! MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION: BEST PRACTICE FOR TEACHING CHINESE MUSIC By MENGYA CAI SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: DR. STEPHANIE L. STANDERFER, CHAIR DR.WILLIAM I. BAUER, MEMBER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2015
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 2 Abstract Since Chinese Americans and immigrant Chinese are the fastest and largest growing Asian group in the United States, there is an urgent call and an opportunity to foster better understandings o f Chinese culture in U.S. schools. In elementary schools, music programs are one of the many ways to initiate this understanding by adding Chinese music to a multicultural curriculum. The purpose of this project was to provide an extensive review of literature on multicultural music, and offer recommendations and applications for the best practices for teaching and learning Chinese music in American elementary music classrooms. Two categories of research on multicultural music education , which also are central issues to teaching multicultural music , will be reviewed . T hese are authenticity a nd the instructional approaches. Furthermore , Chinese educators' research on Chinese materials and lesson plans in American music cla ssroom will also be addressed . In addition to outlining four categories of Chinese music from which music teachers can select to instruct American elementary students, a suggested listening lesson plan of a Chinese instrumental music composition played on an er hu, " Competing Horses , " is also provided. Keywords : Multicultural music education; Chinese music; culture
! To my parents
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A sincere thanks to my committee, Dr. Stephanie Standerfer and Dr. William Bauer, for dedicating your time and efforts in reviewing my project , and for your wonderful teaching over the past years . Special thanks for your patience and kind ness with my limited ability in English writing and speaking. Thanks to Mrs. Annette Short for giving me the invaluable opportunity to observe and teach musical classes in the Newberry Elementary School, for you willingness to share your expertise in elementary music education, and for inspiring and encouraging me to pursue a career in elementary music education. I also would like to thank my writing tutor Andrea Caloiaro for your time in help ing m e edit this study. Thanks to my fiancÂŽ, Weisheng Xie. Thank yo u for always being there for me, your patience, support , and love provide me a comfortable environment and mind to pursue my study and career. Thanks to my friends, Jing Wu and Chen Yao for alw ays being in my thoughts while I have studied at the university these years and for keep ing my spirits up when the going got tough. Thanks to my friend Yujin Zhu, a music educator as wel l, for sharing your wonde rful opinions and suggestions for my project. Finally, my most heartfelt thanks to my parents for getting me involved and supporting me in music, and for always respect ing and support ing my decision and dream .
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...Ã‰Ã‰ Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰.2 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS..Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰.4 CHAPTER1 : REVIEW OF LI TERATUREÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰..Ã‰Ã‰...Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰... Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰6 IntroductionÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰...Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰.Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰.Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰....6 Literature ReviewÃ‰. Ã‰..Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰.....9 Authenticity in Multicultural Music EducationÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰.Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰..9 Instructional Approaches in Multicultural Music EducationÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰.13 Chinese Music Educators' Research on Chinese Materials and Lesson PlansÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰ Ã‰..16 SummaryÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰...21 CHAPTER 2: BEST PRACTICE ES FOR TEACHING CHINES MUSIC Ã‰Ã‰ Ã‰Ã‰... . Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰..23 Philosophy of Multicultural Music EducationÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰..23 Implication s for Teaching Chinese MusicÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰.. Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰..28 Four T ypes of Chinese MusicÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰... Ã‰ Ã‰.. Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰.28 Teaching and L earning Chinese Musi c through Listening Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰.Ã‰...Ã‰Ã‰ Ã‰Ã‰ Ã‰Ã‰...31 A Lesson Plan for Teaching " Competing Horses "Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰32 CONCLUSIONÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰..Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ Ã‰.. Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰..40 LIST OF REFERENCESÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰...4 2
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 6 MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION: BEST PRACTICE FOR TEACHING CHINESE MUSIC Chapter 1 Review of Literature Since the first half of the 19 th century, continuous mass immigration has been a defining feature of the United States (Isaacs, 2007), making ethnic diversity integral to American identity . Given the increasing ly diverse student population s in American classroom s , the subject of multiculturalism is vital in academic fields. Multicultural education proposes that the education field should teach a variety of distinct cultures to students at all leve ls of education . The intention of multicultural education is to ackn owledge th e diverse student populations that comprise the American classroom s . I n addition, studying the vari ous cultures around the world may help students understand the world better, and the American society in which they live ( Volk, 2004 ). At the same time, multicultural education also has its impact on music education, and it has been a significant feature of American music education. Even though MENC (Music Educators National Conference) has been involved in multicultural pursuits as early as 1929, m usic educators only began to recognize the value of adopting multicul tural music programs since the 1960s (Mark, 2013). Particularly, w ith the declaration stated in the 1967 Tanglewood Symposium: "Music of all period s , styles, forms, and cultures belong in the curriculum" (Mark & Gary, p. 312), music educators started to rework music curricula to expand music edu cation and research based on world music (Chee Hoo Lum, 2009). Considerable research about rationales, principles, and approaches of multicultural educati on has thus emerged (Volk, 2004 ). In their book Multicultural Perspectives in Music E ducation (1996), Anderson and Campbell state d that multicultural music education refers to an interdisciplinary approach to
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 7 teaching a wide array of music , which reflect s ethno cultures within and outside t he United Sates. Compared to using the term "world music education" or "multiethnic music education," the term "multicultural music education" is used here. First, the term "multicu ltural music education" acknowledge s the diverse ethnic musics within the U.S and other nations that provide students opportunities to learn a broad spectrum of music c ultures in the music curriculum. S econdly, multicultural mu sic education primarily focuses on teaching ethno cul tural characteristics from music ( Volk, 1998 ) , suggesting an intent to " deepen students" knowledge and feel for the ways in which music is deeply social, cultural, ideological, political, and personal" (Elliott, n.d. ). As Elliott believed , " If MUSIC consists in a diversi ty of music cultures, then MUSIC is inherently multicul tural. And if MUSIC is inherently multicultural, then music education ought to be multicultural in essence" (Elliott, 1995, p. 207) . According to the United States Census Bureau, between 2000 and 2010, the Asian population grew faster than any other major ethnic group. Among it, Chinese Americans and immigrant Chinese are the fastest and largest growing Asian group in the United States (United States Census Bureau, 2011). Generally speaking, Chinese American and immigrant Chinese parents who bear traditional minds often encourage keeping certain Chinese cultural traditions fo r their children, this includes Chinese music. However , many American born Chinese children are currently unaware of their traditional cultural heritage because they are growing up in the United States (Chin, 1993). Similarly, immigrant Chinese children los e the opportunity to continue learn ing Chinese music and culture after they come to America. Although th er e is an increasing awareness about incorporating multicultural music teaching and learning in public classrooms , multicultural music still lack s it in America elementary school music teaching, particularly music from Eastern Asian countries. Chine se
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 8 trad itional music comprises thousands of year s of Chinese cultural practices ; it possesses great cultural and aesthetic value s. I ntroducing five Chinese music styles Ã folk songs, quyi music, traditional opera , dance, and instrumental music Ã would not only be beneficial to Chinese American and immigrant Chinese children (Chin, 1993) , but also an opportunity for other students in American classrooms to understand and learn Chinese music and culture. Generally, research on multicultural music education takes two different approaches: one is teacher centered research, which usually investigates approaches to teaching multicultural music effectively; the other is student centered research, which usually explores pedagogy ' s effects on student learning, such as students' outcomes, attitudes, and preferences regarding multicultural music education when influenced by particular approaches. Optimally, both of these avenues for research should be studied in tan dem so that instructors become proficient in motivating students to study multicultural music and study it effectively. The purposes of this project was to provide an extensive review of literature on multicultural music, and offer recommendations and app lications for the best practices for teaching and learning Chinese music in American elementary music classrooms. The project has two parts. T he first part is a review of literature; the lite rature that this project reviews is divided into three categories . Two categories of research on multicultural music education will be reviewed that also are central issues to teaching multicultural mu sic: authenticity and the ins tructional approaches; moreover. A nother category of literature that will be reviewed is Ch inese educators' research on Chine se materials and lesson plans for American music classroom s . The second part of this project will discuss the philosophy of multicultural music education, and will provide the best ways to teach Chinese music in general Am erican
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 9 elementary general music classroom s . This includes recommendations for the types of Chinese music and cultural elements that can be taught, and lesson plans for teaching Chinese music . Authenticity in Multicultural Music E ducation One area of consideration for music educators is the authenticity regarding multicultural music education. Key issues regarding authenticity in multicultural music involve students' complete and total unfamiliarity of music's original langu ages, instruments, and conte xts. F urthermore, authenticity in multicu ltural music education poses challenges and difficulties to both music teachers an d students. In the following section, I will discuss the definitions of authenticity in multicultural music education. What are the c ontroversies between definitions? To what extent should music teachers comply with notions of authenticity to a specific culture's music? Palmer (1992) defined "absolute authenticity" according to the following five factors : 1. Performance by the culture's practitioners, recognized generally by the culture as artistic and representative; 2. Use of instruments as specified by the composer or group creating the music; 3. Use of the correct language as specified by the composer or group creating the music; 4. For an audience made up of the culture's member s ; and 5. In a setting normally used in the culture (p. 32). Koops (2010), however, disagree d that teachers should adhere so strictly to this definition or practice of authenticity. She divides th e definitions of authenticity in research on music education into four models. Palmer's def inition belongs to the model of "authenticity as continuum," which is "accompanied by a call for teachers to teach from the authentic end of continuum" (p. 24). Thi s means the whole procedure of teaching multicultural music needs to
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 10 absolutely respect the original culture, since advocates of authenticity worry that any adaption may lead at best to inaccuracy regarding the original music, and at worse, to advancing st ereotypical ideas (Volk , 1998 ). Koops concern was that Palmer's strategy for achieving and using authenticity will limit music teachers by causing them to teach simplified versions of authentic pieces so that students can learn something about other cultur al music (2010 ). Koops (2010) defined another model as "beyond of authenticity " ( p. 26 ). This model is defined from a more neutral position. R ather than claiming that these be authentic, Anderson and Campbell (1996) encourage d that song s should be taught simply "as authentical ly as possible" (p.7) in children's singing exp eriences of multicultural music . T hey recommend ed this since students in preschool and the primary years are not as advanced as students in secondary school, the latter who are "capable of performing multi part pieces with sensitivity to the nuances of both music and language" (p. 7). Similarly, Johnson (2000 ) recommended that music educators play multicultural mus ic as authentically as possible. H owever, "inauthentic instrumen ts, presentations or arrangements of world musics can still be useful as a means of exposing students to the music" (p. 277). At the end of her article, she suggested a broader and more flexible role for authenticity. Instead of becoming entangled in the debate about authenticity and inauthenticity, music teachers should pay attention to musical interaction in its specific context and ask such questions before teaching multicultural music: "How was this music produced? For whom? By whom? In what context? For what purpose? With what influences?" (p. 284). Numerous music educators have conducted evidence based, quantitative and qualitative research on the students' attit udes and preferences for teaching world music through authentic approaches. One study examined fifth grade children's preferences for authentic versus arranged
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 11 versions of world music recordings (Demorest & Schultz, 2004). The researchers discovered a posi tive relationship between students' preferences and more familiar sounding arranged versions of wor l d music songs. This shows that teachers should not just stick with absolute authenticity ( an original version) mindlessly, but that this music will be more accessible if students are introduced to world music through examples that sound familiar as a start ing point, such as by using Western instrumentation. A nother study that explored the effect of instrument authenticity on sixt h grade children's attitudes toward music from Ghana reports contrasting results to some extent (Pembrook & Robinson, 1997) . The researchers found that compared to instruction with traditi onal instruments, instruction with authentic instruments produ ced significantly higher scores. I n addition, from the perspective of cognition, students appeared to benefit from listeni ng, learning, and watching live instruction rather than learning from videotaped performances. In this study, authenticity is seen as a motivation that stimulates studen ts to further study multicultural music. The reason why these two studies led to different results may be because different cultural music leads to dif ferent responses. The former study used 19 different multicultural songs taken from sever al books, and th e latter focused only on music from Ghana. Secondly, the demographic information of participants in these two studies may also have affected the results. The two different results also indicate that as a music educator, in addition to thinking about whethe r to use authentic ways to teaching students, differentiated approaches should be considered depending on which type of music is being taught and the students' backgrounds. In addition to the aspect of original instruments in discussion of authenticity, music educators also discuss original languages. Singing is the basic activity in music teaching and
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 12 learning in elementary school s . Learning a song in its original language may seem like it would cause more difficulties and challenges than using authentic instruments, for both music teachers and students. How ever, learning a song in the language is an effective element in multicultural music education (Tu, 2009), and singing songs from other cul tures is the most "direct method of cultivating cultural exper iences" ( Shen, 1999 a , p. 61; 1999b ). Therefore, music teachers should consider ways of taking on this challenge and find ing ways to increase and motivate students' interests. Several studies' pretests indicate d that the elementary students possess negativ e attitudes to sing ing in unfamiliar languages (Abril, 2003; Tu, 2009). Negative attitudes are influenced even more when the language's figures and phonics are in a totally different langua ge from their own. Abril's pretest indicated that children were most positive toward songs sung in English, followed by Spanish, and then Chinese. Similarly, the preference rating for the Spanish and Chinese language songs were below the midpoint compared to the English songs. Thus, Abril stated , "h igher familiarity with a language corresponds with a higher attitude toward songs in that language" ( 2003 , p. 102 ). Howeve r, music educators could find ways to improve student s' negativities dispositions toward the aspec t of authenticity. As Abril stated , "music education has the potential to affect children's present and future musical behaviors and experiences" (2003 , p. 95 ). He found that after the treatment period, children in the sociocultural instructional groups expressed significantly more positive attitudes toward the foreign language songs. In Ming Tu's dissertation The Effects of a Chinese Music Curriculum on Cultur al Attitudes, Tonal Discrimination, Singing Accuracy, and Acquisition of Chinese Lyrics for Third , Forth , and Fifth grades S tudents (2009), she found that students would become more interested in singing a
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 13 song in another language after they become famil iar with the basic principles of pronunciation of the language . In addition, she also found that a sequenced approach to teaching Chinese song s in the intervention group showed more than 70% accuracy in singing the Chinese song, "Little Rat." Instructio nal A pproaches in Multicultural Music E ducation Another crucial issue in multicultural music education is with regards to the overall instructional approaches. Generally, there are two pairs of contrasting instructional approaches in multicultural music education frequently discuss ed and compare d by music educators, which are active versus passive approaches ( Abril, 2003; Ca mpbell & Scott Kassner, 2013; Chen Haftechk, 2007a, 2007b; McKoy, 2003; Shehan, 1984 ) . Respectively, t hese signify a sociocultural approach versus a concept based approach, and a heuristic approach versus a did actic approach. Although these may overlap each other to some extent, each of them has its own focal points. Even though there are several specific approaches that fit into these contrasting categories, such as a performance based approach (Shehan, 1985), a social studies approach (Edward, 1998), an active listening approach (Fung, 2001), they all belong to the sub groups of these two pairs of instructional approaches. Campbell and Scott Kassner (2002 ) discuss ed the sociocultural and concept based approach es using two different terms: multiethnic music education and world music education . The word "multiethnic" refers more to distinguished groups of people belonging to one ethnic origin, so the intent of multiethnic music education is to focus in depth on musical s tyles and traditions of that group of people. This approach considers a variety of music experiences, such as singing, listening, moving, playing and creating, in teaching students how this music and people's lifestyles and ways of thinking are interacting with each other . This is often kno wn as the sociocultural or interdisciplinary approach.
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 14 World music education "features the study of musical components as they are treated in various musical styles across the world" (p. 313). This approach is a traditional approach in the music classroom, which is based on a West ern organization of music concepts , such as pitch, rhythm , and commonly used as a general method of teaching in elementary schools and often driven by specific ob jectives (p. 32). Therefore, this approach i s called concept based approach. Many music education researchers studied these two instructional approaches using quantitative, q ualitative, or mixed methodologies in order to learn about elementary students' p references, attitudes, motivations and responses to specific cultural music. Abril (2003) found that compared to a concept based approach, a sociocultural approach was more effective in influencing fifth students' attitudes and preferences toward unfamilia r Spanish and Chinese songs. In Lily Chen Haftech k 's two artic les (2007a, 2007b), she examined the effects of a sociocultural approach to studying Chinese music and culture. Through in depth, qualitative research, she found the sociocultural approach, which combines the study of Chinese music and Chinese culture, as an effective way of motivating s tudents' interest in learning Chinese music (2007b). She also found that factors like a teacher's attitude, teaching approach, and the learning styles of students influence and motivate students to take an interest in and learn C hinese music. She also disc ussed the factors leading to ward this goal (2007a). She believes a successful sociocultural approach should first provide enjoyable musical activities that capture students' interest and curiosity. S econdly, she advocates for teaching relevant and meaningf ul materials, like the actual, day to day life of another culture. T hirdly, she suggests providing students hands on performing and creative activities (2007b).
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 15 One qualitative study examined the effect of sociocultural and concept based approaches on clas sroom learning outcome s (Abril, 2006). Abril concluded that sociocultural approach students enhance their learning of social knowledge at the expense of musical kn owledge, and vice versa. He used a written assessment for analyzing and classifying students data according to three categories of learning outcomes: knowledge and understanding , skills, and affect. He found that a sociocultural approach positively affect ed students' outcomes of knowledge and understanding, and the students' majority of descriptio ns and responses of the outcome all correspond ed to the sociocultural approach in his study. The heuristic method emphasizes that children actively interact during learning through singing, playing, and manipulating (Abril, 2006; McKoy, 2003). The didacti c approach is a passive method of teacher centered instruction wherein students are expected to internalize understanding (Shehan, 1984). These two methods usually apply to the general music class, rather than exclusively to multicultural music education. In sum, these two approaches refer to active and passive approaches respectively. The heuristic approach refers to discovery through perfo rmance oriented and participatory activities that effect comprehensive understandi ngs of a traditional music (She han, 1984). Alternatively, the didactic approach emphasizes a music teacher presenting materials. In a related study (She han, 1984), the resul ts showed that the heuristic approach improved students' cognitive skills and their preferences for other music because this approach involves students in various musical experiences, such as playing instr ument, singing, and so on . Similar research (Fung, 2001) that discussed the differences in active versus passive approaches showed that compared to a passive listening strategy, the active listening strategy, which
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 16 encourages students to physical perform the music, is beneficial to children's perceptions of the movement, nuances an d patterns in music . Chinese Music Educators' Research on Chinese M aterial s and Lesson P lan s in American Elementary C lassrooms According to the International Society for Music Education (ISME), one principle of multicultural music education is that "Authenticity is determined by the people within the music culture" (Volk, 1998, p. 15). Such teachers function as "cultural insiders" (Quesada, 2002, p. 141), who are generally considered the best sources of information f or their o wn cultures. Similarly , Campbell also stated , "whatever the culture bearers say is their music is their music" (1994). The following category of the literature review will focus on several Chinese music educators' studies, which in part involve Chinese music material and lesson plans, or preparation processes in American elementary schools. In Chen Hafteck's study (2007a), there are three topics related to Chinese music and life that are explored in her sociocultural approach curriculum: 1. The daily life of people in China/regional folk songs and music; 2. Philosophies of Chinese people/music for self cultivation; 3. Chinese festivals/ music and dance for celebration (p. 226) In her approach, living demonstrations, classroom lessons, and student creative projects are involved in every three wee k per topic unit, and students presented their final project and performance of Chinese music and danc e in the last week (2007a ). Each topic represents a big idea of music education. The first topic taught is on the different Chinese folk songs based on di fferent ethnic min orities, or regions in China. T his music serves different functions. In the second topic, the author introduces the connection between philosophies and particular Chinese
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 17 instruments. Among them, the sound of Chinese plucked seven string musical instrument Ã the guqin, is emphasized in this unit. Since the guqin has been played since ancient time s , its sound and playing is associated with Chinese historical philosophy; therefore, the author also introduces three main historical philosophi es in China: Confuxianism, Daoism and Buddhism. The third topic is festival music and dance. Each Chinese festival has its own ways of celebrating with music or dance. Chen Hafteck's sociocultural approach to music curriculum emphasizes a comb ination of C hinese music and cultural aspects. A balance of activities of singing, playing, creating, and dancing are integral to it . The novelty of this curriculum is the student creative projects in every unit. This kind of assessment not only directly assesses stud ents' outcomes, but also gives the students opport unities to present and perform . Unfortunately, the author did not provide details of students' performance projects in every unit. Furthermore, the three main historical philosophies in the second topic are abstract and difficult for elementary students. In Ming Tu's dissertation (2009 ), she recommended , "A user friendly Chinese children's music curriculum helped children to have positive attitudes toward Chinese people " (p. 105). In her study, instead of offering specific content of Chinese music curriculum, she recommended how to prepare and design a "user friendly" plan and materials for Chinese music curricula. The result s show that a user friendly curriculum is more accessible to American elementary students to learning Chinese music. Unlike teaching a local music, multicultural music should consider various problems, such as language, materials, and so forth. Therefore, a fully prepared curriculum will decrease certain difficu lties in teaching and learn ing multicultural music. She emphasized "user friendly" throughout the study, offering some suggestions that are easily overlooked when designing and preparing a Chinese music curriculum. For instance, she
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 18 translates Chinese lyr ics carefully in order to maintain the original meaning and guarantee the singability of the lyrics in English translations. She incorporates historical, social, and geographica l information into lesson plan s and provides a singing model to each song by si milar age d and sound Chinese children. She uses Chinese instruments instead of Western instruments for arranged simple song accompaniments. Tu also examined how to effectively teach children 's songs in a second language. In terms of the assumption that children may be indifferent to learning the Chinese language, she implements a sequenced approach to teach singing the song in Chinese: "introducing the meaning of the song, teaching the words, t eaching the melody and performing the whole songs" (p. 54). She also devel oped a student book that included both English and Chinese lyr ics for every song, Chinese art and drawing for each musical theme , and 56 sound tracks containing authentic Chinese mus ic and selected music in the curriculum. Lastly, she chose each piece of music based on: "age appropriate, activities and topics, child's emotional level, the comprehension of song texts used in relation to pre existing language arts experience and movemen t activities" (p. 55). Another study introduced a Chinese instrument curriculum for fourth, fifth and sixth grade students (Chin, 1993). In his project, Chin's purpose was to provide a curriculum about Chinese traditional instruments so that music teacher s could infuse "Chinese music with a whole vitality" by creative innovations while maintaining the sprit of traditional Chinese music ( p. 4). The author did not mention any authenticity point s about teaching Chinese music. I nstead of insisting on using original instruments advocated by authenticity supporters, he integrated Chinese music with the Orff Schulwerk approach, especially combined with Chinese instruments similar to the Orff barred instrument , and the soprano recorder.
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 19 Chin introduced four basic categories of Chinese instruments: plucked string instruments, bowed string instruments, wind instruments, an d percussion. Chin also included their history and general characteristics, performance styles, notations, range, tuning, and type of m usic. Next , he provided six lessons plans. E ach lesson plan includes the goal, objective, materials, procedure, and assessmen t. He first introduced and taught students to sing two Chinese folk so ngs in Chinese, and then he added introduced Chinese instrume nts, Orff barred instruments, and the soprano recorder one at a time, and eventually formed an ensemble of Chinese instruments and Orff instruments. The other elements of the Orff method, such as body percussion, movements, singing, and creating are all in cluded in his lesson plans. This is a teaching model that combines Eastern music and Western music method s , and its detailed descriptions of instrument information provide American teachers a framework of Chinese traditional instruments. However, he did n ot explain much about why he combined wi th the Orff method, or what the drawbacks and advantages are of this combination. He just briefly mentioned that the reason why he chose the Orff approach was " its vitality and integrity that allows students to move from individual performance to ensemble " (p. 20). Lau (2007 ) introduced three types of Chinese folk songs: work song, mountain song, and little tune. In addition to explaining the basic information of these three types of Chinese folk songs, Lau also provides three representative songs: Zou Jiangzhou, Midu Mountain S ong, The Embroidered P urse . However, the songs were all translated to E nglish versions by Lau, and taught in their English versions. Even though the title of the article includes the words "authentic approach," it is inauthentic to teach translations. The au thor did not explain why he used English tran slations instead of Chinese. Lau possibly claims it is an authentic approach because his teaching reveals the reason why Western and Chinese folk songs sound differently from
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 20 technique aspects. For example, even thou gh both of them use pentatonic modes sometim es, they still sound different . Beyond the pentatonic nature in some of Chinese folk music, Lau also mentions the three tone pattern is another important feature in the Chinese folk song melody. At the end of the article, Lau offers a lesson plan for teaching little tunes in " The embroidered purse " (p. 26). Its objectives all relate music concepts, such as tonal framework, pentatonic modes, skeleton, decorative tones, and three tone patterns. Whether elementary st udents are interested in the music concepts focused approach or not, elementary students cannot digest so many complicated music concepts in one class. Chinese born American ethnomusicologist Kuo Huang Han and Patricia Shehan Campbell cooperated with each other to offer three exemplary models of lesson plans for teaching Chinese music (An derson, 1991). The three lesson plans included the Chinese children's chant " A D uck with a Flat B eak " (p.57), the Chinese folk song , " The Eldest Daughter of the Jiang Family " (p.59), and Chinese percussion music , " The Flower Drum Song " (p.60). They perfectly integrated Chinese artistic traditions and culture with various musical elements in the songs, and this is the typical instructional model advocated by Campbell, wh ich is a sociocultural approach. For example, students will chant " A Duck With a Flat Beak " in Chinese and add accompani ments of percussion instruments; they add a Chinese ribbon dance to accompany the song, and during this, they use arrowheads to mark fou r different intonations of Chinese language, and so on. Summary The purpose of multicultural music education was to provide students opportunities to learn a broad spectrum of music and cultures within the U.S and other nations. Beyond just learn ing music al concept s , multicultural music education is focused on using an inter disciplinary
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 21 approach, which integrate s music al and cultural aspects in teach ing and learning eth no cultural characteristics from music, and vice versa. The focus of research on multicultural music education is the study of music teacher's teaching and students' learning of multicultural music effectively in a music clas sroom . Since the multicultural music involves a broad spectrum of music and cultures may be unfamil iar to both of music teacher and students, there are two areas of concern to music educators , which are the authenticity and instructional approaches of multicultural music education. Music educators continue to debate whether they shoul d teach multicultu ral music by addressing the subject of authenticity. The researches regarding students' preferences and attitudes to elements of authenticity in multicultural music are different. The greatest amount of research on multicultural music education has been related to instructional approaches. Instruction approach refers to an overall approach to a multicultural music class. There are two pairs of approaches frequently discussed and com pared in the research: these are a sociocultural approach versus a concept based approach, and a heuristic approach versus a didactic approach. Music educators find that the sociocultural and heuristic approaches are the most effective way to teaching and learning multicultural music education. Chinese educators' research on Chinese materials and lesson plans in American classroom has been reviewed. These research ers discuss how to prepare Chinese music and materials for Ame rican elementary students, includ ing Chinese instrumental music, Chinese folk song, and a unit plan. I seek to establish the philosophy of teaching multicultural music education based on above three categories of literature, and offer recommendations and applications for the best practice s for teaching and learning Chinese music in American elementary music classroom.
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 22 Chapter 2 Best Practices for Teaching Chinese Music Phil osophy of Multicultural Music Education The reasons for incorporating multiculturalism into general music education curricula are numerous. In the United States, there were social, po litical, and the musical factor that influence a turn toward more multi cultural music education in music (Chee hoo Lum, 2009). Regarding multicultural music education, it is first necessary to facilitate students' exposure to the world's music (Nettl, 1992 ). Within the local culture where students live, a more multicultural education familiarizes students to the authenticities of other musica l forms, styles, and traditions. S uch approaches provide "musical experience as a cultural experience that influences students in a way that is much m ore profound than simply a cultural experience as a matter of fact or a study of musical concepts or skills" (Chen, 2007a). Due to the recent growth of the Asian population in the United States, incorporating Asian musical traditions into a multicultural curriculum is important. According to the United States Census Bureau, between 2000 and 2010, the Asian population grew faster than any other major race group. Chinese Americans and immigrant Chinese are the fastest and largest growing Asian group in the U nited States (United States Census Bureau, 2011). This changing demographic is an urgent call and also an opportunity to foster better understandings of Chinese culture in U.S schools. In elementary schools, the music program is a good way to initiate this understanding through adding Chinese music to a multicultural curriculum. Generally speaking, Chinese American and immigrant Chinese parents who are tradition oriented tend to keep and pass on Chinese cultural traditions to their children, including teaching their children to learn Chinese music. According to Juan Julie Yu's dissertation Understanding
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 23 Chinese American Parents: The Interplay of Chinese T raditio n and Early Childhood Music E ducation in the United States , she found that while m any of the Chinese parents in America trenchantly criticized the Chinese approach to music education, they nevertheless appreciate the Chinese musical tradition itself and demonstrate a clear desire to pass it on to their c hildren (2014). In addition, "ear ly childhood music education is an area in which the challenge of cross cultural understanding becomes especially evident" (Yu, 2014 , p. 4 ). Many American born Chinese children are unaware of their traditional cultural heritage because they are growing up in the United States (Chin, 1993). Similarly, some immigrant Chinese children los e the opportunity to continue learning Chinese music and culture after they came to America. However, introducing Chinese American and immigrant Chinese children to Chinese m usic and culture could not only amend this, but it is also an opportunity for other students in America to understand and learn Chinese music and culture. Nevertheless, the introduction of such music into public school curriculum raises questions regarding authenticity, an issue that spans various disciplines. If the knowledge of authenticity is beneficial to the scholars' rigorous studies of ethnomusicology and to performers' accurate interpretations of performances, the issue of authent icity in music education helps students know the world more closely . In multicultural music education, the significance of instruction on original instruments, languages, settings, and contexts cannot be ignored. Remaining too fixated on authenticity, howe ver, may limit music teachers' teaching and students' learning, particularly when the conditions of music classrooms are not ideal. In addition, authenticity in any music is not constant and unchanging, and therefore it is a concept to be analyzed accordin g to a time continuum (Lum, 2009 ). Thus, a music teacher' s responsibilities involve taking a flexible approach to seek ing a balance in classrooms between
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 24 realistic goals and ideal one s. T here should be a "balance between honouring and respecting the cultur al context of the music and honouring and respecting the culture and the learning processes of students in our classrooms" (Blair & Kondo, 2008, p. 50). For example, music educators suggest " matching authentic instruments to what is available to them, " whi ch could be instruments such as "roto toms to plastic buckets or hallway garbage cans" (Cain & Lindblom & Walden, 2013 , p. 83 ). Chee Hoo Lum (2009) found that with the rise of the U.S. multicultural movement at the beginning of the 1960s, changes in multicultural music education from using English words in Chinese songs progressed into using Chinese characters or Romanized Chinese with parallel English translations in the songs. However, music educators indicate that negative attitudes are influenced even more when the language's figures and phonics are in a very different language from one's own, since s tudents' greater familiarity with a language corresponds with a more positive attitud e toward songs in that language (Abril, 2003). Unlike s ome languages, Chinese figures are not based on an alphabet. In addition, its pronunciation and recognition can be difficult for both teachers and students in America. Overall , music teachers should re member that their classes are ultimately music classes, and it is unrealistic to expect any elementary child to sing a so ng fluently in another language , especially sing ing a song in a language that is totally unfamiliar to American elementary students , such as Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Music teachers can introduce students to one or two Chinese words in a song and cultivate their interests. It is also arguable that a music's original and authentic contexts and traditions exist wherever and whenever it is played. Music teachers should pay more attention to musical interaction in its specific context. Selected questions need to be considered for both music
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 25 teachers and students: Where does the music come from? Who plays this music? What purpose does t he music serve? In what context is it played? What instruments are used (Johnson, 2000; Koops, 2010; Cain & Lindblom & Walden, 2013)? What is the difference between this music and the music one is familiar with? These questions not only train students in a nalysis and description, but also encourage students to learn music culturally. In terms of multicultural music education, new approaches to learning and teaching are needed that are different from traditional approaches . As Chen notes, the Western pedagogy, which is learning music by breaking it down into the concepts of pitch and rhythm, may not be appropriate for music of other cultures, so it is inadequate to focus exclusively on the music and musical concepts, such as pitch, rhythm, notes, and s o on (2007a ). Teachers should guide students to experience and understand how specific musical traditions connect to a particular culture in multicultural music, but not merely by focusing on music elements or concepts . Therefore, a sociocultural approach to learning is the most effective for multicultural music education. This interdisciplinary approach combines music and social studies to allow students to experience music from a specific cultural standpoint. Special life contexts make music d istinctive throughout the world. T herefore , it is important to help students understand the unique elements in individual music. This is one reason that music educators have when teaching Chinese music Ã or any music for that mat ter Ã to emphasize that music's cultural background s , traditions, and cu stoms . F or instance, students are exp ected to describe what makes Chinese music unique, and to examine how the music relates to larger concepts such as creativity or aesthetics (J. Yud kin, 1993). At the same time, musi c teachers also need to seek a balance between musical and cultural aspects . The goal should be toward developing of pluralistic attitudes ( Chen Hafteck,
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 26 2007a). A too strict focus on music pe rformance will lose the essence of multicultural music education just as too strict a focus on its cultural aspect s will lesson the feelings and emotions that are conveyed through performing the music ( Chen Hafteck, 2007a). Any curriculum should entail "the learning experiences and goals the teacher develops for particular classes Ã both in her planning and while teaching Ã in light of the characteristics of students and the teaching context" ( Darling Hammond & Bransford , 2005, p. 170). A curriculum reflect s a music teacher's phi losophy and is a blueprint for their realization. A curriculum for multicultural music education can be long term and interdisciplinary, focusing on how particular cultures can be compared . For example, music teachers should be encouraged to cooperate with general classroom teachers to reinforce social studies instruction on China or Asian cultures while the music is being learned. In a music curriculum , beyond the responsibility of teacher s to figure out and make the decisions about what to teach, when, and how, the questions of students' knowledge and the direction they will go at the end of the sem ester are even more essential to a curriculu m. More importantly, beyond specific cultural mu sic and traditions, music teachers should connect or relate specific music together, which means moving toward larger goals through multicultural music instruction. Based on the socia l purpose of education, larger and more enduring understandings for stude nts in multicultural mus ic should permeate a curriculum, s uch as understanding va rious cultures around the world, identifying connections among music and other contexts. Lesson planning is advanced preparation in a curriculum a nd "it is developed for each piece to address the unique musical aspects in relation to the standards" (Standerfer & Hunter, 2010 , p. 29 ). Music teachers should choo se a piece of music based on specific objectives, and
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 27 this would require music teachers to have a repertoire of multicultural music. Fortunately, the Internet is convenient for music teachers to search for numerous musical resources. One premise is that a music teacher has to do so me research before they teach multicultural music. However, the question is: how d oes a music teacher begin leading a mul ticultural approach to learning? The following section will provide some tips and methods to music teachers by Chinese music as an example. Implications of Teaching Chinese Music Four types of Chinese music . Chinese culture has more than five thousand years of legendary music, which is an integral part of Chinese traditional culture, an almost inexh austible resource for learning China's musical heritage. Considering that the target population is comprised of American elementary students, Chinese culture and music should be chosen f or them in an appropriate way. T his means that the music chosen for them should stimulate their curiosity and be appr opriate to their age in level in difficulty. Although Chinese m usic is generally divided into folk songs, dancing and singing performance, instrumental music, telling and singing music, and o pera, these categories do not appear as obvious characteristics of Chinese music for Americans. There are four general types of music I recommended for teach ing Chin ese music in elementary schools: Chinese minority music, Chinese music accompanying traditional festivities for the Han majority, Chinese regional/instrumental music, and Western based Chinese music. The first type is Chinese minority music. China has fifty six ethnic groups, and Han is the majority ethn ic group. The remaining are minorities, comprising 8.04% of the country's total population (Yaxiong Du, 1994), such as Uygur, Mongolian, Yao, Hui, Man, Zhuang, Dai, and so on. In general, most Chinese minorities have their own singing and dancing. Each ethnic group
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 28 also has its own traditional attire , festivals, language s, music and dance. For instance , the Water sprinkling festival of the Dai people, the Dragon boat fest ival of the Miao people, the Torch festival of the Yi people, and so forth. Learning one or more of these traditions is perfect for music teachers using a sociocultural approach in teaching elementary students. Next, one may teach Chinese music through th e traditional festivities of the Han majorit y. This kind of music is usually identifiable by the lyrics, specific instruments, and context. The festivals includes the Spring Festival (Chun jie), Lantern Festival (Yuanxiao jie), Mid Autumn Festival (Zhongqi u jie), Dragon Boat Festival (Duanwu jie), and so on. For example, one of the customs of the Lantern Festival is the lion dance. It is one of the most outstanding traditional folk arts in China. Several performers mimic a li on's movement in a lion costume accompanied by Chinese percussion instruments, such as the little gong, or xiaoluo. Through this, elementary students could not only learn to play specific rhythm patterns with the little gong or alternati ve percussion , but also learn the movements. F urthermore, an intro duction to the Lantern can also be i ncorporated , such as a lesson on its common practices involving watching the lanterns, guessing the Lantern riddles, and learning the meaning of the Lantern Festival. Thirdly, Chinese music can be taught based on primary Chinese i nstrumental music. According to Western musical principles, there are four general categories: plucked string instruments, bowed string instruments, wind instruments, and percussion (Chin, 1993, p. 7); or as they are collec tively called in ancient C hina,"Bayin (eight categories) " which are based on the materials of the instrument. They are jin (gold), shi (stone), si (silk), zhu (bamboo), pao (plant fruit), tu (pottery), ge (leather), and mu (wood). Music teachers could intr oduce the instruments by the Chinese system, such as instrumentations of specific regional music, or introduce any instrument combination with a specific piece of music. For example, upper grade elementary
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 29 students could compare Western orchestra instrumen tations and modern Chinese orchestra instrumentations. The Chinese orchestra was a significant force in the creation of Chinese national music. The setup of the orchestra is similar to a European symphonic orchestra, with strings in the front, and winds an d percussion in the back (Lau, 2008). Western based Chinese music is another method to teaching Chinese music. Both Western and Chinese musicians composed music that is influenced by both. This kind of music usually combines Western musical form or instru ments and Chinese musical materials, such as Western instrumental music based on a melody from a Chinese folk song, using Western instruments to mimic the sound of Chinese instruments, or portray Chinese themes, and so on. For example, music teachers could teach the Chinese folk song " Moli hua " (Jasmine) by first introducing a chorus composed by Puccini in his opera " Turandot, " which is based on " Moli hua, " and students could eventually listen and learn the authentic Chinese folk song " Moli hua. " In addition, contemporary Chinese musicians "have developed their own styles by strategically selecting elements from b oth cultural traditions." ( Frederick Lau, 2008, p. 86) . A s Lau mentions in his book Music in China , Chinese composer and conductor Dun T an's music, for instance, earned international attention , since he is proficient at integrating Western and Chinese elements. His film scores for the movie Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, and solo piano suite work " Eight Memories in Water Color , " are a cces sible enough for elementary students to appreciate. Although the goal is for students to appreciate Chinese music and cultures, the musical interfaces between Eastern and Western are also worth studying to show students' how important cross cultural influe nce is in music. Teachi ng and learning Chinese music through a l istening activity . Listening is a basic activi ty in general elementary school musi c education. L istening activities are an appropriate
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 30 way to help elementary students learn and experience multicultural music both for a starting point and throughout the next learning levels. According to Gordon's music learning theory ( Gordon, 1997), the way that chil dren learn music is similar to the way they learn a language. They learn through listening s tages in order to accumulate a variety of sounds corresponding to linguistic stages . Teachers do not teach students to read or write the words directly, so that soon afterward, children can "break the code" of what they heard on their own and are able to t hen read and write. This theory could also apply for elementary students learning multicultural music. Music teachers use listening activities as a starting point to introduce unfamiliar sounds to familiarize students' ears to new sounds . During instructio n, it is very difficult to teach student s to sing Chinese songs in Chinese or play Chinese instruments like dizi, erhu directly , so listening experiences are a convenient starting point . As such , listening activities are a negotiated way of learning multi cultural music in general classrooms. As Campbell claims, by incorporating Chinese music traditions in the classroom, some of the world's best music can only be experienced by listening, since this music is so sophisticated that it is rare for students to attain its level of performance (Anderson, 1991) . In her Chinese music project "sounds of silk," Chen (2007a) noticed that children can enjoy musical experiences through listening and watching Chinese music performances, even if they seem to be unintereste d or not exposed to the musical skills of singin g or playing music. Considering that it is hard to collect instruments from other countries, especially those that are complicated expensive and not convenient for group instruction , listening activities prove to be a good substitute . However , listening activities can easily reduce the interaction between students and music teachers and eventually lead to a passive instru ction. A dditionally, the proportion between
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 31 musical and cultural aspects in the instru ction must be balanced. In order to avoid these situations, music teachers should emphasize interaction, and encourage and guide students during study. M usic teachers should remember that the cultural aspect of music is ultimately to help students to better understand musical a s a whole . Actually, listening activities are not merely listening. In multicultural music education, music teacher s should combine various resources and methods to improve the quality of instruction. In her book Teaching Music G lobally, Campbell (2004) strongly recomm ends listening as a key to learning musical. S he states "attention to musical sound itself is the surest way to knowing music analytically and for its performance possibil ities" ( p. 10). She divides listening into t hree phases, which are the theory of "listen to learn " ph ases. T hey are attentive listening, engaged listening, and enactive l istening . These three ph ases show the hierarchy in li s tening activity to some extent. Attentive listening is teacher directed and offers a first entry explorat ion of a musical style's element s . E ngage d listening, which is the next ph ase , i s a mean s of intera ctive engag ement with music; and f inally , enactive listening, which is the final ph ase, focuses on listening as a reference for approaching an authentic performance of a specific piece of music (preface, xvii). Campbell did not specify that these three ph ases of "listen to learn" were to be applied in one music class or distribute d in three ph ases over three or more classes. Since the objectives for a piece of music are taught over several classes, each ph ase in the "listen to listen" could be used in each of three classes. In this way , the music teacher balan ces and arranges these three ph ases (attentive, engaged, enactive li stening) as three focal points into each of three class period s . A ttentive liste n ing could focus on introducing the basic information of specific music and cultures. T his also is the foundation for students to become familiar with the music and proceed
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 32 to engaged and enactive listening. E ngaged and enactive listening can integrate elements of the Dalcroze method, the Orff approach, or the Kodaly approach. E ngaged listening emphasize s students ' interaction with the music itself, and can be used to teach mu sic al concepts in the music. Enactive listening advances students from music listening to music making with available instruments or authentic instruments in music classroom . A Lesson plan for t eaching "Competing Horses." What follows is my lesson plan for teaching "Competing Horses , " which illustrates the cultural and musical characteristics through liste ning . T his piece of music fits into both type s of Chinese instrumental music and Chinese minority music . "Competing H orses" is an er hu wo rk based on an Inner Mongolian folk song. This music portray s the horse racing scene where in the people of Inner Mongolia celebrate their Naadam Festivals. This is a proper piece of music to introduce the Chinese bowed stringed instrument , the er hu, and a lso a Chinese minority, Inner Mongolia n . In addition, this music works well for elementary student s for its upbeat tem po. According to music education research (LeBlanc, Jin, Chen Hafteck, Oliviera, Oosthuysen , & Tafuri, 2000), 914 students from Brazil, Ch ina, Italy, South Africa, and the United States prefer red increasingly faster tempos more than slower tempos. Moreover, horses are the theme of the piece of music, wh ich is a common animal familiar to most children. Therefore, it is likely that the "Compet ing Horses" lesson plan will work well for elementary students. Through a sociocultural approach, the objectives of this lesson plan are as follows: 1. i dentify "Competing Horses" as Chinese instrumental music which describes the horse racing scene in Naa dam Festival of Inner Mongolia; 2. i dentify the er hu as a Chinese two string fiddle instrument;
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 33 3. d escribe and explain how the tempo and dynamics serve the musical theme Ã competing horses. These three objectives include musical and cultural aspects, s uch as the Chinese instrument, er hu, the tempo and dynamics of the music, the Chinese minority Inner Mongolia, and the traditional custom of their Naadam Festival. Since the er hu is a complicated instrument, it would beneficial if a music teacher could order an erhu or invite a Chinese er hu performer to provide a live performance to students. If these ideal conditions are not possible, some alternatives could suffice , such as preparing adequate pictures and videos to introduce the information. In order to foster student involvement in educational activities, instead of just music teacher s merely disseminating information ( Lehmann & Sloboda & Woody, 2006, p. 193), music teachers should be actively involved students in the Dalcroze, Orff, or Kodaly metho ds. The following are recommendations for making "Competing Horses" an effective lesson plan in a n elementary music classroom. Choose a video, not just a recording, because a video performance will be more attractive to students. F urthermore, the visual performance will allow students to watch how the performer plays the er hu. A s Campbell says, both a recording and a video can be stopped and started at the push of a button, thus convenient for students to sing, chant, and play with the music phrase by phrase (2004, p. 11). There are numerous videos o f "Competing Horses" on YouT ube. The version I chose is played by Chinese pianist, Lang Lang and his father Guoren Lang who plays the er hu ( https://youtu.be/7JLvbXGoicw ) . While in some versions the piano merely plays a simple chord accompaniment, in Lang Lang and Guoren Lang's version, the piano is sparkling like the er h u . Just like Lang Lang says in the video, the piano performance here is as another horse, so the two instruments are competing against each
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 34 other. Furthermore, co occurrence of Western instrument and Chinese instrument s could demonstrate to students how two cultures infuse together . Other materials c ou ld include a map of China and the United States. This could be a Googl e map on a n interactive white board that invite s students to interact with the technology to point out where they are, and the music teacher could point out China and the region of Inner Mongolia. Next, the teacher could show photos of Inner Mongolia n peopl e in traditional clothes, as well as the food, yurts, and customs o f Naadam Festivals . A picture of an er hu 's design can also be shown. Additionally, the teacher can use a video that introduce s the er hu by a Chinese performer, and a video of an authentic scene of horse racing in a Naadam Festival. After students become familiar with the music and culture parts, it is good to turn off the sounds of the horse racing scene video in a Naadam Festival and turn up the sound of the music. This will help students to better understand the descriptive function of both the music 's in atmosphere and the detail of the event. The following are a suggested teaching procedure for day one , which is focusing on teacher directed "attentive listening" exercise : 1. "Today we are going to be listening to a piece of music that is different from music you are familiar with . This piece of music is named "Competing Horses," and it is from China. I have a few questions for you to think about while you listen . First, what animal is s ound did you hear at the end of the performance? Second, what comments or thoughts do you have after listening? For example, what makes you feel that his piece of music is different from the music you have learned before?" 2. The teacher will guide the stu dents to answer the questions. (The first answer is the horses' sound. T he second answer encourage s students to say what they want; however, the
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 35 music teacher could lead students to think about the different feeling s conveyed by the different music styles). 3. "This music is composed based on a song from Inner Mongolia, Chi na. Inner Mongolia is located on top of the North of China. Let's take a look at the map first." (Show the United States on the map first) "This is the America, ri ght? Can anybody come here and point where we are right now?" (Then show the map of China) . "Let's go left, this is China, and Inner Mongolia is here. When Chinese people mention Inner Mongolia, its broad prairie will come to our mind." (Show the pictures of Inner Mongolia's prairie and the people there). 4. "In the video, have you noticed another instrument other than the piano? That instrument is called an er hu. It is a Chinese bowed stringed instrument" (Show the picture of an er hu, and have students repeat the name). "Do you think that the er hu looks like an instrument you maybe know?" (Violin, a lot of people say this is the Chinese violin). 5. Show the pictures of a girl playing the violin and a girl playing with the er hu. Ask students to find an y differences between these two instruments. "The erhu player holds the instrument vertically, and the resonator rest s on the seated player's lap. The bow is held in the right hand. However, the violin player is sit s down and puts the violin on the shoulde r, and the player can also stand ." 6. Write the instrument's name both in Chinese and English on the board. "Er" means " two " in English; and " hu " stand s for a n instrument family in China . Can anybody can tell me why there is a Ã”two" in its name?" Guide s tudent s to look at the picture; there are two strings, so there is a Ã”two' in the name . "Hu stands for a bowed strin g instruments. Can you imagine that this instrument has more tha n one thousand years of history? It is made mainly of hardwood. I t
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 36 has two s trings with a bow between them. The bow is made of bamboo, and the horse tail hair passes between the strings." 7. The teacher will show a short clip of the er hu being played: https://youtu.be/dhic2cE57iM or https://youtu.be/1GqVXBIqeT4 ) 8. Ask students: "Do you still remember the name of the music?" ( "Competing H orses " ) "And the horses' sound? (replay it to students) "So depending on these answers, what do you think the music desc ribes? (The horses are racing each other) 9. Have students pick u p the un pitched instruments in front of them (or body percussion). Ask students, "Have you seen a horse running? What kind of so unds will make by its feet (hooves ) when a horse is running? Can you use the instruments to imitate the sounds?" (If they can't , play a recording of clatter of a horse's hoofs first, and practice using the instrument to imitate the sounds: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5jBHNf6ahOk) 10. "Now I will play the first part of the music. I want you to pretend you are the running horse s and use your instruments to play the sound we just practice d to accompany the music. At the same time, I want you imagine the scene while listening the music." 11. After listening to the music, ask students: "What kind of scene does this music make you t hink of? What you think the horses are doing? Are they just stand ing? Or are they running? How many horses do you think there are? Are they running slowly or quickly?" 12. Show the pictures on the Smart board; some horses in the picture are just standing o r eating, some horses are racing to each other. Let student s point out on the interactive white boar d which picture likely fits with the music . "I have several pictures here. I want one of you to come here and point out which picture could be the story in the music."
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 37 12. "In Inner Mongolia, the people there have a festival called the Ã”Naadam Festival.' It is a longstanding historical festival in Mongolia, so it is important in Mongolian life. Naadam in Mongolian means entertainment, or games. Horses racing, wrestling, archery, songs and dances are traditional subject s in a Naadam." Show some pictures of each subject in the Naadam Festivals . 13. "The Ã”Competing H oses' just descr ibes the horse racing scenes when the people of Inner Mongolia c elebrate their own festivals." Play a video about an authentic horse racing scene in a Naadam Festival: https://www.y outube.com/watch?v=Slcu4MpFm4c. 14. After watching the video, prepare the s tudents to listen to the music for the third time. Before listening, ask students: "This time when you listen, I will turn off the sound of the recording we just played, and at the same time, I will turn on the sound of the music. I want you to think about what music elements/aspects reflect and describe the scene of horse racing. (Guide students to think about the tempo, and dynamics of the music. And have students enact the changing movements based on the changing t empo, and dynamics of the music ) . 15. Ha ve the students answer the above question s regarding dynamics and movement. The music teacher can guide students to understanding that the fast tempo portrays the horsing running quickly; the dynamic of the music is loud, not soft, and the dynamics portray the intense and competitive atmosphere. The music makes you feel as if you are there. Lead students to understand that music is one of the languages that could document an event, and could reflect the atmosphere and emotion of the event. If student s do no t understand this point, the music teacher could illustrate the music in a film or an animation. The above procedures are examples of teaching "Competing Horses" for day one, which is primarily an introduction to the musical and cultural aspects of the mu sic. Since students will
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 38 not likely be familiar with the culture the first time, the phase "attentive listening" will take longer than the phases "engaged list ening" and "enactive listening." The assessment for this attentive listening lesson plan will focus on the first two objectives of this lesson plan: identify " Competing Horses" as Chinese instrumental music which will have students describe the horse racing scene from the Naadam Festival of Inner Mongolia, and identify the er hu as a Chinese two st ring fiddle instrument. The most effective mode of assessment is responding, and in this lesson includes both oral discussion and written assignments. Engaged listening for this music entails focusing on an advanced listening by identifying the form's cont rasting tempos and dynamics within the three sections. 1. Review the basic information of "Competing Horses." Have students discuss and answer questions such as "What is the title of the composition?" "Where is the composition from?" "In what context is this composition performed?" "What is the name of the instrument in Ã”Competing Horses'?" "What is the musical theme in this music?" 2. The teacher divides the music into three parts, which is ABA form. Let students listen to each part separately. Have students sta nd up and tell them : "W e are going to listen to the first part, and I want you to use your movements to tell me what you hear and understand from the music. You can pretend you are a horse, you can move with the beat, and you can show how the tempo and dyn amics work." 3. After the movement, ask students: "What is the tempo of this part?" (fast) "What is the emotion of this part? " ( vigour, intensity) 4. Tell students there is something that change s in the next part, and ask them to use movement to express what th ey hear and understand. After this, ask students:
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 39 "C ompare this part to the first part, what has changed? " (tempo and dynamic) "What are your feeling f or this part? " " What do you think this part describe s ?" Inform students of the contrasting tempo and dyna mics between the first and the second part. Imagine the scene for this part. For example, it might be the sunny weather and the blue sky for a moment. 5. Listen to the third part, still ask ing students to use movement to express the music. A fter the movement, ask students: "How w ere the tempo and dynamics changed? Compared to the first part, w hich part is even more intense ? " (the third part) " Have student s discuss why this part is much more intense. Imagine if they are one of the jockeys in competing horse s , w hat would they as the finish line approaches? Go f aster or slower? " (Faster and Faster) 6. Have students summarize the characteristics of the music, invite students to finally and accurate ly use the movement to reflect the characteristics of the music. The as sessment for the engaged listening will focus on the last objective of this lesson plan: describe and use the movement to reflect how the tempo and dynamics serve the musical theme Ã competing horses. The primary assessment mode for this learning area is r esponding , students can respond with movement using body positions and sense of space to respond to various elements in the music (Brophy, 2000). Enactive listening advances students from music listening to music making with available instruments or authe ntic instruments in the music classroom. Music teachers could rearrange a part of the music for an Orff barred instrument ensemble. A differentiated approach could also be considered, the three voice parts for students below, on , and above the grade level ability. 1. Review the musical and cultural aspect s of the music.
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 40 2. The m usic teacher can divides students into three parts, and have students practice their own part s by first using body percussion . 3. Review the basic playing technique s of the barred instrument: The posture, mallet technique, and striking technique. 4. After students are familiar with the rhythm pattern of the music, have students practice their own parts on the barred instrument. 5. Invite students to contribute each voice part to play the music together in an ensemble. 6. Let students rotate each voice part if necessary. The assessment for the enactive listening will focus on the experience of playing the instrument s of the music. The primary assessment mode for the part is the performance assessment . Depending on students' abilities , the co ntent of the assessment could include playing techn iques of the barred instrument and technical mus ic skill development, which include pitch and rhythmic accuracy ( Brophy, 2000) .
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 41 Conclusion The purpose of this project was to provide an extensive review of the literature on multicultural music, and offer recommendations and applications for the best practices for teaching and learning Chinese music in American elementary music classroom s . Three categories of literature were reviewed. The first category discussed the theory of authenticity in multicultural music education. Music educators continue to debate whether music teacher s should teach multicultural music under the premises of authenticity . At the same time, there are different and even contrasting results of research regarding students' attitudes and preferences for teaching world music through authentic approaches. The d ifference in results indicate that multiple approaches should be considered, based on factors such as the musical conditions of the classroom, the type of music being taught, the students' background, and so on. Although music educators are encouraged to t each multicultural music authentically, seeking a flexible approach for a balance in classrooms between realistic and idealistic goals is necessary. Otherwise, music teachers' teaching and student learning will be limited. The second category addressed instructional approaches to multicultural music education. There are two pairs of approaches frequently discussed and compared in the research: these are a sociocultural approach versus a concept based approach, and a heuristic approach versus a didactic approach. Findings from this research suggest that sociocultural and heuristic approaches are the most effective way to teach multicultural music. A sociocultural approach combines musical and cultural aspects that directly reflect the essence of multicult ural music educatio n. A heuristic method avoids instruction being dominated by lecture , and encourage s children to actively interact during learning through singing, playing, creating, and responding
MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 42 which are important ac tivit i es to motivate students to a ccept and learn unfamiliar music and cultures. The third category of the literature review discusses Chinese music educators' research on Chinese materials and lesson plans in American classrooms. This category summarized and evaluated how Chinese educato rs, as Chinese cultural bearers, prepared and designed lessons for American elementary students. In addition, the findings also indicate that a well defined and comprehensive plan designed for elementary students can significantly improve students' attitud es toward Chinese music and cultures, and influence students' learning outcomes. This project recommended four types of Chinese music for music teachers to teach Chinese music and cultures in American elementary schools. The s e are Chinese minority music, Chinese music accompanying traditional festivities for the Han majority, Chinese regional/instrumental music, and Western based Chinese music. In addition, this project recommended that using listening activities to teach Chinese music as a starting point and/or throughout the next learning levels, Campbell's "listen to learn" theory, which is a paradigm based on the three phases of attentive listening, engaged lis tening, and enactive listening, whereby listening activities may be designed (Campbell, 2004, p.55) . The review of literature an d the lesson plan provided in this project lead to further questions that suggest a need for continued research. Further research may consider enrich students' interaction s with the music during listening activities, particularly in the ph ases of "engaged listening" and "enactive listening." Moreover, further research on the standards for choosing Chinese music al and cultural values to teach American elementa ry students.
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MULTICULTURAL MUSIC EDUCATION 49 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Mengya Cai was born on October 31, 1988 in Jingzhou, China. She earned a Bachelor of Music Education from Central China Normal University in 2010 and a Qualification Certificate for Senior High School Teacher in China. As an entrepreneur, she has taught music lesson s and private piano lessens since 2008, the passion of music education made her decides to further the study in the United States. She began pursuing her Master of Music Education with emphasis on general music in elementary schools at University of Florid a in 2013. As a graduate in University of Florida, she committed to introducing and teaching Chinese music to American elementary music classrooms through inter disciplinary approaches.
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