Citation
Landscape Architecture for Humanity

Material Information

Title:
Landscape Architecture for Humanity : An Approach to Improving Health in Rural Communities
Creator:
Soleyn, Jessica Alyssa Marie
Place of Publication:
(Gainesville, FL)
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 online resource; 112 pages

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Landscape Architecture (M))
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Williams, Sara K
Committee Members:
Gurucharri, Maria Christina

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Soil science ( jstor )
Drainage water ( jstor )
Water quality ( jstor )
Genre:
Project in Lieu of Thesis

Notes

Abstract:
The present project seeks to investigate the process of sustainable, participatory community development to improve environmental health. The primary goal is to determine the role of landscape architecture in environmental health and community development at the international level. Specifically, this research seeks to address the idea that a landscape approach to the environmental health issues in rural communities is an effective way to provide sustainable solutions that improve quality of life and promote livelihoods through partnership with and empowerment of local peoples. The study uses a combination of primary and secondary qualitative analysis research methods adapted from the Human Centered Design approach. Primary resesarch took place in the rural community of El Socorro, Nicaragua and with local experts at the University of Florida. Secondary research examined current literature on environmental health, community development practice and public health to understand the various contexts, extent and nature, and theoretical perspectives of issues of health related to the landscape. Emphasis was placed on understanding the determinants of health, defining characteristics of place, ecological processes, and design methods and tools. A process was developed to analyze this data and set priorites for the study community, El Socorro. The study resulted in the development of guidelines and recommendations that would address traditional environmental health hazards at the landscape level in the community. It is hoped that this project will encourage increased coordination between design professionals and public health or community development practitioners as well as be a practical tool for improving the quality of life for those living in poor environmental conditions.
General Note:
Landscape Architecture Terminal Project
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jessica Alyssa Marie Soleyn

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Jessica Alyssa Marie Soleyn. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
1022120886 ( OCLC )

Downloads

This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE FOR HUMANITYAN APPROACH TO IMPROVING HEALTH IN RURAL COMMUNITIES By Jessica Alyssa Marie Soleyn A Terminal Project Presented to the Department of Landscape Architecture of the University of Florida Degree of Master of Landscape Architecture 2015

PAGE 2

To my friends in El Socorro

PAGE 3

CONTENTS 6 8Environmental Challenges 8Assumptions and Limits 10 10Approach 11 12Methods 13Location 14 15 15Context Characteristics 16 18Traditional Hazards 20Theoretical Perspectives and Models 23 28 29Nicaragua Environment and Cultural Context 29Nicaragua Environmental Health 31 38 48Photovoice Activity 50interpretation 56Summary 57 58Prioritization Matrix 59El Socorro Analysis and Evaluation 63Air, Water, Soil 64Production 66Infrastructure & Services 68Local Ecosystems & Biodiversity 70

PAGE 4

Proximity To Amenities 72Evaluation summary 74Priorities 75Pollution Prevention Water Quality 75 Access Infrastructure and Services 75 Priorities Summary 76Synthesis 77 78From Literature 78From Fieldwork 78From Analysis & Synthesis 78 79 79 80Types of Ecological Sanitation 81 Implementing EcoSan in El Socorro 85 Sample analysis diagram 87 88Soil Topography Water Sun/ Shade Patterns Built Features Users, Spaces, Views, Senses 93 93Types of Systems 94Diversions 95 97Vegetation 97Cross Section Shape 97Outlets 98

PAGE 5

Control Erosion 993 Basic Side Drain Shapes 99Surface Drainage and Ecological Sanitation Examples In Context 100 101 101Natural Building Techniques 101Siting and Layout Considerations 101For ventilation: 102For Shading: 102Plantings 103Building Materials 104 105 106 107

PAGE 6

6ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

PAGE 7

7ABSTRACT the role of landscape architecture in environmental health and community development at

PAGE 8

8INTRODUCTION ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES 1

PAGE 9

9 regions are 180 times more likely to die from environmentally mediated disease conditions as environmental health challenges from a landscape perspective can and should play a greater of Nicaragua are an example of contexts facing traditional environmental issues that could

PAGE 10

10 ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITSThis study is designed on the premise that design solutions for developing countries guidelines using the information gathered to create and implement solutions customized to the OBJECTIVES to health promotion in international contexts

PAGE 11

11 Nicaragua to improve health landscape APPROACH The Three Phases of HCD

PAGE 12

12RESEARCH APPROACH DIAGRAM AND Participatory Methods Community Immersion Community Prioritization Tool Development Expert Nicaragua Health and Envioronment Issues 3 Priorities for El Socorro Environment Analysis of El Socorro Environmental Health Context Extent & Nature Theoretical Perspectives Analysis & Solution Approaches

PAGE 13

13 METHODS health factors

PAGE 14

14 LOCATION stay participants receive training on Nicaraguan culture and skills needed to lead or facilitate the

PAGE 15

15LITERATURE REVIEWDEFINITIONS 2

PAGE 16

16 CONTEXT CHARACTERISTICS

PAGE 17

17

PAGE 18

18 EXTENT AND NATURE OF PROBLEM

PAGE 19

19 year due to diarrheal diseases and the same amount due to respiratory infections mainly caused

PAGE 20

20 st TRADITIONAL HAZARDS

PAGE 21

21

PAGE 22

22

PAGE 23

23 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND MODELS

PAGE 24

24

PAGE 25

25 as metaphors for social and organizational processes or environmental and socioeconomic

PAGE 26

26 assume that people make decisions designed to maximize health outcomes and that human Critical theoretical perspectives are also increasingly applied in research concerning

PAGE 27

27 sociocultural aspects of individual development and societal history are integral to understanding

PAGE 28

28 LITERATURE REVIEW SUMMARY of landscape architecture are most closely related to the ecological theoretical perspective

PAGE 29

29STUDY AREA NICARAGUA ENVIRONMENT AND CULTURAL CONTEXTNicaragua is the largest country in Central 3

PAGE 30

30

PAGE 31

31 NICARAGUA ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

PAGE 32

32 Disinfection and hygiene programs are estimated to have the greatest

PAGE 33

33 EL SOCORRO COMMUNITY PROFILE Department of Matagalpa

PAGE 34

34

PAGE 35

35 money to have the road improved and the government sends a large machine that compacts

PAGE 36

36 improve and prosper Immersion Experience

PAGE 37

37

PAGE 38

38COMMUNITY INTER VIEWS

PAGE 39

39How many people live in your home? kids have no household chores What INCREASES health in your What DECREASES health in your PARTICIPANT ONE school to test for anemia and malnutrition through all the stations and she elected to

PAGE 40

40 the year? Poverty

PAGE 41

41How many people live in your home? and plants year so more money What INCREASES health in your things PARTICIPANT TWO

PAGE 42

42 the year? Bad friendships Talk to those people and improve those go to the clinic to improve their health

PAGE 43

43How many people live in your home? grass hold? PARTICIPANT THREE committee and very active in his

PAGE 44

44 the year? to increase health

PAGE 45

45INTERPRETATIONContext/Value Questions

PAGE 46

46 Environment Questions Air quality Water Availability and Quantity Sanitation Better water situation – ability to store in tanks, and proper maintenance and of the tanks Water filters – decrease diarrhea (believes this is the biggest priority) Eliminating water puddles/mud – breeding grounds for mosquitoes which can cause malaria/dengue Reducing contamination from garbage Maintaining the springs so that they don’t get contaminated Having good relations with the ministry of health because they support a lot Chemicals – affect the air/environment (believes they need to avoid them) Unclean water – no filters yet Standing water – Puddles/mud Allowing garbage to contaminate the water supply Contamination of the springs Bad relations with the ministry of health lack of support Improper maintenance of water tanks

PAGE 47

47 “Healthy Environment” He understands that the clinic is currently more like a pharmacy and that they need increased

PAGE 48

48EXPERT INTER VIEWS are the experts improve the situation Technical solutions are only partial solutions certain discipline

PAGE 49

49 Although the experts provided some useful information on the community developement

PAGE 50

50PHOTO V OICE A CTIVITY

PAGE 51

51

PAGE 52

52

PAGE 53

53 Tortillas

PAGE 54

54

PAGE 55

55

PAGE 56

56 INTERPRETATION

PAGE 57

57SUMMARY Drainage Sanitation

PAGE 58

58ANALYSIS 4

PAGE 59

59 PRIORITIZATION MATRIX ENVIRONMENT Air, Water, Soil Quality Do air, water, and soil quality meet safe standards for the natural en vironment and human populations? Production Do production systems sat isfy demand for fo od and agricultural products while maintain neutral or positive impact on e cosystem services and biodi versi ty ? Infrastructure and Services Does housing , waste management, energy production , and transportation services meet the needs of the population and have minimal impacts o n the environment? Local Ecosystems and Biodiversity Are there a variety of ecosystems and land uses? D o actions in the landscape conserv e, maintain , and restore wild biodiversity and ecosystem services? Proximity to Amenities How close are areas for play, religious activity, shopping , healthcare services, industry supply, etc.? SOCIAL Opportunity for Social Interaction Are there adequate spaces for formal or informal gathering? Do people feel comfortable and at ease at home, in public areas, or in nature ? Org anization & Events Are there m e chanisms in place for coordinated action between multipl e stakeholders in the landscape? Are there places in the landscape that support a variety of events? Cultural Identity Are there elements in the landscape that define the way of lif e in the community and cultural values, norms, customs, diet, etc. ? Therapeutic Quality Is the community landscape restorative, uplifting and healing for both physical and mental health? Working, Learning, Development Do school and work environments support productivity, cr ea tivity, and personal dev elopment? LIVELIHOOD Economic Diversity Does the settlement support a var iety of income sources, levels, and distribution ? Are there opportunities for viable non agricultural economic activity? Access to Markets and Resources Do households and communities have sust ainable and equitable access to critical natural resource stocks and fl ows? Are basic need s of population able to be met while sustaining natural resources? Resilience Does the landscape have the ability to recover and regenerate after extreme environmental shocks (flood, drought, commodity prices, pest/disease outbreaks, storms, earthquakes, etc.) ? Asset s & Empowerment Are household and community assets incr easing? Is there adequate capacity to learn and innovate about practices that will lead to “healthy ” lands capes? Safety & Security Does the landscape help reduce opportunities for crime or injury?

PAGE 60

60 Health Environment settlement there are several spheres of social and economic interact to shape community environment may have direct management of the landscape is therefore a key step in ensuring Settlement Health Map

PAGE 61

61 Agricultural production Principles for Healthy Places increasing social interaction development physical and mental health

PAGE 62

62 Principle 1: Principle 2: Principle 3: Principle 4: Principle 5: Principle 6: Principle 7: Principle 8: Principle 9: Principle 10:

PAGE 63

63EL SOCORRO ANALYSIS AND EV ALUATION as it is most relevant to the scope of this SCALE 1 2 3 4

PAGE 64

64 Water from individual households and community Impact of natural processes Impact of human activities Existing Standards Score2

PAGE 65

65visually clean the tests revealed the presence Air

PAGE 66

66 Do production systems satisfy demand for food and agricultural products Energy production in the community relies on A majority of the food consumed in the community 3 PRODUCTION Food security consumers Typical cookstove in home

PAGE 67

67 A summary of data on children under 5 years old is results of health screenings conducted in El Socorro during rates of malnourishment and anemia in children under 5

PAGE 68

68 meet the needs of the population and have minimal 1 INFRASTRUCTURE & SERVICES ornamental landscaping

PAGE 69

69 It stops on main road a good distance from the There are no formal utility services provided to the

PAGE 70

70 Are there a variety of ecosystems and land three supporting services such as Land use Managment of common resources community is located in 3 LOCAL ECOSYSTEMS & BIODIVERSITY

PAGE 71

71 in El Socorro appears to have a agriculture there are many natural

PAGE 72

72Cr environment there are plentiful informal areas for For commercial or shopping needs most homes of spread out develpment and mountainous natural Evangelical church 2 PROXIMITY TO AMENITIES Distance and travel times Barriers to access

PAGE 73

73 A small community community clinic providing The nearest hospital is in the municipality of La Dalia

PAGE 74

74EV ALUATION SUMMARYThe previous evaluation looked at just the A summary of the key issues and suggested criteria scores are presented in the chart to various issues related to environmental health in the community of El Socorro and revealed pollution prevention and strenghtening infrastructure and services through improved ENVIRONMENT Air, Water, Soil Quality Key Issues: Bacteria levels in water Tube clogging, intermittent flow Lack of s pring maintenance Unsa fe water storage Compacted clay soils Indoor air pollution 2 Production Key Issues L imited crop diversity Reliance on wood fuel Use of pesticides 3 Infrastructure and Services Key Issues: Road quality and steep slopes Poor d rainage Limited transportation service Lack of utility services Poor quality housing Poor latrine siting 1 Local Ecosystems and Biodiversity Key Issues: Over logging Limited crop diversity Freshwater contamination 3 Proximity to Amenities Ke y Issues: Lack of access to material resources Difficu lt and expensive travel 2 SCALE 1 2 3 4

PAGE 75

75PRIORITIESPollution Prevention Water Quality of Access Infrastructure and Services

PAGE 76

76PRIORITIES SUMMARY Water Quality Issues 1 Infrastructure and Services Issues 3 Build Community Center 2

PAGE 77

77 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 Ecological SanitationComposting toilet and secondary treatment source pollution 2 Surface Drainage er transportation and therefore more opportu 3 Community Center also serves to increase cultural pride and identity through SYNTHESIS

PAGE 78

78 SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGSFrom Literature From Fieldwork Participation Priorities for El Socorro Create practical guidelines linked to human life Development of solutions should involve multiple stakeholders at multiple levels Although a solution may primarily occur in the physical Environment, it is important to consider the Social Livelihoods

PAGE 79

79RECOMMENDATIONS AND GUIDELINESOPPORTUNITY 1: IMPRO VE SANITATION 5 Adapted from FETILIZES & PESTICIDES EAT PP PIT LATINES & PEN DEFECATIN ASTE & PLLUTIN

PAGE 80

80 RECOMMENDATION 1: MANAGE W ASTE ECOLOGICALLY

PAGE 81

81Types of Ecological Sanitation Dehydration toilet systems are completely ventilation are the most important ventilation also reduces odours due to air EAT ECETE CMPSTIN TILET CMPST SAFE AND Ecological Sanitation Cycle

PAGE 82

82 Composting toilet systems convert excreta into compost Dehydrated feces and ash mixture in UDDT used as compost

PAGE 83

83 the pit the toilet are moved A thick layer of soil is placed over the again and then plant the young tree at Diagram of Fossa Alterna Composting Toilet Superstructure is moved from one pit First pit is emptied and used as compost after appropriate maturation time Fossa Alterna

PAGE 84

84Humanure System Aging Compost Pile Cover Material Active Compost Pile Composting Bins and Cover Material Storage

PAGE 85

85Implementing EcoSan in El Socorro Climate Topography and soil type Abundance/scarcity of water Proximity/sensitivity of water resources and aquatic ecosystems Energy Social/cultural Economic Technical capacity Infrastructure Population density and settlement pattern Agriculture — the characteristics of local agriculture and home gardening

PAGE 86

86 located in individual households Shared Ecosan Facility Household Ecosoan Facilities

PAGE 87

87SAMPLE ANALYSIS DIAGRAMEl Socorro Clinic School N

PAGE 88

88GUIDELINES FOR SITE ANALYSIS Sample Inventory List

PAGE 89

89Soil 1 Visual Test Dig Test r f ntrbnrGathering Soils Information Information about soils can be gained through a number of simple methodologies. Perhaps the most efficient is soil mapping information provided by the U.S. Department of Agricultural Soil Conservation Service. Soil Probing and Analysis The best way to determine drainage needs in the site analysis stage is to probe and analyze existing site soils.The best tool for determining subsurface soil layer is the soil auger or probe,with a minimum three foot long auger or coring tool.It may be necessary to pre-irrigate the top 6”of the soil surface so that the soil can be probed easily.A good rule of thumb for probing depth is that the soil should be evaluated to at least 6”below the proposed foundation depth for any site building.The designer should be looking for thick soil areas that might have a tendency to be impervious to water and allow it to flow laterally towards buildings. Soil types should be analyzed for their (mechanical) relative proportions of sand,silt, and clay,or soil texture components and evaluated for infiltration rates and permeability. The drainage designer may also take advantage of any soil boring information necessary for the design and construction of the buildings. Soil Modification In some applications soil may be imported for leveling or other landscape functions. Even if the imported soil quality is good,the original soil underneath may be a densely packed clay.Water may penetrate the topsoil,but it comes to a standstill when it reaches the clay.For this common scenario,soil types need to be analyzed at three foot and six foot depths when designing a drainage system(Figure 1-1).Vegetation Influence Vegetation influences soil in many ways.One,the denser and larger the vegetative cover,the more rain will be intercepted and not reach the soil surface.Two,the presence of deep-rooted vegetation tends to improve soil structure,which increases infiltration.Thirdly,heavy vegetation can help retain moisture.Most importantly, vegetation prevents erosion.Figure 1-1: Impervious soil layer Natural ability of the soil to absorb water may depend on soil composition 3' to 6' beneath the surface. This is a good reason to sample the soil at 3' and 6' depths.

PAGE 90

90 aphy FARMER TIPS FOR SOIL CONSERVATIONFERTILIZE PLANT VEGETATIVE COVER ROTATE CROPS FARM ON THE CONTOUR BUILD TERRACES CONSTRUCT GRASS WATERWAYS BUILD PONDS AND RESERVOIRS 2

PAGE 91

91Water 3 4 rffntrbChapter 2:Topography and GradesTopographyThe length and steepness of slopes influence the amount and rate of storm water runoff.As the extent and gradient of slope increase,the amount,rate,and velocity of runoff increase,thereby increasing the potential for erosion.On the other hand,soils that are flat,or with relatively no relief,do not drain well,but they seldom provide any threat in terms of erosion. Slopes’influence on surface runoff and subsurface ground water (Figure 2-1).The greater the slope the more surface runoff and less soil absorption.Conversely,the lesser the slope the more soil absorption and less surface runoff are experienced.The boldness of the arrows illustrates runoff and infiltration potentials. Slopes Few areas on the earth’s surface are horizontal or level planes.In most situations this can be seen by the eye.However,the eye is often not a reliable guide to the direction of fall and gives no information about the magnitude of the fall. The deviation from a horizontal plane is called slope.It is commonly expressed as feet of vertical rise or fall per 100 feet of horizontal distance,which is referred to as percent slope.Mathematically,percent slope can be determined by multiplying the feet of vertical rise or fall by 100 and dividing by the horizontal distance in feet (Figure 2-2).Figure 2-1: Influence of slope More surface water runoff, less soil penetration (left) Less surface water runoff, more soil penetration(right) Figure 2-2: Determined slope from elevation difference and distance 4’ 12’ 1.5’ 300’ 100’ 200’ Slope = = 2% = 4% = 1.5% 4ft (100) 200ft 12ft (100) 200ft 4ft (100) 200ft Slope = Slope =

PAGE 92

92 B 5 6

PAGE 93

93OPPORTUNITY 2: MANAGE STORMWATER RECOMMENDATION 2: INCORPORATE SURFACE DRAINAGE

PAGE 94

94 Parallel Cross slope or Diversion System Parrallel System Lateral Ditch Field Ditches Slope Direction Lateral Ditch Field Ditches Slope Direction Cross Slope or Diversion System Inslope

PAGE 95

95 Channel Diversion ChannelBasic diagram of a diversion Located at the upper edge of a steeper slope Usually located at

PAGE 96

96 Across long slopes to reduce slope length to prevent gully erosion into side drains Adjusted road form

PAGE 97

97GUIDELINES FOR IMPLEMENTING DIVERSIONS Trapezoidal Use vegetation for erosion protection after construction

PAGE 98

98 BAD spread vertically rather than horizontally

PAGE 99

99 a controlled manner Trapezoidal Install checkdams to capture sediment and control erosion

PAGE 100

100 Locate Toilet next to trees providing nutrients to plants grass nutrient loving plants in and homes to capture steep grasses Plant a garden orCollect and store in covered containers

PAGE 101

101OPPORTUNITY 3: INCREASED SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY RECOMMENDATION 3: B UILD COMMUNITY CENTER the events are held at the school or in one spaces are not large enough to accomodate

PAGE 102

102 Catch the breeze: Locate on a hill or Make rooms breezy Make outdoor areas breezy: Blend outdoor and indoor space and north so the roof overhang Shade in the afternoon:

PAGE 103

103Use High ceilings so that hot air Cover openings Use white or light colors Use tall trees Funnel breezes Use native plants that suit the climate and soils of the area Plant steep slopes

PAGE 104

104 Use lightweight and low heat-storing materials Compressed earth blocks

PAGE 105

105CONCLUSION the enviornmental issues in rural contexts and prominent methods or approaches to addressing the health status of rural peoples in international contexts is through providing resources for 6

PAGE 106

106 REFLECTIONS

PAGE 107

107REFERENCES org/ Service International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 23 Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 68 State Teachers College of Emporia Healthcare systems around the world: A comparative guide

PAGE 108

108 Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 44 American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 37 Ekistics; an introduction to the science of human settlements Health promotion planning : an educational and environmental approach Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1076 Rural Poverty Report: New realities, new challenges, new opportunities for tomorrow’s generation

PAGE 109

109 Town & Country Planning, 78 Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59 Health Education Quarterly, Winter 88 Sociology New Jersey Water Management Guide. Principles of Exterior Drainage. Clearing the Waters: A focus on Water Quality Solutions Environ Health Perspect, 111 Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 31

PAGE 110

110 Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 32 Preventing disease through healthy environments towards an estimate of the environmental burden of disease Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 21 Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 105 02762010000700008 International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 9 Compost Bin Illustration Planning Perspectives, 24 Global health 101 http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-10.4.282 Shaping Buildings for the Humid Tropics: Cultures, Climate and Material

PAGE 111

111 org/ Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 41 Soil Bioengineering: An alternative to roadside management environmental health Australian Journal of Rural Health, 17 American Journal of Public Health, 93 Environmental health health/en/ Sanitation. en/

PAGE 112

112


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EVYG3EY3N_HEUHDH INGEST_TIME 2017-07-11T21:40:03Z PACKAGE AA00039801_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES