GENERATING LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT NETWORK: A FRAMEWORK FOR SU STAINABLE ST O R MWATER MANAGEMENT DESIGN USING PUBLIC OPEN SPACES IN THE T UMBLIN CREEK WATERSHED, GAINESVILLE, FL BY SIYANG WEN A GRADUATE TE RMINAL PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE COMMITTEE : MARIA C. , CHAIR ROB HOLMES , MEMBER UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA SUMMER 201 5
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 1 Â© 201 5 Siyang Wen
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost, I am enormously grateful to my parents for their endless love, support , and encouragement both emotionall y and financially over the course of my education. I would also like to thank my committee members and mento rs, Tina Gurucharri and Rob Holmes, for their guidance, support , patience , and passion in help ing me to not only develop this graduate te rminal project , but also grow as a thinker and landscape architect. Last but not least, I offer my sincere gratitude to all the people, near and far, who have supported the completion of this work. Thank you for your generosity, time, energy, and patience.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 2 Table o f Contents ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 3 List o f Figures ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 5 Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 7 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCT ION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 9 1.1 C ONTEXT : F LORIDA B ACKGROUND ABOUT S TORMWATER M ANAGEMENT ................................ ................................ ............. 9 1. 2 O VERVIEW I SSUES OF G AINESVILLE S S TORMWATER M ANAGEMENT ................................ ................................ ................. 11 1. 3 G OALS , O BJECTIVES AND R ESEARCH Q UESTIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 14 CHAPTER 2: LITERATUR E REVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 1 7 2.1 O VERVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 17 2. 2 C ONCERNS A SSOCIATE D WITH S TORMWATER IN U RBAN W ATERSHEDS ................................ ................................ ............... 17 2.3 T RADITIONAL S TORMWATER M ANAGEMENT S TRATEGIES D ISADVANTAGES FOR U RBAN W ATERSHEDS ................................ ..... 19 2. 4 L OW I MPACT D EVELOPMENT S TRATEGIES A DVANTAGES F OR U RBAN W ATERSHEDS ................................ ............................. 20 2. 5 D EFINING LID N ETWORK ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 2 2 2. 6 LID N ETWORK A PPROACH VS . LID F ACILITIES ON A S ITE ................................ ................................ ................................ . 2 5 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLO GY ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 27 3.1 O VERVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 28 3. 2 C ASE S TUDIES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 29 3. 2 .1 Porchscapes: An Affordable LEED Neighborhood Development ................................ ................................ 30 3. 2 .2 Gowanus Canal Sponge Park ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 38 3. 2 .3 Sustainable Water Resource Management Plan for Winter Haven and the Peace Creek Watershed ........ 49 3. 3 A NALYSIS OF E XISTING C ONDITION S ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 59 3. 3 .1 Stormwater Management Conditions in the Tumblin Creek Watershed ................................ .................... 5 9 3. 3 .2 Existing LID Projects/Applications ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 6 3 3. 4 P RINCIPLES FOR S ELECTING S UITABLE LID S TRATEGIES TO FORM NE TWORK ................................ ................................ ......... 6 5 CHAPTER 4: SITE ANAL YSIS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 68 4.1 O VERVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 6 8 4.2 C ONTEXT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 68 4. 2 .1 Location ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 68 4. 2 .2 Watershed Context ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 70 4. 3 L AND U SE AND A CTIVITIES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 72 4. 4 H YDROLOGIC S OIL T YPES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 74 4. 5 H YDROLOGIC C HARACTERS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 77 4. 5 .1 Watershed Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 77
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 4 4. 5 .2 On S ite Flow Paths ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 79 4. 6 S LOPE AND E ROSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 82 4. 7 C ONTAMINANT S T YPES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 84 4. 8 P UBLIC O PEN S PACES D ISTRIBUTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 85 4. 8 .1 Green Spaces ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 85 4. 8 .2 Impervious Areas ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 89 4. 9 S YNTHESIS M AP ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 90 CHAPTER 5 : DESIGN GUIDELINES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 94 5.1 S YNTHESIS OF G UIDELINES FOR LID N ETWORK ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 94 5.1.1 Intended Users ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 95 5.1.2 Watershed Planning and Design Process ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 95 5.1. 3 Sub watersheds Division ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 97 5.1. 4 Linkage Strategies ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 100 5.2 C ONCEPTUAL M ASTER P LAN OF THE T UMBLIN C REEK W ATERSHED ................................ ................................ ................. 110 5. 3 P LANTING S ELECTION S UGGESTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 111 CHAPTER 6 : CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 114 6.1 M AJOR F INDINGS AND C ONTRIBUTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 114 6.2 L ESSONS L EARNED ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 114 6.3 L IMITATIONS OF T HIS R ESEARCH P ROJECT AND S UGGESTIONS FOR F UTURE R ESEARCH ................................ ........................ 118 Appendix ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 1 20 References ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 1 42
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 5 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 1: The Floridan Aquifer 9 Figure 1 2: Gainesville Location Map 11 Figure 1 3: Gain esville Area Watersheds Map 13 Figure 2 1: Conventional vs LID Strategies 20 Figure 2 2: Hydrologic Cycle 21 Figure 3 1: Urban Ecological Context 31 Figure 3 2: Existing Site Hydrology, LID Solution & Neighborhood Sub watersheds 32 Figure 3 3: The Shared Street 35 Figure 3 4: Stormwater Facilities Menu 36 Figure 3 5: Site Plan 37 Figure 3 6: Gowanus Canal Watershed and Existing Outfalls 40 Figure 3 7: Gowanus Canal Issues Prevention Flow Diagram 41 Figure 3 8: Gowanus Canal Sponge Park Water Remediation & Program Elements 43 Figure 3 9: Site Plan 45 Figure 3 10: 2 nd Street Pilot Sponge Park System 47 Figure 3 1 1 : LID Strategies for Different Levels of Rain Events 48 Figure 3 1 2 : Street End Axonometric 48 Figure 3 1 3 : Map of Historical Peace Creek Watershed and reek Watershed 50 Figure 3 1 4 : Stormwater Capture System of a Residential Neighborhood in Southwest Winter Haven and the Downtown Winter Haven Commercial District 53 Figure 3 1 5 : Wetland Storage Areas and Stormwater Treatment Areas 55 Figure 3 1 6 : Site Plan 55 Figure 3 1 7 : Strategies for permitting development in undeveloped areas of Winter Haven 58 Figure 3 1 8 : Map of the Tumblin Creek Watershed and Gainesville urban center 59 Figure 3 1 9 : Map of Existing LID Projects within the Tumblin Creek Watershed 63
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 6 Figure 4 1: Context of the Tumblin Creek Watershed 70 Figure 4 2: Enhancement Wetland in Paynes Prairie Sheetflow Restoration Project 71 Figure 4 3 : The Tumblin Creek Watershed Land Use Map 72 Figure 4 4 : Hydrologic Soil Types Map 74 Figure 4 5 : Drainage Class Map 75 Figure 4 6 : Watershed Analysis Map 78 Figure 4 7 : Surface Flow Direction Map 81 Figure 4 8 : Slope Analysis Map 83 Figure 4 9 : Green Spaces Map 87 Figure 4 10 : 88 Figure 4 11 : Impervious Surfaces Map 89 Figure 4 12 : Synthesis Map 92 Figure 5 1 : Watershed Level Low Impact Development Control Plan 96 Figure 5 2 : Sub watersheds Division 97 Figure 5 3 : LID Networks Implementation through Parks 101 Figure 5 4 : LID Networks Delivery by Greenways 103 Figure 5 5 : LID Networks Delivery by Conservation Areas 104 Figure 5 6 : LID Networks Delivery by Right of Way 106 Figure 5 7 : Bioswale Placements in Different Land Uses 107 Figure 5 8 : LID Networks Delivery by Parking Lots 108 Figure 5 9 : Master Plan 110 Figure 5 1 0 ~1 4 : Planting Recommendations 111 ~ 113
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 7 ABSTRACT The goal of this graduate terminal project was to show how to balance the needs for urban development with stormwater management within limited land space by applying the concept of the Low Impact Development (LID) networks , which is developed by The University of Arkansas Community Design Center (UACDC) , to a new ge ography (urban watershed level). LID networks mainly utilize public open spaces for stormwater management in urban watersheds. Tumblin Creek Watershed, an urban watershed located in Gainesville, Florida, was selected as an example for addressing this goal. Due stormwater management issues, this project designs LID networ ks for the Tumblin Creek watershed be examining various types of public open spaces and how they relate to the LID strategies. The research objectives were to (1) identify public open spaces in Tumblin Creek Watershed that could potentially be used for sto rmwater management, and (2) analyze issues and stormwater features of the Tumblin Creek Watershed to figure out suitable LID facilities, then to combine them to form a LID network. The primary method for this graduate terminal project was an in depth lite rature review along with multiple case studies , and applying in design to demonstrate the possibility and issues of creating a LID network in the Tumblin Creek Watershed . The literature review provide s insight into understanding LID network s and their patt erns, while the case studies analyzed and identified how to choose suitable LID facilities for public open spaces to form LID network under specific conditions. In addition, site analysis was utilized to measure the suitability of public open spaces to create a LID network that balances local need for development , as well as environmental protection. Moreover, developing design guidelines offers the opportunities for figuring out how LID networks can be applied to the Tumblin Creek Watershed and revealing issues that would be encountered in creating the LID network.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 8 The project conclu ded that the vegetated open spaces (including parks, greenways, and self organizing conservation areas), right of ways, and parking lots of the Tumblin Creek watershed could form a connected LID network. D esigners and developers can learn from the strategies discussed in this project to create sustainable urban environment with LID networks in the future .
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 9 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 CONTEXT: FLORIDA BACKGROU ND ABOUT STORMWATER MANAGEMENT Fig. 1 1 The Floridan Aquifer Source: 2008 City of Ocoee A s a result of urban sprawl, many cities in Florida have a growing number of low density development areas that are composed of impervious surfaces that block natural hydrologic process es , lead ing to stream ecosystem degradation. In addition, due to geographic conditions , such as lots of rainfall, Florida Aquife r and surficial aquifer limestone, high water tables, and different permitting requirements in quasi independent water management districts, various problems that complicate the continuing operation and maintenance of decentralized water management systems also arise (Penniman, 2012) (s ee Fig. 1 1) . To counter these problems, a limited number of pioneering counties in Florida are in the process of developing Low Impact Development (LID) Design Manuals and Applications. However, the initial process did not g o as smoothly as anticipated. According to The Florida Watershed Journal , unclear LID design and approval criteria are the major challenges to implementing LID
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 10 in Florida (Kipp, Lathrop, Hostetler, Clark & Jones, 2011). Conflict between public works, urgent management standards and ways to integrate different stormwater facilities is an important issue that calls for more research as well. Moreover, most of the LID manuals in Florida are currently limited t o a single site. How to deal with these problems and design an appropriate approach to integrate LID facilities on a watershed level in Florida is the challenge and purpose of this study. Table. 1 1 Major Challenges and Solutions to LID Implementation i n Florida Source: The Florida Watershed Journal, winter 2011, Volume 4, Issue 1 Because of recent change in Florida's regulations on stormwater management, more opportunities for development of LID design become possible. The new regulations allow people
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 11 to use more innovative solutions suitable for urban development, including permitting LID designs. Under the new regulations, redevelopment projects are able to devise master plans that are different from the traditional "greenfield" development plan. At t he same time, state regulatory agencies are starting to emphasize the quality, rather than the quantity, of stormwater primary challenge in implementation of LID in Florida 1). 1.2 Fig. 1 2 Gainesville Location Map Source: Gainesville (Florida), Wikipedia The city of Gainesville is located in Alachua County in northern Florida. Gainesville was Gainesville Alachua County Florida
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 12 officially founded on January 24, 1854, and named after General Edmund Pendleton Gaines (1777 1849) (Mccarthy and Laurie, 1997, 7). The University of Florida, which has more than 50,000 students now, established its first campus in Gainesville in September 1906 (Ufl.edu, 2014). As of 2012, Gainesville had a population of 126,047 (Quickfacts.census.gov, 2014). Gainesville is in the St. Johns River Water Management District. Since Gainesville is situated on Gainesville constantly needs to improve and maintain drainage facilities to prevent flood ing that comes along with increased urban development. ( City of Gainesville , 2015). There are several significant existing problems in Gainesville's stormwater management. First, stormwater conveyance systems are undersized in some parts of Gainesville, wh ich leads to the flooding of roadways during intense raining season (Ivey, Harris and Walls, Inc., 2001) . Second, aging storm water infrastructure has resulted in pollution and sinkholes ( D. Gilreath , personal communication, November 13 , 20 14 ) . The sanitary sewer lines around the College Park/University Height Area are old and leaky, which may cause an increase of E.Coli, in reek Watershed. Over the past twenty five years, sinkholes have been increasing ly common, primarily due to and Upgrading and replac ing th is infrastructure is a vital issue for Gainesville. Without a proactive look at our needs and solutions to address them, the stormwater infrastructure will fail, especially with continued population growth . Third, suitable lands/locations for stormwater management systems that treat water quality are hard to find because these lands/locations require percolating soils (D. Gilreath , personal communication, November 13 , 20 14 ; G IS analysis by author ) . Unfortunately, some urban areas of Gainesville lack this kind of soils in small lot sizes. Fourth, spatial requirements of land development, stormwater management and wetland mitigation/restoration are difficult to balance due to th e wetlands of Eastside of Gainesville (D. Gilreath , personal communication, November 13 , 20 14 ) . These components while interrelated are often competing against each other for limited urban space. Gainesville was home to
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 13 numerous wetlands, also called marshes or swamps, before rapid urbanization. Wetlands, as an important part of ecological systems, offer habitats to organisms and help to control stormwater by slowing down storm surges and assimilating surface runoff. Wetl ands also help to filter out pollutants in stormwater before it reaches fragile waterways (St. Johns River Water Management District, 2003). Over the years, failures to address stormwater problems and overdevelopment of land have led to the destruction of wetlands and other natural drainage systems by blocking stormwater runoff from recharging back into ground water. The destruction of wetlands and the increase of impervious areas heightens the danger of flooding, since it leaves stormwater without any natu ral outlet. Fig. 1 3 Gainesville Area Watersheds Map Source: Public Works Department, Stormwater Services. Retrieved from http://gainesvillecreeks.org/images/watershedmaps/GainesvilleAreaWatershedMap.gif
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 14 Finally, with the limited number of stormwater p onds and basins currently in place, an expansion of stormwater infrastructure is imperative in order to alleviate the pollution issues and flooding risks that have plagued Gainsville. For example, in the University of Florida, there are almost 400 storm dr ains to only 11 ponds and 2 basins. This kind of uneven ratios and too centralized stormwater infrastructure often cause recurring storms to flow through more areas than necessary, thus, has led to increased pollutants , such as fertilizers, pesticides, motor oil, and heavy metals , in stormwater runoff (St. Johns River Water Management District, 2003). The polluted stormwater runoff wash es off of lawns, sid ewalks, roads and parking lots, then flowes into natural waterbodies, which should be addressed by m ore decentralized stormwater infrastructure (St. Johns River Water Management District, 2003) . 1.3 GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS This terminal project explores adaptive Low Impact Development (LID) stormwater treatment approaches for urban watersheds for the purpose of balancing land development and stormwater management demand , using Gainesville as an example of a typical Florida city . This study applies the concept of LID networks, which is developed by The University of Arkansas Community Design Center (UACDC) , to a new geography watershed scale , instead of a site or lot scale. It also attempts to integrate different treatment gional scale stormwater management systems. Hence, the LID network could contributes to the entire watershed, instead of a single developer. UACDC recommends the consideration of different scales while designing LID approach, from buildings to open spaces, because, as Wendell Berry (UACDC, 2010). Each scale offers suitable stormwater treatment technologies. Their interfaces or ecotones provide opportunities for creating LID networks. LID networks connect urban hydrologic systems and achieve sustainable urban water management.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 15 In this study, Gainesville's Tumblin Creek Watershed is selected as a sample for exploring adaptive Low Impact Development approaches a t the scale of a watershed . The Tumblin Creek Watershed is selected because it, like most urban areas of Gainesville, was built before stormwater regulations. With urban development and population growth, stormwater management systems must be implemented to satisfy current regulations while redeveloping and demand for stormwater management and contains the various conditions of developed urban areas, such as tiny lot sizes, existing infrastructure s and tight right of way s , which rest rict st o r extensive impervious surfaces, but also due to its elevated levels of E.Coli, presumed to be a symptom of old, leaky sanitary sewer lines within the watershed. LID network presents an innovative and effective solution for these issues. The intent of this study is to develop design guidelines for implementing LID stormwater strategies in the public open spaces (community, conservation, parks, and greenways) of of the roadways during intense rain, based on Gainesville's situation and Florida's ne w regulations. To achieve this goal, it is essential to incorporate the terrain surrounding the Tumblin Creek Watershed while designing its LID networks, insofar as the surrounding conditions affect the integration of the l open spaces. The LID networks can not only help small lots, redeveloped lands, and infill projects to manage stormwater, but also maximize available developing areas and preserve natural landscapes (such as wetlands). The research objectives were to (1) identify public open spaces in the Tumblin Creek watershed that could potentially be utilized for stormwater management, and (2) analyze issues and stormwater features of the Tumblin Creek watershed to determine which facilities are most suitable to form the LID network. In order to recommend how the urban watershed might utilize the public open spaces as a basis for a sustainable way to conduct urban stormwater management, thi s research will address these questions:
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 16 (1) What are the characteristics of public open spaces that are suitable for implementing LID facilities to reduce pollutants? (2) What are the characteristics of public open spaces that are suitable for implementing LID f acilities to prevent flooding? (3) What are the characteristics of the Tumblin Creek watershed that affect stormwater function and the connectivity of LID facilities within the LID network?
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 17 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 OVERVIEW Based on the research topic, the use of public open spaces in forming an LID network that balances urban development and stormwater management, the literature review consists of five parts. The first section details the impacts of urban stormwater to a watershed of a city. The second section describes traditional stormwater management strategies and their shortcomings under urban watersheds setting. The third section provides an alternative solution , Low Impact Development facilities for urban watersheds. The fourth section defi nes Low Impact Development networks and discusses related LID methods that form the network. The last section compares the LID network approach with building LID facilities only on a single site. 2.2 CONCERNS ASSOCIATE D WITH STORMWATER IN URBAN WATERSHEDS Ur ban stormwater typically causes multiple problems, two of which are especially relevant to this work: erosion and flooding, which disrupt water supplies ; and the pollution of rivers and streams from stormwater (Wang, 2012) . Those proble ms are particularly significant in cities undergoing urban development. The large amount of construction and industrial wastes produced by development gradually pollute stormwater and , in turn, stormwater carries those pollutants into urban hydrological systems. Furthermore, urban development inevitably increases the size of impervious surface areas, which on, Weiss & iver, 2013). Urban stormwater could significantly impact both the quantity and quality of water
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 18 ver, 2013). As early as 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found that, among hydrological, biological, chemical, and physical impacts of stormwater, the most worrisome one is biological integrity and habitat changes that are caused by the l oading of pollutants, such as sediment, nutrients, bacteria and metals (US EPA, 1992). Although the extent of impacts usually depend s on the pace of urbanization of watersheds, it is more and more common to find less urbanized areas which are polluted due to stormwater mismanagement. According to a recent study, even watersheds with below 10% urbanized areas would likely to show significant signs of negative impacts (Erickson, Weiss & Gulliver, 2013). More importantly, urban stormwater also causes flow and channel alteration. The study of Erickson, Weiss & Gulliver (2013) summarized related information as follow: hydrology in several ways One way is an increase in the runoff inches of runoff to inches of rainfall) as the percentage of impervious surface in the watershed increases. Increasing imperviousness also leads to hydrographs with shorter (Paul and Meyer , 2001). temperatures, altered sediment discharge, unstable channels, fewer pools, and degraded habitat due to channelization. Evaluations of stream habitats ind channel alteration are major contributors to the observed decline in biological integrity often associated with increased imperviousness (Paul and Meyer 2001; Pitt 2002; Booth et al. 2002; and Schueler 2000a ). (P. 12) Lastly, the danger s of urban stormwater are not only limited to natural environment s , they are also detrimental to the public health of urban inhabitants. The expansion of urban areas hem to receiving waters during rain and snowmelt events. This non point source pollution is one of the
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 19 major threats to water quality in the United States and is linked to chronic and acute illnesses from exposure through drinking water, seafood, and conta ct recreation. Impervious surfaces also lead to pooling of stormwater, increasing potential breeding areas for mosquitoes, the disease Reynolds Foundation to Ri verLink, Inc., 2014). Urban stormwater contains many pollutants, including toxic metals and insecticides which come from impervious surfaces, such as roads and parking lots . As medical researchers pointed out, they are the likely causes of carcinogenic eff ects and disruption of hormonal systems to human body (Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation to RiverLink, Inc., 2014). 2.3 TRADITIONAL S DISADVANTAGES FOR URBAN WATERSHEDS Traditional stormwa ter management strategies refer to those approaches and centralized site, such as a natural waterbody, stormwater basin, or the sewer system of a wastewater treatment plant (Epa.gov, 2012). Tradit ional strategies focus on the quantity of stormwater, ignoring the quality. In other words, traditional strategies lack the function of purifying stormwater (Wang, 2012). The lack of re some of the hurdles that force traditional strategies to shy away from implementing effective control over stormwater pollution and treatment of drinking water (Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation to RiverLink, Inc., 2014). In spite of their effectiveness in reducing the volume of stormwater runoff and preventing flooding, traditional stormwater strategies create various environmental problems (Wang, 2012). First of all, aging sewer systems under conventional management give rise to the volume of untreated wat er, which may cause sinkhole formations. Secondly, water quality degradation is
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 20 also a byproduct of constant downstream flooding caused by traditional strategies (Wang, 2012). e all direct or indirect results of traditional strategies (Wang, 2012). In addition, traditional stormwater strategies could even threaten public health to some degree because untreated sewage flows directly into natural waterways along with excess stormw ater in cities that have a connected sewer overflow systems (Wang, 2012). Therefore, it is imperative to develop a new strategy that would both reduce pollution of stormwater runoff and protect public health at minimal cost. 2.4 LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT STRATE GIES ADVANTAGES FOR URBAN WATERSHEDS Fig. 2 1 Conventional vs LID Strategies Source: Diagram by author
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 21 LID strategies offer a way to manage stormwater by closely mimicking natural processes, thus, reducing dependence on traditional centralized water management facilities (Fenwick and New England Environmental Finance Center, 2012). Moreover, LID provides recourse for decontaminating stormwater, making it useful for irrigation and any other purposes short of drinking. At the same time, cleaner water through on site treatment can recharge urban hydrologic systems. Furthermore, LID facilities present more options for creation of an aesthetic landscape. Fig. 2 2 Hydrologic Cycle Source: Livingston, E.H., and E. McCarron. (1992). Stormwater Management: A Guide for Floridians . Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Tallahassee, FL. According to AHBL, URS (2011) in the Yakima Regional Low Impact Development Stormwater Design Manual stormwater on effec
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 22 a broader scale, ologic and ecological functions (Wang, 2012). LID strategies (AHBL, URS, 2011). With that in mind, a wide range of projects, from new development to revitalization projects, are able to utilize LID strategies in innovative ways (AHBL, URS, 2011). In addition, according to the small, distributed facilities, LID can enhance the envi ronment, protect water quality, and improve 2.5 DEFINING LID NETWORK Defined by UACDC, a regionally scaled systems of stormwater managemen ecological areas, forested preserves, heritage farmlands, street right of ways, and park and trail By using these open spaces, Not only do these networks preserve open spaces with recreational, aesthetic and ecological functions, they also provide more comprehensive ecological services (UACDC, fl ows. Open space connectivity is crucial for maintaining wildlife habitat and migration
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 23 corridors, which support urban biodiversity and ecosystem resiliency. Some climax mammalian species familiar to urban areas require over 50 square miles per adult. Most importantly, healthy open space networks house robust local genetic pools, sustaining ecosystem development and study released by The Trust for Public Land, revealed that for every 10 percent increase in forest The LID design manual of University of Arkansas Community Design Center suggests four different approaches to integrate public open space with LID strategies: conservation development, treatment parks, water harvesting parks and greenways (UACDC, 2010). The c onservation development approach , originally developed by Randall Arendt , is usually reserved for residential development or new developments. Just as its name suggests, (U ACDC, 2010). Under conservation design, public or quasi public interest are prioritized, ime agricultural land, forested areas, critical ecological habitat areas and upland buffers, should also be considered for residential and other areas that don't sat isfy the criteria for preservation. Unlike sprawl impervious parking lots, preserved trees and pervious pavement conserves ecological During design stages of conservation de velopment, the primary steps
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 24 The t oduce stormwater management as another new developments and retrofitting existing development. Incorporation of treatment parks is a (UACDC, 20 stormwater from surrounding public streets, which is currently being piped and transferred to of retention, treatment, filtration, and recreation areas with climate regulation and evapotranspiration functions. Through these parks, communities would foster better awareness about public ownership and ecological stewardship (UACDC, 2010). The w ater (U ACDC, 2010). This approach efficiently reduce s the cost of transporting runoff, as well as The recycled stormwater runoff, considerably cheaper than potable water, provides a sustainable alternative for irrigation. The water harvesting parks are commonly developed in the vicinity of agricultural areas so the process of water harvesting can be easier and more cost effective . The g reenways approach is an innovative way of c onnecting open spaces, and maintaining constructed, greenways increase the value o f adjacent properties; generate economic and
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 25 recreation activity; and are ideal (UACDC, 2010). To accomplish large scale stormwater treatment and flood protection, damage f treams and Greenways crossing design also affect s greenway function crossings and design of low example, replacing vehicular crossing s with pedestrian and bicycle bridges would, without a question, improve the preservation of natural features and topography. Stream crossing intervals should also be restricted to major roads and should not be in close proximity (UACDC, 2010). 2.6 LID NETWORK APPROACH VS. LID FACILITIES ON A SITE As shown above, the unique and innovative design of LID facilities is likely to produce many positive results, including but not limited to stormwater clean up, infiltration of stormwater, and more aesthetic all y pleasing landscape s; however, integration of independent LID facilities into a networks would exponentially magnify the resulting benefits. First, formation of LID networks would inevitably guide more developers toward LID implementation, giving a boost to a city's overall environment and reducing the amount of money the city has to channel into pollution reduction . LID networks follow a systems approach, which can maximize the benefits of LID because integrating numerous LID stormwater strategies can be more effective and save more money (Lehner, 1999) . Second, design of LID networks take into account existing ecological conditions, future patterns of development and stormwater management to create a balanced approach toward city of future patterns
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 26 of development and conservation is the opportunity it offers to pre identify the most logical and Similarly, LID networks offer to pre identify the most logical and fruitful ways of connecting stormwater treatment areas in new subdivisions. Third, LID networks offer an opportunity to create an interconnected network of stormwater treatment areas. Instead of simply building isolated sites with LID facilities, LID networks provide new subdivisions, as more and more properties are converted from fields and woodlands to Fou rth, LID networks can become invaluable assets when it comes to preservation of wildlife habitats, such as wetlands, and preventing them from becoming fragmented and nonfunctional (Arendt & Harper, 1996). Thus, a fun ction in more natural ways they can be restorative, renourishing, and replenishing of nature, 2000). For example, Vitoria Gasteiz, as the European Green Cap ital for 2012, implemented a Greenbelt Strategy to provide a rich ecosystem for a variety of local flora and fauna, and improved its water management by utilizing urban green infrastructure (Beatley, 2012) . More often than not, on site water quality treatment is an impediment to redevelopment, particularly in places where lands are at a premium. With the help of LID networks, public open spaces offer opportunities to help adjacent sites deal with stormwater management problems. Moreover, reaching the best solutions with the lowest life cycle costs will require multi track innovation in LID. A single LID facility will probably not meet the performance requirements, while networks formed by facilities with varied levels and functions will offer pollutant s treatment and volume reduction (UACDC, 2010).
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 27 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY Selecting Watershed for Study Identifying Stormwater Management Problems Classifying Related Hydrologic Control Functions Identifying Adjacent Public Open Spaces Gathering Information about Related LID Methods Conducting GIS Site Analysis Conducting Literature Review Conducting Case Studies Synthesizing Reviewing & Revising Drawing Conclusions Analysis Definition Application Source: Diagram by author Developing Design Guidelines
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 28 3.1 OVERVIEW This graduate terminal project uses the qualitative approach with mixed methods to explore the way to apply in a particular site the Tumblin Creek watershed. Research methods of this project mainly include literature review, case studies, GIS site analysis and design projection. As shown in the above diagram of research methodology , the process of this project is as follow: (1) S elect a watershed as the study area of this p roject to apply LID networks through investigating the stormwater management conditions of by published materials ; (2) Identify stormwater management problems related to the selected watershe d, the Tumblin Creek watershed , through literature and c onversation with a selected stormwater specialist of Gainesville; (3) Classify focuses of hydrologic control functions for various parts of this watershed to deal with different stormwater management problems based on the analysis of phase (2) ; (4) Gather information about related LID methods for LID networks by conducting literature review and case studies in order to understand the definitions, applications and principles of LID networks , and existing conditions of this watershed ; (5) Conduct GIS site analysis in context, land use, hydrologic characters, erosion, contaminants, public open spaces to synthesize site conditions to identify available public open spaces for stormwater management , si te constrains and opportunities for generating LID networks; (6) Develop design guidelines based on site synthesis, literature review and case studies to implement LID networks within this watershed ; (7) Integrate design and research to synthesize and reveal possibilities for LID networks within the Tumblin Creek watershed , based on results of s ite analysis, literature review, case studies, and design projection, which is a research strategy in landscape architecture for mapping new geography (Swaffield & Deming, 2011) ;
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 29 (8) Review and revise design guidelines based on phase (7), and then conclude the design priorities and lessons learned from creating a LID network in the Tumblin Creek watershed , and discuss the next steps to progress the design further . In t his chapter , the first section mainly examines successful applications of LID strategies in three similar projects in order to use these strategies for design guidelines. The second section analyzes existing conditions of the Tumblin Creek watershed, including stormwater management situations and existing LID projects. The third section synthesizes and explains principles for selecting suitable LID strategies to form LID networks. 3.2 CASE STUDIES Three case studies are conducted in this graduate termi nal project to obtain appropriate information and data to formulate an effective guideline for the stormwater management of Gainesville's Tumblin Creek Watershed. In order to do so, it is important to select cases that consist of different types of public open spaces and that work with the existing framework of the selected urban watershed. The selected cases carefully examine how past development plans integrated LID strategies into their developmental blueprints with specific focus on how they connect var ious public open spaces together to address the problems facing by stormwater management of urban watersheds. Each case provides valuable lessons that inspire ideas that would be incorporated into the overall design guideline for Gainesville's Tumblin Creek Watershed. The first case study, Porchscapes, is an excellent example of how to deal with concerns caused by stormwater during community development with implementation of LID strategies at the watershed level. Porchscapes focuses on transforming right of way, lawn, and other community open spaces to meet the social and ecological demand s of community. The secon d case study is the Gowanus Canal Sponge Park TM designed by dlandstudio llc. Since stormwater treatment and quality control are so crucial to restore an impaired urban watershed, it is vital to learn from successful
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 30 precedents that utilize LID strategies f or waterway restoration. The Gowanus Canal Sponge Park TM is one such case; it used vegetated landscape buffers, remediation wetland basins, and planted channels in streetscapes to recycle contaminated water and connected separate community landscapes to pu blic landscapes within the city. The third case study, the City of Winter Haven Water Sustainability Program, is an exemplary model for a sustainable stormwater plan. Its LID design greatly enhanced the ability to preserve existing natural hydrologic patte rns and turned the previously impaired watershed into a beautiful living space. 3.2.1 Porchscapes: An Affordable LEED Neighborhood Development Project Name Porchscapes Location Fayetteville, Arkansas Date Planned 2008 Construction Cost Projected housing construction costs of $60/ft 2 Size 8.8 acres Consultants University of A rkansas Community Design Center Client/Developer Habitat for Humanity of Washington County Features Neighborhood d eveloped into sub watersheds Use s of streets and adjacent open spaces to create treatment network s Environmental consideration incorporated into land use planning, infrastructural design , and community development Source of Table text: Gerfen, K. (2009). Porchscapes. Architect Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.architectmagazine.com/educational projects/porchscapes fayetteville ark.aspx Context: Porchscapes is a Habitat for Humanity residential project with 43 affordable housing units, located south of Fayetteville, Arkansas (Gerfen, 2009; University of Arkansas
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 31 Community Design Center, 2008). This pilot LEED Neighborhood Development (LEED ND) pr oject aim ed to combine affordability with Low Impact Development (LID) strategies to provide high value development that balances social, economic, and environmental issues in a greenfield site, using modest one floor, single family residences (Asla.org, 2 008; University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2008). Based on four prototypes, the housing units in this project were designed under Habitat for Humanity guidelines to integrate planning, infrastructural design, and land use policy with ecological s trategies (Gerfen, 2009; Asla.org, 2008). The landscapes of this project were planned in the regional watershed level (Du, 2012). Inspired by Dutch concept woonerf d ace design to create multipurpose landscapes (University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2008). In this project, LID technology was utilized instead of traditional stormwater management strategies to mitigate pollutions (Asla.org, 2008). Fig. 3 1 Urban Ecological Context Source: Asla.org,. (2008). ASLA 2008 Professional Awards_Porchscapes: An Affordable LEED Neighborhood Development. Retrieved from
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 32 http://asla.org/awards/2008/08winners/142.html Fig. 3 2 Existing Site Hydrology, LID solution & Neighborhood Sub watersheds Source: Asla.org,. (2008). ASLA 2008 Professional Awards_Porchscapes: An Affordable LEED Neighborhood Development. Retrieved from http://asla.org/awards/2008/08winners/142.html Site Analysis: Porchscapes was located in a greenfield, which is rapidly developing and only one mile away from the downtown area (Asla.org, 2008). Therefore, this project face d a demand to increase density through small lot development while also meeting the stormwater requirement s . S tormwater runoff highly impacts the watershed of this site, which causes increas ed volume, nutrient , and sediment load (Asla.org, 2008). The stormwater runoff from the
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 33 adjacent 120 acres then passes through th is site , mak ing its ecologies unique (Asla.org, 2008). Around this site, there are wetlands, floodplains, and drainage easements (Gerfen, 2009). Conserving three acre adjacent lands as a regional municipal park would preserve local hydrologic ecosystems (Asla.org, 2008) . More than 30% of this area is made up of hard surfaces, which leads to irreversible watershed degradation (University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2008). Traditional civil engineered systems cannot resist a 50 year storm event and often cause flooding (University of Arkansas Co mmunity Design Center, 2008). Porchscapes use d Smart Growth Planning and conservation planning strategies, which support preserving open spaces in the development of dense and walkable communities (Asla.org, 2008). Every building in the P orchscapes project h as front faÃ§ades near main entries facing public spaces such as right of way, park, and plaza, which offers opportunities to integrate public open spaces and P orchscapes to regenerate community infrastructures (Asla.org, 2008). Building typology and neighborhood treatment landscape development w ere designed simultaneously. Program Elements and Solutions: T he University of Arkansas Community Design Center (UACDC) integrate d LID strategies to answer the demand for affordable housing in site s with environmental constraints . Based on the Smart Growth and conservation planning, this project foster ed the community by aggregating single family housing units around common areas to create more density in the neighborhood (Gerfen, 2009). Por ches between houses and common areas were used for extend ing private home spaces into the public realm (Gerfen, 2009). Through landscape and other engaged layers, surrounding collective spaces link ed inhabitant s with one another (Gerfen, 2009). T his graduate terminal project mainly focuses on the innovative elements and solutions related to LID strategies. In order to ensur e that the overall water flow of the site remain con sistent with existing hydrological situation s , this neig hborhood was divided into sub watersheds through porch aggregation and building distribution (University of Arkansas
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 34 Community Design Center, 2008) . Porchscapes mainly form ed four sub watersheds: autocourt, north shared street plaza, mews court and south shared street plaza (Asla.org, 2008). Soft engineered system s were applied to each sub watershed and the entire site to form a LID network. E xisting agricultural ponds were re served for flow control and stormwater treatment, while previous detention ponds were removed. Existing conveyance swale s and easement were transformed into constructed stream s to link the sub watersheds and to direct redundant stormwater runoff that was not absorbed by the multiple sub watersheds treatment landscapes in to a conserved wet meadow for infiltration. All the stormwater runoffs lead to a treatment garden in each sub watershed, which were created for filtration, infiltration , and treatment of s tormwater runoff (UACDC, 2010). Along the streets, bioswales were designed to link porch es and streets in tandem for the conveyance of stormwater runoff (Asla.org, 2008). Based on the concept of woonerf were introduced in to this project , which ma d e streets an important component of the stormwater treatment train (University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2008). Streets were utilized for connecting small lots along public greenways (Ellin, 2012). By applying LID facilities, such as tr eatment gardens, bioswales, tree box filters and infiltration trenches, in the right of way and surrounding faced open spaces, the treatment network is created with the purposes of transportation, stormwater management, social gathering , and parking (Unive rsity of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2008). Therefore, streets with attending open spaces bec a me filters were installed in the shared street plazas. Share d stre ets also cut the cost of this project by about 40% than traditional stormwater strategies because expensive curbs, pipes , and gutters were reduced (Asla.org, 2008). According to types of land uses, the Porchscapes project employed different materials of pe rvious paving. For example, sidewalks were made of rubber, a kind of recycled pervious materials, to enhance infiltration. Porous asphalt also allowed for storage and recharge with higher performance for vehicle transport use. Parking lots were built with grasscretes for
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 35 improve recharge and filtration. Considering the aesthetics and functionality of shared street plazas, crushed stone was installed in some parts of these plazas to help filtration (University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2008). Fig. 3 3 The Shared Street Source: University of Arkansas Community Design Center,. (2008). Porchscapes: between neighborhood watershed and home. Retrieved from http://uacdc.uark.edu/books/excerpts/18Porchscapes.pdf
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 36 Fig. 3 4 Stormwater Facilities Menu Source: Asla.org,. (2008). ASLA 2008 Professional Awards_Porchscapes: An Affordable LEED Neighborhood Development. Retrieved from http://asla.org/awards/2008/08winners/142.html The Porchscapes project creates a n LID facility menu for explaining the relat ionship between hydrologic control function s and suitable plants. According to drainage performance, suitable plants are recommended for related LID facilities. This menu also shows that more mechanical facilities are designed for aiding storage functions, while biological facilities are good at helping treatment. For local authorities, the design team collaborates with government and related organizations to form LID codes (Asla.org, 2008).
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 37 Site Plan/Master Plan: Fig. 3 5 Site Plan Source: Asla.org,. (2008). ASLA 2008 Professional Awards_Porchscapes: An Affordable LEED Neighborhood Development. Retrieved from http://asla.org/awards/2008/08winners/142.html General Lessons: What makes th e Porchscapes project meaningful is that it is design ed from a regional watershed and connect s the treatment systems of each sub watershed to form a treatment network. By using right of way as a key element of LID treatment trains, residents will appreciate the value of sustainable stormwater management in dai ly life , with shared automotive and pedestrian landscapes. This project has a conceptual stormwater treatment plan, a sample
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 38 application of LID facilities, and a menu of LID facilities and recommended plants. Although plants in this menu do not specificall y grow in Gainesville, the menu provides a reference for factors to consider in plant selection and the types of plants suitable for each factor. Th e outcomes of the Porchscapes project all work for this graduate terminal project , as a good example of LID network s both at the watershed level and LID detail scale to treat stormwater and balance the need of development and ecology. This project also pays attention to the relationship between the pollution index in urban stormwater runoff and the time of the storm event. For t he purposes of this project, the pollution index in the first hour of urban stormwater runoff is larger than the amount of raw sewage (University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2008) pollutants can be onsite treatment result s in reasonable landscapes and better solutions for fostering sustainable communit ies (University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2008). For example, p er vious surfa ces offer the chance for pollutant removal. Moreover, this project has some similar site conditions with the Tumblin Creek watershed in this gradua te terminal project. For instance , this project is locate d in a highly impacted watershed with inefficient traditional stormwater systems for flooding control (Asla.org, 2008). the LID applications in the right of way. 3.2.2 Gowanus Canal Sponge Park Project Name Gowanus Canal Sponge Park Location Brooklyn, New York Date Planned 2007 , construction in 2014, open by 2015 Construction Cost $ 1.5 million
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 39 Size 11.4 acres Consultants dlandstudio, llc Client/Developer Gowanus Canal Conservancy Features Vegetated landscape buffers of waterbodies consist of various LID facilities to form a sponge system for managing stormwater Limited waterfront spaces to treat stormwater and create interesting spaces for citizens without tearing down existing infrastructu res. Planted channels in streetscapes to connected neighborhoods and Floating remediation wetlands for absorbing biological contaminants and heavy metals with small footprints. Source of Table text: Resiliency.lsu.edu,. (20 13). Gowanus Canal Watershed Initiative | LRAP . Retrieved from http://resiliency.lsu.edu/planning/gowanus canal watershed initiative/ Context: Located in Brooklyn, New York, the Gowanus Canal Sponge Park creates a multifunctional public open space system along the canal that captures and treats stormwater before it enters the combined sewer system and treats pollution for the purpose of activat ing the waterfront and revitaliz ing the neighborhood (Asla.org , 2010). As a hidden landmark, the Gowanus Canal is valuable to the surrounding neighborhoods for its history and f eatures (Gowanus Canal Conservancy, 2015). However, because it is surrounded by industrial and residential lands, this canal becomes dangerou sly polluted, and was designated as a Superfund site by the US EPA in 2010 (Steiner, 2014; Gowanus Canal Conservancy, 2015). The pollutants of this canal mainly result from industrial activities, a neglected and broken bulkhead, combined sewer overflow (CS O) systems, and surface stormwater runoff that flows directly into the canal (Gowanus Canal Conservancy, 2015). To address these environmental issues, the park uses LID strategies and views the environment holistically in terms of how the entire system fun ctions (Asla.org, 2010). The 3.5 acre remediation wetland basins with esplanade and open space has
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 40 been designed to treat polluted water, reduce stormwater runoff, and provide public access to the edge of the water (Architect Magazine, 2012; Gowanus Canal Conservancy, 2015). Adapted to site specific demands, this park links adjacent open spaces to offer an efficient system for stormwater management. This park serves as a good example for repair ing damaged infrastructure in that it supports a cleaner future and maintains its cultural identity (Asla.org, 2010; Engelbrecht, 2013 ). Fig. 3 6 Gowanus Canal Watershed and Existing Outfalls Source: Asla.org,. (2010). ASLA 2010 Professional Awards | Gowanus Canal Sponge http://www.asla.org/2010awards/064.html
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 41 Fig. 3 7 Gowanus Canal Issues Prevention Flow Diagram Source: Brooklyn Community Board 6,. (2011). dlandstudios Sponge Park Presentation. Retrieved from http://www.brooklyncb6.org/_attachments/2011 07 20%20dlandstudios%20Sponge%20Park%20Presentation.pdf Site Analysis: The Sponge Park is located in a 1,758 acre watershed called t he Gowanus Watershed , which is a highly developed urban area with a surface im perviousness of 62% (US EPA, 2012; Gowanus Canal Conservancy, 2015). The Gowanus Canal, which is adjacent to this park, was transformed from a wetland creek to a constructed canal in 1881 to help address industrial and commercial growth ( Engelbrecht, 2013 ; Gowanus Canal Conservancy, 2015). Flowing 1.4 miles from Butler Street to Gowanus Bay, this canal is 100 feet wide with a depth of 4 to 16 feet (Gowanus Canal Conservancy, 2015). The canal bed is impaired by hazardous
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 42 materials coming from surrounding lan d uses (US EPA, 2012). Once used mainly as a means of a once thriving industrial corridor, neglected and deteriorating due to lack of need for water transport Current ly , 85% of the bulkhead is eroded, which exacerbates the degree of canal pollution (Asla.org, 2010). Another cause of impairment is that the combined sewer system that serves 80% of New York overflows directly into the Gowanus Canal during heavy rainfalls ( Resiliency.lsu.edu, 2013 ). This leads to over 1.1 million m 3 of combined sewage, which includes raw sewage and sanitary sewer system overflow , discharging into this canal (Asla.org, 2010). The canal thus becomes one of the most impaired waterways in the city ( Resiliency.lsu.edu, 2013 ). roperties adjacent to the Gowanus Canal are privately owned ) . This situation calls for a new urban water i nfrastructure system that can provide the access to the waterfront areas. The existing infrastructure inside private parcels causes a conflict between private parcels and a proposed 40 foot setback by the NYC Department of Planning for landscape treatment (Asla.org, 2010). In addition, modern urban infrastructure result s in the physical division of neighborhoods (Gowanus Canal Conservancy, 2015). Program Elements and Solutions: The goal of this park is to restore the canal as well as to create vibrant re sidential and commercial areas (US EPA, 2012). Prior efforts for addressing pollutants were conducted, including strategies are effective in managing stormwater and are less expensive since th ey reduce CSO in urban areas ( Resiliency.lsu.edu, 2013 ). This park focuses on integrating LID strategies to improve water quality and enhance the aquatic habitat. Expensive underground pipes and tunnels will be replaced by green infrastructure , resulting c leaner open spaces with fewer costs ( Sledge,
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 43 2012 ). Fig. 3 8 Gowanus Canal Sponge Park Water Remediation & Program Elements Source: Asla.org,. (2010). ASLA 2010 Professional Awards | Gowanus Canal Sponge http://www.asla.org/2010awards/064.html The Sponge Park is a working landscape that will assist environmental enhancement and public engagement at the same time (Gowanus Canal Conservancy, 2015). In this park, about 1.8 of stormwater, which will assist in reducing CSO and the amount of sewage entering the canal ( Sledge, 2012 [s] parks that will cat ch enough water to cover 90% of the city storms ( Sledge, 2 012 ). This park provides educational services for citizens to learn more about remediation of landscape s and habitat s by creating a wetland educational center near remediation wetlands located on the east ern side of the canal (Gowanus Canal Conservancy,
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 44 20 15). private lands, and linking historic attractions and recreational open spaces next to the canal, the Sponge Park will recognize the cultural context and offer recreational areas with a continuous walkway (Asla.org, 2010). This continuous walkway links the neighborhoods separated by the nservancy, 2015). This strategy solves the conflict between recreational paths and existing infrastructure in private lands. Remediation wetlands represent the natural history of the canal (Asla.org, 2010). Existing public street ends are turn ed into publi c entry nodes as well as social infrastructures functioning community gardens, exhibition , market and dog play (Asla.org, 2010). There are four main elements for managing stormwater runoff by the Sponge Park working as a system: slope streets next to the park, gravel basins under sidewalks, plant pits, sand filters under pedestrian paths (Steiner, 2014). During rain events, slope streets direct stormwater runoff entering this park. Then gravel basins treat and absorb some stormwater runoff. Plant pits prov ide infiltration and reduce flows of redundant stormwater runoff. Sand filters are the last d efender s for the canal. For the planting design, the Sponge Park uses plants that can withstand periodic inundation and occasional drought, as well as remediate some toxins, such as heavy metal ( Sledge, 2012 ). These pla nts support the phytoremediation of stormwater runoff before it is released into the canal (Gowanus Canal Conservancy, 2015). Considering recreational function, interesting plants such as Sassafras with different lea f types, are also included in this park for kids ( Sledge, 2012 ).
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 45 Site Plan/Master Plan: Fig. 3 9 Site Plan Source: Asla.org,. (2010). ASLA 2010 Professional Awards | Gowanus Canal Sponge
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 46 http://www.asla.org/2010awards/064.html General Lessons: Unlike the Porchscapes project, the Gowanus Canal Sponge Park focuses on different public open spaces (riparian buffers, planted channels and remediation wetlands), to create a stormwater management system that works for all watershed levels. This park will turn three acres of vacant land and 8.4 acre industrial land into recreational areas with stormwater treatment landscapes, such as wetland basins. As with the case of the Tumblin Creek watershed, the Gowanus Canal Sponge Park is also located in an impaired watershed , which is more impaired than Tumblin Creek watershed in both degree of urbanization and water quality impacts . Given their shared condition of high development and more polluted situation of this park , the LID strategies utilized in this park are also applicable for the Tumblin Creek watershed. Because of the conflict of private properties and 40 feet setbacks, the Gowanus Canal Sponge Park creates 20 feet and 40 feet wide esplan ades which link the existing open spaces in neighborhoods and create public access to water (Gowanus Canal Conservancy, 2015). Similarly , adjacent areas of Tumblin Creek also have existing infrastructure that have made conflicts within the riparian buffers . The idea that considering existing conditions such as conflicts, soils and impaired watershed as a whole to figure out suitable LID applications can be implemented to the Tumblin Creek watershed. Existing public street ends will be changed into entry pa rks to access the new recreational waterfront areas and improve the environment. Elements of 2 nd street, Brooklyn, which intersect s vehicular access (Brooklyn Community Board 6, 2011 ) . 2 nd end pilot sponge park system consists of curbside swales, sedimentation basins, bioretentions and sand filters. Stormwater runoff flows to curbside swales along streets and storm drains, then flow s to sedimenta tion basins below the sidewalks, then is treated in bioretention swales or sand filters below the esplanades, finally going into the Gowanus Canal (Brooklyn Community Board 6, 2011).
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 47 Fig. 3 10 2 nd Street Pilot Sponge Park System Source: Brooklyn Community Board 6,. (2011). dlandstudios Sponge Park Presentation. Retrieved from http://www.brooklyncb6.org/_attachments/2011 07 20%20dlandstudios%20Sponge%20Park%20Presentation.pdf Based on the amount of rainfall and the inundation level, this park comb ines various LID facilities to remediate sewage from outfalls of storm and CSO, storm drain, and direct drainage (Gowanus Canal Conservancy, 2015 ) . During average rain events, filtration swales are used to capture surface runoff, while the excess stormwate r is treated by shrub wetlands, meadows, and wet meadows inside terraced remediation wetland basins. During heavy rains, in addition to the facilities mentioned above, water enters shallow meadows, shallow marshes, and deep marshes inside terraced remediat ion wetland basins for cleaning and preventing flooding. After treating in these basins, stormwater becomes clean and flows into storage cisterns that store this stormwater for irrigation and flow control (Norris, 2011). Moreover, excess treated water flow s to the dock
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 48 cisterns and is discharged into the canal (Gowanus Canal Conservancy, 2015). Fig. 3 11 LID Strategies for Different Levels of Rain Events Source: Gowanus Canal Conservancy,. (2015). sponge parks. Fig. 3 12 Street End Axonometric Source: Asla.org,. (2010). ASLA 2010 Professional Awards | Gowanus Canal Sponge
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 49 In the canal, mixing floating remediation wetlands with aquatic organisms is good for absorbing and breaking down biological contaminants and other toxins. The biological contaminants are major concerns in the Tumblin Creek watershed. The floating remediat ion wetlands can also be applied to Bivens Arm Lake. 3.2.3 Sustainable Water Resource Management Plan for Winter Haven and the Peace Creek Watershed Project Name City of Winter Haven Water Sustainability Program Location Winter Haven, Florida Date Planned 2010 Construction Cost $50,000 $100,000 Size The Peace Creek watershed: 150,000 acres Consultants PBSJ/Atkins Client/Developer City of Winter Haven, Florida Features LID Strategies integrated into local land use planning to preserve natural hydrologic patterns and encourage future development Use of streets, parking lots and neighborhood parks to generate stormwater systems Water control functions of the entire watershed classified by topography and locations. Source of Table text: Asla.org, . (2015). Sustainable Water Resource Management Plan for Winter Haven and the Peace Creek Watershed
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 50 Context: Located within the Peace Creek Watershed, a sub basin of Peace River Watershed in the Florida, Winter Haven is at the headwaters of the Floridan A quifer and the Peace River Watershed ( Odum, 2010 ; Mywinterhaven.com, 2014 ). In this unique location rainfall is the only water supply for both the public and the lakes ( Mywinterhaven.com, 2014 ). The significant concerns of Winter Haven are that stormwater is polluted, and that the majority of lakes are impaired ( Mywinterhaven.com, 2014 ). To address these concerns, the Sustainable Water Resource Management Plan was developed to present the metho ds to use green infrastructure as a basis for ensure the future water demands of human and natural waterbodies (Asla.org, 2015). Green infrastructure can offer multiple benefits while man made structures mainly provide singular benefits with more cost (Sin gleton, 2015). According to different land uses and locations within the watershed, innovative and suitable LID strategies and the wetlands restoration were utilized in this plan to restored 7,500 acre wetlands (Asla.org, 2015; Singleton, 2015). New develo pment was also discussed in this plan (Asla.org, 2015). This plan provides sustainable solutions for long term water needs in the site with specific geography and geology (Asla.org, 2015). Fig. 3 13 M ap of H istorical Peace Creek Watershed (Left); To (Right)
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 51 Source: Odum, H. (2010). Sustainable Water Resource Management, Winter Haven, FL & the Peace Creek Watershed. Presentation Site Analysis: Though it is a small community, Winter Haven has 50 lakes that are collectively about 5,200 acres , and manages large impervious areas (Asla.org, 2015; Mywinterhaven.com, 2014 ). At the top of surface watershed and groundwater basin system, water is the most significant asset for citizens and natural environment of this city (Asla.org, Odum, 2010 ). After one hundred years of change , drainage ditches and canals were constructed to link lakes, while impervious surfaces were increased within the Peace Creek Watershed ( Odum, 2010 ). Due to these constructions, surface flows increase by about 45% ( Odum, 2010 ). Besides, from 1975 to 2000, the regional aquifer decline d , which cause d lowered lake water level, and upward leakage from the aquifer to the lake ( Odum, 2010 ). Other negative impacts from past actions include 24 impaired lakes out of 50, less recharge to the aquifer, loss of wetlands and water storage in the landscape, overgrowth of algae, extensive flooding during hurricanes, and one of worst 3 year droughts from 2007 to 2010 ( Odum, 2010 ; Singleton, 2015). With populatio n growth and new development, current regulations will not support future demand for specify restoration for the natural hydrologic system of Winter Haven (Singleton, 2015). Program Elements and Solutions: Considering social, economic, and environmental benefits of the entire watershed, this plan thinks creatively and unconventionally for water management in the community of Winter Haven. In this plan, green infrastructure contributes to stormwater managemen t and community revitalization ( Flori da Stormwater Association, 2014). Through applying LID strategies and wetland restoration of this plan, Winter Haven restores its Flori da Stormwater Association, 2014). Thi s
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 52 plan intend s to: term To achieve these goals, this plan compli es with t he following principles , which highlight the holistic thinking and restrict the stormwater management boundary to preserve envir onment and a sense of community : The total rainfall in the region is that region's water budget efficien t and cost effective to use the watershed's natural infrastructure to provide multiple long term water resource benefits than to restore lost hydrologic function using structural, man made means (3) Any impa cts to water resources in a w atershed should be mitigated in the watershed an d groundwater storage areas to prote ct and restore water resources mus t be integrated into urban and community design St ormwater, wastewater, and reuse water should be viewed as a valuable resourc e, rather than a form of waste to be dis posed of. This resource should be re cycled and recharged at a rate commensurate with use con tribute to th e water budgets of both the watershed and
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 53 the region Flori da Stormwater Association, 2014). Based on the location and topography of Winter Haven, this plan guides categorizing water control functions of this s ite and appl ies LID facilities in its differ ent parts. T his plan divides Winter Haven into two areas a ccordi ng to water control functions : the headwaters/Ridge area, and the middle and lower reaches/Polk Uplands area (Singleton, 2015). Border ed by residential and commercial lands, the headwaters/Rid ge area functions to treat water and infiltration (Singleton, 2015). T he headwaters/Ridge area , including the downtown areas, is high lying and sandy , which has a high infiltration rate of soil material and is not good for storage (Singleton, 2015). Downtown areas also need more treatment for improving water quality. The middle and lower reaches of the Polk Uplands area functions as storage and conveyance because of its high development pressure and low lying location. Fig. 3 14 Stormwater Capture System of a Residential Neighborhood in Southwest Winter Haven (Left), and the Downtown Winter Haven Commercial District (Right) Source: Mark T. Brown for Atkins To increase treatment and infiltration, this plan recommend s to decentralize depressions into numerous small ones similar to natural infiltration patterns (Singleton, 2015). In addition, this plan separates the headwaters/Ridge area in to three parts and recommend s LID strategies for capture d stormwater based on lan d uses. First, for residential lands, not only private roofs and yards can be used for stormwater management, but also public open spaces, such as streets,
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 54 driveways and neighborhood parks, can be utilized (See Fig. 3 14) (Singleton, 2015). Green roofs and rain gardens are built on private roofs and in yards. Vegetated swales can be installed both in the road median and parallel to the road. Neighborhood parks are turned into larger retention areas. Second, in the commercial areas, in addition to roofs and stre ets, parking lots are the main components that can be used for infiltration (Singleton, 2015). Integrating rain gardens and swales in the parking lots reduces the need for additional land to manage stormwater , so it is a relatively cheap way for stormwater management . Roadside swales and public open spaces with shallow depressions are suitable for streets and parks. Unlike residential areas, LID facilities in the commercial districts should be smaller but numerous due to higher density (Singl eton, 2015). Pervious concrete can be used instead of impervious surfaces when redevelop ing (Singleton, 2015). Third, at the urban edge that is still developing, the main strategy is to preserve existing infrastructure and corridors. To capture stormwater, existing low lying areas should be preserved (Singleton, 2015). Fo r filtering stormwater, flood prevention and recreation, wetland edges of waterbodies should be enhanced (Singleton, 2015). Preserving wet corridors also can help enhance wetland edges (Sin gleton, 2015). Moreover, this plan requires implementing LID facilities in new development projects for managing stormwater on site and saving lands (Singleton, 2015). To increase storage and conveyance, buffers for natural hydrologic systems are created i n the middle and lower reaches/Polk Uplands area. These buffers include wetland storage areas, sloughs, and rainwater treatment areas, which can be implemented along canals, and conveyance corridors. Through creating various water depths of wetland storage areas, this plan forms a system that has biological diversity , which plays a role in creating resilient communities . To connect these storage and treatment areas, this plan recommends sloughs , which connect to the lower portion o and forested wetland corridors (Singleton, 2015) .
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 55 Fig. 3 15 Wetland Storage Areas (Left), and Stormwat er Treatment Areas (Right) Source: Mark T. Brown for Atkins Site Plan/Master Plan: Fig. 3 16 Site Plan
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 56 Source: mywinterhaven.com,. (2010). Final Sustainable Water Resource Management Plan. General Lessons: This plan concludes that using green infrastructure strategies (include LID and wetland restoration) on the watershed scale preserves hydrologic systems. From this plan, managing green infrastructure using watersheds as plan units perform s better than using municipa l units. Using watersheds as plan units preserves the original natural pattern of hydrologic systems and enhances the water quality within the systems, while using municipal units organized around the natural layout of the hydrological system that ma kes them counterproductive to preserving watershed flow. This plan gives direction to other similar projects to follow when managing stormwater on the watershed scale. It is suggested that the c lassification of water control function within the Tumblin Cre ek Watershed for this Graduate Terminal Project follow the model of this plan. By following this model, it will create environmental friendly and holistic strategy for stormwater management. Based on the water control functions of each parts, LID strategie s can be selected to preserve the natural flow patterns for the entire watersh ed and avoid duplicated effort. The Tumblin Creek Watershed can demonstrate about how to make use of public open spaces in both urban districts and interfaces of urban and rural areas to manage stormwater from this plan (see Table. 3 1). LID strategies are an effective alternative to expensive engineered solutions. It is often about considering the envir onment with social and development issues. In the urban developed areas with high lying locations, this plan recommends the use of vegetated swales, rain gardens, and pervious concrete to treat stormwater. In the valley and low areas, constructed wetlands with varying water depths have positive impacts on water storage, and diverse animal and plant community. These LID facilities are applicable for this Graduate Terminal Project. Private roofs & yards will not be discussed in this Graduate Terminal Project, because this project focuses on public open spaces.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 57 Topography Water Control Functions Land Uses Locations Ownership LID / Green Infrastructure Strategies Ridge/Sand Hill Infiltration &Treatment Residential Private Roofs &Yards Private Green Roofs & Rain Gardens Streets & Driveways Public Vegetated Swales Neighborhood Parks Public Retention Ponds Commercial Parking Lots Public Vegetated Swales & Rain Gardens Streets & Driveways Public Roadside Swales Parks & Open Spaces (High Density, Redevelopment) Public Vegetated Swales & Rain Gardens (Smaller and More Numerous); Pervious Concrete (Developing) (See Fig. 3 17) 1. Pre existing, Low lying Areas Public/Private Preserve 2. Wetland Edges of Lakes Public Enhance & Extend 3. Wet Corridors Public Preserve, Enhance & Extend 4. New Development Areas Public/Private Require LID Technologies Table. 3 1 LID Strategies for Ridge/Sand Hill areas in the Sustainable Water Resource Management Plan Source of Table text: Singleton, T. (2015). Sustainable Water Resource Management Plan. Atkins Global
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 58 Fig. 3 1 7 Strategies for permitting development in undeveloped areas of Winter Haven Source: Mark T. Brown for Atkins Source: Diagram by author, text from Singleton, 2015 Valley/Low Areas Storage & Conveyance I. Wetland Storage Areas Strategically Dechannelized Ditch Blocks Varying Water Depths Higher Land Areas with Shallow Water Forested Wetlands Emergent Wetland Marshes Medium depth Pools Submerged Vegetation Deep Open water Areas Refuges for Wildlife When Drought II. Stormwater Treatment Areas III. Forested Wetland Sloughs / Corridors Connections of I & II Legend 1 . Preserving existing low lying, undeveloped areas, 2 . Enhancing and extending wetland lake fringes, 3 . Preserving wet corridors, 4 . R equiring low impact development.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 59 3.3 ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONDITION S Based on published materials and information gathered in conversations with elected officials , this section focuses on the Tumblin Creek watershed located in Gainesville, Florida with existing condition s related to stormwater management and LID application , outlining challenges, issues, existing efforts, and potential stormwater management options for the watershed in the future . 3.3.1 Stormwater Management Conditions in the Tumblin Creek Watershed Fig. 3 18 Map of the Tumblin Creek Watershed (green), Gainesville urban center (beige), and sampling locations (purple). Source: Alachua County.us . Retrieved from http://www.alachuacounty.us/Depts/EPD/WaterResources/PublishingImages/tumblin_creek_layo ut[1.pdf
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 60 Tumblin Creek Watershed Challenges High existing and expected demand in this area, in part related to the due to elevated levels of E.Coli, presumed to be a symptom of old, leaky sanitary sewer lines within the watershed. Undersized Stormwater conveyance system, causing flooding of the roadways during intense rain events. Finding land and/or locations amenable (good, percolating soils) for stormwater management systems to treat for quality. E xisting Efforts 1) SW 9th Street in Innovation Square, 2) the 5th Avenue Credit Basin Stormwater Park, 3) Tumblin Creek Regional Stormwater Treatment Credit Facility, a currently developing , the fourth credit basin in Gainesville that will provide additional credit opportunities. Potential Integrated gardens and paths of Community, Parks, and Greenways to treat impaired waters and prevent flooding of the roadways during intense rain events. Deal with quality and volume issues. Source of Table text: Con v er s ation with Diane W. Gilreath , EI Manager, Gainesville Community Redevelopment Agency ( CRA ) Engineer The Tumblin Creek watershed flows through southeast Gainesville, Florida , and it is 23 square kilometer (CH2MHILL 2002). The source of baseflow in the creek consists of a series of springs and seeps at the base of the surficial aquifer, and further downstream, from permeable regions of the intermediate aquifer (CH2MHILL 2002). The present day headwaters of the creek are chan nelized through underground concrete culverts and emerge to the surface from a
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 61 concrete pipe culvert (CH2MHILL 2002). Much of the creek is now composed of deeply incised channels with steep banks; and has been artificially straightened, confined and direct ed at sharp angles. Throughout the last several hundred meters before the creek enters the delta floodplain it is confined to a concrete channel and ultimately a box culvert as it passes underneath a ( Schmidt, 2005). Source: Diagram by author The primary cause for the Tumblin Creek watershed impairment is th is high percentage of impervious surfaces, which compose almost 60% of total area . During rain events, surface runoff increases and contributes its large volume to the creek flow because of excessive impervious surfaces ( Schmidt, 2005) . S teep rise s in flow in turn cause that baseflow to rapidly return (CH2MHILL , 2002 b ) . I nfluenced by t his situation, erosion and bank instability occur often along creeks and increase suspended sediment loads (CH2MHILL , 2002 b ). These loads smother and decimate creek habitat s, which reduces water quality and impairs the health of the watershed ( Schmidt, 200 5). In the context of Tumblin Creek watershed, according to two year Average scores of Four Rapid BioRecons , a screening tool utilized for the
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 62 FDEP methodologies, all four monitoring sections within the Tumblin Creek watershed , including SW 5 th Avenue, P.K. Yonge School, U .S. Highway 441, and the Bivens Arm floodplain , were listed as impaired (CH2MHILL , 2002 a; CH2MHILL , 2002 b ). From results of this Rapid BioRecon assessment, even though the delta floodplain had the highest habitat assessment score among the four sites samples, it was still impaired mostly due to habitat smothering (CH2MHILL , 2002 b; Schmidt, 2005) . Source: Di agram by author The urban waterbodies of the Tumblin Creek watershed mobilizes highly polluted sediments, some of which are high enough to cause potential ecological harm ( Schmidt, 2005) . Among all samples from Gainesville, Bivens Arm lake and Tumblin Creek , which are located in the Tumblin Creek watershed, have the highest sediment contaminant concentrations , including elevated concentrations of lead and cadmium (Durell et al. , 2004). Urban development
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 63 aggravates sediment contaminant concentrations by mobilizing sediment with high pollutant loads through stormwater runoff and creeks. These high sediment contaminant concentrations depende d on soil organic matter concentrations, which reduces the impact (Durell e t al. , 2004). According to Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), Tumblin Creek was impaired by nutrients from 1998 2002; it is now impaired by effectless of wastewater treatment facilities that increases biological oxygen demand and decl ines dissolved oxygen ( FDEP, 2002) . In order to prevent potential ecological harm, the Tumblin Creek watershed should restore impaired waterbodies by stormwater management and LID application . 3.3.2 Existing LID Projects/Applications Fig. 3 19 Map of Existing LID Projects within the Tumblin Creek Watershed Source: Base Map from Google Earth; Diagram by author Gainesville realizes the advantages of LID and has already made some efforts to apply it
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 64 through pilot projects in some parts of the city. In the Tumblin Creek watershed, there are several existing LID projects, which are listed in the following table. When developing the guidelines for this graduate terminal project, these existing projects have been considered as part of a hol istic LID network. Type Project Discription Stormwater Park 5 th Ave Basin Near Tumblin Creek and Innovation Square , t his 4.8 acre project site provides water quality treatment for approximately 15 acr es of urban Gainesville, including University Corners, West University Lofts, and University of Florida Innovation Hub. A 2.5 acre wet detention pond provides the water quality treatment. The site is located adjacent to the existing 3.5 acre Tumblin Creek Park. The project was completed in 2003. Green Street SW 9 th Street in Innovation Square Opened on June 13, 2014 ; this project is n ear the headwater of Tu mblin Creek and i nclude s a "bio b asin" along the roadway profile. Credit Basin Tumblin Creek Regional Stormwater Treatment Credit Facility (Proposed) Supporting future redevelopment projects along SW 13 th Street, this project is the fourth credit basin , which is designed to recuperate capital costs associated with the purchase of land for master stormwater facilities , in Gainesville that is proposed by the Innovation Square Master Plan ( Fl orida Stormwater Association, 2013 ) . Treatment wetlands and vegetation screen will be installed next to Tumblin Creek. Source of Table text: Conversation with Diane W. Gilreath , EI Manager, Gainesville Community Redevelopment Agency ( CRA ) Engineer ; Florida Stormwater Association, 2013
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 65 3.4 PRINCIPLES FOR SELECTING SUITABLE LID STRATEGIES TO FORM NETWORK According to Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban areas , there are three tenets of LID strategies that can be , , and allenges that The Tumblin Creek Watershed in this Graduate Terminal Project also faces simi lar challenges, therefore, the Tumblin Creek Watershed will select suitable LID strategies based on these three principles. The LID watershed approach in this manual based on the above tenets serves as the basic principles for design ing Tumblin Creek Watershed LID networks. This manual discusses the this approach, soi ls, plants, and water all function differently to improve the stormwater management of local communities. Knowing local geography, hydrology, and vegetation is critical for determining suitable LID strategies. The section in this manual explains how LID strategies, unlike traditional stormwater management strategies, need more planning and are more site specific. In urban areas, LID can be integrated in to traditional stormwater systems , help ing them to meet the 100 year storm events requirement. Soil media and the roots of plants can absorb pollutants when stormwater runoff passes through. For maintain ing the se kind s of treatment facilities, healthy plants and pervious soils are required. Therefore, pulsed and incremental water inputs in LID network s are necessary (UACDC, 2010) . Functioning as a natural sponge, soil is able to treat, store and convey stormwater runoff solving many problems caused by impervious surfaces. The effectiveness of infiltration depend s
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 66 of any given land, the hydrologic soil groups should be anal yzed. From D to A, the hydrologic soil groups have increasing permeability, which means lower runoff volume and higher infiltration rate. Similarly, the textures of soil also have different levels of permeability, with clay being the least permeable, follo wed by silt, and sand being the most permeable. More pervious soils are better suited for LID networks, while less pervious soils are more suitable for development using impervious surfaces (UACDC, 2010). In comparison, plants can serve the role of defend ers of local biological diversity due to their roots' ability to filter and treat stormwater runoff. Ecotones are transitional areas between different plant communities , which can also increase the local biodiversity. The riparian buffer, which is inadequa te within the Tumblin Creek watershed, is one kind of ecotone. Facultative plants , which are tolerant of varying hydrologic conditions, including wet to dry, required in riparian buffer s are necessary for diverse ecosystems (UACDC, 2010) using native facultative plants which c an tolerate wet and dry weather in the LID network , is the main principle of LID design (UACDC, 2010). This manual also points out some principles of LIDs and 2010). Water, when functioning as a solvent in LID network, can address problems of stream syndrome altered stream morphologies, el evated nutrient and contaminant levels, excessive sedimentatio n from eroded stream banks, and loss of species diversity by reducing various toxins in stormwater that come from industrial lands, agricultural areas, garbage or leaky sanitary sewers (UACDC, 2010). This Graduate Terminal Project will not focus on underground structures, such as sanitary sewers. In order to construct a LID network, it is important to be familiar with hydrologi c characteristics of selected sites, and prioritize preserving natural hydrology over altering it. Storm events usually are presented in a timeline measured by year s . A LID network should be able to with stand a 100 year storm, which has only
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 67 a 1% chance of happening in any given year .
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 68 CHAPTER 4: SITE ANALYSIS 4.1 OVERVIEW Using the ArcGIS software and related literatures , the site analysis explores seven main categories of site characters in the Tumblin Creek watershed and presents synthetic results of the site analysis at the end of the chapter. The first section provides the context of the Tumblin Creek watershed and impacts from its adjacent watersheds. The second section shows land use distribution within this watershed. The third section analyzes hydrol ogic soil types and classifies drainage classes that are related to erodibility and permeability of this watershed. The fourth section presents related to LID networks design , such as its 100 year floodplain, riparian areas, conservation lands and on site flow paths. The fifth section explains the relationship of slope and erosion and suggests areas that should not implement LID networks due to their high er erosion risk. The sixth section e xplores contaminants as well as their sources and impacts on the major waterbodies of the Tumblin Creek watershed. The seventh section identifies the gaps of usable open spaces and the opportunities of impervious public open spaces for applying LID networks through analyzing public open spaces distribution . 4.2 CONTEXT 4.2.1 Location As mentioned before, the Tumblin Creek watershed has been selected for the site of this graduate terminal project . The Tumblin Creek watershed is located in southwest Gainesville and includes three main waterbodies : Tumblin Creek, East Tumblin Creek and Bivens Arm Lake . In this hot humid region , the a verage temperature of t his watershed is 68.7Â°F (U.S. Climate Data, 2015) . Prevailing wind directions are from the southeast . Gainesville is in one of the wettest regions of the nation; on average, the city experiences annual precipitation falls of about 47.37
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 69 inch es (U.S. Climate Data, 2015) . Periods of flooding and droughts occur due to increase water demand s and reduce vegetation along with development s and population growth. The Tumblin Creek watershed has 2210 acres with 8.9 square miles of urban areas ( CH2MHILL , 2002b) . Th NW 5 th Avenue down to SE Williston Road. S outh Main Street . SW Archer Road , another major road, is the western boundary of the watershed. Tumblin Creek flows over 1.7 miles , beginning from 30 meters north of SW 5 th Ave down to Bivens Arm Lake (alachuacounty.us, 2012) . Citizens can access Tumblin Creek through SW 6 th (alachuacounty.us, 2012) . Adjacent watersheds of the Tumblin Creek watershed are Sweetwater Branch Creek watershed (east), Lake Alice w atershed (west), and Hogtown Creek watershed. Sweetwater Branch Creek watershed has experienced extensive urbanization , receiving stormwater from downtown areas and several brownfields. Alongside the Tumblin Creek watershed, Sweetwater Branch Creek watershed also flow s out to the Floridan Aquifer after passing through Paynes Prairie State Preserve and the Alachua Sink. The s outheast corner of the Tumblin Creek watershed, which is located in the downstr eam area of Sweetwater Branch Creek watershed, is impacted by the concentration of nutrients and sediments of the latter watershed (Burger & Magley, 2003 ; CH2MHILL, 2002c). As a closed stormwater system, the Lake Alice watershed, which includ es 80% of the University of Florida campus, discharges into Lake Alice (The Planning, Design and Construction Division, 2010) . Hogtown Creek watershed, which includ es the majority of Gainesville and a small part of the University of Florida campus, was urbanized before having stormwater regulation s . Therefore, Hogtown Creek watershed has downstream impacts on stormwater management, such as sedimentation and flooding, which also affect the Tumblin Creek watershed.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 70 4.2.2 Watershed Context Fig. 4 1 Context of the Tumblin Creek Watershed Source: Base map from Google Earth; Diagram by author .
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 71 The Tumblin Creek watershed intersects with the southeastern edge of the University of with stormwater management function for the downtown area, is located in the intersection of SW Depot Ave and S. Main St, east of the Tumblin Creek watershed. In the southeast areas of the Tumblin Creek watershed, there are sever al preserves and parks, such as Sweetwater Preserve and Paynes Prairie Preserve State Park. A constructed enhancement wetland proposed by the Paynes Prairie Sheetflow Restoration Project will be placed in the southeastern interface of the Tumblin Creek wat ershed, where the outgoing water of this w atershed and that of S weetwater Branch watershed both flow through . Fig. 4 2 E nhancement W etland in Paynes Prairie Sheetflow Restoration Project Source: Ritchie, B. , 2009 . Gainesville proposes solution for Paynes Prairie pol lution.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 72 4.3 LAND USE AND ACTIVITIES Fig. 4 3 The Tumblin Creek Watershed Land Use Map Source: Schmidt, C. A. (2005). Floodplain impacts from channelization and urbanization: A characterization of the Tumblin Creek Delta Floodplain, Gainesville, Florida.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 73 According to the Tumblin Creek Bivens Arm Basin Land Use Map from 2000 , m ost of the Tumblin Cre ek Watershed areas are urban and built up . The s e urban and built up areas are currently comprised of 25% residential, 7% commercial , 21% instituti onal, and 19% transportation (alachuacounty.us, 2012) . Residential areas consist of high density apartment complexes mostly for University of Florida students , as well as low density single family housing ( CH2MHILL , 2002b) . The residential density decreases from north to south of the Tumblin Creek watershed. In the southern part of this watershed, the residential density increases from east to west. Commercial lands are concentrated in the north portion and the middle p arts along U.S. Highway 441 (US 441) of the Tumblin Creek watershed . Most commercial properties are strip malls and restaurants near the headwaters of the Tumblin Creek , next to SW 5 th Avenue and the district close to the SW 16 th Av e and US 441 intersection ( CH2MHILL , 2002b) . Residential, commercial , and institutional lands border Bivens Arm Lake. The adjacent lands west of Bivens Arm Lake are owned by the University of Florida (alachuacounty.us, 2012) . Other institutional lands include PK Yonge Developmental Research School near the University Height s area. H uman activity from urban commercial and residential land uses have the most impact on the Tumblin Creek watershed stormwater management . The majority of natural green spaces are in the south ern part of the watershed. From north to south, land use become s more natural and biological ly diverse . Near Bivens Arm Basin, there are large upland forests and wetlands that have the potential to provide biological function s and ecological service s . Agricultural lands are located in the southwestern portion of this watershed, which is south of Bivens Arm Lake. These agricultural lands are used for University of Florida agriculture and livestock research areas , which are also sources of pollution for Bivens Arm Lake.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 74 4.4 HYDR OLOGIC SOIL TYPES Fig. 4 4 Hydrologic Soil Types Map Source: Diagram by author
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 75 Fig. 4 5 Drainage Class Map Source: Diagram by author According to the Soil Survey Geographic (Ssurgo) Database for Florida by the U.S.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 76 Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) , the Soil Conservation Service (SC S) Hydrologic Soil Groups (HSG) of the Tumblin Creek watershed is major waterbodies, such as East Tumblin Creek. Least areas of this watershed rank B, while the proportion of C and D are between A and D. Based on SCS HSG (see Table 4 1), most of the Tumblin Creek watershed has high infiltration rate with very low runoff potential. Therefore, these areas can be used for treating water and infiltration and are not good for storage. The soils with high infiltration rate ( HSG A and B soils ) are highly erodible. Hence, the areas of highly erodible soils are n ot suitable for development , which should be preserved as undisturbed areas w hen possible . Table. 4 1 Characteristic s of SCS hydrologic soil groups Source of Table: Ge osyntec Consultants, Inc., 2014 . Low Impact Development Practices Design & Implementation Guidelines Manual Horizon West Town Center According to Hydrologic Soil Types Map (Fig. 4 4 ), the Tumblin Creek watershed is formed by four types of soil materials: Sand, Fine Sand, Loamy Fine Sand and Muck. Based on principles in the Chapter 3 of this Graduate Te rminal Project, most of the Tumblin Creek watershed has high permeability, which is suitable for LID networks . The high permeability provides stormwater i nfiltration that reduces volume and peak flow rate of runoff as well as groundwater recharge , and water quality treatment .
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 77 Considering soil materials and HSG, as showed in the drainage class map , the Tumblin Creek watershed is classified in to four levels : well drained ( b lue areas, including excessively drained, well drained and moderately well drained soils), somewhat poorly drained (yellow areas), poorly drained (orange areas), and very poorly drained (red areas). The areas around the h eadwaters of Tumblin Creek and northwest of Biven s Arm Lake are v ery poorly drained and poorl y drained areas, which are suitable for new development using impervious pavement and the LID facilities for conveying stormwater. In other words, low permeable soils reduce erosion and provide firm foundation s for new development and stormwater conveyance. The selections of LID strategies for unranked urban lands are mainly based on their land uses , locations, on site flow paths, and slopes . The Tumblin Creek watershed has fewer existing drainage improvements , so s tormwater is not efficiently drained off after rain events . In the Tumblin Creek watershed, drainage systems mostly exist in the institutional areas, such as college of veterinary medicine facilities and Normally, stormwater flows into nearby ponds or creek fir st, and finally goes into Bivens Arm Lake and East Tumblin Creeks. Surface water and groundwater link . Most areas outside institutional lands need drainage improvement , so LID network is obviously important in that district. 4.5 HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERS 4.5.1 Watershed Analysis Within the Tumblin Creek watershed, the areas near main waterbodies , such as lying open spaces , are within a 100 year floodplain . Bivens Arm Nature Park and Paynes Prairie Preserve State Park are low lying open spaces that are inundated in 100 year storm events. Along Tumblin Creek, some commercial, residential and institutional buildings are also threatened by 100 year flood event s . Ideally, the 100 year floodplain should be
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 78 maintained in its natural undisturbed state and avoid development when possible . However, some of this floodplain is already developed. Therefore, these areas affected by 100 year floods call for LID facilities with a high level of volume reduction functions to mitigate flooding s . Fig. 4 6 Watershed Analysis Map
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 79 Source: Diagram by author The Tumblin C reek watershed has lost about 40% riparian areas of creek s . According to the watershed analysis map, there are not enough riparian areas between buildings and Tumblin Creek or East Tumblin Creek. Loss of riparian areas also leads to loss of bank stability and riparian ecosystem structure. Pollutants come into cre eks without filt ration . M itigating these problems without tear ing down existing infrastructures is the main challenge in these areas. The Tumblin Creek watershed has some conservation lands that are located in the south ern parts of the watershed. These conservation lands include parks, wetlands, forests and trails. From south to north, Bivens Rim Forest, Colclough Pond Nature Park, Blue Wave Wetland, University of Florida Creeks and Ponds, and Alachua Rail to Trail , should be conserved. LID networks and new development s should preserve conservation lands. Conservation lands also serve a stormwater manag ement function for LID networks through retention and infiltration. Bivens Arm Lake is the largest natural waterbody in the Tumblin Creek watershed. This lake is about 156 acres and provides sanctuary for diverse plants and animals. Bivens Arm Lake lacks public access due to private properties surrounding the lake. The only places for c itizens to view and enjoy this lake are located in its southeastern corner next to US 441 . T his lake still has long boundaries that visitors cannot access. 4.5.2 On S ite Flow Paths The Surface Flow Direction Map shows that the major on site runoff of the Tumblin Creek watershed flows almost directly from north to south with d ecreasing elevations. The south eastern portion of the Tumblin Creek watershed, where the enhancement wetlands of the Paynes Prairie Sheetflow Restoration project are located, is the lowest area of this watershed . The majority of runoff of this watershed , even from depressions , will run to these wetlands . E ventually , the runoff will recharge the Floridan Aquifer after backfilling existing canals and then entering the
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 80 Alachua sink . Because the Floridan Aquifer is the main source of potable water for about 10 million people, i t is important to protect and restore these natural waterbodies (Water.usgs.gov, 2014) . Surface runoff flows from h igh density residential, commercial and institutional lands to natural waterbodies, su ch as Tumblin Creek and East Tumblin Creek. The main concern is that p ollutants come into natural waterbodies through runoff. Stormwater management is responsible for deal ing with these pollutants. Most runoff in agricultural lands flows into Bivens Arm Lake, while some discharge s in to the depression south of the agricultural lands. This depression offers an opportunity for water harvesting. Based on the surveys of Alachua County Environmental Protection Department , the flow path of Tumblin Creek is separated into five sections: Headwaters, Shands at AGH to Depot Avenue, Depot Avenue to P.K. Yonge School , P.K. Yonge School to SW 16th Avenue , SW 16th Avenue to Bivens Arm Lake ( CH2MHILL , 2002b ). The headwaters of Tumblin Creek are channelized through underground concrete culverts ( CH2MHILL , 2002b ). This creek emerges at the south end of Shands at AGH parking area and flows south ( CH2MHILL , 2002b ). From Shands at AGH to Depot Avenue, the main concerns are large volumes of water conveyed in the culvert during storm events and bank erosion exposing landfill debris. It is due to a second baseflow discharges to Tumblin Creek via a reinforced concrete pipe (RCP) culvert and a d eep pool at the base of this RCP culvert formed by erosion at the end of SW 7 th Te rrace ( CH2MHILL , 2002b ). From Depot Avenue to P.K. Yonge School , erosion becomes more tremendous because severe channelization and unnatural sharp turn of Tumblin Creek ( CH2MHILL , 2002b ). From P.K. Yonge School to SW 16th Avenue , the major problem is bank stability because the creek channel becomes deeper that scours banks ( CH2MHILL , 2002b ). In the last section, Tumblin Creek passes under US 441 via larger culverts for alleviating flooding of the highway ( CH2MHILL , 2002b ). Tumblin Creek then enter s a 30 acres of floodplain wetland before flowing into Bivens Arm Lake. In the 1950s, for the purpose of preventing flooding on the SW 13 th Street, Tumblin Creek routed away the wetland via a dredged channel.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 81 The connection between Tumblin Creek and the wet land was broken down, which increases sediments and nutrients entering Bivens Arm Lake. Fig. 4 7 Surface Flow Direction Map Source: Diagram by author
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 82 East Tumblin Creek flows into Paynes Prairie after entering Bivens Arm Natural Park and a marsh. This creek is intermittent and channelized while passing through Bivens Arm Natural Park ( CH2MHILL , 2002b ). Bivens Arm Lake and East Tumblin Creek enter Paynes Prairie both through a dredged channel. 4.6 S LOPE AND EROSION Although the difference between the highest and the lowest elevations of the watershed is 120 feet, Tumblin Creek is a mostly flat area, with most of its surface at a grade of less than 4%. However, it has some slopes with a grade of 7% to 15%, mainly in t he northwestern corner and eastern part of Tumblin Creek, with the rest littered across the edge of Bivens Arm Lake. None of the se slopes are greater than 15%. The grade of slope and the erosion risk are in a direct relationship: the higher the grade, the higher the erosion risk (see Table. 4 2). Most of the Tumblin Creek watershed is low erosion risk. Some parts of the Tumblin Creek watershed are moderate erosi on risk, in which case LID facilities should be installed to prevent erosion. Another factor that affects the erosion risk is the flow rate of stormwater. The higher the flow rate of stormwater, the higher the erosion risk will be. Therefore, the ability o f LID facilities to reduce the flow rate of stormwater will also be very critical. Grade (%) Erosion Risk 0 7 Low 7 15 Moderate > 15 High Table. 4 2 Relationship of Grade and Erosion hazard risk Source of Table: Impact Development Appendix to Connecticut Guidelines for Soil Erosion and Sediment Control.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 83 Fig. 4 8 Slope Analysis Map Source: Diagram by author
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 84 4.7 CONTAMINANTS TYPES Impaired Areas Contaminants Types Contaminants Major Sources Current Human Impacts Tumblin Creek Nutrients TP (total phosphorus) Fertilizers in stormwater runoff Urban stormwater from commercial and residential properties Bacteria Fecal coliform Domestic and wild animal waste, leakage from sanitary sewer lines, faulty private sanitary sewer connections, and failing septic tanks Urban campers, failing septic systems, failing wastewater infrastructure, wildlife and pets Bivens Arm Lake Nutrients TP (total phosphorus), TN (total nitrogen) , Chlorophyll a Fer tilizers in stormwater runoff, n aturally occurring phosphatic minerals in the Hawthorn Group fomations that are transported during stormflow Urban and commercial stormwater runoff Table. 4 3 Contaminants And Major Sources w ithin the Tumblin Creek Watershed Source of Table Text : alachuacounty.us,. (2012) , Tumblin Creek Watershed ; Alachua county.us,. (2011) , Bivens Arm fact sheet. The Tumblin Creek watershed is impaired by nutrients and bacteria due to human activities, stormwater runoff pollution, loss of riparian areas, and high rainfall flows. At about 0.12 cfs average annual flow (2008 2011) near US441, Tumblin Creek is harmonic and has the common contaminants in Tumblin Creek are total phosphorus (TP) and fecal coliform. TP
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 85 generally comes from stormwater runoff containing fertilizers, (TN) and Chlorophyll a. Beside acting as sou cycling in Bivens Arm Lake is also a source for elevated nutrient concentrations (alachua county.us, 2011). Therefore, the primary cause of pollution for Tumblin Creek watershed is urban stormwater runoff f rom surrounding commercial and residential districts. This Graduate Terminal Project will concentrate on urban commercial and residential areas to explore suitable LID strategies. 4.8 PUBLIC OPEN SPACES DISTRIBUTION 4.8.1 Green Spaces According to the Green Space s Map (Fig. 4 9 ) , there are various types of large green spaces in the southern Tumblin Creek watershed. These large green spaces include upland forests, upland open lands , lakes, reservoirs, swamps, agricultural lands, and wetlands. Most of these l arge green spaces are conservation lands. Due to the high development, there are fewer green spaces in the northern Tumblin Creek watershed than in the southern areas. Several community p ark s are scatter ed around the high density urban lands, such as Lynch Park and Porters Community Park. A conservation trail is also located in the northern part of this watershed. Using the large green space resources available on the south side of the Tumblin Creek watershed , the city could use LID facilities to connect the scattered green spaces on t he north side to each other and then use LID facilities to direct stormwater runoff in the northern part of the city to the more substantial green spaces in the southern part. To identify the service areas of parks, an analysis of Gaps in Usable Open Space was conducted ( Fig. 4 10 ) . Based on the service area criteria for usable open space in the City of Seattle (Table. 4 4) , Tumblin Creek watershed parks can serve urban sites within 1/8 mile radius ;
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 86 residential urban lands (that have a higher population density) can access to parks that within 1/8 Â¼ mile; parks within Â¼ Â½ mile can be useful for single family areas (lower density population areas) ; any area outside a Â½ mile radius cannot be benefit from parks. As sh ow in the Usable (Fig. 4 10 ) , the Tumblin Creek watershed need more usable open spaces even in its large green space areas . Gaps of usable open s paces emerge in the west southern and west northern parts of Bivens Arm Lake, an d east of East Tumblin Creek. The majority of h igh density residential and commercial areas, which are located in northern and middle areas of the Tumblin Creek watershed, are outside 1/8 mile or even Â¼ mile. In other words, these high density urban core areas also lack usable open spaces. Therefore, there are opportunities for LID network to provide more usable open spaces or retrofit existing green spaces incorporating stormwater treatment functions into publ ic parks. Distance to Parks Service Areas 0 1/8 mile Urban Centers 1/8 mile Â¼ mile Residential Urban Lands Â¼ mile Â½ mile Single Family Areas > Â½ mile Gaps in Usable Open Space Table. 4 4 Service Area Criteria f or Usable Open Space (UOS) Source of Table Text : City of Seattle,. (2012). Gaps i n Usable Open Space. Retrieved from http://www.seattle.gov/parks/levy/gap_analysis_map.pdf
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 87 Fig. 4 9 Green Spaces Map Source: Diagram by author Open Lands
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 88 Fig. 4 10 Gaps Analysis Map Source: Diagram by author Open Lands
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 89 4.8.2 Impervious Areas Fig. 4 1 1 Impervious Surfaces Map Source: Diagram by author
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 90 The Impervious Surfaces Map shows that impervious pavement is mainly located in the northern parts of the Tumblin Creek watershed , which are highly developed . Impervious areas include rooftops, driveways, roads, sidewalks and parking lots. A mong these impervious areas driveway s , roads, sidewalks and parking lots usually belong to public sectors ( as spaces that are state owned or private but open to the public) . Wit hin the highly developed areas, public open spaces, such as parking lots , can provide opportunities for stormwater filtering and infiltration. Right of way land also help s stormwater management without using vacant lots. As a result, within highly developed areas, parking lots and right of way s are the main areas I will design for this Graduate Terminal P roject. 4.9 SYNTHESIS MAP In conclusion, the Tumblin Creek watershed is a highly developed area facing daunting challenges in its stormwater management. Existing stormwater management facilities cannot satisfy the local requirements for stormwater management due to the fact that the Tumblin Creek watershed was developed bef ore the implement ation of stormwater regulations. Major (1) The Tumblin Creek watershed, especially in the north, has large areas of impervious surfaces and lacks stormwater facilities and green spaces, which impacts downstream conservation lands and natural waterbodies; (2) High rate of development over the years has exhausted Tumblin Creek watershed's available lands, leaving it short of room for improving its stormwater ma nagement system; (3) Large segments of Tumblin Creek, East Tumblin Creek and Bivens Arm Lake lack riparian areas , result ing in stormwater runoff with pollutants flowing directly into local waterbodies; ( 4 ) Tumblin Creek disconnects existing wetlands before running into Bivens Arm Lake ; ( 5 ) Usable open spaces, such as parks, are insufficient in the northern areas of Bivens Arm
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 91 Lake and the headwaters of East Tumblin Creek ; (6) Stormwater treatment areas between the urban center and creeks are lacking . (7) The Tumblin Creek watershed lacks transition areas between conservation lands and commercial or residential lands; (8) Small parks scattered across northern Tumblin Creek watershed are not connected to larger green spaces in the southern side; (9) P oor drainage areas (as shown in Fig. 4 1 2 , which include poorly drained and very poorly drained areas in the Fig. 4 5 Drainage Class Map) lead to ineffective infiltration of stormwater, which also mean s that certain impervious parking lots are not suitable for conversion into permeable parking lots; (10) Several residential and commercial buildings are within the 100 year floodplain and therefore require LID facilities that can reduce runoff volume quickly; (11) Relative ly steep slopes near creeks increase erosion risks and reduce bank stability . As Shown in Fig. 4 1 2 , there are also opportunities for generating LID networks: (1) Right of way s can be used for conveyance and infiltration by implement ing small LID facilities, such as bioswale; (2) Existing conservation trails can be connections for proposed LID facilities and existing parks; (3) Existing wetlands can be preserved for stormwater treatment ; (4) Parking lots with impervious surfaces can b e transformed for better infiltration; (5) Existing Conservation lands can assist in retention and function as parks corridors; (6) The depression next to a gricultu ral lands has the opportunity to harvest stormwater for irrigation; (7) Existi ng LID projects provide connection s for potential LID facilities; (8) Existing conservation lands serve as riparian buffers for some section s of the border of Bivens Arm Lake and East Tumblin Creek.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 92 Fig. 4 1 2 Synthesis Map Source: Diagram by author Open Lands
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 93 Based on these opportunities and constraints, the upper reaches and areas adjacent to creeks and Bivens Arm Lake in middle parts of the Tumblin Creek watershed, are critical to reduce erosion of the entire length of these waterways. Inte grating of parking lots, right of ways, depressions and water edges are the main focus of this Graduate Terminal Project.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 94 CHAPTER 5: DESIGN GUIDELINES 5.1 SYNTHESIS OF GUIDELINES FOR LID NETWORK As mentioned in Chapter 3, the main principles for the LID network guidelines of the Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban areas and Creating an LID network helps to achieve sustainable stormwater management and increase the number of usable open spaces. The major goal in carrying out these principl es is to design guidelines for implementing LID strategies in the public open spaces within the Tumblin Creek watershed. This Graduate Terminal Project researches guidelines related to LID networks from three different perspectives: background information and issues concerning stormwater management in Florida and in Gainesville respectively, literature review, and case studies. The literature review covers concerns associated with stormwater in urban watersheds, disadvantages of traditional stormwater strat egies, advantages of LID strategies, and definitions and benefits of LID networks. Through case studies of different watersheds, it is evident that integrating LID facilities with various stormwater management functions into land use planning is a proven m ethod for creating an effective LID network. This Graduate Terminal Project focuses on guidelines for creating an environmentally friendly and sustainable stormwater management system. Considering the complicated existing situation of the Tumblin Creek watershed, this project primarily focuses on utilization of open spaces, including right of way and parking lots, in this watershed. Other strategies for creating sustainable stormwater management systems, including stormwater structural facilities, are al so vital , Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban areas , including its recommended strategies for vegetated open spaces, but integrate land use into determining L ID strategies. The following are guidelines for creating an LID network using public open spaces at the watershed level.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 95 5.1.1 Intended Users This guideline is intended for use by municipalities , planners, design and con struction professionals, s takeholder a gencies at the level of property owners , and professionals engaged in planning, designing, constructing, operating, and maintaining building and development projects within the Tumblin Creek watershed . These potential users include but are not limited to : stormwater design engineers, stormwater utility staff, natural resource managers, planning officials and administrators, building officials, architects, landscape architects, site design specialists, and landscape operation s and maintenance professionals (Jones Edmunds & Associates, Inc., 2013) . 5.1.2 Watershed Planning and Design Process This watershed planni ng and design process is a step by step guide for a designated watershed looking to implement LID network s by using its public open spaces. This process includes an emphasis on the usage of public open spaces that should be integrated into the overall watershed design rather than implemented as an afterthought. Step 1. Analyze the designated watershed . Intended users should c onduct a watershed analysis with a main focus on land use and a ctivities, hydrologic character , topography, contaminants, and open space distribution. This will help users to e stablish a clear understanding for the stormwater problems and resources of the entire watershed. S tep 2. Identify special stormwater management issues that need to be addressed with LID strategies by synthesizing the data from S tep 1 . Primary considerations for intended users should include the followings: whether the selected watershed is within speci al concern areas, such as excellent water quality; whether the w atershed is within or contains impaired waterbodies and may have specific Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for nutrients.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 96 Step 3. Divide sub watersheds. Based on land uses, topography, development level, and population density, intended users should categor ize areas containing public open spaces by hydrologic functions and stormwater management issues. Integration of sub watersheds should preserve the natural drainage patterns of the entire watershed and balance ecosystem hydrocycle. Step 4. Identify types o f available public open space within sub watersheds . Based on sub intended users should determine water control functions of these sub watersheds. Identify available public open spaces by its types and locations within each sub watershed. Fig. 5 1 Watershed Level Low Impact Development Control Plan Source: Diagram by author Step 5. Select appropriate LID strategies for each type of public open space . Intended users should e valuate surrounding land uses, sub water control functions, sizes or types of public open spaces (see Fig. 5 1) . Using linkages strategies in the next section, 5.1.4, intended users should select appropriate LID strategies for corresponding public open space s for LID network s . Step 6 . Develop the LID network plan for the stormwater management of the selected watersheds. Intended users should i mplement suitable LID st rategies in the sub watersheds to solve unique stormwater management problems of the entire watershed. Integrating sub wat could assist intended users to create an LID network within the Collection & Utilization Treatment, Collection & Utilization Conservation Areas Urban & Built Up Areas Agricultural Areas Waterbodies Source Control & Improvement Ecological Water Supplement Regional Rainwater Treatment & Utilization LAND USE WATER CONTROL FUNCTION
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 97 selected watershed and present in the plan. 5.1.3 Sub watersheds D ivision Fig. 5 2 Sub watersheds Division Source: Diagram by author According to the previous site analysis, the Tumblin Creek watershed is divided into five sub watersheds (see Fig. 5 2). As shown in Chapter 4, along with lowering topography of the Tumblin Creek watershed, flows run from north to south. In order to mimic the natural drainage 2. Tumblin Creek Highest degree of Stormwater management intervention buffer, retention, discharge, infiltration & treatment 1. Downtown Moderate protection, avoid ponding conveyance, infiltration & treatment 3. East Tumblin Creek Maintain existing conditions buffer, retention , discharge, storage & treatment 4. Bivens Arm Lake High protection conveyance , storage, capture & recharge 5. South Bivens Arm Lake Moderate protection buffer, retention , discharge & recycle 1 2 3 4 5
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 98 patterns of this entire watershed, each sub watershed must serve different and interconnected water control functions to ensure the same direction of flows and clean stormwater runoff. Sub watershed (1) : Downtown Recommendation: Moderate protection, avoid pon ding Function: conve yance, infiltration & treatment The first sub watershed is a highly developed area with medium to high density and heavy traffic. T his sub watershed therefore lacks available lands for stormwater management uses. Stormwater should be conveyed to adjacent sub watersheds for retention or storage. In order to lessen the land use pressure, retention ponds or detention ponds, which are usually designed for watershed runoff areas no smaller than 10 acres, should b e avoided. This sub watershed includes high density apartment complexes, medium density residential (see Table. 5 1), com mercial and institutional lands. A s a result, its stormwater runoff is more polluted. In addition, this section has too many impervious surfaces that prevent stormwater from recharging to aquifers. Although existing LID project s at the 5th Ave Basin can filter stormwater, this sub watershed should expand its infiltration and treatment functions to more effectively reduce the chance of pol lutants flow ing into other sub watershed s . Residential Density Classification Criteria High 6 or More Dwelling Units/Acre Medium 2 5 Dwelling Units/Acre Low 2 or Less Dwelling Units/Acre Table. 5 1 The Classification Criteria of Residential Density Source of Table Text : St. Johns River Water Management District Land Use and Cover 2009 (Update) , Federal Geographic Data Committee ( FGDC ) Metadata Sub watershed ( 2 ): Tumblin Creek Recommendation: Highest degree of Stormwater management intervention
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 99 Function: buffer, retention, discharge, infiltration & treatment The south of SW Depot Avenue, which acts as the demarcation line for sub watershed 1 and 2, is the second sub watershed. This sub watershed contains a couple of channelized creeks, Tumblin Cr eek and East Tumblin Creek, both of which lack riparian areas, meaning that pollutants carried by stormwater runoff flow directly into local streams. Most of Tumblin Creek is inundated in 100 year flood events. Therefore, this sub watershed should implemen t buffer s to prevent contaminants from running into creeks , thereby allowing sub watersheds to function as a buffer for the entire watershed . Existing wetlands, channelized creeks and ponds provide retention and discharge functions for stormwater management, while 100 year floodplain areas need more retention facilities for reducing stormwater volumes, which also can assist other sub watershed s in mitigating flooding issues. As the only sub watershed that has all urban and built up land use types, impervious surfaces and polluted stormwater are the main concerns that require more effective infiltration and better treatment of stormwater. Theref ore, this sub watershed should have highest degree of stormwater management intervention. Sub watershed ( 3 ): East Tumblin Creek Recommendation: Maintain existing conditions Function: buffer, retention, discharge, storage & treatment The third sub watershed is located on the east ern side of the Tumblin Creek watershed. This sub watershed mainly contains low density single family and medium density residential areas; it also has fewer impervious surfaces and more green infrastructure. Therefore, status quo may be the best option for this sub watershed. East Tumblin Creek passes through this sub watershed and has some areas within 100 year floodplain , s o buffer areas should also be adde d along this creek. With its high lying areas, poorly drained conditions and a channelized creek, this sub watershed also should provide retention, discharge and storage functions for the Tumblin Creek watershed. Sub watershed ( 4 ): Bivens Arm Lake Recommen dation: High protection
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 100 Function: conveyance , storage, capture & recharge The fourth sub watershed is full of conservation lands, therefore, the strategy here prio ritizes protection of its natural state. Moreover, an unique aspect of this sub watershed is the connected interior lakes and creeks within its region (for example, Tumblin Creek and Bivens Arm Lake, Bivens Arm Lake and the Paynes Prairie, and East Tumblin Creek and the Paynes Prairie), a nd the connection of the Tumblin Creek watershed and its adjacent watershed (such as the Tumblin Creek watershed and the Paynes Prairie). Therefore, conveyance becomes a significant function for this sub watershed. As the most natural sub watershed, it con tains a maximum amount of green spaces, including upland forest and open lands , wetlands, parks, creeks and lakes. Thus, this sub watershed is best utilized for storage, capture and recharge of stormwater. Sub watershed ( 5 ): South Bivens Arm Lake Recommen dation: Moderate protection Function: buffer, retention, discharge & recycle The fifth sub watershed contains large areas of agricultural lands along with few residential and commercial areas. So, it needs to provide buffer areas to mitigate pollution from agricultural activities and prevent pollution from spreading to adjacent sub watersheds. The topography of this sub watershed also make it possible to be used for retention, discharge and recycle d stormwater. Between residential and agricultural lands, there is a depression that can be used for harvesting stormwater, which can irrigate adjacent agricultural lands during dry seasons. 5.1.4 Linkage Strategies Some different linkage strategies involve co mbining open spaces t o form an LID network wit hin the Tumblin Creek watershed. To organize these linkage strategies, this Graduate Terminal Project placed stormwater management into three categories , dep ending on open space types: (1) Vegetated Open Spaces, (2) Right of Way s , and (3) Parking Lots.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 101 (1) Vegetated Open Spaces: Linkage Strategies for Parks: Add ing Treatment Parks near the headwaters of Tumblin Creek and East Tumblin Creek in urban areas to connect citi zens to the natural waterbodies Install ing Water H arvest Parks in the depression between agricultural lands and residential areas to link irr igation and stormwater runoff Transform ing several open spaces into urban parks to enhance the Current and Future Parks Network and to establish transitions between conservation areas and urban areas with impervious surfaces Install ing Constructed Wetlands in Bivens Arm Forest to reconnect Tumblin Creek with the Bivens Arm Lake Fig. 5 3 LID Networks Implementation through Parks (See Appendix for large images) Water Harvesting Park Constructed Wetlands Treatment Parks Existing Parks LID Strategies Current and Future Parks Network
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 102 Source: Pictures by University of Arkansas Community Design Center , 2010, Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban areas ; Diagram by author . As mentioned in Section 2.5, Treatment Parks and Water Harvest Parks are two major LID strategies represented at the open space level. These parks are combinations of LID facilities and focus on different water control functions. In the Tumblin C reek watershed, s ub watershed 2 and 5 are areas with high pollution nearest to sub watershed 4 , which requires great protection. In addition, sub watershed 2 lacks usable open spaces for citizens , while agricultural la nds within sub watershed 5 need water for irrigation . As a result, treatment parks are suitable for the headwaters of Tumblin Creek and East Tumblin Creek to filter stormwater from the downtown sub watershed and provide ecological services for citizens . Water Harvest Parks , which change stormwat er into source s of irrigation, are suitable to be install ed next to agricultural lands and use d by exi sting topography for harvesting. After implement ing LID strategies in the form of urban parks , existing parks and new parks will form more complete network s that include both transition al areas , as well as areas for active recreation. As artificial swamps, constructed wetlands are comprehensive treatment system s that can hold water permanently and provide full ecological services for cleaning stormwater runoff. Tumblin Creek routed away existing wetlands into Bivens Arm Lake due to the flooding issues of US 441 , which reduce d protective screen s to filter stormwater . Constructed wetlands should be built so that T umblin Creek passes through them before entering Bivens Arm Lake. In addition, Bivens Arm Lake offers a relatively large drainage area for constructed wetlands to maintain their shallow permanent pools. Linkage Strategies for Greenways: Implement ing Riparian Buffers along Tumblin Creek and East Tumblin Creek to connect impervious areas and natural waterbodies in order to clean stormwater runoff and to maintain bank stability
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 103 Adding Riparian Buffers along the e astern edges of Bivens Arm Lake to prevent pollutants in the stormwater runoff from a butting commercial propertities Fig. 5 4 LID Networks D elivery by Greenway s (See Appendix for large images) Source: Pictures by University of Arkansas Community Design Center , 2010, Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban areas ; Diagram by author. When constructed, Tumblin Creek and East Tumblin Creek were channelized , but some segments were left without buffer areas . A s a kind of greenway , r iparian buffer s can protect and Greenways Existing Greenways LID Greenways Riparian Buffers
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 104 improve water quality by regulating sediment inputs. Usually, 100 to 300 foot riparian buffers are sufficient in reduc ing stormwater pollutant loads and maintain ing hea l thy watersheds. Within the Tumblin Creek watershed, S ub watershed 2 is the most in need of riparian buffers because most of Tumblin Creek and East Tumblin Creek are within this sub watershed. In addition, S ub watershed 2 also interfaces with Bivens Arm Lake. To connect o pen spaces, prevent flooding, and treat large scale stormwater, riparian buffers should be implement ed along the creeks and the eastern side of Bivens Arm Lake, which both need protect ive screens to improv e water qualit y . Linkage Strategies for Conservation Areas: Protect ing conservation areas , which are ma inly located in Sub watershed 4 Fig. 5 5 LID Networks Delivery by Conservation Areas (See Appendix for large images) Source: Pictures by University of Arkansas Community Design Center , 2010, Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban areas ; Diagram by author. As shown in Fig. 5 5, most conservation areas of the Tumblin Creek watershed are recommended as the first preservation priorities, such as waterbodies, wetlands , and floodplains. These conservation areas are mainly located in S ub watershed 4. Based on sub watershed division s , conservation areas should be protected for conveying and storing stormwater. In LID Conservation Areas
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 105 addition , secondary conservation areas inclu ding upland forest and open lands within the Tumblin Creek watershed , should also be preserved. Future development around conservation areas should use conservation development techniques to maintain undivided open spaces. (2) Right of Way s : Linkage Strategies for Right of Ways : Apply Green Street ( mainly using roadside Bioswale s to form Bioswale Network s ) in the local streets (Tertiary Streets) in urban developed areas or medium to high density residential areas to provide small conn ections to large LID facilities Implement Shared Street in the arterials (Primary Streets) and collectors (Secondary Streets) in the urban areas for connecting streets, LID facilities, parking spaces, recreational areas , and lands capes Based on street classifications and the flow direction of the Tumblin Creek watershed, of ways. As Shown in the Fig. 5 6, arrows indicate the stormwater runoff directions thr ough green streets and shared streets. Green s treets install LID facilities in right of ways to slow, infiltrate and treat stormwater. The width of streets suitable for implementing green streets is narrower tha n shared streets. Most of the Tumblin Creek watershed uses narrow streets suitable for green street strategies. Within the Tumblin Creek watershed, green streets can use roadside bioswales, street planters, and pervious pavements for parking lots and/or sidewalks. Shared streets reconfigure public right of ways for managing stormwater through bioswales, treebox filters, pervious pavements , and infiltration basins. Oversi zed pipes are used for connecting these facilities. Roadside s , road medians , sidewalks, on streets parking or pa rking lots, and plazas are integrated as multipurpose landscapes that balance stormwater management and social demands for recreation and safety.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 106 Fig. 5 6 LID Networks Delivery by Right of Way (See Appendix for large images) Source: Pictures by University of Arkansas Community Design Center , 2010, Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban areas ; Diagram by author. Green streets and shared streets provide opportunities for communication and education. Usual ly, green streets and shared streets require additional maintenance that in turn requires community involvement. In addition, shared streets can offer social space s by transforming right of ways into shared street plaza. From activities of maintenance and LID facilities of streets, people can experience different types of water and learn about horticulture and ecology. In addition, the awareness of protecting water and the sense of community will be increased. Shared Streets Bioswale Networks Existing Streets LID Right of Way
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 107 Fig. 5 7 Bioswale Placements in Different Land Uses Source: The County of San Diego, LID Handbook ; Diagram by author. (3) Parking Lots: Linkage Strategies for Parking Lots : Transform impervious parking lots in to pixelated parking and parking gardens to connect impervious areas and LID facilities Integrate streets and landscapes to maximiz e th e utility rates of parking lots, which are near shared streets (see Fig. 5 6 and previous text) Avoid the use of parking lots located in poorly drained areas in order to transform them into pervious surfaces (drainage status depends on Hydrologic Soil Types)
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 108 Fig. 5 8 LID Networks D elivery by Par king Lots (See Appendix for large images) Source: Pictures by University of Arkansas Community Design Center , 2010, Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban areas ; Diagram by author. Using parking lots to implement LID strategies is an important management effort to consi der due to rapid urbanizing watersheds . Parking lots within the Tumblin Creek watershed are located predominantly within the first and second sub watersheds , which req uire the h ighest degree of s tormwater management intervention . Because of the l ack of usable open spaces , and because parking lots are significantly underused during non peak business hours , parking lots are Pixelated Parking Parking Gardens Existing Parking Lots LID Parking Lots
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 109 valuable opportunities for stormwater management. To integrate parking lots into LID networks, the drainage s tatus and the sizes of parking l ots should be considered for choosing suitable LID strategies. Poor ly drained areas (as shown in Fig. 4 1 2 ) usually contain Hydrologic Soil Groups C and D, which are suitable for impervious surfaces. As a result, parking lots located in these poorly drained areas should be kept as existing impervious surfaces. Except for these parking lots, other parking lots sh ould be transformed into pixelated parking and parking gardens , which come from UACDC, depending on their sizes. As c onfiguring parking lots as a set of LID landscape modules, p arking gardens place cars in their own treatment basins. More so than pixelated lots, p arking gardens can be used in the larger parking lots to offer the maximum level of ecological service s . Pixelated parking lots replace impervious surfaces using pervious pavements and absorbent landscape islands by pixel configurations. Absorbent landscape islands absorb water and connect to infiltration basin s or underground storage facilit ies through bioswales or underground oversized pipes. Pixelated parking lots are recommended for retrofitting small parking lots within the Tumblin Cr eek watershed. Parking gardens should integrat e LID landscape modules to reconfigure traditional parking lots as stormwater gardens. Parking gardens convey stormwater to rain gardens by, as the water passes through pervious pavements, finally connecting to infiltration basins through perforated underground pipe s . Parking gardens , which reduce the distance of conveyi ng stormwater to LID facilities, are a beautiful alternative solution for water quality treatment in parking lots.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 110 5.2 CONCEPTUAL MASTER PLAN OF THE TUMBLIN CREEK WATERSHED Fig. 5 9 Master Plan Source: Base map from Google Earth; Diagram by author.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 111 5.3 PLANTING SELECTION SUGGESTION Plant community, as part of treatment facilities, is also important for LID network operation. Based on average normal water level (NWL) , plant types, wetland status , some suitable plant species are suggested for LID facilities in each littoral zone. Most species are When designing LID facilities, designers can choose plants from follow
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 112
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 113 Fig. 5 10 ~ 14 Planting Recommendations Source: Diagram by author
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 114 CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS 6.1 MAJOR FINDINGS AND CONTRIBUTION Today, issues concerning stormwater management in many American cities are no longer caused by a single factor, but are reflection s of multivariate and multilevel causes that, more often than not, include rapid urban development, outdated stormwater management regulations, polluted urban stormwater runof f, erosion, lack of buffer, and extensive impervious surfaces. Hence, it is imperative to introduce a more efficient and sustainable method of stormwater management that would break traditional reliefs and incorporate cutting edge stormwater management con cept s , namely the LID network, which come from UACDC into our daily life. The basic principles of LID network s replace passive treatment methods that focus on end of pipe control with brand new processes of management and disposal that emphasize decentralized LID facilities. This strategy will not only be able to improve the efficiency of stormwater management, but also c oordinate urban development, human life, and ecological health all together . This Graduate Terminal Project applies a LID network that encompasses the entire area of the Tumblin Creek watershed to improve its hydrologic systems and clean up stormwater, u ltimately attempting to construct a better and more integrated stormwater management system that improve stormwater management . The contribution of this project is the formulation of a series of design guidelines and strategies that can assist municipaliti designers and developers to transform open spaces of the Tumblin Creek watershed into sustainable urban stormwater treatment facilities that can satisfy several important social demand s , such as recreation, leisure and education of local residents. 6.2 LESSONS LEARNED Before undertaking this graduate terminal project, many people's , as well as
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 115 understanding of LID was very narrow. T he concept of LID was mostly about applicat ions of independent LID facilities , such as rain gardens, infiltration basins , and bioswales. However, through this project, a clearer understanding of LID strategies and networks was acquired that emphasize combinations of singular LID facility to create more suitable overall design s for larger context s and provide directions for stormwater management. Through research, it was found that the implementation of watershed level LID strategies is critical in improving sustainability of stormwater management and alleviating the negative effects caused by comp licated site conditions for stormwater treatment. During this project, several important lessons were learned : (1) The most suitable public open spaces for stormwater management when applying LID networks within Tumblin Creek watershed are right of ways, parking lots, and shoreside areas. For Tumblin Creek watershed, the right of ways of local streets and secondary streets have more spaces to implement LID facilities, such as bioswale, treebox filter and pervious surfaces, than those of primary streets wit hout impeding traffic. Parking lots are flexible to apply LID facilities due to their low and imbalance usage rates and large space occupation in the Tumblin Creek watershed. Shoreside areas can be transformed into buffers as the last defense for the Tumbi ln Creek watershed to reduce polluted stormwater runoff, which are also what this watershed need. (2) The characteristics of the Tumblin Creek watershed that affect stormwater functions mainly include slope, distribution of water bodies, hydrologic soil groups, soil materials, land use and on site flow path. As mentioned before, the Tumblin Creek watershed is relatively flat, and its steepest slope causes moderate rather than high erosion. In addition, the areas with relatively steep slopes are along creeks so that these areas mainly call for the filtration function for stormwater management, which can redu ce sediments and eutrophication of water bodies. Riparian buffer and filter strip are good for using in these areas to filtrate stormwater runoff and make these areas become filtration parts of the LID network. Besides, soil materials and hydrologic soil g roups largely determine the infiltration function of the Tumblin Creek watershed. The areas with sandy soil and hydrologic soil group C and D are mainly located along
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 116 natural water bodies. As a result, these areas primarily serve as stormwater infiltration parts within the LID network of the Tumblin Creek watershed. Furthermore, the land use and the on site flow path of the Tumblin Creek watershed impact on stormwater functions collectively. The areas in upper reaches with residential and commercial lands s hould be stormwater treatment parts within this LID network due to their comparatively severe polluted situations. ( 3 ) The most applicable LID strategies for forming LID networks in the Tumblin Creek streets and parking gardens. In the Tumblin Creek watershed, local streets expanded through the entire watershed. Transforming these local streets into green streets make them more systematic and efficient than other types of streets, especially within up stream of this watershed. Parking gardens are a convenient and fast way to make parking lots attractive for citizens and treat polluted stormwater runoff since these parking lots locate in most of the areas that are sources of stormwater pollution. (4) Lin kages strategies for parking lots within the Tumblin Creek watershed is the most applicable strategy among the various linkage strategies for generating a LID network in the changing too much of the existing conditions. Other valuable conclusions are including: (1) The headwaters or upstream areas of Tumblin Creek and East Tumblin Creek receive polluted urban residential and commercial stormwater runoff that should be treate d for preventing erosion and protecting water quality ; (2) The addition of stormwater parks is needed for treatment and social services within the Tumblin Creek watershed; (3) Replacing impervious surfaces with pervious pavements is helpful for stormwater management, but not all impervious surfaces should be replaced, depending on the drainage status of their locations , poor drainage areas (usually consist of Hydrologic Soil Groups C and D) such as several impervious parking lots in the Sub watershed 1 and 2 should be kept impervious ; (4) Implementing new constructed wetlands and restoring existing wetlands are
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 117 recommended for the Tumblin Creek watershed to reconnect Tumblin Creek and Bivens Arm Lake for filter ing stormwater and keep ing healthy ecosystems. Although the Tumblin Creek watershed is from United States, the design guidelines of LID networks generation are valuable for China. With higher density, u rban expansion and rarely preserving local hydrological patterns, China is urgently in need for LID networks. Due to incomplete regulations, lacking design specifications and isolated drainage system designs, the first step for China to implement LID netwo rks is raising awareness that stormwater is source rather than waste. In other words, stormwater should be prevented from polluting water bodies rather than restoring polluted rivers and creeks. LID networks can deal with the conflict between nature and ci ty. When the design guidelines of generating LID networks transferred to China, some restrictions occur. In Chinese existing road systems, plantings (including trees and shrubs) along streets are in independent plant pits so that they cannot fulfill storm water cleansing functions for large continuous areas. Besides, most of green streets use bioswale or curb extensions to narrow lanes and reduce on street parking for calming down car speeds in the United States, which are not recommended to apply in most u rban areas of China because merchants will oppose these changes. Due to the fact that many shops are located along local and secondary streets in China, merchants think narrowing lanes and canceling on street parking that in front of their shop will cause loss of business. To deal with these restrictions, these design guidelines should have some modifications based on existing conditions. For example, the negotiation of related departments of Chinese governments and the support of local people are essentia l for green street implementations in China, which are more complicated than in the Tumblin Creek watershed. Furthermore, redefining green infrastructure by changing slightly with existing urban conditions to fulfill stormwater management functions is a si mple way to apply LID networks. For instance, plenty of existing planting areas with isolated plant pits along sidewalks can be transformed into tree box filters, a more urban and small scale LID facilities, to treat and infiltrate stormwater.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 118 For China, t he most applicable linkage strategies from this project are the ones for greenways. Chinese existing urban green space system planning and practice focus on the construction of greenbelts and separated parks, which make the majority of green spaces, includ ing conservation lands and parks, develop as scattered points. With the disorder urban expansion, green space networks have not been formed yet in most parts of China. As a result, greenways are recommended to implement in the Chinese urban areas to connec t parks by integrating linear elements (such as rivers, roads and trails) into green space systems to form LID networks. These LID networks have ecological, recreational, social and cultural benefits for citizens. Greenways can provide significant ecologic al benefits for China, especially for its eastern regions to address the rapid urbanization. 6.3 LIMITATIONS OF THIS RESEARCH PROJECT AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Due to time constraints, post evaluation of LID networks in the Tumblin Creek watershed is not included in this graduate terminal project. Since properly functioning and effective stormwater facilities or strategies are crucial factors in the long term goa l of sustainable urban stormwater management, future researche r s should include post evaluation of LID networks. Additional ly, future research c ould focus on the following aspects: (1) Policy of stormwater management related t o the Tumblin Creek watershed . Researching the details of different scales policies of stormwater management can p romote the understanding of existing c onstraint s for the LID network implementation in the Tumblin Creek watershed . Based on existing policies, future studies can figure out which policies are necessary to amend in order to provide opportunities for LID networks . (2) Internal review s stormwater specialist s . Internal reviews can help this project t o examine the feasibility of these design guidelines from different discipline s and aspects , such as engineering and policies . In
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 119 addition, comments from internal reviews provide the direction s for improving these design guidelines. (3) Conclusions, modification and formulation of relevant LID regulations. Future researchers will be able to support and facilitate LID networks generating in the Tumblin Creek watershed through improving existing LID regulations , such as i ntegrating LID strategies into t he revision of stormwater ordinance s that are related to the overall process including planning, design, review and post evaluation , as well as developing specific regulations for LID network implementation in the Tumblin Creek watershed . (4) Public involvement for maintenance and education of LID networks. Future researchers can communicate with the public and practitioners to explore the favorite LID facilities for LID networks and the effective ways to implement and maintain LID networks in the Tumblin Creek watershed. Ultimately, future researchers will be able to create more sustainable and reasonable stormwater solutions within the Tublim Creek watershed.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 120 APPENDIX STAGE OF THE CONCRETE CHANNEL: Stage of t he concrete channel downstr eam of US 441 on Tumblin Creek and discharges to B ivens Arm : Source: http://www.alachuacounty.us/Depts/epd/WaterResources/WaterData/Pages/Surface Water.aspx
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 121 CONTAMINANTS TYPES Tumblin Creek Watershed: Bivens Arm Lake : Source: Alachua County.us. Retrieved from http://www.alachuacounty.us/Depts/EPD/WaterResources/PublishingImages/tumblin_creek_layo ut[1.pdf
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 122 REGULATION: Summary of regulatory requirements for detention & retention practices : Source: Geosyntec Consultants, Inc., 2014
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 123 LINKAGES STRATEGIES FOR PARKS: Existing Parks : Source: Diagram by author.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 124 LID Network Strategies for Parks : Source: Diagram by author.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 125 Current and Future Parks Network : Source: Diagram by author.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 126 Water Harvesting Park: Source: University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2010, Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban ar eas
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 127 Treatment Park s : Source: University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2010, Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban ar eas
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 128 Constructed Wetlands : Source: University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2010, Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban ar eas
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 129 LINKAGES STRATEGIES FOR GREENWAYS: Existing Greenways : Source: Diagram by author.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 130 LID Network Strategies for Greenways: Source: Diagram by author.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 131 Greenways : Source: University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2010, Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban ar eas
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 132 Riparian Buffers: Source: University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2010, Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban ar eas
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 133 LINKAGES STRATEGIES FOR CONSERVATION AREAS: LID Network Strategies for Conservation Areas : Source: Diagram by author.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 134 Conservation Development : Source: University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2010, Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban ar eas
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 135 LINKAGES STRATEGIES FOR RIGHT OF WAYS: LID Network Strategies for Right of Ways : Source: Diagram by author.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 136 Share Streets : Source: University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2010, Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban ar eas Original Street Rebuild Street ): Source: Du, 2012
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 137 Bioswale Networks : Source: University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2010, Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban ar eas
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 138 LINKAGES STRATEGIES FOR PARKING LOTS : Existing Parking Lots: Source: Diagram by author.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 139 LID Network Strategies for Parking Lots : Source: Diagram by author.
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 140 Pixelated Parking : Source: University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2010, Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban ar eas
LAA 6979 TERMINAL PROJECT: GENERATING LID NETWORK 141 Parking Gardens: Source: University of Arkansas Community Design Center, 2010, Low Impact Development: a design manual for urban ar eas
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