Citation
Effects of Environmental Advertising

Material Information

Title:
Effects of Environmental Advertising
Creator:
Mildner, Caitlin
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Advertising research ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
Consumer advertising ( jstor )
Environmental surveys ( jstor )
Graphics ( jstor )
P values ( jstor )
Statistical significance ( jstor )
Student surveys ( jstor )
Survey types ( jstor )
T tests ( jstor )
Genre:
Undergraduate Honors Thesis

Notes

Abstract:
Understanding the effect of media imagery on college students’ perception of built and natural environments is increasingly beneficial for developing media that encourages sustainable behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine if advertisement images had any effect or influence on students’ responses to survey questions about their relationship with built and natural environments. This study consisted of three surveys with identical questions on the topics of government spending on environmental issues, transportation, and social sustainability. One survey referred to as “Doom and Gloom” included extreme images of environmental destruction as well as cynical perspectives on the world’s environmental condition. A second survey referred to as “Non-Doom” included images of beautiful, pristine landscapes, and all natural, healthy product brands. The control survey had no advertising images. The survey results yielded no statistical significance. The survey responses were analyzed qualitatively using t tests and qualitatively by comparing the comments left by participants. The findings from this research project provide interesting data suggesting that environmental advertising does not have a significant effect on survey response. Additionally, this study can aid in the development of effective media approaches for encouraging greater appreciation, positive attitudes, and preventative behaviors of the environments. ( en )
General Note:
Undergraduate Honors Thesis -Sustainability and the Built Environment

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Caitlin K Mildner. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

Downloads

This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
fcla fda yes
!-- Effects of Environmental Advertising ( Mixed Material ) --
METS:mets OBJID AA00047960_00001
xmlns:METS http:www.loc.govMETS
xmlns:xlink http:www.w3.org1999xlink
xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance
xmlns:daitss http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss
xmlns:mods http:www.loc.govmodsv3
xmlns:sobekcm http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcm
xmlns:lom http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcm_lom
xsi:schemaLocation
http:www.loc.govstandardsmetsmets.xsd
http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitss.xsd
http:www.loc.govmodsv3mods-3-4.xsd
http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcmsobekcm.xsd
METS:metsHdr CREATEDATE 2016-08-24T08:41:50Z ID LASTMODDATE 2016-08-19T13:53:31Z RECORDSTATUS COMPLETE
METS:agent ROLE CREATOR TYPE ORGANIZATION
METS:name UF,University of Florida
OTHERTYPE SOFTWARE OTHER
Go UFDC - FDA Preparation Tool
INDIVIDUAL
UFAD\renner
METS:dmdSec DMD1
METS:mdWrap MDTYPE MODS MIMETYPE textxml LABEL Metadata
METS:xmlData
mods:mods
mods:abstract lang en Understanding the effect of media imagery on college students’ perception of built and natural environments is increasingly beneficial for developing media that encourages sustainable behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine if advertisement images had any effect or influence on students’ responses to survey questions about their relationship with built and natural
environments. This study consisted of three surveys with identical questions on the topics
of government spending on environmental issues, transportation, and social sustainability.
One survey referred to as “Doom and Gloom” included extreme images of environmental destruction as well as cynical perspectives on the world’s environmental condition. A second survey referred to as “Non-Doom” included images of beautiful, pristine landscapes, and all natural, healthy product brands. The control survey had no advertising images. The survey results yielded no statistical significance. The survey responses were analyzed qualitatively using t tests and qualitatively by comparing the comments left by participants. The findings from this research project provide interesting data suggesting that environmental advertising does not have a significant effect on survey response. Additionally, this study can aid in the development of effective media approaches for encouraging greater appreciation, positive attitudes, and preventative behaviors of the environments.
mods:accessCondition Copyright Caitlin K Mildner. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
mods:name
mods:namePart Mildner, Caitlin
mods:role
mods:roleTerm type text creator
mods:note Undergraduate Honors Thesis -Sustainability and the Built Environment
mods:originInfo
mods:dateIssued 2016
mods:recordInfo
mods:recordIdentifier source sobekcm AA00047960_00001
mods:recordContentSource University of Florida
mods:relatedItem series
mods:part
mods:detail Year
mods:caption 2016
mods:subject
mods:genre Undergraduate Honors Thesis
mods:titleInfo
mods:title Effects of Environmental Advertising
mods:typeOfResource mixed material
DMD2
OTHERMDTYPE SOBEKCM SobekCM Custom
sobekcm:procParam
sobekcm:Aggregation ALL
UFIRG
UFIR
UFETD
IUF
UFHONORS
sobekcm:MainThumbnail mildner-caitlin_2016_effectsofenvironmentaladvertisingthm.jpg
sobekcm:bibDesc
sobekcm:BibID AA00047960
sobekcm:VID 00001
sobekcm:Source
sobekcm:statement code UF University of Florida
sobekcm:SortDate 735963
METS:amdSec
METS:digiprovMD DIGIPROV1
DAITSS Archiving Information
daitss:daitss
daitss:AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT PROJECT UFDC
METS:techMD TECH1
File Technical Details
sobekcm:FileInfo
METS:fileSec
METS:fileGrp USE reference
METS:file GROUPID G1 PDF1 applicationpdf CHECKSUM 456cf0fa0823c555d1554bca036798f2 CHECKSUMTYPE MD5 SIZE 6211255
METS:FLocat LOCTYPE OTHERLOCTYPE SYSTEM xlink:href mildner-caitlin_2016_effectsofenvironmentaladvertising.pdf
G2 METS2 unknownx-mets cb83aa81b02638a1b47cd43a29e72e58 6025
AA00047960_00001.mets
METS:structMap STRUCT2 other
METS:div DMDID ADMID ORDER 0 main
ODIV1 1 Main
FILES1 Page
METS:fptr FILEID
FILES2 2



PAGE 1

Effects of Environmental Advertising By: Caitlin Mildner Under the faculty advising of: Dr. Ron Chandler A capstone proposal submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Sustainability & the Built Environmental Degree University of Florida School of Design, Construction & Planning August 2016

PAGE 2

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 2 Index Abstract ..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ3 IntroductionÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.5 A Brief History of AdvertisingÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ6 Environmental AdvertisingÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..7 MethodologyÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.É ..8 Image SelectionÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..11 ResultsÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ18 Quantitative Results.ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..É19 Question 2ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..19 Question 3ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..21 Question 4ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..23 Question 5ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..25 Qualitative Results. ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ27 Survey A.ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ27 Survey BÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.É 29 Survey CÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉ 31 Analysis of ResultsÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 34 T-Test AnalysisÉÉÉÉ..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ34 RecommendationsÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 35 ConclusionsÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉ. 36 AppendixÉÉÉÉÉ..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉ38 ReferencesÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉ47 Index of Tables and Images Figures 1, 2, 3ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..6 Figure 4, Table 1 (Gender)ÉÉ.ÉÉÉ..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉ ..9 Figure 5, Table 2 (Major)É..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..É..10 Figure 6, Table 3 (Age)ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..ÉÉ..ÉÉÉ.10 Figure 7 (Survey A)ÉÉÉ..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉAppendix 38 Figure 8 (Survey B)ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉÉ ..Appendix 40 Figure 9 (Survey C)É..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..É .Appendix 42 Figure 10 (Disclaimer)É..ÉÉÉ..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉAppendix 44 Figures 11, 12ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉ12 Figures 13-17 (Doom Advertisements) ÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..ÉÉÉÉ..13 Figures 18-22 (Non-Doom Advertisements)ÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..ÉÉÉÉÉ..14 Figure 23, 24 (Question 2 Graphs)ÉÉÉÉ..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉ.20 Figure 25, Table 4, 5 (Question 3 Graph and Tables)ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉ.22 Figure 26, 27 (Question 4 Graphs)ÉÉÉÉ..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉ.24 Figure 28, 29, 30 (Question 5 Graphs)ÉÉÉÉ..ÉÉ..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉ.26 Figure 31 (Survey A Web Chart)ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉ.É28 Figure 32 (Survey B Web Chart)ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉ30 Figure 33 (Survey C Web Chart)ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉ33

PAGE 3

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 3 Abstract Research indicates that images affect readers' perspectives of media content. In today's age of technology and social media platforms, articles and media that include im ages receive 94% more total views than articles that contain solely text. A study has shown that the average attention span in 2015 was about 8 seconds (DeMers, 2014). Im ages and advertisements are able to distribute information more quickly and efficiently than a paragraph of writing in this short time span. A study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology found that the human brain can process images in 13 milliseconds (New ton, 2016). In contrast, other studies have shown that environmental advertising only strongly affects consumers who are already innately more proactive with their environ mental behaviors. These studies suggest that green advertising is most effective for those already practicing environmentally friendly behaviors (Haytko and Matulich, 2008). Therefore, understanding the effect of media imagery on college students' perception of built and natural environments, and especially the quality of these is likely important for developing media for encouraging sustainable behavior among college students. The pur pose of this study was to determine if advertisement images had any effect or influence on students' responses to survey questions about their relationship with built and natural environments. This study consisted of three surveys with identical questions on the topics of government spending on environmental issues, transportation, and social sustainability. One survey referred to as "Doom and Gloom" included extreme images of environmental destruction as well as cynical perspectives on the world's environmental condition. A second survey referred to as "Non-Doom" included images of beautiful, pristine land

PAGE 4

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 4 scapes, and all natural, healthy product brands. The control survey had no advertising im ages. All three surveys were administered simultaneously and electronically. Using a va riety of methods to analyze the data, there was no statistical significance amongst the findings. The survey responses were analyzed qualitatively using t tests and qualitatively by analyzing and comparing the comments left by participants. The findings from this research project provide interesting data suggesting that environmental advertising does not have a significant effect on survey response. Results of this study provide valuable insight in to how advertising imagery may not be as effective in influencing students' perceptions of built and natural environments. The findings of this study could be used to guide further research into the effect of advertising imagery on students' perceptions of the importance of healthy built and natural environments. Additionally, this study can aid in the development of effective media approaches for encouraging greater appreciation, positive attitudes, and preventative behaviors of the environments.

PAGE 5

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 5 Introduction As the world continues to grow technologically and diminish environmentally, there is a growing need to understand the connections and work toward a solution that takes advantage of globalization, technology and social media to mitigate social, econom ic, and environmental issues. If advertising can be used to sell and promote people, ideas, products and services, then it too can promote sustainable behavior and actions. This project studies the interaction between sustainability, psychology and advertising. In oth er words, the ultimate goal of this project is to understand the psychology behind using advertising to promote sustainability in an effective and long-lasting way. Francis Moore Lappe (2013), author of Scarcity-Mind or Eco-Mind, states, "Humans see the world largely through unconscious frames that determine what we believe our nature to be and therefore what we believe to be possible." Society and culture largely dictate what we observe and our perceptions of the world around us. This gives advertising great power to influence our perceptions of the world, each other and the environment. The questions in this survey incorporate elements of sustainability and the built environment. By asking questions about sustainability incorporated into the world around us, participants are forced to think about these elements and think about how sustainability is integrated into their lives through city infrastructure, public parks and facilities, mixed use development and the affordability and accessibility of these elements. The purpose of this project was to improve understanding of the effect advertise ments have on responses of individual perception of sustainability-oriented questions. This study assumes that the world's current state of nonrenewable resources is constantly

PAGE 6

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 6 diminishing and its environmental wellbeing is declining. This decline positively corre lates with the world's growing population and construction of new cities and in frastructure. A common goal of environmentally-focused advertising is to get consumers to be more conscious about their daily choices and actions that affect the environment. The results of this project will be able to provide insight into how and/or if advertise ments affect participant survey response, contributing to a better understanding and study basis for this research on the topic of environmental advertising. In this area of acute at tention to climate change and global issues, "we are the first generation in the history of modern advertising to have to integrate climate change into our marketing and advertis ing strategies" (Morris, 2009). A Brief History of Advertising Since the early days of globalization and colonization, advertisements have been used to influence, persuade, and even deceive consumers. Settlers and explorers were in Figure 1 New York (1760) Figure 2 Reading, PA (1870) Figure 3 Conoco Oil (1954)

PAGE 7

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 7 spired to venture out into unsettled territory after being exposed to advertisements in newspapers. It was through advertisements that people around the world learned of Indi an spices, Colombian coffee, and other exotic goods. Advertisements appealed to the common people by portraying high-status consumers using and consuming the unbranded products. Product branding appeared almost one hundred years later, as companies com peted and developed techniques and language to win over consumer popularity. It was not long until slogans were created and stuck with consumers, helping products gain popular ity (O'Barr, 2005). Environmental Advertising As stated in Green Advertising and the Reluctant Consumer (Zinkhan & Carlson, 1995), "Concern for the environment has awakened in the 1960's and has been steadily rising ever since." As attention to environmental concerns became an issue, the rise of environmental advertisements, or "green" advertisements began and continues today. Ac cording to Zinkhan and Carlson (1995), environmental advertisements refer to all that include ecological, environmental sustainability, or nature-friendly messages that target needs and desires of environmentally concerned stakeholders. These advertisements fall under three categories: 1) Those that address the relationship between a product/service and the natural environment, 2) those that promote an environmentally responsible life style, and 3) those that present an image of corporate environmental responsibility (Zinkhan & Carlson, 1995). These environmental advertisements can be created based on educational content or for commercial motives (DaneshPajouh, 2013). Greenwashing

PAGE 8

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 8 (Budinsky, 2013) has been a termed for companies that use buzzwords like "green", "all natural", etc. in order to gain popularity and consumers' trust. Some studies have shown that the start of environmental advertising began with the automobile industry (O'Barr, 2005). The last decade has seen an increase in green product branding and advertising as consumer demand has grown. This phenomenon is occurring elsewhere in the world. For example, the Faculty of Climate Change and Sus tainable Development, CEPT, India has information from India, China and Brazil that show consumers are willing to pay more for green products. Results from the 2011 Im agePower Green Brands Survey show that 48% of Indian and 55% of Chinese consumers are willing to spend over 10% more on a green product (Cohn & Wolfe, et al., 2011). These percentages are lower in developed countries like the United States and United Kingdom. Only 22% of US and 13% of UK consumers are willing to spend more than 10% on green products (Cohn & Wolfe, et al., 2011). Methodology Three surveys were randomly administered online to a controlled sample. The sample population was restricted to University of Florida students ranging from 18-23 years old. The survey was open to students from all majors. The first three survey ques tions asked the participant to identify his or her age, gender, and major at the University of Florida. Figures 4, 5, and 6 on pages 9 and 10 depict the distribution of age, gender and major. I used the survey builder Qualtricsª to create three different surveys. The only difference between the three surveys was the type of advertising images included. The

PAGE 9

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 9 control survey (henceforth Survey A; Figure 7) contained no advertisement images (see Appendix page 38). The Doom and Gloom survey (henceforth Survey B; Figure 8) con tained advertising images that depicted unpleasant, negative images of the environment (see Appendix page 40). The non-doom survey (henceforth Survey C; Figure 9) contained advertising images that depicted pleasant, cheerful, positive images of the environment (see Appendix page 42). In order to randomly distribute the three surveys, Qualtrics has the option to cre ate a master survey link. The master survey link is a single link that contains each of the three survey links within it. When clicked, the master survey link randomly distributes one of three survey links and redirects the participant to one of three surveys. This master survey link was used to randomly distribute survey A, B, and C to students.The link was posted on various University of Florida student group Facebook pages. Additionally, the link was emailed by professors, students, and presidents of school clubs and organizations. One-hundred and seventy-five students began the online surveys. The link directed them to a disclaimer page (Figure 10, see Appendix page 44) that required acceptance be fore continuing. Gender Males Females GENDER Males 59 Females 102 TOTAL 161 Figure 4 Table 1

PAGE 10

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 10 Major Business Liberal Arts Engineering Health and Human Performance Ag Life Science Design, Construction & Planning Journalism Education Nursing Other MAJORS Business 46 Liberal Arts 23 Engineering 21 Health and Human Performance 20 Ag Life Science 19 Design, Construction & Planning 15 Journalism 7 Education 4 Nursing 2 Other 4 TOTAL 161 Table 2 Figure 5 Age 18 19 20 21 22 23 AGE 18 28 19 28 20 38 21 35 22 21 23 11 TOTAL 161 Figure 6 Table 3

PAGE 11

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 11 The survey consisted of different types of survey questions. Question number one, age and gender were presented to the participant in a drop-down format, allowing the partici pant to select from the answers that were provided in the drop down list. In Qualtrics, this question type is called Ôdrill-down." The next question, (1.a.) asking about the student's major was in a fill-in the blank format, called Ôtext entry'. Question number two began the analytical survey questions and this question type allowed the participant to select from a scale of 0-10. On Qualtrics, this question type is called, "net promoter score." Question 3 had four parts, A, B, C, and D and is called Ôslider." This question type allows participants to move the sliding scale anywhere from 0-100, selecting any integer value in between. The participant has a slider for each part of the question. Question 4 was the same type of question as question two, Ônet promoter score.' Question 5 is called Ômatrix survey' and this question had three parts. The participant had to indicate his or her level of satisfaction with three topics asked in the question. The participant could choose be tween very dissatisfied, dissatisfied, neutral, satisfied, or very satisfied. The last part of the survey contains an optional portion that allows the participant to input their thoughts and/or comments after taking the survey. Image Selection Different types of environmentally related images were used in survey B and C. The images in survey B had to align with the Doom and Gloom environmental approach. The phrase Doom and Gloom is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as a general feeling of pessimism or despondency. Several other phrases in the Oxford Dictio

PAGE 12

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 12 nary are linked to this idea of doom, "Doomwatch: an organized campaign of vigilance to alert people to the dangers of environmental pollution" (Stevenson, 2010). The phrase has been recorded first being used in US newspapers in the 19th century. The phrase's initial use was mostly related to finance and politics. Commentators began using the phrase in the 1950's and by 1968, it was used as a pessimistic outlook to forecasts about the econ omy and eventually about the environment (Martin, 2016). Several studies have shown that this environmental approach leads to apathy, however, it is very much still used in modern day propaganda. Advertisements, videos, and artwork are all created to elicit a positive response in human thought and behavior. Five images were chosen for survey B that depicted a pessimistic view of the world's environmental conditions. Often times, pessimistic views of the environment are overly exaggerated in order to paint a strong picture and get the point across. The images Figure 11 Figure 12

PAGE 13

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 13 were selected to vary in content and visual appearance. The survey participants were not meant to know that these advertising images had been selected for the survey. Additional ly, the images were chosen in a way that they would not seem obviously linked to the survey questions. The first image (Figure 13) was a GIF image that dis played the world spinning on its axis while a truck drives by emitting smoke into the air. This GIF im ages helps to visualize that our actions, even as small as driving a car, can have a larger effect on the planet as a whole. The second image shown on the survey is also a GIF image. This changing image flashes between the two image frames displayed to the left. The premise of this image is to display a beautiful, pristine landscape and suggest that it will be taken away if humans do not act now. This poses as an ultimatum for humans to process. It also advertises TPP, the Trans-Pacific Partnership, as something that could ruin our environment. Figure 13 Figure 14

PAGE 14

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 14 The third image is propaganda from the Worldwide Wildlife Foundation, WWF. This image poses a mild threat that says, ÔStop climate change before it changes you.' The human appears to be morphing into a fish-like creature. The fourth image displays a dried, barren Earth drip ping into a glass of water. The text says, "Thirsty? Save water, save Earth, Save lives." This image visu alizes resource depletion and blames humans' overuse of water. It also suggests that humans have the power to reduce water consumption, save water, and there fore save the planet. Figure 15 Figure 16

PAGE 15

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 15 The fifth image displayed at the end of survey B is a visualization of the depleted fisheries. This image falls under the category of resource depletion and species extinction. The fisherman fishing on the boat at the top of the image suggests that humans are the cause of this overfishing problem, connecting the human (or in this case the survey participant) to the issue. Additionally, five images were chosen for Survey C, the Non-Doom survey. The advertising in this survey had a different approach than the Doom and Gloom approach. This approach was more mild and optimistic. The images featured companies that incor porated environmental elements into their advertisements, in order to appeal to con sumers. This has been a popular strategy by big-brand corporation over the past few decades. Brands work to build a relationship with the consumer, selling and promoting their brand so consumers develop a trust with the company. As consumers become more invested and concerned about the environment, corporations display concern with the en vironment as well. Although company concern may not be as genuine as individual con sumer concern, corporations are able to win over consumers. Similar to the process of selecting images for survey B, the advertisements selected in survey C were meant to be inconspicuous and not obviously related to the survey questions. Figure 17

PAGE 16

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 16 These advertising images were selected to portray a beautiful, pristine image of the environment. The theory of "biophilia" was created by Harvard University biologist Edward O. Wilson, PhD and suggests that humans have an innate affinity for the natural world (Novotney, 2008). Building off this innate affinity, these images are meant to con nect people to nature and evoke pleasant memories about times spent outdoors. Humans naturally want to protect the things they cherish and love. Parents want their children to be able to enjoy the same beautiful nature and natural wonders of the world that they had themselves as children. When studied and applied effectively, this concept has the poten tial to serve as a motivator to promote sustainable behavior. The first advertisement image used is a Nike advertisement displaying the words, "Find your Greatness." The environmental compo nent of this advertisement is subtle, showing a boy running through a landscape with a display of clouds and sky behind him. Nike has a series of advertisements that incorpo rate the outdoors, naturally appealing to more consumers. The second advertisement used for Survey C was this vacation booking advertisement for Fare Buzz. In order to entice consumers, the Figure 18 Figure 19

PAGE 17

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 17 advertisement sets an image of a beautiful, relaxing beach with blue skies and blue wa ters. The third advertisement is for Budget Travel and displays the quote, ÔWe travel not to es cape life but for life not to escape us.' Again, this advertisement sets a beautiful landscape image that any consumer would appreciate and take joy in looking at. Advertisement number four is an advertisement for Nature Valley Granola bars. The word, ÔearTHINess' advertises the new thin bar style while incorporating the earth. This type of adver tisement has been very popular as companies want to appeal to consumers who are becoming more conscious about what foods they eat and where these foods come from. Figure 20 Figure 21

PAGE 18

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 18 Advertisement number five is another example of product branding incorporating elements of na ture. This advertisement is a partner with Coca Cola and WWF. The text says, "Introducing a friendlier Coke." The green color of the bottle in stead of red, along with the incorporation of flow ers and stems gives Coca Cola a more natural, healthy feel, although the soda content have re mained the same. This can be seen as a type of product greenwashing. Results Fifty-seven participants began survey A and fifty-three participants finished the survey. Fifty-six participants began survey B and forty-eight participants finished. Sixtytwo participants began survey C and fifty-seven participants finished. A perfectly equal distribution between the three surveys would have been 52.6 responses for each survey. Survey A had 53 responses and was the closest to this perfect value. It was .6% over the perfect distribution value of 52.6 responses. Survey B had 48 responses and was 9% un der the perfect distribution value. Survey C had 57 responses and was 8% over the perfect distribution. The survey was left open for 48 hours and it was closed after receiving over onehundred and fifty responses. It took participants an average of 3.56 minutes to take sur Figure 22

PAGE 19

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 19 vey C. It took participants an average of 3.55 minutes to take survey B. It took partici pants slightly less time, 3.24 minutes, to take survey A, the survey that had no images. Once the surveys were closed, the results were compared between each survey. In order to determine which advertising technique was the most influential on survey re sponse, the results were analyzed per question both quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative Results Question 2: On a scale of 1-10 how much thought is put into your ecological foot print? The distribution of responses for each survey type were analyzed and compared. The mean value of the responses for each survey type were recorded. The survey that yielded highest mean value and lowest mean value are indicated below. This indication may suggest that the advertising approach in that survey had a greater or lower influence on survey response. All other variables were held constant. The results will then be tested for statistical significance. The following page shows a graphical representation of the survey response data. The three top graphs display the distribution of survey responses based on the participant's answer choice, scale 1-10. The distribution of responses from the Non-Doom survey are skewed slightly to the right, with the highest number of re sponses falling under the answer choice: 7. The other graphs have a more centered distri bution curve. The most common answer choice for Doom was 6, and Neutral was 5. The graph on the bottom of the page displays and compares the mean values between each survey. Highest Positive Response (highest mean value): Survey C Non-Doom Lowest Positive Response (lowest mean value): Survey A Neutral

PAGE 20

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 20 Neutral Doom 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Non-Doom Q.2 Non-doom 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Q.2 Doom 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 2 5 7 9 12 14 Q.2 Neutral 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Q.2 On a scale of 1-10 how much thought is put into your Mean: 5.23 Mean: 4.73 Scale 0-10 Answer Choices Scale 0-10 Answer Choices Number of Responses Number of Responses Mean: 5.76 Figure 23 Figure 24

PAGE 21

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 21 Question 3: What percentage of time do you currently spend outdoors? (A) How much time would you like to spend outdoors? (B) Was being outdoors important to you as a child? (C) Do your parents enjoy being outdoors? (D) This questions had four parts for the participant to answer. The graph below dis plays the distribution of survey responses. The mean values of each question part were compared and displayed in the graphs on the next page. The tables below also display the exact mean values for each survey type and question part. The table shows that the NonDoom survey yielded slightly the highest mean value for part D, the Doom survey yield ed the highest mean response value in part C, and the Neutral survey had the highest mean values for part A and B. Answers varied between each parts of the question, but remained relatively similar among each survey type. Part A yield the lowest average re sponse values for all survey types, all values under 50% of time. All average mean values increased from question part A to part B across on survey types, indicating that people would like to spend more time outdoors than they currently do. Furthermore, all average survey responses increased again from question part B to part C. Average responses dropped back down from Part C to Part D. Highest Positive Response (highest mean values): Survey A Neutral: Part A, B Lowest Positive Response (lowest mean values): Survey B Doom (Part C) and Survey C Non-Doom (Part D)

PAGE 22

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 22 0.00 25.00 50.00 75.00 100.00 A B C D Neutral Doom Non-Doom Non-Doom A 36.19 B 61.59 C 75.26 D 63.43 Doom A 33.58 B 60.33 C 77.29 D 63.23 Neutral A 37.20 B 63.04 C 75.93 D 60.42 Q. 3 What percentage of your daily time do you currently spend outdoors? (A) How much time would you like to spend outdoors? (B) Was being outdoors important to you as a child? (C) Do your parents enjoy being outdoors? (D) Figure 25 Table 4 Table 5 Percentage of Time Question Part Table 6

PAGE 23

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 23 Question 4: In your opinion, indicate the level of attention and/or resources the govern ment should spend on environmental concerns. The analysis for this survey question is the same for question number 2. The dis tribution of responses for each survey type were analyzed and compared. The mean value of the responses for each survey type were calculated and compared. The graphs on the next page display the information to be compared. The mean values for this question were higher than the mean values for the similar-type question, question 2. The mean values for each survey type increased. The graphs below show the distributions for all survey types are slightly skewed to the right. Survey C yielded the highest mean value and highest majority number of responses, being 7. Survey B yielded a lower mean value, but still had the majority of its responses being answer choice 7. Survey A had the lowest mean value, only slightly lower than that of Survey B. Survey A had an equal number of responses for answer choices 6 and 7. The graph at the bottom of the page includes the mean values for each survey type and compares the values, clearly indicating that Survey C yielded the highest mean value, a possible indication that the images on the survey were the most effective in influencing survey responses. Highest Positive Response (highest mean value): Survey C Non-Doom Lowest Positive Response (lowest mean value): Survey A Neutral

PAGE 24

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 24 0 5 10 15 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Non-Doom Doom and Gloom Neutral Q.4 Non-Doom 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 3 7 10 13 17 20 Q.4 Doom 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 3 7 10 13 17 20 Q.4 Neutral 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 3 7 10 13 17 20 Q.4In your opinion, indicate the level of attention and/or resources the government should spend on environmental concerns. Mean: 7.19 Mean: 6.73 Mean: 6.66 Number of Responses Scale 0-10 Answer Choices Figure 26 Figure 27

PAGE 25

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 25 Question 5: How do you feel about the following topics in your residential area? 1) Transportation Options (Biking, Busses, Sidewalks) 2) Community Engagement (Festivals, Shows, Park Events) 3) Neighborhood Connectedness The answer choices for this question were very unsatisfied (1), unsatisfied (2), neutral (3), satisfied (4) and very satisfied (5). These numerical values were used for cal culating t tests for comparison. The graphs on the following page are organized by survey type, Neutral, Doom and Non-Doom. Each graph includes each of the three question parts, 1, 2 and 3 depicted in different bar chart colors. The majority of total answer choice responses were added up and compared between survey types. Survey A, Neutral had a majority of answers (sum total from all three question parts) under the category, Ôneutral.' Survey B, Doom, had a majority of responses that were also Ôneutral.' In contrast, survey C, Non-Doom, had a majority of responses under the category Ôsatisfied,' which indicates the images in this survey could have been slightly more effective in influencing survey response. The statistical significance of these results can be found under T-Test Analysis. Highest Positive Responses: Survey C, Non-Doom Lowest Positive Responss): Survey A Neutral and Survey B Doom

PAGE 26

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 26 Doom 0 10 20 30 40 Very DissatisÞed DissatisÞed Neutral SatisÞed Very SatisÞed Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Neutral 0 10 20 30 40 Very DissatisÞed DissatisÞed Neutral SatisÞed Very SatisÞed Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Non-Doom 0 10 20 30 40 Very DissatisÞed DissatisÞed Neutral SatisÞed Very SatisÞed Questionn 1 Question 2 Question 3 Q. 5 (continued) How do you feel about the follow topics in your community? 1.) Neighborhood Connectedness 2.) Community Engagement (Festivals, Shows, Park Events) 3.) Transportation Options (Biking, Busses, Sidewalks) Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 Number of Responses Number of Responses Number of Responses

PAGE 27

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 27 Qualitative Results The last portion of each survey contained an optional section for comments. In order to obtain further insight of this research, these qualitative comments were analyzed and compared. A word web diagram was created for each survey type. Survey A yielded four comments. The comments are listed below, along with the interpretation of each comment and a web diagram depicting similarities and overlap be tween the comments. Words displayed in bold are key words that have been highlighted and noted when analyzing the comments. 1. Question 3 is worded very awkwardly and that makes it hard to understand and an swer. I like that people are going out of their way to all others how they feel about the environment , the world around them. Analysis: The comment is constructive, positive, observant and optimistic. The thoughtful remark shows that the participant was genuinely trying to understand and respond accurately. 2. Made me think about how much time I spend outside and how I could work more outdoor time into my days to relax . Analysis: The comment is pensive, reflective, optimistic, positive and construc tive. He/she mentions a positive potential future behavior change and suggests the survey made them think and had some influence on their decisions. 3. The city should create more awareness about the environment within the communi ty. By putting more emphasis on ways to create change rather than providing facts about the harm people are causing, I feel as if the environment will benefit .

PAGE 28

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 28 Analysis: The comment is proactive, positive, optimistic and thoughtful. He/she suggests to focus on the positive and not negative. 4. The environment is important , might not be as important as some other issues our government is responsible for but should be at least addressed minimally and not just ignored. Analysis: The comment is thoughtful and pensive. The participant's thoughts go deeper than the questions. The participant expresses opinions that are slightly above neutral concern for environment. Overall Analysis: The comments from Survey A were very thoughtful and pensive. Sur vey A did not contain any images, so participants could likely have been less distracted and influenced by the advertisements in the other surveys. As a result, participants had more time and attention to focus solely on the questions themselves. The comments sug gested that the participants were thinking deeply about the questions asked in the survey. The web below depicts the similarities in thought amongst the comments. Survey A: Neutral Figure 31

PAGE 29

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 29 Survey B yielded five comments. 1. It is imperative that we preserve the remaining un-touched land (swamps, marshes, grasslands) that still remains in Florida in order for our ecosystem to continue to drive Analysis: This comment is urgent, worried and concerned. Words like "impera tive," create a feeling of urgency in this comment. This participant expresses a very strong opinion about the environment. 2. You are great , Caitlin! Analysis : This comment shows a personal connection the participant had with me. Although, this might suggest the participant did not have an unbiased opin ion. 3. I think it is time our government spends a little more time and money on address ing the problems of agricultural pollution and the use and waste of plastic. Analysis: This response is urgent, imperative, pro-environment and knowl edgable. This comment shows again another sense of urgency, and shortage of time. 4. #FeelTheBern Analysis: This comment suggests that the participant connected the views and platform of presidential candidate Bernie Sanders with the content of this survey. It suggests that the participant could potentially be a Bernie Sanders supporter and has had a positive experience with this survey. 5. If we don't protect our environment , we're only hurting ourselves .

PAGE 30

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 30 Analysis: This comment expresses urgency, ultimatums, realization, and personal connection. The participant has made the personal connection that protecting the environment will protect mankind. Overall Analysis: The comments from Survey B have a less positive and opti mistic feel, and express more urgency. The advertising images in this survey ap pear to have influenced the survey response comments to feel the severity of the situation and illicit more concerned responses. Survey B: Doom and Gloom Figure 32

PAGE 31

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 31 Survey C yielded ten comments. 1. Could've strengthened internal validity of the study if used more questions. But thought the study was an important topic to research. Analysis: This comment shows some previous knowledge about survey studies. The comment is constructive and considerate. It shows that the participant was really trying to answer truthfully. The overall message is positive, with an indication that the participant deems the research important. 2. I think the percentage question was confusing , perhaps change it to hours instead? Analysis: This question also shows some confusion and includes a recommendation to adjust and improve elements of the survey. 3. I wish I spent more time outdoors . I wish the government spent more resources ensuring that citizens are being environmentally aware of their actions . Analysis: The participant opens up in this comment and expresses his/her desires and wishes for change in behavior and behaviors of others. This is a strong comment that shows a positive, optimistic outlook, but also a feeling a hopelessness and yearning for a better outcome. 4. Made me think about that I need to go outside more! Analysis: The participant expressed that the survey made him/her think more about his/ her actions. This comment expresses a positive relationship connection to the environment and outdoors. 5. I want to make more of an effort for he environment

PAGE 32

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 32 Analysis: The participant expressed a want to make a change in his/her current lifestyle. This is a positive, optimistic outlook that suggests a potential future change in behavior and/or attitude. 6. I enjoyed this quiz Analysis: This short comment simply shows that the participant was satisfied with the survey and had a positive experience. 7. I just ate a butterfly Analysis: This comment could be interpreted in a variety of ways. The participant could have been suggesting that the survey was overly-environmentally focused and Ôtree-hug ger'-like. Eating a butterfly could symbolize that one is very in touch with nature, possi bly excessively-so. 8. Everyone should make a lifestyle change to become more green . Analysis: This participant extends his/her opinions to include everyone. It is not enough for his/her to change his/her lifestyle, but instead the participant wants everyone to share and instill a more environmentally friendly lifestyle. This comment shows a positive in fluence from the survey; the participant is full of optimism. 9. I wish this quiz was mandatory by all of the student body! Analysis: Like the previous comment, this participant also wants to include and influence the whole student body. The participant expressed that he/she thinks this quiz is important and relevant to all students. 10. Great questions! My parents and how I grew up definitely has a large impact on why I spend a lot of my free time outdoors and my care for the environment

PAGE 33

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 33 Analysis: The participant expresses a positive experience from the survey. He/she in cludes a reflection and connection to why he/she spends time outdoors and cares for the environment. Overall Analysis: This survey received the most comments. The majority of comments were positive and optimistic. The participants expressed a positive outlook about the environ ment and about wanting to spend time outdoors and make lifestyle changes. There was less of a sense of urgency in the comments, but instead a conscious choice to have a happier life by living in accordance with the environment. Participants also expressed wanting to extend this thought and action onto others. Survey C: Non-Doom Figure 33

PAGE 34

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 34 Analysis of Results In order to determine the statistical significance of the results, sample size calcu lators were used (Raosoft, 2004). The University of Florida student population of under graduate and graduate students ages 18-23 is roughly 45,000. The total number of partici pant responses collected from all three surveys was 158. The sample population yielded a 7.78% margin of error and a confidence level of about 80. The actual sample size was slightly smaller than the suggested sample size, which would have been about 381 re sponses. With a suggested margin of error of 5%, a confidence level of 95%, and a popu lation size of 45,000, 381 is the suggested sample size. This was all taken into considera tion when analyzing the results. T-Test Analysis A series of t-test analyses were conducted in order to determine the statistical sig nificance of the survey responses. The online t-test calculator was used from GraphPad. Three t tests were conducted for each question. Significant was set at p < .05.One test be tween Non-Doom and Doom, one between Non-Doom and Neutral, and one between Doom and Neutral. For the questions that had multiple parts, each part was considered a separate questions and had individual t tests. A total of 27 t tests were conducted. Only one test had a p value (.0124) that was considered statistically significant. Only one test had a p value (.0517) that was considered "not quite statistically significant." The other results all had p values that were considered insignificant. The table of t test results can be found in the Appendix.

PAGE 35

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 35 The only statistically significant result was from question two, when comparing the results from the Neutral and Non-Doom survey responses. The p value for this t test was .0124. This indicates that there was a significant difference in the survey responses between the Neutral survey and the Non-Doom survey. Since this is the only statistically significant p value out of all the others, it does not have enough weight to suggest that the environmental images in the Non-Doom survey were more influential and had an impact on the participant's survey responses overall more so than the Neutral survey. Additional ly, the only t test that produced a "not quite significant" p value was in question 5, part 2, between surveys Non-Doom and Neutral, again. The p value was .0517. Question 5 was a more complex question to analyze. There is not a clear explanation as to why this low p value resulted. This result could very well be an anomaly, since all other t test results were not statistically significant. Recommendations Although this study collected data regarding participants' ages, gender and major, the scope of this project did not allow for an in depth analytical approach regarding this information. The data from this project could be used to study differences in effect of en vironmental advertising images on responses to sustainability oriented questions between males and females. Additionally, the sample population of this research was relatively homogenous. The study focused on a single college population of undergraduate and graduate males and females. The demographic of this sample is not representative of the world population. Factors such as age and gender can be strongly related to environmen tal concern and have the potential to provide valuable insight in aiding the future devel

PAGE 36

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 36 opment and creation of advertising marketing materials and methods. For example, a study by Weigel (1977) found that high levels of pro-environmental behavior were found in subjects who were predominately liberal, educated, and had a higher occupational sta tus. Another future recommendation for the continuation or variation of this study would be to use different images for the advertisements. It is possible that the images used in this study were not strong or influential enough to influence participant survey response. Studies could be conducted that test different types of advertising images that express varying calibers of doom or non-doom. Some alterations in the question layout and de sign might have changed results of the study. For example, some participants left com ments saying that question number three was difficult to understand. Additionally, more participants could have been included to increase the representativeness of the sample. Conclusion As the green marketing and advertising industry continues to grow, there is a lack of adequate tools for understanding and evaluating the success and effectiveness of green advertising. Marketers additionally lack sufficient tools for determining consumers' envi ronmental attitudes and behaviors (Haytko and Matulich, 2008). It may seem intuitive to assume that imagery and advertising would have an effect on human perception and re sponse. Many journals and other individual research have shown this connection in past studies. However, in this particular study advertising images did not seem to influence survey responses. Response differences between survey types were not enough to be con sidered statistically significant. Student survey responses remained relatively similar and constant, regardless of the advertising images included on the surveys. The qualitative

PAGE 37

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 37 analysis of the comments left by participants for each survey type provide some insight into the differences in perspective of participants but were not conclusive. The images employed in this study did not appear to influence the survey re sponses. Results of this study indicate that environmental advertising does not always affect individual responses in ways expected. Nevertheless, as the use of advertisement increases, advertisers will continue to seek to better understand how the market is re sponding to green advertising material (Haytko and Matulich, 2008).

PAGE 38

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 38 Appendix Figure 7

PAGE 39

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 39

PAGE 40

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 40 Figure 8

PAGE 41

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 41

PAGE 42

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 42 Figure 9

PAGE 43

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 43

PAGE 44

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 44 Figure 10

PAGE 45

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 45

PAGE 46

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 46 Question 2 p-value SigniÞcance Doom & Non-Doom 0.2284 Not SigniÞcant Doom & Neutral 0.2484 Not SigniÞcant Non-Doom & Neutral 0.0124 SigniÞcant Question 3 p-value SigniÞcance (A) Doom & Non-Doom 0.2228 Not SigniÞcant (A) Doom & Neutral 0.8650 Not SigniÞcant (A) Non-Doom & Neutral 0.0722 Not SigniÞcant (B) Doom & Non-Doom 0.7425 Not SigniÞcant (B) Doom & Neutral 0.4411 Not SigniÞcant (B) Non-Doom & Neutral 0.6612 Not SigniÞcant (C) Doom & Non-Doom 0.6297 Not SigniÞcant (C) Doom & Neutral 0.7509 Not SigniÞcant (C) Non-Doom & Neutral 0.8812 Not SigniÞcant (D) Doom & Non-Doom 0.9669 Not SigniÞcant (D) Doom & Neutral 0.5845 Not SigniÞcant (D) Non-Doom & Neutral 0.5332 Not SigniÞcant Question 4 p-value SigniÞcance Doom & Non-Doom 0.2228 Not SigniÞcant Doom & Neutral 0.8650 Not SigniÞcant Non-Doom & Neutral 0.0722 Not SigniÞcant Question 5 p-value SigniÞcance (1) Doom & Non-Doom 1.668 Not SigniÞcant (1) Doom & Neutral 0.3106 Not SigniÞcant (1) Non-Doom & Neutral 0.7738 Not SigniÞcant (2) Doom & Non-Doom 0.3383 Not SigniÞcant (2) Doom & Neutral 0.3042 Not SigniÞcant (2) Non-Doom & Neutral 0.0517 Not Quite SigniÞcant (3) Doom & Non-Doom 0.2290 Not SigniÞcant (3) Doom & Neutral 0.1462 Not SigniÞcant (3) Non-Doom & Neutral 0.8175 Not SigniÞcant

PAGE 47

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 47 References Budinsky, J. (2013). "It's Not Easy Being Green": The Greenwashing Environmental Discourses in Advertising. Canadian Journal of Communication. Volume 38, Number 2. Chandler, R. (2010, November). Overview of Biopsychological Effects of Fear Messag ing on Cognition and Behavior. Chandler, R. (2010). Overview of Terror Management Theory and General Implications for Holistic Sustainability: Society's Comprehensive Problem and Greatest Opportunity. Cohn & Wolfe, et al. (2011). Green Brands, Global Insights. http://www.cohnwolfe.com/ sites/default/files/whitepapers/Green%20Brands,%20Global%20Insights%202011.pdf Dande, R. (2012). The Rise of Green Advertising. Mass Communication & Jouralism. Volume 2 Issue 10. http://www.omicsgroup.org/journals/the-rise-of-greenadvertising-2165-7912.1000133.pdf DaneshPajouh, H, et al. (2013). Green Advertisement in Approach to Environmental Pro tection. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences. Volume 7, Num ber 11, Pages 725-733. DeMers, J. (2014). Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/jaysondemers/2014/09/29/yourguide-to-using-images-in-your-content-marketing-strategy/#1d25e77d460b [accessed June 1, 2016] GraphPad Software, Inc. (2016). Quick Calcs. http://www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs/ ttest1.cfm [accessed July 25, 2016] Haytko, D. L., Matulich, E. (2008). Green Advertising and Environmentally Responsible Consumer Behaviors: Linkages Examined. Journal of Management and Marketing Re search . Volume 1. Lappe, F. (2013). Scarcity-mind of Eco-mind: Where do they Lead? Solutions Journal. Volume 4 Issue 2. Lenssen, P. (2010). Vintage Ad Browser. http://www.vintageadbrowser.com/industry-ads1950s [accessed June 10, 2016] Martin, G. (2016). The Phrase Finder. http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/doom-andgloom.html [assessed June 20, 2016]

PAGE 48

Effects of Environmental Advertising Mildner ! 48 Morris, GE. (2009). Climate Change Marketing . http://www.ad-mkt-review.com/pub lic_html/air/ai200906.html [accessed July 10, 2016] Newton, E. (2016). Image SEO and Marketing. http://www.brightedge.com/blog/imageseo-and-marketing-visual-content-marketing-and-conversion/ [accessed July 1, 2016] Novotney, A. (2008). Getting Back to the Great Outdoors. American Psychological Asso ciation. Volume 39, Number 3. O'Barr, WM. (2005). A Brief History of Advertising in America. Advertising & Society Review. Volume 6, Issue 3. Raosoft, Inc. (2004). Sample Size Calculator. http://www.raosoft.com/samplesize.html [accessed July 10, 2016] Stevenson, A. (2010). The Oxford Dictionary, 3rd Edition . Oxford University Press. Weigel, R. (1977). Ideological and Demographic Correlates of Proctology Behavior. Journal of Social Psychology . (103) 39-47. Zinkhan GM, Carlson L. (1995). Green Advertising and the Reluctant Consumer. Journal of Advertising. 24: 1-6.