A report in fulfillment of the non thesis written requirement for the University of Florida By: Whitney M. Turientine
1 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania Introduction ___________________________________________________________________2 Background_____________________________________ ______________________________ 4 Participatory Integrated Climate Services for Agriculture_______________________________ 6 Research & Design Methodology____________________ ____________________________ __7 Findings________________________________________ ________________________ ______9 Recommendations________________________________ ________________ ___________ 17 Conclusion _________________________________________________ _________________ 21 Acknowledgem ents ________________________________________________________ 21 References _________________________________________ _______________________ 22 Appendix ____________________________________________________________________ 23 CCAFS Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research CI Climate Information CSA Climate Smart Agriculture GFCS Global Framework for Climate Services LDC Longido District Council IK Indigenous Knowledge PB Participatory Budget PICSA Participatory Integrated Climate Services for Agriculture RAM Resource Allocation Map SMS Short Service Message (Text Message) TMA Tanzanian Meteorological Agency WFP World Food Progr am
2 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania In Sub Saharan Africa, pastoralists and agriculturalists alike are increasingly vulnerable to the effects of climate change on their livelihoods. In order to ensure that farmers and herders are prepared for climate shocks in the future, climate smart agricultural practices (CSA) and livelihood diversification strategies must be implemented throughout the continent. One key way in which CSA and livelihood diversification are adopted is through the dissemination of relevant and time ly climate and weather forecast information. Weather information which details what is happening in the atmosphere at a given time and climate information which describes longer term weather patterns in terms of means and variability are both extremely u seful in preparing farmers and herders to make the best possible decisions in the face of growing clim atic shifts (World Meteorological Organization, 2016). The Global Framework for Climate Services in Tanzania In Tanzania, the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS), a partn ership between govern ments and organizations to harness scientific, climate knowledge, aims at strengthening users like farmers and herders. Within a three year timeframe (2014 2016), the GFCS aims at achieving the fol lowing targets within th e country : Reducing vulnerability to climate related hazards through better provision of climate services; Advancing key global development goals through better provision of climate services; Mainstreaming the use of climate information in decision making; Strengthening the engagement of providers and users of climate services; and Maximizing the utility of existing climate service infrastructure (GFCS Adap tation Programme in Africa Scope, 2015). GFCS has partnered with three implementing organizations in Tanzania: the Research Program on Climate Change Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS), The World Food Program (WFP), and The Tanzan ian Meteorological Agency (TMA) to carry out its mandate.
3 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania The GFCS & Climate Trainings for Extension Workers in Tanzania Although the GFCS and its partners in Tanzania carry out myriad initiative s aimed at improving and disseminating climate information, this report focuses squarely on climate trainings of extension workers conducted during February 2015. A team of climate scientists from the University of Reading facilitated the February sessions on an innovative process, the Participatory Integrated Climate Services for Ag riculture (PICSA) approach. The central goals of the farmers [and livestock holders] to make informed decisions based on accurate, location specific, climate and weather information; locally relevant crop, livestock and livelihood options; and with the use of participatory tools to 2015 .) for disseminating information et. al., 2013) Below is a brief summary of the GFCS implementing partners in Tanzania: Table 1 : GFCS Implementing Partners' Roles in Tanzania During Monitoring Timeframe (Summer 2015) CCAFS Monitored impact of trainings & progress of GFCS activities on the ground. WFP Coordinated logistics of extension workers. TMA Created and disseminated climate information. Univ. of Reading Trained extension workers on Participatory Integrated Climate Services Approach. In This Report This report presents findings from semi structured interviews conducted in July 2016 with Tanzanian extension workers based in Longido District who were train ed in February 2015. The goal of the semi structured interviews centered on gaining valuable insight on whether or not the extension workers were utilizing the PICSA approach with their respective groups of farmers and livestock holders. The secondary goal of the interviews was to also ascertain if extensionists encountered any challenges when facilitating the PICSA curriculum to their target groups.
4 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania What follows is a n overview of the target district of Longido a summary of the research methods utilized, and a more in depth discussion of the findings of the semi structured interviews and subsequent training recommendations. All findings and recommendations in this report stem from field research conducted between May July 2015. Longido is located in northern Tanzania close to the Kenyan border. In 2007, Longido officially became a district of Arusha province and consists of both Longido town the largest town in the district and other communities tha t make up the larger county of Longido District. Semi arid grasslands as well as a few stand alone mountains (Mt. Ketumbeine, Mt. Longido, and Mt. Gelai Lumbwa) dominate the Longido May 2014 : National workshop in TZ held. September October 2014 : Baseline study of Longido conducted. February 2015 : Extension workers trained on PICSA process. March June 2015 : Farmers & pastoralists trained by extensionsionists. June July 2015 : Interviews conducted with extension agents trained on PICSA. August 2015 : Initial findings communicated to CCAFS. Late 2015 & Early 2016 : Futher trainings of extensionists conducted. Figure 1 : Timeline of GFCS Activities in Tanzania Figure 2 : Map of Tanzania w/Longido Highlighted
5 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania landscape. Longido District like neighboring Monduli and Ngorongoro districts is a part of the greater Ma asai steppe and many of its inhabitants are pastoralists and agro pastoralists. The onset and cessation of rain marks the seasons in Longido. The short rainy season, mvuli begins around October or early November. It is during this period that farmers begi n to plant short cycle crops (Msangi et al, 2014 ). Pastoralists during these shorter, more sporadic rains are constantly moving their herds to better pasture due to the uncertainty of rainfall. ability to walk: mature animals are moved to distant pastures, while those unable to cover long distances in search of grass (Ibid). From December through Febr uary, and at times up to the start of March, the landscape of Longido and the surrounding districts becomes parch ed as the dry season sets in. Longido pastoralists focus much of their attention on managing resources and what is available of the sparse gras slands during this period while the few farmers in the district harvest crops planted before the mvuli rains. The abundant rains or masika rains begin in March or early April. Throughout May and June pastures are plentiful and many pastoralists move their herds back to lowland areas to graze. For farmers, most of their daily activit ies during masika consists of main taining their plots and weeding. Reliable and plentiful rains taper off around June and July which signal s the beginning of another dry period. Both pastoralists and agro pastoralists alike begin a frenzy of activity. Farmers begin to harvest their crops and weed their fields. Herds are gradually moved to the rangeland areas to feed. Throughout the next few months August through October Longido he rders and farmers try to maintain the delicate balance between their activities, basic needs, and the scarce resources available. Issues of Climate Change in Longido Due to climate change, the rain patterns and subsequent activities of farmers and herders described above are less regular as in years past. The onset of the rainy seasons have
6 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania been less predictable in northern Tanzania contributing to long periods of drought and the loss of many cattle. One of the most recent examples, the drought of 2009 201 0, contributed to grazing by herds of cattle and other ruminants from neighboring Kenya i ncrease the climate vulnerability of Longido. Although the Maasai, the main inhabitants of this region, live in both Tanzania and Kenya and move freely across borders, it is becoming increasingly difficult for them to manage scarce grazing lands in times of lack. What is PICSA? PICSA is a new sustainable approach that utilizes hands on, participatory tools to aid farmers and even livestock holders in Sub Saharan Africa to manage their own strategi es for mitigating climate risks and increasing their adaptive capacity (Walker Institute, 2015). The PICSA process works across many timeframes: long before the season, just before the season, during the season, and after the season (See the Appendix for A ctivity Flow Chart & procedures for selected PICSA activities) (Dorward, Clarkson, & Stern, 2015). Three main elements at the core of the PICSA approach include : Historical climate data are combined with location specific crop and li vestock information so farmers can assess risks. Farmers use planning tools to consider crop, livestock and livelihood options and make decisions that are right for them. Farmers update their plans based on seasonal and short term forecasts (Walker Institute, 2015).
7 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania Selection of Interviewees Prior to conducting semi structured interviews with extensionists trained on the PICSA approach, both researchers at the University of Reading and project coordinators at the Tanzanian WFP office were contacted to confirm who attended the trainings. A list of all agents trained in both Longido and Kiteto was generated from this initial contact. Head agriculture and livestock extension directors at the Longido District Council (LDC) confirmed that the individuals listed did indeed attend the February 2015 training. A representative sample of 19 agents were selected for interviews from the total number that attended the training in both districts (n=60 65 ). In Longido, the total number of agents that received training was a little over half of the total number of in itial agents trained ( n=36 ). Agents who were currently in Longido District during the time of selection; were available for interview; and had an updated cellular phone number on file were contacted first. Field assistants at the LDC contacted agents by ph one to set up a time and place to meet for each interview. All interviewees were briefed on the purpose of the interview and were provided an informed consent to read and sign upon agreeing to participate that ensured that their identities and exact commen ts would be kept confidential. Conducting Semi Structured Interviews Prior to the interviews, two Swahili translators based in Longido Kesia Laizer and Fullah Yassin were contracted and briefed on the purpose of the interview Semi structured interviews w/extension officers Informal interviews w/GFCS partners in TZ Thematic Analysis of interview responses Figure 3 : Summary of Research Methods Figure 4 : Gender Breakdown of Interviewees Gender Breakdown Total # of Extensionists Trained (n=36) 19 interviewed Men=13 Women=6
8 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania sessions and the questions tha t would be asked. During the interviews, questions were first asked in English and the translators then translated the inquiries into Swahili. The interviewees answered in English, Swahili, or a mix of both depending on their preferences. Interviews lasted no longer than 30 60 minutes to avoid fatigue. All interviews were voice recorded to assist in subsequent analysis. Analyzing Data from Interviews All questions during the interviews were grouped by theme to aid in a subsequent thematic analysis. The fol lowing themes guided the semi structured discussions: Language used in training; Utilization of PICSA techniques; TMA and climate information, Timing (of training), Challenges facilitating in field, Indigenous climate knowledge, and Gender. All interviews were voice recorded. D etailed notes were also taken to ensure capture of interviewee responses. Following all of the interviews, each interview was listened to at least 2 responses were catalogued in a spreadsheet by theme. Informal Interviews with GFCS partners Although monitoring the trainings via semi structured interviews with extension agents was the main method employed during this study, informal interviews with GFCS partners in Tanzania provided an additional source of crucial information regarding programmatic, logistic al aspects impacting the broader project Representatives of both the WFP and TMA agreed to informally discuss the progress of the on the ground implementation of the GFCS project. Agents from TMA were advised o n specific issues the agency experienced in attempting to disseminate timely, accurate information to Longido District since the initial extension worker trainings in February 2015. WFP, on the other hand, provided invaluable insight on the priorities at the time of the monitoring study and also how recent developments in the Burundian refugee crisis impacted its ability to follow up with Longido District implementation of the GFCS mandate. The feedback and perspective from these two organiza tions proved essential to truly understanding the larger landscape of the GFCS project at the time of this study.
9 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania General Study Assumptions Prior to beginning the monitoring process in May 2015, the following initial conditions were assumed to exist on the ground in relation to the GFCS trainings of extensionists: The Tanzanian agriculture and livestock extension system worked optimally and cr itical information for farmers and herders reached them in a timely manner. The language of instruction for extension worker trainings English was sufficient and w as well understood by all participants in attendance. The TMA had the capacity to deliver (and had been delivering) down scaled, timely climate information in the forms of longer term seasonal forecasts and shorter term weather updates and warnings. T hese three assumptions presented multiple challenges throughout the entirety of the study. From the onset, it was apparent that: 1) extension agents were not equipped with the capacity from the government or partnering organizations to provide incentives to local farmers and herders to attend tr ainings and 2) that extension agents living in remote a reas (like Longido) regularly lacked access to adequate transportation to reach targeted farmer and herder groups in their wards smaller regions within the district. The last two assumptions regarding English and the TMA were also quickly challenged upon interviewing the first extension workers. Translators during the interviewing process were essential for agents to understand the researcher and vice versa. Extension workers widely preferred utilizing Swahili during the study and widely recommended the in corporation of Swahili into subsequent trainings. Upon visiting the TMA headquarters in Dar es Salaam, lead agents on the GFCS project advised that the server responsible for sending climate information via SMS (short message system) had been down sinc e F ebruary 2015. Since the agency was unable to use SMS, it relied solely on climate information sent to district offices at a much slower rate.
10 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania Although the above conditions were not optimal, it is important to recall that the GFCS project implementation wa s still in its first phases in Tanzania following the February 2015 trainings. U tilization of PICSA Process During the interview sessions, a ll extension workers advised that the PICSA techniques and methodology were and still are invaluable for their work. Both the livestock and agriculture agents alike expressed an appreciation for the logic of the PICSA process and were eager to share the participatory tools with their farmers and herders after the February 2015 training ended However, extension workers e and facilitate the PICSA methodology unearth ed some challenges. Of the PICSA tools only two the Participatory Budget (PB) and the Resource Allocation Maps (RAMs) seemed to cause extension workers trouble in using and facilitating. Out of all of the agents, 10 percent experienced difficulty facilitating the participatory budget and advised that the issue stemmed from their la ck of a comprehensive understanding of the tool itself. These extensionists admitted that the PB portion of the PICSA training in February was challenging for them to understand overall. When probed on what specific aspect of the PB was causing the most di fficulty agents responded that the arranging of the budget (from the very beginning) and the entire process of preparing the budget was overwhelming. One agent advised that she preferred not to work with her group of farmers on a budget as she herself was not competent enough on the method. She also added that if she were to introduce the budget in the field without enough clarity that her farmer groups would think she was a liar and not trust her knowledge of the other tools. No agent pinpointed in specif ic terms what was most difficult about understand ing or facilitating the budget which suggests a general discomfort with and lack of understanding of the tool. Regarding the resource allocation maps (RAMs), 21 percent of all agents interviewed mentioned i ssues facilitating the RAMs to their respective groups of herders and farmers. Although all agents advised that they recognize the importance of the RAMs, those experiencing difficulty in the field advised that many of their farmers and herders are simply
11 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania not transparent regarding what resources (cattle, small ruminants, land, etc.) that they own. The officers explained that since extension workers are employed by the Ministry of Agriculture, many farmers and herders see extensionists as part of the decisio n making body of the Tanzanian Government. Many farmers and herders in Longido receive government aid and are concerned that if they report their actual resources to an extension agent the aid that they receive from the government may be discontinued The officers further advised that instead of viewing the RAM as a participatory tool that could help identify and decide on different livelihood options it is seen as a means for reporting resources to the government. Some officers not ed that specific tendenc ies to truthfully report resources amongst farmers and herders exist when conducting the RAM activity. One agent advised that the younger herders and farmers in his ward are more transparent about what resources they possess during the RAM exercise. Older participants, however, are known (in this ward) to report only a fraction of their crop and animal possessions. The agent reasoned that perhaps younger farmers and herders are more likely to report their assets since they have much fewer resources than the ir older counterparts. Despite a lack of transparency in reporting resources, e xtensionists across the district are utilizing many different strategies to encourage their farmers and herders to share information in the RAMs. One agent advised that even tho ugh many of her farmers and livestock holders reported only a small portion of their relevant resources in the RAMs initially, she used the PB exercise to illustrate the usefulness of knowing whether or not farming or herding activities are producing gains or losses. After the budgeting activity the agent reported that many of those same participants who were not transparent about their resources went back to the RAMs and truthfully list ed their possessions. She explained that once participants in her ward fully understood the interconnectedness of the budgeting and resource allocating plans it was much easier to convince them to be transparent. Language Used in T rainings All of the agents interviewed had receive d universities in Tanzania in which the primary language of instruction is English. Despite this, the topic of
12 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania language and the usage of either English or Swahili during the PICSA trainings in February 2015 emerged as a common theme. This common thread prov oked subsequent discussion on which language the coming trainings should be conducted. Out of all of the agents interviewed, little over half 52 percent recommended that the trainings be conducted completely in Swahili while 42 percent believed that a bal anced mix of both languages would suffice Only 4 percent of the agents had no comment concerning the language used during the trainings. Once the responses regarding this theme were gender disaggregated, 100 percent of all female extension agents advocate d for an all Swahili based training for the upcoming sessions. In comparison, 21 percent of the male extension agents preferred a training completely conducted in Swahili. Extensionists who supported a Swahili only training cited common reasons for how an all Swahili curriculum could impact their understanding and subsequent trainings of local farmers and herders. Agents favoring an all S wahili based training advised that such an approach would have helped them in understand ing the concepts presented in February better and would have allowed them to communicate ideas easier while in the field. When questioned further, agents in the distri ct revealed that most of them are not from Longido where KiMaasai the local language in Longido is widely spoken. After attending the PICSA train ing, agents advised they had to translate the concepts into Swahili and then communicate these translated conce pts to local interpreters. These interpreters then aid ed the agents in facilitating extension trainings. Agents added that although they appreciate d the on site interpretations, they often doubt ed if all of the concepts were captur ed completely and correct ly Extension staff stressed that an English based course on PICSA; a subsequent personal translation of the concepts into Swahili; and a final on site interpretation from Swahili to KiMaasai provides ample opportunity for information to be lost in transla tion. The 42 percent of agents who believed that a balanced English Swahili extension training curriculum was sufficient were al l male extension officers All of these agents advised extension agents advocated for an all Swahili based training for the
13 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania that they felt that they understood all of the concepts during the February sessions quite well and no changes needed to be implemented in regards to the language of facilitation. Duration of PICSA Training The PICSA training of extension workers from Longido occurred over a six day period February 2015 Five of the day s were devoted to in class training on the PICSA approach while the extra day was spent on a field visit to a village TingaTinga. As mentioned earlier, all extension officers viewed the tools of the PICSA training as useful and valuable for their work. How ever, 84 percent of exte nsionists interviewed expressed that the tight timetable of just one week was not ideal for them to fully understand the methods. Regularly during the interview discussions, interviewees stated that there was an overdose of informat ion in the February trainings This perceived overdose limited agents from having time to review material and check for u nderstanding during the short week. Agents suggested follow up trainings for all extensionists trained on PICSA and an overall extensi on of the training from 6 days to up to a week longer. When probed further, interviewees expressed that more time spent on practical field visits where the methods can be better understood would be useful. Further probing revealed that agents who experienc ed difficulty facilitating the participatory budgets in the field felt that more time on this step in extension worker training would have allowed them to comprehend it more.
14 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania Figure 5 : Summary of Interview Responses by Theme Gen eral Challenges in the F ield Beyond issues of understanding, facilitating, and communicating the PICSA process agents advised of other, more context specific concerns they faced while facilitating trainings in Longido. These concerns centered on gender barriers to participation in farmer trainings and high rates of attrition of multi day trainings Utilization of PICSA process All agents viewed PICSA as useful and relevant for their work Two tools the Participatory Budget (PB) & Resource Allocation Maps (RAM) presented challenges 10% of extensionists did not understand the PB at all. 21% reported lack of transparency amongst farmers & pastoralists when creating RAMs Language used to train agents GFCS trainings of extension workers in TZ were conducted in English only 52% of extension workers recommended that subsequent trainings be facilitated completely in KiSwahili the official language of TZ 42% of agents suggested a mix of English & KiSwahili for subsequent trainings. 6% of agents had no comment. Duration of PICSA extension training GFCS training of Longido extensionists lasted for 6 days in February 2015. 84% of extension agents advised that 6 days was too short Agents cited an overdose of new information as the issue 16% had no comment. Integration of indigenous climate knowledge Agents advised that only scientific knowledge is incorporated into PICSA trainings In Longido many pastoralists and farmers employ many traditional methods of assessing changes in the climate. Extensionists reported their respective farmer/pastoralist groups did not acknowledge scientific climate knowledge as accurate. TMA & climate information delivery All but one extension agent advised that climate information delivered to Longido was untimely & inaccurate 89% of agents reported that climate information from the Tanzanian Meteorological Agency (TMA) was late reaching their wards. Agents based closer to Kenyan border reported never receiving climate data Challenges in facilitating PICSA Many agents noted high rates of attrition in their farmer/pastoralist, multi day trainings. Extensionists advised that lack of monetary payment discourages participants from returning after the first day. Regularly, extension workers advised that distinct gender barriers in communication exist that discourage the full participation of women in training sessions.
15 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania Extensionists advised that, in Maasai culture, women tend to have much less voice and decis ion making power over household l ivelihood strategies than men. Due to the gender division of labor, most women, however, know much more regarding the allocation of resources than their male counterparts. This presents challenges during trainings when conducting participatory mapping and budgeting activities. Agents advised that if and when women withhold from vocalizing their concerns, inputs, or questions, the agents themselves ask the women their opinion. This method, however, yields only partial results. At times women speak up and at of household wealth and assets as well as a partial view on current household and livelihood diversification s trategies to mitigate or adapt to climate vulnerability. Another poigna nt concern high rates of attrition across multiple day trainings emerged during the interviews with extensionists. Agents advised that due to the nature of PICSA trainings with farmers and herders, trainings can be held in 3 4 hour time slots across a seri es of consecutive days. There are multip le challenges with this First, many NGOs and development agencies in Longido pay participants in the district to come to meetings and/or trainings. Extensionists in Longido, however, are not provided with any means to compete with an incentive such as money. If participants come to extension trainings agents advised that they often complain that the training itself is not reason enough to return the following days k holder is willing to come to the trainings, he/she may be able to stay only for a portion of trainings due to household or work commitments. Indigenous Climate Knowledge A recurring theme during interview discussions with extensionists revealed the need for better integration of indigenous knowledge (IK) of climate into the trainings of both the extension agents and the end users of CI farmers and livestock holders. Many of the agents in the district advised that farmers and livestock holders alike have different, traditional modes of assessing the changes in climate and the onset of rain that they prefer to utilize Whether t hrough the movement of migratory birds, the blossoming of specific trees, the temperature of
16 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania night winds, or frequent consultations with elders, locals of Longido monitor weather patterns and determine what necessary actions, if any, to take to prepare for various weather outcomes. It was clear through the interviews that the acknowledgement and integration of principles of local IK was of major concern to the agents due to the priority that locals of Longido District place on it. Many of those who mentioned the importance of IK to their communities added that farmers and herders are much more likely to consult and trust traditional ways of knowing about weather and cl imate changes than scientific ones Quite often, agents advised that once CI from TMA was shared with past attendees of extension trainings, many of the same participants discuss ed the validity and accuracy of the projections with local elders. By formaliz ing the integration of existing beliefs and means of assessing weather conditions into extension trainings, farmer and herder participants may be more likely to accept CI when it is available. This, in turn, may lead to higher rates of climate smart liveli hood diversification strategies overall. TMA and Climate Information Delivery Prior to conducting interviews with extension officers in Longido, there was an assumption that CI was regularly communicated to and utilized by extension agents in the district It was evident, however, from the first few interview sessions that there were gaps in the access and utilization of CI. All but one extension officer interviewed advised that CI was untimely and inaccurate. Agents particularly working closer to the Ken yan border advised that CI from TMA was more difficult to access via traditional mediums (radio and letter) due to their distance from Tanzanian radio frequencies and the district council office where the letters were sent first. An overwhelming majorit y of the extensionists interviewed in Longido 89 percent reported that the CI received from TMA was late in reaching their wards and that once it arrived it was not relevant to their particular locales. Extension officers and an agent from TMA confirmed th at once the letters containing seasonal CI leave the TMA offices in Dar es Salaam, advised that farmers and livestock holders alike have different, traditional modes of assessing the changes in climate and the onset of rain that they
17 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania they reach the District Council offices in Longido. From the LDC the letters travel a winding journey to offices in their respective wards. Quite often, these letters are lost in transit, re directed multiple times, or reach the offices in rural wards weeks after leaving Dar es Salaam. Once the letters finally reach extensionists, the time sensitive informat ion arrives too late. Many extension agents advised that farmers in the district, after wai ting longer than desired for CI detailing the seasonal patterns of rain onset from their extension officers, decided to sow seeds regardless of receiving CI as to p revent missing the rains Extension workers, however, communicated that CI, although late, appeared to provide forecasts for a broader region. In short, the information that did arrive was late and not tailored to Longido District. Officers living in clo se proximity to the Kenyan border often mentioned never receiving any form of CI whether short term or long term from TMA after the February 2015 trainings. Instead, these agents advised that CI from Kenya broadcasts proved timelier and more relevant for their locations. The issue of relying on radios in communities closer to the border is one of access to a radio. Extension workers advised that even though Radio Kenya frequencies are stronger, very few people in their wards own a radio. This is interesting as a CCAFS baseline study of household asset ownership by district showed that 50 60% of households surveyed claimed to own a radio in Longido (Coulibaly et. al., 2015) However, m any extensionists, both near the Kenyan bord er and scattered throughout Longido District, still advised that relevant and timely CI and weather alerts should be communicated via SMS. trainings in 2015, that CI would be com municated to officers via SMS The information regarding the malfunctioning server at TMA headquarters was never communicated to extensionists in Longido. From the interview with TMA agent in July 2015, it was unclear when the server would be repaired.
18 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania From the previous section, it is clear that there are many opportunities to improve the trainings of extension worker s, the provision of CI to end users and extension trainings in the field. Suggestions on how to address each of these concerns are provided below: Utilization of PICSA Process & Methodology During training of extensionists, provide formative and summative assessments Increase time spent on instructing extension workers on how to facilitate concepts in the field (especially RAMs and Participatory Budgets). Consider other tools to assess farmer and herder resources to encourage transparency. Formative and Summative assessments would allow for real time feedback for PICSA facilitators on whether or not extension agents are grasping the depth of the content. Increasing the amount of time allotted for the PB & RAM exercises will further allow facilitators to explain the procedures of each crucial component. The RAM exercise is an essential part of the entire flow of the PICSA process as elements of it arise at many different timeframes before, during, and after the season. Facilitation techniques on how to build trust in farmer/pastoralist groups m ay increase the likelihood that actual resources are reported in the exercise, thereby allowing for greater planning on diversification strategies. Language Used in Trainings Incorporate real time, word for word Swahili translating to ensure understanding by all. Although more time consuming, incorporating real time translations will allow for guaranteed understanding. GFCS partners and extensionists advised that a handful of local farmers attended the training in February 2015 but have immense difficulty u nderstanding the content. Translation would also ensure that these vital members of the community would feel more included in the training and free to contribute. Duration of Tr aining Increase overall time of training from more than just a week. With an increased training period, incorporate more days at practical field site. Provide follow up training and monitoring of extension agents.
19 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania General Facilitating Challenges in the Field rriers to participation during farmer/livestock holder trainings in the field. ( See Appendix, page 27 for a potential gender module created to use in Tanzania) Partner with other implementing organizations like WFP to provide extensionists with the capaci ty to incentivize their field trainings of farmers/livestock holders to increase attendance and to deter high rates of attrition. The incorporation of gender modules could greatly assist extensionists in recognizing and adapting trainings to ensure that a communication. A thorough study by McOmber et. al. 2014 on the investigation of climate information services through a gendered lens emphasizes that: It is not just important to overcome obstacles to physica l access [to information], it is also critical that information is relevant to women, and that they are able to receive, process, and then utilize the information. When development practitioners fail to recognize these gender barriers, women are often excl uded from the communication circuit. When scientists present information through the use of ICTs [Information Communications Technologies] without recognizing these barriers, women who make up such a substantial amount of the agricultural labour force miss critical information which would help to develop adaptive strategies for climate change (McOmber et. al., 2014) Through modules that not only raise awareness of existing gender barriers but also provide targeted facilitation techniques, Tanzanian extension workers would be better equipped to create a conducive learning and sharing space for all participants attendin g PICSA trainings. Indigenous Climate Knowledge Include local elders in climate related extension trainings. Provide training to extension workers on facilitating an integrated approach to climate information whereby by IK is incorporated into scientific k nowledge on changing climate patterns. Perform an assessment or in depth analysis of indigenous knowledge on climate in the district. In a similar CCAFS related project in Senegal, climatologists, agronomists, and extension agents are experiencing great su ccess in getting farmers to value scientific climate knowledge by incorporating long standing, IK as well. The lead researchers wrote this of their experience:
20 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania farmers to expla in to us how they live with climate variability. Farmers have many ways of foretelling the climate, ranging from immediate rainy weather events to the behavior of the season to come. For example, they recognize the approaching season by the wind changing d irection ( Ndiaye e t. al., 2013). The results of this synergistic approach saw an uptake in scientific know ledge. The researchers describe more of the outcomes here : It was clear to us after our first contact that, through links to some of their indigenous knowledge and our forecasts, farmers started accepting our new forecasting system. One could clearly see it in their faces, their laughter and the questions they asked. They wanted to know more and could not wait to see the first actual forecast (Ibid). A lthough the scope of the PICSA trainings is geared towards the extension workers, it may be beneficial to involve other researchers at the University of Dar es Salaam (Dr. Pius Yanda) on a targeted study to learn more about the IK in Longido District and w ays to incorporate it in extension trainings. TMA and Climate Information Delivery Encourage greater communication between TMA and district council on the availability of CI. Utilize SMS as main means of disseminating CI. Encourage TMA to enhance its capability of providing down scaled, district specific CI. Increase time TMA is allowed to facilitate climate and climate information material during extension worker training. In Senegal again, the CCAFS sponsored project along with the Senegalese Meteoro logical Agency, are achieving long term project outcomes simply by creating a suite of reliable, accessible CI dissemination methods. Through the use of rural radio, farmers associations, SMS, and extension trainings ll farmers] were potentially Furthermore, climate disseminate relevant CI in multiple f orms is critical to the overall success of the GFCS work in Tanzania.
21 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania Overall, agents trained on the PICSA approach advised that the trainings provided them with a new process by which to enable their farmers and livestock holders to manage their mitigation strategies to climate and to increase their adaptive capacity to changing climate patterns. It was evident through the interview discussions with extension workers and walks through Longido District that accurate, timely CI is of crucial i mportance to the district. In a CCAFS sponsored report by Tall, Davis, and Agrawal 2014 on the importance of monitoring and monitoring & evaluation effort is recomme nded after each rainy season where climate services in 2015 in Tanzania, one could also include that the monitoring and eva luation of trainings of extension work ers is also essential to ensuring that these key intermediaries are optimally equipped. I would like to thank Sixbert Mwanga (CCAFS, Tanzania), Juvenal Kisanga (WFP, Tanzania), The Longido District Council, Kesia Laizer, Fullah Yassin, Th e Tanzanian Meteorological Agency, Jim Hansen (Columbia University), Arame Tall (IFPRI), Peter Dorward & Graham Clarkson (University of Reading), Sandra Russo (University of Florida), Renata Serra (University of Florida), and the velopment Program at The University of Florida, for their generous suppo rt, encouragement, and assistance throughout the duration of this project. Development Program at UF and the CCAFS project on climate adaptation at UF which, in turn, is funded by a grant from Columbia University and Dr. James Hansen.
22 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania CCAFS. 2015. The impact of Climate Information Services in Senegal. CCAFS Outcome Study No. 3. Copenhagen: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Available online at: www.ccafs.cgiar.org Coulibaly Y. J., Kundhlande, G., Amosi, N., Tall, A., Kaur, H., & Hansen, J. 2015. What climate services do farmers and pastoralists need in Tanzania? Baseline study for the GFCS Adaptation Program in Africa. CCAFS Working Paper no. 110. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenhagen, Denmark. Available online at: www.ccafs.cgiar.org Dorward, P., Cla rkson, G., & Stern, R. 2015. PICSA Field Manual: A step by step guide to using PICSA with farmers. University of Reading Walker Institute, United Kingdom. Global Framework for Climate Services. 2015 GFCS Adaptation Programme in Africa (2014 2016). Communicated via email from Har neet Kaur, Project Manager for GFCS in Africa. McOmber, C., Panikowski, A., McKune, S., Bartels, W., Russo, S. 2013. Investigating Climate Information Services through a Gendered Lens. CCAFS Working Paper no. 42. CGIAR Resear ch Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenhagen, Denmark. Available online at: www.ccafs.cgiar.org Msangi, Ally, Joseph Rutabingwa, Victor Kaiza, and Antonio Allegretti. 2014 Community and government: planning together for climate resilient growth. Issues and opportunities for building better adaptive capacity in Longido, Monduli and Ngorongoro Districts in northern Tanzania. International Institute for Environment and Development, London. Ndiaye, O., Moussa, A., Seck, M., Z ougmor, R., and Hansen, J. 2013. Communicating seasonal forecasts to farmers in Kaffrine, Senegal for better agricultural management. Working Paper. Hunger, Nutrition, Climate Justice Dublin, Ireland. Greene Sam. 2015 Enabling Resilience: Bridging the Planning Gap in Tanzania. Briefing: International Institute for Environment and Development, London. Tall, A., Davis, A., Agrawal, S. 2014. Does climate information matter? Evaluating climate services for farmers: a proposed monitoring and evaluation fram ework for participatory assessment of the impact of climate services for male and female farmers. CCAFS Working paper no 69. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenhagen, Denmark. Available online at: www.ccaf s.cgiar.org Walker Institute for Climate System Research. 2015. Climate Services for Smallholder Farmers Fact Sheet. University of Reading, United Kingdom. < http://www.walker institute.ac.uk/ research/PICSA/PICSA%20factsheet.pdf >.
23 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania World Meteorological Orga nization 2016 Understanding Climate. < http://www.wmo.int/ pages /themes/climate/understanding_climate.php >. PICSA Information Sheet: How to construct a Resou rce Allocation Map What are Resource Allocation Maps used for? A R esource Allocation May is a participatory mapping tool that describes the main livelihood activities of a household, including the farm. The approach enables the farmer and you to understand the by weather and climate. In this step Resource Allocation Maps are used to describe the main livelihood activities and resource uses of the household for the next season. In steps G, I, and K the farmers will revisit their Resource Allocation Maps to recons ider and revise their plans, taking the new climate and weather information into account. Materials You will need a flip chart and pens to draw the Resource Allocation Maps. Alternatively, they can be drawn on the ground using leaves, stones, or other obje cts. Preparation Discuss what the purpose of the drawing the Resource Allocation Maps is with the farmers. Example Resource Allocation Map Procedure Resource Allocation Maps should show what the farmer is planning/expecting to do in the coming season 1. On your flip chart draw your example Resource Allocation Map with: o A home and the number of people in it (number of adults, children, and their gender).
24 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania o o What they are planning/expe cting to grow on each of their fields and the size of the pilot that they will use. o Symbols depicting any resources that each of those plots/fields will require. o Symbols depicting any outputs that the farmer expects from those plots/fields. o The livestock t hat they keep on and around their farm, the type and the number. o Symbols depicting any resources that the livestock will require. o Symbols depicting any outputs that the farmer expects from her/his livestock. o Symbols depicting any off farm work or remittanc es that bring income for the household. o A key which helps to identify the information on the map. Note: you may wish to prepare the example in advance and then talk the farmers through the process. 2. Now split the farmers into pairs or small groups to draw their own individual map for their own farms. Each farmer should draw their own map but by being in a pair or a small group the famers can help each other out with the task. 3. Once the map has been finished, review each of the maps with the farmers to ensure that they are happy with the representation and the mix of enterprises that they have drawn. Clarify anything that appears to be unclear. Note: if you have a large group or are short on time you could select a few examples to go through as a group, instea d of looking at all of them. 4. Ask the farmers to keep their copy of their Resource Allocation Map as they will be referring back to it throughout the PICSA approach. PICSA Information Sheet: How to construct a Participatory Budget What are Participatory Bud gets used for? Participatory Budgets are used to evaluate the resource inputs and outputs of the different crop, livestock, and livelihood options. They enable farmers to identify the options that are best suited to their household and thus make informed c hoices about which options they may want to implement or try. They also help farmers to plan ahead and to prepare, by identifying what activities, money and resources are needed and when. Materials You will need a sheet of flipchart paper and a marker pen. Alternatively, a Participatory Budget can be drawn on the ground using a stick and stones, cartons or other items. Preparation Discuss with farmers what the purpose of drawing a Participatory Budget is. Example of a Participatory Budget
25 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania Procedure 1. Decide upon the option that the farmers want to consider using the example Participatory Budget. 2. Draw a Participatory Budget template with as many columns for time periods as the option requires. The periods that you choose will depend on the activity you are ex ploring, for example tree or livestock enterprises might use years, most crops would use months and poultry might use weeks. 3. Write the option at the top of the flipchart and record the planned size (i.e. acres or herd size). 4. For each time period (column) e .g. month, add the activities that are required (e.g. land preparation, planting, harvesting, veterinary services, selling livestock etc.). 5. For each activity, find out and add: o What inputs (e.g. seed, labor, pesticides, etc.) are required for each activity in each time period? Include the quantities of each input and prices that farmers have paid for inputs. o Any family labor linked to the activities should also be added as it is important that farmers consider this in their decision making. o What outputs, if any, relate to each activity in each time period, including the quantity of each output, and the amounts and prices of any produce that was sold. If the price for any of the outputs is higher or lower than normal that year, farmers should use a price so that the option does not look better or worse than it really is. o Produce consumed by the family or kept for consumption should be recorded as this should also be considered in decision making. However, if the household keeps produce for home consu mption then it is better not to convert this into a cash value as the farmer is not going to sell it. 6. Once the outputs and inputs for all the activities over the whole time have been accounted for work out the cash balance (all cash income minus any varia ble costs) and record it in the balance row. 7. By adding and subtracting the balances in the different columns you can calculate the overall balance for this option over the production period. If the farmer has kept some produce and is
26 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania not planning to sell i t then record the amount of produce (e.g. 5 x 3kg bags of beans) together with the overall cash balance. 8. that could influence the option negatively and positively They should adjust the Participatory Budget to see what effect these influences have on the balance. For example, in a participatory the price of the produce wa 9. Once the process of creating a Participatory Budget has been well understood, split the farmers into pairs or small groups to draw their own Participatory Budgets for the options they are interested in. Different f armers may be interested in different enterprises or options. 10. Once the group has multiple Participatory Budgets, farmers that have worked on different options should be asked to share their results and explain their budgets to each other. Through this proc ess farmers will compare and contrast the different options, including current enterprises, to help them decide which options are best in their individual circumstances. Farmers may wish to compile more Participatory Budgets on their own outside of the meeting and this is to be encouraged.
27 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania PICSA Activity Flow Chart Figure 6 : Flow Chart from Clarkson, Graham, & Stern, 2015 Background/Narrative: This training package is one that could be potentially used after my summer fieldwork in Tanzania with the Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS). The training activities in this module consist of a 2 hour planned activi ty geared towards extension officers and NGO staff workers who will be trained in the Participatory Integrated Climate Services for Agriculture (PICSA) approach in September 2015. By the end of the training the extension/NGO staff
28 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania workers will be able to: This training is just part of a larger gender integration that could be done throughout the rest of the 5 day training session on the PICSA approach. Ideally, there will be at least 2 other 2 hour sessions that follow this session. The Audience: The a udience for this training will be extension/NGO staff workers who will participate in the PICSA trainings in September. The workers are literate and fluent in English. The training will be conducted indoors (perhaps in the same room in which the PICSA trai nings take place). Electricity will be available but will be used only for lighting. No electronic presentation or computer will be necessary. Most, if not all, of the extension/NGO workers will be men. If women extension/NGO staff workers are present they will take part in the same training along with the men. General Materials Needed: Name tags (pre printed with the first name of each participant) Timer/stopwatch Flip chart paper Markers (at least 2 packs of 10) Post it notes (at least a pack of 100 large post it notes) Snacks, water, and tea (available throughout the session) Pre printed case studies (enough for each person to have 1) Pens and small notepad for each participant Large beach ball Participatory Integrated Climate Services for Agricultur e (PICSA) manual Facilitation Planning Blank Worksheets 5. Analyze the role of gender in a case study on accessing extension services. 4. Distinguish between sex and gender. 3.0Use effective group training and planning techniques to ensure that both men & women participants understand material. 2. Describe how gender norms & roles can influence participants' behavior. 1. Recognize & identify the different needs of men and women participants during in the field trainings
29 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania Objectives Activity Materials Duration --Ice Breaker: Introductions Pre filled flipchart with questions 10minutes --Setting of Group Norms Flip Chart, 3 markers 10 minutes 4 Gender vs. Sex Post it Activity 50 post it notes per group, markers 20 minutes 1, 2 Mock Training Fishbowl activity 5 7 pre printed prompts, 5 7 chairs, pens and notepads 20 minutes 1, 2, 3 Discussion/Lecture Pre made flip charts, markers 10 minutes 1, 2, 4, 5 Case Study Group Challenge Pre made flipchart with instructions (in bulleted list), pre printed case studies, 4 blank flipcharts, markers (2 per group) 45 minutes 1, 2, 3, 4 Beach Ball Toss Activity/Evaluation Large beach ball 15 minutes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, Wrap Up and Survey All flip charts (on wall); markers, 6 pieces of blank flip charts, surveys 10 minutes Pre Planning: Prior to the start of the workshop module on gender, all desks will be moved to the perimeter (if the name tag on the chair. Icebreaker: The facilitator/moderator will introduce herself and provide a brief description of the purpose of the training module The moderator will then place a pre filled out flipchart up in the front of the room and read the questions (these questions will be ones that the participants will use to interview another participant in the room). The moderator will pair the participan ts up quickly (the person to the right of the moderator will work with the participant to their right and so forth). The moderator will explain that each participant must ask his/her partner the questions on the flipchart in the front of the room. The mode answers as they will be asked to share/introduce his/partner to the group. Setting of group norms: After each person is introduced, the moderator will recap again the purpose of the training. The moderator will highlight that since all participants come from different backgrounds and have different perspectives that it is important to establish this training time period as a time of respect and open sharing. T he moderator will then explain the activity of group norm setting:
30 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania All participants will be asked to work with the same partner they worked with during the icebreaker to brainstorm (and write down) at least 5 rules they think are important for all particip ants and the moderator to abide by during the training. An example will be provide like: All participants must refrain from using cell phones OR All participants will allow others to share the viewpoints without interjecting. The moderator will ask the gro up if they understand the instructions and then begin. The facilitator will walk around as the activity is in progress to check for understanding and encourage pairs to write down 5 suggestions. After 8 minutes (or when the room gets noticeably quieter) th e moderator will ask for At this time, describe that we will open up the floor for the groups to share their top 2 suggestions with the rest of the group. Note that you will be writing down and seeking to clarify each suggestion and all pairs will have the chance to participate. After each group has shared their suggestions and the moderator has written them down, the moderator will ask for a volunteer to read the list. o Note that no suggestion will be d eleted. After reading each suggestion, the moderator will ask if anymore suggestions by the group are important. o ng those topics up to the group and ask if those are important as group norms. The group norms will then be posted in the front of the room on a wall to the side. o The moderator will add that periodically he/she will be referring to the list to make sure th at all participants are respecting group norms. Gender vs. Sex Activity For this activity, the moderator will divide the entire group of participants into two large groups. One group will be focusing on women and the other will focus on men. The moderator will describe the activity and set the ground rules: In this activity, group 1 (focusing on women) and group 2 (focusing on men) will try in the next 5 minutes to write down as many words that the group members believe describe either men or women. Only one word can be written on each post it note. Once a word is written, the group must post it on the adjacent wall. The goal is to write as many words as possible within the time allotted. The moderator will check for understanding of the directions. One ma rker will be given to each team. 50+ post its will also be handed to each group. The timer will start and the moderator will tell the groups to begin. (TIMESAVER: during this portion of the activity, the moderator will place 5 7 chairs in the center of the group circle in the shape of a smaller circle. A prompt will be placed underneath each chair)
31 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania After the timer sounds, the moderator will ask each group to stop writing and to place the marker and post its down. The moderator will ask each group to then look at the items they have written down. The groups will then be asked to leave words that are only specific to women or men up on their walls and place the words that describe any person on the wall in the back o f the room. 5 minutes will be allotted for this part of the activity. After the timer sounds, the moderator will ask everyone to take a seat and look at the words on either side of the room and in the back. The moderator will ask for comments on what has occurred. The moderator will then describe the difference between sex and gender. o Sex is biological. Gender is socially constructed. o The moderator will describe how this is important when considering how men and women interact in trainings and access exten sion services. The moderator will check for understanding and ask if there are any questions. Mock Training Fishbowl Activity All participants will still be standing after the previous activity. Prior to participants taking a seat, the moderator will ask f or 5 7 volunteers to raise their hands. After 5 7 volunteers raise their hands, the moderator will ask for the volunteers to be seated in the middle of the group circle in the smaller circle for another activity. Once all participants and volunteers are se ated, the moderator will thank all participants for their involvement in the last activity. And describe the following: The moderator will describe that participants in the middle of the room will be doing some acting today. Re assure the participants that the roles are pre planned and that their participation is appreciated. (if at any point a participant opts out, thank them and ask if anyone else would like to fill their role) Describe that below each chair in the center is a prompt. Instruct participant s to read the prompt silently to themselves and when they have finished to place the prompt back under the seat. To those seated on the outer circle: o Describe that they are the observant audience. o Their role is to take notes during the roleplay and to rema in silent. o Add that the audience role is very important during this roleplay as they will aid in deeper discussion later. After all participants understand their role, start the timer for 8 minutes. The participants in the roleplay will be acting out a moc k training activity of the Participatory Integrated Climate Services for Agriculture (PICSA) approach created by researchers at the University of Reading in the U.K. o Activities such as the resource allocation map or participatory budget. (DURING this time period, allow the participants in the middle to play out the roles. It is important for the moderator to remain silent and objective, offering no assistance to the volunteers and ensuring that the audience is attentive yet quiet).
32 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania Once the timer sounds, th ank the volunteers for their participation and ask for everyone to give them a round of applause. Volunteers should remain in their seats for a brief discussion. The moderator should ask the group: o What seemed to be occurring during this exercise? o How were women and men responding to the training? o Were there any noticeable differences? o What stood out most? o To the volunteers, what seemed most interesting to you all about this activity? o As you were playing out the roles, what did you notice? Thank everyone fo r their participation and ask for everyone to return to their original seats. Discussion/Lecture: This portion of the training is aimed at offering a recap of the comments brought up in the previous 2 activities and to discuss potential ways of facilitatin g farmer trainings to ensure that both women and men are able to fully participate. For this activity the moderator will do the following: Provide simple facilitation techniques to the participants that will aid them in their trainings o All technique will b e gender focused and include suggestion like: Separating men and women farmers into different sessions Using pictures instead of text for trainings if literacy is a concern Recognizing gender norms and barriers in trainings Addressing power dynamics After explaining the above comments (and potentially others if different situations arose during the roleplay), the moderator will check for understanding. The moderator will then open up the floor for questions. Group Case Study Challenge (Prior to the st art of this activity, the moderator should assess the energy level of the group. If participants seem tired, an Energizing activity will be implemented for about 5 minutes) For this activity, the moderator will do the following: The moderator will divide t he participants up in groups of 3 4 (by counting off by 3s around the room in a circle) Once participants have an assigned number they will be asked to go to one corner of the room (number 1s will go to one corner, number 2s will go to another, etc.). Memb ers can choose to take their chairs or not. Once all participants are in their respective groups the moderator will explain the activity: o Each group will be assigned a case study of detailing an issue that is arising in a farmer extension training activity in Tanzania.
33 Monitoring GFCS in Tanzania o Participants will read the case study and on the flip chart paper provided answer the following questions: What seems to be the main issue in this case study? What are some of the barriers that men face in the training? What are some of the b arriers that women face in the training? How can the extension worker reduce the barriers of both men and women farmers in the training? In your group, come up with 3 actions that the trainer can take to ensure all of his/her clients understand the climate information training. o Check that all participants understand the activity. o Pass out the case studies. Start the timer for 20 minutes. When the timer sounds, have each group post their completed flipcharts on the adjacent wall. Ask for each group to take up to five minutes to: o Briefly summarize their case study o And explain their responses to the above questions. After each group presents, ask the larger group for feedback. Reiterate the discussion/lecture points on facilitation and the reflections ma de by the group. Beach Ball Toss Activity The beach ball will have preprinted questions on it regarding information covered in the 1 st half of the training. The moderator will instruct all participants to form a circle. The moderator will demonstrate how t he activity works by asking a participant to toss/bounce the ball to her. Once the moderator receives the ball, she will read aloud the question that is facing her and then provide an answer using the techniques or information learned prior. Note: it is im portant that if a participant gets stumped to encourage them to look on the adjacent walls for flipcharts detailing possible answers. Wrap up and Survey pa rticipants. Any questions or concerns that arise will be addressed during this session. The moderator the week. At the end of the wrap up, the moderator will pass out a survey for the participants to on the further trainings on gender awareness.
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