Sustainability Issues in Van Fleet Hall

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Sustainability Issues in Van Fleet Hall
Davis Jr., George A
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
University of Florida
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Cost estimates ( jstor )
Electricity ( jstor )
Halls ( jstor )
Heating ventilation and cooling ( jstor )
Household appliances ( jstor )
Lighting ( jstor )
Rooms ( jstor )
Trucks ( jstor )
Water consumption ( jstor )
Water use efficiency ( jstor )
Undergraduate Honors Thesis, Sustainability and the Built Environment


Van Fleet Hall is one of the many older buildings on the University of Florida campus. With that being said, there is a huge potential for reduction in electricity and water consumption. Other areas of improvement include the building's HVAC system, meeting ADA criteria, and increasing awareness about sustainable behaviors among the individuals who work in and frequent Van Fleet Hall. The case studies illustrate what has been done in similar building retrofits and the background research will provide a basis for proposals to achieve the goal of reducing resource consumption and improving overall building efficiency. With the proper changes, Van Fleet Hall can experienced a savings of$243.33 per month in 'electricity consumption and about a 10.04 kGal per month reduction in water consumption. When applied to 13 other buildings on campus, the savings are then about$91,258 in electricity consumption per year and about 3,791.4 kGal in water consumption per year. The underlying factor of such issues begin and end with knowledge about sustainable behavior. ( en )

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University of Florida
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Copyright [thesis author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.


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Objective The goal of this report is to determine how to make Van Fleet Hall more efficient in regards to electricity and water consumption. The resources consumed in Van Fleet Hall that can be reduced include water consumption and electricity consumption, primarily due to lighting and appliance usage. Additional topics of this report include the HVAC systems in the building, meeting ADA criteria, and sustainable behavior. Research related to the mentioned topic areas will provide a familiarization with the mentioned topics, an analysis and proposal of changes that can be made to the building. Being sustainable also emphasizes behavior as a core component because a building can have the most energy efficient lights and toilets, but efficiency is reduced if the individuals using the building do not make sustainable decisions and practice sustainable behaviors Research Questions How to reduce water and electricity consumption and improve overall building efficiency in Van Fleet Hall? How to make Van Fleet Hall compliant with ADA criteria? What role does sustainable behavior play in achieving building efficiency? About Van Fleet Hall As was named after General James Alward Van Fleet. The building was built in 1952 by architect, Guy Fulton ( 1 ). Center and Alfred A. Mckethan Stadium, and across the street from the Tolbert Residence Hall on the University of Florida campus. Since its completion date, it has served as a Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) training facility for those students who are seeking a commission in the United States Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, or Navy after graduation. All students in the different ROTC programs are enrolled at the University of Florida. Van Fleet Hall is named after the Army General James Van Fleet. From 1923 to 1924, Van Commanding Officer of the University of Florida ROTC program (1). Van Fleet Hall stands 3 stories tall, containing 60 rooms. The total square footage of the building is 16,870 NSF or 21,870 GSF ( 7 ). Each branch of service is located on a different floor. Each of the different programs has 80 120 members that are students and 7 12 staff members who are either active duty, retired, or work for the University of Florida. During any given week, the students will attend military related classes, academic and training related meetings, physical fitness sessions, general military training briefs, guest speakers, spend time in between classes either studying or taking a break. The use of the rooms in the building vary from office spaces, classrooms, lobbies, locker rooms, lounge areas, storage at some point during the day and contain various appliances and furniture depending on the use of the room. Methods Conclusions Sustainability Issues in Van Fleet Hall George Andrew Davis Jr. University of Florida, SBE Capstone, 2016 Bibliography After an evaluation of the case studies and other information in the literature review section, the areas of improvement that will be focused on include electricity consumption from lighting and appliance use, HVAC system, ADA criteria, and water consumption. These changes can be done without having to strip the building of its existing plumbing, electrical systems and other major components The records of electricity and water consumption were accessed from the Physical Plant Division at the University of Florida. These electricity consumption records show monthly usage and cost from June 2006 to November 2015. The water consumption records show the monthly usage in terms of kGal, from August 2012 to December 2015. With regards to lighting, appliance use, HVAC systems, ADA criteria, and water usage; a room by room inventory will be conducted to determine what items of each of the previously mentioned categories are in each of the rooms in Van Fleet Hall. Doing so will allow for an analysis and proposal of how to make changes to reduce water and electricity consumption for the building and improve overall building efficiency. For the behavior section, 100 individuals, both students and staff members, who frequent or work in Van Fleet Hall will take an online survey to determine their individual carbon footprints. The goal of this survey to raise awareness about sustainable behavior and to gauge how sustainable the individuals in Van Fleet Hall are without any additional knowledge. 1. Facility Info Gen. James A. Van Fleet Hall, University of Florida, 2011. University of Florida Foundation. [accessed February 8, 2016] 2. Guide to Building the Case for Deep Energy Retrofits, Rocky Mountain Institute, 2012. Retrofit An RMI Initiative [accessed March 12, 2016] 3. Standard Retrofit Case Study: GUND Partnership, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2011. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide: Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance Energy_Retrofit_Guide.pdf [accessed March 14, 2016] 4. Standard Retrofit Case Study: Wells Fargo Center HRO, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2011. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide: Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance Energy_Retrofit_Guide.pdf [accessed March 14, 2016] 5. Standard Retrofit Case Study: Wilson Blvd Building, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2011. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide: Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance Energy_Retrofit_Guide.pdf [accessed March 14, 2016 ] 6. Using Paybacks to Fund Energy Efficiency in Higher Education: University of California, McGraw HIII Construction, 2011. Business Case for Energy Efficient Building Retrofit and Renovation ciency_retrofit_renovation_smr_2011.pdf [accessed March 12, 2016] 7. Van Fleet Hall (R. O. T. C. Unit). 2011. UF Buildings & Sites [accessed March 12, 2016] For Van Fleet Hall, a reduction in electricity and water consumption can be expected after the proposals are complete. The average monthly electricity usage is 16,252 kWh and the average cost is $1,622.43. The average monthly water consumption for the building is 43.656 kGal. After the mentioned proposals are completed, the average monthly water consumption can be reduced by about 23% and the electricity consumption by nearly 15%. Those percentages correspond to a 2,438 kWh and $243.35 savings in electricity consumption and a 10.04 kGal savings in water consumption. The savings are based on the monthly usage after the payback has been achieved. While that may not seem like a whole lot, a larger difference can be seen if the same proposals are applied to other changes were made to 13 other buildings on the University of Florida campus. Introduction Results Case Studies 5 Deep Energy Retrofit Measures ( 2 ) Envelope: insulation, windows, air tightness, type of roofing Passive design: natural ventilation, daylighting, landscaping Electric lighting: fixture upgrades, controls, redesign Plug loads: efficient equipment, controls, other appliances HVAC: demand control, digital controls, ventilation, chiller upgrade, balance of flows Case Study 1: University of California Campus (6) The UC system encompasses 10 mini campuses and 5 medical centers, totaling approximately 10 million square feet of building space. The goal of the program was to reduce energy consumption all over campus by 10% or more by 2014. Improvements that were focused on include lighting, HVAC controls and upgrades, chiller and boiler replacements. The technologies and products used to reach this goal include T 8 fluorescent lighting, LED and induction lighting installations, demand control HVAC systems in the laboratories, CAV to VAV conversions, and upgrades to the central plant. Improvements to the process include increased building occupant awareness, automated control systems, and continuous commissioning. The energy use reductions were 155 million kWh with the energy use savings of 8%, a payback in less than 7 years. Case Study 2: Wilson Building in Arlington, VA (5) The gross square footage (GSF) of the building was 313,959 square feet. The areas of focus for this project were to alternate HVAC rooftop units on high solar days to reduce the load of the cooling tower, retrofit pneumatic HVAC controls with digital controls, garage, and promote tenant energy awareness strategy. The upgrades cost a total of $1,140,000 with an estimated annual energy savings of $295,000, a payback would occur in just under 4 years after completion. Case Study 3: Wells Fargo Center in Denver, CO (4) The GSF of the entire building is 1,211,000 square feet while the project area was only 24,298 square feet. The areas of focus for this project were to add VFDs)to air handler unit fans, increase thermostat dead band from 1 inch to 3 inches, reduce corridor lighting LDP by increasing the distance between fixtures from 12 feet to 16 feet, replacing existing incandescent lights with compact fluorescents lights, install lighting occupancy sensors, and use Energy Star computers. The project cost was $37,000 with estimated annual savings of $12,000, a payback in just over 3 years. Case Study 4: GUND Partnership in Cambridge, MA (3) The GSF of the building is 34,610 square feet and the project area was only 12,322 square feet. The areas of focus for this project were to retrofit 8 lighting fixtures and to use only Energy Star computers, printers, and office equipment. The original lighting fixtures were four 120W quartz up lights and fours 200W incandescent per fixtures. Replacing those lights were four 100W compact fluorescent lights. The project cost $4,400 to the owner with an estimated annual electric cost savings of $3,000, the payback would occur in a year and a half. The insight gained from these case studies will narrow the focus of the further research that will be conducted and proposed solutions to reduce resource consumption and to improve efficiency in Van Fleet Hall. 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 Electricity Consumption (kW) Date Monthly Electricty Consumption Ever since the beginning of 2011, the electricity consumption for Van Fleet Hall has followed a cyclic pattern. The electricity usage drops during spring break and winter break, when only the staff is working in the building. There is one week during the winter break when nobody is using the building at all Over the summer, even though most of the students are at home or on summer training assignments, students taking summer classes occasionally use the building. The staff members occupy the building during the summer because they work year round. The rise in electricity consumption is due to the increase in air conditioning usage because the temperatures during the summers in Gainesville, FL are hot. During the cooler months, the electricity consumptions drops because the air conditioning is not being used. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 8/1/2012 8/1/2013 8/1/2014 8/1/2015 Water Consumption (kGal) Date Monthly Water Consumption To the right are the results from the online survey that calculated the carbon footprints in terms of tons of CO2 equivalent for the 100 participants. These 100 participants were comprised of both students and staff members who work in or frequent Van Fleet Hall. The smallest carbon footprint was 9 tons of CO2 equivalent, the highest was 36 tons of CO2 equivalent per year, and the average was 24.6 which was below the U.S. average of 27 tons of CO2 equivalent per year. The results mentioned in this section are the monthly consumption data for both electricity and water. Each room was given a brief description on what the room is used for, then describes the lighting, appliances, HVAC system, and water fixtures found in each of the rooms. T he water consumption also follows a pattern. At the beginning of each semester, January or August, the water consumption begins to rise because the students are frequently using the building. Simply put, the more people that visit and work in the building, the more times the restrooms are used and the more water is consumed. At the end of each semester, usually around May and December, the water consumption begins to drop because there are now less people using the buildings and subsequently less people using the restrooms. Over the summers, less water is used because only the staff members are using the building. The same idea occurs during spring break and winter break 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 <14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 >40 Number of Participants Amount of CO2 Equivalent Emitted per Year (tons) Amount of CO2 Equivalent Emitted per Year The ratio of savings was based on savings per square foot and the square footage of the other UF buildings. The savings of Van Fleet can be seen below. (16,252 kWh) X (15%) = 2,437.8 kWh of electricity savings for Van Fleet Hall ($1,622.43) X (15%) = $243.36 of electricity savings for Van Fleet Hall (43.656 kGal) X (23%) = 10.04 kGal of water savings for Van Fleet Hall Then the savings are applied to the 13 other UF buildings based on gross square footage. Electricity : Save $0.011 per square foot in terms of electricity cost. Total savings = (691,350 GSF) X ($.0111) X (12 months) = $91,280.20 per year. Save .1115 kWh per square foot in terms of electricity consumption. Total savings = (961,350 GSF) X (.1115 kWh) X (12 months) = 925,026.3 kWh per year. Water : Save .000457 kGal per square foot in terms of water consumption. Total savings = (961,350 GSF) X (.000457 kGal) X (12 months) = 3,791.4 kGal per year. Those kind of savings are huge considering how much money went into completing the proposals to reduce the electricity and water consumption for buildings on the UF campus. Proposals for Van Fleet Hall Install aerators in the 4 sinks savings of 2.5 to 2.7 kGal per month Replace 4 urinals with 1.0 GPF urinal savings of 6.0 kGal per month Install motion sensors in 3 hallways save $91.50 per month, payback in 2.3 months Install motion sensor in classroom save $20.87 per month, payback in 3.4 months Install power strip to reduce loads in office space, save $11.66 per year, payback in 8.2 months The room use and room by room inventory summaries can be found below and to the right The tables show how many of each room type, appliances, or fixture there are inside Van Fleet Hall. Sustainability Issues in Van Fleet Hall George Andrew Davis Jr. 20MAY2016