Citation
Adaptation to Coastal Change

Material Information

Title:
Adaptation to Coastal Change : Strategies for Evolving and Maintaining Community Valued Spaces, Places, Activities, and Characteristics in the Face of Sea Level Rise
Creator:
Visconti, Claudia F.
Place of Publication:
(Gainesville, FL)
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 online resource; 133p

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Landscape Architecture (M))
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Williams, Sara K
Committee Members:
Volk, Michael Ives

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Academic communities ( jstor )
City centers ( jstor )
Community life ( jstor )
Community power ( jstor )
Discourse communities ( jstor )
Highlands ( jstor )
Keys ( jstor )
Open spaces ( jstor )
Retirement communities ( jstor )
Sea level rise ( jstor )
Genre:
Project in Lieu of Thesis

Notes

Abstract:
This study aims to develop adaptive strategies to sea level rise that are sensitive to the vernacular landscape using Cedar Key, Florida as the study area. In this study, vernacular landscape is defined as an established landscape that developed as a result of people’s social and cultural practices. Spaces, places, activities, and characteristics that are valued by a community’s residents are used in this study as the defining features that constitute the vernacular landscape. ( ,,,,,, )
Abstract:
Recent aerial footage and data reflect the fastest rate of sea level rise recorded in 15 years, lending scientists to project an increase of 0.5- 1 meter in sea level by 2100. (Mulkey, 2007). Inundation models projecting a one meter rise in sea level, show a significant loss of coastal land in the city of Cedar Key and other coastal communities. Due to the high risk of inundation, the lifestyle and landscape of coastal communities are inevitably going to be altered. This study seeks to illustrate a process for identifying the key characteristics that define the vernacular landscape of a community and formulate adaptation strategies that are sensitive to it. Surveys and interviews were deployed to determine what the residents of Cedar Key value about their community. Once a list of the valued spaces, places, activities, and characteristics was compiled, priorities were developed for addressing adaptation strategies. These priorities were centered on the needs of a community and on site analysis. Six different elements of the vernacular landscape were chosen from the list for which adaptive strategies were demonstrated for Cedar Key.
Abstract:
GIS data was used to show the existing physical site conditions of Cedar Key and a projection of a one meter rise in sea level. The compiled data was then overlaid to determine areas affected by inundation. Goals and objectives are established for three different adaptation methods: accommodation, protection, and relocation. Where inundation occurs, relocation was considered as the adaptive method in this study. Opportunities for relocation of the selected elements of the vernacular landscape are illustrated for Cedar Key. Transferability of relevant findings and lessons from this process were identified for other coastal communities concerned about adaptation strategies in relation to the vernacular landscape. Future considerations relevant to the findings and topics of this study are stated as well as potential next steps for this research.
Abstract:
Utilizing existing and newly gathered data to identify the important components that make up the valued spaces, places, activities and characteristics of Cedar Key, this study demonstrates a method for maintaining, adapting, and assisting in the evolution of the key elements that make their community special. Considerations that must be taken into account during the planning process are clearly defined for potential transferability to other communities. Community involvement is strongly encouraged in this study as the basis for many design decisions in sea level rise planning. Rural coastal communities can look towards the methodology used in this study and apply it to their own community in order to cope with sea level rise and elements of their vernacular landscape.
General Note:
Landscape Architecture Terminal Project
Statement of Responsibility:
by Claudia Visconti

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Claudia Visconti. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
1022120885 ( OCLC )

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To my father {papa}, who always believed in me and encouraged me to dream big ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my committee chair, Kay Williams, for her excellent guidance during my research and for introducing me to the beauty of the vernacular landscape in her class during my undergraduate career. I also would like to thank my committee co-chair, Michael Volk, for his advice throughout the research process and for conveying a sense of wonder and excitement towards my study. Without the instruction and patience of my committee, this terminal project would not have been possible. I would like to thank the University of Florida for providing me the opportunity to not only Gurucharri, for guiding me along my academic path at UF and continuing to keep my passion ignited. To my family and friends who have supported me along the way and were always there to offer advice or stress release when needed. To my mother for making my educational career possible and for teaching me to never give up. Finally, I would like to thank my boyfriend, Paul, for always reminding me of my full potential and for never letting me act like I was capable of any less.

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ABSTRACT This study aims to develop adaptive strategies to sea level rise that are sensitive to the vernacular landscape using Cedar Key, Florida as the study area. vernacular landscape. the city of Cedar Key and other coastal communities. Due to the high risk of inundation, the lifestyle and landscape of coastal communities are inevitably going to be altered. This study seeks to illustrate and formulate adaptation strategies that are sensitive to it. Surveys and interviews were deployed to determine what the residents of Cedar Key value about their community. Once a list of the valued spaces, places, activities, and characteristics was compiled, priorities were developed for addressing adaptation strategies. These priorities were centered on the needs of a community and on site analysis. Six different elements of the vernacular landscape were chosen from the list for which adaptive strategies were demonstrated for Cedar Key. GIS data was used to show the existing physical site conditions of Cedar Key and a projection of a one meter rise in sea level. The compiled data was then overlaid to determine areas affected by inundation. Goals and objectives are established for three different adaptation methods: accommodation, protection, and relocation. Where inundation occurs, relocation was considered as the adaptive method in this study. Opportunities for relocation of the selected elements of the vernacular landscape are illustrated for Cedar Key. coastal communities concerned about adaptation strategies in relation to the vernacular landscape. next steps for this research. Utilizing existing and newly gathered data to identify the important components that make up the valued spaces, places, activities and characteristics of Cedar Key, this study demonstrates a method for maintaining, adapting, and assisting in the evolution of the key elements that make their community special. Considerations that must be taken into account during the planning process are encouraged in this study as the basis for many design decisions in sea level rise planning. Rural coastal communities can look towards the methodology used in this study and apply it to their own community in order to cope with sea level rise and elements of their vernacular landscape.

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CONTENTS Chapter 1 : Introduction Chapter 2 : Literature Genius Loci The Vernacular of a Landscape Role of the Outside Observer Role of the Community Chapter 3 : Methodology Precedents and Literature Review Character Analysis Physical and Vulnerability Analysis Reading the Landscape Taking Notes Looking Local Community Input Data Gathering Goals and Objectives Combined Goal Analysis

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CONTENTS Overview From Findings to Strategies Important Areas in Cedar Key Critical Infrastructure Conservation Lands Flood Zones Vacant and Non-Developed Parcels Relocation Opportunities Chapter 4 : Adaptation Strategies for the Evolution of Community Valued Spaces, Places, Activities, and Characteristics Places, Activities, and Characteristics Spaces and Places Green space Downtown Activities Arts Trails Characteristics Connectivity Building TypologiesChapter 5: Transferability and Considerations Works CitedFigures Cited

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Chapter 1: Introduction“... you begin to realize that the important determinant of any culture is after all the spirit of place” Lawrence Durrell

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11 INTRODUCTION Intention The intention of my research is to engage communities in identifying the key elements that make up their vernacular landscape so that adaptive planning can be carried out in a way that maintains or assists in the evolution of these components. This research attempts to reveal and document the vernacular landscape of Cedar Key, Florida and develop adaptive strategies that are sensitive to those in the face of sea level rise. For the purposes of this study, the vernacular consists of a character analysis as well as a physical and vulnerability analysis in order to develop an integrated methodology for adaptive planning. Character analysis: On site analysis and community input This approach provides an opportunity for community discussion on what places, spaces, something that has high importance to the social and cultural lifestyle of a particular community or area. Community input and on site analysis are used as the tools for determining the key components maintain or assist in the evolution of the values of the community in conjunction with its assessment vernacular landscape. their own spaces, places, activities, and characteristics of value within their vernacular landscape and how to incorporate social and cultural considerations in their adaptive planning process. Landscapes are more than the grass, the captivating viewsheds and the sapphire sky; landscapes are everything that we see, feel, and hear when we are outside. Ever evolving and adaptive, the world we inhabit has been shaped by humans over time. Aside from the natural, more Lewis was able to determine a set of criteria, or axioms, to begin to understand the cultural landscape places, activities and characteristics that are unique to or consistent within the region or area in which

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12 INTRODUCTION be.” that speaks about the social and cultural practices of the people. Local methods and materials or characteristics that makeup the lifestyles and landscapes in a community. As these qualities are dependent upon the community they occur in, it is in the unique ways of life of the people that the vernacular landscape is revealed. temperatures. Ocean temperatures have also increased, causing thermal expansion of the water and melting ice caps. As a result, drastic increases in sea level rise are likely to be experienced. meter or less and six meters or less on the coastline.

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13 INTRODUCTION As climate change increases and sea level rises, coastal communities are at risk of changes which would drastically change the current coastal lifestyle and landscapes of communities. The the effects of sea level rise, but our coastal communities will inevitably experience changes in the natural and man made elements that make up their vernacular landscape. Inundation of low lying areas will call for increased development needs inland. Property and habitat loss, saltwater intrusion, and increased storm surges may cause coastal communities to surrender their local traditions and will require them to adapt to new ways of life. It is essential that planning takes into consideration not only the affects of sea level rise on the natural landscape, but the vernacular landscape. The valued spaces, places, activities, and characteristics of a community should be acknowledged and adaptive strategies should seek to maintain or assist in the evolution of these elements.

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14 INTRODUCTION To assure culture and ways of life are considered in the planning phase, my study investigates methods of adaptive design to seal level rise that are sensitive to the vernacular landscape of a community, helping to maintain, enhance, and evolve these areas for futures generations. Most commonly, sea level rise planning is treated in three ways: Accommodation minimizes the impact of sea level rise by adjusting and evolving Protection uses hard and soft infrastructure as a physical attempt to design for sea Relocation surrenders the coastline to the sea and moves people and development Currently, planning measures do not take into account the way of life of a community, or the vernacular landscape. A character analysis that consists of on-site analysis and community input is key in identifying elements of high value to the community that constitute the vernacular landscape so that they are considered and addressed in the planning phase. residents and allow community feedback to assist in describing the ways of life of that region or area. As a visitor of a city or a community, the vernacular landscape is perceived in a different way than community in understanding their cultural, historical and social setting is fundamental in developing a Exploring the community as an outside observer is also a key factor in gaining a greater understanding of the vernacular landscape of a community or place. An outside observer in this methodology is also the facilitator of the study. The outside observer explores the landscape, noting an outside perspective in addition to the perspective of a resident gives a clearer understanding of the landscape or community as a whole. that was sensitive to existing traditions and valued places of their community. From experience, unconscious attachment within the community. Based on their observations, the designers developed a list of the places they felt were important to the social fabric of the community of Manteo. Town Board members then gave the designers resident input to revise the list before it was published in

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15 INTRODUCTION the community had a subconscious attachment to several places and they wanted them protected. By creating a collective visual for the community to see, it was made known to individuals that the places they use and value were also valued by other residents in their community. It was stated by residents that they were willing to forgo economic gain if it meant protecting these places, showing how truly The plan that was chosen preserved the most sacred structures and in turn was the most sensitive to existing rituals and ways of life of the community. graphically the components of their community and asking open ended questions about what they feel is important. Traditionally, cultural inventories are used as the main tool for identifying, assessing, city, a county or a district” that is used as a comprehensive resource for community education and of inventory, the greater wealth of the community can be revealed, exposing a greater range of Areas valued by the community should be honored and preserved to the utmost degree possible to maintain cultural values. In instances where these areas will be inundated, upland areas ways characteristics, activities, spaces, and places, favored by the community, can be maintained or evolved so that they are sensitive to the vernacular landscape. Adaptive strategies are illustrated for the community of Cedar Key, Florida so that the lifestyle they value is not lost in the face of sea level rise. The process demonstrated in this study provides guidance for other communities to incorporate the vernacular landscape in their adaptive planning measures as well.

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16 Florida is famous for its unique and beautiful beaches and coastal communities. These seaside communities range in size, characteristics, and location, and all stand at risk of inundation in the face of sea level rise. Cedar Key, Florida remains the only Florida coastal community that is not located directly off of a major coastal highway, giving it a unique character unlike any other coastal community change and sea level rise increases, Cedar Key is at an increasingly high risk of inundation. The University of Florida is currently being funded by Florida Sea Grant to work with the community of Levy County, including Cedar Key, to develop possible strategies for adaptation. Cedar Key is also very relaxing lifestyle with a captivating spirit and a large sense of community. INTRODUCTION Levy County Study Area Cedar Key

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17 INTRODUCTION Downtown Dock St. Atsena Otie Key Existing Shoreline George T. Lewis Airport

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18 INTRODUCTION Artifacts found at Shell Mound, just nine miles from Cedar Key, indicate the Cedar Keys William Augustus Bowles, an English adventurer, and lands are what shed light on the Cedar Keys as timber cruisers, Gilleland and Bird, came from the Suwannee in search of cedar trees for the fabrication of pencils for Second Seminole War began, general Zachary Taylor started a supply depot one of the Cedar Keys, calling it Depot Key. It was from Depot Key that Colonel Augustus Steele bought what was left of the army camps at auction and received permits to develop derived from the Creek Indian name for cedar island. Steele was appointed postmaster and David Due to the large growth of the island, the U.S. Congress allocated money for the construction seceded from the union, the lighthouse was used as a prison by Union forces occupying Seahorse Key. Later, residences with wood framing were added to each side of the lighthouse. The University a result of the expected success the railroad would remains in tact and in use in Cedar Key today, was one of the earliest examples of building types on the island.

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19 INTRODUCTION Cedar Key soon became an essential port, shipping lumber to the main land. Two mills existed With demand for a coast to coast train, Yulee began construction of Florida Railroad Company consisting of a railroad from Fernandina to Cedar Key. The new railroad company issued a plat on the Cedar Keys to be blockaded by union forces and the imprisonment of Yulee. Upon his release Cedar Key is documented in his memoir, A Thousand-Mile Walk to the Gulf, which was began to grow tremendously. Shops, hotels, and the production of cedar slats for pencils all began. Cedar Keys population reached its zenith limits to be extended to the mainland and bonds Pencil Company in Cedar Keys

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20 INTRODUCTION Cedar Key population slowly declined, businesses began to fail and the timber destroyed the Faber Pencil company and Suwanee Lumber Mill as well as many other properties of the Cedar Keys. Soon, Atsena Otie became uninhabited and the population became the economic driver as well as a systems were installed and the National Wildlife Refuge was formed. Railroad service came to an their death in return for their grave site to continue to be maintained. This grave site is still located water management services were implemented and water lines to Cedar Key from the mainland Key a staple for the west coast of Florida. Remnants of Atsena Orie Key can be found as stone aquaculture is still a main economic driver in Cedar Key today along with a large income from tourists. Residents enjoy the quiet and laid back lifestyle of the island, making Cedar Key what it is today

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21 INTRODUCTION Studying the history of Cedar Key, revealed some of the societal and cultural values that shaped the formation of the community. By unveiling the original industries and early development insight into some of the authentic elements that can be found in Cedar Key and the events that occurred to make it the place it is today. Photos revealing building materials, architectural styles, and city plans of the past should be used as inspiration for future designs. THEN NOW

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22 INTRODUCTION Included in the scope of this study are recommendations for assessing the vernacular landscape and suggestions of adaptation strategies that are sensitive to it. Due to the large variety of approaches that can be taken in adaptive planning, there are other ways to deal with vernacular landscape in the face of sea level rise that have not been explored in this study, but should be reviewed and considered when carrying out adaptive measures. Protection, accommodation and relocation are spoken about in this research, with goals and objectives pertinent to each; however, time limitations hindered the ability to explore and demonstrate approach due to its transferability as a learning tool. Economic and public policy as well as land ownership are not accounted for in this study when looking at adaptive strategies; however, policy should be looked at and followed when using the methodology of this study for other communities. Vacant and non-developed parcels, which are looked at in this study as opportunities for this research, the following categories were considered as vacant or non-developed parcels: Vacant commercial Vacant residential Other municipal Other counties Forest, park, and recreation Grazing land Timberland Parcels with No Data down or expanded. Zoning and land value should also be taken into consideration, but are not observed in this study.

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23 INTRODUCTION Community feedback resulted in a long list of valued spaces, places, activities and characteristics as displayed in the results of this study. Relocation strategies were carried out in full What can be learned from community input documented. The opportunity to relocate these elements or their function to dry or upland areas was What can be discerned by an outside observer of planning can be addressed. Economic and public policy are beyond the scope of this study, but they must be accounted for in the complete process of relocation. What data is available The best available data has been gathered from municipal sources and FGDL.org to inform many of the decisions made in this study and conduct a physical and vulnerability analysis. GIS data is used to the inability to access or locate certain data, there may be other factors to take into account for the decision making process that could not be accounted for.What is transferable to other municipalities Due to the uniqueness of every city and or community, not all adaptive planning measures are transferable to every place. The strategies and methodologies that are believed to be most transferable to all communities have been chosen. What will best serve the people This study is carried out with people and their community as the driving force. The strategies and methodologies in this study seek to maintain the way of life of the people and their communities in order in the time frame of this research. The results of this study should be shared with the community for

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Chapter 2: “A landscape is beautiful when it has been or can be the scene of a significant experience in self awareness and eventual self knowledge” J.B. Jackson Literature

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25 LITERATURE Two centuries ago, when a newly found appreciation for aesthetic of rural and garden landscapes came about, the term genius loci further away from the concept of spiritual gods and looked more to the sciences of life. Rather than Phenomenologist and architect Christian Norberg-Schulz looked holistically at genius loci, denoting it as the entirety of both physical and symbolic ideals found in nature that also comprises our and all of its attributes as the foundation of the cultural understanding of a place as looked at in this study. NorbergSchulz pinpoints nature as the underlying factor of human interpretation and as the basis for which objects and spaces derive meaning. Looking at settlement patterns, NorbergSchulz depends on spatial form and quality, culture, temperament, status, experience and current purpose environment is the underlying fabric that forms the basis for how all the factors in that environment are experienced. Adding the non replicable qualities of the environment to this interaction creates a that we have not been there before, not only by the observations around us, but by the matchless environmental locus that gather individual or group meaning, intentions, and actions spatially” occupying; however, the sense that we feel in that place is intangible and unable to be charted by

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26 LITERATUREgenius loci , urban planners and interior decorators and the promoters of condominiums, so that now it means very little. It is an awkward and ambiguous translation of the Latin term genius loci. In classical times it means not so much the place itself as the guardian divinity of that place. ... in the eighteenth century the Latin phrase was usually Feelings evoked by a place play a large part in our wanting to go or be somewhere. A sense of There is a tendency to think of vernacular solely as the language spoken by people, but if one widens their perspective, they will see that the world is made up of its own vernacular, spoken by the landscapes that comprise it. Landscapes contain many elements that determine their language or of the larger vernacular, the landscape has local variants within the context of, or in relation to unique place. Only in the passage of its existence does a landscape obtain its identity, or vernacular vernacular will speak about the strata of places, spaces, activities, characteristics, history, and form that constitute the landscape. The other interpretations of vernacular are to be left aside as they Just Folks Designing , the design process for vernacular landscape, one that is dependent upon cultural and historical say facilitate because the landscape evolves majority on its own, simply by humans attempting to live

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27 LITERATURERole of the Outside Observer solve, vernacular landscape design solutions, or evolutions, rely on past precedent. Design ideas are generated by the decomposition of existing forms and abstracting these ideas to create new, or evolved, forms. The designer achieves an evolution of the vernacular by understanding and the landscape architect must read the landscape and from this, they will unveil its traditions, characteristics, history, techniques and environmental factors. Submerging oneself in the landscape, or community, and its culture is key to the role of the outside observer. Visiting the landscape and taking part in the cultural traditions of a place is the only way to achieve a clear and holistic reading and understanding of the landscape. It is suggested expectations, and presumptions should be left behind as they can get in the way of a clear reading of the landscape. Instead, it is recommended that the observer bring along their: Open mind Curiosity Sense of wonder Detail oriented lenses Notebook and pen for jotting down observations Camera to photograph different areas of the landscape Map to guide you as you go along, and to help orient yourself Approaching the landscape, the observer should begin taking notes about the surrounding context, as this gives greater insight to the community. A landscape should never be looked at in seclusion, but as a piece of a larger landscape. The interrelationship between the two leads to a When reading the landscape, every landscape has its own unique elements that are note Topography Vegetation Circulation Water features Structures, site furnishings, and objects

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28 LITERATURE Within these categories fall many of the details that make up a city or community such as features as a whole and their relationship with one another tell the story of the landscape and its characteristics at a more local and detailed context. While the above serve as a good framework for familiarizing oneself with the landscape, or community and its surroundings, the vernacular landscape lies in the details that make up the way of life of the people living and working in that landscape. Art, activities, gathering spaces, and building the landscape it is. The observer, however, cannot adhere to simply a per-prescribed template of elements to look for, but must instead allow the landscape and the community to determine this. To do so, the outside observer is responsible for becoming involved in the community and reading the landscape from their eyes. The outside observer must determine the best type of outreach for the community they are dealing with and carry out this method in their study area. The landscape architect will act as the facilitator of community participation efforts and analyze the results. It is the an immense role in assisting the outside observer in the holistic reading of the landscape. Role of the Community Public participation efforts are a common tool in participatory design in which residents, visitors, and stakeholders work alongside expert planners and designers to design valuable also refers to this type of design tool as public involvement, citizen engagement or participation, collaborative decision-making, and facilitated problem solving. Although this study does not seek to design new community spaces and places, but instead determine which existing spaces and places are already of value to the community and how to evolve these areas of value, the same type of community engagement concept is used. Public participation allows the community needs, interests, Communities are receptive to public participation and engagement in different ways, assessment tools for effective community participation efforts: Survey asset inventory Community mapping Daily activities schedule Seasonal calendar Community caf Focus group Panel discussion

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29 LITERATURE conjunction with an amended version of community mapping was used as well as one on one interviews. These tools were determined to be the most suitable for the community of Cedar Key based upon their strength as a community that contains a very unique lifestyle and characteristics and their weakness as a community that is vulnerable to inundation by sea level rise. The type of information and feedback desired for this study was also a determining factor in the type of assessment tools used. Surveys Surveys are most successful when they begin with a statement of purpose as this guides the type of questions that will be asked and who the survey will target. Short surveys with easy-tounderstand questions are generally a good approach for targeting a community. The way in which the most common distribution methods for surveys are: Direct mail Interview and phone surveys Drop boxes Media distribution Convenience sampling Group administration Paper surveys tend to accommodate the greatest amount of participants as it does not require internet access, etc. Combining more than one distribution method may be needed to get a wellmeetings are a good way to reach a wide range of people. By visiting the community, you can become aware of their public library, city hall, etc. as spots for survey distribution. City websites often contain information about local organizations and groups that are advocates for community directors can aid in survey distribution and feedback as well. Once the surveys are distributed, the landscape architect or surveyor should return to the distribution sites from time to time to collect any completed surveys that have been returned. If the return on the surveys is not as large as anticipated,

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30 LITERATURECommunity Mapping strengths and assets when asked to address them in participation efforts. Community mapping also makes residents more aware of the elements that truly make their community unique to them and with a map of their community on which they pinpoint community assets or participants can be asked to draw a map on their own that displays what they feel are the assets of their community. Assets may include community characteristics, spaces, places, activities, and organizations that are essential to the identity and lifestyle of the community. Through the mapping process, a tangible display of the Subconscious Landscapes of the Heart , used a type of community mapping in Manteo, North Carolina to uncover experiencing the emotions that came about when speaking to residents powerful factor in community planning was to reveal unconscious attachment to and landscape features were essential to the continued functioning of the the daily activity patterns and setting for the people of the community by observing several locations around town pertinent to this study because it shows how participatory efforts and tools can unveil the social and found in the subconscious, but revealed to the conscious mind once community efforts were carried of community values displayed important social trends and cultural setting as aimed for in this study

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31 LITERATURE A warming atmosphere, caused by fossil fuel emissions is causing an increasing rise in sea level at greater than historic rates. Green house gas emissions, a predominant cause of sea level rise, are increasing due to the burning of fossil fuels from the industrialization of our planet. The World Florida, a state developed along the coastline with porous bedrock and frequent tropical storms, has more real estate and residents at risk of inundation due to sea level rise than any other state. will inevitably lead to a higher water table here in Florida. As the water table and sea level rises, sea combined heightening of the water table and sea level rise, undermining the foundations of buildings must be done very careful to build up or protect these vital land areas. Such planning measures are very expensive and can even be near impossible in some scenarios. Florida Bay, and the Big Bend coastline, are already beginning to experience the effects of sea level rise. These landscapes support a large variety of species and natural communities, some of which do not exist anywhere else. Included in these are barrier islands, bays, tidal salt marshes and creeks, be worsened by sea level rise. Major alterations in plant and animal communities are anticipated. Coastal infrastructure is also expected to undergo a large shift, as much of it is not built to withstand a substantial rise in sea level. Relocation or accommodation of the infrastructure will need to be carried resources have economic and ecological in addition to providing food, recreation opportunities and and the way of life of the people and the environment is maintained or evolved appropriately.

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32 LITERATURE Florida has many dedicated organizations that are taking a stance on sea level rise planning. Counties and municipalities such as Sarasota County have, or are, in the process of putting together comprehensive plans for climate change adaptation. Punta Gorda, Florida is developing a climate being used in planning in Florida to locate and demonstrate areas of inundation with current sea level rise projections. Regions are joining together to take sea level rise adaptive planning to the next level. Palm Beach, Broward, MiamiDade, and Monroe County have formed the Southeast Regional Climate Action Plan. As a region, these counties, municipalities, and their partners have developed Three strategies are looked at in terms of adaptation to sea level rise: Accommodationadjusts and evolves structures and systems in response to sea level Relocationredistributes the shoreline population further inland and to upland areas In Florida, accommodation and protection methods have begun to be implemented. Relocation is seen as a last resort in many cases, as it surrenders land to the sea and requires many homes and infrastructures to be displaced. As the sea level rise effects increase, relocation will be necessary and Relocation Accommodation Protection

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Chapter 3: “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.” Aldo Leopold Methodology

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Sea Level RiseAdaptive PlanningVernacular Landscape Sense Of Place On Site AnalysisCommunity InputSea Level Rise Existing Site Conditions PRECEDENTS ANDLITERATURE REVIEWCHARACTER ANALYSISVALUED QUALITIES OF CEDAR KEYVULNERABILITYASSESSMENT AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR ADAPTATIONPRIORITIES FORCEDAR KEYGUIDINGPRINCIPLESADAPTATION STRATEGIES FORCEDAR KEYTRANSFERABILITY TO OTHER COMMUNITIESPHYSICAL AND VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS INVENTORY ANALYSIS SYNTHESIS

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35 After reviewing literature to understand the effects of sea level rise on coastal communities in Florida, it became apparent that social and cultural values were not addressed at a community scale in relation to adaptive planning sense of place . Connecting this to people and their community, the vernacular landscape was explored in because of its depiction of the social and cultural ways of life. Relationships were drawn between the effects of sea level rise and the vernacular landscape. Cedar Key, Florida was chosen as the study area because of its unique community structure and values and its vulnerability to sea level rise. Precedents and literature review then aided in developing guiding principles pertinent to maintaining key elements of the vernacular landscape of Cedar Key. Guiding principles direct adaptation strategies for Cedar Key that display opportunities for relocation in the face of sea level rise. onsite analysis was conducted to determine Community input was then needed to illustrate the ways of life of the residents and determine what they value, or cherish, most about their community. Based on the current lifestyle of Cedar Key and the desired information from the community, surveys and one-on-one interviews were determined valued qualities of Cedar Key. Findings were organized of this study, resulting in six community valued elements to be addressed as priorities for Cedar Key . These elements include: Green space Downtown Arts Trails Connectivity Building typologies Guiding principles, aimed at maintaining key elements of the vernacular landscape, and selected valued spaces, places, activities, and characteristics, demonstrating adaptation strategies for Cedar Key . The methodology exhibited in this study, for the city of Cedar Key, is transferable to other communities and municipalities. Outside communities can look to this study to determine their own vernacular landscape and carry out adaptation strategies in a way that is sensitive to it.

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36 Goals and objectives were established for this study to determine areas appropriate for protection, accommodation and relocation and highlight the valued spaces and places of the residents. A bathtub model, or map showing inundation from sea level rise occurring at a persistent When zoomed into the study area, this sea level rise model showed areas of Cedar Key, and areas those that would remain as dry land. GIS data was gathered and analyzed to display existing site conditions including: Critical infrastructure Conservation areas Vacant and undeveloped parcels Road access Flood zones Overlaying the site conditions with the sea level rise bathtub model resulted in a vulnerability assessment that displayed opportunities for adaptation. Using this assessment in conjunction with guiding principles, adaptation strategies for Cedar Key of this study were then discussed based upon their transferability to other communities concerned with this research. wonder, and detail oriented lenses. I did my best to leave all biases, expectations, and presumptions behind to avoid them from getting in the way of a clear reading of the landscape. I also brought along a notebook and pen for jotting down my observations, a camera to photograph different areas of the another place for recording my observations. Spatially organizing my thoughts on a map helped me orient myself and really begin to understand the story of Cedar Key. Approaching the landscape, I began taking notes about the surrounding context that led me into Cedar Key. I looked at the roadways, the vegetation, the building types, and the overall layout. Because a landscape should never be looked at in seclusion, but as a piece of a larger landscape, leading to Cedar Key and Cedar Key itself allowed me to gain a greater knowledge of why some things in Cedar Key function or look they way they do. Because I was in a vehicle at this time, as many observers may be, a voice recorder made it easier to note observations that I then wrote down later.

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Topography Vegetation Circulation Water features Structures, site furnishings, and objects These however, are broad categories in which fall many of the details that make up Cedar Key, such as types of vegetation, microclimate, and road organization. For the larger, surrounding context leading me into Cedar Key, I took a broader approach and really got into the details once I had crossed the bridge into Cedar Key. The vernacular landscape lies in the details that make up the way of life of the people living and working in that landscape. In this research, Cedar Key Florida was observed, studied and recorded to determine its vernacular landscape, answering the question of: What makes Cedar Key, Cedar Key? and physical conditions. These zones differed depending on type of vegetation, sidewalk presence, lot size, building height, land use, microclimate, and water access. Separating a large landscape or of the landscape by highlighting the main elements in each area. These were not pre-prescribed elements to look for but were instead determined by the landscape itself. Due to the uniqueness attributes. It is for this reason that we experience the beauty of various towns, each evoking their own feelings and way of life. landscape. Linear methodology does not apply here, as the participants are the drivers of the process. Community participation is key to the foundation of the methodology that must occur in order to of the methodology carried out in this research is unique to Cedar Key, Florida. For subsequent communities, the outreach process to gain community participation may vary based upon what best to be done most effectively via surveys. For the survey process, it is essential to have knowledge of frequently visited public locations that the surveys can be offered at. In Cedar Key, I determined such places to be the library, city hall, and Cedar Key School. I also reached out to local organizations

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inquiring about the amount of members and meeting times so that I could either attend these meetings with the appropriate amount of surveys or provide the organization president with copies to distribute at the meeting, which I picked up at a later date. I found that it was best to check back at the distribution locations every two weeks for two months to assure that I was giving participants ample application and documents through the University of Florida and gained approval before distributing any surveys. A consent form was and always should be included with each survey. they valued most with a marker, and to give reason as to why they cherished these spaces or places. Activities and characteristics were also acknowledged in the directions as valued places. Activities and characteristics were also acknowledged in the directions as valued elements of the community that could not be located on a map, but may be described in writing. Because the terms sea level rise and climate change are so charged, they were not mentioned in the surveys. Instead, in order to trigger the mind of the participants to really consider what they valued and loved about their community, a prompt scenario pertinent to their location was given: and damage a great deal of Cedar Key, Florida, altering it in many ways, what would you miss most about the town? North

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39 Instructions : Please fill out the survey below in order to assist with defining the valued lifestyles and landscapes of Cedar Key, Florida. Large floods due to storm surges are a possibility in coastal communities. IF a flood were to occur and damage a great deal of Cedar Key, Florida, altering it in many ways, what would you miss most about the town? Locate and number on the attached map, three places, spaces, activities and/or characteristics that you fee l make Cedar Key a unique place . Include a brief description below as to why you chose these places, spaces, activities and/or characteristics. If a characteristic (ex: ability to walk many places) and/or activity (ex: scavenger hunts) cannot be pinpointed on a map, you may just describe it below. Plea se scan and send completed survey back to clavisconti@gmail.com Or drop off the completed survey at the location that you received this survey . Numbers on the map should correlate with the numbers of the description 1. 2. 3. Name*: ___________________ Address*: __________________ Cedar Key, Florida Phone Number*: _____________ Age: ____ Years/months of Residency in Cedar Key: __________ *Optional Please place a check mark in either of the following boxes: I would like to have my information and responses kept private as part of the statistical analysis I would like to have my information to be kept private, but I allow my responses to be published anonymously using a broad demographic identity such asresident of 20 years sai

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40 Informed Consent Protocol Title: Community valued spaces, places, and characteristics of Cedar Key, Florida Please read this document thoroughly before you volunteer to participate in this study. Purpose of this study: The purpose of this study is to identify the spaces, places, activities, and characteristics of the community of Cedar Key, Florida that are valued by the residents in order to define the lifestyle and cultural uniqueness of the place. Your role in this study: Locate three places, spaces, activities, and/or characteristics on a map of Cedar Key, Florida, provided by the researcher, that make Cedar Key a unique place. Include a brief description as to why you chose each. The amount of time this study will take will vary depending on your responses. Risks and Benefits: There are no risks in participating in this study. Participants should not take photographs in areas they do not feel comfortable in. Cedar Key and the community will benefit by feeling a sen se of ownership to their unique elements and residents will have gained a higher appreciation for what they value most in their community. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential if stated so on the documents provided. You may leave out an y personal information and file the map findings as anonymous if you wish. If you are open to further conversation about the information you provide, you may be contacted to discuss your findings and community values within five months of the original stud y date . All participants will remain anonymous in the publishing of this research, but if you so choose, your comments may be quoted without using your name. Only broad demographic information will be used, for example: “a resident of 20 years said” Voluntary participation: This is a completely voluntary study. You are not required to take part in this study. There is no compensation to you for participating in this study. Right to withdraw from the study: If at any point, you choose to withdraw from this study, you may do so with no penalty. Contact information for questions about this study: Claudia Visconti , Graduate Student, Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Florida. Phone : (941) 993.4600 Email : cvisconti@ufl.edu

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41 Contact information about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; phone 392 0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. If I have indicated on the map document, I give consent to quote anonymously my responses in this study. Participant: ___________________________________________ Date: _________________ Princi pal Investigator: ___________________________________ Date: _________________

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42 Responses were then tallied and organized by the category under which they fell: spaces and places, activities, or characteristics. The valued spaces and places were marked on a map that created a visual framework displaying what areas in the community were most valued by its residents. These results were then digitized and put into GIS so that they could be over laid on other data maps. elements for which design scenarios and opportunities were illustrated. Two elements were chosen Characteristics Quietness Walkability Relaxing/ easy lifestyle Beautiful views Small building typologies Friends/ fellow residents Activities Places Spaces Characteristics

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43 great deal of quantitative data is needed in order to analyze the physical conditions of the land found elements of the landscape so that existing natural and developed environments are accounted for. Existing site conditions inform the location of critical areas, such as infrastructure and conservation and county websites or through a statewide database where available. Often it is necessary to reach out to external sources and contacts as not all data is published publicly. For this study, www.fgdl.org was the primary source of GIS data. The data layers I gathered were based upon predetermined My goals and objectives for this study acknowledge both qualitative and quantitative analysis and are listed below. The goals and objectives of this study led to priorities for addressing the existing physical site conditions of Cedar Key. Raster data was initially used for all data analysis in this study; however, discrepancies and vector maps are shown. Ground truthing and reviewing data results for faults is essential in legitimizing the data and making informed decisions. Vector data a digital representation that uses lines, points, and polygons. This type of data is best used for displaying county boundaries or streets or other data with discrete boundaries. Vector data is more adaptable to scale changes. Raster data a digital representation using pixels divided into a grid of cells that create a surface. This type of data is best used for storing data such as a satellite image or an elevation surface. Raster Vector

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44 Goals and/or objectives that are not in bold font are beyond the scope of this study, but should be where protection is a suitable response rise where protection is a suitable response suitable response protection is a suitable response is a suitable response response response

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45 suitable response relocation is a suitable response is a suitable response Vacant parcels Parcels with existing development that is not in use Undeveloped parcels Parcels with no existing development currently

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46 A character analysis was performed for the community in order to determine the valued qualities of existing Cedar Key. Onsite analysis carried out by an outside observer gave an initial the observer noted as important elements that make up Cedar Key. Community input was then used to understand the ways of life of the community from the perspective of its residents. Surveys and representation of the important areas of Cedar Key. These important spaces, places, activities and characteristics were observed for opportunities for relocation in the face of sea level rise. George T. Lewis AirportCemetery Point Park Cedar Key School Back Bayou City Park CK Museum State Park RR Trestle TrailSeahorse Key Marina Cedar Key Arts Center 8 8

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47 In order to understand the physical affects of sea level rise on Cedar Key, it was essential to sea level rise. For this research, a one meter rise in sea level was projected on the shoreline of Florida using a bath tub model. A bath tub model shows inundation from sea level rise occurring at a a local and regional scale and is visible graphically when used as a tool for community participation. The data set for this model was obtained from University of Florida Center for Landscape Conservation Planning, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and University of Florida GeoPlan Center Parcel utility data was used in this study to determine the location of critical infrastructure noted in the objectives as factors for determining and prioritizing areas most suitable for protection, but are not carried out in detail in this study. Public policy and land ownership must be addressed when exploring protection as a response but are beyond the scope of this research. Critical infrastructure is essential to communities at a local and regional scale and due to the extensiveness of the service provided by these infrastructures, relocating them is not an easy task. Protecting critical infrastructures assures that as the community experiences sea level rise and must evolve in other ways, it will still be guaranteed power and water supply. Protecting these infrastructures is a costly matter but will most likely prove to be more economical than relocating Identifying areas most suitable for accommodation is noted as a goal for the quantitative determining where accommodation should occur. In areas that lack infrastructure or utilities, it is possible to accommodate the land for sea level rise. Locating open spaces using GIS can determine areas that have potential to be accommodated for in the face of sea level rise. These areas may be free to be inundated at times and dry at other times, depending on high tide. In such a scenario, the use of the land can accommodate for both dry and wet conditions by catering to different activities.

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These areas were determined to better serve the community by having their function relocated to non requirements for protecting non critical infrastructure rather than relocating them is not reasonable. Relocating these important areas allows for the vernacular landscape to evolve and the valued spaces, places, activities and characteristics of Cedar Key to be maintained. Analysis based upon land value, historical areas, and population density are stated as objectives for identifying areas important for relocation and should be carried out when possible, but relocation. as vacant or undeveloped parcels are: Vacant commercial Vacant residential Other municipal Other counties Forest, park, and recreation Grazing land Timberland Parcels with No Data down or expanded. Zoning and land value should also be taken into consideration, but are not so this data set has been eliminated in the overlay process as to not skew the results. Conservation lands Critical infrastructure The combined data set created two maps, one showing the upland areas and the other showing Cedar Key, that displayed all parcels within the study area available for relocation opportunities. These maps were used as the basis for identifying potential adaptive strategies for Cedar Key.

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49 The goal of the combined qualitative and quantitative analysis was to highlight opportunities characteristics that the residents of Cedar Key value most, and doing so in a manner that respects the

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51 Following the procedure highlighted in my methodology for reading the landscape, I visited Cedar Key with no biases or previous impressions and recorded the observations I made during my conditions. Subdividing the island into smaller parts allowed me to read further into what makes the values of the community, as determined by the residents, to create a cohesive reading of the landscape. Further, I integrated this combined reading with GIS data illustrating the physical conditions of Cedar Key, which allowed me to fully understand the vernacular landscape of Cedar Key. What Is Seen its surrounding inland towns, but contain its own sense of uniqueness amidst the Gulf of Mexico. Recreation displayed its role in the community from the get go. I immediately encountered well on their way to inundation. As I drove along, I could see that pastel colored, older homes, many resistance to major commercial enterprises. Seafood, fudge, and small cafes seemed to be the Transitioning into residential, the canopy appears to increase, providing lots with lush vegetation. The homes on these lots are older homes, many of which appear to have lacked maintenance over the years. Residents have large yards all around their homes, and many are on very strong and a downtown feel is sensed in the historic district. Businesses again occupy old

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52 by two story, zero lot line buildings. These buildings are old, wooden structures or concrete. There are sidewalks along these streets. Many people appear to enjoy the walkability of the downtown and its small shops. Many business owners were outside of their shops talking to other residents. A local gas station is located downtown and seemed to be a spot where everyone knows everyone. of wood or slating. There are smaller homes in this area as well and the lots appear to be also be smaller with more manicured landscaping. The microclimate here is much hotter due to a lack of large tree canopy with mostly palms in this area. Sidewalks are sparse in this residential area. To the east, still following the structured grid, a popular pier, called Dock Street, containing shops and restaurants creates a new character. In this area, there are condos and vacation rentals but no housing. The feel here is that this area is for tourists as it markets Cedar Key paraphernalia made of mostly wood and stand on pillars in the water. The community playground is located in a park, adjacent to the beach. This playground seems to be an important component for the younger residents judging by how active it was. Traveling northwest, the street grid becomes looser and the canopy increases again with lush, vegetated lots. There are overgrown, non-developed lots in various places but none of it is used for recreation or any other purpose, it appears. Many of the non developed lots are for sale that I am assuming will be used for future development. There is some sidewalk and some curb in this area, but not everywhere. Both the cemetery and school are historical icons in this area. The school has a brick facade and I believe caters to all grade levels. Unorganized, stand-alone portables provide classrooms as well. The cemetery has water access and vacant land that was being cleared when I was there. I predict this is for future graves. The western most section of Cedar Key is almost all residential. This area has no sidewalks volume. There are many golf carts used as vehicles around the island because of its small size. One and two story houses on large, heavily vegetated lots are found in this section with some homes on Along the bridge to get to the park is an amenitized boardwalk. Another boardwalk is found along the open marshes bordering much of this area. These marshes provide habitat for wildlife and add an aesthetic and ecological value to the island. Interpreting What is Seen From my initial observation and literature review, I was able to make informed assumptions as to why certain elements of the landscape appeared or functioned the way they did and the possible effects this could have on the community. I discovered that Cedar Key, to a resident, is a place of its own in comparison to the Cedar Key restaurants and getting ice cream on the pier, often overshadow the qualities and characteristics of

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53 characteristics that differentiate them from the more frequently visited areas. Culture; however, stitches the two perceptions of Cedar Key into the thriving community it is. The ecotourism and long tradition of aquaculture are the main economic drivers of the town. Sea level rise will call for an evolution in both of these industries affecting the way of life for the residents as well as the visitors. It is said that due to the anticipated increase in water height, aquaculture make experience a shift in its procedure, requiring clammers to dive for their opportunities, as more open water will become available as well as marshlands that can be amenitized for park space and trails. Planners and stakeholders should develop policies to guide these possible changes in order to maintain their economic advantage and cultural value. Cedar Key has a drastic contrast in residential lot sizes which displays the varying lifestyles in the community. Many residents live on large, lush vegetated lots while others live on small lots canopy is common in some areas, providing a lot of shade and encouraging outdoor activities. The less vegetated areas have minor canopy and a greater presence of palm trees. Areas of this sort lend upland may result in larger parcels available for development, while the island may offer smaller and fewer parcels for development or relocation. Saltwater intrusion and changes in hardiness zones as a result of sea level rise and climate change will dictate the appropriate vegetation for the anticipated conditions; however, this is beyond the scope of this study. Building facades found in Cedar Key are majority brick, wood, shingles, slate and concrete. These facades are in compliance with current Florida building codes and may be carried over into upland areas in the form of an over lay that mandates faade materials that are in concurrence with current Cedar Key buildings so that their character is preserved. Several of the current dock designs of Cedar Key and currently exist in several places on the island. Recreation may encounter an that occurs upland. Water access on the island will be enhanced as more land will be converted to open water. Coastal Construction Control Lines are mandated by the State of Florida per county that regulate coastal building setbacks and building foundation requirements. Counties and municipalities have the authority to impose additional setbacks if they deem necessary. Due to these regulations, a change in the appearance of water front buildings as well as their setback requirements may occur as a result of adaptive strategies to sea level rise. Roads that stray from the strict grid of the current urban core suggest that they developed be designed comprehensively and will all tie back to the urban core, causing a shift in road structure and increasing navigability.

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54 The urban core, or downtown, which plays an important role in the community and is strongly to the current downtown, increasing its density. As opportunities for relocation to upland areas are shown, there is the possibility of a need for an upland urban core to support the population growth. community. In order to preserve this, it is best to keep the downtown areas at a low density. Upland areas that may contain a greater population may experience a more commercial downtown feel but at a smaller scale than your typical city. Social and cultural norms, as a whole, will evolve due to the need for adaptive strategies, causing the vernacular landscape to remain dynamic and reactive. Cedar Key their characteristics and features. Looking at Cedar Key in smaller parts helped highlight the key features and show similarities and differences across the island.

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55 Area A Lush canopy is characteristic of this area. Open marshland offers scenic roadside views and compliments the built environment around it. One and two story residential homes occupy large lots nestled in trees and shrubbery. Several homes sit atop pilings and many have gravel driveways. Undeveloped lots still remain in this area and have been taken over by lush vegetation. Although this area is majority residential, there is a lack of sidewalk throughout. There is also a lack of curb, which indicates the roads in this area may be older construction. The random organization of roads in this area reinforce that this area may have been built before urban planning strategies were implemented in the town. Area B Sidewalks begin to appear in this area, lending it a more residential feel. An amentized boardwalk takes pedestrians from the road to the historical cemetery and Cemetery Point Park. Water

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56 is an appealing feature of this area which residents and tourists enjoy viewing from the park. Back canopy continues through this area, offering shade and a pleasant walking environment. The Cedar Key School is also located in this area and students can be seen enjoying the shade on their walks to and from school. The streets in this area begin to follow a more structured urban grid system, indicating they may be newer development. Area C George T. Lewis Airport, a staple of Cedar Key, accounts for the majority of this area. and even dinner for the night. Several local pilots house their planes here. A gorgeous but dangerous feature of this airport is the water surrounding it that makes for a beautiful takeoff and landing. A few situated across from the water with private wooden docks. Area D A structured grid allows for a navigable and walkable city core for the. This area contains the historic district and is iconic of Cedar Key. Many buildings here are from the original development of hall, historical museum, and Cedar Key Arts Center. Residential homes and condos also share this area occupying smaller lots than in the more rural areas. The water and native coastal vegetation Area E As you get closer to the more familiar and frequented areas of Cedar Key, you pass through an size but are located on large lots with very lush vegetation. Some homes are elevated implying they are newer than some of the surrounding homes. Sidewalk is lacking throughout. This area provides the only connection to the rest of Cedar Key.Area F small and sit on lots with dense canopy. The drive in this area is very appealing with gorgeous viewsheds of water on both sides. This area provides an enchanting gateway into Cedar Key.Area G The most recognized area of Cedar Key is the famous Dock Street. A wooden pier with restaurants, ice cream shops and souvenir and clothing stores provides an appealing atmosphere for waterside dining and shopping. This area is a major tourist destination where visitors can try local clams and enjoy sunsets from the public dock. A large marina is located in this area that is frequented by boaters, kayakers and clammers at all times of day. The beach and City Park are adjacent to the marina as well as kiosks on the dock that offer kayak and boat rentals. Residents enjoy the

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58 Upland Onsite observations also led to an interpretation of the upland portion of the study area by noting the existing conditions in this area and a brief description of the surrounding environment. Six areas were observed in the upland area as well as the Cedar Key Scrub State Reserve. Cedar Key Scrub State Reserve Sumner and features

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59 Area AA and roads are used mainly for connections between cities and areas. These roads are not curbed and there are no streetlights or sidewalks in this area. The largest remaining shell mound on the central hiking and camping for added recreation in this area. Area BB Residents are sparsely located in this area off of minor roads that branch from County Road Area CC driveways. Many residents have boats parked out front indicating their usage of the local waterways surrounding them. Area DD This area is located in Sumner, Florida, a rural community adjacent to Cedar Key. A strong amongst dense vegetation on their large lots. Curb, streetlights and sidewalk are lacking in this area. Area EE bordered by lush vegetation on both sides. This road is mainly used for commuting. There are a few minor roads that branch off of the state road in this area, one of which provides access to the Cedar Key Scrub State Reserve. Area FF Several creeks such as Dorset Creek, Wilder Creek, and Prodie Creek are surrounded by lush marsh vegetation and feed into the Gulf here. Live Oak Key is located in this area and provides a scenic opportunity for boaters and water trail users. No development occurs in this area as it is comprised of all natural habitat. Sumner

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60 After a few more site visits, my awareness of the vernacular landscape continued to increase elements that made up the vernacular landscape to me as an outside observer, or landscape architect. This list assisted in revealing what makes Cedar Key, Cedar Key.Circulation Roads A strict grid provides vehicular circulation for the urban core of Cedar Key. Complimenting this formal grid is a much looser, informal set of roadways on the north eastern and western ends. The residential areas outside the urban core appear to be organically laid out to connect structures as golf cart access as this is a frequently used method of transportation by residents. Parking Areas Majority of commercial uses provide a typical, asphalt parking lot. These parking lots are small in size due to the small number of residents on the island. By the marina and the most visited access to water is a large parking lot for boats and cars that contains public rest rooms and free public parking. There is a mix of parallel parking and vertical spots on Second Street and most other roadways on the island. On Dock St., all parking spots are parallel alongside the shops. Majority of residents have shell or gravel driveways. For houses that are elevated on pilings, parking is located underneath the house. Parkways Cedar Key has a large amount of open space and parks. There have been efforts by the city and local organizations such as the Nature Conservancy to preserve natural spaces and create walkable connections to parks from areas outside of them. A boardwalk has been constructed along the adjacent road to the cemetery to provide access to Cemetery Point Park, a frequent visited area for residents and visitors. Although the parkways do not physically connect to one another, the distribution of open space and parks throughout the city is cohesive and assures park access in close proximity to all points of the island. Sidewalks Sidewalks were not always a Cedar Key tradition as we can see by their absence in majority of residential areas. In the downtown and urban core, there are paved sidewalks throughout that make the commercial areas very walkable and pedestrian friendly. Sidewalks are located around the main

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61 throughout the residential areas and the rest of the island, the absence of sidewalks in various locations is not problematic to pedestrians. Water Access Water access is a main feature of Cedar Key. With private and public docks, a large marina, a public beach, and waterside parks, it is a guarantee that there is water access for all. Water accessibility to water that is offered in Cedar Key.VegetationShrubs Cedar Key contains both manicured and free growing vegetation. Shrubs vary from well maintained in residential and commercial areas to very lush, naturally maintained shrubbery in residential and commercial areas as well. With a large amount of wetlands, there is a lot of natural shrubs that favor wet soils and are salt tolerable. Trees Mangroves are the most plentiful tree in Cedar Key as they line the banks of majority of the water as well as grow further out into the water. Mangroves are essential to the coastal ecosystem of Cedar Key. Mangroves provide habitat for a variety of species including endangered and threatened species. The large roots of mangroves stabilize shorelines, reducing turbidity from waves and acting as buffers from storm surge. Both the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, and the Black Mangrove, Avicennia germinans, are found in Cedar Key. Palm trees are also an iconic tree of Cedar Key, adding to its coastal Florida atmosphere. Coconut Palms, Cocos Nuicfera, and Sabal Palms, Sabal Palmetto, are amongst the most common type of palm trees found on the island. Larger shade trees also add to the atmosphere of Cedar Key. Large oak trees add a Northern Florida feel to the beach town, giving it context to its surrounding ecosystem. Microclimate When soaking up the sunlight is not desired, there is lots of shade to be had in Cedar Key. Parks offer large canopy trees for shade alongside open space that allows sunlight in at a greater rate. In the urban core, palm trees and some large oaks provide minimal shade; however, in more residential areas, vegetation is very lush and shade is plentiful. With walkability as an asset to the community of Cedar Key, street trees provide resting spots for shade when needed. Downtown offers shaded walkways provided by building overhangs that makes this area a very pedestrian friendly environment Residential Vegetative Character The residential character of Cedar Key is a broad spectrum. Many residents who live near the urban core of the town, prefer a well manicured lawn which happens to coincide with the strict street

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62 grid. As the street grid loosens and spreads further north east and west, the character of the vegetation becomes looser as well. In these areas, the vegetation is very lush, providing a very different type of residential vegetative character. In open spaces in these areas, the vegetation is also lush and in some cases, overgrown. In parks and open spaces closer to the urban core, the vegetation is well maintained. There is minimal seasonal change in Cedar Key due to its subtropical climate. Flowering shrubs and trees show color in Spring and some in Winter based upon their species type. A major seasonal bloom in Cedar Key however, is a red algae found in the water called Karenia Brevis . Water FeaturesWater as an industry Water serves a large role in the economy of Cedar the main economic driver for the island. People travel from all over to eat the clams found in Cedar Key waters. Boating is also an industry in Cedar Key as many people pay to charter boats are often brought back for personal food or sold to restaurants in the area. Water as Recreation With a plethora of areas for water access, water plays a major role in the recreation of Cedar both residents and tourists. Paddle boarding appears to be an up and coming recreational choice for many. Structures, Sight Furnishings, and Objects Lights Cedar Key is well lit throughout the urban core. In more isolated residential areas, it is up to the resident to assure their property is well lit. and not obstruct street views. gives arrows to direct visitors to many key spots on the island. There is signage for all commercial businesses and public spaces. There is also signage that indicates the name of each canal, creek, key, or body of water as you pass it.

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63 Buildings Building typologies in Cedar Key do not exceed three stories. Commercial businesses downtown are small in comparison to typical downtowns. Residential houses are either one or two stories and many are elevated on pilings. Elevated homes and buildings are iconic to a famous building icon for the island. Typical facades found in Cedar Key include wood, slatting, and concrete. Property Boundaries Properties in Cedar Key range from small lots to large lots. It is not uncommon for a fence to act as a property boundary in Cedar Key, but many residents and business owners prefer open lawns with non delineated property boundaries which adds to the friendly and welcoming atmosphere of the community.Art Center, an artist co-op that has studio space upstairs with a gallery downstairs that sell pieces from a variety of local artists. Murals painted on buildings also add to the artistic atmosphere of the island. hosts the Cedar Key Arts Festival that draws in visitors from all over. This arts festival showcases the

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65 Community participation was determined to be essential to this research as a tool for identifying the way of life of the residents. Using surveys and interviews, data was gathered that purposes of this study, valued implies something that has high importance to the social and cultural ways of life of a particular community or area. These valued elements constitute the vernacular spaces and places of the community begin to provide a framework for the way of life of Cedar Key. Characteristics Quietness Walkability Relaxing/ easy lifestyle Beautiful views Small building typologies Friends/ fellow residents Activities Places Spaces Characteristics important to Cedar Key could be considered for adaptation strategies. Opportunities for adaptation Green space Downtown Arts Trails Connectivity Building typologies

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66 George T. Lewis AirportCemetery Point Park Cedar Key School Back Bayou City Park CK Museum State Park R.R. Trestle TrailSeahorse Key Marina Cedar Key Arts Center 8 8

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70 This bathtub model that illustrates a one meter sea level rise on the coastline of Cedar Key. The bathtub model shows all inundated land as converting to open water. This model was chosen for rise and does not address land type, which requires policies that are beyond the scope of this study.

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71 to open water. This model was not used for this study because of the complexity of ecosystems and policy it deals with; however this model is believed to be a more accurate representation of land conversion than the bathtub model.

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Key Airport, the local water supply plant, and the sewage treatment center are shown on the above map as areas in need of protection. Economic costs of relocating critical infrastructure are not Because of this, it is suggested that the Cedar Key airport be relocated rather than protected.

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75 Conservancy group manages a large portion of the conservation land in Cedar Key.

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77 adaptation strategies.

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78 For the purposes of this research, the categories considered as vacant or undeveloped parcels are: Vacant community Vacant residential Other municipal Other counties Grazing land Timberland Parcels with no value

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parcels such as on Atsena Otie Key. It is essential that the facilitator ground truths all data. Figure this chapter that use raster. Vector data was chosen because of its accuracy within parcel boundaries comparison.

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80 For the purposes of this research, the categories considered as vacant or undeveloped parcels are: Vacant community Vacant residential Other municipal Other counties Grazing land Timberland Parcels with no value

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carefully examines the data format to assure the best possible accuracy is provided. The airport is highlighted in these maps as a vacant or non developed parcel; however, it is a developed and used space. Because the runway is a large stretch of land that in time has the opportunity for development, this area is listed here as undeveloped. Ground truthing data is also an essential task of the facilitator.

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Using the data from the previous maps shown, an over lay analysis was done to determine the found within conservation lands or critical infrastructure. The highlighted parcels show opportunities for relocation to occur in Cedar Key. When adaptive planning measures are carried out, the indicated parcels should be considered for relocation opportunities.

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Chapter 4: “Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody” – Jane Jacobs Adaptation Strategiesfor the Evolution ofCommunity Valued Spaces, Places, Activities, and Characteristics

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85 STRATEGIES By seeking to carry out adaptive strategies in a way that is sensitive to their vernacular landscape, communities can maintain their way of life and cultural traditions. Adaptive strategies are proposed with the opportunity to maintain certain uses and functions in existing Cedar Key or to relocate these uses and functions upland. In order to illustrate the potential for relocation to and annotated based on guiding principles and community needs. It is important to emphasize that decisions are not being made for the community nor are the proposed strategies a plan for Cedar Key. The suggested adaptive strategies simply display opportunities for the community that can be the basis for discussions about adaptive planning. The proposed adaptive strategies do not take into communities seeking to follow the methodology of this study should consider both of these factors in conjunction with the vernacular landscape. for the Evolution of Community Valued Spaces, Places, Activities, and Characteristics that the valued spaces, places, activities and characteristics of a community will not be lost in the planning process, but will be treated as a dynamic system that requires different treatments in different areas. Treatment is unique to the space, place, activity or characteristic that is being in subsections that were further broken down according to the priorities of this study and assigned adaptive strategies as illustrated below. Six valued elements were chosen: Green space Downtown Arts Trails Connectivity Building typologies Green Space As a close knit community, parks and green space are used for gatherings in Cedar Key and as a means of connecting with nature, something that is highly valued by the residents. Parks Cemetery Point Park City Park Cedar Key Museum State Park

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86 STRATEGIES With a one meter rise in sea level, these valued parks will experience slight to severe ability to have outdoor gatherings and opportunities for connecting with nature. Where inundation is not too severe, the existing green spaces can remain where they are, surrendering a portion of their vacancy, parcel size, zoning, and ability of existing use for relocation. Based upon existing conditions, a one meter sea level rise projection, and the needs and values of the community, the green spaces Road access, proximity to neighborhoods, safety, and connectivity to other green spaces are planning. City Park Cemetery Point Park CK State Museum Park

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STRATEGIES CK State Museum Park

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88 Adaptation Strategies for Green Space Cedar Key proposed connection from this trail to Cedar Key. Connections from terrestrial trails to water trails are made possible via these water access points allowing user to get in kayaks or canoes to continue their recreational experience. In areas where there is adequate space, a boat ramp may be provided for larger aquatic vehicles. Cedar Key. These islands may serve as recreational destination points for water trail and boat users. Connection opportunities are highlighted to display the potential for accessing several recreational islands along the delineated water trail. Public policy is beyond the scope of this study, however property rights and city code must be accounted for to determine the feasibility of this approach. buildings. Maintaining this same walkability, a terrestrial trail is proposed that takes users past all of the historical buildings and connects the downtown to other areas of Cedar Key via a trail. Green space opportunities are highlighted as destination and connection points for the historical trail. Water access opportunities are provided at the ends of this trail, enhancing its recreational and scenic abilities. the water. With a new shoreline, water trail users will be able to tour around the perimeter of the downtown and continue to green space and ecological destinations or dock at shore and see the historical buildings on land. If this approach is taken, will aquatic transportation such as a ferry be required in order to make In order to determine the demand for green space, a needs assessment should be carried out and determining the amount required as well as program needs via a needs assessment can help further satisfy the community. STRATEGIES Further Considerations

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89 Green Space and Trails Cedar KeyLegend Major RoadsVacant parcelsExisting Green SpaceOpportunity for Green SpaceOpportunity for Water AccessOpportunity for Terrestrial Trail 2 3 1 4 5 6 Opportunity for Water TrailExisting Open WaterDry LandExisting Cedar Key Shoreline Inundated Land at 1 M. Sea Level Rise STRATEGIES

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90 the surrounding neighborhood. This proposed space is located between both of the highlighted space to function alongside the urban environment encourages outdoor recreation and events. Green markets or annual festivals could be held in this space. destinations for existing and proposed trails. The opportunity for a terrestrial trail is shown as a connection between two ends of existing trails. This proposed connection will lead into one or several of the highlighted green spaces. These parcels are centrally located to the upland area and have ample space to serve multi purposes, as well as potential for use as community green spaces, such as a green market or public art exhibition space. Opportunities for green space do not take into account land value or property rights. Both of these factors must be accounted for to determine the most suitable and feasible parcel or parcels. vulnerable in the face of sea level rise has the opportunity to serve as a recreational island or water trail destination. With a large amount of vacant land adjacent to this proposed green and enhance this green space. Another parcel with the opportunity to become a green space, or recreational island, is shown with a proposed water trail connection between the two green spaces that connects them back to land or an existing trail. Public policy is beyond the scope of this study, however property rights must be accounted for to determine the feasibility of this approach. Trail users may have access to land or continue along in the water around the island. Adaptation Strategies for Green Space Upland STRATEGIES In order to determine the demand for green space, a needs assessment should be carried out and determining the amount required as well as program needs via a needs assessment can help further satisfy the community. Proposed water access points will require maintenance as well minor infrastructure to make them accessible to boats and other aquatic vehicles. A maintenance plan should be developed to further determine the feasibility of the highlight opportunities for water access. The type of infrastructure required and its cost should also be addressed in an economic study of this approach. Further Considerations

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91 Green Space and Trails UplandLegend Major RoadsVacant parcelsExisting TrailsOpportunity for Green SpaceOpportunity for Water AccessOpportunity for Terrestrial TrailOpportunity for Water Trail 3 4 2 1 Existing Open WaterDry Land Study Area Boundary Inundated Land at 1 M. Sea Level Rise STRATEGIES

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92 Downtown friendly environment, their relationships with the store owners, and the activity that occurs there. the other half of the porch enjoying coffee and pastries at Bake My Day, a local caf. Community input to the downtown of Cedar Key. The main goal for the adaptive strategies of the downtown was to maintain a cohesive and lively place with a variety of uses and a dominant pedestrian environment. Achieve excellence in design Promote creativity Design with authenticity Design with consistency Design for durability Design for sustainability Draw upon local design traditions Enhance the public realm Enhance the pedestrian experience Provide signature open spaces Keep the automobile subordinate Celebrate the riverfront Guiding principles for downtown Cedar Key were adapted from the design guidelines of downtown Memphis of downtown Cedar Key and therefore has been used as a form of inspiration. Guiding principles have been STRATEGIES

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93 Design with Authenticity seen in the materials and overall design. Two story, wood structures are typical of downtown Cedar Key. The building to street interaction of downtown Cedar Key allows for window shopping and from the buildings provide a shaded pedestrian environment and are iconic of downtown Cedar Key. Current building styles and site layouts should be used as forms of inspiration when implementing new development in the existing downtown area. In instances where the current downtown functions must be relocated upland, these styles and layouts should be also used as inspiration but in a way that respects its surrounding context. illustrates needs. These same principles can be applied to the existing vernacular architecture of Cedar Key. interpretations of their design and forms STRATEGIES

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Design with Consistency Building scale, materials, design concept, and function are diverse remain consistent which provides a sense of cohesion. An example of pedestrian environment. Although the buildings and or their function differ, a consistent sidewalk experience provides cohesion when walking down the street. As a historic district, many residents and visitors cherish or functions would disrupt this. Relocations of the downtown functions should look at the current or potential context for design principles in order to maintain a cohesive urban core. Relocations that occur in the existing downtown Cedar Key area should borrow principles and form inspiration from current downtown structures and landscapes while relocations that occur upland should look to existing development in those areas for their inspiration. Although architecture is beyond the scope of this study, it can be noted that contemporary architecture has the potential to coincide with historic structures if done so in a way that accent one another. Remaining true to the surroundings is essential in achieving a sense of cohesion. Design for Sustainability Cedar Key. Sustainability is apparent in the materials, uses, location, walkability, and microclimate. Located centrally to the island of Cedar Key with wooden facade buildings, catering to a variety of needs, the downtown is livable and walkable place. A diverse mix of functions found within downtown Cedar Key allows residents and visitors to partake in multiple activities in one location. Relocations of the downtown functions should be carried out in close proximity to one another so that the same sense of walkability and multi functionality may be maintained. A sense of value for sustainability as strategies. Draw Upon Local Traditions As the heart of the historic district and the community, downtown Cedar Key portrays the local traditions of the community. Two traditions that are iconic to the community and cherished by its residents and visitors are the annual Cedar Key Arts Festival and Cedar Key Seafood Festival. The Cedar Key Arts Festival is an annual gathering exhibits and art sales close to the downtown and the arts center are required for this event. The Cedar Key Seafood Festival is another annual gathering near the downtown area. This festival portrays the aquaculture industry that is essential to the community and its economic and social being. Adequate space is provided when identifying relocation opportunities so that the ability for traditions of this sort to continue to occur is maintained. Local traditions can also be found in the features, forms, and materials of the downtown. of development. These buildings have informed the style and forms of succeeding architecture as well. Continuing to use historic buildings and existing site layouts as forms of inspiration allow local STRATEGIES

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95 Beyond the scope of this study but pertinent buildings, sites, and elements that should be historic structures in downtown Cedar Key. Where relocation opportunities are carried out, historic brick paving, site features, and building materials can be dismantled and reused. Allowing the history of the urban fabric to remain and be reused where appropriate is essential to maintaining the vernacular landscape. By preserving and honoring historical materials, the story of the community can live on. Enhance the Pedestrian Experience Pedestrians play the leading role in the downtown of Cedar Key, as well as most other areas in the community. A shaded walkway formed by building overhangs creates a pleasant pedestrian the dominant force by noting the presence of or need for sidewalks and highlighting parcels in close proximity to one another to maintain a walkable environment. Walkability within and close to the downtown is highly valued by the residents as a means of easing the way of life of the community. Low speed limits and pedestrian oriented environments also drastically decrease vehicular use, providing for a healthier environment. Provide Signature Open Spaces Open spaces and parks provide great opportunity for community interaction. These spaces also draw residents to the downtown area and allow them to interact outdoors with other members of their community. Natural and highly vegetated green spaces are characteristics of existing open spaces in Cedar Key. City Park is a highly frequented park located within walking distance from the and courtyard style open spaces are sparse in Cedar Key however may be considered in future provided and active use is encouraged. Incorporate Water Access Unique to the city of Cedar Key is its location on the Gulf of Mexico. Currently, the downtown is located somewhat inland, away from the water but a waterfront shop, dine, and stroll environment is provided on Dock St. With inundation occurring on Dock St., the opportunity for water to be engages users and allows for a variety of uses to play into the downtown activities. There is a for added recreation. When adaptive strategies are carried out in further detail, view sheds of water should be optimized with seating and open space alongside of it for user purposes. Pedestrian circulation and building positioning should be carried out in a way that celebrates the water. STRATEGIES

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96 are. Inundated and vulnerable areas of the existing downtown are shown in orange. These uses have the opportunity to move to the highlighted location located in the northern part of Cedar Key indicated in blue. This area is in close proximity to existing residential uses and has the framework for a structured grid of streets and parcel layout to match the existing downtown organization. Vacant parcels adjacent to this highlighted area provide the opportunity for more downtown uses area to have a downtown waterfront, adding to the character of the coastal community. are highlighted here in blue. Inundated and vulnerable parcels at the southern end of the current downtown can relocate their uses and functions to the highlighted parcels in the northern part parcels. Adaptation Strategies for Downtown Functions Cedar Key STRATEGIES Opportunity number one is located in an area of existing residential development. The character in this area appears to be more rural with larger lot sizes creating a more private home environment. Will the residents in this area be receptive to developing a city center with commercial uses in this looked at in this situation. downtown and future uses? Further Considerations

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97 Downtown Cedar KeyLegend Dry LandMajor RoadsVacant parcelsInundated and Vulnerable Downtown ParcelsOpportunity for Relocation of Downtown Uses 1 2 Existing Open WaterInundated Land at 1 M. Sea Level Rise Existing Cedar Key Shoreline STRATEGIES

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98 piece of land can be divided into multiple parcels to accommodate multiple uses and functions. parcels offer the opportunity for new commercial development to occur to extend the proposed city core or for residential development to occur for those that want to relocate from Cedar Key to the upland area and still maintain a lifestyle that is conducive to walkability. Existing residential development is highly concentrated in this area and just north of it which center in close proximity. The closest area of high density commercial and mixed use functions opportunity to create a unique environment for residents and tourists and serves as an economic driver for the community. Vacant parcels adjacent to this area afford the ability for the city center to grow if needed or residential development to occur for those that want to relocate from Cedar residents in the area to walk to the proposed city core from their own home or business. Due to property rights and size; however, these factors are beyond the scope of this studyAdaptation Strategies for Downtown Functions Upland A A Proposed location for relocation of BExisting high density commercial and mixed use development B STRATEGIES The opportunities highlighted in blue existing Cedar Key downtown functions with this existing community in this area? Existing zoning and future land use should also be looked at in this situation. Further Considerations Rosewood

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99 Further Considerations STRATEGIES

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100 Arts At the heart of a community is a unique quality that sets it apart from the rest. In Cedar Key, art is a strong element of their vernacular landscape. Artists congregate in a local co-op, sharing studio space and a gallery, called Cedar Key Arts Center. This building is located in the historical downtown one meter sea level rise, the current location of the Arts Center will be inundated. Due to the high value of the center to the community and its role as an art staple in Cedar Key, it is essential that the function of the Cedar Key Arts Center be relocated. Currently, there is a pottery studio further upland function of the Cedar Key Arts Center. The Cedar Key Arts Festival is an annual tradition that exhibits the work of local and other artists. The requirements needed to maintain the tradition of the festival are accounted for and opportunities for alternate locations are presented. Requirements for the festival were determined to be: Proximity to arts center Adequate parking in close proximity Park or green space for event food Expanding on the current artist community found in Cedar Key, suggestions are made for the location of a work-live artist village. Local and visiting artists could rent studio space, with living quarters on top, as a means of enhancing the role of art in the community and providing another unique asset to the island. Opportunities for public art are shown indicating the potential for art pieces STRATEGIES

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101 Participation spans a wide range of actions, disciplines, and levels of expertise Creative expression is infused with multiple meanings and purpose Art in the community should represent community values by bringing them to life. Using community values as inspiration for art helps reinforce these unique values and makes them known to visitors. By living amongst aesthetic representations of values, the community becomes a more thriving environment. Participation and collaboration of community art reaches a broad spectrum of disciplines, actions, and level of expertise Multiple disciplines should be incorporated in the collaboration of art. Although some artists and art forms works best when created by one individual, there should be a large amount of collaborative art to compliment this. By combining various disciplines and expertise, the art is more representative of the community as a whole and speaks to a greater audience. When people can take part in the making of or relate to art in their community, a sense of ownership is formed, and a greater cohesion is achieved. Expression via community art incorporates multiple meanings and purposes Art has the ability to speak to people. By infusing meaning and purpose in art, the community is able to relate to and have conversations about the art. These meanings and purpose should support the community as a whole and compel people to better their community. Art can be used to drive home messages of environmental or cultural standpoints. Art is a great tool for advocacy in a community.Participation opportunities are driven by art, as well as alternate resources resources from outside disciplines. By having an intermixed set of resources, art is able to reach a Art can also be incorporated into the community through partnerships, education, and when expanding art in their community and community efforts. Guiding principles for art in Cedar Key were adapted from the design guidelines of a policy brief on art and information found in this brief is pertinent to the art and artistic values of Cedar Key and therefore has been STRATEGIES

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102 village is shown. All of the highlighted parcels provide the opportunity for an arts center or live-work in the same space, adjacent to the arts center. Artwork can be shared and sold in the arts center co-op gallery. Artists could hold monthly exhibition nights where they showcase their art and their studios. These opportunities would enhance the art culture of Cedar Key and introduce a live work space environment to the community. The opportunity for the relocation of the Cedar Key Arts Festival is shown adjacent to the highlighted parcels so that the festival location can be maintained in proximity to the arts center. downtown Cedar Key is highlighted. The four highlighted parcels all serve as potential spots for the relocated arts center. The opportunity to keep the Cedar Key Arts Festival downtown is also highlighted, adjacent to the proposed parcels for the arts center. Allowing the arts festival to remain in front of the arts center allows the festival to interact with the artists and the co-op gallery in the same way as it does now. Adaptation Strategies for Art Related Functions Cedar Key STRATEGIES Introducing an artist village to Cedar Key will create a new dynamic in the community. Is this type of environment desired by the community or would they prefer to maintain existing housing prototypes that do no combine a worklive culture? Community feedback on the proposed With the need for the Cedar Key Arts Center to be relocated in the face of sea level rise, are there current unmet desires that could be addressed to further determine the most suitable location? A possible increased demand for gallery space or more artist studios could be considered in choosing a new location for the arts center. Parcel size and city codes should be addressed to determine the most suitable relocation area. Further Considerations

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103 Arts Cedar KeyLegend Dry LandMajor RoadsVacant parcelsExisting Arts CenterExisting CK Arts Festival locationOpportunity for relocation of Art Activities and FunctionsOpportunity for Relocation of Downtown Uses 1 2 Existing Open WaterInundated Land at 1 M. Sea Level Rise Existing Cedar Key Shoreline STRATEGIES

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104 downtown functions, this group of vacant parcels has the opportunity to include an arts center that to provide for an arts center based upon its current size. The highlighted parcels that are not enhance the culture of the arts in this area, embrace the arts of Cedar Key, and allow local and visiting artists to live and work in the same space while show casing their work at the local art center co-op. to be located in close proximity to the proposed arts center or artist village. This location is based Maintaining this relationship will allow the upland area to take on characteristics and attributes of Adaptation Strategies for Art Related Functions Upland STRATEGIES Introducing an artist village to the upland portion of the study area will create a new dynamic in the surrounding community. Is this type of environment desired by the community or would they prefer to maintain existing housing prototypes that do no combine a worklive culture? If artists are currently living in Cedar Key, would they want to relocate off of the island? Community feedback With the need for the Cedar Key Arts Center to be relocated in the face of sea level rise, are there current unmet desires that could be addressed to further determine the most suitable location? A possible increased demand for gallery space or more artist studios could be considered in choosing a new location for the arts center. Is there a large enough demand for art and studio space that would make it feasible to have an arts center in Cedar Key as well as the upland area? Parcel size and city codes should be addressed to determine the most suitable relocation area. Further Considerations

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105 Arts UplandLegend Dry LandMajor RoadsVacant parcels 2 1 Opportunity for relocation of Art Activities and FunctionsOpportunity for Relocation of CK Arts Festival locationExisting Open WaterInundated Land at 1 M. Sea Level Rise Study Area Boundary STRATEGIES

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106 Trails Cedar Key Railroad Trestle Trail, Cemetery Point Trail, and Whitman Trail, along with trails as a place to enjoy the tranquility of nature. These characteristics are valuable to the community and are accounted for when demonstrating opportunities for trail enhancements. Due to the strong role of golf carts in the community, they have been considered as a mode of transportation to be incorporated in multi functionality to occur in one location and offering the same user experience to all types of are inaccessible to golf carts. According to the USDA Forest Service, there are three trail types: Terra, snow, and water trails. For the purposes of Cedar Key, the following types of trails were considered: A trail that has a predominant surface of the ground and is designed and managed to service ground travel. To add to this, a standard trail can be a paved trail which contains value activities. Due to the extensive use of golf carts in the community, a trail that allows for mechanized wheels is also advantageous. Water Trail Key for kayaking and boating to exterior islands. Water trails allow for the integration of several for enhanced water trails in Cedar Key increases the opportunity for aquatic recreation and creates Bikeways and Rail Trailsusage. These trails are a tool for connecting the community and providing a developed trail type experience. Currently, trails in Cedar Key are not fully conducive to bike riding so the addition of this trail type can increase recreation opportunities for the community and its visitors. Where possible, these types of trails can be made wide enough to also cater to golf carts. Existing roads, sidewalks and walkways are typically included in the route of this trail type. Cedar STRATEGIES

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107historical buildings and continue on to the historical Cedar Key Cemetery, connecting to existing trails interpretation. Signage, brochures and other graphic and written information is included along this type of trail. With the extensive amount of native and coastal plant species found in Cedar Key, trails can be used to educate residents and visitors about the types of plants found in their community. This type of trail embraces the love of nature that so many residents of Cedar Key value. Accessible Trails A trial that is designed to enable an accessible trail opportunity. This type of trail is surfaced with materials necessary to make it accessible to all. Accessible trails are sited, sized and constructed for the purpose of accessibility. With a large amount of elderly residents in Cedar Key, providing accessible trails can encourage the elderly to interact with the outdoors and enjoy the trails alongside their family and friends. Accessible trails can also service golf carts due to the terrain. historical trail STRATEGIES

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108 Trails play a strong role in connecting recreation to nature and conservation, all of which purposes and users. It is essential that trails are designed, re routed, and constructed in a way that is ecologically sensitive. The setting of a trail is very important as well as users seek certain experiences. A natural setting should allow the trail to be formed by natural limitations and opportunities. A more urban trail, such as a historical trail through the downtown, should emphasize local landmarks and encourage a more social atmosphere. The following guiding principles are suggested to be used for Cedar Key: Recreation : Avoid Sensitive Ecological Areas Develop Appropriately when Trails Do Intersect with Sensitive Areas Limit tread erosion through design and construction Provide Ongoing Stewardship of the Trails Ensure Trails Remain Sustainable Formally Decommission and Restore Unsustainable Trail Corridors Guiding principles for trails in Cedar Key were adapted from the Trails Guidelines and Best Practices Manual in this manual is applicable to the trails of Cedar Key and therefore has been used as a form of inspiration. STRATEGIES

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109 Avoid Ecologically Sensitive Areas Development, re-location, and maintenance of trails should be carried out in a way that is sensitive to the ecological systems around it. If the ecologically sensitive area cannot be fully avoided, the path that causes the most minimal impacts should be chosen. Ecological systems in Cedar Key include wetlands, conservation areas, cultural and historic resources, public water supplies, and natural communities. creative trail opportunity. Existing trails in Cedar Key can be enhanced to provide new experience opportunities. Abandoned railroad corridors, as enhanced by Trestle Trail, or historic roads and buildings, such as Second Street, can provide a cultural setting for new or relocated trails. Trails should maintain a buffer to the adjacent use if it is an ecologically sensitive area or part of a hydrological system. A buffer allows for ecological diversity and habitat value. Buffers can provide and varies depending up trail site conditions. Connect Users to Destination Trails should lead users to an appealing destination. A destination does not have to be a historic district and its buildings as well as the historical cemetery are shown as opportunities for trail destinations and settings. Water features such as the Gulf of Mexico and Back Bayou are also highlighted as opportunities for trail destinations. Landforms and facilities can also considered as trail destination spots or stops. Maintain Viewsheds To keep the user engaged and to add to their desired experience, proposed trail opportunities take advantage of surrounding viewsheds and vistas. Due to the lush and native species of Cedar Key, vegetation may get in the way of views in which case proper vegetation management should be of Mexico, spots visible for sunsets, natural marsh and wetlands, and ecological habitat. STRATEGIES

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110 trail located just North of Cedar Key via a water trail. Users can travel via water to get from the island to areas upland. Connections from terrestrial trails to water trails are made possible via these water access points allowing user to get in kayaks or canoes to continue their recreational experience. In areas where there is adequate space, a boat ramp may be provided for larger aquatic vehicles. Cedar Key. These islands may serve as recreational destination points for water trail and boat users. Connection opportunities are highlighted to display the potential for accessing several recreational islands along the delineated water trail. Public policy is beyond the scope of this study, however property rights and city code must be accounted for to determine the feasibility of this approach. buildings. Maintaining this same walkability, a terrestrial trail is proposed that takes users past all of the historical buildings and connects the downtown to other areas of Cedar Key via a trail. Green space opportunities are highlighted as destination and connection points for the historical trail. Water access opportunities are provided at the ends of this trail, enhancing its recreational and scenic abilities. the water. With a new shoreline, water trail users will be able to tour around the perimeter of the downtown and continue to green space and ecological destinations or dock at shore and see the historical buildings on land. Adaptation Strategies for Trails Cedar Key STRATEGIES Proposed water access points will require maintenance as well as minor infrastructure to make them accessible to boats and other aquatic vehicles. A maintenance plan should be developed to further determine the feasibility of the highlight opportunities for water access. The type of infrastructure required and its cost should also be addressed in an economic study of this approach. With an increased opportunity for water trails, there is the potential for aquatic recreational activities to expand. New businesses may be needed in order to provide additional recreational opportunities. Boat tours may develop as a niche in the community to provide access to some of these trails. Further Considerations

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111 Green Space and Trails Cedar KeyLegend Major RoadsVacant parcelsExisting Green SpaceOpportunity for Green SpaceOpportunity for Water AccessOpportunity for Terrestrial Trail 2 3 1 4 5 6 Opportunity for Water TrailExisting Open WaterDry LandExisting Cedar Key Shoreline Inundated Land at 1 M. Sea Level Rise STRATEGIES

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112 the surrounding neighborhood. This proposed space is located between both of the highlighted space to function alongside the urban environment encourages outdoor recreation and events. Green markets or annual festivals could be held in this space. destinations for existing and proposed trails. The opportunity for a terrestrial trail is shown as a connection between two ends of existing trails. This proposed connection will lead into one or several of the highlighted green spaces. These parcels are centrally located to the upland area and have ample space to serve multi purposes, as well as potential for use as community green spaces, such as a green market or public art exhibition space. Opportunities for green space do not take into account land value or property rights. Both of these factors must be accounted for to determine the most suitable and feasible parcel or parcels. vulnerable in the face of sea level rise has the opportunity to serve as a recreational island or water trail destination. With a large amount of vacant land adjacent to this proposed green and enhance this green space. Another parcel with the opportunity to become a green space, or recreational island, is shown with a proposed water trail connection between the two green spaces that connects them back to land or an existing trail. Public policy is beyond the scope of this study, however property rights must be accounted for to determine the feasibility of this approach. Trail users may have access to land or continue along in the water around the island. Adaptation Strategies for Trails Upland STRATEGIES Existing trails were located based upon the best available GIS data. Ground truthing these trails and examining their characteristics is a key next step in determining the achievability of the proposed trail connections. With an increased opportunity for water trails, there is the potential for aquatic recreational activities to expand. New businesses may be needed in order to provide additional recreational opportunities. Boat tours may develop as a niche in Cedar Key to provide access to some of these trails. A ferryboat that caters to the public is another possible outcome of additional water trails. The ferry could be use to transport users from the upland area to the island of Cedar Key or vice versa. Further Considerations

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113 Green Space and Trails UplandLegend Major RoadsVacant parcelsExisting TrailsOpportunity for Green SpaceOpportunity for Water AccessOpportunity for Terrestrial TrailOpportunity for Water Trail 3 4 2 1 Existing Open WaterDry Land Study Area Boundary Inundated Land at 1 M. Sea Level Rise STRATEGIES

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Connectivity Existing connectivity in Cedar Key was observed for vehicular connectivity as well as pedestrian connectivity, or walkability. Residents of Cedar Key acknowledged the ability to walk as something of great value to their community. Due to the small size of the island and a centrally located downtown, almost all areas of Cedar Key are within walking distance to one another. Being able to walk from place to place increases resident contact with one another and therefore, adds to the character of the close knit community. Golf carts are also a popular mode of transportation connectivity was to provide access, either by foot or vehicle, to all parts of the island in the face of sea level rise. Walkability was stressed more so in areas of high commercial use. Maintaining connectivity as a whole is key to the active, social and outdoor oriented way of life of Cedar Key. STRATEGIES

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STRATEGIES

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116 access points. When this approach is taken, management is a key consideration. It is suggested that management practices are looked at from a hazard mitigation, infrastructure, stormwater, and or shoreline erosion standpoint. Public and economic policy must be accounted for to determine the feasibility of this approach, however these factors are beyond the scope of this study. acknowledged when taking this approach. Public policy is beyond the scope of this study but it should be noted that political and legal barriers exist in this proposed solution. Possible solutions include rolling easements and land acquisition so that abandonment of the road infrastructure would be permitted. Transfer of development rights for the parcels that lose access should also be considered as a potential solution to the legal barriers that exist. maintained where inundation does not occur downtown. With roads projected to be inundated in this area, walking will increase as a form of transportation. The highlighted walkability allows residents and visitors to walk from downtown to Back Bayou. Other highlighted areas indicated as opportunities for high walkability provide users the ability to walk easy from several uses including residential and commercial. Maintaining walkability in Cedar Key enhances its cultural and social values. seek alternative routes where possible. This area displays an opportunity for another route just to the East of it that can be used as the gateway into Cedar Key. into bridges as well as this is the only entry way into Cedar Key. Extending the current infrastructure will allow for a feasible solution to maintain access to Cedar Key in the face of sea level rise. Public policy and economic feasibility must be accounted for when considering infrastructural improvements and development, however these factors are beyond the scope of this study.Adaptation Strategies for Connectivity Cedar Key STRATEGIES Where inundated land is the end point of an inundated or vulnerable road, the road is suggested to be abandoned. These scenarios offer potential water access points which will require maintenance as well as minor infrastructure to make them accessible to boats and other aquatic vehicles. A maintenance plan should be developed to further determine the feasibility of the highlighted opportunities for water access. The type of infrastructure required and its cost should also be addressed in an economic study of this approach. Further Considerations

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117 Connectivity Cedar KeyLegend Dry LandMajor RoadsVacant parcelsInundated and Vulnerable Road Connections Opportunity for High WalkabilityExisting Open WaterInundated Land at 1 M. Sea Level Rise 4 1 5 3 2 Existing Cedar Key Shoreline STRATEGIES

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118 provide access to parcels that are also vulnerable, are suggested to be abandoned. If viewed the parcels around them as well as offer a connection to other upland areas. These scenarios also may provide the opportunity for waterfront access points. When this approach is taken, management is a key consideration. It is suggested that management practices are looked at from a hazard mitigation, infrastructure, stormwater, and or shoreline erosion standpoint. Public and economic policy must be accounted for to determine the feasibility of this approach, however these factors are beyond the scope of this study. this road is suggested to be abandoned. The land that is currently serviced by this road has the on this land are suggested to move inland and the island has the opportunity to become an ecological destination. Public policy and access abilities must be accounted for to determine the feasibility of this approach, however these factors are beyond the scope of this study. is highly valued by the residents of Cedar Key and it is essential to maintain that quality in an connections to and from existing and proposed uses. These walkable connections may extend into the adjacent existing development. Adaptation Strategies for Connectivity Upland STRATEGIES Where inundated land is the end point of an inundated or vulnerable road, the road is suggested to be abandoned. These scenarios offer potential water access points which will require maintenance as well as minor infrastructure to make them accessible to boats and other aquatic vehicles. A maintenance plan should be developed to further determine the feasibility of the highlight opportunities for water access. The type of infrastructure required and its cost should also be addressed in an economic study of this approach. Developing a pedestrian oriented city center will increase convenience in the ways of life for the residents surrounding this area. Will golf carts become a favored mode of transportation further cater to golf carts and other modes of transportation? Further Considerations

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119 Connectivity UplandLegend Dry LandMajor RoadsVacant parcelsInundated or Vulnerable Road Connections 1 2 3 A B Existing Open WaterInundated Land at 1 M. Sea Level Rise Study Area BoundaryOpportunity for High WalkabilityProposed “city center” STRATEGIES

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120Building Typologies The built environment and architecture of Cedar Key is one key element that contributes to the overall character and feel of the vernacular landscape. As a historic and coastal community, the architecture of Cedar Key is very distinguishable and unique. Wood, slating, and concrete are common building materials used throughout Cedar Key. Pastel colored facades are characteristic of the community. Many buildings are elevated on pilings per building codes. You can distinguish these from the historical buildings that remain on the ground because of their presence before the new building codes were implemented. An example of an iconic historical building in Cedar Key is the at a low height throughout the island, majority do not exceed three stories. It is stated in the city by the City of Cedar Key ensure that enhancements to existing development and new construction occur in a way that respects the characteristics of the community. A review process is suggested for proposed relocation efforts in order to maintain an aesthetic and cohesive community character. The photographs below illustrate existing building forms, styles, materials and characteristics found in Cedar Key. These conditions should be used as inspiration for future development. converted into a bed and breakfast STRATEGIES

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121 Gravel driveway Covered walkway Buildings on ground Wooden facadeMasonry facade Pastel facade Elevated on pilings Parking under house Pastel slate facade Gable roof STRATEGIES

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Chapter 5: “There is no logic that can be superimposed on the city; people make it, and it is to them, not buildings, that we must fit our plans.” – Jane Jacobs Transferability and Future Considerations

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123TRANSFERABILITY Findings and lessons from this study provide the opportunity for transferability to other coastal communities concerned about adaptation strategies that are sensitive to the vernacular landscape. The methodology developed for this study is applicable to any community interested in community input may vary depending on the needs and existing lifestyle of the community. Surveys of the accessibility to several local organizations, such as the Nature Conservancy and the Cedar Key Arts Club, that provided the opportunity to reach a diverse group of residents. Reaching a lifestyles in the community and no areas or activities appear as biased. Community workshops and focus groups are additional examples of community participation tools that may be considered by other communities. All means of community outreach should include a map for the residents to identify with. This method assists in reaching the subconscious attachment people have to their a prompt scenario in attempt to further trigger the minds of the participants so that they would really consider what they valued and loved about their community. Using a prompt scenario pertinent to the community being observed is an effective tool but should be stated in a way that respects the community and its values. Aside from community participation, it is key that the landscape architect or researcher take time to get to know the community on their own. An initial site visit consisting of a walk around the in Cedar Key, and indulging in the culture, such as eating clams fresh out of the water, serve as Sketches of existing conditions and photographs of the community and its surrounding context are also effective tools for developing a greater understanding of the community. One-on-one interviews are a great way to not only receive community feedback, but to establish relationships with the residents so that a greater insight into their every day lives and values is obtained. Talking a walk around the town with a resident provides a perspective that is unattainable as an outside observer. Community feedback resulted in a long list of valued spaces, places, activities and characteristics as displayed in the results of this study. Relocation strategies were carried out in full or landscape architect wish to develop adaptive strategies for fewer community valued qualities than be further observed for adaptation strategies.

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124 TRANSFERABILITY Delimitations have been placed on this study due to time constraints. These limitations include the inability to explore protection and accommodation as means of adaptation methods and a lack of exploration of public policy and economic feasibility. When applying this research methodology to other communities with no time constraints, these limitations should be lifted and explored in full detail. Public policy and economic factors are essential considerations in planning that should be carried out in conjunction with explorations of the vernacular landscape. Land ownership and land value are examples of public policy and economic principles that should be considered by other communities applying this research methodology. Economic studies should also be done to determine framework for obtaining community participation and aid in identifying goals and objectives for these methods. a character analysis. These tools should be applied in the inventory phase of this methodology. This in the analysis phase of this research and assisted in the development of adaptation strategies for Cedar Key. Existing communities with similar qualities to Cedar Key were observed for their guiding principles which were amended and expanded upon for Cedar Key. Communities concerned about adaptation strategies that are sensitive to their vernacular landscape should look to existing communities that have similar traits and values as them to aid in developing their own guiding principles. Adaptation opportunities are most universally understood when shown via a visual. Overlaying graphics that display opportunities over a community map helps residents identify with the proposed strategies. Because the community will have been so involved in the data gathering process, residents often desire to see the research results. Community workshops may be held as a way opportunities. Findings and conclusions drawn from this study indicate the opportunity and need for further research. Delimitations placed on this study hindered the ability to explore public and economic policy, two major factors that must be accounted for in adaptive planning. Conducting feasibility studies for the proposed adaptation opportunities is a key element that can be added to this research in order to determine achievability and assist Cedar Key in selecting the most suitable relocation opportunities. Feasibility studies should include, but are not limited to: parcel size, land value, land ownership, zoning, access legality, city code and economic policy. Subsequent communities concerned with the methodology of this research should also carry out feasibility studies when exploring adaptation strategies for their own town. Gathering community feedback is also a notable next step to help Cedar Key determine the most suitable relocation strategies for the community. Due to the time limitations of this study, it was

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125 TRANSFERABILITY not feasible to take the proposed relocation strategies back to Cedar Key for a community workshop community. Community feedback is strongly encouraged for subsequent communities concerned with the methodology of this research. as adaptation strategies for Cedar Key. Goals and objectives that are listed in the methodology but are beyond the scope of this study should be carried out in full detail by those looking to further and valued element of the landscape. Public and environmental policy should also be addressed While vernacular landscape is the overlying inspiration for the research carried out in this As the landscape evolves, new landscape typologies may come about. An example found in this research is the anticipated relationship of the new shoreline with existing and future development. Although this study uses a bath tub model that converts all inundated land to open water when types of future land cover as a result of the effects of sea level rise on shorelines and wetlands. SLAMM can be used to address the expected type of shorelines that will be present after the sea level rises. Observing the type of anticipated land cover and how it will interact with the built events and activities based upon the tidal level. Design and forms of all elements in the landscape, as well as the landscape itself, will inevitably evolve. Developing modern day interpretations of existing and historical functions and characteristics can assist in maintaining the ways of life of the users and residents of a landscape evolution of the vernacular landscape. Because of this, subsequent communities concerned with the methodology of this research should investigate these factors and integrate them into their adaptation approach.

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126WORKS CITED PublicArtNetwork_GreenPaper.pdf Understanding, and Design of Built Environments. Bentham Science Publishers. Cedar Key, FL: Author. overview. Community. Washington State Department of Community, Trade, and Economic Development. Open-Space.pdf. WORKS CITED

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127WORKS CITED University Press. University Press. Florida: Sarasota Bay Estuary Program. Ordinary Landscapes. New York: Oxford UP.

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128WORKS CITED and Opportunities”. Century Commission for A Sustainable Florida. New York: Rizzoli. partner-guidelines.pdf raster-data-models WORKS CITED

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129WORKS CITED Inaction. Tufts University: Global Development and Environment Institute and the Stockholm Age.pdf

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130FIGURES CITED All graphics and photos by Claudia Visconti unless otherwise noted Cedar_Key,_Florida Cedar Key,_Florida FIGURES CITED

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FIGURES CITED FL: Pineapple Press. FIGURES CITED

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133FIGURES CITED html