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Rapid generation of collision-free paths for robot manipulators with computer graphics animation

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Title:
Rapid generation of collision-free paths for robot manipulators with computer graphics animation
Creator:
Tseng, Ching-Shiow, 1955-
Publisher:
[s.n.]
Publication Date:
Language:
English
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v, 128 leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Algorithms ( jstor )
Coordinate systems ( jstor )
End effectors ( jstor )
Geometric lines ( jstor )
Line segments ( jstor )
Robotics ( jstor )
Robots ( jstor )
Shoulder ( jstor )
Shoulder joint ( jstor )
Wrist ( jstor )
Computer graphics ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Mechanical Engineering -- UF
Manipulators (Mechanism) ( lcsh )
Mechanical Engineering thesis Ph. D
Robots -- Automatic control ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1987.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ching-Shiow Tseng.

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University of Florida
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The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact the RDS coordinator (ufdissertations@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
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19563022 ( OCLC )

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PAPID GENERATION OF COLLISION-FREE PATHS FOR
ROBOT MANIPULATORS WITH COMPUTER GRAPHICS ANIMATION



















BY

CHING-SHIOW TSENG


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1987















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I wish to express my sincere gratitude to my advisor Dr. Joseph Duffy for his guidance and support of this work.

Special thanks are extended to Dr. George N. Sandor and Dr. John Staudhammer for their continuous instruction.

I am grateful to Dr. Ali Seireg, Dr. Gary Matthew and Dr. David Wilson for their useful courses and participation in my advisory committee.

I also thank all colleagues in CIMAR for sharing their knowledge and pleasure.

Finally, I wish to thank my family and fiancee, Cathy, for their encouragement and understanding.

This work is supported by US ARMY Belvoir Research & Development Center, Contract No. DAAK70-85-K-0030













TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .............. . . . ..

LIST OF TABLES . ................. iii

ABSTRACT....................... iv

CHAPTERS

I INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE SURVEY .. ......... 1

II EXPANSION AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE OBSTACLES . 10

2.1 Expansion of the Objects .1.1.......11 2.2 The Safe Angular Range of Joints 2 and 3 . 25 2.3 Equation for an Archimedes Spiral ...... .. 28 2.4 Identification of the Obstacles ........ . 31 III DETERMINATION OF REACHABLE POINTS TO FORM A
COLLISION-FREE PATH ..... ............... 39

3.1 The Quicksort Algorithm ... ........... 39
3.2 Obstacle Cross Sections ... ........... 41
3.3 The Low Bound of the Reachable Area ..... . 43 3.4 Modification of the Path .. .......... 68

IV APPLICATION TO OTHER TYPE ROBOTS .. ......... 85

4.1 The Polar Type Robot .... ............ 85
4.2 The Cylindrical Type Robot .. ......... 94
4.3 The Cartesian Type Robot .. .......... 98

V COMPUTER GRAPHICS SIMULATION OF THE ROBOT MOTION . 101

5.1 Introduction to the IRIS 2400 Workstation . . 101 5.2 Graphics Techniques .... ............. 102
5.3 Pictures Generation of the T3-776 Robot . . . 105 5.4 Motion Simulation of the T3-776 Robot . . .. 110 VI CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .. ......... 119

APPENDIX ......... ...................... 121

REFERENCES ......... ..................... 124

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ...... ................. 128


iii














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy RAPID GENERATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS ANIMATION OF

COLLISION-FREE PATHS FOR ROBOT MANIPULATORS BY

CHING-SHIOW TSENG

DECEMBER 1987

Chairman: Dr. Joseph Duffy

Major Department: Mechanical Engineering

It is expected that in the near future robot manipulators will have the autonomous ability to avoid collisions with surrounding objects. The reason for this expectation is that robots will one day be able to operate effectively in an obstacle strewn environment such as a house, an office, a factory, etc. In this dissertation, an efficient trajectory planning system is developed which rapidly provides a manipulator with a collision-free path.

It is assumed that the surrounding polyhedral objects have vertical sides and flat top surfaces, and their positions and dimensions are known. The system which has been developed expands the size of the objects so that the links of the manipulator may be treated as straight line segments with no thickness. An Archimedes's spiral is used to determine a collision-free path as opposed to a straight










line path which may pass through the void of the wrist's workspace. The objects outside the swept volume of the manipulator during the motion from the initial position to the goal position can be excluded from consideration.

Each vertex of the top surfaces of the remaining objects (or obstacles) and the vertical Z-axis of the fixed coordinate system determine a vertical plane. These planes generate cross sections of the obstacles and wrist's workspace. In each cross section of the wrist's workspace, the lower bound of the reachable area for the wrist is determined and a reachable wrist point can be found. These reachable wrist points are used to determine the reachable end effector points. Finally, the path which sequentially connects the initial position, the reachable end effector points, and the goal position is modified in order to produce a smooth and efficient collision-free path.

The algorithm developed here is applied to the Cincinnati Milacron T 3-776 robot in a tightly cluttered environment and is demonstrated via computer graphics animation. It is important to recognize that this algorithm can be applied incorporating minor modifications to the polar type, cylindrical type and Cartesian type robots.















CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION



Interest in robotics has grown explosively in recent years. As robots have begun to proliferate in industry, so have the demands on the level of sophistication of their performance. These demands include greater ease of use and broader requirements on abilities. However, several technical problem areas such as mobility, sensing and control require more improvement and fundamental research.

Currently, a user need input the data of detail steps into the controller to operate a robot. If a robot has the ability to operate autonomously without colliding with the surrounding objects, then it may accept simple instructions such as "move object A from position P to Q." This leads to the interesting research of developing an alaorithm to detect collisions between a manipulator and objects in the workspace and plan a collision-free path for the manipulator.

Since Udupa [11 first presented the problem of collision detection and avoidance of manipulators, numerous research has been performed to develop effective algorithms to perform motion planning. The current algorithmic interest in motion planning is usually traced to the work of










Lozano-Perez 12]. The idea was to hypothesize a simple path from an initial position to the target position, test the path for potential collisions, and then propose a new path. This procedure was repeated until no collisions are detected along the proposed path. Clearly, it is time-consuming to generate paths and detect collisions in this way. More recent and continuing work along such lines was reported by Lozano-Perez [3-4] and Brooks [5-6]. These algorithm were extended to study several connected objects i.e. a kinematic chain. They were subsequently applied to the obstacle avoidance problem of Cartesian type manipulators, and to the determination of a collision-free path for a Unimation 560 (known as PUMA) manipulator performing four-degree-of-freedom pick and place operations. In recent years, artificial intelligence and optimization techniques were also employed to complement the search of collision-free paths. The work of Myers [7-8], Kuntze and Schill [9], Faverjon [10], Gouzenes [11-12], Wang and Fu [13] and Dupont and Derby [14] applied hesuristic searching methods to plan collision-free paths. Such search techniques tend to be time consuming. Most researchers divided the free space into numerous grids or cubes of distinct size and generated a tree structure to search for an optimal path.

Hollerbach and Suh [15] and Maciejewski and Klein [16] presented methods of minimizing joint torques and maximizing










the distance to obstacles respectively. Further work on minimizing motion time or joint displacement increments is reported by Dubowsky and his associates [17-191, Fenton et al [201, Seeger and Paul [21], Luh and Lin [221, Rajan [231 and Sahar and Hollerbach [24].

Recently, novel interesting algorithms have been developed by Lumelsky for the path planning of two-degree-of-freedom Planar manipulators [25-28] and Cartesian type manipulators [29]. Young and Duffy [30-311 introduced a theory of the articulation of planar robots to plan motion for interference avoidance. This theory will be extended and applied to spatial robot manipulators. These algorithms are based on the geometry of manipulators as opposed to applying heuristic methods.

In recent years, computer graphics has been applied to many fields to reduce development time and cost, and help to visualize various design. Even complicated wire frame and solid modeling pictures can be generated in a micro computer. This can be seen from the work of Derby [32] which runs on an IBM PC/AT and simulates robotic workcells. However, a workstation specially designed for generating graphics is more efficient and can display more realistic pictures.

Obviously, the characteristics of computer graphics are very useful and effective in studying off-line robot programming such as interactive animated display of robot










motion (Crane and Duffy [33-34]), robot kinematics and dynamics analysis, and modeling swept volumes for collision detection (Leu [35], Anderson [36] and Mahajar [37]).

In this dissertation, geometric methods are used to develop an algorithm to determine collision-free paths for robot manipulators operating in an obstacle-strewn environment (see figure 1.1). After specification of the initial and goal positions and corresponding orientations of the end effector, a collision-free path that safely maneuvers the manipulator to the goal position will be generated.

It is assumed for the analysis that the surrounding polyhedral objects are composed of vertical sides and flat top surfaces, and their locations, sizes and shapes are known. The algorithm first computes an Archimedes's spiral, determined by the initial and goal positions of the wrist, as opposed to a straight line path which may pass through the void of the workspace. The polyhedral objects are then expanded so that the links of the manipulator may be treated as straight line segments. The position of each of the expanded objects is checked against the fan-shaped area determined by the origin of the fixed coordinate system and the projection of the Archimedes's spiral on the X-Y plane. Only those objects which lie inside or intersect with this fan-shaped area are considered to be obstacles. The other obiects can be excluded from further consideration.






5













































Figure 1.1 The robot and surrounding objects










Each vertex of the top surfaces of the obstacles and the vertical Z-axis (parallel to the axis of joint 1) of the fixed coordinate system determine a vertical plane (see figure 1.2). This plane cuts through some obstacles and the reachable space of the wrist and thus generates cross sections of the obstacles and wrist's reachable space.

The cross sections of the reachable space and obstacles are mapped through rotational transformations onto the X-Z plane. On each of these transformed cross sections, the lowest valid position for the second link (or the lowest position for joint 3) can be determined. Using this position, the lower bound of the wrist's reachable area can be found.

The recommended reachable point is defined as the intersection of the Archimedes's spiral and the cross section of the wrist's workspace. This recommended point is used to find the real reachable wrist point which is then inversely transformed to obtain its true coordinates. These reachable wrist points are used to determine the reachable end effector points by considering the length and orientation of the end effector. Finally, the path which sequentially connects the initial position, the reachable end effector points and the goal position is modified to produce a smooth collision-free path.

The alqorithm developed is applied here in detail to the Cincinnati Milacron T3-776 robot in an obstacle-strewn
























z





~The arm


The shoulder
A The wrist


1 6
-X


Figure 1.2 The T 3-776 robot










environment (see figure 1.1). The response time for the algorithm to generate a collision-free path is less than two seconds on a VAX-750 computer. This algorithm can also be applied to the polar type, the cylindrical type and the Cartesian type robots.

In Chapter II, the method for expanding objects is described and the equation of the Archimedes's spiral is derived. Each of the expanded objects is identified to be an obstacle or a non-obstacle which is discussed in detail. The limited angular ranges of joints 2 and 3 required for the shoulder and arm to avoid collision with the obstacles are also determined.

Chapter III describes the procedures of finding the reachable end effector points. First, the sequence of the cross sections of the wrist's workspace are sorted by using the quicksort algorithm. Then, the cross sections of the obstacles are determined and sorted. The problem of finding the lower bound of the reachable area for the wrist and the reachable wrist point is separated into several cases which depend on the positions and sizes of the cross sections of the obstacles. Each of these cases is discussed separately.

The reachable end effector points are determined based on the reachable wrist points and the orientation of the end effector. A detailed discussion of this determination is presented. The safety of the shoulder and arm during the rectilinear motion of the manipulator between two sequential










reachable points is also proved. Finally, a simple method to modify the path sequentially connecting all reachable points is described.

The algorithm developed in Chapters II and III is applied to the articulated type robots. It can be easily extended to other types of robots, too. In Chapter IV, the application of the algorithm to the polar type, the cylindrical type and the Cartesian type robots is presented. The vast majority of industrial robots belong to these four types and hence the algorithm has a wide application.

In Chapter V, a general description of computer graphics animation techniques is presented as it applies to the T3-776 robot. The continuous motion of the robot operating in a tightly cluttered environment is demonstrated step by step by pictures obtained from a SILICON GRAPHICS IRIS 2400 workstation.

Finally, conclusions and recommendations for future study are discussed in Chapter VI.














CHAPTER II

EXPANSION AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE OBSTACLES




As previously stated, the dimensions of the polyhedral objects and their positions relative to the fixed coordinate system of the robot are assumed to he known. Since the calculations required to identify collisions between a solid link and objects in the workspace are so complex, it is advantageous to consider the links initially as line segments or vectors of no volume. In order to accomplish this, a common technique will be used in which all objects are expanded to compensate for the thickness and width of the links. This differs in some respects from the method due to Perez and in this chapter details are given.

Following this, an algorithm is developed to identify the obstacles which can cause interference for a move from an initial to a target positions. All other objects can then be disregarded from the analysis. In order to develop this algorithm, it is necessary to plan the move. There a series of Archimedes's spirals is used to move between a succession of reachable points beginning with the initial point and concluding with the target point.










2.1 Expansion of Objects

In figure 2.1, the Cincinnati Milacron T3-776 robot

is shown together with a cross section of an expanded object. The cross sections of the shoulder (link 2) and arm (link 3) are shown in Eigures 2.1.1 and 2.1.2 respectively. Before discussing how to expand an object, additional definitions must be made.

1. Point P is the intersection of cross section A-A of

the shoulder and shoulder axis which connects the

centers of joints 2 and 3 (see figures 2.1 and

2.1.1).

2. M is the distance from point P to each of the

bottom corners of cross section A-A (see figure

2.1.1).

3. Point Q is the intersection of cross section B-B of

the arm and arm axis which connects the centers of joint 3 and the wrist (see figures 2.1 and 2.1.2).

4. N is the distance from point Q to each of the

bottom corners of cross section B-B (see figure

2.1.2).

5. V is the distance from point Q to the bottom side

of the arm (see figure 2.1.2).

In figure 2.2, the sides of an arbitrary object Ol (02) are expanded by the distance M (N). Rectangle D (E) has the same size as the cross section A-A (B-B) and point r (s) corresponds to point P (Q). When point r (s) is on one of


































Figure 2.1 The T 3-776 robot with a cross section of an obstacle






A-A cross section B-B cross section E m j Thickness


R
Width


Figure 2.1.2


Figure 2.1.1


























































Figure 2.2 Rectangle D (E) cannot
touch the obstacle 01 (02)









the edges of or outside the expanded object Ol (02), the rectangle D (E) will not collide with object 01 (02). Broadly speaking, it follows that

any portion of the sides of an object that the

shoulder can reach is expanded by the distance M;

otherwise, it is expanded by the distance N.

Specifically, six distinct types of interference between the shoulder and an object must be considered. It is sufficient to consider interference with a polyhedron with four sides and to examine the interference of the shoulder with pairs of adjacent sides in turn. This yields four distinct cases and the fifth and sixth cases occur when there is interference with a single side only. The first four cases are illustrated by figures 2.3-2.6 which show the top of the four-sided polyhedron. The first vertical axis (the axis of joint 1) of the robot is out of the paper and passes through point 0. This is taken as the positive Z direction. The circular arc C with center 0 is the intersection of the plane through the top of the polyhedron with the reachable surface (a spherical shell) generated by the center of joint 3.

In order to facilitate the development of an algorithm, three of the four vertices are labled a, b and c and they are indexed sequentially in a counterclockwise sense. The details of the determination of new corners for an object are now described.










Case 1: Point a is outside arc C, and point b is

within arc C (see Figures 2.3 and 2.4).

There are two subcases which are considered separately.

1. When Ob x ba < 0 (parallel to the negative Z-direction), the shoulder will touch point b first and hence cannot touch any other points on the line segment ab (see figure 2.3). Both the sides ab and bc are shifted out a distance M to de and ef. The meet of the lines de and ef e is joined to the vertex b and the point i is determined by choosing bi = M. The intersections g and h of the line segments de and ef with the line through i and perpendicular to bi are then determined. The corners of the expanded object corresponding to the corner b are now defined by the points g and h.

2. When Ob x ba > 0, the shoulder can touch all points on the line segment ab (see figure 2.4). The procedure for expanding the object is the same as above except that in addition the intersection k of arc C with the side ab is determined. Following this, the intersection j of the line through k and tangent to arc C with the line de is also determined and the corners of the expanded object corresponding to the corner b are defined sequentially by the points j, g and h.

The determination of the coordinates of points g and h are now discussed in detail.































Ob x ba < 0


Figure 2.4 Ob x ba > 0


Figure 2.3










Assume that the line equations of lines ab and bc are

pX + qY = r

uX + vY = w (2.1)

where the constants p, q, r, u, v and w are determined

by the coordinates of points a, b and c.

When the directions of the cross products Oa x ab and Ob x bc point to the positive Z-axis, the equations of the lines de and ef are given by


pX + qY = r + M/ (p2 + q2) 1/2


uX + vY = w + M / (u2 + v2) 1/2 (2.2)


Otherwise, the equations of lines de and ef are


pX + qY = r - M/ (p2 + q2)l/2


uX + vY = w - M/ (u2 ) 1/2 (2.3)


where M has been defined above.

Solving either of the pairs of the simultaneous equations, the coordinates of the intersection e are determined and the line be can be expressed in the form


1X + mY = n (2.4)


The coordinates of point i are calculated and given by


Xi = Xb + (Xe - Xb)R


(2.5)


Y i = Yb + (Ye - Yb)R









where R = M / ((Xe - Xb)2 + )2 1/2 d e b)+(Ye Yb 2 1/2

(Xb,Yh) and (Xe, Ye) are respectively the

coordinates of points b and e.

The equation of line L, which passes through point i and is perpendicular to line be, can be expressed in the form

mX - lY = mX. - iyi (2.6)


The coordinates of point g (h) are found by solving equations (2.6) and (2.2) ((2.6) and (2.3)).

Case 2: Point a is within arc C, and point b is

outside arc C (see figures 2.5 and 2.6).

Here the shoulder cannot reach point b. The sides ab and bc are shifted out a distance N to line segments de and ef. Then, the procedures to determine the new corners g and h are the same as in Case 1. When Ob x ba < 0 (see figure 2.5), the corners of the expanded object are thus defined by points g and h. However, when Ob x ba > 0 (see figure 2.6), the shoulder will reach side ab and an extra corner j must be determined. This new corner is determined by the intersection of line de with the line which is tangent to arc C and passes through the intersection k of line ab and arc C. The corners of the expanded object are defined by a sequence of points j, g and h.

Case 3: Points a and b are both within arc C. (see

figure 2.7)





19




f




c
b h
g




ad





0
arc C




Figure 2.5 ob x ba < 0


Figure 2.6 Ob x ba > 0






























Figure 2.7 Points a and b are both
within the arc C


Figure 2.8 Side ab does not intersect
with the arc C










In this case, sides ab and bc are shifted out a distance M to line segments de and ef. The new corner points g and h are determined as in Case 1. The corners of the expanded object are defined by the points g and h.

Case 4: Points a and b are both outside arc C and side

ab does not intersect with arc C (see figure

2.8).

It is necessary to check at the outset to determine whether side ab intersects with arc C. In figure 2.8, point p is the intersection of line ab and the normal to the line which passes through point 0. When point p is not located between points a and b, or when the distance Op is greater than the radius of arc C, the side ab will not intersect with arc C.

In this case, the shoulder will not touch side bc. Both the sides ab and bc are shifted out a distance N to the line segments de and ef. New corners g and h are then found as in Case 1. The corners of the expanded object are now defined by the points g and h.

Case 5: Points a and b are both outside arc C. Side

ab intersects arc C. Points 0 and c lie on

opposite sides of line segment ab (see figure

2.9).

In this case, the shoulder can touch part of the side ab but excluding point b. Both the sides ab and bc are shifted out a distance N to the line segments de and ef.































Figure 2.9 Points 0 and c lie on opposite
sides of line segment ab


Figure 2.10 Points 0 and c are on the same
side of line segment ab










Corners g and h are then determined as in Case 1. In figure 2.9, points k and r indicate the two intersections of line segment ab and arc C. The shoulder can reach the line segment kr. Therefore, line segment kr is shifted out a distance M to the line segment js. The corners of the expanded object are now defined sequentially by the points j, s, g and h.

Case 6: Points a and b are both outside arc C. Side

ab intersects arc C. Point 0 and c are on

the same side of line segment ab (see figure

2.10).

In this case, the shoulder will not touch side ab. Therefore, the sides ab and bc are shifted out a distance N to the line segments de and ef. Corners g and h are then determined as in Case 1. The corners of the expanded object are now defined by the points g and h.

The technique described above is applied to expand the sides of each of the objects. Finally, after all the new vertices of each object have been determined, the heights of these vertices are shifted vertically a distance V (see figure 2.1.2) in order to avoid collision when the arm lies horizontally over the top of the object. These new vertices determine the shape and size of the new expanded object. Figure 2.11 illustrates the shape of an object before and after expansion.
























































Figure 2.11 The shape of an object before
and after expansion










2.2 The Safe Angular Range of Joints 2 and 3

The expansion technique described in the previous section simplifies the collision avoidance problem between an object and a solid robot manipulator with links of rectangular cross sections by expanding the object and by reducing the links to line segments with zero cross section. When a line segment does not touch the expanded object, the corresponding solid link will not touch the original object. However, the shoulder and arm of the articulated robots are always inclined. The sections of the shoulder and arm cut by the horizontal plane at the same height as the object are somewhat larger than their cross sections (see figure 2.1, P'R > PR and O'S > QS). Because all objects have been expanded based on the size of the two cross sections for interference avoidance, the safe angular ranges of joints 2 and 3 may be less than the joint limitation. This is evident by considering figure 2.1 where e and denote the angles of the shoulder and arm axes measured relative to the horizontal. When the distance, P'R - PR > Vcote and Q'S (S > Vcot+, the shoulder and arm will collide respectively with the object. It follows that the safe angular ranges of joints 2 (9) and 3 (4) need to be derived.

Case 1: The safe angular range of joint 2.

From above discussion, the clearance obtained from the expansion of the height of the object should be greater than the distance of P'R - PR, see figure 2.12, and therefore




26



p









Vcote








Figure 2.12 P'R-PR < VcotE










A p


B ,' C Vcote P'R-PR


Figure 2.13 P'R-PR > Vcote










Vcote > P'R - PR (2.7)


Substituting P'R = PR/sine in equation (2.7) and simplifying the equation yields


Vcose + PRsin9 > PR (2.8)


which can be expressed in the form


Lsin(9+4) > PR (2.9)


where L (V2 + PR2)/2 sin (V/L) (2.10)
(V PR , , - i L)(.)

Solving equation (2.9) for e gives


e = sin-1 (PR/L) - sin-1 (v/L) (2.11)


The values of V and PR for the T 3-776 robot are 12.1

and 4.2 inches respectively. Therefore, the minimum value for 0 is 42.04 degrees. When e < 42.04, the shoulder must be rotated upwards through an angle 0 < i < 180 in order to avoid collision (see figure 2.13). The following relationship can be deduced from figure -2.13 by applying the sine rule to triangle ABC.


(H - T) / sine D

sin(Hl- e - I) sinO (2.12)


where D = P'R - PR - Vcote

H is the height of the obstacle

T is the offset of joint 1










Solving equation (2.12) for I yields

-1 H - T
cot ----------- - cote)
D x sin2 (2.13) Figure 2.14 shows an example in which the shoulder is rotated upwards + degrees to avoid collision.

Case 2: The safe angular range for joint 3.

The analysis is virtually identical to Case 1 (see Figure 2.15). Here,


Vcot+ > Q'S - QS (2.14)


Substituting Q'S = QS/sin in equation (2.14) and simplifyinq the equation yields


Vcos+ + QSsin+ > QS (2.15)


The solution for which is


4 > sin-1 (QS / L) - sin-1 (V / L) (2.16)


where L = (V2 + QS2 1/2

The magnitude of QS for the T 3-776 robot is 4.1

inches and from (2.15) the minimum value for 4 is -12.7 degrees. This implies that there is no restriction on the value of + since + is always greater than zero.


2.3 The Equation for an Archimedes's Spiral

Clearly there are a wide variety of paths for the end effector of an articulated type robot moving between two






































Figure 2.14 The shoulder is rotated upwards
t degrees to avoid collision
















Figure 2.15 Q'S-QS < Vcote


QQ









positions, namely, a line segment, an arc, a parabola, a spiral and so on. Since the path may pass through the void of the workspace, a rectilinear motion for an articulated type robot may not be possible. It is also difficult for an arc and a parabola to determine an optimum radius and curvature.

The Archimedes's spiral is determined by the initial position I and goal position G of the wrist (see figure 2.16) and this will always lie within the workspace of the wrist. The parametric equations for the Archimedes's spiral defined by the positions I and G are


L = Li + (L - Li) a / ) H = H. + (H - Li) e /


(2.17) (2.18)


where L, Li and L the distance from the origin to

the projection of points R, I and G on the X-Y plane.

H, Hi and H the height of points R, I and G.
+: the angle between planes GOZ and IOZ.

e): the angle between planes ROZ and IOZ.



2.4 Identification of the Obstacles

In the algorithm to be developed here, it is assumed that the wrist will follow the spiral descibed above whenever it is reachable. However, when some point on the spiral is too low, the shoulder or arm will not be able to














































The fan-shaped area The Archimedes's spiral




Figure 2.16 The Archimedes's spiral and fan-shaped area









avoid collision. This situation is illustrated in figure 2.17. The moon-shaped area is a cross section of the wrist's reachable space. The hatched section is the wrist's reachable area determined by the obstacle A. The intersection e of the spiral and cross section is too low to be reached by the wrist without collision between the arm and obstacle A. In this situation, the corresponding reachable point f on the lower bound (line segment ab) of the reachable area and with the same X coordinate as point e is chosen as the real reachable point. When there is no such corresponding reachable point (for example, point g has no corresponding reachable point), the reachable point, b, with the greatest X coordinate will be selected. When the obstacle is too high to pass over (see figure 2.18), a reachable point f will be determined by the corresponding point e' which is on the origin side of the obstacle and with the same Z coordinate as the point e. These rules for path planning restrict the wrist's path to lie within the space determined by the initial vertical plane (defined by the initial point and the Z-axis), the final vertical plane (defined by the taraet point and the Z-axis), and the trajectory of the spiral with its projection on the X-Y plane. Obviously, when the wrist moves along the path, the shoulder and arm will always stay inside of the same space. This also indicates that only an object satisfying the following condition is considered to be an obstacle.



















The trajectory of joint 3


The wrist


Figure 2.17


















































Figure 2.18










The object must lie inside of or intersect with the fan-shaped area determined by the origin of

the fixed coordinate system and an expanded

projection of the spiral on the X-Y plane.

The expanded projection of the spiral on the X-Z plane (see figure 2.16) is obtained simply by expanding the projection of the spiral radially by an amount equal to the length of the line segment joining the wrist point to the tip of the end effector. This expansion is because the end effector is not under consideration when the spiral is defined and it may touch the objects near the spiral.

The objects outside the fan-shaped area can thus be neglected. The procedure to determine whether an object is to be considered as an obstacle or not is now described.

1. The angular ranges of the projection of the object on the X-Y plane and the fan-shaped area corresponding to the positive X-axis are determined. In figure 2.16, the angular ranges of object F and the fan-shaped area are a to and y to y+0 respectively.

2. When there is no overlap of these two angular ranges, the object is outside of the fan-shaped area and is therefore not an obstacle (this is the case For object F).

3. When there is overlap, the intersection of the expanded projection of the spiral and the line segment connecting the origin and each of the bottom vertices of the object is determined. If there is a vertex closer to the










origin than this intersection, the object intersects with the fan-shaped area and it must be considered as an obstacle. If no vertex is closer to the origin than this intersection, the object is outside of the fan-shaped area and is not considered as an obstacle. In figure 2.17, the vertex a of object C is closer to the origin than its corresponding intersection b. Hence object C is considered to be an obstacle.

The algorithm for the expansion of objects and reduction of the manipulator to line segments described in section 2.1 together with the algorithm for the identification of obstacles described above were applied to the obstacle strewn environment illustrated by figure 2.16. In Eigure 2.19, the resulting modified objects A, B and C are considered as obstacles while objects D, E and F can be removed from further consideration.



































l B

















Figure 2.19 The expanded obstacles and
manipulator















CHAPTER III

DETERMINATION OF REACHABLE POINTS
TO FORM A COLLISION-FREE PATH




After all the obstacles have been identified as discussed in Chapter II, a series of vertical planes are formed for determining reachable points. Each of the vertical planes is defined by the vertical Z-axis and a top vertex point of one of the obstacles. These planes generate cross sections of the obstacles and wrist's reachable space. The cross sections of the reachable space and obstacles are mapped through rotational transformations onto the X-Z plane. These transformations simplify the three-dimensional path problem to a two-dimensional one. In this chapter, a method to find the lower bound of the wrist's reachable areas and to determine reachable end effector points is discussed.



3.1 The Quicksort Algorithm

The angles between the X-Z plane and the vertical planes described above are computed. These planes are sorted according to the angles with the X-Z plane beqinning with the smallest angle and concluding with the largest angle.









The sorting algorithm used in this paper is called "quicksort." The essence of quicksort is to sort an array A[1I, A[2],..., A[n] by permuting the elements in the array so that for some "j", all the records with keys less than some key value "v" appear in A[l],..., Afj], and all those with keys "v" or greater appear in A[j+1],...,A[n]. Then quicksort is applied recursively to A[I],...,A[j] and to A[j+l],...,A[n] to sort both these groups of elements. Since all keys in the first group precede all keys in the second group, the entire array will be sorted. Assuming that the algorithm recursively sorts the array S(l),...,S(N) of N items into increasing order, then the steps of this sorting are as follows,

1. [Trivial?] If N < 1, return. (N = 0 means that the

array is empty.)

2. [Initialization.] Set I = 1; J = N. (I moves right

and J moves left along the array as elements are interchanged. When I = J, the element at the Ith

position will be greater than or equal all elements to the left and less than or equal all elements to

the right.)

3. [Move J?] IF S(J) > S(I), then J = J - 1; go to 3;

otherwise, (interchange) TEMP = S(I); S(I) S(J);

S(J) = TEMP.

4. [Move I?] If I = J, go to 6; otherwise, I = I + 1.









5. [Interchange?] If S(I) < S(J), go to 4; otherwise,

(interchange) TEMP = S(I); S(I) = S(J); S(J) =

TEMP; J = J - 1; go to step 3.

6. [Sort subproblems.] Call the algorithm with input

array S(l),...,S(I-l); Call the algorithm with

input array S(I+l),...,S(N); Return.

An example of the application of this quicksort algorithm is illustrated in figure 3.1.



3.2 Obstacle Cross Sections

The obstacles and vertical planes defined previously are projected on the X-Y plane. The shapes of the projections of obstacles are the same as those of their too surfaces (polygons). The projections of the vertical planes are represented by lines. If there is intersection between any polygon and any line, the corresponding obstacle of the polygon is cut by the corresponding vertical plane of the line and a cross section of this obstacle can be determined. Assume that points a and b are the two end points of one of the sides of the polygon.

1. If points a and b are on the same side of the line,

there is no intersection.

2. If points a and b are on opposite sides of the

line, the intersection can be found by solving the line equation and the equation of the line passing

through points a and b.












I -- J Step 1 3 6 4 1 9 5 3 8 7

1 3

3 - 6


Step 2 1 3 4 6 9 5 3 3 7

3 4 4 6


Step 3 1 3 3 4 9 5 6 8 7 7 9 Step 4 3 4 7 5 6 8 9

6 - 7


S tec 5 6 5 7 8 9

5 -6

Step 6 5 6 7 8



Step 7 5 6


End 1 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


Figure 3.1 Quicksort algorithm










3. If one or two vertices are on the line, they are

themselves points of intersections.

The angular range of each of the obstacles corresponding to the positive X-axis has been defined in Chapter II. All sides of the polygon are sequentially checked against each of the projection lines within the angular range of the corresponding obstacle. Each two sequential intersections will determine a cross section of the obstacle. Those cross sections are then transformed to the X-Z plane. In general, this transformation is done by multipling the coordinates of the intersections with a rotation transformation matrix. However, this is easily accomplished by replacing the X coordinate of the intersections by the square root of the summation of X square and Y square while replacing the Y coordinate by 0 and not changing the Z coordinate.



3.3 The Low Bound of the Reachable Area

As described earlier, an Archimedes's spiral is determined by the initial and goal positions of the wrist. This spiral intersects with the first cross section of the wrist's reachable space. The intersection, which is called the recommended reachable wrist point, is used to find a real reachable wrist point. The real reachable wrist point and goal position will generate a new Archimedes's spiral. The intersection of this new spiral and the second cross









section of the wrist's reachable space is the new recommended reachable wrist point. This recommended point is then used to find a further real reachable wrist point and so on. These procedures are repeated until the real reachable wrist point which lies on the last cross section is determined.

In each of the cross sections of the wrist's reachable space, the X and Z coordinates of the recommended reachable point are denoted by Xe and Z e respectively. The algorithm to be developed will find the lower bound of the reachable area for the wrist between the Z-axis and line X = Xe and determine a reachable wrist point in this reachable area. Thus, the shoulder and arm will stay within this area and any obstacle (or any cross section of the obstacle) outside the area between lines X = 0 and X = X can be excluded from consideration. Figure 3.2 illustrates that the obstacle D is out of the area.

In order to describe more easily how the lower bound of the reachable area for the wrist is determined, a pair of principal obstacles is defined, one for the shoulder and the other for the arm.

1. The principal shoulder obstacle is defined as the obstacle first touched by the shoulder when it is rotated downwards from its vertical position (for example, the obstacle A in figure 3.2).





45























!x
The arm


z\

+=150� \









ulder.

A B C,

e




01 1
x
e





Figure 3.2 The principal shoulder and arm
obstacles










2. The principal arm obstacle is defined as the obstacle first touched by the arm when it is rotated downwards from its extreme position and when the angle of joint 3 equals the maximum joint limitation (150 degrees) (for example, the obstacle B in figure 3.3). However, when the shoulder touches an obstacle first (see obstacle A in figure 3.2), the arm is rotated downwards further until it touches an obstacle (see obstacle C in figure 3.2) which is defined as the principal arm obstacle.

The two principal obstacles will be used to determine the lower bound of the reachable area between the origin side of the principal arm obstacle and the line X = Xe.

Obviously, when there is no obstacle whose origin side top corner is within the circular arc generated by joint 3 (see figure 3.4), the shoulder cannot touch any obstacle. Hence only the collision problem between the arm and obstacles needs to be considered. In this situation, when the highest obstacle is higher than the maximum height H that the joint 3 can reach, the arm may only touch the origin side top corner of the principal arm obstacle (for instance, the obstacle C of figure 3.4). When the height of the highest obstacle is between the maximum and minimum heights (H and L) that joint 3 can reach, the arm can lie horizontally on the top of the principal arm obstacle and may touch each of the two top vertices of the obstacle (for example, the obstacle B of figure 3.4). When the highest

















































Figure 3.3 The principal arm obstacle






















The circular Z arc generated by joint 3


____/ I L . ..... x
0






Figure 3.4 The relation between the
manipulator and obstacles
at different height ranges










obstacle is lower than the minimum height that joint 3 can reach, the arm (not including the tip of the wrist) will only touch the exterior top corner (the top corner furthest from the origin) of the principal arm obstacle (see the obstacle A of figure 3.4). These different conditions determine all the Group 1 cases listed in figure 3.5.

When there is at least one obstacle whose origin side top corner is within the circular arc generated by joint 3 (for example, the obstacle A and B of figure 3.2), the shoulder may first touch one of the obstacles. In this situation, the collision problems between the arm and obstacles and between the shoulder and obstacles must be solved simultaneously. The Group 2 cases listed in figure 3.5 describe all possible cases when there is at least one obstacle whose origin side top corner is inside the circular arc generated by joint 3 (the trajectory of joint 3).

The determination of the lower bound of the wrist's reachable area and the reachable wrist point is now discussed.

Group 1: There is no obstacle whose origin side top

corner is within the trajectory of joint 3.

In this case, the shoulder will not touch any obstacle. Hence it is not necessary to consider the collision between the shoulder and obstacles. There are three cases which depend on the height of the obstacles and are considered separately.










Is there any obstacle whose left top point
is within the trajectory of joint 3?

Yes Group 2 Group 1 No

Is angle e within the Is there any obstacle higher
angular range of than the maximum height which
joint 2? joint 3 can reach?

Yes Case 2.1 LNo No Case 1.1 Yes

Is there any obstacle higher Is there any obstacle higher than the maximum height which than the minimum height which joint 3 can reach? joint 3 can reach?

No Case 2.2.1 Yes Noi Case 1.2 Yes

Is there an,; Point U lies Points T and Q1 Point U lies obstacle higher inside arc are coincident outside arc than point Q? TQ. TQ.

Yes No Case 1.3.1 Case 1.3.2 Case 1.3.3 Case 2.2.2
is there an,,. obstacle whose right top point isl outside the trajectory of joint 3 and which is
lcwer than point Q?

Case 2.2.3 Yes Case 2.2.4 1 No


Point U lies Points T and Qi Point U lies
inside arc TQ are coincidentl loutside arc T,





� G the minimum angle of joint 2 when the shoulder
does not touch any obstacle.

Point Q; the lowest position of joint 3 when the shoulder
does not touch any obstacle.

Point U: the position of joint 3 when the wrist is located at
the right top point of the principal arm obstacle.

Point T: the intersection of the trajectory of joint 3 and
the line passing through point Q and the riznhz tc
point of the principal arm obstacle.


Figure 3.5 The list of all cases










Case 1.1: At least one obstacle is higher than the

maximum height H which joint 3 can reach.

In figure 3.6, the obstacles A and B are higher than height H. Points P and Q are the positions of the centers of joints 2 and 3 respectively. The shoulder and arm are represented by line segments PQ and QS (Point S denotes the position of the wrist).

In this case, the reference angle of an obstacle higher than H is defined as the angle between the shoulder and horizontal (PI) when the angle 4 of joint 3 is equal to the maximum joint limitation (150 degrees) and when the arm touches the origin side top corner of the obstacle. The principal arm obstacle is defined as the obstacle which satisfies the following two conditions.

1. The obstacle is higher than the height H.

2. The reference angle of the obstacle is greater than

those of other obstacles.

In figure 3.6, the principal arm obstacle is A. Point S denotes the reachable wrist point with the greatest X coordinate. The X and Z coordinates of point S can be derived through the geometric relation between the links and obstacle A.


Pa = [(Z - PO)2 + X 211/2 (3.1)
a a


Pa PQ

sin4 sinct (3.2)














































x xs
Xa XX


Figure 3.6 At least one obstacle is
higher than the max height
H that joint 3 can reach










where Xa and Z a are the coordinates of point a.

Inserting equations 3.1 into 3.2, the value of is obtained. Then the angle e can be calculated by za - PO
e= a- - + tan-----( a
Xa (3.3)


The coordinates of point S are derived by


XS = PQcose + QScos(E + 4) -I) (3.4) ZS = QSsine + QSsin(e + 1 -I) (3.5)


The locus of the lowest reachable points between the lines X = Xa and X = Xs is a sixth degree polynominal (see APPENDIX A), and the time required to compute the roots using a numerical method will cause a noticeable increase in the response time. Because of this, the line segment aS is chosen to be the lower bound of the reachable area between the lines X = Xa and X = X . In figure 3.6, the hatched section denotes the reachable area for the wrist. Hence, when the recommended reachable point is inside this area, it is a real reachable wrist point.

When the recommended reachable point is on the exterior side (the side futhest from the origin) of the line X XS, the real reachable point with the greatest X coordinate, point S, will be selected as the reachable wrist point in this cross section. When the recommended reachable point is located between lines X = Xa and X = XS and










below the line segment aS, the corresponding point on line segment aS and with the same X coordinate as the recommended reachable point will be selected.

A special situation in this case is when there is an obstacle whose origin side top corner is outside the upper outer bound of the cross section of the wrist's reachable space (see obstacle A of figure 2.18). In this case, the reachable area for the wrist will be limited between the Z-axis and the origin side of this obstacle, and the wrist can only move through this reachable area. The lower bound of this reachable area is determined by the obstacles within the area between the Z-axis and the origin side of the obstacle A. A reachable wrist point is determined based on the lower bound of the reachable area. In figure 2.18, the reachable wrist point f is determined by the corresponding point e' which is on the origin side of the obstacle A and with the same Z coordinate as the recommended reachable point e.

Case 1.2: At least one obstacle is higher than the

minimum height which joint 3 can reach.

Figure 3.7 shows an example of this case for which L is the minimum height which joint 3 can reach. The principal arm obstacle A and the reachable point with the greatest X coordinate, S, are determined as in Case 1.1. Point R denotes the position of the wrist when the arm lies horizontally on the top of the highest obstacle A. The














































xb Xe Sx


Figure 3.7 At least one obstacle is
higher than the minimum height that joint 3 can
reach










circular arc generated by joint 3 and the horizontal line through point R intersect in point Q'(XQ,,ZQ,). The X coordinate of point R is thus given by XR = XQ, + Q'R, where Q'R is the length of the arm.

The loci of the lowest reachable points between the lines X = Xb and X = XR and between the lines X = XR and X = XS are a pair of sixth degree polynominals. These are replaced by the line segments bR and RS to reduce the response time.

When the recommended reachable point (for example, point g) is on the exterior side of the line X = XS, point S which has the maximum X coordinate will be selected as the reachable wrist point. When the recommended reachable point (for example, point e) is located between the lines X = Xb and X = XS and lower than the lower bound of the reachable area, the point on the lower bound and with the same X coordinate as the recommended reachable point will be selected as the reachable wrist point.

Case 1.3: All obstacles are lower than the minimum

height L which joint 3 can reach.

In figure 3.8, point Q denotes the lowest position of joint 3. The reference angle @ of an obstacle now is defined as the angle between the horizontal and the line passing through point Q and the exterior top corner of the obstacle. The principal arm obstacle is therefore the obstacle which has the smallest reference angle and this is














































Xb XS XR


Figure 3.8 Point U lies inside arc TQ










clearly the obstacle A. Point U denotes the position of joint 3 when the wrist is located at point b (the exterior top corner of the principal arm obstacle A). Point T denotes one of the two intersections of line Qb and the circular arc generated by joint 3 (the other intersection is point Q). The relative positions among points T, Q and U determine the shape of the lower bound of the reachable area between lines X = Xb and X = X.. There are three subcases which must be considered.

Case 1.3.1: Point U lies inside the arc TO (see figure

3.8).

Here, point S denotes the intersection of line Qb and the lower outer bound of the cross section of the wrist's reachable space or the extreme wrist point when the arm touches the exterior top corner of the principal arm obstacle A. The locus of the lowest reachable wrist points between lines X = Xb and X = XS lies below the line segment bS and for efficient computation is replaced by the line segment bS.

When the X coordinate of the recommended reachable point is greater than XS, it is a real reachable point. When the recommended reachable point is located between lines X = Xb and X = XS and lower than the lower bound bS, the point on line segment bS and with the same X coordinate as the recommended reachable point will be selected as the reachable wrist point.









Case 1.3.2: Points T and Q are coincident (see figure

3.9).
In this case, the locus of lowest reachable points between lines X = Xb and X = XS lies above the line segment bS. Because of this, the locus is replaced by the line segment bR, where R denotes the point of intersection of the lines Ub and X = Xs. The reachable wrist point is determined by appling the algorithm developed in Case 1.3.1.

Case 1.3.3: Point U lies outside the arc TO (see figure 3.10).

Here, point V denotes the position of the wrist when joint 3 is located at position T and when the arm touches the exterior top corner b of the principal arm obstacle A. The locus of the lowest reachable points between lines X = Xb and X = XV lies above the line segment bS while the locus of lowest reachable points between lines X = X and X= XS lies below the line segment bS. Because of this, these loci are replaced respectively by line segments bR and VS as the lower bounds of the reachable area, where R denotes the point of intersection of the lines Ub and X = Xv. The reachable wrist point is determined by appling the algorithm developed in Case 1.3.1.

Group 2: There is at least one obstacle whose origin

side top corner is within the trajectory of

joint 3.













































Xb Xs


Figure 3.9 Points P and Q are coincident



































Xb XV XS


Figure 3.10 Point U lies outside arc TQ










In this case, the reference angle 4 of an obstacle is defined as the angle between the positive X-axis and the line segment passing through joint 2 and the origin side top corner of the obstacle. The principal shoulder obstacle is defined as the obstacle which satisfies the following two conditions.

1. The origin side top corner of the obstacle is

within the circular arc generated by joint 3.

2. The reference angle of the obstacle is greater

than that of other obstacles.

In figure 3.11, the principal shoulder obstacle is A, because + > 9. There are two cases which must be considered separately.

Case 2.1: The reference angle of the principal

shoulder obstacle is less than the minimum

allowable angle of joint 2.

In this case, the shoulder will not collide with any obstacle. This case is analogous to Group 1 and thus the procedures already developed for determining the lower bound of the reachable area and the reachable wrist point are applied.

Case 2.2: The reference angle of the principal

shoulder obstacle is greater than the

minimum allowable angle of joint 2.

Figure 3.11 illustrates an example of this case for which 4 > 30. In this case, the shoulder may touch the





63





























X
za
=150 � _-g
H
p eI




A xS


Xa X





Figure 3.11 At least one obstacle is higher
than the maximum height H that
joint 3 can reach









principal obstacle. There are four subcases which are determined by the height of the obstacles whose exterior top corners are outside of the trajectory of joint 3.

Case 2.2.1: At least one obstacle is higher than the

maximum height H which joint 3 can reach (see figure 3.11).

Point Q is used to denote the position of joint 3 when the shoulder touches the origin side top corner of the principal shoulder obstacle A. Point Q' denotes the position of joint 3 when the arm touches the origin side top corner a of the principal arm obstacle and when the angle of joint 3, I, equals the maximum allowable angle. When the Z coordinate of point 0 is greater than that of point Q', point Q is used to determine the lower bound of the reachable area. Otherwise, point Q is replaced by point Q' to determine the lower bound of the reachable area. This ensures that the shoulder will not collide with the obstacles. In the following cases, the Z coordinate of point Q is assumed to be greater than that of point Q'.

After point Q has been chosen, the reachable point with the greatest X coordinate, S, can be determined by considering the coordinates of points 0 and a. As in Case 1.1, the line segment aS is chosen as the lower bound of the reachable area between lines X = Xa and X =

When the X coordinate of the recommended reachable point (for example, point g) is less than that of point S,










point S is selected as the real reachable wrist point. When the recommended reachable point (for example, point e) is located between lines X = Xa and X = XS and below the line segment aS, the point f on line segment aS and with the same X coordinate as point e is selected.

Case 2.2.2: At least one obstacle is higher than the height of point Q (see figure 3.12). In this case, the reachable wrist point with greatest X coordinate S is determined as Case 2.2.1. Point R denotes the position of the wrist when the arm lies horizontally on the highest obstacle B. The procedures for determining the X coordinate of point R and the reachable wrist point are the same as those developed in Case 1.2.

Case 2.2.3: All obstacles whose exterior top corners are outside the trajectory of joint 3 are lower than the height of point Q. (see figure 3.13)

Point V denotes the reachable wrist point with the greatest X coordinate. The X coordinate of point V eouals XQ + QV, where QV is the length of the arm. Point S denotes the wrist position when the arm touches the exterior top corner of the principal arm obstacle. The locus of the lowest reachable points between points b and S is an order six polynomial which has been discussed in Case 1.3.

When the X coordinate of the recommended reachable point is greater than XV, point V is selected as the

















































X0 x
S





Figure 3.12 At least one obstacle is higher
than the height of point Q






67




















Z






A B












x






Figure 3.13 No obstacle is higher than
the height of point Q









reachable wrist point. When the recommended reachable point is located between lines X = XS and XV and below line segment SV, the reachable point on line segment SV and with the same X coordinate as the recommended point is selected. When the recommended reachable point is located between lines X = Xb and X = XS, the reachable wrist point is determined by appling the algorithm developed in Case 1.3.

Case 2.2.4: There is no obstacle whose exterior top

corner is outside the trajectory of joint

3 (see figure 3.14).

In this case, the lower bound of the reachable area is the arc whose center is point Q and whose radius equals the length of the arm. The wrist point with the greatest X coordinate, V, is determined using the algorithm developed in Case 2.2.3. When the X coordinate of the recommended reachable point is greater than XV, point V is selected as the reachable wrist point. When the recommended reachable point is located between lines X = Xv and X = 0 and lower than the lower bound arc of the reachable area, the intersection f of line X = X and the lower bound arc is
e
selected as the reachable wrist point.



3.4 Modification of the Path

Employing the above analysis, the reachable wrist point on each of the cross sections can be determined. It will now be proved that the line segment joining any pair oE













































X XV
e


Figure 3.14 There is no obstacle whose
.exterior top corner is outside
the trajectory of joint 3









consecutive reachable points is collision-free and hence the path that follows the sequence of line segments between successive points is a collision-free oath for the wrist. There are two cases which must be considered. The first is a line segment which joins a pair of consecutive reachable points with the shoulder in contact with an obstacle. The second is a line segment joining a pair of consecutive reachable points with the arm in contact with an obstacle.

1. The shoulder in contact with an obstacle.

In figure 3.15, the circular arc C is the locus of the wrist's position when the shoulder touches an arbitrary obstacle A at origin side top corner a. The upper and lower bound of arc C, u and v respectively, are determined by the joint limit. Clearly, when the wrist is located inside the shaded area, the shoulder cannot touch the obstacle A.

In figure 3.16.1, points S and T are used to denote the positions of the wrist when the shoulder touches an arbitrary obstacle A at points a and b respectively. Points U and V indicate the corresponding positions of joint 3. When the wrist moves rectilinearly from S to T, the joint 3 will follow the curve UV. This curve is an arc on the sphere whose center is point P (the center of joint 2) and whose radius equals the length of the shoulder. Figure 3.16.2 illustrates the projection of the arc on the X-Y plane. Clearly this orojection is always a concave toward the origin 0 and thus the surface generated by the loci of









































'Arc C

x







Figure 3.15 The lower bound of the
reachable wrist area
































Figure 3.16.1 The locus of joint 3


Figure 3.16.2 The projection of figure
3.16.1 on the X-Y plane










the wrist between two adjoining cross sections (for example, the planes PUS and PVT) is a portion of an torus and concave upwards as illustrated by figure 3.17. Further, all the points on any line segment joining any pair of points T and S on the surface must lie above the surface. It follows that the shoulder cannot touch obstacle A during the rectilinear motion of the wrist from position S to T.

2. The arm in contact with an obstacle.

There are three cases which are depended on the height of the obstacle. Each of the cases is discussed separately.

Case 1: The height of the obstacle is lower than the

minimum height that the joint 3 can reach.

In figure 3.18, points S and T denote the lowest positions of the wrist when the arm touches an arbitrary obstacle A at the top corners a and b respectively. Points U and V denote the positions of the center of joint 3. Line segments aS and bT are thus the lower bounds of the wrist's reachable area in the cross sections RUS and RVT respectively. When the wrist moves from position S to T and along the path generated by the lowest reachable points, the locus UV generated by the center of joint 3 is an arc on the horizontal circle C whose center is point 0 and whose radius equals Lcose (see figure 3.19, G = 30 degrees).

In figure 3.18, the line segment ef is tangent to the circle C and parallel to the line segment ab and plane P passes through the parallel line segments ab and ef.











































Figure 3.17 The surface generated by
the lower bounds of the
reachable wrist area




























Figure 3.18 The relation between the locus of
joint 3 and side ab of the obstacle A


d: the distance from V to line ef


Figure 3.19 The relation between plane P
and points V and T









Clearly, the distance from point T (S) to plane P is proportional to the distance from point V (U) to line ef (see figure 3.19). Figure 3.20 shows three possible relative positions between the circular arc UV and the tangent ef. In each case, a surface which is generated by the lower bounds of the wrist's reachable area is always concave toward the positive Z-axis. Therefore, the line segment connecting any point Q on line segment aS and any point R on line segment bT is above the surface, and the arm will not touch side ab during rectilinear motion of the wrist from position Q to R.

Case 2: The height of the obstacle is between the

maximum and minimum heights that the joint

3 can reach.

In this case, the lower bound of the wrist's reachable area is a horizontal line segment at the same height as the obstacle (for example, the lower bound bR of figure 3.7). Therefore, the surface determined by the lower bounds between two sequential cross sections is horizontal, and the wrist can move rectilinearly between two consecutive reachable points without any collision.

Case 3: The height of the obstacle is higher than the

maximum height that the joint 3 can reach.

In figure 3.21, points S and T denote the positions of the wrist when the arm touches the obstacle A at top corners a and b respectively. When the wrist moves from position S













z


Z a Q




T


U
e
fvF


Figure 3.20 The three surfaces generated by
the lower bound of the reachable
wrist area when arc UV in different
positions


U


V fe























S
a T






A
R














Figure 3.21 The obstacle A is higher than
the maximum height that joint
3 can reach










to T and along the extreme path, the surface generated by the lower bounds of the reachable area is convex towards the positive Z-axis. Hence, the wrist cannot move rectilinearly between two consecutive reachable points without any collision. However, the point a is closer to the Z-axis than any other point on line segment ab. The plane determined by the lower bound aS and line segment ab is above the surface generated by the lower bounds of each of the cross sections. Therefore, if the reachable wrist point T is moved upwards on this plane, the wrist can move rectilinearly between the two consecutive reachable points S and T without any collision.

Finally, consider a pair of sequential reachable wrist points a and b and one of them (in this example, a) is lower than the obstacle while the remaining wrist point, b, is above the obstacle (see figure 3.22). Clearly, the wrist point may collide with the obstacle when moving along the line segment ab. This type of collision can be avoided by moving the lowet point a vertically to point a' onto the horizontal plane through the top of the obstacle.

In general, the path which sequentially connects all the reachable wrist points is not a smooth one. Figure 3.23 shows the ordinates, a,b,...,r, of the path at cross sections 1,2,...,18 for the example shown in figure 2.16. It is desirable to shorten and smooth this path. From the figure, it can be seen that the path segment mp is
















































Figure 3.22 Path segment ab intersects with
the obstacle


















m


cj


1 2 3 8 14 17 18


The initial path The first modified path The second modified path The third modified path


Figure 3.23 The initial and modified paths









horizontal. Hence it passes over the top of some obstacle and the ordinates 1 and q are thus moved to the positions 1' and q' to avoid collision. Furthermore, when the slope of a line segment is greater than that of the previous line segment (for example, slope i-j > h-i), the path chosen is simply a line segment joining points h and j.

The reachable end effector points can be determined from the reachable wrist points by considering the lenQth and orientation of the end effector. Because the end effector may intersect with some obstacle, it is necessary to check for possible intersections. This is easily accomplished by projecting the obstacle on the X-Y plane. Figure 3.24 illustrates the projection of an obstacle in the X-Y plane. The vertices of which are labeled a, b, c, d and e. Consider that point P is the projection of either end points of the end effector (each must be tested seperately). Clearly, for this case, the summation of the angles aPb, bPc, etc, taken in order is 21L radian. There will be collision if the Z coordinate of P is less than the height of the obstacle. Hence collision is avoided by raising the end effector above the obstacle. When point Q is the projection of either end points of the end effector, the summation of the angles aQb, bQc, etc., taken in order is zero and there will be no collision.

Using the above procedure, the trajectory which starts from the initial position, and sequentially connects all the





83













C






d




ea



Q







Figure 3.24 The relation between an obstacle
and the end point of the end
effector





84



reachable end effector points, and which ends at the goal position can be modified into a smooth collision-free path.















CHAPTER IV

APPLICATION TO OTHER TYPE ROBOTS




Currently, most industrial robots operate with four types of coordinate frames: the articulated type, the polar type, the cylindrical type and the Cartesian type. The algorithm developed in the previous chapters provides an efficient way to determine a collision-free path for the articulated type robot. This chapter discusses the application of this algorithm to other type robots.



4.1 The Polar Type Robot

The main difference between the articulated and polar type robots is that the third joint of the polar type robot is prismatic (see figure 4.1). The prismatic joint always has two parts, a shoulder of fixed length and an extendable arm. Both have the same orientation. The procedures for determining a collision-free path for this type robot are similar to those already developed for the articulated type robot.

1. In figure 4.2, the polygon labeled a, b, c and d in a counterclockwise sense is the projection of an arbitrary object A on the X-Y plane. The arc C with center 0 is the






























The articulated type robot








The extendable arm


Figure 4.1


The polar type robot The articulated type and polar type robots









































The original The expanded
Ob x ba < 0, Oc x cb < 0, Od x dc > 0, Oa x ad > 0, N and M have


object a-b-c-d object e-f-b-g-h-i side ab unreachable side bc unreachable side cd reachable side da reachable been defined in Chapter II


Figure 4.2 The expansion of an obstacle










intersection of the plane through the top of the object A with the surface generated by the extreme point of the shoulder. When Ob x ba < 0, the shoulder or arm will touch point a first and hence cannot touch any other points on the line segment ab. However, when Ob x ba > 0, the shoulder or arm can touch all points on the line segment ab. There are three cases which must be considered when the vertices of objects are expanded.

a. When a pair of sequential sides of an object are both not reachable by the shoulder and arm, the vertex of intersection is chosen as the vertex of the expanded object. In figure 4.2, the shoulder and arm cannot reach sides ab and bc and the vertex b is chosen as a vertex of the expanded object.

b. When one of the two sequential sides is reachable (for example, side cd is reachable while side bc is not reachable), the new vertex (point g) corresponding to the reachable side can be determined using the algorith-m developed in Chapter II.

c. When both of the sequential sides are reachable (for example, sides cd and da), the two new vertices (points h and j) are again determined using the algorithm developed in Chapter II.

After all the new vertices have been found, they are shifted vertically by half the thickness of the shoulder when the shoulder can touch the top of the original object;









otherwise, they are shifted vertically half the thickness of the arm. Following this, the shoulder and arm can be considered together as an extendable line segment (which will be called the link) and the safe angular range for joint 2 can be derived as described in Chapter II.

2. An Archimedes's spiral is determined by the initial and goal positions of the wrist. The projection of this spiral on the X-Y plane and the origin of the fixed coordinate system determine a fan-shaped area. The positions of all objects are checked against this fan-shaped area to identify the real obstacles. Only those objects which are inside or intersect with this fan-shaped area are considered to be obstacles.

3. Each vertex of the top surfaces of the obstacles and the Z-axis determine a vertical plane. These planes cut through the obstacles and wrist's workspace, and thus generate the cross sections of the obstacles and wrist's workspace. These cross sections are then transformed through rotational transformations onto the X-Z plane.

4. On each transformed cross section of the wrist's workspace, the principal obstacle is defined as the obstacle first touched by the link when it is rotated downwards from its highest position. There are three cases to determine the reachable wrist point.

Case 1: There is no obstacle higher than the height of

joint 2 (see figure 4.3).





























Xa Xe XS


Figure 4.3 No obstacle is higher
the height of joint 2


z


x



than


xa xS


Figure 4.4 The obstacle is
height as joint


at the same
2


Joint 2


Joint 2









In this case, the angle of declination for an obstacle is defined as the angle between the horizontal and the line passing through joint 2 and the exterior top corner (the top corner furthest from the origin) of the obstacle. The principal obstacle is defined as the obstacle which has the smallest angle of declination. In figure 4.3, the principal obstacle is A. Line segment aS is the lower bound of the reachable area between lines X = Xa and X = XS. In figure 4.4, the principal obstacle B is at the same height as joint 2 and the angle of declination is zero.

When the recommended reachable point e is located between lines X = Xa and X = XS and lower than the line segment aS, the point f on the line segment aS and with the same X coordinate as point e is selected as the reachable wrist point. Obviously, when point e is higher than the line segment aS, then it is a real reachable point.

Case 2: The highest obstacle is higher than the height

of joint 2 and lower than the upper bound of

the reachable area (see figure 4.5).

In this case, the angle of inclination for an obstacle is defined as the angle between the horizontal and the line passing through joint 2 and the origin side top corner of the obstacle. The principal obstacle is defined as the obstacle which has the greatest angle of inclination. In figure 4.5, the principal obstacle is B. Point S is the extreme position of the wrist when the link touches with the




























Xa XS


Figure 4.5 The obstacle B is higher than
the height of joint 2 and lower
than the upper bound

z






A/









x


Figure 4.6 The obstacle B is higher than
the upper bound









origin side top corner a of the principal obstacle. The line segment aS is the lower bound of the reachable area between lines X = Xa and X = XS.

When the X coordinate of the recommended reachable point (for example, point d) is greater than that of point S, point S is selected as the reachable wrist point. When the recommended reachable point (for example, point e) is located between lines X = Xa and X = Xe, the reachable wrist point (point f) is determined as in the previous case.

Case 3: There is one obstacle whose origin side top

corner is higher than the upper bound of the

reachable area (see figure 4.6)

In this case, the reachable wrist point (point f) can be determined by the corresponding point (point el) which is on the origin side of the obstacle and has the same Z coordinate as the recommended reachable point (point e).

5. The reachable end effector points are determined from the corresponding reachable wrist points by considering the length and orientation of the end effector. When the end effector intersects with some obstacle, the reachable end effector point must be shifted up higher than this obstacle to avoid collision.

6. After the reachable end effector points have been found, the path sequentially connecting all those reachable points is modified to be a smooth collision-free path.









4.2 The Cylindrical Type Robot

The second joint of the cylindrical type robot is prismatic and this is the essential difference with the polar type robot (see figures 4.1 and 4.7). This prismatic joint restricts the shoulder and arm to move vertically and horizontally. The procedures for determining a collision-free path are similar to those developed for the polar type robot.

1. Here the expansion of objects is relatively simple. Because the shoulder and arm are only capable of vertical and horizontal sliding motions, the reachable sides of any object are simply expanded by one half of the shoulder width or arm width depending upon which touches the obstacle. Figure 4.8 shows a top view picture of an arbitrary object A shifted out by half the shoulder width together with the projections of the cross sections of the shoulder in different positions. Clearly, those cross sections cannot touch the object.

2. The method of expanding an object for the polar type robot can be applied to this type robot by replacing M and N (see Figure 4.2), which have been defined in Chapter II, by half the widths of the shoulder and arm respectively. The procedures to determine an Archimedes's spiral and identify the obstacles are also the same as those applied to the polar type robot.

3. In each cross section of the wrist reachable space, the principal obstacle is defined as the obstacle lower than

































Figure 4.7 The cylindrical type robot



















The projection of the cross section of the shoulder.



Figure 4.8 The shape of obstacle A
betore and after expansion




Full Text

PAGE 1

PAPID GENEPJ^TION OF COLLISION-FREE PATHS FOR ROBOT MANIPULATORS WITH COMPUTER GRAPHICS ANIMATION BY CHING-SHIOW TSENG A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1987

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my sincere gratitude to my advisor Dr. Joseph Duffy for his guidance and support of this work. Special thanks are extended to Dr. George M. Sandor and Dr. John Staudhammer for their continuous instruction. I am grateful to Dr. Ali Seireg, Dr. Gary Matthew and Dr. David Wilson for their useful courses and participation in my advisory committee. I also thank all colleagues in CIMAR for sharing their knowledge and pleasure. Finally, I wish to thank my family and fiancee, Cathy, for their encouragement and understanding. This work is supported by US ARMY Belvoir Research & Development Center, Contract No. DAAK70-85-K-0030 11

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii LIST OF TABLES iii ABSTRACT iv CHAPTERS I INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE SURVEY 1 II EXPANSION AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE OBSTACLES . . 10 2.1 Expansion of the Objects 11 2.2 The Safe Angular Range of Joints 2 and 3 . . 25 2.3 Eguation for an Archimedes Spiral 28 2.4 Identification of the Obstacles 31 III DETERMINATION OF REACHABLE POINTS TO FORM A COLLISION-FREE PATH 39 3.1 The Quicksort Algorithm 39 3.2 Obstacle Cross Sections 41 3.3 The Low Bound of the Reachable Area 43 3.4 Modification of the Path 68 IV APPLICATION TO OTHER TYPE ROBOTS 8 5 4.1 The Polar Type Robot 8 5 4.2 The Cylindrical Type Robot 94 4.3 The Cartesian Type Robot 98 • V COMPUTER GRAPHICS SIMULATION OF THE ROBOT MOTION . 101 5.1 Introduction to the IRIS 2400 Workstation . . 101 5.2 Graphics Technigues 102 5.3 Pictures Generation of the T3-776 Robot . . . 105 5.4 Motion Simulation of the T3-776 Robot .... 110 VI CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 119 APPENDIX 121 REFERENCES 124 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 128 iii

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy RAPID GENERATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS ANIMATION OF COLLISION-FREE PATHS FOR ROBOT MANIPULATORS BY CHING-SHIOW TSENG DECEMBER 1987 Chairman: Dr. Joseph Duffy Major Department: Mechanical Engineering It is expected that in the near future robot manipulators will have the autonomous ability to avoid collisions with surrounding objects. The reason for this expectation is that robots will one day be able to operate effectively in an obstacle strewn environment such as a house, an office, a factory, etc. In this dissertation, an efficient trajectory planning system is developed which rapidly provides a manipulator with a collision-free path. It is assumed that the surrounding polyhedral objects have vertical sides and flat top surfaces, and their positions and dimensions are known. The system which has been developed expands the size of the objects so that the links of the manipulator may be treated as straight line segments with no thickness. An Archimedes's spiral is used to determine a col 1 is ionfree path as opposed to a straight iv

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line path which may pass through the void of the wrist's workspace. The objects outside the swept volume of the manipulator during the motion from the initial position to the goal position can be excluded from consideration. Each vertex of the top surfaces of the remaining objects (or obstacles) and the vertical Z-axis of the fixed coordinate system determine a vertical plane. These planes generate cross sections of the obstacles and wrist's workspace. In each cross section of the wrist's workspace, the lower bound of the reachable area for the wrist is determined and a reachable wrist point can be found. These reachable wrist points are used to determine the reachable end effector points. Finally, the path which seguentially connects the initial position, the reachable end effector points, and the goal position is modified in order to produce a smooth and efficient collision-free path. The algorithm developed here is applied to the . . 3 Cincinnati Milacron T -776 robot in a tightly cluttered environfhent and is demonstrated via computer graphics animation. It is important to recognize that this algorithm can be applied incorporating minor modifications to the polar type, cylindrical type and Cartesian type robots. V

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Interest in robotics has grown explosively in recent years. As robots have begun to proliferate in industry, so have the demands on the level of sophistication of their performance. These demands include greater ease of use and broader reguirements on abilities. However, several technical problem areas such as mobility, sensing and control reguire more improvement and fundamental research. Currently, a user need input the data of detail steps into the controller to operate a robot. If a robot has the ability to operate autonomously without colliding with the surrounding objects, then it may accept simple instructions such as "move object A from position P to Q." This leads to the interesting research of developing an algorithm to detect collisions between a manipulator and objects in the workspace and plan a collision-free path for the manipulator . Since Udupa [1] first presented the problem of collision detection and avoidance of manipulators, numerous research has been performed to develop effective algorithms to perform motion planning. The current algorithmic interest in motion planning is usually traced to the work of 1

PAGE 7

2 Lozano-Perez [2] . The idea was to hypothesize a simple path from an initial position to the target position, test the path for potential collisions, and then propose a new path. This procedure was repeated until no collisions are detected along the proposed path. Clearly, it is time-consuming to generate paths and detect collisions in this way. More recent and continuing work along such lines was reported by Lozano-Perez [3-4] and Brooks [5-6]. TheS' e algorithm were extended to study several connected objects i.e. a kinematic chain. They were subsequently applied to the obstacle avoidance problem of Cartesian type manipulators, and to the determination of a collision-free path for a Unimation 560 (known as PUMA) manipulator performing four-degree-of-f reedom pick and place operations. In recent years, artificial intelligence and optimization techniques were also employed to complement the search of collision-free paths. The work of Myers [7-8] , Kuntze and Schill [9], Faverjon [10], Gouzenes [11-12], Wang and Fu [13] and Dupont and Derby [14] applied heuristic searching methods to plan collision-free paths. Such search techniques tend to be time consuming. Most researchers divided the free space into numerous grids or cubes of distinct size and generated a tree structure to search for an optimal path. Hollerbach and Suh [15] and Maciejewski and Klein [16] presented methods of minimizing joint torques and maximizing

PAGE 8

3 the distance to obstacles respectively. Further work on minimizing motion time or joint displacement increments is reported by Dubowsky and his associates [17-19] , Fenton et al [20], Seeger and Paul [21], Luh and Lin [22], Rajan [23] and Sahar and Hollerbach [24] . Recently, novel interesting algorithms have been developed by Lumelsky for the path planning of two-degree-of-f reedom planar manipulators [25-28] and Cartesian type manipulators [29] . Young and Duffy [30-31] introduced a theory of the articulation of planar robots to plan motion for interference avoidance. This theory will be extended and applied to spatial robot manipulators. These algorithms are based on the geometry of manipulators as opposed to applying heuristic methods. In recent years, computer graphics has been applied to many fields to reduce development time and cost, and help to visualize various design. Even complicated wire frame and solid modeling pictures can be generated in a micro computer. This can be seen from the work of Derby [32] which runs on an IBM PC/AT and simulates robotic workcells. However, a workstation specially designed for generating graphics is more efficient and can display more realistic pictures . Obviously, the characteristics of computer graphics are very useful and effective in studying off-line robot programming such as interactive animated display of robot

PAGE 9

4 motion (Crane and Duffy [33-34]), robot kinematics and dynamics analysis, and modeling swept volumes for collision detection (Leu [35], Anderson [36] and Mahajar [37]). In this dissertation, geometric methods are used to develop an algorithm to determine collision-free paths for robot manipulators operating in an obstacle-strewn environment (see figure 1.1). After specification of the initial and goal positions and corresponding orientations of the end effector, a collision-free path that safely maneuvers the manipulator to the goal position will be generated . It is assumed for the analysis that the surrounding polyhedral objects are composed of vertical sides and flat top surfaces, and their locations, sizes and shapes are known. The algorithm first computes an Archimedes's spiral, determined by the initial and goal positions of the wrist, as opposed to a straight line path which may pass through the void of the workspace. The polyhedral objects are then expanded so that the links of the manipulator may be treated as straight line segments. The position of each of the expanded objects is checked against the fan-shaped area determined by the origin of the fixed coordinate system and the projection of the Archimedes's spiral on the X-Y plane. Only those objects which lie inside or intersect with this fan-shaped area are considered to be obstacles. The other obiects can be excluded from further consideration.

PAGE 10

5 Figure 1.1 The robot and surrounding objects

PAGE 11

6 Each vertex of the top surfaces of the obstacles and the vertical Z-axis (parallel to the axis of joint 1) of the fixed coordinate system determine a vertical plane (see figure 1.2). This plane cuts through some obstacles and the reachable space of the wrist and thus generates cross sections of the obstacles and wrist's reachable space. The cross sections of the reachable space and obstacles are mapped through rotational transformations onto the X-Z plane. On each of these transformed cross sections, the lowest valid position for the second link (or the lowest position for joint 3) can be determined. Using this position, the lower bound of the wrist's reachable area can be found. The recommended reachable point is defined as the intersection of the Archimedes's spiral and the cross section of the wrist's workspace. This recommended point is used to find the real reachable wrist point which is then inversely transformed to obtain its true coordinates. These reachable wrist points are used to determine the reachable end effector points by considering the length and orientation of the end effector. Finally, the path which sequentially connects the initial position, the reachable end effector points and the goal position is modified to produce a smooth collision-free path. The algorithm developed is applied here in detail to the Cincinnati Milacron T^-776 robot in an obstacle-strewn

PAGE 12

7 Z Figure 1.2 The T -776 robot

PAGE 13

8 environment (see figure 1.1). The response time for the algorithm to generate a collision-free path is less than two seconds on a VAX-750 computer. This algorithm can also be applied to the polar type, the cylindrical type and the Cartesian type robots. In Chapter II, the method for expanding obiects is described and the eguation of the Archimedes's spiral is derived. Each of the expanded objects is identified to be an obstacle or a non-obstacle which is discussed in detail. The limited angular ranges of joints 2 and 3 reguired for the shoulder and arm to avoid collision with the obstacles are also determined. Chapter III describes the procedures of finding the reachable end effector points. First, the sequence of the cross sections of the wrist's workspace are sorted by using the quicksort algorithm. Then, the cross sections of the obstacles are determined and sorted. The problem of finding the lower bound of the reachable area for the wrist and the reachable wrist point is separated into several cases which depend on the positions and sizes of the cross sections of the obstacles. Each of these cases is discussed separately. The reachable end effector points are determined based on the reachable wrist points and the orientation of the end effector. A detailed discussion of this determination is presented. The safety of the shoulder and arm during the rectilinear motion of the manipulator between two sequential

PAGE 14

9 reachable points is also proved. Finally, a simple method to modify the path sequentially connecting all reachable points is described. The algorithm developed in Chapters II and III is applied to the articulated type robots. It can be easily extended to other types of robots, too. In Chapter IV, the application of the algorithm to the polar type, the cylindrical type and the Cartesian type robots is presented. The vast majority of industrial robots belong to these four types and hence the algorithm has a wide application. In Chapter V, a general description of computer graphics animation techniques is presented as it applies to 3 the T -776 robot. The continuous motion of the robot operating in a tightly cluttered environment is demonstrated step by step by pictures obtained from a SILICON GRAPHICS IRIS 2400 workstation. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for future study are discussed in Chapter VI.

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CHAPTER II EXPANSION AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE OBSTACLES As previously stated, the dimensions of the polyhedral objects and their positions relative to the fixed coordinate system of the robot are assumed to be known. Since the calculations required to identify collisions between a solid link and objects in the workspace are so complex, it is advantageous to consider the links initially as line segments or vectors of no volume. In order to accomplish this, a common technique will be used in which all objects are expanded to compensate for the thickness and width of the links. This differs in some respects from the method due to Perez and in this chapter details are given. Following this, an algorithm is developed to identify the obstacles which can cause interference for a move from an initial to a target positions. All other objects can then be disregarded from the analysis. In order to develop this algorithm, it is necessary to plan the move. There a series of Archimedes's spirals is used to move between a succession of reachable points beginning with the initial point and concluding with the target point. 10

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11 2 . 1 Expansion of Objects In figure 2.1, the Cincinnati Milacron T^-776 robot is shown together with a cross section of an expanded object. The cross sections of the shoulder (link 2) and arm (link 3) are shown in figures 2.1.1 and 2.1.2 respectively. Before discussing how to expand an object, additional definitions must be made. 1. Point P is the intersection of cross section A-A of the shoulder and shoulder axis which connects the centers of joints 2 and 3 (see figures 2.1 and 2 . 1 . 1 ). 2. M is the distance from point P to each of the bottom corners of cross section A-A (see figure 2 . 1 . 1 ) . 3. Point Q is the intersection of cross section R-B of the arm and arm axis which connects the centers of joint 3 and the wrist (see figures 2.1 and 2.1.2). 4. N is the distance from point 0 to each of the bottom corners of cross section B-B (see figure 2 . 1 . 2 ) . 5. V is the distance from point 0 to the bottom side of the arm (see figure 2.1.2). In figure 2.2, the sides of an arbitrary object 01 (02) are expanded by the distance M (M). Rectangle D (E) has the same size as the cross section A-A (B-B) and point r (s) corresponds to point P (Q). When point r (s) is on one of

PAGE 17

12 Figure 2.1 3 The T -776 robot with a cross section of an obstacle A-A cross section B-B cross section Figure 2.1.1 Figure 2.1.2

PAGE 18

13 Figure 2.2 Rectangle D (E) cannot touch the obstacle 01 (02)

PAGE 19

14 the edges of or outside the expanded object 01 (02), the rectangle D (E) will not collide with object 01 (02). Broadly speaking, it follows that any portion of the sides of an object that the shoulder can reach is expanded by the distance M; otherwise, it is expanded by the distance N. Specifically, six distinct types of interference between the shoulder and an object must be considered. It is sufficient to consider interference with a polyhedron with four sides and to examine the interference of the shoulder with pairs of adjacent sides in turn. This yields four distinct cases and the fifth and sixth cases occur when there is interference with a single side only. The first four cases are illustrated by figures 2. 3-2. 6 which show the top of the four-sided polyhedron. The first vertical axis (the axis of joint 1) of the robot is out of the paper and passes through point O. This is taken as the positive Z direction. The circular arc C with center 0 is the intersection of the plane through the top of the polyhedron with the reachable surface (a spherical shell) generated by the center of joint 3. In order to facilitate the development of an algorithm, three of the four vertices are tabled a, b and c and they are indexed seguentially in a counterclockwise sense. The details of the determination of new corners for an object are now described.

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15 Case 1; Point a is outside arc C, and point b is within arc C (see figures 2.3 and 2.4). There are two subcases which are considered separately. 1. When Ob X ba < 0 (parallel to the negative Z-direction) , the shoulder will touch point b first and hence cannot touch any other points on the line segment ab (see figure 2.3). Both the sides ab and be are shifted out a distance M to de and ef. The meet of the lines de and ef e is joined to the vertex b and the point i is determined by choosing bi = M. The intersections g and h of the line segments de and ef with the line through i and perpendicular to bi are then determined. The corners of the expanded object corresponding to the corner b are now defined by the points g and h. 2. When Ob x ba 0 , the shoulder can touch all points on the line segment ab (see figure 2.4). The procedure for expanding the object is the same as above except that in addition the intersection k of arc C with the side ab is determined. Following this, the intersection j of the line through k and tangent to arc C with the line de is also determined and the corners of the expanded object corresponding to the corner b are defined seguentially by the points j, g and h. The determination of the coordinates of points g and h are now discussed in detail.

PAGE 21

16 Figure 2.3 Ob x ba < 0 a Figure 2.4 Ob x ba > 0

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17 Assume that the line equations of lines ab and be are pX + qY = r uX + vY = w (2.1) where the constants p, q, r, u, v and w are determined by the coordinates of points a, b and c. When the directions of the cross products Oa x ab and Ob X be point to the positive Z-axis, the equations of the lines de and ef are given by pX + qY = r + M / (p^ + uX + vY = w + M / (u^ + (2.2) Otherwise, the equations of lines de and ef are pX + qY = r M / (p^ + q^)^^^ uX + vY = w M / (u^ + v^)^/^ (2.3) where M has been defined above. Solving either of the pairs of the simultaneous equations, the coordinates of the intersection e are determined and the line be can be expressed in the form IX + mY = n (2.4) The coordinates of point i are calculated and given by Xj = Xb + (X^ Xb)R = \ + (Xe Y. 1 (2.5)

PAGE 23

18 where R = M / ((X x, ) ^ + (Y Y, and e D e D (Xj^,Yj^) and (X^, Y^) are respectively the coordinates of points b and e. The equation of line L, which passes through point i and is perpendicular to line be, can be expressed in the form rax lY = mX. lY. (2.6) The coordinates of point g (h) are found by solving equations (2.6) and (2.2) ((2.6) and (2.3)). Case 2: Point a is within arc C, and point b is outside arc C (see figures 2.5 and 2.6). Here the shoulder cannot reach point b. The sides ab and be are shifted out a distance N to line segments de and ef. Then, the procedures to determine the new corners g and h are the same as in Case 1. When Ob x ba < 0 (see figure 2.5), the corners of the expanded object are thus defined by points g and h. However, when Ob x ba > 0 (see figure 2.6), the shoulder will reach side ab and an extra corner j must be determined. This new corner is determined by the intersection of line de with the line which is tangent to arc C and passes through the intersection k of line ab and arc C. The corners of the expanded object are defined by a sequence of points j, g and h. Case 3: Points a and b are both within arc C. (see figure 2.7)

PAGE 24

19 f Figure 2.5 Ob x ba < 0 Figure 2.6 Ob x ba > 0

PAGE 25

20 Figure 2.7 Points a and b are both within the arc C Figure 2.8 Side ab does not intersect with the arc C

PAGE 26

21 In this case, sides ab and be are shifted out a distance M to line segments de and ef. The new corner points g and h are determined as in Case 1. The corners of the expanded object are defined by the points g and h. Case 4: Points a and b are both outside arc C and side ab does not intersect with arc C (see figure 2 . 8 ) . It is necessary to check at the outset to determine whether side ab intersects with arc C. In figure 2.8, point p is the intersection of line ab and the normal to the line which passes through point 0. When point p is not located between points a and b, or when the distance Op is greater than the radius of arc C, the side ab will not intersect with arc C. In this case, the shoulder will not touch side be. Both the sides ab and be are shifted out a distance N to the line segments de and ef. New corners g and h are then found as in Case 1. The corners of the expanded object are now defined by the points g and h. Case 5; Points a and b are both outside arc C. Side ab intersects arc C. Points 0 and c lie on opposite sides of line segment ab (see figure 2.9) . In this case, the shoulder can touch part of the side ab but excluding point b. Both the sides ab and be are shifted out a distance N to the line segments de and ef.

PAGE 27

22 Figure 2.9 Points 0 and c lie on opposite sides of line segment ab Figure 2.10 Points 0 and c are on the same side of line segment ab

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23 Corners g and h are then determined as in Case 1. In figure 2.9, points k and r indicate the two intersections of line segment ab and arc C. The shoulder can reach the line segment kr. Therefore, line segment kr is shifted out a distance M to the line segment js. The corners of the expanded object are now defined sequentially by the points j , s , g and h . Case 6: Points a and b are both outside arc C. Side ab intersects arc C. Point 0 and c are on the same side of line segment ab (see figure 2 . 10 ). In this case, the shoulder will not touch side ab. Therefore, the sides ab and be are shifted out a distance N to the line segments de and ef. Corners g and h are then determined as in Case 1. The corners of the expanded object are now defined by the points g and h. The technique described above is applied to expand the sides of each of the objects. Finally, after all the new vertices of each object have been determined, the heights of these vertices are shifted vertically a distance V (see figure 2.1.2) in order to avoid collision when the arm lies horizontally over the top of the object. These new vertices determine the shape and size of the new expanded object. Figure 2.11 illustrates the shape of an object before and after expansion.

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24 Figure 2.11 The shape of an object before and after expansion

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25 2 . 2 The Safe Angular Range of Joints 2 and 3 The expansion technique described in the previous section simplifies the collision avoidance problem between an object and a solid robot manipulator with links of rectangular cross sections by expanding the object and by reducing the links to line segments with zero cross section. When a line segment does not touch the expanded object, the corresponding solid link will not touch the original object. However, the shoulder and arm of the articulated robots are always inclined. The sections of the shoulder and arm cut by the horizontal plane at the same height as the object are somewhat larger than their cross sections (see figure 2.1, P'R > PR and O'S > QS). Because all objects have been expanded based on the size of the two cross sections for interference avoidance, the safe angular ranges of joints 2 and 3 may be less than the joint limitation. This is evident by considering figure 2.1 where 9 and (j) denote the angles of the shoulder and arm axes measured relative to the horizontal. When the distance, P'R PR VcotG and O'S QS >_ Vcotcf), the shoulder and arm will collide respectively with the object. It follows that the safe angular ranges of joints 2 (9) and 3 (4>) need to be derived. Case 1: The safe angular range of joint 2. From above discussion, the clearance obtained from the expansion of the height of the object should be greater than the distance of P'R PR, see figure 2.12, and therefore

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26 Figure 2.12 P'R-PR < Vcote Figure 2.13 P'R-PR > VcotG

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27 Vcot9 P' R PR (2.7) Substituting P'R = PR/sin© in equation (2.7) and simplifying the equation yields Vcos© + PRsin© PR (2.8) which can be expressed in the form Lsin(0+(f)) >_ PR (2.9) where L = (V^ + PR^)^/^, cj) = sin"^(V/L) (2.10) Solving equation (2.9) for 9 gives 9 = sin~^(PR/L) sin"^(V/L) (2.11) -3 The values of V and PR for the T -776 robot are 12.1 and 4.2 inches respectively. Therefore, the minimum value for 9 is 42.04 degrees. When 9 < 42.04, the shoulder must be rotated upwards through an angle 0 £ iji £ 180 in order to avoid collision (see figure 2.13). The following relationship can be deduced from figure •2.13 by applying the sine rule to triangle ABC. (H T) / sin© D sin( n © ijl) sinijj (2.12) where D = P ' R PR Vcot© H is the height of the obstacle T is the offset of joint 1

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28 Solving equation (2.12) for ijj yields ijl = cot ( cote) D X sin^e (2.13) Figure 2.14 shows an example in which the shoulder is rotated upwards i|i degrees to avoid collision. Case 2: The safe angular range for joint 3. The analysis is virtually identical to Case 1 (see figure 2.15). Here, Vcot(j) ^ O'S OS (2.14) Substituting Q'S = QS/sin(|) in equation (2.14) and simplifying the equation yields Vcoscj) + QSsincj) >_ QS (2.15) The solution for which is (|) > sin"^(OS / L) sin"^(V / L) (2.16) where L = (V^ + 0S^)^^^ "3 The magnitude of OS for the T -776 robot is 4.1 inches and from (2.15) the minimum value for (j) is -12.7 degrees. This implies that there is no restriction on the value of (|) since (j) is always greater than zero. 2 . 3 The Equation for an ArchimedesÂ’s Spiral Clearly there are a wide variety of paths for the end effector of an articulated type robot moving between two

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29 Figure 2.14 The shoulder is rotated upwards degrees to avoid collision

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30 Figure 2.15 Q ' S-QS < Vcot©

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31 positions, namely, a line segment, an arc, a parabola, a spiral and so on. Since the path may pass through the void of the workspace, a rectilinear motion for an articulated type robot may not be possible. It is also difficult for an arc and a parabola to determine an optimum radius and curvature . The Archimedes's spiral is determined by the initial position I and goal position G of the wrist (see figure 2.16) and this will always lie within the workspace of the wrist. The parametric equations for the Archimedes's spiral defined by the positions I and G are L = L. + (Lg L.) e / (|) (2.17) H = Hi + (Hg Li) e / : the angle between planes GOZ and lOZ . 0: the angle between planes ROZ and lOZ . 2 . 4 Identification of the Obstacles In the algorithm to be developed here, it is assumed that the wrist will follow the spiral descibed above whenever it is reachable. However, when some point on the spiral is too low, the shoulder or arm will not be able to

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32 Z Figure 2.16 The Archimedes's spiral and fanshaped area

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33 avoid collision. This situation is illustrated in figure 2.17. The moon-shaped area is a cross section of the wrist's reachable space. The hatched section is the wrist's reachable area determined by the obstacle A. The intersection e of the spiral and cross section is too low to be reached by the wrist without collision between the arm and obstacle A. In this situation, the corresponding reachable point f on the lower bound (line segment ab) of the reachable area and with the same X coordinate as point e is chosen as the real reachable point. When there is no such corresponding reachable point (for example, point g has no corresponding reachable point), the reachable point, b, with the greatest X coordinate will be selected. When the obstacle is too high to pass over (see figure 2.18), a reachable point f will be determined by the corresponding point e' which is on the origin side of the obstacle and with the same Z coordinate as the point e. These rules for path planning restrict the wrist's path to lie within the space determined by the initial vertical plane (defined by the initial point and the Z-axis), the final vertical plane (defined by the target point and the Z-axis) , and the trajectory of the spiral with its projection on the X-Y plane. Obviously, when the wrist moves along the path, the shoulder and arm will always stay inside of the same space. This also indicates that only an object satisfying the following condition is considered to be an obstacle.

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34 Figure 2.17

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35 Figure 2.18

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3 € The object must lie inside of or intersect with the fan-shaped area determined by the origin of the fixed coordinate system and an expanded projection of the spiral on the XY plane. The expanded projection of the spiral on the X-Z plane (see figure 2.16) is obtained simply by expanding the projection of the spiral radially by an amount equal to the length of the line segment joining the wrist point to the tip of the end effector. This expansion is because the end effector is not under consideration when the spiral is defined and it may touch the objects near the spiral. The objects outside the fan-shaped area can thus be neglected. The procedure to determine whether an object is to be considered as an obstacle or not is now described. 1. The angular ranges of the projection of the object on the X-Y plane and the fan-shaped area corresponding to the positive X-axis are determined. In figure 2.16, the angular ranges of object F and the fan-shaped area are a to B and y to respectively. 2. When there is no overlap of these two angular ranges, the object is outside of the fan-shaped area and is therefore not an obstacle (this is the case for object F). 3. When there is overlap, the intersection of the expanded projection of the spiral and the line segment connecting the origin and each of the bottom vertices of the object is determined. If there is a vertex closer to the

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37 origin than this intersection, the object intersects with the fan-shaped area and it must be considered as an obstacle. If no vertex is closer to the origin than this intersection, the object is outside of the fan-shaped area and is not considered as an obstacle. In figure 2.17, the vertex a of object C is closer to the origin than its corresponding intersection b. Hence object C is considered to be an obstacle. The algorithm for the expansion of objects and reduction of the manipulator to line segments described in section 2.1 together with the algorithm for the identification of obstacles described above were applied to the obstacle strewn environment illustrated by figure 2.16. In figure 2.19, the resulting modified objects A, B and C are considered as obstacles while objects D, E and F can be removed from further consideration.

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38 Z Figure 2.19 The expanded obstacles and manipulator

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CHAPTER III DETERMINATION OF REACHABLE POINTS TO FORM A COLLISION-FREE PATH After all the obstacles have been identified as discussed in Chapter II, a series of vertical planes are formed for determining reachable points. Each of the vertical planes is defined by the vertical Z-axis and a top vertex point of one of the obstacles. These planes generate cross sections of the obstacles and wrist's reachable space. The cross sections of the reachable space and obstacles are mapped through rotational transformations onto the X-Z plane. These transformations simplify the three-dimensional path problem to a two-dimensional one. In this chapter, a method to find the lower bound of the wrist's reachable areas and to determine reachable end effector points is discussed . 3 . 1 The Quicksort Algorithm The angles between the X-Z plane and the vertical planes described above are computed. These planes are sorted according to the angles with the X-Z plane beginning with the smallest angle and concluding with the largest angle. 39

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40 The sorting algorithm used in this paper is called "quicksort." The essence of quicksort is to sort an array A[l], A[2],..., A[n] by permuting the elements in the array so that for some "j", all the records with keys less than some key value "v" appear in A[l],..., A[j], and all those with keys "v" or greater appear in A [ j +1 ] , . . . , A [ n] . Then quicksort is applied recursively to A [ 1 ] , . . . , A [ j ] and to A[ j+1] , . . . ,A[n] to sort both these groups of elements. Since all keys in the first group precede all keys in the second group, the entire array will be sorted. Assuming that the algorithm recursively sorts the array S ( 1 ),..., S ( N ) of N items into increasing order, then the steps of this sorting are as follows, 1. [Trivial?] If N _< 1 , return. (N = 0 means that the array is empty.) 2. [Initialization.] Set I = 1; J = N. (I moves right and J moves left along the array as elements are interchanged. When I = J, the element at the Ith position will be greater than or equal all elements to the left and less than or equal all elements to the right . ) 3. [Move J?] IF S(J) >_ S(I), then J = J 1 ; go to 3; otherwise, (interchange) TEMP = S ( I ) ; S(I) = S(J); S(J) = TEMP. 4. [Move I?] If I = J, go to 6; otherwise, 1=1+1.

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41 5. [Interchange?] If S(I) < S(J), go to 4; otherwise, (interchange) TEMP = S(I); S(I) = S(J); S(J) = TEMP; J = J 1 ; go to step 3. 6. [Sort subproblems.] Call the algorithm with input array S ( 1 S ( I-l ) ; Call the algorithm with input array S ( I+l S ( N ) ; Return. An example of the application of this quicksort algorithm is illustrated in figure 3.1. 3 . 2 Obstacle Cross Sections The obstacles and vertical planes defined previously are projected on the X-Y plane. The shapes of the projections of obstacles are the same as those of their top surfaces (polygons). The projections of the vertical planes are represented by lines. If there is intersection between any polygon and any line, the corresponding obstacle of the polygon is cut by the corresponding vertical plane of the line and a cross section of this obstacle can be determined. Assume that points a and b are the two end points of one of the sides of the polygon. 1. If points a and b are on the same side of the line, there is no intersection. 2. If points a and b are on opposite sides of the line, the intersection can be found by solving the line equation and the equation of the line passing through points a and b.

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42 I — — J Step 1 36419 5387 l’ 3 3 6 S tsD 2 13 4 6 3 4 4 6 S tep 3 1 7 9 S tep 4 3 4 7 5 6 8 9 6 S tee 5 S tep 6 6 5 7 8 9 5 ~ 6 5 6 7 8 Step 7 56 End 133456789 Figui'e 3.1 Quicksort algorithm

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43 3. If one or two vertices are on the line, they are themselves points of intersections. The angular range of each of the obstacles corresponding to the positive X-axis has been defined in Chapter II . All sides of the polygon are sequentially checked against each of the projection lines within the angular range of the corresponding obstacle. Each two sequential intersections will determine a cross section of the obstacle. Those cross sections are then transformed to the X-Z plane. In general, this transformation is done by multipling the coordinates of the intersections with a rotation transformation matrix. However, this is easily accomplished by replacing the X coordinate of the intersections by the square root of the summation of X square and Y square while replacing the Y coordinate by 0 and not changing the Z coordinate. 3 . 3 The Low Bound of the Reachable Area As described earlier, an Archimedes's spiral is determined by the initial and goal positions of the wrist. This spiral intersects with the first cross section of the wrist's reachable space. The intersection, which is called the recommended reachable wrist point, is used to find a real reachable wrist point. The real reachable wrist point and goal position will generate a new Archimedes's spiral. The intersection of this new spiral and the second cross

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44 section of the wrist's reachable space is the new recommended reachable wrist point. This recommended point is then used to find a further real reachable wrist point and so on. These procedures are repeated until the real reachable wrist point which lies on the last cross section is determined. In each of the cross sections of the wrist's reachable space, the X and Z coordinates of the recommended reachable point are denoted by and respectively. The algorithm to be developed will find the lower bound of the reachable area for the wrist between the Z-axis and line X = X and e determine a reachable wrist point in this reachable area. Thus, the shoulder and arm will stay within this area and any obstacle (or any cross section of the obstacle) outside the area between lines X = 0 and X = X^ can be excluded from consideration. Figure 3.2 illustrates that the obstacle D is out of the area. In order to describe more easily how the lower bound of the reachable area for the wrist is determined, a pair of principal obstacles is defined, one for the shoulder and the other for the arm. 1. The principal shoulder obstacle is defined as the obstacle first touched by the shoulder when it is rotated downwards from its vertical position (for example, the obstacle A in figure 3.2).

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45 Figure 3.2 The principal shoulder and arm obstacles

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46 is defined as the 2. The principal arm obstacle obstacle first touched by the arm when it is rotated downwards from its extreme position and when the angle of joint 3 equals the maximum joint limitation (150 degrees) (for example, the obstacle B in figure 3.3). However, when the shoulder touches an obstacle first (see obstacle A in figure 3.2), the arm is rotated downwards further until it touches an obstacle (see obstacle C in figure 3.2) which is defined as the principal arm obstacle. The two principal obstacles will be used to determine the lower bound of the reachable area between the origin side of the principal arm obstacle and the line X = X^. Obviously, when there is no obstacle whose origin side top corner is within the circular arc generated by joint 3 (see figure 3.4), the shoulder cannot touch any obstacle. Hence only the collision problem between the arm and obstacles needs to be considered. In this situation, when the highest obstacle is higher than the maximum height H that the joint 3 can reach, the arm may only touch the origin side top corner of the principal arm obstacle (for instance, the obstacle C of figure 3.4). When the height of the highest obstacle is between the maximum and minimum heights (H and L) that joint 3 can reach, the arm can lie horizontally on the top of the principal arm obstacle and may touch each of the two top vertices of the obstacle (for example, the obstacle B of figure 3.4). When the highest

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47 Figure 3.3 The principal arm obstacle

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4 a Figure 3.4 The relation between the manipulator and obstacles St different height ranges

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obstacle is lower than the minimum height that joint 3 can reach, the arm (not including the tip of the wrist) will only touch the exterior top corner (the top corner furthest from the origin) of the principal arm obstacle (see the obstacle A of figure 3.4). These different conditions determine all the Group 1 cases listed in figure 3.5. When there is at least one obstacle whose origin side top corner is within the circular arc generated by joint 3 (for example, the obstacle A and B of figure 3.2), the shoulder may first touch one of the obstacles. In this situation, the collision problems between the arm and obstacles and between the shoulder and obstacles must be solved simultaneously. The Group 2 cases listed in figure 3.5 describe all possible cases when there is at least one obstacle whose origin side top corner is inside the circular arc generated by joint 3 (the trajectory of joint 3). The determination of the lower bound of the wrist's reachable area and the reachable wrist point is now discussed. Group 1: There is no obstacle whose origin side top corner is within the trajectory of joint 3. In this case, the shoulder will not touch any obstacle. Hence it is not necessary to consider the collision between the shoulder and obstacles. There are three cases which depend on the height of the obstacles and are considered separately.

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50 *e the mini-Tium angle of joint 2 when the shoulder does not touch any obstacle. Point Q; the lowest position of joint does not touch any obstacle. 3 when the shoulder Point U: the position of joint 3 when the wrist is located at the right top point of the principal ar." obstacle. Point T: the intersection of the trajectory of jci the line passing through point Q and the point of the principal arr; obstacle. Figure 3.5 The list of all cases

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51 Case 1.1: At least one obstacle is higher than the maximum height H which joint 3 can reach. In figure 3.6, the obstacles A and B are higher than height H. Points P and 0 are the positions of the centers of joints 2 and 3 respectively. The shoulder and arm are represented by line segments PQ and OS (Point S denotes the position of the wrist) . In this case, the reference angle of an obstacle higher than H is defined as the angle between the shoulder and horizontal (PI) when the angle cf) of joint 3 is equal to the maximum joint limitation (150 degrees) and when the arm touches the origin side top corner of the obstacle. The principal arm obstacle is defined as the obstacle which satisfies the following two conditions. 1. The obstacle is higher than the height H. 2. The reference angle of the obstacle is greater than In figure 3.6, the principal arm obstacle is A. Point S denotes the reachable wrist po4nt with the greatest X coordinate. The X and Z coordinates of point S can be derived through the geometric relation between the links and obstacle A. those of other obstacles. Pa = [ ( Z PO)^ + X d a (3.1) Pa PQ s in a (3.2)

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52 Figure 3.6 At least one obstacle is higher than the max height H that joint 3 can reach

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53 where X, and are the coordinates of point a. a a Inserting equations 3.1 into 3.2, the value of is obtained. Then the angle 0 can be calculated by -1 ^a ~ 0 = n-(})-a + tan ( ) (3.3) Ci The coordinates of point S are derived by Xg = PQcose + OScos(e + (j) n ) (3.4) Zg = OSsin© + QSsin(0 + cj) n ) (3.5) The locus of the lowest reachable points between the lines X = X and X = Xj, is a sixth degree polynoininal (see APPENDIX A), and the time required to compute the roots using a numerical method will cause a noticeable increase in the response time. Because of this, the line segment aS is chosen to be the lower bound of the reachable area between the lines X = X and X = X„. In figure 3.6, the hatched 3 . V j section denotes the reachable area for the wrist. Hence, when the recommended reachable point is inside this area, it is a real reachable wrist point. When the recommended reachable point is on the exterior side (the side futhest from the origin) of the line X = Xg, the real reachable point with the greatest X coordinate, point S, will be selected as the reachable wrist point in this cross section. When the recommended reachable point is located between lines X = X^ and X = Xg and

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54 below the line segment aS, the corresponding point on line segment aS and with the same X coordinate as the recommended reachable point will be selected. A special situation in this case is when there is an obstacle whose origin side top corner is outside the upper outer bound of the cross section of the wrist's reachable space (see obstacle A of figure 2.18). In this case, the reachable area for the wrist will be limited between the Z-axis and the origin side of this obstacle, and the wrist can only move through this reachable area. The lower bound of this reachable area is determined by the obstacles within the area between the Z-axis and the origin side of the obstacle A. A reachable wrist point is determined based on the lower bound of the reachable area. In figure 2.18, the reachable wrist point f is determined by the corresponding point e' which is on the origin side of the obstacle A and with the same Z coordinate as the recommended reachable point e. Case 1.2: At least one obstacle is higher than the minimum height which joint 3 can reach. Figure 3.7 shows an example of this case for which L is the minimum height which joint 3 can reach. The principal arm obstacle A and the reachable point with the greatest X coordinate, S, are determined as in Case 1.1. Point R denotes the position of the wrist when the arm lies horizontally on the top of the highest obstacle A. The

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55 Figure 3.7 At least one obstacle is higher than the minimum height that joint 3 can reach

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56 circular arc generated by joint 3 and the horizontal line through point R intersect in point 0'(Xg,,ZQ,). The X coordinate of point R is thus given by , + O'R, K y where O'R is the length of the arm. The loci of the lowest reachable points between the lines X = 3nd X = Xj^ and between the lines X = X^ and X = Xg are a pair of sixth degree polynominals . These are replaced by the line segments bR and RS to reduce the response time. When the recommended reachable point (for example, point g) is on the exterior side of the line X = Xg, point S which has the maximum X coordinate will be selected as the reachable wrist point. When the recommended reachable point (for example, point e) is located between the lines X = X, b and X = Xg and lower than the lower bound of the reachable area, the point on the lower bound and with the same X coordinate as the recommended reachable point will be selected as the reachable wrist point. Case 1.3: All obstacles are lower than the minimum height L which joint 3 can reach. In figure 3.8, point Q denotes the lowest position of joint 3. The reference angle 0 of an obstacle now is defined as the angle between the horizontal and the line passing through point Q and the exterior top corner of the obstacle. The principal arm obstacle is therefore the obstacle which has the smallest reference angle and this is

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57 Figure 3.8 Point U lies inside arc TQ

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58 clearly the obstacle A, Point U denotes the position of joint 3 when the wrist is located at point b (the exterior top corner of the principal arm obstacle A) . Point T denotes one of the two intersections of line Qb and the circular arc generated by joint 3 (the other intersection is point 0). The relative positions among points T, 0 and U determine the shape of the lower bound of the reachable area between lines X = and X = Xg. There are three subcases which must be considered. Case 1.3.1: Point U lies inside the arc TQ (see figure 3.8) . Here, point S denotes the intersection of line Qb and the lower outer bound of the cross section of the wrist's reachable space or the extreme wrist point when the arm touches the exterior top corner of the principal arm obstacle A. The locus of the lowest reachable wrist points between lines X = and X = Xg lies below the line segment bS and for efficient computation is replaced by the line segment bS. When the X coordinate of the recommended reachable point is greater than Xg, it is a real reachable point. When the recommended reachable point is located between lines X = Xj^ and X = Xg and lower than the lower bound bS, the point on line segment bS and with the same X coordinate as the recommended reachable point will be selected as the reachable wrist point.

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59 Case 1.3.2: Points T and 0 are coincident (see figure 3.9) . In this case, the locus of lowest reachable points between lines X = and X = Xg lies above the line segment bS. Because of this, the locus is replaced by the line segment bR, where R denotes the point of intersection of the lines Ub and X = Xg . The reachable wrist point is determined by appling the algorithm developed in Case 1.3.1. Case 1.3.3: Point U lies outside the arc TQ (see figure 3.10). Here, point V denotes the position of the wrist when joint 3 is located at position T and when the arm touches the exterior top corner b of the principal arm obstacle A. The locus of the lowest reachable points between lines X = Xj^ and X = X^ lies above the line segment bS while the locus of lowest reachable points between lines X = X and V X= Xg lies below the line segment bS. Because of this, these loci are replaced respectively by line segments bR and VS as the lower bounds of the reachable area, where R denotes the point of intersection of the lines Ub and X = X^. The reachable wrist point is determined by appling the algorithm developed in Case 1.3.1. Group 2: There is at least one obstacle whose origin side top corner is within the trajectory of joint 3 .

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60 Figure 3.9 Points P and Q are coincident

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61 Figure 3.10 Point U lies outside arc TQ

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62 In this case, the reference angle ©. There are two cases which must be considered separately. Case 2.1: The reference angle of the principal shoulder obstacle is less than the minimum allowable angle of joint 2. In this case, the shoulder will not collide with any obstacle. This case is analogous to Group 1 and thus the procedures already developed for determining the lower bound of the reachable area and the reachable wrist point are appl ied . Case 2.2: The reference angle of the principal shoulder obstacle is greater than the minimum allowable angle of joint 2. Figure 3.11 illustrates an example of this case for which (j) > 30. In this case, the shoulder may touch the

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63 Figure 3.11 At least one obstacle is higher than the maximum height H that joint 3 can reach

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64 principal obstacle. There are four subcases which are determined by the height of the obstacles whose exterior top corners are outside of the trajectory of joint 3. Case 2.2.1: At least one obstacle is higher than the maximum height H which joint 3 can reach ( see figure 3.11). Point 0 is used to denote the position of joint 3 when the shoulder touches the origin side top corner of the principal shoulder obstacle A. Point O' denotes the position of joint 3 when the arm touches the origin side top corner a of the principal arm obstacle and when the angle of joint 3, eguals the maximum allowable angle. When the Z coordinate of point 0 is greater than that of point 0' , point 0 is used to determine the lower bound of the reachable area. Otherwise, point Q is replaced by point 0' to determine the lower bound of the reachable area. This ensures that the shoulder will not collide with the obstacles. In the following cases, the 7, coordinate of point 0 is assumed to be greater than that of point O'. After point 0 has been chosen, the reachable point with the greatest X coordinate, S, can be determined by considering the coordinates of points 0 and a. As in Case 1.1, the line segment aS is chosen as the lower bound of the reachable area between lines X = X X = X s • When the X coordinate of the recommended reachable point (for example, point g) is less than that of point S,

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65 point S is selected as the real reachable wrist point. When the recommended reachable point (for example, point e) is located between lines X = and X = X„ and below the line segment aS, the point f on line segment aS and with the same X coordinate as point e is selected. Case 2.2.2: At least one obstacle is higher than the height of point 0 (see figure 3.12). In this case, the reachable wrist point with greatest X coordinate S is determined as Case 2.2.1. Point R denotes the position of the wrist when the arm lies horizontally on the highest obstacle B. The procedures for determining the X coordinate of point R and the reachable wrist point are the same as those developed in Case 1.2. Case 2.2.3: All obstacles whose exterior top corners are outside the trajectory of joint 3 are lower than the height of point Q. (see figure 3.13) Point V denotes the reachable wrist point with the greatest X coordinate. The X coordinate of point V eguals + OV, where QV is the length of the arm. Point S denotes the wrist position when the arm touches the exterior top corner of the principal arm obstacle. The locus of the lowest reachable points between points b and S is an order six polynomial which has been discussed in Case 1.3. When the X coordinate of the recommended reachable point is greater than X^, point V is selected as the

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66 Figure 3.12 At least one obstacle is higher than the height of point Q

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67 Figure 3.13 No obstacle is higher than the height of point Q

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68 reachable wrist point. When the recommended reachable point is located between lines X = Xg and X^ and below line segment SV, the reachable point on line segment SV and with the same X coordinate as the recommended point is selected. When the recommended reachable point is located between lines X = Xj^ and X = Xg, the reachable wrist point is determined by appling the algorithm developed in Case 1.3. Case 2.2.4: There is no obstacle whose exterior top corner is outside the trajectory of joint 3 (see figure 3.14). In this case, the lower bound of the reachable area is the arc whose center is point Q and whose radius equals the length of the arm. The wrist point with the greatest X coordinate, V, is determined using the algorithm developed in Case 2.2.3. When the X coordinate of the recommended reachable point is greater than point V is selected as the reachable wrist point. When the recommended reachable point is located between lines X = X^ and X = 0 and lower than the lower bound arc of the reachable area, the intersection f of line X = X and the lower bound arc is e selected as the reachable wrist point. 3 . 4 Modification of the Path Employing the above analysis, the reachable wrist point on each of the cross sections can be determined. It will now be proved that the line segment joining any pair of

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69 Figure 3.14 There is no obstacle whose exterior top corner is outside the trajectory of joint 3

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70 consecutive reachable points is collision-free and hence the path that follows the sequence of line segments between successive points is a collision-free oath for the wrist. There are two cases which must be considered. The first is a line segment which joins a pair of consecutive reachable points with the shoulder in contact with an obstacle. The second is a line segment joining a pair of consecutive reachable points with the arm in contact with an obstacle. 1. The shoulder in contact with an obstacle. In figure 3.15, the circular arc C is the locus of the wrist's position when the shoulder touches an arbitrary obstacle A at origin side top corner a. The upper and lower bound of arc C, u and v respectively, are determined by the joint limit. Clearly, when the wrist is located inside the shaded area, the shoulder cannot touch the obstacle A. In figure 3.16.1, points S and T are used to denote the positions of the wrist when the shoulder touches an arbitrary obstacle A at points a and b respectively. Points U and V indicate the corresponding positions of joint 3. When the wrist moves rectilinearly from S to T, the joint 3 will follow the curve UV. This curve is an arc on the sphere whose center is point P (the center of joint 2) and whose radius equals the length of the shoulder. Figure 3.16.2 illustrates the projection of the arc on the X-Y plane. Clearly this projection is always a concave toward the origin 0 and thus the surface generated by the loci of

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71 Figure 3.15 The lower bound of the reachable wrist area

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72 Z Figure 3.16.1 The locus of joint 3 Y Figure 3.16.2 The projection of figure 3.16.1 on the X-Y plane

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73 the wrist between two adjoining cross sections (for example, the planes PUS and PVT) is a portion of an torus and concave upwards as illustrated by figure 3.17. Further, all the points on any line segment joining any pair of points T and S on the surface must lie above the surface. It follows that the shoulder cannot touch obstacle A during the rectilinear motion of the wrist from position S to T. 2. The arm in contact with an obstacle. There are three cases which are depended on the height of the obstacle. Each of the cases is discussed separately. Case 1; The height of the obstacle is lower than the minimum height that the joint 3 can reach. In figure 3.18, points S and T denote the lowest positions of the wrist when the arm touches an arbitrary obstacle A at the top corners a and b respectively. Points U and V denote the positions of the center of joint 3. Line segments aS and bT are thus the lower bounds of the wrist's reachable area in the cross sections RU3 and RVT respectively. When the wrist moves from position S to T and along the path generated by the lowest reachable points, the locus UV generated by the center of joint 3 is an arc on the horizontal circle C whose center is point O and whose radius equals Lcos9 (see figure 3.19, 0 = 30 degrees). In figure 3.18, the line segment ef is tangent to the circle C and parallel to the line segment ab and plane P passes through the parallel line segments ab and ef.

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74 Figure 3.17 The surface generated by the lower bounds of the reachable wrist area

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75 Z Figure 3.18 The relation between the locus of joint 3 and side ab of the obstacle A d: the distance from V to line ef Figure 3.19 The relation between plane P and points V and T

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76 Clearly, the distance from point T (S) to plane P is proportional to the distance from point V (U) to line ef (see figure 3.19). Figure 3.20 shows three possible relative positions between the circular arc UV and the tangent ef. In each case, a surface which is generated by the lower bounds of the wrist's reachable area is always concave toward the positive Z-axis. Therefore, the line segment connecting any point Q on line segment aS and any point R on line segment bT is above the surface, and the arm will not touch side ab during rectilinear motion of the wrist from position Q to R. Case 2: The height of the obstacle is between the maximum and minimum heights that the joint 3 can reach. In this case, the lower bound of the wrist's reachable area is a horizontal line segment at the same height as the obstacle (for example, the lower bound bR of figure 3.7). Therefore, the surface determined by the lower bounds between two seguential cross sections is horizontal, and the wrist can move rectilinearly between two consecutive reachable points without any collision. Case 3: The height of the obstacle is higher than the maximum height that the joint 3 can reach. In figure 3.21, points S and T denote the positions of the wrist when the arm touches the obstacle A at top corners a and b respectively. When the wrist moves from position S

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77 Z Figure 3.20 The three surfaces generated by the lower bound of the reachable wrist area when arc UV in different positions

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78 S Figure 3.21 The obstacle A is higher than the maximum height that joint 3 can reach

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79 to T and along the extreme path, the surface generated by the lower bounds of the reachable area is convex towards the positive Z-axis. Hence, the wrist cannot move rectil inearly between two consecutive reachable points without any collision . However, the point a is closer to the Z-axis than any other point on line segment ab. The plane determined by the lower bound aS and line segment ab is above the surface generated by the lower bounds of each of the cross sections. Therefore, if the reachable wrist point T is moved upwards on this plane, the wrist can move rectilinearly between the two consecutive reachable points S and T without any collision. Finally, consider a pair of seguential reachable wrist points a and b and one of them (in this example, a) is lower than the obstacle while the remaining wrist point, b, is above the obstacle (see figure 3.22). Clearly, the wrist point may collide with the obstacle when moving along the line segment ab. This type of collision can be avoided by moving the lowet point a vertically to point a' onto the horizontal plane through the top of the obstacle. In general, the path which seguentially connects all the reachable wrist points is not a smooth one. Figure 3.23 shows the ordinates, a,b,...,r, of the path at cross sections 1,2,..., 18 for the example shown in figure 2.16. It is desirable to shorten and smooth this path. From the figure, it can be seen that the path segment mp is

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80 Figure 3.22 Path segment ab intersects with the obstacle

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81 t The second modified path The third modified path Figure 3.23 The initial and modified paths

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82 horizontal. Hence it passes over the top of some obstacle and the ordinates 1 and q are thus moved to the positions 1Â’ and q' to avoid collision. Furthermore, when the slope of a line segment is greater than that of the previous line segment (for example, slope i-j > h-i), the path chosen is simply a line segment joining points h and j. The reachable end effector points can be determined from the reachable wrist points by considering the length and orientation of the end effector. Because the end effector may intersect with some obstacle, it is necessary to check for possible intersections. This is easily accomplished by projecting the obstacle on the X-Y plane. Figure 3.24 illustrates the projection of an obstacle in the X-Y plane. The vertices of which are labeled a, b, c, d and e. Consider that point P is the projection of either end points of the end effector (each must be tested seperately) . Clearly, for this case, the summation of the angles aPb , bPc, etc, taken in order is 27L radian. There will be collision if the Z coordinate of P is less than the height of the obstacle. Hence collision is avoided by raising the end effector above the obstacle. When point Q is the projection of either end points of the end effector, the summation of the angles aQb , bQc , etc., taken in order is zero and there will be no collision. Using the above procedure, the trajectory which starts from the initial position, and sequentially connects all the

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83 Figure 3.24 The relation between an obstacle and the end point of the end effector

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84 reachable end effector points, and which ends at the goal position can be modified into a smooth collision-free path.

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CHAPTER IV APPLICATION TO OTHER TYPE ROBOTS Currently, most industrial robots operate with four types of coordinate frames: the articulated type, the polar type, the cylindrical type and the Cartesian type. The algorithm developed in the previous chapters provides an efficient way to determine a collision-free path for the articulated type robot. This chapter discusses the application of this algorithm to other type robots. 4 . 1 The Polar Type Robot The main difference between the articulated and polar type robots is that the third joint of the polar type robot is prismatic (see figure 4.1). The prismatic joint always has two parts, a shoulder of fixed length and an extendable arm. Both have the same orientation. The procedures for determining a collision-free path for this type robot are similar to those already developed for the articulated type robot . 1. In figure 4.2, the polygon labeled a, b, c and d in a counterclockwise sense is the projection of an arbitrary object A on the X-Y plane. The arc C with center 0 is the 85

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86 The articulated type robot The extendable arm The polar type robot Figure 4.1 The articulated type and polar type robots

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87 The original object a-b-c-d The expanded object e-f-b-g-h-i Ob X ba < 0, side ab unreachable Oc X cb < 0, side be unreachable Od X dc > 0, side cd reachable Oa X ad > 0, side da reachable N and M have been defined in Chapter II Figure 4.2 The expansion of an obstacle

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88 intersection of the plane through the top of the object A with the surface generated by the extreme point of the shoulder. When Ob x ba < 0, the shoulder or arm will touch point a first and hence cannot touch any other points on the line segment ab. However, when Ob x ba 0 , the shoulder or arm can touch all points on the line segment ab. There are three cases which must be considered when the vertices of objects are expanded. a. When a pair of sequential sides of an object are both not reachable by the shoulder and arm, the vertex of intersection is chosen as the vertex of the expanded object. In figure 4.2, the shoulder and arm cannot reach sides ab and be and the vertex b is chosen as a vertex of the expanded object. b. When one of the two sequential sides is reachable (for example, side cd is reachable while side be is not reachable), the new vertex (point g) corresponding to the reachable side can be determined using the algorithm developed in Chapter II. c. When both of the sequential sides are reachable (for example, sides cd and da), the two new vertices (points h and j) are again determined using the algorithm developed in Chapter II. After all the new vertices have been found, they are shifted vertically by half the thickness of the shoulder when the shoulder can touch the top of the original object;

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89 otherwise, they are shifted vertically half the thickness of the arm. Following this, the shoulder and arm can be considered together as an extendable line segment (which will be called the link) and the safe angular range for joint 2 can be derived as described in Chapter II. 2. An Archimedes's spiral is determined by the initial and goal positions of the wrist. The projection of this spiral on the X-Y plane and the origin of the fixed coordinate system determine a fan-shaped area. The positions of all objects are checked against this fan-shaped area to identify the real obstacles. Only those objects which are inside or intersect with this fan-shaped area are considered to be obstacles. 3. Each vertex of the top surfaces of the obstacles and the Z-axis determine a vertical plane. These planes cut through the obstacles and wristÂ’s workspace, and thus generate the cross sections of the obstacles and wrist's workspace. These cross sections are then transformed through rotational transformations onto the X-Z plane. 4. On each transformed cross section of the wrist's workspace, the principal obstacle is defined as the obstacle first touched by the link when it is rotated downwards from its highest position. There are three cases to determine the reachable wrist point. Case 1: There is no obstacle higher than the height of joint 2 (see figure 4.3).

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9 0 Z Figure 4.3 No obstacle is higher than the height of joint 2 Z Figure 4.4 The obstacle is at the same height as joint 2

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91 In this case, the angle of declination for an obstacle is defined as the angle between the horizontal and the line passing through joint 2 and the exterior top corner (the top corner furthest from the origin) of the obstacle. The principal obstacle is defined as the obstacle which has the smallest angle of declination. In figure 4.3, the principal obstacle is A. Line segment aS is the lower bound of the reachable area between lines X = X and X = X„. In Ci S figure 4.4, the principal obstacle B is at the same height as joint 2 and the angle of declination is zero. When the recommended reachable point e is located between lines X = X and X = X„ and lower than the line ci O segment aS, the point f on the line segment aS and with the same X coordinate as point e is selected as the reachable wrist point. Obviously, when point e is higher than the line segment aS, then it is a real reachable point. Case 2: The highest obstacle is higher than the height of joint 2 and lower than the upper bound of the reachable area (see figure 4.5). In this case, the angle of inclination for an obstacle is defined as the angle between the horizontal and the line passing through joint 2 and the origin side top corner of the obstacle. The principal obstacle is defined as the obstacle which has the greatest angle of inclination. In figure 4.5, the principal obstacle is B. Point S is the extreme position of the wrist when the link touches with the

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92 Z Figure 4.5 The obstacle B is higher than the height of joint 2 and lower than the upper bound Z Figure 4.6 The obstacle B is higher than the upper bound

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93 origin side top corner a of the principal obstacle. The line segment aS is the lower bound of the reachable area between lines X = X and X = X_. a S When the X coordinate of the recommended reachable point (for example, point d) is greater than that of point S, point S is selected as the reachable wrist point. When the recommended reachable point (for example, point e) is located between lines X = X^ and X = X^ , the reachable wrist point (point f) is determined as in the previous case. Case 3: There is one obstacle whose origin side top corner is higher than the upper bound of the reachable area (see figure 4.6) In this case, the reachable wrist point (point f) can be determined by the corresponding point (point e') which is on the origin side of the obstacle and has the same Z coordinate as the recommended reachable point (point e). 5. The reachable end effector points are determined from the corresponding reachable wrist points by considering the length and orientation of the end effector. When the end effector intersects with some obstacle, the reachable end effector point must be shifted up higher than this obstacle to avoid collision. 6. After the reachable end effector points have been found, the path sequentially connecting all those reachable points is modified to be a smooth collision-free path.

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94 4 . 2 The Cylindrical Type Robot The second joint of the cylindrical type robot is prismatic and this is the essential difference with the polar type robot (see figures 4.1 and 4.7). This prismatic joint restricts the shoulder and arm to move vertically and horizontally. The procedures for determining a collision-free path are similar to those developed for the polar type robot. 1. Here the expansion of objects is relatively simple. Because the shoulder and arm are only capable of vertical and horizontal sliding motions, the reachable sides of any object are simply expanded by one half of the shoulder width or arm width depending upon which touches the obstacle. Figure 4.8 shows a top view picture of an arbitrary object A shifted out by half the shoulder width together with the projections of the cross sections of the shoulder in different positions. Clearly, those cross sections cannot touch the object, 2. The method of expanding an object for the polar type robot can be applied to this type robot by replacing M and N (see figure 4.2), which have been defined in Chapter II, by half the widths of the shoulder and arm respectively. The procedures to determine an Archimedes's spiral and identify the obstacles are also the same as those applied to the polar type robot. 3. In each cross section of the wrist reachable space, the principal obstacle is defined as the obstacle lower than

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95 Figure 4.7 The cylindrical type robot Figure 4.8 The shape of obstacle A betore and after expansion

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96 the upper bound of the reachable area and higher than other obstacles. (see obstacle B of figure 4.9). The method to determinate a reachable wrist point is similar to that of the polar type robot. There are two cases which must be cons idered . Case 1; There is no obstacle higher than the upper bound of the reachable area (see figure 4.9). In this case, the lower bound of the reachable area between the origin side of the principal obstacle B and line X = Xg is the horizontal line segment aS. When the recommended reachable point e is lower than the line segment aS, the intersection f of line X = X with the line e segment aS is selected as the reachable wrist point. Case 2: There is an obstacle higher than the upper bound of the reachable area (see figure 4.10). In this case, no reachable point above the recommended reachable point e can be found. A reachable point f will be determined by the corresponding point e' on the origin side of the obstacle and at the same height as the recommended reachable point e. 4. After all the reachable wrist points have been found, the corresponding reachable end effector points can be determined. The path which sequentially connects all reachable end effectors points is then modified to be a smooth collision-free path by using the same developed for the articulated type robot. method

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97 Z Figure 4.9 No obstacle is higher than the upper bound of the reachable area Z Figure 4.10 The obstacle B is higher than the upper bound of the reachable area

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98 4 . 3 The Cartesian Type Robot The first joint of this type of robot is prismatic (see figure 4.11). The determination of a collision-free path for this type robot is similar to that of the cylindrical type robot. This is because the first revolute joint of the cylindrical robot is simply replaced by a prismatic joint. 1. The wrist's workspace of this type robot is a rectangular solid. Any line segment connecting a pair of arbitrary points inside the rectangular solid also lies inside the workspace. Because of this, a straight line segment instead of an Archimedes's spiral from the initial to goal positions is chosen as a reference path. The projection of this rectilinear path on the X-Y plane and the horizontal axis of the first joint determine a trapezoidal area. This trapezoid like the fan-shaped area of the articulated type robot is used to identify the real obstacles . 2. The m.ethods of expanding an object and identifying the obstacles are identical to those of the cylindrical type robot . 3. Each of the top vertices of the obstacles determines a vertical plane which is perpendicular to the first joint axis. These vertical planes determine the cross sections of the wrist's workspace and obstacles. A reachable wrist point in each cross section of the wrist's workspace can be determined using the method developed for

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99 Figure 4.11 The Cartesian type robot

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100 the cylindrical type robot. After all reachable wrist points are found, the corresponding reachable end effector points and a collision-free path can be determined by using the same method developed for the articulated type robot. Using the above procedures, the path planning algorithm developed in Chapters II and III can be applied to most industrial robots. An application of this algorithm to the 3 Cincinnati Milacron T -776 robot in an obstacle strewn environment has been performed. The details of this application are discussed in the next chapter.

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CHAPTER V COMPUTER GRAPHICS SIMULATION OF THE ROBOT MOTION Computer graphics constitutes a significant contribution to the ability to understand data and to visualize real or imaginary objects . By making communication more efficient. graphics makes possible lower analysis cost and also design cost . In this chapter , some aspects of the generation of solid modeling pictures and the procedures to perform motion simulation of the T^-776 robot are discussed. 5 . 1 Introduction to the IRIS 2400 Workstation The specifications of the SILICON GRAPHICS IRIS 2400 workstation in the CIMAR laboratory are: CPU Memory: 16 MHz MC68010, 2MB dynamic RAM, expandable to 16MB, 128KB EPROM. Software: UNIX System V operating system. C Compiler. IRIS Graphics Library II. Color Range: Color map mode(8-bit, single or double buffered) 256 colors. Peripherals: 72 MB 5.25" winchesteer disk drive. 19" diagonal 60 Hz, 1024x768 monitor. 101

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102 Optical mouse X-Y encoder with three buttons . 5 . 2 Graphics Techniques In computer graphics, the points and the lines which join them are used to form polygons. These polygons are painted to display solid modeling pictures of the objects. Therefore, an object in the three-dimensional space can be relocated to any position by transforming the points on it [38]. The transformation can be accomplished by using the mathematical technigues of translation, rotation and scaling. The translation matrix for a point [X,Y,Z,1] in three-dimensional space is defined as below. ri 0 0 o'" [T] 0 10 0 0 0 10 Tx Tv Tz 1 (5.1) where Tx , Ty and Tz are the translation components in the X, Y and Z directions respectively. The rotation matrix about an arbitrary axis in three-dimensional space is defined by "r 11 R12 R13 o'" [R] R21 R22 R23 0 R31 R32 R33 0 0 0 0 1 (5.2)

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103 where As a Z-axis . case, the Rll = Cx •k Cx + (1 Cx * Cx) k cos© R12 = Cx * Cy * (1 cos©) + Cz * sin© R13 = Cx k Cz * (1 cos©) + Cy * sin© R21 = Cx k Cy k (1 cos©) + Cz * sin© R22 = Cy k Cy + (1 Cy * Cy) * cos© R23 = Cy k Cz k (1 cos©) + Cx * sin© R31 = Cx k Cz k (1 cos©) + Cy * sin© R32 = Cy k Cz k (1 cos©) + Cx * sin© R33 Cz k Cz + (1 Cz * Cz) cos© 9 = Rotation angle (radian) Cx , Cy and Cz are direction cosines of the rotation axis. specific example consider rotation about Then Cx = Cy = 0 and Cz = 1.0. For this spec rotation matrix [R] reduces to the ial [R] cos© sin© 0 0 -sin© cos© 0 0 0 0 10 ^ 0 0 0 1 Rotation is assumed to be positive in a right-hand sense as one looks from the origin outwards along the axis of rotation. The procedure of rotation about any axis is to translate the object and the desired axis of rotation so that the rotation is made about an axis passing through the origin of the fixed coordinate system. The method involves

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104 a three-dimensional translation, a rotation about the origin, and a translation back to the initial position. If. the axis about which rotation is desired passes through the point A = [Tx Ty Tz 1] , then the form of the transformation matrix is [Xn Yn Zn 1] = [Xo Yo Zo 1] [T] [R] [T] (5.3) where Xn , Yn and Zn are the transformed coordinates. Xo, Yo and Zo are the original coordinates. [T]^ is given by 1 0 0 o' [T]Â’' 0 10 0 0 0 10 -Tx -Ty -Tz 1 After transformation, the picture can also be or expanded by multiplying a scaling matrix. The matrix for enlargement or reduction is defined by reduced scaling [S] "a 0 0 o" 0 b 0 0 0 0 c 0 ^0 0 0 1 ^ (5.4) where a, b and c are the multiples of enlargement or reduction in the X, Y and Z-directions respectively .

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105 When the magnitudes of a, b and c are unequal, a distortion occurs. The above graphic technigues are often used to calculate the transformed coordinates of points which will be utilized to represent or display three-dimensional objects. In figure 5.1, object R is translated by the distance in the Z-direction from the origin. Object C is translated by distances Z^ and -Y|^ along the Z and Y directions respectively and then rotated 0 degrees about the negative Y-axis. 3 5 . 3 Pictures Generation of the T -776 Robot 3 The Cincinnati Milacron T -776 robot is an articulated type robot with six revolute joints. When given the orientation and position of the end effector, the angular displacements of the six joints can be calculated by using the reverse solution developed by Duffy[39]. Generally, there may be eight sets of joint angles which satisfy the given conditions. However, there is only one set of joint angles which satisfies the joint limitations and which has the least incremental change compared to the set of joint angles for the previous position. This set is selected to reduce the response time of the actuators. 3 The T -776 robot can be divided into a variety of components, namely, the base, prisms la, lb, 2a, 2b, 3, 4a, 4b, 5, 6 and the wrist (see figure 5.2). Each component is

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106 Figure 5.1 The relative positions among objects A, B and C

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107 The components of the T^-776 robot Figure 5.2

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108 assigned a local coordinate system to define the coordinates of the points. Provided that the fixed coordinate system is located at the center of the bottom surface of the base, the positions of the origins of all local coordinate system corresponding to the fixed coordinate system can be calculated by considering simply the joint angles and link lengths. The positions of the origins and the joint angles found above are used to transform all components to their appropriate positions. Furthermore, each of the component is composed of several polygons. When the normal vectors of the polygons are visible from an specified view point, the polygons are visible. Otherwise, they are not visible and it is not necessary to draw them. In addition, a polygon may be covered by other polygons drawn later. Therefore, the sequence of drawing the components must be arranged 3 carefully. A simple and fast method to display the T -776 robot is now described. 1. Usually, the coordinate system of a terminal is set at the left bottom corner of the screen. The positive X and Y-axes are the abscissa and ordinate respectively and the positive Z-axis points out of the screen. The three axes determine eight quadrants labeled by 1,2,..., 8 which are depended on the signs of the coordinates (see figure 5.3). The space composed of quadrants 1, 4, 5 and 8 is called the front half space; while the space composed of quadrants 1 and 4 is called the upper half space. A surface of any

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109 Octant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 X + + + + Y + + + + Z + + + + Figure 5.3 The signs of the coordinates The positive Z-axis belongs to the upper half space? Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No base base base base 2a 2a 2b 2b 2a 2a 2b 2b 4a 4a 4b 4b la la lb lb 3 wrist 3 wrist 4a 4a 4b 4b 5 6 5 6 3 wrist 3 wrist 6 5 6 5 5 6 5 6 wrist 3 wrist 3 6 5 6 5 la la lb lb wrist 3 wrist 3 4b 4b 4a 4a lb lb la la lb lb la la 4b 4b 4a 4a 2b 2b 2a 2a 2b 2b 2a 2a base base base base 3 Figure 5.4 The flow chart of drawing the T -776 robot Yes The positive to the front Y'-axis belongs half space? Yes No The positive X"-axis belongs to the front half space? The positive X"-axis belongs to the front half space? No The positive Y'-axis belongs to the front half space? Yes No The positive The positive X"-axis X"axis belongs to belongs to the front the front half space? ha] .f space?

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110 component of the robot is visible only when its normal vector belongs to the front half space. 2. The sequence of displaying the components can be arranged based on the orientations of the positive Z, Y' and X"-axes (see figure 5.4). The components are drawn sequentially one after another. 5 . 4 Motion Simulation of the T -776 Robot An example of the application of the path generation algorithm developed in the previous chapters is displayed in figure 1.1. The heights of the initial and goal positions and the pre-determined Archimedes's spiral path is shown in figure 2.16. The objects D, E and F are outside the fan-shaped area. As described before, they are removed without further consideration; while objects A, B and C are expanded to enable the shoulder and arm to be considered as line segments. The expanded objects together with the initial ArchimedesÂ’s spiral are illustrated in figure 5.5. Figure 5.6 shows all vertical planes determined by the Z-axis and the vertices of the top surfaces of obstacles A, B and C. Each of these planes generates the cross sections of the wrist's workspace and obstacles. Figure 5.7 illustrates a projection of one of the cross sections of the wristÂ’s workspace and obstacles on the X-Z plane. Further the labels "+" and " 4 " are used to indicate the projections of the initial and goal positions in the X-Z plane while "o"

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Ill Figure 5.5 The robot and expanded obstacles Figure 5.6 The vertical planes cut through the obstacles

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112 Figure 5.7 The end effector moves straight towards the goal position Figure 5.8 The end effector moves upwards to avoid collision

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113 represents the projection of the reachable end effector point in the previous cross section. It should be noted that when the manipulator is not prevented from moving towards the goal position by an obstacle, the end effector is driven along the line segment joining "+" and "A". However, when the manipulator is prevented from moving towards the goal position by an obstacle, it is raised higher to avoid collision. For instance (see figure 5.8), instead of moving from "a" to "A" on a straight line, the end effector point is raised parallel to the Z-axis to avoid an obstacle. In figure 5.9, the end effector is moved from the reachable point "o" in the previous cross section to the new position above the lower bound of the reachable area to avoid collision (see section 3.2 for details). After the manipulator has been guided over the obstacle in this way, it moves straight again towards the goal position (see figure 5.10) The reachable points found in all cross sections are modified and then connected seguentially to produce a smooth collision-free path. The sequential motion of the manipulator along the modified path is illustrated by the series of figures 5.11 to 5.17. The program has been excuted on a VAX 11/750 computer. The total CPU time to find the modified path is less than two seconds.

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114 Figure 5.9 The end effector moves over the obstacle Figure 5.10 The end effector moves towards the goal position again

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115 Figure 5.11 Motion simulation 1 Figure 5.12 Motion simulation 2

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116 Figure 5.14 Motion simulation 4

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117 Figure 5.16 Motion simulation 6

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118 Figure 5.17 Motion simulation 7

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CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS In this dissertation, an algorithm to automatically generate a collision-free path for robot manipulators has been developed. This algorithm can increase the autonomous ability of a robot manipulator operating in a obstacle-strewn environment. The algorithm has been implemented and validated using the computer graphics pictures display of the seguential motion of the robot manipulator . It is anticipated that a modification of the algorithm developed in this dissertation could be used when the end effector grasps an object. In such a case, the collision avoidance of the end effector and grasped object with surrounding obstacles must be considered together with the determination of the reachable wrist points. Another suggested extension is to consider movable obstacles. In this case, the environment is changed at any instance. Theoretically, it is necessary to continuously check whether there is collision between the manipulator and obstacles. However, when the obstacles are far away from the manipulator, the algorithm should have the abililty to check in what time period the motion is free from collision. 119

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120 When a pair of robot manipulators work together, the links of one of the robots are considered as movable objects. The algorithm developed for above case can be modified to apply to this case. Finally, the algorithm needs to be extended to include obstacles with inclided faces. The determination of the lower bound of the wrist's reachable area is more complicated for such obstacles. Following the development of computer software, the technigues of artificial intelligence and expert system are useful in solving decision-making problems. It is a wise choice to solve path planning problems by applying computer techniques and geometric theory.

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APPENDIX A where Three relat i Z h: the offset of joint 1. a: the length of link 2. b: the length of link 3. x: the X coordinate of the wrist. 1: the height of the obstacle, eguations can be derived through the geometric on of the above figure. tantf) = (c z) / (x d) (1) asin© = bsincj) + z (2) acos© = X bcoscj) (3) 121

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122 ( 2 ) ^ + ( 3 ) ^ yields ? = (bsiri(j5 + z)^ + (x bcos(|)) (4) Solving equation (4) yields zsincf) xcos(|> = a2 b2 x2 2b (5) From (1), sincj) and coscj) are calculated and given by ( 6 ) (7) sincj) = (c-z) / ((x-d)^ + (c-z)^)^/^ coscj) = (x-d) / ((x-d)2 + (c-z)^)^/^ Substituting (6) and (7) into (5) yields z(c-z) x(x-d) ( (x-d)^ + (c-z)^)^/^ a2 b2 z2 x2 2b ( 8 ) which can be expressed in the form (x-d)^ + (c-z)^ = (2b(z(c-z) x(x-d))) (a^ b^ z^ x^)^ (9) or + (c-z)^ ( 2b( z( c-z) xp) ) , 2.2 (q z ) ( 10 ) where p = x d 2 k2 ^2 q = a b X

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123 Expanding (10) yields + slz^ + s2z^ + s3z^ + s4z^ + s5z + where si = -2c s2 = 2 2 2 2q 4b^ s3 = 4qc + 8cb^ s4 = q(q 2(c^ + p^)) 4b^(c^ + 2xp) s5 = -2q^c + Sb^xpc s6 = 2 2 2 2 q (c + p^) (2bxp)^ s6 = 0

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REFERENCES 1. Udupa, S. M., "Collision Detection and Avoidance in Computer Controlled Manipulators," Fifth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 1977, pp. 737-748. 2. Lozano-Perez , T. , "An Algorithm for Planning Collision Free Paths Among Polyhedral Obstacles," Communication of the ACM 22, Vol. 10, October 1979, pp. 560-570. 3. Lozano-Perez, T. , "Automatic Planning of Manipulator Transfer Movements," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol. SMC-11. No. 10, October 1981, pp. 681-698. 4. Lozano-Perez, T. , "Spatial Planning: A Configuration Space Approach," IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. C-32, No. 2, February 1983, pp . 108-120. 5. Brooks, R. A., "Solving the Find-Path Problem by Good Representation of Free Space," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol. SMC-13, No. 2, 1983, pp. 190-197. 6. Brooks, R. A., "Planning Collision Free Motions for Pick and Place Operations," The First International Robotics Research Symposium, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1984, pp. 5-38. 7. Myers, J. K. , "A Supervisory Collision-Avoidance System for Robot Controllers," Robotics Research and Advanced Applications, W.J. Book, ed . , ASME, New York, 1983, pp. 225-232. 8. Myers, J. K. , "A Robotic Simulator With Collision Detection: RCODE," First Annual Workshop on Robotics and Expert Systems, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 1985, pp. 205-213. 9. Kuntze, H. B. and Schill, W. , "Methods for Collision Avoidance in Computer Controlled Industrial Robots," Proceeding of 12th International Symposium on Industrial Robots and 6th International Conference on Industrial Robot Technology, Paris, France, June 9-11 , 1982, pp . 519-530. 124

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125 10. Faverjon, B. , "Obstacle Avoidance Using An Octree in the Configuration Space of A Manipulator," International Conference on Robotics, Atlanta, Georgia, March 13-15, 1984, pp. 504-512. 11. Gouzenes, L. , "Collision Avoidance for Robots in an Experimental Flexible Assembly Cell," International Conference on Robotics, Atlanta, Georgia, March 13-15, 1984, pp. 474-476. 12. Gouzenes, L. , "Strategies for Solving Coll isionfree Trajectories Problems for Mobile and Manipulator Robots," The International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 3, No. 4, Winter 1984, pp. 51-65. 13. Wang, E. and Fu , K. , "A Hierarchical-Orthogonal-Space Approach to Collision-Free Path Planning," IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, St. Louis, Missouri, March 25-28, 1985, pp. 506-511 14. Dupont, P. and Derby, S., "Planning Collision Free Paths for Redundant Robots Using a Selective Search of Conf igulation Space," ASME Mechanisms Conference, Columbus, Ohio, July 1, 1986. 15. Hollerbach, J. M. and Suh, K. C. , "Redundancy Resolution of Manipulators Through Torque Optimization," Proceedings of 1985 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, IEEE Computer Society Press, Silver Spring, Maryland, pp. 1016-1021. 16. Maciejewski, A. A. and Klein, C. A., "Obstacle Avoidance for Kinematically Redundant Manipulator in Dynamically Varying Environments," The International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 4, 1986, pp. 109-117 17. Dubowsky, S. and Shiller, Z., "Optimal Dynamic Trajectories for Robotic Manipulators," Proceedings of the CISM-IFTOMM Symposium on the Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators, Udine, Italy, June 1984. 18. Dubowsky, S. and Blubaugh, T. D. , "Time Optimal Robotic Manipulator Motions and Work Places for Point to Point," Proceedings of the 24th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, December 11-13, 1985 19. Dubowsky, S., Norris, M. and Shiller, Z., "Time Optimal Trajectory Planning for Robotic Manipulators with Obstacle Avoidance: A CAD Approach," IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Louis, Missouri April 7-10, 1986, Paper No. 276.

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126 20. Fenton, R. G. , Benhabib, B. and Goldenberg, A. A., "Optimal Pointto-Point Motion Control of Robots with Redundant Degrees of Freedom," ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry, Vol . 108, 1986, pp 120-126. 21. Seeger, G. H. and Paul, R. P. , "Optimizing Robot Motion Along a Predefined Path," IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, St. Louis, Missouri, March 25-28, 1985, pp. 765-770. 22. Luh , J. Y. and Lin, C. S., "Optimum Path Planning for Mechanical Manipulators," ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, Vol. 102, June 1981, pp. 142-151. 23. Rajan, V. T. , "Minimum Time Trajectory Planning," IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, St. Louis, Missouri, March 25-28, 1985 , pp . 759-764. 24. Sahar, G. and Hollerbach, J., "Planning of Minimum-Time Trajectories for Robot Arms," IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, St. Louis, Missouri, March 25-28, 1985, pp . 751-758. 25. Lumelsky, V. J., "On Dynamic Path Planning for a Planar Robot Arm," Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, Report No. 8505, April 1985. 26. Lumelsky, V. J. , "Continuous Path Planning for Various Planar Robot Arm Configuration," Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, Report No. 8506, May 1985. 27. Lumelsky, V. J., "Effect of Kinematics on Motion Planning for Planar Robot Arms Moving Amidst Unknown Obstacles," IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, Vol. RA-3, No. 3 June 1987. 28. Lumelsky, V. J. , "Dynamic Path Planning for a Planar Articulated Robot Moving Amidst Unknown Obstacles," Will be Published in the IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, Vol. RA-3, No. 5, September 1987. 29. Lumelsky, V. J. , "Continuous Path Planning for a Threedimensional Cartesian Robot Arm," Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, Report No. 8507, May 1985. 30. Young, L. and Duffy, J. , "A Theory for the Articulation of Planar Robots; Part I Kinematic Analysis for the Flexure and the Parallel Operation of Robots," ASME Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions, and Automation in Design, Vol 109, No. 1, pp. 29-36.

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127 31. Young, L. and Duffy, J. , "A Theory for the Articulation of Planar Robots: Part II Motion Planning Procedure for Interference Avoidance," ASME Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions, and Automation in Design, Vol 109, No. 1, pp. 37-41. 32. Derby, S. , "In Position: Simulating Robotic Workcells on a Micro," Computers in Mechanical Engineering, Vol . 5 , No. 2, September 1986, pp. 34-37. 33. Crane, C. D. , "Motion Planning and Control of Robot Manipulators Via Application of a Computer Graphics Animated Display," Ph.D Disseration, University of Florida, May 1987. 34. Crane, C. D, and Duffy, J. , "An Interactive Animated Display of Man-Controlled and Autonomous Robots," Proceeding of the ASME International Computer in Engineering Conference and Exhibition, Chicago, Illinois, July 20-24, 1986, pp. 35-38. 35. Leu, M. C., "Elements of Computer Graphic Robot Simulation," Proceeding of the ASME International Computers in Engineering Conference & Exhibition, Boston, Massachusetts, August 4-18, 1985, pp. 65-72. 36. Anderson, C. , "Computer Applications in Robotic Design," Proceedings of the ASME Internatinal Computers in Engineering Conference, Chicago, July 1986, pp. 50-56. 37. Mahajan, R. and Walter, S. , "Computer Aided Automation Planning: Workcell Design and Simulation," Robotics Engineering , Vol. 8, No. 8, August 1986, pp. 12-15. 38. Rogers, D. F. and Adams, J. A., Mathematical Elements for Computer Graphics, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1976. 39. Duffy, J. , Analysis of Mechanisms and Robotic Manipulators , , John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1980.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ching-Shiow Tseng was born in 1955 at a small village in Taiwan where most residents live on farming. After graduation from National Cheng-Kung University, he worked in industry for five years. He was satisfied with the opportunities of finding his interests. He never dreamed that one day he would study in the United States. Fortunately, everything has gone well since he came to this country in August 1983. He got his master's degree in mechanical engineering in April 1985. He is the kind of person who will do his best to enjoy life. 128

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a disseration for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, ^2 Jose'ph Duffy, ip^airman Graduate Research Professor of Mechanical Engineering I certify that I have read the study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a disseration for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. ^orge N. Sand or Research Professor of Mechanical Engineering I certify that I have read the study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a disseration for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Ali Serig Ebaud Professor of Mechanical Engineering I certify that I have read the study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a disseration for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. hn Staudhammer Professor of Electrical Eng ineer ing

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I certify that I have read the study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a disseration for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. This disseration was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Engineering and to the Graduate School, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the deqree of Doctor of Philosophy. December 1987 David Wilson Professor of Mathematics Dean, Graduate School