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An Analysis of Style and Specialization of Weeden Island Effigy Vessels

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Title:
An Analysis of Style and Specialization of Weeden Island Effigy Vessels
Creator:
Sorresso, Domenique C
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
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University of Florida
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Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Animals ( jstor )
Archives ( jstor )
Birds ( jstor )
Effigies ( jstor )
Excavations ( jstor )
Hammocks ( jstor )
Hares ( jstor )
Humans ( jstor )
Owls ( jstor )
Symbolism ( jstor )
Archaeology
Effigy
Island
Vessel
Weeden
Genre:
Undergraduate Honors Thesis, Anthropology

Notes

Abstract:
Weeden Island was a Late Woodland cultural phenomenon that spanned the Gulf coast of Florida and beyond. Burial mounds related to the Weeden Island cultures often included elaborate effigy vessels that depict various animal species and humans. Because effigy vessels are restricted to burial mounds and exhibit stylistic similarities across considerable distances, archaeologists have suggested that they may have been produced by specialists in one or more central locations. The goal of this research was to compile a detailed inventory of documented effigy vessels in order to assess spatial trends in their style that may relate to specialized production. ( en )

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University of Florida
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Copyright [thesis author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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AN ANALYSIS OF STYLE AND SPECIALIZATION OF WEEDEN ISLAND EFFIGY VESSELS ! ! By Domenique C. Sorresso ! ! Dr. Neill J. Wallis, Honors Thesis Advisor ! ! A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment Of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of A rts with Honors in Anthropology University of Florida ! ! Gainesville, Florida ! April 11, 2016

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!!! ! Introduction Weeden Island is a Middle Woodland phenomenon that spanned ca. A.D. 200 900 throughout northern Florida, southern Georgia, and eastern Alabama. Many consider Weeden Island to be a distinctive religious and mortuary complex that was adopted by wide ranging and disparate cultures (Milanich 2002). This is evident in the production of sacred pottery, specifically effigy vessels, which are found exclu sively in burial mounds. Although material culture is usually regionally variable, mounds frequently include effigies, which are strikingly similar among distant sites (Figure 1). Effigy vessels are defined any vessel or fragment of a vessel representing an animal or human. The resemblance in their style across space may have been the result of specialized production in one or more central locations. Some of the largest and most impressive sites of Florida and Georgia including Kolomoki and McKeithen sh are Weeden Island effigy vessels in mortuary contexts and could have been manufacturing centers for distribution to smaller sites (Milanich et al. 1997; Pluckhahn 2003). Although archaeologistsobservations of stylistic similarities have been the basis for inferring craft specialization and centralized production, no detailed inventory of known effigy vessels has ever been undertaken. In the process of understanding the bigger picture, a comprehensive inventory of attributes for the effigy vessels was created based on existing publications (Bullen 1952; Lambert 1976; Milanich et al. 1997; Moore 1895, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1905, 1918; Purdy 1996; Sears 1953, 1956), digital inventories from the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI), and collections cu rated in the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH). This work evaluates similarities and differences in the vessels across space, analyzing aspects such as vessel dimensions, surface treatment, and styles of representation. These data and the resultin g inventory is the basis for assessing, for the first time in a systematic

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!!! ! # way, issues of specialization and centralized pottery production within the Weeden Island cultures. ! Figure 1. The distribution of sites where effigy vessels were found. ! ! ! ! !

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!!! ! $ Previous Research Although no complete inventory has ever been created before this point, several archaeologists have independently assessed effigy vessels from a number of sites. The most notable of these archaeologists were Clarence Bloomfield Moor e, William Sears, and Jerald Milanich and colleagues. C.B. Moore (1895, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1905, 1918) describes many effigies (n=104) in his field notes, along with a myriad of other artifacts excavated during his many expeditions in the Southeastern Uni ted States. His field notes are usually short with a description of the site as a whole, followed by brief statements about the physical appearance of each of the vessels or fragments. Photos are included of almost every effigy of interest and drawings of more intricate designs are sometimes incorporated as well. Some of the most notable of these sites include Crystal River (8CI1) and Hall Mound (8WA4). In the 1950s, William Sears excavated Kolomoki (9ER1) in Georgia, an extensive site with nine mounds a nd a massive village surrounding a plaza. Sears (1956, 1973) writes much more extensively about the effigies, adding photos or artist recreations based on fragments found of each at the site. Additionally, dimensions and physical descriptions are given. H e also makes larger inferences for the effigies as a whole, which he included in a group called ortuary ware He speculates as to their functions and creates a broad classification system, categorizing them as derive, free, or pedestale, based on form (Sears 1956: 22 23). This system is used in this analysis as a way of identifying different patterns in shape and style. Although these terms are used, less emphasis is placed on form and additional attributes are recorded. Additionally, Sears d oes not actually use the term effigy vessels in his writing, as he

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!!! ! % recognizes how so many of the effigies are not functional vessels and inclu de artistic or ritual features, which would make using them for utilitarian purposes impossible. He was also the first to suggest that effigies were created by specialists, possibly religious leaders, at a single location like Kolomoki (Sears 1973:39). From 1976 to 1979, Jerald Milanich and colleagues excavated the McKeithen site in Florida. This site is similar to Kolomoki, although it is not as large. McKeithen has &'()!*+,--! .&/'012!3+45+!6,-!147'48456'*!&3-,!4'!+-47+* 2 6'0!6!./5+!1.6-,!156-!96:6!6'0!;467-< Milanich et al. (1997) describe the effigy vessels in detail, even attempting to recognize differ ent species represented on the vessels. In addition to physical descriptions of many of the effigies, all are defined as either being pedestaled or derived in form. The vessels are grouped into the category of cult pottery, or effigy vessels or mortuary ware in the strictest sense (Sears 1956:22 23; Milanich et al. 1997:130). Milanich and colleagues (1997) speculate that these species represented as effigies were considered anomalous in some way and not associated with any major classes of animal, and thus, attracted ritual attention. Qualities that might allow these species to be considered unaffiliate include unusual habitats, diet, or mating habits. This perspective stems from the structuralism of Claude L i Strauss (1966), who theorized in the primitive categorizing of animals. !! A possible example of this is t he roseate spoonbill Ajaia ajaia ), which lives in coastal marshes and could have been recognized as atypical because it inhabited an aquatic environment inst ead of an aerial environment. Also, some animals might have be en consid ered taboo violating creatures, such as the turkey vulture (Cathartes aura). These birds are known to feed on carrion and garbage, in addition to having a disregard for

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!!! ! = most human boundaries These striking ha bits might have made the turkey vulture a symbol of interest for representation on effigy vessels (Milanich et al. 1997:171 178). Prior to this study, very little was known about effigy vessels as a whole. There was no knowledge of the total number of v essels or the fre quency of their characteristics Additionally, it was understood that the distribution of the effigies spanned Florida, Georgia, and Alabama, but the breadth of archaeological sites they were excavated from was uncertain. Effigies had on ly been extensively studie d within individual sites, with minimal comparison to those from other sites, and were rarely examined for features other than form or animals represented. This research has produc ed a comprehensive inventory of all known effigy vess els and using this data, further analyzed the effigies for spatial patterns based on form, modes of representation, visual similarities, and more. ! ! ! ! ! !

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!!! ! > Methodology Effigy vessels from archaeological sites in Florida, Georgia, and Alabama were analyze d in this study. Some vessels were evaluated in person at the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH), but most information was gleaned through existing publications (Bullen 1952; Lambert 1976; Milanich et al. 1997; Moore 1895, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1905, 1 918; Purdy 1996; Sears 1953, 1956) and digital inventories from the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI). It should be noted that this inventory is not entirely complete There are many unpublished effigy vessels, including those in private coll ections. The vessels were assessed based on their zoomorph(s) or animal(s) present, mode of representation, kill holes, pre fired basal cut outs, pre fired body cut outs, form, and size. ! Zoomorph(s) or animal(s) present Both animals and humans are repre sented on the vessels in a variety of ways, including adornos and incised designs. Animals can include birds, dogs, bears, cats, and snakes. Some effigies feature animals multiple times in a variety of ways. This includes identical adornos on either side of the vessel or instances in which one animal is represented through an incised design and a completely different animal is represented by an adorno. ! Mode of representation The subjects are depicted using one or more of the following techniques: inci sing, punctations, adornos, and paint (red and white). This also includes the use of symbols, such as the bird or wing symbol, which is used often and is frequently incised on vessels with bird effigies, although not limited to them. This symbol is descri bed asconcisting

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!!! ! ? of straight or curved lines with circular or triangular enlargement at one end or at both ends (Moore 1902:140). In some instances, one or more animals are incised and easily identified on vessels. ! Kill holes : vessels associated wit h Weeden Island, frequently had the base perforated, or werekille before disposal (Milanich et al. 1997:167). ! Pre fired basal cut outs. Some vessels include basal cut outs that resemble kill holes in their placement, but that were pre fired, or cre ated before the vessel was fired. ! Pre fired body cut outs. Some effigies have cut outs in the body of the vessel that are pre fired. These are represented in a variety of shapes, such as triangular, square, and barbel. ! Form As many archaeologists have excavated Weeden Island sites and analyzed effigy vessels in the past, different classification systems have been created. For example, Milanich and colleagues (1997) used the terms pedestale and derive to outline different forms. However, m any factors prevent one from creating neat categories for effigy vessels. These include the fragmentary state of many of the vessels, erosion, and lost or stolen artifacts that are poorly documented. For the basis of identifying spatial patterns and expr essing basic differences in form, this research uses the categories created by William Sears (1956:22 23). These include 1) free, 2) pedestaled, and 3) derived. Free effigies do not have pedestals, often lack spouts or openings that would be functional f or utilitarian use, and often resemble

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!!! ! @ statues. Pedestaled effigies include a pedestal that allows each vessel to sit upright. These vessels vary in supposed purpose, with some including functional orifices. Derived effigies normally resemble utilitarian vessels, such as bowls or jars, but include modifications or decorations. These vessels might include adornos or simply an animal incised on the body. ! Size. The total height, width and/or length were measured in centimeters for whole vessels. As many o f the measurements had to be extrapolated from scales in photos or previously documented data, height was the most reliable variable and thus the only one used to identify patterns. ! After analysis was completed, patterns were assessed by using the tabu lated data such as animal represented, presence of cut outs or kill holes, height, etc., as well as a subjective visual examination to look for stylistic trends that were not captured by the recorded attributes. Then, the data was utilized to conduct a sp atial analysis by plotting the sites from which the vessels were excavated using Geographic Information Systems (GIS Esri). ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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!!! ! AB Results By analyzing the vessels based on the aforementioned methods, it was possible to collect data to recognize vis ual similarities among effigies, as well as spatial patterns from the archaeological sites from which the vessels were orig inally excavated. In total, 192 effigy vessels were identified from 57 sites. For the purpose of this study, effigy vessels were def ined as any vessel or fragment of a vessel representing a human or animal. Representation can include the use of adornos, as well as incised and punctated designs. Unless it was evident that multiple fragments belonged to the same vessel, they were treat ed as different vessels. Zoomorph(s) or animal(s) present Nine broad categories of animals were identified. These categories include birds, humans, snakes, dogs, bears, cats, fish, opossums, and deer (Figure 2) It should be noted that 8.37% of the e ffigies were unidentifiable past rtebrateor quadruped. These are categorized as Unidentified (UID) animal. Previous research has attempted to identify the animals further to genus or species using zooarchaeological data, as well as the environment of the sites where the vessels were found (e.g., Milanich et al. 1997). This study does not separate within the groups, as most effigies are not easily identified at the taxonomic level and some even appear to be anthropomorphized. These may actually rep resent liminal states of transformation of people to animals. This transitio n may also be represented by human effigies that appear to have very non human characteristics, such as an effigy with six limbs (see Figure 14 ).

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!!! ! AA Figure 2. The percentage of each animal represented on the effigy vessels. ! Of the 192 vessels, 62.76% (n=123 ) were identifi ed as birds. The frequency of bird representation was observed in previous research and can be recognized even w ithin individual sites (Figure 3 ). After the birds, the human categ ory has the largest number (n=33 ). Bird 62.76% Human 16.84% Dog 1.53% Cat 3.06% Bear 1.02% Fish 1.02% Opossum 0.51% Deer 2.04% Snake 2.55% Unidentied Animal 8.67% Animal Representation Bird Human Dog Cat Bear Fish Opossum Deer Snake Unidentied Animal

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!!! ! A" Even so, h uman effigies only make up 16.84 % of the total. The other seven categories together make up the last ~11%, which include snakes (n=5), dogs (n=3), bears (n=2), cats (n=6), fish (n=2), opossums (n=1), and deer (n=4). However, one should take into consideration that there is overlap between the categories. It is not uncommon for a single vessel to have more than one type of animal represented. The occurrence of more than one animal is found both with the use of adornos and with incised decoration If a single vessel repres ented more than one type of animal, each type was recorded individually [e.g. Figure 4 was counted as representing both bird (n=1) and dog (n=1)]. Figure 3 The quantity of bir d effigies per archaeological site.

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!!! ! A# ! Figure 4 Effigy vessel from McKeithen (8CO17 showing both bird ( turkey vulture) and dog adornos FLMNH A NT A10952 ). Mode of representation Of all the vessels, 38.54% had traces of red (n=71 ), white (n=1), or red and white paint (n=2). Adornos are seen frequently, and of the 192 vessels, 82.81% (n=159 ) of the vessels had at least one adorno present, incl uding fragmentary handles and free effigies representing one or more animals. The rest of the assemblage (n=33 ) is comprised of effigies represented by incised or punctated decoration only. Decoration was also used to create symbols on the vessels with a nd without adornos. The most easily identifiable symbol is a bird or wing symbol (Moore 1902:140) (Figure 5 This symbol is only definitively found on 6.25 % (n=12) of the vessels, but interestingly appears to be represented by both pre fired body cut outs and incised decoration. The bird symbol cut outs, as well as the similar barbel shape cut

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!!! ! A$ outs, were only found on vessels representing birds. Vessels with this symbol were only found at six of the 57 sites included in this study. ! Figure 5 Examples of the bird symbol incised from Mound B, Warrior River 8TA3 on left and as a prefired body cut out from Mound below Hares Hammock 9SE33) on right Moore 1902:345 422 ). ! Kill holes These perforations were created after the vessel was fired. This characteristic requires a whole vessel or large f ragments to infer, so of the 192 vessels, only 116 were analyze d. In total, 21.35% (n=41 ) were killed basally. However, an additional five vessels are suspected to have been kille by knocking off the head, leg, or wing or the effigy. Of all that were killed (n=46), 11 effigies also had pre fired body cut outs. In a simil ar vein, ten vessels had perforations for suspension. None of these vessels in include body or basal pre fired cut outs, alth ough many were killed basally after use and are included in that percentage.

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!!! ! A% ! Pre fired basal cut outs These holes were created before the vessel was fired. This also requires a whole vessel or large frag ments to identify, so of the 192 vessels, only 116 were analyzed. Vessels with pre fired basal cut outs made up 25.00% (n=29) of this number, with the holes being described as triangular or rectangular in three instances. These cut outs were found in addition to pre fired body cut outs in 24 vessels and to a post fire perforation in one. ! Pre fired body cut outs Milanich et al. (1997) explain the existence of these body cut outs as evidence of ceremonial or cult ware because it could be inferred that such a vessel could not hold food or liquid and thus had a ritual purpose. These cut outs also requires a whole vessel or large frag ments to identify, so of the 192 vessels, only 116 were analyzed. Of the effigies included, the pre fired body cut outs were present in 37.07% (n=43) of the vessels, and of these, the holes were created in several different shapes (Figure 6 More specifically, 8.62% (n=10) had only pre fired body cut outs, 20.69% (n=24) had both pre fired body and basal cut outs, and 8.62% (n=10) showed pre fired cut outs a nd werek ille after firing.

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!!! ! A= ! Form This characteristic was only recorded for whole vessels or fragments of vessels that could be re fitted eno ugh to make a distinction (n=112 ). However, it was one of the most important factors used when identifying trends and pat terns in this study. Of the 112 vessels, the group of derived effigies is the broadest and most inclusive. This is evident in the high number of vessels that fell into this cate gory (n=62), which made up 55.3 6 % of the vessels analyzed for this feat ure (Figure 7) For this reason, more extensive analysis was completed on the vessels that fell into the other two categories. Free effigies make up 1 9.64 % of the assemblage, with 22 total Figure 6 The distribution of sites with effigy vessels that have pre fired body cut outs.

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!!! ! A> Figure 7. The percentage of each effigy vessel form. ! ! and more than half representing humans (Figure 8). When co nsidering kill holes and cut outs, none included pre fired basal cut outs, five included pre fired body cut outs, and eight were kille None of the free effigies represented more than one animal, but some did include incised or punctated designs and si x were painted. There were 28 ped estaled effigies, which is 25.00 % of the total (Figure 9 Nearly a ll (n=25 ) display birds of some kind. Of these, only five were killed basally, while 15 had a pre fired basal cut out, and 19 had pre fired body cut outs All but one of these vessels has only a single animal type represented, nearly all included incised design (n=2 4), and several (n=14 ) were painted. A number of vessels from the free and pedestaled categories were from the large site of Kolomoki, with f ive free effigies and 17 pedestaled effigies. Derived 55.36% Free 19.64% Pedestaled 25.00% gy Form Derived Free Pedestaled

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!!! ! A? ! Figure 8. The distribution of sites with free effigy vessels

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!!! ! A@ ! Size Considering most of the research for this study was archival and measurements often had to be extrapolated, height was the most reliable dimension and the only one analyzed. Measurements were onl y taken for whole vessels that could be measured in person or extrapolated from publications (n=105). Height was compared by grouping the effigies into four categories by ten centimeter increments. These included 0 10.00cm, which made up 13.3% (n=14), 10 .01 20.00cm, which made up 43.8% (n=46), 20.01 30.00cm, which made up 34.3% (n=36), and 30.01+cm, which made up 8.6% (n=9). Both the mean and median heights for the effigies were approximately 18.7 centimeters (Figure 10 Overall, the heights had a rang e of Figur e 9 The distribution of sites with pedestaled effigy vessels

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!!! ! "B approximately 30 centimeters, with the height of the smallest vessel at only about 6.4cm and the tallest vessel at 36.4cm. When also considering form, the average heights for free, pedestaled, and derived effigies are 22.8cm, 23.2cm, and 16.5cm respe ctively. The median heights for free and pedestaled vessels were approximately the same, although the derived effigies had a much smaller median height of 14.11cm. This lesser measurements for derived vessels are due to the fact that many of these are bo wls, which by definition are shorter. Additionally, the standard deviation is 7.76cm for free effigies, 6.44cm for pedestaled effigies, and 6.73cm for derived effigies. Figure 10 The mean height of the effigy vessels from each archaeological site.

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!!! ! "A In addition to all of these factors, it was necessary to take note of simil arities in effigy appearance that were less frequent and harder to categorize. For example, the aeffigies mentioned were only actually found in two instances (Figure 11) Despite the fact that the animal representation on both look strikingly simi lar, these effigies were found at sites in separate parts of Florida (Dixie county and Hillsborough county). Another instance like this exists between a cat effigy and a human effigy found at two separate sites (8BY11, 8FR4). Even though the effigies wer e found in different counties (Bay and Franklin), the two vessels look almost identical. Both are large, derived vessels, with a protruding head on the body. Several intra site similarities have also been observed between effigies, including common desig ns, appearance, and cut out shape and placement. T he same upside down triangle cut out is found on the body of several vessels from Hall Mound (8WA4), as well as from other sites in Figure 11. Left shows a sad bearrepresented with an adorno from Hughes Island Mound (8DI45 Right shows a sad bearrepresented on an effigy vessel fragment from Thomas Mound 8HI1 courtesy of Neill Wallis and the Florida Museum of Natural History.

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!!! ! "" ! ! Wakulla county (Figure 12). Two bird effigies from Mound A, Warr ior River (8TA2) each have three rounded body cut outs in a row. Many of the bird effigies from McKeithen have adornos with curved beaks, some including crests. Overall, patterns in effigy appearance within a single site are not uncommon, both considering adornos and incised design. Similarities seem to be especially apparent between bird and human effigies, but this is most likely a result of both of those categories bein g so frequently represented. Three vessels were described in notes as having adornos that functioned as spouts, one was foun d at the McKeithen site (8CO17), another at Hall Mound (8WA4) and a third at the Larger Mound near Hare Hammock (8BY30) Also, t he way humans are represented is often quite similar between sites. One of the first noticeable patterns is folded or crossed arms. Examples of this feature can be seen across several counties and multiple sites. Another is a smile showing teeth, which is sometimes perceived to be a death gri in Mississippian cultures, because after de ath the lips can curl back to make it look as if the individual is smiling (Walker 2004:228). Additionally, many of the humans appear to be wearing clothing, this includes breach clouts (n=7 ), headdresses (n=6), or both (n=1). Figures 12. Effigy vessels from Hall Mound 8WA4). All represent birds and include incised wing design and an upside down triangle body cut out on lateral side Moore 1902:290,292,297).

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!!! ! "# Spatially, one can observe the relation of the vessels in a new way. In general, sites that contain effigy vessels tend to cluster around the Apalachicola River and on the Gulf Coast. The majority of the sites are in the Florida panhandle, although they do extend further into the state, as well as into Georgia and Alabama. By using the data gathered in conjunction with Geographical Information Systems (GIS Esri), it is possible to visualize how the effigy vessels were distributed across sites, how certain characteristics are expre ssed, and to infer relationships. Birds are by far the most widely represented among the effigies and were found at 71.93% (n=41 ) of the sites. As sites with bird effigies are the majority, they tend to follow the major trends of the effigy sites as a w hole. However, noticeably bird effigies are not found south of Hernando County, which is just north of Tampa Bay. Sites with human effigy vessels are less clustered and extend further into the state of Florida, as well as into Georgia and Alabama (Figure 13) Additionally, t +-,-!6,-!;-,!8-3!+/.6'!-88474-1!8&/'0!&'!*+-!C9665+45&6!D4;-,2! 6*+&/7+!E4,0!-88474-1!6,-!;-,!5&..&'!*+-,-< Sites with effigies of the other seven animal types almost always have either bird or human effigies as well. Effigies fro m the large site of Kolomoki (9ER1) represent eight of the nine identified animal groups. The distribution of sites with the less commonly displayed animals extends only as south as Palmetto Mound (8LV2) near Cedar Key. When considering distribution by f orm, destaleand reeeffigies are the most relevant for analysis, as the rivecategory is extremely broad. Pedestaled vessels are only found at sites clustered around Apalachee Bay and along the Apalachicola/Chattahoochee drainage, which incl udes Kolomoki. The only exception is McKeithen, which is much farther inland and the most eastern site in the distribution. Free effigies are found clustered around what is modern day Panama City, which includes West Bay, St. Andrew Bay, and East Bay.

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!!! ! "$ A few are also found further east near Apalachee Bay and further north at Kolomoki, which is actually the only site where pedestaled and free effigies overlap. However, some of the human effigy vessels at Palmetto Mound are probably free effigies, but enough of them have not been analyzed to confirm this. As far as effigy height is concerned, there is not spatially patterned variation, so it is difficult to identify trend s, as almost every site with effigies had at least one that fell into the 10.01 20 .00cm or 20.01 30.00cm ranges. It is also worth pointing out that the sites that were found to have effigies that were ten centimeters or smaller in height, were only located along the Gulf Coast, with none coming from McKeithen or Kolomoki. Additionally, Figure 13 The distribution of sites with effigies representing humans.

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!!! ! "% with the exception of two, the sites where vessels with pre fired body cut outs were found and the sites where vessels with pre fired basal cut outs were found overlap completely.

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!!! ! "= Discussion The variety of the effigy vessels and characteristics analyzed in this study is so broad that it is necessary to focus on some of the strongest trends for further interpretation. Ceremonial or ritual significance must be assessed, as well as the question of production by artist specializatio n. When inspecting the effigies, it is difficult not to draw comparisons to symbolism from other Woodland period cultures, as well as the following Mississippian cultures. Many of the Weeden Island effigy vessels appear similar to vessels from th e Fort Walton culture (ca. A.D. 1000 1500). Although style markers exist to distinguish vessels from one culture or the other, indicators are not always easy to identify and factors such as erosion might make a once easily identifiable fragment much more ambiguous. Some designs also resemble motifs common to those of later cultures, such as the aforementioned death gri which is also found on head effigies from the central Mississippi valley (Walker 2004:228). Additionally, following ! Figure 14 Left shows a human effigy with an open smile showing teeth from Buck Mound (8OK11). Right shows a head effigy with a death grin from the central Mississippi valley (Purdy 1996; Walker 2004)

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!!! ! "> ! Southeastern cosmology, red paint might have been used to repre sent the earth and indicate the bodys resting place after death, while the white paint may symbolize the sky and the soul final destination (Milanich et al. 1997:167 168). Another apparent cultural trend when portraying humans among the effigies is the complete lack of female representation. In cultures that both precede and follow Weeden Island, women are displayed artistically. Examples of this include clay female figurines found at the Late Archaic site of Poverty Point and the Mississippian figures of female deities from Cahokia (Webb 1968; Walker 2004:135). In contradiction to their lack of representation in iconography, women are believed to have had a prominent role in society. An example of this is a significant burial found at a major Weeden I sland site, McKeithen (8CO17). Mound B contained a single burial of a suspected shaman, as the interment included ritual objects (Milanich et al. 1997:105 112). Research has shown that this person of importance was in fact a woman, which further shows th e influence of women on this society and culture as a whole (Turner et al. 2005). Birds clearly had a very significant place within the Weeden Island phenomenon. This group is by far the most frequently represented among the effigies. In addition to this several of the effigy vessels representing humans appear to be wearing headdresses or costumes that include birds, which have been tentatively identified as roseate spoonbills and wood ibises (Pluckhahn 2010) (Figure 15) This theme is noticeable elsewh ere as well. The burial of the religious specialist from Mound B at McKeithen, included the head of a bird effigy vessel as well as anhinga bones (Milanich et al. 1997:110). These associations secure the relationship between birds and burial mound cere monialism. Many archaeologists that have done previous research of Weeden Island sites have speculated about the form and function of these vessels.

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!!! ! "? An idea that can be almost universally agreed upon is that the effigies are special in some way. The ext ra time and effort exerted in their creation, in addition to certain features, lead many to believe that they had ritual significance. Some of the more heavily analyzed elements are the pre fired cut outs and basal kill holes. The purpose of these cut out s are debated. Despite the fact a) (b ) c) d) Figure 15. Examples of human effigies w ith birds associated as headdresses. a Front and back of eff igy from Smaller Mound near Burnt Mill Creek 8BY16) Moore 1902:150 151); b Drawing of a human effigy from Kolomoki 9ER1 Sears 1953; c Human effigy and drawing from Kolomoki (9ER1) Sears 1953); (d) Fragment of effigy vessel showing a human head from Palmetto Mound (9ER1) Lambert 1976).

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!!! ! "@ that the basal cut outs were created before the clay was fired, the term kill hole is still sometimes used, implying that as mortuary vessels, the effigies must be killed so that the s oul might be released (Leach 1976:83). This is especially relevant as these are the only form of vessel in the southeastern United States only found in burial contexts. However, Milanich et al. (1997:167) argue a more practical application for these hol es, pointing out that their presence would have prevented one from ever using the vessel for everyday activities and ensure they are used for the ritual purpose intended. They also hypothesized that the function of vessels with a pre fired basal kill hole at McKeithen was analogous to that of the wooden bird carvings found at the Fort Center site, which is roughly contemporaneous to McKeithen (Sears 1982, Milanich et al. 1997:130,166). The bases of the McKeithen vessels are described as battered or erode and he suggests that this is because the effigies were placed on top of tall pine posts, functioning as charnel guardians at Mound A and may have even marked the locations of pits containing bones before they were moved to the Mound C charnel house. A lthough there is no additional evidence to directly point to this as the function, it is worth noting that this analysis found that only pedestaled and derived vessels were found to have both pre fired basal and body holes. These two forms might have been more suited for this purpose than free effigies. T he possibility that those with pre fired Kolomoki style body cut outs might have been used to serve medicine is also considered (Milanich et al. 1997:99). Sears (1973) is in agreement with the idea th at although the effigies were only found in mortuary contexts, they likely served another purpose before interment. He also suggests that these vessels could have been used for ritual purposes or even in rite of passage ceremonies. Sears also refrained f rom calling the effigies vessels due to this same belief that they likely served so many other purposes. This idea is backed up by the

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!!! ! #B fact that of the free effigies, which lack so many (or all) utilitarian features, were almost never killed basally. Only a few (n=8) were actually subject to this process that was commonplace for so many pieces of pottery. Of those that were killed, the head or leg of a human effigy was sometimes knocked off instead of creating the traditional basal hole. (a) b) Figure 16. Examples of inter site effigy vessel similarities. a An incised effigy vessel and drawing, from mound near Crooked Island (8BY31 (Moore 1918: 551 552); b An incised fragment of an effigy vessel f rom Palmetto Mound (8LV2) (courtesy of Mark Donop, FLMNH ANT 10896).

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!!! ! #A Similarities and patterns between these vessels are to be expected. It does seem surprising or impossible that highly sophisticated groups might have been extremely interactive and shared both ideas and items. This leads one to the crossroads o f whether the patterns are a result of the exchange of creative thoughts or of actual objects. In other words, resemblances might be due to these groups sharing a religion, beliefs, stories, environment, or only because they all coexisted during the same time period. However, it could also have resulted from the actual trade or ceremonial gifting of vessels from one gr oup to another. This analysis supports the second idea. Sites such as Kolomoki and McKeithen display many or almost all of the features m entioned and this could be the result of large sites having been the centers of distribution. (Figure 17) The complex societies of the Woodland period might have allowed for specialization of occupation, especially within larger sites like these. It is e ntirely possible that the effigies were created, at least in part, by a specialized artisan class. The vessels might have been created by a few talented members, or a family lineage, and then distributed to other groups. This might account for many intra site similarities between vessels, in addition to resemblances between effigies excavated from sites that are miles away from each other. This could be the result of a certain artist or group of artists with a collective technique or particular style, wh ether it was done deliberately or not. The theoretical travel of these vessels from one point to another is further backed by the knowledge that travel between sites was common during this time period, as indicated by isotopic data from the shama buria l in Mound B at McKeithen (Turner et al. 2005). Building on this study, Wallis and colleagues (2016) have been conducting petrographic analysis and Neutron Activation Analysi s (NAA) to further research th e question of specialization. This research so far evaluates materials from three Florida localities,

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!!! ! #" two of which are included in this study (8CO17, 8LV2). It also compares research already conducted on the Kolomoki site (9ER1) in Geo rgia. Ultimately, it does not seem as though there is a distinct tr end of either local or nonlocal production. The effigies do not share a single provenance, although the data does show that some vessels were produced locally at Palmetto Mound, McKeithen, and Kolomoki. All of the effigies from Kolomoki and 60% from McKe ithen were manufactured at the sites, but more than half from Palmetto Mound were found to be nonlocal (Wallis et al. 2016). With that being said, it is imperative that the similarities seen within smaller individual sites, or within clustered groups of s ites, are not ignored. Localized Figure 17. The quantity of effigy vessels found per site.

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!!! ! ## style trends are noticeable in form, representation, and body cut outs. These are likely the result of the same artisan(s), although whether the manufacturing of these vessels took place locally or nonlocally is still unc lear. It is possible that many of these vessels were imported from a larger site like Kolomoki all at once or over a very short period of time. However, it is worth considering that these vessels found at less extensive sites are normally less detailed w ith fewer designs and cut outs. This, in addition to the fact that research shows that not all effigies were created at larger sites, suggests that these trends might be the result of local reproductions whereby residents of smaller sites attempted to cop y effigies they had already received or seen elsewhere. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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!!! ! #$ Conclusion Unfortunately, there are many factors that may hinder the accuracy of this analysis. The first and most important of these is that the majority of this research was done using archival resources. All pictures were taken by previous researchers and curators, and field notes did not always include all details necessary. If measurements were included, they are almost always recorded using inches. What e ven more problematic is that there are many instances in which a picture is included in a book or article and the only description of the dimensions of the vessel is a caption indicating it is full size or 3/4th size Situations such as this required using a metric ruler to measure the photo from the publication, followed by extrapolation that was not extremely precise. For these reasons, height was the most reliable dimension and thus was the only one analyzed in this study. Additionally, designs are always completely visible in pictures, and paint does always show up well, especially as black and white photos are frequently used. There is also the issue of breakage, both due to erosion and human error. Artifact descriptions of a broken vessel will not be as accurate as it might have been otherwise, especially as many of the effigies include in this analysis are only fragments or adornos. From some sites, an artist has used fragments to recreate what the vessel could have looked like, but there is no way of knowing that the drawings accurately represent the original vessel. However, it appears that despite these drawbacks, the sample size is large enough and diverse enough to draw conclusions for effigy vessels as a whole. Visual patter ns, such as the high frequency of birds and differences in form, seem to be legitimate. Spatial trends also appear to be true, with a large number of the sites containing effigies found around the Apalachicola River and along the Gulf coast. From this th ough, the focus turns to the artistic talent that

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!!! ! #% existed during this time period and what it might have meant for social hierarchy, group interaction, and mortuary practices. It is evident that effigies played a signif icant role in a culture for which ceremony is central. In fact, these vessels were so important that the manufacturers used cut outs to make sure they would never be used or stolen for everyday activities. Similarities in form, design, and representation between items so culturally neces sary are likely not a result of accident or independent invention. There was an exchange of ideas and goods between groups, creating the complex assortment of vessels we see today. This analysis, in addition to complementary research, lends credence to t he idea that some level of social division and hierarchy existed within each site or even between sites. The level of skill to create these vessels, as well as the visual patterns present, are evidence that an artisan class was likely responsible for crea ting the effigies. Sears (1956) hypothesized that Kolomoki was large enough to allow for specialized occupation and the center of production for all effigy vessels. However, style trends recognized in this study suggest that this was not the case and effigies were likely copied b y members at smaller sites and manufactured locally. Additionally, current geochemical and petrographical studies do not completely support the idea that all effigies were made in just one location. Future research may be able to shed more light as to th e creation and function of these curious vessels. ! ! ! !

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!!! ! #= Acknowledgements I am so incredibly grateful for my wonderful advisor, Dr. Neill Wallis, who patiently listened to every idea I had, made light of difficult situations, and helped me through e ach step of this project. Without his guidance, I doubt I would have completed this honors thesis with my sanity intact. I would like to express my appreciation for Dr. Charles Cobb for countless conversations and a never ending supply of advice on how t o navigate the world of anthropology. I thank Dr. Ken Sassaman for sparking my interest in southeastern archaeology, both in the classroom and in the field. His contagious love for the subject is the reason this project exists at all. Finally, I thank m y parents and y ounger sister for thei r constant love and strength. I cannot even begin to express how much it means to me that they not only support my research in a field that I am truly passionate about, but encourage it

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!!! ! #> References Bullen, R ipley P. ! 1952 Eleven Archaeological Sites in Hillsborough County, Florida. Report of Investigations No. 8., Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee. ! Lambert, Don ! 1976 Burial Mound On Hog Island. Early Man 1 (1): 12 14. ! Leach, Edmond ! 1976 Culture and communication: the logic by which symbols are connected. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ! L i Strauss, Claude 1966 The savage mind University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ! Milanich, Jerald T., Ann S. Cordell, Vernon J. Knight, Jr., Ti mothy A. Kohler, and Brenda J. Sigler Lavelle. ! 1997 Archaeology of Northern Florida, A.D. 200 900: The McKeithen Weeden Island Culture University of Florida, Gainesville. ! Milanich, Jerald T. ! 2002 Weeden Island Cultures. In The Woodland Southeast ed ited by David G. Anderson and Robert C. Mainfort, Jr. University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. ! Moore, Clarence B. ! 1895 Certain river mounds of Duval County, Florida Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 10:448 502. ! 1895 Certain sand mounds of the Ocklawaha River, Florida Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 10:518 543. ! 1901 Certain aboriginal remains of the Northwest Florida coast P. C. Stockhausen, Philadelphia. !

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!!! ! #? 1902 Certain aboriginal remains of the Nort hwest Florida coast, Part II. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 12:127 355. ! 1903 Certain aboriginal mounds of the Central Florida west coast Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 12:361 438. ! 1905 Certain a boriginal remains of the Lower Tombigbee River Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 13:245 278. ! 1918 The northwestern Florida coast revisited Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadephia 16:515 579 ! Pluckhahn, Thomas J. ! 2003 Kolomoki: Settlement, Ceremony, and Status in the Deep South, A.D. 350 to 750 University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. ! 2010 The Sacred and the Secular Revisited: The Esssential Tensions of Early Village Societies in the Southeastern U.S. In Becomi ng Villagers: Comparing Early Village Societies, edited by M. Brandy and J. Fox, pp. 100 118. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. ! Purdy, Barbara A., Roy C. Craven Jr., and Gordon R. Willey ! 1996 Indian Art of Ancient Florida University of Flo rida, Gainesville. ! Sears, William ! 1953 Excavations at Kolomoki: Season III and IV, Mound D University of Georgia Press, Athens. ! 1956 Excavations at Kolomoki: Final Report. University of Georgia Press, Athens. ! 1973 The Sacred and t he Secular in Prehistoric Ceramics. In Variations in Anthropology: Essays in Honor of John McGregor edited by J. Lathrap and J. Douglas, pp. 31 42. Illinois Archaeological Survey, Urbana. ! 1982 Fort Center: an archaeological site in the Lake Okeechobee B asin. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville. ! Turner, Bethany L., John D. Kingston, and Jerald T. Milanich. ! 2005 Isotopic evidence of immigration linked to status during the Weeden Island and Suwannee Valley periods in North Florida. Southeastern Ar chaeology 24(2):121 136.

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!!! ! #@ ! Walker, Chester P. ! 2004 Prehistoric Art of the Central Mississippi Valley. In Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand: American Indian Art of the Ancient Midwest and South edited by Robert V. Sharp and Lisa Meyerowitz, pp. 223 229. Art Insti tute of Chicago, Chicago. ! Wallis, Neill J., Ann S. Cordell, Erin Harris Parks, Mark C. Donop, and Kristen Hall. 2016 Specialization and the Politics of Weeden Island Sacred and Prestigeessel Production. Under Revision. Webb, Clarence H. ! 1968 The E xtent and Content of Poverty Point Culture. American Antiquity 33(3):297 321.

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed "# ! Vessel Name Provenience Site Name Animal Cut outs/ Kill Holes Whole/ Fragment Representation Form Height (cm Bird Symbol Paint Source Page Notes 8BF8 1 8BF8 Keystone Club Estates Human Killed basally Fragments Incised, Adorno (1 Free Red FLMMH Col lection s Wearing headdress & breach clout 8BF8 2 8BF8 Keystone Club Estates Human Fragments Incised, Adorno (1 Red FLMMH Collection s 8BY11 1 8BY11 Mound Near West Bay Post Office Bird Fragments Incised, Punctate CB Moore: North west Flor ida 138 8BY11 2 8BY11 Mound Near West Bay Post Office Panther Whole Vessel Adorno 1, Incised, Punctate Derived 13.71 Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 139 8BY11 3 8BY11 Mound Near West Bay Post Office Bird Whole Vessel Adorno 2, Incised, Punctate Derived 9.7 Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 140 8BY11 4 8BY11 Mound Near West Bay Post Office Bird Whole Vessel Adorno 1, Incised CB Moore: North west Florida 141 8BY11 5 8BY11 Mound Near West Bay Post Office Bird Handle Ador no 1) CB Moore: North west Florida 141 8BY11 6 8BY11 Mound Near West Bay Post Office Bird Handle Adorno 1 CB Moore: North west Florida 142 8BY11 7 8BY11 Mound Near West Bay Post Office Bird Handle Adorno 1 CB Moore: North west Florid a 142

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed "$ ! 8BY11 8 8BY11 Mound Near West Bay Post Office UID Killed basally Whole Vessel Adorno 1, Incised, Punctate Derived NMAI Archives 8BY11 9 8BY11 Mound Near West Bay Post Office UID Whole Vessel Adorno 1, Incised, Punctate Derived 7.5 Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 138 8BY12 1 8BY12 Mound Near West Bay Creek Duck Whole Vessel Incised Derived 11.1 NMAI Archives 8BY15 1 8BY15 Larger Mound near Burnt Mill Creek Human Whole Vessel Incised Free Red CB Moore: North west Flor ida 145 Wearing breach clout 8BY15 2 8BY15 Larger Mound near Burnt Mill Creek Bird Pre fired body cut outs; Triangular, Barbel; Rect angular Pre fired Basal Cut out; Killed on outside of wing Whole Vessel Adorno 2, Incised Pedestaled 22.86 Red CB Moore: North west Florida 146 8BY15 3 8BY15 Larger Mound near Burnt Mill Creek Owl Killed basally Whole Vessel Adorno 1, Incised Pedestaled 11 Bird Symbol NMAI Archives 8BY16 1 8BY16 Smaller Mound near Burnt Mill Creek Human Whole Vessel Adorno 1, Incised, Punctate Free 19. 05 CB Moore: North west Florida 150 151 Wearing headdress 8BY25 1 8BY25 Mound near Pearl Bayou Duck Killed basally Whole Vessel Adorno 1, Incised, Punctate Derived 12.35 Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 189

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed "% ! 8BY26 1 8BY26 Mound Near Strange 's Landing Bird Killed basally Whole Vessel Adorno 1, Incised, Punctate Derived 10.16 CB Moore: North west Florida 194 8BY26 2 8BY26 Mound Near Strange's Landing Bird Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate Free 12.36 CB Moore: North west Flo rida 195 8BY28 1 8BY28 Mound B, Laughton's Bayou Owl Pre fired body cut outs Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate Derived 26.16 CB Moore: North west Florida 193 8BY28 2 8BY28 Mound B, Laughton's Bayou Bird Fragments Adorno 1, Punctate CB Moore: No rth west Florida 194 8BY28 3 8BY28 Mound B, Laughton's Bayou Bird Handle Incised, Punctate NMAI Archives 8BY3 1 8BY3 Sowell Mound Bird Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised Derived 8.5 CB Moore: North west Florida 173 3 lobed vessel 8BY3 2 8BY3 Sowell Mound Bird Killed basally Whole Vessel Adorno 1, Tail (adorno Derived 10 Red, inside and out CB Moore: North west Florida 175 8BY3 3 8BY3 Sowell Mound Human Possibly killed by knocking off head Whole Vessel Incised Free 19.33 NMAI Archives 8BY30 1 8BY30 Larger Mound near Hare Hammock Bird Whole Vessel Adorno 2, Incised Derived 14.48 CB Moore: North west Florida 201

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed "& ! 8BY30 2 8BY30 Larger Mound near Hare Hammock Human Whole Vessel Incised Free 18.5 CB Moore: North west Florida 203 Wearing breach clout; Suspension peforations 4) 8BY30 3 8BY30 Larger Mound near Hare Hammock Human Whole Vessel Adorno 1, Incised, Punctate Derived 20.4 Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 207 208 Suspension peforations 2) 8BY30 4 8BY30 Large r Mound near Hare Hammock Duck Whole Vessel Adorno 2, Incised, Punctate Derived 7.11 CB Moore: North west Florida 209 Suspension peforations 2) 8BY30 5 8BY30 Larger Mound near Hare Hammock Bird Whole Vessel Adorno 2, Incised, Punctate Derived 13. 5 Red CB Moore: North west Florida 210 1 adorno has spout 8BY30 6 8BY30 Larger Mound near Hare Hammock Fish Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised Derived NMAI Archives 8BY31 1 8BY31 Smaller Mound near Hare Hammock Bird Killed basally Whole Vessel In cised, Punctate Derived Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 483 484 8BY32 1 8BY32 Farmdale Human Fragments Adorno 1 NMAI Archives 8BY7/ 8BY9 1 8BY7/8BY9 Mound near Davis Point (West Bird, Rattlesna ke Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate D erived 13.6 Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 180 8BY7/ 8BY9 2 8BY7/8BY9 Mound near Davis Point (West Human Fragments Incised Free 8.96 CB Moore: North west Florida 182 Wearing breach clout 8BY7/ 8BY9 3 8BY7/8BY9 Mound near Davis Point (We st Bird Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Derived 10.5 Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 183 184

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed "" ! 8BY7/ 8BY9 4 8BY7/8BY9 Mound near Davis Point (West Bird Handle Incised CB Moore: North west Florida 184 contained 9 flat bits o f earthenware (rattle 8BY7/ 8BY9 5 8BY7/8BY9 Mound near Davis Point (West Bird Fragments Incised, Adorno (1 Derived CB Moore: North west Florida 184 8BY8/ 8BY164 1 8BY8/ 8BY164 Mound near Davis Point (East Human Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno 1) Free 15.88 CB Moore: North west Florida 478 8BY8/ 8BY164 2 8BY8/ 8BY164 Mound near Davis Point (East Bird Killed basally twice Whole Vessel Adorno 1 Derived 12.22 NMAI Archives 2 aboriginal repair holes; lobed vessel 8BY8/ 8BY164 3 8BY8/ 8BY 164 Mound near Davis Point (East Bird Pre fired Basal Cut out Fragments Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Derived Bird Symbol NMAI Archives 8CA1 1 8CA1 David Field Bird Pre fired body cut outs; Barbel; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Pun ctate, Adorno 1 Pedestaled 19.07 Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 389 8CA1 2 8CA1 David Field Bird Pre fired body cut outs; Triangular, Circular; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Pedestaled 36.4 CB Moore: North west Florida 391 8CH16 1 8CH16 Boggus Ridge UID Fragments Incised, Adorno (1 Florida Bureau of Archaeolo gical Research

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed "' ! 8CH16 2 8CH16 Boggus Ridge Human Fragments Adorno 1 Red Florida Bureau of Archaeolo gical Research 8CI1 1 8CI1 Crystal River Human Adorno Incised CB Moore: North west Florida 248 8CO17 1 8CO17 McKeithen Turkey Vulture Pre fired body cut outs; Triangular; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Derived 26 Red Indian Art of Ancient Florida 66 8CO1 7 10 8CO17 McKeithen Bird Handle Incised, Adorno (1 Red FLMMH Collection s 8CO17 2 8CO17 McKeithen Dog, Turkey Vulture Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (4 Derived 16.67 Red Indian Art of Ancient Florida 71 spout 8CO17 3 8CO17 McKeithen Bird Whole V essel Incised, Punctate, Adorno 2 Derived 14.25 FLMMH Collection s 8CO17 4 8CO17 McKeithen Bird Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (2 Derived 18.08 FLMMH Collection s 8CO17 5 8CO17 McKeithen Bird Pre fired body cut outs Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno 1), Tail adorno) Pedestaled 21.5 Red FLMMH Collection s 8CO17 6 8CO17 McKeithen Bird Fragments Incised, Adorno (1 Red FLMMH Collection s 8CO17 7 8CO17 McKeithen Owl Fragments Incised Red FLMMH Collection s

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed "( ! 8CO17 8 8CO17 McKeithen Bird Handle Incised, Adorno (1 Red FLMMH Collection s 8CO17 9 8CO17 McKeithen Bird Handle Incised, Adorno (1 FLMMH Collection s 8DI45 1 8DI45 Hughes Island Mound Bear Handle Incised, Adorno (1 Derived 8DI45 2 8DI45 Hughes Island Mound Hu man Fragments Adorno 1 8DI45 3 8DI45 Hughes Island Mound Bird Fragments Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Derived Bird Symbol 8DU24 1 8DU24 Denton Mound Duck Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (2 Derived 18.7 CB Moore: West and Central Flo rida 117 118 8FR4 1 8FR4 Tucker Mound Duck Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (2 Derived 10.29 CB Moore: North west Florida 212 8FR4 2 8FR4 Tucker Mound Bird Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Free 20.32 Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 262 8FR4 3 8FR4 Tucker Mound Panther Killed basally Whole Vessel Adorno 1 Derived 12.4 CB Moore: North west Florida 263 8FR4 4 8FR4 Tucker Mound Owl Killed basally Whole Vessel Adorno 1 Derived 14.6 CB Moore: North west Florida 264 8FR8 1 8FR8 Mound on Brickyard Creek Duck Handle Adorno 1 CB Moore: North west Florida 362 2 holes present

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed ") ! 8GD1 1 8GD1 Mound near Aspalaga Human Whole Vessel Incised Free 35.8 CB Moore: North west Florida 406 perforation in ey es and ears 8GD1 2 8GD1 Mound near Aspalaga Bird Handle Incised, Adorno (1 CB Moore: North west Florida 408 8GD1 3 8GD1 Mound near Aspalaga Bird Handle Incised, Adorno (1 Red CB Moore: North west Florida 408 8GU2 1 8GU2 Mound near Gotier Ha mmock Bird Fragments Incised Derived Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 212 8GU3 1 8GU3 Mound near Burgess Landing Duck Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Pedestaled 24.4 Red CB Moore: North west Florida 364 8GU5 1 8GU5 Mound n ear Chipola Cut off Bird Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Derived 7 CB Moore: North west Florida 370 8GU5 2 8GU5 Mound near Chipola Cut off Bird Pre fired body cut outs; bird symbol shape; Killed basally Whole Vessel I ncised, Adorno (1 Derived 33.66 Bird Symbol (kill hole CB Moore: North west Florida 370 8GU5 3 8GU5 Mound near Chipola Cut off Bird Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Derived 9.4 CB Moore: North west Florida 381

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed "* ! 8HE1 1 8HE1 Bayport Duck Killed basa lly Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate, Adorno 2 Derived 12.8 Bird Symbol CB Moore: West and Central Florida 284 285 Suspension perforations 8HI1 1 8HI1 Thomas Mound Bear (Human Fragments Incised, Adorno (1 Red FLMMH Collection s 8LA57 1 8LA57 Ol d Okahumpka Human Fragments Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Derived CB Moore: West and Central Florida 162 8LI4 1 8LI4 Mound at Bristol Turkey Vulture Pre fired body cut outs; Triangular; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Deriv ed 22 Red CB Moore: North west Florida 397 8LI4 2 8LI4 Mound at Bristol Bird Pre fired body cut outs; Circular Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (2 Derived 22.23 Red CB Moore: North west Florida 398 8LI4 3 8LI4 Mound at Bristol Bird Handle Incised, Ador no (1 Red CB Moore: North west Florida 400 8LI4 4 8LI4 Mound at Bristol Turkey Vulture Pre fired body cut outs; bird symbol shape Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Pedestaled 22 Bird Symbol (kill hole Red Indian Art of Ancient Florida 68 8LI5 1 8LI 5 Mound near Rock Bluff Landing UID Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Derived 10.56 Bird Symbol NMAI Archives

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed "+ ! 8LI5 2 8LI5 Mound near Rock Bluff Landing UID Killed basally Whole Vessel Adorno 2 Derived 10.38 NMAI Archives 8LV2 1 8LV2 Palmetto Mound Bird Fragments Incised, Adorno (1 Derived Red FLMMH Collection s 8LV2 10 8LV2 Palmetto Mound Bird Fragments Incised Red FLMMH Collection s 8LV2 11 8LV2 Palmetto Mound Bird Adorno Incised Red FLMMH Collection s 8LV2 12 8LV2 Palmetto Mound UID Fragments Adorno 1 Red FLMMH Collection s 8LV2 13 8LV2 Palmetto Mound Deer Adorno Incised, Adorno (1 FLMMH Collection s 8LV2 14 8LV2 Palmetto Mound Human Adorno Incised, Adorno (1 FLMMH Collectio n s Wearing headdress 8LV2 15 8LV2 Palmetto Mound Human Fragments Incised, Adorno (1 FLMMH Collection s 8LV2 16 8LV2 Palmetto Mound Human Fragments Incised Red FLMMH Collection s Wearing breach clout; Suspension perforations 8LV2 2 8LV2 P almetto Mound Rattlesna ke Fragments Incised, Punctate FLMMH Collection s 8LV2 3 8LV2 Palmetto Mound UID Fragments Incised Red FLMMH Collection s 8LV2 4 8LV2 Palmetto Mound Human Fragments Incised Red FLMMH Collection s

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed '# ! 8LV2 5 8LV2 Palmetto Mound Human Fragments Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Red FLMMH Collection s Wearing breach clout 8LV2 6 8LV2 Palmetto Mound Human Adorno Incised Red FLMMH Collection s 8LV2 7 8LV2 Palmetto Mound UID Fragments Incised, Adorno (1 Red FLMMH Collection s 8LV2 8 8LV2 Palmetto Mound UID Fragments Incised, Adorno (1 Red FLMMH Collection s 8LV2 9 8LV2 Palmetto Mound Bird Adorno Adorno 1 FLMMH Collection s 8OK11 1 8OK11 Buck Burial Mound Human Whole Vessel Incised, Ad orno (1 Free 36.4 Red, White Indian Art of Ancient Florida 80 8OK5 1 8OK5 Santa Rosa Sound Human Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Free 32.7 Indian Art of Ancient Florida 75 8OK8 1 8OK8 Mound near Pippen's Lake Bird Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate Adorno 2 Derived 10.2 Bird symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 463/ appen dix 8PI5 1 8PI5 Clearwater Bird Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Derived 19.5 Bird Symbol Indian Art of Ancient Florida 81 8PU9 1 8PU9 St. John's Landing Mound 1 UID Fragments Adorno 1 Derived NMAI Archives Suspension perforation 8SE4 1 8SE4 Spear's Landing Bird Handle Incised, Adorno (1 Red NMAI Archives

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed '$ ! 8TA1 1 8TA1 Aucilla River Mound Bird Pre fired body cut outs; barbel; Killed basally Whole Vessel Adorno 1 Pedestaled 17 Bird Symbol (kill hole Indian Art of Ancient Florida 69 8TA1 2 8TA1 Aucilla River Mound Turkey Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Derived 8.38 Bird Symbol Red CB Moore: North west Florida 328 Objec t inside which rattles when shaken; Suspension perforations (2 8TA1 3 8TA1 Aucilla River Mound Bird Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Derived 20.32 Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 330 8TA1 4 8TA1 Aucilla River Mound Do g Handle Incised, Adorno (1 CB Moore: North west Florida 327 8TA1 5 8TA1 Aucilla River Mound Human Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Pedestaled 21 CB Moore: North west Florida 498 8TA1 6 8TA1 Aucilla River Mound Cat Hand le Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 NMAI Archives 8TA1 7 8TA1 Aucilla River Mound UID Handle Adorno 1 NMAI Archives 8TA2 1 8TA2 Mound A, Warrior River Turkey Vulture Pre fired body cut outs; Circular; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel I ncised, Adorno (1), Tail (adorno Derived 13.97 CB Moore: North west Florida 333

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed '% ! 8TA2 2 8TA2 Mound A, Warrior River Human Killed by knocking hole in one leg Whole Vessel Incised Free 27.94 Red CB Moore: North west Florida 334 Wearing breach clout; Su spension perforations (4 8TA2 3 8TA2 Mound A, Warrior River Bird Pre fired body cut outs; Circular; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1), Tail (adorno Derived 16.51 CB Moore: North west Florida 335 8TA2 4 8TA2 Mound A, Warrior R iver Bird Handle Incised, Adorno (1 CB Moore: North west Florida 338 8TA2 5 8TA2 Mound A, Warrior River Owl Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate Derived 12.8 Bird Symbol Indian Art of Ancient Florida #82 8TA3 1 8TA3 Mound B, Warrior River Bird Who le Vessel Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Derived 6.35 Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 345 Central compartment was filled with charcoal, and a compartment on either side, contains sand blackened by fire. 5 compartments 8WA1 1 8WA1 Mound at Marsh I sland Bird Pre fired body cut outs; Triangular; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Adorno 1, Tail (adorno Pedestaled 25.91 Red CB Moore: North west Florida 280

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed '& ! 8WA12 1 8WA12 Mound near St. Mark's Bird Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate, Adorno 2 D erived 7.6 CB Moore: North west Florida 326 8WA4 1 8WA4 Hall Mound Duck Pre fired body cut outs; Triangular; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1), Tail (adorno Derived 22 Bird Symbol Red CB Moore: North west Florida 290 8WA4 10 8 WA4 Hall Mound Rattlesna ke Fragments Incised CB Moore: North west Florida 305 8WA4 11 8WA4 Hall Mound Human Handle Incised, Adorno (1 Red CB Moore: North west Florida 305 8WA4 12 8WA4 Hall Mound Bird Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Ado rno (2 Derived Red NMAI Archives 1 bird head has spout 8WA4 13 8WA4 Hall Mound UID Handle Adorno 1 Red NMAI Archives 8WA4 2 8WA4 Hall Mound Bird Pre fired body cut outs; Triangular Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1), T ail adorno Pedestaled 27.31 Red CB Moore: North west Florida 292 8WA4 3 8WA4 Hall Mound Bird, Rattlesna ke Pre fired body cut outs; Triangular; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1), Tail (adorno Pedestaled 25 Red CB Moore: North w est Florida 294

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed '" ! 8WA4 4 8WA4 Hall Mound Owl Pre fired body cut outs; Triangular; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Pedestaled 25.93 CB Moore: North west Florida 297 8WA4 5 8WA4 Hall Mound Owl Handle Incised, Adorno (1 Red CB Moore: North west Florida 304 8WA4 6 8WA4 Hall Mound Bird Handle Incised, Adorno (1 CB Moore: North west Florida 304 8WA4 7 8WA4 Hall Mound Bird Handle Incised, Adorno (1 Red CB Moore: North west Florida 304 8WA4 8 8WA4 Hall Mo und Bird Handle Incised, Adorno (1 CB Moore: North west Florida 304 8WA4 9 8WA4 Hall Mound Bird Fragments Incised, Adorno (2 Derived CB Moore: North west Florida 305 8WA8 1 8WA8 Mound near Mound Field Duck Fragments Incised, Adorno (1 Derived Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 309 8WA8 10 8WA8 Mound near Mound Field Duck Fragments Incised, Adorno (1 Derived CB Moore: North west Florida 322

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed '' ! 8WA8 11 8WA8 Mound near Mound Field Bird Fragments Incised, Adorno (1 Re d CB Moore: North west Florida 322 8WA8 12 8WA8 Mound near Mound Field Bird Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1), Tail (adorno Derived 9.57 Red NMAI Archives 8WA8 13 8WA8 Mound near Mound Field Bird Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised 1 8.29 NMAI Archives 8WA8 14 8WA8 Mound near Mound Field Bird Handle Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 NMAI Archives 8WA8 2 8WA8 Mound near Mound Field Bird Pre fired body cut outs; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1), Tail (a dorno) Derived 23.87 Red CB Moore: North west Florida 310 8WA8 3 8WA8 Mound near Mound Field Bird Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Derived 18.66 CB Moore: North west Florida 311 8WA8 4 8WA8 Mound near Mound Field Owl Pre fired body cu t outs; Barbel; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised Derived 24.1 CB Moore: North west Florida 312 8WA8 5 8WA8 Mound near Mound Field Bird Killed basally Whole Vessel Adorno 1 Derived 15.8 CB Moore: North west Florida 309 8WA8 6 8WA8 Moun d near Mound Field Owl Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Pedestaled 28.96 CB Moore: North west Florida 315 8WA8 7 8WA8 Mound near Mound Field Deer Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Derived 18.67 Red CB M oore: North west Florida 317 Suspension perforations (2

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed '( ! 8WA8 8 8WA8 Mound near Mound Field Owl Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Pedestaled 21 Red, White CB Moore: North west Florida 318 319 8WA8 9 8WA8 Mound near Mound Field Bird Pre fi red Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Pedestaled 19.1 Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 320 8WA9/ 8WA 10/ 8WA 30 1 8WA9/10/30 Mound A, Bird Hammock Bird Pre fired body cut outs; Barbel; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Ado rno (1 Pedestaled 23.11 Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 495 8WA9/ 8WA 10/ 8WA 30 2 8WA9/10/30 Mound A, Bird Hammock Owl Pre fired body cut outs; Triangular, Circular; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Derived 26. 67 NMAI Archives 8WA9/ 8WA 10/ 8WA 30 3 8WA9/10/30 Mound A, Bird Hammock UID Fragments Adorno 1 Pedestaled 7.14 NMAI Archives 8WL11 1 8WL11 Mound near Point Washington Owl Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Derived 9.3 Red CB M oore: North west Florida 94 Suspension perforation 1) 8WL11 2 8WL11 Mound near Point Washington UID Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Derived 11.9 Bird Symbol Red CB Moore: North west Florida 95 2 compartments 8WL13 1 8WL13 Basi n Bayou Mound Human Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Free 15.71 NMAI Archives

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed ') ! 8WL14 1 8WL14 Basin Bayou Duck Fragments Incised, Adorno (1 Bird Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 83 8WL14 2 8WL14 Basin Bayou Human Whole Vesse l Incised, Adorno (1 Free 24.13 CB Moore: North west Florida 84 (Possibly) Wearing headdress 8WL33 1 8WL33 Mound near Point Washington Bird Fragments Incised, Punctate Derived 13.75 Red NMAI Archives 9ER1 1 9ER1 Kolomoki Bird Adorno Incised, Adorno (1 White Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 67 9ER1 10 9ER1 Kolomoki Owl Pre fired body cut outs Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Derived 13.97 Bird Symbol Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 60 9ER 1 11 9ER1 Kolomoki Bird Pre fired body cut outs Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1), Tail (adorno Pedestaled 22.86 Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 60

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed '* ! 9ER1 12 9ER1 Kolomoki Bird Pre fired body cut outs only on pedestal/ post fire pe rforations on body; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate, Adorno 1 Pedestaled 15.24 Bird Symbol Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 61 9ER1 13 9ER1 Kolomoki Duck Pre fired body cut outs; triangular, circular, crescent m oon Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1), Tail (adorno Pedestaled 34 Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 61 9ER1 14 9ER1 Kolomoki Bird Pre fired body cut outs; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Pedestaled 20.32 Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 61 9ER1 15 9ER1 Kolomoki Bird Pre fired body cut outs; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Pedestaled 12.7 Bird Symbol Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 61 9ER1 16 9ER1 Kolomoki Cat Pre fired body cut outs Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Free Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 62

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed '+ ! 9ER1 17 9ER1 Kolomoki Owl Pre fired body cut outs; rectanglular barbel; Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Punc tate, Adorno 1 Derived 26.67 Bird Symbol Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 63 Human in an owl costume? 9ER1 18 9ER1 Kolomoki Opossum Pre fired body cut outs; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Pedestaled 25.4 Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 64 9ER1 19 9ER1 Kolomoki Bird Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Pedestaled Bird Symbol Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 64 9ER1 2 9ER1 Kolomoki Human Pre fired body cut outs (includin g open mouth Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Free 25.4 Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 55 Open mouth; Wearing headdress 9ER1 20 9ER1 Kolomoki Bird Adorno Incised, Adorno (1 Bird Symbol Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 64 9ER1 21 9ER1 Kolomoki UID Pre fired body cut outs; Pre fired Basal Cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Derived Bird Symbol Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 65

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed (# ! 9ER1 22 9ER1 Kolomoki UID Killed basally Whole Ves sel Incised, Adorno (1 Derived Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 65 9ER1 23 9ER1 Kolomoki Duck Pre fired body cut outs; Triangular Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Derived 13.97 Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 65 9ER1 24 9ER1 Kolomoki Owl Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Pedestaled 30.48 Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 66 9ER1 25 9ER1 Kolomoki Bird Adorno Adorno 2 Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 66 9ER1 26 9ER1 Kolomoki Dog Adorno Adorno 1 Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 66 9ER1 27 9ER1 Kolomoki Rattlesna ke Adorno Incised, Punctate, Adorno 4 Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 67

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed ($ ! 9ER1 28 9ER1 Kolomoki Duck Adorno Incised, Adorno (1 Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 67 9ER1 29 9ER1 Kolomoki Bird Adorno Adorno 1 Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 67 9ER1 3 9ER1 Kolomoki Bird Pre fired body cut outs; Triangul ar; Killed by knocking head off Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1), Tail (adorno Free 22.86 Bird Symbol Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 56 9ER1 30 9ER1 Kolomoki Bird Adorno Adorno 1 Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV M ound D 67 9ER1 4 9ER1 Kolomoki Panther Pre fired body cut outs; Triangular, Circular; Killed by knocking head off Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Free 27.94 Bird Symbol Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 56 9ER1 5 9ER1 Kolomoki Bir d, Fish Fragments Incised, Adorno (2 Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 57

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed (% ! 9ER1 6 9ER1 Kolomoki Deer Pre fired body cut outs; Triangular Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Free Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 57 9ER1 7 9ER1 Kolomoki Panther Pre fired body cut outs; Triangular; Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised Derived 17.78 Red Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 58 9ER1 8 9ER1 Kolomoki Human Pre fired body cut outs Whole Vessel Incised, Adorn o (1 Pedestaled 23 Excavation s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 59 Wearing hair knot with pin (headdress 9ER1 9 9ER1 Kolomoki Deer Pre fired body cut outs; Square Basal cut out Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Derived 12.7 Bird Symbol Red Excavat ion s at Kolomoki: Season III & IV Mound D 59 9SE33 1 9SE33 Mound below Hare's Landing Bird Pre fired body cut outs; Triangular; Killed basally Whole Vessel Adorno 1 Pedestaled 30.23 CB Moore: North west Florida 421 9SE33 2 9SE33 Mound below Hare's Landing UID Pre fired body cut outs; Bird symbol shape; Killed basally Whole Vessel Adorno 1 Derived 26.42 Bird Symbol (kill hole Red CB Moore: North west Florida 422

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Appendix A Inventory of all effigy vessels analyzed (& ! 9SE33 3 9SE33 Mound below Hare's Landing Bird Pre fired body cut outs; Barbel; Kill ed basally Whole Vessel Adorno 1 Derived 33.02 Red CB Moore: North west Florida 424 MNAR 1 Mound near Apalachicola River Human Whole Vessel Adorno 1 Free FLMMH Collection s MNCB 1 Mound near Carney's Bluff Human Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 CB Moore: Southern and Central Alabama 246 MNJ 1 Mound near Jacksonville Human Whole Vessel Incised, Adorno (1 Free 24 Indian Art of Ancient Florida 74 SL 1 Shoemake Landing Owl Killed basally Whole Vessel Incised, Punctate Derived 29 Bi rd Symbol CB Moore: North west Florida 427 429