Citation
The Beekeepers item

Material Information

Title:
The Beekeepers item
Place of Publication:
New Braunfels, Tex
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Monthly
regular
Language:
English
Edition:
Volume 4 no.12 December, 1920
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 24-40 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Bee culture -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Bees -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Honey -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Bee culture ( fast )
Bees ( fast )
Honey ( fast )
Genre:
Periodicals. ( fast )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )
Periodicals ( fast )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with Vol. 1, no. 1 (Dec. 1916).
Dates or Sequential Designation:
-v. 30, no. 7 (July 1946).
General Note:
Imprint varies.
General Note:
Issues for Sept. 1924-Dec. 1935 sponsored by and designated official organ of multiple state and regional apicultural associations.
Funding:
“Funded by Project Ceres, a collaboration between the United States Agricultural Information Network (USAIN), the Agriculture Network Information Collaborative (AgNIC) and the Center for Research Libraries (CRL).”

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Florida Dept. of Agriculture & Consumer Services Division of Plant Industry
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
020353358 ( ALEPH )
07497048 ( OCLC )
Classification:
SF521 .M6x ( lcc )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Dixie beekeeper
Preceded by:
Bee-keepers' review
Preceded by:
Domestic bee-keeper
Preceded by:
Western honey bee
Succeeded by:
Modern beekeeping

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Full Text








Louis H. Scholl, Editor


A Small Item in Itself, a Bid Item For Beekeepers


Fifty Cents Per Year


Entered in the Postoffice at New Braunfels, Texas, as Second-cassMatter.

VOL. 4 NEW BRAUNFELS, TEXAS, DECEMBER, 1920 NO. 12



y FIr^st Vito a Ie Hive Factory



What Remarkable Machinery and Accurate Methods are Used in the Making of a

Modern Bee Hive is Told in an Intimate Pen Picture of the Impressions Made Upon a Visit to a Factory for the First Time.


HERE is a period in the life of each one of us during which we dream, visualize, and yearn to wander. We all pass through this experience and many people, especially young men, are sometimes privileged to satisfy this desire by actually roaming from one place to another in seach of satisfying food for the young mind and really receiving it. It was at this stage in my life that I so fortunately entered my work in the beekeeping world. My desire for seeing and learning was satisfied with the interesting life of the bee and her wonderful modern hive, and A soon learned there was much satisfaction in the life of reality and achievement to be found without dreaming or wandering. Small as the honey bee is in size there is a depth of good and a full fountain of knowledge to be found in the study of her life that would satisfy the wandering mind of so many boys and girls if they could only be brought to realize it. Just as the fascinating View of the


ALMA M. HASSLBAUER

these little creatures were made happy and comfortable by the beautiful homes that we supplied them. Elaborate but necessary furniture we sent them and every comfort that man could devise. During all this time there was growing up within me a great desire to see the source of the never-ending supply of beeware that was being sent out frdm year to year. Each season inany carloads came to me from a factory that I could only faintly visualize and I saw the beautiful hives stream out to every hamlet and county in Texas. Poignantly I


Factory From the Street.


way the pole around which my world revolved. I doubt if the miles were ever so long to anyone or the distance between Chicago and Watertown ever so far, as while I was on my way to the factory.
To those who have had the pleasure of being the guests of the "Lewis Beeware Family" little need be said as to the warm welcome and hospitality that was given me; and to those who have not had this pleasure I want to advise you to never miss an opportunity you might have of visiting them.
My tour of the plant began with an excursion through the offices with the head of each department outlining the methods of handling the office work from the entering of the orders to the mailing of catalogs for the coming year. This was very interesting and beneficial to me for I wanted to learn more of the efficient' and systematic business methods worked out in the offices. With the growing of our Texas Honey Producers Association we feel the need of installing a more adequate and complete routine of office procedure. I was guided from one department to the other and each process was explained and every


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huge Stacks of Choice Lumber for Next Year's Supplies.


A Long Warehouse With Tiers Upon Tiers of Crated Hives.


study of the bee and her economy gives diversion of thought to the professional or business man and woman who takes up beekeeping as a source of recreation, so it can satisfy the young mind.
For over six years I have not only worked with the little bees but also for them. With an apiary of my own, which I acquired when the fascination for them filled me with interest, I had them closer to- meand soon learned to love them. In my work I came to realize that hundreds of thousands, yea millions of


dreamed of some day which they came.
While attending the


seeing the source from convention at Chicago


of the American Honey Producers League in connection with the meeting of the Chicago Northwestern Beekeepers Association, "my dream- came true" and the hope and wish that I had so long cherished was granted. I can hardly say how excited and eager I was when I realized that I was at last to see the Lewis "Beeware" factory. In the beekeeping world which had been built about me it was in t


question answered to my satisfaction. These details in every business are as vital to its success as the perfection of the finished product and I was earnest in my desire to observe, but beneath this all the time was my dream of "seeing the factory itself." I wanted to see the great saws gnaw the raw boards and with all their strength and speed send forth the polished materials I knew and have learned to love so well.
TI- superintendent of the factory called for me and the excitement began. My heart


We~
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162


fluttered as I walked across the yard toward "the works" as they call the factory. Once inside the heavy doors of the factory I felt as I did when in reading fairy tales years ago, Alice was led into Wonderland. Even my
thoughts at first seemed hushed by the loud singing of the motors and the calling of the saws for more lumber to feed them. They
seemed as though they were huge monsters screaming for food. Until I became accustomed to the medley of noises I could scarcely understand the superintendent as he explained the operation of each machine and the part it took in the process of making the hive.
It was wonderful to me how fast the saws worked and how perfect. It seemed so easy for the machines to manage the heavy boards and hand the operator in return the smooth polished slats that form our sections or our frames.
The nailing machines fairly grinned at their ease and cleverness in so securely and accurately accomplishing their work. Each nail found itself lodged perfectly and accurately where it was needed but still each frame, or cover, whatever it might be, was carefully inspected and handled before being stacked.
The average beekeeper, I suppose, little realizes the skill in the woven crate that his Hoffman frames are received in but should he once see the wonderful machine that makes them he would appreciate them always. The slats and wire are fed into this powerful machine and in one motion the woven material pushes itself forward.
The stapling machine that makes its own staples and .fastens the wire all in one operation I could have watched ever so long. But there were so many other machines so I had to move along. The machine that cuts the V grooves and dovetails the sections; the machine that grooves and saws the top bar and the wonderful one that makes the end bars.
I appreciate the accuracy of Lewis Beeware all the more since my visit to the factory as it happened that while I was observing the operation of this last mentioned machine it was being set to run regular sized end bars after having run the Dadant size. The adjustments to do this required great skill and patience. To my eye the pierced holes for wiring seemed perfect but by careful measuring of the operator they were not found so and the machine was adjusted and again readjust-


ed before the holes were set to his satisfaction. This ever-present insistence of accuracy on the part of the operator and his or her delight in the fineness of their product was strikingly noticeable throughout the plant. At last the machine performed to the operator's satisfaction and then from the thick block of wood that was fed into the machine two perfect, pierced, dovetailed and bee spaced end bars returned. The machine worked so fast that it kept the binder busy inspecting and tying the end bars into bundles of one hundred.
The cheerfulness of the workers impressed me for I have so often heard of the ugliness and strain of factory work. But here everyone was interested in their individual portion of the work and anxious to accomplish good results. This was partially due, I believe, to the cleanliness and order of the entire home of Lewis Beeware. I will never forget the smile on the face of one old gentleman who told me that he had two daughters and a son working in the factory with him and from the


THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM

proud way he said it, I knew he was glad.
The queer devices for making the queen and drone traps, the glueing of the fence separators; the cleating of the excluder frames and many more mysteries were revealed to me.
The machine shop where all the machines are repaired and cared for and where the patient saw sharpener brushes and files the saws, day after day, to keep them viciously sharp, was all of interest.
In the paint shop the boxes and hives are painted, enameled and stenciled at lightning speed. The operators worked the fine spraying brushes so fast that it kept several carriers busy at each spray to place the painted parts in the racks for drying.
The men were busy in the yards stacking and arranging the lumber for our next year's hives. In the warehouses were tiers and tiers of hives crated and labeled as I had heretofore only known them except when in the apiary. Now each frame, cover and bottom of a hive recalls the busy factory and carries with it an individuality that speaks for itself and of its importance and usefulness.
The economy evidenced in the whole plant was a prominent feature. The very saw dust is drawn forth by suction from each saw, and conveyed to the heating plant where it is bail-


Car Load Ready to Go to Texas.


ed to be sold as packing material or used for fuel. Almost every waste piece of wood that is not fit in size or quality for Lewis Beeware is used in some manner. There were stacks and stacks of fan handles made of waste strips, and I was surprised to learn that very likely the backs of so many of the erasers that I so eagerly assisted my teacher in using, when anxious to avoid some study at school, were made by the G. B. Lewis factory. For, thousands of them were there.
I, for one time, regretted the noon hour whistle and was glad when the time came to resume my trip through the works. The careful explanations that were so freely given and the warm hospitality that was so cordially shown me will always be vivid recollections of my visit. Almost every day since my visit there returns to my mind some striking feature I learned, and a warm feeling towards the "Lewis Beeware Family" will always be .linked with my memories.
After sleep comes awakening, after dreamsreality. My dream was realized. I had visited and revelled in the wonders of the factory itself and now I was called to the office of Mr. Geo. C. Lewis, the presiding genius of "Beeware." The heads of the departments met and greeted me. These are the men and women after all who make the factory and the distribution of its products possible. The saws and machines, the lumber and nails and wire, the paint and tools and trucks, the workmen and workwomen must be gathered. together


F(&2iaes S






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BELL PHONE 1242



CO-OPERATION
Means BUYING RIGHT and SELLING RIGHT. we are a co-operative association and sell the best Bee Supplies obtainable at the right prices. It will pay western Beekeepers to send for Illustrated Catalog.
COLORADO HONEY PRODUCERS ASS'N.
DENVER, COLORADO.



USE OUR WANT ADS
It will pay you to use them
LET OTHERS KNOW WHAT YOU WANT.
ONLY 10c A LINE.


BUY THE FAMOUS


And get big gentle bees. Circular and


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yields from 41 Write for Price List


BEN G. DAVIS Spring Hill, Tennessee


N O T I 0C E!

"TEXAS NATURE OBSERVATIONS AND REMINSCENCES," by Dr. R.Menger represents a scientific as well as a popular written and responsible treatise on Nature affairs around old historic San Antonio, and it is just the kind of book you should have and read about Tex-as insect life, reptiles, native birds and bird nests, game in general, hunting and fishing, and olden days wild life and prairie reminiscences around San Antonio's environments: written and photo illustrated directly and true to nature, with cover 300 fine half-tone photographs, including magnificent, full page illustrations of the famous Albert Friedrich Bnckhorn Collection-the finest and rarest dislay of Texas and foreign animal horns ever exhibited here or elsewhere in Texas. Professor Chas. S. Meek, Superintendent of the Public Schools of San Antonio, in a letter to the authr, said: "the book is a greatdcontribution on the fanna of this region." and ordered twentythree copies of the sookfor every 'rade school and each of the high schools of San Antonio. It is also highly endorsed by Professor Edward F. Bigelow, editor of the "Guide to Nature," Sound Beach, Connecticut, and also by the "American Review of Reviews," New York City and many others.
The small remittance of $2.25 will bring the book to your address at once.
DR. R. MENGER,
San Antonio, Texas.











FunRSA LE
155 acres of good farming land; located near Fant City, Bee county, on S. A. U. & G. Ry. Several deep oil tests now going down. Oil rights go with land. For further particulars write to B. Schwegmann, 206 Navarro St., San Antonio, Texas.




ROOT'S BEE SUPPLIES
For North Texas Beekeepers, for sale by
STILES BEE SUPPLY CO.,
Stillwater, Okla.
Beeswax Wanted. Free Catalogue.


AIXED FIEEADS
I for
Horses, Mules and Dairy Cows.
IMade by
J. E. MUGGE &, CO
G N Wholesale Grain Dealers
San Antonio, Texas


.-..


THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM

from all parts of the country. They must bo directed and assembled. Here in this airy, cheerful, pleasant office, with its group of smiling kindly men, I felt at last that I had really found the thing that my youthful imagination pictured so long ago-the Fount of Lewis Beeware.

The Chicago Northwestern Beekeeper Association met in Chicago, Dec. 6th and 7th. This association is noted for the large attendance at its annual meetings. It is composed of the beekeepers in the Chicago district and has members in Michigan, Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin.
It was voted that the association become a member of the American Honey Producers League.

Q-Why is the new beekeepers organization called a League?-B. P. 0. E., Mich.
A-Because bees usually fly not over 1Y2 miles for honey, apiaries are placed about 3 miles apart and three miles is a league.


163


HEARTEASE OR SMARTWEED.

H. B. PARKS
The plant which is known to many beekeepers as heartsease may be anyone of a dozen different species of the genus Polygonium. This group is so named because of the swelled or enlarged joints in the stem. The latin word means "many joints." -It is a little hard to say just how this plant should have been called heartsease, as this term is the standard English name, designating a plant of the violet or pansy family.
The plants of this family are known in various localities by the following names: smartweed, knotweed, doorweed, persicaria, lady's thumb, and water pepper. A number of our more common species have been introduced from Europe where they have the com-mon name of knot weed. It is best known in America as smartweed, a very proper name, as any barefoot boy can testify.
The smartweeds belong to a family also named from the many joints in the stems. As the buckwheat plant also belongs here, it is called in English the buckwheat family.
This family is remarkable in that it contains such a large number of plants useful to man for their products or harmful as weeds. The best known and most valuable member of this family is Fagopyrum esculentum, or the cultivated buckwheat, famous for both hot cakes and honey. The various plants called dock, used for greens and medicines, belong here. One of them, Redfield dock or field sheep sorrel is an imported weed very common -in meadows and lawns. The wild vine called buckwheat is closely related to the smartweed. Throughout East and South Texas is a shrubly vine (Brunnichia cirrhosa), which is sometimes called eardrop vine. It is reported by Rawls of Hemstead as a fine honey plant, aso by Geo. F. Jeffus of Loveland. H. L. Russel of Bryan reports that the nectar flow is copious but the flavor and color is such that when the bees store it with other honey the quality is so reduced as to render the honey unsalable. Very near akin to this plant is the beautiful crimson rambler, or Queen's crown, which is also a great fielder of nectar. Rhubarb, pieplant or wine plant, whose leaf stems are used for food and roots for medicines, is related to dock.
All the divisions of this family are nectar plants to a greater or less degree with the ex-


The Ault Bee Shipping Cage
























The above is 5 two-pound packages of bees crated ready for shipping.
1. It is a dark cage, much more so than the open screen cages we have been shipping in for years.
2. The feeder uses pure sugar syrup, best feed known for bees while confined in cages.
3. These feeders are soldered all around instead of 4 places the old way
4. They have a screw cap that will not jar out like the friction cans.
5. Instead of a pin hole, I now use about one-half inch hole covered with a cotton duck waxed washer that the bees can suck the feed through. No danger of getting stopped up, no danger of getting hole too small or too large, several limes as many
bees can get to the feeder than the old way.
6. Our feeders are one-third larger than any we have ever used before.
7. The cage is one solid piece screen wire all around inside.
8. Thin boards on the outside strengthen the cage, cut the light and prevent the express men from jobbing holes in the screen.
9. The end boards are one solid piece, tough lumber which extends up and below the cage an inch.
10. This inch of space above and below gives plenty of ventilation, the hot air passing
out of the top forming a draft like a chimney.
11. The cages are large and roomy based on years of experience of shipping. 12. I have overcome all the objections to the old shipping cages I have used in the past. Prices F. 0. B. shipping point quantity lots in flat, I pound size 55c; 2 pound size. 65c;
3 pound size, 75c. Free circular for the asking.
Booking orders now for Spring shipping for Bees and Queens.
1 pound pkg. $3.00; 25 or more $2.85 F. 0. B. Shipping point by express.
2 $5.00; 25 or more $4.75 F. 0. B.
3 $7.00; 25 or more $6.65 F. 0. B.
Untested Queens $2.00 each; 25 or more $1.75 each Select Untested $2.25 each; 25 or more $2.00 each Tested Queen $3.00 each; 25 or more $2.70 each Select Tested $3.50 each; 25 or more $3.00 each When ordering bees add price of queen wanted. FREE circular giving prices by
Parcel Post, Nuclei, etc.
NUECES COUNTY APIARIES


ception of the docks, which the bees work heavily for pollen. Buckwheat is one of the great honey plants of the northeastern United States. The honey is various shades of amber and has a distinct flavor. This plant is adapt.ed to a cool, moist climate where during its long blooming season, it gives large yields of nectar. In Texas, buckwheat has been tried in many localities. Reports from these experiments indicate that in Texas the blooming period is cut short by the heat, and while bees work this plant it does not pay to plant it except perhaps in the extreme northern part of the State. The smart weeds do best in cool and moist places. They are annuals or annuals from perennial roots. While they bloom all summer, it is only in the autumn that they yield in quantities to give surpluses of pure smart weed honey. This honey is amber and when first gathered has a pungent flavor and offensive odor. Because of this odor in many places the extracting crews have dubbed it "foul brood honey." This odor, however is


ii


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Calallen, Texas-


E. B. AULT, Prop.





THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM


lost soon after extracting and the flavor becomes less distinct. Persicaria or lady's thumb sraartweed is said to be the best yielder. This is an introduced species. The next in production is the Pennsylvania smart weed. This plant is larger and a native. It is restricted to damp or swamp land. It grows naturally
on sand bars along streams and in dried waterholes. From these places it invades the cultivated bottom lands. It is a pest in the rice fields of Southeast Texas. The only other member of this group which produces a distinct surplus is the swamp smartweed. The root of this is known in patent medicine as swamproot. It is a large growing plant closely resembling both the above mentioned species, but can be told from them by the very en.larged joints of the stem and the long bright red flower cluster. This plant is often found growing in standing water. It also often invades cultivated river bottoms. The smartweeds are wonderfully adapted to disperse their


qV







Heartsease or Smartweed.

seed, of which they produce enormous quantities. These seeds are small, shiney blcak, and have a coat which is impervious to water. The persecaria form is a most common garden weed in Europe and America. Its seeds are the
most common weed seed found in packages of garden seed. This species most probably was introduced into the United States with white clover seed from Holland. Whenever a new country is opened up this smartweed appears with the first sowing of garden seed or. in fields where uncleaned grain or forage plant seed is used.
The other two plants have their seed scattered either by flood water or birds. A new infestation can be expected after every high water. The seeds of both, but specially of the water smartweed is a favorite food of wild ducks and geese. In some places it is called gooseweed or goose food. These birds being migratory, scatter this seed on their long flights and either infest or reinfest the feeding places with it.
The above three plants are found in Texas to a small degree where ever there is cultivated ground, but in the river valleys of the Eastern part of the State, especially the Trinity Valley, they have such a foot hold that they are a valuable addition to the fall honey flora. Botanical writers of 60 years ago mention the swamp smartweed but not .the others. Thirty years ago all three are mentioned and it was noted that persicaria was sparsely introduced


.~


American Bee Journal, a year---.$1.50 With the Beekeepers Item, both--.-.$2.00 Gleanings in Bee Culture, a year..4$1.00 With The Beekeepers Item, both-.-$1.90


ii


Western Honey Bee, a year_------$1.00 With The Beekeepers Item, both..1.75 Domestic Beekeeper, a -year------$1.00 With The Beekeepers Item, both_.-$1.75


THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM, Date....................
New Braunfels, Texas Dear Sir:
Please find enclosed $....------- ---..------.for. -- --................----years subscription to THE

BEEKEEPERS ITEM.
Clubbed with the following, as per our special clubbing offer:


Name....... ..... ............................. . ... .... --..-------- --........


Street.---------------.......-...-...-..........-.........B..........R. F. D. ................. .....


city.......... . . ...............State ...................


III


~--~


The oew SubscripIionPie



WI be One Dollar a ear





The Beekeepers Item for 1921


In 1916 this publication was founded as a mere eight page "newspaper" for beekeepers. From this small beginning it has grown in size and improved in appearance and increased in circulation to such an extent that it has outgrown its former sphere. It has now reached a period of its established and useful life that warrants making a change in style and price.


Will Be in Magazine Form

With the ever-increasing popularity won by this publication there has developed a demand for a smaller size, more easily adapted for binding into complete volumes. It is an appreciated fact that beekeepers, more than those in most other professions, preserve their copies for future reference. We are, therefore, pleased to announce a new size, of 32 pages, for the new year.


The Price Will Still Be Low
Considering the high cost of almost everything, the new subscription price will still be a moderate one. Paper, ink and all printing materials, labor and postage and all other expenses have increased to such an extent since we first issued our little eight page paper for 50 cents a year, that we are compelled to advance the subscription price to $1.00 per annum; not for the same but a better beekeeping publication.


Send in Your Subscription Now
You will not want to miss a single issue as this publication will be better than ever before. There will be a number of special issues on important beekeeping subjects throughout the year, as well as much other information. By sending your subscription now your name will be enrolled without delay of the first or January number. Proper adjustments will be made on all subscriptions and renewals received under the old rate and the new so that all of our subscribers will get their share of subscription for the amount remitted to us.

Our Special.Clubbing Offers
Any of these will save you money and furnish excellent reading:


164






THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM


near Dallas. The older men along the Trinity are a unit in saying that these did not make their appearance until the farmers around Ft. Worth and Dallas began sowing imported lawn and meadows grass seed. As these plants
flouish in moist soils, during long periods of dry years they die out, but reappear and become dominant during wet periods.
There are in Texas eighteen native species which may be confused with the two introduced species but these rarely if ever exist in numbers sufficient to be valuable as honey plants.
San Antonio, Texas.

STATE ASSOCIATION MEETING.

The Wisconsin State Beekeepers Association held their annual convention in Madison, Dec. 2nd and 3rd. It was a meeting full of interest and showed the spirit of the State. In the progress of the convention it was voted to become affiliated with the American Honey Producers League. As a section of the State association, a number of members formed a buying and selling group which is to be known as the Wisconsin Honey Producers Association.
During the meetings, many points of interest were brought out relative to the foul
brood situation. Wisconsin has a good law but the beemen are asking for uniform laws in other states so that they can buy package bees without risk. Texas as a source of such bees was discussed and it was stated that Wisconsin would buy many times the number they now buy if Texas could supply them. L. C. Jorgensen of Green Bay is president and H. F. Wilson of Madison is secretary of this asso.ciation.

Do all the good you can and you will find this is not such a bad old world


I


At one of our annual meetings a certain member of the Association was described by L. F Scholl, who was presiding, as "the encyclopedia of Texas beekeepers." The President said that if anyone would mention the name of a post office this member could give the names off hand of the more important beekeepers who lived there or if a beeman's name was mentioned the address could be at once supplied. We tried it and found that Mr. Scholl had not exaggerated.
There once was a strange preacher came to our town who wanted to mail a letter. He asked a native to direct him to the post office.
Native-"Don't you know the way to the post office?"
Preacher-"No, but if you will come around to the First Street Chapel tonight I will tell you the way to Heaven."
Native-"Fat chance. You don't even know the way to the post office and then think you can tell me the way to heaven."
Lots of folks are like that. The subject of this sketch started early in life to find the way to practical co-operation among beekeepers. In season and out she strove toward the one goal. She early found that she must learn the way to other things first and she made a study of Texas beekeeping and bee people. Since her sixteenth year, she- lived and thought and worked in the atmosphere of apiculture. As filing clerk, stenographer, secretary, student and


LL


Alma M. Hasslbauer is now known everywhere as the "Queen Bee of Texas Beedom" and no meeting of our state bodies or activities anywhere is considered complete without her. She is herself an extensive honey producer and is part owner of the Sunny South Apiaries. She is an enthusiast over the future of the Aluminum Honey Combs and is a director in the Texas company -which manufactures them in San Antonio, Texas.
A few years ago she bought an old run-down farm which she has named "Linda Vista" and is building up along modern lines. On it she has planted hundreds of imprvoed pecan trees and other fruits and nuts. Let us hope that she will be as successful there as when she first helped in planting the seeds of co-operation among the Texas bee farms.
San Antonio, Texas.

Only $1.00 for a new and better beekeeping publication for 1921, will be our new subscription price. Better send your dollar now.


Ago o %
ome Beekeepers of Texas
Conducted by
E. Guy LESTOURGEON
P. 0. Box 1048 San Antonio, Texas


11


You will want to read the farm paper published by the editor of your bee paper. You will find it an excellent

medium on agricultural affairs.



Scoll sMonthly Farmer

LOUIS H. SCHOLL, E ditoor

Only 50 Ce nts a YerP


It is a farm and home paper, of interest to every member of the family, in country or town. It has departments on the household, boys and girls, bees, poultry and fruit etc. You will appreciate it.



School S Monthly Farmer, New Braunfels, Texas


II II


I


teacher she has in one way or another come in contact with every bee man or bee woman in the state. She studied their needs and their problems. She knows as much or more about the honey flora and climate and soil conditions in Texas as any other person in the State.
Having thus learned the "way to the post office" she was ready to help in pointing "the way to Heaven." When conditions became intolerable and the bee industry of the State seemed doomed, a few years ago, she championed the cause of organization. In those early days,-now only four years ago in fact, but seeming longer because of our great advancement since,-her fingers typed every letter and announcement concerning the movement. Her close touch with the bee folk of Texas and her knowledge of their psychology and needs was of inestimable help.
When the Texas Honey Producers Association was organized she identified herself wholeheartedly in the movement and showed her great faith by working day and night in its


























ALMA M. HASSLBAUER

interest at a pitifully small salary. She felt certain that the foundation had been correctly laid and that upon it would be built a lasting and noble structure. Her faith was certainly justified. Today she is Secretary of the Association and she finds her chief joy in its achievement.


165






THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM


-OFF SEASON WORK FOR THE BEEKEEPER.

W. E. JOOR
After our bees are laid away for winter, some seem to have the idea that in connection with the bees nothing is to be done until the spring yard work starts again; say, here in the Dallas district, the latter part of February or the first part of March, depending on the weather. Such is far from the case with the real dved in the wool beernan. When he cannot work with the bees, he thinks and works for them.
Among the things to be done in the off season are such as: selling of honey still on hand, if any; taking an inventory of supplies and equipment; making a statement of his bee business to find where he is; planning the object to be worked for the next year; what kind of honey, (as extracted, bulk comb or section and what proportion of each) how much increase to make and how shall he raise or buy his queens, location of outyards, if any, and the number of colonies in each, etc.; estimating the equipment and- supplies that will be needed; ordering same and putting it together after it is received; planning methods of handling and thinking over the past season's activities to see where mistakes have been made, how to correct these and improve on past methods; looking over the old bee periodicals and checking up knowledge by re-reading these periodicals and the various bee books that have been'furnished us by the authorities.
The ordering of supplies should be attended to as early as possible, but I am going to discuss that subject next month as I want to tell of a hobby of mine in this paper, for I think it the most important part of the whole years work. It is the last subject mentioned in the preceeding paragraph. That is read up.
I have been thinking industriously on this subject ever since the College Station meeting and Mr. Scholl's paper there. It was an emphatic opinion with me before but Mr. Scholl gave me a push along the same road. Also there was an editorial in the last issue of THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM along the same lines.
Now. I hear you say "Joor is a book beekeeper", Am I? I fear not, but I would like to be. Let me quote from the account giver of the meeting at Colloge Station where, in speaking of Mr Scholl's paper it says "In discussing this subject from a practical standpoint and the part it plays in beekeeping, he


said that without beekeeping literature there would be no progress i n beekeeping." I couldn't say it better.
When the beginner, and possibly the old hand too, runs against a stump he goes to his nearest beekeeping friend or the one he knows, whom he thinks can help him most, and seeks information. This one may be of small ability or knowledge or he may be well versed in beekeeping, but the chances are, he is not of outstanding knowledge or ability. Would it not be better to talk it over with men like Langstroth, Quinby, Alexander, Doolittle, Miller, the Dandants, or Phillips, or Pellett. You say, "yes, but I cannot talk with them for some are dead and the others are far away".
Beg pardon? But you can talk with them. They have all given us their best ideas in the books they have written, many of them the knowledge gained by very many. years of experience and experimenting. If you know what these men say you can handle almost any situation that may confront you. But you


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THAT THE LEAHY MANUFACTURING COMPANY are manufacturers of the best Comb Foundation, Frames, Hives, and all Bee Keepers' Equipment, at the most reasonable prices? They do that very thing. And if MI, you are in need, or will be soon, don't delay in sending
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Pellelt'S PracticaI ueen earing

BY FRANK C. PELLETT

To get the best honey yields it is necessary to have good queens in your colonies
No matter how good your ability to care for the bees, how well adapted your hives, nor whether the honey flow may be abundant, the colonies will not give best results unless they are in first-class condition and strong in number of bees. This will depend upon
the kind of a queen in the hive.
This new work on queen rearing methods should be in the hands of every beekeeper
whether he owns a few or many colonies.
All the leading practical queen rearing methods are discussed in a plain manner so
every reader can understand them. The book is worth many times its price.

You Need A Copy -- Order It To-Day

Arrangements have been made whereby a, copy can be obtained with a club subscription to this publication. Price $1.00, with The B eekeepers -Item, the year, both $1.75.

Send Orders to The Beekeepers Item, New Braunfels, Texas


166










WAL.L P AP ER, W IN D OW GLASS


Harrison's Town and Country

Paint, Artists' Material:

Let us figure on your needs of Bee Hive and
Other Painting.

Prompt attention to out-of-town orders.



FRE H U M "


204-6-8 W. Commerce St.

San Antonio, - - - - - - - - - Texas



Attention: Texas Beekeepers

Do you know Carl F. Buck of Augusta, Kansas, makes the very best Weed Process Comb Foundation in the country? And the freight to his factory is less And his price for working wax and selling foundation are very low? And he pays the best prices for beeswax. Write him. His address is

CARL F. PUCK
Established 1889. AUGUSTA, KANSAS.


LIPPINCOTTS FARM MANUALS'






PRODUCTIVE BEE-KEEPING BY FRANK C PELLETT.


THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM






ESTABLISHED 1890


San Antonio's Largest Seed, Feed and
Poultry Supply House


Queen's and Cypher's
Incubators,
Brooders and Hovers.

Write Us for Prices
Main Store, 321 E. Commerce St.

SAN ANTONIO, ----- TEXAS




STANDARD PRINTING COMPANY
(Successors to Wilson-Schwegmann) Printers, Blank-Book Manufacturers
English, German, Spanish

We Print The Texas Honey Producers Association Special Letter Heads for Members.

Also Other Stationery.
206 Navarro Street, San Antonio, Texas


"PR ODUCTIvE BEEKEEPING"
By Frank C. Pellet
One of Lippincott's "Farm Manual" Series, this book of 326 pages is finely gotten up, finely bound, and has 134 .illustrations, nearly all original with the author. Price $2.50
READ THE CONTENTS BELOW:
1. Beekeeping a Fascinating Pursuit 8. Feeding
2. The Business of Beekeepin-g 9. Productoin of Comb Honey
3. Making a Start With Bees 10. Production of Extracted Honey
4 Arrangement of the Apiary 11. Wax-A By-Product of the Apiary
5. Sources of Nectar 12. Diseases and Enemies of Been
6. The Occupants of the Hive 13. Wintering
7. Increase 14.Marketing the Honey Crop
15. Laws That Concern the Beekeeper

Clubbed with The Beekeepers Item, One Year, Postpaid, $3.25
Send All Orders to The Beekeepers Item, New Braunfels, Tex.


T imAe tv otud oyoods


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While waiting for the honey-season to begin, suppose you investigate the relative values of different commercial woods. Few business undertakings call for more exacting care on the part of the buyer than getting the best lumber for the bee-man's use. In many respects bee-hive construction is like Greenhouse construction-both are most trying on the material used.
Cypress is the only wood that "stands up" in Greenhouse work. It resists the rot influences that infest the Greenhouse. No other wood is so thoroughly certified for this use as is Cypress.
If Cypress will "stand the racket" in Greenhouse construction it certainly will do the right thing by you in beekeeping.
Read Cypress Books
Those who would get accurate information regarding Cypress wood and its extraordin-ary power to resist rot influences should provide themselves with copies of the Cypress
Pocket Library. There are 43 volumes, each authentic and authoritative. Write us and
tell us what subject, you are interested in, and will send you the appropriate booklet. We especially suggest that you write for Vol. 1, with the unabridged U. S. Govt. Rept. on Cypress, "The Wood Eternal," that is a buy because it lasts so like-well, it lasts and lasts and lasts and lasts and lasts.


167


should be throughly familiar with their report, even if you may not actually remember them, so that, given a particular situation you can at once locate where the desired information is and get it when in need. A case in point? A certain exceptionally expert and well informed beekeeper asked another .beeman his ideas of the best method of introducing a breeding queen, which he valued at $100.00, under certain specified conditions. The answer described that man's opinion on the subject (which was at once accepted by the owner of the queen) and he then stated it could be found described in a centain standard bee book and probably in several others. An investigation showed it to be given in not less than three other authorities. Having authoritative information readily at hand is a great asset, that can be had only by persistent thoughtful reading, studying and rereading of our best literature until it is a part of our every day work tools.
So on the winter evenings and other spare time, get out the bee papers and carefully read them over again, then get down your bee books (or if you haven't these order at least two or three of the best) and study them carefully, remembering they are nothing but the recorded opinions and experiences of careful, intelligent, observant men after many years with the bees. They will aid you in forming sound opinions of your own and teach facts about bees that you could not get by yourself, except after many years with the bees present methods, how to get your bees safely through the winter, how to get them strong mistakes, where you can improve on your ised inoX no Aoqs ilV 4q -(Ile i( , p) for the flow, how to control swarming, how to handle your honey, how to recognize and combat disease, how to put your hives together and help you to decide on what equipment you need.
I want to express with the utmost emphasis the necessity of getting the information given by our greatest beemasters so it can be a part of us and permit us to make the most of our bees. We have a much better opportunity
than they had if we will only take advantage of what we have.
Acquire a good bee library and use it until you carry it around with you in your hand.
That I may show my faith by my works,


I would say I usually every month receive Gleanings, the American Bee Journal, the Domestic Beekeeper and last but not least, THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM. I also own, and read, fourteen of the best known books on beekeeping, besides numbers of bulletins and printed reports of beekeepers' meetings.
Dallas, Texas.

PITFALLS IN COOPERATION

Undercapitalization and inefficient management are the pitfalls to be avoided in co-operative marketing organizations. Unless conditions have been carefully analyzed and the business venture bids fair to succeed it is best to "go slow."-Market Reporter.

Q-Do you advise beekeepers to plant milkweed?-Blue Weed Bill, Ind.
A-You bet, then the land will flow with milk and honey.
P. S.-On the q. t. don't let the farmers know you plant 'em, the cows kick.


For the Bee Man

This is the Period

"Between Hay and Grass"


SOUTHERN CYPRESS MFGRS.' ASSOCIATION
1277 Perdido Building, New Orleans, La., and
1277 Heard National Bank Building, Jacksonville, Fla.
Please Address Nearest Office.


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16$


The Beekeepers Iter

LOUIS H. SCHOLL......Editor and Proprietor

Published Monthly
Subscription....................50c Year

Entered as second class matter Dec. 13, 1916, at the Postoffice at New Braunfels, Texas, under the Act of March 3, 1879.

CHANGE OF ADDRESS: When a change of ad-dress is ordered, both the new and old must be given. The notice should be sent as promptly as possible before the change is to take effect.
DISCONTINUANCES: Notice will be given just before expiration. Subscribers arq zcge d, if unable to make payment at once after expiration, to notify us when they can do so. Any one wishing his subscription discontinued should so advise us upon receipt of the expiration notice; otherwise it will be assumed that he wishes The BeeKeepers Item continued and will pay for it soon.
ADVERTISING RATES: These will be furnished upon application.


The editor and all the others who help to make up THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM, join in wishing our many readers of this and the many other countries to which its circulation extends, a most happy holiday season. It is hoped, also, that the year of 1921 will prove a prosperous one for one and all.

Never buy bees "subject to inspection" during the broodless period; (here, Oct. 15th to Jan. 15th.) The colonies are so nearly broodless that it is usually impossible to detect disease. The same objection applies to general bee-inspection during that period.

E. G. LeStourgeon, manager, and Miss Alma M. Hasslbauer, secretary of the Texas Honey Producers Association, attended the meeting of the American Honey Producers League held in Chicago, Dec. 6th and 7th. -They also visited several other cities on business for the Texas Honey Producers Association on the return trip.

It matters little what a man's personal opinion on tariff may be, the consensus of opinion of the beekeepers of the United States is that a protective tariff on bee products is highly desirable. A large number of arguments are advanced in favor of this movement. The
honey from the West Indies and Central and South America is inferior in, quality and infested with bee diseases. It comes packed in second hand barrels and is sold at a very low price. In normal times this honey does not reach us but goes to Europe, but today it is all being dumped into our seaport markets. While it is a fact that the quantity is not great, but the quality is such as to spoil the market for good honey. It is true that there exists a tariff of 10-12 of a cent per pound on honey, but this is not enough. This honey is now being sold at 6 and 8c and can be sold at 4c. Canada sends us good honey but charges us, we are informed, 5c per lb. on what we send to that country. If that amount is good in Canada it should be good to us. Our wax trade is in danger of being demoralized as the bulk of foreign beeswax once shipped into the Russian Empire for church candles is now being sold in our seaport towns at just enough to pay freight.


TH E BEEKEEPERS ITEM

BEEKEEPING ENTOMOLOGIST TO MEET.

This meeting will be held in Chicago, December 29, 1920. F. B. Paddock, formerly State Entomologist of Texas, but now State Apiarist of Iowa, is chairman. The following program will be given:
Address by the chairman-"Better Queens," F. B. Paddock, Ames, Iowa.
Reading of papers and discussions.
"Some Apicultural Investigations," by Wallace Park, Ames, Iowa. (15 minutes.)
"Queen Bees," by L. B. France, Universitj Farm, St. Paul, Minn. (10 minutes.)
"The Relationship Between the Complete Life Cycle of the Honey Bee and the Blooming Dates of the More Important Honey Plants," by H. B. Parks, San Antonio, Texas. (10 minutes.)
"Further Notes on the Value of Winter Protection," by J. H. Merrill, Manhattan, Kansas. (15 minutes.)
"Beekeeping Problems Which Should be Undertaken by the Experiment Stations," by Frank C. Pellett, Hamilton, Ill. (10 minutes.)
Symposium-Foul Brood-(30 minutes):
"Stopping the Distribution of American Foul Brood at its Source," by S. B. Fracker, Madison, Wisconsin.
"Legislation for Control of Foul Brood," by M. C. Tanquary, College Station, Texas.
"Investigations in Bee Diseases," by A. P. Sturtevant, Washington, D. C.

WE MUST LEARN BUSINESS METHODS.

The present decline in prices will cause some loss and suffering in some lines. The chief suf-. ferers will be mainly those who have not yet learned that beekeeping is a business enterprise, the same as storekeeping or manufacturing, and must be carried on in exactly the same systematic, economical and efficient manner.
If there is any single lesson which the beekeepers need to learn above all others it is just this: The marketing end of their business is equally important with the producing. Too many have been content to raise bumper crops and sell them for whatever they could get, regardless of market conditions and needs. We shall never have scientific, efficient apiculture until beemen generally learn how to market


their stuff as scientifically as they produce- it.
Just as soon as the rank and file of beekeepers have the means and the sense to study the market and take advantage thereof, just as soon will apiculture become a stable industry. In a word, when we learn to hold our honey until we can secure the best possible market price therefore, to dispose of it before too great a decline, such uncertainty as we are experiencing nowadays will have disappeared to a great extent.
The main beekeepers of America are rapidly becoming good businwes men. They are learning that beekeeping is big business as much as any other form of industry; that, in a way, it is as big as any big business, When we learn that the honey business is too big to expect little favors continuously, that it is so big it must demand skill in selling as well as iii producing, that it is so big it requires a study of the market conditions every morning, we shall have ceased this rather unsystematic, hand-tomouth method of producing and marketing which has been permitted to come to pass. Then we shall have the beekeeper marketing his honey


systematically, minimizing the possibilities of a temporary crisis, such as the one through which we are now passing.

OUR NEW SIZE NEXT MONTH.

This is the last issue of THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM that will appear in this form of sixteen large pages. For four years it has made its appearance in the large page size, beginning with only eight pages. In spite of the increase in number of pages and other improvements, such as better paper, new type and other things, the original subscription price was maintained.
But there has been an increasing demand for a change in the size of THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM, one that would make it handier for filing without folding, and better adapted for binding the comip!ete volumes. This will be met by the new size in which our next issue will appear. Thirty-two pages and a cover, about half as large as the present size, will make it more like other journals and magazines.
The subscription price will, however, be one dollar per annum hereafter; and we feel that our many readers will find it still low enough in price to continue subscribing for it; the real, live, up-to-now bee journal we are going to try our best to make of this publication.
In this connection we wish to announce that it will be our effort to give more short, brief and spicy articles on beekeeping subjects. We realize that the average busy beekeeper, has as a rule, little time to read long discussions, which, if boiled down, might require less of his valuable time, especially during the busy season. To this end we would appreciate contributions with this point in view.


THE CHICAGO MEETING OF THE AMERICAN
HONEY PRODUCERS' LEAGUE.

The executive committee of the American Honey Producers League, met in Chicago, Dec. 6th and 7th. The president, E. G. LeStourgeon of San Antonio, Texas, called this meeting and invited all the friends of the League to meet with the executive committee to plan for the launching of the new movement. Many of the prominent bee men of the United States and Canada were present.
The executive committee took the following action: B. F. Kindig, state apiary inspector of


Michigan was elected vice-president in place of George H. Rea of Ithaca, N. Y., resigned. In place of Charles B. Justice of California, who was temporary secretary the executive committee appointed H. B. Parks of San Antonio, formerly with the Experiment Station, College Station, Texas, to be acting secretary and treasurer.
The following committeemenn with power to select their associates were elected: Education, B. F. Kindig of Grand Rapids, Mich.; Equipment, C. B. Baxter, Leavenworth, Kas.; Legislattive, C. P. Campbell of Grand Rapids, Mich.; Markets, Frank Rauchfuss, Denver, Colo.; Legal Aid, 0. L. Hbrshier, Kenmore, N. Y.; Arbitration, H. B. Parks, San Antonio; Research, Dr. E. F. Phillips, Washington, D. C.
!n order that something might be accomp-lished at once to help in relieving the present market situation a committee on advertising was appointed. This committee has the power to solicit funds and to get ads relative to the uses of honey on the market just as rapidly as possible. Clifford Muth of Cincinnati is






THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM


chairman of this committee. C. B. Baxter and H. B. Parks are also on that committee.
The regular meeting of this league will take place in Indianapolis, Indiana, February 15th, 16th and 17th. At this meeting, the above committeemen will report the activities which have been commenced and the progress made. Those state associations which have become affiliated with the league are entitled to a representative at this meeting and should notify the secretary before the time of the meeting relative to their represntative so that proper credentials may be issued. All of the committees or bureaus are now ready for action. Anyone desiring the aid of any of these bureaus should address their communications to H. B. Parks, Secretary-Treasurer of American Honey Producers League, Box 838, San Antonio, Texas. The letter will then be sent to the proper men for action.
The American Honey Producers League extends a cordial invitation and urges the attendance of everyone interested in the betterment of beekeeping to attend the Indianapolis meeting.


ATKINS GOES TO LEWIS COMPANY

The demand for well trained men in beekeeping is more apparent today than ever before. Employment of such beekeepers by business establishments are becoming more frequent. Only last month we announced that Geo. S. Demuth had joined the editorial ranks of "Gleanings in Culture." This month finds us with a similar announcement, that of E. W.
Atkins, going to the G. B.
Lewis Co., of Watertown, Wis., in charge of their service department. Our readers will find an announcement to this effect in their advertisement in this issue.

THE NATIONAL LEAGUE SECRETARY

At the meeting of the executive committee of the American Honey Producer's League, H. B. Parks was elected as Secretary-Treasurer of the League with temporary office in, San Antonio, Texas. All remittances to the League treasury and all League correspondence should


be addressed in future to Mr. Parks at Box 838, San Antonio, Texas.
Mr. Parks comes well qualified by experience and temperament to carry on the work for which he has been chosen.
Mr. Parks was born in Carlinville, Ill., 40 years ago and was graduated from Blackburn University, Carlinville, Ill., with the degree of B. S. in 1900. He attended graduate school, University of Missouri, summer sessions of 1915, 1916 and 1917. In addition to experience in managing and operating farms he has been special agent for the Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture. He
came here in that capacity in 1917, took up work with the Extension Service in 1918 as Extension Entomologist and in July, 1919, accepted the position with the Experiment Station to handle the work of the Station as provided for under the special appropriation made by the regular session of the Thirty-sixth Legislature for experimental apiaries for the Station.


quoting Prices on Bees and Queens
Price on Queens
Untested, $1.50 each, $15.00 dozen, 25 or more $1.00 each.
Tested, $2.50 each, $25.00 dozen,, 25 or more $1.75 each.
Price on Nuclei with Untested Queens Two-frame, $5.50 each, 25 or more, $5.00 each. Three-frame, $6.50 each, 25 or more, $6.00 each. The above prices are for pure Italian Bees and Queens of tle very finest
strain. I expect to ship 1,000 or more nuclei and would be glad to have your
order, which will have my very best attention.
All combs are built from full sheets foundation on Hoffman frames. My
bees are free from any disease.
SOUTH GEORGIA APIARIES W. T. DONALSON, -Prop., Hebardville, Ga. References. Apalachicola State Bank, American Exchange Bank, Apalachicola, Fla.




IIIII!IIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIII IIII I 111 O

ILL SELL AT W]HOLESALE


C1ARis MNDENG ABg Stock of Bee Supplies

- ALL BOXED, ready to ship at once-thousands of
Hoffman Frames; also Jumbo and Shallow Frames of all kinds-100 and 200 in a box. Big stock of Sections and fine polished Dovetailed Hives and Supers. Send for a price list. I can save you money. Will take your Beeswax in Trade at Highest Market Price.
CHAS. MONDENG
J_159 Cedr Lake Road MINNEAPOLIS, MINN.

B ilIliI~ i I IlI I I IIl ii I i III I11I 1111 III 1111 111111111 fill IIIIIIIIIT,










As has already been announced, THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM will, beginning with
the January number, be published in a different form, about half the present size of page, but 32 pages and a cover. There will be a number of other improements also that, we are sure, our readers will appreciate.


To Increase Our Subscription List


Our list already covers a large number of subscribers from every State, Canada, Mexico and more than a dozen foreign countries. We want to increase this number with new names, and as a special offer to new subscribers we will send the December number of this year with a full year's subscription, to and including December 1921, for $1.00 postpaid. Foreign subscription 25 cents additional for postage.


ill be International in Scope

While THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM began as a small monthly, with a more or ises local circulation principally, and covered the Texas beekeeping field, it has long outgrown its former scope and rached in circulation an subject matter a much broader field. Our subscribers will, therefore, get the benefit of the change to a publication that will be of interest to them no matter where they may happen to be.

Send all your subscriptions direct toNew Braunfels, Texas


169






170


The Honey Crop Conditions
Conducted by
Miss A. M. HASSLBAUER
P. o. Box 1048 San Antonio, Texas



Reports received during the past month confirm the statement made last month relative to horsemint. The late rains brought up the plants and they are now present in countless numbers. If these seedlings do not winter kill, next year will be another horsemint season. Reports at this office show that more than one-fourth of our honey crop came from this plant.
The weather is yet ideal, the bees fly freely on bright days. A far larger number of beekeepers have on "Demuth" feeders than ever before. In those sections where there was no early fall flow the late rains brought out the late flow and these localities are now in fair shape.
The majority of our members have disposed of their year's crop and are preparing for the spring work. Many of them are expecting to sell combless packages.
The flow from Live Oak Galls seems to have failed entirely this fall. We can hear of no one that has had such a flow or has seen any new galls.
The Como flow is still on in the Rio Grande Valley. Como is the name applied to two separate trees growing in the extreme South Texas. One has small black berries and large leaves, the other has large blue berries and


THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM

small leaves. It is from the latter plant that the honey flow comes. This Como blooms from October until January, owing to the locality. The berries are ripened the following summer, and are quite an article of food among the Mexicans. The range of this plant io from the Leona south into Mexico.
The question is asked, "Does a crop of beans follow a mesquite honey flow?" Or to put it another way,if one visits a mesquite country where there are no bees and finds the mesquite fruiting regularly and profusely is he justified in believing that this is a good bee location? My observation is that this is true. Some
-years the trees bloom but set very little fruit. We have noted that the heavy bean yields have been the years when most mesquite honey was gathered.

HONEY MARKETS UNSETTLED

The markets for extracted honey continue weak and unsettled. Still lower levels are exipected in some cities because of the large supplies remaining in tre hands of western beekeepers and associations. Comb honey prices are firm under fairly good demand, resulting from a light supply of this class.
Among the honey interests in southern California lower prices are expected in the nearfuture. Few sales are being made and the trade in most consuming centers is buying from hand-to-mouth only. Quotations f. o. b. California points, per lb. in 5-gal. cans, follow: White Orange and White Sage 16 to 18c; Extra Light Amber Orange and Sage 17c; Light Amber Sage 12 to 16c; Light Amber Alfalfa 11 to 15c.


BEESWAX MARKETS

Liberal receipts of foreign and domestic beeswax have weakened the price of this usually stable commodity in some markets. In Chicago light stock from Oklahoma and Minnesota has sagged to a range of 31 to 34c per lb., a drop of 9c a lb. in about two weeks. A weak 'and unsettled situation in Cincinnati, as is seen in the range of 38 to 46c per lb. in sales to dental supply companies and other large users, a most unusual range for average yellow stock over a brief period. Most other beeswax markets continue steady. In southern California, sacks of beeswax are selling in less than carloads mostly at 40c per lb. f. o. b. shipping points.

BUY ONLY AS NEEDED

In New York City, supplies are being bought only as needed, with no apparent prospect of improvement in market conditions. Sales to confectioners and jobbers of California Light Amber Alfalfa are being made at 13% to 15c per lb., Light Amber Sage at 16 to 17c and even White Orange Blossom and White Sage are down to 15 to 17'2c per lb. West Indian and South American refined honey, in barrels, has weakened still further during the past few weeks, and is now quoted mostly at 60 to 70c per gal. Lower prices are anticipated in Chicago also, where the buyers are pursuing a waiting policy. Sales to bottlers of Minnesota and Colorado White Clover and Alfalfa range 17 to 17'2c per lb. Boston holds firm for California old crop White Sage at 22 to 23c per lb.


~-


DADANT PERFECT FOUNDATION


Where You Furnish Wax

We work beeswax into Dadant Foundation at the following. prices f. o. b. San Antonio, for prompt shipment.


Med. Brood .---.-..- 40c
.......--.38c
.---- .... 35c
---.-----32c
.....- - 30c


Light Brood Thin Super Ex. Thin
45c 50c 55c
43c 47c soc
40c 42c 45c
35c. 38c 40c
32c 35c 37c


ALUMINUM HONEY COMBS

Price per comb, 60c.
Standard Langstroth size available now.
Ideal Extracting Supers, Modified.
Dadant and Jumbo Combs Will be Ready for Delivery
After Feb. 1, 1921.
Write for our new catalog, containing full description and prices on:
FAMOUS LEWIS "BEE WARE"
DADANT'S PERFECT FOUNDATION WOODMAN'S "BINGHAM" SMOKER
MUTH'S IDEAL BEE VEIL
ALUMINUM HONEY COMBS


We always pay the highest price for


BEES


WAX


Cash price f. o. b. San Antonio, 35c; exchange price, 38c. Ship us all the Beeswax you can. Our price is two to five cents per pound more than Texas dealers are offering.




Texas Honey Producers Association


San Antonio, Texas


Southwestern Distributors


II


Less Than 10-lb. Lots 25-lb. Lots 50-lb. Lots 100-lb. Lots 500-lb. Lots


LI






THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM


PARALYSIS IN HONEY BEES

E. G. LESTOURGEON
In the November issue, on page 148, Major Shallard refers again to a discussion of bee paralysis that was carried on in these columns in 1917. To those having complete files of THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM, I would refer to articles in the February, April, May, June, July and December numbers of that year. Articles by H. Brenner, H. D. Murry, Major Shallard and myself appeared, discussing at length a conclusion we had reached concerning the cause and cure of this malady.
Briefly, the theory advanced by Mr. Brenner and myself was that paralysis, (as we know it in the South and West), is caused by the use of fermented stores in the preparation of larval food. Experiments were reported where the disease was caused and removed practically at will. The contagious or infectious nature of the disease was denied and apparently disproven. The epidemic feature was explained from the fact that if one colony has access to soured or unfit stores each one in the apiary also might do so. Continued observation led to the conclusion that the disease affects only nurse bees and when these become affected other adult bees take up the function of nursing until the entire colony is swept away or becomes hopelessly enfeebld.
This theory of the causation of the disease brought out quite a discussion in this magazine and other bee journals. Many authorities accepted it and it was fairly well established as being the true solution of the mystery sur-rounding the disease. Dr. C. C. Miller gave it in some of his "Answers" and mentions it in his latest book.
Afterward it became apparent that the name bee paralysis is somewhat like charity, in that it covers a multitude of diseases. Once, not long ago, all diseased larvae was "foul brood" until one after another the symptoms of European, American and Sacbrood were discovered and differentiated. It doubtless will be proven so with this disease. May disease, Isle of Wight, Nosema Apis, paralysis, dysentery, disappearing disease, vertigo, and in fact every disease of the adult bee has at sometime been popularly referred to as "paralysis." It is apparent that further research will find separate causes and symptoms for many of them.
A ray of light is thrown on this subject by


the editor of the American Bee Journal on page 408 of the December number where he refers to the discovery by a British investigator of a mite which enters the particular breathing tubes of the bee, "feeds on the bee's blood, blocks the air passages, and thus cuts off the supply of oxygen from certain muscles and nerve centers concerned with locomotion." Mr. A. H. Wood, the discoverer, suggests this mite to be the true cause of the disease known as Isle of Wight, which is perhaps the form referred to by the Major.
We are more and more convinced that the "paralysis" of California and Texas bees is a far different disease than Isle of Wight and one that is much less dangerous. In the fall of 1919 a severe epidemic of this disease was reported from Frio, Bee, Atascosa and Medina counties in Texas and our State Apiarist advised the feeding of newly made sugar syrup or the uncapping of sealed honey in the hives. In every case reported an immediate cure was effected and the disease quickly disappeared.


The advertiser wants to know whether his advertisements will bring results. That is why he advertises.
He will want to know this when he places an advertisement in a publication. That is business.
There are several ways of determining this. One is that of an actual trial. The other, by asking others.

WHAT WE OURSELVES BELIEVE
Of course, our own opinion is that the advertiser who has something to offer that our class of readers may desire, will get results through the use of advertising space in our publication. If it were not we would not offer it to the advertiser.
q This belief is strengthened by the excellent results that our own advertisements have brought us in every instance. The continued use of our columns by our regular advertisers but adds to this. This should be convincing evidence in favor of our publication as an advertising medium.

WHAT SOME OF THE OTHERS SAY
Expressions from satisfied advertisers speak louder than our own. A few absolutely unsolicited testimonials, picked at randow from our files, give some favorable testimony to show that the use of our advertising columns


bring results.


Here are just a few of them:


"Enclosed please find check for advertisement. Kindly run our advertisement for three more months. We have had quite a few inquiries through your paper. Thanking you in advance, we remain,
W. ODELL LEARN CO. San Antonio, Texas."

"Enclosed find stamps to cover the above. You may drop the advertisement from next issue. The advt. in the "Item" brought more orders than I could fill. Many thanks for same. E. W. SOMERFELD,
Brenham, Texas."

"Please find check of $1.00 to pay for the White Leghorn ad., and discontinue same for the present as the.season is over. Will advertise with you again next spring.
J. C. PARKS,
Scottsboro, Texas."

"I haven't a copy of your advertising rates, but knowing from experience that the "Item" is a result-getter, I am sending you an advt., which please insert in the very earliest publication.
H. A. McCARLEY,
Dallas, Texas."


"I wish to say that ie resuls of my advertising in your journay were eminently satisfactory. While I had only a small queen yard, I had all the orders I could fill and had to decline orders for over five hundred queens. I think that is quite remarkable, considering the short time the 'ad.' appeared in your paper and the latenes of its first appearance.
H. D. MtURRY,
Roxton, Texas."

"The advertisement sure got me replies. I could have sold several times what I advertised, and am still getting a few answers.
J. A. CUNINGHAM,
St. Jo, Texas."

"I am well pleased with the results from this season's queen ad. in the "Item." Scnd bill and I will send check to cover.
L. L. BUTTS,
Normana, Texas."

"Enclosed find check of $10.00 for advertising. For a time we had more orders than we could fill. Will send new ad. later.
E. B. AULT,
Calallen, Texas."


READY FOR NEW BUSINESS The season of 1921 is rapidly approaching and we are ready to give prompt attention to your advertising needs. Our new size of this publication will be especially attractive, and we shall appreciate all early arrangements for advertising space. Rates for space and other information will be cheerfully furnished on application. These two applications are right in line:


"I notice in the Beekeepers Item that you are going to change it to a smaller form beginning with the January Number. Please send me your advertising rates for the new journal as I would like to place an ad. in it.
JOHN G. MILLER,
Corpus Christi, Texas."


"I should like to receive quotations on either a half page or quarter page advertisement. I want to advertise in a Southern paper, and having received a sample copy of The Beekeepers Item, I think it would be a very good paper to advertise in.
CHARLES MONDENG,
Minneapolis, Mo."


Kindly address all communications direct to


TeeeBkeenpers Itemt


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172


This treatment might not have cured the disease reported by Major Shallard. Therefore, because the symptoms are somewhat smiliar, he calls a disease paralysis that may be far different in its cause and cure from the disease called by the same name in the southern and western parts of this country.

BEEKEEPERS' NEWS ITEMS.

Mr. and Mrs. William Atchley of Uplands, California, pioneers of the bee industry in Texas are visiting friends in the State.

The Aluminum Honey Comb Co. of Texas are now making shallow extracting combs. This comb is a beauty and has several exclusive features not included in any previous frames. The factory will be running full blast by Feb. 1st.

The United States exported honey to foreign countries to the amount of 152,530 pounds in 1920. Nearly one-third of this went to the Netherlands.

Carol E. Weber is our champion long distance beekeepr. One of his large apiaries is located in Los Angeles county, California, and one just east of San Antonio, Texas. In a re-


THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM

cent letter, he advises that he will give it up and move all his bees to Texas next spring. He has studied conditions in both States and has decided on Texas as having the greater advantages.

G. K. Shearer has, accepted the editorship of the Harlingen Star at Harlingen, Texas, and will be grateful for any news items or information concerning beekeeping in the lower Valley.

The Province of Quebec, Can., reports that in 1919, it had 5,631 beekeepers owning 58,222 hives and produced 2,366,620 lbs. of honey valued at $1,647,472. Of the 44,610 colonies inspected 1,258 had suffered from disease.

F. L. Wignall of the firm of Smith & Wignall, Kerrville, Texas, visited the Association Dec. 13th. He reports a normal crop of honey and most of it sold locally.

Z. F. Williams of Lyford, Texas, produced a large crop of honey this year. H'e is one of the most successful of the Rio Grande Valley apiarists.

Dr. M. C. Tanquary, State Entomologist of Texas, visited the pink boll worm infested parts


Df Mexico the latter part of November. He called on the Honey Producers Association when he passed through San Antonio. The Doctor is very much interested in the foul brood campaign that is proceeding so nicely under his direction and stated that while in Mexico he would study the bee situation there.

G. E. Bacon, sales manager of the G. B. Lewis Co., the makers of "Beeware," called at the Texas Honey Producers Association office, Dec. 2nd. Bacon is an enthusiast on bees and bread and was well pleased with Texas.

Dr. Geo. Elam of Marlin, Texas is spending the winter at San Antonio. He was one of the first men to keep bees on a large scale in North Central Texas. The Bemus Apiaries of Falls county, of which his daughter is the manager, is the outgrowth of his bee work.

The demand for pound package bees is very great. All through the North beekeepers are now buying their spring supply. It is doubtful if one-half the demand can be supplied.

Mr. J. M. Richie of Buda visited the Association office Dec. 11th. He reports a fine year and thinks prospects are good for 1921,


ou~r 192A0h 1 Prices on Comb




Foundation just Out



SMade from Wax furnished by Beekeepers


Lots of 100 lbs. 250 lbs. 500 lbs. or more
Medium Brood foundation 25c 23c 20c
Light Brood 27 25 22
Thin Super 30- 28 25
Extra Thin Super 32 30 27
F.O. B. Los Angeles.

If you have not tried our Foundation send in your trial order at once. If you have no wax to be made into foundation get our Prices on Foundation. Also manufacture Bee Hives and Parts of the finest quality. One order will convince you of their superiority.
Full line of supplies carried at all times.
We also Make All Kinds of Boxes and Shipping Crates.





MILLER UOXMANUFACTURING CO.


201 N. Avenue 18 LOS ANGELES, CALIF.























The Texas Experiment Station has prepared a circular giving the names and numoersof the various bulletins that are available for free distribution. Write 'to A. B. Connor, College Station, and ask for a copy of Circular No. 23.


The Association is certainly becoming well known. A letter from a beekeeper addressed:
"First Class Beekeepers Supply House, San Antonio, Texas,"
was unerringly put in our post office box.


The lapel button or pin can be now obtaiaed from the Association office. The price is 50 cents. It is a beauty.. In ordering it, state whether you want a pin or a button and whether you prefer gold or bronze finish.


There is still some honey in Texas to be sold. Remember when you fill your cans that


II

11eXas Honey Producers Ass Rn Notes by

E. G. LESTOURGEON, Manager P. 0. Box 1048 San Antonio, Texas


price is now 32 cents. We would not you to sell your wax at these prices. it worked into Dadant Foundation.


advise Have Note


173


THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM


there is a net weight law and it is being enforced. A five-pound can must contain five pounds of honey. The filled can must weigh five pounds plus the weight of the can. In packing bulk comb, use great care in the choice of comb. A few colored cells in a single piece of comb will spoil the sale on the whole shipment.


In packing your beeswax for shipment it will pay you to run the wax into uniform cakes and then send them wrapped carefully in at least two thicknesses of sacking. Be sure and put your name and address on a card inside of the package. Do not wrap in paper.


The Association is the proud possessor of two 250-gallon glass lined steel honey blending tanks and an automatic net weight machine. These will enable us to handle the Association honey more rapidly and at a less cost than ever before.


Beeswax is much lower in price. We have been forced to reduce our cash price to 30 . cents f. o. b. San Antonio. The exchange


CLASSIFIED ADVER IS CENTS


Rates in these columns are ten cents a line. Minimum charge will be 25 cents. When sending advertisements for this department it must be so stated or we will not be responsible for errors.


POSITIONS WANTED.

LADY ASSISTANT-Clerical help in office, with some knowledge of simple book keeping, billing, listing and stenography preferred. State experience and salary expected in first letter. Scholl's Monthly Farmer, New Braunfels, Texas.

WANTED-To buy bees, state number of colonies, price, kind of hives. condition of hives and bees, and distance from railroad. L. L. Allen, Wingate, Texas.

A POSITION-We can't begin to fill the demand made on us for Draughon-trained students. We will get you a good position or give your money back if you qualify here, Draughon Business College, San Antonio, Texas.

1,000 AGENTS WANTED to sel a selfheating sad-iron. Labor and f'iel saver. Pay salary or comnss1,iR. Agan ts make $15 to $20 per day. Ltt.Jia snake good representatives. Write for terms and free sample. Imperial Sad Iron Company, Box 1005, Fort Worth, Texas.

HONEY AND WAX.

HONEY WANTED-A few cases of ixtracted Mesquite catclaw honey, new crop. Send small sample and quote price F. 0. B Address D. p. Hunt, Blum, Texas.

DARK EXTRACTED HONEY-Can use some off grades or dark extracted honey of otherwise good quality at low price. Send samples, and write size of packages, quaitity, and lowest price wanted, all in first letter. The Louis H. Scholl Apiaries, New Braunfels, Texas.

WAX REFUSE-Don't throw away your
'slum-gum" from your wax meltings. Save them up and ship to us. We will get a lot of wax out of it for you and pay you highest price for it or make it into foundation for you. Write for rates. Dadant & Sons, Hamilton, Ill.

"TEXAS NATURE OBSERVATIONS"-323 pages, photo illustrated true to nature, by Dr. R. Menger, San Antonio, has been honored by all who purchased a volume as a valuable work of information, not to be found in any other book. on Texas fauna and flort,ainsects,rreptiles, hunting and fishing, and nature reminscetices and Texas wild life in general, says Capt. W. Druse, Chief Deputy Sheriff, Bexar County: "I am so well pleased with the copy of "Nature's Observations" that I now wish two more copies: one for "The Waterloo (Ills) Library Club. and the other for "Waterloo (Ills) High School"; please send nice copies, etc. Price $2.25 to any address In Texas.


BEE SUPPLIES.

WANTED-A few Dadant Hives and Supers. What have you? Henry Rice, Woodstock, Ill
TRY THEMI-These classified want ads. Others say they are "result getters," why not for you? Only ten cents a line-the ciseapest way to let others know what you have or what you want.

WANTED-We have installed a steam prices for rendering old combs cappings, and slum gum, and want you to give same a trial. Write us for terms. We pay market price for wax rendered or will make same into MILLER'S CALIFORNIA FOUNDATION. Send for our Catalogue. MILLER BOX MFG. CO., 201 N. Ave. 18, Los Angeles, Cal.

FOR SALE-50 Root 8-frame supers, for 44 plain sections, nailed and painted, without sections, at 80c each; 2,000 "A" Grade44 plain sections, $5.00per 1,000. f. o. b. here; $40 for entire lot. A bargain. Honeydale Apiaries, Centerville, Texas.

MISCELLANEOUS.

WANTED-To buy live snakes, live animals, pets of all kinds. For prices, address W. Odell & Co., 504 Dolorosa St., San Antonio, Texas.

FOR SALE-American Bee Journal of 1910, 1911, 1915, 1916. Each volume 70c. Gleanings in Bee Culture of 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913. Price per volume 75c. Postpaid.' All in good condition. Aug. Teufel, Round Top, Texas.

BACK NUMBERS-We need several
copies of the February issue of The Beekeepers' Item of this year, 1920, and will extend subscriptions one month for this number in good condition. The Beekeepers' Item, New Braunfels, Texas.

ABC & XYZ-A 1908 edition of A B C & XYZ of Bee Culture, in practically new condition. Will mail prepaid by parcel post for $2.00. L. L. Ferebee, Ridgeland, S. C.

SEEDS AND PLANTS

A HARDY TEXAS Thornless Cactus, producing enormous tonnage of green feed at all seasons. Adapted to poorer soils with little or no cultivation. A soil renovator and wash filler. Prolific. Controllable. Inexpensive.nWrite for pamphlet. B. R. Russell & Son. San Saba. Texas.


BEES AND QUEENS.

BEES FOR SALE-40 colonies, queens
pure, young, 3-banded. Bees nearly all
pure. Strong. Plenty honey for winter. 10-frame L. hives. Combs mostly wired. 40 for $400 cash f. o. b. Austin. Dr. E. P. Stiles, Box 414, Austin, Texas.

BEES WANTED-Established apiaries in huajilla or cotton belt; would finance a bee proposition or consider a partnership. All particulars in first letter, E. C. Goodwin, 230 East Commerce St., San Antonio, Texas.
QUEENS -Guaranteed three-band1 a nd
Golden Queens reared in separate yarsis. Book your orders with us and get pure stock. Orders filled in rotation. Begin shipping March 15. Untested, $1.75 each. Tested $3.00 each. Ask for circular and prices on quantities. Dr. White Bee Co., Box 71, Sandia, Texas.

PURE ITALIAN QUEENS-Golden or
Leather colored; packages and nuclei; one untested queen, $1.50; 6, $7.50; 12, $13.50; 50, $55; 100, $100; virgins, 50 cents each. Packages 24 and under $2.25 per lb; 25 and over $2.00 per lb. nuclei, 1 frame $4; 2 frame, $6; 3 frame, $7.50; queesis extra, One story ten-frame colony with queen, $12. Golden Star Apiaries, New Almaden, near San Jose, Calif.

FOSTER'S SELECT THREE-BANDED ITALIAN QUEENS are reared from the best mothers and are mated to choice drones. They are gunsanteed to please. Writesfor descriptive circular and price list. Safe arrival and satisfactoin guaranteed. Hardin S. Foster, Dept. A-1, Columbia, Tennessee.

GOLDENS THAT ARE TRUE TO NAME
-Hundreds of testimonials annually.
Write for list every queen guaranteed. One Selected Unt $1.50; 6, $7.50; 12, $13.50; 50, $55; 100, $100. Garden City Apiaries, San Jose, Calif.
THREE BAND ITALIANSONLY-Uutput over 8,000 queens a year. Selected
Untested, one $1.50; 6, $7.50; 12, $13.50; 50, $55; 100, $100. Safe arrival I guarantee; booking orders now. H. G. Dunn, The Willows, San Jose, Cal.

PURE GOLDEN QUEENS-Queens from
special selected stock; untested queens, 1, $1.50; 6, $7.50; 12, 13.50; 50, $55; 100, 4100. The Royal Apiaries, San Jose Cal.

QUALITY THREE BAND ITALIANSQueens from excellent stock; untested queens, one $1.50; 6, $7.50; 12, $13.50; 50, $55; 100, $100. N. J. James, 1185 Bird Avenue, San Jose. Cal.

BEES BY THE POUND, ALSO QUEENS
-Booking orders now. FreeaCircular gives pricesI etc. See large ad. alsewhere. Nueces County Apiaries, E. B. Ault, Proprietor, Calallen, Texas.
PURE LEATHER COLORED QUEENSby return mail. Prices 1Runtested, $1.50; 6, $8.00; 12, $15.00; 50, $62.50; 100, $100. Tested, $2.50 each; select tested $3.00 each Breeders, $15.00 each. I guarantee safe arrival and pure mating. I keep no Goldens' in my yard.
My reference, Heilman Commercial Trust and Savings Bank, Los Angeles, Calif. GeN E. a!gmont, Watts, Calif.


SPECIAL NOTICES.

FOR SALE-150 colonies Italian bees eleven frames. Extra supplies for hundred or more. Compplete power extracting outfit. Rio Grande valley twelve miles from El Paso, Texas. Two thousand dollars. Also 20 acre farm including 6-room house with other buildings. Sell together or separate. For particulars write, F. C. Belt, 2918 Grant St., El Paso, Texas.
HONEY LABELS-New designs. Catalog free. Eastern Label Co., Clintonville, Con.
FOR SALE-300 colonies of bees in 10frame shallow hives in two apiaries with full equipment, including lath sheds and locations. Delivery in November. Free
from disease and with ample stores. F. J. Severin, Box 145, Imperial, Calif.
BEE BOOKS WANTED-On account of frequent inquiries we have decided to buy and sell for our readers such bee books and journals as they may have to offer or wish to buy. The Beekeepers Item. New Braunfels. Texas.

AUTOMOBILE REPAIRS.
AUTOMOBILE OWNERS should subscribe for the AUTOMOBILE DEALER
& REPAIRER; 150-page illustrated
monthly devoted exclusively to the care and repair of the car. The most practical magazine for beekeepers who own automobiles or gasoline engines. The "Trouble Department" contains five pages of numbered questions each month from car owners and repairmen which are answered by experts on gasoline engine repairs. $1.50 per year; 15 cents per copy. Postals not answered. Charles D. Sherman, 106 Highland Court, Hartford, Conn.

TYPEWRITERS
REAL values in second-hand and rebuilt typewriters, a guarantee of satisfaction with each
purchase.
Remington No. 10...........................$35.00
Oliver No. 5.. I.......... ............. .......... 27.50
L. C. Smith No. 2 back spacer ..... ...37.50
Underwood hack spacer............ 40...
Remington No. 6 ...............................15.00
These machines are guaranteed in perfect working order and if not so may be returned. Corona and L. C. Smith, sole factory dealer. A. F. BEYER, 310 West Commerce Street, San Antonio, Texas.

THE DOMESTIC BEEKEEPER is published "Wholly in the interest of the honey producer.' It Will help you to "Keep more bees," and produce more honey at the best price. If you are paying a long price for your tin and glass honey containers, and other supplies, perhaps we can help you. Published monthly. $1.00 per year. Sample copy free. Address, The Domestic Beekeeper, Lansing, Mich.


working price as advertised in this issue. Beeswax is very low in price now on account of the great amount of foreign wax being imported. When normal conditions return and when the foundation manufacturing season begins the price will very likely go uip again.


The Association is not buying any honey now. The market is at a stand still. On the Association plan we are accepting shipments of light, amber grades at 14 cents. The sales are slow and returns are therefore delayed but we are accepting all shipments tendered by members. Darker grades are much lower, usually bringing 10 to 12 cents.


The editor of this paper should have burning ears all the time, if that is the indicator of nice things being said about one. On our trip North, it seemed every beekeeper had some 'pleasing compliments to make about THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM.


Do not expect lower prices on bee supplies this spring. The manager and secretary have just returned from a visit to the factory. The price of the grades of lumber used in making bee hives has not lowered and labor costs are still high. Get ready for spring. Order


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174


your hives now. We have a complete stock. The December early order discount is 5%. You should make up a list of probable requirements and place your order now. By
doing so you can save this 5% and evade the delays and annoyances of the spring rush.

Renew your subscription now. The Association clubbing price for THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM and the American Bee Journal is $2.00. Remember this paper next month will be changed in shape and be increased to 32 pages.

Prepare to attend the annual meeting of the Association stockholders to be held in San Antonio, January 18 and 19th.

Many of you have boxes of old bee journals in attic and barn that sooner or later the mice or termites will destroy. Give them to the Association. We will gladly pay the expressage or postage on them. We are trying to collect a complete library and you may have the very issues we need to complete the files for a certain year. We are having them bound so that they can be put in permanent shape for the use of the Association members in the future.

We have just hung on the wall of the Association office a picture of which we are very proud. Large portraits, some of them autographed, of Dr. L. L. Langstroth, Dr. C. C. Miller,HCharles Dadant, C. P. Dadant and Louis H. Scholl, beautifully framed, comprise the group. We can almost feel the presence of these leaders in American apiculture as we glance up at them during intervals of relaxation in our work.

TELEGRAPHIC MARKET.

The shipping point information from Los Angeles in the Dec. 1st Bureau of Markets report is as follows: Movement slow; market weak; White Orange and Sage 16-18; Light Amber Orange and Sage, 17c; Light Amber Sage, 12-16c; Light Amber Alfalfa, 1I-15c; Beeswax, 40c; lower prices considered a possibility in near future. Arrivals at distributing points light anIi movement slow.
Boston-Niarket unsettled; Porto Rico amber $1.00-$1.40 per gallon.
California-Old crop white sage 22-23c a lb.


Beeswax 35-40c.
Chicago-Very slow demand and movement, market weak and lower prices anticipated. White clover and alfalfa 17-17%c; light amber clover and alfalfa 16-16'2c; California white alfalfa and white sage 17-18 c; beeswax 29-34c.
Cincinnati-Receipts light, market unsettled; California light amber alfalfa 15-18c; beeswax 38-46Cleveland-No movement; supplies moderate; Western white sweet clove: 20-23c; light amber alfalfa 20-22c.
Denver-\Market steady; demand and movement moderate; Colorado white 15-20c; light atnnbei 142-18c; amber 14-16c; beeswax 36c.
Kansas City-SupIplies moderate; demand and movement slow; Colorado light amber alfalfa 17-18c; New M\exico dark amber 15-18c.
Minneapolis-Supplies light; market weaker; Western alfalfa and sweet clover 19c.
New York-Demand and movement slow; California light amber alfalfa 13-15c; white


THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM

alfalfa 15-17c; light amber sage 16-17c; white orange and white sage 15-17'2c; West'Indian and South American 60-170c per gallon; beeswax West Indian and South American 18-25c per lb.
Philadelphia-No demand, market dull; San Domingan and Porto Rican .98-$1.00 per gallon; Florida white orange 17-19c.
St. Louis-Demand very slow; Mississippi and Arkansas light amber 14-15c; California light amber sage 15'2-17c; beeswax 31-32c.
Medina-Arrivals between Nov. 15-Dec. 1, from Wyoming 25,000 lbs; Ohio 74,680 lbs.; Idaho 38,472; Alabama 2,231 lbs.

LOUISIANA SUGAR CROPS

The condition of the sugar-cane crop in Louisiana on November 1 was estimated at 71 per cent of a normal crop as compared with a 9-year average on that date of 78.3 per cent, and a condition of 72 per cent on October 11 1920.
A condition of 71 per cent on November 1, considered with the estimated acreage of cane to be cut for sugar (194,800 acres), forecasts a probable sugar production of 362,743,000 pounds. The production in 1919 was 242,000,000 pounds, and in 1918, 561,800,000 pounds of sugar.-Market Reporter.


CORN
Shelled or in the ear. Will buy by the wagon load or in straight car
lots. Also want

aize and Kafir Corn

i M. Marucheau Grain Co.
SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS
Elevator on Guadalupe St., and
I. & G. N. Ry. Tracks.





"Superior" Foundation
"Best by Test"

ASSURES REAL QUALITY

Let us manufacture your Beeswax
into "Superior" Foundation.
We are in the market for your Beeswax


SUPERIOR HONEY CO.
OGDEN, UTAH


For Beekeeping Farmers


The Blumberg Motor Manufacturing Co. is now taking orders for Tractors for delivery in 60 days.

If you are in the market for a Farm Tractor and want the best, place I your order now for future delivery.I


Blumberg Steady Pull Tractors


are manufactured in San Antonio, and for four years have given satisfaction to owners.

Write for catalog today.

. BLUMBERG MOTOR MFG. CO.

Mesquite and Burnett Streets SAN AN'TON I0, TEXAS


gg








LEVULOSE SIRUP VS. HONEY


Dr. J. J. WILLAMAN
(EDITOR'S NOTE: We were so interested in Dr. Wiiiman s article we are reproducing it for the .benefit of the read-rs of The Beekeepers Item. His article appeared in the"October 15, 1920 issue of Science, the official publication of the American Academy of Science. The fact that this paper printed this article is evidence sufficient to prove the importance of Dr. Williman's statements.)
The present-and, we are told, very likely the permanent shortage of crystallized sugar is stimulating very markedly the interest in other sugars. The consumption of glucose or corn
syrup is increasing steadily; the making of sorghum syrup bids fair to return to the prominent place it once held; our friends, the bees, are being exploited more and more; and a great many breweries, instead of retiring as requested are now malting grain as usual, but instead of fermenting it are converting it into maltose
syrup. Of the above four sugar products, sorghum and honey are the only ones which compete with cane sugar in sweetness; maltose is much less sweet, and glucose is very much less sweet, than sucrose. Now, it is sweetness that we demand; we do not eat sugars and syrups primarily for their calories, but because they


iiil


THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM

sweeten other, less palatable, and cheaper food products. Therefore, glucose and maltose have very natural limitations on their extensive utilization, if sweeter material can be found. Of the two sweeter products, honey will -probbaly of necessity always remain a luxury; and sorghum syrup has a flavor that precludes its unlimited use for all purposes, although it should be said that this flavor can be almost entirely removed, with practically only the sweetness remaining, and that there is a possibility of an enormously increased utilization of sorghum in this way. Is there not, however, a sugar which is sweeter than any of the above, which is not now of commercial importance, but which possibly could be obtained in large enough quantities and at a low enough cost to become important?
Levulose, fructose, or fruit sugar, is the sweetest known sugar. Exact data as to the relative sweetness of the various sugars are not available, but it is often stated that levulose, is 30 to 50 per cent sweeter than sucrose. A levulose syrup, then, would be a distinct asset in the present commerce in sweet products. Levulose occurs in practically all fruits, is abundant in honey, and is found in appreciable amounts in sorghum


Hamliton, Illiaois


Catalog and prices on Bee Supplies, Beeswax, Wax Working into Comb-foundation and Comb-rendering for the asking.


DADANT & SONS


175


syrup. Its most conspicuous occurrence inaplants, however, is the form of inulin in the tubers of the Jerusalem artichoke and in the bulbs of the dahlia. Inulin is a polysaccharide somewhat resembling starch, but whereas starch yields glucose on hydrolysis with acid, as in the manufacture of corn syrup, inulin yields levulose.
The mulin is present to the extent of 12 to 14 per cent, of the fresh tuber. As is well known, the artichoke gives very large yields, from 700 to 1,000 bushels per acre being normal. If one assume 40,000 pounds per acre, and a 10 per cent recovery of inulin from the tubers, there would thus be 4,000 pounds of sugar per acre. A 50-bushel crop of corn yields about 2,000 pounds of starch; an acre of good sorghum yields about 1,600 pounds of sugar; an acre of sugar beets, 3,000 pounds; an acre of sugar cane 3,000 to 4,000 pounds.
Thus it is seen that the possible yield of sugar from artichokes compares very favorably with that of our other sugar crops; and the writer believes, on the basis of the above facts, that levulose syrup from artichoke tubers is one of the most promising sugar possibilities that we have. The levulose would probably have tQ be in syrup form, since it crystallizes with difficulty. The abode figures are estimates based on known yields and analysis of artichokes. The unknown factor in the proposition at present is the technology of manufacture. Practically nothing is known about the isolation of the m1Ulin and its hydrolysis to levuilose on a comnmercial scale. But what is known concerning the chemistry of these substances lives us every reason to believe that the problem connected with the manufacture of levulose syrup could be solved, as were those in the manufacture of the .other sugar products. Likewise the question of the cost of production is unknown. Since, however, the resultant product would be so much sweeter than any of the present sugars, it would be worth considerably more, and a greater cost of manufacture, if such should be the case, would not necessarily be a handicap.
The usefulness of a levulose syrup is apparent. It would probably not be used alone as a syrup, but would be used for blending with other syrups to enhance their sweetness. Glucose and maltose syrups would be greatly improved if their sweetness were increased. And in the manufacture of soft drinks and confections levulose could very largely replace sucrose, and thus increase the amount of the latter that


T E S T IN U1 D A ANT'S F 0U ND U A T 1IRV"

From the first year of sale of DADANT'S FOUNDATION the Dadant firm had at least three hundred colonies of bees.

The tests for satisfactory foundation were made with their own bees, their aim being to manufacture and sell only such goods as would be satisfactory to their own bees, in their own apiary.

Every square inch equal to sample in every respect was the aim, and it was done at all times as thousands can testify who have used these goods.
Not satisfied with the
mills they were using, they tried d i f f e r e n t workmen until they got 10 2a mill that would make a foundation without M "fishbone," as the bee>1 keeper called it; and also got mills that would ... make foundation of different weights from five square feet to the pound for brood to thirteen square feet for sections.

Now the Dadant apiaries have increased to nearly a thousand colonies in ten apiaries. The different locations give a chance for tests in heavy flows, in light flows, in a dearth, for fall crop, for spring. All, so that the proper tests can be made, and only the most satisfactory foundation sent out to the many customers.


DADANT'S FOUNDATION-Every inch, every pound,
every ton, equal to any sample we have ever sent out.
Specify it to your dealer. If he hasn't it write us.


would be available as dry sugar.
In view of the above considerations, therefore, it is to be hoped that some institution, federal, state, or industrial, will see fit to inaugurate investigations on the production of -levulose syrup from the Jerusalem artichoke in order to augment our present sources of sweetness.
University of Minnesota.
We agree with most that the Doctor has said, but we disagree when he says that, honey will probably of necessity always remain a luxury. Ot course, it depends on your definition of a luxury-but honey all through the war was as cheap o; een cheape: -an sugar, n J ay
its :rice is -!-y little -n -,h, , that of g1-'ose syrup. The present move for greater publicity regarding the food value of honey, of the American Honey Producers League and other beekeepers organizations will make honey as easily procurable as any brand of corn syrup, and we believe it would be far wiser for the state or nation to spend money aiding the beekeepers than to experiment with a new and hypothetical source of a little known sweet..






176


ANT HONEY OF MEXICO

ALMA M. H ASSLBAUER
Last month a Mexican lady came into the office and asked for ant honey. Your secretary gasped for a breath and the rest of the office force ran to her rescue but the lady had to explain herself. She informed us that there was an ant which stored honey like the honey bee and that the honey was of the highest quality having the most delicious flavor. After this explanation we believed that she referred to the honey ant of the mountains of the southwest. In colonies of these ants certain individuals act as storage tanks for the plant louse secretion, which is collected by the worker ants. We assumed that in some part of Mexico where this ant is common, the natives had extracted this liquid from these ants by mashing them in a grass sack. This method, by the way, is the common process of extracting honey in most of Mexico. Brood,
combs, and all go into the sack and honey (?) and wax are the only resultant products.
Imagine what became of our fine theories when some days after a gentleman from Mexico called and when asked about ant honey confirmed the lady's story. We then thought that they were talking about that little wild bee that builds its black wax combs in caves and hollow trees. This was also refuted and the decided and seeming authoritative statement was made that there exists in the central part of Mexico "wingless ants living under ground, which build wax combs and store honey."
This matter was referred to Dr. S. A. Rohwer of the Smithsonian Institution and he replied:
"Your letter of November 24, askig about ant honey, has been received. I think you will find the Mexicans were correct as there are a great many honey ants which belong to the genus Myrmecocystus which occur in your region. Their honey has long been esteemed as an article of food by the Indians of Mexico and the Southwestern States, and the first published records of its use in the year 1832. Ycu will find interesting and extensive account of the honey ants in chapter 22 of Wheeler's ant book which was published in 1910 by the Columbia University Press." San Antonio, Texas.


REGULATIONS IN NEW ZEALAND

Honey may be shipped into New Zealand through the ports of Auckland, Lyttleton, Dunedin and Bluff. All consignments to other ports must first be landed at one of these cities for examination and inspection before they may be shipped farther, according to the American consul at Auckland.
Bees may be introduced from the United States, Italy, Australia, provided every consignment is accompanied by certificates from the shipper as well as from an officer of the Department of Agriculture stating that the bees are free from disease, that the diseases known as Foul Brood and Isle of Wight do not exist within 5 miles of the area from which the bees were taken and are not known to exist in the country or state. Similar certificates must be furnished with consignments of honey.-T\Iarket Reporter.


THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM








SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS.






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SERVICE DEPARTMENT
To give users of Lewis "Beeware" better service and information, we announce the employment of E. W. Atkins, who began work at Watertown November 1. Mr. Atkins is well known to many American and Canadian beekeepers, has worked in large commercial apiaries and for the past four years has been operating his own apiaries. After taking a degree at the Ontario, Canadian Agricultural College, Mr. Atkins served with the provincial and dominion apiaries of Canada. During the war he was in charge of bee culture extension work for the U. S. Government in Iowa, Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska. Later he has worked out of the Iowa Agricultural College at Ames for the U. S. Bee Culture Laboratory and is well acquainted with the needs of beginners and commercial beekeepers alike. Address all communications regarding beekeeping to our Service Department, Watertown, Wisconsin.


Haveyourenwedyou subcritio? I~f iuih~i~ ''- v~i~f~lujIiiI1I~II~f~h T~iij~iuij27I'Ii ~J~j{~TH


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There is something about your premises you have no use for but that the other fellow can use. There is something you want that the other fellow has. Advertise it. Only 10 cents a line. THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM New Braunfels, Texas


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Because the prices are moderate for the workmanship.
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These goods marked with the "Beeware" brand, are famous for giving the utmost return over a period of years at prices which are never extreme.
Conditions this year are causing many nen to change their buying methods. Buy cautiously, but be sure you get real quality for your money, the kind you get in "Beeware" only.
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Full Text

PAGE 1

4TOM A Small Item in Itself, Beekeepers Louis H. School, Editor Entered in the-Postoffice at New Braunfels, Texas, as"Second-clasMatter. WV VOL. 4 NEW BRAUNFELS, TEXAS, DECEMBER, 1 My First Visit to a Bee What Remarkable Machinery and Accurate M Modern Bee Hive is Told in an Intimate] Made Upon a Visit to a Factory HER is a period in the life of each one of us during' which we dream, visualize, and yearn to-wander. We all pass through this experience and many people, especially young men,are sometimes privileged to satisfy this desire by actually roaming from' one place V won L : to realize it. the fascinating <1 'o-

PAGE 2

T BEEKEEPERS way he said it, I knew he was glad. queer devices for making the queen and drone tors; t traps, the glueing of the fence separahe cleating of the excluder frames and many more mysteries were revealed to me. The machine shop where all the machines are repaired and cared for and where patient saw sharpener brushes and files saws, day after ild scarcely e explained e saws o easy boards day, to keep the the 4, them viciously sharp, was all of interest. In the paint shop the boxes and hives are painted, enameled and stenciled The operators worked the brushes so fast, that riers busy at eachspray at lightning fine sprayit kept several carto place the painted parts in the racks for drying. The men were busy in )oth and arranging our hives. In the ow each calls thethe lumber warehouses and busy v. thai the yards stacking for our next year's were tiers and tiers of with 4 a m ito of ENGRAIN ZINC rTCHINGS-COPPE AND ZINC HALFTONES FOR PERIODICAL AND NEWSPAPERS-ETCDESIGNING DRAWINGSIN PENANDIN OR WASH FOR REPRODUCTION PHOTO RTOUCLING AS ATRIAL PITAL PH0TO NGRAVING I qo CONGRESS AVAUSTIN TEX BULL PHONE 1242 Ive an its I Co. AS nc e. ittle is drawn. forth by suc his conveyed to the heatin w', andt s bailLING RIGHT. n apd sell the e right prices. send for illusWANT ADS EN G Spring Hil reg -te visoffice of enius of Pi ai or tonio ~% ,.I ";n I'1, Ie e part it speed. ing Geo. ware.' .ho T HE I TE

PAGE 3

T HE lill illillI I 'l I ill II I IIII I I IIIIIIIIIli i FO R SALE. 155 acres of good farming land; located near Fant City, Bee county, on S. A. U. & G. Ry. Several deep oil tests now going down. Oil: rights go with land. For further particulars write to B. Schwegmann, 206 Navarro St., San Antonio, Texas. ROOT'S BEE SUPPLIES For North Texas Beekeepers, for sale by, STILES BEE SUPPLY CO., Stillwater, Okla. Beeswax Wanted. Free Catalogue. B MIXED FEEDS Horses,, MulesAnd 'Dalry Cows. Made byI .E. MUGGE & CO. Wholesale Grain Dealers San Antonio, Texas from all parts of the country. They mu directed and assembled. Here in this' cheerful, pleasant office, with its group of ing kindly men, I felt "at last that. I had found the thing that my youthful imagii pictured so long ago-the Fount of Beeware. The Chicago Northwestern Beekeeper ciation met in Chicago, Dec. 6th and 7th. association is noted for the large attendar its annual meetings. It is composed c beekeepers in the Chicago district and members in Michigan, Indiana, Illinois Wisconsin. It was voted that the association becc member of the American Honey Pro( League. Q-Why called a Le is the ne ague?-B. rt ~u tJ. 49 5. e,p rcl U I th A BE

PAGE 4

TH kBREEKEEP ITEM after extracting distinct. Persic is said to be ti >duced or swam the flavor beor lady's thumb st yielder. This ie next in proiart weed. This It is restricted grows naturally I in' dried waterlaces it invades the cultiIt is'a pest in the rice Texas. The only other which produces a distinct The No ubscr 4WIII.be.-One Dolla r Price Year OI~ U'.P~ O inP" The, root t medicine, as swarmpving plant closely reThe Beekee pershem, for12 mentioned by the. species, very en.ag bright en found In 1916 this publication was founded as a mere eight page "newspaper forI keepers. From this small beginning it has -grown in size and improved in appearance' increased in circulation to suchlvan extent that it has outgrown its former sphere. It now reached a period of its established and useful life that warrants makig a chaig style and price. '44 ~4j~willBe in Magazine Form 444 With the' ever-increasing popularity won by this publication there has devel demand for a smaller size, -more easily adapted for binding into complete volumes. an appreciated fact that beekeepers, more than those in most other professions, p their copies for future reference. We 'are, therefore, pleased toannounce a new 32 pages, for the new year. 44 44 A -f"I -d evi bscriot price e and are tne packages probably 1 Bee Jou-nal,'a y BeekeepersIhem, 1b Is in Bee Culture, a .e Beekeepers: Iteam, ear.~....$1 .50 'oth-...$2.00 year-.-.$1.00 both-$.90 Ii ii Western 'Honey Bee, a ye$1.00 With The Beekeepers Item,, Oih...$1.75 Domestic Beekeeper; a -year--.$1.00 With The Beekeepers 'tem, 'both.....$1.75 .. .. .. .. .. .. THE ITEMI New Braunfebs, Texas ar Sir: -L / 4' 41 -4 4; 44 4444~ 4 44444444 4444 4'44 4 4 4 44444 3 44~ / .. ....4 ..... ... k ITEt o Clubed with the following, as per our special clubbing offer: 4 ~ 4 4 4 444' 44 '4 444 444 44 444 44 '4 44 V 4 '4 4 4 '44 '44 4 '4 41 4 4 4444 44, 44), / 4'444 4 g 4444~4 4 4. 444'44 4444 444~ 114 44 4~ 4' 44, ft ~4444 4 44 ~ 4444,444 4 44'44 44444444 4444444> 4 ~4'~44# 44444 4 4444 4444444 4 44' 4,44 '44 4 .'144-' 44 444 4 44 4 4 44 44 44 'A A 4 444 4 ~ 4 ~~4:4444~4444K4> 44444 44 44 ft 4 44444 44444 44 '4 4' -44 44 enn 4444waswe e-.ae -ee --2 = 4--*-aln .--............ 444444 4 ,44 44 ft 444~~4 4444 444 4444 4.4 4444 4 -444 4 4 44 44 44 4 '4 44~ 4444444 4444 44444 Aft 4 444444 44; 444 4ft 44 44 \44[444'4444444 ~2 44444444 4 44 4444 4 44, .4' 44 4' 4 4 4 44 4 4 44 4444 4 44 4 4444 4. 44444 4 144.4.444444 47444/ 4,14,4.1 ', >f;j44-'~44 44444 444 4,) 4 ~4444 4444.4 44 -r 4444 LA4 4444 4444 4 444\ 4 4 41~' ft 44 '4< ft 444 -4. 44,44 A4 4444 44 4444 44 '4 44 4 '4 I I' 44 444 44 I. ed. ~44~ 4 .4 4' 44 4; 4444, '4 4444 bee-' and has size, of I still other paper I I )St in nost rtweed I 44 4 44444/ 44~ 44 444444 4 A 44 ........... stp VI

PAGE 5

b TH E BEEKEEP near Dallas. The older men along the Trinity are a unit in saying that these did not make, their appearance until th e farmers around Ft. Worth and Dalla began sowing imported lawn and meadows'_ grass seed. As these plants flouish in moist soils, during long periods of dry years they die out, but reappear and become dominantduring wet periods. There are in Texas eighteen native species which may be confused with the two introduced species but these rarely if ever exist in numbers sufficient to be valuable as honey plants, San Antonio, Texas. STATE ASSOCIATION MEETING. The Wisconsin State Beekeepers Association held their annual convention in Madison, Dec.' 2nd and 3rd. It was a meeting full of interest and showed the spirit of the State. 'In the 'progress, of the convention it was voted to become affiliated with the American Honey Producers League. As a section of the State association,' a number of members formed a buying and selling group which is to be known as the Wisconsin Honey Producers' Association. Some Beekeepers of Texas Conducted -by E. Guy "LESTOURGEON P. 0. Box 1048 San Antonio, Texas IAt one of our annual meetings a certa member of the Association was described by I Hz. Scholl, who was presiding, as "the encycl pedia of Texas beekeepers."The President sa that if anyone would mention, the name, of post office' this member could give the nam off hand of the rnore important beekeepers wl lived there or if a beeman's name was mentio ed the address could be at once supplied. V tried it and found that Mr. Scho1 had n exaggerated. There once was a strange preacher came our town who wanted to mail a letter. He as ed a native to'direct him to the postQffice. other states' 1th

PAGE 6

TE BEK.EEPERS ITE dyed in )rk with .. the th'e off sea>n hand, ies and Dee ob111111111 I "I I11111111 ill 1111.1111111 1 II 11 Ulf LL11" 11 Il11111 Iln llllil i I11111! ackae Bees and Queens GdT eBand WE START SHIPPING MARCH 15th. ANY SIZE PACK3E WITH OR WITHOUT QUEENS. OVER 1,000 COLONS FOR SHAKING. TWENTY YEARS A BREEDER Booking orders now. Write for prices. arden City Apiaries San Jose, Calif* "'iNl" Used Honey '~Cns ii honey cans, I I Clean will Wb witn wires y cel] or w: / I I I I j lation. i city *. .5. some n good condition. We have to offer, f. o. b. here, at $1.00 per case of 2-60 lbs. cans. These will cost you much 'morenew. The. I Wis H. School LS COU quality j LVLu. I JNTY, T supplies. .A IVI. nL 'EXAS. V Writing C aryto have good queens in your colonies the bees, how well adapted your hives, nor he colonies will not give best results unless in number of bees. This will depend upior ids should be in the hands of every beekeeper its rL I1 Y 3,o, past *1 ambi 1111 ti II 11 Al 61.72'*L Oa, 1w4Vl E ITEM

PAGE 7

13 WALL PAPER, WINDOW GLAS Harrison's Town and Country S Paint, Artists' Material' Let us figure on your needs of Bee Hive and Other Painting. Prompt attention to out-of-town, orders. FRED. HOMMERT 20&-6-8 W. Commerce St. San Antonio,u-Texas IFER San Antonio's Largest Poultry Supply Queen's Incubator Brooders V Attent ion: Texas A Beekeepers i~1 PEELLETT Send All C 11 I ,ST

PAGE 8

BEEKEEPERS ITEM U.om y .. ----50 Y ear latter' Dec. 13, 1916, at ifels, Texas, uuder the a a change of adand old must be it as promptly as take effect. vill be given just q grgeai, if unable piration, to notify one wishinag his so systematically, minimizing the possibilities of a temporary crisis, such as the one through which we are now passing. BEEKEEPING ENTOMOLOGIST TO MEET. This meeting will be held in Chicago, December 29, 1920. F. B. Paddock, formerly State Entomologist of Texas, but now State Apiarist of Iowa, is chairman. The following program will be given: Address by the chairman-"Better Queens," F. B. Paddock, Ames, Iowa. Reading of papers and discussions. "Some Apicultural investigations," by Wallace Park, Ames, Iowa. (15 minutes.) "Queen Bees,' by L. B. France, University Farm, St. Paul, Minn. (10 minutes.) "The Relationship Between the Complete Life Cycle of the Honey Bee and the Blooming Datbs of, the More Important Honey Plants," by H. B. Parks, San Antonio, Texas. (10 rrnutes.) 1 X-T 1 AT 1 r P Tl This is the last issue of THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM that will appear in this form of sixteen large pages. For. four years it has made its .appearance in'the large page size, beginning with only eight pages. In spite of the increase in number of pages and other improvements, such as better paper, new type and other things, the original, subscription price was maintained. But there has been an increasing demand for a change in the size of THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM, one that would make it handier. for filing without folding, and better adapted' for binding the compete volumes. This' will' be a cover, ize, will rican Foul ,Madison, ood at ii sconsin. dollar per annumhereafter; -and awe.feel that our many readers will find it still low enough in price to continue subscribing for it; the real, live, up-to-now bee journal we are going to .t ou ,r hest to mak of -'his iihlication. r ettort to give more short, icles on beekeeping subjects. utions within point in. personal opin.sus -of opinion States is that" their stufl Just as if to raise bumper crops League to -meet with t er they'could get, reto Vlan for the launchinE tons and -'needs. We Many of the prominent ic, efficient apiculture States and Canada wet :e. nmatee ,state of of the arv le of bee] toI study soon ur honey until market price, too great a de7re experiencing d to a great tonio, fori College S and treas. AY a are' rapidly bu Den H. B. '4 A. .1.. ing P -to V P. has S of rer. OUR NEW SIZE NEXT MONTH. v :sg "7 ,Y N m TI E,

PAGE 9

BEEKE chairman of this committee. C. B. Baxter and H. B. Parks are alsoon that committee. The regular meeting of this league will take place in Indianapolis, Indiana, February 15th, 16th and 17th. At this meeting, the above committeemen will report the activities which have been commenced and the progress made. Those state associations which have become affiliated with the league are entitled to a representative at this, meeting and should notify the secretary before the time ,of the meeting relative to their represntative so that proper credentials may be issued. All of the, committees or bureaus are now ready for action. Anyone desiring the aid of any of these bureaus should address their communications to H. B. Parks, Secretary-Treasurer of American Honey Producers League, Box 838, San Antonio, Texas. The letter will then be sent, to the proper men for action. The American Honey Producers League extends a cordial invitation and urges the attendance of ev'eryoneinterested in the betterment -stm o r bees Untested, $U.f Tested, $2.50 Price $15.00 d ill. er, All s ai mo.. keeping is more rDna torial ranks L LEAGUE SECRE t av th I: the T T H E

PAGE 10

.onth conh relative itup the countless winter kill, tb this: THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM small leaves. It is from the latter plant that -the honey flow. comes. This .Como blooms from October until January, owing to the locality. The berries are ripened the following summer, and are quite an article of food among the Mexicans. The range of this plant i3 from the Leona south into Mexico. The question is asked, "Does a crop of beans follow -a mesquite honey flow"'? Or: to put it another way,if one visits a mesquite country where there are no bees and finds the mesquite fruiting regularly 'and profusely is he justifiedd in believing that this is a good bee location? My observation is that this is true. Some 'years the trees bloom .but set very little fruit. We have noted that the heavy bean yields have been the years when most mesquite honey was gathered. BEESWAX MARKETS Liberal receipts of foreign and domestic beeswax have weakened the price of this usually stable commodity in some markets.. In Chicago light stock from Oklahoma and Minnesota has sagged to a range of 31 to 34c per lb.; a drop of 9c a lb. in'about two weeks. A weak sand unsettled situation in Cincinnati, as is seen in the range of-I3 8to 46c per lb. in sales to dental supply companies and other large users, a most unusual range for average, yellow stock over a brief period. Most other beeswax markets continue steady. In southern California, sacks of beeswax are selling in less than carloads mostly at 40c per lb. f. o. b. shipping points. BUY ONLY AS NEEDED m -utder fairly good demand, resulting, light supply of this class. >ng the 'honey interests: in southern Calilower prices are expected -nthenear In New or' kity, supplies are -being ougnt only as needed, with no;apparent prospect of improvement in market conditions. Sales to confectioners and jobbers of California Light Amber Alfalfa are being made 'at 13Y to 15c Der lb., Light Amber Sage at.16 to 17c and even White Orange Blossom and White Sage are down to 15 to 17 P2c per lb. West Indian and South American refined honey, in barrels, er prices are anticipate iere the buyers are p rsuing a linnesota following.. Ideal Extracting Supers, Modified. Dadant and Jumbo Combs Will be Ready for Delivet After Feb. 1, 1921. Write for our new catalog, containing full description and prices on: FAMOUS LEWJV "BEEWARE" DIANT'S PERFECT FOUNDATION WOODMAN'S "BINGHAM" SMOKER for N" 1 V from

PAGE 11

* "'I -.'4~'.*~r* -, .,,. %, ~ .H ~ T H E PARALYSIS IN HONEY BEES E. G. LESTOURGEON In the November issue, on page 148, M4jor Shallard refers again to a discussion of bee paralysis that wyas carried on in these columns in 1917. To those having complete files of THE BEEKEEPERS ITEMI would refer to articles in the February, April, May, June, July and Decembe numbers of that year.,' Articles by H. Brenner, H. D. Murry, Major Shallard and myself appeared, discussing at length a conclusion we had reached concerning the cause and cure of this malady. B riefly, the theory advanced by Mr. Brenner ,nd myself Was that paralysis, (as we know it in theQuth an West), is caused by the use of fermented stores in the preparation of larval food. Experiments were reported where the dkJsease was caused and removed practically at will. The contagious or infectious nature of the disease was denied and apparently disprov.en. The epidemic feature was explained from the fact that if one colony has access to soured An The adverti results. That i He will wa cation. That is There are s I ter it ".Thi Coll ny is swe t awax *1 as being the tr n,'American and Sacbroodwere discovered differentiated. It doubtless will be proven with this disease. May disease, Isle of rht Nosmea, AnisD naralvsis dvsenerl.\i to ~1. :dA

PAGE 12

tchley of Upland bee industry in the State. Tex omb excd Is, G. K. the Har will be mation Valley. Shearer has accepted the editorship of lingen. Star at Harlingen, Texas, and grateful for -any news items or inforconcerning beekeeping in the lower in The Province of Quebec, Can., reports that in 1919, it had 5,631 beekeepers owning 58,222 as hives and produced 2,366,620 lbs. of honey )S. valued at $1,647,472. Of the 44,610. colonies uinspected 1,258 'had suffered from disease. /ignall of the firm c of Smith & Wignall, THE BEEKEEPERS ITEM cent letter, he advises that he will give it up and move all his, bees to Texas next spring. He -has studied conditions in both States and has decided on Texas as having the greater bees is, very S rnia, and Dr. M. C. Tanquary, State Entomologist of Mr. J. M. Richie of Buda visited the Association office Dec. 11th. He reports a fine year 100 lbs. 250 lbs. 500 lbs. or more n 25c 23c 20c ,,27 -;25 22' 30 28 25 7 32,30 27' d4 you all ti ation get our and Partsof .r superiority. .rates. > Mexico the latter part of November. He called on the Honey Producers Association when he passed through San Antonio. The Doctor is very much interested in the foul brood campaign that is proceeding so nicely under his direction and stated that while in Mexico he would study the bee situation there. G. E., Bacon,sales manager of -the G. B. Lewis Co., the, makers of "Beeware," called at the Texas Honey Producers Association office, Dec. 2nd. Bacon is an enthusiast on bees and bread and -was well pleased with Texas. Dr. Geo. Elam of Marlin, Texas is spendig the winter at San Antonio. He was one of the first men to keep bees on a large scale in North Central Texas. The Bemus Apiaries of Falls county, of which hisdaughter is the manager,, is the outgrowth of his -bee work. I i Ix,

PAGE 13

TUJ~B BUK Texas Honey Producers Ass' n Notes by E. G. L ESTOURGEON Manager P. 0. BoX 104i' San Antonio, Texas The TexasExperiment Station has prepared a circulargiving the names and numDersof the various bulletins that are available for free distribution. Write 'to A. B. Connor, College Station, and ask for a copy of Circular No. 23. The Association is certainly becoming well known. A letter from a beekeeper addressed: "First Class Beekeepers Supply House, San Antonio, Texas," was unerringly put in our post office box. The lapel button or pin can be now obtaiaed from the Association office. The price is 50 cents. It is a beauty. In ordering it, state whetheryoU ant a in or a button and In packing your beeswax for shipment will pay you to run the wax into uniform c and then send them ,wrapped carefully in least twi thicknesses of sacking. Be sure put your name and address on a card in of the package., Do not wrap in paper. The Association is the i two 250-gallon glass lined s1 talks and an automatic nc These will enable us to h tion honey more rapidly a than ever before. Beeswax is much lower in pi en forced to reduce our cas andle the Associaand at a less cost trip -N( some P We have .25 cents. When sew 'stated or we will not d. L. L. A and distance >tyc ,V ingate, Texas. A POSITION.We can't bf t fill the pay market I ~x1 In there is a net weight Iaw and it is forced. A five-pound can must co: pounds of honey. The filled can m five pounds plus the weight of the packing bulk comb, use great care in of comb. A few colored cells in piece\ of comb will spoil the sale on shipment. it : ,u; can. In the choice a single the whole

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T ~PERS IE 15-17c; light amber sage 16-17c; sage 15-17y2c; an 60-170c per and South An nd, ma, white West-Indian gallon; nerican dull; bees-18-25c San 1.00 per gali-ivery pages. and Arkan light amber Medinafrom of Idaho Wyomir 38,472; ght amber 15 -17c; between 25,000 slow; ,Mississippi 14-15c; California beeswax, 3 1-32c. Nov.. 15-Dec. lbs; Ohio 74,680, Alabama 2,231 1, lbs.; lbs. LOUISIANA SUGARCROPS condition of the ia on November 1 sugar-cane crop in 71 "Suprior" FoUndation 'iBest by Test" I. QUALITY pounds. The 000 pounds, product and in' ion in 1918, forecasts 2,743,000 1919 was 561,800,000 42,000,pounds 1T. I SUPEIOHN I II Pull Tractors '4 BE nal is$ will 00. be T I COR N Shelled or in the ear. Will buy by the wagon load or in straightcar lots. Also want Maize and Kafir Corn M. Marucheau Grain Co. SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS Elevator on Guadalupe St., and I. & G. N. Ry. Tracks. ITVff

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' THE BE VS. HONEY [TOR'S NOTE: We were so interested in Dr. Williarticle we are reproducing it for the benefit of the g of The Beekeepers Item. His article appeared in tober 15, 1920 issue of Science, the official publicaf the American Academy of Seience. The fact that aper printed this article is evidence sufficient to the importance of Dr. Wifliman's statementss) present-and, we are told, very likely ermanent shortage of crystallized sugar is lating very markedly the interest in other s. The consumption of glucose or corn is increasing steadily; the making of sorsyrup bids fair to return to the prominent it once held; our friends, the bees, are exploited more and more; and a great breweries, instead of retiring as requested ow malting grain .as usual, but instead ofnting it are converting it into maltose .Of the above four sugar products, sorand honey are the only ones which comwith cane sugar in sweetness; maltose is less sweet, and glucose is very much less sweeten other, less palate products. Therefore, gluc very natural limitations c ization, if sweeter mat Of the two sweeter prod baly of necessity always and sorghum syrup has cludes its unlimited use though it should be said almost entirely removed, the sweetness remaining, possibility of an enormous of sorghum in this 'way. a sugar which is sweeter a iu that y ntSI mtiti C Levulose, tructos est known sugar. sweetness of the v but it is often sta per cent sweeten ti then, would be a Exact data as to the rela1 rious sugars are not availa' Dadai had at sin I-. ,, 1-l -v

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TH E BE EKEEPERS ITEM Beekeepers' Supplies We manufacture and stock Bee Hives and Su r the Beeeeeper. wa Alter E rred w the tain 500 Write for C Cataloguw GRAHAM MFG, CO., Greenville, inany Tw Baun I S e th the LIVE ra i ----------------us I


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