errors although there are some missing letters due to poor printing. Some variety in the spacing between the words of the overprint also exists. 1926, July 4 Perf. 11 Denomination Color Quantity 2-vent Red 300,000 202

PAGE 217

Chapter XXVIII FOURTEENTH SERIES Permanent Issue 203

PAGE 219

The above members of the Isthmian Canal Commission in 1908 are subjects of the Canal Zone's permanent series of ordinary stamps. They also served until the -completion of the Panama Canal's construction. From left to right they are: Jackson Smith; J. Bucklin Bishop, who was Secretary of the Commission and officially historian, and is not depicted in the series of stamps; Col. William C. Gorgas, Adm: H. H. Rousseau, Col. George W. Goethals, Col. William D. Gaillard, Senator Joseph C. S. Blackburn, and Col. William L. Sibert. 205

PAGE 220

s CT PAS B Approved design. Photograph used in the design of the 2-cent Goethals stamp of the Canal Zone Permanent Issue. J N Stilsomi, Jr,, BalboHigta, O4, ()CT 4 Mrs. J. H. Stilson, Jr., 861 VUnvrsity Avene, Lincoln, Nebraska. WVirst 'lay'l First day cover. 206

PAGE 221

RG Approved design. JH StELnxe, Jr., Balboa Heights, 0.Z' 8
PAGE 222

CENTS POSTAGE CANAL ZONE Approved design. Boxz 30 25 Firt Day covew, The La ed ihIded; the World United k 9T34 4 M' 32 2=110 Tatema First day cacheted cover autographed by designer Meade Bolton. 208

PAGE 223

John F. Stevens, Chief Engineer, Isthmian Canal Commission, at his desk. This photograph provided the subject for the 5-cent stamp. 209

PAGE 224

GATUN LOCKS I5ISEPT. AGE 7 DGVTSIN ELGCKS. ~e Lo Azgolo#, ,al.ft APR 3P--FIRST DAY OF ISS 940 Tudo z. I. P. Tateim CANAL ZM1 'A{ot AM

PAGE 225

Chapter XXVIII FOURTEENTH SERIES Permanent Issue 1928, October 1 The idea and thought of the Canal Zone having its own postage stamps of a definitive issue was given voice and written word in the administration almost from the day the postal system was organized on June 24, 1904. As we now know, this did not crystalize into affirmative action for twenty-four years. On February 2, 1928, Mr. Crede H. Calhoun, Chief, Division of Civil Affairs, in a memorandum to the Governor of the Canal Zone, said: 1. With reference to the question of a permanent issue of postage. stamps for the postal service of the Canal Zone, it is suggested that stamps be issued bearing portraits of members of the Isthmian Canal Commission appointed by President Roosevelt, with General Goethals as the Chairman and Chief Engineer. 2. The selection of this group is recommended because of the fact that they were resident on the Isthmus during their period of service and that they are the men who actually had the direction of the building of the Panama Canal. However, in this connection, it is felt that consideration should be given to the case of John F. Stevens, whose work in connection with the construction of the Canal is well-known and who also resided on the Isthmus during the period of his service. 3. The following were members of the Commission headed by Gen. George W. Goethals: 1 Gen. George William C. Gorgas, Chief Sanitary Officer. Adm. Harry H. Rousseau, Head of Department of ?Municipal Engineering, Motive Power and Machinery, and Building Construetion. Col. David DuBois, Head of Department of Excavation and Dredging. Gen. Harry F. Hodges, Assistant to Chief Engineer and Head of Lock Design. Gen. William L. Sibert, Chief, Gatun Locks Construction. Senator Joseph C. S. Blackburn, Head of Department of Civil Adninistration. Jackson Smith, Head of Department of Labor, Quarters, and Subsistence. 4. Of the foregoing group, General Hodges, General Sibert, and Admiral Rousseau are the only members living today. 5. With reference to this subject, it is suggested that as a beginning postage stamps be issued, preferably to be placed on sale on the date of the 14th anniversary of the opening of the Panama Canal, bearing portraits of General Goethals, General Gorgas, and Colonel Gaillard. Consideration can be given at a later date to the issuance of stamps bearing portraits of the other members of the Commission who have died. It is also suggested that a likeness of General Goethals be used on the 2-cent stamp, which is the most important and most frequently used denomination; that General Gorgas be assigned the i-cent stamp and Colonel Gaillard, the five. At a future date, consideration miht be given to using the portrait of Senator Blackburn on the 7-cent siump and Jackson Smith 1 The full names and official Canal designations wnP iniSrtd by the editor. 211

PAGE 226

on the 12-cent stamp. At the same time, it might be advisable to reserve the 3 or 4-cent stamp for General Sibert, the 10-cent stamp for Admiral Rosseau, and the 17-cent stamp for John F. Stevens. 6. It is estimated that the costs of making the dies and printing a supply of 1,000,000-1-cent stamps, 2,000,000-2-cent stamps, and about 1,000,000-5-cent stamps, will be about $2,000.00. There are sufficient funds available in the allotment of the Bureau of Posts for this purpose. 7. If this recommendation meets your approval, steps will be taken immediately to have the foregoing stamps printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing in Washington in order that they may be placed in circulation on or about the 14th anniversary of the opening of the Panama Canal. The present supply of these stamps on hand will be sufficient for the service up to that time. The next day, February 3, 1928, Col. Harry Burgess, Engineer of Maintenance, sent Mr. Calhoun's memorandum in to the Governor with his affirmation and a few additional suggestions. He thought that Mr. Sydney B. Williamson, a portrait of an operating steam shovel, Count Ferdinand de Lesseps, and the Gatun Locks should also be made subjects for stamps when and if funds became available. Colonel Burgess also added, "As I understand it, the Governor has the right to adopt stamp designs. Unfortunately, however, the law forbids the issuing of stamps with the portraits of living persons." The Governor no doubt referred to the United States Congressional Act of 1866 which is followed by the Canal Zone authorities. Adhering to the recommendations received, Gov. Meriweather L. Walker sent a memo to Mr. Calhoun on March 6, 1928: You may proceed with Canal Zone stamps as follows: 2-cent stamp-General Goethals 1-cent stamp-General Gorgas Remaining stamps to be allocated later. On May 19, 1928, Mr. McIlvaine, Executive Secretary, sent two photographs, one of General Gorgas and the other of General Goethals, to the Panama Canal Office, Washington, with the request that estimates be obtained from the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for the printing of 1,000,000 of the 1-cent Gorgas stamp, and 3,000,000 of the Goethals stamp. The deal was consummated and the stamps printed and shipped to the Canal Zone on August 8, 1928. Circular No. 175 was issued on September 6, 1928, by the Director of Posts, Mr. C. H. Calhoun: To All Postmasters: GOETHALS AND GORGAS STAMPS One and two-cent stamps of the permanent issue of Canal Zone postage, bearing likenesses respectively of Gen. W. C. Gorgas and Gen. G. W. Goethals, will be placed on sale: the two-cent stamps on October 1 and the one-cent stamps on October 3, 1928. The date selected for the one-cent stamp is the anniversary of the birth of General Gorgas on October 3, 1854. The United States one and two-cent stamps surcharged "Canal Zone" will be continued in circulation until further notice and shall be offered to patrons unless the new issue is requested. A supply of the new stamps will be forwarded to all postmasters without requisition, therefor, on Saturday, September 29. Postmasters are cautioned not to make any sales of the new stamps before 8:00 a.m. on the day that they are to be placed in circulation, as shown above. The circular announcing the issuance and sale of the new stamps was given 212

PAGE 227

to the newspapers who many months earlier had editorialized and well publicized the event of the sale of these stamps to honor the great Canal builders. 1928, October 1 2-CENT "GOETHALS" Maj. Gen. George Washington Goethals, depicted on the 2-cent stamp which went on sale October 1, 1928, was born June 29, 1858, in Brooklyn, N.Y. After attending the College of the City of New York, he was appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., graduating well up in the class of 1880. Choosing the Corps of Engineers for his service branch, General Goethals, step by step and promotion after promotion, prepared himself well for the enormous task awaiting him at the Isthmus of Panama. His distinguished career saw him in charge of the Tennessee River Improvement Project which included the Muscle Shoals Canaf and the Colbert Shoals Locks; assistant to the Chief of Engineers, U.S.A., and Chief Engineer of the First Army Corps in Puerto Rico during the Spanish-American War. From 1900 to 1903, he was in charge of the design and construction of the Narragansett Bay fortifications and many other rivers and harbors works typical of the duties of the men in the Corps of Engineers. From 1903 to 1907 he served on the General Staff of the United States Army and it was here, no doubt, that his absorbing capacity for work, engineering genius, and administrative abilities came to the attention of President Theodore Roosevelt. On February 18, 1907, the President appointed him to the engineering staff of the Isthmian Canal Commission and a little later Lieutenant Colonel Goethals was to arrive on the Isthmus to succeed John F. Stevens as Chief Engineer of the Panama Canal construction work. On April 1, 1907, Colonel Goethals was appointed Chairman as well as Chief Engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commission, which position he occupied until March 31, 1914. Upon the establishment of the permanent organization under the Panama Canal Act, President Woodrow Wilson appointed "The Colonel" Governor of the Panama Canal on April 1, 1914. Four and one-half months later, on August 15, 1914, standing upon the lock wall at Gatun in shirt sleeves with his black umbrella on the crook of his arm, Colonel Goethals witnessed the first official transit of the Panama Canal by the S.S. "Ancon" and the realization of a dream, the culmination of years of planning, effort, and hard work-"The Land Divided, The World United." After additional duty with the Army in World War I, General Goethals was engaged as a consulting engineer in New York City. There, after a brilliant career of forty years in the service of his government, he died on January 21, 1928. DESIGN The central design or vignette of this 2-cent stamp is from a photograph made of General Goethals from life and prepared by Ernest Hallen, Official Photographer of the Panama Canal. Above the portrait on a curved ribbon appear the words "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE" in blackface roman letters. On a ribbon below the portrait is the name "GOETHALS" in dark gothic letters, and under this at the bottom of the stamp, appear the words "TWO CENTS" in white roman letters. In both lower corners within the ovals with dark background is the white numeral "2." FIRST DAY CEREMONIES There were no official first-day ceremonies. Despite the low denominations 213

PAGE 228

of 1 cent and 2 cents, the Philatelic Agency at Balboa Heights dispatched over $500.00 worth of these stamps. The stamps were also sold at all Canal Zone post offices on the first day. The Governor of the Panama Canal sent a letter in a first-day cover, to Mrs. Goethals, saying: The envelope in which this letter is enclosed bears the first stamp of the permanent issue of Canal Zone postage upon which appears the likeness of General Goethals. These stamps have been issued in commemoration of his work in the construction of the Panama Canal . STATISTICS The stamp is of the 2-cent denomination and red. Size, vertically rectangular, 0.75" x 0.87". Perforated 11 and unwatermarked. They were engraved and recess-printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing from flat plates in sheets of 400. These were separated by knives into panes of 100, thus the straight edges on two sides of each. Designed by C. A. Huston from photograph. Engravers-Portrait, A. Pauling; frame, E. J. Hein; lettering and numerals, E. M. Hall. First shipment-3,093,600 stamps. First day of sale-October 1, 1928, at all Canal Zone post offices. First sale-October 1, 1928, on first-day cover from Balboa Heights to Mrs. George W. Goethals. First day sales-$500.00 worth of 1-cent and 2-cent stamps at Philatelic Agency, Balboa Heights. Total issued-7,191,600. Primary period of use-1928-1949. PLATE HISTORY 400-Subject Plates Plate Impressions Number First Date to Press Date Canceled Printed 115184 August 22, 1928 Alive 5,348 115185 August 22, 1928 Alive 5,348 115186 August 22, 1928 Alive 5,348 115187 August 22, 1928 Alive 5,348 121513 Never Alive None 121514 Never Alive None 121515 Never Alive None 121516 Never Alive None 360-Subject Plates-Booklets 115457 September 27, 1928 Alive 3,397 115458 September 27, 1928 Alive 3,397 115459 September 27, 1928 Alive 3,397 115460 September 27, 1928 Alive 3,397 121435 Never Alive None 121436 Never Alive None 121437 Never Alive None 121438 Never Alive None To May 12, 1959. 1-CENT "GORGAS" 1928, October 3 The central design of the 1-cent stamp bears a likeness of Maj. Gen. William C. Gorgas facing right within an oval panel. The upper portion of the narrow 214

PAGE 229

panel contains the words "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE" in white roman letters. "GORGAS" appears in a curved ribbon below the portrait. In each lower corner within ovals appears a white numeral "1" and between the numerals are the words "ONE CENT." The upper right and left corners contain triangles. Maj. Gen. William Crawford Gorgas was born near Mobile, Ala. He attended the University of the South at Sewanee, Tenn., and went on to the Bellevue Hospital Medical College in New York where he obtained his Doctorate in Medicine in 1879. In 1880, General Gorgas entered the Medical Corps of the U.S. Army. This is the same year that General Goethals became a lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers. Little did either know that their lives, although in separate fields, were henceforth to be joined in great accomplishments. Dr. Gorgas held the usual medical assignments at many Army posts between the years of 1880 and 1890. In 1890, he was assigned to Fort Barrancas, Fla., where he made a study of the yellow fever conditions along the gulf States. When the Spanish-American War broke out, he was sent to Santiago, Cuba. Because of his prior studies in tropical fevers, he was transferred to Havana and was made Chief Health Officer holding that position from 1898 to 1902. It was during these years that his excellent work was accomplished in the newlydiscovered fact that yellow fever was transmitted by a mosquito. For eliminating yellow fever in Havana, Congress, by special act in 1903, gave him the rank of Colonel and made him Assistant Surgeon-General of the United States Army. Before General Davis left Washington for the Isthmus of Panama in 1904, he stated that there was one man he wanted with him on the Canal. That man was Colonel Gorgas. There can be no doubt that because of his record and experience he was eminently qualified to become Chief Sanitary Officer of the newly-formed Isthmian Canal Commission. President Roosevelt appointed him to that job on June 2, 1904. Upon the reorganization of the Commission, February 14, 1907, he became a member of that body and served throughout the entire construction period, one of the very few privileged to wear the Roosevelt Medal with four bars. General Gorgas contributed much toward the Canal's construction by making it a healthy place to live and work. In 1918, General Gorgas retired from active duty with the Army but continued his work in combating tropical fevers and diseases throughout the world, traveling to South Africa, Guatemala, Peru, and Ecuador. On July 3, 1920, he passed away in London, England. FIRST DAY CEREMONIES It was entirely proper that October 3d was chosen for the sale of this 1-cent stamp as it was the anniversary date of the birth of General Gorgas. The stamps were sold at all Canal Zone post offices on the first day. Col. Harry Burgess, Acting Governor of the Panama Canal, wrote Mrs. Gorgas, The envelope in which this letter is enclosed bears the first stamp of the permanent issue of Canal Zone postage upon which appears the likeness of General Gorgas; these stamps having been issued in commemoration of his work in connection with the construction of the Panama Canal. STATISTICS This stamp is green, of 1-cent denomination, and measures 0.75" x 0.87" vertically rectangular. It is perforated 11 and unwatermarked. It was printed, cut, and issued in the same manner as the 2-cent Goethals and all similar sized stamps of this Issue. 215

PAGE 230

Designer-C. A. Huston, from an official photograph supplied by the Panama Canal. Engravers-Portrait, L. S. Schofield; frame, E. J. Hein; lettering and numerals, E. M. Hall. First shipment-1,156,800 stamps. First day of sale-October 3, 1928 at all Canal Zone post offices. First sale-October 3, 1928 on first-day cover from Governor of the Panama Canal at Balboa Heights to Mrs. V. C. Gorgas. Total shipped-21,897,600 to June 30, 1959. PLATE HISTORY 400-Subject Plates Plate Impressions Number First Date to Press Date Canceled Printed 115180 August 22, 1928 Alive 15,577 115181 August 22, 1928 Alive 15,518 115182 August 22, 1928 Alive 15,081 115183 August 22, 1928 Alive 15,080 121471 April 15, 1953 Alive 250 121472 April 15, 1953 Alive 250 121473 April 15, 1953 Alive 250 121474 April 15, 1953 Alive 1,650 *As of May 14, 1959. 3-CENT "GOETHALS" 1934, August 15 In early 1933, it was decided to reprint the Goethals 2-cent stamp in a new 3-cent value because of a change from 2-cent to 3-cent in the first-class letter rate. The earlier portrait was not entirely satisfactory and combined with the color used left a rather dull, flat subject, certainly not in keeping with the keen and outstanding characteristics of the great Canal builder. The new photograph was made from a painting and pencil drawings of General Goethals taken from the original done by Gov. Chester Harding. The central design shows General Goethals in tropical whites against a purple background. Across the bottom of the stamp appears the wording "3 CENTS POSTAGE CANAL ZONE" in solid gothic. To the right of the portrait and in a vertical line appears the name "GOETHALS" in architectural roman lettering. It is significant that the date of sale selected for this new 3-cent stamp was August 15, 1934, the twentieth anniversary of the opening of the Panama Canal to traffic. An official cachet was prepared and used on mail dispatched this day. There was an unprecedented sale of this stamp at the Cristobal Post Office, where more than 15,000 of the new stamps were reported sold by 3:00 p.m. as against a daily normal sale of 1,500. FIRST DAY CEREMONIES There were no official first day ceremonies other than the application of an official cachet applied to all mail dispatched. The stamps were on sale at all post offices. On August 15 at 8:00 a.m., Mr. Stacey Russell, Postal Inspector, mailed the first letter with the new stamp affixed. This was a message signed by Gov. J. L. Schley to Col. George R. Goethals, son of the General, wherein the Governor said Tomorrow will mark the 20th anniversary of the opening of the Panama Canal to the commerce of the world and the passing years only 216

PAGE 231

enhance the magnitude of the achievement of your distinguished father in transforming the age-old dream of an interoceanic waterway into a splendid reality. STATISTICS This is a 3-cent stamp, 0.75" x 0.87" in size and vertically rectangular, perforated 11, and unwatermarked. All printings prior to that of December 14, 1954, were on wet paper. With that shipment and thereafter the printings have been on dry paper. Designed-This was another of the many Canal Zone stamps designed by Meade Bolton, Architect, Panama Canal. A model was prepared from this at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing by Victor S. McCloskey, Jr. Engravers-Portrait, J. C. Genzing; frame, lettering and numerals, Frank Lamasure. First shipment-287,000 stamps on July 24, 1934. First day of sale-August 15, 1934, at all Canal Zone post offices. First sale-August 15, 1934, on first-day cover from Gov. J. L. Schley to Col. George R. Goethals. Total shipped-27,514,400 sheet stamps and 13,157,040 booklet stamps to May 14, 1959. PLATE HISTORY 400-Subject Plates Plate Impression& Number Date to Press Canceled Printed 129223 July 19, 1934 Alive 43,511 129224 July 19, 1934 Alive 43,510 360-Subject Plates 132718 November 8, 1935 November 27, 1953 7,633 132719 November 8, 1935 November 27, 1953 7,634 132120 November 8, 1935 November 27, 1953 13,333 132721 November 8, 1935 November 27, 1953 12,600 *As of May 14, 1959. 5-CENT "STEAM SHOVEL" STAMP 1929, June 25 On November 26, 1928, in preparation for the issue of a 5-cent stamp, Mr. Mcllvaine sent several sets of official photographs of steamshovels operating in Culebra Cut during construction days to the Chief of Office, The Panama Canal. These were to be transmitted to the Bureau of Printing and Engraving where the engraver would choose the most suitable one for reproduction in color. The designer chose the photograph showing a steam shovel working on the west bank of Culebra (now Gaillard) Cut, August 8, 1907. This became the ,central design of the stamp. The view in the Cut is looking south from below 217

PAGE 232

the town of Empire. Over the arched vignette appears the lettering "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE" in white roman letters. In each lower corner, within circles, is the white numeral "5" with the word "CENTS" between them. It was understood at the time that this stamp was but a temporary issue to tide over the need for a 5-cent stamp until a subject was selected for the permanent series. When he was chosen, it appears that despite the honor awaiting him on his demise, he was more interested in living than having his portrait appear on a Canal Zone stamp, so the "Steam Shovel" remained in use for 16 years. FIRST DAY CEREMONIES Except for a rubber cachet relating to the postal service and applied to all but official mail, there was nothing special on the first day of sale. The stamps were sold at all post offices. In the Director of Posts' circular TO ALL POSTMASTERS of June 19, 1929, he calls their attention to the issuance of the new 5-cent stamp and states that they shall not be placed on sale earlier than 8:00 a.m., June 25th, which he states is the 25th anniversary of the establishment of the Canal Zone postal service. Old files, however, have revealed that some of the post offices were actually in business a day earlier. STATISTICS The stamp is blue, of 5-cent value, and unlike the others in the definitive series; it measures 0.84" x 1.44", horizontally rectangular. It is perforated 11 and unwatermarked. These were printed in sheets of 200 and cut to 50 for packaging and shipping. Designed by A. R. Meissner. Engravers-Picture and frame, L. S. Schofield; lettering and numerals, H. I. Earle. First shipment-1,106,000, June 4, 1929. First day of sale-June 25, 1929, at all Canal Zone post offices. Total sold-4,187,028. PLATE HISTORY Plate Impressions Number Date to Press Canceled Printed 118115 May 8, 1929 July 9, 1952 6,484 118116 May 8, 1929 July 9, 1952 6,484 118117 May 8, 1929 July 9, 1952 6,351 118118 May 8, 1929 July 9, 1952 6,433 121492 Never July 9, 1952 None 121493 Never July 9, 1952 None 121494 Never July 9, 1952 None 121495 Never July 9, 1952 None 10-CENT "HODGES," 15-CENT "SMITH," AND 20-CENT "ROUSSEAU" STAMPS 1932, January 11 On July 25, 1931, a requisition from the Director of Posts was sent to the Chief Quartermaster, The Panama Canal, to cover the estimated cost of the engraving, plates, and manufacture of a half million stamps for each of three additions to the permanent series. Approved photographs of the subjects were obtained and on August 18, 1931, the request was sent on to the United States Treasury Department. The only change suggested in the request other than 218

PAGE 233

haste was that the engravers refrain from following the usual style scroll embellishments as in the already issued 1-cent, 2-cent, and 12-cent definitives. 10-CENT "HODGES" Maj. Gen. Harry Foote Hodges was born at Boston, Mass., February 25, 1860, and died at Lake Forest, Ill., September 25, 1929. He attended Boston Latin School and Ames Academy before entering the United States Military Academy. He was graduated as a Second Lieutenant in 1881 and, like his future boss on the Canal, chose the Engineers. He was assigned to river and harbor duty and fortifications engineering. Returning to West Point in 1888, General Hodges taught engineering until 1892. He served in Puerto Rico during the SpanishAmerican War and was Chief Engineer in Cuba. On August 15, 1907, he was made a member of the Isthmian Canal Commission and Assistant to the Chief Engineer. During 1907-1914, he had charge of the designing of the Canal locks. After the completion of the Canal and its reorganization, he served as Engineer of Maintenance, we believe the first so designated and a post now titled Lieutenant Governor. He was relieved of his Panama Canal duty January 1, 1915. On March 4, 1915, he was promoted to Brigadier General and on August 5, 1917, he was made a Major General. The central design of the stamp shows a head and shoulder portrait of General Hodges on a solid circle of orange. Across the top of the stamp in graduated roman letters are the words "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE." Just below the portrait but within the circle, in small white gothic letters, is the name "Hodges." The denomination "10" appears in a small box in each lower corner with the word "Cents" between the squares. FIRST DAY CEREMONIES This 10-cent stamp together with the 15-cent "Smith" and the 20-cent "Rousseau" were sold from all Canal Zone post offices on the same day, January 11, 1932. First-day covers with enclosed letters signed by Acting Gov. J. L. Schley were sent to Mr. Duncan Hodges and Mrs. George L. Dickson, son and daughter of General Hodges, and to Mrs. Gladys Rousseau, widow of Admiral Rousseau. STATISTICS The color of this 10-cent stamp is orange and measures 0.75" x 0.87". It is unwatermarked and perforated 11. Designers-C. A. Huston and A. R. Meissner. Engravers-Portrait, L. S. Schofield; frame, lettering and numerals, F. Lamasure. First shipment-460,000 on November 10, 1931. First day of sale-January 11, 1932 at all Canal Zone post offices. First sales-January 11, 1932 on covers to Mr. Duncan Hodges and Mrs. George L. Dickson by Gov. H. Burgess. Total shipped-1,282,600 to May 15, 1959. 219

PAGE 234

PLATE HISTORY 400-Subject Plates Plate Impressions Number Date to Press Canceled Printed 123709 October 28, 1931 Alive 6,175 *As of March 19, 1959. 15-CENT "SMITH" Mr. Jackson Smith was one of the earliest Canal pioneers, serving on the Isthmus almost two years before his appointment as a member of the Isthmian Canal Commission by President Roosevelt on March 1, 1907. He was born in South Carolina, August 25, 1864. From his 17th year he followed railroad work with the Louisville & Nashville Railroad and in Ecuador, Colombia, Mexico, and Jamaica outside of the United States. His valuable experience with recruiting and handling the problems of labor permitted him to successfully build the common labor construction forces on the Canal to a total approaching 40,000 men. He was in charge of the old Division of Labor and Quarters. He evolved the types of houses, hotels, and commissaries used by the employees during construction days. Mr. Smith resigned from the Commission, September 15, 1908, to become Vice-President and General Manager of the Oregon Direct Line Railroad. He died in Portland, January 29, 1910. The central design of this stamp is a head and shoulder portrait of Mr. Jackson Smith on a clear background. Across the top appear the words "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE" in a curve and in solid roman letters. The word "SMITH" in small gothic letters appears below the portrait. In each lower corner are the numerals "15" in gray within double-lined circles. Between these numerals is the word "CENTS" in dark roman letters. FIRST DAY CEREMONIES Together with the 10-cent "Hodges" and the 20-cent "Rousseau," this 15-cent "Smith" stamp was sold at all Canal Zone post offices January 11, 1932. STATISTICS This stamp is gray, unwatermarked, perforated 11, and measures 0.75" x 0.87". They were engraved and recess-printed from flat plates in sheets of 400 at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, D.C. Designers-C. A. Huston and A. R. Meissner. Engravers-Portrait, J. C. Benzing; frame, lettering, and numerals, E. H. Helmuth. First shipment-472,400 on N.ovember 10, 1931. First day of sale-January 11, 1932 at all Canal Zone post offices. Total shipped-1,544,900 to May 15, 1958. 220

PAGE 235

PLATE HISTORY 400-Subject Plates Plate Impressions Number Date to Press Canceled Printed 123710 October 29, 1931 Alive 6,008 20-CENT "ROUSSEAU" MW2OkI CLi I2O Rear Adm. Harry Harwood Rousseau, U.S. Navy, provided the Isthmian Canal Commission with its only Navy member. He was born in Troy, N.Y., April 19, 1870. In 1891 he was graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in his home town, with a degree in civil engineering. In 1898, he became a Lieutenant in the Civil Engineer Corps of the Navy and served with its Bureau of Yards and Docks until 1903. In 1907, after service at Mare Island, he was appointed Chief of the Bureau with the rank of Rear Admiral at the age of 37. President Roosevelt appointed Adiniral Rousseau to the Isthmian Canal Commission on March 21, 1907. He was designated Supervising Engineer and assigned to the staff of Colonel Goethals. On September 16, 1908, he became Assistant to the Chief Engineer. It was mentioned above that the Admiral provided the Isthmian Canal Commission with its only.Navy member, and it is worth mentioning that he also gave the Commission its liveliest bit of romance when during the evening of an official ball at the Tivoli Hotel he eloped with the daughter of the United States Minister to Panama. His engineering contributions had been so valuable that when the Isthmian Canal Commission was dissolved on March 31, 1914, the Navy Department was requested to extend his detached service with the Canal for an additional two years. He became Engineer of Terminal Construction which included the drydocks and coaling stations, and remained on the Isthmus until July 7, 1916, when he returned to duty in the United States. Admiral Rousseau died aboard the Panama Line's SS "Cristobal" while returning to visit the scenes of his fine work on the Panama Canal. A portrait of Admiral Rousseau appears as the central design of this stamp. "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE" appears in a straight panel across the top. Immediately below the portrait appears the name "Rousseau" in dark gothic letters. The numerals "20" appear in each lower corner with "CENTS" between in black roman letters. FIRST DAY CEREMONIES This 20-cent "Rousseau" with the 10-cent "Hodges" and 15-cent "Smith" stamps were sold at all Canal Zone post offices on January 11, 1932. STATISTICS This stamp was engraved and recess-printed by the Bureau of Engraving and 221

PAGE 236

Printing, Washington, from flat plates in sheets of 400. It is vertically rectangular 0.75" x 0.87", brown, on unwatermarked paper and perforated 11. Designers-C. A. Huston and A. R. Meissner. Engravers-Portrait, E. J. Hein; frame, lettering, and numerals, W. B. Wells. First shipment-495,200 on November 10, 1931. First day of sale-January 11, 1932, at all Canal Zone post offices. First sales-January 11, 1932. First-day cover with enclosed letter signed by Governor Schley mailed to Mrs. Gladys Rousseau. Total shipped-1,869,200 to May 15, 1959. PLATE HISTORY 400-Subject Plates Plate Impressions Number Date to Press Canceled Printed 123711 October 30, 1931 June 13, 1956 5,263 165887 April 10, 1958 Alive 600 *As of March 19, 1959. 12-CENT "GAILLARD" 1929, July 1 When the requisition for the 5-cent "Steam Shovel" stamp was sent to the Chief of Office, Washington, it also contained an order for the printing of 500,000 12-cent brown-violet "Gaillard" stamps and 250,000 50-cent lilac-brown "Blackburn" stamps. Photographs of these subjects accompanied the requisition although an additional and better one of Colonel Gaillard had to be ordered from a photographer in Washington. Lt. Col. David DuBois Gaillard was born in Fulton, S.C., September 4, 1859. In 1884, he was appointed a Second Lieutenant of Engineers upon graduation from the United States Military Academy. During the Spanish-American War, he held the rank of Colonel of the Third United States Volunteers and later was Chief Engineer of the District of Santa Clara in Cuba. He was appointed to the Isthmian Canal Commission March 16, 1907, and was placed in charge of all the work between the Gatun and Pedro Miguel Locks comprising the Central Division. This included the heavy excavations through the continental divide and the Cut now named in Colonel Gaillard's honor. He left the Isthmus on August 8, 1913, upon the advice of his doctors and died while on leave of absence in Baltimore, December 5, 1913, denied the opportunity of seeing the job completed to which he had contributed so much. The central design is an oval within which on a cross-hatched background is a portrait Qf Colonel Gaillard based on a photograph by Harris and Ewing, Washington. Around the sides and over the top of the oval are the words "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE" in white roman letters. Below the portrait is inscribed "GAILLARD" in dark gothic. In each corner within circles appears 222

PAGE 237

the denomination "12" with "CENTS" between the numerals in white roman letters. FIRST DAY CEREMONIES There were no official first day ceremonies. All postmasters were admonished not to place this stamp on sale prior to 8:00 a.m. on July 1, 1929. A first-day cover with a copy of the stamp enclosed was mailed to Mrs. D. D. Gaillard by Gov. H. Burgess from Balboa Heights. STATISTICS The "Gaillard" stamp is brown of 12-cent denomination, vertically rectangular, unwatermarked, and perforated 11, 0.75" x 0.87" in size. Designer-C. A. Huston. Engravers-Portrait, L. S. Schofield; frame, C. F. Wittenauer; lettering and numerals, H. I. Earle. First shipment-556,800 on June 4, 1929. First day of sale-July 1, 1929, at all Canal Zone post offices. First sale-July 1, 1929, stamp within first-day cover sent ot Mrs. D. D. Gaillard by Gov. H. Burgess from Balboa Heights. Total shipped--1,066,800 to May 15, 1959. PLATE HISTORY 400-Subject Plates Plate Impressions Number Date to Press Canceled Printed 118186 May 15, 1929 Alive 1,999 118187 May 15, 1929 Alive 1,999 118188 May 15, 1929 Alive 375 118189 May 15, 1929 Alive 1,999 121496 March 14, 1946 Alive 2,377 121497 Never Alive None 121498 Never Alive None 121499 Never Alive None *As of March 19, 1959. 14-CENT "SIBERT" 1937 September 27 AL ONE POSTAGE CET In a memorandum of January 7, 1936, Mr. Stacey Russell, Postal Inspector, called to the attention of the Director of Posts, the fact that no decision had been reached regarding the denomination to be set up for the proposed Sibert stamp of the permanent series. General Sibert had passed away the previous year and since he was one of the Canal Commissioners to be honored, Mr. Russell proposed that a suitable photograph favorable to Mrs. Sibert be obtained and negotiations entered into with the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for the preparation of a model. 223

PAGE 238

After the usual preliminaries, the General Purchasing Officer of The Panarna Canal in Washington quoted extracts from a Canal letter to the Director regarding the stamp requirements. It was to be blue, of 14-cent value, approximately 19 x 22 mm. vertically rectangular in size and shape, and to resemble the favorably received 3-cent Goethals stamp in general design. Maj. Gen. William Luther Sibert was born October 12, 1860, near Gadsen, Ala. He attended the University of Alabama for two years, entered the United States Military Academy and graduated therefrom in 1884. From 1887, when he graduated from the Engineering School of Application, until 1892, he served with the Corps of Engineers on various lock and dam projects. In 1892, working out of Detroit, Mich., he was employed in the construction of the ship channel connecting the Great Lakes. Following the United States occupation of the Philippines, at the turn of the century, Sibert, now a Captain, was ordered to duty there. He became Chief Engineer, 8th Army Corps, and was placed in charge of the reconstruction of the Manila and Dagupan Railway. With this thorough engineering background of dam and lock construction, ship channel work, and railway experience, it can readily be understood why President Roosevelt, without hesitancy, appointed General Sibert a member of the Isthmian Canal Commission in March 1907. On June 30, 1908, he was placed in charge of the Atlantic Division, comprising the building of Gatun Locks, Gatun Dam, and Spillway, the excavation of seven miles of Canal from Gatun to the Caribbean and the construction of the west breakwater in Colon Bay. In September 1913, a tugboat successfully traversed the Gatun Locks in both directions and all chambers were ready for the passage of ships. General Sibert's great career did not end with his Panama Canal work. In 1914 he was sent to China by the American Red Cross to assist in the formulation of flood control plans in the Huai River Valley. At the outbreak of World War I in 1917 he was placed in command of the First Division of American troops and sailed for France in June. Recalled to the United States, he was placed in charge of organizing the Chemical Warfare Service. In the spring of 1920 with 40 years of outstanding service in the United States Army, General Sibert applied for retirement and upon its being granted went home to his Barren River, Ky. farm. Retirement, however, was not exactly suited to this man's lifetime of action. In 1923, General Sibert became Chairman and Chief Engineer of the Alabama State Docks Commission, and was given the job of planning the construction of an ocean terminal at Mobile. In 1929 he was elected Chairman of the American Association of Port Authorities. From 1928 to 1932 he was Chairman of the Board of Engineers and Geologists chosen to study the problem of building Boulder Dam. General Sibert did finally retire but only with his passing on at his home in Bowling Green, Ky., on October 16, 1935. The stamp portrays a full-face view of General Sibert against a pale blue background. The name "SIBERT" reads vertically from the lower left corner in solid blue sans-serif letters. In a panel across the bottom and the left three quarters of the stamp appear the solid words "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE" in two lines. To the right of this in a square is the denomination 14 cents, the numerals above the word in gothic. The size of the stamp is 0.75" x 0.87". STATISTICS The 14-cent "SIBERT" is dark blue, perforated 11, and unwatermarked. It 224

PAGE 239

was engraved and recess-printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, from flat plates in sheets of 400; cut, packed, and shipped in sheets of 100. Designer-Robert L. Miller, Jr. Engravers-Portrait, F. Pauling; lettering, E. H. Helmuth. First shipment-500,000 on July 9, 1937. First day of sale-September 27, 1937, at all Canal Zone post offices, with Balboa Heights reporting 2,061 orders and Gatun, 2,115. First sale-July 1, 1929, covers autographed by Governor Ridley to Mrs. W. L. Sibert, Mrs. E. S. Bairnsfather, mother of Mrs. Sibert, and Lt. Col. F. C. Sibert, son of General W. L. Sibert, at Balboa Heights. Special cachet showing U.S. "Gatun," sea-going tug, whichtransited Gatun Locks September 26, south, and September 27, north, 1913, in the first complete operation of Gatun Locks. One such printed envelope was given to each purchaser of a 14-cent stamp this day. Total shipped-500,000 to May 18, 1959. PLATE HISTORY 400-Subject Plate Plate Impressions Number Date to Press Canceled Printed 136683 June 29, 1937 Alive 1,400 *As of March 19, 1959. 30-CENT "WILLIAMSON" 1940, April 15 Continuing with the permanent design policy for the Canal Zone's first definitive issue of ordinaries, the Director, Bureau ofEngraving and Printing, was queried regarding model, plate, and printing estimates for a 30-cent stamp depicting Mr. Sydney B. Williamson. On June 19, 1939, the accepted die proof was returned to the Bureau as approved and 500,000 stamps ordered. The subject of this stamp, Mr. Sydney Bacon Williamson, was born at Lexington, Va., April 15, 1865. He graduated from Virginia Military Institute in 1884 and for two years thereafter taught mathematics in the Carolina Military Institute at Kings Mountain, N.C. Mr. Williamson entered the-engineering field of railroad work and from 1886 to 1890, he was with the Chicago, Burlington & Northern, St. Paul & Duluth, and the Northern Pacific Railways. Mr. Williamson was with the United States Government in its Rivers and Harbors and its Fortifications Divisions as an engineer up until 1900, except for time out to serve his country in a military capacity during the Spanish-American War. Thereafter he was assistant engineer of fortifications at Newport, R.I., 225

PAGE 240

until 1904. Then until 1907, he was engaged in private engineering work at Baltimore and New York. On May 10, 1907, Mr. Williamson was appointed to the Isthmian Canal Commission and arrived on the Zone one week later. His work encompassed lock and dam construction at Pedro Miguel and Miraflores. On September 16, 1908, he was made Division Engineer of the Pacific Division which included construction of the drydock and harbor facilities at the Pacific entrance to the Canal. With his share of the work practically completed, Mr. Williamson resigned December 11, 1912. Continuing to work for his government, he became Chief of Construction in the United States Reclamation Service. Before the outbreak of World War I, Mr. Williamson, entering private practice, was a consulting engineer for the Guggenheim brothers and was also associated with his former boss, Gen. George W. Goethals, as construction engineer of the Port of Palm Beach, Fla. During World War I, Mr. Williamson attained the rank of Colonel of Engineers, U.S. Army, and was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal. Serving with General Goethals again, he became Chief Engineer of the First Army Corps and commanded the 55th Engineer Regiment. His activities after returning from France were mostly of a consultant nature. He became a member of the Inter-Oceanic Canal Board, and in business, a member of the boards of the Chile Exploration Company and the Braden Copper Company. After an exceptionally active and productive career, Mr. Williamson died at Lexington, Va., January 12, 1939. The central subject of this 30-cent stamp is a portrait of Mr. Williamson based on a photograph taken on the Zone in 1910 during his most active days in the Canal's construction. Across the top of the stamp in a narrow panel are the words "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE." Below the portrait is the name "WILLIAMSON," and in each corner, within a square, appears the denomination "30" with "CENTS" below the numerals. The lettering is in white gothic, the numerals in white roman. The stamp is of a dark gray color, vertically rectangular, 0.75" x 0.87" in size, unwatermarked, and perforated 11. STATISTICS Designers-Virgil D. Westbrook, of The Panama Canal, and the finished drawing and model by Victor S. McCloskey, Jr. Engravers-Portrait, William 0. Marks; lettering and frame, George L. Huber. First shipment-490,000 on February 5, 1940. First day of sale-April 15, 1940, at all Canal Zone post offices. Number sold-10,014. Total shipped-1,110,000 to May 18, 1959. PLATE HISTORY Plate Impressions Number Date to Press Canceled Printed 141629 July 27, 1939 Alive 3,738 *As of March 19, 1959. 226

PAGE 241

50-CENT "BLACKBURN" 1929, July 1 This is the remaining stamp on the requisition sent to Washington November 26, 1928, by the Executive Secretary. The other stamps were the 5-cent "STEAM SHOVEL" and the 12-cent "GAILLARD." Senator Joseph Clay Styles Blackburn was indeed an able gentleman of the old school. He was born in Woodford County, Ky., October 1, 1838. A lawyer by profession, Governor of his native State, Congressman, and United States Senator for several terms, he was well-qualified to head the Department of Civil Administration of the Panama Canal after his appointment to the Isthmian Canal Commission on April 1, 1907. His ready wit, renown as an orator, and kindly personality endeared him to all. "Governor" Blackburn resigned from the Commission December 4, 1909, and returned to his home in Versailles, Ky., where he died September 12, 1918. The central design of this stamp contains a portrait of Senator Blackburn facing front after a photograph by Harris and Ewing. "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE" appears in dark roman letters around the upper part of the oval center. Below the portrait in solid lettering appears the name "BLACKBURN." White numerals "50" appear within a circle in each lower corner and the word "CENTS" between them. The stamp is 0.75" x 0.87" vertical rectangular. STATISTICS Although the 50-cent "BLACKBURN" stamp is called lavender in color, there are as many shades, and variations as printings. It is perforated 11 and unwatermarked. Designer-C. A. Huston. Engravers-Portrait, E. J. Hein; frame, lettering, and numerals, W. B. Wells, First shipment-296,800 on June 4, 1929. First day of sale-July 1, 1929, at all Canal Zone post offices. First sale-July 1, 1929, on first-day cover sent to Mrs. William T. Hall, daughter of Senator Blackburn, by Gov. H. Burgess. Total shipped-2,673,600 to May 15, 1959. PLATE' HISTORY 400-Subject Plate Plate Impressions Number Date to Press Canceled Printed 118119 May 11, 1929 Alive 2,865 118120 May 11, 1929 Alive 2,265 118121 May 11, 1929 Alive 1,415 118122 May 11, 1929 Alive 1,415 12.1517 March 1, 1944 Alive 1,260 121518 Never Alive None 121519 Never Alive None 121520 Never Alive None *As of March 19, 1959. 227

PAGE 243

Chapter XXIX FIRST AIR MAIL (PROVISIONAL) SERIES 229

PAGE 244

-2 wA C.0 C) C rr y N

PAGE 245

A 15185 4N THE PANAMA CANAL OCNAL ZB rIUSNE *SVTIUU THIS ENVE PE CONT NED SUBSCRIPTION TO FOU LIBERTY LOAN FROM LOAN CARRIED BY FIRST NONSTOP OCEAN TO OCEAN AERO MAIL SERVICE LIBERTY LOAN COMMITTEE Balboa Heights, C. Z. First official transcontinental flight carrying nail, October 18, 1918. 231

PAGE 246

VIA AIR first da 1 san ho o isuw Geral4 2Dlis $ A.V.Thi11 ps 1iain Yot ftice MIA I (first Fliplit tder new rates florida. lavI la 7:00 A., 1/2/W.) First Air Mail Express Flight Cristobal, Canal Zone, to United States, Mayr, 1930 Colt Charles A. Lindbergh, Pilot IaV Lmsfl ?232abephta, l 232

PAGE 247

Chapter XXIX FIRST AIR MAIL (PROVISIONAL) SERIES 1929, January 11 to March 1931 In the development of the carriage of mail by plane, the Canal Zone and its postal system even if not in the vanguard of this service supplied many interesting postal items. There can be no doubt that the Canal Zone postal administration can lay claim to the first officially authorized mail carrying non-stop ocean to ocean air mail flight. This transcontinental flight was made on October 18, 1918, in the promotion of sales during the Fourth Liberty Bond campaign of World War I. A quantity of size 9 official Panama Canal penalty envelopes was prepared at the Mount Hope Press to read, "This envelope contained subscription of Fourth Liberty Loan from (name of purchaser) Carried by First Nonstop Ocean to Ocean Areo Mail Service." The cover was signed by C. H. Calhoun, Director of Posts, and H. (Hartley) Rowe, Chairman, Fourth Liberty Loan Committee. Each cover was numbered and carried two circular cancellations, one bearing the dispatch time, 9:00 a.m., October 18, 1918, and the other "Balboa Heights, C.Z." and the time and date "Received," 10:00 a.m., October 18, 1918. The first, or Cristobal, cancel is blue and the Balboa canceling is rose or reddish. No postage was used on most of the mail carried since these were franked covers. There do exist some prepaid letters, a few postal cards, and three registered letters. With this auspicious beginning, it was not long before many additional pioneer flights in the general area were undertaken. These flights over thick steaming tropical jungle and shark-infested, turbulent waters, were made by a brave, and intrepid pioneer group of "early birds," civilian, and military. Covers have been seen bearing 2-cent and 5-cent postage to Costa Rica, 5-cent postage to Colombia, and various combinations of values as no definite rate for carriage between these countries was established and if so, was not understood. In May 1928, The Panama Canal Press printed the Canal Zone seal stamp impression on No. 6 and No. 9 air mail envelopes in the denomination of two cents. The need for a stamp to cover air mail carriage was evident. On January 10, 1929, Circular No. 189, given below, was issued by the Director of Posts, TO ALL POSTMASTERS, 1. A supply of 2-cent Coethals stamps, has been surcharged to the value of 25-cent for use in connection with letters to be forwarded via Cristobal-Miami air mail route . The stamps may be placed on sale upon receipt but patrons should be informed that they are to be used exclusively for the air mail service from Cristobal to Miami. 2. No information is yet available regarding the scheduled date for the initial flight from Cristobal but it is believed that it will be about February 12th. (Lindbergh actually took off on the morning of the llth.-Ed.) 233

PAGE 248

3. Attention is again invited to the fact that the air mail rate on this new service will be 25-cent for each half ounce or fraction in addition to postage at the regular rate of 2-cent per ounce or fraction. No information is yet available about the possibility of dispatches to Central American countries that may be included in the itinerary of the mail planes. On January 24, 1929, Mr. Doyle, Printer, The Panama Canal Press, was asked by the Director of Posts to prepare a form for the overprinting of an additional supply of stamps to be surcharged in blue ink "AIR MAIL 25 CENTS" similar in every respect to the surcharge that appeared on the initial printing. The form was to be made up and adjusted so as to be available for use on 24 hours' notice. Mr. Dion of the Collector's (Auditors) Office witnessed the overprinting of 20,000-2-cent "Goethals" stamps for 25-cent air mail use on February 6, 1929, and delivered them to the Director of Posts on the 7th. The urgency for air mail stamps of different denominations was apparent and orders for surcharging available stock followed with some rapidity. All the printing work for these air mail provisionals was accomplished at The Panama Canal Press, Mount Hope, C.Z. On March 20, 1929, Mr. Wang, Acting Director of Posts, informed the Printer that it had been decided to make 15-cent air mail stamps by surcharging the 1-cent "Gorgas." This was.to be accomplished in a manner and in type similar to that of the 2-cent "Goethals" which was surcharged. A following circular, dated Balboa Heights, March 28, 1929, and numbered No. 201, stated: Special 15-Cent Canal Zone Air Mail Stamps On Saturday, March 30th, the Collector will forward to you a supply of 15-cent Canal Zone air mail stamps on which the regular 1-cent Gorgas Canal Zone stamps have been surcharged in dark blue ink: "AIR MAIL, 15-cent." These stamps are to be placed on sale at your office not earlier than 8 a.m. on April 1st. . These stamps are especially designed to use on air mail matter on the proposed air mail route FAM No. 9 from Cristobal to Chile via Colombia and Peru, the date of the inauguration of which service has not definitely been determined. The first surcharged Canal Zone air mail stamps went on sale January 11, 1929. The denomination was consistent with the half-ounce 25-cent rate establIshed from the Zone to the United States. By April 1st, additional surcharged stamps were being used on plane service out of the air-dispatching post office at Cristobal to Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Chile. The rate was 15 cents per half-ounce to Ecuador and Colombia; 30 cents to Peru and 45 cents to Chile. Three months later air service was extended to Central America and the Dutch West Indies at the 15-cent rate, and to Cuba for 25 cents. On January 1, 1930, the half-ounce air carriage rate between the United States and the Canal Zone was lowered to 20 cents. This also meant reduction in rates on the other FAM scheduled flights. With this in mind, the Canal Zone overprinted two new denominations, the 10-cent on the 50-cent "Blackburn," and 20-cent on the 2-cent "Goethals." These were placed on sale December 31, 1929. With these two additional stamps, the provisional series was completed and now comprised four values. The 10-cent and the 20-cent overprintings are identical except for the denominations. The surcharging is done in two lines reading "AIR MAIL" above and the value "10c." and "20c." below with three short bars in the lower left 234

PAGE 249

obliterating the engraved numerals. The two 15-cent surcharges are also in two lines, "AIR MAIL" above the vignette and "15 CENTS 15" at the bottom. The second overprinting of this denomination showed a different "5" in 15-cent. The flag or upper horizontal stroke curves upwards in the March 1931 printing. The 25-cent on 2-cent "Gorgas" overprinting like the others is also in two lines. There is a minor variety in the 20-cent overprint which shows the "2" of "20" dropped slightly and which appeared with a frequency of seven times on each sheet. STATISTICS Plate Quantity Total Date Denomination Numbers Issued Used 118119 December 31, 1929 10-cent on 50-cent 118120 130,000 116,666 118121 1 118122 115180 April 1, 1929 15-cent on 1-cent 115181 100,000 100,000 March 1931 15-cent on 1-cent 115182 50,000 32,027 115183 115184 December 31, 1929 20-cent on 2-cent 115185 650,000 638,395 January 11, 1929 25-cent on 2-cent 115186 300,000 223,880 115187 235

PAGE 251

Chapter XXX FIFTH POSTAGE DUE SERIES 237

PAGE 252

optlla I 1888 ,UE STAGE D d 54 28 y 14 AM A 238

PAGE 253

Chapter XXX FIFTH POSTAGE DUE SERIES 1929, December 16 to December 1, 1930 During the latter months of 1929 it was again evident that there would be a shortage of postage due stamps. The Mount Hope Printing Plant was given an order to surcharge 200,000 of the 1 -cent "FLAT A." These were to be equally divided, 50,000 each in the 1-cent, 2-cent, 5-cent, and 10-cent denominations. On November 19, 1929, the Director of Posts stated that these were uhsuitable for use due to the difficulty of making out the surcharge. Instead, he directed the Press to surcharge the same number of the new large "Steam Shovel" stamps. He described the surcharge as follows: The words "POSTAGE DUE" to appear in a space approximately 1 inch long just under the words "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE." The figures indicating the denomination will be underneath the words "POSTAGE DUE" and will be large enough so that they will approximately fill the space between the words "POSTAGE DUE" and "CENTS." On the 1-cent, 2-cent, and 10-cent denominations it will be necessary to strike out the figure '5" in each of the lower corners. For this purpose it is probable that a series of about three lines can be set up so as to strike out the figures. In the 5-cent denomination, of course, it will not be necessary to strike out these figures. On October 15, 1930, an additional order of 50,000 was placed for the 10-cent overprint. All the overprinting is in black. There are two minor varieties in this provisional "due" stamp caused by the sheet being misplaced slightly in printing. A few 1-cent overprints exist with "POSTAGE DUE" missing. These overprinted dues were withdrawn from sale on December 31, 1932. Due to an amendment to Sec. 161(b) of the Canal Zone Official Postal Guide effective August 1, 1931, uncanceled postage due stamps were placed on sale, but only through the Philatelic Agency, Balboa Heights. This was later again amended to permit the sale of full sets at all post offices. Thus the remainders of the "Steam Shovel" provisional "POSTAGE DUE" Series are frequently found in the albums of collectors. STATISTICS Numbers Quantity Issued Denomination Plate Sold March 20, 1930 1-cent on 5-cent 118115 35,990 October 18, 1930 2-cent on 5-cent 118116 40,207 December 1, 1930 5-cent 118117 35,464 December 16, 1929 10-cent on 5-cent 1 118118 90,504 239

PAGE 255

Chapter XXXI SECOND AIR MAIL SERIES First Definitive 241

PAGE 256

AIR MAIL SERVICE T0 AND FROM THE CANAL ZON S r U.SA A tC~AL AL~R S,, U n h A M*W4CA M Fi 4 4 4 Iad I I t .A* Wt. AdU Th. s usA I Seh It fe keea Iii5 A o 4 W 4! 1e a A W1 W)tT E INb I 242

PAGE 257

" ,\ & a M\ 'a's e. n ,' 4~ '. A Preliminary sketches. 243

PAGE 258

-CANAL ZONE POSTAGE 201 20 CENTML CENTS 5 10 15 40 1 CENTS CENTS CENTS CENTS DOLLAR Photograph of accepted model with the initial denominations in separate boxes. CANALZONE POSTAGE. CANAL ZONE POSTAGE C AIRMAIL A R AIL GANAL ZONE POSTAGE CANAL ZONE POSTAGE SIRMAIL CENT A I Approved designs. 244

PAGE 259

46729 8 1 AMFIRST OAY OF I '4 A '.11 S. M.A I t Ld Box 822 alboa, C. L* THE PANAMA CANAL CANAL Canal Zonr Votai *crW' 4,. PHILATEIC AGENCY "SAtQA HEIGHTS., 3 3 245 245

PAGE 260

CANALIZONE POSTAGE. GANAL ZONE'POSTAGE c CAIRMAIL CLi MAIL It CANAL ZONE EPQSTAGE3 ~ ANAV ZQNEPOSTAGQE I2L AIR MAI L Sa lm eMA IXH CANAL ZONE POSTAGE LQK-AR MAIL LES 246

PAGE 261

Chapter XXXI SECOND AIR MAIL SERIES First Definitive 1931, November 18, to 1949 On October 7, 1929, the Office Engineer, The Panama Canal, received a memorandum from the Chief, Division of Civil Affairs, requesting the former office to prepare a design in detail for the engraving and printing of a proposed air mail stamp series. A rough sketch was attached to the memo with a 2/2d. Jamaican stamp to indicate the size. The job order was sent to Mr. Meade Bolton, Architect, The Panama Canal, for his attention. Somewhere along the line the request for a new series of postage dues got into the picture (Chapter XXXII). In a letter to the Director, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, of July 12, 1930, requesting estimates for the permanent air mail stamps the same was also asked relative to a new "due" series. Blueprints prepared from Mr. Bolton's finished sketches were transmitted. At the same time, quotations for the printing of this series were asked of the American Bank Note Company. After verification of the job estimates received from both sources, it was decided to give the order to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. The final size selected was of the large commemorative type, horizontally rectangular 0.84" x 1.44". The central design is the same for the entire series differing only in color and denomination. It shows an ordinary freight ship of no particular steamship line in Gaillard Cut between Cold Hill and Contractors' Hill transiting the Panama Canal headed south. Above the vessel is a composite tri-motor plane figuratively carrying the mail. Across the top of the stamp appears the wording "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE." In each lower corner is the denomination in dark numerals against a light square background. At the bottom of the stamp and between the numerals is the word "CENTS." All the lettering is in sans-serif modified gothic. The stamps were engraved and recess-printed from flat plates and manufactured in sheets of 200. These were then cut into quarters of 50 stamps accounting for 14 straight-edged stamps in each of the smaller sheets. The paper was unwatermarked and perforated 11. On November 11, 1931 (not yet declared a national holiday), the Director of Posts at Balboa Heights issued the following circular: To All Postmasters REQUISITIONS FOR NEW AIR MAIL STAMPS 1. The new permanent series of Canal Zone air mail stamps will be placed on sale at all post offices, effective at 8:00 a.m., Wednesday, November 18, 1931. Requisitions may be prepared antedated November 15, for an estimated three months' supply of such stamps of the following denominations: 5-cent, 10-cent, 15-cent, 20-cent, 40-cent, and $1.00. 2. The provisional issue of air mail stamps will be withdrawn from 247

PAGE 262

general sale at the close of business on Tuesday, November 17 . On and after that date such stamps will be sold exclusively through the Philatelic Agency, Balboa Heights, where they will be available for purchase until January 31, 1932. The present provisional issue will be valid for postage until further notice. 3. The new issue of air mail stamps is being placed on sale on the 18th inst., the date of arrival of the new air mail plane "American Clipper" which will be piloted over the greater part of the trip by Col. Charles A. Lindbergh. 4. A special cachet will be prepared commemorating jointly the inauguration of a new service and the first dispatch of air mail prepaid with the new permanent series of Canal Zone air mail stamps. The issuance of a new series of air mail stamps could not have been coupled with a more renowned aviation figure. Due to State Department orders, Colonel Lindbergh, who piloted the plane from Miami, had to leave the "Clipper" at Barranquilla, Colombia, and it was brought in to Folks River, Cristobal, by another old air stalwart, Capt. Basil L. Rowe. The return flight to Miami was accomplished in the same manner on November 25th, 1931. Captain Rowe took the run to Barranquilla, where Colonel Lindbergh assumed the controls the rest of the way to Miami. Among the passengers was another aviation great, Igor Sikorsky, designer and builder of the "Clipper." To those denominations mentioned in paragraph 1 of the official circular were added the 30-cent value on July 15, 1941; the 6-cent value on February 15, 1946, and the 4-cent value on January 3, 1949. STATISTICS Designed-Meade Bolton, Architect, The Panama Canal. Engravers-Picture, J. Eissler; frame and lettering, F. Lamasure; numerals, G. A. Payne. J. S. Edmondson did the numerals on the 6-stamp and W. B. Wells engraved the numerals on the $1.00 stamp. First shipments-October 15, 1931, 5-cent-101,800; 10-cent-100,000; 15cent-100,600; 20-cent-501,400; 40-cent-52,500; $1.00-51,000. November 23, 1948, 4-cent-525,000. January 30, 1946, 6-cent-1,050,000. June 19, 1941, 30-cent-525,000. First day of sale-November 18, 1931-Special catchet applied to all outgoing "Clipper" mail-November 25, 1931. Plate Impressions Total Denomination Color Number Printed Received 4-cent Pink 160314 3,028 525,000 S-cent Creen f 123578 42,140 9 8 1 159148 17,530 f 9,988,800 158092 24,144 1 6-cent B rJown 160287 9,144 ( t 160288 9,144 9,440,000 160289 9,144 J 10-ceat Orange 123575 27,023 5,140,000 123576 46,166 15-cent Blue 147635 4,755 11,961,500 147636 4,7S5 20-cent Purple 123577 19,438 3,214,600 30-cent Red 146729 6,988 1,150,000 40-cent Yellow 123578 4,900 826,100 $1.00 Black 123579 2,700 406,000 248

PAGE 263

Chapter XXXII SIXTH POSTAGE DUE SERIES First Permanent 249

PAGE 264

s

PAGE 265

251

PAGE 266

POSTAGE DUE POSTAGE DUE' POSTAGE DUE S2 5 CENT CENTS CENTS CANA ZONE CANA ZONE CANAL ZONE POSTAGE DUE POSTAGE DUE IV 15 CENTS CENTS CAAL ZONE CANAL ZONE POSTAGE W -66V POTAE U -A0VE A 3. lW A4f 0/o Gora losphal, "1009, CAlM t0i. 252

PAGE 267

Chapter XXXII SIXTH POSTAGE DUE SERIES First Permanent 1932, January 2, to 1941, April 11 The preceding chapter contained a reference to the fact that the postal administration had queried stamp printing establishments in the United States in 1930 with the idea of providing the Canal Zone with a permanent Postage Due Series. Mr. Calhoun, Director of Posts, and Mr. Stacey Russell, Postal Inspector, in a combined effort provided a rough composite of the seal of the Canal Zone in the nature of a shield with the denomination bold and boxed in the upper half of the shield. In a thin ribbon below the shield appears the wording "The Land Divided-The World United." Across the top is "POSTAGE DUE." At the bottom are the words "CANAL ZONE." When the model was returned from the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Mr. Bolton noticed that one of the background mountains appeared to be snowcapped. Not exactly what one would visualize with the Canal's tropical location! With this and other minor changes recommended and accomplished, the corrected model was approved. The stamps were to be vertically rectangular 0.75" x 0.87" and the color lavender. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing called their ink mixture maroon. The paper is unwatermarked and the stamps were perforated 11. The denominations, initially, were 1-cent, 2-cent, 5-cent, and 10-cent. To these was added the 15-cent postage due stamp on April 11, 1941. The only variety noted appeared in the 1-cent wherein the "1" appears outlined only, not having received sufficient ink upon impression. STATISTICS .Designers-Idea suggested in pen drawing by Messrs. C. H. Calhoun and S. C. Russell of the Canal Zone postal administration. Engravers-Central design, C. F. Wittenauer; frame, lettering, and numerals, E. M. Hall, except in the 15-cent issue, the numerals were by G. L. Huber. Plate Impressions Total Denomination Color Number Printed Shipped 1-cent Maroon 123716 1,475 400,000 2-cent Maroon 123717 1,500 415,000 5-cent Maroon 123718 1,825 *430,000 10-cent Maroon 123719 1,375 413,800 15-cent Maroon 146100 825 265,000 Includes dry printing. 253

PAGE 268

-e 4

PAGE 269

Chapter XXXIII TWENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY COMMEMORATIVES 255

PAGE 271

FIRST DAY PAZM4A CAflL =it A64100$ C Aw POSTsc PA Comsnw#ne ATew Ass Cpendag *4 tw Ps meCan, AMmt 5 13 0. Luavi. :t t t t nad man .fz m wm M~~~~~s~' tI D N e o i u l k, Cf, A.falS19-W CA NALJt$E POSTAGE CA Z E OSTA GE CAN A ZQfP A E CA A E POSTGE AN A 3 I 141500 9> N H. 0. Thaii, Comm ANA 7 rs tse ar monona acoosar: )i T90 crapohteda uanl 4 man My tookf possede k vtq;' a or f nim. ok rge ndtr h 14 H S Fast~~ 'A'MEWU A .&rrrrr: T 2 57 W Corzal C.Z AI . . 257

PAGE 272

AUGU 4 CANAL. ZONE O, A 141500 Mr Harold 6. Ludwig Albrook Field, 258

PAGE 273

Chapter XXXIII TWENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY COMMEMORATIVES 1939, August 15 The set of stamps issued on the 25th Anniversary of the opening of the Panama Canal to world commerce was indeed a series of examples of the finest in designing and engraving. The collectors' enthusiasm ran high following the initial announcement that the stamps would be issued. Thousands of inquiries were received at the Philatelic Agency regarding places and dates of issue, and the denominations. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing seldom goes overboard with enthusiasm regarding its work. In this instance it did. The chief engraver expressed pleasure in the manner in which the issue had been handled, the excellence of the sketches, the clarity, and completeness of the material submitted, and the speed and cooperation of The Panama Canal. There were in fact two issues: One, an air mail set of six stamps commemorating the 10th Anniversary of air mail service, and two, a set comprising 16 denominations celebrating the 25th Anniversary of the opening of the Panama Canal. The' air mail set went on sale July 15, 1939, instead of the 16th as scheduled since that was a Sunday. The sale of the 25th Anniversary commemorative was set for August 15, 1939. There is quite an interesting prologue to these .series involving President Franklin D. Roosevelt, his personal interest in stamps in general and in this issue particularly. It is doubtful if these sets would ever have been affixed to letters or have seen the pages of a collector's album if it weren't for the President's devotion to the philatelic hobby. When the U.S.S. "Houston" arrived at Balboa with the President aboard, he was visited by a group of "Canal Diggers" led by the Executive Secretary, Mr. C. A. Mellvaine. They considered it a privilege and honor to present President Roosevelt with a photograph album depicting Canal scenes of the construction era and matching pictures of the same area showing the completed job. The President was so fascinated by the contrast that he remarked to Mr. McIlvaine that there existed in those before and after scenes the makings of a fine stamp series. It appears that later when Mr. Stacey Russell, the Panama Canal Postal Inspector, delivered the President's mail while the "Houston" was anchored off the Galapagos Islands, they had discussed a combined pictorial naval and canal issue. The President was extremely interested but thought that the idea could be enlarged to a special series of Canal Zone stamps commemorating the 25th Anniversary of the opening of the Canal. This was more than just a conversation matter for he authorized Mr. Russell to inform the Governor that he was heartily in favor of such a special issue. Correspondence was immediately begun between the Zone postal administra259

PAGE 274

tion and the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. It was initially thought that the two contrasting views could be shown on the same stamp. This was abandoned, however, upon the advice of the Chief Engraver. In a memorandum to the Director of Posts on December 2, 1938, Mr. Russell recalled more of his conversation with the President which directly bore upon the issues' designs. He said: Although the Bureau of Engraving and Printing has changed its opinion regarding the practicability of showing before and after scenes on the same stamp, it is my opinion that we should have separate scenes on each stamp. The models submitted are not fully in accord with the President's expressed desire (see my memorandum of August 8, 1938) as he especially mentioned that he would like to see stamps showing scenes at key points of the Canal taken during the construction period and others taken from the same relative viewpoint showing the scenes as they are today. The President went into the matter fully in a conversation with me which lasted five or ten minutes. He made reference to it during the session with the "Oldtimers" the same afternoon, and again referred to the matter in his press conference on the eve of his departure when he expressed the hope that he would be able to come here for the 25th Anniversary. With this official sponsorship it is believed that we should get out a complete set of regular and air mail stamps as 1939 will be the 10th Anniversary of air mail service to and from the Canal Zone. The Governor of The Panama Canal on December 7, 1938, approved the separate scene, or "before" and "after" series of 16 denominations for the ordinary stamps and 6 values for the air mail stamps. Mr. Virgil D. Westbrook of the Office Engineers, Balboa Heights, made two sketches used as the basic subjects for the ordinary series and six original sketches for the separate air mail stamps. The central designs for the ordinary stamps were taken from Panama Canal official photographs. The stamps were engraved and printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing in sheets of 200, then torn apart for shipment into sheets of fifties. The stamps being perforated on all sides eliminated the straight edges which had been issued heretofore. The paper is unwatermarked and perforated 11. Having stated that this issue was printed in sheets of 200 indicates that each stamp measures 0.84" x 1.44", or 21% mm. x 36 mm. as the Canal ordered them. CANAL ZON E POSTAGE CANAL ZONE POSTAGE em ~CENT ES 1-Cent Balboa, Before 2-Cent Balboa, After The central design on the 1-cent stamp, yellow-green, shows the old Balboa Shops in the lower left corner in 1912, a swampy unpaved Balboa and Ancon Hill to the right and rear. The 2-cent stamp, carmine-rose, from a photograph taken in 1936, depicts the view 24 years after showing the clean, paved, and palm-lined Prado with its concrete dwellings and, above and centrally located, the completed Administration Building, seat of the Canal Zone Government. 260

PAGE 275

CANAL ZONE POSTAGE' CANAL ZONE POSTAGE CP1,iNG PANNA ANL114 OEIGPN M NL11 3-Cent Gaillard Cut, Before 5-Cent Gaillard Cut, After This blue-violet stamp of the 3-cent denomination shows some of the hundreds of dump cars, shuttling back and forth at the bottom of Gaillard Cut, a few months before the destruction of the Gamboa Dike in 1913. The five-cent stamp, dark blue, has a loaded commercial freighter headed south between Contractors' Hill on the left and Gold Hill on the right. ,C A N.A LZ0ONi EP E FANAL ZONE POSTAGE CENTS CET 6-Cent Bas Obispo, Before 7-Cent Bas Obispo, After Bas Obispo in 1910 is the design on the red 6-cent stamp showing the northern end of the Cut and some of the old construction town which has long since been under water. The U.S.S. "Houston," July 11, 1934, is seen slowly moving into the Cut at Bas Obispo on the 7-cent black stamp. This cruiser four years later carried President Franklin D. Roosevelt on his visit to the Isthmus. CANAL ZON E POSTAGE CANAL ZONE POSTAGE 81 10 8-Cent Gatun Locks, Before 10-Cent Gatun Locks, After The picture of the unfinished lock construction at Gatun, April 15, 1911, on the 8-cent sage-green stamp resembles a group of Mayan temples. These concrete walls with their hidden culverts and tunnels are approximately a mile long. Quite different is the view of the completed Gatun Locks, June 19, 1924, on the 10-cent blue stamp. The three concrete and steel enclosed liquid steps are capable of raising a 50,000-ton vessel 86 feet above sea level in one hour. 261

PAGE 276

,iCNAL ZONE POSTAGE CANAL ZONE POSTAGE 12 CENTANNSV~C Y3CETS 11-Cent Canal Channel, Before 12-Cent Canal Channel, After Steam shovels are almost end to end on the 11-cent deep green stamp. burrowing deeper and deeper to create a channel for a ship's safe transit. The SS "Santa Clara" on the 12-cent magenta stamp is shown headed north in the channel created by the work of the steam shovels shown on the 11-cent value. CANAL ZON E POSTAGE CANAL ZONE: POSTAG ACANVRSAR 9 I Z I !V PAAM F AA ol cwNN PAN" CANALiu 4~ 14-Cent Gamboa, Before 15-Cent Gamboa, After This stamp with a view taken south in July 1913, portrays the bridge over the impounded Rio Chagres to the left and the Gamboa Dike across the center before its demolition let the water into Gaillard Cut. At the right is the town of Bas Obispo, now under water. The stamp is purple. The 15-cent olive stamp with the same scene some nine and a half years later shows a cut full of water and vessels calmly transiting the Canal, one headed south, and what appears to be the "Buenaventura" of the Panama Line, bound north. CANAL ZONE POSTAGE CANAL ZONE POSTAGE 8 20i C ENTS amrson iCE NTS 18-Cent Pedro Miguel Locks, Before 20-Cent Pedro Miguel Locks, After An idea of the massiveness of the chamber gates can be gathered from this view of the Pedro Miguel Locks June 3, 1912, showing their construction as well as the entire empty west chamber. The stamp is red. The Italian SS "Duchesa Aasta" and the Dollar Liner "President Polk" in the completed Pedro Miguel Locks are shown on the brown 20-cent stamp. Behind the "Polk" is another vessel headed south awaiting its turn at the lock's center wall, and poking its bow out of the Cut is still another. 262

PAGE 277

CANAL ZONE POSTAGE CANAL ZONE POSTAGE 1 5 NNVR A PY "I939 2 5t T, 1V U 5A RY 3 & 5 50 -P M C L C T PAM A ANL CENTS 25-Cent Gatun Spillway Dam, Before 50-Cent Gatun Spillway Dam, After The 25-cent red stamp of this beautiful series shows the Gatun Spillway on the downstream or northern side together with the progress made on the crest dams. The photograph was taken February 5, 1913. A glimpse of Gatun Lake may be had at the right central edge. The 50-cent brown stamp depicts the completed Gatun Spillway Dam with two gates open. What a beautiful display the surging, tossing water creates when all the gates are opened because of a necessary run-off near the end of the wet season! STATISTICAL DATA Designers* and Engravers DenomPlate Quantity ination Picture Frame Lettering Nos. Received 1-cent N. D. Fenton E. M. Weeks W. B. Wells 141006 1,020,000 2-cent L. C. Kauffmann W. B. Wells W. B. Wells 141181 525,000 3-cent H. R. Rollins E. M. Hall W. B. Wells 141500 2,525,000 141501 5-cent H. R. Rollins C. A. Smith W. B. Wells 141096 525,000 E. M. Weeks 6-cent F. Pauling E. M. Weeks E. M. Weeks 141007 198,650 W. B. Wells 7-cent F. Pauling G. L. Huber W. B. Wells 141008 210,000 C. A. Smith 8-cent C. A. Brooks E. H. Helmuth W. B. Wells 141009 210,000 E.M.Hall 10-cent C. A. Brooks W. B. Wells W. B. Wells 141097 210,000 11-cent C.A.Brooks W.B.Wells W.B.Wells 141624 195,000 C. T. Arlt 12-cent C. M. Chalmers W. B. Wells E. M. Weeks 141098 210,000 14-cent F.Pauling E.M.Weeks E.M.Weeks 141099 300,000 W. B. Wells 15-cent F. Pauling E. H. Helmuth W. B. Wells 141239 313,200 E. H. Helmuth 18-cent L. C. Kauffmann W. B. Wells W. B. Wells 141240 210,000 20-cent J.R.Lowe E.H.Helmuth W.B.Wells 141100 205,000 E. H. Helmuth 2 5-cent J. R. Lowe G. L. Huber W. B. Wells 141241 105,000 G. L. Huber 50-cent J. R. Lowe W. B. Wells W. B. Wells 141512 105,000 *All first ship shipments were made July 20, 1939. Mr. Virgil D. Westbrook of the Office Engineers, The Panama Canal, designed each of the above stamps and made the original drawings of the six commemorative air mail stamps. The finished working drawings or models were made by Mr. William A. Roach and William K. Schrage of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing from the Westbrook design, 263

PAGE 278

There were no official first-day ceremonies for the sale of this issue. They were sold at all Canal Zone post offices with the Philatelic Agency bearing the burden of complying with the outside requests and orders. Total sales of the 25th Anniversary Series, on August 15, 1939, amounted to $21,729.58. The Post Office Inspector in his report dated October 10, 1939, stated that sales far exceeded his most optimistic expectations. To that time there had been a considerable demand from philatelists for the new issues and the Philatelic Agency was about three weeks behind in filling the orders. The most noteworthy sale of the day was made to the President of the United States. There can be no doubt that President Roosevelt's interest in this series created a considerable interest among collectors. In a letter dated August 14, 1939, Mr. C. A. McIlvaine wrote: My dear Mr. President: It is a pleasure to forward herewith a set in plate number blocks of four of the sixteen Canal Zone stamps showing the "before and after" scenes of the construction work and town of Balboa, following your suggestion to Post Office Inspector S. C. Russell during your visit to the Isthmus in August of last year. May I invite your attention to the fact that the Canal Zone scenes depict commercial ships in all cases except one, i.e., the subject for the seven-cent stamp bearing the caption "Bas Obispo, After." Shown on this stamp is the new U.S.S. "Houston" entering the north end of Gaillard Cut on July 11, 1934, this being a reproduction of Panama Canal official photograph No. 80-E-65, two copies of which I am pleased to enclose. You will recall that you were on board the "Houston" on this voyage through the Canal, and the photograph was selected as a compliment to you as the author of the idea of the "before and after" scenes used for this commemorative series of Canal Zone stamps. I am pleased to forward two 3" x 5" photographs, made by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, of the approved model from which the seven-cent stamp was made. These stamps and enclosures likewise are presented to you by a group of civilian construction men to whom you gave audience aboard the "Houston" when you last visited the Canal Zone. These men are generally referred to as "Oldtimers," but in our opinion this is an injustice because of our spirit of eternal youth. These men send you their good wishes, and many of us look forward to assisting in the enlargement of the Canal under the third-set-of-locks program approved by you. Despite the adversities of thirty or more years in the tropics, 2,000 miles from home, and other vicissitudes, the old spirit which built the Canal still lives and, like Johnny Walker, we are still going strong. Faithfully yours, C. A. MCILVAINE, Executive Secretary. 264

PAGE 279

Chapter XXXIV 25TH ANNIVERSARY SERIES Commemorative Air Mails 265

PAGE 280

NAL ZONE POST:< NlANIRSA I~T NIVERSAR Al MAt 2511NAVESAR 111API PNAA & CENTS ageAIR MA l CNLL ZOZNOE P TAGE TE NT ANNIVERSARY AIR MAIL 25 AN I 1 ERWA R A M 25 ANNRiVE RY : PNiN4G ANAMA CAN C 'I ENTS 4i.OE IGPAAACAA T CANAL ZONE POSTAGE ,,,ANAL ZONE POSTAGE 4TE-HT ANNIVEPSARY AIR MALTNT N NE1R AR1I 2 I" A VERSAA3E0AR 266

PAGE 281

Chapter XXXIV 25TH ANNIVERSARY SERIES Commemorative Air Mails 1939, July 15 This chapter should join, if not precede, Chapter XXXIII, for this air mail series of 1939 was issued a full month prior to its contemporary, the ordinary commemorative set. The six air mail stamps, however, were designed and ordered at the same time as the ordinaries and for a while it was thought that they would be issued on the same day. They both commemorate the 25th Anniversary of the opening of the Panama Canal, with the air mail series doing double commemorative duty by also celebrating the 10th Anniversary of Canal Zone regularly established air mail service. Each of these air mail stamps was engraved from an original sketch and design made by Virgil D. Westbrook of The Panama Canal. Finished working drawings were made by William A. Roach and William K. Schrage of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. The issue was printed by the Bureau on unwatermarked paper in sheets of 200, torn into quarters of 50 stamps for packaging. Each stamp measures 0.84" x 1.44", and is perforated 11 on all sides. The central subject of the 5-cent air mail stamp shows a two-motored Douglas plane over Sosa Hill with the Pacific or Balboa approach to the Canal in the background. The color designated by the printer is gray. A relief map of Central America and the Caribbean Islands is depicted on the 10-cent purple stamp. There is a 2-engined plane headed south over the Pacific and a multimotored Clipper over the Atlantic headed toward Florida. The 15-cent brown air mail stamp of this issue is one of the prettiest of the set. It shows a four-motored Clipper near Fort Amador, a small sailing craft in the left foreground, and one of the Panama Line's new vessels in the background. The scene is framed by the boles and fronds of coconut palms. Manzanillo Island and Point is shown as the central design of the 25-cent blue air mail stamp with a Clipper just off the water near Folks River. The water expanse is a part of Colon Harbor on the Atlantic side of the Canal. A series on the Panama Canal would hardly be complete without a showing of the famous Gaillard Cut. Here it is depicted on the 30-cent red stamp with the United States fleet in transit and a Clipper plane overhead. The last of this air mail series is the green dollar stamp. Since all the arrivals and departures of the Clippers were made at and from Cristobal and this design shows one landing, this must be another view of Colon Harbor just off the Point near Folks River. Special and attractive cacheted envelopes were prepared by many of the ardent collectors, stamp clubs, and dealers for the first day of issue, July 15, 1939, but there were no special or official ceremonies. The series was enthusiastically welcomed by the entire Canal force when put on sale at all post offices. 267

PAGE 282

July 16th marked the 10th Anniversary of the first commercial flight to Chile and since this issue was to celebrate the tenth anniversary of Canal Zone air service, all first day covers were postmarked july 16. It is to be noted that many earlier commercial flights had been made, however, notably the famous Lindbergh flight, February 10, 1929, and surcharged air mail stamps were issued January 11, 1929. Sales of this air mail issue on July 15, 1939, which included those sold at the Philatelic Agency, Balboa Heights, totalled $13,243.60. STATISTICAL DATA Engravers DenoiPlate Quantity ination Picture Frame Lettering Nos. Received 5-cent C. T. Arlt W. B. Wells W. B. Wells 141201 175,000 10-cent H. R. Rollins W. B. Wells W. B. Wells 140993 175,000 15-cent M. D. Fenton W. B. Wells W. B. Wells 140994 885,000 J.T.Vail J.T.Vail 25-cent L. C. Kauffmann W. B. Wells W. B. Wells 140995 200,000 J.T.Vail J.T.Vail 30-cent J. R. Lowe W. B. Wells W. B. Wells 140996 270,800 J.T.Vail J.T.Vail $1.00 C. A. Brooks J. T. Vail J. T. Vail 140997 105,000 All the stamps were shipped June 13, 1949. 268

PAGE 283

Chapter XXXV SECOND FRACTIONAL SERIES 269

PAGE 285

ZONCAANA 271

PAGE 286

c;CANAL ZONE FIRST DAY COVER PROVISIONAL OVERPRINTS-SEPTEMBER 1, 1939 RICHA!D WARD TATELMAN MX~ 3025 LAST DAY W ISSUE CRISTBAL, CANAL ZOE 272

PAGE 287

Chapter XXXV SECOND FRACTIONAL SERIES 1939, September 1, to 1945 Due to a change in the postage rate on books as prescribed by the United States Post Office Department, it again became necessary for the Canal Zone Postal Administration to adopt fractional denominations. There was not time to design its own stamps to join the definitive set so the Canal Zone once more adopted United States overprints. The first order sent by the Director of Posts called for 200,000-/2-cent stamps and 200,000-1%-cent stamps, both denominations to be surcharged "CANAL ZONE." They were to be made up in sheets of 100 stamps and in packages of 100 sheets interleaved with paraffin paper. Two days after this requisition had been transmitted by the General Purchasing Officer to the Post Office Department, Washington, a cable was received on the Zone stating, "Req. 24321. Before authorizing purchase U.S. stamps surcharged Canal Zone, Post Office Department desires to be assured that stamps will be used for ordinary mail and not philatelic purposes." One can well imagine the hue of the Director of Posts' face when the radiogram was read by him. As a collector of stamps, I do not believe that that would have been a very propitious moment to ask Mr. Calhoun, whose integrity was never questioned, for a favorable plate block. In his answer to the rather uncalled-for insinuation, Governor Ridley said, . Report origin request and basis presumption stamps for philatelic sales. Canal operating postal service not philatelic agency but sells stamps to philatelists same manner as U.S. P.O.D. and knows no authority for refusing such sales." And that was the end of that. The requisition was finally placed on July 15, 1939, and the stamps shipped July 20, 1939. The United States stamps used were the -cent Benjamin Franklin and the 1 -cent Martha Washington of the 1938-1943 Presidential Issue. These two stamps, together with the 4 -cent White House stamp, are two of the three stamps of the entire issue not depicting a United States president. The -cent stamp is orange and has for the central design a photograph of a statue showing the bust of the first Postmaster General of the United States, Benjamin Franklin. The bust on the 1 -cent brown stamp of Martha Washington, wife of our first president, is from a photograph in Memorial Continental Hall Museum, Washington, D.C. Both stamps are from rotary presses and issued in sheets of 100, vertically rectangular and 0.75" x 0.87" in dimension. They are perforated 11 x 10 The overprint on these two stamps is entirely different than the type heretofore used. It is a two-line horizontal block overprint, applied to sheets of 100: 273

PAGE 288

CANAL. 12 mm. long ZONE. 9mm. long Letters. 2 mm. high Spacing between words. mm. Plates with electric eye markings, Type III, were used on the fourth and fifth, or last, printing of the -cent stamp and on the fourth or last printing of the 1 -cent stamp. This pleased W. L. Howard, Postmaster, Balboa Heights, considerably as he was in charge of the Philatelic Agency at the time and had been complaining about the extremely poor centering of his stamps. STATISTICAL DATA DenomPlate Quantity ination Printing Nos. Shipped Notes -cent 1st 21885 210,000 Clean sharp overprint 21887 2d 21888 200,000 21889 3d 21899 200,000 21900 4th 22470 210,000 EE Type III 22471 Sharp light overprint 5th 22470 210,000 EE Type III 22471 Solid black overprint 22898 22899 1 -cent 1st 21878 210,000 21879 21881 21882 2d 21877 200,000 21884 3d 21934 21937 22079 22080 22173 22174 4th 22464 525,000 EE Type III 22466 22645 22646 22876 22877 274

PAGE 289

Chapter XXXVI OFFICIAL STAMPS 275

PAGE 290

u

PAGE 291

R M A few perforated "P" stamps used as official stamps prior to March 31, 1941. 277

PAGE 292

AANN 3~ CET POTG CANAL ZONEIPOST-AGE Variety of overprinted "Official Panama Canal" stamps. 278

PAGE 293

PANAMA RAILROAD COMPA 24 SFATE STR Es I0[ ~v. ;i.rR* A A perforated "P" 20-cent air mail stamp used as a postage due stamp on official mail. 279

PAGE 294

IE PANAMA CANAL CANAL ZONE p Oi a tas7$ e' At DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTERED-M9 Jon ahg.t nxd Niosotti ft A.na C SZ Richard L. $ufliva BWI 209 Cristobal, QUaaL,1on THE PANAMA CANAL PR .4 / 1ON BY IRMAIL0/o Ptaama CalZnspetor I. Drown, Room 804, ~ ~Philadelp hia Psrxas ;x al. 280

PAGE 295

Chapter XXXVI OFFICIAL STAMPS 1941, March 31, to 1952 The first reference to use of official stamps on the Canal Zone is contained in a letter written to the Executive Secretary on March 4, 1905, by Capt. George R. Shanton, Chief of Police, and one of President Theodore Roosevelt's old "Rough Riders." It states: Sir: I have the honor to enclose herewith requisition for 100-2-cent postage stamps required by this office for use on official correspondence with persons in foreign countries. There is also on file an acknowledgment of receipt for "100 Panama postage stamps surcharged Canal Zone, 2-cent." It is thus safe to assume that ordinary postage stamps were used for official correspondence and purposes during the first years of the Canal Zone Government. Additional items appear in the records regarding stamps for official use but only as to the means of requisitioning them and how to account for their use. The first reference to the perforated "P" stamps in the files is a letter dated June 8, 1916, from the Director of Posts to the Superintendent of the Palo Seco Leper Colony inquiring how an inmate sent a letter with ". . a 2-cent Canal Zone postage stamp perforated with the letter P. As this stamp was apparently secured from Panama Canal stock, I would be glad to have you inform me how it came into the possession of the writer. . ." The perforated "P" was made by a Panama Railroad Company ticket punch which was initially "rPr." The lower case "r's" were burnished off the punch at the Mechanical Division shops at Balboa. When used on stamps the letter "P" was punched through the stamps by folding the stamps along the perforated margins and punching several thicknesses at a time. It is thus possible to have the punched "P" show up in all sorts of positions, "head" left or right, stem of the "P" horizontal with "head" up or facing downward, or "Tete beche" if found in pairs or blocks and a total of 8 different orientations on a single stamp. The earliest known copies with the perforated "P" are those of the 1909-1921 Canal Zone overprints of the Second Portrait Series of Panama (see chapter XIV). From that series until Canal Zone stamps were overprinted "OFFICIAL PANAMA CANAL" at the Mount Hope Press in 1941, the perforated "P" is apt to be found on any of the Canal's stamps. Although a strict accounting of their use was attempted, there is no actual recording of the totals and types punched and issued. In 1928, the General Storekeeper, Panama Canal, did the perforating; and in 1929 all official stamps were transferred to the Administration Building and there released upon requisition. On May 7, 1931, an order was issued that "In the future, Departments and Divisions will draw such postage direct from the Postmaster, Balboa Heights, on requisition. . ." This system continued for about ten years, the perforating being performed, as needed, by clerks in the Balboa Heights office. 281

PAGE 296

The first requisition for official air mail stamps was made on March 31, 1929, for twenty 25-cent air mail stamps with the "P" perforated. The Assistant Chief Clerk notified the mailing room at the Administration Building: "The supply of air mail stamps furnished you recently are intended for emergency use on the Governor's mail only upon special instructions by the Chief Clerk or his assistant. . ." An additional requisition for forty of the 25-cent air mail stamps was filled July 10, 1929. The records disclose that $136 worth of official air mail stamps were used by The Panama Canal during 1930. On February 7, 1941, the Executive Secretary wrote the Director of Posts as follows: "I think our official stamps should be plainly surcharged 'official' rather than be perforated 'PC' as at present. (The Executive Secretary apparently did not use official stamps very often as he added the initial 'C' to the perforated 'P'.) A distinct surcharge printed on the stamp would enable postal employees to keep much more careful check on any misuse of these stamps. Please have specimen surcharges prepared at the P.C. Press." As a result of this memo the Mount Hope Press prepared two forms to cover full sheets of 100 of the regular-size stamps and sheets of 50 of the 5-cent "Steam Shovel" stamp or air mail size. The plates were composed of monotype cast and set lettering with the printing performed on a hand-fed job press. Before printing, the sheet margins were removed to facilitate registration in overprinting which eliminates any collector's concern regarding plate numbers as there just aren't any. Although the requisition dates for the first overprinting of the ordinary stamps and the air mail stamps are two days apart they are in effect one order. They bore the dates March 25, 1941 and March 27, 1941. A circular describing the new issues went out to all postmasters on April 8, 1941, in which Mr. Calhoun said: Issue of Surcharged Stamps for Official Use 1. The practice of issuing perforated Canal Zone postage stamps with the letter "P" for official use has been discontinued. Hereafter all postage issued for official use will bear a surcharge reading "OFFICIAL PANAMA CANAL." 2. The surcharge has been printed on stamps of the following values: Ordinary: 1-cent, 3-cent, 5-cent, 10-cent, 15-cent, 20-cent, and 50-cent. Air Mail: 5-cent, 10-cent, 15-cent, 20-cent, 40-cent, and $1.00. The style of type is identical on all stamps but the surcharge will appear vertically on the regular stamps except the 5-cent, and horizontally on the 5-cent and air mail stamps thus Regular Air Mail and 5-cent Regular OFFICIAL OFFICIAL PANAMA CANAL PANAMA CANAL 3. The use of official postage is restricted to Departments and Divisions of The Panama Canal and Panama Railroad. Postmasters having reason to suspect that such stamps have been diverted or traded in for personal use shall report the circumstances to this office. The stamps are not for sale and will be issued by the Postmaster, Balboa Heights, against official requisitions, as heretofore. The perforated "P" official stamps on hand were ordered continued in use before the overprinted officials were to be used. Thus the new officials could have been used April 8, 1941, or any day thereafter as the punched "P" denominations were replaced. It was noticed that the second printing of September 22, 1941 had the type 282

PAGE 297

cast and was on a slightly smaller base than the first, which brought to light that the form used in the first printing was broken up after use. The letters however were of the same size. This resulted nevertheless in a shorter overall length to each line of the overprint. A comparison of the measurements of the first and second printings follow: Ordinaries (regular size) First Second OFFICIAL. 11 mm. 10 mm. PANAMA. 10 mm. 9 mm. CANAL 8 mm. 7 mm. Overall height. 10 mm. 10 mm. Air Mail and Large Ordinary OFFICIAL. .11 mm. 10 mm. PANAMA CANAL. 19% mm. 17 mm. Overall height . 6 mm. 6 mm. Subsequent printing forms were made up to the measurements of the first printing and to date no major varieties other than these have appeared. Despite the close supervision of the handling and accounting for the official stamps by the Zone authorities, some did surreptitiously reach the philatelic markets. On April 30, 1942, it was recommended to the Executive Secretary that canceled official stamps be sold over the counter. This suggestion was strongly supported by Mr. Wang and as a result it was decided to sell canceled official stamps to the public. As with any controversial matter this decision was met with both bouquets and brickbats. Among those heard from were the American Philatelic Society, the American Stamp Dealers Association, Inc., the American Air Mail Society, and many collectors. The Director of Posts in. justifying his position, said: "The speculation in these stamps reached a point where they were eventually forged as to overprint and it was apparently a situation that approximated a monopoly." Time and the resolution of the situation proved his decision the better one. Although there have been some slight variations of spacings and shifts and an occasional broken letter, all the printings were free of errors until the overprinting of the 6-cents air mail stamps on November 23, 1948. Considering the hundreds of thousands of stamps surcharged, this is an excellent record of good, clean printing performed by the Panama Canal Press over an eleven-year period. When that first major error did occur, however, it was a "beaut." It was the twelfth printing done on a requisition issued November 15, 1948, for the surcharging of 5 ,000-5-cent, 2 0,000-6-cent, 2 ,500-40-cent, and 2,500-$1.00, all air mail stamps. Inspection of the overprinted sheets showed that the 6-cents sheets must have been inserted in the press in a reverse manner, the upper part of the sheet to the rear. Thirty-one sheets with "OFFICIAL PANAMA CANAL" inverted were discovered, pulled, and later destroyed. One sheet of 50 missed the eagle eyes of the inspector and some time later was sold over the philatelic counter with a regular stamp order. There were 18 official printings in all including the emergency orders of January, February, and April 1952, to fill philatelic orders for complete sets. It is believed that there were four different forms set up for each of the sizes used. On December 14, 1951, Postmaster Charles Hinz of Balboa Heights, successor to W. L. Howard as head of the Philatelic Agency, in an official administrative release, stated that overprinted official stamps in mint condition were to be sold to the general public for three months commencing January 2, 1952. The use of stamps surcharged "OFFICIAL PANAMA CANAL" was to be dis283

PAGE 298

continued effective January 1, 1952 and their use for official postage would become invalid at the close of business December 31, 1951. The Philatelic Agency maintains a list of newspapers carrying stamp columns, philatelic publications, collectors organizations and associations, and individuals numbering in the thousands. With each new Canal Zone stamp or issue or matters of philatelic interest, official postal card notices are sent to all on the list. This was done in the matter of the sale of mint official stamps. Despite ample notice the Philatelic Agency was still filling orders late in April 1952. The requests for sets far exceeded the expectations of the Director of Posts. Three separate printings had to be made to fill the wants of collectors. One for 20,000 of the Gorgas 1-cent stamp was especially printed on January 8, 1952, when it came to the administration's attention that one person was attempting to corner that denomination. There follows a table of printings by dates of requisitions: Ordinary Mail 3/25/41 3/27/41 9/22/41' 3/16/42 5/25/42 8/21/42 1-cent Gorgas. 20,000 . 10,000 3-cent Goethals. 20,000 . 10,000 5-cent Steam Shovel. 10,000 . 10,000 10-cent Hodges . 2,000 . 10,000 15-cent Smith . 2,000 . 10,000 20-cent Rousseau. . . 5,000 . 10,000 50-cent Blackburn. 1,000 1,000 10,000 Air Mail 5-cent. 1,000 2,000 10,000 10-cent. 1,000 2,000 10,000 15-cent. 10,000 10,000 10,000 20-cent. 1,000 2,000 10,000 30-cent. . 5,000 10,000 40-cent. 1,000 2,000 10,000 $1.00. 4,000 10,000 Ordinary Mail 4/29/44 2/8/46 1/14/47 5/9/47 1-cent. 10,000 10,000 3-cent. . 5-cent. . 5,0002 20,0003 10-cent. . . 5,000 15-cent. . . 5,000 20-cent. . . 5,000 50-cent. . . 5,000 Air Mail 11/3/44 2/8/46 1/14/47 5/9/47 11/15/47 5-cent. 5,000 5,000 10,000 5,000 6-cent. . 20,000 10-cent. . 5,000 10,000 10,000 18,4504 4/9/43 15-cent. 10,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 20-cent. . 5,000 5,000 30-cent. . 5,000 5,000 40-cent. . 5,000 2,500 1 The entire September 22, 1941 printing was of the narrow printing. 2 Last 5-cent "Steam Shovel" printing. 3 First 5-cent "Stevens" printing. 4 First printing of the 6-cent air mail; 31 inverted sheets destroyed. 284

PAGE 299

4/29/44 $1.00. 4,000 5,000 . 2,500 Ordinary Mail 4,20/49 11/28.151 1/8/52 4/9/525 1-cent. 10,000 10,000 20,0006 1,000 3-cent. 10,000 5-cent. . 10,000 2/6/52 10-cent. 5,000 . 1,000 15-cent. 5,000 . 2,500 1,000 20-cent. . 5,00. 2,500 50-cent. .5,0 2,500 1,000 Air Mail 4/20/49 11/21/50 11/28/51 2/6/52 4/9/52 5-cent. 5,000 10,000 . 6-cent. 10,000 10,00( .1. 500 10-cent . 5,000 5,000 10,000 2,500 500 15-cent. 5,000 . 2,500 20-cent. 5,000 . 2,500 30-cent. 5,000 . . 500 40-cent. 5,000 5,000 $1.00. .'.i. 2,500 5,000 500 We thus come to an end of another philatelic series which we believe will not again be seen in our postal system. It is a fact that there is no necessity for the existence of these overprinted official stamps. To complete the chapter, there is given below a tabulation of the mint official stamps sold after January 1, 1952, and the total requisitioned. Ordinary Mail On Hand On Hand Number Total 1/1/52 Requisitioned 4/29/52 Sold Requisitioned 1-cent .9,500 21,992 3,802 27,690 91,000 3-cent .10,536 353 5,042 5,847 40,000 5-cent (Steam Shovel) . 25,0007 5-cents (Stevens) 13,027 723 8,361 5,389 30,000 10-cent .7,733 1,055 4,224 4,564 23,000 15-cent. .9,315 3,650 8,612 4,353 25,500 20-cent .8,881 2,593 7,236 4,238 27,500 50-cent .5,758 3,500 5,325 3,9338 25,500 Air Mail 5-cent .13,397 958 8,246 6,109 53,000 6-cent .9,149 1,576 5,500 5,225 38,500 10-cent. .11,214 3,108 9,277 5,045 56,000 15-cent .8,037 2,501 5,602 4,936 62,500 2 0-cent .9,091 2,681 6,393 5,379 30,500 3 0-cent .7,520 500 3,400 4,620 30,500 4 0-cent .10,336 272 5,625 4,983 30,500 $1.00 .7,775 641 3,975 4,441 33,500 5 Last printing to complete orders for sets. 6 20,000 ordered printed immediately upon information received that one individual was trying to buy all of this denomination. I When all the official stamps were recalled from the Bureaus, some turned in a few of the 5-cent "Steam Shovel" stamps in mint condition. These were immediately sold. 8 This figure is a criteria for the number of total official sets in mint condition. 285

PAGE 301

Chapter XXXVII FIFTEENTH PERMANENT SERIES 5-Cent "John F. Stevens" 287

PAGE 302

POSTAGE %E A E P0 lAGE POSTAGE (TANt"ANAL ZONE -ZN jFIP STDAYQF6 $UE C/-rc~2~ 288

PAGE 303

BIOGRAPHYP General eo t)avAss& mneibkof the 01 Isthmin Caa GamWOU~ and I Ive Govoirnor of the Canl Zone frow Mmfh 1904 unImdM&Y 23, 1905 He vi eccededi by !4rC, & Magoon who held offi ntlOobr12, IM~, The title of Govenor of the Canal Zouie was later abolished. Ur. Jolan F. Wallace served as Chid IEna inc-er cf the Tsthmfr, ana l Ca mo n fvone 1,nel 1904 u-ntil June 29, 1905, AU 194 I 75r r VIA AIR MAILk ~2\ 289

PAGE 304

Selected model. Approved design. Em THEODORE ROOSEVELT ,2 E 1901 PRESIDENT 1909 e AiLARD CUT Li4A-t TH PANAMA CANAL 7w 2W0

PAGE 305

Chapter XXXVII FIFTEENTH PERMANENT SERIES 5-Cent "John F. Stevens" 1946, April 25, to 1949 On May 24, 1944, the Director of Posts, in writing to Mr. Eugene C. Stevens, son of John F. Stevens, informed him that the five-cent denomination in the Canal Zone stamp series had been selected to honor his father. Sketches were being made to be submitted to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for the preparation of a model and photographs of these were sent to Eugene Stevens following the letter. Estimates of the cost of the plate and the manufacture of 1,000,000 stamps cut into sheets of 100 and paraffin interleaved were requested. The estimate was considered satisfactory and the Bureau was asked to proceed with the engraving and submit a proof before requisition was made. Mr. Meade Bolton, Office of Engineers, The Panama Canal, was the designer of this stamp made from an official photograph and it is considered one of the finest of the permanent series. The finished working drawing was made by William K. Schrage and William A. Roach from the Bolton design. The central design is a portrait of John F. Stevens with his name across the top of the stamp in white gothic lettering against a blue background. "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE" in two lines of dark letters appears below the portrait. In each corner are the numerals "5" with the words "CENTS" beneath them. The entire stamp is enclosed in a double-line border and it is blue. John F. Stevens was born in Gardner, Maine, April 25, 1853, the son of John and Harriet Stevens. With a natural bent for engineering, he commenced his great railroading career even before attaining full manhood. In Dallas, Tex. on a job in 1887, he met and married Harriet T. O'Brien. He was employed in various engineering projects and worked for many railroads, enjoying a reputation at the top of his field. Of the many single events in the great career of John F. Stevens, the most spectacular was his discovery of the Marias Pass through the Rocky Mountains for the Great Northern Railway. In 1904-1905, he was Second Vice President of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway and it was from this job that President Theodore Roosevelt called him to become chief engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commission where he served from 1905 to 1907, part of the latter year as Chairman. General Goethals never boasted of his own great accomplishments, and when the Canal was mentioned in his presence he always insisted that two men, Theodore Roosevelt and John F. Stevens, had far more to do with the successful building of the Canal than he. Goethals' admiration for his predecessor, Stevens, was evident at all times. It was John F. Stevens who favored the adoption of the high-level locks and recommended the plan for an 85-foot summit-level, lock canal, as set forth in 291

PAGE 306

the minority report of the consulting board of engineers. This was the plan later adopted and followed to completion. STATISTICS This stamp is blue in color, vertically rectangular 0.75" x 0.87" in size, perforated 11, and unwatermarked. Engravers-Portrait, Mathew D. Fenton; frame, letters, and numerals, John S. Edmonson. First shipment-January 21, 1946-1,050,000 stamps. Total shipped-To April 28, 1958-1,940,000. First day of sale-April 25, 1946, anniversary of birth of John F. Stevens-at all Canal Zone post offices. Official cachet-"First Day of Issue" rubber stamp impressions and application of a special cachet rubber stamp at all post offices. First sale-First-day covers with enclosed blocks of the new 5-cent "Stevens" stamp sent to each of the three sons of John F. Stevens: Eugene C. Stevens, Donald F. Stevens, and John F. Stevens, Jr., with a personal letter from Gov. J. C. Mehaffey. 1948, August 16 1-CENT "DAVIS," 1/-CENT "MAGOON," AND 25-CENT "WALLACE" On December 14, 1946, the Stamp Advisory Committee (see chapter XXIII) recommended to Governor Mehaffey that the United States /2-cent and 1/2-cent stamps surcharged "CANAL ZONE" be superseded by the addition to the permanent set of the Canal's own -cent and 1 -cent denominations. The committee also suggested that, as a convenience to the postal service, a new 25-cent stamp be printed. The men selected to be honored were Maj. Gen. George W. Davis, Charles E. Magoon, and John F. Wallace, all construction-day members of the Isthmian Canal Commission. Much has already been written (chapters III, IV, and V) regarding General Davis and his days on the Isthmus in 1904 and 1905. His background to those days should be recounted. Maj. Gen. George W. Davis was born in Thompson, Conn., July 26, 1839. After attending Nichols Academy, Dudley, Mass., he entered the State Normal School, New Britain, Conn. He served through the Civil War and was honorably mustered out April 30, 1866. Soon after, he rejoined the service and was appointed Captain in the 14th United States Infantry, January 22, 1867. During the Spanish-American War, Davis rose to the rank of Brigadier General and on July 21, 1902 he was promoted to the rank of Major General. From 1900 to 1903 General Davis was general manager and vice president of the Nicaragua Canal Construction Company. Chosen to serve on the Isthmian Canal Commission in 1904 by President Roosevelt, it was General Davis who headed the first group to visit the Isthmus in April of that year and in the face of almost overwhelming obstacles, set up the first organization on the Zone after our taking over the Canal Company from the French. General Davis was appointed Governor of the Canal Zone by President Theodore Roosevelt on March 8, 1904, and served until May 23, 1905. Charles E. Magoon was born in Steele County, Minn., December 5, 1861. After high school at Owatonna, Minn., Mr. Magoon attended the University of Nebraska and was admitted to the bar in 1882. He practiced in Lincoln, Nebr. 292

PAGE 307

until 1899. He was General Counsel to the Isthmian Canal Commission from July 1, 1904 until April 1, 1905, and was a member of the Isthmian Canal Commission in 1905 and 1906. Mr. Magoon was appointed Governor of the Canal Zone on May 25, 1905, to succeed Governor Davis and on July 17, 1905 he was appointed Minister to Panama. He was thus Governor of the Canal Zone and Minister to Panama simultaneously. On October 12, 1906 he was appointed provisional Governor of Cuba and served in that difficult capacity with high honor until January 28, 1909. Charles Magoon died January 14, 1920. John Findley Wallace was born at Fall River, Mass., September 10, 1852. He was the first Chief Engineer of The Panama Canal and as such made extensive surveys and examinations on site. He attended Monmouth College, Ill., and Wooster College, Ohio, receiving the degree of C. E. from the latter institution. After five years as Assistant United States Engineer on the upper Mississippi River andi the Rock Island Rapids, Mr. Wallace entered the railroad field. Because of his outstanding engineering abilities, his rise was rapid. In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, he was chief engineer, superintendent, master of transportation, general manager, and resident manager with such railroads as the Peoria & Farmington R.R., Central Iowa Ry., A.T. & S.F. R.R., Illinois Central R.R., and others. In 1904 he was appointed Chief Engineer of The Panama Canal and served until June 1905. After leaving the Canal service he held many honorable posts in his profession until his death in Washington, D.C., January 1, 1931. The central design of each of these stamps is basically the same. They were all designed by Meade Bolton and follow somewhat the excellent job he did on the 5-cent "Stevens." The finished working drawings were made by Charles Chickering and William K. Schrage. The portrait of General Davis faces left in profile with the name "DAVIS" over his right shoulder. The stamp is orange. The Governor Magoon portrait is almost a three-quarter profile with the name "MAGOON" on the right side of the brown stamp in small gothic letters. The "Wallace" stamp has the portrait full face with the name over his left shoulder. The color of this stamp is green. Each of the three stamps measures 0.75" x 0.87", and is enclosed in a single line frame. Across the top in white gothic are the words "CANAL ZONE" and directly beneath each portrait is the word "POSTAGE" in the same style. In each corner is the denomination in two lines, i.e., CENT," "1 CENT," or "25 CENTS." STATISTICS Engravers-Portrait, Richard M. Bower on the -cent and 25-cent, Mathew D. Fenton on the 1 -cent stamp; frame, lettering, and numerals, Axel W. Cristensen. First shipment-June 22, 1948. Number shipped-1,020,000-cent, 1,050,000-1% -cent, and 1,020,000-25cent. First day sales-There were no special ceremonies upon the issuance of these three stamps. They were placed on sale August 16, 1948, at all Canal Zone post offices with "FIRST DAY OF ISSUE" in the killer bars of canceling machines or the use of "FIRST DAY OF ISSUE" rubber stamps. There were some privately made cachets. 293

PAGE 308

Total First Day Sales -cent stamps 58,801 1 -cent stam ps. 38,462 25 -cent stamps. 11,258 1949, October 27 2-CENT "THEODORE ROOSEVELT" On April 26, 1949, the Stamp Advisory Committee recommended to the Executive Secretary of The Panama Canal that a new 2-cent stamp of the same color as the then current (Goethals) and of similar design to the popular 5-cent "STEVENS" be issued bearing the likeness of President Theodore Roosevelt. The recommendation was acted upon favorably and on August 15, 1949, James Marshall, Director of Posts, issued the following press release: A new two-cent postage stamp of the permanent series bearing the likeness of former President Theodore Roosevelt will be placed on sale at all Canal Zone post.offices on October 27, 1949, the anniversary of President Roosevelt's birth. This stamp will replace the present two-cent "Goethals" stamp, the supply of which has been exhausted. The new stamp will be approximately 19 x 22 mm. in size with a full face portrait of Mr. Roosevelt with his name placed vertically on the left hand side. Below will be the words "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE" in two lines with the denomination of the stamp shown in the lower right corner. The color will be red, the same as the stamp it replaces. The selection of Mr. Roosevelt for the subject of a Canal Zone permanent stamp is a departure from the previous policy of using as subjects those who actively participated in the building of the canal on the Isthmus. It was almost entirely through his efforts while President of the United States that the construction of the Canal was made possible. He visited the Isthmus during construction and showed great interest in the progress of the work as well as in the men who were actively engaged in the job. Bronze medals (see chapter XLV) bearing his likeness in relief were given to employees who worked for two or more years during the period from 1904 to 1914. Collectors desiring first-day covers of this new issue should send their requests to the Postmaster, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, for servicing. STATISTICS Designers-Leo Page, Office Engineering Division, The Panama Canal, and modeled by William K. Schrage. Engravers-Portrait, Carl T. Arlt; frame and lettering by Axel W. Christensen. First Day-(October 27, 1949.) Anniversary of the birth of Theodore Roosevelt. Personal first-day letter with a block of the new stamps enclosed sent to Alice Longworth, daughter of President Roosevelt, who had visited the Isthmus with her father during construction days. First day sales-174,061 stamps sold at all Canal Zone post offices and 45,000 first-day covers serviced at the Balboa Heights post office. First shipment-September 23, 1949-520,000 stamps. PLATE HISTORY Perf. 11 400-Subject Plates DenomFirst Date Impressions ination Plate No. to Press Printed -cent 160139 June 5, 1948 3,006 1%-cent 160140 June 3, 1948 3,004 2 -cent 160822 Sept. 16, 1949 14,221 5 -cent 158038 Jan. 7, 1946 6,328 25 -cent 160141 June 8, 1948 3,053 *As of March 19, 1959. 294

PAGE 309

Chapter XXXVIII BARRO COLORADO COMMEMORATIVE 10-Cent Stamp 295

PAGE 310

CANAL ZON E POSTAGE 1923 1948 CENTS CENTS 251.ANNIVERSARY E5TA8 LISHMENT CANAL ZONE BIOLOGICAL AREA CANAL ZONE 40LOGtCAL AREA ANAL POSTAGE P RRO COW.ADO ISLAND) Dr. James Zetek was the Resident Chief of the Canal Zone Biological Area. A.W AW W A Af'r-AW AAWN AGE th "oai-uni"sapt 96 VA AR MAIL FRIDAY 10ISUE9 A~ AWW A~ 00r AM 0W W AW Cover showing first and last day sale dates of the "Coati-Mundi" stamp. 296

PAGE 311

Chapter XXXVIII BARRO COLORADO COMMEMORATIVE 10-Cent Stamp 1948, April 17 On September 18, 1947, Dr. A. Wetmore, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, in a letter to Governor Mehaffey, asked that consideration be given to the issuance of a commemorative stamp signalizing the 25th anniversary of the founding of the Laboratory on Barro Colorado Island. Originally a hill rising alongside the old Chagres River, the island was formed when Gatun Lake was created in 1914 following the construction of Gatun Dam. Gov. Jay J. Morrow had set this island apart as a biological area in 1923 and by Act of Congress in 1946, it was assigned to the Smithsonian Institution for administration. Dr. Wetmore, a frequent visitor and well-known on the Isthmus, said, "A great amount of important scientific information and, as a result, much good to the human race, both cultural and practical, has come from studies carried on at this jungle laboratory in the Canal Zone." Many of the world's great scientists have studied the offerings of the virgin wilds on the Island with James T. Zetek, the Department of Agriculture resident. The idea was generally well received and endorsed by the authorities. Leo Page and Meade Bolton, both of the Office Engineers, were given the job of providing an appropriate design. They agreed on an outline of the island showing its geographical location but couldn't get together on the "filling" or subject for a central design. Some sort of a tropical animal was agreed upon and many were suggested; the puma, the porcupine, gato solo, and sloth, all inhabitants of the area. Leo Page submitted a rough sketch of a gato solo (lone or single cat) superimposed over an outline of Barro Colorado Island. With refinement, this was the design later approved by Governor Newcomer. The animal was to be designated by its scientific appelation "coati-mundi" rather than its common name "gato solo." It very much resembles the American raccoon with its fore legs shorter than its hind legs and a large white ringed hairy tail which is prehensile. The "coati-mundi" will eat berries, leaves, fruits, birds, eggs, and the iguana or large leaf-eating native lizard. While young, it is an excellent pet. The stamp is gray and measures 0.84" x 1.44" arranged horizontally. Barro Colorado Island is shown in the center with its location marked in latitude and longitude. Across the top of the island's outline are the words "BARRO COLORADO ISLAND." In the lower left of the island is the name of the animal "COATI-MUNDI" with the animal itself, tail raised, superimposed. Across the top of the stamp is "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE." Below the island frame are the words "25th ANNIVERSARY ESTABLISHMENT" and "CANAL ZONE BIOLOGICAL AREA" in two lines. In the left panel is the year "1923" 297

PAGE 312

and the denomination "10 CENTS." The right panel has the year "1948" and "10 CENTS" below it in two lines. STATISTICS Designers-Leo Page and Meade Bolton. Modelers-William K. Schrage and Charles R. Chickering. Engravers-Vignette, Richard M. Bower; lettering and numerals, John S. Edmonson and Axel W. Christensen. First shipment-525,000 on March 2, 1948. First day sale-April 17, 1948, at all Canal Zone post offices. Rubber stamps with "First Day of Issue" were furnished each postmaster for use on this day only on mail articles bearing the new stamp. Total First Day Sales-There were 22,080 first-day covers serviced at all post offices and 63,033 stamps sold. PLATE HISTORY Perf. 11 200-Subject Plates DenomFirst Date Impressions ination Plate No. to Press Printed 10-cent 159908 Feb. 16, 1948 3,001 Canceled July 9, 1952 298

PAGE 313

Chapter XXXIX "GOLD RUSH CENTENNIAL'' COMMEMORATIVE SERIES 3-Cent, 6-Cent, 12-Cent, and 18-Cent Stamps 299

PAGE 314

3 6 4.( Nix $ G LD RQSR Ct m At 0 A Accepted designs. 49 P, si The upper left hand corner of this cover carries the signature of Mr. Meade Bolton, the designer of this beautiful, historical Series. 300

PAGE 315

Chapter XXXIX "GOLD RUSH CENTENNIAL" COMMEMORATIVE SERIES 3-Cent, 6-Cent, 12-Cent, and 18-Cent Stamps 1949, June 1 "Beyond the Chagres River 'Tis said-the story's oldAre paths that lead to mountains Of purest virgin gold;" -Gilbert When James Marshall (a name identical with that of one of the Canal Zone's onetime Director of Posts) discovered gold in Sutter's millrace, the United States suddenly realized the importance of the Isthmus as the quickest route to its newly-acquired Pacific coastline. The gold rush in truth became one and often bordered on becoming a "stampede." The discovery of gold in California caused thousands of men to rush to the West Coast to reap the golden harvest. During the famous "Gold Rush" of 1849, the Panama route was the best and quickest way to reach California from the East Coast of the United States. Steamships and sailing vessels, all crowded to capacity, departed from New York, Charleston, Savannah, and New Orleans and landed their excited passengers at Chagres, which, until the trains of the Panama Railroad then under construction were available, was the port on the Atlantic side of the Panama route. From Chagres the "Forty-niners" rushed frantically across the Isthmus to the city of Panama where they obtained passage by steamship to California. It is the period in 1849 during the "Gold Rush" from the time of the arrival of the fortune hunters in Chagres to their departure from Panama that is of special interest this year as having been an important period of United States and Isthmian history just one hundred years ago. The length of the route across the Isthmus was about sixty miles. In 1849 the crossing was made by boat from the town of Chagres up the Chagres River forty miles to Las Cruces Trail, twenty miles from Panama City. The journey was hard and rough for the "Forty-niners" and often dangerous. Few of these men were accustomed to the tropics, and the accommodations available for the horde of men who suddenly appeared on the Isthmus were very limited. They scrambled ashore in great droves at Chagres, then rushed up the Chagres River, hurried frantically across Las Cruces Trail and departed from Panama as soon as possible. Their one idea was to get to California quickly. The 3-cent stamp, "Arriving at Chagres on the Atlantic Side," shows a brig in the open roadstead with passengers being rowed ashore to the beach at Chagres. On top of the headland cliff overlooking the village is the old Spanish fort of San Lorenzo which was successively captured by Drake in 1573, by Morgan in 1671, and by Admiral Vernon in 1740. The town of Chagres was a collection of huts, frame hotels, and saloons. Often the seas were heavy and landing difficult. At Chagres the travelers engaged passage for the trip up the river. The design is based on an il301

PAGE 316

lustration which appeared in the "Century Magazine" in April 1891, by Gilbert Gaul after a drawing made by Charles Nahl in 1850. The color of the 3-cent stamp will be blue. The 6-cent stamp, "Up the Chagres River to Las Cruces," shows a boat being poled up the Chagres River from Chagres to Las Cruces, a distance of about 40 miles. The boats available and hired at Chagres by the "Forty-niners" were native canoes, called "bungos," made of a hollowed out log, some 20 or 30 feet long and 3 or 4 feet wide and partly covered for shelter from sun and rain. These "bungos" were poled up the river by a crew of several natives and were only large enough to accommodate a few passengers and their baggage. The trip took 3 or 4 days and stop-overs at night were made at villages along the river bank. Las Cruces was an old village at the head of barge navigation on the Chagres River on the Las Cruces Trail, and was for three centuries a stopping place for travelers and a general depository for merchandise to and from the West Coast. At Las Cruces the "Forty-niners" hired mules for the 20-mile trip to Panama. The color of the 6-cent stamp will be violet. The 12-cent stamp "Las Cruces Trail to Panama" shows a gold miner with a pick over his shoulder and a mule train on the way from Las Cruces to Panama. Travelers left Las Cruces early in the morning because it was a hard day's trip of about 20 miles. Las Cruces Trail was built by the Spaniards in 1530 and for over three centuries was the road connecting both the old and new cities of Panama and the Chagres River. Viceroys and adventurers of all nationalities crossed on this road, which wound through dense tropical jungle. In later years it was not well maintained, and in 1849 was in very bad condition. The typical gold seeker was a rather rough-appearing person who wore heavy clothes, a felt hat, a red flannel shirt, coarse pants, and heavy boots. The color of the 12-cent stamp will be green. The 18-cent stamp, "Leaving Panama for San Francisco," represents the steamer "Panama" crowded with passengers bound for California on a bright golden day, with the city of Panama outlined on the horizon. The "Panama" was a wooden side-wheel steamer with two decks and three masts, and was 200 feet long and 34 feet wide, built in New York for the Pacific Mail Steamship Company in 1848. It was in regular service between Panama and San Francisco from 1849 to 1853. She sailed from Panama on her first trip with 290 passengers on May 18, 1849 and 17 days later arrived in San Francisco. Because of the limited transportation facilities, many of the "Forty-niners" had to stay in the city of Panama, crowded into hotels and pensions, and waiting sometimes for several months for steamer accommodations. Panama they found to be an old city with great stone buildings, paved streets, and an established society. The travelers, however, generally herded together and with very few exceptions did not become greatly interested in the city or the people. All they wanted was to get to California. The color of the 18-cent stamp will be maroon. First-day covers and postage stamps may be obtained through the Philatelic Agency, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone. The pen sketches for the "Gold Rush Centennial" Issue were all made by Meade Bolton, Architect with the Office Engineers, The Panama Canal, from old wood cuts. The 3-cent stamp was modeled by William K. Schrage, the 6-cent by Victor S. McCloskey, Jr., the 12-cent by Charles R. Chickering, and the 18-cent stamp by Robert L. Miller. The stamps were each 0.75" x 0.87" in dimensions, arranged vertically with a single line border. STATISTICS Engravers-3-cent, vignette, Arthur W. Dintamann; frame, Reuben K. Barrick; lettering and numerals, Reuben K. Barrick and Axel W. Christensen. 6-cent, vignette, Herbert F. Fichter; frame, Reuben K. Barrick; lettering and numerals, Reuben K. Barrick, Axel W. Cristensen, and George L. Huber. 12-cent, vignette, 302

PAGE 317

Richard W. Bower; frame, Reuben K. Barrick; lettering and numerals, Reuben K. Barrick and Axel W. Christensen. 18-cent, vignette, Richard M. Bower; frame, Reuben K. Barrick; lettering and numerals, Reuben K. Barrick, Axel W. Christensen, and George L. Huber. First shipment-April 22, 1949. Number shipped-500,000 for each of the 3-cent, 6-cent, and 12-cent denominations, and 525,000 of the 18-cent stamp. First day of sale-June 1, 1949, at all Canal Zone post offices. "First Day of Issue" cancellation dies were furnished the post offices of Ancon, Balboa, Balboa Heights, and Cristobal. "First day of issue" rubber stamps were furnished all other offices. First day sales-3-cent, 48,109; 6-cent, 42,788; 12-cent, 31,287; 18-cent, 32,976. Balboa Heights serviced approximately 35,000 covers. PLATE HISTORY Perf. 11 400-Subject Plates DenomFirst Date Impressions ination Plate No. to Press Printed 3-cent 160555 April 12, 1949 1,524 6-cent 160556 April 11, 1949 1,500 12-cent 160557 April 12, 1949 1,500 18-cent 160558 April 14, 1949 1,500 303

PAGE 319

Chapter XL WEST INDIAN LABOR COMMEMORATIVE 10-Cent Stamp 305

PAGE 320

Approved design. 0 ,E M~ -2 -<0 (139o whoatede Fis Da eeois 100 0> 3a d FIST DAPF U Hand-canceled "Cristobal 3" applied at the Mount Hope Stadium where the First Day Ceremonies for the issuance of this commemorative stamp were held. 'N ~AA CAIV E. 1. P. TATLEMAN, CtiSTOSAL, CANAL ZONE. First day cover autographed by Col. F. K. Newcomer, Governor of the Canal Zone, and other dignitaries who attended First Day Ceremonies. 306

PAGE 321

Chapter XL WEST INDIAN LABOR COMMEMORATIVE 10-Cent Stamp 1951, August 15 On September 29, 1948, Mr. George Westerman, Editor of The Panama Tribune, directed a letter to the Governor of The Panama Canal enlarging upon a suggestion made the previous year by Mr. Lupfer, that a commemorative stamp be issued honoring the West Indian workers who helped in the construction of the great. waterway. Colonel Wang, Executive Secretary, approved the idea in general and sent the matter to the Stamp Advisory Committee for their attention. In view of the "Gold Rush Centennial" series under consideration and the replacement of the 2-cent "Goethals" stamp, the suggestion of Mr. Westerman was not acted upon at the time. The consensus of the Committee that the thought was a good one and should be used at a later date. The tremendous job accomplished by the laborers recruited from the many islands of the West Indies was an important factor in the successful building of the Canal. They were the backbone of the laboring force. The records show that at the height of the construction period there were more than 31,000 of these strong, loyal workers engaged in back-breaking manual labor. It is indeed appropriate that their contribution to the Canal's construction should be thus honored. Meade Bolton, Chief Architect of the Office Engineers, The Panama Canal, prepared several sketches. One showed a crew of laborers at the bottom of Gaillard Cut in 1912 using tripod drills and another depicted laborers engaged in loading dump cars in the cut in 1907. The idea, with the sketches, however, was set aside and remained dormant for about two years. On January 18, 1951, the Director of Posts advised Mr. Westerman that consideration of the issuance of a stamp honoring West Indian labor had been revived and asked him to inform the Postal Division as to which denomination, five or ten cents, would be preferable. The answer on January 22, 1951, indicated that the ten-cent denomination would be desired. This was the air mail rate to the West Indies. Two sketches, one of which was to be used, were selected and on April 12, 1951, the Governor gave his approval to the designs and the issuance of a West Indian labor stamp. The sketches were forwarded to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for further development and model preparation. This was done by Charles R. Chickering. On May 16, 1951, Col. Richardson Selee, Civil Affairs Director, returned the two models, one of which was approved, to the Chief of Office, The Panama Canal, Washington, with authorization to proceed with the approved model. A desire to have the stamps shipped early enough to have them released August 15, 1951, the anniversary of the opening of the Panama Canal, was also expressed. 307

PAGE 322

The vignette shows a scene at the bottom of Gaillard Cut, during the construction period, 1904-1914, with a group of West Indian laborers at work around tripod drills between the steep slopes of the man-made Cut. The legend in colored gothic and in five lines reads, "Commemorating-West Indian Labor -in the construction of-The Panama Canal-1904-1914." Across the bottom of the stamp in a long panel are the words "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE." In each lower corner appears the denomination in two lines "10 CENTS." The size of the stamp is 0.75" x 0.87" arranged vertically in a narrow double outline frame. Its color is red. STATISTICS Engravers-Vignette, Mathew D. Fenton; frame, lettering, and numerals, Reuben K. Barrick. First and only shipment-July 11, 1951. Number shipped-480,000. First sale-7:15 a.m., August 15, 1951, at the Balboa Heights Post Office by James Marshall, Director of Posts, to Graham Lewis, West Indian construction worker and leader in his community. First day ceremonies-Public ceremony sponsored by the West Indian Stamp Appreciation Committee at-the Mount Hope Stadium, Canal Zone, attended by thousands including the Governor of the Canal Zone, the Executive Secretary, and many distinguished West Indian and other guests. First day covers were hand-canceled at the Stadium from 5:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m., August 15, 1951. Employees from the Cristobal Post Office sold stamps and canceled covers and ceremony programs with stamps affixed and addressed. There were 785 covers serviced in this manner and 1,259 stamps sold. PLATE HISTORY Stamps perforated 11. 400-Subject Plates First Date Impressions Denomination Plate No. to Press Printed 10-cent 162191 June 28, 1951 1,500 308

PAGE 323

Chapter XLI SECOND DEFINITIVE AIR MAIL SERIES "Globe and Wing" Issue 309

PAGE 325

41 sm"4 4) CT p0 1 4 .4 (0

PAGE 326

Ade W A4=V AIn ARg d Ile Via Air Mi First day cover signed by the designer John C. Buechele. CANAL N F1ST DAY OF I33' .irgil F. 3haw Box 402 A I R Balboa Height, C.Z. 19 M A IL 5 Cover carrying the six "Globe and Wing" Canal Zone air mail stamps issued July 16, 1951. 312

PAGE 327

Chapter XLI SECOND DEFINITIVE AIR MAIL SERIES "Globe and Wing" Issue 1951, July 16 to August 16, 1958 On October 31, 1950, the Canal Zone Director of Posts, in a memorandum to the Designing Engineer of The Panama Canal through the Civil Affairs Director, said: This office has under consideration the replacement of our present air mail stamps with a new design and different denominations. The new stamp is to be the same size as the permanent ordinary series, the most recent of which is the 2-cent Roosevelt. We have in mind a design more global in scope than the present one (chapter XXXIV, Plane over Cut) and offer for development the suggestion of a central background of the western hemisphere in a subdued tone with a modern multi-engined airplane superimposed over it. Since air routes from the Isthmus emanate in every direction, this might be worked up in some detail. Another suggestion is the substitution of a symbol of flight for an airplane as the central motif. Any other ideas or suggestions for this stamp that may occur to you would be welcome. It will be appreciated if you could request Mr. Leo Page, with whom this matter has been discussed informally, to submit rough sketches of the new stamp from which a selection will be made for further development. It is contemplated that the new series of stamps if approved, will embrace the 4-cent, 6-cent, 10-cent, 21-cent, 31-cent, and 80-cent denominations. To this, the Civil Affairs Director, Col. R. Selee, added, Another idea to throw into the hopper is the use of the compass ornament found on many old maps, woven into the aeroplane or symbol of flight in order to produce the "all-direction" impression. On December 13, 1950, Mr. F. H. Irwin, Designing Engineer, notified the Director of Posts that Mr. Buechele of his office had prepared 11 designs of the ideas presented and that they were being transmitted to him for his review and comment. Two composite designs of the 11 submitted were selected. It was suggested that these two be sent to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for their ultimate choice of the one better suited for the engraving processes. On March 5, 1951, the Governor approved the one selected and recommended. The approved sketch prepared by Jack Buechele was sent to the Chief of Office, The Panama Canal, Washington, for submission to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for estimates of manufacture. The stamps were to be of the same size as the U.S. 1949 "6-cent small plane" issue, 0.75' x 0.87", horizontally rectangular, 100 to a sheet and interleaved with paraffin paper. The denominations, quantities, and colors ordered are as follows: 4-cent. V iolet 300,000 6-cent. Brown 2,000,000 10-cent Orange red 500,000 313

PAGE 328

21-cent. Light blue 200,000 31-cent. Lake red 200,000 80-cent. Black 200,000 The new air mail stamps were scheduled for release some time in June 1951. A maritime strike however was called along the eastern seaboard which posed a delay in surface transportation. In view of this annoying situation, the release of this issue was rescheduled for July 16, 1951, and the Bureau of Engraving and Printing was asked to make a partial shipment of 100,000 of the 4-cent, 6-cent, and 10-cent stamps; and 50,000 of the 21-cent, 31-cent, and 80-cent denominations by either air express or air mail. This was done in sufficient time to furnish each Canal Zone post office with the new air mail stamps on July 12th. On June 29, 1951, in Postal Circular No. 977 issued by the Director of Posts TO ALL POSTSMASTERS, Mr. Marshall stated, 1. The permanent issue of air mail stamps will be placed on sale at all Canal Zone post offices at the opening hour (8 a.m.) on Monday, July 16, 1951. The denominations are: 4-cent, 6-cent, 10-cent, 21-cent, 31-cent, and 80-cent. 3. First-day-of-issue cancellation dies will be furnished Ancon, Balboa, Balboa Heights, and Cristobal, and first-day-of-issue rubber stamps will be furnished other offices. 6. The sale of the present series of air mail stamps will continue until further notice. STATISTICS First shipment-by air mail June 22, 1951. Amount shipped-100,000 each of the 4-cent, 6-cent, and 10-cent values, and 50,000 each of the 21-cent, 31-cent, and 80-cent denominations. First day of sale-July 16, 1951, at all Canal Zone post offices. First day sales-1 1,400-4-cent, 18,905-6-cent, 9,044-10-cent, 6,855-21-cent, 6,300-31-cent, and 5,824-80-cent stamps. There were approximately 12,000 first-day covers serviced. Several years later when insistent rumors emanated from our nation's capitol directed toward an increase of air mail, first-class, and other postage rates, it became apparent that Congress would act and a change in certain rates would soon become effective. With this in mind, E. F. Unruh, Director of Posts, in a memorandum to the Director of Civil Affairs, stated that if air postage rates were to be changed, different denominations would be needed, and further suggested that the "Globe and Wing," or current design, be used necessitating changes in denominations only. Section 271 of title 2 of the Canal Zone Code, as amended, provides that the United States domestic postal rates shall apply to mail exchanged between the Canal Zone and the United States. The Governor of the Canal Zone is authorized under section 272 of the same title to prescribe postage rates to foreign countries. Thus when the Congress of the United States did act and Public Law 85-426, Postal Rate and Pay Increase Act, 1958, became the law of the land containing the rate changes contemplated, to become effective August 1, 1958, the Director of Posts commenced appropriate action. 314

PAGE 329

Die proofs of the proposed 5-cent, 7-cent, 15-cent, 25-cent, and 35-cent air mail postage stamps were submitted to the Canal Zone Postal Division by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and on June 30, 1958, they were returned approved. It was suggested that the stamps be manufactured in 400-subject sheets, fully perforated and cut into 100-subject sheets for packing and shipping. Dimensions are the same as the previously issued denominations, 0.75" x 0.87". STATISTICS Engravers-Each stamp of this series was designed by Jack Buechele, of the Designing Engineer's Office, The Panama Canal, and was modeled by William K. Schrage of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, vignettes, by George A. Gundersen; outline, frame, and lettering, John S. Edmonson; background around numerals, Charles A. Brooks on the 4-cent, 5-cent, 6-cent, 7-cent, 15-cent, 21-cent, 25-cent, and 35-cent stamps; Richard M. Bower on the 10-cent stamp, George A. Gundersen on the 31-cent stamp, and Mathew D. Fenton on the 80-cent stamp; numerals, Edward H. Helmuth on the 4-cent, 10-cent, and 80-cent stamps, Robert J. Jones on the 5-cent, 7-cent, 15-cent, 25-cent, and 35-cent stamps, John S. Edmonson on the 6-cent and 21-cent stamps, and George A. Pane on the 31-cent stamp. First shipment of later denominations-July 28, 1958. Amount shipped-5-cent-490,000; 7-cent-2,100,000; 15-cent-360,000; 25cent-600,000; 35-cent-320,000. First day of sale-August 16, 1958. There was no special ceremony. First day sales-5-cent-15,493; 7-cent-17,638; 15-cent-11,745; 25-cent11,517; 35-11,327. There were also 14,435 covers serviced. PLATE HISTORY Perforated 11 400-Subject Plates DenomFirst Date Impressions ination Color Plate No. to Press Printed 4-cent Pink 162159 June 8, 1951 5,096 5-cent Green 166836 July 21, 1958 1,660 6-cent Brown 162151 June 8, 1951 33,460 162152 33,408 7-cent Olive 166837 July 18, 1958 3,030 166838 3,030 10-cent Orange 162153 June 8, 1951 3,813 162154 2,300 15-cent Maroon 166840 July 22, 1958 1,060 2 1-cent Blue 162160 June 11, 1951 5,084 25-cent Yellow 166841 July 23, 1958 1,660 31-cent Red 162161 June 11, 1951 1,750 35-cent Blue 166842 July 23, 1958 400 80-cent Black 162162 June 11, 1951 3,456 *As of March 19, 1959. 315

PAGE 331

Chapter XLII 100TH ANNIVERSARY PANAMA RAILROAD 3-Cent Commemorative 317

PAGE 332

C ANAL ZON EPOAE First Published o THE PANAMA CANAL Train Schedule YJAN 28B PANA A RAILU 4A L Ut orkf P C ARS FIRST DAY OF ISSUE 318

PAGE 333

fA WIr.Z.P.TAtmwhN BMa 3025 LAST DAT RP.C. CIMAL CAN*L SUM Last run and last day of Railway Mail Service on the Panama Railroad trains, May 15, 1954. TR ITs I RMS fRRT 0 ,4.o. ane Railway Mail Service reestablished to honor the 100th anniversary of the completion of the Panama Railroad. 319

PAGE 334

A sheet from the first press run of a new 3-cent Canal Zone stamp commemorating the centennial of the Panama Railroad is examined by Mr. Henry J. Holtzclaw, left, Director of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Maj. Gen. J. L. Schley, USA (Ret.), center, and Maj. Gen. Glen E. Edgerton, USA (Ret.). The stamp went on sale in the Canal Zone on January 28, 1955, the 100th anniversary of the first train running from ocean to ocean across the Isthmus of Panama on the Panama Railroad, which was the first transcontinental railroad in the Americas. Generals Edgerton and Schley are former Governors of The Panama Canal and Presidents of the Panama Railroad Company, and are now serving on the Board of Directors of the Panama Canal Company. 320

PAGE 335

Chapter XLII 100TH ANNIVERSARY PANAMA RAILROAD 3-Cent Commemorative 1955, January 28 During 1954 it became quite evident from the enthusiastic tenor of the numerous letters received by the Governor of the Canal Zone, Director of Civil Affairs, and the Director of Posts, that the issuance of a stamp or short series of stamps commemorating the 100th anniversary of the completion of the Panama Railroad would be met with great favor. W. G. Ross, Quartermaster at Empire from 1908 to 1914, wrote, "We have in the near future a very important date, that is January 27, 1955. This will mark the centennial of the opening of the Panama Railroad. . Rudolph B. Weiler said, "May I suggest the propriety of having a special series of postage stamps issued commemorating the one hundredth anniversary of the opening of the Panama Railroad. I do this as a former worker of the Panama Canal in the early days and a student of the history of the Panama Railroad . and also as a rider on one of the last trains that operated over the original roadbed of the railroad prior to its relocation in 1909." A well-known construction day engineer, R. W. Hebard, in support of such a stamp, wrote, "The Panama Railway was an enterprise conceived, promoted, financed, built, and operated by Americans from the beginning. It has played a great and constructive part in American history, and particularly during the construction of the Panama Canal, as well as developing commerce on the Pacific Coast of the two continents." Maurice H. Thatcher, ex-United States Congressman and the last surviving Isthmian Canal Commissioner, also wrote the Governor urging the issuance of a stamp to mark this noteworthy anniversary. George W. Brett, Zone resident of some years and an ardent collector and author of many Canal Zone stamp articles, voiced and urged the approval of such an issue. On October 7, 1954, Edward S. Conger, a keen student of Isthmian lore, whose roots are deep in Panama's history, said: Next January will mark the 100th anniversary of the completion of the Panama Railroad, an event of great importance to the United States in the mid-nineteenth century when we were engaged in the settlement and development of California and the Northwest. For many years afterward, the Panama Railroad was the only safe and sure link between the eastern and western halves of our country. It is my feeling that the Railroad's important role in history should be commemorated on its centennial anniversary by the issuance of a Canal Zone postage stamp or series of stamps next January. This suggestion has been discussed with General Schley and General Edgerton (both ex Presidents of the Panama Railroad) who have expressed 321

PAGE 336

their approval and indicated that they would support a commemorative issue if it should be considered by General Seybold and other members of the Board of Directors of the Panama Canal Company. . The opening of the Panama Railroad to traffic from ocean to ocean on January 28, 1855 was an event of truly historic importance which merits permanent recognition through a commemorative stamp or series. It is also expected that a luncheon or other suitable observance will take place here in Washington on the centennial date next January. On October 21, 1954, the Governor of the Canal Zone informed Maurice H. Thatcher that he was pleased to state that plans were under way to issue a Canal Zone stamp to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the completion of the Panama Railroad. Every effort was to be made to place the stamp on sale on the anniversary date, January 28, 1955, despite the limited time available. This news was received by all interested with gratification and great pleasure. When the Governor stated that every effort was to be made to have the stamp ready for issue January 28, 1955, he meant just that. A memorandum dated November 5, 1954, from the Director of Posts to the Civil Affairs Director with an attached preliminary sketch made the rounds of all parties concerned, contained five endorsements, and recommendations and was returned to the Director of Posts with the approval of the Governor within four days. On November 12, 1954, the preliminary design and several photographs of the picture on which the design is based were sent to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing with a request for the preparation of a model and estimates for the manufacture of 500,000 stamps. On November 26, 1954, two models were submitted to the Governor for his approval. In a radiogram from the Governor to the Panama Canal Company Office, Washington, dated November 29, 1954, stamp model negative 17947 was approved and the quantity of stamps requested was increased from 500,000 to 1,000,000. Haste of delivery was again urged. With the assurance that the stamps would arrive on the Isthmus in sufficient time the postal administration issued a press release which in part stated: The Canal Zone Postal Service will issue a 3-cent stamp on January 28, 1955, commemorating the hundredth anniversary of the completion of the Panama Railroad, the first transcontinental railroad in the Americas. This date is significant because on January 28, 1855, a Panama Railroad train made the first transcontinental trip, ocean to ocean. The design, based on an old wood cut, has as its central design a locomotive, one of the railroad's earliest, with the rear coach of another train, a few figures representing passengers, train crews, and workers, against a background of tropical growth. The two upper corners bear the centennial dates in white on a dark background, 1855 upper left and 1955 upper right. The denomination "3-cents" appears in blocks in lower left and right hand corners, with the wording "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE" between the denomination blocks, dark printing against a white background. Directly above the denomination blocks appears the wording "100th ANNIVERSARY" on the left and "PANAMA RAILROAD' on the right, both double line, in white against a dark background. The Railway Mail Service will be re-established for one trip on January 28, 1955, and will furnish "First Day of Issue" cancellations and postmarks . The stamp is approximately 0.85" x 0.98"' in horizontal format, issued in sheets of 70 perforated all around and having the plate numbers at either top of bottom of each sheet. Pre-gummed paper was used and the stamps were printed 322

PAGE 337

from a single plate by the dry intaglio process using a flatbed press. Color of the stamp is purple. STATISTICS Designers-Leo C. Page, Chief Architect, Engineering Division, The Panama Canal; modeled by Victor S. McCloskey, Jr. Engravers-Vignette, Mathew D. Fenton; lettering and numerals, Reuben K. Barrick. First shipment-Received on Canal Zone January 17, 1955. Number shipped-560,000. First day sales-January 28, 1955 at all Canal Zone post offices. SPECIAL FIRST DAY CEREMONIES The first event of the day was a wreath-laying ceremony participated in by Panama Railroad engineers and conductors led by retired construction-day (1904-1914) employees. This was their tribute to William H. Aspinwall, Henry Chauncey, and John Lloyd Stephens, those intrepid builders of the railroad in the mid-nineteenth century. Next was the departure of a special train of 16 cars, decorated with streamers and banners, commemorating the first crossing of the American continent by rail. Many of the passengers, mindful of the occasion, were dressed in holiday garb of pre-Civil War days. Souvenir railroad passes of golden color were given to all passengers crossing the Isthmus on any train on this Friday, January 28, 1955. Immediately after the arrival of the special train at Balboa Heights, Governor Seybold, who was one of the passengers to make the commemorative transcontinental trip, presided over the dedication ceremonies of "Old 299," a locomotive which hauled dirt, rock, passengers, or anything asked of it during the early construction days. It is now spending its remaining days, on rails imbedded in concrete, at the Balboa Heights railroad station, a symbol of the Panama Railroad's busiest days. Stamp collectors were not without their share in the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the completion of the Panama Railroad. They could purchase commemorative stamps, in singles, pairs, or blocks. In addition, the Director of Posts, for the special trip this day, resurrected the Railway Post Office which had been discontinued May 15, 1954. Harry W. Peterson, the senior postal employee, was given the honor of acting as Railway Mail Clerk, assisted by Robert S. Herr. All covers mailed this day with a commemorative stamp at Balboa Heights or handed to the railway mail clerk on the special train received the following hand cancellations: THE PANAMA CANAL/JAN 28 TRL 1955/R.P.O. and a larger R.M.S. within the killer bars. There was also the usual "FIRST DAY OF ISSUE" applied by hand or machine. First day salesStamps at all post offices. 91,197 Stamps sold at Philatelic Agency. 108,140 Total. 199,337 First day covers-There were 34,789 covers serviced at the Philatelic Agency, Balboa Heights, and canceled with the special R.P.O. postmarking stamp. 323

PAGE 338

PLATE HISTORY Perforated 11. 200-Subject Plate DenomFirst Date Impression& ination Color Plate No. to Press Printed 3-cent Purple 165141 December 28, 1954 1,343 324

PAGE 339

Chapter XLIII 75TH ANNIVERSARY GORGAS HOSPITAL 3-Cent Commemorative 325

PAGE 340

s

PAGE 341

75TH ANNIVER SARY GOR GAS HOSPITAL M/<--t*-.5--------l J ~~sttsTlyi-nuewn leole'olnlelf "aan 109se od 9 A99 a. #.t/ 217, 1957 327

PAGE 342

1191.7UW& DAY or KOflA f Suf M 75" r-YA Or GORGAS NovP/A a~ /882-1957AM1 A -~n 4A4 3 2 AM --e _______ 328

PAGE 343

Chapter XLIII 75TH ANNIVERSARY GORGAS HOSPITAL 3-Cent Commemorative 1957, November 17 The chairman of the Canal Zone Stamp Committee in his minutes of the committee's meeting held April 5, 1957, reported that among the matters discussed was the issuance of a commemorative stamp in November of 1957 celebratin: the 75th anniversary of the opening of Gorgas Hospital. It was decided t. proceed with preliminary sketches to be prepared by the Architectural Branch of the Engineering Division, Balboa Heights. Two additional meetings of the Stamp Committee were held thereafter, discussing this and other matters. On June 12, 1957, Gerald A. Doyle, Jr., Chief of the Architectural Branch, presented three proposed designs for consideration, each depicting a front view of the Administration Building of Gorgas Hospital shown on the slopes of Ancon Hill and framed by palms and other verdant and lush tropical plants. All three designs were sent on to the Governor through the Civil Affairs Director for their consideration, comment, and approval. The variations in the drawings were mostly in composition of the legend. On June 13, 1957, Governor Potter returned the sketches approved. The Director of Posts submitted two finished sketches and seven photographs of the Administration Building and Admitting Office, Gorgas Hospital, to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington. At the Bureau one model was prepared by Charles R. Chickering and another by William K. Schrage. The finished design modeled by the latter was the one accepted and used. Gorgas Hospital, originally known as Ancon Hospital, was first built by the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interoceanique on an 80-acre reservation on the northern slope of Ancon Hill about 600 feet above sea level in a suburb of Panama City called Ancon. Doctor Companyo, former member of the Sanitary Division of the Suez Canal, and his staff arrived in Panama from France in January of 1881, and took charge of building and staffing the hospital. On September 17, 1882, the hospital was dedicated L'Hospital Central de Panama by Bishop Pa6l, the Bishop of Panama. It was remarked at the time that the hospital was one of the finest and most beautiful in the world. Dr. J. P. Lacroisade was the director of the hospital during most of the canal construction by the French and stayed on for a time after the United States took over. During the French control the Sisters of St. Vincent de Paul performed the nursing duties. When the French properties were turned over to the United States on May 4, 1904, President Roosevelt appointed Dr. William C. Gorgas, Chief Sanitary Officer for the Isthmian Canal Commission. Doctor Gorgas arrived on the Isthmus in June 1904 with a staff of doctors, a sanitary inspector, and three 329

PAGE 344

American nurses. Maj. Louis A. LaGarde, Medical Corps, U.S.A., was appointed the first Superintendent of Ancon Hospital. The name of the hospital was formally changed to Gorgas Hospital on March 24, 1928, by Public Resolution No. 16, 70th Congress, which resolved: That in recognition of his distinguished services to humanity and as a fitting perpetuation to the name and niemory of Maj. Gen. William Crawford Gorgas, from and after the passage of this Act, the Government hospital within the Canal Zone, near the city of Panama, heretofore known as the Ancon Hospital, shall hereafter be known and designated on the public records as the Gorgas Hospital. Today, Gorgas Hospital, situated on the beautiful and original site on the northern slope of Ancon Hill, is indeed a fitting and lasting monument to the doctor, nurses, and sanitary personnel who labored in those early days of panic and oppression against almost insurmountable odds and obstacles to clear the Isthmus of the ravaging diseases which for so long had spelled defeat for earlier efforts. Gorgas Hospital is fully approved by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals and is also approved for the training of interns and residents by the Council of Education and Hospitals of the American Medical Association. Many doctors and others who have served at this excellent institution have won world-wide recognition for their continued research and contributions to the scientific knowledge of various tropical diseases. The Gorgas Hospital Commemorative Stamp is printed in black on pregummed green paper. A 200-subject plate was used, the entire sheet cut in quarters and issued in sheets of 50. The stamp is 0.84" x 1.44" in size, of horizontal format, and perforated 11. The denomination is three cents. Across the top of the stamp are the words "75th ANNIVERSARY GORGAS HOSPITAL" in small black letters with "1882" on the left of the flagpole and "1957" on the right. The denomination "3 cents" appears in the center of a bush in the lower left corner. In the lower right corner appear the small words "Administration Building" in two lines. Across the bottom of the stamp is "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE." The entire vignette is in a single line frame. STATISTICS Engravers-Vignette, Charles A. Brooks; outline frame, lettering, and numerals, John S. Edmonson. First shipment-October 4, 1957. Quantity shipped-200,000. First sale-Civil Affairs Director to Director of Gorgas Hospital, Sunday, November 17, 1957. First day of sale-Balboa Post Office, Canal Zone, Sunday, November 17, 1957, and in the Gorgas Hospital lobby immediately after the 9:00 a.m. ceremonies, Sunday, November 17, 1957. First day sales-112,991 stamps. 26,695 covers were serviced at Philatelic Agency, Balboa, Canal Zone. First day ceremonies-Commemorative ceremony held in lobby of Gorgas Hospital, Ancon, Canal Zone, Sunday, November 17, 1957, at 9:00 a.m. Gov. W. E. Potter made a brief talk on the hospital's diamond jubilee. Special "first day" feature was the presentation of a folder containing 4 sheet of the Gorgas Hospital Commemorative stamp by the Civil Affairs Director to Col. Norman H. Wiley, M.C., U.S.A., Hospital Director. 330

PAGE 345

Stamps were thereafter sold at a special stand set up at the hospital and if placed on envelopes, were given a "BALBOA C. Z." hand cancel with an additional "FIRST DAY OF ISSUE" cancellation. All mail of the day with thc new stamp carried the latter cancellation. Special first day souvenir folios were sent to each member of the Board of Directors of the Panama Canal Company and a few other dignitaries. PLATE HISTORY Perforated 11 200-Subject Plate DenomFirst Date Impressions ination Color Plate No. to Press Printed 3-cent Black design on 166378 Sept. 17, 1957 8,537 green paper; (there exist two shades of green paper.) 331

PAGE 347

Chapter XLIV SIXTEENTH ORDINARY SERIES 4-Cent "Ancon" Stamp 333

PAGE 349

Original sketch. CANAL ZON E POSTAGE Accepted design. 335

PAGE 350

C ANAA L E P S T A Rejected design. S. S. AN CO N COMMissiorED SEPTEMBER 24, 1938 A 422 FEET LONG 24 1OOT SEAM 14,200 TONS 22 KNOTS 202 PASSENGERS 125 CR W 9~ [A 6.000 CARGO TON CAPACITY 9 ENTICE MILITARY SEvICE; WORLD WAR 1 JANUARY 11, 1942 HEADQUARTERS & COMMUNICATIONS COMMAND SHIP PARTICIPATED IN INVSIDNS NORTH AFRICA RUDOLPH L. CRESPO SICILY SALERNO NORMANDY Balbo Canal Zone OKINAWA CAMPAIGN RETURNED TO THE ANAMA tINS 2ERUARY ,19. FIRST DAY OF ISSUE 336

PAGE 351

Chapter XLIV SIXTEENTH ORDINARY SERIES 4-Cent "Ancon" Stamp 1958, August 30 On May 12, 1958, James Marshall, Chairman, Canal Zone Stamp Committee, sent a memorandum to the Civil Affairs Director attaching thereto a design for a Canal Zone 4-cent stamp. This model was developed by Gerald A. Doyle, Jr., from official and other photographs of the SS "Ancon" submitted to him by the Committee. The 4-cent denomination was chosen because of the anticipated increase in postal rates from 3 cents to 4 cents for first-class carriage and the Canal Zone did not have a stamp of the 4-cent denomination. This change of rate became effective August 1, 1958. The steamship "Ancon" of the Panama Line was chosen for the central design of this stamp because of her gallant World War II record. On June 4, 1958, the Director of Posts reported to the Stamp Committee that the 4-cent ordinary "Ancon" mail stamp which had been recommended to the Governor had been approved by him and the design sent to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. The steamship "Ancon" of approximately 14,200 tons is one of three sister ships constructed for the Panama Line by the Bethlehem Steel Company's Fore River yards at Quincy, Mass. in 1939. The others were the "Cristobal" and the "Panama." The latter vessel appears on the 15-cent air mail stamp of the 1939 commemorative series (chapter XXXIII), and is now the "President Hoover" of the American President Line. The "Ancon" and the "Cristobal," following regular schedules, ply between New York, Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and Cristobal, Canal Zone with passengers and cargo. The "Ancon" was called to active duty with the United States Navy before the outbreak of War, December 7, 1941, and January 11, 1942 saw her carrying troops. She participated in the North African landings in November 1942 as the flagship of Transport Division Nine, Amphibious Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet. So heavy were the vessel's casualties in Casablanca harbor during the assault that the "Ancon" had to put to sea for two days until the wreckage could be sufficiently cleared to permit an anchorage. After one voyage to Oran she was ordered to Norfolk, Va. Navy Yard for conversion to what was called "a highlycomplicated communications nerve center." On April 20, 1943, the "Ancon" was designated "AGC-4" and became the flagship of the Commander, Amphibious Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet. On July 10, 1943, with Rear Adm. Allen G. Kirk, U.S.N. in command of Task Force 85, and Gen. Omar Bradley aboard, the "Ancon," assisted in the landing of the 45th Infantry at Scoglitti, Sicily. She was also at Salerno as the Flagship 337

PAGE 352

of Vice Adm. H. K. Hewitt, U.S.N., with Lt. Gen. Mark Clark aboard before he traveled in to the assault. For 10 days she was under almost constant air attack. The U.S.S. "Savannah" and H.M.S. "Warspite" close aboard during these raids were hard hit but the "Ancon" escaped serious damage. She repeatedly moved her anchorage and even burned smudge pots to confuse her attackers, the latter much to the annoyance of her crew as well as the enemy. From June 6th to the 27th, 1944, the "Ancon" was the Flagship of Rear Adm. John L. Hall, U.S.N., commander of the Omaha Beach assault in the Normandy invasion. With victory in Europe assured, the "Ancon" was ordered to Charleston, S.C. for overhaul and conversion for duty in the Pacific. She was in turn the Flagship of Rear Adm. Jerauld Wright, Vice Adm. H. Hill, and Vice Adm. Daniel E. Barby. Her Pacific duty was as outstanding as her brilliant European performances and again the "Ancon" eluded serious damage although often subjected to Japanese air and surface attacks. Japan's offer of surrender August 14, 1945 meant the end of invasion plans. The "Ancon" entered Tokyo Bay on the morning of August 29, 1945 and took her place at anchor between the U.S.S. "Missouri" and the U.S.S. "South Dakota." On September 2, her crew watched the formal surrender of Japan to Gen. Douglas MacArthur. Ninety allied war correspondents wrote their stories aboard the "Ancon." It was from her radio equipment that news of the war's end was broadcast to the world. The "Ancon's" distinguished war visitors were indeed an imposing group numbering in addition to those already listed: King George VI; Frank Knox, Secretary of the Navy; Lt. Gen. George Patton; Adm. Sir Bruce Fraser, R.N.; and Field Marshal Montgomery. The "Ancon" returned to the Panama Line February 25, 1946, and with her sistership, the "Cristobal," which performed sterling war duty with the U.S. Transport Service, now makes the relatively calm voyages between New York and Cristobal, Canal Zone with a stop of a few hours at Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The "Ancon" 4-cent ordinary postage stamp is blue, 0.84" x 1.44" in size and in horizontal format. The central design of the stamp shows the vessel in profile, starboard side to, underway in a slightly disturbed sea. Across the top of the stamp are the words "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE" in large bold dark blue letters on a white background. In the lower left corner is the denomination in white numeral and letters "4 CENTS," on the blue water background. The stamp is perforated 11. STATISTICS Designers-G. A. Doyle, Jr., of the Engineering and Construction Bureau, Panama Canal Company; modeler, William K. Schrage. Engravers-Vignette, Richard M. Bower; lettering and numeral, Rbbert J. Jones. First shipment-2,355,000 received on the Canal Zone, August 30, 1958. First (lay of sale-September 2, 1958. First day sale,-There was a temporary philatelic unit set up at the Balboa, Canal Zone Police Station for the day where 35,744 "Ancon" stamps were sold and 7,548 first day covers serviced. There were also 1,641 stamps sold at the Balboa Post Office 338

PAGE 353

PLATE HISTORY Perforated 11. 200-Subject Plates DenomFirst Date Impressions ination Plate No. to Press Printed 4-cent 166860 August, 4 1958 12,416 166932 Never None *As of March 19, 1959. 339

PAGE 355

Chapter XLV THEODORE ROOSEVELT CENTENNIAL 4-Cent Commemorative Stamp 341

PAGE 356

4 em

PAGE 357

A' 4 /A' WK11 ;45Y44A<4" .' M~t Original pencil sketch bearing the idea of the Roosevelt anniversary stamp. The Roosevelt Medals which were used in the final design of the 100th anniversary 4-cent Roosevelt stamp. 343

PAGE 358

CANTAL Z ONE Approved design. r A 344

PAGE 359

Chapter XLV THEODORE ROOSEVELT CENTENNIAL 4-Cent Commemorative Stamp 1958, November 15 The idea of issuing a commemorative stamp in honor of the hundredth anniversary of the birth of President Theodore Roosevelt was presented to the Canal Zone Stamp Committee by Gov. W. E. Potter some time in April 1958. At the first meeting of the Stamp Committee thereafter, Director of Posts, Earl F. Unruh, presented a sketch of a stamp showing both sides of a Roosevelt Medal. On June 4, 1958, Gerald A. Doyle, Jr., Chief, Architectural Branch, showed the committee three compositions of a stamp, each depicting the ideas earlier presented and discussed. One was rejected and after some refinement of the other two designs, a final choice was agreed upon and forwarded to the Governor with the committee's recommendations for approval. On June 11, 1958, Mr. Arey, Public Information Officer, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, brought to the attention of the committee that on November 14, 1958, a bust of President Theodore Roosevelt was to be dedicated in the rotunda of the Administration Building. A plaque was also to be awarded the Canal Zone Government honoring the Canal as "One of seven engineering wonders of the United States" on or about the same date by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Mr. Arey stated that this information was presented to the Stamp Committee for possible correlation of these events with the issuance of a Roosevelt Centennial Stamp. In view of the extensive ceremonies planned by the Roosevelt Centennial Committee, it was decided to make use of November 14, 1958 as the first day of issue for the Roosevelt Centennial Stamp. This was later changed to November 15, 1958. At 9 o'clock on the evening of November 17, 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt attended a reception in his honor at Pier No. 11, Cristobal, Canal Zone. This was the eve of his departure for home aboard the U.S.S. "Louisiana" after a very successful visit to the Isthmus to view the work accomplished, the troubles encountered, and the greater job yet to be done. From the bandstand amid banners, flowers, and flags, he spoke to a record, cheering crowd of "canal diggers." He said, "I shall see if it is not possible to provide for some memorial, some mark, some badge, which will always distinguish the man who for a certain space of time had done his work well on the Isthmus." President Roosevelt praised the Canal force and its accomplishments. He especially mentioned the "indefatigable Stevens" and Doctor Gorgas the "guardian of the health and life of the soldiers of toil." The outcome of these remarks led to the issuance of the "Service Medal" which, superimposed upon a map showing the Canal Zone, became the theme of the 4-cent commemorative stamp. W. D. "Bill" Taylor, one of the old-time postmasters, was in the crowd above-mentioned and is the holder of a medal with three bars. 345

PAGE 360

Over one hundred pounds of copper, bronze, and other materials taken from abandoned locomotives and other machinery used by the French in their grand effort was shipped to the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia. This material used in digging the Panama Canal was cast to furnish the medals to honor the human machines who dug it. The medal was designed in November 1908 by Victor D. Benner of New York City who designed the Lincoln penny. The "Roosevelt" medal, as it became known, was presented to each "canal digger" with two years' service in the construction of the Panama Canal. Later, and up to 1914 when the canal was opened to traffic, a bar was authorized for each additional two years of construction service. Thus was commemorated the hundredth anniversary of the birth of the first president of the United States to visit this area while in office and at the same time honor the men and their work which he came to the Canal Zone to inspect. The Director of Posts in the Canal Zone Postal Service Stamp Ceremony program stated: It has been said of Theodore Roosevelt, who played such an important part in building the Panama Canal, "A man who could do so much could not do everything perfectly though few have done so many things so well!" The Canal Zone Postal Service is proud to commemorate the onehundredth anniversary of the birth of this great American statesman. The Roosevelt commemorative stamp of 4-cent denomination is 0.84" x 1.44" in size and is arranged in a horizontal format. The stamps were manufactured by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, D.C. from a 200-subject steel plate on a flatbed intaglio press. The color of the stamp is brown of a shade to resemble the bronze of the medal depicted. The stamps are perforated 11 and issued in sheets of 50. STATISTICS Designers-G. A. Doyle, Jr., Chief, Architectural Branch, Panama Canal Company; modeled by William K. Schrage, Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Engravers-Medallions and vignette by Charles A. Brooks; outline, frame, lettering, and numerals by Reuben K. Barrick. First shipment-Received on the Canal Zone October 28, 1958. Amount received-1,200,000. First day of sale-November 15, 1958. First day sales-Balboa Post Office, 33,136; Philatelic Agency, 84,804; Ceremonies at Balboa Heights, 1,861. The sales at the Philatelic Agency include stamps affixed to 34,528 first day covers. First day ceremonies-The sale of stamps and the canceling of covers became a part of the elaborate Roosevelt Ceremonies held in the rotunda of the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone. W. D. Taylor sold the first 4-cent Theodore Roosevelt commemorative stamp on cover to Gov. W. E. Potter. The Governor immediately canceled it with a rubber hand stamp. W. D. Taylor was signally honored as the oldest senior retired postmaster residing on the Isthmus, having served between 1906 and 1946 at 8 different post offices on the Canal Zone. PLATE HISTORY Perforated 11. 200-Subject Plate DenomFirst Date Impressions ination Color Plate No. to Press Printed 4-cent Brown 166927 Oct. 16, 1958 5,995 To March 19, 1959. 346

PAGE 361

Chapter XLVI POSTAL STATIONERY Stamped Envelopes 347

PAGE 363

349

PAGE 364

HALE~A 350

PAGE 365

C AN ZN ANAL ZONE i 31G POSTAGE.!. 2cTs2"

PAGE 366

6*A WR4ALTYFO P 6t PAYMENT AGE CANA-L ZONE 7t Al R MAIL 74 FOALTY FOR P T PAYMENT AG 352

PAGE 367

4kv BASE EN ESTE LADO LA OIRECCfON SOLAMIENTE -. eA. L. EPENER P. 0. BOX Z1 NTi A L NOONE C.K Y ALA VELTA LA COMUNICACAN sAA rE LADO LA omCCI6N S A/ AN 353

PAGE 368

LAA. A LA eOMU)N)CACJON OY IN' 4C 4 -k 2V2 ESCRIBASE EN ESTE LADO LA DIRECdi6N SOLA 4ENTE/ Franks B. Greene.& Emire,. Canal Zone /Sr Y A LA VUELTA LA COMUNICAC1N I NU)N I'oS'I'A!.U IN1JINUTiv SAI 354

PAGE 369

UNION POSTAL lINJVERSSELtlE 1tEIP L i~tCA 1)E PANAMA ESCRIBASE EN ESTE LADO LA DIRECCION SOLAMENTE Y A LA VUELTA LA COMUNICACION UNI6N PosTA. T UNIXAVSAI. CRIBASE EN ESTE LADO LA DIRECCION SOLAMENT YA LA VUELTA LA COMUNICAC6N IN. P TAL I x iA 355

PAGE 370

CANAL zoNER POSTAGE,: THIS SIDE OFCARD S FOR ADO E S 356

PAGE 371

-4, MAY I AN -FIRST DAY 0 1952 SIE FOR ADD TXNNEZON POSTA CARD. 357

PAGE 372

NO0V I T IS ~ID E!~ PDRS CANAL, ZONE 5ow 358

PAGE 373

Chapter XLVI POSTAL STATIONERY Stamped Envelopes 1916, April 24 To meet the increasing demand of the Panama Canal employees for postal stationery, Executive Secretary C. A. McIlvaine entered into a series of communications with the Foreign Minister of Panama commencing December 28, 1915 for the purchase and overprinting of Panama envelopes. This was prior to the abrogation of the Taft Agreement (chanter XX) under 0-h r Cnal Zone Government purchased its stamped paper from the Republic of Panama. The envelopes were to be purchased in the same manner. On January 21, 1916, Mr. Mcllvaine wrote the Foreign Minister, . it is requested that there be ordered from the American Bank Note Company 50,000 envelopes bearing 2-cent stamps each surcharged "CANAL ZONE" and 50,000 envelopes bearing 1-cent stamps each surcharged "CANAL ZONE." It is requested that these envelopes be of white paper of good quality, standard letter size (approximately 3% inches by 6/2 inches) and that the seal flaps be not gummed. The stamp on the 1-cent envelope is green and black and is the same in design as the first Vasco Nifiez de Balboa stamp. The 2-cent envelope is a reproduction of the second Fernandez de C6rdoba carmine and black stamp. They measure 22 mm. by 27 mm. and the "CANAL ZONE" of the Type II overprint (chapter XIV) reads up. In a circular dated April 24, 1916, the Canal Zone Acting Director of Posts established the retail prices of stamped envelopes for the purchase of one to one thousand. With this beginning, the Canal Zone postal administration offered stamped envelopes to its patrons, a service it still maintains. During October 1918, the Republic of Panama furnished the Canal Zone with a registration envelope. The stamp in the upper right hand corner of a heavy creamed paper envelope, is in a vertically rectangular format 26 mm. by 35 mm. Two thin, wavy lines outside of a straight line rectangle comprise a frame. Across the top of the stamp in the word "RECOMENDADO" in large black letters. Beneath this word in an arc are the words "REPUBLICA DE PANAMA." In the center of the stamp is a large black "R" with a "5" on each side. This denotes the original Panamanian denomination. Beneath the "R" and at the bottom of the stamp are the words "CINCO CENTAVOS" in a curve upwards. "CANAL 10 CENTS ZONE" is overprinted in three lines reading up. This was accomplished at the Panama Canal Press. The Press also printed the words "Registered No." in the upper left hand corner of the envelope. The envelopes came in two sizes, 3 3/4" x 6 1/2", and 3 15/16" x 9 9/16". On November 13, 1921, the Canal Zone post offices offered for sale stamped 359

PAGE 374

envelopes containing the same portraits Panama used to celebrate the 100th anniversary of her independence from Spain. They were the 1-cent green Jos6 Vallarino and the 2-cent red Land Gate (chapter XVIII). These were lithographed and overprinted "CANAL ZONE" reading down by the American Bank Note Company. A round embossed red stamp containing the Republic of Panama Coat-ofArms with "CANAL ZONE" printed in red immediately beneath the lower perimeter was the design on the next order of Canal Zone envelopes received December 15, 1923. The circle containing the design has a diameter of 29 mm. and the envelope came in size 6 only. It was of the 2-cent denomination. Date of DenomEnvelope Quantity Issue ination Stamp Color Size Issued Apr. 24, 1916 1-cent Green and black 6 350,000 Apr. 24, 1916 2-cent Carmine and black 6 1,512,000 Oct. 1918 10-cent Black and red 6 25,000 Oct. 1918 10-cent Black and red 8 10,000 Nov. 13, 1921 1-cent Green 6 20,000 Nov. 13, 1921 2-cent Red 6 300,000 Dec. 15, 1923 2-cent Red 6 46,041 1924, July 1 U.S. OVERPRINTS When the Canal Zone received its first shipment of United States stamps overprinted "CANAL ZONE," there was included in the shipment 50,000 1-cent Franklin U.S. embossed envelopes and 100,000 2-cent Washington envelopes. These were overprinted "CANAL ZONE" in two lines of black type similar to the overprinted U.S. stamps (chapter XXIV). The envelopes were manufactured and overprinted by the Middle West Supply Company of Dayton, Ohio. Both the 1-cent and 2-cent envelopes were size 5, 89 mm. x 160 mm., gummed flap and watermarked U.S. 1921. Date of DenomQuantity Issue ination Stamp Color Size Issued July 1, 1924 1-cent Green 5 50,000 July 1, 1924 2-cent Carmine 5 100,000 1924, October 24 During the month of April 1924 the Canal Zone Director of Posts had asked the Printer of The Panama Canal Press to set up a type-composed form which in an emergency could be run to supply the Canal Zone with its own issue of stamps (chapter XXI). Although never used for that purpose, the Canal Press did on September 20, 1924, commence printing stamped envelopes of 1-cent and 2-cent denominations of the Seal of the Canal Zone design with the swastika frame. Sticking to the basic envelope colors, the 1-cent denomination is green and the 2-cent is red. The Seal of the Canal Zone is boxed with "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE" in two lines above the box. The denomination "1 CENT 1" is below the box in a single line. The stamps measure 21 mm. x 28 mm. A statement and chart released by the Division of Posts follows: CANAL ZONE SEAL-TYPE STAMPED ENVELOPES Table showing the respective sizes and values printed by the Panama Canal Press, Mount Hope, C.Z., for the Canal Zone postal service from October 1924 to February 1932, inclusive. 360

PAGE 375

The return request envelope was discontinued July 1, 1929. The two-cent airmail envelopes were discontinued March 22, 1930. These envelopes were designed primarily for use in connection with the first flight covers to the U.S. when the service was inaugurated in February 1929. The air mail rate to the U.S. was 25 cents a half ounce for air service plus the two-cent domestic postage rate. When the latter "tax" was dropped, there was no further need for the two-cent air mail envelopes. There was only one printing of the one-cent seal postal card: 25,000 manufactured during November 1924, issued to postmasters-in May 1925. The chart follows: 20-No. 6 21-No. 6 2y-No. 6 20-No. 9 Blank Various Air Air Date of Issue 16Wo. 6 2$Yo. 6 2y-No. 9 Request P.O. Request Mail Mail Oct. 1924. 25,000 80,000 25,000 20,000 Jan. 1925. 50,000 25,000 . June 1925. 50,000 200,000 10,000 17,000 83,000 Dec. 1925. 25,000 Jan. 1926. 25,000 47,000 M ay 1926. . 25,000 . . July 1926. 50,000 25,000 50,000 103,000 . Mar. 1927. 32,000 May 1927. 99,736 50,624 . . Nov. 1927. 77,373 . Box Box May 1928. 20,000 90,000 45,725 95,000 10,000 5,000 Jan. 1929. 25,000 25,000 . 10,000 5,000 Feb. 1929. . (Lindbergh Flight-Ed.) 45,000 Mar. 1929. . 25,000 . 10,200 July 1929. . 75,000 . Oct. 1929. 25,000 100,000 50,000 . June 1930. 25,000 150,000 50,000 . . Feb. 1931. . 100,000 25,000 . Apr. 1931. 25,000 . Oct. 1931. . 50,000. . . Feb. 1932. 10,000 25,000 . Total. 205,000 1,069,736 381,549 137,000 437,373 65,000 20,200 10,000 of the No. 6 appear without box and words "VIA AIR MAIL" at left above central blue and red bars. 10,200 envelopes of No. 9 appear with these words centered above the bars. 1932, April 8 DEFINITIVE ISSUE On December 11, 1930, the Director of Posts, through the Chief Quartermaster, The Panama Canal, requested estimates from the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for supplying 50,000 Gorgas 1-cent and 350,000 Goethals 2-cent stamped envelopes. The request went through channels to the Third Assistant Postmaster General who wrote the International Envelope Corporation, Dayton, Ohio, for their estimates with the understanding that the dies were to be supplied by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. In view of the ungummed flaps desired by The Panama Canal, it was explained that the "Harris" rotary presses would have to be used instead of the "Hartford" machines. There were two printing dies for each of the denominations, that is, the 1-cent and 2-cent envelopes. The first issues were watermarked U.S. 1929 similar to the watermark on U.S. envelopes with the date changing every 4 years. The 1-cent envelope shows a white embossed profile of Col. William C. Corgas facing right in the center of a green rectangular background. "CANAL 361

PAGE 376

ZONE POSTAGE" forms a circle above the bust reading from the left to the right shoulder. A numeral "1" is in each lower corner and the words "ONE CENT" in white in two lines directly beneath the bust. The 2-cent envelope depicts a profile bust of Col. George W. Goethals facing left embossed in a circular frame on a carmine background. The words "CANAL ZONE POSTAGE" in white are framed in a semicircle above the head. A numeral "2" appears at about "4 o'clock" and "8 o'clock" in a small shield frame, the word "CENTS" in the lower are of the circle. With the changes in domestic letter rates from 2 cents to 3 cents, it became necessary to alter the existing stock of envelopes. The overprinting jobs were performed at the Panama Canal Press. As will be noted by the table which follows, several types of "3's" were used. 362

PAGE 377

ENVELOPES AND OVERPRINTS April 8, 1932 to January 17, 1934 Date of Type of Type of Quantity Size Dimensions Issue Envelope Color Numeral Serifs Issued No. in Inches* Apr. 8, 1932 1-cent Gorgas Green . 400,000 5 3 1/2 x 6 1/4 Apr. 8, 1932 1-cent Gorgas Green . 500,000 8 4 1/8 x 9 1/2 Apr. 8, 1932 1-cent Gorgas Green . 400,000 13 3 3/4 x 6 3/4 Apr. 8, 1932 2-cent Goethals Carmine . 35,000 5 3 1/2 x 6 1/4 Apr. 8, 1932 2-cent Goethals Carmine . 4,500 7 3 7/8 x 7 1/2 Apr. 8, 1932 2-cent Goethals Carmine . 8 Apr. 8, 1932 2-cent Goethals Carmine . 13 Date of Type of Type of Quantity Size Dimensions Overprint Envelope Color Numeral Serifs Overprinted No. in Inches* July 1932 2-cent Seal Red Small 3 No 20,000 9 4 1/8 x 9 1/2 July 1932 2-cent Goethals Carmine Large 3 No 210,000 5 July 1932 2-cent Goethals Carmine Large 3 No 40,000 7% . . . . . July 1932 2-cent Goethals Carmine Large 3 No 40,000 8 July 1932 2-cent Goethals Carmine Large 3 No 30,000 13 Jan. 17, 1934 2-cent Seal Red Small 3 Yes 8,000 6 3 3/4 x 6 1/2 Jan. 17, 1934 2-cent Goethals Carmine Large 3 Yes 5,000 5 Jan. 18, 1934 2-cent Goethab Carmine Large 3 Yes 12,500 13 Jan. 26, 1934 2-cent Goethals Carmine Large 3 Yes 5,500 7 Dimensions of envelopes not repeated.

PAGE 378

3-CENT "GOETHALS" ENVELOPE 1934, June 18 When it became evident that the 3-cent domestic letter rate was a fixture, a requisition was sent to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, on February 27, 1934, to alter the denomination on the 2-cent "Goethals" to read "3." This was accomplished and on June 12, 1934, the Canal Zone Director of Posts in a circular to all postmasters said, . the new envelopes (No. 13 size) will represent the standard size to be stocked in the future, replacing the former No. 5 size." The 1-cent No. 5 size continued to be ordered until July 1939. Thereafter the 1-cent and 3-cent envelopes were standardized at No. 13 and 8 sizes. The background of the stamp is purple. On May 15, 1958, E. F. Unruh, Director of Posts, in a letter to the Director, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, stated: In connection with the anticipated increase in postage rates the Canal Zone Postal Service will need additional denominations in air mail stamps and in stamped envelopes, both air and ordinary. We plan to use the current designs but to add denominations. The anticipated increase in ordinary letter and air rates did materialize. On November 1, 1958, the 4-cent Goethals in No. 6 and No. 8 sizes were first placed on sale at the Cristobal, Canal Zone post office. This is the only post office cancel on this date other than the orders filled at the Philatelic Agency at Balboa, Canal Zone. There were 11,093 envelopes of this new denomination on a blue background sold this first day of issue. 6-CENT AIR MAIL ENVELOPE 1949, January 3 In July 1947, the Chief Quartermaster, Balboa Heights, C. Z., notified The Panama Canal Purchasing Agent in Washington, as follows: Information has now been received that the 6-cent rate will be made effective on January 1, 1949. The enclosed die model, forwarded for approval by your memorandum June 2, 1947, is returned with the request that it be changed to show the denomination from 5-cent to 6-cent and resubmitted. It would also be appreciated if bids could be obtained for the manufacture of 500,000 size 13 (6 x 3 inches) white air mail envelopes with gummed flaps, having the usual red and blue diagonal border, with the background of the stamp blue in color. In connection with the gummed flaps, reference is made to your memorandum-relative to packing in waterproof cartons and to other information concerning the use of moisture resisting adhesive on the flaps on envelopes to be used in a humid climate, which features are desired if obtainable. This 6-cent stamped envelope was designed by Meade Bolton, Chief Architect, Office Engineers, The Panama Canal, who designed the first Canal Zone air mail stamp and many others. The central design is an embossed multi-motored plane on a blue horizontally rectangular background. The words "CANAL ZONE" appear above the plane and "6-CENT AIR MAIL 6-CENT" beneath it in one line, The initial shipment consisted of 500,000 size No. 13 envelopes which were the first Canal Zone envelopes with gummed flaps. They were manufactured by the International Envelope Corporation, Dayton, Ohio, and were watermarked U.S. 1945 with change of date every four years. 364

PAGE 379

1958, November 1 In the same letter sent May 15, 1958, by the Director of Posts to the Director, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, stating the need for the change in the denomination of the 3-cent ordinary envelope due to the anticipated increase of postage rates, inquiry was also made regarding the change from 6 cents to 7 cents in the denomination of the air mail envelope. When the change of air mail rates also materialized, the denomination was changed to 7 cents. The color of the stamp background was aso changed from blue to red. The overall dimensions of the envelope are the same as the 6-cent but the size number is now called 6%. There were no special first day ceremonies other than philatelic orders filled at the Philatelic Agency, Balboa, Canal Zone, the 7-cent air mail stamped envelope was sold only at the Balboa Post Office on November 1, 1958. There were a total of 7,623 sold. 1959, April Sometime during the month of April 1959, the Storehouse, Panama Canal Company, Balboa, Canal Zone, stocked some "OFFICIAL BUSINESS" envelopes which had "CANAL ZONE GOVERNMENT," "PANAMA CANAL COMPANY," and "BALBOA HEIGHTS, C. Z." printed in small capitals in the upper left hand corner on three lines in the nature of a business reply address. There is nothing peculiar about such an envelope but when they appear with the regular "penalty" clause overprinted on the 1932-1-cent and 2-cent stamped envelopes, a philatelic eyebrow is raised. The answer for this production is rather simple and perhaps presents a lesson in frugality. It appears that there were 31,250-1-cent Gorgas envelopes and 77,250-2-cent Goethals envelopes of size No. 8 and 66,000-2-cent Goethals stamped envelopes size No. 13 all obsolete as to postage use, gathering dust on the shelves of the vault at Balboa Heights, Canal Zone. Rather than burn them, it was decided to overprint them with the "penalty" clause and reissue them for regular and official business use. POSTAL CARDS 1907, February Postal cards were placed on sale by the Canal Zone postal administration almost ten years prior to stamped envelopes. The reason could be that the early Canal employees were the originators of the expression, "having a good time -wish you were here." It was much simpler to write that on a card and thus conclude their weekly "word" home than labor over a long letter in their none too comfortable quarters. The first postal card issued by the Canal Zone postal service is the carmine 2 centavos map of Panama lithographed by the American Bank Note Company. This was overprinted with "CANAL ZONE" in antique capitals in two lines reading up and the denomination "1 et." printed between the words. The job of overprinting was done at the Isthmian Canal Commission's press. During the month of June 1908, the 1-cent green Vasco N65iiez de Balboa Hamilton Bank Note Company card replaced the first one. This was also overprinted "CANAL ZONE" reading down and since it was of a 1-cent original denomination, it needed no value overprinting. The Isthmian Canal Commission's printing plant which was located in Cathedral Plaza, City of Panama, 365

PAGE 380

did the overprinting. There were 6 separate types of the overprint reading down and one type reading up. These postal cards were issued until 1913. On March 27, 1913, the green Vasco N6ifiez de Balboa manufactured by the American Bank Note Company was issued in the 1-cent denomination. The overprint, reading down, was applied in black at the same time as the portrait was printed. The Pr6cer Jos6 Vallarino green postal card which was issued to commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of Panama's Independence from Spain was the next one issued on November 13, 1921. This is similar to the Vallarino stamped envelope. It is lithographed by the American Bank Note Company and has "CANAL ZONE" overprinted and reading down. During January 1924, the Canal Zone issued a 1-cent green Panama Coat-ofArms postal card. Like the 2-cent red envelope this card has "CANAL ZONE" overprinted in an arc beneath the circle bearing the embossed design. This was the last postal card manufactured by the American Bank Note Company. On July 1, 1924, the Taft Agreement having been abrogated, the green Jefferson postal card went on sale at all Canal Zone post offices. These were overprinted "CANAL ZONE" in two lines by the Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. In early January 1925, The Panama Canal Press, which had used the swastika bordered Canal Zone seal as an envelope design, was given a trial at manufacturing postal cards using the same design. 25,000 of the 1-cent green postal cards were requisitioned and sold. The experiment, however, did not succeed. Costs were high and the buff paper used was of poor quality. In May 1925, the U.S. Jefferson postal card, series of 1914, was again used with the "CANAL ZONE" overprint accomplished at the Government Printing Office, Washington. The first "CANAL ZONE" overprint was in sans-serif small heavy block type. The overprint of 1935 is of slightly larger letters and serifed. On May 1, 1952, the Canal Zone adopted the U.S. Franklin 2-cent carmine rose postal card. The "CANAL ZONE" overprint appears a little larger than on the last Jefferson postal card. This too was done at the Government Printing Office, Washington. 3-CENT CANAL ZONE DEFINITIVE POSTAL CARD 5-CENT CANAL ZONE AIR MAIL POSTAL CARD 1958, November 1 On January 15, 1948, the Acting Press Representative of The Panama Canal, P. L. Dade, an ardent philatelist, suggested to the Executive Secretary that the Canal Zone have its own postal cards. This thought had been discussed for many years, at one time resulting in giving The Panama Canal Press a chance at manufacturing postal cards (seal postal card). This, however, for the reasons given, did not work out satisfactorily. The U.S. Jefferson 1-cent green overprinted postal card had been in use by the Canal Zone at that time for about 24 years. There were many other suggestions made and recommendations offered for the issuance of a Canal Zone definitive postal card but none acted upon until 1957. On April 5, 1957, the Canal Zone Stamp Committee among other things decided to "Proceed with preliminary sketches for an ordinary postal card, value omitted, showing seals of Company and Government with Isthmus or ships in 366

PAGE 381

Canal separating the seals." The Committee also voted to "go ahead with preliminary sketches for an air postal card, using two colors." The recommendations of the Committee were transmitted to the Governor for his consideration and approval. G. A. Doyle, Jr., Chief of the Architectural Branch, Panama Canal Company, designed several stamped postal cards for both ordinary and air mail use. After selection and approval, two models for the ordinary card and photographs of a stamp design and a map for the air mail postal card were sent to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, for manufacture. The ordinary postal card was redrawn by Charles R. Chickering and the air mail postal card modeled by Victor S. McCloskey, Jr. Consistent with the U.S. change of postal rates in 1958, it was decided to make the ordinary postal card a 3-cent one and the air mail postal card of 5-cent denomination. The first day of issue for both postal cards was set for November 1, 1958. On September 8, 1958, A. T. Cotton, Acting Director of Posts, urged the Bureau of Engraving and Printing to ship 40,000-3-cent postal cards and 40,000-5-cent air mail postal cards by insured air freight. There was reason to believe that shipment of the postal cards by ocean freight would not arrive in time to make the pre-set first day of issue. The 3-cent ordinary blue stamped postal card shows a vessel in one of the Panama Canal Locks passing from one chamber to another. A towing locomotive (mule) is observed in the lower right-hand corner and lines can be seen stretched to the bow of the ship. In the left center is the lock control tower. In the upper right hand corner are three small stars. In the upper left corner the denomination "3 cents." Between these in two lines are printed the words "CANAL ZONEPOSTAL CARD." Along the lower margin and to the left are the words "PANAMA CANAL LOCK" in small light capital letters. The card is 3 x 5 in size and of regular postal card stock. The 5-cent air mail postal card carries the theme of a flag of the United States in border outline. The lower edge of the stamp is a red bar approximately 1/16" in width. The upper left corner forms a blue right angle 7/16" x 8/16" and 1/16" in width. Within this angle bar are 13 stars. To the left of the stamp in blue is shown a composite plane and on the right a map of the Canal Zone with the words "PANAMA CANAL" along the route of the marked waterway. Below the stars in the upper left hand corner are the words "CANAL ZONE" and directly opposite in the lower right corner words "POSTAL CARD." 3-CENT POSTAL CARD STATISTICS Designers-G. A. Doyle, Jr.; redrawn by Charles R. Kittering. Engravers-Vignette, Mathew D. Fenton; lettering and numeral on stamp, Frank F. Sharpless; letters, "This side of card for address," E. M. Hall. First shipment-40,000 by air freight October 15, 1958. First day of sale-November 1, 1958 at the Cristobal, Canal Zone Post Office and at the Philatelic Agency, Balboa, C. Z. Total first day sales-7,013. First day ceremony-There were no special ceremonies held. "First Day of Issue" in killer bars of machine cancel applied to each postal card. 367

PAGE 382

5-CENT AIR MAIL POSTAL CARD STATISTICS Designers-G. A. Doyle, Jr., modeled by Victor S. McCloskey, Jr. Engravers-Picture, entire stamp by Robert J. Jones; lettering, "Air Mail-Postal Card," Axel W. Christensen. First shipment-40,000 by air freight October 15, 1958. First day of sale-November 1, 1958 at Balboa Post Office and Philatelic Agency, Balboa, Canal Zone. Total first day sales-7,074. First day ceremony-No special ceremony. "First Day of Issue" machine cancel in killer bars applied to each postal card. HISTORY OF PRINTING PLATES-POSTAL CARDS First Date Date Impressions Denomination Plate No. to Press Canceled Printed 3-cent ordinary 53941 Oct. 3, 1958 Oct. 21, 1958 17,722 53972 Never Alive None 5-cent air mail 53938 Oct. 3, 1958 Alive 27,798 53939 Oct. 3, 1958 Alive 23,733 53954 Never Alive 53955 Never Alive 368

PAGE 383

Chapter XLVII BOOKLETS 369

PAGE 384

s

PAGE 385

f W SI#I\N CANAL AOAMM two IAUrU 2 :25, ~~~m mmt ii I mlV + wW on fInE Ms 1WM1?m IE*tP LM3HS e.A*3aLS *5 Ctm % r;vJt sleW a N TWV4W CINfl E -E Uncut covers used in making early handmade booklets. PANAMA CANAL 254 / This 1ook contalw TWELVE TWO-CENT / '4 CANAL ZONE POSTAGE SIAAPS !rice L TWENTY-FIVE CENTS First cover style, 1911. 371

PAGE 386

I~~ ~ ~~ .~. . 0 -S ,. I v LtL Sheet of 1-cent Type I, issue of 1909, with letters indicating pane positions. First pane. 372

PAGE 387

THE PANAMA CANAL This Book Cntai# TWENTY40UR ONE-CENT CANAL ZONE POSTAGE STAMP Price TWENTY-FIVE CENTS First cover style, 1911. THEPAMA CANAT 1w0 This Book Contains TWENTY-FOUR TWO-CENT CANAL ZONE POSTAGE STAMPS Price l' l FORTY-NINE CENTS THIS BOOK CONTAINS TWELVE THREE-CENT CANAL ZONE STAMPS !MICE THIRTY-SEVEN CENTS Cover style of 1932. 373

PAGE 388

THE PANAMA CANAL TH AS BOOK CONTAINS TWELVE TWO-CENT CANAL ZONE POSTAL STAMPS TWENTY-FIVE CENTS Cover style of 1916 issue. THE PANAF#A CANAL THI 1300OK CONTAINS TWENTY-FOUR QNE-CENT POSTA01Z STrA MPS TWENTY-FIVE CENTS 374

PAGE 389

xt24 4 4//4 4 1924 cover. <74&44 4 AI 4 Style cover of 1928. 375

PAGE 390

L44 Panes of booklet issue of October 1924. #E 4 CEKS OSAG .CETSPOSTAGE ~CANAtLZONE ANALL ZONE Pane from last issue. 376

PAGE 391

Chapter XLVII BOOKLETS 1911 to 1952 Like many other matters which found their origin within the office of the Chairman of the Isthmian Canal Commission at Culebra, so did the issuance of stamp booklets on the Canal Zone fi'd its beginning there. On July 11, 1911, Col. George WV. Goethals in a letter to the Director of Posts wrote, "In view of the difficulty in keeping stamps from sticking together, due to the dampness of the Isthmian climate, it has been suggested that the Division of Posts arrange to sell stamps put up in books, similar to those furnished by the United States postal service." The American Bank Note Company was immediately asked to quote prices for the manufacture of stamp books with waxed paper interleavings. The figures quoted were apparently unsatisfactory. On September 21, 1911, the Depot Quartermaster at Mount Hope, Canal Zone, was asked for his estimates of costs to furnish stamp books similar to those in use in the United States. A sheet of bristol, 11 x 13 ", ruled off into 14 spaces (see illustration) and a U.S. sample book were sent with the request. The estimate quoted by the Depot Quartermaster was sent on to Colonel Goethals through M. H. Thatcher, head of the Department of Civil Administration and on September 28, 1911, it was approved, with authorization granted to take the necessary steps to carry out the making of the stamp books. The initial requisition to the Isthmian Canal Commission Printer, Mount Hope, Canal Zone, called for 1,000 complete booklets, that is, 1,000 fronts and 1,000 backs. These were delivered to the Director of Posts where with the postage stamps properly cut, assembled, and bound, the Canal Zone was ready to offer its patrons hand-made booklets. During November 1911, the Director of Posts sent "The Canal Record" the following memorandum for publication: POSTAGE STAMPS IN BOOK FORM The Postal Division has made up a supply of two-cent Canal Zone Postage stamps bound in book form, in two sizes, one containing twelve (12) stamps-price 25 cents-and the other containing twenty-four (24) stamps-price 49 cents. These stamp books can be purchased at all post offices. These stamp booklets proved so popular that 1-cent booklets were added on January 29, 1912. The stamps making up the booklet panes were the 1-cent Balboa and the 2-cent C6rdoba and overprinted Canal Zone. From November 1911 until May 1916, all Canal Zone booklets were made up by the Canal Zone postal administration. During August 1916, the Canal Zone commenced using booklets manufactured by the American Bank Note Company. 377

PAGE 392

It has been noted that on July 1, 1924, the Canal Zone commenced using overprinted United States stamps. During the month of October 1924, the Canal Zone placed on sale booklets printed and manufactured by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, D.C. These were similar to the United States booklets. Whereas the earlier booklets were hand-stapled or stitched, these were normally fastened together with two staples. The stamps which comprised the panes of these first U.S. booklets were the 1-cent Franklin green and 2-cent Washington carmine overprinted "CANAL ZONE" at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and of the flat-topped "A" type (chapter XXIV). In March 1926, booklets appeared with the 2-cent Washington stamp overprinted "CANAL ZONE" with the sharp-topped "A." There followed booklets of the 2-cent rotary press printings, perforated 10 in May 1927 and perforated 11 x 10 in February 1928. When the Canal Zone adopted its permanent series of postage stamps on October 1, 1928, it followed that the Goethals 2-cent stamp would be made into booklets. This was done on November 5, 1928. In 1932, the domesticfirst-class rate was changed to three cents. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing was asked to furnish booklets with stamps of the changed denomination. This could not be done at the time. So again the aid of The Panama Canal Press was invoked. The Press printed 5,000 sets of booklet covers which were sent to the Cristobal Post Office for assembly. These booklets were made from the 3-cent Lincoln stamp, perforated 11 x 10 rotary press printing. In January 1933, the employees of Cristobal Post Office were again utilized to assemble an additional 5,000 booklets but this time using the Stuart portrait of Washington 3-cent stamp overprinted "CANAL ZONE." On August 15, 1934, the new Goethals 3-cent stamp was issued and this issue was used to make 5,000 more booklets. Most of these booklets were made up at the Cristobal Post Office. It is known, however, that these so-called "provisional" booklets were also assembled at Coco Solo, Gatun, Pedro Miguel, Balboa, and Ancon. In August 1952, there being little, if any, call from patrons for booklets, they were withdrawn from sale. 378

PAGE 393

Chapter XLVIII CANAL ZONE PRECANCELED STAMPS 379

PAGE 395

Rubber stamp from which Type I was applied. CANA "VNE Type I. 381

PAGE 396

CANALr ZONE' Type II. CRISTOBAL CANAL ZONE Type III. Type IV. 382

PAGE 397

dR TQSA RISTOA CISOBA QST Block of the first precangeled Canal Zone stamp, Type I. First dated Sears, Roebuck & Co., July 1938, Type I. CsOA 7 V~ aft O .4 Type I on 25th AnniverType II on 10-cent sary. 5-cent CommemAnniversary stamp. orative. CRISTOBAL CANAL ZONE Type III with Nov. Type III with new style SRC dates. 1949 dating. 383

PAGE 398

Type IV dated on 5-cent Gaillard Cut. A I A) N~0 F Type IV on Barro Colorado Commemorative. Plate No. Block of 14-cent United States American Indian stamp overprinted Canal Zone and precanceled with Type I. 384

PAGE 399

Chapter XLVIII CANAL ZONE PRECANCELED STAMPS 1936, December 10 The practice of using precanceled stamps on the Canal Zone was initiated as a result of consolidating packaged merchandise into bulk shipments to the Canal Zone by the larger mail order houses in the United States. Ocean freight was received at Cristobal from eastern ports of the United States in large crates containing the smaller packages. The crates were opened at the Cristobal Post Office and the individual parcels sorted, weighed, and delivered. On July 27, 1935, the Director of Posts in a letter to Sears, Roebuck & Co. at Philadelphia, approved parcel shipments for a 6-months trial with certain conditions necessitated by customs regulations. Nothing more was done until November of 1936, when the Canal Zone Post Office Inspector, Stacey Russell, suggested that because of the great amount of Canal Zone stamps sent to the United States mail order houses that they be precanceled prior to shipment. Delivery of the packages would be hastened by eliminating the work of canceling each parcel as it was checked at the Cristobal Post Office. Acting upon the suggestion of Mr. Russell, an order was placed with The Panama Canal Press for a rubber hand stamp of sufficient size to cover a block of 25 stamps, 5 subjects by 5 subjects, each bearing a small "Cristobal, Canal Zone." This is known as Type I. On the morning of December 10, 1936, the precanceled 1-cent Gorgas stamp appeared on a circular of the Pan-American Grace Airways. The first sale of these 1-cent stamps consisted of 3,300 to the Panama Agencies Company which handled the Panagra business. Sears, Roebuck & Co. also placed an order totaling $2,710 for stamps from the 2-cent to 30-cent denominations. The precanceling was accomplished at the Cristobal Post Office where all orders for precanceled stamps are filled. A listing of the first orders follows: Denomination Issue To Whom Sold Quantity 1-cent Gorgas Panama Agencies Co. 3,300 2-cent Goethals Sears, Roebuck & Co. 2,000 10-cent Hodges Sears, Roebuck & Co. 3,000 12-cent Gaillard Sears, Roebuck & Co. 3,000 17-cent U.S. Wilson Sears, Roebuck & Co. 3,000 20-cent Rousseau Sears, Roebuck & Co. 3,000 30-cent U.S. Buffalo Sears, Roebuck & Co. 3,000 The 17-cent Wilson and the 30-cent U.S. Buffalo stamps are U.S. issues overprinted "CANAL ZONE" by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington. Now precanceled "Cristobal, Canal Zone" we believe makes them the first U.S. stamps overprinted and precanceled. The other stamps are all of the current Canal Zone definitive issue. Sears, Roebuck & Co. commenced dating their precancels for the month of 385

PAGE 400

July 1938, thus, "SRC Jul 1938," in compliance with an order of the U.S. Post Office Department. This, however, is not a Canal Zone requirement. When the 5-cent Gaillard Cut issue was used for precanceling, it became apparent that the 25-subject rubber stamp would not be satisfactory for precanceling due to the size of the stamp. A second rubber handstamp was devised by The Panama Canal Press to cancel a complete sheet of 50 of the larger stamps. This was five subjects wide and ten rows deep. This is known as the Type II precancel design. The rubber mat of the stamp was glued and stapled to an ordinary wooden rolling pin provided by William D. Taylor, Postmaster at Cristobal. He stated that he was happy to make this contribution to the posterity of the precancel field and moreover to get the thing out of his kitchen. The U.S. 14-cent Indian was later added to the 17-cent Wilson and 30-cent Buffalo precancels and later, due to the third-class rate change, the U.S. 1 /-cent and 1 -cent stamps of the presidential issue were precanceled with the Type I handstamp. On September 27, 1937, the 14-cent Sibert of the Canal Zone permanent series replaced the 14-cent U.S. Indian stamp. All the denominations of the ordinary stamps of the 1939 commemorative "Before and After" issue were precanceled with both Type I and Type II handstamps except the 11-cent, 14-cent, and 18-cent stamps. The 11-cent has been seen precanceled in Type I only and the 14-cent stamp in Type II. The 18-cent stamp precanceled is not known to exist. It became apparent with the growing demand and use of precanceled stamps that printing machine means of precanceling would have to be adopted. On April 18, 1941, the first requisition for printing the precancels was placed with The Panama Canal Press. Two separate forms were set up due to the different sizes of the stamps. The type faces used were exactly the same as those used in the original handstamps. For the smaller stamps, a 100-subject form was used and a 50-subject form for 5-cent Gaillard Cut commemorative size. The smaller printed precancel is the Type III and the larger Type IV. The first printing of Types III and IV was accomplished on April 24, 1941, and consisted of the following: Denomination Issue Type Quantity 1-cent Gorgas I 100,000 2-cent Goethals I 20,000 3-cent Goethals I 10,000 5-cent Gaillard Cut II 10,000 10-cent Hodges I 10,000 12-cent Gaillard I 10,000 14-cent Sibert 3,000 15-cent Smith I 10,000 20-cent Rousseau I 10,000 30-cent Williamson I 20,000 50-cent Blackburn I 20,000 The characteristics and individual subject measurement of the different Types of precancels follows: Type I Type II Type III Type IV Overall height. 11 mm. 17 mm. 12 mm. 16 mm. Letters 2 mm. 2 mm. 2 mm. 2 mm. CRISTOBAL. . .16 mm. 22 mm. 16 mm. 21 mm. CANAL ZONE 18 mm. 26 mm. 18 mm. 24 mm. 386

PAGE 401

Type I Type II Type III Type IV Space between CRISTOBAL and CANAL ZONE. 2 mm. 1 MM. . Between CANAL and ZONE. 1% mm. 2 mm. 1% mm. 2 mm. In later printings of Type III, the length of the words "CANAL ZONE" appear with 18/2 to 18 mm. and the spacing between the words will also vary. Types I and II having been applied by hand appear with the usual varieties of double and inverted precancelations. These are inadvertently accomplished when such jobs are done in this manner. Considering the hundreds of thousands of stamps precanceled by machine printing, the known errors in Types III and IV are very few. As the need for precanceling of stamps arises, the Postmaster at Cristobal, Canal Zone, using whatever current stock is available in the denominations required, hand-carries the sheets to The Panama Canal Press at Mount Hope, Canal Zone, a suburb of Cristobal. The job, having been earlier arranged and set up, is done in his presence. He then returns the precanceled stamps to his vault to fill the necessary requirements of the U.S. mail order houses. 387

PAGE 403

Chapter XLIX OF POSTAL PEOPLE AND POST OFFICES 389

PAGE 404

Balboa Post Office, Canal Zone, June 9, 1954. Cristobal, Canal Zone Post Office occupying the entire front of the street floor of the Administration Building. 390

PAGE 405

Chapter XLIX OF POSTAL PEOPLE AND POST OFFICES When the new bridge across the Balboa channel approach to the Miraflores Locks of the Panama Canal becomes a reality some time in 1963, the east side abutments will rest quite close to one of the first post offices established on the Canal Zone at La Boca on June 24, 1904. This was then a busy center of activity close by the industrial shops, the piers, Panama Railroad roundhouse, the quarry, and some employee quarters. As the population moved about a mile and a half northeastward to the newly established town of Balboa, the La Boca Post Office too changed its site and became the Balboa Post Office on May 5, 1909. The establishment of a post office at Ancon was not a difficult matter upon the creation of a postal system on June 24, 1904. An old wooden building close by the Panama boundary line constructed by the French Canal Company was appropriated and fashioned to postal needs. There were five post offices opened for business on June 24, 1904, and four additional ones the next day, June 25, 1904. A history of Canal Zone post offices is a history of the Canal's construction and life. As work progressed, shifted location or was completed, post offices, following the work and the workers, opened and closed. A table following this chapter lists the dates, chronologically, of the opening and closing of the 47 post offices and mail handling units which have functioned under the Canal Zone postal system. When construction was commenced for the Miraflores Locks, a post office was established at Miraflores. When the waters of Gatun Lake commenced to rise, many of the construction townsites were abandoned and with them, the post offices. Some of the old post offices along the Chagres River valley now rest beneath the waters of Gatun Lake, among them, the old Gatun Post Office, Bohio, Frijoles, Tabernilla, San Pablo, Gorgona, and Matachin. The most recent reopening of a post office is the one at Coco Solo, the old Navy submarine base. Bordering the eastern shore of Colon Harbor it is now a beautiful Canal Zone employees' townsite. This post office was first established on March 1, 1919. Since that day it was closed three times and reopened three times. One of the closings and reestablishments was due to the Navy assuming operation of the base post office during World War II. On July 1, 1942, the Army Postal Service was extended to the Canal Zone and subsequently took over all post offices on Army posts. The Navy assumed control of its two base post offices on the Canal Zone. The APO's were discontinued in 1946 and the military post offices returned to the Canal Zone postal service. What of the postal people who established and now carry on this excellent communications system at the crossroads of the world? Well-they are just plain folk from almost every state in our Union. They render a needed public service, quietly, and efficiently; often beyond the ordinary sale of stamps, issuing of a money order or the weighing of a postal parcel. 391

PAGE 406

During the construction days and the formative ones of the Canal Zone postal system, the men behind the windows had much more to contend with than routine postal work. There were almost as many languages spoken by the workers in the construction of the Canal as in the Tower of Babel. There was a Russian husky who left a note for Crede Calhoun when he was Postmaster at Miraflores which read, "Aidono veirhisit mi pakech." Some signboards carried an advertisement showing a bottle of whiskey with a watch superimposed on the label stating, "Time for a . highball," A Spanish laborer once approached the window clerk and asked him to order one such bottle of whiskey but to make sure the watch was going when he received it. One of the prize mail deliveries was a letter addressed to "HON KON" by a citizen of Barbados. The letter went forward to Hong Kong but was not delivered. Fortunately it fell into the hands of a postal clerk in Hong Kong who had been on the Canal Zone. Recognizing the phonetic spelling of the town of "ANCON" by one of the Caribbean Islanders, he returned the letter to "ANCON CANAL ZONE" and with excusable tardiness, Arthur Cotton delivered it. We have an envelope sealed with the Bureau of Posts officially sealed tabs which indicates the brotherhood of the early "canal diggers." This letter was opened by mistake by one other than the addressee. On the reverse side of the envelope he wrote, "Was open by Rong Pursn Pleas forgev Me." Recently Cristobal Postmaster Farrell received a request from a Miss Coddington of New York asking him if he could assist her in arranging passage to Pitcairn Island. She couldn't make such arrangements at this time in the big city and she wanted to go there to marry Clement Christian. The postmaster could make the arrangements and she did. When air mail dispatches to and from the Caribbean Islands came into being, it was not unusual for one who couldn't quite comprehend such phenomenal progress but was willing to move with the times, to approach genial Bill Taylor, postmaster at Cristobal, and inquire, "Boss, the 'fly' mail 'don' come as yet?" A roster of postal employees over the years is studded with names well-known not only on the Canal Zone but throughout Central and South America. F. H. Wang, former General Counsel and Executive Secretary, was once a postal clerk. Homer Brett, who sold stamps during 1909 and 1910, entered the diplomatic service to later become Charge d'Affaires to Peru. Crede H. Calhoun, who was postmaster at Miraflores during construction days, was staff correspondent for "The New York Times" and when he retired as Chief of the Division of Civil Affairs, he became Bureau head in Central and South America for that newspaper. Gerald Bliss, postmaster at Cristobal for many years, was perhaps known to more people visiting the Isthmus than any other individual. His hobbies were many and his interests wide. Stacey Russell, long-time postal inspector and handwriting expert, personally delivered mail for Franklin D. Roosevelt to the Galapagos Islands and the open Pacific seaway when the President was resting and fishing. Russell was also noted as one of the finest athletes on the Isthmus in his day. A. M. Warner was the postmaster at Balboa Heights who lived by the Good Book and worked by the book of postal regulations. He once intended to have Governor Goethals come to the post office and personally get a registered letter. It was only after some persuasion by Crede Calhoun that he changed his mind and delivered the letter to the Governor's office. Today there are two main post offices in the Canal Zone, the heads of which 392

PAGE 407

are the only two postmasters in the postal system; Arthur T. Cotton at the Balboa Post Office and Frank Farrell at the Cristobal Post Office. Both are entitled to wear the 30-year Canal Zone Government Service Gold Button. There are four branch post offices on the Atlantic side with superintendents in charge and ten branch post offices and a mail handling unit on the Pacific side of the Canal Zone. During the fiscal year of 1959 there were approximately 83,780 registered and insured articles handled by the post offices and about 114,682 articles received. There were 12,618 air mail dispatches sent and 21,302 received. Surface mail handled shows 2,151 dispatches sent and 3,005 received. Receipts for fiscal year 1959 totaled $691,240.00 for stamps, stamped paper, box rents, and permit handling. This is indeed a far cry from the first year of operation in 1904 when the total stamp sales in one month was $655.54. 393

PAGE 408

CANAL ZONE POST OFFICES AND THEIR DATES ReestabReestabReestabName Opened Closed lished Closed lished Closed lished A ncon 6/24/04 12/31/56 . . C ristobal. 6/24/04 . . Empire. 6/24/04 7/31/19 8/16/19 3/31/21 . L a Boca 1. 6/24/04 . . . Culebra 2 3 6/24/04 9/30/27 . . G atun 6/25/04 . . . M atachin. 6/25/04 8/23/13 . . G orgona. 6/25/04 8/16/13 . . Bohio 4 6/25/04 2/14/12 . . San Pablo. 7/ 7/04 2/14/12 . . Ancon Station "A" 5 6. 1905 4/30/08 . . Corozal7. 6/ 1/05 5/15/43 2/15/46 7/31/52 Paraiso 8 1905 7/31/19 8/16/19 4/15/21 11/ 8/39 6/8/43 10/17/55 o Tabernilla 8 9 . . 1905 2/14/12 . . Pedro M iguel. 8/ 9/05 10/14/55 . . Bas O bispo. 12/28/05 2/ 5/14 . . Las Cascadas. 1/20/06 2/28/19 . . M iraflores. 10/ 1/08 9/16/13 . . B alboa 1 5/ 5/09 . . . Station"A"Cristobal(PortoBello) 1 0 1909 4/30/14 . . Station "B" Cristobal (Toro Point) 1. 1/ 9/11 . . Monte Lirio. 5/25/12 1/31/14 12/15/15 11/30/20 . G am boa . 3/20/14 . . . Frijoles. 4/16/14 9/30/14 . . Balboa H eights. 7/15/14 . . . Fort Randolph 1 2 4/ 1/16 3/31/19 8/16/19 4/30/21 7/ 1/38 6/21/43 Fort Sherman 5/ 1/16 5/31/27 5/ 4/36 6/23/43 2/26/46 1/31/50 Fort Grant 1 3 7/ 1/16 . . . Fort Amador. 10/20/17 7/31/19 8/16/19 4/30/21 2/11/46 . Coco Solo. 3/ 1/19 7/31/19 8/16/19 11/ 1/42 1/16/46 11/30/57 11/ 2/59 Fort Clayton. 7/ 1/22 4/15/43 2/20/46 . . France Field 1 4 7/ 1/23 4/15/43 2/18/46 10/21/49 .

PAGE 409

Fort Davis. 7/ 1/29 6/18/43 2/18/46 12/31/57 . Madden Dam. 1/ 2/32 6/25/37 Albrook Field1 4 12/ 1/39 4/19/43 2/28/46 . . Upham. 12/ 1/39 9/15/42 1/22/46 11/16/46 . Diablo Heights 15 16 6/ 1/40 . . . . Rio Hato through Albrook Field. 11/12/40 4/19/43 . . Howard Field 14. 6/ 1/41 6/14/43 2/16/46 . . Cocoli 1 7 7/ 1/41 6/30/54 . . M argarita. 8/15/41 Chagres. 4/ 6/42 6/30/44 . . Fort Gulick 18 19. 5/21/42 2/ 8/43 2/25/46 7/ 2/54 2/24/ 8 . Camp Chiva through Pedro Miguel. 8/ 1/42 5/31/44 . . C urundu 9/ 1/43 . . . R odm an . 2/ 1/46 . . . Quarry Heights. 2/23/46 9/30/49 . . Albrook Air Force Base14.10/ 1/48 France Air Force Base 14. 10/ 1/48 10/21/49 . . H ow ard Air Force Base 14. 10/ 1/48 . . . $ A M F Balboa. 4/ 5/43 . . . Balboa Financial Unit. 7/ 1/54 8/15/56 . . 1 La Boca was changed to Balboa May 5, 1909. Spelling corrected from Tavernilla. 2 Opening date made one day earlier on basis of cover in collection of Rudolph 10 Earliest dated cover, March 19, 1909; collection of Edward S. Conger. B. Weiler. Cristobal Station "B," Toro Point was changed to Fort Sherman, May 1, 3 Only known first day cover; collection of Rudolph B. Weiler. 1916. 4 There is no record to show the date this office was closed. The post office 12 Correction of first closing from April 31, 1919-a typographical error. Cirbuilding was removed prior to September 8, 1911, and work was performed by cular No. 62, July 25, 1919, announced temporary discontinuance effective the railroad station agent. It is believed that the post office was abolished on or COB, July 31, 1919, of offices of Fort Amador, Fort Randolph, Paraiso, Empire, about December 31, 1911. and Coco Solo. Budget difficulties. Circular No. 73, August 14, 1919, announced 5 Ancon Station "A" was in operation in Panama City in the old French that effective August 16, 1919 they would reopen. Canal headquarters building used by the ICC from 1904-1908. No records are 13 This station was changed to Fort Amador, October 20, 1917. available to show the date the office opened but it was closed April 30, 1908, and 4 The word "Field" was changed in France Field, Albrook Field, and Howard all records transferred to Ancon. Field to "Air Force Base," October 1, 1948. Army Post Offices (APO's) were 6 Official report of Tom M. Cooke, Collector of Revenues, for period Octoestablished in the Canal Zone July 1, 1942, and closed in 1946. ber 1, 1904 to September 30, 1905 dated October 25, 1905, says that "an office has "Heights" added to correct name. also been conducted in the Department of Revenues known as 'Station A of the 26 June 1, 1941 was a Sunday. Mail could have been accepted and canceled Ancon post office." Earliest cover recorded, November 22, 1905; collection of on that day but earliest covers known are June 2, 1941; collection of Edward Edward S. Conger. S. Conger. 7 Opening date made 7 months earlier on the basis of a circular dated May 31, 17 Closing date made one day earlier in accordance with covers at hand and 1905, announcing opening and appointment of B. S. Fuller as Postmaster. per official instructions which are understood to have also called for this date, 8 Official report of Tom M. Cooke, Collector of Revenues, for period October 1, is Opening date made one month earlier-probably a typographical error; 1904 to September 30, 1905, dated October 25, 1905, mentions that this is one orative cove inadeward mongerlection. of the additional offices that have been established since the first group. No corroborative cover i Edward S. Conger collection. early covers or record. 19 Closing date made one day later in accordance with covers at hand.

PAGE 411

Chapter L WORLD WAR I TAX STAMP PROOF 397

PAGE 412

isi 398

PAGE 413

N #mwl S tx* 4 944 APO and Navy postmarks used at service post offices during World War 1L. 399

PAGE 414

PMMAPm rrl*PRyflfr&A 4NICOLAIOLTY 1G The Chaae National 1i k Oriatobal Branch, Box S Griatobal, c. WAR DEFTTE' T Statim apna7 2 AP0 APO and Navy postmarks used at service post offices during World War II. 400

PAGE 415

Chapter L WORLD WAR I TAX STAMP PROOF On October 19, 1917, the Canal Zone Director of Posts in a memorandum to the Executive Secretary called the latter's attention to an Act of Congress approved October 3, 1917, which provided for an increase in various postal rates to assist in the provision of revenues to defray war expenses. If this Act were to apply to the Canal Zone, it would become necessary to either add an additional stamp of the denominations necessary to comply with this tax law or overprint current stamps with the additional tax amount. The new war tax postal rates were to be 3 cents an ounce instead of 2 cents on domestic first-class matter; 2 cents on each postal card instead of 1 cent as heretofore. With this in mind, the Director of Posts asked The Panama Canal Press to provide him with proofs on some stamped paper carrying the overprint "T-1-cent," "T" for tax. Two days thereafter the Vasco Ninhez de Balboa 1-cent stamped envelope and the Fernandez de C6rdoba 2-cent stamped envelope of the 1916 "CANAL ZONE" overprinted issue with two different sized overprinted proofs of the "T-1-cent" were received. On both envelopes the "T" is placed between the "C" and "Z" of the "CANAL ZONE" overprint and directly beneath the "T" is the tax addition, "1-cent." The new overprint is also in black. On October 23, 1917, Frank Feuille, Special Attorney, The Panama Canal, wrote Governor Chester Harding, In my opinion the Act of Congress in question does not apply to the postal system of The Panama Canal, which is not under the jurisdiction of the Postmaster General. I agree with Mr. Calhoun, the Director of Posts, that the postal rates provided for by title XI of the Act of Congress in question are in fact excise taxes rather than postal fees, the same as the tax imposed on parcel post packages under paragraph 10 of schedule "A" of section 807 of the same law. The tax could not be imposed in the Canal Zone without authority of Congress. This opinion prevailed and the Canal Zone populace was spared an increase in postal rates. 401

PAGE 417

Chapter LI CANAL ZONE RAILWAY POST OFFICE, SEAPOST, AND PAQUEBOT MARKINGS 403

PAGE 418

s

PAGE 419

151*HWAN CANAL COMMIAWN "aT"IMWN OANAL. QOMM,$SlQ* 40 J1 lrt Early "RPO's" apparently used along the "line." 405

PAGE 420

SHE PANAMA CANAL OFFICIAL BUSINESS *zra 4 0,:,ua New Yor City,~ 7 A 3 k Early "RPO's" apparently used along the "line" 406

PAGE 421

NR jgw 407 ;05 MAs "30 AWg 1910a TR' IM> I5 0" FIRSTY 407

PAGE 422

AA s a.", it t WELYs PARGO DANK & UNION TRUST -O4, 4 Aont-vey Stroet, SAN FRANCISCO, CALM LAT Banca Iieelnal de nnaia Panaa, 4 P. 3e3 992 A NE4 &. 6 i a n ew Drk Te Ost. PAQUEBOT 9544 408

PAGE 423

Chapter LI CANAL ZONE RAILWAY POST OFFICE, SEAPOST, AND PAQUEBOT MARKINGS RAILWAY POST OFFICES The Panama Railroad Company no doubt carried the mail from Aspinwall to Gatun just as soon as these first seven miles of railroad were completed in October 1851. Unfortunately we do not possess an "R.M.S." cover carried on these first short hauls. On January 27, 1855, when the Railroad was completed (chapter I), the U.S. Post Office Department entered into a trans-Isthmian mail service contract with The Panama Railroad Company. We do possess envelopes bearing "Via Panama" and other postmarkings bearing the dates from 1855 on, but not one with a definite R.P.O. or R.M.S. postmark. When the Canal Zone Government established its postal service on June 24, 1904, there was a mail messenger on each train of the Panama Railroad riding between the terminal cities. He was, however, prohibited from receiving mail along the "line" other than from the postmasters, and delivered all such pouches gathered to the postmasters at the end of the run at Cristobal or Ancon as the case may have been. Railway Mail Service within the Canal Zone postal system was inaugurated about January 1, 1905. Its early history is sketchy, R.P.O. markings prior to 1909 rare, and the types of cancellations varied. It was not until some time in 1908 that postal clerks riding the trains accepted and canceled mail during the trips across the Isthmus. All even TR numbers within the postmarking date-stamp circle are northbound railroad trips and the odd numbers denote southbound trips. The Railway Mail Service of the Panama Railroad was discontinued May 15, 1954 to be resurrected and established for one trip only to honor the 100th anniversary of the completion of the Panama Railroad on January 28, 1955. SEAPOST In a letter dated Ancon, June 17, 1908, concerning the handling of mail, Tom M. Cooke, Collector of Revenues, Government of the Canal Zone, says: . The mails from New York (United States Mails) for the Canal Zone per the Panama Railroad Line are received by sea postal clerks on board the steamers of that Line in New York, who run regularly between New York and Cristobal, and in whose charge the mail remains until it is delivered by them to the Postmaster at Cristobal. These mails are worked by the postal clerks on the boats for the various post offices in the Canal Zone. Seapost clerks sorting and canceling mail were also carried aboard vessels of the Grace Line, the Colombia Line, the Panama-Pacific Line, and the President 409

PAGE 424

Line touching at Canal Zone ports or transiting the Panama Canal. The practice ceased some time before World War II. "PAQUEBOT" POSTMARKS Internationally recognized rules regarding letters posted at sea have been in effect since 1891. Normally mail posted aboard a vessel between two ports may be prepaid by means of postage stamps and rates of the country under whose flag the vessel is registered. This mail, for more than 60 years, has been called "paquebot" mail. There are at present but two post offices on the Canal Zone accepting paquebot mail, the Cristobal post office at the Atlantic terminal of the Canal and Balboa at the Pacific end. Each post office has its own paquebot postmarks. Collectors, however, may run across Ancon post office paquebot markings. This latter also handled such mail prior to its closing. 410

PAGE 425

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS It is with great pleasure that we express our gratitude and appreciation to persons and agencies who have generously and graciously given of their time and knowledge; who have loaned their most prized philatelic possessions for examination and illustrations; who have permitted us to use their valuable information, and the many who have assisted in numerous other ways all of which are reflected in the content of this book. A debt of gratitude first goes to George W. Brett, whose "bull whip" provided the urging and whose authoritative knowledge of all things pertaining to the Canal Zone historically and philatelically provided the know-how of which we availed ourselves to the fullest. We are greatly indebted to Henry J. Holtzclaw, Director of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, and his amiable staff, who so kindly permitted us to study the official records and plate history cards pertaining to Canal Zone stamps. The members of The Canal Zone Study Group have been of vast assistance. Lt. Col. James T. DeVoss, one of its foremost members, not only permitted us to see some of his valuable early Isthmian material but photographed it. A good many photographs of the earlier material used herein are reproduced through his generosity. Ed Conger laboriously lugged his heavy albums about for our perusal and study. Many of the finer early items shown are his. Rudolph Weiler permitted us the use of his June 24, 1904 "first day" for which we are very thankful. Gene Stull, Jr. loaned us the only "Toro Point" cancellation we've ever seen. Our first stop after returning to the Canal Zone was the Communications and Records Section of the Panama Canal Company. We knew that it would be the kindness of A. H. Evans and D. F. Mead to which we would have to look for the "files." Within these official cardboard covers rests the framework of this book. We are grateful to Mrs. E. D. Burnham, Librarian-Curator of the Canal Zone Library-Museum, and her assistants for their cooperation and help in "digging" out ancient tomes. Gustavo Schay and Philip Dade were exceptionally kind \with the loan of their unpublished philatelic material. Hugh Cassibry and Luis E. G. de Paredes are thanked for their helpful suggestions. We are thankful to Capt. Gaddis Wall for his expert photographic assistance and to Detective T. A. Frensley for his laboratory help. Lastly, we are grateful to the Canal Zone Director of Posts, Earl F. Unruh, and his Administrative Aide, R. S. Herr, for the statistical data furnished which plays such an important part in a philatelic study and publication. 411

PAGE 426

REFERENCES Report of the Isthmian Canal Commission 1899-1901 Minutes, Isthmian Canal Commission I, II, and III Annual Reports of the Isthmian Canal Commission Annual Reports of Governor of The Panama Canal Annual Reports, Panama Canal Company, Canal Zone Government Panama Railroad Annual Reports Canal Zone Government Files Records Branch Basement, Balboa Heights Storehouse Records Canal Zone Records Canal Zone Code Executive Orders relating to The Panama Canal, March 8, 1904-December 3, 1921 Canal Zone Postal Guide The Bureau Specialists Canal Zone Study Group Booklets THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW Panama Patchwork by J. S. Gilbert And the Mountains Will Move by Miles Duval Cadiz to Cathay by Miles Duval The Panama Canal by Frederic J. Haskins The Strength to Move Mountains by W. Storrs Lee The Construction of the Panama Canal by William L. Sibert and John Stevens Canal Zone Pilot by William C. Haskins America's Triumph at Panama by R. E. Avery The Land Divided by Gerstle Mack The Panama Railroad by F. N. Otis New Granada by Isaac F. Holter Theodore Roosevelt and his Time by J. B. Bishop The Panama Route, 1848-1869 by J. H. Kemble 412

PAGE 427

SUPPLEMENTS 413

PAGE 429

Supplement I SOME CANAL ZONE PHILATELIC FLIGHTS AND FANCIES PPN SLONGITUDE3 LATITUDE Ef9 JAN 1947 HIGHJUMP 415

PAGE 430

94 MUSTNO BE SOI Of VIA ApAab1310 Woodlnn Ave. 10 VIA AIlR-fMLe/ ocretsate. do idolWW 34a Joto 4 4r".n a AM 0 CostaI 416

PAGE 431

VCA A 7VA A M IL L -1ox 137 Nri stob.l Ccns S on A AI THE PANAMA CANAL PerOT O ~C SO OPPICI AL BUSINESS L i~cn i 417 s >~:t~

PAGE 432

FRANCISCO F. OBATOT P, O. Box 13 8 CRISTOBA L C. 2.C)n641! "FIRST FLIGHT" AIR M* i eTt'lSTB /nfE ROYALS O I A 1 g VIA AIR MAIL IjAi Amu AM 4 6 A n A A 1,1 s 5 AA 441.

PAGE 433

ti CANAL ZONE TO MIMI) tANAItA/UENUEOO C A C A FTO VIA AIR MAIL X6 A jt 419

PAGE 434

rCANALZONEPSTAGOE apa arR a MAIL 3A2 M AI A#M ,W A M 1 Y, bNDItE A A' AAL NEat l A Box 3025 44 Cristobal#6 canat Zanl a VIA AIR MAIL Cristobals Canal Ue, via P.atmaator, 1k AW AW AM AW AM AWAMW MM A Box E Ortatobal,.Z. JAN LON E P0AA S22r CANAL A.M. Ad AI / VIA AIR 14AIL UWited Sttez Navy Caribbau Good Will fli 0 ied b ln o E Francia GjFarrell, t Cristobal, 42canal zo. 420

PAGE 435

CANAL ZONE POTAGE. CANAL ZONE POTAGE First Official Flightristobal,Canal Zne to Li= Peru VIA AIR MAIL Dawn to DAIk U. Z050. V aw, cam* OT PANAG?4 par4420 Ame AMMW AMWM AMWR ANOW 44,R4 k BARN' UR. L W.0 A 0 f Core it#toA, Aug.,1 7 Crjitobal, C.Z 421

PAGE 436

V -U.S. NAV 4 ThcC~c Li, 1 4akm ">jjAV2) -OPERATK -DEEFREEEZF aiAr 'ar 5a 4 f 0 O vZRCT hAATKWBC A~WAWAWA 4 -DEEP FPEZZ VIA AIR MAIL Mftu~w AT -r e P -r 422

PAGE 437

E PANAMA CANM M BUREAU OE OSTS POT 932 423 .Ao oN, Cf. Z. CANAL 2O0N~t 423

PAGE 438

MADDEN ,AN t& M scp' L r. jkgh c utnerl . e a AAR~N o,,o' 424

PAGE 439

p E MERRY Af8*ALB(1u ~ANrC 4 )-sM 377 .,D T iostu' stsr Corozal, C.Z V < A 1-o-s X amo Givn To A CANAL ZONE POST-OFFICE ig 4 I t Vhxt 193? th4 KiTNTO o H ST. 4 SILVER EMPLOYEES 425

PAGE 440

OPmNIN4 DAY NEW POC*T OrFIC9E 1 L -n CAAeL oir r a a ar ar l rosr ASTEV Ait Force Bso, gc D Cr. Ed. Tatelman Box 3025, Cristobal, o.rZ. ICW ANAV. AAW "\ 2-6 N Z. TatetGan Box 302$ Onlstcbal, Camal Zone Mir Mail 426

PAGE 441

THEP A "AMA5 VIA AIR MAIL R~tAMn to awa OnZ 813 VIA AIR MILt Jrdt. rdw. I.P.Tatalm, riatobal, Oinma Zno, ITT DvfT via Postmster, QEISXOBAL iu CALI K PENALlY POR PRIVATE USE TO AVOID PAYMENT OF POSTAGE, $300 MM AFTi V E, 2. P. TATELMAN BOX 3025 CRISTOBk6, C Z. ITENSIL HANDLES WITHIN EDGE OF YOUR RANGE 427

PAGE 442

L ONx Govuhmgm ptNALTy VOR PRIVATh USE TO AV01Q .A CANAL COMPANY A POST .aOA HNGiT6 C. Z' F RILUSINS$ Postwaster a ristabal,'onwi um THE PANAMA CANAL CGAT CANAL ZONE THIS ENVELOPE CONTAINED SU 8 IP tc VICTORY LOAN COMMITTEE CARRIED BY THE FIRST OCEAN TO OCEAN BALBOA HEIGHTS, SUBMARINE MAIL SERVICE 0. S. S. C-3 -CANAL ZONE Mail carried by submarine from the Atlantic to Pacific Ocean through the Panama Canal, May 7, 1919. Wic' f 0, L Facing slips indicating the dispatch and receipt of the pouch carrying the submarine mail. 428

PAGE 443

64 sCANALZONE PAWAUKA. yjp qT' P o 7 lo nr~ le Joh S. Seyb t d FIRST OT M T R EO)AI ON AAL WIT Governor of th.Pnsn 0an ialmoa Heights, Canal Z4one 429

PAGE 445

Supplement II 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA 4-Cent Commemorative Stamp 1960, February 8 On September 9, 1959, the Director of Posts, Earl F. Unruh, sent a memorandum to the Civil Affairs Director accompanied by and requesting the Governor's approval of a design for a four-cent multi-colored Canal Zone stamp to be issued in commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Boy Scouts of America. The Governor approved the design on September 10, 1959, and on September 11, 1959, the design was sent to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for preparation of models. On October 16, 1959, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing submitted two models, both similar in design with only minor differences. Model No. 2 was selected since it showed a more favorable design for production on multi-color intaglio printing presses. The approved model was returned on October 20, 1959 and a requisition covering engraving of dies and printing of 1,000,000 stamps was prepared and forwarded through usual channels. On November 10, 1959, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing forwarded a die proof of the stamp for approval of engraving and colors. The die proof was approved and returned on November 12, 1959. On December 18, 1959, two gummed, imperforate, and uncut sheets, 400 stamps, for Postal Service permanent files were received and the balance of the stamps, 1,155,000 were received on January 15, 1960. It was on February 8, 1910, that the Boy Scout Organization was incorporated in the District of Columbia. The first meeting was held in part at the White House on the invitation of President Taft, who promised the organization, "sympathy and support." The scout organization has trained more than 50 million boys and today has a membership of over 5 million. The Boy Scouts of America were organized in the Canal Zone in 1911 and scouting activity was a part of the life in early construction days. Special "First Day" ceremonies were held in the open in the circle in front of the Balboa post office on February 8, 1960, at 10:00 a.m. John D. McElheny, Lieutenant Governor of the Canal Zone, and Brigadier General George F. Schlatter, President of the Canal Zone Council, Inc. Boy Scouts of America, were the principal speakers. Col. H. W. "Woodie" Post, the master of ceremonies, 431

PAGE 446

planned, and made the necessary arrangements for the first day activities which started with sounding of colors and raising and salute to the flag with members of the Cub Scouts, Boy Scouts, Sea Scouts, and Explorer Scouts participating. During the ceremonies, Mr. H. L. Donovan, Civil Affairs Director, presented Brigadier General Schlatter and Lieutenant Governor NlcElheny with souvenir stamp folders commemorating the occasion. The Director of Posts, Earl F. Unruh, presented Mr. Donovan with a souvenir stamp folder and each of the adult participants with a "first-day" packet. In addition, he gave each of the Scouts participating in the ceremony a small folder as a memento of the occasion. DESCRIPTION The stamp is 0.84 by 1.44 inches in dimension, arranged vertically and issued in sheets of 50. The central design is the "First-Class" Boy Scout Badge printed in bronze. Directly above the badge is a facsimile of the Canal Zone Boy Scouts red shoulder community strip with white letters "Canal Zone." To the left of the badge is the numeral 1910 and to the right the numeral 1960, both reading down and blue in color. Directly beneath the badge to the left is the word "Postage" and to the right the denomina-tion "4-cent," both in blue. At the bottom in two lines is the wording "Boy Scouts of America" printed in red. The entire design is outlined by a double line blue border. STATISTICS Designed-Gerald A. Doyle, Jr., Chief, Architectural Branch, Engineering Division, Panama Canal Company. 'Modeled by-Victor S. NcCloskey, Jr., Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, D.C. Engravers-Vignette, Richard M. Bower, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, D.C.; outline frame, letters, and numerals Robert J. Jones, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, D.C. Model completed-October 16, 1959. Model approved-October 19, 1959. Die proof approved-November 12, 1959. Stamps Delivered: Specimen Sheets-Dec. 16, 1959. 400 Remainder-Dec. 30, 1959. 1,155,000 Total number. 1,155,400 Stamps Received in Canal Zone: Specimen sheets-December 18, 1959. Remainder-January 15, 1960. First day of sale-February 8, 1960. First day salesM int.stamps. 199,250 On first day covers.stamps. 100,133 Total.stamps. 299,383 Number of first day covers-76,840. 432

PAGE 447

PLATE HISTORY Perforated 11 200-Subject Plates DenomFirst Day Impressions ination Plate No. to Press Printed Press 4-cent 167332 (electrolytic) Dec. 10, 1959 7960 Giori *As of February 25, 1960. 433

PAGE 448

8

PAGE 449

Supplement III 3-CENT GOETHALS Coil Stamps 36CNTS POSTAf CEFT5 POSTAGE .3CANALZONE DCANALZONE On June 20, 1960, the Director of Posts, Earl F. Unruh, sent a memorandum to the Civil Affairs Director requesting the Governor's approval for the issuance of the 3-cent Goethals regular postage stamp in coil form. The Governor approved the issuance on June 21, 1960 and requisitions covering engraving of dies and printing of 400,000 stamps in coils of 500 and 100,000 stamps in coils of 100 were forwarded through usual channels. The design is the same as the regular 3-cent issue in sheet form and description and detail are contained in chapter XXVIII. First day ceremonies were held at the Cristobal, Canal Zone, post office at 10:00 a.m., on November 1, 1960, and E. F. Unruh, Director of Posts, officially canceled the first first-day covers. STATISTICS Delivered Received Number Specimen sheets Sept. 30, 1960 Oct. 10, 1960 384 Coils of 500 Sept. 30, 1960 Oct. 10, 1960 400,000 Coils of 100 Sept. 30, 1960 Oct. 10, 1960 100,000 FIRST DAY OF ISSUE November 1, 1960, at Cristobal, Canal Zone. First-day salesM int sales. 5,905 On first-day covers 19,571 Number of first-day covers-9,002. PLATE INFORMATION Denomination Plate Numbers No. of Subjects Perforated Press 3-cent 167592 192 11 Rotary 167593 The 3-cent and 4-cent coil stamps were printed simultaneously from the same plates. Each plate had 192 subjects of each denomination. 435

PAGE 451

Supplement IV SEVENTEENTH ORDINARY SERIES 4-Cent "Administration Building" Stamp On June 20, 1960, the Director of Posts, E. F. Unruh, sent a memorandum to the Civil Affairs Director requesting the Governor's approval for the issuance of a 4-cent stamp in both sheet and coil form. The Canal Zone Stamp Advisory Committee had selected the Administration Building at Balboa Heights, Canal Zone, as the central subject for a new 4-cent stamp. The Governor approved the issuance and the proposed design on June 21, 1960. Various photos of the Administration Building, a few rough sketches and other pertinent information and suggestions were forwarded to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing to have them prepare models for review and approval. On July 26, 1960, Mr. G. V. Bell, Chief, Office of Industrial Services, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, forwarded three models to the Director of Posts for review and approval if found satisfactory. Model No. 3, Bureau of Engraving Vault Negative No. 30258 was selected, approved, and returned on August 1, 1960. The model selected was developed from an aerial photo of the Administration Building taken from a helicopter on August 17, 1959, by Clyde S. LaClair, Official Photographer, Canal Zone Government-Panama Canal Company. A requisition dated June 20, 1960, covering engraving of dies and printing of 500,000 stamps in sheet form and 400,000 in coils of 500 each and 100,000 in coils of 100 each had been forwarded through channels. On August 19, 1960, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing forwarded a die-proof of the stamp for approval of engraving and color. The die-proof was approved and returned on August 22, 1960. The Administration Building was built in 1913 and 1914 for the purpose of concentrating the offices of several departments of The Panama Canal under one roof for the sake of efficiency and economy and the convenience of the general public which has business with the Canal. 437

PAGE 452

The plan, which has the form of the letter E, was arrived at after a process of elimination. The location of the building, on the top of the northwestern slope of Ancon Hill is well-fitted to the purpose and character of an edifice which was to direct the interests and operations of the Canal. The design of the exterior of the building adapted the Renaissance of the Fifteenth Century in Italy to building conditions and material of the time and to local requirements. The front and outer sides of the wings are characterized by a basement story about five feet above ground and a two-storied colonnade of square columns supporting the third story wall and eaves of the roof. The building is surrounded on all sides by wide concrete paved terraces. The terrace on the front of the building which overlooks the townsite of Balboa, is 50 feet wide and bounded on the outer edge by concrete balustrade. The same type balustrades bound the terraces on the southeast and northwest sides. On the broad terrace of the front, a reinforced concrete flagstaff has been constructed. Its position at the head of a spacious flight of steps from the terrace to the Goethal Memorial and the Prado below give it added prominence and can be seen from considerable distance. First day ceremonies were held at the Balboa Heights Branch Post Office in the Administration Building at 10:00 a.m., on November 1, 1960. Gov. W. A. Carter officially canceled the first first-day covers. STAMP INFORMATION AND STATISTICS The stamp is 0.75" x 0.87", arranged horizontally and issued in sheets of 100 and coils of 500 and 100. The central design features the Administration Building at Balboa Heights, Headquarters of the Canal Zone GovernmentPanama Canal Company. The words "Administration Building" are arranged in two lines in the upper right-hand corner and "Canal Zone Postage" is on one line across the bottom. The denomination "4 6" is on the lower left side of the stamp directly above the "CAN" in Canal Zone. The stamp is brown in color with the letters and numerals in white. Designer-William K. Schrage. Modeled by-William K. Schrage. Engravers-Vignette, Matthew D. Fenton; letters and numerals Robert J. Jones. Model completed-July 26, 1960. Model approved-August 1, 1960. Die proof approved-August 22, 1960. Sheet StampsDelivered Received Number Specimen sheets Oct. 6, 1960 Oct. 13, 1960 800 Balance of Order Oct. 6, 1960 Oct. 13, 1960 700,000 Coil stampsDelivered Received Number Specimen sheets Sept. 30, 1960 Oct. 10, 1960 384 Coils of 500 Sept. 30, 1960 Oct. 10, 1960 400,000 Coils of 100 Sept. 30, 1960 Oct. 10, 1960 100,000 First day of issue-November 1, 1960, at Balboa Heights, Canal Zone. 438

PAGE 453

Sheet Coil Stamps Stamps First-day salesMint sales 8,278 3,619 On first-day covers 26,258 12,643 Number of first-day covers-23,173. PLATE INFORMATION Denomination Plate Numbers No. of Subjects Perforated Press 4-cent Sheet 167599 400 11 Flat 4-cent Coil 167592 192 11 Rotary 167593 Note: The 3-cent "Goethals" in coils and the 4-cent "Administration Building" stamp in coils were printed from the same plates. Each plate had 192 subjects of each denomination. 439

PAGE 456

}