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Drawing Out Suggestions of a Possible Architecture: Drawing And Speculation In Pursuit of Architectural Solutions

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Title:
Drawing Out Suggestions of a Possible Architecture: Drawing And Speculation In Pursuit of Architectural Solutions
Creator:
Benitez, Adiel
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Publisher:
University of Florida
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Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Architectural design ( jstor )
Architectural drawings ( jstor )
Architectural education ( jstor )
Collage ( jstor )
Drawing ( jstor )
Intimacy ( jstor )
Landscape architecture ( jstor )
Opportunistic behavior ( jstor )
Pencils ( jstor )
Public space ( jstor )
City of Gainesville ( local )
Genre:
Undergraduate Honors Thesis, Architecture

Notes

Abstract:
Architecture in practice presents itself as a complex network of challenges. These problems can be manifest as both practical issues, and as intangible phenomena. Addressing the intangible is broader in regards to method and approach. I want to bring to question the role of drawing in addressing the intangible; calling out the role of drawing as method that can address both experience and the opportunities that exist in the design process. In the context of the speculative and un-built, drawing can be used to selectively reorient the use of the term "opportunistic" and suggest the inventiveness that lies in the "rich potential latent within the restrictions and limits that frame architecture ... " pertaining specifically to the drawing or image. The role of drawing has already been established within the practice of architecture. It has become a communicative tool, a transcription through which construction can be realized. The end goal is to understand the power of representation and in tum improve upon the conventions that are already in place. In reaching a holistic architecture, there is a need to draw out the constituents of the design process that can serve as generative, and opportunistic, rather than simply descriptive or predetermined. ( en )

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University of Florida
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Copyright [thesis author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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DRAWING OUT SUGGESTIONS OF A POSSIBLE ARCHITECTURE: Drawing And Speculation In Pursuit of Architectural Solutions ADIEL ALEXIS BENITEZ An Undergraduate Honors Thesis Presented to the School of Architecture and the Honors Program at the University of Flor ida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Design in Architecture with High or Highest Honors UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2016

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BENITEZ 2 2016 ADIEL ALEXIS BENITEZ

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BENITEZ 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I want to thank the faculty and staff at the University of Florida for their guidance and support throughout my undergraduate education. I thank my design professors, Lisa Huang, Mark McGlothlin, Stephen Bender, Albertus Wang, Bradley Walters, Nancy Clark, and Stephen Belton, who have all pushed me and helped me grow along this journey For the support in the preparation of this thesis project I want to thank professors Stephen Belton and Bradley Walters. I want to thank Patrick Weber, my partner during the design seven studio in which much of this body of work was comp leted, and professor Nancy Cl ark under whom the work was realized Finally, I want to thank my friends and family for their support during the length my und ergraduate education, without whom none of my accomplishments would have be en possible. To all, thank you dearly. Adiel.

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BENITEZ 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS 05 ABSTRACT 06 DRAWING OUT SUGGESTIONS OF A POSSIBLE ARCHITECTURE: Drawin g And Speculation In Pursuit of Architectural Solutions 06 DRAW: ADDRESSING THE ESSEX MASTER PLAN 0 7 ESSEX: DIVERSITY UNDER FLUX 1 0 MAPPING AS GENERATIVE METHOD 1 3 SUGGESTIVE REPRESENTATIONS 1 4 DRAWING OUT OPPORTUNITY 17 REFERENCES

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BENITEZ 5 ABSTRACT Abstract of Undergraduate Honors Thesis Presented to the School of Architecture and the Honors Program at the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Design in Architecture with High or Highest Honors DRAWING OUT SUGGESTIONS OF A POSSIBLE ARCHITECTURE: Drawing And Speculation In Pursuit of Architectural Solutions By. Adiel Alexis Benitez April 2016 Thesis Advisor: Bradley Walters Departmental Honors Coordinator: Mark McGlothli n Major: Architecture Architecture in practice presents itself as a complex network of challenges. These problems can be manifest as both practical issues, and as intangible phenomena. Addressing the intangible is broader in regards to method and appr oach. I want to bring to question the role of drawing in addressing the intangible; calling out the role of drawing as method that can address both experience and the opportunities that exist in the design process. In the context of the speculative and un built, drawing can be used to selectively reorient the use of the term "opportunistic" and suggest the inventiveness that lies in the rich potential latent within the restrictions and limits that frame architecture" 1 pertaining specifically to the drawin g or image. The role of drawing has already been established within the practice of architecture. It has become a communicative tool, a transcription through which construction can be realized. The end goal is to understand the power of representation and in turn improve upon the conventions that are already in place. In reaching a holistic architecture, there is a need to draw out the constituents of the design process that can serve as generative, and opportunistic, rather than simply descriptive or prede termined. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1 "Over Drawing." LTL Architects. Accessed April 9, 2016. http://ltlarchitects.com/over drawing/.

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BENITEZ 6 DRAWING OUT SUGGESTIONS OF A POSSIBLE ARCHITECTURE: Drawing And Speculation In Pursuit of Architectural Solutions DRAW: ADDRESSING THE ESSEX MASTER PLAN Architecture in practice presents itself as a complex network of chal lenges. These problems can be manifest as both practical issues, and as intangible phenomena Addressing the intangible is broader in regards to method and approach. I want to bring to question the role of drawing in addressing the intangible; calling out the role of drawing as method that can address both experience and the opportunities that exist in the design process. Analog and hybrid drawing is explore d drawing as method through the lens of a speculative proposal for the Essex Cross ing Master plan The project begins to introduce drawing and drawing hybridization as a n opportunistic method or process When introducing their book, Opportunistic Architecture ," the firm Lewis. Tsurumaki. Lewis write, "By definition, the word opportunistic has negati ve connotations, referring to the seizing of any circumstances regardless of principles or ethics. In our selective use of this term, we invoke the active agency this word implies as it might pertain to architecture, while seeking to invert the dubious moral implications in service of an open, generative, and creative approach to work. We seek opportunistic overlaps between form, space, program, material, and budget, teasing design invention out of the rich potential latent within the restrictions and limits that frame architecture. 2 In the context of the speculative and un built, drawing can be used to selectively reorient the use the term "opportunistic" and suggest the inventiveness that lies in this rich potential latent within the restrictions and limits that frame architecture" 3 as it pertains specifically to drawing or image. E xercises in drawing, hybrid photo collage, and hybrid 3 dimensional representation worked to address a series of real issues relating to cont ext and the specificity o f site; Meanwhile neg otiating the existing elements and constraints of a predetermined master plan proposed by Shop architects, The project begins to explore the roles of representation in regards to scale, both urban and experiential, ideas of place, iss ues of infrastructure, program, ideas of porosity, and materiality. The practice of architecture deals directly with the design and construction of human experiences. Architecture begins to consider materials and space as a means of establishing phenomen ological conditions that engage both body and mind. In making space, the constructio n constitutes and embodi es a sort of finality. It is the end result; but the in between, the pre construction, hinges on the multiple forms of representation that are deriv ative from the profession. There is an agency to the drawing that takes precedent in the design process. Even in the digital age of data driven processes, 2 dimensional drawings and representation act as the hinge between design intent and construction. Th e focus lies in the exploration of drawing as representation of experience, and as a tool forged in search of a possible architecture. It in turn acknowledges and agree s with the position that representation can serve to foster reality. Namely, that repres entation can serve to both capture, and create eidetic experiences. Echoing James Corner, "That representation exercises such agency and effect is namely why images in design cannot properly be considered as mute or neutral depictions of existing and proje cted conditions of !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2 LTL, "Over Drawing." 3 LTL, "Over Drawing."

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BENITEZ 7 secondary significance to their object; on the contrary, eidetic images are much more active than this, engendering, unfolding, and participating in emergent realities." 4 ESSEX: DIVERSITY UNDER FLUX FIGURE 1 Benitez. Adiel, Weber. Pa trick. Essex Crossing. Site Plan Gainesville Florida. 2015. Hybrid Drawing. P encil on trace Collage. In bringing the use of drawing to address the issues faced in a proposal for Essex Crossing, the process of speculation through representation served t o consider new types of spaces that could serve as a critique to the existing master plan in favor of a more community focused optimistic vision. The community of Essex Crossing is a culturally rich and diverse area within the Lower east side of Manhatta n. Neighboring China town, and populated by the descendants of working class Italians, Jews, Puerto Ricans and Ukrainians, who once made up the entirety of the population, the community if fighting to maintain the cultural fabric amidst rapid gentrificatio n The redevelopment is said to give priority to families displaced decades prior by making a neighborhood hub, supplying housing and opportunities for entrepreneurship. 5 An existing master plan, proposed by SHOP architects, has begun to introduce a retail and developer driven redevelopment plan. The project works to critique the urban strategy of the proposed development, the arrangement of programs and their hierarchy. A major component of the existing master plan is the market line; a subterranean espla nade lined with small scale local retail that links the sites at the heart of the project." 6 The market line spans sites two, three and four ( Figure 1 ) the largest sites within the !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 4 Corner, James. Recovering Landscape Essays in Contemporary Landscape A rchitecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999. 153 168. 5 Bagli, Charles V. "City Plans Redevelopment for Vacant Area in Lower Manhattan." The New York Times. 2013. Accessed April 10, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/18/nyregion/city plans redevelopment for vacant area in lower manhattan.html. 6 "SHoP." SHoP. Accessed April 9, 2016. http://www.shoparc.com/projects/essex crossing/.

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BENITEZ 8 master plan. The market line was consider ed as another opportunity to inte grate public space rather than simply a facilitator for a retail and commercial focus In critiquing the master plan, the market line was view ed as not just a commercial core, but as having the potential to begin to act as a community core. It was viewed formally as a anchoring datum embedded within the project, and as such hybrid studies in plan and section served as explorative measure s to address the idea of an anchoring datum, but with the added concept of a central community layer. It was rethought a s a flexible public space to serve as a type of social infrastructure nested within the territ ory of the master plan. This in turn called for a rethinking the allocation of program s as subservient to community needs. The work was working to develop a new t ype of space that was drawn out from the existing constraint through a series of explorative drawing studies. The goal was to take the retail focus of the existing master plan, and instead prioritize the community infrastructure and program. The initial workings in drawing ( Figure 2 ) focused on the formal relationships between the sites and the market line. The drawing s were manifest as series of marks in line, tone, and hatch. They relied on mid tone paper as a base to allow for additive working that cou ld suggest layers of depth that were both in front of and behind. This working produced a sort of collapsed drawing study that allowed for the consideration of space at various depths, in relation to each other. FIGURE 2. Benitez. Adiel, Weber. Patrick. Essex Crossing Collapsed Diagrams. Tonal Study. Gainesville, Florida. 2015. Pencil on mid tone paper

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BENITEZ 9 In drawing we embed three dimensional space within layers of information that exists together to suggest experience. The drawing takes the role of fa cilitator, serving as a palimpsest of ideas in two dimensions that in turn transcribe possibilities in three dimensional space. Thus the experience is embedded in the traces of two dimensional lines, and points. This thinking was foundational in addressing the development of the space within the project. After starting with gestural studies of line and tone, there was a shift towards more deliberately claiming space with the edges and lines of the drawing Successive iterations of the drawing would begin to clarify the spatial ideas of the project and the relationships between spaces. After a clear hierarchy was achieved in the drawing, the section was pushed from 2 dimensions, to 3 dimensions via relief studies derived from the resultant section. ( Figure 3 ) FIGURE 3 Benitez. Adiel, Weber. Patrick. Essex Crossing Analytic Section Studies Gainesville, Florida. 2015. Hybrid Drawing s Relief Model. Pencil on mid tone paper. Collage. A crylic.

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BENITEZ 10 MAPPING AS A GENERATIVE METHOD When approaching drawing as a generative tool mapping presented itself as a form of searching and discovery. A tool that was utilized to better understands the context of the master plan, and the potential architecture within the urban field. In mapping, "interpretive and fictional constructs of facts begin to work to supersede the organization of data, and draw out new and latent relationships. 7 The mapping then works as a generator. It is a generator of ideas, of possible ways of working through the design intentions that are new a nd undiscovered. We are able to begin to take given information; to look closely at what is present and question what was there before, what can manifest itself afterwards through the architecture. When dealing with the challenges of addressing the Esse x master plan, and more broadly, the challenges of working within the dense urban fabric of Manhattan mapping started a process of reading the context. It began to draw out ideas of public space; its relation to other urban conditions, and it would serve to springboard other, more site specific mapping studies. The re was benefit in the ability to work speculatively at different scales within the urban context It allowed for an exploration and un coding of the existing program and infrastructure, drawing f rom the pieces of the existing plans to create new relationships. The first urban scale mapping of Manhattan ( Figure 5 ) was most successful in helping to derive an understanding of the city, and its recurring urban conditions. It was helpful to use the ma pping to draw out the role of public space within the urban field. It was useful to understand the allocations of spaces, the overlap with other more vast territories and other major programmatic elements. With the mapping study, it was important to consid er notations and tones as suggestive elements, while line was utilized to draw out and define the conditions being explored in the drawing. By simply drawing out traces of what was present it became much easier to understand the character of the city, and the types of spaces embedded in its fabric. FIGURE 4 Benitez. Adiel, Weber. Patrick. Site Mapping s Gainesville, Florida. 2015. Hybrid Drawing, Pencil on Mylar. Collage !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 7 Cosgrove, Denis E. Mappings London: Reaktion Books, 1999. 213 252.

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BENITEZ 11 FIGURE 5 Benitez. Adiel, Weber. Patrick. Mapping Opportunities. Engaging Infras tructure along Manhattan's west coast. Gainesville, Florida. 2015. Hybrid Drawing, Pencil on Mylar. Collage.

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BENITEZ 12 In working to draw out these latent relationships through mapping i t became possible to be both generative, and reflective. This was of particular benefit at an urban scale because of the vast considerations and constraints. In order to enrich what is being drawn out from earlier studies, it became necessary to think retrospectively, reimagining the place of the created spaces within the context fro m which they were derived. This led to the construction of introspective mapping drawings; drawing s that recollected qualities of plan, and section, folding in ideas of spaces and program into a construct ed collage of experience and large r urban relationsh ips. The drawings act ed hermetic in nature, but serve as a tool to reflect, and in turn aid in the rendering of ideas and newfound relationships that are otherwise hidden. "Such eidetic images are fundamental stimuli to creativity and invention: they do not represent the reality of an idea but rather inaugurate its possibility." 8 Corner follows this statement by referencing the tendencies of conventional design practice. He describes the use of images as denotative, technological, and immediately intel ligible. In combining different drawing types, the new drawing can serve as a vessel for newfound ideas of the project and the issues it is trying to address and the spaces it is trying to discover FIGURE 6 Benitez. Adiel, Weber. Patrick. Essex Cr ossin g The Drawing 2.0 Introspective Analysis Gainesville, Florida. 2015. Hybrid Drawing, Pencil on Mylar. Collage. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 8 Corner, Recovering Landscape Essays i n Contemporary Landscape Architecture 163.

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BENITEZ 13 SUGGESTIVE REPRESENTATIONS In response to the agency drawing holds today, primarily its role as mediator between designer and constr uctor, it becomes important to ask questions of the drawing throughout the design process. It is necessary to ask these questions of the possible architecture, and henceforth, of the possible experience When looking at the issues of representation in rega rds to experience, crafting perspectival representation that w as suggestive, without being weighed down by constraints of photorealism was indicative of the earlier spatial ideas and drivers. By addressing experiences as a collage of light, shadow, textur e and transparency, the intent was to suggest a type of space, focused on the ephemeral qualities of the space and resultant atmosphere In addressing experiential representation in this way it becomes possible to participate in what Corner calls "emergen t realities 9 When looking at the representation of inhabitation through perspective there is a sway towards realism, and seemingly already built form. Through over drawing, and hybrid digital techniques, representations of occupied space s could take on a clearer spatial reading, while maintaining the spirit of suggestiveness, and potential In addressing the representation on inhabited space through hybrid processes, it becomes possible to draw out the strengths of analog and digital methods, using one to augment the other. In their description of the hybrid techniques they practice, NYC based firm LTL states, "Recognizing the simultaneous potential and limitation of both approaches, we seek to cultivate and encourage a Porbus like search for a truly c omplex form of architectural representation, one that learns from both, steals selectively, and pays little heed to zealots on either sideThe drawings combine what works best from the overlaps of disparate mediums and methods, through an active looping ex change..." 10 FIGURE 7 Benitez. Adiel, Weber. Patrick. Essex Crossing. Social Infrasctucture Gainesville, Florida. 2015. Hybrid Drawing, Pencil on Mylar. Digital Rendering. Collage !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9 Corner, Recovering Landscape Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture 153. 10 LTL, "Over Drawing."

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BENITEZ 1 4 In the above rendering, the main space makes use of over drawing in tand em with rendered 3d modeling. The resulting image suggests occupation, qualities of light, materiality, all the while refraining from being limited to the constraints of portraying a "real" image. It works to break the conventional frame, instead letting l ines extend, suggesting spaces above, in front, and behind. DRAWING OUT OPPORTUNITY When exploring the role of the drawing it is viewed as having the potential to find new spac e and new architectural possibilities. It is not a means to be purely critic al of the convention but rather to derive relationships between the ideas of representation, speculation and conventions themselves. In doing so, drawing can maintain a presence in the process, augmenting the role of digital technologies and methods. In a ddressing drawing today, Michael Graves states, drawing by hand stimulates the imagination and allows us to speculate about ideas, a good sign that we're truly alive." 11 In reaching a holistic architecture, there is a need to draw out the constituents of the design process that can serve as generative, and opportunistic, rather than simply descriptive or predetermined. FIGURE 8. Benitez. Adiel, Weber. Patrick. Essex Crossing. Speculative Axonometric Gainesville, Florida. 2015. Hybrid Drawing, Pencil on Vellum Collage !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 11 Graves, Michael. "Architecture and the Lost Art of Drawing." The New York Times. 2012. Accessed April 9, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/02/opinion/sunday/architecture and the lost art of drawing.html?_r=0.

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BENITEZ 15 Perhaps to find opportunity in the drawing out of architectural experience, there is a need, if only for a moment, to separate building from drawing; to free the designer of the hindering constraint in search of the architecture, in search of the experience. The representation can become the architecture rather than a "representation of architecture." Robin Evans describes this as a sort of restoration. Drawing once again becomes the fountainhead of architectural creationThe building can be discarded as an unfortunate aftermath, and all the properties, values, and attributes worth keeping can be held in the drawing;" 12 he continues, "The peculiarity of architecture as a visual art (a peculiarity it nevertheless shares with orchestral, c horal, operatic works and, to a lesser extent film) is the considerable distance between the process of composition and the thing being composed. By truncating architecture and disposing of building, an intimacy between a way of designing and the thing d esigned is achieved." 13 His description of truncation, specifically of the maintaining of intimacy between the method, and the end result, is suggestive of the intimacy and consideration that architecture should manifest. In order to push the convention, to augment the already existing method of working, creative thought needs to be fostered through the very images that are being crafted. In hopes of discovering the unknown, we can move past the representation of experiences long since established. It is n ecessary to remember the agency of mapping, of drawings, of representation as a broad topic for discussion. In order to return to the intimacy of the process, to once again find the experience of an architecture that is holistic and engaging, this speculat ive representation has to be seen as generative. In re emphasizing the process of representation (drawing and mapping) as a durational experience, the ideas drawing can resurface, and find their way into the assembly of real materials, culminating in good space. In his essay, Drawing Space, Bradley Walters suggests that, We must recognize that these ideas and drawings need fertile spaces in which to grow, and we must shape design processes to allow for them to exist within a web of relationships even when these relationships do not at first appear to be fruitful and/or meaningful. It is important to recognize the fullness of the field, territories, paper, and screen within which drawings emerge and, with luck, blossom and propagate. 14 Experiences that have yet to be lived out can be drawn into reality, and captured in the end result. The role of drawing has already been established within the practice of architecture. It has become a communicative tool, a transcription through which construction can be real ized. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 12 Hays, K. Michael. Architecture Theory since 1968 Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1998. 476 489. 13 Hays, Architecture Theory since 1968 488. 14 Bradl ey Walters, "Drawing Space" (paper presented at 2012 Biannual Conference of the Design Communication Association Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, 21 24 October 2012).

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BENITEZ 16 The end goal is to understand the power of representation and in turn improve upon the conventions that are already in place. There needs to be consideration for eidetic images that are " engendering, unfolding, and participating in emergent rea lities." 15 And can therefore open the door for new possibilities in architecture. In reflecting on the given proposal for Essex crossing, we see a relatively limited study, one that focuses on the bigger ideas and gestures, contained within the bounds of a single urban studio. But the approaches and method in which the ideas are derived can continue forward, both in a continuation of the given work, or towards the application of new design problems. To think opportunistically is to believe that these ideas o n speculation and drawing can begin to permeate not only the "big picture," of the project, but also the project in its entirety. Ideas of assembly, material specificity and so forth can begin to draw from what has already been suggested and draw out new p ossibilities. FIGURE 9 Benitez. Adiel, Weber. Patrick. Essex Crossing. Section Perspective Gainesville, Florida. 2015. Hybrid Drawing, Digital Rendering. Collage !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 15 Corner, Recovering Landscape Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architec ture, 153.

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BENITEZ 17 REFERENCES Bagli, Charles V. "City Plans Redevelopment for Vacant Area in Lower Manh attan." The New York Times. 2013. Accessed April 10, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/18/nyregion/city plans redevelopment for vacant area in lower manhattan.html. Bradley Walters, "Drawing Space" (paper presented at 2012 Biannual Conference of the De sign Communication Association Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, 21 24 October 2012). Corner, James. Recovering Landscape Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999. 153 168. Cosgrove, Deni s E. Mappings London: Reaktion Books, 1999. 213 252. Hays, K. Michael. Architecture Theory since 1968 Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1998. 476 489. Graves, Michael. "Architecture and the Lost Art of Drawing." The New York Times. 2012. Accessed April 9, 20 16. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/02/opinion/sunday/architecture and the lost art of drawing.html?_r=0. "Over Drawing." LTL Architects. Accessed April 9, 2016. http://ltlarchitects.com/over drawing/. "SHoP." SHoP. Accessed April 9, 2016. http://www.shop arc.com/projects/essex crossing/.


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