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Advertising appeals and culture

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Title:
Advertising appeals and culture the difference between culturally congruent and culturally deviant individuals in Korea
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Shim, Sung Wook
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English
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xiii, 163 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

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Advertising campaigns ( jstor )
Advertising research ( jstor )
Brands ( jstor )
Cultural attitudes ( jstor )
Cultural studies ( jstor )
Cultural values ( jstor )
Korean culture ( jstor )
Mathematical dependent variables ( jstor )
Psychological attitudes ( jstor )
Self concept ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Mass Communication -- UF ( lcsh )
Mass Communication thesis, Ph.D ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2002.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 155-162).
General Note:
Printout.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Sung Wook Shim.

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ADVERTISING APPEALS AND CULTURE: THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
CULTURALLY CONGRUENT AND CULTURALLY DEVIANT INDIVIDUALS IN
KOREA


By


J


SUNG WOOK SHIM


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2002


























Copyright 2002

by

Sung Wook Shim



























I dedicate this dissertation to my dearest wife, Jung Ah Hwang















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The process that led to the completion of this project could not been undertaken without help from many others. I would like to thank my wife Jung Ah Hwang for her continuous support and encouragement in my doctoral program. I am very grateful to my parents, Sang Hee Shim and Ok Yoon Lee, and parents-in-law, Tae Yeon Hwang and Ok Hee Bu, for instilling in me the value of education and for their constant support in this long-term process. Their love and belief in me were unquestionably invaluable.

This project could not have been completed without guidance from my committee members. I am grateful for their help in shaping the idea for this project in its developmental stages and for their support throughout completion. I owe a debt of gratitude to Dr. Marilyn Roberts who was an outstanding committee chair. She was very helpful throughout the entire process from the idea development to its completion.

I am also thankful to the other committee members, Dr. Lynda Lee Kaid, Dr.

Joseph Pisani, Dr. Steven Shugan and Dr. Micahel F. Weigold. Dr. Kaid was helpful with the methodological development and Dr. Weigold provided me with numerous sources of information, fruitful ideas, and helped me with statistical analysis.

I'd like to thank my friends, Jaemin Jung and Samsup Jo, Andrew Clark, Hanjun Ko, Jooyoung Kim, Jongmin Park, Myoung Shin Kang and my two sisters, Yoon Hee and Yoon Mee, for their sincere support. Jaemin and Samsup have been great supporters during this program.


iv









Finally, if I have any glorious moments because of this achievement, I will

entirely dedicate them to my Lord who has always been walking with my family and me.


v
















TABLE OF CONTENTS
page

ACKN O W LEDG M EN TS.............................................................................................. iv

LIST O F TA BLES ......................................................................................................... ix

LIST OF FIGU RES....................................................................................................... xi

IN TRODU CTION ............................................................................................................... 1

LITERA TU RE REV IEW ................................................................................................ 5

Advertising Research Related to International M arketing ........................................... 5
Content Analysis .................................................................................................. 5
Survey.......................................................................................................................7
Experim ents......................................................................................................... 8
Culture.............................................................................................................................8
Definition of Culture ........................................................................................... 10
A M odel of Culture ................................................................................................ I 1
The outer layer: explicit products.................................................................... 11
The m iddle layer: norm s and values ............................................................... 11
The core: assum ptions about existence ....................................................... 12
The Elem ents of Culture and Consum er Behavior.............................................. 14
Language ....................................................................................................... 14
N onverbal Com m unication ......................................................................... 15
N eeds............................................................................................................ 16
Values............................................................................................................ 16
Com m unication across Culture .................................................................................. 16
Individualism and Collectivism ....................................................................................21
Definition................................................................................................................21
Vertical and Horizontal Individualism /Collectivism .......................................... 23
Attributes..................................................................................................... 23
Emphasis on hierarchy and harmony in collectivism................................... 24
Em phasis on the ingroup in collectivism .................................................... 24
Antecedents and Consequences .................................................................. 25
Ad Execution................................................................................................ 31
Context .......................................................................................................................... 32
Self-Concept: Allocentricity (Interdependence) and Idiocentricity (Independence) .... 38 Standardization and Localization.............................................................................. 40
M arket Segm entation and Target M arketing ........................................................... 43


vi









The Global Youth M arket ......................................................................................... 44
Products' U se Condition as a M oderator .................................................................. 46
Advertising in Korea .................................................................................................. 47
The Lifestyles and Consum ption Styles of Koreans .................................................. 49
Consum er Issues of Young Korean Consum ers................................................ 49
The Current Korean Culture................................................................................ 51
Hypotheses and Research Questions......................................................................... 51
Hypotheses ......................................................................................................... 51
Research Question.............................................................................................. 55


M ETHOD .......................................................................................................................... 75

Design of the Experim ent.......................................................................................... 75
Selecting Advertising Appeal .................................................................................... 76
Selecting Product....................................................................................................... 77
Self-Concept: Cultural Congruence and Deviance .................................................... 79
Procedures and Dependent Variables....................................................................... 81


RESU LTS.......................................................................................................................... 83

Pilot Study.....................................................................................................................83
Procedure and Design of the Experim ent............................................................ 83
Results .................................................................................................................... 83
M ain Experim ent....................................................................................................... 88
Dem ographic Description of the Sam ple ........................................................... 88
Assumptions of MANOVA and Validity of Model ........................................... 88
Results ....................................................................................................................95
The Test of Main Effect of Self-Concept, Product and Appeal................... 97
The Test of Interaction between Self-Concept and Advertising Appeal and
Product and A dvertising Appeal ................................................................... 102
The Test of Research Questions.................................................................... 108
Test of Self-Concept and Dem ographics ...................................................... 112
Test of Self-Concept and Gender .................................................................. 117


D ISCU SSION ................................................................................................................. 120

Evaluation of the Hypotheses...................................................................................... 122
Evaluation of Research Questions...............................................................................126
Contribution ................................................................................................................ 131
Im plication and Lim itation.......................................................................................... 132
Theoretical Im plication ........................................................................................ 132
Practical Im plications ........................................................................................... 135
Lim itations............................................................................................................ 137
Future Research........................................................................................................... 138


vii









APPENDIX

A PERSONAL VS. SHARED PRODUCT PRETEST .................................................. 140

B CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION AS INDIVIDUALISTIC APPEALS AND COLLECTIVISTIC APPEALS ..................................................................................... 146

C ITEMS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM (951N D C O L SC A LE ) .................................................................................................... 148

D THE SAMPLE OF QUESTIONNAIRE .................................................................... 150

E SAMPLE ADVERTISEMENTS ................................................................................ 159

LIST OF REFERENCES ................................................................................................ 171

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................... 179


viii
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

1. Past international advertising studies ........................................................................... 9

2. Three levels of culture between Asia and the West .................................................. 13

3.The Dimensions of the United States and Korea ...................................................... 19

4. Attributes defining individualism and collectivism and their antecedents and
consequents .................................................................................................... . . 26

5. Individualistic and collectivistic cultures.................................................................. 27

6. High-Context vs. low-Context national cultures....................................................... 33

7. Top ten advertiser's advertising expenditures (in billions of won)............................ 47

8. Distribution of the top five world advertising expenditures by country, 1995 (US$m)48 9. Transition of ad copy headlines ............................................................................... 77

10. Means and standard deviation of products.............................................................. 78

11. Multivariate and univariate results for the effect of independent variables on attitude
toward the advertising, attitude toward the brand and purchase intention........ 85 12. Means of three independent variables.................................................................... 86

13.Demographic profile of the respondents .................................................................. 89

14. Means and standard deviation comparison of American and Korean students (Pilot
T est)....................................................................................................................... 9 6

15. Multivariate and univariate results for the effects of independent variables on attitude
toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention (expensive
shared product).................................................................................................. 98

16. Multivariate and univariate results for the effects of independent variables on attitude
toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention (inexpensive
shared product).................................................................................................. 99


ix









17. Means of three independent variables of inexpensive shared products (advertising
appeal * product type * self-concept) ................................................................. 106

18. Multivariate and univariate results for the effects of independent variable on attitude
toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention (entire Korean
stu d en t)................................................................................................................ 10 8

19. M eans of advertising appeal...................................................................................... 109

20. M eans of four types of self-concept.......................................................................... 111

21. Crosstab of gender and self-concept ......................................................................... 112

22. Crosstab of monthly income and self-concept .......................................................... 112

23. Crosstab of parents' income and self-concept........................................................... 113

24. Means of amount spent on four types of media and self-concept............................. 113

25. M eans of four types of m edia.................................................................................... 114

26. Correlation between three dependent variables and four types of media ................. 115

27. Crosstab of gender and four types of self-concept.................................................... 116

28. Crosstab of monthly income and four types of self-concept..................................... 116

29. Crosstab of parents' income and four types of self-concept ..................................... 117

30. Means of media use and four types of self-concept .................................................. 118


x
















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

1. Influence of consumers characteristics on reactions to ad appeals ............................ 4

2. T he Layers of culture .................................................................................................. 11

3. Two cultural dimensions between the U.S. and Korea ............................................. 38

4. Six segments of the global youth market .................................................................. 45

5. A ttitudes tow ard advertising .................................................................................... 49

6. The Comparison of Korean culturally congruent students and Korean culturally deviant
students and average American students............................................................ 75

7. Q uadrant of the self-concept ...................................................................................... 80

8. Plot of attitude toward advertising and culturally congruent and culturally deviant .... 87 9. Histogram and normal P-P plot of attitude toward advertising.................................. 91

10. Histogram and normal P-P plot of attitude toward brand ...................................... 92

11. Histogram and normal P-P plot of purchase intention........................................... 93

12. Scatter plot of two dependent variables (attitude toward advertising and attitude
toward brand) by purchase intention................................................................ 94

13. Plot of attitude toward brand and self-concept.......................................................... 104

14. Plot of attitude toward advertising and self-concept................................................. 105

15. Plot of attitude toward advertising and four types of self-concept ........................... 110

16. Plot of attitude toward brand and four types of self-concept .................................... 111


xi














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

ADVERTISING APPEALS AND CULTURE: THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
CULTURALLY CONGRUENT AND CULTURALLY DEVIANT INDIVIDUALS IN
KOREA

By

Sung Wook Shim

August 2002

Chair: Dr. Marilyn Roberts
Department: Mass Communication

Crucial experiments were used to test five alternative hypotheses for the effect of self-concept on the persuasiveness of individualistic and collectivistic appeal ads with product use condition. The first three alternative hypotheses predict that there would be a difference between self-concept (culturally congruent or culturally deviant), appeal (individualistic or collectivistic) and product (personal or shared) on attitude toward advertising, on attitude toward brand, and on purchase intention. The second two hypotheses predict that when self-concept is culturally congruent, collectivistic appeal ads will create a positive response; and when advertising appeal is individualistic, personal product would create a positive response.

Results supported the first hypothesis. There is a significant difference between culturally congruent and culturally deviant on the three dependent variables. Culturally congruent individuals have a more positive attitude than culturally deviant individuals. In addition, there is a significant difference between a personal and a shared product. A


xii









shared product creates a more positive response than a personal product. More

importantly, the results supported the fourth hypothesis, that there would be a significant interaction between self-concept and advertising appeal. Culturally congruent individuals have a more positive response to the collectivistic appeal than did culturally deviant individuals. However, culturally deviant individuals have slightly more response to the collectivistic appeal than culturally deviant individuals in terms of attitude toward advertising. While culturally deviant individuals have more response to the individualistic appeal than culturally congruent individuals in terms of attitude toward brand.

Self-concept, from an independent and an interdependent perspective, is a factor to be considered when advertising to young Korean consumers in terms of international advertising. When advertisers target consumers who appeared to be culturally congruent, the most effective strategy for ads may be a collectivistic appeal.


xiii














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Global advertising spending is growing so fast that a leading forecaster, Zenith Media, shifted its estimate of year 2000's increase from 1.5% to 7.8 %. They expected global advertising spending to rise to 332 billion dollars in 2000. In 2001, they predicted a smaller increase of 6.4 % to 353 billion dollars, followed by a 6.1 % increase to 375 billion dollars in 2002 (Tomkins, 2000).

International advertising segment has been expanding because of globalization of the world marketplace. Jain (1993) and Belch and Belch (1998) argue that global advertising plays a significant role. Jain said, "In the case of many products/markets, a successful advertising campaign is the crucial factor in achieving sales goals. As a matter of fact, more and more companies consider successful advertising to be fundamental to profitable international operations." Therefore, it is essential that practitioners understand the cross-cultural universals and exclusions that tend to condition advertising appeals in different markets. Although demographic and geographic characteristics, economic and political-legal factors are all prerequisites for international advertising, the cultural factor is important for international marketers to consider.

Cultural difference is an important factor in understanding successful

international advertising (Keegan, 1989). Because consumers grow up in a particular culture, they are accustomed to that culture (Zhang & Gelb, 1996). Advertising is a very culture-oriented discipline because it is based on language and other communication tools that are deeply rooted in the given culture of a society (Schiitte & Ciarlante, 1998). The


I






2


influence of culture is particularly important in advertising, because communication patterns are closely connected to cultural norms (Hong, Muderrisoglue, & Zinkhan, 1987). In other words, advertising is both a part and a reflection of the culture. It is impossible to find advertising that is not rooted in culture.

Most prior research on the impact of culture on advertising has been descriptive, using content analysis to see cross-national differences in advertising strategy (Zhang & Gelb, 1996; Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson, 1997). Many researchers have found cultural differences in advertising among several countries. However, a causal relationship between advertising and culture remains undetermined. When executing advertisements containing cultural differences by the manipulation of advertising appeals and products, we need to certain that the advertisements reflect these cultural differences and have an influence on different consumers.

To implement this study, Korea is as chosen to delineate the cultural aspect of

international advertising. The growing middle class is largely made up of younger (under 40 years old) consumers who did not experience the Korean War or the poverty of Korea's past. This generation has more buying power and their lifestyles is approaching that of the West (Kim, 1996). Furthermore, young consumers (teenagers and college students) called "Generation X," are a distinct segment within the emerging Korean middle class. They think that they can better define themselves by buying brand-name products. Their tendency to stick to famous brand names differentiates them from the older generations in Korea (Deval, 1992). They have the potential to be viewed differently when compared to older generations.






3


By combining cultural norms with advertisements that take aim at national or regional markets, it has led to the naive assumption that all members within these local markets are identical (Leach & Liu, 1998). For example, although individualism refers to societies where people are socialized to be independent, differences were found between individualist cultures in the way that individuals view the self (i.e., independent or interdependent) (Triandis, 1994).

The potential heterogeneity within a culture gives rise to the probability that some individuals within a culture cannot be categorized with some or all of the norms associated with that culture. Given any culturally relevant norm, there are likely to be individuals within the culture whose personal values are consistent with the norm as well as those whose values are inconsistent with the norm. These two types are termed culturally congruent individuals and culturally deviant individuals (Leach & Liu, 1998). A congruent status or a deviant status is likely to have some impact on responses to advertising that is culture-based. It is important to develop an understanding of how both culturally congruent members and culturally deviant members respond to advertising information pertinent to their culture.

The purpose of this study is to explore how culturally relevant stimuli presented within an advertisement may be perceived by those who are culturally congruent and those who are culturally deviant among young Korean consumers. Also, this experiment examined cultural difference and its impact on the effectiveness of different advertising appeals across contrasting cultures, such as individualism vs. collectivism within product use conditions. The characteristics of both cultural congruence and cultural deviance are expected to be found among young Korean consumers.






4


To address the hypotheses and research questions, the framework presented in

Figure 1 was developed. This framework is based on a model developed by LepkowskaWhite (1999), which illustrates the mediating effect of national culture and regional socioeconomic on attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand and purchase intention. As presented in Figure 1, the research examined two types of ad appeals: individualistic and collectivistic. These ad appeals were designed for two types of products; a personal product and a shared product. Cultural factors were selected based on past research, and individualism vs. collectivism was included. The reactions to advertising appeals embodied attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intentions. In the following sections, the main elements of the model in Figure 1 and the relationships among them will be discussed.


Self-Concept
Culturally Congruent
/ Culturally Deviant Demographics


Attitude toward Ad
$* yAttitude toward Brand
Purchase Intention


Advertising Appeals
Individualistic, Collectivistic


Figure 1. Influence of consumers characteristics on reactions to ad appeals


1This is from Lepkowska-White (1999).


Product Types Personal, Shared














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Advertising Research Related to International Marketing

In recent years, much attention has been paid to cross-cultural advertising

research. This research has varied from content analysis and semiotic comparisons of advertising content between cultures (Albers-Miller & Gelb, 1996; Caillat & Muller, 1996; Cheng & Schweitzer, 1996; Wiles, Wiles & Tjernlund, 1996) to testing appeals with different cultural groups (Han & Shavitt, 1994; Taylor, Miracle & Wilson, 1997; Zhang & Gelb, 1996).

Content Analysis

Keown, Jacobs, and Ghymn (1993) performed a systematic content analysis of Korean, United States, Japanese, and Chinese mass-media advertising. Korean television advertising was more likely to promote nondurables than was the advertising for the other countries. Korean radio advertising was also more likely to promote nondurables than was U.S. or Chinese radio advertising, but advertising levels were very similar to those used by the Japanese. Korean newspaper advertising was more than twice as likely as newspaper advertising in the other countries to promote consumer services.

Caillat and Muller (1996) compared television commercials in the U. S. with

Britain for their rhetorical style and for the presence of predominant cultural values. From a stylistic point of view, they found that American commercials had a higher frequency of direct speech, whereas British commercials had a higher frequency of indirect speech, suggesting a fundamental difference in creative style and communication patterns.


5






6


They found that American commercials exhibited all three American values (individualism/independence, modernity/newness, and achievement), more frequently than the British commercials and the British commercials exhibited British values more frequently than did the American commercials.

Comparing the television advertising content of a non-western country (China) with that of the U. S., Cheng and Schweitzer (1996) examined prime-time spots in each culture for the presence of 32 cultural values. They found that Chinese commercials used a greater proportion of utilitarian values than symbolic values. However, Chinese commercials resort more often to symbolic ones, whereas American commercials tend to use both symbolic and utilitarian values.

They found that cultural values depicted in Chinese television commercials often dealt with product categories and product origins. Commercials for imported products are currently the pacesetter for Western cultural values conveyed in Chinese television advertising, followed by commercials for joint-venture products.

Albers-Miller and Gelb (1996) examined business advertising appeals from 11 countries for the presence of each of the dimensions from Hofstede's (1984) cultural model: Individualism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, and masculinity. The culture-reflecting quality of advertising was supported for 10 of 30 hypothesized relationships. However, they did not find much support for values within the individualism dimension within individualist cultures. These studies do not prove that the appeals being used each country are necessarily the most effective.

Han and Shavitt (1994) also analyzed magazine ads in the United States and Korea and found different aspects in magazine ads. American ads were likely to






7


emphasize individuality, self-improvement, and benefits of the product for the individual consumer. In contrast, Korean ads were inclined to stress the family, groups, and concern for others.

Wiles, Wiles, and Tjemlund (1996) found a uniform set of values is transmitted in magazine advertising across the two cultures and there are similarities and differences among the values conveyed in ads.

Survey

Yin (1999) studied international advertising strategies in China in terms of standardization and localization. Using a comprehensive survey to study foreign advertisers in China, she found that most companies surveyed use a combination strategy (that is, partly standardized and partly localized). Factors that the advertising agencies used in China were the number of subsidiaries, the perceived importance of localizing language and product attributes, and the perceived importance of mostly Chinese cultural values.

Shao, Raymond and Taylor (1999) provided insight on how to advertise

effectively in the modern advertising industry of Taiwan, given the constraints faced by advertisers there. They hypothesized that advertising appeals in Taiwan tend to be dominated more by "westernized" market conditions that are viewed as substantial barriers to advertising. Based on 61 interviews with managing directors of advertising agencies in Taiwan, the hypothesis was supported that advertisers in Taiwan face constraints inherent in a modern advertising industry.

Al-Makaty et al. (1996) found that three groups of Saudi males had different views of the effect of TV advertising on cultural modernization and economic development. Albers-Miller and Gelb (1996) found that the culture-reflecting quality of






8


advertising is supported for 18 of 30 hypothesized relationships. Roth (1995) found that managers consider cultural and socioeconomic conditions in forming their international brand-image strategies, and these conditions moderate the market-share effects.

Experiments

Zhang and Gelb (1996) found that Chinese and American subjects' reactions to advertising appeals are more positive when an appeal matches the product-use condition than when the appeal does not match either the culture or the product-use condition.

Taylor, Miracle and Wilson (1997) manipulated the information content of

commercials in both the U.S. and Korea. They found that due to cultural differences such as individualism and collectivism, and high- and low-context, American subjects respond more favorably to commercials with high informational levels than do Korean subjects.

Lee (2000) conducted a study of cultural influences on consumer purchasing behavior for a large sample in Singapore, Korea, Hong Kong, Australia, and the U.S. Using a camera purchase decision survey, Lee found the impact of referent past experience, referent expectations, and affordability on intent to purchase. She concluded that experience, expectations, and affordability all had a stronger influence on interdependent respondents than on independent respondents. Other related international advertising studies are summarized in Table 1.

Culture

Marketers have traditionally examined a potential market's demographic and geographic characteristics, as well as economic and political factors, in order to determine if and how they might impact the marketing mix. However, only in recent years has greater attention been paid to the cultural environment (Muller, 1996).






9


Knowing the culture of each country becomes an important factor in global marketing

and advertising.



Table 1. Past international advertising studies
Authors Year Findings
Keillor, Parker 1996 Mexican youths are receptive to various information
and Schaefer sources across a wide spectrum of products; specialized
advertising strategy is advisable.
Roslow and 1996 Hispanic viewers are more persuaded when exposed to
Nicholls commercials in Spanish, embedded in Spanish
programs.
Taylor, Grubbs, 1997 Four emic descriptors-la seduction, le spectacle,
and Haley l'amour, and l'humour-characterize French
advertising.
Duncan and 1995 Extent of standardization varies; advertising agency
Ramaprasad executives consider creative impact the most important
and pressure (from time, client, etc) the least important reason to use some form of standardized advertising. Murray and 1996 Music plays a larger role in commercials run in the
Murray Dominican Republic than in those run in the U.S.


Culture also has a peculiar aspect. It is generally agreed that culture is not

inherent or innate, but rather is learned. Most definitions also emphasize that members of

a group share culture. It is this shared aspect that enables communication among

individuals, within that culture. Cross-cultural communication is difficult because of the

lack of shared symbols (Muller, 1996).

Therefore, understanding another culture is difficult, even for major global market

players. Some people claim that the world is becoming homogenized, but there is little

evidence of it in marketing. Cultural difference is distinct, and the difference changes on

a regular basis. Having a firm understanding of what a culture was like ten years ago is

useless today. Cultural research has to be done over again and again to make advertising

and promotion work (Curry, 1999).






10


Definition of Culture

Culture is a complex word to define (De Mooij, 1997). Culture has several meanings in many areas. Hofstede defines culture as "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another. Culture is learned, not inherited. It derives from one's social environment, not from one's genes." De Mooiji emphasizes that culture has an influence on people's tastes, preferences for colors, and attitude toward product classes. For example, Dutch children often have chocolate shavings on buttered bread for breakfast. American children like to have fried eggs. Indian children have a spicy hot sambal (a kind of soup). All are culturally reasonable within their culture, but seem strange in other cultures (Miihlbacher et al., 1999). Culture is the things that individual members of a group have in common. Culture may apply to ethnic or national groups, or to groups within a society with different levels: a country, an age group, a profession, or a social class (De Mooij, 1997).

Terpstra (1991) identified components of culture: culture is learned, shared,

compelling, an interrelated set of symbols whose meanings provide a set of orientations for members of a society. The interrelationships of the four elements of culture mentioned above vary from nation to nation since they are also influenced by other diverse external environmental imperatives such as technology, law, languages, societal norms, political systems and market structures. These differences and similarities will influence advertising appeals within and across cultures and subcultures (Simango, 1999).






S1I


Explicit. Artifacts
and products

Norms and
Values

Im c aplicitcsic
assumptions











Figure 2. The Layers of culture


Source: Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (1998). Riding the waves of culture: Understanding diversity in global business. New Y ork, NY : McGraw-H ill.


A Model of Culture

The outer layer: explicit products An individual's first experience of a new culture is the explicit culture. Explicit culture consists of the observable reality of the language, food, buildings, houses, and monuments. They are the surface of a deeper level of culture. Prejudices mostly start on this symbolic and observable level (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1998). The middle layer: norms and values

Norms are the mutual sense a group has of what is "right" and "wrong." Values determine the definitions of "good and bad," and are connected with the ideals shared by a group. While the norms provide us with a feeling of "this is how I normally should behave," values give us a feeling of "this is how I aspire or desire to behave." A value






12


serves as a criterion to determine a choice from current alternatives. It is the concept an individual or group has regarding the desirable (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1998, p. 22).

The core: assumptions about existence

To answer questions about basic differences in values among cultures, it is

necessary to direct attention to the core of human existence. The most basic value people strive for is survival. For example, the Dutch fight with rising water. Every country has tried to find ways to deal most effectively with their environments. Such continuous problems are eventually solved automatically. "Culture" comes from the same root as the verb "to cultivate," meaning to till the soil: The way people act upon nature. Three levels of culture between Asia and the West

Schutte and Ciarlante (1998) summarized three levels of culture between Asia and the West. These elements of culture can be organized into three levels: 1) behavioral practices, 2) values, beliefs, preferences and norms, and 3) basic assumptions.

This structure implies that behavioral practices tell us the surface of culture. To understand the source of cross-cultural differences in Asian consumers, it is necessary to look below the surface, to examine both a society's declared values and beliefs, and the basic assumptions.






13


Table 2. Three levels of culture between Asia and the West
Asia The West
Flexibility, long-term Behavioral Planning, bottom line
Continuous practices Re-engineering
improvement Rules, contracts
Codes, informal deals Visible Individual performance
Team performance Tasks, competition
Relationship, co- Structure
operation Networks
Historical context Values, beliefs, Time is money
Read between lines Preferences, norms Analysis
Integration Differentiation
Affiliation Declared Achievement
Time as spiral Basic assumptions Time as line
Holistic, dualistic Either/ or dialectic
Interdependence Taken for granted Autonomy
Being Organization = Doing organization =
system of People system of tasks
Actual I Conceptual
Source: Schitte, H., & Ciarlante, D. (1998). Consumer behavior in Asia. New York, NY: New York University Press.

Our ideas, values, acts and emotions are produced culturally. We are under the

guidance of cultural patterns, historically created systems of meaning (De Mooij, 1997).

Advertising reflects these wider systems of meaning: It mirrors the way people think,

what moves them, how they are connected to each other, how they live, eat, relax and

enjoy themselves. All layers of culture are mirrored in advertising (De Mooij, 1997). It is

a fact that advertising works more effectively when buyers are convinced that they are

being spoken to by somebody who understands them, who knows their needs, and talks

and feels just as they do in a society. This suggests that beliefs, values, norms and

attitudes (the elements of culture) play an important role in advertising and envelope all

the broad variables that constitute culture (Simango, 1999).






14


The Elements of Culture and Consumer Behavior

Among the important elements of culture, marketers take into consideration are verbal language, nonverbal communication, needs, values and consumption patterns. Language

There are two ways of looking at the language-culture relationship: Language

influences culture or language is expressed by culture. The world view of people depends on the structure and characteristics of the language they speak (De Mooij, 1997).

That culture influences the specific languages spoken by a group can be

determined by examining the vocabulary it employs. For example, the Eskimo language has many words to describe snow. The complicated classification system for different forms of snow developed because snow plays such a fundamental role in the daily life of the average Eskimo (Muller, 1996).

Language skills will also play a role when advertising and promotional collateral (brochure, manuals) are translated. A poorly worded document or misunderstood slogan can lower a sales effort before it starts (Curry, 1999).

Because language plays such a central role in international marketing, it is

important to understand the close relationship between culture and language (Muller, 1996). Culture and communication are inextricably linked. It has been said that it is impossible to understand a culture without understanding the language spoken by its people (Muller, 1996).

In Korea, there is the concept of "Kibun" which is very important for

interpersonal communication, but is not known in the West. "Kibun" means something like "feeling" or "mood." Koreans know that they should interact in a way that addresses






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the "Kibun" of their partners if they want to build a relationship or keep it going (Mifhlbacher et al., 1999).

Nonverbal Communication

Both spoken language and nonverbal language are used to communicate (Muller, 1996). Most classification systems include facial expression, eye contact and gaze, body movement, touching, smell, space usage, time symbolism, appearance in dress, color symbolism and silence. Muller categorizes these into four subcategories.

Touch: One of the earliest senses to nature is touch. Each culture has a welldefined system of meanings for different forms of touching.

Space usage: How humans use space is referred to as proxemics. Proxemics deals with the degree to which people want to be close to other people or to touch others. It is an aspect of body language and an expression of culture (De Mooij, 1997).

Time Symbolism: A culture's concept of time refers to the relative importance it places on time. Edward Hall notes that two time systems have evolved-monochronic and polychronic. People from monochronic cultures tend to do many things simultaneously (De Mooij, 1997). Monochronic cultures are usually low-context cultures, while polychronic cultures are usually high-context cultures.

Colors and other signs and symbols: Globalization has led to increased use of icons. Signs and symbols are important factors of association networks in our memory: package, color, and signs. Color can have strong cultural meanings (Muller, 1996). International marketers need to know what associations a culture has in terms of colors and how they might affect product design, packaging and advertising messages.






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Needs

In attempting to understand foreign cultures, international marketers may look at the needs that motivate purchase behavior (Muller, 1996). Consumption decisions can be driven by functional or social needs. What in one culture may be a functional need can be a social need in another. For example, the bicycle is a functional need to Chinese, who use it for transportation, while it is a social need to many Americans, who use it for socializing or fitness.

Values

Attitudes are the most widely studied aspect of consumer decision-making. An examination of values provides an analysis of the underlying motives that structure attitudes and behavior (De Mooij, 1994). Miton Rokeach (Muller, 1996) provides a classic definition of a value: "an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally and socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence."

Because people from different cultures are generally perceived as holding a set of values different from our own, it is essential to explore their impact on the elements of the marketing mix.

Communication across Culture

Culture has been considered a multidimensional construct consisting of unitary cultural dimensions, each characterizing a different aspect of culture (Lepkowska-White, 1999). Over the years, different elements of culture have been identified and described.

One of the first descriptions of cultural dimensions was offered by Parsons and Shils (1951), proposing that culture consists of the following five dimensions: (a) affectivity versus affective neutrality (need gratification versus restrain of impulse); (b)






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self-orientation versus collective-orientation; (c) universalism versus particularism (utilizing general rules versus relationships); (d) ascription versus achievement (evaluating others based on who they are versus what they do); and (e) specificity versus diffuseness (limiting relations to others to particular spheres versus no limitations in regards to the nature of relationships). This conceptualization of culture was later modified by Chandler (1979), arguing that there is a need for another dimension of culture that would illustrate interest in economic achievement. This measure was called a modernity index and consisted of four dimensions: activity-time, integration with kin, trust, and occupational primacy.

Almost the entire discussion on cross-cultural difference in advertising is based on one seminal work, Geert Hofstede's research in 1980, 1984, and 1991. Hofstede's original study used survey data from 100,000 employees of IBM in 53 countries to isolate five universal dimensions of culture. Hofstede has suggested that a fifth dimension may be time orientation (Hofstede, 1991). Although there is some difference in how researchers test, describe, and define these components of culture, almost every study in this area uses the Hofstede research as the ultimate guide to approach the study of culture.

Hofstede (1991) identified four underlying dimensions of cultural values: (1) power distance, (2) uncertainty avoidance (3) individualism/collectivism (4) masculinity/femininity.Power distance measures the extent to which a society tolerates inequality of power in organizations and in society. In a high power distance society, hierarchy is strong and power is centralized at the top. Individuals are very conscious of their rank, and superiors and subordinates feel separate from one another. Korea is an example of a high power distance society. In a low power distance society, members of






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an organization feel relatively close to one another and have a sense of equality as human beings.

Uncertainty avoidance mirrors a culture's tolerance or intolerance of uncertainty. In a high uncertainty avoidance culture, uncertain, ambiguous, risky or undefined situations are seen as threatening and to be avoided at all costs. In a low uncertainty avoidance culture, risk is a natural component of life that can often produce opportunity.

The individualism/collectivism dimension includes the way in which the self and others are regarded as well as the interaction between them. It shows the extent to which a society regards the individual as its most fundamental component and the degree of acceptance of an individual's satisfaction of his or her own needs within collective groups.

The masculinity/femininity dimension reflects the extent to which the society is dominated by masculine characteristics (for example, assertiveness, performance, ostentation and self-concern) or feminine characteristics (for example, nurturing, interdependence between people and caring for others). The masculinity dimension has been named this way since tests reveal that men tend to score highly on one extreme and women on the other, no matter which society they came from.

These dimension are summarized in the Table 3.

In addition, Hofstede (1991) added time orientation to former four dimensions. Time orientation refers to the emphasis of the past and tradition as opposed to living for today or investing in tomorrow. The dimensions focuse on long-versus short-run orientations and separate cultures that emphasize future-oriented Confucian values such






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as thrift and perseverance from those which stress more past-oriented Confucian values such as saving faces and respect for tradition (Cho et al., 1999).



Table 3.The Dimensions of the United States and Korea Ranking of countries*
Korea USA
Power distance 27/28 38
Uncertainty avoidance 17/17 43
Individualism 43 1
Masculinity 41 15
* The numbers in this table represent the ranking of countries in the original Hofstede (1984) study, with no. 1 being the highest ranking. For example, the U.S. was found to be the most individualistic of the countries studied.
Source: Hofstede, Geert (1984), Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values, Sage Publications: Beverly Hills, CA.

Generally, people from East Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea tend to have tradition based orientations, while Latin Americans are more oriented to the present, and Westerners such as Americans and Northern Europeans have more of a future orientation (Cho et al., 1999).

Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1998) further affirm this interpretation through their five value orientations of how we relate to other people. These are (1) universalism versus particularism, (2) individualism versus collectivism (3) neutral versus affective (4) diffuse versus specific and (5) achievement versus ascription.

The universalism versus particularism dimensions refers to the extent to which behavior in a society is largely rules-based or relationship-based. In other words, a universalist society focuses on the need to apply established rules to all persons equally and resists making exceptions to the rules. A particularist society will focus on the exception to the nature of the present circumstance and the need to value human relationships above the requirement to obey established rules.






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The individualism versus collectivism dimension is similar to that of Hofstede's. However, his neutral/affective dimension introduces an additional component to the framework of value orientation, the level of emotional expressiveness. In a neutral society, feelings are carefully controlled and subdued, and responses are generally directed in an indirect way. Japan is an example of a neutral culture. In an affective society, a far fuller range of emotions may be expressed. A direct response is expected and appreciated, and any attempt to respond indirectly is regarded with suspicion.

Cultures along the diffuse/specific dimension have also been termed low

context/high context societies. Another feature of this diffuse/specific dimension is the difference in the types and levels of depth of friendships in each society. Others often criticize Americans as being "superficial" and perhaps "insincere," because they are often immediately friendly even to those they do not know well, but do not go on to develop such friendships beyond a certain level.

The achievement/ascription dimension refers to how status is accorded in a society. Societies in which members gain status through what has been individually achieved are achievement-oriented. Those societies in which status is gained through the individual's family status, gender, age, education, social status and so on are ascriptionoriented. This dimension has much in common with the classification of 'doing' and 'being' cultures and is closely linked to religious belief. For example, the Protestant religion puts great emphasis on the power of the individual to achieve and thus pushes the individual towards doing. Asian cultures place more emphasis on "being" rather than "doing" in order to achieve virtue (Schatte & Ciarlante, 1998).






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Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) recognized a Human-to-Environment orientation as a fundamental cultural value. They suggested three types of values: mastery over nature, harmony with nature, and subjugation to nature. Mastery over nature includes the perspective that all natural forces can be overcome and/or put to use by humans. Harmony with nature draws no distinction between or among human life, nature and the supernatural, but views each as extension of the others. Subjugation to nature involves the belief that nothing can be done to control nature and that fate must be accepted.

They contended that American culture is more likely to be mastery over nature, while Chinese culture (East Asian culture) is more likely to be harmony with nature. For example, Korean magazine covers are likely to show scenes from nature, while American covers are likely to show people, showing the cultures' varying perspectives of one's relationship with nature (Cho et al., 1999).

Individualism and Collectivism

Definition

Gould and Kolb (1964) defined individualism as "a belief that the individual is an end in himself, and as such ought to realize his 'self' and cultivate his own judgment, notwithstanding the weight of pervasive pressures in the direction of conformity." Collectivism means greater emphasis on (a) the views, needs, and goals of the ingroup rather than oneself; (b) social norms and duty defined by the ingroup rather than behavior to get pleasure; (c) beliefs shared with the ingroup rather than beliefs that distinguish self from ingroup; and (d) great readiness to cooperate with ingroup members (Triandis, 1989).






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Individualism-collectivism is perhaps the most solid and widely used dimension of cultural variability for cultural comparison (Gudykunst & Ting-Toomey, 1998). Hofstede (1980) described individualism-collectivism as the relationship between the individual and the collective that prevails in a given society. In individualistic cultures, individuals tend to prefer independent relationships to others and to subordinate ingroup goals to their personal goals. In collectivistic cultures, on the other hand, individuals are more likely to have interdependent relationships to their ingroups and to subordinate their personal goals to their ingroup goals.

For example, in individualistic cultures such as those in some European countries and North America, individuals prefer independent relationships to each other and individual goals take precedence over group goals. In contrast, people in Asia, Africa, and Latin America have an interdependent relationship with one another within a collectivity and group goals take precedence over individual goals (Zhang & Gelb, 1996).

Hofstede (1980, 1984) analyzed the characteristics of 53 countries to compare the cultural differences in terms of five dimensions. The results show the differences in culture between the United States and Korea. He (1991) identified the U.S. as the most individualistic nation in the world when ranked against the other 53. On the other hand, the least individualistic, i.e. most collectivistic, countries are Guatemala, Ecuador, and Panama. Korea ranks 43rd among the 53 countries.

An individual in a collectivistic society is not supposed to be strongly on his or her own, unless sanctioned by authority, social status or group consensus. People in such a society tend more to uniformity, harmony and/or standardization rather than toward individuality (Triandis, 1994).






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Individualistic societies are more likely to put emphasis on individual differences or strengths in arguments, and put less emphasis on shared feelings and consonance among persons when they process persuasion messages such as advertising (Kim, 1996). Vertical and Horizontal Individualism/Collectivism

Triandis et al. (1998) subdivided individualism/collectivism into horizontal (H) and vertical (V) individualism (I) and collectivism (C) across cultures, with university samples. Briefly, horizontal collectivists (HC) join the ingroup (family, tribe, coworkers, nation), but do not feel subordinate to these ingroups. Vertical collectivists (VC) submit to the norms of their ingroups and are even willing to self-sacrifice for their group. The horizontals do not use much hierarchy. The verticals use hierarchy. The horizontal individualists (HI) do their own thing but do not necessarily compare themselves with others. They do not want to be distinguished. The vertical individualists (VI) are especially concerned with comparisons with others. They want to be "the best," win in competitions and be distinguished.

Tridandis et al. (1998) gathered similar data in four individualist countries (U.S., Australia, Germany, Netherlands), and four collectivist countries (Japan, Greece, Hong Kong, Korea). The four individualist countries average higher HI (47.25%) than the four collectivistic countries (25.75%), whereas the collectivists countries are higher than the individualists on HC (33.2 5% vs. 28%) and VC (11.75% vs. 8.25%). Attributes

Individualism-collectivism constructs have been widely used in most of the social sciences for about a century. For example, the terms Gemeinschaft (community) and Gesellschaft (society), in sociology or relation versus individualistic value orientation, in anthropology, have been used for some time (Triandis, McCusker, & Hui, 1990).






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Triandis, McCuster, and Hui (1990) present the attributes of the pure

collectivistic-individualist types. First, collectivists pay great attention to a certain ingroup and act differently toward members of that group than toward members of outgroups. The ingroup can be defined by common fate. Individualists also have ingroups and outgroups, but they do not see as sharp a contrast between them and do not act as differently toward ingroup and outgroup members as do collectivists. Emphasis on hierarchy and harmony in collectivism


In collectivistic cultures behavior is regulated largely by ingroup norms; in

individualistic cultures it is regulated largely by individual likes and dislikes and costbenefit analyses. In collectivistic cultures there is much emphasis on hierarchy. Usually the father is the boss and men superordinate women. This is not nearly as much the case in individualist cultures. Moreover, harmony and saving face are important attributes in collectivist cultures. Individualistic culture' confrontations within the ingroup are acceptable and are supposed to be desirable because they clear the air. Thus, hierarchy and harmony are important defining attributes of collectivists. Emphasis on the ingroup in collectivism

Collectivists tend to think of groups as the basic unit of analysis of society, while individualists tend to think of individuals as the basic unit of analysis. Assuming that people in general have more cognitions that are ingroup than outgroup related, the tendency to think of individuals as the basic unit of analysis will result in individualists thinking of ingroups as more heterogeneous than outgroups, as is usually found in the West (Quattrone, 1986). In collectivistic cultures, there is great concern about what happens in the ingroup and to ingroup members.






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Antecedents and Consequences

Triandis et al. (1988) summarized the antecedents, attributes, and consequences in individualism and collectivism. Important antecedents of individualism, in addition to cultural complexity, are (a) having a frontier (b) having substantial numbers of immigrants and (c) having rapid social and geographical mobility, all of which tend to make the control of ingroups less certain.

It is likely that the Gross National Product (GNP) is both an antecedent and a

consequence of individualism. Affluence implies the ability to " do one's own thing," but " doing one's own thing" implies more creativity for society, hence more innovation and more economic development (Triandis, et al., 1988).

Gundykust (1998) also summarized individualism and collectivism with three

categories: major characteristics, individual level, and communication. He explained the individual factors that mediate the influence of cultural individualism-collectivism on individual's behaviors.

Personality Orientations. Individual personality traits such as idiocentrism and allocentrism mediate the effect of cultural individualism/collectivism on communication. Allocentrism is associated with social support positively and negatively with alienation and anomie. On the other hand, idiocentrism is related to an emphasis on achievement and perceived loneliness (Gundykunst, 1998). Individual Values. Values mediate the effect of cultural individualism/collectivism on communication. Value domains specify the structure of values and consist of specific values. The value domains of stimulation, hedonism, power, achievement, and selfdirection work for individual interests; the value domains of tradition, conformity, and benevolence work for collective interests; and the value domains of security,






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universalism, and spirituality work for mixed interests. Individuals can have both

individualistic and collectivistic tendencies. Even though they may hold both

individualistic and collectivistic values, one is inclined to predominate.



Table 4. Attributes defining individualism and collectivism and their antecedents and consequents
Antecedents Attributes Consequents
Individualism

Affluence Emotional detachment from Socialization for selfCultural complexity ingroup reliance and
Hunting/food gathering Personal goals have primacy independence Upper social class over ingroup goals Good skills when entering
Migration Behavior regulated by new groups
Urbanism attributes and cost- Loneliness
Exposure to the mass media benefit analyses Confrontation is okay
Collectivism

Unit of survival is food Family integrity Socialization for obedience
ingroup Self-defined in ingroup and duty
Agriculture terms Sacrifice for ingroup
Large families Behavior regulated by Cognition: Focus on
ingroup norms common elements with
Hierarchy and harmony ingroup members
within ingroup Behavior: Intimate, saving
Ingroup is seen as face, reflects hierarchy,
homogeneous social support,
Strong ingroup/outgroup interdependence
distinctions
Source: Triandis, H. C., McCusker, C., & Hui, C. H. (1990). Multimethod probes of individualism and collectivism, Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, 59(5), 1006-1020.






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Table 5. Individualistic and collectivistic cultures Individualism Collectivism
Major Characteristics Focus on individual's goals Focus on group's goals "I" Identity emphasized "We" identity emphasized Universalistic Particularistic
Many ingroups Few ingroups

Individual Level Idiocentrism Allocentrism
Values stimulation, Values traditions,
hedonism, power, self- conformity, benevolence direction Interdependent self
Independent self construal construal
Communication Low-context messages: High-context messages:
direct, precise, clear indirect, ambiguous, implicit

Example of Cultures Australia Argentina
England Brazil
Belgium China
Canada Egypt
Denmark Ethiopia
France Greece
Germany Guatemala
Ireland India
Italy Japan
New Zealand Korea
Sweden Mexico
United States Saudi Arabia

Source: Gudykunst, W. B., (1998). Bridging differences: Effective intergroup
communication. Thousands Oak, CA: Sage.

Self- Construals. The influence of cultural individualism/collectivism on

communication is mediated by the way we conceive of ourselves (Markus & Kitayama,

1991). Because how we conceive of ourselves is one of the determinants of our

behaviors, self-construal is important. The most widely used conceptualization of selfconstrual is the distinction between independent and interdependent construals (Markus

& Kitayama, 1991).






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The independent construal of self means that an individual's self is perceived as a unique, independent entity. The interdependent construal of self means that one's behavior is contingent on and determined by their ingroups in order to maintain harmony (Gudykunst, 1998).

When these concepts of independence and interdependence are examined at an individual self-concept level, they are referred to as idiocentricity and allocentricity (Triandis et al., 1988). In individualist cultures, parallel phenomena may take place. Idiocentric persons in individualist cultures find it completely acceptable to do their own thing and to disregard the needs of their communities, family or work group. But allocentric persons feel concerned about their community and ingroups (Triandis et al., 1988). Idiocentric individuals emphasize self-identification and what is private. In contrast, allocentric individuals focus on their group membership, their interdependence, and their view of others (Triandis, 1994). The concepts of collective and individualist cultures, and allocentric and idiocentric self-concepts, allow identification of members within a culture whose self-identity is congruent with the norms of their culture, and those who are culturally deviant. Allocentrics in a collective culture and idiocentrics in an individualistic culture are culturally congruent (Leach & Liu, 1998).

There are several studies related to individualism versus collectivism. Robinson (1996) explained the effects of cultural values such as collectivist and Confucian social dynamics on brand values. Adapting Hofstede (1980), Robinson finds that many Asian cultures share a Confucian history and collectivist orientation. He argues that the "shared cultural values" of these "Asian cultures" explain Asian consumers' reluctance to accept






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new brands, general indifference to learning about new products, and the tendency to use the same brand again and again within group settings.

Robinson did not define what he meant by "Asian culture," although he

mentioned Korea, Hong Kong, and the Philippines. He did not depend on quantitative evidence about the influence of "power brands" on high power distance cultures, of social pressure to purchase accepted brands in public, and the effect of perceived popularity on Asian consumers (Wutich, 200 1). Abstract descriptions of Asian cultures as face-saving, consensual, power-responsive, and ethnocentric were used to explain observed brand use phenomena such as the popularity of Nescafe, the consumption of local whisky brands in Korean bars, and the rise of Heineken consumption in upscale Hong Kong sectors.

Responses to advertisements and intention to purchase in one collectivist culture, Mexico, were determined to be more positive when local cultural norms were depicted in ads. Adapting the importance of in-group familial dynamics, Gregory and Munch (1997) hypothesized that there would be significant norm and role effects on measures of persuasion for Mexican consumers, although variation would exist at the individual level. Using high and low decision risk products (gelatin and an automobile), Gregory and Munch found that norms and roles did have a positive effect on responses to ads and purchase intent, that effects varied for high- and low-risk products, and that allocentric (collectivistic)-idiocentric (individualistic) measures did not reveal significant withinculture differences.

Leach and Liu (1998) studied how culturally relevant stimuli presented in

advertisements affected respondents from Taiwan and the United States. Using country of






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origin advertisements that referenced in-group and out-group concepts, researchers found that Taiwanese respondents (collective culture) responded more positively to in-group ads. Group affiliation ads were also found to be more diagnostic for Taiwanese respondents. Results were less pronounced for American respondents.

Han and Shavitt (1994) thought that cultural differences in self-concept might also reflect differences in the kinds of attitudes people have toward consumer products. They created ads for the same product that stressed independence or interpendence and showed them to both Americans and Koreans. Americans were persuaded most by the ads emphasizing independence; Koreans were favorable for the ads stressing interdependence.

Cha and Cheong (1993) factor-analyzed 32 items related to collectivism and found three orthogonal factors for the younger group (20's). Factor 1, labeled "Acceptance of Relational Obligations," reflected acceptance of collectivity. A significant aspect of this factor is that it provides empirical evidence that important ingroups in contemporary Korean culture are family, clan, and school. Factor 2, labeled "In-Group Favoritism," was related to a contrast between acceptance and rejection of favoritism based on personal relationships and discriminatory protection based on personal distance.

Within the older samples (50's) only two orthogonal factors were found. Factor 1, labeled "Dependent Relationship," showed considerable overlap with the younger group's Factor 2 (In-Group Favoritism). Thus Factor 1 was an in-group favoritism factor, but emphasis was on the dependent relationship between parent and child. Factor 2 in the






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older samples closely overlapped with Factor 3 (Family-Centeredness) for the young group.

They concluded that despite changes toward individualism, Koreans in both age groups were generally collectivist in absolute terms as determined on the basis of their beliefs/attitudes.

Ad Execution

In collectivistic societies people do not like to be alone, whereas in individualistic societies people like their privacy. For example, Levi's changed their advertising for the Hispanic market (collectivistic society) to show people as part of an explicit group in advertising (De Mooij, 1997).

Appeals in individualistic cultures can explain the individualized self. For

example, the text of a Tampax commercial on MTV is: "Free yourself, to be yourself. Do what you want, wear what you want any day you want." (De Mooij, 1997). Examples of collectivistic claims are: "Prospering together, "Be part of the group."

In television commercials in collectivistic cultures, an important part of the setting is pictures of groups of people and extended families. Grandparents are often part of a family scene, something less frequently found in individualistic cultures. Some examples show the extreme individualism of some cultures, such as egoistic presentations of wild and nonconforming individualistic lifestyles that appeal only to small groups within individualistic societies (De Mooij, 1997).

Because most Asian cultures are high context, advertising is less explicit. Implicit meanings and context can be dependent on communicative power. A high-context culture makes us understand highly symbolic advertising (Schutte & Ciarlante, 1998). Past studies of cross-cultural advertising have found a difference between high context and






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low context cultures. Advertisements in low context cultures are prone to be informative (Lin, 1993), have a more hard-sell approach (Muller, 1996), use direct and confrontational appeals, have a more direct rhetorical style (Caillat & Muller, 1996), and emphasize breadth rather than depth brand image perceptions (Roth, 1992).

In contrast, advertisements in high context cultures are likely to be emotional

(Biswas, et al., 1992), have more of a soft-sell approach (Muller, 1996), use indirect and harmony-seeking appeals (Miracle et al., 1992), and emphasize brand image perceptions (Roth, 1992).

Context

Hall (1987) suggests that different languages exhibit different contextual

variations. He explains that in a high-context communication, the mass of the information is in the implicit code. In low-context communication, the information is in the explicit code. This concept is useful to explain how people in a culture relate to one another, especially in reference to social bonds, responsibility, commitment, social harmony, and communication. It helps people to understand the cultural difference (Kim et al., 1998).

According to Hall, high- and low-cultures constitute opposite ends in a continuum of cultural values. High-context cultures emphasize personal connections, ingroup and outgroup distinctions, high commitment, authority and responsibility, confrontation avoidance, subtle communication, self-restraint, and avoidance of new situations. Lowcontext cultures emphasize individuality, distributed responsibility, risk-taking, directness, and innovation when faced with complexity.

According to Hall's (1976) definition of high- versus low-context culture, a highcontext culture is one in which people are deeply involved with each other. Because of intimate relationships among people, a structure of social hierarchy exists, individual's






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feelings are managed by strong self-control, and information is widely shared through simple messages with deep meaning (Kim et al., 1998). A low-context culture is one in which people are highly individualized, somewhat alienated and fragmented, and experience relatively little involvement with others (Hall, 1976). Therefore, individuals' lives are emphasized, and communication between people is more explicit (Kim et al., 1998). In other words, high-context cultures are intuitive and contemplative and tend to use indirect messages, whereas low-context cultures are analytical and action-oriented and tend to use explicit, clearly articulated messages (Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson, 1997).

Hall (1976, 1987) describes the United States and some western countries as lowcontext cultures and Korea, Japan, and Taiwan as high context cultures.



Table 6. High-context vs. low-context national cultures Context Countries
High Korea, China
Vietnam, Japan
Greece, Arabic Countries
Medium Italy, Spain
Frances, UK
Scandinavia, USA
Low Germany, Switzerland
Source: Mtihlbacher, H., Dahringer, L., & Leihs, H. (1999). International marketing: A global perspective. London, UK: International Thomson Business Press.


Yum (1987) attributed the high-context nature of Korean culture to Confucian

influences. Yum also cited a traditional de-emphasis of oral communication and the high value placed on reacting to nonverbal cues as characteristics of the Korean culture.

First exposed to Confucianism in the 2"d century BC, Korea had become a

normative Confucian society by about the 18th century. Today, Koreans are considered to






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be more faithful to the Confucian tradition than are the Chinese (Schiitte & Ciarlante, 1998).

Confucianism and Buddhism have become the philosophical foundations for the Korean value system. These two philosophies have shaped the ideas of the Korean people on how to consume and have contributed to shaping hierarchical social structures. Through Buddhism, Korean people have learned about the relationship between the mind and worldly desires (Kim, 1994)

According to Confucianism, the most important human values include loyalty to the state or emperor, respect for elders, filial piety, faith in friendship, reciprocity in human relations, education, and cultivation. These virtues can be reflected in the following relationships: (1) ruler and subject, (2) father and son, (3) older brother and younger brother, (4) husband and wife, and (5) older friend and younger friend.

Additionally, high-context culture in Korea is related to Koran language. Koreans now use a more nearly phonetic system (Hangul) that is comparable to an alphabet. However, Koreans have used Chinese characters (Hanja), and their use persists among Korean intellectuals even today. Each character is a symbol that often delivers more meaning than a letter or a few letters of an alphabet, and often as much as several words or a sentence (Taylor, Miracle & Chang, 1994). Hanja's meaning is communicated in a visual way, similar to a picture or image.

In a high-context communication or message, most of the information is either part of the context or internalized in the person. The information in a low-context message is carried in the explicit code of the message (De Mooij, 1997). In general, highcontext communication is economical, fast, and efficient. However, time must be devoted






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to programming. If this programming does not take place, the communication is incomplete. Low-context cultures are described by explicit verbal messages. Effective verbal communication is expected to be explicit, direct and unambiguous. Low-context cultures demonstrate high value and a positive attitude toward words (De Mooij, 1997).

In high-context cultures people try to avoid direct confrontation to maintain social harmony and intimate bonds between people, often through repressing self. In contrast, low-context culture people are less likely to avoid direct and open confrontation at the expense of expressing and defending self (Hall, 1976).

As related to Individualism/ Collectivism, Hofstede finds a relationship between collectivism and high context in cultures. In collectivistic cultures, information flows more easily between members of the group and messages are more implicit. Collective cultures show more indirect communication versus more direct communication in individualistic cultures (De Mooij, 1997).

The distinction between high-context/low-context communication is useful in understanding the difference between cultures with respect to verbal and nonverbal communication, direct versus indirect advertising, and the use of symbols versus facts and data. In terms of advertising, argumentation and rhetoric are found in low-context cultures. Advertising in high-context cultures is characterized by symbolism as indirect verbal expression (De Mooij, 1997). High-context can be recognized by the use of indirect communication using less copy and more symbols. Low-context communication cultures tend to use more copy, argumentation, facts and data than high-context cultures (De Mooij, 1997).






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In low-context communication, data and facts are important and product merit appeals and rhetoric are widely used. High-context communication uses indirect communication, making the use of symbols and entertainment important in advertising. These symbols are not easily interpretated by people of another culture (De Mooij, 1997). For example, a Japanese advertisement for mayonnaise does not explicitly show that the ad is promoting mayonnaise. The headline is also not promotional, reading, "Parsley contains twice as much calcium as milk." The entire first paragraph tells consumers the calcium content of various vegetables. It is not until the final two sentences that the reader is persuaded by Kewpie brand mayonnaise to enjoy vegetables (Muller, 1996). Therefore, high-context and low-context can be manipulated by the level of information in advertising.

High-context and low-context has been tested in several studies. Jacob (1998)

discussed the cultural differences between high-context culture and low-context culture in business. He suggested that high-context cultures rely more heavily on formal etiquette and personal relationships for business communication. For example, the avoidance of direct eye contact is a sign of respect in some Asian countries, while Americans tend to misunderstand it as an attempt to hide something.

Korea is considered a high-context culture by all business communication writers, which means it values community more than the individual, concentrates on personal relationships and uses several face-saving tactics in doing business (Thomas, 1998). Business communication instructors know the notion of high and low context as a good way to explain cultural differences in speaking and writing. Countries thought to be low






37


context include Germany and the United States; countries thought to be high context include Japan and Saudi Arabia. Korea is considered a high-context culture by all writers.

In terms of research related to high- and low-context in advertising, Lin (1993)

found that Japanese (high-context) commercials assumed a soft-sell approach, using short messages, songs, celebrities, female voice-overs and still graphics. In contrast, American commercials assume a hard-sell approach by using long messages, animation, male spokespersons and humor. Japan is a 'high-context society' whose communication needs are met through familiar symbols and icons rather than logical recommendations. On the other hand, the U.S. is a low-context culture requiring western rhetoric and logical tradition to communicate thoughts and actions.

Based on Hall's concept of high- and low-context cultures, Kim, Pan, and Park (1998) tried to explain that these different cultural values can be proved with measurable amounts among Chinese, Korean, and American graduate students, as a first step to developing a rigorous scale to evaluate context difference. As authoritarianism, need-forcognition, and values scales, as well as a unique survey, were used, they found that Americans rated the lowest on composite scores while Chinese and Korean respondents rated highest. The authors conclude that these differences in cultural values can be used in different marketing strategies in high and low contexts.

Although culture is a complex, multifaced construct, two cultural dimensions

were evident in this study because they suggest that advertising in the United States and Korea would be different (Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson, 1997). As discussed previously, the dimensions are the degree to which the cultures are (1) individualistic or collectivistic






38


and (2) high or low context. Figure 3. summarizes the differences between the U.S. and Korea on those dimensions.


Figure3. Two cultural dimensions between the U.S. and Korea Source: Taylor, C. R., Miracle, G. E., & Wilson, R. D. (1997). The impact of information level on the effectiveness of U.S. and Korean television commercials. Journal of Advertising, 26(1), 1-18.

Self-Concept: Allocentricity (Interdependence) and Idiocentricity (Independence) Triandis (1989) tried to understand how culture shapes the self. He distinguished between public, private, and collective aspects of self. The private self refers to how the person understands himself or herself, including introspection, private decision-making, self-esteem, and self-perception. The public self refers to how one is perceived by other people, and it includes one's reputation, impressions made on specific others and so on. Lastly, the collective self refers to one's memberships in social groups, such as ethnic identity and family ties.

Triandis explained how culture affects these different aspects of the self.

Collective societies raise children to conform to the group, as opposed to individualistic societies that support diversity and self-expression. Collectivistic societies emphasize the


Individualism Collectivism High-Context Korea




Low-Context United States






39


public and collective aspect of self at the expense of the private self; on the other hand, individualistic societies focus on the private self.

Markus and Kitayama (1991) proposed one dimension of cultural variation in self, i.e., interdependence and independence. They said that American and Western European views of self are related to autonomy and separateness.Japanese and other Asian and African cultures have viewed the self as fundamentally and essentially interconnected with other people and interdependent with them. They explained the difference by citing two proverbs: "the squeaky wheel gets the grease" in America emphasizing individuals; whereas, "the nail that stands out gets pounded down" in Japan, emphasizing the group.

Independent Self-Construal. Independent self-construal is defined as involving a "bounded, unitary, stable" self that is separate from social context (Singelis, 1994 p.581). The process of independent self-construal emphasizes (a) internal abilities, thoughts, and feelings; (b) being unique and expressing the self; (c) realizing internal attributes and promoting one' own goals; and (d) being direct in communication. Those with well-developed independent self-construals will gain self-esteem through expressing the self and validating their internal attributes.

Interdependent Self-Construal. An interdependent self-construal is defined as involving a "flexible, variable" self emphasizing (a) external, public features such as status, roles, and relationships; (b) belonging and fitting in; (c) occupying one's proper place and engaging in appropriate action; and (d) being indirect in communication and "reading other's minds." Opposed to the independent self, the interdependent self depends on others, his or her relations with others, and contextual factors to regulate behavior (Singelis, 1994).






40


The concepts of collectivistic and individualistic cultures, and independent and interdependent self-concepts, can be used to identify members within a culture whose self-identity is congruent with the norms of their culture, and those who are culturally deviant. Allocentrics (interdependent) in a collective culture and idiocentrics (independent) in an individualistic culture are culturally congruent. As such, personal beliefs and group norms of the culture are similar. Idiocentrics in a collective culture, and allocentrics in an individualistic culture are culturally deviant (Leach & Liu, 1998).

Ted Singelis (1994) has developed a questionnaire that measures the extent to which people view themselves as interdependent or independent. He found that Asian Americans agreed more with the interdependence than the independence items. In contrast, Caucasian Americans agreed more with the independence than the interdependence items.

The difference between the Western and Eastern sense of self is real and has interesting consequences for communication between cultures. The differences in the sense of self are so fundamental that it is very difficult for independent selves to appreciate what aspects interdependent people have, and vice versa (Aronson, 1994). Western people have difficulty appreciating the Asian sense of interdependence; many Asian people find it difficult to comprehend the Western sense of independence.

Standardization and Localization

The issue of standardization covers if each component, especially advertising of the 4Ps of marketing should be standardized worldwide (Onkvisit & Shaw, 1999). There have been three different viewpoints in international marketing. The first thought is globalization, holding that media, technology, travel and education have homogenized consumer tastes and that consumer differences are slight and shallow.






41


The second thought is the adaptation strategy holding that consumer differences are being widened because of culture. The third thought is a compromise stating that the appropriateness of standardization is situation-specific and that the type of product, consumer characteristics and environmental components should be considered (Onkivisit & Shaw, 1999).

The standardized approach in international advertising indicates the adoption of one advertisement for all markets. A specialized or localized approach refers to the use of different advertisements for different markets to adapt to local market conditions (Yin, 1999).

The standardization of advertising was boosted by Levitt (1983). He contended that the worldwide market place was becoming homogeneous and that companies could get real competitive advantage by pushing a strategy that enables them to produce standardized products and services. Duncan and Ramaprasad (1995) suggested that standardization of international advertising campaigns depends on the situation. Zhang and Gelb (1996) found that advertising standardization is possible if a product is used in a consumption situation that matches the appeal in the advertisement. Positive effect from standardization can be achieved by preventing image confusion and consumer irritation (Backhaus, Muhlfeld, & Doorn, 2001).

A global marketing strategy and advertising program offer certain advantages to a company including the following (Belch & Belch, 1998).

* Economies of scale in production and distribution.
" Lower marketing and advertising costs as a result of reductions in
planning and control.
" Lower advertising production costs.
" Abilities to exploit good ideas on a worldwide basis and introduce
products quickly into various world markets.






42


* A consistent international brand and company image.
" Simplification of coordination and control of marketing and promotional
programs.

In a Backhaus, Muhlfeld, and Doom (2001) study, they found that visual elements are fundamental to perceptions of standardization. An advertiser can create an advertising campaign that is perceived as standardized by the target group of international advertising by exploiting these perceptual similarities.

One possible obstacle to standardization is the culture of the people.

Understanding the role of culture in the formation of consumer behavior is critical in the development of an effective global advertising strategy (Monye, 1999). Wind (1986) contended that one could not ignore the difference in different markets and the need to adapt to them. Anholt (1995) suggested that because advertising is related to the popular culture, the social structure and the laws, messages cannot be communicated in precisely the same way in different countries. It was confirmed by Zhang and Gelb's (1996) study that consumers respond more positively to advertising messages that are congruent with their culture.

Advertising may be particularly difficult to standardize because of cultural

differences in circumstances, language, traditions, values, beliefs, lifestyle, music, and so on. Moreover, some experts argue that cultures around the world are becoming more diverse, not less so. Thus, advertising's job of informing and persuading consumers and moving them toward using a particular brand can be effective only within a given culture (Belch & Belch, 1998).

For example, one American shoe manufacturer promoted its product through advertisements with photos of bare feet. Although such a message would pose no






43


problem in most countries, the campaign failed miserably in Southeast Asia, where exposure of the foot is considered an insult. The problem of communicating to people in diverse cultures has been called one of the greatest challenges in marketing communication (Belch & Belch, 1998).

In order of importance in localizing advertising components, language is rated the most important. Next in importance is the need to localize product attributes, models, colors of advertisements, humor, scenic background, and music (Yin, 1999).

In Francis, Lam and Wall's (2002) study, they compared English brand names with Chinese brand names on several dimensions. The vast majority of firms localize their brand names, and transliteration of the brand name is the strategy used most often.

Kotler (1986) believed in a mixed approach, combining standardization and

localization. For example, if a specific product's brand name differs from one market to the next and the company wants to keep main characteristics, the international marketer may have no choice but to employ a specialized approach to advertising. For example, Unilever markets a cleaning liquid called "Vif' in Switzerland, "Viss" in Germany, "Jif' in Britain and Greece, and "Cif" in France (Belch & Belch, 1998).

According to Yin's study (1999), combination strategy is a popular choice. Seventy seven percent of 140 companies used combination strategy, that is, partly localized and partly standardized.

Market Segmentation and Target Marketing

Marketing and advertising professionals review the marketplace to see what needs and wants consumer groups have and how to satisfy them. One technique they use is market segmentation (Lee & Johnson, 1999). For example, PepsiCo realized that not all consumers have the same tastes, especially in the global markets. It made a paprika-






44


flavored chip for Poland and Hungary, a squid-peanut snack for Southeast Asia, and "cheeseless" Cheetos for China. The company used market segmentation to differentiate markets.

To reach a market by using segmentation, markerters can select one of several methods such as demographic, geographic, behavioristic, and psychographics. Psychographic segmentation divides the market on the basis of lifestyle and/or personality. This dissertation research suggests that market segmentation of self-concept needs to be added to international advertising's types of segmentation if culturally congruent members and culturally deviant have apparently different characteristics.

The next step is to select appropriate target markets. For instance, Meredith Corporation, publisher of Ladies' Home Journal and Better Homes and Gardens, identified a new market for a fashion, beauty, and health magazine targeted at women aged forty to sixty-four. In this case, the company created a product that would be good for a specific target market (Lee & Johnson, 1999).

A particularly hard group to successfully target has been the up-and-coming Generation Xers. This group now spends $125 billion a year and is unusually media savvy (Lee & Johnson, 1999). As students are a prominent target group for international advertising because of their high degree of education and likely international orientation, students as an example of a consumer segment were chosen. Furthermore, finding distinctively different culturally congruent and culturally deviant Korean young generation consumers may be useful to international marketers.

The Global Youth Market

The youth market is one of the most distinct global groups and a particularly important global community for many marketers. Even within this group, there are






45


segments based on values, personalities, and lifestyles. In a study of more than 27,000 teenagers in 44 countries, the 500-million member group was divided into six value segments. There are lifestyle characteristics that cross national borders (Duncan, 2002). The music video channel MTV is an example of a powerful worldwide media vehicle that reaches the global youth market. Although most teens listen to the same types of music, MTV has found that there are regional and national differences, particularly in language.






123%
E Thrills and Chillis
M Upholders
o Quiet Achievers

18% o Resigned
* Bootstrappers

1 % E World Savers
17%



Figure 4. Six segments of the global youth market

Source: Duncan, T. (2002). IMC: Using advertising & promotion to build brands. New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill/Irwin


In the segments, the characteristics are as follows: Thrills and Chillis (18%): fun, friends, irreverence and sensation; Upholders (16%): family, custom, tradition, respect for individuals; Quiet Achievers (15%): success, anonymity, anti-individualism, social optimism; Resigned (14%): fun, friends, family, and low expectations; Bootstrappers (14%): achievement, individualism, optimism, determination, power; World Savers (12%): environment, humanism, fun and friends.






46


Products' Use Condition as a Moderator Advertising effectiveness may be moderated by product characteristics. Asian consumers are characterized by a pragmatic approach when it comes to private-use purchases. The purchase decision is based on utilitarian features of the product such as physical characteristics and price-to-quality ratio (Schttte & Ciarlante, 1998). The interdependent-self influences private-use purchase decisions by encouraging conformist consumption. As the Asian consumer regards his own identity in the context of society, he does not want to stray from socially acceptable norms, even in private. For example, Korean people living in the same area, such as an apartment building, are likely to use the same brand of detergent.

According to Shavitt (1990), shared products were defined as ones for which the decision-making process involved in purchase and the pattern of product usage are likely to include family members or friends (e.g., home appliances and groceries). Personal products were defined as ones for which the purchase decision and product usage are usually done by individuals (e.g., fashion apparel, cosmetics, personal care products) (Han & Shavitt, 1994).

Therefore, it is expected that a consumer's need to conform to cultural values and norms when evaluating products may depend on how the products are used (the product use condition). A toothbrush, not reflecting collectivist values can be effectively promoted using individualistic appeal in a predominantly collective culture. In a parallel way, a camera, not reflecting individualist values, can be effectively promoted using collectivistic appeal in a predominantly individualistic culture (Zhang & Gelb, 1996).






47


Advertising in Korea

Among the more than 100 advertising agencies approved by the Korea

Broadcasting Advertising Corporation (KOBACO), over 30 agencies are in-house (affiliates of local business conglomerates or parent companies), and half of the top 30 agencies in terms of billing amount are in-house agencies of the chaebols (Gentry, Jun, Ko, & Kang, 1998). Over 20 agencies have foreign-invest or technical cooperation, and six of these are locally established multinational agencies in joint-venture arrangements.

As far as the top ten advertisers in Korea were concerned, their total expenditures bounced back to above the 1997 level. The total in 1999 was 601.6 billion while it was 519.9 billion won in 1997. Year-on-year growth showed +35.6. (Korean Association of Advertising Agencies, 2000).



Table 7. Top ten advertiser's advertising expenditures (in billions of won) 1999 1998
Samsung Electronics 107.1(1) 67.2(1) +59.4
SK Telecom 83.0(2) 59.9(2) +38.6
Kia Motors 57.9(3) -_Namyang Dairy 55.4(4) 37.2(6) +48.9
Hyundai Motors 54.6(5) 51.3 +6.4
LG Chemical 50.9(6) 43.6(7) +16.7
Daewoo Motors 50.9(7) 55.9(3) -9.0
Pacific Chemical 49.7(8) 41.5(5) +19.8
Maeil Dairy 46.1(9) -
Hyundai Securities 46.0(10) -
Total 601.6 443.5 +35.6
Source: Advertising Yearbook 2000 (Korean Association of Advertising Agencies)

Korea was chosen for study for two reasons. First, cultural differences between the United States and Korea suggest that Korean culture differs from the American culture on the dimension of context and individualism/collectivism (Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson, 1997).






48


A second reason for choosing Korea is Korea's status as an emerging market (Holstein & Nakarmi, 1995). In 1994, Korea made the list of the world's 10 largest advertisers for the first time (Pruzan, 1995), with economic growth accounting for an increase in ad billing from $938 million in 1985 to nearly $7 billion in 1996 (Kilburn, 1997). Given the economic importance of Korea, it represents a significant country for advertising research (Wolburg & Kim, 1999). As far as advertising expenditure is concerned, Korea is one of the largest countries in Asia.


Table 8. Distribution of the top five world advertising expenditures by country, 1995
(US$m)
Region Country Expenditure
America USA 88,915
Costa Rica 4,966
Canada 4,142
Argentina 3,229
Mexico 1,092
Europe Germany 21,992
United Kingdom 12,803
France 10,137
Italy 5,221
Spain 4,717
Asia Japan 39,124
South Korea 6,077
Australia 4,369
Taiwan 3,207
China 1,950
Africa South Africa 1,259
Nigeria 240
Egypt 177
Kenya 35
Zimbabwe 29
Middle East Israel 8,181
Lebanon 347
Saudi Arabia 270
UAE 117
Kuwait 1,167
Source: World Advertising Trends (NTC Publications, 1997).






49


The Lifestyles and Consumption Styles of Koreans


Average Koreans want to spend more on cars, houses, telephones, washing

machines, and all the other products their counterparts in Europe and America spend their time working for. Evidences of Korean's consumers desires are the feverish crowds in department stores and the clogging up of Seoul's roads with the new cars that middleclass people are beginning to be able to afford (Economist, August 18, 1990). Since 1997 all Koreans have viewed advertising more positively, whereas negative attitudes toward advertising have decreased. There is an increased tendency to view advertising as interesting, compared to previous years. Advertising is considered better than an uninteresting program. In addition, the fear that advertising has a negative influence on youth is decreasing among the general public in Korea (Cheil Communication, 2000).


I I
Advertising is better 9.2
than an uninteresing 31.6
program. _ _E3 .2

When advertising is 9.5 0197
on TV, we change the 1 E1998
channel E 7.8

Advertising has a 26.5
negative influence on
youth 154

0 10 20 30 40

Figure 5. Attitudes toward advertising

Consumer Issues of Young Korean Consumers

Hafstrom, Chae, and Chung (1992) found that several consumer decision-making styles characteristic of young U.S. consumers are similar to those of young Korean






50


consumers. Lee and Green (1991) found that American and Korean students identified the same set of six salient attributes with regard to their purchases of sneakers: price, style, comfort, brand, durability, and color.

In relation to innovativeness, Tansuhaj et al. (1991) found that young Koreans are more willing to adopt new technological products, but less willing to adopt new media products, entertainment offerings, and fashion products than any other countries including young Americans.

In the case of singles in their twenties, born in the 70s, they will be in their thirties in the 2000s, and have a significantly different lifestyle than the older generations. Single people who reached their twenties during the 1990s are called "the new generation" in Korea because they are not the same as previous generations due to the fact that they have proved to have excellent computer and foreign language skills, which befits the new global society.

They are sensitive to price, a sensitivity that has been on the increase since '96 when the economy went into a downturn; women seem to be more susceptible to prices than men. According to current trends, the twenties' tendency to purchase impulsively continues to decrease; the consumption pattern of single twenties seems to be gradually becoming more rational (Dae Hong Communications, 1999).

On the basis of current lifestyle trends, young Korean consumers prefer western styled housing, and they also wish to live independently from their parents. They have more financial freedom and fewer family obligations compared to other age groups, and are thus in a more independent position.






51


The popularity of western lifestyles continues to increase in Korea. The younger the generation, the more easily it adapts western culture. However, traditional family values, based on Confucianism, still remain powerful. In an annual consumer report survey (Cheil Communication, 2000), 40 percent of respondents agreed with the following statement, "Private life is more important than the organization," evidence that the family is still important in Korea.

The Current Korean Culture

According to past studies, both advertising content and practice in East Asian cultures are moving toward those of the West (Cho et al., 1999). Cho et al.'s results at least imply that Korea may be moving toward the West and away from traditional culture.

Similarly, the concept "Modernity and Youth" presented in the Cheng and

Schweitzer (1996) study of Chinese culture appears generalizable to the Korean context. Korea had a strong "youth orientation" present in its advertising in 1995 (Cho et al., 1999). In addition, Lin' study (2001) examined cultural values as reflected in American and Chinese commercials. She found that the youth/modernity appeal reflects both the westernization and modernization in China. The appeal seems as prominently displayed in Chinese commercials as in the American commercials.

Hypotheses and Research Questions

Hypotheses

On the basis of the preceding literature review, six hypotheses were developed to empirically test the summary perspective on the relationship between advertising and culture. Given any culturally relevant norm, there are likely to be individuals within the culture whose personal values are consistent with the norm as well as those whose values






52


are inconsistent with the norm. These two types are termed culturally congruent individuals and culturally deviant individuals (Leach & Liu, 1998). For that reason, it is hypothesized that

HI. The main effect of self-concept: Korean culturally congruent subjects will have a higher mean score than Korean culturally deviant subjects in terms of three dependent variables (Aad, Abr and PI).

* In the case of an expensive shared product

" In the case of an inexpensive shared product

In hypothesis 1, MANOVA will be used to analyze the effectiveness of

advertising appeals with three dependent variables i.e. attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. After applying the MANOVA test, univariate analysis will be used to examine each dependent variable separately.

In previous research, a consumer's need to conform to cultural values and norms when evaluating products depended on how the products were used (the product use condition). Asian consumers are characterized by a pragmatic approach when it comes to private-use purchases. The purchase decision is based on utilitarian features of the product such as physical characteristics and price-to-quality ratio (Schitte & Ciarlante, 1998). Korean consumers will respond on several products differently. On the basis of these assertions, it is posited that

H2. The main effect of product: A shared product will have a higher mean score than a
personal product in terms of three dependent variables (Aad, Abr and PI) among
culturally congruent and culturally deviant.

" In the case of an expensive shared product
* In the case of an inexpensive shared product

In hypothesis 2, MANOVA will be used to analyze the effectiveness of

advertising appeals with three dependent variables (i.e. attitude toward the ad, attitude






53


toward the brand, and purchase intention). After applying the MANOVA test, univariate analysis will be used to examine each dependent variable separately.

Hofstede (1980, 1984) analyzed the characteristics of 53 countries to compare the cultural differences in terms of individualism-collectivism. The results show the least individualistic, i.e. most collectivistic, countries are Guatemala, Ecuador, and Panama. Korea ranks 43rd among the 53 countries. Because Korea is considered to be a collectivistic culture, there will be a difference between a collectivistic appeal and an individualistic appeal.

H3. The main effect of appeal: Collectivistic appeals will have a higher mean score than individualistic appeals in terms of three dependent variables (Aad, Abr and PI) among culturally congruent and culturally deviant.

* In the case of an expensive shared product

" In the case of an inexpensive shared product

In hypothesis 3, MANOVA will be used to analyze the effectiveness of

advertising appeals with three dependent variables i.e. attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. After applying the MANOVA test, univariate analysis will be used to examine each dependent variable separately.

The potential heterogeneity within a culture gives rise to the probability that some individuals within a culture cannot be categorized with some or all of the norms associated with that culture. There are individual differences within one culture. In addition, Korea is considered to be a collectivistic culture. Collectivistic appeals will be more effective than individualistic appeal on an individual level. Thus, there will be an interaction between self-concept and appeal. Therefore, it is logical to postulate that

H4. The interaction effect of self-concept and appeal: Korean culturally
congruent subjects (interdependent) will have a higher mean effectiveness score than






54


Korean culturally deviant subjects (independent), when presented with culturally relevant ad stimuli (collectivistic appeal), and Korean culturally deviant will have a higher mean effectiveness score than Korean culturally congruent subjects when presented with individualistic appeals advertising.

H4-1. Korean culturally congruent subjects will have a higher mean attitude toward advertising than Korean culturally deviant subjects, when presented with culturally relevant ad stimuli (collectivistic appeal), and Korean culturally deviant will have a higher mean effectiveness score than Korean culturally congruent subjects when presented with individualistic appeals advertising.

H4-2. Korean culturally congruent subjects will have a higher mean attitude
toward a brand than Korean culturally deviant subjects, when presented with culturally relevant ad stimuli (collectivistic appeal), and Korean culturally deviant will have a higher mean effectiveness score than Korean culturally congruent subjects when presented with individualistic appeals advertising.

H4-3. Korean culturally congruent subjects will have a higher mean purchase
intention than Korean culturally deviant subjects, when presented with culturally relevant ad stimuli (collectivistic appeal), and Korean culturally deviant will have a higher mean effectiveness score than Korean culturally congruent subjects when presented with individualistic appeals advertising.

" In the case of an expensive shared product

* In the case of an inexpensive shared product

In hypothesis 4, MANOVA will be used to analyze the effectiveness of

advertising appeals with three dependent variables i.e. attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. After applying the MANOVA test, univariate analysis will be used to examine each dependent variable separately.

There will be an interaction between an appeal and a product. For example, a toothbrush, a personal product indicating individualistic value, can be effectively promoted using individualistic appeal in a predominantly collective culture. By the same token, a camera, a shared product indicating collectivistic values, can be effectively promoted using collectivistic appeal in a predominantly individualistic culture (Zhang & Gelb, 1996). On the basis of these findings, it is hypothesized that






55


H5. The interaction effect of appeal and product: Individualistic appeals will score higher on effectiveness in personal product advertisements than will collectivistic appeals, and collectivistic appeals will score higher in effectiveness on shared product advertisements than will individualistic appeals..

H5-1. Individualistic appeals will score higher on attitude toward the advertising on personal product advertisements than will collectivistic appeals, and collectivistic appeals will score higher on attitude toward the advertising on shared product advertisements than will individualistic appeals.

H5-2. Individualistic appeals will score higher on attitude toward the brand on
personal product advertisements than will collectivistic appeals, and collectivistic appeals will score higher on attitude toward the brand on shared product advertisements than will individualistic appeals.

H5-3. Individualistic appeals will score higher on purchase intention on personal product advertisements than will collectivistic appeals, and collectivistic appeals will score higher on purchase intention on shared product advertisements than will individualistic appeals.

* In the case of an expensive shared product

* In the case of an inexpensive shared product

In hypothesis 5, MANOVA will be used to analyze the effectiveness of

advertising appeals with three dependent variables i.e. attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. After applying the MANOVA test, univariate analysis will be used to examine each dependent variable separately. Research Question

Finally, seven additional research questions are posed in order to further explore the descriptive aspects of the study further.

Despite Korea's being considered a collectivistic culture, it is questionable that collectivistic appeals will be more effective than individualistic appeals on the level of the entire country. Within one culture, individuals can be different in terms of selfconcept.






56


RQ1. Will collectivistic appeals score higher in effectiveness among the entire
sample of Korean youth?

RQ 1-1. Will collectivistic appeals score higher on attitude toward the advertising
among the entire sample of Korean youth?

RQl-2. Will collectivistic appeals score higher on attitude toward the brand
among the entire sample of Korean youth?

RQ 1-3. Will collectivistic appeals score higher on purchase intention among the
entire sample of Korean youth?


The product use condition moderated advertising appeals when advertising appeals are compared in eastern and western countries. Therefore, it is questionable as to how differently the product use condition will be when subjects are divided into culturally congruent members and culturally deviant members.

RQ2. How do culturally congruent members and culturally deviant members
differ in terms of product use condition?

RQ2-1. How do culturally congruent members and culturally deviant members
differ in terms of product use condition in their attitude toward advertising?

RQ2-2. How do culturally congruent members and culturally deviant members
differ in terms of product use condition in their attitude toward the brand?

RQ2-3. How do culturally congruent members and culturally deviant members
differ in terms of product use condition in their purchase intention?

" In the case of an expensive shared product

" In the case of an inexpensive shared product

Because this study has a 3-factorial design, it is expected that 3-way interaction will be found despite the difficulty of interpreting the main effects.

RQ3. Is there 3-way interaction among the three independent variables?

" In the case of an expensive shared product

" In the case of an inexpensive shared product






57


In research question 3, MANOVA will be used to analyze any interaction among three independent variables, i.e. advertising appeal, product use condition and selfconcept (culturally congruent vs. culturally deviant) in terms of three dependent variables.

When self-concept is extended to four types of self-concept, it is questionable as to how four-types of self- concept see advertising.

RQ4. What is the difference among four types of self-concept in terms of three
dependent variables?

* In the case of an inexpensive shared product

In research question 4, MANOVA will be used to analyze four types of selfconcept (culturally congruent, culturally deviant, bicultural and culturally-alienated) in terms of three dependent variables.

It is also questionable as to how different culturally congruent and culturally deviant are in terms of demographic variables.

RQ5-1. What are the characteristics of both culturally congruent subjects and culturally deviant in terms of gender, monthly income and media use pattern?

RQ5-2 What are the characteristics of four types of self-concept in terms of
gender, monthly income and media use pattern?

In research question 5-1 and 5-2, Chi-square will be used to analyze relationship between self-concept and gender, monthly income and media use pattern.

When gender enters to the fixed factor, it is questionable whether there is an interaction between self-concept and gender.

RQ6. What is the difference between self-concept and gender in terms of three
dependent variables?






58


In research question 6, MANOVA will be used to analyze the interaction between self-concept and gender in terms of three dependent variables.

It also is questionable as to how men and women see shared product advertisement and personal product advertisement.


RQ7. What is the difference between men and women in terms of three
dependent variables on product use condition?

In research question 7, MANOVA will be used to analyze any interaction between gender and product use condition in terms of three dependent variables.














CHAPTER 3
METHOD

Design of the Experiment

Before the experiment, there was a prior step for validating how collectivistic or individualistic Korean culturally congruent students and Korean culturally deviant students are when compared to American students in the pilot study. The diagram is as follows:

Collectivism Individualism



Congruent Deviant

Korean



Congruent Deviant
4
American

Figure 6. The Comparison of Korean culturally congruent students and Korean culturally deviant students and average American students

An experiment was designed to test the hypotheses and research questions. The subjects were 674 students in Korea, 301 men and 372 women. They were enrolled in undergraduate classes at a large Korean university. Three independent variables were used in the experiment: 1) advertising appeals (collectivistic versus individualistic), 2) self-concept (culturally congruent vs. culturally deviant), 3) product use conditions (shared versus personal). The three variables are between-subject variables. Students in


59






60


Korea were selected randomly to receive an individualistic or collectivist appeal in each of the test ads they would see. Hence, the study had a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial design.

The ad copy, size, and layout for both products were identical to control for

potential confounding elements. The picture of the product and the fictional brand name were varied to correspond to the product. Brands used in the advertising were introduced to the subjects a new brand in the Korean market.

Selecting Advertising Appeal

As in previous research (Han & Shavitt, 1994; Zhang & Gelb, 1996) the two advertising appeals were manipulated by varying the headline copy in the ads. The headline copies were solicited from pretest subjects in a focus-group setting (sample size = 20). The moderator opened the focus-group sessions by welcoming the subjects to the session and introducing the discussion topics: culture's influence on advertising in general and why people are interested in such influences. Some of the major cultural differences in the individualism-collectivism dimension were identified and discussed. After several iterative rounds of pretesting with separate groups in which Korean-born college students evaluated and discussed the appeal types, the final individualistic appeal copy read, "Plan only your own time". The final collectivistic appeal copy read, "We can communicate with each other through a watch" and so on (Table 9).






61


Table 9. Transition of ad copy headlines
Product Individualistic Appeal Collectivistic Appeal
Personal Watch "Plan your own time" -What a watch
communicates... We all can
share"
Perfume "A fragrance a woman falls "Even though we're different.
for" We are the same."
Shared Car "A new space to display my "A comfortable car just like
taste- our home"
TV "A window to see my world" "A theater for our family"
Camera "I use my camera to take "We use our camera to take
pictures for my memories" pictures of our happy family"
Game "My game lets me enjoy a "Our family's fantastic
world entertainment by entertainment world"
myself'


Filler ads from Korean magazines, chosen by a panel of judges, were used to

disguise the purpose of the study. The advertisements were compiled into a magazinelike booklet and appeared in the following sequence: filler ad 1, experimental ad 1(shared

product with individualistic appeal/personal product with collectivistic appeal), filler ad

2, experimental ad 2 (personal product with individualistic appeal/shared product with

collectivistic appeal), and filler ad 3. The order of the products was alternated in the

experimental ads to eliminate any sequence effect due to the order of presentation.

Selecting Product

Because a consumer's need to conform to cultural values and norms when

evaluating products may depend on how the products are used (the product use

condition), Personal vs. Shared product categories were determined on the basis of a

survey in which 40 Korean students rate 37 consumer products and services in terms of

(1) the decision-making process involved in purchase (1= never discuss with their family






62


or friends whether to purchase, 5=always discuss), and usage pattern (1= used mostly

individually, 5= used mostly with family members or friends). (See Table 10)



Table 10. Means and standard deviation of products

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Pads 42 .00 8.00 2.5952 2.5188
Cosmetics 42 .00 8.00 4.4286 1.6549
Hair Care 42 1.00 10.00 6.1190 1.9153
Products
Lingerie 42 .00 8.00 3.1429 1.8944
Suntan Lotion 42 .00 8.00 4.7857 2.0065
Cards 42 .00 7.00 3.8333 1.7795
Gift Wrap 42 2.00 9.00 4.8571 1.9200
Kitchen Items 42 .00 10.00 5.8571 2.2800
Perfume 42 2.00 9.00 5.0476 1.8340
Watch 42 2.00 9.00 4.5952 1.7116
Shaver 42 .00 10.00 4.2619 2.3484
Copier 42 .00 10.00 6.8333 2.6125
Jewelry 42 .00 10.00 4.7381 2.0960
Apparel 42 2.00 10.00 5.8571 1.8815
Credit cards 42 .00 9.00 4.1429 1.9825
Sunglasses 42 2.00 10.00 5.0714 2.0048
Jeans 42 2.00 9.00 4.8810 1.7834
Wine 42 .00 10.00 5.8571 2.1928
Drinks 42 2.00 9.00 5.5714 2.1201
Groceries 42 2.00 10.00 7.1905 1.7284
Baby Products 42 .00 10.00 3.7619 2.9368
Coffee 42 2.00 10.00 6.8333 1.9370
Toothpaste 42 2.00 10.00 6.7143 1.5026
Laundry Soap 42 2.00 10.00 7.0476 1.4808
Medicine 42 4.00 10.00 7.1667 1.7519
Baby Clothes 42 .00 10.00 3.5238 2.9237
Batteries 42 2.00 10.00 4.8095 2.0391
Insurance 42 .00 10.00 5.5238 2.8902
Washer 42 .00 10.00 7.3810 2.1522






63


Table 10 - Continued
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Air 42 .00 10.00 7.9286 1.9304
Conditioner
Camera 42 4.00 10.00 8.0476 1.5765
TV 42 4.00 10.00 8.3333 1.6180
Computer 42 6.00 10.00 8.9048 1.3031
Airline 42 .00 9.00 5.2857 2.0516
Tickets
Car 42 .00 10.00 8.0952 2.3039
Hotel Room 42 .00 10.00 7.4762 2.1779
Home 42 3.00 10.00 8.2143 1.7743
Furnishings
Valid N 42
* Lower score means a personal product and higher score means a shared product.


Among these products, a watch and a perfume were selected as personal products

and a car and a TV were selected as shared products in the pretest. In the main

experiment, a camera and game system were included as expensive shared products.

These products were selected in terms of mean score and usage pattern for both men and

women. For example, even though pads received the lowest score, this item was not

selected because it is limited to women only. In addition, cards received a lower score,

but they were not selected because advertisements for cards are rare in Korea.

Hypotheses and research questions were analyzed both in the case of expensive shared

products and in the case of inexpensive shared products.

Self-Concept: Cultural Congruence and Deviance

A 95 NDCOL scale (See Appendix) developed by Triandis (1996) measured

levels of allocentricity (interdependent) and idiocentricity (independent). His scale

assesses the degree to which a person's self-concept is independent and interdependent.






64


This scale is a 9-point agree/disagree scale with 15 items assessing the concept of allocentricity and 14 items assessing idiocentricity.

The two dimensions were integrated by categorizing subjects into four quadrants related to their self-concept. Subjects were categorized into one of these four quadrants with the use of overall mean rating split into high and low idiocentric selves and high and low allocentric selves. The four quadrants of self-concept are defined as follows



High






High Low Allocentricity





Low


Idiocentricity


Figure 7. Quadrant of the self-concept

Quadrant 1: High on idiocentricity and low on allocentricity

Quadrant 2: Low on both idiocentricity and allocentricity

Quadrant 3: Low on idiocentricity and high on allocentricity

Quadrant 4: High on both idiocentricity and allocentricity

Subjects who report high levels of allocentricity and low levels of idiocentricity (Quadrant 3) are referred to as culturally congruent, and those who report low levels of allocentricity and high levels of idiocentricity (Quadrant 1) are the cultural deviants in






65


Korea. In addition, Subjects who report high levels of allocentricity and high levels of idiocentricity (Quadrant 4) are refereed to as bicultural. They are balanced and especially flexible, healthy. Yamada and Singelis (1999) found that people from a collectivist culture who spent time in an individualistic culture, and learned to get along with people from both of these cultures, are high in both idiocentrism and allocentrism. Those who report low levels of allocentricity and low levels of idiocentricity (Quadrant 2) are culturally alienated. They are rejecting both aspects of this cultural syndrome. This may be due to a general rejection of norms. Such people may be also confused, isolated, undersocialized, or marginal.

Procedures and Dependent Variables

Subjects will be recruited to participate in a study ostensibly investigating how people read printed materials. The students will complete the task in groups of 70 to 80. They will be instructed to be as natural as possible in reading the materials presented to them. After reading experimental ad 1 for the first product, they will rate their response to the ads and products. Next, subjects will read the second experimental ad for the first product and complete the questionnaire. In this way, they will read and respond to the four pairs of ads in turn. Finally, subjects will be debriefed and dismissed. All the dependent measures are adapted from previous studies (Zhang & Gelb, 1996; Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson, 1997; Ajzen, 2002).

Attitude toward the ad. Ad attitude(Aad) will be measured with four items, on a 9-point semantic differential scale (harmful-beneficial, present-unpleasant, good-bad, worthless-valuable, enjoyable-unenjoyable) (Ajzen, 2002; Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson, 1997).






66


Attitude toward the brand. Brand attitude (Abr) will be measured with a 5-item scale (harmful-beneficial, present-unpleasant, good-bad, worthless-valuable, enjoyableunenjoyable). Again, the mean score of the ratings will be to be used as the dependent measure of the construct. All semantic differential scales used for both Aad and Ahr a range from Ito 9 (Ajzen, 2002. Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson. 1997).

Purchase Intention. Purchase intention will be measured with a 3-item scale (ex. I intend to buy a JJM car in the next six months, I will try to buy a JJM car in the next six months and I plan to buy a JJM car in the next six months) (Ajzen, 2002 ).

Items will be rotated so that the positive term would not always be at the same

end of the 9- point scale. For the purpose of reporting results, a summated index for each of the multiple-item scales will be computed; higher scores will represent positive responses and lower scores will represent negative responses.














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Pilot Study


Procedure and Design of the Experiment

In order to test the hypotheses and research questions, a pre-experiment was conducted. The subjects were 112 students, 56 male and 56 female, enrolled in undergraduate classes at a major university in Korea. Three independent variables were used in the experiment: 1) advertising appeals (collectivistic versus individualistic), 2) self-concept (culturally congruent vs. culturally deviant), 3) product use conditions (shared versus personal). Subjects were selected to randomly receive an individualistic or collectivist appeal in each of the test ads they viewed. Therefore, the study had a 2 X 2 X

2 factorial design.

Results

The average reliability of each scale was assessed using Cronbach's alpha:

2
Individualistic scale of INDCOL, for American students, .72; Collectivistic scale of INDCOL for American students, .80; Individualistic scale of INDCOL for Korean students, .85; Collectivistic scale of INDCOL for Korean students, .70. This scale was a 9-point agree/disagree scale with 15 items assessing the concept of allocentricity (collectivistic) and 14 items assessing idiocentricity(individualistic).


2 American students were used forjust validating how collectivistic or individualistic Korean culturally congruent students and Korean culturally deviant students are when compared to American students. American students were not entered to an experiment.


67






68


A manipulation check was performed on the print advertisement used in the study. Utilizing an individualistic/collectivistic anchored 5-point semantic differential scale, pretest subjects were asked to read the advertising headline and rate the advertisements as being individualistic or collectivistic. The average ratings were 2.70 for individualistic appeal and 4.32 for collectivistic appeal for Korean students, making the difference statistically significant at the .001 level. These results suggest a convergence of the classification of an advertisement into individualistic and collectivistic categories and subjects' perception of advertising appeals.

In addition, subjects were asked to rate the products as a personal or a shared product in terms of (1) the decision-making process involved in purchase (1= never discuss with their family or friends whether to purchase, 5=always discuss), and (2) usage pattern (I= used mostly individually, 5= used mostly with other members of family or friends). The average ratings were 4.89 for a personal product and 7.34 for a shared product for Korean students, indicating statistically significant difference at the .001 level.

In the MANOVA analyses, the assumption of greatest importance is the

homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices across the groups. In this study, there are eight groups involved in testing the assumption. Box' M test has a significance level of .70, thus allowing acceptance of the null hypothesis of homogeneity of variancecovariance matrices at the .05 level. The second assumption is the correlation of the dependent variables, which is assessed with Bartlett's test of sphericity. In this example, the significance is .001, indicative of a significance level of correlation between the three dependent measures.






69


As shown in Table 11, the MANOVA results indicate no main effects for selfconcept, advertising appeal and product type. However, self-concept had a marginal significance level of .057 in the multivariate tests.


Table 11. Multivariate and univariate results for the effect of independent variables on attitude toward the advertising, attitude toward the brand and purchase intention
Independent Dependent Variable Wilks' Lambda F
Self-Concept Aad .947 1.724
Abr .020
PI .115
Advertising Appeals Aad .975 .257
Abr .064
PI .080
Product Aad .966 1.012
Ab, 1.250
PI .554
Self- Aad .847 4.631*
Concept*Advertising Ab, .100
Appeal PI .160


Self-Concept* Product Aad .982 .252
Abr .201
PI .016
Advertising Aad .922 3.404
Appeal*Product Ab, 2.139
PI 3.165
Self- Aad .883 .528
Concept*Advertising Ab, 1.049
Appeal*Product PI .429


*p<..05






70


Table 12. Means of three independent variables Attitude toward ATTITUDE Purchase
Ad TOWARD Intention
BRAND
Self-Concept Culturally 32.973 31.579 20.394
congruent
Culturally 31.188 31.138 19.675
deviant
Advertising Individualistic 31.948 31.467 20.332
Appeal Collectivistic 32.213 31.250 19.737
Product type Personal 32.924 31.932 20.537
Shared 31.237 30.785 19.533


It was hypothesis that presented with culturally relevant ad stimuli (collectivistic appeal), Korean culturally congruent subjects would have a higher mean effectiveness score than Korean culturally deviant subjects. There was a significant interaction between self-concept and advertising appeal on attitude toward the advertising: F(1,54)=4.63 1, p<.05. Furthermore, the collectivistic appeals had a more positive impact on Korean culturally congruent subjects (M=34.91) than Korean culturally deviant subjects (M=30.52). In the simple main effect test, there is a statistically significant difference between culturally congruent and culturally deviant on collective appeals F (1,24)=4.8, p<.05.

In testing the hypothesis that individualistic appeals would score higher on

effectiveness on personal product advertisements than would collectivistic appeals, there was no significant interaction between advertising appeals and product type as shown in Table 11.






71


Attitude toward advertising


36


34'


33

C
32.


-31
E
W 30 , culturally congruent cultural

culturally congruent or culturally deviant


advertising appeals individualistic appe
al

collectivitic appeal ly deviant


Figure 8. Plot of attitude toward advertising and culturally congruent and culturally deviant

In testing the hypothesis that collectivistic appeals would score higher on

effectiveness on shared product advertisements than would individualistic appeals, there was also no significant interaction between advertising appeals and product type. However, this result was not consistent with a previous research study in terms of mean score.

To answer the research question that collectivistic appeals would score higher on effectiveness in the entire sample of Korean youths, there was not significant result in either multivariate analysis or univariate analyses. The mean score of collectivistic appeal nearly mirrored individualistic appeal in the entire sample of Korean youths.


35


I


I






72


To answer the research question as to how culturally congruent members and culturally deviant members differ in terms of product use condition, there was no significant result in multivariate analysis F(1,54)=.276 p=.842 nor in univariate analysis.

Main Experiment

Demographic Description of the Sample

The 674 subjects who participated in this research study were mass

communications students from two universities located in Seoul, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies and Kookmin University. The demographic analysis of the sample shows that it consisted of 301 (44.7%) males and 372 (55.2%) females. There were 270 subjects under the age of 20 (40.1%), 341 students in the age group 21-25 (50.6%), 55 students in the age group 26-30 (8.2%) and only 8 (1.2%) students over the age of 30.

With respect to monthly income, 30 students, independent of parental support, earned under $80 (4.5%), 85 students had income of $80 to $150 (12.6%), 191 students received income between $151 to $250 (28.3%), 166 students claimed income worth $251 to $350 (24.6%), 84 students had income of $351 to $450 (12.5%), and 116 students had income worth more than $451.

With respect to parental monthly income, 15 students' parents earned less than $800 (2.2%), 103 students' parents earned between $801 and $1500. 196 students' parents earned $1501 to $2500, 175 students' parents made $2501 to $3500 dollars, and 156 students' parents had incomes exceeding $3501 (See Table 13). Assumptions of MANOVA and Validity of Model

In the MANOVA analysis, the assumptions of greatest importance have to be satisfied by the homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices across the groups, correlation among the three dependent variables, normality, and linearity.






73


The assumption of greatest importance is the homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices across the groups. In this study, there were eight groups involved for testing the assumption. Box' M test, which is a statistical test for the equality of the


Table 13.Demographic profile of the respondents Frequency Percent Cumulative
Percent
Gender Male 301 44.7 44.7
Female 372 55.2 99.9
No response 1 .1 100.0
Total 674 100.0
Frequency Percent Cumulative
Percent
Age Under 20 270 40.1 40.1
20-25 341 50.6 90.7
26-30 55 8.2 98.8
Above 31 8 1.2 100.0
Total 674 100.0
Frequency Percent Cumulative
Percent
Monthly Income Under $80 30 4.5 4.5
$80-$150 85 12.6 17.1
$151-$250 191 28.3 45.4
$251-$350 166 24.6 70.0
$351-$450 84 12.5 82.5
Above $451 116 17.2 99.7
No response 2 .3 100.0
Total 674 100.0
Frequency Percent Cumulative
Percent
Parents' Income Under $800 15 2.2 2.2
$801-$1500 103 15.3 17.5
$1501-$2500 196 29.1 46.6
$2501-$3500 175 26.0 72.6
$3501-$4500 156 23.1 95.7
Above $4501 19 2.8 98.5
No response 10 1.5 100.0
Total 674 100.0






74


variance/covariance matrices of the dependent variables across the groups, had a significance level of .001. This did not allow for acceptance of the null hypothesis of homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices at the .05 level. However, a violation of this assumption has minimal impact if the groups are of approximately equal size (i.e., if the largest group size divided by the smallest group size is less than 1.5) (Hair et al.. 1998). In this study, the largest group size was 182 while the smallest was 169. Thus, the ratio was less than 1.5 and this assumption was satisfied.

The second assumption is the correlation of the dependent variables, such as attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention, which is assessed using Bartlett's test of sphericity. In this example, the significance was .001, indicative of a significance level of correlation between the three dependent measures. Thus, this assumption was satisfied

The third assumption is the normality of the dependent variables such as attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention. Therefore, this assumption was also satisfied








75


10.0 200 30.0 400 500 60.0 70.0 800
150 25.0 350 450 55.0 650 750 Aad


Normal P-P Plot of Aad

OD'


1.


-D
0


E 0


x
w


75 .50


25 0.001


0


.00 25 .50 .75 1.00


Observed Cum Prob


Figure 9. Histogram and normal P-P plot of attitude toward advertising


140 120 100


80 60


40 20


0


I


i L - I - I I I .5


Std. Dev = 13.23 Mean = 42.5 N = 670 00


6/
0'
/
0 0 0
0.'
0
0 0/
0 0,~~
V


74"







76


160


140. 120, 100. 80. 60.


40 , 20.

0


10.0 20 0 300 40 0 50 0 600 70.0 80.0
15.0 25.0 35.0 45.0 55.0 65.0 75.0 Abr


Normal P-P Plot of Abr
nnl


75, .50-


.25.


0.00
0.0


0


.25


.50


.75 1.00


Observed Cum Prob


Figure 10. Histogram and normal P-P plot of attitude toward brand


I


Std. Dev = 12.94 Mean = 40.4 N = 670.00


1.


0
CL
E




'I, CL)
x
W


C3 0 0

0
0







77


OU



50



40



30



20



10 Std. Dev = 15.60

Mean = 32.2

0 N = 329.00
10 0 20 0 30 0 400 50 0 600 7O 0 80.0
15.0 25.0 35.0 45.0 55.0 65.0 75.0 85.0


PURINTO


1.


Normal P-P Plot of PURINTO
on


.754


n0
0

E




LU


.50,


.25-


0.00
0.(


0


.25


.50


.75


1.00


Observed Cum Prob


Figure 11. Histogram and normal P-P plot of purchase intention


0 0
a 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
0


C


0







78



The fourth assumption is linearity of the dependent variables, such as attitude toward the advertising, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. This assumption was satisfied by use of a scatter plot.


Q-


807060. 50.


40. 30


20. 10.

0


0 10


ATTBRAN1


20 30 40 50 60 70


80


Figure 12. Scatter plot of two dependent variables (attitude toward advertising and attitude toward brand) by purchase intention



To examine the appropriateness of full factorial model (Model I), main effect 1 (Model II), three 2-way interaction (Model III), and one 3-way interaction (Model IV) entered the model separately.


L.Model I. Self-Concept + Advertising Appeal + Product


Type + SC*AA+SC*PT + AA*PT +SC*AA*PT


2.Model II. SC + AA + PT (Main effect only)


3.Model III. SC*AA+SC*PT+AA*PT (2-way Interaction only)


00
0 0
a
a a a a a~ 0
00
a a









ab a a 0 0 0
0 C18a M 8 % 0 0 . 0

C6 a 9C






79


4.Model IV. SC*AA*PT (3-way interaction only)

Through Model I to Model IV, the same results of full factorial model existed as in the other three models. For example, there were the same main effects of self-concept and product type in Model II, as were in Model I. In addition, there was an interaction effect of self-concept and advertising appeal in Model III, which was the same in Model I. Therefore, the appropriateness of full factorial model (Model I) was approved. Results

Self-Concept. Before the experiment, there was a prior step for validating how collectivistic or individualistic Korean culturally congruent students and Korean culturally deviant students are when compared to American students in the pilot study. Culturally congruent students and culturally deviant students were divided by a median score. This scale was a 9-point agree/disagree scale with 15 items assessing the concept of allocentricity (collectivistic) and 14 items assessing idiocentricity(individualistic). Total scores of individualistic are 135 and those of collectivistic are 126.

The median score for Korean students on the INDCOL scale was 99 for

individualistic and 89 for collectivistic. As explained in the methods section, Korean students were divided into low and high by a median score for the individualistic and collectivistic scales. In addition, Korean culturally congruent students were defined as having a low individualistic score and a high collectivistic score while Korean culturally deviant students were defined as having a high individualistic score and a low collectivistic score.

When compared with American students, the findings are as follows,

individualistic and collectivistic scores of average American students were higher than those of average Korean students. The collectivism score of Korean culturally congruent






80


students was higher than that of average American students. Also, the individualism score of Korean culturally deviant students was higher than that of average American students. Collectivism scores of culturally deviant Korean students were lower than that of average American students. In summary, Korean culturally congruent students were shown to be collectivistic while culturally deviant students were individualistic.



Table 14. Means and standard deviation comparison of American and Korean students
(Pilot Test)
American Korean
(Mean) SD Mean SD
General Individualism 104.29a 13.58 95.08 19.17
Collectivism 89.74 13.48 88.73 13.04
Culturally congruent Individualism 113.85 6.03 78.60 13.23
Collectivism 82.60 12.00 98.20 7.24
Culturally deviant Individualism 89.72 9.47 105.86 7.48
Collectivism 100.00 5.34 79.66 8.20
a Total scores of individualistic is 135 b Total scores of collectivistic is 126.



In the main experiment, the average reliability of the scale was assessed using Cronbach's alpha: Individualistic scale of INDCOL for Korean students, .85; Collectivistic scale of INDCOL for Korean students, .70. In addition, the average reliability of the scale was assessed using Cronbach's alpha to gage attitude toward advertising, .89; attitude toward brand,.92; and purchase intention,.88.

A manipulation check was performed on the print advertisement used in the study. Main experiment subjects were asked to rate the advertisements as being individualistic or collectivistic by judging the advertising headline on a 9-point semantic differential scale anchored by individualistic/collectivistic. The average ratings were 3.32 for individualistic appeals and 4.69 for collectivistic appeals, making the difference






81


statistically significant at the .001 level. These results suggested a convergence of the classification of an advertisement into individualistic and collectivistic categories and subjects' perception of advertising appeals.

In addition, subjects were asked to rate the products as a personal or a shared product in terms of (1) the decision-making process involved in purchase (1= never discuss with their family or friends whether to purchase, 9=always discuss), and (2) usage pattern (I= used mostly individually, 9= used mostly with other members of family or friends). The average ratings were 3.5 for a personal product and 5.6 for a shared product. Again, the difference was statistically significant at the .001 level. The Test of Main Effect of Self-Concept, Product and Appeal

Hypothesis 1 stated that Korean culturally congruent subjects would have a higher mean score than Korean culturally deviant subjects in terms of three dependent variables (Aad, Abr and PI).






82


Table 15. Multivariate and univariate results for the effects of independent variables on attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention (expensive shared product)
Multivariate Results Univariate F-Values
Interaction Wilks' F-Value df Aada Abrb PIC
Effects' Lambda
Appeal* .998 .201 (1,350) .048 .252 .111
Product
Appeal*Self- .992 .969 (1.350) .155 .573 .212
Concept
Product*Self- .999 .120 (1,350) .034 .107 .097
Concept
Main Effects
Appeal .969 3.684* (1,350) 1.722 .305 3.588
Product .945 6.585*** (1,350) 6.463* 5.680* 19.487***
Self-Concept .987 1.455 (1,350) 3.924* 1.490 .259
' Three-way interaction was nonsignificant. a: Attitude toward the advertising, : Attitude toward the brand, c: Purchase intention
***p<.001, **p<.ol, *p<.05
Wilks' lambda: One of the four principal statistics for testing the null hypothesis in MANOVA.


In the case of expensive shared products, self-concept had an insignificance level

of .227 for the multivariate tests, which considered three dependent variables

concurrently (See Table 15). After multivariate analysis, univariate analysis, which

considered each dependent variable separately, was conducted. In the univariate analysis,

there was a significant difference of self-concept in attitude toward advertising: F

(1,350)=3.92, p<.05. Korean culturally congruent subjects had a more positive impact on

advertising (M=43.72) than did Korean culturally deviant subjects (M=40.78). (See

Table 15)

In the case of inexpensive shared products, self-concept had a significance level

of .000 for the multivariate tests (See Table 16). In the univariate analysis, there was a

significant difference for self-concept on attitude toward advertising: F (1,350)=8.37,






83


p<.005. Culturally congruent Korean subjects had a more positive response on

advertising (M=44.73) than culturally deviant Korean subjects (M=40.72). (See Table 16)

Overall, Hypothesis 1 considering three dependent variables at the same time was

not supported for an expensive shared product and was supported for an inexpensive

shared product. Specifically, Hypotheses 1-1 considering attitude toward the advertising

was supported for both expensive shared product and inexpensive shared product.



Table 16. Multivariate and univariate results for the effects of independent variables on attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention (inexpensive shared product)
Multivariate Results Univariate F-Values
Interaction Wilks' F-Value df Aada Abr" Pic
Effects' Lambda
Appeal * .996 .449 (1,323) .367 .943 .789
Product
Appeal*Self- .975 2.644* (1,323) .390 5.925* .113
Concept
Product*Self- .993 .790 (1,323) .107 1.392 .840
Concept II
Main Effects
Appeal .983 1.804 (1,323) 2.912 .718 .506
Product .879 14.406*** (1,323) 23.023*** 25.149*** 32.128***
Self-Concept .964 3.949** (1,323) 8.379** .772 .005
'Three-way interaction was nonsignificant. ": Attitude toward the advertising, b: Attitude toward the brand, c: Purchase intention
***p<.001, **p<.01, *p<.05
Wilks' lambda: One of the four principal statistics for testing the null hypothesis in MANOVA.


Hypothesis 2 stated that a shared product would have a higher mean score than a

personal product in terms of three dependent variables (Aad, Abr and PI) among

culturally congruent and culturally deviant.

In the case of expensive shared products, product had a significance level of .000

for the multivariate tests, which considered three dependent variables concurrently (See






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Table 15). After multivariate analysis, univariate analysis, which considered each dependent variable separately, was conducted. In the univariate analysis, there was a significant difference between personal and a shared product in the attitude toward advertising: F (1,350)=6.46, p<.02. Shared products had a more positive impact on response to advertising (M=44.14) than did personal products (M=40.36). In addition, there was a significant difference between a personal and shared product in attitude toward the brand: F (1,350)=5.68, p<.02. Shared products had a more positive impact on the brand (M=41.41) than personal products (M=37.92). Finally, there was a significant difference between a personal and shared product in purchase intention: F (1,350)= 19.48, p<.001. Shared products had a more positive impact on purchase intention (M=15.62) than personal products (M=l 1.95). (See Table 15)

In the case of inexpensive shared products, product had a significance level of .000 for the multivariate tests (See Table 16.). In the univariate analysis, there was a significant difference between a personal and shared product in attitude toward advertising: F (1,323)=23.02, p<.001. Shared products had a more positive impact on the advertising (M=46.06) than did personal products (M=39.39). In addition, there was a significant difference between a personal and shared product in attitude toward the brand: F (1,323)=25.15, p<.001. Shared products had a more positive impact on the brand (M=44.1 1) than did personal products (M=37.1 1). Finally, there was a significant difference between personal and a shared product on purchase intention: F (1,323)=32.12, p<.001. Shared products have a more positive impact on purchase intention (M=15.93) than do personal products (M=1 1.32). (See Table 16.)






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Overall, Hypothesis 2 considering three dependent variables at the same time was supported for both an expensive shared product and an inexpensive shared product. Specifically, Hypotheses 2-1, 2-2, 2-3 considering attitude toward the advertising, attitude toward the brand and purchase intention separately was supported for both expensive shared product and inexpensive shared product.

Hypothesis 3 stated that collectivistic appeals would have a higher mean score than individualistic appeals in terms of three dependent variables (Aad, Abr and PI) among culturally congruent and culturally deviant.

In the case of expensive shared products, a significance level of .012 was

measured for the multivariate tests (See Table 15). In the univariate analysis, there was a marginally significant difference between individualistic and collectivistic appeal on the purchase intention: F (1,350)=3.58, p=.059. Individualistic appeal had a more positive impact on the purchase intention (M=14.57) than collectivistic appeal (M= 13.00). (See Table 15)

In case of inexpensive shared products, there was an insignificant level of . 146 for the multivariate test (See Table 16.). In the univariate analysis, there was a marginally significant difference between individualistic and collective appeal in attitude toward advertising: F(1,323)=2.91, p=.089. Collectivistic appeal had a more positive impact on attitude toward advertising (M=43.91) than individualistic appeal (M=41.54). (See Table 16)

Overall, Hypothesis 3 considering three dependent variables at the same time was not supported for both an expensive shared product and an inexpensive shared product. Specifically, Hypotheses 3-1, 3-2 and 3-3 considering three dependent variables






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separately were not supported for both expensive shared product and inexpensive shared product.

The Test of Interaction between Self-Concept and Advertising Appeal and Product and Advertising Appeal

Hypothesis 4 predicted that Korean culturally congruent subjects (interdependent) would have a higher mean effectiveness score than Korean culturally deviant subjects (independent), when presented with culturally relevant ad stimuli (collectivistic appeal) and Korean culturally deviant would have a higher mean effectiveness score than Korean culturally congruent subjects when presented with individualistic appeals advertising.

With expensive shared products, there was no significant interaction between advertising appeals and self-concept in the multivariate analysis (See Table 15) and the univariate analysis (See Table 15). Contrary to expectation, culturally congruent subjects who viewed an individualistic appeal showed more positive attitude toward the advertising (M=44.04) than did culturally deviant (M=39.5 1). In a parallel finding, culturally congruent subjects who viewed a collectivistic appeal showed more positive attitude toward the advertising (M=44.40) than did culturally deviant subjects (M=42.05).

With inexpensive shared products, there was a significant interaction between advertising appeals and self-concept in the multivariate analysis F=2.64, p<.05 and the univariate analysis. In the univariate analysis, there was a significant difference between individualistic and collective appeal in the attitude toward brand: F(1,323)=5.92, p<.02. (See Table 16.)

Culturally congruent subjects who viewed a collectivistic appeal showed more positive attitude toward the brand (M=43.42) than did culturally deviant (M=38.52). As expected, culturally deviant subjects who viewed an individualistic appeal showed more






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positive attitude toward the brand (M=41.01) than did culturally congruent subjects (M=39.01).

Four simple main effects were tested. There was a statistically significant

difference between culturally congruent and culturally deviant in collectivistic appeals F (1,158)=6.15, p<.02. (See Figure 13) In addition, there was no statistically significant difference between culturally congruent and culturally deviant in individualistic appeals F(.1,62)=.903, p= .34. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference between collectivistic appeals and individualistic appeals in culturally congruent F(1,162)=4.72, p< .05. Finally, there was no statistically significant difference between collectivistic appeals and individualistic appeals in culturally deviant F(1,158)=1.47, p= .28.

On the other hand, culturally congruent subjects who viewed a collectivistic appeal showed more positive attitude toward the advertising (M=46.35) than did culturally deviant subjects (M=41.47). However, culturally deviant subjects who viewed a collectivistic appeal showed more positive attitude toward the advertising (M=43.17) than did culturally congruent subjects (M=39.36).




Full Text

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ADVERTISING APPEALS AND CULTURE: THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CULTURALLY CONGRUENT AND CULTURALLY DEVIANT INDIVIDUALS IN KOREA SUNG WOOK SHIM A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2002

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Copyright 2002 by Sung Wook Shim

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I dedicate this dissertation to my dearest wife, Jung Ah Hwang

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The process that led to the completion of this project could not been undertaken without help from many others. I would like to thank my wife Jung Ah Hwang for her continuous support and encouragement in my doctoral program. I am very grateful to my parents. Sang Hee Shim and Ok Yoon Lee, and parents-in-law, Tae Yeon Hwang and Ok Hee Bu, for instilling in me the value of education and for their constant support in this long-term process. Their love and belief in me were unquestionably invaluable. This project could not have been completed without guidance from my committee members. I am grateful for their help in shaping the idea for this project in its developmental stages and for their support throughout completion. I owe a debt of gratitude to Dr. Marilyn Roberts who was an outstanding committee chair. She was very helpful throughout the entire process from the idea development to its completion. I am also thankful to the other committee members. Dr. Lynda Lee Kaid, Dr. Joseph Pisani, Dr. Steven Shugan and Dr. Micahel F. Weigold. Dr. Kaid was helpful with the methodological development and Dr. Weigold provided me with numerous sources of information, fruitful ideas, and helped me with statistical analysis. Td like to thank my friends, Jaemin Jung and Samsup Jo, Andrew Clark, Hanjun Ko, Jooyoung Kim, Jongmin Park, Myoung Shin Kang and my two sisters, Yoon Hee and Yoon Mee, for their sincere support. Jaemin and Samsup have been great supporters during this program. IV

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Finally, if 1 have any glorious moments because of this achievement, I will entirely dedicate them to my Lord who has always been walking with my family and me. V

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv LIST OF TABLES ix LIST OF FIGURES xi INTRODUCTION 1 LITERATURE REVIEW 5 Advertising Research Related to International Marketing 5 Content Analysis 5 Survey 7 Experiments 8 Culture 8 Definition of Culture 10 A Model of Culture 1 1 The outer layer: explicit products 1 1 The middle layer: norms and values 1 1 The core: assumptions about existence 12 The Elements of Culture and Consumer Behavior 14 Language 14 Nonverbal Communication 15 Needs 16 Values 16 Communication across Culture 16 Individualism and Collectivism 21 Definition 21 Vertical and Horizontal Individualism/Collectivism 23 Attributes 23 Emphasis on hierarchy and harmony in collectivism 24 Emphasis on the ingroup in collectivism 24 Antecedents and Consequences 25 Ad Execution 31 Context 32 Self-Concept: Allocentricity (Interdependence) and Idiocentricity (Independence) ....38 Standardization and Localization 40 Market Segmentation and Target Marketing 43 VI

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The Global Youth Market 44 ProductsÂ’ Use Condition as a Moderator 46 Advertising in Korea 47 The Lifestyles and Consumption Styles of Koreans 49 Consumer Issues of Young Korean Consumers 49 The Current Korean Culture 5 1 Hypotheses and Research Questions 51 Hypotheses 51 Research Question 55 METHOD 75 Design of the Experiment 75 Selecting Advertising Appeal 76 Selecting Product 77 Self-Concept: Cultural Congruence and Deviance 79 Procedures and Dependent Variables 81 RESULTS 83 Pilot Study 83 Procedure and Design of the Experiment 83 Results 83 Main Experiment 88 Demographic Description of the Sample 88 Assumptions of MANOVA and Validity of Model 88 Results 95 The Test of Main Effect of Self-Concept, Product and Appeal 97 The Test of Interaction between Self-Concept and Advertising Appeal and Product and Advertising Appeal 102 The Test of Research Questions 108 Test of Self-Concept and Demographics 112 Test of Self-Concept and Gender 117 DISCUSSION 120 Evaluation of the Hypotheses 122 Evaluation of Research Questions 126 Contribution 131 Implication and Limitation 132 Theoretical Implication 132 Practical Implications 135 Limitations 1 37 Future Research 138 Vll

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APPENDIX A PERSONAL VS. SHARED PRODUCT PRETEST 140 B CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION AS INDIVIDUALISTIC APPEALS AND COLLECTIVISTIC APPEALS 146 C ITEMS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM (95INDCOL SCALE) 148 D THE SAMPLE OF QUESTIONNAIRE 150 E SAMPLE ADVERTISEMENTS 159 LIST OF REFERENCES 171 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 179 Vlll

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 . Past international advertising studies 9 2. Three levels of culture between Asia and the West 13 3. The Dimensions of the United States and Korea 19 4. Attributes defining individualism and collectivism and their antecedents and consequents 26 5. Individualistic and collectivistic cultures 27 6. High-Context vs. low-Context national cultures 33 7. Top ten advertiserÂ’s advertising expenditures (in billions of won) 47 8. Distribution of the top five world advertising expenditures by country, 1995 (US$m)48 9. Transition of ad copy headlines 77 10. Means and standard deviation of products 78 1 1 . Multivariate and univariate results for the effect of independent variables on attitude toward the advertising, attitude toward the brand and purchase intention 85 12. Means of three independent variables 86 13. Demographic profile of the respondents 89 14. Means and standard deviation comparison of American and Korean students (Pilot Test) 96 15. Multivariate and univariate results for the effects of independent variables on attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention (expensive shared product) 98 16. Multivariate and univariate results for the effects of independent variables on attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention (inexpensive shared product) 99 IX

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17. Means of three independent variables of inexpensive shared products (advertising appeal * product type * self-concept) 106 1 8. Multivariate and univariate results for the effects of independent variable on attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention (entire Korean student) 108 19. Means of advertising appeal 109 20. Means of four types of self-concept 1 1 1 21. Crosstab of gender and self-concept 112 22. Crosstab of monthly income and self-concept 112 23. Crosstab of parentsÂ’ income and self-concept 1 13 24. Means of amount spent on four types of media and self-concept 113 25. Means of four types of media 1 14 26. Correlation between three dependent variables and four types of media 115 27. Crosstab of gender and four types of self-concept 116 28. Crosstab of monthly income and four types of self-concept 116 29. Crosstab of parentsÂ’ income and four types of self-concept 117 30. Means of media use and four types of self-concept 118 X

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 . Influence of consumers characteristics on reactions to ad appeals 4 2. The Layers of culture II 3. Two cultural dimensions between the U.S. and Korea 38 4. Six segments of the global youth market 45 5. Attitudes toward advertising 49 6. The Comparison of Korean culturally congruent students and Korean culturally deviant students and average American students 75 7. Quadrant of the self-concept 80 8. Plot of attitude toward advertising and culturally congruent and culturally deviant .... 87 9. Histogram and normal P-P plot of attitude toward advertising 91 10. Histogram and normal P-P plot of attitude toward brand 92 1 1 . Histogram and normal P-P plot of purchase intention 93 12. Scatter plot of two dependent variables (attitude toward advertising and attitude toward brand) by purchase intention 94 13. Plot of attitude toward brand and self-concept 104 14. Plot of attitude toward advertising and self-concept 105 15. Plot of attitude toward advertising and four types of self-concept 110 1 6. Plot of attitude toward brand and four types of self-concept Ill XI

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy ADVERTISING APPEALS AND CULTURE: THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CULTURALLY CONGRUENT AND CULTURALLY DEVIANT INDIVIDUALS IN KOREA By Sung Wook Shim August 2002 Chair: Dr. Marilyn Roberts Department: Mass Communieation Crucial experiments were used to test five alternative hypotheses for the effect of self-concept on the persuasiveness of individualistie and collectivistic appeal ads with product use condition. The first three alternative hypotheses predict that there would be a difference between self-concept (eulturally congruent or culturally deviant), appeal (individualistic or collectivistic) and product (personal or shared) on attitude toward advertising, on attitude toward brand, and on purchase intention. The second two hypotheses predict that when self-eoncept is culturally congruent, collectivistie appeal ads will create a positive response; and when advertising appeal is individualistic, personal product would create a positive response. Results supported the first hypothesis. There is a significant difference between culturally congruent and culturally deviant on the three dependent variables. Culturally congruent individuals have a more positive attitude than culturally deviant individuals. In addition, there is a significant difference between a personal and a shared produet. A XU

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shared product creates a more positive response than a personal product. More importantly, the results supported the fourth hypothesis, that there would be a significant interaction between self-concept and advertising appeal. Culturally congruent individuals have a more positive response to the collectivistic appeal than did culturally deviant individuals. However, culturally deviant individuals have slightly more response to the collectivistic appeal than culturally deviant individuals in terms of attitude toward advertising. While culturally deviant individuals have more response to the individualistic appeal than culturally congruent individuals in terms of attitude toward brand. Self-concept, from an independent and an interdependent perspective, is a factor to be considered when advertising to young Korean consumers in terms of international advertising. When advertisers target consumers who appeared to be culturally congruent, the most effective strategy for ads may be a collectivistic appeal. xiii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Global advertising spending is growing so fast that a leading forecaster, Zenith Media, shifted its estimate of year 2000’s increase from 1.5% to 7.8 %. They expected global advertising spending to rise to 332 billion dollars in 2000. In 2001, they predicted a smaller increase of 6.4 % to 353 billion dollars, followed by a 6.1 % increase to 375 billion dollars in 2002 (Tomkins, 2000). International advertising segment has been expanding because of globalization of the world marketplace. Jain (1993) and Belch and Belch (1998) argue that global advertising plays a significant role. Jain said, “In the case of many products/markets, a successful advertising campaign is the crucial factor in achieving sales goals. As a matter of fact, more and more companies consider successful advertising to be fundamental to profitable international operations.” Therefore, it is essential that practitioners understand the cross-cultural universals and exclusions that tend to condition advertising appeals in different markets. Although demographic and geographic characteristics, economic and political-legal factors are all prerequisites for international advertising, the cultural factor is important for international marketers to consider. Cultural difference is an important factor in understanding successful international advertising (Keegan, 1989). Because consumers grow up in a particular culture, they are accustomed to that culture (Zhang & Gelb, 1996). Advertising is a very culture-oriented discipline because it is based on language and other communication tools that are deeply rooted in the given culture of a society (Schutte & CiarlEmte, 1998). The 1

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2 influence of culture is particularly important in advertising, because communication patterns are closely connected to cultural norms (Hong, Muderrisoglue, & Zinkhan, 1987). In other words, advertising is both a part and a reflection of the culture. It is impossible to find advertising that is not rooted in culture. Most prior research on the impact of culture on advertising has been descriptive, using content analysis to see cross-national differences in advertising strategy (Zhang & Gelb, 1996; Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson, 1997). Many researchers have found cultural differences in advertising among several countries. However, a causal relationship between advertising and culture remains undetermined. When executing advertisements containing cultural differences by the manipulation of advertising appeals and products, we need to certain that the advertisements reflect these cultural differences and have an influence on different consumers. To implement this study, Korea is as chosen to delineate the cultural aspect of international advertising. The growing middle class is largely made up of younger (under 40 years old) consumers who did not experience the Korean War or the poverty of Korea’s past. This generation has more buying power and their lifestyles is approaching that of the West (Kim, 1996). Furthermore, young consumers (teenagers and college students) called “Generation X,” are a distinct segment within the emerging Korean middle class. They think that they can better define themselves by buying brand-name products. Their tendency to stick to famous brand names differentiates them from the older generations in Korea (Deval, 1992). They have the potential to be viewed differently when compared to older generations.

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3 By combining cultural norms with advertisements that take aim at national or regional markets, it has led to the naive assumption that all members within these local markets are identical (Leach & Liu, 1998). For example, although individualism refers to societies where people are socialized to be independent, differences were found between individualist cultures in the way that individuals view the self (i.e., independent or interdependent) (Triandis, 1994). The potential heterogeneity within a culture gives rise to the probability that some individuals within a culture cannot be categorized with some or all of the norms associated with that culture. Given any culturally relevant norm, there are likely to be individuals within the culture whose personal values are consistent with the norm as well as those whose values are inconsistent with the norm. These two types are termed culturally congruent individuals and culturally deviant individuals (Leach & Liu, 1998). A congruent status or a deviant status is likely to have some impact on responses to advertising that is culture-based. It is important to develop an understanding of how both culturally congruent members and culturally deviant members respond to advertising information pertinent to their culture. The purpose of this study is to explore how culturally relevant stimuli presented within an advertisement may be perceived by those who are culturally congruent and those who are culturally deviant among young Korean consumers. Also, this experiment examined cultural difference and its impact on the effectiveness of different advertising appeals across contrasting cultures, such as individualism vs. collectivism within product use conditions. The characteristics of both cultural congruence and cultural deviance are expected to be found among young Korean consumers.

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4 To address the hypotheses and research questions, the framework presented in Figure 1 was developed. This framework is based on a model developed by LepkowskaWhite (1999), which illustrates the mediating effect of national culture and regional socioeconomic on attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand and purchase intention. As presented in Figure 1, the research examined two types of ad appeals: individualistic and collectivistic. These ad appeals were designed for two types of products; a personal product and a shared product. Cultural factors were selected based on past research, and individualism vs. collectivism was included. The reactions to advertising appeals embodied attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intentions. In the following sections, the main elements of the model in Figure 1 and the relationships among them will be discussed. Self-Concept Culturally Congruent / Culturally Deviant Product Types Personal, Shared Advertising Appeals Individualistic, Collectivistic Demographics Attitude toward Ad Attitude toward Brand Purchase Intention Figure 1 . Influence of consumers characteristics on reactions to ad appeals * ' This is from LepkowskaWhite (1999).

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Advertising Research Related to International Marketing In recent years, much attention has been paid to cross-cultural advertising research. This research has varied from content analysis and semiotic comparisons of advertising content between cultures (Albers-Miller & Gelb, 1996; Caillat & Muller, 1996; Cheng & Schweitzer, 1996; Wiles, Wiles & Tjemlund, 1996) to testing appeals with different cultural groups (Han & Shavitt, 1994; Taylor, Miracle & Wilson, 1997; Zhang & Gelb, 1996). Content Analysis Keown, Jacobs, and Ghymn (1993) performed a systematic content analysis of Korean, United States, Japanese, and Chinese mass-media advertising. Korean television advertising was more likely to promote nondurables than was the advertising for the other countries. Korean radio advertising was also more likely to promote nondurables than was U.S. or Chinese radio advertising, but advertising levels were very similar to those used by the Japanese. Korean newspaper advertising was more than twice as likely as newspaper advertising in the other countries to promote consumer services. Caillat and Muller (1996) compared television commercials in the U. S. with Britain for their rhetorical style 2 ind for the presence of predominant cultural values. From a stylistic point of view, they found that American commercials had a higher frequency of direct speech, whereas British commercials had a higher frequency of indirect speech, suggesting a fundamental difference in creative style and communication patterns. 5

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6 They found that American commercials exhibited all three American values (individualism/independence, modemity/newness, and achievement), more frequently than the British commercials and the British commercials exhibited British values more frequently than did the American commercials. Comparing the television advertising content of a non-western country (China) with that of the U. S., Cheng and Schweitzer (1996) examined prime-time spots in each culture for the presence of 32 cultural values. They found that Chinese commercials used a greater proportion of utilitarian values than symbolic values. However, Chinese commercials resort more often to symbolic ones, whereas American commercials tend to use both symbolic and utilitarian values. They found that cultural values depicted in Chinese television commercials often dealt with product categories and product origins. Commercials for imported products are currently the pacesetter for Western cultural values conveyed in Chinese television advertising, followed by commercials for jointventure products. Albers-Miller and Gelb (1996) examined business advertising appeals from 1 1 countries for the presence of each of the dimensions from HofstedeÂ’s (1984) cultural model: Individualism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, and masculinity. The culture-reflecting quality of advertising was supported for 10 of 30 hypothesized relationships. However, they did not find much support for values within the individualism dimension within individualist cultures. These studies do not prove that the appeals being used each country are necessarily the most effective. Han and Shavitt (1994) also analyzed magazine ads in the United States and Korea and found different aspects in magazine ads. American ads were likely to

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7 emphasize individuality, self-improvement, and benefits of the product for the individual consumer. In contrast, Korean ads were inclined to stress the family, groups, and concern for others. Wiles, Wiles, and Tjemlund (1996) found a uniform set of values is transmitted in magazine advertising across the two cultures and there are similarities and differences among the values conveyed in ads. Survey Yin (1999) studied international advertising strategies in China in terms of standardization and localization. Using a comprehensive survey to study foreign advertisers in China, she found that most companies surveyed use a combination strategy (that is, partly standardized and partly localized). Factors that the advertising agencies used in China were the number of subsidiaries, the perceived importance of localizing language and product attributes, and the perceived importance of mostly Chinese cultural values. Shao, Raymond and Taylor (1999) provided insight on how to advertise effectively in the modem advertising industry of Taiwan, given the constraints faced by advertisers there. They hypothesized that advertising appeals in Taiwan tend to be dominated more by “westernized” market conditions that are viewed as substantial barriers to advertising. Based on 61 interviews with managing directors of advertising agencies in Taiwan, the hypothesis was supported that advertisers in Taiwan face constraints inherent in a modem advertising industry. Al-Makaty et al. (1996) found that three groups of Saudi males had different views of the effect of TV advertising on cultural modernization and economic development. Albers-Miller and Gelb (1996) found that the culture-reflecting quality of

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8 advertising is supported for 18 of 30 hypothesized relationships. Roth (1995) found that managers consider cultural and socioeconomic conditions in forming their international brand-image strategies, and these conditions moderate the market-share effects. Experiments Zhang and Gelb (1996) found that Chinese and American subjectsÂ’ reactions to advertising appeals are more positive when an appeal matches the product-use condition than when the appeal does not match either the culture or the product-use condition. Taylor, Miracle and Wilson (1997) manipulated the information content of commercials in both the U.S. and Korea. They found that due to cultural differences such as individualism and collectivism, and highand low-context, American subjects respond more favorably to commercials with high informational levels than do Korean subjects. Lee (2000) conducted a study of cultural influences on consumer purchasing behavior for a large sample in Singapore, Korea, Hong Kong, Australia, and the U.S. Using a camera purchase decision survey, Lee found the impact of referent past experience, referent expectations, and affordability on intent to purchase. She concluded that experience, expectations, and affordability all had a stronger influence on interdependent respondents than on independent respondents. Other related international advertising studies are summarized in Table 1. Culture Marketers have traditionally examined a potential marketÂ’s demographic and geographic characteristics, as well as economic and political factors, in order to determine if and how they might impact the marketing mix. However, only in recent years has greater attention been paid to the cultural environment (Muller, 1996).

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9 Knowing the culture of each country becomes an important factor in global marketing and advertising. Table 1. Past international advertising studies Authors Year Findings Keillor, Parker and Schaefer 1996 Mexican youths are receptive to various information sources across a wide spectrum of products; specialized advertising strategy is advisable. Roslow and Nicholls 1996 Hispanic viewers are more persuaded when exposed to commercials in Spanish, embedded in Spanish programs. Taylor, Grubbs, and Haley 1997 Four emic descriptors — la seduction, le spectacle, I’amour, and I’humour — characterize French advertising. Duncan and Ramaprasad 1995 Extent of standardization varies; advertising agency executives consider creative impact the most important and pressure (from time, client, etc) the least important reason to use some form of standardized advertising. Murray and Murray 1996 Music plays a larger role in commercials run in the Dominican Republic than in those run in the U.S. Culture also has a peculiar aspect. It is generally agreed that culture is not inherent or innate, but rather is learned. Most definitions also emphasize that members of a group share culture. It is this shared aspect that enables communication among individuals, within that culture. Cross-cultural communication is difficult because of the lack of shared symbols (Muller, 1996). Therefore, understanding another culture is difficult, even for major global market players. Some people claim that the world is becoming homogenized, but there is little evidence of it in marketing. Cultural difference is distinct, and the difference changes on a regular basis. Having a firm understanding of what a culture was like ten years ago is useless today. Cultural research has to be done over again and again to make advertising and promotion work (Curry, 1999).

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10 Definition of Culture Culture is a complex word to define (De Mooij, 1997). Culture has several meanings in many areas. Hofstede defines culture as “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another. Culture is learned, not inherited. It derives from one’s social environment, not from one’s genes.” De Mooij i emphasizes that culture has an influence on people’s tastes, preferences for colors, and attitude toward product classes. For example, Dutch children often have chocolate shavings on buttered bread for breeikfast. American children like to have fried eggs. Indian children have a spicy hot sambal (a kind of soup). All are culturally reasonable within their culture, but seem strange in other cultures (Miihlbacher et al., 1999). Culture is the things that individual members of a group have in common. Culture may apply to ethnic or national groups, or to groups within a society with different levels: a country, an age group, a profession, or a social class (De Mooij, 1997). Terpstra (1991) identified components of culture: culture is learned, shared, compelling, an interrelated set of symbols whose meanings provide a set of orientations for members of a society. The interrelationships of the four elements of culture mentioned above vary from nation to nation since they are also influenced by other diverse external environmental imperatives such as technology, law, languages, societal norms, political systems and market structures. These differences and similarities will influence advertising appeals within and across cultures and subcultures (Simango, 1999).

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11 Figure 2. The Layers of culture Source: Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Tumer, C. (1998). Riding the waves of culture: Understanding diversity in global business. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. A Model of Culture The outer layer: explicit products An individual’s first experience of a new culture is the explicit culture. Explicit culture consists of the observable reality of the language, food, buildings, houses, and monuments. They are the surface of a deeper level of culture. Prejudices mostly start on this symbolic and observable level (Trompenaars & Hampden-Tumer, 1998). The middle layer: norms and values Norms are the mutual sense a group has of what is “right” and “wrong.” Values determine the definitions of “good and bad,” and are connected with the ideals shared by a group. While the norms provide us with a feeling of “this is how I normally should behave,” values give us a feeling of “this is how I aspire or desire to behave.” A value

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12 serves as a criterion to determine a choice from current alternatives. It is the concept an individual or group has regarding the desirable (Trompenaars & Hampden-Tumer, 1998, p. 22). The core: assumptions about existence To answer questions about basic differences in values among cultures, it is necessary to direct attention to the core of human existence. The most basic value people strive for is survival. For example, the Dutch fight with rising water. Every country has tried to find ways to deal most effectively with their environments. Such continuous problems are eventually solved automatically. “Culture” comes from the same root as the verb “to cultivate,” meaning to till the soil: The way people act upon nature. Three levels of culture between Asia and the West Schutte and Ciarlante (1998) summarized three levels of culture between Asia and the West. These elements of culture can be organized into three levels: 1) behavioral practices, 2) values, beliefs, preferences and norms, and 3) basic assumptions. This structure implies that behavioral practices tell us the surface of culture. To understand the source of cross-cultural differences in Asian consumers, it is necessary to look below the surface, to examine both a society’s declared values and beliefs, and the basic assumptions.

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13 Table 2. Three levels of culture between Asia and the West Asia The West Flexibility, long-term Behavioral Planning, bottom line Continuous practices Re-engineering improvement Rules, contracts Codes, informal deals Visible Individual performance Team performance Tasks, competition Relationship, coStructure operation Networks Historical context Values, beliefs. Time is money Read between lines Preferences, norms Analysis Integration Differentiation Affiliation Declared Achievement Time as spiral Basic assumptions Time as line Holistic, dualistic Either/ or dialectic Interdependence Taken for granted Autonomy Being Organization = Doing organization = system of People system of tasks Actual Conceptual Source: Schiitte, H., & Ciarlante, D. (1998). Consumer behavior in Asia. New York, NY: New York University Press. Our ideas, values, acts and emotions are produced culturally. We are under the guidance of cultural patterns, historically created systems of meaning (De Mooij, 1997). Advertising reflects these wider systems of meaning: It mirrors the way people think, what moves them, how they are connected to each other, how they live, eat, relax and enjoy themselves. All layers of culture are mirrored in advertising (De Mooij, 1997). It is a fact that advertising works more effectively when buyers are convinced that they are being spoken to by somebody who understands them, who knows their needs, and talks and feels just as they do in a society. This suggests that beliefs, values, norms and attitudes (the elements of culture) play an important role in advertising and envelope all the broad variables that constitute culture (Simango, 1999).

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14 The Elements of Culture and Consumer Behavior Among the important elements of culture, marketers take into consideration are verbal language, nonverbal communication, needs, values and consumption patterns. Language There are two ways of looking at the language-culture relationship: Language influences culture or language is expressed by culture. The world view of people depends on the structure and characteristics of the language they speak (De Mooij, 1997). That culture influences the specific languages spoken by a group can be determined by examining the vocabulary it employs. For example, the Eskimo language has many words to describe snow. The complicated classification system for different forms of snow developed because snow plays such a fundamental role in the daily life of the average Eskimo (Muller, 1 996). Language skills will also play a role when advertising and promotional collateral (brochure, manuals) are translated. A poorly worded document or misunderstood slogan can lower a sales effort before it starts (Curry, 1999). Because language plays such a central role in international marketing, it is important to understand the close relationship between culture and language (Muller, 1 996). Culture and communication are inextricably linked. It has been said that it is impossible to understand a culture without understanding the language spoken by its people (Muller, 1996). In Korea, there is the concept of “Kibun” which is very important for interpersonal communication, but is not known in the West. “Kibun” means something like “feeling” or “mood.” Koreans know that they should interact in a way that addresses

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15 the “Kibun” of their partners if they want to build a relationship or keep it going (Muhlbacher et al., 1999). Nonverbal Communication Both spoken language and nonverbal language are used to communicate (Muller, 1996). Most classification systems include facial expression, eye contact and gaze, body movement, touching, smell, space usage, time symbolism, appearance in dress, color symbolism and silence. Muller categorizes these into four subcategories. Touch: One of the earliest senses to nature is touch. Each culture has a welldefined system of meanings for different forms of touching. Space usage: How humans use space is referred to as proxemics. Proxemics deals with the degree to which people want to be close to other people or to touch others. It is an aspect of body language and an expression of culture (De Mooij, 1997). Time Symbolism: A culture’s concept of time refers to the relative importance it places on time. Edward Hall notes that two time systems have evolved-monochronic and polychronic. People from monochronic cultures tend to do many things simultaneously (De Mooij, 1997). Monochronic cultures are usually low-context cultures, while polychronic cultures are usually high-context cultures. Colors and other signs and symbols: Globalization has led to increased use of icons. Signs and symbols are important factors of association networks in our memory: package, color, and signs. Color can have strong cultural meanings (Muller, 1996). International marketers need to know what associations a culture has in terms of colors and how they might affect product design, packaging and advertising messages.

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16 Needs In attempting to understand foreign cultures, international marketers may look at the needs that motivate purchase behavior (Muller, 1996). Consumption decisions can be driven by functional or social needs. What in one culture may be a functional need can be a social need in another. For example, the bicycle is a functional need to Chinese, who use it for transportation, while it is a social need to many Americans, who use it for socializing or fitness. Values Attitudes are the most widely studied aspect of consumer decision-making. An examination of values provides an analysis of the underlying motives that structure attitudes and behavior (De Mooij, 1994). Miton Rokeach (Muller, 1996) provides a classic definition of a value; “an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally and socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence.” Because people from different cultures are generally perceived as holding a set of values different from our own, it is essential to explore their impact on the elements of the marketing mix. Communication across Culture Culture has been considered a multidimensional construct consisting of unitary cultural dimensions, each characterizing a different aspect of culture (LepkowskaWhite, 1 999). Over the years, different elements of culture have been identified and described. One of the first descriptions of cultural dimensions was offered by Parsons and Shils (1951), proposing that culture consists of the following five dimensions: (a) affectivity versus affective neutrality (need gratification versus restrain of impulse); (b)

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17 self-orientation versus collective-orientation; (c) universalism versus particularism (utilizing general rules versus relationships); (d) ascription versus achievement (evaluating others based on who they are versus what they do); and (e) specificity versus diffuseness (limiting relations to others to particular spheres versus no limitations in regards to the nature of relationships). This conceptualization of culture was later modified by Chandler (1979), arguing that there is a need for another dimension of culture that would illustrate interest in economic achievement. This measure was called a modernity index and consisted of four dimensions: activity-time, integration with kin, trust, and occupational primacy. Almost the entire discussion on cross-cultural difference in advertising is based on one seminal work, Geert HofstedeÂ’s research in 1980, 1984, and 1991. HofstedeÂ’s original study used survey data from 100,000 employees of IBM in 53 countries to isolate five universal dimensions of culture. Hofstede has suggested that a fifth dimension may be time orientation (Hofstede, 1991). Although there is some difference in how researchers test, describe, and define these components of culture, almost every study in this area uses the Hofstede research as the ultimate guide to approach the study of culture. Hofstede (1991) identified four underlying dimensions of cultural values: (1) power distance, (2) uncertainty avoidance (3) individualism/collectivism (4) masculinity/femininity.Power distance measures the extent to which a society tolerates inequality of power in organizations and in society. In a high power distance society, hierarchy is strong and power is centralized at the top. Individuals are very conscious of their rank, and superiors and subordinates feel separate from one another. Korea is an example of a high power distance society. In a low power distance society, members of

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18 an organization feel relatively close to one another and have a sense of equality as human beings. Uncertainty avoidance mirrors a cultureÂ’s tolerance or intolerance of uncertainty. In a high uncertainty avoidance culture, uncertain, ambiguous, risky or undefined situations are seen as threatening and to be avoided at all costs. In a low uncertainty avoidance culture, risk is a natural component of life that can often produce opportunity. The individualism/collectivism dimension includes the way in which the self and others are regarded as well as the interaction between them. It shows the extent to which a society regards the individual as its most fundamental component and the degree of acceptance of an individualÂ’s satisfaction of his or her own needs within collective groups. The masculinity/femininity dimension reflects the extent to which the society is dominated by masculine characteristics (for example, assertiveness, performance, ostentation and self-concern) or feminine characteristics (for example, nurturing, interdependence between people and caring for others). The masculinity dimension has been named this way since tests reveal that men tend to score highly on one extreme and women on the other, no matter which society they came from. These dimension are summarized in the Table 3. In addition, Hofstede (1991) added time orientation to former four dimensions. Time orientation refers to the emphasis of the past and tradition as opposed to living for today or investing in tomorrow. The dimensions focuse on long-versus short-run orientations and separate cultures that emphasize future-oriented Confiician values such

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19 as thrift and perseverance from those which stress more past-oriented Confucian values such as saving faces and respect for tradition (Cho et ah, 1999). Table 3. The Dimensions of the United States and Korea Ranking of countries* Korea USA Power distance 27/28 38 Uncertainty avoidance 17/17 43 Individualism 43 1 Masculinity 41 15 * The numbers in this table represent the ranking of countries in the original Hofstede (1984) study, with no. 1 being the highest ranking. For example, the U.S. was found to be the most individualistic of the countries studied. Source: Hofstede, Geert (1984), CultureÂ’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Sage Publications: Beverly Hills, CA. Generally, people from East Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea tend to have tradition based orientations, while Latin Americans are more oriented to the present, and Westerners such as Americans and Northern Europeans have more of a future orientation (Cho et ah, 1999). Trompenaars and Hampden-Tumer (1998) further affirm this interpretation through their five value orientations of how we relate to other people. These are (1) universalism versus particularism, (2) individualism versus collectivism (3) neutral versus affective (4) diffuse versus specific and (5) achievement versus ascription. The universalism versus particularism dimensions refers to the extent to which behavior in a society is largely rules-based or relationship-based. In other words, a universalist society focuses on the need to apply established rules to all persons equally and resists making exceptions to the rules. A particularist society will focus on the exception to the nature of the present circumstance and the need to value human relationships above the requirement to obey established rules.

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20 The individualism versus collectivism dimension is similar to that of Hofstede’s. However, his neutral/affective dimension introduces an additional component to the framework of value orientation, the level of emotional expressiveness. In a neutral society, feelings are carefully controlled and subdued, and responses are generally directed in an indirect way. Japan is an example of a neutral culture. In an affective society, a far fuller range of emotions may be expressed. A direct response is expected and appreciated, and any attempt to respond indirectly is regarded with suspicion. Cultures along the diffuse/specific dimension have also been termed low context/high context societies. Another feature of this diffuse/specific dimension is the difference in the types and levels of depth of friendships in each society. Others often criticize Americans as being “superficial” and perhaps “insincere,” because they are often immediately friendly even to those they do not know well, but do not go on to develop such fiiendships beyond a certain level. The achievement/ascription dimension refers to how status is accorded in a society. Societies in which members gain status through what has been individually achieved are achievement-oriented. Those societies in which status is gained through the individual’s family status, gender, age, education, social status and so on are ascriptionoriented. This dimension has much in common with the classification of ‘doing’ and ‘being’ cultures and is closely linked to religious belief. For example, the Protestant religion puts great emphasis on the power of the individual to achieve and thus pushes the individual towards doing. Asian cultures place more emphasis on “being” rather than “doing” in order to achieve virtue (Schiitte & Ciarlante, 1998).

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21 Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) recognized a Human-to-Environment orientation as a fundamental cultural value. They suggested three types of values: mastery over nature, harmony with nature, and subjugation to nature. Mastery over nature includes the perspective that all natural forces can be overcome and/or put to use by humans. Harmony with nature draws no distinction between or among human life, nature and the supernatural, but views each as extension of the others. Subjugation to nature involves the belief that nothing can be done to control nature and that fate must be accepted. They contended that American culture is more likely to be mastery over nature, while Chinese culture (East Asian culture) is more likely to be harmony with nature. For example, Korean magazine covers are likely to show scenes from nature, while American covers are likely to show people, showing the cultures’ varying perspectives of one’s relationship with nature (Cho et al., 1999). Individualism and Collectivism Definition Gould and Kolb (1964) defined individualism as “a belief that the individual is an end in himself, and as such ought to realize his ‘self and cultivate his own judgment, notwithstanding the weight of pervasive pressures in the direction of conformity.” Collectivism means greater emphasis on (a) the views, needs, and goals of the ingroup rather than oneself; (b) social norms and duty defined by the ingroup rather than behavior to get pleasure; (c) beliefs shared with the ingroup rather than beliefs that distinguish self from ingroup; and (d) great readiness to cooperate with ingroup members (Triandis, 1989).

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22 Individualism-collectivism is perhaps the most solid and widely used dimension of cultural variability for cultural comparison (Gudykunst & Ting-Toomey, 1998). Hofstede (1980) described individualism-collectivism as the relationship between the individual and the collective that prevails in a given society. In individualistic cultures, individuals tend to prefer independent relationships to others and to subordinate ingroup goals to their personal goals. In collectivistic cultures, on the other hand, individuals are more likely to have interdependent relationships to their ingroups and to subordinate their personal goals to their ingroup goals. For example, in individualistic cultures such as those in some European countries and North America, individuals prefer independent relationships to each other and individual goals take precedence over group goals. In contrast, people in Asia, Africa, and Latin America have an interdependent relationship with one another within a collectivity and group goals take precedence over individual goals (Zhang & Gelb, 1996). Hofstede (1980, 1984) analyzed the characteristics of 53 countries to compare the cultural differences in terms of five dimensions. The results show the differences in culture between the United States and Korea. He (1991) identified the U.S. as the most individualistic nation in the world when ranked against the other 53. On the other hand, the least individualistic, i.e. most collectivistic, countries are Guatemala, Ecuador, and Panama. Korea ranks 43rd among the 53 countries. An individual in a collectivistic society is not supposed to be strongly on his or her own, unless sanctioned by authority, social status or group consensus. People in such a society tend more to uniformity, harmony and/or standardization rather than toward individuality (Triandis, 1994).

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23 Individualistic societies are more likely to put emphasis on individual differences or strengths in arguments, and put less emphasis on shared feelings and consonance among persons when they process persuasion messages such as advertising (Kim, 1996). Vertical and Horizontal Individualism/Collectivism Triandis et al. (1998) subdivided individualism/collectivism into horizontal (H) and vertical (V) individualism (I) and collectivism (C) across cultures, with university samples. Briefly, horizontal collectivists (HC) join the ingroup (family, tribe, coworkers, nation), but do not feel subordinate to these ingroups. Vertical collectivists (VC) submit to the norms of their ingroups and are even willing to self-sacrifice for their group. The horizontals do not use much hierarchy. The verticals use hierarchy. The horizontal individualists (HI) do their own thing but do not necessarily compare themselves with others. They do not want to be distinguished. The vertical individualists (VI) are especially concerned with comparisons with others. They want to be “the best,” win in competitions and be distinguished. Tridandis et al. (1998) gathered similar data in four individualist countries (U.S., Australia, Germany, Netherlands), and four collectivist countries (Japan, Greece, Hong Kong, Korea). The four individualist eountries average higher HI (47.25%) than the four collectivistie countries (25.75%), whereas the collectivists countries are higher than the individualists on HC (33.2 5% vs. 28%) and VC (1 1.75% vs. 8.25%). Attributes Individualism-collectivism constructs have been widely used in most of the soeial sciences for about a century. For example, the terms Gemeinschaft (community) and Gesellschaft (society), in sociology or relation versus individualistic value orientation, in anthropology, have been used for some time (Triandis, McCusker, & Hui, 1990).

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24 Triandis, McCuster, and Hui (1990) present the attributes of the pure collectivistic-individualist types. First, collectivists pay great attention to a certain ingroup and act differently toward members of that group than toward members of outgroups. The ingroup can be defined by common fate. Individualists also have ingroups and outgroups, but they do not see as sharp a contrast between them and do not act as differently toward ingroup and outgroup members as do collectivists. Emphasis on hierarchy and harmony in collectivism In collectivistic cultures behavior is regulated largely by ingroup norms; in individualistic cultures it is regulated largely by individual likes and dislikes and costbenefit analyses. In collectivistic cultures there is much emphasis on hierarchy. Usually the father is the boss and men superordinate women. This is not nearly as much the case in individualist cultures. Moreover, harmony and saving face are important attributes in collectivist cultures. Individualistic cultureÂ’ confrontations within the ingroup are acceptable and are supposed to be desirable because they clear the air. Thus, hierarehy and harmony are important defining attributes of collectivists. Emphasis on the ingroup in collectivism Collectivists tend to think of groups as the basic unit of analysis of society, while individualists tend to think of individuals as the basic unit of analysis. Assuming that people in general have more cognitions that are ingroup than outgroup related, the tendency to think of individuals as the basic unit of analysis will result in individualists thinking of ingroups as more heterogeneous than outgroups, as is usually found in the West (Quattrone, 1986). In collectivistic cultures, there is great concern about what happens in the ingroup and to ingroup members.

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25 Antecedents and Consequences Triandis et al. (1988) summarized the anteeedents, attributes, and consequences in individualism and collectivism. Important antecedents of individualism, in addition to cultural complexity, are (a) having a frontier (b) having substantial numbers of immigrants and (c) having rapid social and geographical mobility, all of which tend to make the control of ingroups less certain. It is likely that the Gross National Product (GNP) is both an antecedent and a consequence of individualism. Affluence implies the ability to “ do one’s own thing,” but “ doing one’s own thing” implies more creativity for society, hence more innovation and more economic development (Triandis, et al., 1988). Gundykust (1998) also summarized individualism and collectivism with three categories: major characteristics, individual level, and communication. He explained the individual factors that mediate the influence of cultural individualism-collectivism on individual’s behaviors. Personality Orientations. Individual personality traits such as idiocentrism and allocentrism mediate the effect of cultural individualism/collectivism on communication. Allocentrism is associated with social support positively and negatively with alienation and anomie. On the other hand, idiocentrism is related to an emphasis on achievement and perceived loneliness (Gundykunst, 1998). Individual Values. Values mediate the effect of cultural individualism/collectivism on communication. Value domains specify the structure of values and consist of specific values. The value domains of stimulation, hedonism, power, achievement, and selfdirection work for individual interests; the value domains of tradition, conformity, and benevolence work for collective interests; and the value domains of security.

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26 universalism, and spirituality work for mixed interests. Individuals can have both individualistic and collectivistic tendencies. Even though they may hold both individualistic and collectivistic values, one is inclined to predominate. Table 4. Attributes defining individualism and collectivism and their antecedents and consequents Antecedents Attributes Consequents Individualism Affluence Cultural complexity Hunting/food gathering Upper social class Migration Urbanism Exposure to the mass media Emotional detachment from ingroup Personal goals have primacy over ingroup goals Behavior regulated by attributes and costbenefit analyses Confrontation is okay Socialization for selfreliance and independence Good skills when entering new groups Loneliness Collectivism Unit of survival is food ingroup Agriculture Large families Family integrity Self-defined in ingroup terms Behavior regulated by ingroup norms Hierarchy and harmony within ingroup Ingroup is seen as homogeneous Strong ingroup/outgroup distinctions Socialization for obedience and duty Sacrifice for ingroup Cognition: Focus on common elements with ingroup members Behavior: Intimate, saving face, reflects hierarchy, social support, interdependence Source: Triandis, H. C., McCusker, C., & Hui, C. H. (1990). Multimethod probes of individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(5), 1006-1020.

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27 Table 5. Individualistic and collectivistic cultures Individualism Collectivism Major Characteristics Focus on individual’s goals “I” Identity emphasized Universalistic Many ingroups Focus on group’s goals “We” identity emphasized Particularistic Few ingroups Individual Level Idiocentrism Values stimulation, hedonism, power, selfdirection Independent self construal Allocentrism Values traditions, conformity, benevolence Interdependent self construal Communication Low-context messages: direct, precise, clear High-context messages: indirect, ambiguous, implicit Example of Cultures Australia England Belgium Canada Denmark France Germany Ireland Italy New Zealand Sweden United States Argentina Brazil China Egypt Ethiopia Greece Guatemala India Japan Korea Mexico Saudi Arabia Source: Gudykunst, W. B., (1998). Bridging differences: Effective intergroup communication. Thousands Oak, CA: Sage. SelfConstruals. The influence of cultural individualism/collectivism on communication is mediated by the way we conceive of ourselves (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). Because how we conceive of ourselves is one of the determinants of our behaviors, self-construal is important. The most widely used conceptualization of selfconstrual is the distinction between independent and interdependent construals (Markus & Kitayama, 1991).

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28 The independent eonstrual of self means that an individual’s self is perceived as a unique, independent entity. The interdependent eonstrual of self means that one’s behavior is contingent on and determined by their ingroups in order to maintain harmony (Gudykunst, 1998). When these concepts of independence and interdependence are examined at an individual self-concept level, they are referred to as idiocentricity and allocentricity (Triandis et al., 1988). In individualist cultures, parallel phenomena may take place. Idiocentric persons in individualist cultures find it completely acceptable to do their own thing and to disregard the needs of their communities, family or work group. But allocentric persons feel concerned about their community and ingroups (Triandis et al., 1988). Idiocentric individuals emphasize self-identification and what is private. In contrast, allocentric individuals focus on their group membership, their interdependence, and their view of others (Triandis, 1994). The concepts of collective and individualist cultures, and allocentric and idiocentric self-concepts, allow identification of members within a culture whose self-identity is congruent with the norms of their culture, and those who are culturally deviant. Allocentrics in a collective culture and idiocentrics in an individualistic culture are culturally congruent (Leach & Liu, 1998). There are several studies related to individualism versus collectivism. Robinson (1996) explained the effects of cultural values such as collectivist and Confucian social dynamics on brand values. Adapting Hofstede (1980), Robinson finds that many Asian cultures share a Confucian history and collectivist orientation. He argues that the “shared cultural values” of these “Asian cultures” explain Asian consumers’ reluctance to accept

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29 new brands, general indifference to learning about new products, and the tendency to use the same brand again and again within group settings. Robinson did not define what he meant by “Asian culture,” although he mentioned Korea, Hong Kong, and the Philippines. He did not depend on quantitative evidence about the influence of “power brands” on high power distance cultures, of social pressure to purchase accepted brands in public, and the effect of perceived popularity on Asian consumers (Wutich, 2001). Abstract descriptions of Asian cultures as face-saving, consensual, power-responsive, and ethnocentric were used to explain observed brand use phenomena such as the popularity of Nescafe, the consumption of local whisky brands in Korean bars, and the rise of Heineken consumption in upscale Hong Kong sectors. Responses to advertisements and intention to purchase in one collectivist culture, Mexico, were determined to be more positive when local cultural norms were depicted in ads. Adapting the importance of in-group familial dynamics, Gregory and Munch (1997) hypothesized that there would be significant norm and role effects on measures of persuasion for Mexican consumers, although variation would exist at the individual level. Using high and low decision risk products (gelatin and an automobile), Gregory and Munch found that norms and roles did have a positive effect on responses to ads and purchase intent, that effects varied for highand low-risk products, and that allocentric (collectivistic)-idiocentric (individualistic) measures did not reveal significant withinculture differences. Leach and Liu (1998) studied how culturally relevant stimuli presented in advertisements affected respondents from Taiwan and the United States. Using country of

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30 origin advertisements that referenced in-group and out-group concepts, researchers found that Taiwanese respondents (collective culture) responded more positively to in-group ads. Group affiliation ads were also found to be more diagnostic for Taiwanese respondents. Results were less pronounced for American respondents. Han and Shavitt ( 1 994) thought that cultural differences in self-concept might also reflect differences in the kinds of attitudes people have toward consumer products. They created ads for the same product that stressed independence or interpendence and showed them to both Americans and Koreans. Americans were persuaded most by the ads emphasizing independence; Koreans were favorable for the ads stressing interdependence. Cha and Cheong (1993) factor-analyzed 32 items related to collectivism and found three orthogonal factors for the younger group (20’s). Factor 1, labeled “Acceptance of Relational Obligations,” reflected acceptance of collectivity. A significant aspect of this factor is that it provides empirical evidence that important ingroups in contemporary Korean culture are family, clan, and school. Factor 2, labeled “In-Group Favoritism,” was related to a contrast between acceptance and rejection of favoritism based on personal relationships and discriminatory protection based on personal distance. Within the older samples (50’ s) only two orthogonal factors were found. Factor 1, labeled “Dependent Relationship,” showed considerable overlap with the younger group’s Factor 2 (In-Group Favoritism). Thus Factor 1 was an in-group favoritism factor, but emphasis was on the dependent relationship between parent and child. Factor 2 in the

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31 older samples closely overlapped with Factor 3 (Family-Centeredness) for the young group. They concluded that despite changes toward individualism, Koreans in both age groups were generally collectivist in absolute terms as determined on the basis of their beliefs/attitudes. Ad Execution In collectivistic societies people do not like to be alone, whereas in individualistic societies people like their privacy. For example, Levi’s changed their advertising for the Hispanic market (collectivistic society) to show people as part of an explicit group in advertising (De Mooij, 1997). Appeals in individualistic cultures can explain the individualized self. For example, the text of a Tampax commercial on MTV is: “Free yourself, to be yourself Do what you want, wear what you want any day you want.” (De Mooij, 1997). Examples of collectivistic claims are: “Prospering together, “Be part of the group.” In television commercials in collectivistic cultures, an important part of the setting is pictures of groups of people and extended families. Grandparents are often part of a family scene, something less frequently found in individualistic cultures. Some examples show the extreme individualism of some cultures, such as egoistic presentations of wild and nonconforming individualistic lifestyles that appeal only to small groups within individualistic societies (De Mooij, 1997). Because most Asian cultures are high context, advertising is less explicit. Implicit meanings and context can be dependent on communicative power. A high-context culture makes us understand highly symbolic advertising (Schutte & Ciarlante, 1998). Past studies of cross-cultural advertising have found a difference between high context and

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32 low context cultures. Advertisements in low context cultures are prone to be informative (Lin, 1993), have a more hard-sell approach (Muller, 1996), use direct and confrontational appeals, have a more direct rhetorical style (Caillat & Muller, 1996), and emphasize breadth rather than depth brand image perceptions (Roth, 1 992). In contrast, advertisements in high context cultures are likely to be emotional (Biswas, et al., 1992), have more of a soft-sell approach (Muller, 1996), use indirect and harmony-seeking appeals (Miracle et al., 1992), and emphasize brand image perceptions (Roth, 1992). Context Hall (1987) suggests that different languages exhibit different contextual variations. He explains that in a high-context communication, the mass of the information is in the implicit code. In low-context communication, the information is in the explicit code. This concept is useful to explain how people in a culture relate to one another, especially in reference to social bonds, responsibility, commitment, social harmony, and communication. It helps people to understand the cultural difference (Kim et al., 1998). According to Hall, highand low-cultures constitute opposite ends in a continuum of cultural values. High-context cultures emphasize personal connections, ingroup and outgroup distinctions, high commitment, authority and responsibility, confrontation avoidance, subtle communication, self-restraint, and avoidance of new situations. Lowcontext cultures emphasize individuality, distributed responsibility, risk-taking, directness, and innovation when faced with complexity. According to HallÂ’s (1976) definition of highversus low-context culture, a highcontext culture is one in which people are deeply involved with each other. Because of intimate relationships among people, a structure of social hierarchy exists, individualÂ’s

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33 feelings are managed by strong self-control, and information is widely shared through simple messages with deep meaning (Kim et al., 1998). A low-context culture is one in which people are highly individualized, somewhat alienated and fragmented, and experience relatively little involvement with others (Hall, 1976). Therefore, individualsÂ’ lives are emphasized, and communication between people is more explicit (Kim et al., 1998). In other words, high-context cultures are intuitive and contemplative and tend to use indirect messages, whereas low-context cultures are analytical and action-oriented and tend to use explicit, clearly articulated messages (Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson, 1997). Hall (1976, 1987) describes the United States and some western countries as lowcontext cultures and Korea, Japan, and Taiwan as high context cultures. Table 6. Hi gh-context vs. low-context national cultures Context Countries High Korea, China Vietnam, Japan Greece, Arabic Countries Medium Italy, Spain Frances, UK Scandinavia, USA Low Germany, Switzerland Source: Muhlbacher, H., Dahringer, L., & Leihs, H. (1999). International marketing: A global perspective. London, UK: International Thomson Business Press. Yum (1987) attributed the high-context nature of Korean culture to Confucian influences. Yum also cited a traditional de-emphasis of oral communication and the high value placed on reacting to nonverbal cues as characteristics of the Korean culture. First exposed to Confucianism in the 2"^' century BC, Korea had become a normative Confucian society by about the 18'*Â’ century. Today, Koreans are considered to

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34 be more faithful to the Confucian tradition than are the Chinese (Schutte & Ciarlante, 1998). Confucianism and Buddhism have become the philosophical foundations for the Korean value system. These two philosophies have shaped the ideas of the Korean people on how to consume and have contributed to shaping hierarchical social structures. Through Buddhism, Korean people have learned about the relationship between the mind and worldly desires (Kim, 1 994) According to Confucianism, the most important human values include loyalty to the state or emperor, respect for elders, filial piety, faith in friendship, reciprocity in human relations, education, and cultivation. These virtues can be reflected in the following relationships: (1) ruler and subject, (2) father and son, (3) older brother and younger brother, (4) husband and wife, and (5) older friend and younger friend. Additionally, high-context culture in Korea is related to Koran language. Koreans now use a more nearly phonetic system (Hangul) that is comparable to an alphabet. However, Koreans have used Chinese characters (Hanja), and their use persists among Korean intellectuals even today. Each character is a symbol that often delivers more meaning than a letter or a few letters of an alphabet, and often as much as several words or a sentence (Taylor, Miracle & Chang, 1994). HanjaÂ’s meaning is communicated in a visual way, similar to a picture or image. In a high-context communication or message, most of the information is either part of the context or internalized in the person. The information in a low-context message is carried in the explicit code of the message (De Mooij, 1997). In general, highcontext communication is economical, fast, and efficient. However, time must be devoted

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35 to programming. If this programming does not take place, the communication is incomplete. Low-context cultures are described by explicit verbal messages. Effective verbal communication is expected to be explicit, direct and unambiguous. Low-context cultures demonstrate high value and a positive attitude toward words (De Mooij, 1997). In high-context cultures people try to avoid direct confrontation to maintain social harmony and intimate bonds between people, often through repressing self In contrast, low-context culture people are less likely to avoid direct and open confrontation at the expense of expressing and defending self (Hall, 1976). As related to Individualism/ Collectivism, Hofstede finds a relationship between collectivism and high context in cultures. In collectivistic cultures, information flows more easily between members of the group and messages are more implicit. Collective cultures show more indirect communication versus more direct communication in individualistic cultures (De Mooij, 1997). The distinction between high-context/low-context communication is useful in understanding the difference between cultures with respect to verbal and nonverbal communication, direct versus indirect advertising, and the use of symbols versus facts and data. In terms of advertising, argumentation and rhetoric are found in low-context cultures. Advertising in high-context cultures is characterized by symbolism as indirect verbal expression (De Mooij, 1997). High-context can be recognized by the use of indirect communication using less copy and more symbols. Low-context communication cultures tend to use more copy, argumentation, facts and data than high-context cultures (De Mooij, 1997).

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36 In low-context communication, data and facts are important and product merit appeals and rhetoric are widely used. High-context communication uses indirect communication, making the use of symbols and entertainment important in advertising. These symbols are not easily interpretated by people of another culture (De Mooij, 1997). For example, a Japanese advertisement for mayonnaise does not explicitly show that the ad is promoting mayonnaise. The headline is also not promotional, reading, “Parsley contains twice as much calcium as milk.” The entire first paragraph tells consumers the calcium content of various vegetables. It is not until the final two sentences that the reader is persuaded by Kewpie brand mayonnaise to enjoy vegetables (Muller, 1996). Therefore, high-context and low-context can be manipulated by the level of information in advertising. High-context and low-context has been tested in several studies. Jacob (1998) discussed the cultural differences between high-context culture and low-context culture in business. He suggested that high-context cultures rely more heavily on formal etiquette and personal relationships for business communication. For example, the avoidance of direct eye contact is a sign of respect in some Asian countries, while Americans tend to misunderstand it as an attempt to hide something. Korea is considered a high-context culture by all business communication writers, which means it values community more than the individual, concentrates on personal relationships and uses several face-saving tactics in doing business (Thomas, 1998). Business communication instructors know the notion of high and low context as a good way to explain cultural differences in speaking and writing. Countries thought to be low

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37 context include Germany and the United States; countries thought to be high context include Japan and Saudi Arabia. Korea is considered a high-context culture by all writers. In terms of research related to highand low-context in advertising, Lin (1993) found that Japanese (high-eontext) commercials assumed a soft-sell approach, using short messages, songs, celebrities, female voice-overs and still graphics. In contrast, American commercials assume a hard-sell approach by using long messages, animation, male spokespersons and humor. Japan is a ‘high-context society’ whose communieation needs are met through familiar symbols and icons rather than logical recommendations. On the other hand, the U.S. is a low-context culture requiring western rhetorie and logical tradition to communicate thoughts and actions. Based on Hall’s concept of highand low-context cultures, Kim, Pan, and Park (1998) tried to explain that these different cultural values can be proved with measurable amounts among Chinese, Korean, and American graduate students, as a first step to developing a rigorous scale to evaluate context difference. As authoritarianism, need-foreognition, and values scales, as well as a unique survey, were used, they found that Americans rated the lowest on composite scores while Chinese and Korean respondents rated highest. The authors conclude that these differences in cultural values ean be used in different marketing strategies in high and low contexts. Although culture is a complex, multifaced construct, two cultural dimensions were evident in this study because they suggest that advertising in the United States and Korea would be different (Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson, 1997). As discussed previously, the dimensions are the degree to which the cultures are (1) individualistie or collectivistic

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38 and (2) high or low context. Figure 3. summarizes the differences between the U.S. and Korea on those dimensions. Individualism Collectivism High-Context Korea Low-Context United States Figure3. Two cultural dimensions between the U.S. and Korea Source: Taylor, C. R., Miracle, G. E., & Wilson, R. D. (1997). The impact of information level on the effectiveness of U.S. and Korean television commercials. Journal of Advertising, 26{\), 1-18. Self-Concept: Allocentricity (Interdependence) and Idiocentricity (Independence) Triandis (1989) tried to understand how culture shapes the self. He distinguished between public, private, and collective aspects of self The private self refers to how the person understands himself or herself, including introspection, private decision-making, self-esteem, and self-perception. The public self refers to how one is perceived by other people, and it includes oneÂ’s reputation, impressions made on specific others and so on. Lastly, the collective self refers to oneÂ’s memberships in social groups, such as ethnic identity and family ties. Triandis explained how culture affects these different aspects of the self Collective societies raise children to conform to the group, as opposed to individualistic societies that support diversity and self-expression. Collectivistic societies emphasize the

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39 public and collective aspect of self at the expense of the private self; on the other hand, individualistic societies focus on the private self. Markus and Kitayama (1991) proposed one dimension of cultural variation in self, i.e., interdependence and independence. They said that American and Western European views of self are related to autonomy and separateness.Japanese and other Asian and African cultures have viewed the self as fundamentally and essentially interconnected with other people and interdependent with them. They explained the difference by citing two proverbs: “the squeaky wheel gets the grease” in America emphasizing individuals; whereas, “the nail that stands out gets pounded down” in Japan, emphasizing the group. Independent Self-Construal. Independent self-construal is defined as involving a “bounded, unitary, stable” self that is separate from social context (Singelis, 1 994 p.581). The process of independent self-construal emphasizes (a) internal abilities, thoughts, and feelings; (b) being unique and expressing the self; (c) realizing internal attributes and promoting one’ own goals; and (d) being direct in communication. Those with well-developed independent self-construals will gain self-esteem through expressing the self and validating their internal attributes. Interdependent Self-Construal. An interdependent self-construal is defined as involving a “flexible, variable” self emphasizing (a) external, public features such as status, roles, and relationships; (b) belonging and fitting in; (c) occupying one’s proper place and engaging in appropriate action; and (d) being indirect in communication and “reading other’s minds.” Opposed to the independent self, the interdependent self depends on others, his or her relations with others, and contextual factors to regulate behavior (Singelis, 1994).

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40 The concepts of collectivistic and individualistic cultures, and independent and interdependent self-concepts, can be used to identify members within a culture whose self-identity is congruent with the norms of their culture, and those who are culturally deviant. Allocentrics (interdependent) in a collective culture and idiocentrics (independent) in an individualistic culture are culturally congruent. As such, personal beliefs and group norms of the culture are similar. Idiocentrics in a collective culture, and allocentrics in an individualistic culture are culturally deviant (Leach & Liu, 1 998). Ted Singelis (1994) has developed a questionnaire that measures the extent to which people view themselves as interdependent or independent. He found that Asian Americans agreed more with the interdependence than the independence items. In contrast, Caucasian Americans agreed more with the independence than the interdependence items. The difference between the Western and Eastern sense of self is real and has interesting consequences for communication between cultures. The differences in the sense of self are so fundamental that it is very difficult for independent selves to appreciate what aspects interdependent people have, and vice versa (Aronson, 1 994). Western people have difficulty appreciating the Asian sense of interdependence; many Asian people find it difficult to comprehend the Western sense of independence. Standardization and Localization The issue of standardization covers if each component, especially advertising of the 4Ps of marketing should be standardized worldwide (Onkvisit & Shaw, 1999). There have been three different viewpoints in international marketing. The first thought is globalization, holding that media, technology, travel and education have homogenized consumer tastes and that consumer differences are slight and shallow.

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41 The second thought is the adaptation strategy holding that consumer differences are being widened because of culture. The third thought is a compromise stating that the appropriateness of standardization is situation-specific and that the type of product, consumer characteristics and environmental components should be considered (Onkivisit & Shaw, 1999). The standardized approach in international advertising indicates the adoption of one advertisement for all markets. A specialized or localized approach refers to the use of different advertisements for different markets to adapt to local market conditions (Yin, 1999). The standardization of advertising was boosted by Levitt (1983). He contended that the worldwide market place was becoming homogeneous and that companies could get real competitive advantage by pushing a strategy that enables them to produce standardized products and services. Duncan and Ramaprasad (1995) suggested that standardization of international advertising campaigns depends on the situation. Zhang and Gelb (1996) found that advertising standardization is possible if a product is used in a consumption situation that matches the appeal in the advertisement. Positive effect from standardization can be achieved by preventing image confusion and consumer irritation (Backhaus, Muhlfeld, & Doom, 2001). A global marketing strategy and advertising program offer certain advantages to a company including the following (Belch & Belch, 1998). • Economies of scale in production and distribution. • Lower marketing and advertising costs as a result of reductions in planning and control. • Lower advertising production costs. • Abilities to exploit good ideas on a worldwide basis and introduce products quickly into various world markets.

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42 • A consistent international brand and company image. • Simplification of coordination and control of marketing and promotional programs. In a Baekhaus, Muhlfeld, and Doom (2001) study, they found that visual elements are fundamental to perceptions of standardization. An advertiser can create an advertising campaign that is perceived as standardized by the target group of international advertising by exploiting these perceptual similarities. One possible obstacle to standardization is the culture of the people. Understanding the role of eulture in the formation of eonsumer behavior is critical in the development of an effective global advertising strategy (Monye, 1999). Wind (1986) contended that one could not ignore the difference in different markets and the need to adapt to them. Anholt (1995) suggested that because advertising is related to the popular culture, the social stmcture and the laws, messages cannot be communicated in precisely the same way in different countries. It was confirmed by Zhang and Gelb’s (1996) study that consumers respond more positively to advertising messages that are eongruent with their culture. Advertising may be particularly difficult to standardize because of cultural differences in circumstances, language, traditions, values, beliefs, lifestyle, musie, and so on. Moreover, some experts argue that cultures around the world are becoming more diverse, not less so. Thus, advertising’s job of informing and persuading consumers and moving them toward using a particular brand can be effective only within a given culture (Belch & Beleh, 1998). For example, one American shoe manufacturer promoted its product through advertisements with photos of bare feet. Although such a message would pose no

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43 problem in most countries, the campaign failed miserably in Southeast Asia, where exposure of the foot is considered an insult. The problem of communicating to people in diverse cultures has been called one of the greatest challenges in marketing communication (Belch & Belch, 1998). In order of importance in localizing advertising components, language is rated the most important. Next in importance is the need to localize product attributes, models, colors of advertisements, humor, scenic background, and music (Yin, 1999). In Francis, Lam and Wall’s (2002) study, they compared English brand names with Chinese brand names on several dimensions. The vast majority of firms localize their brand names, and transliteration of the brand name is the strategy used most often. Kotler (1986) believed in a mixed approach, combining standardization and localization. For example, if a specific product’s brand name differs from one market to the next and the company wants to keep main characteristics, the international marketer may have no choice but to employ a specialized approach to advertising. For example, Unilever markets a cleaning liquid called “Vif ’ in Switzerland, “Viss” in Germany, “Jif ’ in Britain and Greece, and “Cif’ in France (Belch & Belch, 1998). According to Yin’s study (1999), combination strategy is a popular choice. Seventy seven percent of 140 companies used combination strategy, that is, partly localized and partly standardized. Market Segmentation and Target Marketing Marketing and advertising professionals review the marketplace to see what needs and wants consumer groups have and how to satisfy them. One technique they use is market segmentation (Lee & Johnson, 1999). For example, PepsiCo realized that not all consumers have the same tastes, especially in the global markets. It made a paprika-

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44 flavored chip for Poland and Hungary, a squid-peanut snack for Southeast Asia, and “cheeseless” Cheetos for China. The company used market segmentation to differentiate markets. To reach a market by using segmentation, markerters can select one of several methods such as demographic, geographic, behavioristic, and psychographics. Psychographic segmentation divides the market on the basis of lifestyle and/or personality. This dissertation research suggests that market segmentation of self-concept needs to be added to international advertising’s types of segmentation if culturally congruent members and culturally deviant have apparently different characteristics. The next step is to select appropriate target markets. For instance, Meredith Corporation, publisher of Ladies ’ Home Journal and Better Homes and Gardens, identified a new market for a fashion, beauty, and health magazine targeted at women aged forty to sixty-four. In this case, the company created a product that would be good for a specific target market (Lee & Johnson, 1 999). A particularly hard group to successfully target has been the up-and-coming Generation Xers. This group now spends $125 billion a year and is unusually media savvy (Lee & Johnson, 1 999). As students are a prominent target group for international advertising because of their high degree of education and likely international orientation, students as an example of a consumer segment were chosen. Furthermore, finding distinctively different culturally congruent and culturally deviant Korean young generation consumers may be useful to international marketers. The Global Youth Market The youth market is one of the most distinct global groups and a particularly important global community for many marketers. Even within this group, there are

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45 segments based on values, personalities, and lifestyles. In a study of more than 27,000 teenagers in 44 countries, the 500-million member group was divided into six value segments. There are lifestyle characteristics that cross national borders (Duncan, 2002). The music video channel MTV is an example of a powerful worldwide media vehicle that reaches the global youth market. Although most teens listen to the same types of music, MTV has found that there are regional and national differences, particularly in language. Thrills and Chillis Upholders Quiet Achievers Resigned Bootstrappers World Savers Figure 4. Six segments of the global youth market Source: Duncan, T. (2002). IMC: Using advertising & promotion to build brands. New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill/Irwin In the segments, the characteristics are as follows: Thrills and Chillis (18%): fun, friends, irreverence and sensation; Upholders (16%): family, custom, tradition, respect for individuals; Quiet Achievers (15%): success, anonymity, anti-individualism, social optimism; Resigned (14%): fun, friends, family, and low expectations; Bootstrappers (14%): achievement, individualism, optimism, determination, power; World Savers (12%): environment, humanism, fim and friends.

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46 ProductsÂ’ Use Condition as a Moderator Advertising effectiveness may be moderated by product characteristics. Asian consumers are characterized by a pragmatic approach when it comes to private-use purchases. The purchase decision is based on utilitarian features of the product such as physical characteristics and price-to-quality ratio (Schiitte & Ciarlante, 1998). The interdependent-self influences private-use purchase decisions by encouraging conformist consumption. As the Asian consumer regards his own identity in the context of society, he does not want to stray from socially acceptable norms, even in private. For example, Korean people living in the same area, such as an apartment building, are likely to use the same brand of detergent. According to Shavitt (1990), shared products were defined as ones for which the decision-making process involved in purchase and the pattern of product usage are likely to include family members or friends (e.g., home appliances and groceries). Personal products were defined as ones for which the purchase decision and product usage are usually done by individuals (e.g., fashion apparel, cosmetics, personal care products) (Han & Shavitt, 1994). Therefore, it is expected that a consumerÂ’s need to conform to cultural values and norms when evaluating products may depend on how the products are used (the product use condition). A toothbrush, not reflecting collectivist values can be effectively promoted using individualistic appeal in a predominantly collective culture. In a parallel way, a camera, not reflecting individualist values, can be effectively promoted using collectivistic appeal in a predominantly individualistic culture (Zhang & Gelb, 1996).

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47 Advertising in Korea Among the more than 1 00 advertising agencies approved by the Korea Broadcasting Advertising Corporation (KOBACO), over 30 agencies are in-house (affiliates of local business conglomerates or parent companies), and half of the top 30 agencies in terms of billing amount are in-house agencies of the chaebols (Gentry, Jun, Ko, & Kang, 1998). Over 20 agencies have foreign-invest or technical cooperation, and six of these are locally established multinational agencies in jointventure arrangements. As far as the top ten advertisers in Korea were concerned, their total expenditures bounced back to above the 1997 level. The total in 1999 was 601 .6 billion while it was 519.9 billion won in 1997. Year-on-year growth showed -t-35.6. (Korean Association of Advertising Agencies, 2000). Table 7. Top ten advertiserÂ’s advertising expenditures (in billions of won) 1999 1998 Samsung Electronics 107.1(1) 67.2(1) +59.4 SK Telecom 83.0(2) 59.9(2) +38.6 Kia Motors 57.9(3) Namyang Dairy 55.4(4) 37.2(6) +48.9 Hyundai Motors 54.6(5) 51.3 +6.4 LG Chemical 50.9(6) 43.6(7) +16.7 Daewoo Motors 50.9(7) 55.9(3) -9.0 Pacific Chemical 49.7(8) 41.5(5) +19.8 Maeil Dairy 46.1(9) Hyundai Securities 46.0(10) Total 601.6 443.5 +35.6 Source: Advertising Yearbook 2000 (Korean Association of Advertising Agencies) Korea was chosen for study for two reasons. First, cultural differences between the United States and Korea suggest that Korean culture differs from the American culture on the dimension of context and individualism/collectivism (Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson, 1997).

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48 A second reason for choosing Korea is KoreaÂ’s status as an emerging market (Holstein & Nakarmi, 1995). In 1994, Korea made the list of the worldÂ’s 10 largest advertisers for the first time (Pruzan, 1995), with economic growth accounting for an increase in ad billing from $938 million in 1985 to nearly $7 billion in 1996 (Kilbum, 1997). Given the economic importance of Korea, it represents a significant country for advertising research (Wolburg & Kim, 1999). As far as advertising expenditure is concerned, Korea is one of the largest countries in Asia. Table 8. Distribution of the top five world advertising expenditures by country, 1995 (US$m) Region Country Expenditure America USA 88,915 Costa Rica 4,966 Canada 4,142 Argentina 3,229 Mexico 1,092 Europe Germany 21,992 United Kingdom 12,803 France 10,137 Italy 5,221 Spain 4,717 Asia Japan 39,124 South Korea 6,077 Australia 4,369 Taiwan 3,207 China 1,950 Africa South Africa 1,259 Nigeria 240 Egypt 177 Kenya 35 Zimbabwe 29 Middle East Israel 8,181 Lebanon 347 Saudi Arabia 270 UAE 117 Kuwait 1,167 Source: World Advertising Trends (NTC Publications, 1997).

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49 The Lifestyles and Consumption Styles of Koreans Average Koreans want to spend more on cars, houses, telephones, washing machines, and all the other products their counterparts in Europe and America spend their time working for. Evidences of KoreanÂ’s consumers desires are the feverish crowds in department stores and the clogging up of SeoulÂ’s roads with the new cars that middleclass people are beginning to be able to afford {Economist, August 18, 1990). Since 1997 all Koreans have viewed advertising more positively, whereas negative attitudes toward advertising have decreased. There is an increased tendency to view advertising as interesting, compared to previous years. Advertising is considered better than an uninteresting program. In addition, the fear that advertising has a negative influence on youth is decreasing among the general public in Korea (Cheil Communication, 2000). Advertising is better than an uninteresing program. When advertising is on TV, we change the channel Advertising has a negative influence on youth 1997 1998 1999 Figure 5. Attitudes toward advertising Consumer Issues of Young Korean Consumers Hafstrom, Chae, and Chung (1992) found that several consumer decision-making styles characteristic of young U.S. consumers are similar to those of young Korean

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50 consumers. Lee and Green (1991) found that American and Korean students identified the same set of six salient attributes with regard to their purchases of sneakers: price, style, comfort, brand, durability, and color. In relation to innovativeness, Tansuhaj et al. (1991) found that young Koreans are more willing to adopt new technological products, but less willing to adopt new media products, entertainment offerings, and fashion products than any other countries including young Americans. In the case of singles in their twenties, bom in the 70s, they will be in their thirties in the 2000s, and have a significantly different lifestyle than the older generations. Single people who reached their twenties during the 1 990s are called “the new generation” in Korea because they are not the same as previous generations due to the fact that they have proved to have excellent computer and foreign language skills, which befits the new global society. They are sensitive to price, a sensitivity that has been on the increase since ’96 when the economy went into a downturn; women seem to be more susceptible to prices than men. According to current trends, the twenties’ tendency to purchase impulsively continues to decrease; the consumption pattern of single twenties seems to be gradually becoming more rational (Dae Hong Communications, 1 999). On the basis of current lifestyle trends, young Korean consumers prefer western styled housing, and they also wish to live independently from their parents. They have more financial freedom and fewer family obligations compared to other age groups, and are thus in a more independent position.

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51 The popularity of western lifestyles continues to increase in Korea. The younger the generation, the more easily it adapts western culture. However, traditional family values, based on Confucianism, still remain powerful. In an annual consumer report survey (Cheil Communication, 2000), 40 percent of respondents agreed with the following statement, “Private life is more important than the organization,” evidence that the family is still important in Korea. The Current Korean Culture According to past studies, both advertising content and practice in East Asian cultures are moving toward those of the West (Cho et al., 1999). Cho et al.’s results at least imply that Korea may be moving toward the West and away from traditional culture. Similarly, the concept “Modernity and Youth” presented in the Cheng and Schweitzer (1996) study of Chinese culture appears generalizable to the Korean context. Korea had a strong “youth orientation” present in its advertising in 1995 (Cho et al., 1999). In addition, Lin’ study (2001) examined cultural values as reflected in American and Chinese commercials. She found that the youth/modemity appeal reflects both the westernization and modernization in China. The appeal seems as prominently displayed in Chinese commercials as in the American commercials. Hypotheses and Research Questions Hypotheses On the basis of the preceding literature review, six hypotheses were developed to empirically test the summary perspective on the relationship between advertising and culture. Given any culturally relevant norm, there are likely to be individuals within the culture whose personal values are consistent with the norm as well as those whose values

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52 are inconsistent with the norm. These two types are termed culturally congruent individuals and culturally deviant individuals (Leach & Liu, 1998). For that reason, it is hypothesized that HI. The main effect of self-concept: Korean culturally congruent subjects will have a higher mean score than Korean culturally deviant subjects in terms of three dependent variables (Aad, Abr and PI). • In the case of an expensive shared product • In the case of an inexpensive shared product In hypothesis I, MANOVA will be used to analyze the effectiveness of advertising appeals with three dependent variables i.e. attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. After applying the MANOVA test, univariate analysis will be used to examine each dependent variable separately. In previous research, a consumer’s need to conform to cultural values and norms when evaluating products depended on how the products were used (the product use condition). Asian consumers are characterized by a pragmatic approach when it comes to private-use purchases. The purchase decision is based on utilitarian features of the product such as physical characteristics and price-to-quality ratio (Schutte & Ciarlante, 1 998). Korean eonsumers will respond on several products differently. On the basis of these assertions, it is posited that H2. The main effect of product: A shared product will have a higher mean score than a personal product in terms of three dependent variables (Aad, Abr and PI) among culturally congruent and culturally deviant. • In the case of an expensive shared product • In the case of an inexpensive shared product In hypothesis 2, MANOVA will be used to analyze the effectiveness of advertising appeals with three dependent variables (i.e. attitude toward the ad, attitude

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53 toward the brand, and purchase intention). After applying the MANOVA test, univariate analysis will be used to examine each dependent variable separately. Hofstede (1980, 1984) analyzed the characteristics of 53 countries to compare the cultural differences in terms of individualism-collectivism. The results show the least individualistic, i.e. most collectivistic, countries are Guatemala, Ecuador, and Panama. Korea ranks 43rd among the 53 countries. Because Korea is considered to be a collectivistic culture, there will be a difference between a collectivistic appeal and an individualistic appeal. H3. The main effect of appeal: Collectivistic appeals will have a higher mean score than individualistic appeals in terms of three dependent variables (Aad, Abr and PI) among culturally congruent and culturally deviant. • In the case of an expensive shared product • In the case of an inexpensive shared product In hypothesis 3, MANOVA will be used to analyze the effectiveness of advertising appeals with three dependent variables i.e. attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. After applying the MANOVA test, univariate analysis will be used to examine each dependent variable separately. The potential heterogeneity within a culture gives rise to the probability that some individuals within a culture cannot be categorized with some or all of the norms associated with that culture. There are individual differences within one culture. In addition, Korea is considered to be a collectivistic culture. Collectivistic appeals will be more effective than individualistic appeal on an individual level. Thus, there will be an interaction between self-concept and appeal. Therefore, it is logical to postulate that H4. The interaction effect of self-concept and appeal: Korean culturally congruent subjects (interdependent) will have a higher mean effectiveness score than

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54 Korean culturally deviant subjects (independent), when presented with culturally relevant ad stimuli (collectivistic appeal), and Korean culturally deviant will have a higher mean effectiveness score than Korean culturally congruent subjects when presented with individualistic appeals advertising. H4-1. Korean culturally congruent subjects will have a higher mean attitude toward advertising than Korean culturally deviant subjects, when presented with culturally relevant ad stimuli (collectivistic appeal), and Korean culturally deviant will have a higher mean effectiveness score than Korean culturally congruent subjects when presented with individualistic appeals advertising. H4-2. Korean culturally congruent subjects will have a higher mean attitude toward a brand than Korean culturally deviant subjects, when presented with culturally relevant ad stimuli (collectivistic appeal), and Korean culturally deviant will have a higher mean effectiveness score than Korean culturally congruent subjects when presented with individualistic appeals advertising. H4-3. Korean culturally congruent subjects will have a higher mean purchase intention than Korean culturally deviant subjects, when presented with culturally relevant ad stimuli (collectivistic appeal), and Korean culturally deviant will have a higher mean effectiveness score than Korean culturally congruent subjects when presented with individualistic appeals advertising. • In the case of an expensive shared product • In the case of an inexpensive shared product In hypothesis 4, MANOVA will be used to analyze the effectiveness of advertising appeals with three dependent variables i.e. attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. After applying the MANOVA test, univariate analysis will be used to examine each dependent variable separately. There will be an interaction between an appeal and a product. For example, a toothbrush, a personal product indicating individualistic value, can be effectively promoted using individualistic appeal in a predominantly collective culture. By the same token, a camera, a shared product indicating collectivistic values, can be effectively promoted using collectivistic appeal in a predominantly individualistic culture (Zhang & Gelb, 1996). On the basis of these findings, it is hypothesized that

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55 H5. The interaction effect of appeal and product: Individualistic appeals will score higher on effectiveness in personal product advertisements than will collectivistic appeals, and collectivistic appeals will score higher in effectiveness on shared product advertisements than will individualistic appeals.. H5-1. Individualistic appeals will score higher on attitude toward the advertising on personal product advertisements than will collectivistic appeals, and collectivistic appeals will score higher on attitude toward the advertising on shared product advertisements than will individualistic appeals. H5-2. Individualistic appeals will score higher on attitude toward the brand on personal product advertisements than will collectivistic appeals, and collectivistic appeals will score higher on attitude toward the brand on shared product advertisements than will individualistic appeals. H5-3. Individualistic appeals will score higher on purchase intention on personal product advertisements than will collectivistic appeals, and collectivistic appeals will score higher on purchase intention on shared product advertisements than will individualistic appeals. • In the case of an expensive shared product • In the case of an inexpensive shared product In hypothesis 5, MANOVA will be used to analyze the effectiveness of advertising appeals with three dependent variables i.e. attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. After applying the MANOVA test, univariate analysis will be used to examine each dependent variable separately. Research Question Finally, seven additional research questions are posed in order to further explore the descriptive aspects of the study further. Despite Korea’s being considered a collectivistic culture, it is questionable that collectivistic appeals will be more effective than individualistic appeals on the level of the entire country. Within one culture, individuals can be different in terms of selfeoncept.

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56 RQl. Will collectivistic appeals score higher in effectiveness among the entire sample of Korean youth? RQl-1. Will collectivistic appeals score higher on attitude toward the advertising among the entire sample of Korean youth? RQl -2. Will collectivistic appeals score higher on attitude toward the brand among the entire sample of Korean youth? RQl -3. Will collectivistic appeals score higher on purchase intention among the entire sample of Korean youth? The product use condition moderated advertising appeals when advertising appeals are compared in eastern and western countries. Therefore, it is questionable as to how differently the product use condition will be when subjects are divided into culturally congruent members and culturally deviant members. RQ2. How do culturally congruent members and culturally deviant members differ in terms of product use condition? RQ2-1. How do culturally congruent members and culturally deviant members differ in terms of product use condition in their attitude toward advertising? RQ2-2. How do culturally congruent members and culturally deviant members differ in terms of product use condition in their attitude toward the brand? RQ2-3. How do culturally congruent members and culturally deviant members differ in terms of product use condition in their purchase intention? • In the case of an expensive shared product • In the case of an inexpensive shared product Because this study has a 3 -factorial design, it is expected that 3 -way interaction will be found despite the difficulty of interpreting the main effects. RQ3. Is there 3 -way interaction among the three independent variables? • In the case of an expensive shared product • In the case of an inexpensive shared product

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57 In research question 3, MANOVA will be used to analyze any interaction among three independent variables, i.e. advertising appeal, product use condition and selfconcept (culturally congruent vs. culturally deviant) in terms of three dependent variables. When self-concept is extended to four types of self-concept, it is questionable as to how four-types of selfconcept see advertising. RQ4. What is the difference among four types of self-concept in terms of three dependent variables? • In the case of an inexpensive shared product In research question 4, MANOVA will be used to analyze four types of selfconcept (culturally congruent, culturally deviant, bicultural and culturally-alienated) in terms of three dependent variables. It is also questionable as to how different culturally congruent and culturally deviant are in terms of demographic variables. RQ5-1. What are the characteristics of both culturally congruent subjects and culturally deviant in terms of gender, monthly income and media use pattern? RQ5-2 What are the characteristics of four types of self-concept in terms of gender, monthly income and media use pattern? In research question 5-1 and 5-2, Chi-square will be used to analyze relationship between self-concept and gender, monthly income and media use pattern. When gender enters to the fixed factor, it is questionable whether there is an interaction between self-concept and gender. RQ6. What is the difference between self-concept and gender in terms of three dependent variables?

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58 In research question 6, MANOVA will be used to analyze the interaction between self-concept and gender in terms of three dependent variables. It also is questionable as to how men and women see shared product advertisement and personal product advertisement. RQ7. What is the difference between men and women in terms of three dependent variables on product use condition? In research question 7, MANOVA will be used to analyze any interaction between gender and product use condition in terms of three dependent variables.

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CHAPTER 3 METHOD Design of the Experiment Before the experiment, there was a prior step for validating how collectivistic or individualistic Korean culturally congruent students and Korean culturally deviant students are when compared to American students in the pilot study. The diagram is as follows: Collectivism Individualism Congruent Deviant Korean Congruent Deviant American Figure 6. The Comparison of Korean cultura ly congruent students and Korean culturally deviant students and average American students An experiment was designed to test the hypotheses and research questions. The subjects were 674 students in Korea, 301 men and 372 women. They were enrolled in undergraduate classes at a large Korean university. Three independent variables were used in the experiment: 1 ) advertising appeals (collectivistic versus individualistic), 2) self-concept (culturally congruent vs. culturally deviant), 3) product use conditions (shared versus personal). The three variables are betweensubject variables. Students in 59

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60 Korea were selected randomly to receive an individualistic or collectivist appeal in each of the test ads they would see. Hence, the study had a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial design. The ad copy, size, and layout for both products were identical to control for potential confounding elements. The picture of the product and the fictional brand name were varied to correspond to the product. Brands used in the advertising were introduced to the subjects a new brand in the Korean market. Selecting Advertising Appeal As in previous research (Han & Shavitt. 1 994; Zhang & Gelb, 1 996) the two advertising appeals were manipulated by varying the headline copy in the ads. The headline copies were solicited from pretest subjects in a focus-group setting (sample size = 20). The moderator opened the focus-group sessions by welcoming the subjects to the session and introducing the discussion topics: culture’s influence on advertising in general and why people are interested in such influences. Some of the major cultural differences in the individualism-collectivism dimension were identified and discussed. After several iterative rounds of pretesting with separate groups in which Korean-bom college students evaluated and discussed the appeal types, the final individualistic appeal copy read, “Plan only your own time”. The final collectivistic appeal copy read, “We can communicate with each other through a watch” and so on (Table 9).

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61 Table 9. Transition of ad copy headlines Product Individualistic Appeal Collectivistic Appeal Personal Watch “Plan your own time” “What a watch communicates... We all can share” Perfume “A fragrance a woman falls for” “Even though we’re different. We are the same.” Shared Car “A new space to display my taste” “A comfortable car just like our home” TV “A window to see my world” “A theater for our family” Camera “I use my camera to take pictures for my memories” “We use our camera to take pictures of our happy family” Game “My game lets me enjoy a world entertainment by myself’ “Our family’s fantastic entertainment world” Filler ads from Korean magazines, chosen by a panel of judges, were used to disguise the purpose of the study. The advertisements were compiled into a magazinelike booklet and appeared in the following sequence: filler ad 1, experimental ad 1 (shared product with individualistic appeal/personal product with collectivistic appeal), filler ad 2, experimental ad 2 (personal product with individualistic appeal/shared product with collectivistic appeal), and filler ad 3. The order of the products was alternated in the experimental ads to eliminate any sequence effect due to the order of presentation. Selecting Product Because a consumer’s need to conform to cultural values and norms when evaluating products may depend on how the products are used (the product use condition). Personal vs. Shared product categories were determined on the basis of a survey in which 40 Korean students rate 37 consumer products and services in terms of (1) the decision-making process involved in purchase (1= never discuss with their family

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62 or friends whether to purchase, 5=always discuss), and usage pattern (1= used mostly individually, 5= used mostly with family members or friends). (See Table 10) Table 10. Means and standard deviation of products N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Pads 42 .00 8.00 2.5952 2.5188 Cosmetics 42 .00 8.00 4.4286 1.6549 Hair Care Products 42 1.00 10.00 6.1190 1.9153 Lingerie 42 .00 8.00 3.1429 1.8944 Suntan Lotion 42 .00 8.00 4.7857 2.0065 Cards 42 .00 7.00 3.8333 1.7795 Gift Wrap 42 2.00 9.00 4.8571 1.9200 Kitchen Items 42 .00 10.00 5.8571 2.2800 Perfume 42 2.00 9.00 5.0476 1.8340 Watch 42 2.00 9.00 4.5952 1.7116 Shaver 42 .00 10.00 4.2619 2.3484 Copier 42 .00 10.00 6.8333 2.6125 Jewelry 42 .00 10.00 4.7381 2.0960 Apparel 42 2.00 10.00 5.8571 1.8815 Credit cards 42 .00 9.00 4.1429 1.9825 Sunglasses 42 2.00 10.00 5.0714 2.0048 Jeans 42 2.00 9.00 4.8810 1.7834 Wine 42 .00 10.00 5.8571 2.1928 Drinks 42 2.00 9.00 5.5714 2.1201 Groceries 42 2.00 10.00 7.1905 1.7284 Baby Products 42 .00 10.00 3.7619 2.9368 Coffee 42 2.00 10.00 6.8333 1.9370 Toothpaste 42 2.00 10.00 6.7143 1.5026 Laundry Soap 42 2.00 10.00 7.0476 1.4808 Medicine 42 4.00 10.00 7.1667 1.7519 Baby Clothes 42 .00 10.00 3.5238 2.9237 Batteries 42 2.00 10.00 4.8095 2.0391 Insurance 42 .00 10.00 5.5238 2.8902 Washer 42 .00 10.00 7.3810 2.1522

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63 Table 10 Continued N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Air Conditioner 42 .00 10.00 7.9286 1.9304 Camera 42 4.00 10.00 8.0476 1.5765 TV 42 4.00 10.00 8.3333 1.6180 Computer 42 6.00 10.00 8.9048 1.3031 Airline Tickets 42 .00 9.00 5.2857 2.0516 Car 42 .00 10.00 8.0952 2.3039 Hotel Room 42 .00 10.00 7.4762 2.1779 Home Furnishings 42 3.00 10.00 8.2143 1.7743 Valid N 42 Lower score means a personal product and higher score means a shared product. Among these products, a watch and a perfume were selected as personal products and a car and a TV were selected as shared products in the pretest. In the main experiment, a camera and game system were included as expensive shared products. These products were selected in terms of mean score and usage pattern for both men and women. For example, even though pads received the lowest score, this item was not selected because it is limited to women only. In addition, cards received a lower score, but they were not selected because advertisements for cards are rare in Korea. Hypotheses and research questions were analyzed both in the case of expensive shared products and in the case of inexpensive shared products. Self-Concept: Cultural Congruence and Deviance A 95fNDCOL scale (See Appendix) developed by Triandis (1996) measured levels of allocentricity (interdependent) and idiocentricity (independent). His scale assesses the degree to which a personÂ’s self-concept is independent and interdependent.

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64 This scale is a 9-point agree/disagree scale with 1 5 items assessing the concept of allocentricity and 14 items assessing idiocentricity. The two dimensions were integrated by categorizing subjects into four quadrants related to their self-concept. Subjects were categorized into one of these four quadrants with the use of overall mean rating split into high and low idiocentric selves and high and low allocentric selves. The four quadrants of self-concept are defined as follows Allocentricity Figure 7. Quadrant of the self-concept Quadrant 1 : High on idiocentricity and low on allocentricity Quadrant 2: Low on both idiocentricity and allocentricity Quadrant 3: Low on idiocentricity and high on allocentricity Quadrant 4: High on both idiocentricity and allocentricity Subjects who report high levels of allocentricity and low levels of idiocentricity (Quadrant 3) are referred to as culturally congruent, and those who report low levels of allocentricity and high levels of idiocentricity (Quadrant 1) are the cultural deviants in

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65 Korea. In addition. Subjects who report high levels of allocentricity and high levels of idiocentricity (Quadrant 4) are refereed to as bicultural. They are balanced and especially flexible, healthy. Yamada and Singelis (1999) found that people from a collectivist culture who spent time in an individualistic culture, and learned to get along with people from both of these cultures, are high in both idiocentrism and allocentrism. Those who report low levels of allocentricity and low levels of idiocentricity (Quadrant 2) are culturally alienated. They are rejecting both aspects of this cultural syndrome. This may be due to a general rejection of norms. Such people may be also confused, isolated, undersocialized, or marginal. Procedures and Dependent Variables Subjects will be recruited to participate in a study ostensibly investigating how people read printed materials. The students will complete the task in groups of 70 to 80. They will be instructed to be as natural as possible in reading the materials presented to them. After reading experimental ad 1 for the first product, they will rate their response to the ads and products. Next, subjects will read the second experimental ad for the first product and complete the questionnaire. In this way, they will read and respond to the four pairs of ads in turn. Finally, subjects will be debriefed and dismissed. All the dependent measures are adapted from previous studies (Zhang & Gelb, 1996; Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson, 1997; Ajzen, 2002). Attitude toward the ad. Ad attitude(Aad) will be measured with four items, on a 9-point semantic differential scale (harmful-beneficial, present-unpleasant, good-bad, worthless-valuable, enjoyable-unenjoyable) (Ajzen, 2002; Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson, 1997).

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66 Attitude toward the brand. Brand attitude (Abr) will be measured with a 5-item scale (harmful-beneficial, present-unpleasant, good-bad, worthless-valuable, enjoyableunenjoyable). Again, the mean score of the ratings will be to be used as the dependent measure of the construct. All semantic differential scales used for both Aad and Abr a range from Ito 9 (Ajzen, 2002, Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson, 1997). Purchase Intention. Purchase intention will be measured with a 3-item scale (ex. 1 intend to buy a JJM car in the next six months, 1 will try to buy a JJM car in the next six months and I plan to buy a JJM car in the next six months) (Ajzen, 2002 ). Items will be rotated so that the positive term would not always be at the same end of the 9point scale. For the purpose of reporting results, a summated index for each of the multiple-item scales will be computed; higher scores will represent positive responses and lower scores will represent negative responses.

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Pilot Study Procedure and Design of the Experiment In order to test the hypotheses and research questions, a pre-experiment was conducted. The subjects were 112 students, 56 male and 56 female, enrolled in undergraduate classes at a major university in Korea. Three independent variables were used in the experiment: 1) advertising appeals (collectivistic versus individualistic), 2) self-concept (culturally congruent vs. culturally deviant), 3) product use conditions (shared versus personal). Subjects were selected to randomly receive an individualistic or collectivist appeal in each of the test ads they viewed. Therefore, the study had a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial design. Results The average reliability of each scale was assessed using CronbachÂ’s alpha: Individualistic scale of INDCOL, for American students^, .72; Collectivistic scale of INDCOL for American students, .80; Individualistic scale of INDCOL for Korean students, .85; Collectivistic scale of fNDCOL for Korean students, .70. This scale was a 9-point agree/disagree scale with 15 items assessing the concept of allocentricity (collectivistic) and 14 items assessing idiocentricity(individualistic). American students were used for just validating how collectivistic or individualistic Korean culturally congruent students and Korean culturally deviant students are when compared to American students. American students were not entered to an experiment. 67

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68 A manipulation check was performed on the print advertisement used in the study. Utilizing an individualistic/collectivistic anchored 5-point semantic differential scale, pretest subjects were asked to read the advertising headline and rate the advertisements as being individualistic or collectivistic. The average ratings were 2.70 for individualistic appeal and 4.32 for collectivistic appeal for Korean students, making the difference statistically significant at the .001 level. These results suggest a convergence of the classification of an advertisement into individualistic and collectivistic categories and subjectsÂ’ perception of advertising appeals. In addition, subjects were asked to rate the products as a personal or a shared product in terms of (1) the decision-making process involved in purchase (1= never discuss with their family or friends whether to purchase, 5=always discuss), and (2) usage pattern (1= used mostly individually, 5= used mostly with other members of family or friends). The average ratings were 4.89 for a personal product and 7.34 for a shared product for Korean students, indicating statistically significant difference at the .001 level. In the MANOVA analyses, the assumption of greatest importance is the homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices across the groups. In this study, there are eight groups involved in testing the assumption. BoxÂ’ M test has a significance level of .70, thus allowing acceptance of the null hypothesis of homogeneity of variancecovariance matrices at the .05 level. The second assumption is the correlation of the dependent variables, which is assessed with BartlettÂ’s test of sphericity. In this example, the significance is .001, indicative of a significance level of correlation between the three dependent measures.

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69 As shown in Table 1 1, the MANOVA results indicate no main effects for selfconcept. advertising appeal and product type. However, self-concept had a marginal significance level of .057 in the multivariate tests. Table 1 1 . Multivariate and univariate results for the effect of independent variables on attitude toward the advertising, attitude toward the brand and purchase intention Independent Dependent Variable WilksÂ’ Lambda F Self-Concept Aad .947 1.724 Abr .020 PI .115 Advertising Appeals Aad .975 .257 A hr .064 PI .080 Product Aad .966 1.012 Abr 1.250 PI .554 SelfConcept* Advertising Appeal Aad .847 4.631* Abr .100 PI .160 Self-Concept*Product Aad .982 .252 Abr .201 PI .016 Advertising Appeal* Product Aad .922 3.404 Abr 2.139 PI 3.165 SelfConcept* Advertising Appeal* Product Aad .883 .528 Abr 1.049 PI .429 *p<-.05

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70 Table 12. Means of three independent variables Attitude toward Ad ATTITUDE TOWARD BRAND Purchase Intention Self-Concept Culturally congruent 32.973 31.579 20.394 Culturally deviant 31.188 31.138 19.675 Advertising Appeal Individualistic 31.948 31.467 20.332 Collectivistic 32.213 31.250 19.737 Product type Personal 32.924 31.932 20.537 Shared 31.237 30.785 19.533 It was hypothesis that presented with culturally relevant ad stimuli (collectivistic appeal), Korean culturally congruent subjects would have a higher mean effectiveness score than Korean culturally deviant subjects. There was a significant interaction between self-concept and advertising appeal on attitude toward the advertising: F(l,54)=4.631, p<.05. Furthermore, the collectivistic appeals had a more positive impact on Korean culturally congruent subjects (M=34.91) than Korean culturally deviant subjects (M=30.52). In the simple main effect test, there is a statistically significant difference between culturally congruent and culturally deviant on collective appeals F (1,24)=4.8, p<.05. In testing the hypothesis that individualistic appeals would score higher on effectiveness on personal product advertisements than would collectivistic appeals, there was no significant interaction between advertising appeals and product type as shown in Table 11.

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71 Attitude toward advertising culturally congruent or culturally deviant Figure 8. Plot of attitude toward advertising and culturally congruent and culturally deviant In testing the hypothesis that collectivistic appeals would score higher on effectiveness on shared product advertisements than would individualistic appeals, there was also no significant interaction between advertising appeals and product type. However, this result was not consistent with a previous research study in terms of mean score. To answer the research question that collectivistic appeals would score higher on effectiveness in the entire sample of Korean youths, there was not significant result in either multivariate analysis or univariate analyses. The mean score of collectivistic appeal nearly mirrored individualistic appeal in the entire sample of Korean youths.

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72 To answer the research question as to how culturally congruent members and culturally deviant members differ in terms of product use condition, there was no significant result in multivariate analysis F(l,54)==.276 p=.842 nor in univariate analysis. Main Experiment Demographic Description of the Sample The 674 subjects who participated in this research study were mass communications students from two universities located in Seoul, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies and Kookmin University. The demographic analysis of the sample shows that it consisted of 301 (44.7%) males and 372 (55.2%) females. There were 270 subjects under the age of 20 (40.1%), 341 students in the age group 21-25 (50.6%), 55 students in the age group 26-30 (8.2%) and only 8 (1.2%) students over the age of 30. With respect to monthly income, 30 students, independent of parental support, earned under $80 (4.5%), 85 students had income of $80 to $150 (12.6%), 191 students received income between $151 to $250 (28.3%), 166 students claimed income worth $251 to $350 (24.6%), 84 students had income of $351 to $450 (12.5%), and 1 16 students had income worth more than $45 1 . With respect to parental monthly income, 15 studentsÂ’ parents earned less than $800 (2.2%), 103 studentsÂ’ parents earned between $801 and $1500, 196 studentsÂ’ parents earned $1501 to $2500, 175 studentsÂ’ parents made $2501 to $3500 dollars, and 156 studentsÂ’ parents had incomes exceeding $3501 (See Table 13). Assumptions of MANOVA and Validity of Model In the MANOVA analysis, the assumptions of greatest importance have to be satisfied by the homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices across the groups, correlation among the three dependent variables, normality, and linearity.

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73 The assumption of greatest importance is the homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices across the groups. In this study, there were eight groups involved for testing the assumption. BoxÂ’ M test, which is a statistical test for the equality of the Table 13. Demographic profile of the respondents Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Gender Male 301 44.7 44.7 Female 372 55.2 99.9 No response 1 .1 100.0 Total 674 100.0 Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Age Under 20 270 40.1 40.1 20-25 341 50.6 90.7 26-30 55 8.2 98.8 Above 3 1 8 1.2 100.0 Total 674 100.0 Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Monthly Income Under $80 30 4.5 4.5 $80-$150 85 12.6 17.1 $151-$250 191 28.3 45.4 $251-$350 166 24.6 70.0 $351-$450 84 12.5 82.5 Above $45 1 116 17.2 99.7 No response 2 .3 100.0 Total 674 100.0 Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent ParentsÂ’ Income Under $800 15 2.2 2.2 $801-$1500 103 15.3 17.5 $1501-$2500 196 29.1 46.6 $2501-$3500 175 26.0 72.6 $3501-$4500 156 23.1 95.7 Above $4501 19 2.8 98.5 No response 10 1.5 100.0 Total 674 100.0

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74 variance/covariance matrices of the dependent variables across the groups, had a significance level of .001. This did not allow for acceptance of the null hypothesis of homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices at the .05 level. However, a violation of this assumption has minimal impact if the groups are of approximately equal size (i.e., if the largest group size divided by the smallest group size is less than 1.5) (Hair et al., 1998). In this study, the largest group size was 182 while the smallest was 169. Thus, the ratio was less than 1.5 and this assumption was satisfied. The second assumption is the correlation of the dependent variables, such as attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention, which is assessed using BartlettÂ’s test of sphericity. In this example, the significance was .001, indicative of a significance level of correlation between the three dependent measures. Thus, this assumption was satisfied The third assumption is the normality of the dependent variables such as attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention. Therefore, this assumption was also satisfied

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75 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60 0 70.0 80 0 15.0 25.0 35.0 45.0 55.0 65 0 75 0 Aad Normal P-P Plot of Aad Observed Cum Prob Figure 9. Histogram and normal P-P plot of attitude toward advertising

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76 Normal P-P Plot of Abr Observed Cum Prob Figure 10. Histogram and normal P-P plot of attitude toward brand

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77 Std. Dev = 15.60 Mean = 32.2 N = 329.00 PURINTO Normal P-P Plot of PURINTO Observed Cum Prob Figure 1 1 . Histogram and normal P-P plot of purchase intention

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78 The fourth assumption is linearity of the dependent variables, such as attitude toward the advertising, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. This assumption was satisfied by use of a scatter plot. ATTBRAN1 Figure 12. Scatter plot of two dependent variables (attitude toward advertising and attitude toward brand) by purchase intention To examine the appropriateness of full factorial model (Model I), main effect 1 (Model II), three 2-way interaction (Model III), and one 3-way interaction (Model IV) entered the model separately. 1 .Model I. Self-Concept + Advertising Appeal + Product Type + SC*AA+SC*PT + AA*PT +SC*AA*PT 2. Model II. SC + AA + PT (Main effect only) 3. Model III. SC*AA+SC*PT+AA*PT (2-way Interaction only)

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79 4. Model IV. SC*AA*PT (3-way interaction only) Through Model I to Model IV, the same results of full factorial model existed as in the other three models. For example, there were the same main effects of self-concept and product type in Model II, as were in Model I. In addition, there was an interaction effect of self-concept and advertising appeal in Model III, which was the same in Model I. Therefore, the appropriateness of full factorial model (Model I) was approved. Results Self-Concept. Before the experiment, there was a prior step for validating how collectivistic or individualistic Korean culturally congruent students and Korean culturally deviant students are when compared to American students in the pilot study. Culturally congruent students and culturally deviant students were divided by a median score. This scale was a 9-point agree/disagree scale with 1 5 items assessing the concept of allocentricity (collectivistic) and 14 items assessing idiocentricity(individualistic). Total scores of individualistic are 135 and those of collectivistic are 126. The median score for Korean students on the INDCOL scale was 99 for individualistic and 89 for collectivistic. As explained in the methods section, Korean students were divided into low and high by a median score for the individualistic and collectivistic scales. In addition, Korean culturally congruent students were defined as having a low individualistic score and a high collectivistic score while Korean culturally deviant students were defined as having a high individualistic score and a low collectivistic score. When compared with American students, the findings are as follows, individualistic and collectivistic scores of average American students were higher than those of average Korean students. The collectivism score of Korean culturally congruent

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80 students was higher than that of average American students. Also, the individualism score of Korean culturally deviant students was higher than that of average American students. Collectivism scores of culturally deviant Korean students were lower than that of average American students. In summary, Korean culturally congruent students were shown to be collectivistic while culturally deviant students were individualistic. Table 14. Means and standard deviation comparison of American and Korean students (Pilot Test) American Korean (Mean) SD Mean SD General Individualism 104.29" 13.58 95.08 19.17 Collectivism 89.74*’ 13.48 88.73 13.04 Culturally congruent Individualism 113.85 6.03 78.60 13.23 Collectivism 82.60 12.00 98.20 7.24 Culturally deviant Individualism 89.72 9.47 105.86 7.48 Collectivism 100.00 5.34 79.66 8.20 ® Total scores of individualistic is 135 ^ Total scores of collectivistic is 126. In the main experiment, the average reliability of the scale was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha: Individualistic scale of INDCOL for Korean students, .85; Collectivistic scale of INDCOL for Korean students, .70. In addition, the average reliability of the scale was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha to gage attitude toward advertising, .89; attitude toward brand,. 92; and purchase intention,.88. A manipulation check was performed on the print advertisement used in the study. Main experiment subjects were asked to rate the advertisements as being individualistic or collectivistic by judging the advertising headline on a 9-point semantic differential scale anchored by individualistic/collectivistic. The average ratings were 3.32 for individualistic appeals and 4.69 for colleetivistic appeals, making the difference

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81 statistically significant at the .001 level. These results suggested a convergence of the classification of an advertisement into individualistic and collectivistic categories and subjectsÂ’ perception of advertising appeals. In addition, subjects were asked to rate the products as a personal or a shared product in terms of (1) the decision-making process involved in purchase (1= never discuss with their family or friends whether to purchase, 9=always discuss), and (2) usage pattern (1= used mostly individually, 9= used mostly with other members of family or friends). The average ratings were 3.5 for a personal product and 5.6 for a shared product. Again, the difference was statistically significant at the .001 level. The Test of Main Effect of Self-Concept, Product and Appeal Hypothesis 1 stated that Korean culturally congruent subjects would have a higher mean score than Korean culturally deviant subjects in terms of three dependent variables (Aad, Abr and PI).

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82 Table 15. Multivariate and univariate results for the effects of independent variables on attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention (expensive shared product) Multivariate Results Univariate F-Values Interaction Effects' Wilks’ Lambda FValue df Aad** Abr" PL Appeal * Product .998 .201 (1,350) .048 .252 .111 Appeal* SelfConcept .992 .969 (1,350) .155 .573 .212 Product*SelfConcept .999 .120 (1,350) .034 .107 .097 Main Effects Appeal .969 3.684* (1,350) 1.722 .305 3.588 Product .945 6.585*** (1,350) 6.463* 5.680* 19.487*** Self-Concept .987 1.455 (1,350) 3.924* 1.490 .259 Three-way interaction was nonsignificant. ® : Attitude toward the advertising, Attitude toward the brand, Purchase intention ***p<.001, **p<.01, *p<.05 Wilks’ lambda: One of the four principal statistics for testing the null hypothesis in MANOVA. In the case of expensive shared products, self-concept had an insignificance level of .227 for the multivariate tests, which considered three dependent variables concurrently (See Table 15). After multivariate analysis, univariate analysis, which considered each dependent variable separately, was conducted. In the univariate analysis, there was a significant difference of self-concept in attitude toward advertising: F (1,350)=3.92, p<.05. Korean culturally congruent subjects had a more positive impact on advertising (M=43.72) than did Korean culturally deviant subjects (M=40.78). (See Table 15) In the case of inexpensive shared products, self-concept had a significance level of .000 for the multivariate tests (See Table 16). In the univariate analysis, there was a significant difference for self-concept on attitude toward advertising: F (1,350)=8.37,

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83 p<.005. Culturally congruent Korean subjects had a more positive response on advertising (M=44.73) than culturally deviant Korean subjects (M=40.72). (See Table 16) Overall, Hypothesis 1 considering three dependent variables at the same time was not supported for an expensive shared product and was supported for an inexpensive shared product. Specifically, Hypotheses 1-1 considering attitude toward the advertising was supported for both expensive shared product and inexpensive shared product. Table 16. Multivariate and univariate results for the effects of independent variables on attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention (inexpensive shared product) Multivariate Results Univariate F-Values Interaction Effects' Wilks’ Lambda FValue df Aad" Abr" PP Appeal * Product .996 .449 (1,323) .367 .943 .789 Appeal ’•‘SelfConcept .975 2.644=*“ (1,323) .390 5.925=“ .113 Product’*' SelfConcept .993 .790 (1,323) .107 1.392 .840 Main Effects Appeal .983 1.804 (1,323) 2.912 .718 .506 Product .879 14 406 *** (1,323) 23 023*** 25.149=“=“=“ 32 128 *** Self-Concept .964 3.949=“’*' (1,323) 8.379=“ =“ .772 .005 ' Three-way interaction was nonsignificant. : Attitude toward the advertising, Attitude toward the brand, Purchase intention ***p<.001, **p<.01, *p<.05 Wilks’ lambda: One of the four principal statistics for testing the null hypothesis in MANOVA. Hypothesis 2 stated that a shared product would have a higher mean score than a personal product in terms of three dependent variables (Aad, Abr and PI) among culturally congruent and culturally deviant. In the case of expensive shared products, product had a significance level of .000 for the multivariate tests, which considered three dependent variables concurrently (See

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84 Table 15). After multivariate analysis, univariate analysis, which considered each dependent variable separately, was conducted. In the univariate analysis, there was a significant difference between personal and a shared product in the attitude toward advertising: F (1,350)=6.46, p< .02. Shared products had a more positive impact on response to advertising (M=44.14) than did personal products (M=40.36). In addition, there was a significant difference between a personal and shared product in attitude toward the brand: F (1,350)=5.68, p<.02. Shared products had a more positive impact on the brand (M=41.41) than personal products (M=37.92). Finally, there was a significant difference between a personal and shared product in purchase intention: F (1,350)= 19. 48, p<.001. Shared products had a more positive impact on purchase intention (M=15.62) than personal products (M=l 1.95). (See Table 15) In the case of inexpensive shared products, product had a significance level of .000 for the multivariate tests (See Table 16.). In the univariate analysis, there was a significant difference between a personal and shared product in attitude toward advertising: F (1,323)=23.02, p<.001. Shared products had a more positive impact on the advertising (M=46.06) than did personal products (M=39.39). In addition, there was a significant difference between a personal and shared product in attitude toward the brand: F (1,323)=25.15, p<.001. Shared products had a more positive impact on the brand (M=44.1 1) than did personal products (M=37.1 1). Finally, there was a significant difference between personal and a shared product on purchase intention: F (1,323)=32.12, p<.001. Shared products have a more positive impact on purchase intention (M=15.93) than do personal products (M=l 1.32). (See Table 16.)

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85 Overall, Hypothesis 2 considering three dependent variables at the same time was supported for both an expensive shared product and an inexpensive shared product. Specifically, Hypotheses 2-1, 2-2, 2-3 considering attitude toward the advertising, attitude toward the brand and purchase intention separately was supported for both expensive shared product and inexpensive shared product. Hypothesis 3 stated that collectivistic appeals would have a higher mean score than individualistic appeals in terms of three dependent variables (Aad, Abr and PI) among culturally congruent and culturally deviant. In the case of expensive shared products, a significance level of .012 was measured for the multivariate tests (See Table 15). In the univariate analysis, there was a marginally significant difference between individualistic and collectivistic appeal on the purchase intention: F (1,350)=3.58, p=.059. Individualistic appeal had a more positive impact on the purchase intention (M=14.57) than collectivistic appeal (M=13.00). (See Table 15) In case of inexpensive shared products, there was an insignificant level of .146 for the multivariate test (See Table 16.). In the univariate analysis, there was a marginally significant difference between individualistic and collective appeal in attitude toward advertising: F(l,323)=2.91, p=.089. Collectivistic appeal had a more positive impact on attitude toward advertising (M=43.91) than individualistic appeal (M=41.54). (See Table 16) Overall, Hypothesis 3 considering three dependent variables at the same time was not supported for both an expensive shared product and an inexpensive shared product. Specifically, Hypotheses 3-1, 3-2 and 3-3 considering three dependent variables

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86 separately were not supported for both expensive shared product and inexpensive shared product. The Test of Interaction between Self-Concept and Advertising Appeal and Product and Advertising Appeal Hypothesis 4 predicted that Korean culturally congruent subjects (interdependent) would have a higher mean effectiveness score than Korean culturally deviant subjects (independent), when presented with culturally relevant ad stimuli (collectivistic appeal) and Korean culturally deviant would have a higher mean effectiveness score than Korean culturally congruent subjects when presented with individualistic appeals advertising. With expensive shared products, there was no significant interaction between advertising appeals and self-concept in the multivariate analysis (See Table 15) and the univariate analysis (See Table 15). Contrary to expectation, culturally congruent subjects who viewed an individualistic appeal showed more positive attitude toward the advertising (M=44.04) than did culturally deviant (M=39.51). In a parallel finding, culturally congruent subjects who viewed a collectivistic appeal showed more positive attitude toward the advertising (M=44.40) than did culturally deviant subjects (M=42.05). With inexpensive shared products, there was a significant interaction between advertising appeals and self-concept in the multivariate analysis F=2.64, p<.05 and the univariate analysis. In the univariate analysis, there was a significant difference between individualistic and collective appeal in the attitude toward brand: F(l,323)=5.92, p<.02. (See Table 16.) Culturally congruent subjects who viewed a collectivistic appeal showed more positive attitude toward the brand (M=43.42) than did culturally deviant (M=38.52). As expected, culturally deviant subjects who viewed an individualistic appeal showed more

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87 positive attitude toward the brand (M=41.01) than did culturally congruent subjects (M=39.01). Four simple main effects were tested. There was a statistically significant difference between culturally congruent and culturally deviant in collectivistic appeals F (1,158)=6.15, p<.02. (See Figure 13) In addition, there was no statistically significant difference between culturally congruent and culturally deviant in individualistic appeals F(l,162)=.903, p= .34. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference between collectivistic appeals and individualistic appeals in culturally congruent F(l,162)=4.72, p< .05. Finally, there was no statistically significant difference between collectivistic appeals and individualistic appeals in culturally deviant F(l,158)=1.47, p= .28. On the other hand, culturally congruent subjects who viewed a collectivistic appeal showed more positive attitude toward the advertising (M=46.35) than did culturally deviant subjects (M=41.47). However, culturally deviant subjects who viewed a collectivistic appeal showed more positive attitude toward the advertising (M=43.17) than did culturally congruent subjects (M=39.36).

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88 Attitude Toward the Brand advertising appeal Figure 13. Plot of attitude toward brand and self-concept Four simple main effects were tested and there was also a statistically significant difference between the culturally congruent and culturally deviant on collective appeals F (1,158)=6.55, p<.02. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference between culturally congruent and culturally deviant in individualistic appeals F(l,162)=.2.58, p= .11. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference between collectivistic appeals and individualistic appeals in culturally congruent F(l,162)=2.68, p= .10. Finally, there was no statistically significant difference between collectivistic appeals and individualistic appeals in culturally deviant F(l,158)=.363, p= .55. (See Figure 14)

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89 Attitude Toward the Advertising advertising appeal Figure 14. Plot of attitude toward advertising and self-concept Overall, Hypothesis 4 considering three dependent variables at the same time was not supported for an expensive shared product and was supported for an inexpensive shared product. Specifically, Hypotheses 41,4-2 and 4-3 considering three dependent variables separately were supported for expensive shared product and Hypothesis 4-2 considering attitude toward the brand was supported for inexpensive shared product. Hypothesis 5 predicted that individualistic appeals would score higher on effectiveness in personal product advertisements than would collectivistic appeals and collectivistic appeals would score higher in effectiveness on shared product dvertisements than would individualistic appeals.

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90 Table 17. Means of three independent variables of inexpensive shared products Dependent Variable Advertising appeal Product type Self-Concept Mean Std. Error Attitude toward the advertising Individualistic Personal Culturally congruent 41.286 2.095 Culturally deviant 35.978 1.827 Shared Culturally congruent 44.949 1.984 Culturally deviant 43.955 1.868 Collectivistic Personal Culturally congruent 41.978 1.827 Culturally deviant 38.342 2.010 Shared Culturally congruent 50.727 1.868 Culturally deviant 44.594 2.191 Attitude toward the brand Individualistic Personal Culturally congruent 37.514 2.103 Culturally deviant 36.891 1.835 Shared Culturally congruent 40.359 1.992 Culturally deviant 45.318 1.876 Collectivistic Personal Culturally congruent 39.587 1.835 Culturally deviant 34.474 2.018 Shared Culturally congruent 47.432 1.876 Culturally deviant 43.312 2.200

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91 Table 17 Coni inued Dependent Variable Advertising appeal Product type Self-Concept Mean Std. Error Purchase Intention Individualistic Personal Culturally congruent 11.943 1.227 Culturally deviant 12.000 1.070 Shared Culturally congruent 15.667 1.162 Culturally deviant 16.045 1.094 Collectivistic Personal Culturally congruent 11.500 1.070 Culturally deviant 9.842 1.177 Shared Culturally congruent 15.500 1.094 Culturally deviant 16.500 1.283 In the case of expensive shared products, there was no significant interaction between appeal and product in the multivariate analysis and in the univariate analysis (See Table 15). Individualistic appeals scored higher on effectiveness for shared product advertisements than did collectivistic appeals. In the case of inexpensive shared products, there was also no significant interaction between advertising appeals and product type in both expensive and inexpensive shared products (See Table 16). However, this result was not consistent with a previous research study in terms of mean score. In the Zhang and Gelb (1996) study, the product use condition moderates the effectiveness of advertising appeals. They found that individualistic appeals were more effective than collective appeals for personal products and that collectivistic appeals were more effective than individualistic appeals for shared produets. In this study, collectivistie appeals (M=45.27) had a higher mean score than individualistic appeals (M=43.00) for shared products in attitude toward advertising. Collectivistic appeals also

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92 (M=41.18) had a higher mean score than individualistic appeals (M=39.55) for personal products in attitude toward advertising. Overall, Hypothesis 5 considering three dependent variables at the same time was not supported for both an expensive shared product and an inexpensive shared product. Specifically, Hypotheses 5-1, 5-2, and 5-3 considering three dependent variables separately were not supported for both expensive shared product and inexpensive shared product. The Test of Research Questions To answer research question 1 that collectivistic appeals would score higher on effectiveness in the entire sample of Korean youths, there was not significant result in either the multivariate analysis or the univariate analysis. The mean score of collectivistic appeal was almost the same as the individualistic appeal for the entire sample of Korean youths (See Table 18,19) Table 18. Multivariate and univariate results for the effects of independent variable on attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention (entire Korean student) Multivariate Results Univariate F-Values Main Effects WilksÂ’ Lambda F-Value df Aad Abr PI Appeal .988 2.586 (1,640) 1.958 .807 1.996 ***p<.001, **p<.01, *p<.05 WilksÂ’ lambda; One of the four principal statistics for testing the null hypothesis in MANOVA.

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93 Table 19. Means of advertising appeal Dependent Variable Advertising appeal Mean Std. Error Attitude toward the advertising Individualistic 42.388 .714 Collectivistic 43.810 .724 Attitude toward the brand Individualistic 40.489 .728 Collectivistic 41.421 .738 Purchase Intention Individualistic 14.160 .444 Collectivistic 13.266 .451 In answer to research question 2, how do culturally congruent members and culturally deviant members differ in terms of product use condition, there were not significant results in the multivariate analysis F( 1,350)=. 120 p=.948 or in the multivariate and univariate analysis in the cases of both expensive shared products and inexpensive products. In answer to research question 3, there is 3-way interaction among the three independent variables. There were no significant interactions with the multivariate and univariate analysis in both cases of expensive shared products and inexpensive shared products (See Table 15,16). In answer to research question 4, what is the difference between four types of self-concept in terms of three dependent variables in the case of an inexpensive shared product, there was a significant difference between the mean three dependent variables (Aad, Abr and PI) given to four types of self-concept. In the case of inexpensive shared products, self-concept had a significance level of .001 for the multivariate tests. In the univariate analysis, there was a significant difference in four types of self-concept on attitude toward advertising: F (1,350)=6.94, p<.001. There was also a significant difference in four types of self-concept on attitude toward brand: F (1,323)=3.88, p<.008. Korean bicultural subjects had the most positive

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94 attitude toward the advertising (M=46.03) when compared with other Korean subjects such as culturally congruent (M=44.68), culturally deviant (M=40.71), and culturally alienated (M=41.21). In the simple main effect test, there was a statistically marginally significant difference between the bicultural and culturally deviant (p<.01), and the bicultural and culturally alienated (p<.03) on individualistic appeals. (See Figure 15) Attitude toward the Advertising advertising appeal Figure 15. Plot of attitude toward advertising and four types of self-concept In addition, Korean bicultural subjects had the most positive attitude toward brand (M=43.76) compared to the other Korean subjects, such as culturally congruent (M=41.14), culturally deviant (M=39.99), and culturally alienated (M=39.08). (See Figure 16)

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95 Table 20. Means of four types of self-concept Dependent Variable 4 Groups Mean Std. Error Attitude toward the advertising Culturally Congruent 44.689 .979 Culturally Deviant 40.717 .989 Bicultural 46.093 1.012 Culturally alienated 41.211 .989 Attitude toward the brand Culturally Congruent 41.147 1.004 Culturally Deviant 39.999 1.014 Bicultural 43.764 1.037 Culturally alienated 39.085 1.014 Purchase Intention Culturally Congruent 13.595 .616 Culturally Deviant 13.597 .622 Bicultural 14.241 .636 Culturally alienated 13.836 .622 In addition, there was also no significant interaction between advertising appeals and four types of self-concept in multivariate. Attitude toward the Brand advertising appeal Figure 16. Plot of attitude toward brand and four types of self-concept

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96 Test of Self-Concept and Demographics To test research question 5-1, what are the characteristics of both culturally congruent and culturally deviant subjects in terms of gender, monthly income and media use pattern, there were no significant differences between culturally congruent and culturally deviant in terms of gender. The percentage of women (54.6%) was higher than that of men both in culturally congruent and culturally deviant subjects (36.4%). (See Table 21). Table 21. Crosstab of gender and self-concept Gender Total Men Women No response Self-concept Culturally congruent 81 87 168 25.0% 26.9% 51.9% Culturally deviant 65 90 1 156 20.1% 27.8% .3% 48.1% Total 146 177 1 324 45.1% 54.6% .3% 100.0% Although, there was a significant dif 'erence between the culturally congruent and culturally deviant in terms of monthly income (x^=16.71 p<.005). The culturally congruent and culturally deviant spending $250 to $350 make up more than 53.7 percent of the total 324 students. (See Table 22) Table 22. Crosstab of monthly income and self-concept Monthly Income Total Under $80 $81-$150 $151$250 $251$350 $351$450 Above $451 Selfconcept Culturally congruent 6 12 57 50 14 29 168 1.9% 3.7% 17.6% 15.4% 4.3% 9.0% 51.9% Culturally deviant 11 21 31 36 25 32 156 3.4% 6.5% 9.6% 11.1% 7.7% 9.9% 48.1% Total 17 33 88 86 39 61 324 5.2% 10.2% 27.2% 26.5% 12.0% 18.8% 100.0%

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97 There was no significant difference between culturally congruent and culturally deviant in terms of parentsÂ’ income. Parents with income of $1500 to $3500 dollars per month account for 52.6 percent of the total 324 students. (See Table 23) Table 23. Crosstab of parentsÂ’ income and self-concept ParentsÂ’ Income Total Under $800 $801$1500 $1501$2500 $2501$3500 $3501$4500 Above $4500 No response Selfconcept Culturally congruent 3 29 49 48 29 6 4 168 .9% 9.0% 15.1% 14.8% 9.0% 1.9% 1.2% 51.9% Culturally deviant 23 39 44 45 4 1 156 7.1% 12.0% 13.6% 13.9% 1.2% .3% 48.1% Total 3 52 88 92 74 10 5 324 .9% 16.0% 27.2% 28.4% 22.8% 3.1% 1.5% 100.0% Table 24. Means of amount spent on four types of media and self-concept N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error TV Culturally congruent 83 394.64 477.43 52.40 Culturally deviant 76 432.30 569.20 65.29 Total 159 412.64 521.96 41.39 Radio Culturally congruent 83 61.87 83.58 9.17 Culturally deviant 76 57.32 130.37 14.95 Total 159 59.69 108.16 8.58 Newspaper Culturally congruent 83 139.04 176.23 19.34 Culturally deviant 76 147.24 216.22 24.80 Total 159 142.96 195.77 15.53 Internet Culturally congruent 83 606.39 700.89 76.93 Culturally deviant 76 541.45 597.98 68.59 Total 159 575.35 652.49 51.75

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98 No significant difference was evident between culturally congruent subjects and culturally deviant subjects in terms of media use pattern. The amount culturally congruent subjects spend on TV, radio, newspaper, and Internet was similar to that of culturally deviant subjects. (See Table 24) In the case of TV and newspaper, the amount spent by culturally deviant subjects was higher than that of culturally congruent subjects. Conversely, with radio and the Internet, the amount spent by culturally congruent subjects was higher than that of culturally deviant subjects. Accounting for the total group of subjects, the amount spent on the Internet per week was highest (M=5 hours 20 minutes) among the four media types. Television was next (M=4 hours 16 minutes) newspaper third, and radio was the lowest (1 hours 22 minutes). (See Table 25.) Table 25. Means of four types of media N Mean Std. Deviation TV 674 416.46 493.15 Radio 674 82.15 195.11 Newspaper 674 156.36 207.82 Internet 674 520.99 597.44 In the correlation between amount spent on the four types of media and attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention, there was no significant correlation between the amount spent on media and the three dependent variables. However, there was a somewhat high correlation among the four types of media. For example, the more Korean students spent on TV, the more they spent on the Internet. (See Table 26)

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99 Table 26. Correlation between three dependent variables and four types of media Aad Abr PI TV Radio News Internet Aad" Pearson Correlation 1.000 .733** .482** .086 .017 .065 .050 Sig. (2-tailed) , .000 .000 .129 .765 .257 .383 N 641 641 641 310 310 310 310 Ab? Pearson Correlation .733 1.000 .465** .071 -.002 .015 .064 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .215 .966 .797 .259 N 641 641 641 310 310 310 310 PJC Pearson Correlation .482 .465** 1.000 .118* .076 .061 .031 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .038 .183 .281 .590 N 641 641 641 310 310 310 310 TV Pearson Correlation .086 .071 .118* 1.000 .220** .365** .490** Sig. (2-tailed) .129 .215 .038 , .000 .000 .000 N 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 Radio Pearson Correlation .017 -.002 .076 .220** 1.000 234** j4q** Sig. (2-tailed) .765 .966 .183 .000 .000 .009 N 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 Newspaper Pearson Correlation .065 .015 .061 .365** .234** 1.000 .500** Sig. (2-tailed) .257 .797 .281 .000 .000 .000 N 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 Internet Pearson Correlation .050 .064 .031 .490** .500** 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .383 .259 .590 .000 .009 .000 N 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). * ** : Attitude toward the advertising, Attitude toward the brand, Purchase intention To test research question 5-2, what the characteristics of four types of selfconcept in terms of gender, monthly income and media use pattern are. There was no significant difference among four types of self-concept in terms of gender. (See Table 27)

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100 Table. 27 Crosstab of gender and four types of self-concept Gender Total Men Women No response 4 groups Culturally Congruent Count 79 83 162 % of Total 12.3% 13.0% 25.3% Culturally Devian Count 67 92 1 160 % of Total 10.5% 14.4% .2% 25.0% Bicultural Count 70 87 157 % of Total 10.9% 13.6% 24.5% Culturally alienated Count 68 93 161 % of Total 10.6% 14.5% 25.2% Total Count 284 355 1 640 % of Total 44.4% 55.5% .2% 100.0% There was no significant difference among the four types of self-concept in terms of monthly income. (See Table 28) Table 28. Crosstab of monthly income and four types of self-concept Income Total Under $80 $81$150 $151$250 $251$350 $351$450 Above $451 No Response 4 Groups Culturally Congruent Count 5 13 51 48 15 30 162 % of Total .8% 2.0% 8.0% 7.5% 2.3% 4.7% 25.3% Culturally Devian Count 9 20 34 37 26 34 160 % of Total 1.4% 3.1% 5.3% 5.8% 4.1% 5.3% 25.0% Bicultural Count 9 18 49 33 19 28 1 157 % of Total 1.4% 2.8% 7.7% 5.2% 3.0% 4.4% .2% 24.5% Culturally alienated Count 7 29 48 39 17 20 1 161 % of Total 1.1% 4.5% 7.5% 6.1% 2.7% 3.1% .2% 25.2% Total Count 30 80 182 157 77 112 2 640 % of Total 4.7% 12.5% 28.4% 24.5% 12.0% 17.5% .3% 100.0%

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101 There was no significant difference among the four types of self-concept in terms of parentsÂ’ income. (See Table 29) Table 29. Crosstab of parentsÂ’ income and four types of self-concept ParentsÂ’ Income Total Under $800 $801$1500 $1501$2500 $2501$3500 $3501$4500 Above $4500 No response 4 Groups Culturally Congruent Count 3 29 46 48 25 7 4 162 %of Total .5% 4.5% 7.2% 7.5% 3.9% 1.1% .6% 25.3% Culturally Devian Count 2 22 37 44 49 4 2 160 %of Total .3% 3.4% 5.8% 6.9% 7.7% .6% .3% 25.0% Bicultural Count 3 21 44 44 38 5 2 157 %of Total .5% 3.3% 6.9% 6.9% 5.9% .8% .3% 24.5% Culturally alienated Count 7 27 56 32 35 2 2 161 %of Total 1.1% 4.2% 8.8% 5.0% 5.5% .3% .3% 25.2% Total Count 15 99 183 168 147 18 10 640 %of Total 2.3% 15.5% 28.6% 26.3% 23.0% 2.8% 1.6% 100.0% There was no significant difference among the four types of self-concept in terms of media use pattern. (See Table 30) Test of Self-Concept and Gender To answer research question 6, what the difference between culturally congruent and culturally congruent and gender in terms of three dependent variables was in the case of inexpensive shared products, there was also no significant interaction between selfconcept and gender in multivariate analysis. In the univariate analysis, there was significant interaction between self-concept and gender on attitude toward the brand F(l, 350)=4.78 p<.05

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102 Table 30. Means of media use and four types of self-concept N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error TV Culturally Congruent 83 394.64 477.43 52.40 Culturally Deviant 76 432.30 569.20 65.29 Bicultural 66 430.86 493.43 60.74 Culturally alienated 85 396.24 466.87 50.64 Total 310 412.02 499.92 28.39 Radio Culturally Congruent 83 61.87 83.58 9.17 Culturally Deviant 76 57.32 130.37 14.95 Bicultural 66 72.58 114.65 14.11 Culturally alienated 85 82.21 251.20 27.25 Total 310 68.61 161.23 9.16 Newspaper Culturally Congruent 83 139.04 176.23 19.34 Culturally Deviant 76 147.24 216.22 24.80 Bicultural 66 164.24 248.32 30.57 Culturally alienated 85 143.53 182.93 19.84 Total 310 147.65 204.31 11.60 Internet Culturally Congruent 83 606.39 700.89 76.93 Culturally Deviant 76 541.45 597.98 68.59 Bicultural 66 519.55 578.55 71.21 Culturally alienated 85 440.82 430.83 46.73 Total 310 526.58 584.66 33.21 Culturally congruent women had a more positive attitude toward the brand (M=43.86) than culturally congruent men (M=38.87). In addition, culturally deviant men had a slightly more positive attitude toward the brand (M=40.81) than culturally congruent women (M=39.48).

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103 To answer research question 7, what the difference between men and women in terms of three dependent variables on product use condition was; there was also no significant interaction between gender and product in multivariate analysis and univariate analysis. After viewing the advertisement, men had a more positive attitude toward shared product advertising (M=45.94) than personal product advertising (M=39.93), and similarly women had a more positive attitude toward shared product advertising (M=46.51) than personal product advertising (M=40.41). Additionally, men had a more positive attitude toward the brand from shared product advertising (M=43.00) than from personal product advertising (M=37.81) after viewing the advertisement, and likewise women had a more positive attitude toward the brand from shared product advertising (M=44.89) than personal product advertising (M=38.42).

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION This study was conducted to explore how culturally relevant stimuli (collectivistic appeal) presented within an advertisement may be perceived by those who, among young Korean consumers, are culturally congruent and those who are culturally deviant. Individuals were assumed as equal within one culture in the past. For example, Korean people favorably respond to a collectivistic appeal due to the faet that KoreaÂ’s culture is associated with a collectivistie culture. However, this study was based on refuting this notion. The musie video channel MTV is an example of a powerful worldwide media vehicle that reaches the global youth market. Because most teens listen to the same kinds of musie and have a similar youth culture. East Asian youths such as Koreans tend to follow western culture. They consider independence an important value and their individualism is being awakened. The entire Korean culture seems to be more individualistie than ever before. Triandis (1989) attempted to understand how culture shapes self His theory is that individualsÂ’ cultural variation in self can be interdependent and independent. Individuals living in one culture might respond to advertising differently because of self The interaction between self-concept and advertising was expected to determine whether or not the culturally congruent, representing Korean culture, perceive culturally relevant advertising and whether or not the culturally deviant, representing Western culture, especially American culture, perceive culturally relevant advertising. 104

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105 Additionally, the employed experiment would examine cultural difference and its impact on the effectiveness of different advertising appeals across contrasting cultures, such as individualism vs. collectivism within product use conditions. Past studies in cross-cultural or international advertising depend mainly on content analyses depicting cultural difference of advertisements shown in a magazine or on TV. For example, more individualistic elements have been shown in advertising than collectivistic elements in the U.S. and more collectivistic elements have been shown in advertising in Korea. However, it cannot absolutely determined how Korean consumers will respond to an individualistic appeal or a collectivistic appeal. More experimental studies are needed to link cultural difference with cause-and-effect. Determining that elements of culture effect elements of advertising is significant in international advertising research. Furthermore, the characteristics of cultural congruent and cultural deviant are expected among young Korean consumers. Using crosstabs of culturally congruent and culturally deviant and demographics, such as age, gender, monthly income, and media use patterns, we can find the differences or similarities between the culturally congruent and the culturally deviant. For example, it may turn out that cultural congruence and cultural deviance are important variables if the data indicate that these groups have stable media consumption patterns, because itÂ’s easy to use this information from an advertising planning perspective. In addition, a lot of Korean students receive financial support from their parents. To examine the socioeconomic status of their parents in terms of their income might be interesting in this study because Korean students are financially bound to the guidance of their parents.

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106 In this chapter, each of these six hypotheses is evaluated based on the results of the main experiment. The meanings of the results, and their limitations, are discussed both in terms of theoretical understanding of consumer behavior and practical application in the advertising industry. Finally, future research directions are discussed. Evaluation of the Hypotheses Each hypothesis was evaluated by considering the sum of evidence against it from the main study. HI. The main effect of self-concept: Korean culturally congruent subjects will have a higher mean score than Korean culturally deviant subjects in terms of three dependent variables (Aad, Abr and PI). Hypothesis 1 predicted that Korean culturally congruent subjects would have a higher mean score than Korean culturally deviant subjects in terms of three dependent variables. In the case of expensive shared products, self-concept had an insignificant level of .227 for the multivariate tests. In the univariate analysis, there was a significant difference of self-concept in attitude toward advertising. In the case of inexpensive shared products, self-concept had a significance level of .000 for the multivariate tests. In the univariate analysis, there was a significant difference of self-concept in attitude toward advertising. It is significant to find differences between the culturally congruent and the culturally deviant. Their perception of advertising is different. The culturally congruent have a more positive attitude toward advertising than the culturally deviant, which implies that interdependent individuals in Korea have less avoidance of advertising.

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107 H2. The main effect of product: A shared product will have a higher mean score than a personal product in terms of three dependent variables (Aad, Abr and PI) among culturally congruent and culturally deviant. In the case of expensive shared products, product had a significance level of .000 for the multivariate tests (See Table 15.). In the univariate analysis, there was a significant difference between personal and shared product in attitudes toward advertising, attitudes toward the brand, and purchase intention. In the case of inexpensive shared products, product had a significance level of .000 for the multivariate tests (See Table 16.). In the univariate analysis, there was a significant difference between personal and shared product in attitudes toward advertising, attitude toward brand, and purchase intention. In this hypothesis, Korean subjects have a positive attitude toward the shared products. According to the characteristics of shared products, a family or friends, not an individual, use these products. It implies that Korean subjects might be influenced by culture i.e. collectivistic to use a product. The product, which can be shared in Korean society has a high use potential. H3. The main effect of appeal: Collectivistic appeals will have a higher mean score than individualistic appeals in terms of three dependent variables (Aad, Abr and PI) among culturally congruent and culturally deviant In the case of expensive shared products, they had a significance level of .012 for the multivariate tests (See Table 15). In the univariate analysis, there was a marginally significant difference between individualistic and collectivistic appeal on purchase intention. In the case of inexpensive shared products, they had no level of significance. 146 for the multivariate test (See Table 16). In the univariate analysis, there was a marginally

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108 significant difference between individualistic and collective appeal in attitude toward advertising. This hypothesis provided mixed results. While there was a difference between collectivistic appeal and individualistic appeal in the case of expensive products (TVs, cars), there was no difference in the case of inexpensive products (game systems, cameras). This result was based on a sample including only culturally congruent and culturally deviant. On the other hand, there was no difference between collectivistic appeal and individualistic appeal based on the entire Korean subject group. It implied that the type of product might have an influence on the evaluation of the appeal. In the univariate analysis, the individualistic appeal had a positive impact on the purchase intention in the case of expensive products and the collectivistic appeal had a positive impact on the attitude toward advertising in the case of inexpensive products. H4. The interaction effect of self-concept and appeal: Korean culturally congruent subjects (interdependent) will have a higher mean effectiveness score than Korean culturally deviant subjects (independent), when presented with culturally relevant ad stimuli (collectivistic appeal) and Korean culturally deviant will have a higher mean effectiveness score than Korean culturally congruent subjects when presented with individualistic appeals advertising. For expensive shared products, there was also no significant interaction between advertising appeals and self-concept in either the multivariate analysis or the univariate analysis. With inexpensive shared products, there was a significant interaction between advertising appeals and self-concept in both the multivariate analysis and the univariate analysis. In the univariate analysis, there was a marginally significant difference between individualistic and collective appeal in attitude toward brand in terms of self-concept.

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109 It was expected that culturally congruent subjects who viewed a collectivistic appeal showed more positive attitude toward three dependent variables than did culturally deviant subjects and culturally deviant subjects who viewed an individualistic appeal showed more positive attitude toward three dependent variables than did culturally congruent subjects. However, there were mixed results. As expected, culturally congruent subjects who viewed a collectivistic appeal showed more positive attitude toward the brand (M=43.42) than did culturally deviant (M=38.52), culturally deviant subjects who viewed an individualistic appeal showed more positive attitude toward the brand (M=41.01) than did culturally congruent subjects. On the other hand, culturally congruent subjects who viewed a collectivistic appeal showed more positive attitude toward the advertising (M=46.35) than did culturally deviant subjects (M=41.47). Furthermore, culturally deviant subjects who viewed a collectivistic appeal showed more positive attitude toward the brand (M=43.17) than did culturally congruent subjects (M=39.36). It is reasonable to assume that the culturally congruent had a positive attitude toward collectivistic appeal emphasizing in-group, which is representative of Korean culture. It is hard to interpret culturally deviant. The culturally deviant had different attitudes toward both advertising and brand. H5. The interaction effect of appeal and product: Individualistic appeals will score higher on effectiveness in personal product advertisements than will collectivistic appeals and collectivistic appeals will score higher in effectiveness on shared product advertisements than will individualistic appeals. In the case of expensive shared products, there was no significant interaction between appeal and product in either the multivariate analysis or the univariate analysis.

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110 Individualistic appeals scored higher on effectiveness on shared produet advertisements than did collectivistie appeals. In the case of inexpensive shared produets, there was also no significant interaction between advertising appeals and product type. Individualistie appeals scored higher on effectiveness on shared product advertisements than did colleetivistie appeals in terms of mean score. Aeeording to Hypothesis 5, this result was not eonsistent with Zhang and GelbÂ’s ( 1 996) study, indicating the produet use eondition moderates the effectiveness of advertising appeals. Their finding was that individualistic appeals were more effective than collective appeals in personal products and that collectivistie appeals were more effeetive than individualistic appeals in shared produets. This study provided mixed results. Collectivistie appeals (M=45.27) had a higher mean score than individualistic appeals (M=43.00) in shared products in attitude toward advertising. Collectivistie appeals (M=41.18) had a higher mean score than individualistie appeals (M=39.55) in personal produets in attitude toward advertising. The disparity with Zhang and GelbÂ’s study might have been eaused by country difference. Although Korea and China ean be included as colleetivistie cultures, there might be a difference of produet use eondition between Korean and Chinese. Evaluation of Research Questions RQl. Will collectivistie appeals score higher in effectiveness among the entire sample of Korean youth? There was not significant result in either the multivariate analysis or the univariate analysis. It eannot be assumed that Korean people favorably respond to a collectivistie appeal due to the faet that KoreanÂ’s eulture is associated with a colleetivistie culture.

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Ill Thus, this research question questioned whether this assumption was right. The entire Korean subject group didnÂ’t exhibit any significant difference between a collectivistic appeal and an individualistic appeal. This fact supported the notion that there would be a difference between culturally congruent and culturally deviant when Korean subjects were divided by self-concept. Furthermore, it might be drawback to adapt some countriesÂ’ cultures into advertising. RQ2. How do culturally congruent members and culturally deviant members differ in terms of product use condition? There was not significant result in either the multivariate analysis F( 1,350)=. 120 p=.948 or the univariate analysis in the cases of both expensive shared products and inexpensive products. It was expected that culturally congruent would have a more positive attitude toward the dependent variables on the shared product than culturally deviant. In addition, culturally deviant would have a more positive attitude toward the dependent variables on the personal product than culturally congruent. This question provided no interaction between self-concept and product type. RQ3. Is there 3 -way interaction among the three independent variables? There was no significant interaction in the multivariate or univariate analysis in the case of both expensive shared products and inexpensive shared products. RQ4. What is the difference among four types of self-concept in terms of three dependent variables? ( 1 ) In the case of an inexpensive shared product In the case of inexpensive shared products, self-concept has a significance level of .001 for the multivariate tests. In the univariate analysis, there was a significant difference of four types of self-concept in attitude toward the advertising. Also, there was

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112 a significant difference of four types of self-concept in attitude toward the brand. The main topic in this study is self-concept and its relation to advertising. If it is extended to other dimensions, bicultural having high levels of individualism and high levels of collectivism, and culturally alienated having low levels of individualism and low levels of collectivism, as well as culturally congruent and culturally deviant, it was expected that there would be a difference among the four types of self-concept. It was found that four types of self-concept had a different attitude toward advertising and brand. This evidence implies that individuals within one eulture cannot be the same and it should be brought to the attention of international advertising so they do not make a mistake in executing advertising. RQ5-1. What are the characteristics of both culturally congruent subjects and culturally deviant in terms of gender, monthly income and media use pattern? This question was asked to determine the differences between the culturally congruent and culturally deviant in terms of demographic variables. There was no significant difference between culturally congruent and culturally deviant in terms of gender. On the other hand, there was significant difference between culturally congruent and culturally deviant in terms of monthly income. Culturally congruent and culturally deviant having $151 -$350 would have buying power because they take more than 50 percent of the total subjects. In addition, there was no significant difference between culturally congruent and culturally deviant in terms of parentsÂ’ income. Because Korean subjects get financial support, primarily from their parents, student groups with parents earning $1500-$4500 per month might be a target for international marketers.

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113 In terms of media use pattern, there was no significant difference between culturally congruent subjects and culturally deviant subjects. The amount culturally congruent subjects spend on TV, radio, newspaper, and Internet was similar to that of culturally deviant subjects. Because the sample was made up of students, they usually spent a significantly more time using media than any other generation. As expected, the amount spent on the Internet per week was the highest (M=5 hours 20 minutes) among the four media types because this group is a network generation frequently using online services. Thus, this point provided no difference between culturally congruent and culturally deviant. The interesting point is that there was a somewhat high correlation among the four types of media. The more Korean students spent on TV, the more they spent on Internet and other forms of media. It is assumed that they are evenly exposed to several media outlets. RQ5-2. What are the characteristics of four types of self-concept in terms of gender, monthly income and media use pattern in the case of inexpensive products? There was no significant difference among the four types of self-concept in terms of gender. The percentage of men with four types of self-concept is similar to that of women with four types of self-concept. The percentage of monthly income of four types of self-concept is almost the same. In addition, there was no significant difference among four types of self-concept in terms of media use pattern. The amount spent on media except for radio of the culturally alienated is the least among four types of self-concept. The culturally congruent spent more on the Internet than any other self-concept. RQ6. What is the difference between self-concept and gender in terms of three dependent variables in the case of inexpensive shared products?

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114 There was also no significant interaction between self-concept and gender in the multivariate analysis. In the univariate analysis, there was significant interaction between self-concept and gender in attitude toward the brand. Culturally congruent women had a more positive attitude toward the brand (M=43.86) than culturally congruent men (M=38.87). In addition, culturally deviant men had a little more positive attitude toward the brand (M=40.81) than culturally congruent women. Women had a more positive attitude toward the brand than men in culturally congruent and men had a more positive attitude toward the brand than women in culturally deviant. It is assumed that self-concept is more important than gender to explain advertising effects. RQ7. What is the difference between men and women in terms of three dependent variables on product use condition? There was also no significant interaction between gender and product in multivariate analysis and univariate analysis. Men had a more positive attitude toward shared product advertising (M=45.94) than personal product advertising (M=39.93). Women had a more positive attitude toward shared product advertising (M=46.51) than personal product advertising (M=40.41). Men had a more positive attitude toward brand of shared product advertising (M=43.00) than personal product advertising (M=37.81). Women had a more positive attitude toward brand of shared product advertising (M=44.89) than personal product advertising (M=38.42).

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115 Contribution Past research studies suggest that there are cultural differences in advertising appeals and product. Most prior research on the impact of culture on advertising has been descriptive, using content analysis to see cross-national differences in advertising strategy (Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson, 1997). However, we are not sure of the causality between advertising and culture. Because this study used an experiment with the manipulation of advertising appeals and products, we are sure that advertisements reflect these cultural differences and have an influence on different consumers (causal explanation). In this research, it was expected that the difference between cultural congruent members and cultural deviant members in their reactions to ad appeals was designed for product use conditions within one country (Korea). This study strove to make a sure determination as to whether consumers react to advertising appeals using individualism and collectivism. It also confirms that the type of product influences advertising evaluation. In contrast to past research, this study is important because it looked at individual factors, i.e. self-concept rather than country factors. This study helped predict future advertising preferences of young Korean consumers who are either culturally congruent or culturally deviant. It helped international advertisers understand young Korean consumers who have potential buying power to promote international marketing. Korea (i.e. South Korea) was chosen for this study for two reasons. First, cultural differences between the United States and Korea suggest that Korean culture differs from U.S. culture on the dimension of context and individualism/collectivism (Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson, 1997). A second reason for choosing Korea is KoreaÂ’s status as an emerging market (Holstein & Nakarmi, 1995). For the first time in 1994, Korea made the list of the

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116 world’s 10 largest advertisers (Pruzan, 1995), with economic growth accounting for an increase in ad billing from $938 million in 1985 to nearly $7 billion in 1996 (Kilbum, 1997). Given the economic importance of Korea, it represents a significant country for advertising research (Wolburg & Kim, 1999). For the benefit of international marketers, this study will enlighten them as to how to execute their advertising, what cultural differences they should consider, and whether the cultural differences still exists in young consumers in the Korean market. It leads them to obtain a solvent advertising strategy for success in Asia. Furthermore, the proposition “think global, act local” was addressed again in this study. Implication and Limitation Theoretical Implication The results have theoretical implications for several areas of literature, including advertising research on cross-cultural or international ads, individual difference research on self-concept. The findings also have important applications for understanding East Asian (Korean) consumer behavior. From a theoretical standpoint, the study results provide support for using an experimental approach in attempting to understand cultural differences (self-concept) within one individual. Through content analysis, Korean ads contained collectivistic appeal (Keown, Jacobs& Ghymn, 1993; Han, & Shavitt, 1994), and Korean subjects had a positive attitude toward the collectivistic appeal ads. However, those analyses should not ignore individual differences. Markus and Kitayama (1991) proposed one dimension of cultural variation in self, i.e., interdependence and independence. Because how we conceive of ourselves is one of the determinants of our behaviors, self-concept is important. According to self-concept, some individuals are either closer to interdependent

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117 people who feel concerned about their community and ingroups or to independent people who find it desirable to do their own thing. Thus, within one culture there are both individuals who are closer to individualism or closer to collectivism. Until now, the individual difference within one culture in the international advertising research has been ignored. This study provided individual differences on advertising effectiveness. Culturally congruent and culturally deviant subjects had a different attitude toward the advertising, brand and purchase intention. Culturally congruent had a more positive attitude toward the advertising, brand and purchase intention. In addition, there was an interaction between self-concept and advertising appeal. Not all Korean subjects find a collectivistic appeal desirable. Collectivistic appeal had a more positive impact on culturally congruent subjects in advertising and brand than individualistic appeal. Individualistic appeal had a more positive impact on culturally deviant subjects in attitude toward the brand; however, it had a less positive impact on culturally deviant subjects in attitude toward advertising. Even though there is a mixed result for culturally deviant, culturally congruent, who are closer to typical Korean culture (collectivistic culture), had a positive attitude toward collectivistic advertisement. This study partially supports individualism/collectivism dimension to explain cultural difference and its impact on the effectiveness of different advertising appeals across contrasting cultures, such as individualism vs. collectivism within product use conditions. There is a primary effect of product on dependent variables. A shared product, used by family and might be representative of collectivistic culture, received positive

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118 attitude in the advertising and attitude toward brand and purchase intention. It indicates that favorableness of a product might be influenced by culture. However, there was no interaction between appeal and product as in the Zhang and Gelb (1996)Â’ study. An interesting point is that collectivistic appeals had a higher mean score than individualistic appeals in shared products on attitude toward the advertising. Collectivistic appeals had a higher mean score than individualistic appeals in personal products in attitude toward the advertising. This study explored the four types of self-concept such as culturally congruent, culturally deviant, bicultural and culturally alienated. Korean bicultural subjects had the most positive attitude about the advertising among the other Korean subjects which included, culturally congruent, culturally deviant and culturally alienated. In addition, Korean bicultural subjects had the most positive attitude towards brand than other Korean subjects. Korean bicultural subjects who have high levels of individualism and high levels of collectivism had a positive attitude toward advertising. Their mean score of collectivistic appeal is similar to that of individualistic appeal. Finally, the findings of this study also have implications for the understanding of the young Korean consumer. The percentage of women (54.6%) was higher than that of men both in culturally congruent and culturally deviant subjects (36.4%). Culturally congruent and culturally deviant spending $250 to $350 per month ade up more than 53.7 percent of the total 324 students. ParentsÂ’ income of $1500 to $3500 per month accounted for 52.6 percent of the total 324 students. The amount culturally congruent subjects spend on TV, radio, newspaper, and Internet was similar to that of culturally deviant subjects. The amount spent on Internet per week was the highest (M=5 hours 20

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119 minutes) among the four media types with television next(M=4 hours 1 6 minutes). The test subjects spend a lot of time reading and watching a variety of types of media. Because the Internet is so heavily utilized by young Korean consumers, it can be a potential to reach them efficiently and increase their buying power. Practical Implications Targeting. To effectively target young Korean consumers who place an importance on their own values and Korean culture, ads should communicate how young consumers can interpret the appeal to express their self-concept. A marketer using segmentation to reach a market can select one of several methods such as demographic, geographic, behavioristic, and psychographics. Psychographic segmentation based on lifestyles and/or personality. Market segmentation by self-concept needs to be adopted by international advertising because culturally congruent and culturally deviant members apparently have different characteristics. For international advertisers attempting to tap the growing Korean market, INDCOL scale measuring individualÂ’s self-concept is recommended to determine culturally congruent or culturally deviant levels in Korean consumers. After determining self-concept, it is reasonable to apply those findings and execute relevant advertising. In addition, Korean bicultural subjects can be the most appropriate target for international marketers because their mean score of collectivistic appeal is similar to that of individualistic appeal and is higher than other self-concept such as culturally congruent, culturally deviant and culturally alienated. Message strategy. This study indicates that collectivistic appeal is an effective message for culturally congruent subjects. Market research can be used to develop the specific image that will be most appropriate for a given brand and consumers. To make

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120 the ad most relevant and persuasive for audiences focused on self-concept, the message should be interchangeable, i.e. collectivistic or individualistic. The message should also show that the consumer can use the brand to creative a positive impression for their selfconcept because culturally congruent had a more positive attitude toward the brand then culturally deviant when presented with a collectivistic appeal. As culturally congruent and culturally deviant dimensions are extended to four types of self-concept, international marketers can execute advertising regardless of the types of advertising appeal, i.e. collectivistic or individualistic. They have a positive attitude toward both collectivistic and individualistic appeal advertising. In terms of standardization and localization, mixed approach, combining standardization and localization could be the appropriate approach for advertising message. Mixed approach is a compromise stating that the appropriateness of standardization is situation-specific and that the type of product, consumer characteristics and environmental components should be considered (Onkivisit & Shaw, 1 999). Because consumers within one culture can be divided into independent or interdependent, standardized message might be an impossible avenue for reaching the target. Thus, the international marketer may have no choice but to employ a specialized approach to advertising. Media planning strategy. Because magazines provide the opportunity to narrowly define the target audience via use of selected publication titles, they can reach a target, culturally congruent and culturally deviant. Korean magazine is being classified to reach a specific target, teens liking a computer game. In addition, international advertisers can reach a culturally deviant by delivering their message on MTV and

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121 entertainment channel due to the fact that culturally deviant watching MTV might have more westernized culture leading to cultural deviance. Therefore, Cable TV has also the opportunity to enhance their message in appropriate environment. Channel options are being diversified in Korea using satellite TV, Cable TV and Network TV. Media placement might be important to reach culturally congruent and culturally deviant. Limitations On the other hand, this dissertation also has several disadvantages. First, this study concentrates on Korean subjects. If this study compared the culturally congruent and culturally deviant in the United States with those in Korea, it may provide more potential for understanding international advertising. Also, this study should not be considered a direct test of one of the dimensions of culture in isolation. It did not address the interplay and influence of other dimensions (e.g. Hofstede, 1984). Cultures differ in many ways, and the manifestation of such cultural differences can be subtle and may influence responses to advertising. The second limitation of this study is the use of student participants, who are not fully representative of general consumers. Because, on average, students tend to be more cosmopolitan than the population at large, they may have more universal cultural norms that are reflected in their advertising preferences. In addition, the experimental setting was artificial with respect to lack of context. In a true situation, participants do not base their decision solely on what they have seen in advertisements. However, this will not prevent us from getting appropriate results in this study because the main purpose of this study is to examine the individual differences in young Korean consumers. Also, university students in Korea constitute an important part of the target market and homogeneity of subject groups is an important consideration in experimental research.

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122 Third, the generalizability of this study is also limited in that advertising is just one vehicle through which theories of cultural differences can be tested. Tests of other vehicles could yield different findings about the importance of individualism. Only six products will be used in the study, caution is warranted in generalization to other products. To better understand international advertising practice and strategy, research needs to be extended to other countries and product categories. Fourth, this advertisement comparison research was based on only magazine advertisement. However, this study is an ideal model to compare and ensure the applicability of the results to a variety of media such as TV, newspaper and radio. Finally, this study discussed cultural characteristics and index, which Hofstede conducted in 1 984. Although, most cross-cultural studies utilize similarly old data, this may have negatively influenced the interpretation of the study results. To keep abreast of this trend, future cross-cultural research periodically should conduct extensive surveys to obtain more updated information on cultural and market characteristics or indexes. Future Research Suggestions for further research clearly include studies similar to this study employing other cultural values. In addition to individualism and collectivism, Hofstede (1980) suggested “masculinity,” “power distance,” “uncertainty avoidance,” and “long term/short term orientation (1994).” Testing these dimensions as shown in advertising, in the same manner as this study did between culturally congruent subjects and culturally deviant subjects, could be useful. The more we understand about the existence of cultural deviance and other dimensions on the effectiveness of advertising, the more value advertisers obtain from each advertisement.

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123 The use of different product types is needed to generalize this result. Adding more products might indicate a clear classification of shared and personal product. Younger generation and old generation comparison is needed to examine how different messages influence different audience. Moreover, visual advertisement and print advertisement comparison is also needed to find channel interest and media vehicle difference. In addition to culturally congruent and culturally deviant, more studies about other self-concepts, such as bicultural and culturally alienated are needed to determine their characteristics and evaluation of advertising. It might be helpful for international marketers to attempt to plan their advertising and understand consumers in the countries to which they export goods. Research employing an experimental method on other key advertising executable variables including informational level is needed. As well as other candidate variables, such as presence of a brand-differentiating message, use of humor, use of comparisons, and use of an image or mood, among others (Taylor, Miracle, & Wilson, 1997). Research using a real brand is needed to examine actual purchase intention and behavior. The comparison of Korean brands and American brands is needed to examine how culturally congruent and culturally deviant perceive their brands and other culturesÂ’ brands. Finally, research measuring brand evaluation, such as attitude toward the brand, recall of brand, brand image and brand equity, as well as attitude toward advertising, in international advertising is needed because global brand building is important for international marketing.

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APPENDIX A PERSONAL VS. SHARED PRODUCT PRETEST A Personal vs. Shared product categories will be determined on the basis of a survey in which 20 Korean students will rate 37 consumer products and services in terms of (1) the decision making process involved in purchase (1= never discuss with their family or friends whether to purchase, 5=always discuss), and usage pattern (1= used mostly individually, 5= used mostly with other members of family or friends). 1 .When you purchase the following items, how often do you discuss the purchase with your family? (1 ) WomenÂ’s sanitary pads Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (2) Cosmetics Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (3) Hair care (Shampoo, mousse) Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (4) Lingerie Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (5) Suntan Lotion Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (6) Greeting cards Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (7) Gift wrap Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (8) Kitchen utensils Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (9) Perfume Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (10) Watches Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 124

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125 (11) Electric shaver Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (12) Personal copiers/typewriters Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (13) Jewelry Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (14) Fashion apparel Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (15) Credit cards Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (16) Sunglasses Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (17) Jeans Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (18) Wine Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 ( 1 9) Soft drinks Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (20) Groceries Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (2 1 ) Baby products Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (22) Coffee/ tea Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (23) Toothpaste Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (24) Laundry products/soap Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (25) Over-the-counter medicines Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5

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126 (26) Baby clothing Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (27) Batteries Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (28) Insurance Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (29) Washer/dryer/iron Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (30) Air conditioner Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (31) Camera/ telephone Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (32) Television/VCR Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (33) Computer Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (34) Airline tickets Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (35) Automobiles Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (36) Hotel/resort accommodations Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 (37) Home furnishings Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 2. When you use the following items, what usage patterns do you have? (1) WomenÂ’s sanitary pads Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (2) Cosmetics Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5

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127 (3) Hair care (Shampoo, mousse) Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (4) Lingerie Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (5) Suntan Lotion Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (6) Greeting cards Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (7) Gift wrap Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (8) Kitchen utensils Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (9) Perfume Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (10) Watches Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (11) Electric shaver Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (12) Personal copiers/typewriters Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (13) Jewelry Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (14) Fashion apparel Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (15) Credit cards Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (16) Sunglasses Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (17) Jeans Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5

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128 (18) Wine Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (19) Soft drinks Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (20) Groceries Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (2 1 ) Baby products Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (22) Coffee/ tea Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (23) Toothpaste Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (24) Laundry products/soap Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (25) Over-the-counter medicines Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (26) Baby clothing Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (27) Batteries Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (28) Insurance Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (29) Washer/dryer/iron Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (30) Air conditioner Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (3 1 ) Camera/ telephone Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (32) Television/VCR Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5

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129 (33) Computer Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (34) Airline tickets Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (35) Automobiles Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (36) Hotel/resort accommodations Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5 (37) Home furnishings Used mostly individually Used mostly with other members 1 2 3 4 5

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APPENDIX B CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION AS INDIVIDUALISTIC APPEALS AND COLLECTIVISTIC APPEALS B (As in previous researches (Han & Shavitt, 1994; Zhang & Gelb, 1996) the twelve advertising appeals were manipulated by varying headline copy) 1 . Criteria for classification as individualistic appeals Appeals about individuality or independence “The art of being unique” “She’s got a style all her own” Reflections of sell-reliance with hedonism or competition (mostly expressed in pictures, not in headlines) “Alive with pleasure!” “Self-esteem” Emphasis on self-improvement or self-realization “ My own natural color’s come back. Only better, much better” “You, only better” Emphasis on the benefits of the product to the consumer “ How to protect the most personal part of the environment. Your skin.” “A quick return for your investment” Focus on ambition “A leader among leaders” “Local hero” Focus on personal goals “With this new look I’m ready for my new role” “Make your way through the crowd” 2. Criteria for classification as collectivistic appeals Appeals about family integrity “A more exhilarating way to provide for your family” Focus on group integrity or group well-being “We have a way of bringing people closer together” “Ringing out the news of business friendships that really work” Concerns about others or support of society “We share our love with seven wonderful children” “We devote ourselves to contractors” Focus on interdependent relationships to others “The dream of prosperity for all of us” “Sharing is beautiful” References to harmony with others 130

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131 “Your business success: Harmonization with Sunkyoung” Focus on others’ happiness “Mom’s love-Baby’s happiness” Paying attention to the views of others “Our family agrees with the selection of home-fumishings”

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APPENDIX C ITEMS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM (95INDCOL SCALE) C A 95INDCOL scale developed by Triandis (1996) will measure levels of allocentricity (interdependent) and idiocentricity (independent). His scale assesses the degree to which a person’s self-concept is independent and interdependent. This scale is a 10point agree/disagree scale with 15 items assessing the concept of allocentricity and 14 items assessing idiocentricity. Vertical Individualism 1 . It annoys me when other people perform better than I do. 2. Competition is the law of nature. 3. When another person does better than I do, I get tense and aroused. 4. Without competition, it is not possible to have a good society. 5. Winning is everything. 6. It is important that I do my job better than others. 7. 1 enjoy working in situations involving competition with others. 8. Some people emphasize winning; I’m not one of them (and vice versa) Horizontal Individualism 9. 1 often do “my own thing.” 10. Being a unique individual is important to me. 1 1 . I’d rather depend on myself than on others. 12. 1 rely on myself most of the time; I rarely rely on others. 13. My personal identity, independent from others, is very important to me. 14. 1 am a unique person, separate from others. 15. 1 enjoy being unique and different from others. Vertical Collectivism 1 . 1 would do what would please my family, even if I detested that activity. 2. 1 usually sacrifice my self-interest for the benefit of my group. 3. We should keep our aging parents with us at home. 4. I would sacrifice an activity that I enjoy very much if my family did not approve of it. 5. Children should be taught to place duty before pleasure. 6. It’s important to me that I respect the decisions made by my groups. 7. Self-sacrifice is a virtue. 8. It annoys me if I have to sacrifice activities that I enjoy to help others (reverse scoring). 132

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133 Horizontal Collectivism 1 . The well-being of my coworkers is important to me. 2. If a coworker gets a prize, 1 would feel proud. 3. If a relative were in financial difficulty, 1 would help within my means. 4. It is important to me to maintain harmony within my group. 5. 1 like sharing little things with my neighbors. 6. It is important to consult close friends and get their ideas before making a decision.

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APPENDIX D THE SAMPLE OF QUESTIONNAIRE D Thank you for being present for this study. My name is Sung Wook Shim, a doctoral student at the College of Journalism and Mass Communication. You are taking part in my study about your attitudes and opinions about new product purchasing behavior. Your answers will be kept confidential and reported only in aggregate. Participation in this study is voluntary and you may refuse or withdraw from participation at any time without penalty. This study is made up of 4 sections, and each has several questions. It will take about 30 minutes to complete the questionnaire. Please, use a black pen or pencil to indicate your response as follows; Part I. Please read the following statements. Based upon what you have read, how much do you agree or disagree with each of the statements. Please let your answer reflect honestly your true opinion about each statement. 1 . Winning is everything. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2. It is important that I do my job better than others. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3. 1 often do “my own thing. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4. 1 would do what would please my family. even if I detested that activity. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5. When another person does better than I do, I get tense and aroused. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 6. Being a unique individual is important to me. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7. 1 would sacrifice an activity that I enjoy very much if my family did not approve of it. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 134

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135 8. It is important to consult close friends and get their ideas before making a decision. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9. Some people emphasize winning; IÂ’m not one of them (and vice versa) Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10. Competition is the law of nature. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 . We should keep our aging parents with us at home. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12. 1 enjoy working in situations involving competition with others. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 13. It annoys me when other people perform better than I do. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 14. IÂ’d rather depend on myself than on others. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 15. 1 rely on myself most of the time; I rarely rely on others. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 16. Self-sacrifice is a virtue. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 17. 1 enjoy being unique and different from others. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 8. If a relative were in financial difficulty, I would help within my means. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 19. Children should be taught to place duty before pleasure. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20. 1 like sharing little things with my neighbors. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 21. ItÂ’s important to me that I respect the decisions made by my groups. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 22. Without competition, it is not possible to have a good society. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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136 23. If a co-worker got a prize, I would feel proud. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 24. 1 am a unique person, separate from others. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 25. My personal identity, independent from others, is very important to me. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 26. The well-being of my co-workers is important to me. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 27. 1 usually sacrifice my self-interest for the benefit of my group. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 28. It annoys me if I have to sacrifice activities that I enjoy to help others (reverse scoring). Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 29. It is important to me to maintain harmony within my group. Disagree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 STOP Do not proceed until you are instructed to do so.

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137 Part II-l. After seeing the television advertisement, please check each pair of adjectives at the level that best describes what you think about the ad. 1 .The television ad is harmful beneficial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 pleasant unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 good bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 worthless valuable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 enjoyable unenjoyab le 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2. What do you think about the brand (i.e., JJM Television)? harmful beneficial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 pleasant unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 good bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 worthless valuable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 enjoyable unenjoyab le 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3. If you could afford it, how likely are you to buy a JJM television in the next sixth month? extremely unlikely extremely likely 123456789

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138 3-1.1 intend to buy a JJM television in the next six months. extremely unlikely extremely likely 123456789 3-2. 1 will try to buy a JJM television in the next six months. definitely true definitely false 123456789 3-3. 1 plan to buy a JJM television in the next six months. strongly disagree strongly agree 123456789 3-4. 1 have intention to buy a television in the next six months. extremely unlikely extremely likely 123456789 4. After reading the television adÂ’s headline, do you think the headline can be described as individualistic (emphasizing independence) or collectivistic (emphasizing group)? individualistic collectivistic 123456789 5. If you were to purchase the television shown in the advertisement, would you discuss the purchase with your family? Never discuss Always discuss 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 6. After purchasing the television, how would you use it at home? Used mostly Used mostly individually with other members 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 STOP Do not proceed until you are instructed to do so.

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139 Part II-2. After seeing the ear advertisement, please eheek eaeh pair of adjectives at the level that best describes what you think about the ad. 1 -The car ad is harmful beneficial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 pleasant unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 good bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 worthless valuable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 enjoyable unenjoyab le 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2. What do you think about the brand (i.e. JJM Motors)? harmful beneficial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 pleasant unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 good bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 worthless valuable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 enjoyable unenjoyab le 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3. If you could afford it, how likely are you to buy a JJM car in the next sixth month? extremely unlikely extremely likely 123456789

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140 3-1.1 intend to buy a JJM car in the next six months. extremely unlikely extremely likely 123456789 3-2. 1 will try to buy a JJM car in the next six months. definitely true definitely false 123456789 3-3. 1 plan to buy a JJM car in the next six months. strongly disagree strongly agree 123456789 3-4. 1 have intention to buy a car in the next six months. extremely unlikely extremely likely 123456789 4. After reading the car adÂ’s headline, do you think the headline can be described as individualistic (emphasizing independence) or collectivistic (emphasizing group)? individualistic collectivistic 123456789 5. If you were to purchase the car shown in the advertisement, would you discuss the purchase with your family? Never discuss Always discuss 123456789 6.After purchasing the car, how would you use it at home? Used mostly Used mostly individually with other members 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 STOP Do not proceed until you are instructed to do so.

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141 Part III. Demographics 1 . Gender Male Female 2. Year when you were bom ( ) 3. Monthly Income (Including money from parents and part-time job) Under $100 $100$200 $200 $300 $400 $500 Above $600 ParentsÂ’ Income (per month) Under $1000 $1001 -$2000 $2001 -$3000 $3001 -$4000 Above $40001 None Part IV. General Questions 1-1. What brand of TV do you currently own? 1-2. How loyal are you to the brand of television set you currently own? not at all loyal extremely loyal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2-1 . What brand of car do you currently or your family currently own? 2-2. How loyal are you to the brand of car that you or your family currently own? not at all extremely loyal loyal 123456789 3. How much would you expect to pay for a TV set? Won

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142 4. How much would you expect to pay for a car if you could afford it? Won 5-1 . Have you purchased a television in the past year? Yes No 5-2. Have you or your family purchased a car in the past year? Yes No 6. Have you traveled abroad in the past year? Yes No If yes, how often : times 7. How often do you regularly watch television? not at all extremely often 123456789 On the average weekday, about how much time in hours and/or minutes do you spend watching television? Hours minutes 8. How often do you regularly watch international television program content (i.e., CNN, MTV etc..) in month? not at all extremely often 123456789 On the average weekday, about how much time in hours and/or minutes do you spend watching international program content? Hours minutes 9. How often do you read a newspaper? not at all extremely often 123456789 On the average weekday, about how much time in hours and/or minutes do you spend reading it? Hours minutes 10. How often do you use the Internet? not at all extremely often 123456789 On the average weekday, about how much time in hours and/or minutes do you spend using it? Hours minutes Thank you for your cooperation!

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APPENDIX E SAMPLE ADVERTISEMENTS E 1 . Camera ad (Collectivistic appeals) .1.1 M ~ We use our camera to take pictures of our happy family 143

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144 2. Camera ad (Individualistic appeals) JJM ~ LfetSI ilCf I use my camera to take pictures for my memories

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145 3. Car ad (Collectivistic) JJM TU m Em A comfortable car just like our home

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146 4. Car ad (Individualistic) J.IM TU Ml e>C0|7|& MISS A new space to display my taste

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147 5. Game system (Collectivistie appeals) JJM TU ?B| ?W2| &^^e!t!E|E|0jej£A|7|

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148 6. Game system (Individualistic appeals) TW 4S1SI nm sict My game lets me enjoy a world entertainment by myself

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149 7. Perfume ad (Collectivistic appeals) JJM ™ o|S Even though we’re different. We are the same

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150 8. Perfume ad (Individualistic appeals) JJM TU i4S| S^oi iK! au| A fragrance a woman falls for JJM Perfume

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151 9. Watch ad (Collectivistic appeals) JJM ™ ms. liis What a watch communicates. . . We all can share

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152 10. Watch ad (Individualistic appeals) JJM TU Plan your own time JJM Watch

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153 1 1 . TV ad (Collectivistic appeals) JJM ™ ?e| 7W2| A theater for our family JJM Electronics

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154 1 2. TV ad (Individualistic appeals) JJ.M TVI Ltetsi 4^ fife s A window to see my world JJM Electronics

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156 Cho, B., Kwon, U., Gentry, J.W., Jun, S., & Kropp, F. (1999). Cultural values reflected in theme and execution: A comparative study of U.S. and Korean television commercials. Journal of Advertising 28{A), 59-73. Cheng, H., & Schweitzer, J. C. (1996). Cultural values reflected in Chinese and U.S. television commercials. Journal of Advertising Research, 36(3), 27-45. Curry, J. E. (1998). International marketing: Approaching and penetrating the international marketplace. San Rafael, CA: World Trade Press. Dae Hong Communications (2000). Special Issue/ Investigative report on the lifestyles of Koreans. Retrieved February 1, 2002, from http://www.daehong.co.kr/english/4topic/Korean/Korean4 . htm De Mooij, M. (1994). Advertising worldwide: Concepts, theories and practice of international, multinational and global advertising. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice Hall. De Mooij, M. (1997). Global marketing and advertising: Understanding cultural paradoxes. Thousands Oak, CA: Sage. Deval, A. W. (1992). Asia: a young hungry marketplace. Advertising Age, September 7, S20. Duncan, T. (2002). IMC: Using advertising & promotion to build brands. New York, NY : The McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Duncan, T., & Ramaprasad, J. (1995). Standardized multinational advertising: The influencing factors. Journal of Advertising, 24(3), 55-68. Economist, the (1990). A survey of South Korea, August 18, 1-20. Francis, J. N., Lam, J. P., & Walls, J. (2002). Executive insights: The impact of linguistic differences on international brand name standardization: A comparison of English and Chinese brand names of Fortune-500 companies. Journal of International Marketing, 70(1), 98. Gould, J., & Kolb, W. L. (1964). A dictionary of the social sciences. Glencoe, IL: Free Press. Gregory, G., & Munch, J. (1997). Cultural values in international advertising: An examination of Familial Norms and Roles in Mexico. Psychology & Marketing, 14(2), 99-119. Gudykunst, W. B., (1998). Bridging differences: Effective intergroup communication. Thousands Oak, CA: Sage.

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162 Zhang, Y., & Gelb, B. D. (1996). Matching advertising appeals to culture: The influence of productsÂ’ use conditions. Journal of Advertising, 25(3), 29-46.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Mr. Sung Wook Shim received his bachelorÂ’s degree in mass communications from Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, South Korea in 1 994. After graduation. He entered graduate school and received the degree of Master of Arts in mass communication from Hankuk University of Foreign Studies in 1996. Mr. Shim decided to broaden his experience though graduate studies in the United States. He received the degree of Master of Arts in mass communication from the University of Missouri-Columbia in 1999. In the fall of 1999, he entered the doctoral program at the University of Florida. Mr. Shim plans to pursue an advertising career and secure a teaching position in jl Seoul, Korea. 163

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Maril^ Roberts, Chair Associate Professor of Journalism and Communications I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Lynda Lei? Kaid Professor of Journalism and Communications I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fuUy^dequate, in scope and qualjf as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. , h Pisani 6fessor of Journalism and Communications I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Steven M. Shugan Professor of Business Administration I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and qu^lit)^ as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Michael F. Weigold Associate Professor of Journalism and Communication

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This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Journalism and Communications and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. August 2002 Dean, Colle^ of Journalism and Communication Dean, Graduate School