Citation
Leadership Development Training for Young Women in Goa, India

Material Information

Title:
Leadership Development Training for Young Women in Goa, India
Creator:
Marks, Kristen
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Sustainable Development Practice (M))
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Kumaran, Muthusami
Committee Members:
Serra, Renata
Lindsey, Angela

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Body image ( jstor )
Course evaluation ( jstor )
Gender roles ( jstor )
Group facilitation ( jstor )
Leadership training ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Ropes ( jstor )
Self esteem ( jstor )
Sex trafficking ( jstor )
Women ( jstor )
Sustainable Development Practice field practicum report, M.D.P.
Genre:
terminal project
Field Practicum Report

Notes

Abstract:
While sex trafficking, or the trade of people for commercial sex work, has been around for much longer, it has emerged in recent years as a major international human rights concern. With effects of sex trafficking being multifold and far-reaching, it is important to ensure that women and children do not become victim to this trade and to challenge underlying beliefs about life options for girls. Leadership development lies at the heart of this. Effective anti-trafficking initiatives empower young people, challenge deeply rooted perspectives about gender and life options, involve participatory activities, and create new forms of community leadership. ( ,,,,,, )
Abstract:
Presenting the results and experience of a Summer 2015 practicum in Goa, India, this report conveys the role of youth leadership development in creating lasting change. In partnership with Rahab’s Rope, a non-governmental organization that works with women and children at-risk or affected by sex trafficking, a leadership development training for young women was developed, implemented, and evaluated. Young women in this area of Goa usually have little education or marketable skills, leaving them at great risk of being trafficked. It is crucial to provide these women with increased opportunities outside of the sex trade and positive beliefs about their role in fostering change for themselves and others. The training was piloted and evaluated to see how it would work in other locations. The goal was to enhance the girls’ leadership and life skills, allowing them to feel more comfortable in leadership roles.
Abstract:
To develop the training, interviews with staff and participants, research, and observation were utilized. The curriculum covered leadership skills, working with others, self-esteem, dreams and goals, and body image. The training was evaluated through surveys and interviews. There were overall positive results and feedback, reflecting the need for Rahab’s Rope, development organizations, governments, and schools to invest in youth leadership development. There is also a further need to determine if leadership development could be an effective tool in combating trafficking. The hope is to not only potentially help curb sex trafficking, but to equip leaders to bring lasting change to their communities. This change and the ability of young people to be agents of change are necessary for sustainable development.
General Note:
sustainable development practice (MDP)
General Note:
The MDP Program is administered jointly by the Center for Latin American Studies and the Center for African Studies.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Kristen Marks. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
1022120629 ( OCLC )

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LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT TRAINING FOR YOUNG WOMEN IN GOA, INDIA Kristen Marks A Field Practicum Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Sustainable Development Practice Degree at the University of Florida, in Gainesville, FL USA April 2016 Supervisory Committee: Dr. Muthusami Kumaran, Chair Dr. Renata Serra Member Dr. Angela Lindsey Member

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DEDICATION AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My deepest thanks and gratitude to the following: The UF MDP program (including Dr. Glenn Galloway, Program Director, and Andy Noss, Program Coordinator): Thank you for your input and support (both logistical and financial) throughout the process. Supervisory Committee: Thank you for your guidance insight, feedback, and support in carrying out my practicum and developing this final report. Thank you for pushing me to think more critically. You have taught me so much and have made me a stronger writer, researcher, and practitioner as a result. Rahab's Rope Staff: Thank you for allowing me to work with you and for welcoming me in India. I will never forget this experience. MDP Cohort 5 : Thank you f or humoring me learning with me, working with me, making me laugh, and supporting me for two years. I could not imagine a finer group of people to go through graduate school and this process with. World, look out for this group. My family and friends : Thank you for always believing in me, loving me, and encouraging me in life and in my endeavors. You mean the world to me, and I would not be who I am today without you. The girls that I worked with at the stitching center : Thank you for letting me in an d for the impact you have had on my life. I am incredibly blessed that you are a part of my story. This is for you.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract 1 Introduction 2 Backg round and Context 2 Geographical Context Sex Trafficking and the Commercial Sex Trade Sex Trafficking in Goa Youth Leadership Development: Why It Matters Partner Organization Background: Rahab's Rope Background of the Stitching Center and Participants Objectives 10 Project Cycle 11 Conceptual Framework 12 Curriculum 13 Design and Structure of the Leadership Trainings Session Topics Content and Skills Developed Methods 16 Selection of Participants Methods Utilized Challenges and Problems Analysis 24 Results 25 Leadership Working with Others Self esteem and Body Image Goals and Dreams for the Future Course Evaluation Limitations Conclusions 32 References 39 Appendix 43 Appendix 1 Pre and Post Assessment Survey App endix 2 Course Evaluation Surveys Appendix 3 Course Evaluation Responses Appendix 4 Quantitative Results Appendix 5 Curriculum

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1 ABSTRACT While sex trafficking, or the trade of people for commercial sex work, has been around for much longer, it has emerged in recent years as a major international human rights concern. With effects of sex trafficking being multifold and far reaching, it is im portant to ensure that women and children do not become victim to this trade and to challenge underlying beliefs about life options for girls. Leadership development lies at the heart of this. Effective anti trafficking initiatives empower young people, ch allenge deeply rooted perspectives about gender and life options, involve participatory activities, and create new forms of community leadership. Presenting the results and experience of a Summer 2015 practicum in Goa, India, this report c onveys the role of youth leadership development in creating lasting change. In partnership with Rahab's Rope, a non governmental organization that works with women and children at risk or affected by sex trafficking, a leadership development training for young women was d eveloped, implemented, and evaluated. Young women in this area of Goa usually have little education or marketable skills, leaving them at great risk of being trafficked. It is crucial to provide these women with increased opportunities outside of the sex t rade and positive beliefs about their role in fostering change for themselves and others. The training was piloted and evaluated to see how it would work in other locations. The goal was to enhance the girls' leadership and life skills, allowing them to fe el more comfortable in leadership roles. To develop the training, interviews with staff and participants, research, and observation were utilized. The curriculum covered leadership skills, working with others, self esteem, dreams and goals, and body image The training was evaluated through surveys and interviews There were overall positive results and feedback reflecting the need for Rahab's Rope, development organization s, governments, and schools to invest in youth leadership development. There is als o a further need to determine if leadership development could be an effective tool in combating trafficking. The hope is to not only potentially help curb sex trafficking, but to equip leaders to bring lasting change to their communities. This change and t he ability of young people to be agents of change are necessary for sustainable development.

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2 INTRODUCTION I conducted my field practicum in Goa, India, working with Rahab's Rope, a non governmental organization that works with women and children at risk or affected by the commercial sex trade in several locations throughout India. My focus was creating, implementing, and evaluating a leadership development training for young women. The goal was to develop and lead these girls through leadership development training, and thereby enhance their leadership skills that can be utilized in their daily lives and allowing them to feel more comfortable in leadership roles. There was al so a hope of empowering them to take on future leadership roles. The young women I worked with were engaged in programs at a stitching center, a place where they could learn sewing and other skills as an alternative to the sex trade. In discussing my pract icum with Rahab's Rope, it was determined that there was a need for these girls to have a leadership training. The training was piloted on a group of thirteen girls, ages 15 to 26, and evaluated to see how it would work in other locations, whether in Goa o r India. BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT Geographical Context With a population of over 1.2 billion people, India is the second most populated country in the world. India's Human Development Index ( HDI ), a comparative statistic of education, life expectancy, and standards of living for countries, value for 2013 is 0.586, putting it at 135 out of 187 countries (United Nations Development Report, 2014). "Despite pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and w idespread corruption, economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991 and the youthful population are driving India's emergence as a regional and global power" (Central Intelligence Agency, 2015). However, inequality is still a large issue in India, and the Gini coefficient (a measurement of a country's income distribution with 0 being perfect equality and 100 being perfect inequality) is 33.9 (United Nations Develop Report, 2014 ) My practicum took place in Goa India's smallest state by area and fourth smallest by population. Goa is a popular tourist destination on the West Coast of India.

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3 Known for its beaches, tropical diversity, and architecture, over 2.5 million people travel to Goa annually. Goa is also one of India's richest states, with a GDP per capita two and a half times that of the country (Indira Gandhi National Open University, 2015). Additionally, Goa has the highest per capita income in India, with 192652 Rupees 1 India's average per capita for income is around 60000 Rupees 2 one of the lowest in the world (Prabhudesai, 2013). Agriculture, while still playing a large role in the economy of Goa, has diminished in importance over the past four decades, given the rise in tourism and mining. Tourism is Goa's primary industry, wit h mining as the second biggest industry in the state due to rich resources of iron ore and other minerals (Maps of India, 2010). According to the 2011 Census, Goa has a population of about 1.4 million, with about 62% living in urban areas. It has a high r ate of literacy at 88.7%, which has steadily been on the increase. Goa is a very diverse state, and people of various Kannada, Marathi, and Urdu are also spoken. Due to the high amounts of tourism, English is widely spoken (Census of India, 2011). Hindu is the prominent religion, accounting for 65.7%. Christianity accounts 26.6%, Islam 6.8%, and other religions make up 0.9% according to the 2001 Census of India. Sex Trafficking and the Commercial Sex Trade According to the U.S. Department of State (2014), human trafficking is "the act of recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining a person for compelled labor or commercial sex acts through the use of force, fraud, or coercion! It can include, but does not require, movement" (p. 29). While human trafficking has been around for much longer, it has emerged in recent years as a major international human rights and health concern. With over 20.9 million estimated victims of human trafficking global ly, it is not difficult to see why (Polaris Project, 2015). Human trafficking is a very profitable illegal enterprise, with profit estimates of $150.2 billion per year, $99 billion coming from commercial sex work. Perpetrators make an average of $21,800 p er victim of commercial sexual exploitation. Cumulative profits are the highest in South Asia, due to _______________________________ 1. 192652 Rupees is the equivalent of $3080.98 USD 2. 60000 Rupees is the equivalent of $959.55 USD

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4 the large amount of victims (U.S. Department of State, 2014). "Trafficking is an extreme and sustained form of violence against girls and women. Case studies compiled by various non governmental organizations (NGOs) document rape, gang rape, burning of breas ts and gentiles with cigarettes, beating, and chaining with fetters" ( Crawford & Kaufman, 2008, p. 908). Due to the nature of the trade, the effects of sex trafficking on its victims are "multifold, with extensive and profound consequences for psychologica l and physical health and well being, effects that appear to be largely attributable to the violence experienced during trafficking" (Miller, Decker, Silverman, & Raj, 2007, p. 488). The sex trade is very debilitating and traumatizing, and victims suffer from many long lasting effects, including mental, physical, behavioral, emotional, and economical effects. Victims sustain physical injuries, such as bruises, head injuries, and broken bones and are expose d to sexually transmitted infections. About 1 in 4 victims test positive for HIV (Silverman, Dekcer, Gupta, Maheshwari, Patel, & Raj, 2006). Victims also suffer from panic attacks, sleeplessness, lack of energy, and poor concentration (Miller, Decker, Sil verman, & Raj, 2007; Raymond & Hughes, 2001; Tsutsumi et al, 2008). Additionally, many women report that their substance use began or escalated with their involvement in sex trafficking, either due to force or as a coping mechanism (Miller et al, 2007). E ven after being freed from the bonds of trafficking, life after is not easy for the victims. Research finds that "survivors who are rescued from prostitution typically suffer various kinds of posttraumatic effects" (Crawford & Kaufman, 2008, p.908). Surviv ors have a high prevalence of mental health issues, including depression, anxiety, and PTSD (Crawford & Kaufman, 2008; Tsutsumi et al, 2008). Aside from the physical and mental effects, it is also difficult for victims to regain acceptance by their familie s or communities once they are free and may face isolation as a result (Crawford & Kaufman, 2008; Van Hook, Gjermeni, & Haxhiymeri, 2006). This is due to the extreme stigma of trafficking victims. Some girls "have committed suicide or have been killed by t he father or brother because the labeling and stigma from the community were so unbearable. For some women, it means a return to a situation of domestic violence" (Van Hook, Gjermeni, & Haxhiymeri, 2006, p. 33). Young girls who do not have the

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5 support of t heir family or community are forced to survive on their own, and some even turn back to commercial sex work (Van Hook, Gjermeni, & Haxhiymeri, 2006). Human trafficking stems from poverty, and the biggest push factor for sex trafficking is a low socio econo mic status (Okonofua, Ogbomwan, Alutu, Kufre, & Eghosa, 2004). Living in poverty, working in unskilled occupations, lacking educational opportunities or literacy, being orphaned, needing to migrate all contribute to an individual's vulnerability to human t rafficking (Crawford & Kaufman, 2008; U.S. Department of State, 2014). "Because of poor economic situations, desperate women and children have a high propensity to be lured, kidnapped, or sold into the world of human trafficking" (Schauer & Wheaton, 2006, p. 161). Sex Trafficking in Goa Asia is seen as the most susceptible region for trafficking because of its large population, increasing urbanization, and renewed poverty in the wake of currency devaluations and recession" (Kaufman & Crawford, 2011, p. 65 2). South Asia, in general, is home to the world's largest population of human trafficking victims, and India serves as a destination, source, and transit country for sex trafficking (U.S. Department of State, 2014). Women from excluded groups, religious m inorities, lowest caste Dalits and members of tribal communities are most vulnerable to sex trafficking in India. The majority of trafficking victims in India are recruited by those known to them in their home villages with promise of work in other areas. Approximately 200 girls and women in India enter sex work everyday, with more than 160 being coerced into it. Trafficking into forced prostitution victimizes more children in India than any other country in the world, and over half of sex trafficking vict ims in India are under the age of 18, with some as young as 4 ( Silverman, Decker, Gupta, Maheshawri, Patel, & Raj, 2006). Given the high tourism traffic and the fact that tourism fuels trafficking Goa is a hub for human trafficking. In recent years, there has been a surge in sex trafficking in Goa, due to demand for sex services by tourists. This is resulting in rising numbers of prostituted children. Victims are trafficked into Goa from all over India and from across international borders ( Times of India, 2013; Wilkins, 2013). Trafficking victims can even be from Goa, and of 227 girls rescued during police raids from 2011 to 2013, 8% were

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6 from Goa (Times of India, 2014 b ). Many brothels in Goa operate out of beauty salons, escort services, friendship clubs, and over the internet, making it difficult for authorities to crack down on sex trafficking (Times of India, 2013; Wilkins, 2013). While there is no exact number of people involved in the commercial sex trade, that number is rising in recent years, and wo men ages 18 to 25 are most likely to enter prostitution or be forced into trafficking (Ti mes of India, 2014a ). The Rahab's Rope stitching center, in particular, is located in an area of Goa known for prostitution and the red light district that the governm ent has tried to demolish continually in recent years as a means to curb prostitution and trafficking (Arz, 2010). Youth Leadership Development: Why It Matters With 40% of its population between the ages of 13 and 35, India is home to one of the world's largest and fastest growing youth generations (Innovations in Civic Pa rticipation and Pravah, 2009). While m any countries are characterized by aging populations and have already crossed the demographic transition from high birth and death rates to low birt h and death rates India will continue to have a young population India's growth rate is projected to continue at 5% or more, meaning that India must find a way to engage and harness the potential of its large youth population (Innovations in Civic Partic ipation and Pravah, 2009). Investing in education, healthcare, and job training for record numbers of young people is essential for developing countries to take advantage of their "demographic dividend" (a boost in economic productivity due to high labor f orce population in relation to dependents) and accelerate economic growth. "Engaging youth in neighborhood, community and national development yields an opportunity to harness their energy, enthusiasm, skills, and innovative ideas to increase economic grow th, foster social stability, improve civic participation, and ensure healthier, more educated and productive so cieties" (USAID, 2012, p. 3). Youth, usually defined as someone from 15 24, but could be extended to anyone from 10 29, are both indiv iduals transitioning through life's developmental stages and actors in the development of their countries and communities (USAID, 2012). Investing in girls during adolescence "offers an opportunity to guide their development, self discovery, and identity i n positive ways" (CARE 2012, p. 4). While governments and

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7 organizations around the world see the importance of youth development, there is a continued focus on youth as beneficiaries of programs rather than as partners or active leaders of change (Restles s Development, 2012). Youth are a huge resource and can be agents of change in their communities and societies. Leadership training is not only about building future leaders; it is also about building leaders for today and empowering them to make a differe nce now. They "represent the opportunity of today and tomorrow" (USAID, 2012, p. 5). This makes it especially critical to invest in youth now, and if leadership training is successful, it is presumed that the qualities and skills will follow participants i nto adulthood (CARE, 2009). With many girls in India being trafficked and entering commercial sex work with the false promise of a job, it is important to increase the employability and life skills of young girls and women in India. This is where the leadership curriculum comes in. S amarasinghe and Burton write: In assessing the array of anti trafficking initiatives undertaken in source regions around the world, it appears that those efforts that integrate awareness raising with some form of participatory activity, designed to create new forms of community leadership, to empower young people, and to challenge deeply rooted habits and perspectives about gender and the life options for women and men are more likely to be sustainable and effective (2007, p. 61). Lasting change in a country occurs through reaching its young people; leadership development plays an essential role in that. Throughout the literature, leadership development programs are seen as beneficial to youth, especially those who are at risk (Roth & Brooks Gunn, 2003 ). These programs offer many benefits, and "leadership programs can offer young people the opportunity to develop their skill set, work closely with others, lead change and use their creativity to benefit themselves and society" (Redmond & Dolan, 2014, p. 4). Having formal leadership training prepares girls to become empowered to engage with and be leaders in their local communities. It gives them the opportunity to improve their leadership skills, which are applicable in every aspect of their lives. The cu rriculum helps girls to understand leadership and the role of a leader, while improving decision making, communication, interpersonal, and critical thinking skills. Additionally, it provides skills for the girls to become effective and ethical leaders amon g their peers, strengthening their abilities to feel empowered and

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8 increasing their employability. Part of the training encourages and strengthen the girls' abilities to impact their own communities. The development of youth and young adults "as peer educa tors also appears to help them to develop communication and leadership skills, acquire the respect of their peers and adults, and become more self confident and assertive" (Samarasinghe & Burton, 2007, p. 62). The goal is to not only prevent sex traffickin g, but to equip leaders to bring lasting change to their communities. Partner Organization Background: Rahab's Rope With effects of sex trafficking being multifold and far reaching, it is important to ensure that women and children do not become victim to this trade. At their Goa location, Rahab's Rope focuses on prevention, or the "pre emptive intervention before any of the forms of trafficking identified" occur ( Samarasinghe & Burton, 2007, p. 53). Research shows that NGOs have played an important role in designing and implementing pre emptive strategies to combat sex trafficking (Samarasinghe & Burton, 2007). Rahab's Rope works in an area of Goa where young girls are not in school and young women usually have little education or marketable skills, cont ributing to the risk of being trafficked due to the expanding sex trade driven by tourism (Anzalone, 2010; Kamat, 2015) "As the roots of trafficking are structural and systemic, prevention efforts must, at the least, address some of the fundamental issues that render women vulnerable to sex trafficking" (Samarasinghe & Burton, 2007, p. 54). Rahab's Rope seeks to address some of these issues, including low literacy, high poverty rates, and lack of marketable skills, through education and vocational training Rahab's Rope exists in Goa to provide alternatives to the sex trade and to give hope and opportunity to women and children th at are at risk of trafficking or the commercial sex trade. Rahab's Rope works in local preschools improving curriculum and teachi ng methods, has a vocational center where women are taught to create jewelry and other products to make a livelihood, teaches life skills classes to teenagers and young adults, and provides support to new moms. These programs ultimately allow the children and women to integrate into their communities in a positive and constructive manner. Increasingly,

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9 these types of programs are shown to be necessary and effective in fighting human trafficking: Development activities designed to improve the vocational and educational status of women and girls and raise their individual incomes are increasingly recognized as essential in preventing trafficking. The ultimate objective is to empower women in order to prevent them from being forced into the sex industry. Integ rating awareness raising among communities at risk with strategies aimed at improving educational and vocational options for women and girls, as well as enhanced legal literacy, also offers a potentially sustainable strategy (Samarasinghe & Burton, 2007, p 58). Many argue that education is the best antidote to human trafficking (Go" dziak, 2008). Through education and vocational training, Rahab's Rope hopes to decrease the risk of the people in their programs from being trafficked or forced into the commercial sex trade (Rahab's Rope, 2015). Background of Stitching Center and Participants Rahab's Rope established a women's development and vocational center, commonly known as the stitching c enter, as a means of giving women and girls life options ou tside of human trafficking. At the stitching c enter, girls and women have the opportunity to learn the following skills: sewing, crochet, jewelry making, macramÂŽ, cloth paintings, embroidery, henna, and hairdressing. Sessions are offered in the morning and afternoon five days a week, and women can learn any of the skills offered. Once women reach an acceptable level of proficiency, they can join the production team and earn money for making p roducts that are sold in the Uni ted States. The women and girls who frequent t he s titching c enter and participated in the leadership development trainings come from lower castes and poor backgrounds. Recruitment for programs at the stitching center is very informal, and girls often hear about it through word of mouth. The girls and women with the highest need are accepted to begin vocational and skills trainings immediately. These girls h ave hard family lives, and the stitching c enter i s seen as a safe place where they can be themselves and earn an income. Some girls d epend on the money they earn from making cloths to pay for school, as their families cannot afford it. Through discussions with staff of Rahab's Rope, it was determined that these girls had a need for leadership

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10 development training. This was a topic that these girls were not regularly exposed to, and there was a need to develop leadership skills. With many of the girls hoping to have their own businesses incorporating the skills they learned at the stitching center, it was important for them to learn leade rship skills. Leadership development training and becoming more comfortable with oneself are also beneficial in general. OBJECTIVES The practicum had an overall objective of "girls possess an enhanced understanding of leadership and are prepared to incorporate it into their life skills as a result of leadership training." In addition to the overall objective, there were two specific objectives. The objectives, along with the problems or questions addressed by each objective, are displayed in the tabl e below. Figure 1: Objectives of Leadership Development Training

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11 PROJECT CYCLE Figure 1 shows the project cycle for the leadership training, highlighting some of the methods used. Throughout the project cycle and from one step to the next, monitoring and reporting occurred to modify the training and curriculum as needed. Figure 2 Project Cycle of Leadership Development Curriculum and Training

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12 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The leadership training was developed using the following conceptual framework, Figure 3. At the foundation of the leadership training was the Five C's: competence, confidence, connections, character, and caring. All training sought to address and foster t hese five characteristics in the three areas leadership can be exemplified: individual, group, and community. These three areas of leadership were stressed throughout the activities and discussions. The leadership training focused on increasing the leaders hip skills and abilities relative to the individual, group, and community while also fostering competence, confidence, connections, character, and caring. Hopefully, as a result of the training, the young women would feel enabled and empowered enough to be leaders among other women in their own communities. The Five C's are expanded upon below. Figure 3 Conceptual Framework of Leadership Development Curriculum and Training

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13 Competence: A youth's ability to play a meaningful role in the future through their social, cognitive, and vocational skills. Social competence includes interpersonal skills such as communication, assertiveness, and conflict resolution skills. Cognitive co mpetence is related to cognitive abilities, including logical and analytic thinking, problem solving, decision making, planning, and goal setting skills. Vocational competence includes work habits and career choice (CARE, 2009; Roth & Brooks Gunn, 2003). C onfidence: "The ability to develop a sense of worth based on a belief in one's ability to make a positive difference in one's life and in the world, by making choices and taking initiatives" (CARE, 2009, p. 11). Confidence encompasses improving self esteem self efficacy, identity, and belief in the future (Roth & Brooks Gunn, 2003). Character: Character is developed through "increasing self control, decreasing engagement in health compromising behaviors, developing respect for cultural or societal rules a nd standards and a sense of right and wrong (morality), and spirituality describe character building goals" (Roth & Brooks Gunn, 2003, p. 173). Resilience, responsibility, and accountability all play a key role in character (CARE, 2009). Caring and Compass ion: Improving empathy and identification with others (Roth & Brooks Gunn, 2003). Connections: Building and strengthening relationships with other people and institutions (CARE, 2009; Roth & Brooks Gunn, 2003). CURRICULUM Design and Structure of the Lea dership Trainings There were six leadership training sessions, each one lasting 50 minutes to an hour and twenty minutes. Sessions were held once a week on Thursday afternoons. Each session began with summarizing what was learned previously followed by an icebreaker activity to set up the rest of the class. After the icebreaker, there was a brief introduction to the topic, explaining the significance of the session's topic and what it means. Following the introduction lecture, there was an activity. The num ber of activities depended on the week; some weeks had one long activity and some weeks had two or

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14 three. Every activity was followed by discussion, where the participants were asked questions about the activity and we would talk about the importance of it Each session concluded with a summary of what was discussed that class and what next week's session would cover. Session Topics Each session had a different focus, allowing the participants to get a good foundation to leadership. An explanation to each topic is discussed below. The final curriculum can be found in the Appendix. Leadership Skills and Qualities of a Leader The firs t two weeks were focused on an introduction to leadership. These sessions included definitions of leadership, basic leadership skills, and the qualities of a leader. It was emphasized that anyone can be a leader and that leadership is a process. The second week, participants practiced leadership and each girl took a turn leading a small group in a timed activity. It was a fun way for participants to gain a better sense of how they lead and ways they could improve their approaches to leadership. The training objectives for the participants during the sessions included: participants developing their personal meaning of leadership, participants recognizing leadership traits, participants understand that leadership is a process and can be developed, and particip ants discovering their own leadership styles and qualities through hands on experience. Working with Others Teamwork and being able to work with others is essential to leadership. The third workshop focused on working with others. We discussed how each person has different perspectives, how those perspectives are shaped, group decision making skills, and how to work together and be accepting of others despite differences. Activities that stressed group decision making were incorporated and participants d iscussed differences and similarities between each other. Objectives included: participants better understanding how individuals can view the same situation in different ways, participants recognizing strengths and weaknesses they bring to groups, and

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15 part icipants gaining an understanding of the personal perceptions and assumptions brought to a group. Self Esteem Self esteem is at the foundation of leadership, and one cannot lead others if they are not truly comfortable with themselves. After noticing a need for the participants to learn more about self esteem, this session was incorporated into the leadership trai ning. Participants shared what they were proud of, discussed what self esteem is and why it is important, and made a collage of what they like about themselves. During this session, each person's individuality and uniqueness and the impacts of comparing on eself with others were central components. We also focused on complimenting and supporting others, as negative thoughts and feelings expressed can be very harmful to self esteem. We ended with ways to improve self esteem and love ourselves. Objectives incl uded: participants understanding how negative feelings expressed by others or self can affect self esteem and behavior, participants appreciating themselves, participants gaining a sense of self esteem, and participants giving and receiving positive feedba ck. Body Image Body image is a topic that is not regularly discussed in India despite being a huge issue among girls and young women, and there is very little research by mental health professionals in India on body image and the psychological disorders related to negative body image (Cavale & Singh, 2014). As with self esteem, having a positive body image and thoughts about yourself are the foundation for leadership. Most participants were unfamiliar with the concept of body image, so this session was sp ent explaining what it is and how it affects our everyday lives. We discussed the role culture and media play in body image and beauty standards. Objectives included: participants defining body image and what it means to have a positive, healthy image, pa rticipants understanding that bodies come in different shapes and sizes and learning to accept their own, and participants learning how the media and culture influence standards of beauty.

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16 Goals and Dreams for the Future This session was my personal fav orite and an excellent way to conclude the trainings. For many girls in India, it is difficult to have hope and have goals for the future, as they are often told they have little worth and are trapped in cycles of poverty. This session emphasized that it i s ok to have dreams and take steps to make those a reality. Participants drew and then shared with the group some of their own goals and dreams for themselves. It was an incredible experience to hear them share their hearts and what they want out of life. We then discussed how to make those a reality and came up with practical steps to make the dreams that they shared come true. Objectives included: participants having hopes and dreams for the future and participants understanding how to take concrete steps towards making their dreams a reality. Content and Skills Developed The content of the workshops included communication, decision making, critical thinking, and interpersonal and intrapersonal skills. While these skills were never explicitly discussed, the activities and design of the trainings incorporated the development of the skills. For example, critical thinking skills were emphasized throughout the trainings, as participants were given multiple opportunities to think for themselves in activities and discussions. Many participants were used to rote memorization and not thinking for themselves, so this was a skill that needed developing. METHODS In designing and implementing the leadership de velopment training, a variety of methods were utilized. Methods included interviews, participant and direct observation, surveys, curriculum development and evaluation, and leadership trainings. This section also discusses the selection of participants and challenges that occurred in the application of the methods.

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17 Selection of Participants The recruitment and selection of participants was very informal. Participants were selected by a st aff member Liji, who oversees the stitching center. She identifie d girls who were current leaders at the stitching center or who had strong leadership potential. However, if there were girls or young women around the center when the training was occurring, they were welcomed to participate. In effect, the training was o pen to any one at the stitching center. There were 13 girls, ages ranging from 15 to 26, who attended every training, and 21 overall who attended from one to three sessions. Methods Utilized Interviews (semi structured and conversations) Upon arrival in India, I spent the first four and a half weeks observing and conducting interviews. I spoke with different staff members in Goa about topics that should be taught. We spoke about the needs of the girls and which topics would be most benefic ial. These conversations were invaluable in finalizing the curriculum. As a result of these talks, as well as some observations, topics that I had initially included in the trainings were substituted with other, more appropriate, topics. For example, I had initially planned on teaching classes on communication and critical thinking, but replaced those with full sessions on self esteem and body image when I noticed that girls would talk negatively about their bodies and struggled a little with self confidenc e. Participant and Direct Observation I observed the girls at the stitching center to gain an understanding of how they functioned and related to each other. I sought to directly observe any interactions, conversations, or behaviors that signaled underl ying issues with self esteem and leadership. During my eleven weeks, I was able to see what their lives were like and how they interacted. I was able to spend holidays with them, visit their homes, and share meals. I also had them teach me how to make prod ucts and helped with some of the production. This helped to show them that I was interested in them and that I did care. All of these interactions influenced the trainings. Observation was also helpful in gaining the trust of the girls I would teach. I did not begin the trainings until after four

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18 and a half weeks of being in country. I knew going into the practicum, the importance of establishing trust among the girls I would teach, but I did not realize how important that really was. The girls were the lea st receptive of any of the other girls or women's groups that Rahab's Rope works with in Goa. The girls at the stitching center were accustomed to people coming and going, many for just a few days, and are not the most receptive towards outsiders. As such, it was necessary to simply be a consistent presence and gain their trust before teaching. Establishing a connection took time, but I do not think the trainings would have been as effective without it. It enabled me to be able to share personal stories and have them open up during discussion and activities. Building relationships with the girls as a result of direct observation and spending time together is the most meaningful aspect of this practicum to me, and I am incredibly thankful for the opportunity to spend such an intentional amount of time with them. Observation played a crucial role in developing the training and establishing trust, but it also helped me to see how this training would work in other contexts and with other groups of girls. I was able to observe three other life skills groups, two with girls and one with women, in Goa. I was also able to go to Mumbai and visit the brothel area and the children's home where Rahab's Rope works. While observing, I would take some notes, but the majori ty of recording was done at home later that day. Surveys Two surveys, a pre and post assessment and a course evaluation were developed to measure the effectiveness of the leadership development trainings. Both surveys can be found in the Appendix. The p re and post assessments were administered during the first class and the last class. These assessments allowed participants to rank their feelings and beliefs on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 being low, 5 being high) on several different statements related to le adership and life skills. Statements included, "I can recognize my unique gifts and abilities," "I can work as a group member," "I am confident in myself overall," and "I can see things objectively." The course evaluation included six statements related to the structure of the training that participants ranked on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 being low, 5 being high). It also included ten open ended questions where participants could provide feedback. These questions

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19 included, "What did you like the most about the classes?" "What are some things that you learned?", and "How will you use this new knowledge in the future?" The surveys were all in English. Participants indicated their responses directly on a printed survey. A translator was used to translate the sur vey to the girls who could not read and/or speak English. Each girl was assigned a code, and all of their responses to the surveys were recorded into Excel worksheets, with each girl having a separate sheet. This made it easy to see all of a girl's answers to the surveys and compare pre assessment responses with post assessment responses. Curriculum Development and Evaluation The curriculum was developed through research into other leadership development training programs and modules some of which were applied and used in India A literature review was also performed to understand context and best practices in general for leadership training and specifically on effectively using it in India ( Adolescent Girls Initiative, 2015; Care, 2009; Green Atchley, 2014 ; Population Council, 2010) Using these methods, a curriculum was developed. Also, using the surveys mentioned above, evaluation of the curriculum and the trainings were conducted. The training was developed using Kolb's experiential learning cycle, a theory about how people learn. The Kolb method illustrates that effective learning takes place when a person moves through a cycle of four s tages, as seen below in Figure 4 Additionally, these four stages represent four different learning styles. Concre te experience is representative of feeling, reflective observation is watching, abstract conceptualization is thinking, and active experimentation is doing. Since people learn differently, it is important to include experiences that touch on the different learning styles (McLeod, 2013). The leadership training was designed in a way that facilitates these four stages and how people learn.

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20 Figure 5. Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/learning kolb.html The training also incorporated the three aspects of learning: cognitive, affective, psychomotor. According to Kurt Lewin, little substantive learning occurs without incorporating some part of all three aspects. Therefore, each training included cognitive ( thinking), affective (feeling), and psychomotor (kinesthetic/acting) activities (Vella, 2002). Taking into account that leadership programs for girls are most successful when they include structured activities for self reflection and discovery while also p roviding them with opportunities for acts of leadership, the workshops were created in such a way to ensure this and include those elements ( CARE, 2009). Having a safe space in which to foster leadership development is critical, especially for girls and this is something that was important to the trainings A safe, open environment helps girls have a place where they can share ideas and learn from each other. In a culture where propensity for leadership has been defined by social roles, it is important to have a safe place where girls can begin to see themselves as

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21 leaders and break these critical barriers. A safe environment where girls are able to speak freely and openly will also help girls gain confidence, recognize their individuality, and find their own voice (CARE, 2009). Building relationships with the girls before the training started, being open about my own story, and having fun all helped to create a safe, open environment for the leadership training. Leadership Training There were six sessions overall, held once a week for about an hour and 15 minutes. Due to the girls' schedules, it was decided to have the sessions once a week. Each session included discussion, activities, and some form of mini lecture. Every component o f each session intentionally connected to the topic being discussed that day. Discussion time and activities were opportunities for the girls to practice critical thinking a skill not emphasized in the compulsory education system. The group activities allo wed the girls to apply what they were learning and connect more to the topic. Girls were also regularly provided space to practice communication skills and work with others in each session. The sessions started with a review of what we had learned in the previous weeks. Then, we typically had an icebreaker or activity that would set up what we would learn that session. After the opening activity, I would explain what we were learning and the importance of it. We would then have a few more activities relate d to the topic. After each activity, we would discuss what we had just done and what it teaches us about the topic. I would ask the girls questions and challenge them to think critically. We would conclude each training with a wrap up of what we learned an d what we would talk about next week. The sessions were very participatory, both in the discussions and the activities. While it took a little bit of time for the girls to get used to the format, as participatory activities are not the norm in their lives or education, they all enjoyed the activities and how fun it made learning.

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22 Challenges and Problems Overall, the application of the methods went very well, despite some initial challenges. Liji is very protective of the girls and I was intimidated by her at first. However, the intimidation quickly subsided, and Liji was very helpful throughout the leadership training and the training would not have happened without her support and assistance Due to the schedules of the girls, I had to reduce the conte n t and time of the trainings I had originally planned. The actual trainings were a lot of fun, and I really enjoyed my time with the girls. While I had to adjust some of the topic sessions as discussed earlier and constantly had to be aware of the signals the girls were giving off and how they were responding during the trainings, the sessions went as well as I could have hoped. For example, if girls were losing interest, I would adjust the delivery or move on to the next activity. The girls had positive e xperiences, as shown in conversations with them and in the course evaluations, and I was able to learn a lot from them as well. Establishing connection and trust was a large challenge initially. As mentioned before, the girls at the stitching center are n ot receptive or trusting of outsiders. Initially, I would just sit and talk with the girls to have them get used to me. This pushed back the start of the training, as I felt it was very important to firmly establish trust before teaching. I was worried th at I would not be able to connect with them, but slowly they opened up and accepted me. Them accepting me and loving me is still one of the most rewarding experiences I have ever been a part of, and even though gaining their trust was very difficult, it ma de the trainings more effective as they knew that I cared about them and they valued what I said more. Another challenge was the time of year that this training occurred. Initially, I was there during the hottest time of the year. Schools were also on brea k until the second week of June, so many girls were out of town my first few weeks in India. When I started the trainings, there were some girls who attended that I was unable to bond with ahead of time because they had been out of town. Nevertheless, it e nded up working out, and I formed connections with them as well, but it took some time to connect with them. Additionally, the second half of my time in India was the monsoon season. The rain was disruptive and people would not want to leave their homes. I believe the time of year

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23 was part of the reason I had a lower than anticipated turnout. I was initially told that there would be around 35 girls that I would work with, and I only had 13 who went through all the trainings. It took a little bit of time for the girls to get used to this style of teaching. Participatory activities and discussion are not common in the Goan education system. They really enjoyed the activities, and for many that was their favorite part. It was also tough at first to get them to talk and answer questions I would ask. The curriculum was designed in a way to promote critical thinking and individual inquiry, two things that are not pushed in school in Goa. In India, the pedagogical focus leans more towards rote memorization than in d epth comprehension and independent thinking. It was encouraging to see their growth in this area, and by the end girls would eagerly respond to questions posed to them When there was a larger group, teaching was a little more difficult. It was easier for the girls to get distracted by others. It was usually fairly easy to get their attention back, but this was always harder when there were more than 13 girls in the room. Certain girls were more distracting than others, and one girl would sometimes bring he r baby, which added to the difficulties of keeping the girls focused. One of the biggest challenges was obviously the language barrier. This had the largest impact on the trainings and the surveys. Half of the girls knew English, and half did not. Administering the pre assessment took a little longer than initially planned at the beginning and cut into the teaching of the first training session. Girls were not used to taking surveys and translating took quite some time. By the time we administered t he post assessment, the girls understood what to do and it went very smoothly. The language barrier was also difficult during the trainings. I had two women serve as translators. One was amazing, and always did a great job engaging the girls. The other tra nslator sometimes was not very energetic and would simply translate without much feeling leading to girls being distracted and having side conversations. Having a translator who is energetic and passionate helped to keep the girls engaged throughout the s ession.

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24 ANALYSIS Responses to pre and post assessments and course evaluation surveys were recorded and analyzed in Excel. Questions in the surveys were assigned to different overarching themes, touching on the specific topics of the workshops and the o verall objectives of what we hoped the girls would gain from the trainings. These themes include leadership skills, self esteem and body image, working with others, and having dreams and hope for the future. The answers to open ended responses were also th ematically coded. The themes were given different colors, and every question and open ended response touching on a certain theme were highlighted in the corresponding color. This made it easy to detect any trends or changes among both the qualitative and q uantitative data. In addition to coding the questions to corresponding themes, the pre and post assessment outcomes were compared side by side to determine any differences and changes in the girls' beliefs and skills. This was done both for each partici pant, to see individual changes, and for each question, to determine the overall change among the participants in relation to a specific topic or skill. Through this analysis, the means for the responses for the pre and post assessment were determined. Each participant had a mean pre assessment overall score and a mean post assessment overall score; each question had a mean pre assessment response for the pre assessment and a mean post assessment response. The change in mean was then determined, allowing us to see the change in each participant and also the change in a skill or belief the corresponding question addressed. For the questions in the course evaluation survey that had the participants rank statements related to the effectiveness of the cours e, the participants' responses were recorded in Excel The mean response for each question was then determined. This allowed us to gauge how the participants felt about the trainings and any weaknesses they might have had. Participant observation and info rmal conversations with the participants over the course of the summer were also analyzed. These observations and conversations were recorded in a journal each day, allowing me to look back and notice any trends that occurred. These were used to gain a dee per understanding of participants and their

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25 leadership skills and self esteem. Behaviors and things that were said were recorded and analyzed to see if they corresponded to any changes related to leadership and self esteem. RESULTS Overall, positive r esults were forthcoming from both the pre and post assessment surveys and the course evaluation surveys. The results section discusses the actual trainings and feedback on them, the effectiveness of sessions, and what the girls learned. These results are broken down by theme and course evaluation below. Additional graphs and tables are included in the Appendix. In the pre and post assessments and the course evaluation, participants were asked to rate different aspects and beliefs on a scale of 1 to 5, w ith 1 being strongly disagree and 5 being strongly agree. A rating of 1 2 (strongly disagree, disagree) is noted as a negative response, a 3 rating is neutral, and 4 5 (agree, stron gly agree) rating is positive. There were 11 respondents who answered both the pre and post assessments.

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26 Leadership Graph 1. Means of Responses to Leadership Related Questions N=11 Graph 1 shows the average response s to leadership related questions on the pre and post assessments. There is a positive change for all questions. In addition to the data collected in the pre and post assessments, the course evaluations also show that participants' leadership skills inc reased. When participants were asked if they felt as though their leadership skills had improved, on a scale of 1 to 5, the average response was 4.5. This shows that the girls also believed that their own skills had increased as a result of the training.

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27 Working with Others Graph 2. Means of Responses to Leadership Related Questions N=11 Graph 2 shows the mean responses to the pre and post assessment questions related to working with others. Many of these questions could also be assigned to the leadership theme. Only one of the questions show s a negative trend.

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28 Self esteem and Body Image Graph 3. Means of Responses to Self Esteem Related Questions N=11 The above graph shows the responses related to self esteem and body image. Only one question had a negative change, showing an overall positive change in the participants' attitudes and beliefs towards self esteem and body image. In addition to the quantitative data, I noticed that participants felt more comfortable w ith opening up and sharing as the training progressed, also demonstrating an increase in participants' confidence in themselves and self esteem. Graph 4 elaborates on this, showing the participants' pre and post assessment responses to "I Am Confident in Myself Overall." A majority of participants initially responded with a neutral rating and no participants responded with strongly agree in the pre assessment. The post assessment responses shows a significant change, with the amount of neutral ratings dec reasing and the number of strongly agree ratings increasing.

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29 Graph 4. Shows responses to the question "I Am Confident in Myself Overall" N=11

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30 Goals and Dreams for the Future Graph 5. Means of Responses to Dreams and Goals Related Questions N=11 One of the largest changes in means among the pre and post assessment responses was for the question "I have dreams for my future." As the training progressed, participants started expressing more hope about their futures. With ma ny of these girls being told that they do not have much worth, the increase in the participants having dreams for their future is significant. It signifies hope and that these girls believe that they matter. Course Evaluation Responses to the course evaluation were overall positive. All the responses to the course evaluation can be found in the Appendix. For the questions where participants ranked their feelings on the course evaluation, participants mostly gave

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31 scores of 4s an d 5s, which are positive scores. Table 1 shows the responses to these questions. As discussed, answers were positive and the mean answer for each questions ranged from 4.42 to 4.75. Participants responded most favorably to the question, "The content of the training was beneficial, with an average score of 4.75. The positive responses also show the effectiveness of the training. Evaluations of Leadership Training Table 1. Shows the number of responses and the average response to questions related to dif ferent aspects of the leadership trai nings in the course evaluation, N=12 Participants believed that the knowledge from the training was beneficial and useful. When asked how they would use the skills acquired and learned in the training, six participants said they would use this new knowledge in future leadership roles. Three said they would use it in a similar way in working with others. While participants discovered and applied many insights and skills because of the training, four of the most common re sponses that received either an "Agree" or "Strongly Agree" were helping others, leadership, working in a group, and not making fun of others. Overall, the data collected show that participants' leadership and related skills increased. One participant even stated, "I have changed as a result of the training." Participants also believe the knowledge acquired is beneficial and applicable to other areas of their lives. Limitations When discussing results, it is important to highlight the limitations of the data as well. The main limitation is the accuracy of the data collected from the surveys,

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32 particularly the pre and post assessment surveys. Participants were not used to taking surveys, which could affect how they responded. Additionally, participants were more timid at the beginning and not aware of content of the program. They might not have fully understood what some of the questions were asking, and answers might be more repr esentative during the post assessment because they had greater understanding. There also might have been a "desirability bias" on the part of the respondents who wanted to show that they had actually obtained new skills or beliefs in line with the desired outcomes. Participants may have also thought that they had new skills or beliefs but might not actually demonstrate them and use the learned skills in their daily lives. Due to these reasons, answers to the pre assessment could have been inflated or not tr uly reflective of the participants' beliefs or skills. CONCLUSIONS After assessing the results I would recommend that Rahab's Rope continues implementing this type of training in other locations in Goa and in India. In addition to implementing leadership development training among other groups, I would also suggest more follow up with the girls who participated in this leadership training to ensure that the skills learned and positive change is sustained. It would also be beneficial to have further leader ship training, as only so much can be taught in six workshops. I would also recommend similar organizations to invest in youth leadership programs. Overall, governments, schools, and organizations need to strengthen youth programs and invest in leadership training. Leadership training makes a positive impact in the lives of young people. More research should be carried out to explore if l eadership development can be an effective strategy to reduce sex trafficking or even be helpful to those who have come o ut of the sex trade A significant percentage of India's popula tion is victims of trafficking, and it is important to establish effective initiatives that promote social inclusion and empower youth, the future leaders. As mentioned earlier, effective anti trafficking initiatives include participatory activities, challenge beliefs about gender norms, empower youth, and promote community leadership (Samarasinghe & Burton, 2007 ). Leadership development training could be pursued by organizations looking to

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33 combat trafficking. Many anti trafficking initiatives focus on providing vocational skills. However, you canno t jus t give people vocational skills, you also need to address some of the underlying issues like self esteem and gender norms. Leadership progra ms can address these issues. Many women and youth who are trafficked have beliefs of worthlessness, and this can drive trafficking. It is important to combat these thought pattern s and unhealthy belief systems. Leadership training could play a role in this and it is important to study this further. As a result of this work, there are several recommendations and best practices I have for practitioners, schools, organizations, and other individuals looking to implement similar programs. These recommendation s and best practices include: A group of 12 or less is ideal. Some weeks there would be a larger number of participants; during these sessions the girls were more distracted. If translation is necessary, secure the services of a translator who is energetic Having a good translator can make a huge difference in keeping participants involved and actively engaged. Constantly adapt the curriculum as needed. You need to be aware of how the participants are responding. While teaching, things will not always go as planned and you need to be flexible and pick up on signals that the participants are sending you. Be aware of the time of year. You might not be able to accomplish as much as you had hoped due to the school schedule or season. It is very important to establish trust with the group you are teaching. In this case, it took a few weeks before I felt like I had con nected with the girls enough to teach them. You need to show that you care. It depends on the context and the group you are working with. Some groups are very open and receptive; the group at the stitching center was a little more closed off than other lif e skills groups in Goa. Take the time to learn and observe before you start teaching Having a safe place where participants feel comfortable opening up and sharing is critical. As a facilitator, it is important to create a safe and welcoming environment. Context is key. Curriculum and structure depend on the group you are working with. Curriculum and program structure will also need to be adapted as the participants

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34 change if it is a long term initiative. Youth are constantly changing, and the program need s to reflect that. Involve participants in structuring the format of the trainings and/ or the topics covered. If participants are involved in the creation process, they will have a greater stake in it s success Everyone has different learning styles, and it is important to acknowledge that when creating curriculum and any program in general. Create c urriculum that incorporates different learning styles. The most effective length for workshops I found was between 50 minutes and one hour and 15 minutes. Any shorter and there is really no point. Any longer and the participants lose focus and interest. Participants might not be used to this kind of training. In Goa, participatory activities are rarely used and rote memorization is standard instead of thinking on your own. Participants were not used to workshops that included discussion and activities, and it took them a little bit of time to feel fully comfortable. Reflection on Experience with Host Organization Some of what I learned the most from my practicu m was related not to what I did but to my experience with my host organization. While I am incredibly thankful for my ti me in Goa, there were weaknesses I noticed and struggles I had to deal with throughout the summer. Even though there were some struggles that were not tied to my host organization (like one of the slum s that I was going to lead trainings in being demolished the day before I was set to begin), there were others that correlated with how the organization functioned. As an outsider, I had a un ique perspective on how Rahab's Rope was structured, and during my time, I noticed several issues that limited their effectiveness. One of the major issues I noticed was the gap in perception between the U.S. staff and those working in Goa. As I received my training and orientation from U.S. staff members, I was surprised and caught off guard when I arrived in Goa a nd saw the local realities were very different from the "rosy picture" the U.S. staff had p ainted. Some p rograms were not running well or as intended However, when U.S. staff visited, the

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35 Goan staff put on a show and execute d the programs flawlessly. There were little, if any, systems of monitoring and evaluation to actually track the effectiveness of initiatives. A lot of the gap in pe rception was due to headquarters d epending on young American volunteers for updates on how programs were running. There was not a staff member who oversaw and coordinated the work in Goa; all the staff partners worked on their own. There was very little st ructure in place. As such, there was very little unity, and the U.S. office rarely had the full picture of what was happening on the ground. Along the lines of lack of unity, the Goan staff did not get along and openly talked badly about each other and other volunteers. Staff also competed with each other for funds and volunteers. One of the U.S. staff in leadership said that Goa was structured in a way that it did not matter if the local staff got along. However, I believe t hat this lack of unity was h indering the organization from reaching its full potential. Additionally, s pending a summer in an environment with little unity was exhausting, and I had to be careful of what I said or did due to the fact that I could not really trust any of the staff Staff care was a major challenge my host organization faced. Staff were often jaded and burned out, lacking motivation for their work. This showed in how they ran the programs and interacted with the participants of those programs. For many international non governmental organizations headquarters does not do a good job of supporting staff in the field, and this was true in Goa (O'Sullivan, 2010). One staff member talked about how hard it was to schedule a time to talk with the necessary staff in the Unit ed States. Even when staff from the U.S. do visit India, the local staff have maybe only a few hours with them. Communication was a huge issue as well and there were numerous instances of communication gaps. It is very difficult to communicate across borders and time zones, and this proved to be true in Goa. Some of these communication issues, I believe, were due to the dependence on young American volunteers, as I mentioned earlier. Important information from t he United States is not always communicated to people on the ground. For instance, the U.S. staff never informed the Goan staff what I would be doing for the summer which made things a little challenging for me initially There were many times in the summ er when we tried to talk to headquarters staff and the video would not work or the internet connection was not strong enough.

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36 As a result of spending a summer working closely with this organization, there are a few recommendations that I have to increase the effectiveness of their work Rahab's Rope is headquartered in the United States and has operations in a few locations in India. As such, managing a multi site operation can be very challenging, especially when the efforts are across borders, and it is important to have proper structure in place to do so I think it would be beneficial for Rahab's Rope to have a director in Goa, or someone who oversees and coordinates all the programs and staff. While it may be difficult to pull staff who do not get alo ng under one person, it would be help ful in coordinating the efforts and hopefully strives could be made towards unity. This would also eliminate the need for the U.S. staff to depend so h eavily on American volunteers to know how things are running. Above all, it is critical to create common ground and a shared vision among the multi sites (Morelli, 2011). Often for international nonprofits headquarters staff and field staff have different visions. It is important to continually build trust and ensure miss ion cohesion. The central office and the field offices must believe that they are on the same team and focus on unity. Additionally, unity needs to be stressed among the staff in each location. As discussed, t here was very little, if any, unity among the s taff in Goa, hindering their potential. More should be done to build trust and create common ground. Sharing common purposes and values in the work among various offices empowers everyone to be more patient and confident when internal conflicts arise (Fore man, 1999). Investing in areas like conflict management to help maintain harmony and connectedness among staff is also important In order to combat the challenges that come along with managing international staff and the hard nature of the work these staf f do, it is crucial that Rahab's Rope has a strong human resource division. As field staff are often overwhelmed and overburdened, Rahab's Rope could look into offering incentives for seasoned staff. Staff turnover and burnout is very prevalent among inter national nonprofits, and by having strong support in place for staff members, Rahab's Rope could work towards reducing challenges in this area (Salamon, 2012). Good communication is also necessary in working towards preventing the gap in perception that ex ists between headquarters and Goa. Establishing trust is essential to ensure open and honest communication. U.S. based staff also need to be more accessible to

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37 staff on the ground. This would help to increase open communication as field staff would feel li ke they have someone they can easily turn to for support and advocate for them (Foreman, 1999). Finally, I believe that Rahab's Rope should improve their volunteer training and be open and honest about some issues volunteers may face or how things are runn ing. Despite some of the challenges I faced, as I mentioned earlier, I am grateful for my time in Goa and am thankful for the amount I learned, both related to my prac ticum project and to running an international nonprofit organization. Concluding Thought s "Other people need to learn this." This was one of the participant's responses on the Course Evaluation and a statement that I believe illustrates the importance of leadership development programs. In the age of sustainable development, youth leadership tr aining is a practical and effective way to reach young people. Sustainable development lies in the hands of the youth, the future leaders. We cannot tell youth they are significant without giving them a chance to be significant; leadership development give s youth the skills needed to make lasting change. With 356 million people aged 10 24, India has the world's largest and one of the fastest growing youth populations (UNFPA, 2014). For a country rife with sustainable development problems, the burden can seem overwhelming. While we cannot tackle all of these problems, we can develop leaders who can create a ripple effect on others and transform their communities. Realizing these gains rests on realizing the full potential of the youth population, and full potential is dependent upon the youth population's "preparation for and participation in development efforts" (p. 1). Therefore, it is critical to invest in the youth population now especially those that would otherwise be overlooked. Not everyone works i n India, but these principles are still true and just as important. India is not going to change from a group of development practitioners; it is going to change from within. Malawi, Brazil, Cambo dia, or even Tanzania will not change as a result of us. Las ting c hange will come from the youth. The future of countrie s is dependent on the youth, just like the girls I worked with in Goa and a lmost nine out of ten youth live in developing countries (UNFPA, 2014) In the development sector, there is a lot of tal k about 2030, particularly in relation to the Sustainable

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38 Development Goals. Someone who is 15 or 16 now will be 30 in 2030. We cannot have sustainable development when a large segment of the population is being overlooked and underserved or even being lo st to trafficking Youth, especially girls, need to be given the skills, education, and resources needed to succeed and create lasting change, as they have the power to propel their communities and countries forward ( Solberg & Godefa, 2015 ). Girls in part icular will have a greater impact if they are taught to be leaders (USAID, 2012). Adolescence is a crucial period in the transition to adulthood, and it is important to provide opportunities to help youth reach their full potential and equip them to create positive change now and as adults (Center for Global Development, 2008). Future leaders need to be empowered to make a difference and help them realize that they are capable of changing their communities. __ I believe in the importance of leadership development training because of the girls I worked with in Goa. I am extremely grateful for the time spent with these girls. I did not expect leaving at the end of the summer to be so difficult, but saying goodbye to the girls was very tough. The last workshop, I had the girls draw some of their dreams for the future, and we talked about ways to make them come true. I loved hearing about their hopes and dreams. From being a teacher to owning a house, to ensuring the ir children get a good education or simply taking a bath in the rain. I know that every single one of these girls is capable of making their dreams come true, and I desperately want that to happen for them. They are beautiful, talented, funny, strong, clev er, and loving, despite their tough exteriors sometimes or their hard lives. They are worth so much. We came a long way since the beginning of the summer and it was very challenging to establish a connection at first, but they accepted this "poggle" (crazy in Hindi) American, and their acceptance did, and still does, mean the world to me. I wish I had more time with the girls. There are so many things I want to teach them and have them teach me, but I am thankful for the time I did get to have with them and for the lasting impact these girls had on my life.

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39 REFERENCES Adolescent Girls Initiative. (2015). Resource guide. Retrieved from https://www.s4ye.org/agi/index.html Anzalone, C. (2010). Experience rescuing teenagers caught in sex trafficking motivate s student's research. Retrieved from http://www.buffalo.edu/news/releases/2010/11/11966.html Arz. (2010). Combating human trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation: alternative livelihood option. Retrieved from http://www.arzindia.org/docs/sw_change.pdf CARE. (2009). The power to lead: A leadership model for adolescent girls. Retrieved from http://www.care.org/sites/default/files/documents/GE 2009 PW_Leadership.pdf CARE. (2012). Girls leadership development in action: CARE s experience from the field. Cavale, J., & Singh, D. C. (2014). Current status of body image research in India. Indian Journal of Psychological Science, 5 (1), 124 131. Census of India. (2001). Religion. Retrieved from http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_And_You/religion.aspx Census of India. (2011). Goa Profile. Retrieved from http://censusindia.gov.in/2011census/censusinfodashboard/stock/profiles/en/IND03 0_Goa.pdf Center for Global Development. (2008). Girls count: A glob al investment and action agenda. Retrieved from http://www.cgdev.org/files/15154_file_GirlsCount.pdf Central Intelligence Agency. (2015). The world factbook India. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the world factbook/geos/in.html Cra wford,M. & Kaufman, M. R. (2008). Sex trafficking in Nepal: Survivor characteristics and long term outcomes. Violence Against Women, 14 (8), 905 916. Foreman, K. (1999). Evolving global structures and the challenges facing international relief and developm ent organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 28 (4), 178 197.

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40 Go" dziak, E. M. (2008). On challenges, dilemmas, and opportunities in studying trafficked children. Anthropological Quarterly, 81 (4), 903 923. doi:10.1353/anq.0.0033 Green Atchl ey, S. (2014). A girl's eye view: A literature review on girl engagement. Retrieved from http://coalitionforadolescentgirls.org/wp content/uploads/2014/10/A Girls Eye View CAG Literature Review on Girl Engagement.pdf Indira Gandhi National Open University. (2015). Goa at a glance. Retrieved from http://www.ignou.ac.in/upload/GOA%20AT%20A%20GLANCE.pdf Innovations in Civic Participation and Pravah. (2009). Nurturing youth active citizenship in India. Retrieved from http://www.icicp.org/wp content/uploads/2014 /07/Nurturing Youth Active Citizenship in India.pdf Kamat, N. D. (2015). Sex trade sustains parallel economy. Retrieved from http://www.navhindtimes.in/sex trade sustains parallel economy/ Kaufman, M., & Crawford, M. (2011). Sex trafficking in Nepal: A rev iew of intervention and prevention programs. Violence Against Women, 17 (5), 651 665. doi:10.1177/1077801211407431 Maps of India. (2010). Goa economy. Retrieved from http://business.mapsofindia.com/india state/goa economy.html McLeod, S. (2013). Kolb: Lear ning styles. Retrieved from http://www.simplyps ychology.org/learning kolb.html Miller, E., Decker, M. R., Silverman, J. G., & Raj, A. (2007). Migration, sexual exploitation, and women's health: A case report from a community health center. Violence Against Women, 13 (5), 486. Morelli, E. (2011). Communication differences among international nonprofit public relations. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/joursp/32/ O'Sullivan, S. L. (2010). International human resource management challenges in Canadian development INGOs. European Management Journal, 28 (6), 421 440. Okonofua, F. E., Ogbomwan, S. M., Alutu, A. N., Kufre, O., & Eghosa, A. (2004). Knowledge, attitudes and experiences of sex trafficking by young women in Benin City, South South Nigeria. Social Science & Medicine, 59 (6), 1315 1327. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.01.010 Polaris Project. (2015). Human Trafficking. Retrieved from http://www.polarisproject.org /human trafficking/overview

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41 Population Council. (2010). Girl center program design: A toolkit to develop, strengthen, and expand adolescent girls programs. Retrieved from http://www.popcouncil.org/uploads/pdfs/2010PGY_AdolGirlToolkitComplete.pdf Prabhude shai, A. (2013). 2013 Update: Per Capita Income of Various Indian States. Retrieved from http://trak.in/tags/business/2012/03/30/average per capita income indian states/ Rahab's Rope. (2015). Orientation packet: India volunteers. Raymond, J.G., & Hughes, D. M. (2001). Sex trafficking of women in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/sex_traff_us.pdf Redmon, S., & Dolan, P. (2014). Towards a conceptual model of youth leadership development. Child and Family Social Work. Restless Development. (2012). Nurturing leadership in the Global South. Retrieved from http://restlessdevelopment.org/file/resdev youth leadership mapping pdf Roth, J. L., & Brooks Gunn, J. (2003). Youth development programs: Risk, prevention and policy. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2003 (32), 170 182. Salamon, L. M. (Ed.). (2012). The state of nonprofit America. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. Samarasinghe, V., & Burton, B. (2007). Strategizing preventi on: A critical review of local initiatives to prevent female sex trafficking. Development in Practice, 17 (1), 51 64. doi:10.1080/09614520601092378 Schauer, E., &Wheaton, E. (2006) Sex trafficking into the United States: A literature review, Criminal Justice Review 31 (1). Silverman, J. G., Decker, M. R., Gupta, J., Maheshwari, A., Patel, V., & Raj, A. (2006). HIV prevalence and predictors among rescued sex trafficked women and girls in Mumbai, India. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrom es, 43 (5), 588 593. doi:10.1097/01.qai.0000243101.57523.7d Solberg, E., & Godefa, H. (2015). Teach a girl, enrich the world. Retrieved from http://www.ungei.org/news/247_5650.html Times of India. (2013). Tourism boosts human trafficking in Goa. Retrieved from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/goa/Tourism boosts human trafficking in Goa/articleshow/21563733.cms

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42 Times of India. (2014a). Prostitution is dangerous to Goa's image, Bardez deputy collector says. Retrieved from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/goa/Prostitution is dangerous to Goas image Bardez deputy collector says/articleshow/30238345.cms Times of India. (2014b). Women from 18 states trafficked to Goa: Arz NGO. Retrieved from http://timesofindia.indiatime s.com/city/goa/Women from 18 states trafficked to Goa Arz NGO/articleshow/32695949.cms Tsutsumi, A., Izutsu, T., Poudyal, A. K., Kato, S., & Marui, E. (2008). Mental health of female survivors of human trafficking in Nepal. Social Science & Medicine, 66 (8) 1841 1847. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.12.025 United Nations Development Report. (2014). Explanatory note on the 2014 human development composite indices: India. UNFPA. (2014). The power of 1.8 billion: Adolescents, youth, and the transformation of th e future. Retrieved from http://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub pdf/EN SWOP14 Report_FINAL web.pdf USAID. (2012). Youth in development: Recognizing the demographic opportunities. U.S. Department of State. (2014). Trafficking in persons report. U.S Department of State. (2014). The economics of forced labor. Van Hook, M. P., Gjermeni, E., & Haxhiymeri, E. (2006). Sexual trafficking of women: Tragic proportions and attempted solutions in Albania. International Social Work, 49 (1), 29 40. Doi:10.1177/ 0020872806057086 Vella, J. (2002). Learning to listen, learning to teach. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Wilkins, B. (2013). Tourists fuel surge in Goa sex trafficking. Retrieved from http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/355817 World Bank. (2007). World Bank development report: Development and the next generation.

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43 APPENDIX 1 Rahab's Rope Leadership Development Training Pre and Post Survey Directions: For each of the leadership skills listed below, rate your ability to perform each skills by circling the number that corresponds with the answer at the top of the columns. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongl y Agree I can recognize my unique gifts and abilities 1 2 3 4 5 I can organize information 1 2 3 4 5 I can accept others for who they are 1 2 3 4 5 I can accept myself for who I am 1 2 3 4 5 I can work as a team member 1 2 3 4 5 I can speak in front of a group 1 2 3 4 5 I can see things objectively 1 2 3 4 5 I can share new ideas with others 1 2 3 4 5 I can teach others 1 2 3 4 5 I can meet with others 1 2 3 4 5 I am confident in helping others 1 2 3 4 5

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44 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I am confident in myself overall 1 2 3 4 5 I feel comfortable presenting myself to a group 1 2 3 4 5 I can listen empathically (seek first to understand, then to be understood) 1 2 3 4 5 I can listen without judgment, even to those I may not like or with whom I disagree 1 2 3 4 5 I am comfortable working with others 1 2 3 4 5 I can engage people in dialogue and help them remain motivated 1 2 3 4 5 I can recognize my strengths and weaknesses 1 2 3 4 5 I can recognize other people's strengths and ask them for help 1 2 3 4 5 I am confident in my abilities 1 2 3 4 5 I have dreams for my future 1 2 3 4 5 I can reflect critically on my experiences and learn from them 1 2 3 4 5 ! !

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45 APPENDIX 2 Rahab's Rope Leadership Development Training Course Evaluation Please take a moment to complete this evaluation. Your feedback is invaluable and will be used to improve the curriculum and future trainings. 1. Rate your level of agreement with the following sta tements regarding the leadership development training: (Rate your knowledge by circling the number that corresponds with the answer at the top of the columns) Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Everyone had an equal opportunity to share 1 2 3 4 5 Critical thinking was encouraged 1 2 3 4 5 The content of the training was beneficial 1 2 3 4 5 The skills learned are applicable 1 2 3 4 5 I learned more about my strengths and weaknesses 1 2 3 4 5 My leadership skills have improved 1 2 3 4 5 2. Is there anything that was not taught or discussed that you wish had been covered? 3. What did you like the most about the classes? 4. What did you like the least about the classes?

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46 5. What are some things that you learned? 6. How will you use this new knowledge in the future? 7. Was your interest held during the training? 8. What was the most valuable thing you learned from the training? 9. Is there anything you would change about the training? 10. Please write any suggestions you may have for improvement: 11. Additional feedback:

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47 APPENDIX 3 Course Evaluation Responses 12 out of the 13 participants who attended every week responded

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51 APPENDIX 4 Quantitative Results Pre Assessment Mean, Post Assessment Mean, and Change in Mean per Question N=11

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53 APPENDIX 5 Class 1: Introduction to Leadership Objectives: Participants will be able to define leadership Participants will develop their personal meaning of leadership Participants will understand that leadership is a process and leadership can be developed Participants will recognize skills and attributes leaders possess Participants will identify leadership traits Materials: Flip Chart, Markers, Obstacles, ____________ __________________________________________________________ Welcome Time: 5 Minutes Welcome the participants and introduce yourself briefly. Say that we are going to start the session with an activity. Icebreaker Activity: Car and Driver Time: 20 Minutes Purpose: To explore the emotional implications of leading and following Materials: One facilitator, an enclosed space for participants to walk around, obstacles set up around space, flip chart, paper and markers Preparation: To make the exercise more challenging you can scatter obstacles like chairs and tables throughout the space. Activity Overview: Participants are paired off and assigned the role of car or driver. The car must keep her eyes closed and follow the instructions of the driver who stays behind her giving instructions silently with a set of touch signals. It is the driver s responsibility to protect the car from collisions. Group discussions after the game explore the emotional implications of leading and blindly following. Instructions f or Facilitator: Randomly divide group into pairs, and ask them to stand with their partner. For a more challenging exercise put women who do not know each other well together. Assign one participant from each pair to be the car. The other woman will be the driver. Explain that the role of the car is to keep her eyes closed and follow the driver s instructions. Explain that the role of the driver is to keep her eyes opened and protect the car from collisions. Tell participants that talking is not a llowed, and drivers will communicate to cars with the following touch signals: a. Touch on the middle of the back means walk. b. Subsequent touches on the middle of the back mean walk faster. c. Touch on right shoulder means turn right. d. Touch on left s houlder means turn left. e. Touch on head means stop. Please note that cars should be touched gently. Make sure everyone understands their roles, and the signals, then start the exercise.

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54 After one or two minutes stop the exercise and have each pair sw itch roles. Cars become drivers and vice versa. Stop the second round after one or two minutes and have the group return to their seats. Lead a discussion on the activity, asking the following questions: How did it feel being a car? How did it feel being a driver? Which did you prefer? Why? What were some of the challenges of being the car? What were some of the challenges of being the driver? What did you enjoy most about each role? What did this exercise teach you about leadership? What does it mean to be an effective leader? Is there any value in following? Does following have a role in leadership? If yes, what role? Introduction to the Sessions Time: 5 Minutes Introduce yourself again and why leadership is important to you. Say: This course will be about leadership. We will go through a different topic each week to help you become better leaders, not only in positions of leadership but in your everyday lives as well. This is important and can be used in your family, at school, at work, selling products or in your business, and in your friendships with others. The skills that you will learn in the coming weeks are things that are useful all the time. They will help you understand yourself and how to work with others better. The disc ussion and activities might be a little different from what you are used to. But that s ok! We ll work together and learn together. Define leadership: "Leadership refers to those individuals or organizations that perform one or more acts of leading: the a bility to affect human behavior to accomplish a mission and influence people to move toward a goal achievement." The important thing to know is that leadership is a process. Skills can be developed. And that s what we ll be doing in the classes! Establish Group Norms (Optional) Time: 5 to 10 minutes Purpose: To create a set of norms or rules that will help the group maximize its time together To build a safe environment for effective learning teamwork Materials: Flip chart, markers Say: It is important to set a tone right away indicating that everyone in the group is valued and promoting teamwork. One way to do this is to establish group norms, also called ground rules. So "What are the ground rules we can all agree on for our time together?" Instructions for Facilitator: Provide examples of norms no interrupting, we will be

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55 honest with each other, all discussions remain confidential, respect each other s differences. Participants will say responses out loud and they will be recorded on the flip chart. Wr ite "our rules" on the top of flip chart. After norms are all written, ask, "Can we agree on these ground rules?" If any ideas are not agreed on, discuss them until the group reaches agreement or decides to eliminate one or more of the ideas. You can refe r to the norms as needed if the group slips into behaviors that do not support effective teamwork. Members are more likely to follow rules that they have created together. Post these norms at each workshop Hopes and Concerns (Optional) Time: 10 15 minutes Materials: Flip chart, markers Instructions for Facilitator: Break into small groups. Give each group two papers: one paper hopes and one paper concerns. Have them brainstorm what they would like to achieve by the end of the workshops for Hopes ". Brainstorm about questions or concerns about the sessions or how they will be structured for "Concerns." Introduction to Leadership Discussion Time: 15 minutes Say: Think of someone who you think is a leader. What is it that makes them a leaderGive the girls 2 minutes to think about someone they think is a leader. Does anyone have an example they would like to share? Then ask the following questions: What does it mean to be a leader? What does a leader do? Look like? Sound like? What are the characterist ics of a leader? Facilitate a discussion about the many leadership definitions the participants have created. Stress: There is not one definition of leadership; rather there exists many meanings of what leadership is. Leadership often has different mean ings and characteristics based on the individual leader and the leaders situations Anyone can be a leader. You don t need to be a boss or an officer or in charge of other people Discuss the concepts of 3 levels of leadership: individual, group, community Attributes/Qualities of a Leader Time: 10 minutes Instructions for Facilitator: In advance, write qualities of a leader on flip chart paper (attributes/qualities can be found on attached handout) Go over the list and talk through some of the qualities. Lead a discussion using the following questions: Which skills do you often associate with being a leader?

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56 Which skills included on the list surprised you? Why had you not considered these to be leadership skills? Do people your age have some of these trait s? Are these traits related to gender? Are people born with these traits or can they develop them? Is it important that every leader has all these traits to be a successful leader? Are there any that describe you? Alternative: Also provide a printed copy of the handout of attributes/qualities of a leader. Ask youth to work with a partner and circle characteristics on the list that they often associate with being a leader and square characteristics they were surprise d were on the list. Closing Activity Time: 5 minutes Say: Looking back on these qualities, what is one that you would like to develop or strengthen? If time permits or if girls want to, go around the circle and have the girls say what traits they want to work on. Stress that working to strengthen and developing different skills can be the basis of personal leadership. Wrap up session and say that next week we will put some of these skills to use and practice leading each other.

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! 57 Attributes of a Leader Handout o Ability to see the bigger picture o Active listener o Adaptable o Balance o Building trust o Commitment o Communication o Co mmunity minded o Competitive drive o Confidence o Creative o Cultural Competence o Curiosity o Dedication o Decision Maker o Emotional intelligence (the ability to communicate with others) o Empathy o Enables others to act o Enthusiasm o Ethics o Flexible o High energy level o Honesty o Humble o Influential o Initiative o Inspire a shared vision o Inspiring o Integrity o Interpersonal Skills o Know when to follow o Knowledge of situation o Lead by example o Life long learner o Looking at various solution s to a problem o Motivation o Motivator o Open Minded o Passionate o Patience o Perseverance o Positive example o Prepared o Productive o Problem Solves o Purpose driven o Realistic o Respect o Responsible o Risk taker or the ability to take one s self out of comfort zone o Role Model o Self assessor o Self awareness o Selflessness o Self regulation o Sets the example o Social skills o Supportive o Teamwork o Willpower o Wisdom o Works well with others

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! 58 Class 2: Introduction to Leadership Part 2//Practice Leadership Objectives: Participants will develop their personal meaning of leadership Participants will understand that leadership is a process and leadership can be developed Participants will recognize skills and attributes leaders possess Participants will acquire the skills to lead both individuals and groups Participants will discover their own leadership styles and qualities through hands on experience Materials: Markers, Newspaper, Tape, Scissors, Paper, A rt Supplies ______________________________________________________________________ Welcome and Recap Time: 5 Minutes Welcome the girls. Recap the last session and what was discussed. Go over attributes and qualities of a leader. Remind them that we are a ll and we can all be leaders. Leadership is a process and we can develop our leadership skills over time. Now say that they get a chance to practice leadership and leading each other. Miss Leader Activity Time: 1 hour (but it depends on the size of the g roups) You will need: One facilitator, At least one blank sheet of paper per participant *(It is useful to have some extras), Pens or pencils for all participants, Several old newspapers, Enough art supplies for all participants including scissors, scotch tape, glue, markers or crayons. Optional inclusions could be scraps of cloth, leaves, stones, glitter, etc., Several sweets or other small tokens for prizes, List of challenges (provided) Preparation: Set up an art supplies table with all materials. Acti vity overview: Participants are divided into groups of three to five. Each young woman takes a turn leading the group in a timed challenge, giving her the opportunity to explore her leadership style. Instructions for Facilitator: As this is a long activi ty it is important to keep to the time limits for every part of the activity. Divide participants into teams of equal numbers if possible (three to five note that the more groups you have the longer the activity will be as each person in the group will g et a chance to lead a timed challenge) Hand out supplies to each group Explain to the group that they will be given a series of challenges, and each challenge must be completed in 15 minutes. A different team member will lead each new challenge, and no team member should lead more than one challenge unless everyone

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! 59 else has had a turn. At the end of each challenge the winning teams, i.e. those who complete the challenge in the allotted time, will receive small prizes. Let participants know that at the end of each challenge they will be given 5 minutes to evaluate the team leader for that challenge. The leader should also evaluate herself at this time. Encourage participants to list qualities that made the leadership effective and areas where the leaders hip could have been improved. These notes should be saved for the group discussion to follow the challenges. When everyone understands the instructions tell the groups the first challenge and give them one minute to choose a leader, before you begin timi ng the challenge. All groups do the same challenge simultaneously. The groups who complete the tasks within the allotted timeframe can receive small prizes. At the end of the activity when every participant has had an opportunity to lead her team, bring the group together in a circle to discuss what they learned. Use the following questions to guide discussion: Is there anything you learned about yourself or your leadership style? Was leading ever uncomfortable? What was something you struggled with? W hat was good? Bad? Timed Activities ( Choose from this list or create your own) Build the biggest and most beautiful building. (all teams must be provided with the same materials in the same quantities. Materials can include Bristol board, scissors, tape, markers, and other art supplies.) Create a name for an imaginary country and design its national flag. Team members must be able to explain the significance of each element of the flag 's design. Design and make the national costume of an imaginary c ountry from old newspapers and any available art supplies. One team member must model the costume, and team members must be able to explain the significance of the costume to the imaginary nation. Build a bridge out of old newspapers Choreograph a dan ce and explain what it represents, e.g. rain dance, wedding dance, etc. All team members must participate in the dance. Create a product and a television commercial for it. Wrap Up Time: 5 Minutes Say: Next week we will discuss working with others and how to work in groups, something that is really important in leadership and everyday life.

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! 60 Class 3: Working as a Group Objectives: Participants will better understand how individuals can view the same situation in different ways Gain an understanding of the different perspectives individuals hold Recognize their own perceptions and some ways those are formed Develop an understanding of ways to clearly communicate with others in order to create the most positive experiences possible Develop group decision making skills Recognize strengths and weaknesses they bring to the group Gain an understanding of the personal perceptions and assumptions brought to a group Materials: Pencils, paper, Pictionary cards (or different items people can easily draw) __________ ____________________________________________________________ Introduction Activity Time: 10 15 minutes Instructions: Divide group into small groups of 3 to 7 Instruct the group that they are to come up with one thing the entire group has in common (not so mething like we re all not wearing shoes or we re all breathing). After the groups have a few minutes to think, go around the circle and share answers Then instruct groups to come up with one unique thing for each member Again share answers Lead a discussi on using the following questions: Was this an easy task or difficult? Why is it important to understand commonalities as well as uniqueness? How do commonalities and uniquenessess impact a groups ability to work together? Discuss why is it important to und erstand uniqueness and commonailities: Say: Commonalities and uniquenesses impact our abilities to work with each other. We all are individuals with different talents and abilities. We also have different ways of thinking about things, or perceptions. Thes e different ways of thinking come from our different backgrounds and life experiences. A group of people may be shown the same picture and everyone have different thoughts. You can be asked the same question and have different answers. For example! Diff erent Perceptions Time: 10 minutes Instructions: Note: You can show a picture and ask questions, or choose one or the other. Option 1: Show participants a picture (it can be of anything, just something where the participants can make up a story about what is happening in the picture). Ask them to think about what is happening in this picture. Have youth share after a few minutes. Option 2: Ask the participants a few questions. They can either write down their answers or say them out loud. Your neighbor b ought an expensive car. How much did it cost?

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! 61 Someone calls you with a question and you tell them you will hear from me soon. When will that be? There were too many people standing in line at the store. How many people is that? Your phone broke and the repairman says it will take a while. How long will it take? Discuss: Lead a discussion using the following questions: Were you surprised at the differences or similarities in others perspectives? How did your background/previous life experiences shape your perception of what was happening in the picture? Did listening to others perspectives help you see a different point of view? Say : Our perceptions come from our own personal experiences and background in life. Those perceptions can cause conflict in a group because we use our perceptions to formulate a conclusion. In order to see other people s perceptions, we must acknowledge our own perception first and then gather opposing views of the picture. Our brains are only able to see one picture at a time. We tend to see only our perspectives at first. But until we suspend our conclusion and perception, and listen to others perspectives, we are not able to truly understand others views and move toward a mutual understanding. Because we are all different, we need to respect other people s thoughts. Mutual understanding. Group Decision Making: Arctic Mission Time: 15 minutes Overview: This is an activity to promote group decision making. Depending on the size of the group, you can either keep it as one large group or divide them into smaller groups. Provide the participants with a list of 15 items: flashlight (with batteries), sunglasses for everyone, a rubber raft, 4 wool blankets, book of matches, transistor radio, metal coffee pot, box of cereal, rifl e, 6 chocolate bars, hatchet, map of the area, a pair of skis, 3 pairs of boots, compass. Once the time limit set is up, the group has come to decision, or there is visible frustration among many group members, debrief with the questions below. Say: You a re a group of explorers on an arctic mission. En route to your destination, your plane crashes. You all escape unharmed, however it s 100 miles to safety. The following 15 items have survived the crash you must choose 5 to bring with you on the journey to safety. The decision must be unanimous among your group. Discussion: Was that hard? Easy? What knowledge, strengths or weaknesses were brought to the group? Did anyone go unheard? Why? How did the process work? Was there a specific type of leadership or p erson who took leadership? As a leader how can you facilitate or help a group come to decisions when there are many different opinions? Say: Group decision making can take place through 4 specific ways: Autocratic (decision by authority)

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! 62 Committee (decisio ns made by small groups but not whole group) Democratic (voting) Democratic (consensus) Discuss: What process did we use in this activity to come to a decision? What process do you see most often used to come to a decisions? What process do you feel is most effective? Why? How would you choose which process to use? Pictionary Activity Time: 15 minutes Materials: Paper, pencils, Pictionary cards (or a list of things participants can draw) Instructions for Facilitator: Divide the participants into small groups. Explain that they are going to take turns drawing. One person will draw and the other people on the team will have to guess that they are drawing. The first team to correctly guess will win that round and get a po int. The first team to an established number of points wins. Wrap Up Time: 5 minutes Instructions for Facilitator: Summarize what was learned in class, focusing on how working with others is an important part of life and leadership. We should respect ea ch other s opinions because we are all different, and respecting what other people think is an important part of working as a team. Working as a team is not easy, but we can help others and be respectful of their thoughts and opinions even if we do not nec essarily agree.

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! 63 Class 4: Self Esteem Objectives: Participants will understand how negative feelings expressed by others or self can affect our self esteem and behavior Participants will better understand and gain a sense of self esteem. Helps them to recognize their traits, appreciate their personalities and abilities, and learn how to communicate these to others. To challenge participants to complimenting others and saying positive things Understanding of what self esteem Participants will give and receive positive feedback Participants will build relations among group members through positive interactions and to increase self esteem by receiving compliments from others Enable participants to appreciate themselves ____________________________________ __________________________________ Recap Time: 5 minutes Instructions for Facilitator: Recap the last three classes. Touch on the following: Anyone can be a leader, leadership is a process, and working as a group. We all have different thoughts and perceptions, and we need to respect that with working with others Icebreaker Time: 5 10 minutes Instructions for Facilitator: Take a few minutes to have the girls think about something they are proud of. Then go around the circle having the girls share. Encourage all participants to share their experiences. If a participant says she hasn t done anything to be proud of, the facili tator encourages her not to underestimate even small things, and adds that she will surely find something to be proud of that she can share. Discuss: Intro to self esteem and why it is important Time: 5 minutes Say: Knowing yourself and who you are is i mportant before you can lead others well. You need to be comfortable with yourself. This shows personal leadership. Self esteem is how we view ourselves. If possible, tell your own story or any struggles you have with lack of self esteem. Having positive self esteem is very important with leading. A leader needs to be confident I Like Me Time: 30 minutes Materials: Magazines, scissors, glue, paper

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! 64 Instructions for Facilitator: Have the participants look through the magazines and cut out at least three t hings they like about themselves. Paste those pictures onto a piece of paper to make a collage. When everyone is finished, or at the end of an allotted time, have the girls hold up their collages and share with everyone. Then ask these questions: What did it feel like to share these things? Is it hard to say positive things about yourself in front of others? Now have the girls look at their picture again. Tell them to pretend that one of those things was taken off the paper -that it wasn t there and i t wasn t a trait you had. Ask them how they you feel? (Most people respond with sad). Say: Yes, it s sad. Each one of these things makes you who you are. They all are important. They all make you special. Have the girls hold up all of their pictures agai n and look around at all of them. Say: Are they all the same? No. They re all different. If we all are different, then why do we compare ourselves to others? We should stop comparing ourselves to others. We all have our own strengths. And if there s someth ing that maybe you re not good at, then ask others for help. If you ever feel bad about yourself, look back on this collage and think about these traits that make you special. This can help you remember who you are and what you are capable of, not what others say you are. Wrap Up Time: 5 10 minutes Say: Since it is important, we need to think about the ways we view ourselves. If we think bad things about ourselves, we need to try to change that. So how can we have positive self image? Be friends with supportive people. Vi ew mistakes as learning opportunities. Don t compare yourself with others. Set realistic expectations I am going to assign you a task for this week. I want you to compliment at least two other people this week. As girls, we often compare ourselves to each other. We can be really mean. But you guys are a group and you should compliment each other (You might need to give examples of compliments and explain what this means). Alternative: Put names on piece of paper. Have girls go around a write positive thin gs about each other. Or say something nice to the person next to them. Was there anything you learned that they didn t know about themselves? How does it feel to compliment others?

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! 65 Class 5: Body Image Objectives: Participants will be able to define body image and what it means to have positive healthy image Participants will understand that bodies come in different shapes and sizes and learn to accept their own Participants will learn how the media and culture influence standards of beauty ______________ _______________________________________________________ Recap Time: 5 minutes Recap last week 's session. What is positive self esteem? Ask if anyone complimented each other. If not, tell them to try again this upcoming week or make them do it in class. You don t have to be perfect. We all have our unique talents. We all are special. We can use them to lead others. Intro to Body Image Time: 10 minutes Say: Does anyone know what body image is? ( Pause for responses). Body image isn t just about how we look or what our bodies can do. It includes how you feel about what your body looks like or what it can do. It is the mental picture you have of your body. It involves attitudes and feelings about how you look and how you think other people see you. Just a s with self esteem, people with healthy body image understand that there are good things about their bodies, accept bodies come in different sizes, are comfortable with their bodies. This is something that we deal especially with as girls. Did you know tha t only 19% of teenage girls are overweight U.S., but 67% of teens think they need to lose weight? Stand Up If Time: 10 minutes Instructions for Facilitator: Explain that you are going to say a series of statements. After saying each statement, tell the g irls to stand up if the statement applies to them. Stand up if you Have ever been teased because of size (also height) Know someone who has been on a diet Have ever heard fat/thin used as an insult Know someone who feels good about the way they look Have seen ads for diet plans Think changing part of your body could make parts of your life better Want to feel good about yourself just the way you are right now

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! 66 Discussion: We are not alone. When you stood up, were you the only person standing? Were there statements where everyone stood? What does this mean to you? The Perfect Woman Magazine Activity Time: 15 minutes Materials: Magazines, scissors, paper, glue Instructions for Facilitator: This can be done individually or in small groups. Have the partic ipants cut out pictures from magazine of the ideal/perfect woman. Paste the pictures to a piece of paper to make a collage. After the participants are finished, have them hold up their collages and explain them. Say: Every time we turn on TV, open the maga zine, we see images of "perfect" women and expectations of what our lives should be like. They give the impression that one body size is acceptable this is not true. You also think these women don t have any problems. Pizza Perfect Time: 5 minutes Instructions for Facilitator: Magazine photos are usually edited and the people in them are carefully edited as well to look perfect. Show the video or a series of pictures on someone Photoshopping a piece of pizza into a woman. Discuss: Body Image Time : 10 minutes Say: Our ideas about what s beautiful is framed by media, what we re told and what we see around us. It s different depending on where we re from. The standards of beauty are different around the world. In some places in Africa, being a littl e overweight is preferred. In a lot of other places, you need to be thin. In India, fair skin is a big deal. In the US, we like being tan ( I shared my own story about getting skin cancer because I didn t take care of my skin) The most important thing is t o take care of your body and be safe. Do not feel pressure to conform to a certain ideal of beauty and end up being unhealthy. Some girls develop eating disorders because they want to be thin. The most important thing is to take care of yourself. We all fe el pressure to conform to a certain ideal of beauty. We think to ourselves: "I m too tall..short! skinny. If only I had a a smaller nose, longer legs, different skin color, I d be happy." You re not alone in doing this but it can bring down your self esteem what we talked about last week. Just like people who have good self esteem understand there are good things about themselves and accept themselves the way they are, people with a healthy body image accept their bodies and understand that there is no such thing as a perfect body. But how could we actually improve body image? Here are some suggestions: Don t change how you look but how you see yourself.

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! 67 Focus on how strong and healthy your body is and the things it can do not what s wrong with it. What aspects can you change vs not change? Humans are imperfect, we all are. Real people aren t perfect and perfect people aren t real. If there are things to change (get fit), set goals Stop negative self talk Compliment yourself Care for our bodies Understand that we are all different, but we are all wonderfully made by God Wrap up class and dismiss

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! 68 Class 6: Goals and Dreams Objectives: Participants will be able to have hopes and dreams for the future Participants will understand how to take conc rete steps towards making their dreams a reality ______________________________________________________________________ Recap Time: 5 Minutes Instructions for Facilitator: Recap the classes: leadership and anyone can be a leader, working as a group, self esteem, body image: media and culture influences what we think of as beauty I Have A Dream Time: 35 minutes Materials: Paper, markers Instructions for Facilitator: Have the participants draw their goals/dreams for themselves or their families. They can be realistic or they cannot be. Have them think about what will they be doing, what they you like, what they want to be as a woman, something they want to do. After the participants are done, have them go around the circle and share. Then tell them to t hink about what they can do to make that happen. Have them come up with at least one step that they can take towards making one of their dreams happen (For example: if someone wants to be a teacher, then they would need to finish school. If they want to bu y a house, they need to save money. If I want to run in a race, I need to train). Have the participants go around and say their practical step towards making a dream happen Say: Now you all know each other s dreams, so you can encourage each other. Go up t o your friend and say, "Hey, I know you want to pass your exam, how is studying going?" Or "I know you want to fly in a plane one day, are you saving up your money?" Check in with each other and encourage each other. You all are a team and you can support each other. You can even help each other achieve your dreams. Ask an older adult or the woman who leads this group for help. The thing I want you to know is that it is ok to have dreams and hope. You are capable of so much and you are capable of achieving these goals. I want you to achieve these goals. But it requires a choice. It takes work and it takes a choice to accomplish your goals. It requires a decision and hard work, but do not give up. If you want it, go for it! And do not let anyone tell you that you cannot do it or you are not smart enough or talented enough. Believe in yourself and work hard. Wrap Up Time: 5 minutes Instructions for Facilitator: Wrap up class and dismiss


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