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Evaluation of perennial (rhizoma) peanut forage as a feed for gestating swine

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Title:
Evaluation of perennial (rhizoma) peanut forage as a feed for gestating swine
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Lopez, Fred Douglas, 1957-
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English
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vii, 142 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Alfalfa ( jstor )
Diet ( jstor )
Lactation ( jstor )
Mathematical dependent variables ( jstor )
Peanuts ( jstor )
Piglets ( jstor )
Plasmas ( jstor )
Pregnancy ( jstor )
Sows ( jstor )
Swine ( jstor )
Animal Science thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Animal Science -- UF
City of Gainesville ( local )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 1990.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 130-141).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Fred Douglas Lopez.

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EVALUATION OF PERENNIAL (RHIZOMA) PEANUT FORAGE
AS A FEED FOR GESTATING SWINE

















BY

FRED DOUGLAS LOPEZ


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1990























I Dedicate this Dissertation to My Parents Carmen Sales de Lopez and Vicente Lopez To My Wife Blanca Luz

and To My Daughters

Carla Maria, Gabriela and Daniela Nicole















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I wish to express my gratitude to Dr. Calvin E. White, chairman of the supervisory committee, for his continuous encouragement, assistance, friendship, and professional guidance throughout the conduction of this project.

I would like to express my sincere thanks to Drs. Edwin C. French, Joseph H. Conrad, Alvin C. Warnick and W. Randy Walker, members of the supervisory committee, for their counseling, for reviewing the manuscript and for their constructive criticism towards its improvement.

I am indebted to Dr. Jimmy R. Rich, Samuel Beasley, and Celia Hodge for their valuable friendship, Mark Phillips for his assistance in handling animals and to Lisa Bennett who assisted in the final preparation of this manuscript.

Special appreciation goes to my wife, Blanca Luz, and to my daughters, Carla Maria, Gabriela and Daniela Nicole, for their love, support, and help throughout the study.


iii















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......................................... iii

ABSTRACT ................................................. vi

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................... 1

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ 4

Forages for Sows During Gestation ................ 4

Effects of Fiber vs Grain on Reproductive
Performance ...... ........................... 6

Effect of Fiber vs Grain, Carbohydrate and/or
Fat on Milk Composition ...................... 16

Digestibility of Fiber ........................ 18

Utilization of Dietary Fiber .................... 25

Effect of Dietary Fiber on Blood Constituents...28 Perennial Peanut ................................ 30

Botany ....................................... 30

Origin and Distribution ...................... 31

Selection .................................... 32

Forage Potential ............................. 33

Chemical Composition ......................... 34

CHAPTER 3 REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF SOWS FED PERENNIAL
PEANUTHAY DURINGGESTATION ....................... 35

Introduction .................................... 35

Materials and Methods ......................... 37

Results and Discussion .......................... 41








Experiment 1 ................................. 41

Experiment 2 ................................. 45

Experiment 3 ................................. 50

CHAPTER 4 EFFECT OF PERENNIAL PEANUT HAY ON NUTRIENT
UTILIZATION BY GRAVID SWINE ..................... 55

Introduction .................................... 55

Materials and Methods ............................ 56

Results and Discussion ........................... 62

CHAPTER 5 EFFECT OF PERENNIAL PEANUT HAY ON THE CONCENTRATION
OF PLASMA CONSTITUENTS DURING GESTATION ........... 69

Introduction ..................................... 69

Materials and Methods.......................... 70

Results and Discussion.......................... 75

CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS........................ 88

Recommendations for Feeding Perennial Peanut Hay
to Gestating Swine ............................. 95

APPENDIX..... ................................... ........ 98

LITERATURE CITED ........................................ 130

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ...................................... 142














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate
School of the University of Florida in Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

EVALUATION OF PERENNIAL (RHIZOMA) PEANUT FORAGE
AS A FEED FOR GESTATING SWINE BY

FRED DOUGLAS LOPEZ

December 1990

Chairman: Dr. C. E. White

Major Department: Animal Science

Five experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of ground perennial peanut hay (PPH) in sow gestation diets. Diets containing 0%, 40%, 60% or 80% PPH were fed at a level which provided 127.0 kcal/kg BW' /day in metabolizable energy (ME). Feeding 0%, 40%, 60%, and 80% PPH (experiment 1) or 0% and 80% PPH (experiments 2 and 3) had no effect on litter size and piglets alive from birth to 21 days postpartum. In experiment 1, sows fed 80% PPH produced piglets with lower (P<.05) weights at birth and at 7 and 14 days of age. However, piglet weights at 21 days and net weight gain of weaned piglets from sows fed 0% and 80% PPH did not differ. Feeding sows 80% PPH had no effect on piglet birth weight, and piglet weights at 7, 14 and 21 days postpartum, or net weight gain of weaned piglets for any parity in experiment 2 or experiment 3. Sow weights at








breeding, 110 days postcoitum, 24 hr postpartum and 21 days postpartum were lower (P<.05) for sows fed 80% PPH. Consequently, gestation weight gain and weight change for sows fed 80% PPH were lower (P<.05). Colostrum fat percentage was increased (P<.05) while lactose was decreased (P<.05) among sows fed 80% PPH. In experiment 4, 0% or 80% PPH had no effect on digestible energy (DE) intake. However, DE% and ME% were lower (P<.0001) for 80% PPH. Sows fed 80% PPH had higher (P<.0001) nitrogen (N) intake but lower (P<.03) digestible and retained N than those fed 0% PPH. Digestible and retained N expressed as a percentage of N intake were lower (P<.03) for 80% PPH. No treatment differences were found in the quantities of dry matter and hemicellulose digested. However, sows fed 80% PPH digested a larger (P<.0002) quantity of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose and lignin than those fed 0% PPH. In experiment 5, 0% or 80% PPH had no effect on the overall plasma mean concentrations of glucose, protein, urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. The 80% PPH effected higher (P<.008) concentrations of lactic acid and lower HDL-cholesterol (P<.05) in plasma than 0% PPH. Results of this study suggest that levels up to 80% PPH may be fed to sows in second or greater parity without affecting piglet number and piglet net weight gain from birth to 21 days postpartum.


vii













CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


Carbohydrates from cereal grains are the most abundant energy source in swine diets. In Florida, however, cereal grains such as corn and grain sorghum are not produced in adequate quantities to meet the demand of the swine industry. Feed constitutes 70 to 80% of all costs in swine production and a large proportion of grain used in feed must be imported. Therefore, research to identify alternative feedstuffs is needed. Among the alternatives to corn:soybean meal diets fed to gestating sows is the use of high fiber diets from pasture forages to meet part of the nutrient requirements for reproduction.

Utilization of nutrients from dietary fiber by growingfinishing swine has been shown to be minimal (Bohman et al., 1953, 1955; Hanson et al., 1956; Becker et al., 1956; Heitman and Meyer, 1959; Kornegay, 1978; Kass et al., 1980a; Powley et al., 1981; Frank et al., 1983; Lindemann et al., 1986; Pond et al., 1989). In previous studies, high fiber, low energy diets fed to sows during gestation did not affect reproductive performance (Danielson and Noonan, 1975; Pollman et al., 1980; Calvert et al., 1985; Pond et al.,










1985; Holzgraefe et al., 1986). Feeding alfalfa to gravid sows has been reported to increase the number of piglets farrowed, and improve piglet survival and weight at weaning (Teague, 1955; Seerley and Wahlstrom, 1965). Literature does not contain an abundant amount of information concerning the effects of feeding gestation high fiber diets on milk composition and on blood metabolites during gestation.

Perennial peanut, a forage legume that is adapted to

the climate and soils of Florida, has promise as a feed for gestating swine. Therefore, the objectives of this research project were as follows:

1. To determine through a titration study the maximum level at which ground perennial peanut hay could be

added to sow gestation diets without affecting

reproductive performance.

2. To determine the long-term effects of feeding high levels of perennial peanut hay during three successive

gestations on maternal weight gains, litter size and

number and weight of live piglets from birth to 21 days

postpartum.

3. To compare percentages of total solids, fat, protein, lactose, ash and caloric value of colostrum at day 1 and milk at day 7 of lactation when sows were fed a standard corn:soybean meal gestation diet or a diet

containing perennial peanut hay during gestation.








3

4. To determine the effect of feeding 0% or 80% perennial

peanut hay diets during gestation on the utilization of dietary nitrogen, energy, ether extract and the fiber constituents; NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose, and

lignin.

5. To evaluate the effects of feeding a diet containing 0%

or 80% perennial peanut hay to sows during gestation on

plasma concentrations of glucose, protein, urea

nitrogen, lactic acid, total cholesterol, high density

lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein

cholesterol and triglycerides.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW


Forages For Sows During Gestation

...Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed,
which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it
shall be for meat. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to everything that
creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have
given every green herb for meat (Holy Bible, Genesis
1:29,30).

The objective of this literature review is to collect

and report the body of published data concerning the effects of high fiber diets on gestating swine. Since experimental designs have varied greatly among researchers, and with passage of time, no attempt is made to interpret these data or the protocols of other researchers referenced herein.

Prior to 1960, pasture was considered essential in

meeting the nutritional requirements of swine, particularly with respect to reproductive performance (Ballinger, 1939, 1944; Krider et al., 1946; De Pape et al., 1953; Terrill et al., 1953; Conrad and Beeson, 1954, 1955; Teague, 1955; Johnson et al., 1957; Eyles, 1959).

Conrad and Beeson (1955) stated that sows have a

tremendous digestive capacity, the extent of which has not been completely understood. Furthermore, they reported sows that were self-fed during gestation were able to consume 4.5

4








5

to 6.4 kg of a bulky ration per head daily. These observations are in agreement with those of Ballinger (1939), and of Conrad and Beeson (1954).

Good pasture is nutritious to pregnant sows because often they can be maintained on grazing alone or the combination of pasture with only minimal energy and protein supplements. Ballinger (1939) found that sows can eat between 9.1 and 11.4 kg fresh forage per head daily. He suggested that the small live weight gains of pregnant sows fed on pasture alone was evidence that an all-grass diet was barely equivalent in nutrients to a maintenance ration.

If the conversion factor (7.0 kg fresh forage = 1.0 kg meal) is applied to 9.1 to 11.4 kg fresh forage, sows in Ballinger's experiment (Ballinger, 1939) were fed an equivalent of 1.3 to 1.6 kg of meal (Eyles, 1959).

Mitchell et al. (1931), cited by Johnson et al. (1957), demonstrated that the feed demands of the pregnant sow for embryonic growth and other products of conception are largely protein and mineral matter. They also observed that the extra food demands for fetal growth are confined largely to the last half, or last third, of the gestation period. This finding is supported by Ballinger (1944) who showed that grazing sows fed 2.3 kg of meal per head per day during the last six weeks of pregnancy produced piglets with a higher mean birth weight than those farrowed by sows fed during pregnancy on pasture alone.










The swine producer does not strive for maximum gains from sows during gestation, hence the energy requirements for body weight gain are less for the pregnant sow than for the growing finishing pig. This fact would suggest that a considerable amount of feed can be saved during gestation by the use of a good quality pasture. Sows grazing good quality legume pasture can meet more than half their nutrient requirements for reproduction (Wiley, 1919).

Foster (1973) reported that when good pasture is used to feed pregnant sows, the nutrients that are slightly deficient include energy, phosphorous, salt, and vitamin B12; and that protein may be borderline. Foster's observations suggested that for maximum reproductive performance of pregnant sows on pasture, supplementing a small quantity of corn, protein and mineral salts was desired.

Effects of Fiber vs Grain on Reproductive Performance

Krider et al. (1946) found that a basal diet composed of ground yellow corn, expeller soybean meal, 5% dehydrated alfalfa meal, and fortified cod-liver oil, was nutritionally inadequate for gestation and lactation under drylot conditions. Furthermore, they reported that sows fed the basal diet weaned only 26% of their piglets, averaging 7.8 kg per piglet at 56 days of age. In the same experiment, sows fed the basal diet plus rye pasture weaned 74% of their piglets with an average weaning weight of 14.5 kg each.








7

In primiparous sows (Terrill et al., 1953), number of piglets farrowed per litter, and percentage survival of piglets at one week of age were increased by the addition of

1.1 kg shelled corn daily to a ration composed mainly of ladino clover plus free access to minerals.

Good reproductive performance has been reported by feeding alfalfa to pregnant sows (De Pape et al., 1953; Teague, 1955). During this period of time and before the advent of synthetic vitamins it was a common practice to include 15% or more alfaifa in the breeding and gestation diets fed to swine.

Teague (1955) studied the effect of alfalfa on

ovulation rate in primiparous sows fed in drylot. In that study, a basal diet composed of ground shelled corn, ground ear corn, ground oats, meat and bone scraps, soybean meal and mineral mixture was compared with a second diet where sun-cured ground alfalfa was added at the level of 18% of the diet. The results showed that the inclusion of alfalfa had no effect on breeding performance but significantly increased the number of live piglets farrowed and number of piglets weaned. When examined early in gestation, sows which had received the alfalfa diet possessed a greater number of corpora lutea than those fed the diet without alfalfa.








8

De Pape et al. (1953) fed three diets containing

alfalfa to sows during gestation and lactation. These diets consisted of 15% sun-cured alfalfa plus 0.5% aureomycin-APF (animal protein factor) supplement, 15% sun-cured 4ifalfa or 15% dehydrated alfalfa pellets. A highly significant adverse effect was measured when dehydrated alfalfa pellets were substituted for sun-cured alfalfa meal in the gestation-lactation diet as reflected by the number of piglets weaned per sow, 7.3 vs. 5.9, and the total weight of piglets weaned per sow, 93.5 vs. 63.4 kg. Out of the total number of piglets farrowed, the percent mortality at weaning was 16% to 20% higher when sows were fed dehydrated alfalfa pellets. The lower reproductive performance indicated that dehydrated alfalfa in a pelleted form was inferior to suncured alfalfa meal as a feed component in diets for gestating-lactating sows.

Silage and haylage fed during gestation has been reported also to produce satisfactory reproductive performance (Terrill et al., 1953; Conrad and Beeson, 1954, 1955; Johnson et al., 1957; Hoagland et al., 1963). Terrill et al. (1953) allotted bred sows to one of the following treatments: 1) a standard gestation diet; 2) grass-legume silage (containing 20% ground corn) fed to replace as much as possible of the diet fed in treatment 1 and 3) self-fed a 25% corn cob diet. Results showed that gestation weight gains and the farrowing performance of all sows in each








9

dietary treatment was satisfactory and that the grass-legume silage replaced 42% of the diet fed in treatment 1. Conrad and Beeson (1954) compared a basal diet composed mainly of yellow corn, ground oats and alfalfa meal, with that of a grass-legume silage and a corn silage fed to sows during gestation. They reported that both silages produced satisfactory results when adequately supplemented with protein, vitamins and minerals. It was also reported that sows fed corn silage during gestation farrowed 1.4 to 2.0 more piglets per litter than sows on the basal diet (Conrad and Beeson, 1955). Johnson et al. (1957) obtained good reproductive performance when sows were fed corn silage supplemented with a 20% protein corn silage balancer containing carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, minerals and antibiotics. Similar reproductive performance has been obtained when sows were fed alfalfa haylage during gestation (Hoagland et al., 1963).

A study in which self-fed diets were compared with a basal hand-fed diet during gestation was carried out by Conrad and Beeson (1956). The basal diet was composed of 67% ground corn, 15% dehydrated alfalfa meal, 6% soybean meal, 6% meat and bone scraps plus vitamins and minerals. The self-fed diets were composed mainly of 35 to 40% ground corn, 15 to 35% ground corn cobs and 5 to 35% dehydrated alfalfa meal. The chemical analysis of these diets revealed that the major difference was crude fiber content which was








10

5% for the basal diet and 13% for the self-fed diet. They reported that gestation weight gain, average number of piglets farrowed per litter and the number of piglets weaned per litter were higher in sows consuming self-fed diets.

More recently, as feed grain prices have increased,

higher dietary levels of alfalfa, orchardgrass, wheatgrass, or prairie hays have been fed to sows in order to reduce feed costs while maintaining adequate reproductive performance (Danielson and Noonan, 1975; Pollmann et al., 1979, 1980; Calvert et al., 1985; Holzgraefe et al., 1986).

Danielson and Noonan (1975) conducted a series of

feeding trials with crossbred primiparous sows to evaluate gestation diets containing 0, 25, 33, 66 and 96.75% alfalfa hay, 66% prairie hay and 25% dehydrated alfalfa meal. In trial 1, they fed gestation diets containing 0, 33 and 66% alfalfa hay at the daily rate of 1.91, 2.27 and 2.73 kg, respectively. These levels of forages allowed a metabolizable energy (ME) intake of 5.3, 5.0 and 4.7 Mcal/sow/day. Trial 2 differed from trial 1 by the addition of a 66% prairie hay fed at the daily rate of 2.73 kg or 4.6 Mcal of ME. Sows in trial 3 were fed diets containing 0, 25 and 96.75% alfalfa hay and 25% dehydrated alfalfa meal at the daily rate of 2.27 kg. These levels provided 6.3, 5.8,

2.6 and 5.9 Mcal of ME/sow/day, respectively. Sows in trial 4 were fed a 96.75% alfalfa hay diet at a daily rate of 1.85 kg which provided 2.0 Mcal of ME/sow/day during each of








11

three consecutive gestation periods. All diets were fed once daily in pelleted form from breeding through farrowing. Following parturition, sows were fed ad libitum a conventional lactation diet until piglets were weaned. In trial 1, gestation weight gain by sows, number of live piglets farrowed per litter and individual weaning weights at 42 days did not differ among dietary treatments. However, individual birth weights and number of piglets weaned decreased (P<.Ol) as the percentage of alfalfa hay was increased. In trial 2, sows fed the 66% prairie hay diet gained less weight (P<.05) during gestation than those fed diets containing 33% and 66% alfalfa. Addition of alfalfa hay or prairie hay had no effect on the number of piglets born alive, but the piglets from the sows fed the 0% alfalfa and 66% prairie hay diets were heavier (P<.05) at birth than the piglets from sows fed the 33% alfalfa diet. Sows fed 33% alfalfa hay diet also produced fewer weaned piglets per litter than those fed the 0% and 66% alfalfa hay, and 66% prairie hay diets. Individual piglet weaning weights were not affected by dietary treatment. In trial 3, gestation weight gain was greatly reduced by the 96.75% alfalfa hay diet (P<.05) but not by the 25% dehydrated alfalfa meal diet. The sows that received the 25% dehydrated alfalfa meal diet produced fewer (P<.05) live piglets per litter at birth than did sows on the other dietary treatments, but individual piglets birth weights








12

were heavier (P<.05) for sows fed the diet containing 25% dehydrated alfalfa meal. There were more (P<.05) piglets weaned from sows fed the 25% alfalfa hay diet than from those fed either the 25% dehydrated alfalfa meal diet or the diet containing no alfalfa. The piglets from sows fed the 25% dehydrated alfalfa meal were heavier (P<.05) at weaning than those from sows on the other dietary treatments. In Trial 4 of the same experiment, reproductive performance was unaffected when sows were fed the 96.75% alfalfa hay diet through three successive gestations. In all trials, the gestation diet containing the highest level of alfalfa hay, produced the greatest percentage of sows farrowing, and consequently the highest total piglet weights at weaning. Therefore, the authors concluded that alfalfa hay could be justified economically when fed at high levels to gestating swine.

In an experiment conducted by Pollmann et al. (1979), crossbred sows in their second or third parity were used to compare the nutrient value of pelleted gestation diets consisting of 97% sun-cured alfalfa hay, 66% tall wheat grass or a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. All sows were fed an equivalent of 5.0 Mcal of ME/sow/day from breeding until 110 days postcoitum. At that time the lactation diet was started. Gestation weight gain was highest (P<.Ol) for sows on the corn-soybean meal diet and lowest (P<.0l) for those fed the 66% tall wheat grass.








13
Although no statistical differences were found in the number of piglets born alive, piglets alive at days 7 and 14 and the piglet weights at birth and at weaning, individual weights and survival rates of piglets from sows fed the corn-soybean meal diet were slightly higher when compared to the groups fed forages. Throughout the lactation period, sows fed the corn-soybean meal diet during gestation lost more weight (P<.0l) than those fed alfalfa or wheat grass diets. Sows on the high fiber diets tended to consume more feed during lactation. In a second study, Pollmann et al. (1980) used crossbred sows to evaluate the effects of feeding a 50% sun-cured alfalfa diet or a conventional cornsoybean meal diet during gestation on reproductive performance for three successive parities. The same diets contained 0% or 8% tallow during lactation. Gestation diets were pelleted and fed at the rate of 6.0 Mcal of ME/sow/day for the first 90 days postcoitum. Thereafter, lactation diets were initiated. Results showed that, compared to sows fed the conventional diet, a higher percentage of the sows fed the alfalfa diet completed the three reproductive cycles. They also had lower (P<.05) gestation weight gains up to 90 days postbreeding and a higher (P<.05) number of piglets per litter at 14 days postpartum. Live piglets farrowed per litter and average piglet weight at 14 days did not differ between the sows fed diets containing alfalfa or corn-soybean meal but the average birth weight of piglets








14

was lower (P<.05) for sows fed alfalfa. The survival rate pooled over the three reproductive cycles was 8% higher for the piglets from sows fed alfalfa.

More recently, Calvert et al. (1985) conducted two experiments with second parity crossbred sows fed diets containing 5 or 50% alfalfa meal (exp. 1) or 5, 50 or 95% alfalfa meal (exp. 2) beginning 30 days after breeding and continuing throughout a 21-day lactation period. Experimental diets were fed in pelleted form at the rate of

2.0 kg/sow/day. This rate provided 6.4, 5.4 and 4.3 Mcal of ME/sow/day for the 5, 50 and 95% alfalfa levels, respectively, during gestation. Sows were fed ad libitum during lactation. Gestation weight gains were reduced (P<.05) as the level of alfalfa increased in the diet. Sows on the 95% alfalfa meal diet lost an average of 2.0 kg during gestation. Piglets farrowed alive and average weight at birth or weaning were not affected by dietary treatment. The diet containing 95% alfalfa fed to sows during gestation and lactation lowered (P<.0l) piglet weaning weight. Sows fed diets containing 50 and 95% alfalfa meal lost an average of 21.0 and 37.0 kg, respectively, from breeding through 21 days of lactation as compared with a 5.0 kg loss in sows fed the 5% alfalfa diet. The authors concluded that swine lactation diets should not contain greater than 50% alfalfa.








15

In 1986, Holzgraefe et al. conducted a study in which crossbred sows were fed diets containing 46% alfalfaorchardgrass hay or corn-soybean meal through two successive gestations. Dietary treatments were initiated at 35 days postcoitum and continued until parturition. Metabolizable energy intake was equalized to 6.6 Mcal/sow/day during gestation and a standard 14% crude protein lactation diet was fed ad libitum throughout lactation. Gestation weight gains were similar for both dietary groups. There was no significant difference between dietary treatments in number of piglets born alive, piglet birth weight, piglet weight at 14 days postpartum or sow rebreeding efficiency. The alfalfa-orchardgrass treatment effected greater (P<.04) weight loss from 109 days postcoitum to 14 days postpartum and increased (P<.002) feed consumption during lactation. The authors concluded that the 46% alfalfa-orchardgrass hay diet was essentially equal to the corn-soybean meal diet with regard to sow reproductive performance.

A review of the research articles given herein

demonstrate clearly that the reproductive performance of sows was not adversely affected when high fiber diets were included during gestation.








16

Effect of Fiber vs Grain, Carbohydrate and/or Fat on Milk Composition

Survival of the piglet from birth to weaning is an

important factor for assessing efficient productivity. It is during the preweaning period that 25% of all live-born piglets fail to survive, resulting in a large economic loss to the swine industry (Stanton and Carroll, 1974).

Since the preweaned piglet is dependent on milk from the sow for food, a better understanding of milk yield and composition of milk from sows fed unconventional diets during gestation should be more thoroughly researched.

The secretion of the mammary gland for the first 24

hours of lactation is colostrum. The nutrient composition of colostrum is considerably different from that of milk secreted later in the lactation period. Colostrum is higher in percentage of total solids and protein than milk, but lower in ash, fat and lactose (Pond and Maner, 1984). On the average, the gross composition of colostrum and milk from sows is 25.6 and 18.3%, 5.0 and 6.7%, 15.7 and 5.4%,

3.1 and 5.6%, and 0.80% and 0.96% in total solids, fat, protein, lactose and ash, respectively (Okai et al., 1977; Klobasa et al., 1987). Gross energy content of fresh colostrum and milk has been reported to be 1.6 and 1.10 kcal/g, respectively (White and Campbell, 1984; Okai et al., 1977).










The diet fed during gestation and/or lactation has an effect on the composition of colostrum and/or milk. It has been shown that the addition of up to 10% tallow or corn oil and raw soybeans to diets fed during late gestation and lactation increases the percentages of fat and total solids in colostrum and milk (Friend, 1974; Boyd et al., 1978; Okai et al., 1977; Stahly et al., 1981; Pettigrew, 1981; Boyd et al., 1982; Lellis and Speer, 1983; Crenshaw and Danielson, 1985; Shurson et al., 1986; Coffey et al., 1987; Schoenherr et al., 1989b) and that dietary carbohydrate source during lactation, i.e., fructose and dextrose, affects lactose and protein concentration in milk (White and Campbell, 1984; White et al., 1984). In a series of cooperative studies conducted by the NCR-42 Committee on swine nutrition (1978) in which sows were fed different protein levels during gestation (9% and 15%) and lactation (12%, 16% and 20%), it was reported that protein concentration in milk increased as the protein level of the gestation and lactation diets increased, whereas fat concentration increased only when dietary gestation protein level increased.

Also, when sows were fed a low energy level (10.4 vs. 14.2 Mcal of ME/sow/day) during lactation, fat, protein, total solids and energy concentrations of milk increased when compared to sows fed a high energy level (Noblet and Etienne, 1986). The feeding of high fiber diets to growingfinishing pigs and pregnant sows increases the








18

acetate:propionate ratio of cecal and colon contents (Rerat, 1978; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1980; Kass et al., 1980b; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981b; Ehle et al., 1982; Varel et al., 1984; Holzgraefe et al., 1985a) and these volatile fatty acids, among others, are absorbed from the large intestine (Kass et al., 1980b; Yen and Killefer, 1987; Rerat et al., 1987; Giusi-Perier et al., 1989) and utilized for systemic metabolism. In lactating cows, high ruminal acetate:propionate ratios are positively correlated with milk fat percentage (Maynard et al., 1979; Tyrrell, 1980) and in lactating sows it has been shown that acetate is incorporated into milk fat (Linzell et al., 1969; Spincer et al., 1969). Holzgraefe et al. (1986) hypothesized that the feeding of an alfalfa-orchardgrass diet to sows during gestation would increase milk fat percentage. However, no increase in milk fat percentage was obtained when a 46% alfalfa-orchardgrass hay diet was fed during gestation (Holzgraefe et al., 1986) or a 48% wheat bran diet during lactation (Schoenherr et al., 1989b).

Digestibility of Fiber

Dietary fiber has been described as the sum of lignin and the polysaccharides that are not digested by the endogenous secretion of the digestive tract. These compounds include cellulose and a variety of so-called noncellulosic polysaccharides, the most predominant being the hemicelluloses (Partridge, 1982).








19

Van Soest (1964, 1967) improved the crude fiber

analysis by using detergents to solubilize portions of plant material. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) procedure separates the cell wall material from the cell contents. Cell wall contents include cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and silica. These components, alone or in combination differ in nutritional availability depending on the kind and maturity of the plant, and age and species of the animal fed (Chandler, 1978). Cell content consists of sugars, starches, soluble carbohydrates, soluble proteins, pectin, nonproteic nitrogen, and other water soluble materials like minerals and several vitamins.

The acid detergent fiber (ADF) procedure renders a low nitrogen residue that recovers lignin and cellulose by extracting plant tissue with strongly acid solutions of quaternary detergent. The ADF residue does not represent an ideal estimate of dietary fiber, but it is a fraction of the cell wall that is useful in partitioning the major cell wall components (Van Soest, 1983).

The ability of the pig to digest fiber was first

established by Scheunert (1906) and has been confirmed by numerous investigators and reviewed by Rerat (1978), March (1979), Pond (1987) and Varel (1987). In pigs, fibrous material, primarily cellulose and hemicellulose, is digested mainly in the large intestine by anaerobic microbial fermentation. The volatile fatty acids (VFA) produced by










this fermentation, i.e., acetic, propionic and butyric, are absorbed from the cecum and colon to provide part of the energy requirements for the animal (Kass et al., 1980 b; Rerat et al., 1987; Giusi-Perier et al., 1989).

Pond (1987) stated that the acceptability of fibrous

feeds as energy sources for swine depends on such factors as the cell wall content of the plant, the degree of microbial fermentation in the large intestine and the extent of absorption and utilization of the VFA produced. The quantity of cell wall structural constituents of the plant (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) is important because it is the fraction which, if it is to be metabolized by the animal, must first be degraded by gastrointestinal microorganisms (Van Soest, 1984). Therefore, fiber sources with less cell wall content will be more efficiently digested. Grasses as a whole contain more plant cell wall and less lignin than legumes, with perennials containing more cell wall constituents than some annuals (Van Soest, 1975).

The number and activity of cellulolytic bacteria in the large intestine increase when pigs are fed high fiber diets (Varel, 1987; Varel et al., 1988). Varel et al. (1984) found that fecal samples of growing-finishing pigs fed 35% alfalfa meal in their diets had a greater number and activity of cellulolytic bacteria than those fed 0% alfalfa meal. They concluded that prolonged feeding of a diet high










in fiber can enhance microbial fermentation. Similar trends in bacterial number and activity have been obtained with sows fed diets containing graded levels of alfalfa meal (0%, 40%, 50%, or 96%) during gestation (Varel and Pond, 1985; Pollmann et al., 1983).

Although VFA are rapidly absorbed by swine, the precise amount of energy that the host animal receives from the VFA produced by microbial fermentation in the large intestine has not been determined (Pond, 1987). Friend et al. (1964) calculated a possible energy contribution by VFA in the pig to be between 15 and 28% of the maintenance energy requirement. Imoto and Namioka (1978) have reported that VFA absorbed from the large intestine of growing pigs provide, as an average, 10.5% of the metabolizable energy for maintenance.

Kass et al. (1980b) conducted an experiment to

determine the amount of VFA produced in the large intestine when swine were fed 0, 20, 40 or 60% alfalfa meal. This study showed that VFA produced in the large intestine can provide up to 14% of the energy required for maintenance in the growing-finishing pig. Gargallo and Zimmerman (1981b) have reported that VFA produced in the cecum and colon during a 24 hour period could represent, as an average,

6.2%, 5.6% and 5.0% of the energy required for maintenance in 95-kg pigs fed 2%, 10% and 20% added sunflower hulls, respectively.








22

Rerat et al. (1987) fitted permanent catheters in the

portal vein and carotid artery as well as an electromagnetic flow probe around the portal vein of finishing swine fed a diet containing 6.5% alfalfa meal in order to measure VFA absorption from the large intestine. In this study, the absorption of VFA represented about 30% of the energy requirements for maintenance. In other studies, fiber digestibility varied widely with the source and level of fiber in the diet (Forbes and Hamilton, 1952; Kass et al., 1980a), the level of feeding to the experimental animal (Cunningham et al., 1962), and physical characteristics such as feed particle size (Nuzback et al., 1984).

Forbes and Hamilton (1952) conducted an experiment to determine the effect of source of crude fiber on its digestibility and degree of utilization by growing-finishing pigs. Woodflock, Ruffex, wheat straw pulp, alfalfa meal, or oat hulls, were added to a basal diet in amounts to give equivalent cellulose values. Cellulose digestibility was found to be higher for pigs fed alfalfa meal and least for those fed oat hulls. It was concluded that the decrease in cellulose digestibility was associated with a high degree of cellulose lignification. Keys et al. (1969) reported that swine fed diets containing 50% of alfalfa, brome or orchardgrass hays digested NDF and hemicellulose from grass to a greater extent than from alfalfa. However, dry matter in the diet containing alfalfa was more digestible than that










of the grasses. In a study with gravid sows, Pollmann et al. (1979) fed diets containing either 97% alfalfa meal, 66% tall wheat grass or a conventional corn-soybean meal diet, during gestation. It was found that NDF and hemicellulose digestibility did not differ between diets containing alfalfa and tall wheat grass; however, the digestibilities of dry matter, ADF and cellulose were reduced by the diet containing tall wheat grass. As fiber content of the diets increased, digestibility of dry matter and fiber components decreased, but as the digestive system of swine became more acclimated to the fibrous diets more components of fiber were utilized with time.

Ehle et al. (1982) reported that digestibilities of dry matter, NDF, cellulose and hemicellulose differed among dietary fiber sources when mature pigs were fed diets containing similar NDF content where fiber sources were provided by 15% cellulose (Solka Floc), 31% dehydrated alfalfa meal, 31% coarse wheat bran, or 47% fine wheat bran. Pond et al. (1986a) conducted a study in which pigs with a mean body weight of approximately 80 kg were fed a cornsoybean meal control diet or fiber diets containing 20% alfalfa meal or 10% ground corn cobs. They reported that NDF, ADF and cellulose digestibilities were decreased when the diet containing 10% corn cobs was compared to the 20% alfalfa meal diet. Lignin digestibility was not affected by dietary fiber source. Inclusions of the fibrous feeds










increased digestibilities of NDF, ADF and cellulose and reduced digestibilities of dry matter and lignin when compared to the control diet.

Moore et al. (1988) fed a corn-soybean meal diet or fiber diets containing either 15% oat hulls, 15% soybean hulls or 20% alfalfa meal to growing pigs. Digestibilities of NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose were reduced by oat hulls and alfalfa meal, but not by soybean hulls. When graded levels of cellulose, up to 40% of the diet, were fed to growing or finishing pigs, there was a reduction in the digestibilities of dry matter and cellulose as the level of cellulose increased in the diet (Cunningham et al., 1962; Farrell and Johnson, 1970; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1980, 1981a). In a similar manner, the inclusion of graded levels of alfalfa meal, up to 80% in growing-finishing pig diets (Kass et al., 1980a; Varel et al., 1988) and up to 95% in gestation diets (Pollmann et al., 1983; Calvert et al., 1985), reduced the respective digestibilities of dry matter, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose. Keys et al. (1970) reported that feeding orchardgrass to pigs averaging 84 kg in body weight at levels of 20%, 40% and 60% of their diets had no effect on ADF and cellulose digestibilities. However, dry matter and hemicellulose digestibilities decreased as the level of orchardgrass increased in the diet. The feeding of a 46% alfalfa-orchardgrass hay diet during gestation has also been reported to reduce the










digestibilities of dry matter, NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose when compared to the corn-soybean meal diet (Holzgraefe et al., 1985b). Similar reductions in dry matter and digestibilities of fiber constituents, i.e., NDF, ADF, cellulose or hemicellulose, have been measured when feeding different levels of alphacel (Sherry et al., 1981), oat hulls (Moser et al., 1982), ground corn cobs (Frank et al., 1983), ground oats (Ranvindran et al., 1984), and peanut hulls (Lindemann et al., 1986) to growing or finishing pigs. It has been reported that the addition of graded levels of soybean hulls, up to 30%, in diets of growing-finishing pigs and gestating sows (Kornegay, 1978; 1981) has increased the digestibilities of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin.

Cunningham et al. (1962) reported that the reduction of feed intake to a maintenance level in finishing pigs caused an increase in crude fiber digestibility when the fiber source was 0% and 40% Solka-Floc. Nuzback et al. (1984) also reported an increase in the digestibilities of dry matter, NDF, ADF and cellulose when the particle size of a 50% alfalfa hay gestation diet was reduced from 12.5 mm to

6.25 mm.

Utilization of Dietary Fiber

Utilization of nutrients from dietary fiber by growingfinishing swine is minimal. High levels of dietary fiber have been shown to reduce average daily gain and feed










utilization (Bohman et al., 1953, 1955; Hanson et al., 1956; Becker et al., 1956; Heitman and Meyer, 1959; Kornegay, 1978; Kass et al., 1980a; Powley et al., 1981; Frank et al., 1983; Lindemann et al., 1986; Pond et al., 1989), and the depression in growth has been attributed to a reduction in the digestible energy concentration as the level of fiber is increased in the diet. Therefore, the ability of the pig to maintain adequate intake of digestible energy appears to be one of the factors influencing weight gains by growingfinishing pigs consuming high fiber diets. However, feeding high fiber, low energy diets to sows during gestation has been successful, and supports satisfactory reproductive performance of the sow (Danielson and Noonan, 1975; Pollmann et al., 1980; Calvert et al., 1985; Pond et al., 1985; Holzgraefe et al., 1986).

It has been reported that energy and nitrogen

metabolism, i.e., digestibility and/or retention, are reduced when growing-finishing pigs (Cunningham et al., 1962; Farrell and Johnson, 1970; Keys et al., 1970; Farrell, 1973; Kornegay, 1978; Kass et al., 1980a; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981; Sherry et al., 1981; Ehle et al., 1982; Frank et al., 1983; Ranvindran et al., 1986; Pond et al., 1986a; Lindemann et al., 1986; Moore et al., 1988; Varel et al., 1988) and sows during gestation (Pollmann et al., 1979; Young and King, 1981; Kornegay, 1981; Pollmann et al., 1983; Nuzback et al., 1984; Holzgraefe et al., 1985b; Calvert et










al., 1985; Pond et al., 1986b) and lactation (Schoenherr et al., 1989a) were fed high fiber diets. The apparent digestibility of ether extract was also lower when swine were fed high fiber diets (Kornegay, 1978; Pond et al., 1986b).

One of the mechanisms by which high levels of fiber

affects the apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients, is through accelerating the rate of digesta passage (Farrell and Johnson, 1970; Kass et al., 1980a; Ranvindran et al., 1984; Lindemann et al., 1986; Holzgraefe et al., 1985a,b). With a faster rate of passage, less opportunity exists for both enzymatic and microbial digestion in the digestive tract. Metabolic fecal nitrogen is also increased when fibrous materials are fed to swine, and this component contributes to a further reduction in nitrogen digestibility (Forbes and Hamilton, 1952; Cunningham et al., 1962; Farrell, 1973; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981a; Ranvindran et al., 1984; Pollmann et al., 1979; Holzgraefe et al., 1985b). Metabolic fecal nitrogen is contributed by nitrogen from epithelial cells that have been abraided or sloughed-off from the intestine as a result of the mechanical action of fiber, and from nitrogen derived from bacterial cells produced in the large intestine (Farrell, 1973; Ehle et al., 1982). Schneider and Flatt (1975) stated that it is not unusual for the ether extract of the feces to exceed that of the feed, since fecal lipids consists of undigested dietary










lipids, indigestible compounds such as pigments and waxes, metabolic fecal lipids such as residues of the digestive juices and microbial fatty acids.

Effect of Dietary Fiber on Blogd Constituents

Few studies have been published on concentrations of blood constituents during gestation in sows. The majority of published data report concentrations of blood constituents of the growing-finishing pig or in other animal species. Although much interest exists in the feeding of fiber diets to monogastric species, there is a paucity of data on blood constituents, and data available are often contradictory.

The normal range of concentrations of protein (g/100 ml) and glucose, urea nitrogen, lactic acid, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) and triglycerides (mg/100 ml) in the blood of swine has been reported to be 5.0-7.7, 65.0-140.0, 7.7-19.0, 5.0-20.0,

47.0-200.0, 32.0-59.0, 64.0-70.0 and 52.0-55.0, respectively

(Atinmo et al., 1976; Swenson, 1978; Collings et al., 1979; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1980, 1981 a,b; Pond et al., 1981; Randall, 1982; Frank et al., 1983; Friendship et al., 1984; Pond and Maner, 1984; Grummer and Carroll, 1988).

It has been reported that blood protein concentration was reduced (Atinmo et al., 1976) or remained unchanged (Wahlstrom and Libal, 1977) when dietary crude protein was










reduced in diets fed during gestation. Blood glucose concentration was found to decrease when different levels of wheat middlings (Collings et al., 1979), alfalfa (Pond et al., 1981) or corn cobs (Frank et al., 1983) were fed to growing-finishing pigs. However, the concentration of blood glucose was increased when levels up to 20% of sunflower hulls were fed to finishing pigs (Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981b). Feeding diets containing either 10% or 14% in crude protein during gestation did not affect the concentration of blood urea nitrogen (Wahlstrom and Libal, 1977); however, feeding fibrous diets to growing-finishing pigs was found to increase (Frank et al., 1983), decrease (Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981b) or have no effect on (Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1980, 1981a) the concentration of blood urea nitrogen. Collings et al. (1979) reported that feeding graded levels of wheat middlings up to 30% of the diets of growing-finishing pigs did not affect blood cholesterol concentration, however, blood cholesterol was reduced when diets containing alfalfa (Pond et al., 1981) or cellulose (Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981a) were fed to growingfinishing pigs.

There is also a paucity of information with respect to effects of high fiber diets on concentrations of blood lactic acid, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in gestating swine. This fact invited investigative study regarding concentrations of these blood constituents.










Perennial Peanut

Florigraze perennial peanut (Ar.hj_ glabrata Benth.) is a warm-season, perennial forage legume having value as both a hay and grazing crop and is adapted to well drained soils in climates with wet summers and dry, cold winters with sporadic frosts (Otero, 1952; Prine et al., 1981). This cultivar should also be adapted to humid tropics and subtropics around the world (Franca-Dantas, 1982). Florigraze variety of perennial peanuts are also drought tolerant, growing further into the dry season than tropical grasses, thus providing a source of protein and energy for livestock (Franca-Dantas, 1982). Botany

Perennial peanut has been described by Bogdan (1977) as

a perennial legume with underground creeping,
much-branched rhizomes (root stocks) producing
short suberect, above-ground shoots. Leaves (620 mm long and 5-14 mm wide) with four leaflets
which are broadly elliptic and subglabrous or
glabrous underneath. Axillary flowers are
produced in the lower part of the stem. The
receptacle is a filiform tube 2.5-10 cm long; the
calyx is 6-7 mm long and is standard yellow to
orange; orbicular and 10-12 mm in diameter. Pods
are small, 10 mm long and 5-6 mm thick, acute, longitudinally striate. Seeds are ovoid, pale
(Bogdan, 1977, p. 321).

The botanical description of perennial peanut as summarized by Franca-Dantas (1982) is as follows:

Cultivar: Florigraze Crop: Rhizoma peanut

Species: glabrata










Section: Rhizomatosae

Genus: Arachis

Family: Habaceae

Order: Leguminoseae

Oriqin and Distribution

Arachis is the genus of a South American plant

consisting of 40-70 species, many, as of yet, undescribed (Gregory and Gregory, 1976). This genus evolved on the essential limitations of the ancient Brazilian shield and its drainage basins. It is still naturally confined in the countries of Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina (Prine, 1964; Gregory and Gregory, 1979). Species in areas of high rainfall are perennial and those in semiarid areas are annual (Gregory and Gregory, 1976).

Eight species of wild peanuts are recognized in the genus Arachis, and they are: tuberosa, A. guaranitica, . angustifolia, A. helodes, A. Qlabrata, A. marginata, A. villosa, and A. pusilla. All listed are perennials except A. Dusilla which is an annual (Herman, 1954).

The three perennial Arachis species having widest

distribution in South America are glabrata, marginata, and villosa; the Southern limit of these species is about 350 south latitude. In the Northern Hemisphere, these species may be grown to a latitude that corresponds to the northern boundary of the State of Georgia in the United States (Prine, 1964).










Selection

USDA records show that A. glabrata was found growing on rich black earth in the streets of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso, Brazil, and that it was introduced to the United States by W. Archer in 1936 (Prine, 1964; Prine et al., 1981). After 1936, several perennial peanut introductions were evaluated by the Soil Conservation Service (SCS), Plant Materials Center at Brooksville, Florida. Presently, small acreages of the SCS selections, which include Arb (PI 118456) and Arblick (PI 262839), are growing in the United States (Prine et al, 1981).

Gainesville Selection 1, later named Florigraze rhizoma peanut, was selected by G. Prine in 1962. Florigraze is believed to be a seedling or mutant from Arb (Prine, 1972). Florigraze was released in 1978 by Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Conservation with the following description:

Florigraze peanut is finer stemmed and has
narrower leaflets on the quadrifoliate leaves than Arb or Arblick. The rhizome diameter of Florigraze is small and usually has a larger number of rhizomes per unit area of soil. A
rhizomateous mat of Florigraze has more budding points and develops more shoots per unit of soil
surface than similar sized mat of Arb and
Arblick. Florigraze and Arb flowers are yelloworange, whereas Arblick flowers are creamyyellow. Florigraze usually does not flower as
profusely as Arb or Arblick. Seeds develop
rarely on these three rhizome peanuts (Prine et
al., 1981, p. 2).










Forage Potential

Perennial peanut appears to have promise as a forage legume on well-drained soils. Some of the uses for perennial peanut as suggested by Prine et al. (1981) are:

1. Hay production: Perennial peanut can be used in a pure
stand or in mixture with grasses for hay. A
satisfactory quality hay is produced when the forage is cut twice a year. The legume portion should make up to
75% or more of a mixture grown for hay.
2. Dehydrated products: The persistence, high quality, and
yield of perennial peanut make it a potential crop for
dehydrating as a high quality hay or leaf meal.
3. Grazing: Close defoliation or heavy grazing will not
eliminate established perennial peanut from a stand,
but under such conditions, perennial peanut produces a
rosette type growth, and leaves are oriented flat on
the ground where they cannot easily be removed by
grazing. When it is not overgrazed, it assumes an
erect habit of growth and is easily consumed by grazing
animals (Prine et al., 1981, p. 15).


Perennial peanut is an excellent hay-making legume because of its high dry matter yield, quick drying and early baling with low leaf loss (Prine et al, 1981). Dry matter yields for Florigraze perennial peanut reported in kg/ha/year are as follows; 4,460 (Blickensderfer et al, 1964), 6,270 (Prine, 1972, Prine et al., 1981), 10,377 (Prine, 1980) and 10,460 kg/ha/year (Romero et al., 1987).

Perennial peanut has also been planted in mixture with Pensacola bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), pangolagrass (Daigitaria decumbens) and bermudagrass (Cynodan dactylon). In these studies, each perennial peanut mixture was more productive than the grass it was mixed with (Prine, 1964; Prine et al., 1981; Breman, 1980).








34

Chemical Composition

Perennial peanut; on a dry matter basis; contains 1018% crude protein, 2-4% ether extract, 20-28% crude fiber, 44-48% nitrogen free extract, and 9-11% ash content (Prine, 1964; Otero, 1952; Prine et al., 1981, 1986; Romero et al., 1987). Romero et al. (1987) reported that perennial peanut contains 50-56% NDF (cell walls) and 38-46% ADF.














CHAPTER 3
REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF SOWS FED PERENNIAL PEANUT HAY DURING GESTATION Introduction

Prior to 1960, pasture was considered essential in meeting the nutritional requirements of swine for reproduction. Sows that were denied pasturage often farrowed fewer piglets per litter and farrowings were more likely to produce weak or dead piglets. Research which followed that era greatly expanded knowledge of nutrient requirements for the gestating sow, and, as a result, diets currently fed are formulated to contain the essential nutrients to support reproduction. Currently these nutrients are derived from complete feeds which are mixtures of cereal grains and soybean meal together with supplemental vitamins and minerals. In Florida, however, cereal grains are not produced in adequate quantities to support the swine industry and research to identify alternative feedstuffs is needed.

Among the alternatives to corn:soybean meal diets fed to gestating sows is the use of high fiber diets from pasture forages to meet part of the nutrient requirements for reproduction. In recent years, it has been reported that feeding high fiber diets to sows during gestation does 35








36

not affect reproductive performance (Danielson and Noonan, 1975; Pollmann et al., 1979, 1980; Calvert et al., 1985; Holzgraefe et al., 1986). Feeding alfalfa to gravid sows has been reported to increase the number of piglets farrowed, and improved piglet survival and weight at weaning (Teague, 1955; Seerley and Wahlstrom, 1965). However, this observation should be interpreted cautiously since it may or may not apply to other studies.

An ambitious program to introduce a nitrogen-fixing legume other than alfalfa as a pasture-type forage in Florida is presently underway in several northern counties of the state. The legume being introduced is perennial peanut which establishes from rhizomes, does not require nitrogen fertilizer and appears to be drought, disease and insect resistant (Prine et al., 1981). The objectives of these experiments were: 1) to determine the maximum level at which perennial peanut hay could be added to sow gestation diets and yet permit acceptable reproductive performance; 2) to determine if this maximum level of perennial peanut hay could be fed during three successive gestations; and 3) to compare the composition of colostrum at day 1 and milk at day 7 of lactation when sows were fed a standard gestation diet or a diet containing perennial peanut hay during gestation.








37

Materials and Methods

Three experiments were conducted at the Swine Research Unit, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Route 2, Box 2181, Live Oak, FL 32060. In experiment 1, 23 primiparous crossbred sows were divided into three groups of six sows each; and one group of five sows. Each group of sows was randomly assigned at breeding to one of four gestation diets containing 0%, 40%, 60% and 80% ground perennial peanut hay (PPH). In experiment 2, sows that were allotted to the 0% and 80% PPH gestation diets during experiment 1, continued in their respective diets over a period of three additional successive parities. In experiment 3, 20 second-parity crossbred sows were randomly assigned in equal sized groups at breeding to the 0% and 80% PPH gestation diets.

The fresh perennial peanut forage was cut and allowed to dry under field conditions for a period of three days. Subsequently, it was compressed into square bales, then it was passed through a portable hammer mill' with a screen having openings of 9 mm. Ground PPH samples were analyzed for nitrogen content by the standard Kjeldahl procedure (AOAC, 1980) and values obtained were used to formulate the


'Gehl Bros. Mfg. Co., West Bend, WI.








38

experimental gestation diets (table 1). Sows in each of the three experiments were fed diets calculated to offer 127.0 kcal/kg BW'h/day in metabolizable energy (ME), and were adjusted biweekly to accommodate for weight gain during gestation. Sows were fed individually their measured ration of the diet once at 0900 hr each day during experiment 1 and twice at 0900 hr and 1800 hr during experiments 2 and 3. Throughout the gestation period, sows were penned, by experimental diet, in an open-sided shelter on solid concrete floors. Each pen contained six sows in gestation crates to allow individual feeding. Water was supplied on an ad libitum basis during gestation and lactation.

At approximately 110 days postcoitum, sows were moved into a central farrowing barn and confined in individual farrowing crates with plastic-coated expanded metal floors. Following parturition, gestation diets were discontinued and all sows were fed ad libitum a standard corn-soybean meal lactation diet containing 15% crude protein. Feed intake was measured during lactation only during experiment 3.

Sows were weighed at breeding, 110 days postcoitum, within 24 hr following parturition and at 21 days postpartum. Placental membranes were collected and weighed immediately after farrowing. Number of piglets and piglet weights were recorded at birth and at days 7, 14 and 21 postpartum. No creep feed was given during lactation, but the piglets had access to the sow's feed.










Table 1. Composition of Gestation Diets


Diets'

Ingredient 0% PPH 40% PPH 60% PPH 80% PPH

Peanut hay" 39.7 59.7 79.6 Corn 81.3 49.0 32.5 16.0 Soybean meal 15.5 8.5 5.0 1.5 Def. Phos. 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 Limestone .6
Salt .5 .5 .5 .5 Vitamin Premixc .3 .3 .3 .3 Mineral Premixd .1 .1 .1 .1

Calculated analysis, %

Protein 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 Ca .85 1.26 1.57 1.88 P .65 .65 .65 .65 ME (Mcal/kg) 3.25 2.39 1.96 1.53

8PPH = perennial peanut hay. bSun-cured perennial peanut hay, ground, (9 mm screen).

cProvided 7,700 IU vitamin A; 1,100 IU vitamin D3; 16.5 IU vitamin E; 26.5 mcg vitamin B ; 5.5 mg riboflavin; 33 mg niacin; 22 mg pantothenic acid; 275 mg choline; 4.0 mg menadione; .66 mg folic acid; 2.2 pyridoxine; 1.1 mg thiamine; and 110 mcg biotin per kg of finished feed. Courtesy of Hoffman-LaRoche Inc., Nutley, NJ 07110. dSupplied 150 mg zinc; 60 mg manganese; 175 mg iron; 17.5 mg copper; 2 mg iodine; and 40 mg calcium per kg of finished feed. Courtesy of J.M. Huber Corporation, Quincy, IL.








40

Milk samples were collected from five sows in each dietary treatment (0% and 80% PPH) within 3 hours after parturition and on all sows at day 7 of lactation during experiment 3. A dose consisting of 40 USP units of oxytocin was injected intramuscularly to enhance milk letdown and milk samples were collected by manual expression from functional mammary glands. Immediately after collection, the milk samples were strained through layered cheesecloth and frozen for later analysis. Lactose in milk was determined by the Method of Marier and Boulet (1959), fat by the modified Babcock method (Atherton and Newlander, 1977). Total solids were determined gravimetrically from lyophilized aliquots of whole milk. Ash in milk was determined gravimetrically from the residual following ignition of 1 gram samples of dry milk in a furnace at 5500C. Gross energy was measured with a Parr adiabatic calorimete9 using one gram samples of dry milk. Proteins in milk were calculated as total solids minus lactose, fat and ash. Data for experiments 1, 2 and 3 were analyzed by the General Linear Model procedure (Barr et al., 1979) as a complete random design where sows and/or litters were considered the experimental units. Effects of dietary treatment, parity and dietary treatment x parity were tested for all measurements in experiment 2, and individual


2Parr Instruments, Inc., Moline, IL.








41

treatment means were separated by using the least significant difference procedure.


Results and Discussion

Experiment 1

The effect of feeding 0%, 40%, 60% and 80% PPH diets during gestation on reproductive lactation and weaning performance is summarized in tables 2 and 3. The feeding of PPH had no significant effect on litter size, piglets born alive and piglets alive at 7, 14 and 21 days postpartum (table 2). Although, litter size and piglets born alive were slightly greater for sows fed the 40%, 60% and 80% PPH diets, the number of weaned piglets was not influenced by dietary treatments fed during gestation. Similar results in birth-to-weaning performance of piglets have been reported when sows were fed alfalfa (Seerley and Wahlstrom, 1965; Danielson and Noonan, 1975; Pollmann et al., 1979, 1980; Calvert et al., 1985; Pond et al., 1986b), alfalfa-orchard grass (Holzgraefe et al., 1986), peanut hulls (Leibbrandt, 1977), oat hulls (Zoiopoulos et al., 1983) or wheat shorts (Young and King, 1981) during gestation. Overlayed piglets and weaning percentage were also not affected by treatments, but there was a tendency for more overlayed piglets from sows fed the 40% and 80% PPH diets which, in part, can explain the lower weaning rate of these two groups (table 2). Table 3 gives birth weights and growth performance of piglets at days 7, 14 and 21 together with net weight gains










Table 2. Effect of Perennial Peanut Hay Fed to Sows During Gestation on Reproductive, Lactation and Weaning Performance (Exp. 1)



Item 0% PPH 40% PPH 60% PPH 80% PPH SEa


Litters 6 6 5 6 Litter size 8.8 11.0 10.6 11.5 1.26 Piglets
Born alive 8.5 10.3 10.4 11.2 1.22 Alive, day 7 6.8 6.8 7.2 6.8 1.34 Alive, day 14 6.8 6.7 5.8 6.7 1.37 Alive, day 21 6.7 6.5 5.6 6.7 1.35 Overlayed .7 1.3 .2 3.0 1.09 Weaned. % 72.7 63.0 57.5 61.4 12.16 Note: Least-square means.
apooled standard error of the LS Mean.



Table 3. Effect of Perennial Peanut Hay Fed to Sows During Gestation on the Subsequent Weights of Their Piglets (Exp. 1)



Item 0% PPH 40% PPH 60% PPH 80% PPH SEO

Litters 6 6 5 6

Piglet wt., kg b
Birth wt. 1.37 1.34 1.32 .97c .07 7 day wt. 2.53b 2.73b 2.78b 2.05c .11 14 day wt. 3.71c 4.11b,c 4.22b 3.10d .17 21 day wt. 5.14c,d 5.78b,c 6.34b 4.84d .30 Net wt. gain 3.80c 4.44b'c 5.01b 3.84c .29

Note: Least-square means.
aPooled standard error of the LS Mean.
b'cdLS Means in rows with different superscripts differ
(P<.05).










from birth to 21 days postpartum. The birth and 7-day weights of piglets from sows fed the 0%, 40% and 60% PPH diets were heavier (P<.05) than piglets from sows fed the 80% PPH diet. Other researchers (Danielson and Noonan, 1975; Pollmann et al., 1980; Calvert et al., 1985; Pond et al., 1986b) have observed a similar decrease in birth weight when graded levels of alfalfa have been fed during gestation. The 14-day weights of piglets from sows fed the 60% PPH was greater (P<.05) than piglets from sows fed the 0% and 80% PPH diets. Also, there was no difference between the 14-day weight of piglets from sows fed the 0% and 40% PPH diets, but both groups were heavier (P<.05) than piglets from sows fed the 80% PPH diet. The 21-day weights of piglets from sows fed the 0% and 80% PPH diet did not differ. Based on net weight gain of weaned piglets, it appears that lactation performance of sows on the 60% PPH diet during gestation was improved (P<.05) when compared with those fed the 0% and 80% PPH diets. However, differences in sow's lactation performance were attributed to a lower number of weaned piglets at 21 days postpartum (table 2). A trend was observed where sows fed the 60% PPH diet during gestation weaned fewer piglets than sows on the 0%, 40% and 80% PPH diets, however, differences were not statistically significant.








44

Maternal and placental weights are shown in table 4.

The average breeding weight of sows fed the diet containing 60% PPH was greater (P<.05) than sows fed the 0%, 40% and 80% PPH diets. Difference in breeding weights was the result initially of experimental randomization. The 110-day gestation, 24-hour postpartum and 21-day postpartum weights of sows fed the 60% PPH were also greater. Although,


Table 4. Effect of Perennial Peanut Hay Diets on Sow Weight Changes During Gestation and Lactation, and Their Placental Weights (Exp. 1)



Item 0% PPH 40% PPH 60% PPH 80% PPH SE'

Sow number 6 6 5 6 Sow weights, kg
Breeding 132f 146f 171e 1321 7.17 110 day gestation 165f1 184e'f 209e 1519 8.76 24-hr postpartum 155f'g 169f 196e 1409 7.93 21-day postpartum 149f,g 166ef 185e 134g 8.90 Gestation wt. gainb 33e 38e 37e 19f 3.58 Gestation wt. changec 23" 23e 250 8f 2.76 Lactation wt. changed -2 -3 -11 -5 3.77 Placenta wt., kg 2.09 1.94 1.70 1.94 .42 Note: Least-square means.
aPooled standard error of the LS Mean. bGestation wt. gain = breeding wt. to wt. at 110 days of gestation.
cGestation wt. change = breeding wt. to wt. at 24 hr postpartum.
dLactation wt. change = 24-hr postpartum wt. to 21-day postpartum wt.
efgLS Means in rows with different superscripts differ
(P<.05).










differences in maternal weights were present throughout gestation and lactation, the breeding, 110-day gestation, 24-hour postpartum and 21-day postpartum weight of sows fed the 80% PPH diet were significantly lower (P<.05) than those fed the 40% and 60% PPH diet. Gestation weight gain and gestation weight change among sows fed the 0%, 40% and 60% PPH diets were significantly (P<.05) higher than for sows fed the 80% PPH diet. Lactation weight change and placenta weight did not differ among dietary treatments. These data are in agreement with the findings of Danielson and Noonan, 1975; Pollmann et al., 1979, 1980; and Calvert et al., 1985 who reported a reduction in gestation weight gain and gestation weight change when levels up to 97.5% alfalfa meal were fed during gestation; and with the findings of Pollmann et al., 1980 and Calvert et al., 1985 that when levels up to 95% alfalfa meal were fed during gestation, lactation weight change was not affected.

Experiment 2

The effects of feeding 0% and 80% PPH diets during

gestation on litter performance over three parities using 12 sows (6 sows per treatment) are summarized in tables 5 and

6. As in experiment 1, the 80% PPH diet had no effect (P>.05) on litter size, piglets born alive, overlayed piglets and piglets alive at days 7, 14 and 21 postpartum, or weaning percentage of piglets for any of the three parities and three parities average (table 5). Although not










statistically significant, there was a tendency for a higher weaning percentage for sows fed the gestation diet containing 80% PPH during parities 1 and 2, and when summarized over all three parities.

Table 6 gives the birth weights and growth performance of piglets at 7, 14 and 21 days postpartum, together with net weight gains from birth to 21 days postpartum. Feeding sows the 80% PPH diet had no effect (P>.05) on piglet birth weight, and piglet weights at 7, 14 and 21 days postpartum, or net weight gain of weaned piglets for any of the three parities. The average of the three parities showed that when sows were fed the 80% PPH diet during gestation, piglet weights were lower (P<.05) only at 21 days postpartum and that net weight gain of piglets during lactation was not affected by the 80% PPH diet fed during gestation. This observation indicated similar lactation performance for sows in both treatments.

Maternal and placental weights are given in table 7.

Body weight at breeding differed (P<.05) between sows fed 0% and 80% PPH diets during parity 3 and when summarized over the three parities only. Much of this difference can be attributed to weight change associated with normal growth patterns and the time required to progress through









Table 5. Effect of Perennial Peanut Hay Fed During Gestation On Number Of Piglets Per Litter By Parity (Exp. 2)


Parity 1 2 3 Averase*
0% 80% 0% 80% 0% 80% 0% 80% Item PPH PPH PPH PPH PPH PPH PPH PPH

Litters 6 6 6 6 6 6 18 18 Litter size 10.7 9.7 11.7 9.5 12.8 12.2 11.7 10.4 Piglets
Born alive 9.8 8.8 11.5 9.5 10.7 10.8 10.7 9.7 Alive, day 7 6.2 7.7 8.2 8.3 9.0 8.3 7.8 8.1 Alive, day 14 5.8 7.3 7.7 7.8 8.8 7.0 7.4 7.4 Alive, day 21 5.7 7.3 7.7 7.8 8.7 6.3 7.3 7.2 Overlayed .8 .8 1.0 1.0 .2 2.3 .7 1.4 Weaned, % 62.7 78.7 59.8 83.3 72.4 60.0 64.9 74.1

Note: Least-square means.


aDietary treatment average for three parities.









Table 6. Effect of Perennial Peanut Hay Fed During Gestation on Piglet Weights by Parity (Exp. 2)


Parity 1 2 3 AVeraqe
0% 80% 0% 80% 0% 80% 0% 80% Item PPH PPH PPH PPH PPH PPH PPH PpH

Litters 6 6 6 6 6 6 18 18 Piglet wt., kg
Birth wt. 1.45 1.16 1.40 1.34 1.28 1.32 1.38 1.27 7 day wt. 2.47 2.26 2.22 2.19 2.14 1.97 2.28 2.14 14 day wt. 4.13 3.72 3.85 3.55 3.24 2.93 3.74 3.40 21 day wt. 5.19 4.87 5.44 4.99 5.00 3.99 5.21 4.62 Net wt. gain 3.76 3.71 4.13 3.66 3.65 2.67 3.85 3.35

Note: Least-square means.


aDietary treatment average for three parities. bMeans in rows within parities differ (P<.05).









Table 7. Treatment and Parity Effects of Perennial Peanut Hay Fed During Gestation on Sow Weight Change and Placental Weights (Exp. 2)

Parity 1 2 3 Averaee 0% 80% 0% 80% 0% 80% 0% 80% Item PPH PP, PPH PPH PPH PPH PPH PPH

Sow Number 6 6 6 6 6 6 18 18 Sow Wt., Kg
Breeding 159 144 194 166 221e 189 192e 166 110 day Gestation 201e 170 240e 204 246e 204 229f 193 24-hr Postpartum 190e 154 228e 183 224e 180 214f 172 21-day Postpartum 185e 153 222e 188 227e 174 211f 172 Gestation Wt. Gainb 42e 26 46 38 25 15 38f 26 Gestation Wt. Changec 31e 10 34e 17 6 -10 24f 6 Lactation Wt. Changed -3 -1 -6 5 3 -5 -2 0 Placenta Wt., Kg 2.03 1.82 2.73 2.52 3.36 2.83 2.70 2.39

Note: Least-square means.

8Dietary treatment average for four parities (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2).
bGestation wt. gain = breeding wt. to 110 days of gestation wt.

cGestation wt. change = breeding wt. to 24-hr post-partum wt.

dLactation wt. change = 24-hr post-partum wt. to 21-day post-partum wt.

eLS Means in rows within parities differ (P<.05).

fLS Means in rows within parities differ (P<.0001).








50

subsequent reproductive cycles. The 110-day gestation, 24hour postpartum, 21-day postpartum weight and gestation weight change were significantly higher for sows fed 0% PPH during each parity (P<.05) and the average of the three parities (P<.0001). Gestation weight gain was significantly higher for the 0% PPH group in parity 1 (P<.05) and the average of three parities (P<.0001). However, no treatment differences (P>.05) were measured for lactation weight change and placental weight during any parity or three parities average.

Experiment 3

The effects of feeding 0% and 80% PPH diets to sows during gestation on litter performance are summarized in tables 8 and 9. Feeding the 80% PPH diet during gestation did not affect the number of piglets per litter, weaning percentage (table 8) or piglet weights (table 9). Maternal and placental weights along with lactation feed intake are given in table 10. Breeding, 110-day gestation and 21-day postpartum weights did not differ between the groups fed 0% and 80% PPH, but weight at 24 hours postpartum was higher (P<.05) for the group fed 0% PPH. The gestation weight gain and gestation weight change of sows fed the 0% PPH diet were greater (P<.0002) than sows fed the 80% PPH diet. No difference was found between the two dietary groups for lactation weight change and placenta weight. Lactation











Table 8. Effect of Perennial Peanut Hay Fed To Gestating Sows on Number of Piglets Per Litter (Exp. 3)



Item 0% PPH 80% PPH SEa

Litters 9b 10 Litter size 9.2 10.6 .85 Piglets
Born alive 8.7 10.4 .80 Alive, day 7 8.3 9.3 .80 Alive, day 14 8.1 9.2 .80 Alive, day 21 8.1 9.2 .80 Overlayed .1 .5 .24 Weaned. % 92.0 88.6 3,30
Note: Least-square means.
apooled standard error of the LS Mean.
bOne sow aborted at approximately 105 days of gestation.


Table 9. Effect of Perennial Peanut Hay Fed To Gestating Sows on Piglet Weight (Exp. 3)



Item 0% PPH 80% PPH SEa

Litters 9b 10 Piglet wt., kg
Birth wt. 1.41 1.29 .05 7 day wt. 2.78 2.64 .06 14 day wt. 4.44 4.46 .30 21 day wt. 6.22 5.57 .23 Net wt, gain 4.81 4.27 .21
Note: Least-square means.
*Pooled standard error of the LS Mean. bOne sow aborted at approximately 105 days of gestation.










Table 10. Effect of Perennial Peanut Hay Diets on Sow Weight Change, Placental Weights and Lactation Feed Intake (Exp. 3)



Item 0% PPH 80% PPH SEa

Sow No 9b 10 Sow weights, kg
Breeding 162 172 7.44 110 day gestation 211 197 6.10 24-hr postpartumf 204 183 6.48 21-day postpartum 194 176 6.66 Gestation wt. gainc9g 49 26 3.60 Gestation wt. changeog 43 11 3.85 Lactation wt. chan~ee -11 -6 2.73 Lactation ADFI, kg 5.86 6.84 .32 Placenta wt.. kg 1.93 2.42 .25 Note: Least-square means.
aPooled standard error of the LS Mean. bone sow aborted at approximately 105 days of gestation. cGestation wt. gain = breeding wt. to wt. at 110 days of gestation.
dGestation wt. change = breeding wt. to wt. at 24-hr postpartum.

eLactation wt. change = 24-hr postpartum wt. to 21-day postpartum.

fDiet effect (P<.05).
9Diet effect (P<.0002).



average feed intake was greater (P<.05) for sows fed the

diet containing 80% PPH during gestation. This observation was consistent with findings of Calvert et al., 1985 and Holzgraefe et al., 1986; who reported a greater feed intake during lactation when sows were fed alfalfa meal diets during gestation.








53

The effect of dietary treatments during gestation on milk composition is summarized in table 11. The 80% PPH diet did not affect the percentage of solids, protein, ash and caloric value of colostrum, but the percentage of fat was increased (P<.05) while lactose was decreased (P<.05).The higher fat percentage in colostrum of sows fed 80% PPH during gestation is in agreement with the hypothesis that feeding high fiber during gestation should increase the percentage of fat in milk (Holzgraefe et al., 1986). Comparison between dietary groups of milk samples collected at day 7 of lactation indicated that the 80% PPH diet did not affect the percentage of fat, ash or the caloric value but increased (P<.05) protein and decreased the percentages of total solids (P<.05) and lactose (P<.05).










Table 11. Analysis of Milk Samples From Sows Fed Perennial Peanut Hay During Gestation (Exp. 3)



Colostrum 7-Day Milk
0% 80% 0% 80%
Item PPH PPH SE8 PPH PPH SE8

Sow No. 5 5 9 10 Solids, % 22.70 23.81 11.11 18.93c 17.94 .28 Fat, % 4.07c 6.62 .70 7.04 6.15 .33 Protein, % 15.45 14.50 1.46 7.48c 8.24 .22 Lactose, % 2.42c 1.87 .17 3.61b 3.02 .06 Ash, % .76 .78 .02 .80 .79 .02 Energy, kcal/g 1.29 1.43 .07 1.06 1.07 .09

Note: Least-square means.


aPooled standard error of the LS Mean. bDiet effect (P<.0001).


CDiet effect (P<.05).














CHAPTER 4
EFFECT OF PERENNIAL PEANUT HAY ON
NUTRIENT UTILIZATION BY GRAVID SOWS


Introduction


Fibrous material which is comprised primarily of

cellulose and hemicellulose is digested mainly in the large intestine of the pig by anaerobic microbial fermentation. The volatile fatty acids (VFA) produced are absorbed from the cecum and colon to provide part of the animals energy requirements (Kass et al., 1980b; Rerat et al., 1987; GiusiPerier et al., 1989).

Utilization of nutrients from dietary fiber by growingfinishing swine has been shown to be minimal. High levels of fiber in swine diets reduce average daily gain and feed utilization (Bohman et al., 1953, 1955; Hanson et al., 1956; Becker et al, 1956; Heitman and Meyer, 1959; Kornegay, 1978; Kass et al., 1980a; Powley et al., 1981; Frank et al., 1983; Lindemann et al., 1986; Pond et al., 1989). The depression in growth has been attributed to a reduction in the concentration of digestible energy as the level of fiber was increased in the diet. However, high fiber, low energy diets fed to sows during gestation has been shown not to affect reproductive performance of sows (Danielson and










Noonan, 1975; Pollmann et al., 1980; Calvert et al., 1985; Pond et al., 1985; Holzgraefe et al., 1986). Of the forages grown in Florida, perennial peanut appears to have a great potential for feeding sows during gestation.

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding an 80% perennial peanut hay diet during gestation on the utilization of dietary nitrogen, energy, ether extract and fiber.

Materials and Methods

Twenty crossbred sows in second gestation with an

average initial weight of 166 kg were randomly assigned in equal sized groups at breeding to a diet containing 0% or 80% perennial peanut hay (PPH).

Composition and chemical analyses of diets are

presented in tables 12 and 13. Sun-cured PPH was ground through a portable hammer mill' (9.0 mm screen) and mixed with other ingredients to obtain the 80% PPH diet. Analysis of the PPH used in this trial is given in tables 14 and 15. Diets were formulated to contain approximately the same amount of crude protein but no attempt was made to equalize metabolizable energy (ME), as shown in table 12. Table 13 shows that the 80% PPH gestation diet contained less crude protein but more crude fiber and fiber constituents than the 0% PPH diet. An ME value of 1190 kcal/kg for perennial


1Gelh Bros. Mfg., West Bend, WI.










Table 12. Composition of Gestation Diets


Diets'
Ingredient 0% PPH 80% PPH

Peanut hayb 79.6 Corn 81.3 16.0 Soybean meal 15.5 1.5 Def. Phos. 1.8 2.1 Limestone .6 Salt .5 .5 Vitamin Premixc .3 .3 Mineral Premixd .1 .1

Calculated analysis, % (as fed)

Protein 14.00 14.00 Ca .85 1.88 P .65 .65 ME (Mcal/kg) 3.25 1.53
aPPH = perennial peanut hay.

bSun-cured perennial peanut hay, ground, (9 mm screen).

CProvided 7,700 IU vitamin A; 1,100 IU vitamin D3; 16.5 IU vitamin E; 26.5 mcg vitamin B ; 5 5 mg riboflavin; 33 mg niacin; 22 mg pantothenic acid; 275 mg choline; 4.0 mg menadione; .66 mg folic acid; 2.2 mg pyridoxine; 1.1 mg thiamine; and 110 mcg biotin per kg of finished feed. Courtesy of Hoffman-LaRoche Inc., Nutley, NJ 07110.
dSupplied 150 mg zinc; 60 mg manganese; 175 mg iron; 17.5 mg copper; 2 mg iodine; and 40 mg calcium per kg of finished feed. Courtesy of J.M. Huber Corporation, Quincy, IL.










Table 13. Chemical Analyses of Gestation Diets



Dietsa
Itemb 0% PPH 80% PPH

Dry matter, % 90.46 89.62 Crude protein, % 16.18 11.76 Ether extract, % 4.41 3.95 Crude fiber, % 1.94 24.50 Ash, % 6.15 9.00

Fiber constituents, %
NDF 9.05 42.58 ADF 3.76 36.60 Cellulose 2.96 24.34 Hemicellulose 5.29 5.98 Lignin 0.93 10.60

Gross energy, Mcal/kg 4.29 4.24 Calculated ME, Mcal/kg 3.59 1.72

aPPH = perennial peanut hay.

bAll analyses are reported on dry matter basis.


Table 14. Chemical Analyses of Sun-Cured Perennial Peanut Hay


Itema


Dry Matter Crude Protein Ether Extract Crude Fiber Ash
NDF
ADF
Hemicellulose Cellulose Lignin

Gross Energy,


90.49 12.00 3.82 30.00
7.69 52.03 41.24 10.79 28.29 11.82

4.35


Mcal/Kg


All analyses are reported on dry matter basis.










Table 15. Amino Acid and Protein Composition in Selected Samples of Fresh and Sun-Cured Perennial Peanut



PerennialPeanut
-Amino Acid' Homogenateb Sun-Cured Hay


----------- % Sample---------Aspartic Acid 1.24 1.13 Glutamic Acid 1.58 1.23 Histidine .40 .25 Serine .65 .50 Arginine .72 .50 Glycine .72 .63 Threonine .59 .48 Alanine .81 .60 Tyrosine .55 .43 Methionine .11 .07 Valine .74 .59 Phenylalanine .71 .60 Isoleucine .59 .49 Leucine 1.10 .89 Lysine .82 .49 Cysteine .07 .06 Tryptophan N.Ac N.A

Crude Proteind 14.55 13.30

Note: Analyzed by Woodson-Tenent Laboratories, Inc., Memphis, TN 38101.

'All analyses are reported on dry matter basis.
bHomogenized leaves and stems from mature plants. Lyophilized following homogenization.
cNot available.


dKj eldahl procedure.








60

peanut hay (estimated at approximately 90% of ME of suncured alfalfa; NAS, 1971) was used to calculate the overall ME value of the 80% PPH diet. Gross energy content in Mcal/kg was similar for both diets but calculated ME was lower for the 80% PPH diet as a result of the fiber concentration (table 13). The intake of sows was adjusted to provide 127.0 kcal of calculated ME/kg BW'm/day, and feeding level was readjusted biweekly thereafter to accommodate for weight gain during gestation. Because of the difference in the calculated ME of the diets, the average feed intake on a dry matter basis (DMB) was 1.82 and

3.36 kg/day for sows fed the 0% and 80% PPH diets, respectively. Diets were fed in meal form at 0900 and 1800 hr daily from breeding until parturition and water was offered on an ad libitum basis throughout gestation. Sows were penned by experimental diet, in an open-sided shelter with pens on solid concrete floors. Each pen contained gestation crates to allow individual feeding.

At 48 days postcoitum sows were tethered in metabolism crates also located in the open-sided shelter and total feces were collected from 50 to 53 days postcoitum. To facilitate separation of feces and urine, a Foley catheter (size 20, 5cc, balloon type) was inserted into the bladder of all sows 1 day prior to the collection period (Pollmann et al., 1979). Urine was collected in 20-liter plastic








61

containers to which 100 ml of concentrated HCl had been added to prevent ammonia loss and bacterial contamination. Urine output was strained through glass wool, measured volumetrically and recorded daily. An aliquot comprising 10% of the daily urine void was refrigerated and then aliquots were combined at the end of the trial, and subsamples were taken and frozen at -200C until analyzed. Feces were collected three times daily, placed in plastic bags and refrigerated. At the end of the collection period, the feces were combined with water to make an homogenate when mixed with a high speed commercial blender. The homogenate was weighed and two 250 g subsamples were transferred into plastic bags and frozen at -200C until analyzed.

Fecal and urine samples were lyophilized to dryness prior to analysis. Feed samples were collected at the beginning of the collection period and feed or dried fecal samples were ground through a Wiley Mill (1 mm screen) before analysis.

Energy determinations of feed, feces and urine were

made by adiabatic calorimetry using a Parr Model 1241 oxygen calorimeter interfaced with a Parr Model 1710 calorimeter controller2. Dry matter (DM) determination was conducted as described by AOAC (1980).


zParr Instruments, Inc., Moline, IL.








62

Feed, fecal and urinary nitrogen (N) were determined by the Kjeldahl procedure (AOAC, 1980). Ether extract (EE) was determined by using a modified Soxhlet extractor which accommodated multiple one gram samples of feed or feces batched together by treatment and extracted for 24 hr with a ,50:50 v/v mixture of ethyl and isopropyl ethers. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), permanganate lignin and cellulose in feed and feces samples were determined according to the procedures described by Goering and Van Soest (1970); with NDF determinations modified by a-amylase inclusion (Robertson and Van Soest, 1977) to facilitate filtration. Hemicellulose (HEM) was calculated as ADF subtracted from NDF.

Data were analyzed by the General Linear Model

procedure of SAS (Barr et al., 1979) as a complete random design where sows were considered the experimental units.

Results and Discussion

A summary of the energy metabolism data is reported in table 16. The diet containing 80% PPH increased (P<.0001) gross energy intake, and fecal and urinary (P<.004) energy voids, but it did not affect digestible energy (DE) intake. Total ME intake was higher (P<.04) for the 0% PPH diet. Because of the higher fecal and urinary energy voided by sows fed the 80% PPH diet, DE and ME concentrations, expressed as a percentage of intake (table 16) and in Mcal/kg diet (table 17), were lower (P<.0001). Similar










Table 16. Effect of 0% and 80% PPH Diets on Energy Metabolism in Gestating Sows




Diets
Energy 0% PPH 80% PPH SEa

Intake, Mcal/da Yb 7.79 14.27 .34 Fecal, Mcal/day 1.43 8.33 .36 Urinary, Mcal/dayc .23 .37 .03 Digestible, Mcal/day 6.36 5.94 .31 Metabolizable, Mcal/dayc 6.13 5.30 .26 Digestibility, %b 81.72 41.73 .02 Metabolizable, %b 78.75 36.96 1.98 ME/DE ratioc 96.35 93.37 .54
aPooled standard error of the mean.

bMeans differ (P<.0001).

CMeans differ (P<.04).


Table 17. Energy Partitioning of Gestation Diets Containing 0% or 80% Perennial Peanut Hay




Diets . ..
Energy' 0% PPH 80% PPH S b

Gross, Mcal/kg 4.29 4.24 Digestible, Mcal/kgc 3.50 1.77 .09 Metabolizable, Mcal/kgc 3.38 1.57 .08

"Values reported on dry matter basis.


bpooled standard error of the mean.


cMeans differ (P<.0001).








64

results for DE and/or ME percentages have been reported by other researchers when high fiber diets were fed to sows during gestation (Pollmann et al., 1979, 1983; Kornegay, 1981; Holzgraefe et al., 1985b; Calvert et al., 1985; Pond et al., 1986b). The ME in swine diets generally comprises between 90 to 97 percent of DE (NRC, 1979); and the ME values as percentages of DE for 0% and 80% PPH were within that range, although they differed (P<.04) from each other. In general, energy balance for all sows allotted in either dietary treatment was adequate as indicated by DE and ME intakes (NRC, 1979).

The actual ME content of the 80% PPH diet was found to be 1.57 Mcal/kg on a dry matter basis instead of the calculated 1.72 Mcal/kg and this difference might have accounted for the lower ME intake of the 80% PPH diet. Using the prediction method described by Pollmann et al. (1979) it is possible to predict the ME value of PPH in the present study. The 0% and 80% PPH diets averaged 3.38 and 1.57 Mcal/kg, respectively. Since the remaining 20% of the 80% PPH diet was accounted for by corn and soybean meal, that percentage of the diet supplied 0.68 Mcal/kg (.20 x

3.38). Therefore, when the .68 Mcal/kg energy supplied by the corn-soybean meal fraction was subtracted from 1.57 Mcal/kg of 80% PPH, the difference was 0.89 Mcal/kg. That value represented the ME contributed by PPH.








65

Table 18. Effect of 0% and 80% PPH Diets on Nitrogen Metabolism in Gestating Sows.



Diets
Nitrocien 0% PPH 80% PPH SEa Intake, g/da Yb 47.05 63.31 1.56 Fecal, g/day 10.27 39.28 1.88 Urinary, g/day 21.20 14.89 1.71 Digested, g/dayb 36.78 24.03 1.45 Retention, g/dayc 15.58 10.24 1.54 Digestibility, %b 78.29 38.18 2.45 Retention, % of intakec 33.36 16.20 3.34 Retention, % of digested 42.08 41.87 4.05


apooled standard error of the mean. bMeans differ (P<.0001).

CMeans differ (P<.03).


A summary of the nitrogen metabolism data is reported in table 18. Because sows were fed to achieve isocaloric intake, those fed the 80% PPH diet consumed more (P<.0001) N and excreted more (P<.0001) fecal N than sows on the 0% PPH. Nitrogen digested (g/day and apparent N digestibility) was lower (P<.0001) for the 80% PPH group. Urinary nitrogen void was not affected by dietary treatment. Nitrogen retention in g/day and as a percentage of intake was also lower (P<.03) for sows fed 80% PPH, but no treatment difference was found for N retention as a function of that digested. Lower N digestibility and/or retention as a percentage of intake have been reported when high fiber diets were fed during gestation (Pollmann et al., 1979,








66

1983; Young and King, 1981; Kornegay, 1981; Holzgraefe et al., 1985b; Calvert et al., 1985; Pond et al., 1986b). Rate of digesta passage (Farrell and Johnson, 1970; Kass et al., 1980a; Ranvindran et al., 1984; Lindemann et al., 1986; Holzgraefe et al., 1985 a,b) and metabolic fecal nitrogen (Forbes and Hamilton, 1952; Cunningham et al., 1962; Farrel, 1973; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981a; Ranvindran et al., 1984; Pollmann et al., 1979; Holzgraefe et al., 1985b) were increased when fibrous materials were fed to swine. Each of these factors had the effect of lowering N digestibility.

The apparent digestibilities and relative quantities

digested of DM, EE, and fiber constituents are presented in tables 19 and 20. The 80% PPH diet lowered (P<.0002) apparent digestibilities of DM, EE, NDF, ADF, HEM, cellulose and lignin when compared with the 0% PPH diet (table 19). However, because of increased intake sows fed the 80% PPH diet digested more (P<.0002) NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin (g/day) than sows fed the 0% PPH diet (table 20). No differences (P>.05) were found in the quantities of DM and HEM digested (table 20). Values for apparent digestibility (table 19) and the quantity of EE digested (table 20) were (P<.0002) negative when sows were fed the 80% PPH diet. The lower digestibilities for DM and fiber constituents in the 80% PPH diet reported here are in agreement with results reported by Pollmann et al. (1979, 1983), Zoiopoulos et al. (1983), Holzgraefe et al. (1985b), and Calvert et al.










Table 19. Percentage of Apparent Digestibilities of Dry Matter, Ether Extract and Fiber Constituents in Sows Fed 0% or 80% PPH


Iteml 0% PPH 80% PPH SEb

Dry matter 82.79 43.88 1.72 Ether extract 57.82 -11.88 5.16 Neutral detergent fiber 56.94 30.40 3.58 Acid detergent fiber 59.37 32.00 3.12 Hemicellulose 55.22 20.66 4.84 Cellulose 58.86 35.67 3.57 Lignin 72.13 29.08 3.47


aMeans within the row for each item differ (P<.0002).
bpooled standard error of the mean.


Table 20. Relative Quantities in Grams Per Day of Dry Matter, Ether Extract and Fiber Constituents Digested by Sows Fed 0% or 80% PPH


Item 0% PH 80% PPH SEb

Dry matter 1503.40 1474.00 62.61 Ether extract 46.27 -13.26 5.37 Neutral detergent fiber 93.74 435.32 37.62 Acid detergent fiber 40.63 392.96 31.03 Hemicellulose 53.11 42.36 8.29 Cellulose 31.72 291.89 24.78 Lignin 12.20 103.88 11.90


aMeans within the row for DM and HEM did not differ (P>.05). All others differ (P<.0002).


bPooled standard error of the mean.








68

(1985); in which DM and the fiber constituents NDF, ADF, HEM and cellulose decreased with increasing levels of dietary fiber intake during gestation. Lignin digestibility has been reported to increase (Kornegay, 1978 and 1981) or decrease (Ranvindran et al., 1984; Pond et al., 1986a; Lindemann et al., 1986) as the level of fiber was increased in the diet of growing-finishing pigs. The digestibility of EE has been reported to decrease when swine were fed high fiber diets (Kornegay, 1978; Pond et al., 1986b). Schneider and Flatt (1975) also confirmed that it is not unusual for EE of the feces to exceed that of the feed and their statement can be used in part to explain the negative EE digestibility of the 80% PPH diet in this experiment. The lower digestion coefficients for the 80% PPH diet were likely caused by elevated dietary fiber level and an accelerated rate of digesta passage (Farrell and Johnson, 1970; Kass et al., 1980a; Ranvindran et al., 1984; Lindemann et al., 1986; Holzgraefe et al., 1985 a,b). With the more rapid transit of digesta, less opportunity existed for both enzymatic and microbial digestion to occur.














CHAPTER 5
EFFECT OF PERENNIAL PEANUT HAY ON THE CONCENTRATION
OF PLASMA CONSTITUENTS DURING GESTATION


Introduction

There is a paucity of published information reporting effects of high fiber diets on concentrations of blood constituents in gestating sows. The majority of published data concerning swine summarize blood constituents of growing-fipishing pigs. During gestation, numerous physiological adaptations must be made to ensure that all the needs of growing fetuses are met and that maternal vital functions are maintained (Anderson et al., 1970). Values of blood constituents reported for growing-finishing pigs, therefore, should not be extrapolated to the gestating sow. Addition of fiber to diets fed to growing-finishing pigs has been shown to affect the concentrations of blood glucose (Collings et al., 1979; Pond et al., 1981; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981b; Frank et al., 1983), urea nitrogen (Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1980, 1981a, b; Frank et al., 1983) and cholesterol (Collings et al., 1979; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981a; Pond et al., 1981).








70

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of feeding a diet containing 80% perennial peanut hay to gestating sows on plasma concentrations of glucose, protein, urea nitrogen, lactic acid, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides.

Materials and Methods

Twenty crossbred sows in second gestation with an

average initial weight of 166 kg were randomly assigned in equal sized groups at breeding to a diet containing 0% or 80% perennial peanut hay (PPH).

Composition and chemical analyses of diets are

presented in tables 21 and 22. Sun-cured PPH was ground through a portable Hammer Mill' (9 mm screen) and mixed with other ingredients to obtain the 80% PPH diet. Diets were calculated to contain approximately the same amount of crude protein but no attempt was made to equalize metabolizable energy (ME). Sows in both treatments were fed their assigned diets to provide 127.0 kcal of calculated ME/kg BW-7 /day, and the daily ration was readjusted biweekly to accommodate weight gain during gestation. Experimental






IGehl Bros. Mfg. Co., West Bend, WI.










Table 21. Composition of Gestation Diets


Diets'
Ingredient 0% PPH 80% PPH

Peanut hayb 79.6 Corn 81.3 16.0 Soybean meal 15.5 1.5 Def. Phos. 1.8 2.1 Limestone .6 Salt .5 .5 Vitamin Premix' .3 .3 Mineral Premix8 .1 .1

Calculated analysis, % (as fed)

Protein 14.00 14.00 Ca .85 1.88 P .65 .65 ME (Mcal/kg) 3.25 1.53


aPPH = perennial peanut hay.
bSun-cured perennial peanut hay, ground, (9 mm screen).

cProvided 7,700 IU vitamin A; 1,100 IU vitamin D.; 16.5 IU vitamin E; 26.5 mcg vitamin B1; 5.5 mg riboflavin; 33 mg niacin; 22 mg pantothenic acid; 275 mg choline; 4.0 mg menadione; .66 mg folic acid; 2.2 pyridoxine; 1.1 mg thiamine; and 110 mcg biotin per kg of finished feed. Courtesy of Hoffman-LaRoche Inc., Nutley, NJ 07110.
dSupplied 150 mg zinc; 60 mg manganese; 175 mg iron; 17.5 mg copper; 2 mg iodine; and 40 mg calcium per kg of finished feed. Courtesy of J.M. Huber Corporation, Quincy, IL.










Table 22. Chemical Analyses of Gestation Diets Dietsa
Itemb 0% PPH Diets" 80% PPH

Dry matter, % 90.46 89.62 Crude protein, % 16.18 11.76 Ether extract, % 4.41 3.95 Crude fiber, % 1.94 24.50 Ash, % 6.15 9.00

Fiber constituents, %
NDF 9.05 42.58 ADF 3.76 36.60 Cellulose 2.96 24.34 Hemicellulose 5.29 5.98 Lignin 0.93 10.60

Gross energy, Mcal/kg 4.29 4.24 Calculated ME, Mcal/kg 3.59 1.72


aPPH = perennial peanut hay.


bAll analyses are reported on dry matter basis.








73

diets were fed in meal form at 0900 and 1800 hr daily from breeding until parturition. Water was supplied ad libitum. Sows were penned by experimental diet in an open-sided shelter with pens on solid concrete floors. Each pen contained gestation crates to facilitate individual feeding.

Blood sample collection was performed on days 0 (prior to breeding), 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 postcoitum. Thirty millimeters of blood was collected into heparinized tubes via jugular puncture immediately prior to 0900 hr before the morning feeding on each collection day. Fasting blood samples were expected to provide more consistent concentrations of blood metabolites (Pond et al., 1981). Blood was centrifuged at 3000 x g for 10 minutes and the harvested plasma was subdivided into seven equal aliquots which were stored at -200C until analyzed for concentrations of glucose, protein, urea nitrogen, lactic acid, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides.

Plasma glucose concentrations were determined

colorimetrically by the glucose oxidase:peroxidase method2 using o-dianisidine dihydrochloride as the chromagen acceptor. Plasma protein concentrations were determined by using brilliant blue in the colorimetric method described by Bradford (1976). Plasma cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol,


2The enzymatic colorimetric determination of glucose, Tech. Bull. No. 510. Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO 63178.








74

triglycerides, urea nitrogen and lactic acid concentrations were determined colorimetrically using procedures described by, and reagents purchased from Sigma Diagnostics3.

All samples were assayed in duplicate using a Bausch and Lomb Spectronic 21 spectrophotometer. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma was calculated as: LDLcholesterol = [total cholesterol] - [HDL-cholesterol] [triglycerides/5]. Concentrations for each plasma constituent were pooled for day 0 prior to randomization and allotment in order to establish a baseline to evaluate the effect of high fiber diets on plasma constituents at each
4
subsequent collection period.

Data were analyzed by the General Linear Model

procedure of SAS (Barr et al., 1979) as a split-plot design in which the whole units were arranged completely at random (Steel and Torrie, 1980). Dietary treatments were considered the whole-plot and the collection period was the sub-plot dietary treatment. Sows were considered the experimental units. The model included diet (0% and 80% PPH), collection period at days 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100


3Sigma Diagnostics Procedures: cholesterol, No. 352; HDLcholesterol, No. 352-3; urea nitrogen, No. 640; triglycerides, No. 405; and pyruvate/lactate, No. 726UV/826-UV. Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO 63178. 4Milton Roy Co., Rochester, NY 14625.








75

postcoitum, and the interaction between diet and collection period. The whole-plot error term was sows within diets and was used to test effects of dietary treatments.

Results and Discussion

The concentrations of plasma constituents in sows fed 0% and 80% PPH diets are presented by collection period in table 23. The overall mean concentrations of glucose, protein, urea nitrogen, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in the plasma of sows fed the 0% and 80% PPH diets during gestation did not differ (P>.05). The overall mean concentration of lactic acid in plasma of sows fed the 80% PPH diet was higher (P<.008) than for sows fed the 0% PPH diet (23.81 vs. 15.53 mg/100 ml). The concentration of HDL-cholesterol in plasma of sows fed the 0% PPH diet was higher (P<.05) than for sows fed the 80% PPH diet (29.28 vs. 26.12 mg/100 ml). Plasma values for LDL- and HDLcholesterol in this experiment are in agreement with values cited by Grummer and Carroll (1988) in which LDL-cholesterol accounts for the majority of the blood cholesterol in pigs. Time trends for changes in the concentration of plasma constituents are reported in table 23 and presented graphically in figures 1 through 7.

Plasma glucose concentration changed quadratically

(P<.0007) over the collection periods (figure 1) for sows fed 0 and 80% PPH. The major increase in plasma glucose concentration occurred between days 60 and 100 postcoitum









Table 23. Concentrations of Plasma Constituents by Collection Period in Sows Fed 0% or 80% PPH During Gestation.


Plasma PPH .. Collection Period Constituent* %b 20 40 60 80 100 Overall SE

Glucose 0 3.87 78.40 90.55 79.28 86.72 93.35 87.03 80 88.06 96.45 92.23 106.55 113.11 98.38 4.64

Protein 0 4.96 3.92 3.67 4.65 5.28 5.24 4.62 80 4.81 5.06 5.17 5.12 4.77 4.98 .38

Urea nitrogen 0 12.06 8.43 9.36 10.82 9.05 8.19 9.65 80 7.67 9.51 7.77 10.67 10.09 9.63 .57

Lactic acidc 0 19.30 11.95 13.77 10.69 11.95 25.54 15.53 80 34.68 20.83 19.63 21.19 27.25 23.81 1.96

Total cholesterol 0 111.03 77.80 83.57 86.12 73.63 65.19 82.89 80 80.68 77.88 76.36 70.16 62.34 79.74 2.90

HDL-cholesterolc 0 40.81 28.75 27.03 26.83 27.02 25.25 29.28 80 22.02 24.31 28.30 22.05 19.21 26.12 1.03

LDL-cholesterol 0 58.57 37.65 43.53 48.12 32.30 24.96 40.85 80 48.26 40.86 39.62 33.93 32.51 42.29 3.14

Triglycerides 0 58.30 56.99 65.07 55.90 71.53 74.89 63.78 80 51.94 63.54 42.20 70.88 53.12 56.66 3.71

Note: Least-square means at 20-day intervals from day 0-100 of gestation. aProtein = g/100 ml; all others mg/100 ml. bRepresents average for all 20 sows prior to breeding. COverall dietary means differed: Lactic acid (P<.008); HDL-Cholesterol (P<.05).










for sows fed the diet containing 80% PPH. Although the plasma glucose curve for sows fed the 80% PPH diet was slightly higher than those fed 0% PPH, there was no evidence for heterogeneity of regression (P>.05). The mean plasma protein concentration remained constant (4.80 g/100 ml) throughout collection periods and individual means did not differ (P>.05) between dietary treatments (table 22). Plasma urea nitrogen concentrations changed quadratically (P<.002) over the collection periods (figure 2); however, the magnitude of change was dependent on the dietary treatment, resulting in a dietary treatment x collection period interaction (P<.003), and heterogeneity of regression. Sows on the 0% PPH diet experienced a linear (P<.05) decline in the concentration of plasma urea nitrogen throughout gestation, whereas, sows on the 80% PPH diet experienced a quadratic (P<.001) change explained by a plasma profile where urea nitrogen was lowest during the first 60 days of gestation then increased thereafter.

Plasma lactic acid concentrations changed cubically (P<.001) over the collection periods (figure 3); however, the magnitude of the change was dependent on the dietary treatments and resulted in a dietary treatment x collection period interaction (P<.001). Sows on the 0% PPH diet experienced a quadratic (P<.0001) change in plasma lactic acid in which lactate decreased up to 40 days postcoitum, then increased thereafter, whereas, sows on the 80% PPH diet








78

experienced a cubic (P<.005) change in which plasma lactate increased up to 20 days postcoitum, decreased out to 80 days then increased throughout the remainder of gestation.

Sows in both dietary groups experienced cubic decreases in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (P<.0001), HDL-cholesterol (P<.0001) and LDL-cholesterol (P<.0l) with time as shown in figures 4, 5 and 6, respectively. The pooled means from both dietary treatments indicated that the concentration of plasma triglycerides increased linearly (P<.02) over the collection periods (figure 7). Although plasma triglycerides concentration for the 80% PPH group remained unchanged throughout gestation and, there was no evidence of heterogeneity of regression (P>.05). The apparent contradiction of these two statements is the result of the highly significant increase in the plasma triglycerides measured in the sows group fed the 0% PPH diet, and the combining of the two data sets for this observation.

The nutrition of the fetus depends on the transfer of nutrients across the placenta from maternal blood. Thus, adequate fetal nutrition depends on adequate levels of circulating nutrients in the maternal blood. Further, the amount of major nutrients (protein, energy and minerals) deposited in the fetus are extremely large during the terminal stage of pregnancy (Pond and Maner, 1984).








79

The main source of energy for the fetal piglet is

glucose derived from maternal blood (Pond and Maner, 1984). The observed increase in the mean plasma glucose concentration throughout gestation reflected the higher maintenance energy requirement of the sow, and the energy requirements of growing fetuses during the last stages of gestation.

Plasma protein concentration from sows fed the 80% PPH diet was constant throughout gestation, while plasma urea nitrogen increased dramatically from about day 60 postcoitum. The higher plasma urea nitrogen measured in sows fed the 80% PPH diet may have reflected tissue protein catabolism and mobilization of amino acids for biosynthesis of fetal tissues and conversion to plasma glucose from gluconeogenesis. These events were necessary to accommodate the greatly accelerated fetal growth during the last third of gestation, and to maintain homeostasis of circulating plasma protein.

Cholesterol is the major sterol in animal tissues and it is an important component of outer cell membranes (Lehninger, 1982). Thus, the lower plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol as gestation progressed into the final trimester may indicate the high demand of cholesterol required for fetal tissue synthesis.








80

The increase in lactic acid observed in figure 3 for sows fed the 80% PPH diet could reflect increased lactate entering peripheral circulation as VFA from intestinal origin during the first 20-30 days postcoitum. Thereafter, plasma lactate was observed to decline out to day 80 postcoitum. A plausible explanation for this occurrence could be lactate utilization for development of adipose and mammary tissues in the sow, and fetal membranes (Harper, 1969).

The constant level in plasma triglycerides that was

measured in sows fed the 80% PPH diet could have reflected low dietary fat digestibility or could have resulted from nonfunctional lipogenesis biosynthetic pathways for triglyceride synthesis from plasma VFA.

Further study should be conducted to explain the

dynamics of these circulating metabolites absorbed from high fiber diets fed to gestating swine.








81







120


80%


110
0








00%
r-4




080







0 20 40 0 100 120




Collection Period (days)



Figure 1. Plasma concentrations of glucose in sows fed gestation diets containing 0% or S0% PPH. Regression equations for curves plotted are given below.

1. 0% Y = 91.69 - 0.393X + O.O041X2


2. 80% Y = 92.94 - 0.171X + 0.0038X2








82







11



80%



0
o 10


N

0


'rS 9 0%





0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Collection Period (days) Figure 2. Plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen in sows fed gestation diets containing 0% or 80% PPH. Regression equations for curves plotted are given below.

1. 0% Y = 10.79 - 0.023X


2. 80% Y = 11.18 - 0.107X + 0.0010X2








83





30

80%


25
o 0%
0




20





15





1 0 , l . . .. . .
020 40 60 80 100 120



Collection Period (days) Figure 3. Plasma concentrations of lactic acid in sows fed gestation diets containing 0% or 80% PPH. Regression equations for curves plotted are given below.

1. 0% Y = 19.62 - 0.417X + 0.0046X2

2. 80% k = 20.98 + 0.812X - 0.0235X2 + 0.00016X3









84







110







H
0
0



o
H- 90
N



0
4)
4.)

H
0
4 70
U 0%








50 1 ,. 80%

0 20 40 60 80 100 120




Collection Period (days)




Figure 4. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol in sows fed gestation diets containing 0% or 80% PPH. Regression equations for curves plotted are given below.

1. 0% Y = 108.85 - 1.903X + 0.0388X2 - 0.00024X3 2. 80% Y = 109.94 - 1.876X + 0.0329X2 - 0.00020X3



















40



H


o
o 35

N



0
O

4J 30
M
4)
r
0




25


04


0% 20
0 20 40 60 so 100 120





Collection Period (days)




Figure 5. Plasma concentrations of HDL-Cholesterol in sows fed gestation diets containing 0% or 80% PPH. Regression equations for curves plotted are given below.

1. 0% Y = 40.54 - 0.794X + 0.0139X2 - 0.00008X3 2. 80% Y = 39.70 - 1.139X + 0.0236X2 - o.00014X3








86







60




54
0
0


0
'-4


P

42


0
A U 36



80%
03







0%
24
a 20 40 60 8o 100 120




Collection Period (days)



Figure 6. Plasma concentrations of LDL-Cholesterol in sows fed gestation diets containing 0% or 80% PPH. Regression equations for curves plotted are given below.

1i. 0% k = 56.69 - 1.117X + 0.0250X2 - 0.00017X3 2. 80% k = 58.50 - 0.637X + 0.0066X2 - 0.00003X0









87






75


0%




~70
0
0





G) 65

*r4
W
U
>4 '-4 .T
$4
-4 60


U80%

'-4

55 I, , I
0 20 40 60 80 100 120





Collection Period (days)


Figure 7. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides in sows fed gestation diets containing 0% or 80% PPH. Regression equations for curves plotted are given below.

1. 0% k = 55.39 + 0.168X


2. 80% Y = 55.98 + O.014X













CHAPTER 6
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


Five experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of ground perennial peanut hay (PPH) in sow gestation diets. Experiments 1, 2 and 3 were conducted to (1) determine the maximum level at which PPH could be added to sow gestation diets without affecting reproductive performance, (2) to determine if this maximum level of PPH could be fed during three successive gestations, and (3) to compare the composition of colostrum at day 1 and milk at day 7 of lactation when sows were fed a standard gestation diet or a diet containing PPH during gestation.

The feeding of 0%, 40%, 60% and 80% PPH diets

(experiment 1) or 0% and 80% PPH diets (experiments 2 and 3) during gestation had no effect (P>.05) on litter size, piglets born alive and piglets alive at 7, 14 and 21 days postpartum. There was a trend for more overlayed piglets from sows fed the 80% PPH diet, but piglet weaning percentage was not affected (P>.05) by dietary treatments fed during gestation. No explanation is offered for the low weaning percentages found in experiment 1. It is possible that the level of physical and mental maturity regulating mothering ability during lactation may have been altered by








89

feeding fibrous diets to primiparous sows during gestation. However, this effect disappeared in multiparous sows during experiments 2 and 3.

The lack of statistical significance in the number of piglets alive from birth to 21 days postpartum, or the weaning percentages in the present study was attributed to the high degree of variation in mothering ability of young sows, the high degree of variation in these traits and the low number of replications in the experimental design.

In experiment 1, the birth weight and 7- and 14-day weights of piglets from sows fed the 0%, 40% and 60% PPH diets were higher (P<.05) than piglets from the sows fed 80% PPH diet. The piglet weights at 21 days and net weight gain of weaned piglets from sows fed the 0% and 80% PPH diets did not differ (P>.05). However, the 21-day weight and net weight gain of weaned piglets from sows fed the 40% and 60% PPH diets were higher (P<.05) than those from sows fed the 80% PPH diet. In experiment 2, feeding sows 0% or 80% PPH diets during gestation had no effect (P>.05) on piglet birth weight, and piglet weights at 7, 14 and 21 days postpartum, or net weight gain of weaned piglets for any of the three parities. Similar results were obtained when piglet birth weight, and piglet weights at 7 and 14 days postpartum were summarized over three parities. Although piglets from sows fed the 80% PPH diet during gestation had lower (P<.05)








90

weights at day 21 postpartum, net weight gain of weaned piglets was not affected by gestation dietary treatment.

When data from experiment 3 were considered alone,

feeding sows the 80% PPH diet did not affect (P>.05) piglet birth weight, and piglet weights at 7, 14 and 21 days postpartum, or net weight gain of weaned piglets during the 21-day lactation period. This observation may suggest that body size and maturity of the sow play an important role in adaptability of the digestive tract to high fiber diets.

Sow weights at breeding, 110 days postcoitum, 24 hr

postpartum and 21 days postpartum were significantly lower (P<.05) for sows fed the 80% PPH diet. Therefore, gestation weight gain and gestation weight change among sows fed the 0%, 40% and 60% PPH diets (experiment 1) or 0% PPH diet (experiments 2 and 3) were significantly higher (P<.05) than for sows fed the 80% PPH diet. A gestation weight gain of 22.0 kg has been reported to be adequate for the normal development of a litter of 12 piglets (Noblet et al., 1990). In the present study, sows fed the 80% PPH diet had an average gestation weight gain of 24.0 kg, therefore, gestation weight gain from sows fed the 80% PPH diet should not have been a limiting factor on sow reproductive performance. Lactation weight change and placenta weight were not affected (P>.05) by dietary treatments.








91

Data for reproductive traits from experiments 1, 2 and

3 represent a number of observations possibly too low to prevent high variability in the reproductive parameters measured (Hays et al., 1969), especially with the very low weaning rates on all treatments in experiment 1. Therefore, low numbers of replications (observations) in reproductive traits was a limiting factor contributing to high variability. This factor resulted in mean differences of some reproductive parameters to have high standard errors; and, coefficients of variation were too great to reach statistical significance .

In experiment 3, lactation feed intake was greater

(P<.05) for sows fed the 80% PPH diet during gestation. On day 1 of lactation, sows fed the 80% PPH diet displayed increased (P<.05) percentage of fat in colostrum while lactose was decreased (P<.05). Milk samples collected at day 7 of lactation from sows fed the 80% PPH diet did not differ in fat percentage from those fed the 0% PPH diet, but contained higher (P<.05) protein percentage and lower percentages of total solids and lactose (P<.05). These data suggest that influences of the high fiber diet fed during gestation on milk fat disappeared quickly when the diet was discontinued at parturition. Therefore, the beneficial effect(s) that high milk fat may have exerted upon piglet survivability early in lactation was fleeting.








92

In experiment 4, a metabolic study utilizing 20

crossbred sows in gestation was conducted from 50 to 53 days postcoitum to determine the effect of feeding 0% or 80% PPH diets on nutrient utilization. The intake of sows in both treatments was adjusted to provide 127.0 Kcal of calculated ME/kg BW'm/day. Because of the lower ME density of the 80% PPH diet, average daily feed intake (DMB) of sows fed the 80% PPH diet was 3.36 kg/day while those fed the 0% PPH diet consumed an average of 1.82 kg/day. Sows fed the 80% PPH diet had higher (P<.0001) gross energy intake but lower (P<.04) ME intake than sows fed the 0% PPH diet. Digestible energy intake was not affected (P>.05) by dietary treatments. Digestible energy and ME expressed as a percentage of gross energy intake were lower (P<.0001) for the 80% PPH diet. This observation might suggest that gestating sows adapted to the 80% PPH diet by increasing feed intake in order to compensate for the lower apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients and the lower ME associated with the high fiber diet. Sows fed the 80% PPH diet had higher (P<.0001) nitrogen intake but lower (P<.03) digestible and retained nitrogen than sows on the 0% PPH diet. Digestible nitrogen and retained nitrogen as a percentage of nitrogen intake were lower (P<.03) for the 80% PPH diet. Low nitrogen retention from sows on the 80% PPH diet, as observed during the metabolic study, may be a plausible explanation for the lower gestation weight gains.








93

Feeding the 80% PPH diet reduced (P<.002) the apparent digestibilities of dry matter (DM), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemicellulose (HEM), cellulose and lignin when compared with the 0% PPH diet. No treatment differences (P>.05) were measured between the quantities of DM and HEM digested by the two groups of sows. However, because of greater intake, sows fed the 80% PPH diet digested more quantity of (P<.0002) NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin than those fed the 0% PPH diet. Values for apparent digestibility of EE and quantity of EE digested were negative when sows were fed the 80% PPH diet, and these values resulted from the higher levels of fecal endogenous fat as discussed by Schneider and Flatt (1975).

In experiment 5, 20 crossbred sows in second gestation were utilized to evaluate the effects of feeding a diet containing 0% or 80% PPH to gestating sows on plasma concentrations of glucose, protein, urea nitrogen, lactic acid, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Feeding sows the 80% PPH diet during gestation had no effect (P>.05) on the overall plasma mean concentration of glucose, protein, urea nitrogen, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. However, sows fed the 80% PPH diet had higher (P<.008) lactic acid and lower HDL-cholesterol (P<.05) concentrations in plasma than sows fed the 0% PPH diet.




Full Text

PAGE 1

EVALUATION OF PERENNIAL (RHIZOMA) PEANUT FORAGE AS A FEED FOR GESTATING SWINE BY FRED DOUGLAS LOPEZ A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1990

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I Dedicate this Dissertation to My Parents Carmen Sales de Lopez and Vicente Lopez To My Wife Blanca Luz and To My Daughters Carla Maria, Gabriela and Daniela Nicole

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my gratitude to Dr. Calvin E. White, chairman of the supervisory committee, for his continuous encouragement, assistance, friendship, and professional guidance throughout the conduction of this project. I would like to express my sincere thanks to Drs. Edwin C. French, Joseph H. Conrad, Alvin C. Warnick and W. Randy Walker, members of the supervisory committee, for their counseling, for reviewing the manuscript and for their constructive criticism towards its improvement. I am indebted to Dr. Jimmy R. Rich, Samuel Beasley, and Celia Hodge for their valuable friendship, Mark Phillips for his assistance in handling animals and to Lisa Bennett who assisted in the final preparation of this manuscript. Special appreciation goes to my wife, Blanca Luz, and to my daughters, Carla Maria, Gabriela and Daniela Nicole, for their love, support, and help throughout the study. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii ABSTRACT CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Forages for Sows During Gestation 4 Effects of Fiber vs Grain on Reproductive Performance Effect of Fiber vs Grain, Carbohydrate and/or Fat on Milk Composition 16 Digestibility of Fiber 18 Utilization of Dietary Fiber 25 Effect of Dietary Fiber on Blood Constituents. .. 28 Perennial Peanut 30 Botany Origin and Distribution 31 Selection Forage Potential 33 Chemical Composition 34 CHAPTER 3 REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF SOWS FED PERENNIAL PEANUT HAY DURING GESTATION 35 Introduction Materials and Methods 37 Results and Discussion iv

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Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3 CHAPTER 4 EFFECT OF PERENNIAL PEANUT HAY ON NUTRIENT UTILIZATION BY GRAVID SWINE 55 Introduction Materials and Methods Results and Discussion 62 CHAPTER 5 EFFECT OF PERENNIAL PEANUT HAY ON THE CONCENTRATION OF PLASMA CONSTITUENTS DURING GESTATION 69 Introduction 69 Materials and Methods Results and Discussion 75 CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Recommendations for Feeding Perennial Peanut Hay to Gestating Swine 95 APPENDIX LITERATURE CITED BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH v

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy EVALUATION OF PERENNIAL (RHIZOMA) PEANUT FORAGE AS A FEED FOR GESTATING SWINE BY FRED DOUGLAS LOPEZ December 1990 Chairman: Dr. C. E. White Major Department: Animal Science Five experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of ground perennial peanut hay (PPH) in sow gestation diets. Diets containing 0%, 40%, 60% or 80% PPH were fed at a level which provided 127.0 kcal/kg BW-^/day in metabolizable energy (ME). Feeding 0%, 40%, 60%, and 80% PPH (experiment 1) or 0% and 80% PPH (experiments 2 and 3) had no effect on litter size and piglets alive from birth to 21 days postpartum. In experiment 1, sows fed 80% PPH produced piglets with lower (P<.05) weights at birth and at 7 and 14 days of age. However, piglet weights at 21 days and net weight gain of weaned piglets from sows fed 0% and 80% PPH did not differ. Feeding sows 80% PPH had no effect on piglet birth weight, and piglet weights at 7, 14 and 21 days postpartum, or net weight gain of weaned piglets for any parity in experiment 2 or experiment 3. Sow weights at vi

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breeding, 110 days postcoitum, 24 hr postpartum and 21 days postpartum were lower (P<.05) for sows fed 80% PPH. Consequently, gestation weight gain and weight change for sows fed 80% PPH were lower (P<.05). Colostrum fat percentage was increased (P<.05) while lactose was decreased (P<. 05) among sows fed 80% PPH. In experiment 4, 0% or 80% PPH had no effect on digestible energy (DE) intake. However, DE% and ME% were lower (Pc. 0001) for 80% PPH. Sows fed 80% PPH had higher (Pc.0001) nitrogen (N) intake but lower (Pc. 03) digestible and retained N than those fed 0% PPH. Digestible and retained N expressed as a percentage of N intake were lov/er (Pc.03) for 80% PPH. No treatment differences were found in the quantities of dry matter and hemicellulose digested. However, sows fed 80% PPH digested a larger (Pc. 0002) quantity of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose and lignin than those fed 0% PPH. In experiment 5, 0% or 80% PPH had no effect on the overall plasma mean concentrations of glucose, protein, urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol , and triglycerides. The 80% PPH effected higher (Pc. 008) concentrations of lactic acid and lower HDL-cholesterol (Pc. 05) in plasma than 0% PPH. Results of this study suggest that levels up to 80% PPH may be fed to sows in second or greater parity without affecting piglet number and piglet net weight gain from birth to 21 days postpartum. vii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Carbohydrates from cereal grains are the most abundant energy source in swine diets. In Florida, however, cereal grains such as corn and grain sorghum are not produced in adequate quantities to meet the demand of the swine industry. Feed constitutes 70 to 80% of all costs in swine production and a large proportion of grain used in feed must be imported. Therefore, research to identify alternative feedstuffs is needed. Among the alternatives to corn: soybean meal diets fed to gestating sows is the use of high fiber diets from pasture forages to meet part of the nutrient requirements for reproduction. Utilization of nutrients from dietary fiber by growingfinishing swine has been shown to be minimal (Bohman et al., 1953, 1955; Hanson et al., 1956; Becker et al., 1956; Heitman and Meyer, 1959; Kornegay, 1978; Kass et al., 1980a; Powley et al., 1981; Frank et al., 1983; Lindemann et al., 1986; Pond et al., 1989). In previous studies, high fiber, low energy diets fed to sows during gestation did not affect reproductive performance (Danielson and Noonan, 1975; Pollman et al., 1980; Calvert et al., 1985; Pond et al., 1

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2 1985; Holzgraefe et al . , 1986). Feeding alfalfa to gravid sows has been reported to increase the number of piglets farrowed, and improve piglet survival and weight at weaning (Teague, 1955; Seerley and Wahlstrom, 1965). Literature does not contain an abundant amount of information concerning the effects of feeding gestation high fiber diets on milk composition and on blood metabolites during gestation. Perennial peanut, a forage legume that is adapted to the climate and soils of Florida, has promise as a feed for gestating swine. Therefore, the objectives of this research project were as follows: 1. To determine through a titration study the maximum level at which ground perennial peanut hay could be added to sow gestation diets without affecting reproductive performance. 2. To determine the long-term effects of feeding high levels of perennial peanut hay during three successive gestations on maternal weight gains, litter size and number and weight of live piglets from birth to 21 days postpartum. 3. To compare percentages of total solids, fat, protein, lactose, ash and caloric value of colostrum at day 1 and milk at day 7 of lactation when sows were fed a standard corn: soybean meal gestation diet or a diet containing perennial peanut hay during gestation.

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3 4. To determine the effect of feeding 0% or 80% perennial peanut hay diets during gestation on the utilization of dietary nitrogen, energy, ether extract and the fiber constituents; NDF , ADF , hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. 5. To evaluate the effects of feeding a diet containing 0% or 80% perennial peanut hay to sows during gestation on plasma concentrations of glucose, protein, urea nitrogen, lactic acid, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides.

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Forages For Sows During Gestation ...Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to everything that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat (Holy Bible, Genesis 1:29,30) . The objective of this literature review is to collect and report the body of published data concerning the effects of high fiber diets on gestating swine. Since experimental designs have varied greatly among researchers, and with passage of time, no attempt is made to interpret these data or the protocols of other researchers referenced herein. Prior to 1960, pasture was considered essential in meeting the nutritional requirements of swine, particularly with respect to reproductive performance (Ballinger, 1939, 1944; Krider et al., 1946; De Pape et al., 1953; Terrill et al., 1953; Conrad and Beeson, 1954, 1955; Teague, 1955; Johnson et al., 1957; Eyles, 1959). Conrad and Beeson (1955) stated that sows have a tremendous digestive capacity, the extent of which has not been completely understood. Furthermore, they reported sows that were self-fed during gestation were able to consume 4.5 4

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5 to 6.4 kg of a bulky ration per head daily. These observations are in agreement with those of Ballinger (1939), and of Conrad and Beeson (1954). Good pasture is nutritious to pregnant sows because often they can be maintained on grazing alone or the combination of pasture with only minimal energy and protein supplements. Ballinger (1939) found that sows can eat between 9.1 and 11.4 kg fresh forage per head daily. He suggested that the small live weight gains of pregnant sows fed on pasture alone was evidence that an all-grass diet was barely equivalent in nutrients to a maintenance ration. If the conversion factor (7.0 kg fresh forage = 1.0 kg meal) is applied to 9.1 to 11.4 kg fresh forage, sows in Ballinger's experiment (Ballinger, 1939) were fed an equivalent of 1.3 to 1.6 kg of meal (Eyles, 1959). Mitchell et al. (1931), cited by Johnson et al. (1957), demonstrated that the feed demands of the pregnant sow for embryonic growth and other products of conception are protein and mineral matter. They also observed that the extra food demands for fetal growth are confined largely to the last half, or last third, of the gestation period. This finding is supported by Ballinger (1944) who showed chat grazing sows fed 2.3 kg of meal per head per day during the last six weeks of pregnancy produced piglets with a higher mean birth weight than those farrowed by sows fed during pregnancy on pasture alone.

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6 The swine producer does not strive for maximum gains from sows during gestation, hence the energy requirements for body weight gain are less for the pregnant sow than for the growing finishing pig. This fact would suggest that a considerable amount of feed can be saved during gestation by the use of a good quality pasture. Sows grazing good quality legume pasture can meet more than half their nutrient requirements for reproduction (Wiley, 1919) . Foster (1973) reported that when good pasture is used to feed pregnant sows, the nutrients that are slightly deficient include energy, phosphorous, salt, and vitamin B 12 ; and that protein may be borderline. Foster's observations suggested that for maximum reproductive performance of pregnant sows on pasture, supplementing a small quantity of corn, protein and mineral salts was desired. Effects of Fiber vs Grain on Reproductive Performance Krider et al. (1946) found that a basal diet composed of ground yellow corn, expeller soybean meal, 5% dehydrated alfalfa meal, and fortified cod-liver oil, was nutritionally inadequate for gestation and lactation under drylot conditions. Furthermore, they reported that sows fed the basal diet weaned only 26% of their piglets, averaging 7.8 kg per piglet at 56 days of age. In the same experiment, sows fed the basal diet plus rye pasture weaned 74% of their piglets with an average weaning weight of 14.5 kg each.

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7 In primiparous sows (Terrill et al., 1953), number of piglets farrowed per litter, and percentage survival of piglets at one week of age were increased by the addition of 1.1 kg shelled corn daily to a ration composed mainly of ladino clover plus free access to minerals. Good reproductive performance has been reported by feeding alfalfa to pregnant sows (De Pape et al., 1953; Teague, 1955) . During this period of time and before the advent of synthetic vitamins it was a common practice to include 15% or more alfalfa in the breeding and gestation diets fed to swine. Teague (1955) studied the effect of alfalfa on ovulation rate in primiparous sows fed in drylot. In that study, a basal diet composed of ground shelled corn, ground, ear corn, ground oats, meat and bone scraps, soybean meal and mineral mixture was compared with a second diet where sun-cured ground alfalfa was added at the level of 18% of the diet. The results showed that the inclusion of alfalfa had no effect on breeding performance but significantly increased the number of live piglets farrowed and number of piglets weaned. When examined early in gestation, sows which had received the alfalfa diet possessed a greater number of corpora lutea than those fed the diet without alfalfa.

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8 De Pape et al. (1953) fed three diets containing alfalfa to sows during gestation and lactation. These diets consisted of 15% sun-cured alfalfa plus 0.5% aureomycin-APF (animal protein factor) supplement, 15% sun-cured alfalfa or 15% dehydrated alfalfa pellets. A highly significant adverse effect was measured when dehydrated alfalfa pellets were substituted for sun-cured alfalfa meal in the gestation-lactation diet as reflected by the number of piglets weaned per sow, 7.3 vs. 5.9, and the total weight of piglets weaned per sow, 93.5 vs. 63.4 kg. Out of the total number of piglets farrowed, the percent mortality at weaning was 16% to 20% higher when sows were fed dehydrated alfalfa pellets. The lower reproductive performance indicated that dehydrated alfalfa in a pelleted form was inferior to suncured alfalfa meal as a feed component in diets for gestating-lactating sows. Silage and haylage fed during gestation has been reported also to produce satisfactory reproductive performance (Terrill et al., 1953; Conrad and Beeson, 1954, 1955; Johnson et al., 1957; Hoagland et al., 1963). Terrill et al. (1953) allotted bred sows to one of the following treatments: 1) a standard gestation diet; 2) grass-legume silage (containing 20% ground corn) fed to replace as much as possible of the diet fed in treatment 1 and 3) self-fed a 25% corn cob diet. Results showed that gestation weight gains and the farrowing performance of all sows in each

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9 dietary treatment was satisfactory and that the grass-legume silage replaced 42% of the diet fed in treatment 1. Conrad and Beeson (1954) compared a basal diet composed mainly of yellow corn, ground oats and alfalfa meal, with that of a grass-legume silage and a corn silage fed to sows during gestation. They reported that both silages produced satisfactory results when adequately supplemented with protein, vitamins and minerals. It was also reported that sows fed corn silage during gestation farrowed 1.4 to 2.0 more piglets per litter than sows on the basal diet (Conrad and Beeson, 1955). Johnson et al. (1957) obtained good reproductive performance when sows were fed corn silage supplemented with a 20% protein corn silage balancer containing carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, minerals and antibiotics. Similar reproductive performance has been obtained when sows were fed alfalfa haylage during gestation (Hoagland et al., 1963). A study in which self-fed diets were compared with a basal hand-fed diet during gestation was carried out by Conrad and Beeson (1956) . The basal diet was composed of 67% ground corn, 15% dehydrated alfalfa meal, 6% soybean meal, 6% meat and bone scraps plus vitamins and minerals. The self-fed diets were composed mainly of 35 to 40% ground corn, 15 to 35% ground corn cobs and 5 to 35% dehydrated alfalfa meal. The chemical analysis of these diets revealed that the major difference was crude fiber content which was

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10 5 % for the basal diet and 13% for the self-fed diet. They reported that gestation weight gain, average number of piglets farrowed per litter and the number of piglets weaned per litter were higher in sows consuming self-fed diets. More recently, as feed grain prices have increased, higher dietary levels of alfalfa, orchardgrass, wheatgrass, or prairie hays have been fed to sows in order to reduce feed costs while maintaining adequate reproductive performance (Danielson and Noonan, 1975; Poilmann et al., 1979, 1980; Calvert et al., 1985; Holzgraefe et al., 1986). Danielson and Noonan (1975) conducted a series of feeding trials with crossbred primiparous sows to evaluate gestation diets containing 0, 25, 33, 66 and 96.75% alfalfa hay, 66% prairie hay and 25% dehydrated alfalfa meal. In trial 1, they fed gestation diets containing 0, 33 and 66% alfalfa hay at the daily rate of 1.91, 2.27 and 2.73 kg, respectively. These levels of forages allowed a metabolizable energy (ME) intake of 5.3, 5.0 and 4.7 Mcal/sow/day. Trial 2 differed from trial 1 by the addition of a 66% prairie hay fed at the daily rate of 2.73 kg or 4.6 Meal of ME. Sows in trial 3 were fed diets containing 0, 25 and 96.75% alfalfa hay and 25% dehydrated alfalfa meal at the daily rate of 2.27 kg. These levels provided 6.3, 5.8, 2.6 and 5.9 Meal of ME/sow/day, respectively. Sows in trial 4 were fed a 96.75% alfalfa hay diet at a daily rate of 1.85 kg which provided 2.0 Meal of ME/sow/day during each of

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11 three consecutive gestation periods. All diets were fed once daily in pelleted form from breeding through farrowing. Following parturition, sows were fed ad libitum a conventional lactation diet until piglets were weened. In trial 1, gestation weight gain by sows, number of live piglets farrowed per litter and individual weaning weights at 42 days did not differ among dietary treatments. However, individual birth weights and number of piglets weaned decreased (Pc.Ol) as the percentage of alfalfa hay was increased. In trial 2, sows fed the 66% prairie hay diet gained less weight (P<.05) during gestation than those fed diets containing 33% and 66% alfalfa. Addition of a lf a lfa hay or prairie hay had no effect on the number of piglets born alive, but the piglets from the sows fed the 0% alfalfa and 66% prairie hay diets were heavier (P<.05) at birth than the piglets from sows fed the 33% alfalfa diet. Sows fed 33% alfalfa hay diet also produced fewer weaned piglets per litter than those fed the 0% and 66% alfalfa hay, and 66% prairie hay diets. Individual piglet weaning weights were not affected by dietary treatment. In trial 3, gestation weight gain was greatly reduced by the 96.75% alfalfa hay diet (P<.05) but not by the 25% dehydrated alfalfa meal diet. The sows that received the 25% dehydrated alfalfa meal diet produced fewer (P<.05) live piglets per litter at birth than did sows on the other dietary treatments, but individual piglets birth weights

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12 were heavier (Pc. 05) for sows fed the diet containing 25% dehydrated alfalfa meal. There were more (Pc. 05) piglets weaned from sows fed the 25% alfalfa hay diet than from those fed either the 25% dehydrated alfalfa meal diet or the diet containing no alfalfa. The piglets from sows fed the 25% dehydrated alfalfa meal were heavier (Pc. 05) at weaning than those from sows on the other dietary treatments. In Trial 4 of the same experiment, reproductive performance was unaffected when sows were fed the 96.75% alfalfa hay diet through three successive gestations. In all trials, the gestation diet containing the highest level of alfalfa hay, produced the greatest percentage of sows farrowing, and consequently the highest total piglet weights at weaning. Therefore, the authors concluded that alfalfa hay could be justified economically when fed at high levels to gestating swine. In an experiment conducted by Pollmann et al. (1979), crossbred sows in their second or third parity were used to compare the nutrient value of pelleted gestation diets consisting of 97% sun-cured alfalfa hay, 66% tall wheat grass or a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. All sows were fed an equivalent of 5.0 Meal of ME/sow/day from breeding until 110 days postcoitum. At that time the lactation diet was started. Gestation weight gain was highest (Pc. 01) for sows on the corn-soybean meal diet and lowest (Pc. 01) for those fed the 66% tall wheat grass.

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13 Although no statistical differences were found in the number of piglets born alive, piglets alive at days 7 and 14 and the piglet weights at birth and at weaning, individual weights and survival rates of piglets from sows fed the corn-soybean meal diet were slightly higher when compared to the groups fed forages. Throughout the lactation period, sows fed the corn-soybean meal diet during gestation lost more weight (Pc.Ol) than those fed alfalfa or wheat grass diets. Sows on the high fiber diets tended to consume more feed during lactation. In a second study, Pollmann et al. (1980) used crossbred sows to evaluate the effects of feeding a 50% sun-cured alfalfa diet or a conventional cornsoybean meal diet during gestation on reproductive performance for three successive parities. The same diets contained 0% or 8% tallow during lactation. Gestation diets were pelleted and fed at the rate of 6.0 Meal of ME/sow/day for the first 90 days postcoitum. Thereafter, lactation diets were initiated. Results showed that, compared to sows fed the conventional diet, a higher percentage of the sows fed the alfalfa diet completed the three reproductive cycles. They also had lower (P<.05) gestation weight gains up to 90 days postbreeding and a higher (P<.05) number of piglets per litter at 14 days postpartum. Live piglets farrowed per litter and average piglet weight at 14 days did not differ between the sows fed diets containing alfalfa or corn-soybean meal but the average birth weight of piglets

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14 was lower (P<.05) for sows fed alfalfa. The survival rate pooled over the three reproductive cycles was 8% higher for the piglets from sows fed alfalfa. More recently, Calvert et al. (1985) conducted two experiments with second parity crossbred sows fed diets containing 5 or 50% alfalfa meal (exp. 1) or 5, 50 or 95% alfalfa meal (exp. 2) beginning 30 days after breeding and continuing throughout a 21-day lactation period. Experimental diets were fed in pelleted form at the rate of 2.0 kg/sow/day. This rate provided 6.4, 5.4 and 4.3 Meal of ME/sow/day for the 5, 50 and 95% alfalfa levels, respectively, during gestation. Sows were fed ad libitum during lactation. Gestation weight gains were reduced (P< .05) as the level of alfalfa increased in the diet. Sows on the 95% alfalfa meal diet lost an average of 2.0 kg during gestation. Piglets farrowed alive and average weight at birth or weaning were not affected by dietary treatment. The diet containing 95% alfalfa fed to sows during gestation and lactation lowered (Pc.01) piglet weaning weight. Sows fed diets containing 50 and 95% alfalfa meal lost an average of 21.0 and 37.0 kg, respectively, from breeding through 21 days of lactation as compared with a 5.0 kg loss in sows fed the 5% alfalfa diet. The authors concluded that swine lactation diets should not contain greater than 50% alfalfa.

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15 In 1986, Holzgraefe et al. conducted a study in which crossbred sows were fed diets containing 46% alfalfaorchardgrass hay or corn-soybean meal through two successive gestations. Dietary treatments were initiated at 35 days postcoitum and continued until parturition. Metabolizable energy intake was equalized to 6.6 Mcal/sow/day during gestation and a standard 14% crude protein lactation diet was fed ad libitum throughout lactation. Gestation weight gains were similar for both dietary groups. There was no significant difference between dietary treatments in number of piglets born alive, piglet birth weight, piglet weight at 14 days postpartum or sow rebreeding efficiency. The alfalfa-orchardgrass treatment effected greater (P<.04) weight loss from 109 days postcoitum to 14 days postpartum and increased (P<.002) feed consumption during lactation. The authors concluded that the 46% alfalfa-orchardgrass hay diet was essentially equal to the corn-soybean meal diet with regard to sow reproductive performance. A review of the research articles given herein demonstrate clearly that the reproductive performance of sows was not adversely affected when high fiber diets were included during gestation.

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16 Effect of Fiber vs Grain. Carbohydrate and/or Fat on Milk Composition Survival of the piglet from birth to weaning is an important factor for assessing efficient productivity. It is during the preweaning period that 25% of all live-born piglets fail to survive, resulting in a large economic loss to the swine industry (Stanton and Carroll, 1974). Since the preweaned piglet is dependent on milk from the sow for food, a better understanding of milk yield and composition of milk from sows fed unconventional diets during gestation should be more thoroughly researched. The secretion of the mammary gland for the first 24 hours of lactation is colostrum. The nutrient composition of colostrum is considerably different from that of milk secreted later in the lactation period. Colostrum is higher in percentage of total solids and protein than milk, but lower in ash, fat and lactose (Pond and Maner, 1984) . On the average, the gross composition of colostrum and milk from sows is 25.6 and 18.3%, 5.0 and 6.7%, 15.7 and 5.4%, 3.1 and 5.6%, and 0.80% and 0.96% in total solids, fat, protein, lactose and ash, respectively (Okai et al., 1977; Klobasa et al., 1987). Gross energy content of fresh colostrum and milk has been reported to be 1.6 and 1.10 kcal/g, respectively (White and Campbell, 1984; Okai et al., 1977) .

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17 The diet fed during gestation and/or lactation has an effect on the composition of colostrum and/or milk. It has been shown that the addition of up to 10% tallow or corn oil and raw soybeans to diets fed during late gestation and lactation increases the percentages of fat and total solids in colostrum and milk (Friend, 1974; Boyd et al., 1978; Okai et al., 1977; Stahly et al., 1981; Pettigrew, 1981; Boyd et al., 1982; Lellis and Speer, 1983; Crenshaw and Danielson, 1985; Shurson et al., 1986; Coffey et al., 1987; Schoenherr et al., 1989b) and that dietary carbohydrate source during lactation, i.e., fructose and dextrose, affects lactose and protein concentration in milk (White and Campbell, 1984; White et al., 1984). In a series of cooperative studies conducted by the NCR-42 Committee on swine nutrition (1978) in which sows were fed different protein levels during gestation (9% and 15%) and lactation (12%, 16% and 20%), it was reported that protein concentration in milk increased as the protein level of the gestation and lactation diets increased, whereas fat concentration increased only when dietary gestation protein level increased. Also, when sows were fed a low energy level (10.4 vs. 14.2 Meal of ME/sow/day) during lactation, fat, protein, total solids and energy concentrations of milk increased when compared to sows fed a high energy level (Noblet and Etienne, 1986). The feeding of high fiber diets to growingfinishing pigs and pregnant sows increases the

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18 acetate : propionate ratio of cecal and colon contents (Rerat, 1978; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1980; Kass et al., 1980b; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981b; Ehle et al., 1982; Varel et al., 1984; Holzgraefe et al., 1985a) and these volatile fatty acids, among others, are absorbed from the large intestine (Kass et al., 1980b; Yen and Killefer, 1987; Rerat et al., 1987; Giusi-Perier et al., 1989) and utilized for systemic metabolism. In lactating cows, high ruminal acetate; propionate ratios are positively correlated with milk fat percentage (Maynard et al., 1979; Tyrrell, 1980) and in lactating sows it has been shown that acetate is incorporated into milk fat (Linzell et al., 1969; Spincer et al., 1969). Holzgraefe et al. (1986) hypothesized that the feeding of an alfalfa-orchardgrass diet to sows during gestation would increase milk fat percentage. However, no increase in milk fat percentage was obtained when a 46% alfalfa-orchardgrass hay diet was fed during gestation (Holzgraefe et al., 1986) or a 48% wheat bran diet during lactation (Schoenherr et al., 1989b). Digestibility of Fiber Dietary fiber has been described as the sum of lignin and the polysaccharides that are not digested by the endogenous secretion of the digestive tract. These compounds include cellulose and a variety of so-called noncellulosic polysaccharides, the most predominant being the hemicelluloses (Partridge, 1982) .

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19 Van Soest (1964, 1967) improved the crude fiber analysis by using detergents to solubilize portions of plant material. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) procedure separates the cell wall material from the cell contents. Cell wall contents include cellulose, hemicellulose , lignin, and silica. These components, alone or in combination differ in nutritional availability depending on the kind and maturity of the plant, and age and species of the animal fed (Chandler, 1978) . Cell content consists of sugars, starches, soluble carbohydrates, soluble proteins, pectin, nonproteic nitrogen, and other water soluble materials like minerals and several vitamins. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) procedure renders a low nitrogen residue that recovers lignin and cellulose by extracting plant tissue with strongly acid solutions of quaternary detergent. The ADF residue does not represent an ideal estimate of dietary fiber, but it is a fraction of the cell wall that is useful in partitioning the major cell wall components (Van Soest, 1983) . The ability of the pig to digest fiber was first established by Scheunert (1906) and has been confirmed by numerous investigators and reviewed by Rerat (1978) , March (1979), Pond (1987) and Varel (1987). In pigs, fibrous material, primarily cellulose and hemicellulose, is digested mainly in the large intestine by anaerobic microbial fermentation. The volatile fatty acids (VFA) produced by

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20 this fermentation, i.e., acetic, propionic and butyric, are absorbed from the cecum and colon to provide part of the energy requirements for the animal (Kass et al., 1980 b; Rerat et al., 1987; Giusi-Perier et al., 1989). Pond (1987) stated that the acceptability of fibrous feeds as energy sources for swine depends on such factors as the cell wall content of the plant, the degree of microbial fermentation in the large intestine and the extent of absorption and utilization of the VFA produced. The quantity of cell wall structural constituents of the plant (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) is important because it is the fraction which, if it is to be metabolized by the animal, must first be degraded by gastrointestinal microorganisms (Van Soest, 1984). Therefore, fiber sources cell wall content will be more efficiently digested. Grasses as a whole contain more plant cell wall and less lignin than legumes, with perennials containing more cell wall constituents than some annuals (Van Soest, 1975) . The number and activity of cellulolytic bacteria in the large intestine increase when pigs are fed high fiber diets (Varel , 1987; Varel et al., 1988). Varel et al. (1984) found that fecal samples of growing-finishing pigs fed 35 % alfalfa meal in their diets had a greater number and activity of cellulolytic bacteria than those fed 0% alfalfa meal. They concluded that prolonged feeding of a diet high

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21 in fiber can enhance microbial fermentation. Similar trends in bacterial number and activity have been obtained with sows fed diets containing graded levels of alfalfa meal (0%, 40%, 50%, or 96%) during gestation (Varel and Pond, 1985; Pollmann et al., 1983). Although VFA are rapidly absorbed by swine, the precise amount of energy that the host animal receives from the VFA produced by microbial fermentation in the large intestine has not been determined (Pond, 1987). Friend et al. (1964) calculated a possible energy contribution by VFA in the pig to be between 15 and 28% of the maintenance energy requirement. Imoto and Namioka (1978) have reported that VFA absorbed from the large intestine of growing pigs provide, as an average, 10.5% of the metabolizable energy for maintenance. Kass et al. (1980b) conducted an experiment to determine the amount of VFA produced in the large intestine when swine were fed 0, 20, 40 or 60% alfalfa meal. This study showed that VFA produced in the large intestine can provide up to 14% of the energy required for maintenance in the growing-finishing pig. Gargallo and Zimmerman (1981b) have reported that VFA produced in the cecum and colon during a 24 hour period could represent, as an average, 6.2%, 5.6% and 5.0% of the energy required for maintenance in 95-kg pigs fed 2%, 10% and 20% added sunflower hulls, respectively.

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22 Rerat et al. (1987) fitted permanent catheters in the portal vein and carotid artery as well as an electromagnetic flow probe around the portal vein of finishing swine fed a diet containing 6.5% alfalfa meal in order to measure VFA absorption from the large intestine. In this study, the absorption of VFA represented about 30% of the energy requirements for maintenance. In other studies, fiber digestibility varied widely with the source and level of fiber in the diet (Forbes and Hamilton, 1952; Kass et al., 1980a) , the level of feeding to the experimental animal (Cunningham et al., 1962), and physical characteristics such as feed particle size (Nuzback et al., 1984). Forbes and Hamilton (1952) conducted an experiment to determine the effect of source of crude fiber on its digestibility and degree of utilization by growing-finishing pigs. Woodflock, Ruff ex, wheat straw pulp, alfalfa meal, or oat hulls, were added to a basal diet in amounts to give equivalent cellulose values. Cellulose digestibility was found to be higher for pigs fed alfalfa meal and least for those fed oat hulls. It was concluded that the decrease in cellulose digestibility was associated with a high degree of cellulose lignif ication. Keys et al. (1969) reported that swine fed diets containing 50% of alfalfa, brome or orchardgrass hays digested NDF and hemicellulose from grass to a greater extent than from alfalfa. However, dry matter in the diet containing alfalfa was more digestible than that

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23 of the grasses, in a study with gravid sows, Pollmann et al. (1979) fed diets containing either 97% alfalfa meal, 66% tall wheat grass or a conventional corn-soybean meal diet, during gestation. It was found that NDF and hemicellulose digestibility did not differ between diets containing alfalfa and tall wheat grass; however, the digestibilities of dry matter, ADF and cellulose were reduced by the diet containing tall wheat grass. As fiber content of the diets increased, digestibility of dry matter and fiber components decreased, but as the digestive system of swine became more acclimated to the fibrous diets more components of fiber were utilized with time. Ehle et al. (1982) reported that digestibilities of dry matter, NDF, cellulose and hemicellulose differed among dietary fiber sources when mature pigs were fed diets containing similar NDF content where fiber sources were provided by 15% cellulose (Solka Floe), 31% dehydrated alfalfa meal, 31% coarse wheat bran, or 47% fine wheat bran. Pond et al. (1986a) conducted a study in which pigs with a mean body weight of approximately 80 kg were fed a cornsoybean meal control diet or fiber diets containing 20% alfalfa meal or 10% ground corn cobs. They reported that NDF, ADF and cellulose digestibilities were decreased when the diet containing 10% corn cobs was compared to the 20% alfalfa meal diet. Lignin digestibility was not affected by dietary fiber source. Inclusions of the fibrous feeds

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24 increased digestibilities of NDF, ADF and cellulose and reduced digestibilities of dry matter and lignin when compared to the control diet. Moore et al. (1988) fed a corn-soybean meal diet or fiber diets containing either 15% oat hulls, 15% soybean hulls or 20% alfalfa meal to growing pigs. Digestibilities of NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose were reduced by oat hulls and alfalfa meal, but not by soybean hulls. When graded levels of cellulose, up to 40% of the diet, were fed to growing or finishing pigs, there was a reduction in the digestibilities of dry matter and cellulose as the level of cellulose increased in the diet (Cunningham et al., 1962; Farrell and Johnson, 1970; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1980, 1981a). in a similar manner, the inclusion of graded levels of alfalfa meal, up to 80% in growing-finishing pig diets (Kass et al., 1980a; Varel et al., 1988) and up to 95% in gestation diets (Pollmann et al., 1983; Calvert et al., 1985) , reduced the respective digestibilities of dry matter, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose. Keys et al. (1970) reported that feeding orchardgrass to pigs averaging 84 kg in body weight at levels of 20%, 40% and 60% of their diets had no effect on ADF and cellulose digestibilities. However, dry matter and hemicellulose digestibilities decreased as the level of orchardgrass increased in the diet. The feeding of a 46% alfalfa-orchardgrass hay diet during gestation has also been reported to reduce the

PAGE 32

25 digestibilities of dry matter, NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose when compared to the corn-soybean meal diet (Holzgraefe et al., 1985b). Similar reductions in dry matter and digestibilities of fiber constituents, i.e., NDF, ADF, cellulose or hemicellulose, have been measured when feeding different levels of alphacel (Sherry et al., 1981), oat hulls (Moser et al., 1982), ground corn cobs (Frank et al., 1983), ground oats (Ranvindran et al., 1984), and peanut hulls (Lindemann et al., 1986) to growing or finishing pigs. It has been reported that the addition of graded levels of soybean hulls, up to 30%, in diets of growing-finishing pigs and gestating sows (Kornegay, 1978; 1981) has increased the digestibilities of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. Cunningham et al. (1962) reported that the reduction of feed intake to a maintenance level in finishing pigs caused an increase in crude fiber digestibility when the fiber source was 0% and 40% Solka-Floc. Nuzback et al. (1984) also reported an increase in the digestibilities of dry matter, NDF, ADF and cellulose when the particle size of a 50% alfalfa hay gestation diet was reduced from 12.5 mm to 6.25 mm. Utilization of Dietary FihprUtilization of nutrients from dietary fiber by growingfinishing swine is minimal. High levels of dietary fiber have been shown to reduce average daily gain and feed

PAGE 33

26 utilization (Bohman et al., 1953, 1955; Hanson et al., 1956; Becker et al., 1956; Heitman and Meyer, 1959; Kornegay, 1978; Kass et al., 1980a; Powley et al., 1981; Frank et al., 1983; Lindemann et al., 1986; Pond et al., 1989), and the depression in growth has been attributed to a reduction in the digestible energy concentration as the level of fiber is increased in the diet. Therefore, the ability of the pig to maintain adequate intake of digestible energy appears to be one of the factors influencing weight gains by growingfinishing pigs consuming high fiber diets. However, feeding high fiber, low energy diets to sows during gestation has been successful, and supports satisfactory reproductive performance of the sow (Danielson and Noonan, 1975; Pollmann et al., 1980; Calvert et al., 1985; Pond et al., 1985; Holzgraefe et al., 1986). It has been reported that energy and nitrogen metabolism, i.e., digestibility and/or retention, are reduced when growing-finishing pigs (Cunningham et al., 1962; Farrell and Johnson, 1970; Keys et al., 1970; Farrell, 1973; Kornegay, 1978; Kass et al., 1980a; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981; Sherry et al., 1981; Ehle et al., 1982; Frank et al., 1983; Ranvindran et al., 1986; Pond et al., 1986a; Lindemann et al., 1986; Moore et al., 1988; Varel et al., 1988) and sows during gestation (Pollmann et al., 1979 ; Young and King, 1981; Kornegay, 1981; Pollmann et al., 1983; Nuzback et al., 1984; Holzgraefe et al., 1985b; Calvert et

PAGE 34

27 al»/ 1985; Pond et al . , 1986b) and lactation (Schoenherr et 1989a) were fed high fiber diets. The apparent digestibility of ether extract was also lower when swine were fed high fiber diets (Kornegay, 1978; Pond et al., 1986b) . One of the mechanisms by which high levels of fiber affects the apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients, is through accelerating the rate of digesta passage (Farrell and Johnson, 1970; Kass et al., 1980a; Ranvindran et al., 1984; Lindemann et al., 1986; Holzgraefe et al., 1985a, b) . With a faster rate of passage, less opportunity exists for both enzymatic and microbial digestion in the digestive tract. Metabolic fecal nitrogen is also increased when fibrous materials are fed to swine, and this component contributes to a further reduction in nitrogen digestibility (Forbes and Hamilton, 1952; Cunningham et al., 1962; Farrell, 1973; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981a; Ranvindran et al., 1984; Pollmann et al., 1979; Holzgraefe et al., 1985b). Metabolic fecal nitrogen is contributed by nitrogen from epithelial cells that have been abraided or sloughed-off from the intestine as a result of the mechanical action of fiber, and from nitrogen derived from bacterial cells produced in the large intestine (Farrell, 1973; Ehle et al., 1982). Schneider and Flatt (1975) stated that it is not unusual for the ether extract of the feces to exceed that of the feed, since fecal lipids consists of undigested dietary

PAGE 35

28 lipids, indigestible compounds such as pigments and waxes, metabolic fecal lipids such as residues of the digestive juices and microbial fatty acids. Effect of Dietary Fiber on Blood Constituents Few studies have been published on concentrations of blood constituents during gestation in sows. The majority of published data report concentrations of blood constituents of the growing-finishing pig or in other animal species. Although much interest exists in the feeding of fiber diets to monogastric species, there is a paucity of data on blood constituents, and data available are often contradictory . The normal range of concentrations of protein (g/100 ml) and glucose, urea nitrogen, lactic acid, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) , low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) and triglycerides (mg/100 ml) in the blood of swine has been reported to be 5. 0-7. 7, 65.0-140.0, 7.7-19.0, 5.0-20.0, 47.0-200.0, 32.0-59.0, 64.0-70.0 and 52.0-55.0, respectively (Atinmo et al., 1976; Swenson, 1978; Collings et al., 1979 ; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1980, 1981 a,b; Pond et al., 1981; Randall, 1982; Frank et al., 1983; Friendship et al., 1984; Pond and Maner, 1984; Grummer and Carroll, 1988). It has been reported that blood protein concentration was reduced (Atinmo et al., 1976) or remained unchanged (Wahlstrom and Libal, 1977) when dietary crude protein was

PAGE 36

29 reduced in diets fed during gestation. Blood glucose concentration was found to decrease when different levels of wheat middlings (Collings et al., 1979), alfalfa (Pond et al., 1981) or corn cobs (Frank et al., 1983) were fed to growing-finishing pigs. However, the concentration of blood glucose was increased when levels up to 20% of sunflower hulls were fed to finishing pigs (Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981b) . Feeding diets containing either 10% or 14% in crude protein during gestation did not affect the concentration of blood urea nitrogen (Wahlstrom and Libal, 1977); however, feeding fibrous diets to growing-finishing pigs was found to increase (Frank et al., 1983), decrease (Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981b) or have no effect on (Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1980, 1981a) the concentration of blood urea nitrogen. Collings et al. (1979) reported that feeding graded levels of wheat middlings up to 30% of the diets of growing-finishing pigs did not affect blood cholesterol concentration, however, blood cholesterol was reduced when diets containing alfalfa (Pond et al., 1981) or cellulose (Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981a) were fed to growingfinishing pigs. There is also a paucity of information with respect to effects of high fiber diets on concentrations of blood lactic acid, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in gestating swine. This fact invited investigative study regarding concentrations of these blood constituents.

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30 Perennial Peanut Florigraze perennial peanut (Arachis qlabrata Benth.) is a warm-season, perennial forage legume having value as both a hay and grazing crop and is adapted to well drained soils in climates with wet summers and dry, cold winters with sporadic frosts (Otero, 1952; Prine et al., 1981). This cultivar should also be adapted to humid tropics and subtropics around the world (Franca-Dantas, 1982) . Florigraze variety of perennial peanuts are also drought tolerant, growing further into the dry season than tropical grasses, thus providing a source of protein and energy for livestock (Franca-Dantas, 1982). Botany Perennial peanut has been described by Bogdan (1977) as a perennial legume with underground creeping, much-branched rhizomes (root stocks) producing short suberect, above-ground shoots. Leaves (620 mm long and 5-14 mm wide) with four leaflets which are broadly elliptic and subglabrous or glabrous underneath. Axillary flowers are produced in the lower part of the stem. The receptacle is a filiform tube 2.5-10 cm long; the calyx is 6-7 mm long and is standard yellow to orange; orbicular and 10-12 mm in diameter. Pods are small, 10 mm long and 5-6 mm thick, acute, longitudinally striate. Seeds are ovoid, pale (Bogdan, 1977, p. 321). The botanical description of perennial peanut as summarized by Franca-Dantas (1982) is as follows: Cultivar: Florigraze Crop: Rhizoma peanut Species: qlabrata

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31 Section: Rhizomatosae Genus : Arachis Family: Habaceae Order: Leguminoseae Origin and Distribution &. Cachis is the genus of a South American plant consisting of 40-70 species, many, as of yet, undescribed (Gregory and Gregory, 1976) . This genus evolved on the essential limitations of the ancient Brazilian shield and its drainage basins, it is still naturally confined in the countries of Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina (Prine, 1964; Gregory and Gregory, 1979). Species in areas of high rainfall are perennial and those in semiarid areas are annual (Gregory and Gregory, 1976) . Eight species of wild peanuts are recognized in the genus A rachis , and they are: tuberosa, A. quaranitica r a. a ngusti folia , A. he lodes, A. glabrata . A. marqinata . a. villosa , and A. p us ilia . All listed are perennials except A. pusilla which is an annual (Herman, 1954 ). The three perennial Arachis species having widest distribution in South America are glabrata , marginal . and villosa ; the Southern limit of these species is about 35° south latitude, in the Northern Hemisphere, these species may be grown to a latitude that corresponds to the northern boundary of the State of Georgia in the United States (Prine, 1964).

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32 Selection USDA records show that A. qlabrata was found growing on rich black earth in the streets of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso, Brazil, and that it was introduced to the United States by W. Archer in 1936 (Prine, 1964; Prine et al., 1981) . After 1936, several perennial peanut introductions were evaluated by the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) , Plant Materials Center at Brooksville, Florida. Presently, small acreages of the SCS selections, which include Arb (PI 118456) and Arblick (Pi 262839) , are growing in the United States (Prine et al, 1981). Gainesville Selection 1, later named Florigraze rhizoma peanut, was selected by G. Prine in 1962. Florigraze is believed to be a seedling or mutant from Arb (Prine, 1972) . Florigraze was released in 1978 by Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Conservation with the following description: Florigraze peanut is finer stemmed and has narrower leaflets on the quadrifoliate leaves than Arb or Arblick. The rhizome diameter of Florigraze is small and usually has a larger number of rhizomes per unit area of soil, a rhizomateous mat of Florigraze has more budding points and develops more shoots per unit of soil surface than similar sized mat of Arb and Arblick. Florigraze and Arb flowers are yelloworange, whereas Arblick flowers are creamyyellow. Florigraze usually does not flower as profusely as Arb or Arblick. Seeds develop rarely on these three rhizome peanuts (Prine et al. , 1981, p. 2) .

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33 Forage Potential Perennial peanut appears to have promise as a forage legume on well-drained soils. Some of the uses for perennial peanut as suggested by Prine et al. (1981) are: 1. Hay production: Perennial peanut can be used in a pure stand or in mixture with grasses for hay. A satisfactory quality hay is produced when the forage is cut twice a year. The legume portion should make up to 75% or more of a mixture grown for hay. 2. Dehydrated products: The persistence, high quality, and yield of perennial peanut make it a potential crop for dehydrating as a high quality hay or leaf meal. 3. Grazing: Close defoliation or heavy grazing will not eliminate established perennial peanut from a stand, but under such conditions, perennial peanut produces a rosette type growth, and leaves are oriented flat on the ground where they cannot easily be removed by grazing. When it is not overgrazed, it assumes an erect habit of growth and is easily consumed by qrazing animals (Prine et al., 1981, p. 15). Perennial peanut is an excellent hay-making legume because of its high dry matter yield, quick drying and early baling with low leaf loss (Prine et al, 1981). Dry matter yields for Florigraze perennial peanut reported in kg/ha/year are as follows; 4,460 (Blickensderfer et al, 1964), 6,270 (Prine, 1972, Prine et al., 1981), 10,377 (Prine, 1980) and 10,460 kg/ha/year (Romero et al., 1987). Perennial peanut has also been planted in mixture with Pensacola bahiagrass ( Paspalum notatum) , pangolagrass (D iqitaria decumbens ) and bermudagrass ( Cvnodan dactylon) . In these studies, each perennial peanut mixture was more productive than the grass it was mixed with (Prine, 1964; Prine et al., 1981; Breman, 1980).

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34 Chemical Composition Perennial peanut; on a dry matter basis; contains 1018% crude protein, 2-4% ether extract, 20-28% crude fiber, 44-48% nitrogen free extract, and 9-11% ash content (Prine, 1964; Otero, 1952; Prine et al., 1981, 1986; Romero et al., 1987). Romero et al. (1987) reported that perennial peanut contains 50-56% NDF (cell walls) and 38-46% ADF.

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CHAPTER 3 REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF SOWS FED PERENNIAL PEANUT HAY DURING GESTATION Introduction Prior to I960, pasture was considered essential in meeting the nutritional requirements of swine for reproduction. Sows that were denied pasturage often farrowed fewer piglets per litter and farrowings were more likely to produce weak or dead piglets. Research which followed that era greatly expanded knowledge of nutrient requirements for the gestating sow, and, as a result, diets currently fed are formulated to contain the essential nutrients to support reproduction. Currently these nutrients are derived from complete feeds which are mixtures of cereal grains and soybean meal together with supplemental vitamins and minerals, in Florida, however, cereal grains are not produced in adequate quantities to support the swine industry and research to identify alternative feedstuffs is needed. Among the alternatives to corn: soybean meal diets fed to gestating sows is the use of high fiber diets from pasture forages to meet part of the nutrient requirements for reproduction. In recent years, it has been reported that feeding high fiber diets to sows during gestation does 35

PAGE 43

36 not affect reproductive performance (Danielson and Noonan, 1975; Pollmann et al., 1979, 1980; Calvert et al., 1985; Holzgraefe et al., 1986). Feeding alfalfa to gravid sows has been reported to increase the number of piglets farrowed, and improved piglet survival and weight at weaning (Teague, 1955; Seerley and Wahlstrom, 1965). However, this observation should be interpreted cautiously since it may or may not apply to other studies. An ambitious program to introduce a nitrogen-fixing legume other than alfalfa as a pasture-type forage in Florida is presently underway in several northern counties of the state. The legume being introduced is perennial peanut which establishes from rhizomes, does not require nitrogen fertilizer and appears to be drought, disease and insect resistant (Prine et al., 1981). The objectives of these experiments were: l) to determine the maximum level at which perennial peanut hay could be added to sow gestation diets and yet permit acceptable reproductive performance; 2) to determine if this maximum level of perennial peanut hay could be fed during three successive gestations; and 3) to compare the composition of colostrum at day 1 and milk at day 7 of lactation when sows were fed a standard gestation diet or a diet containing perennial peanut hay during gestation.

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37 Materials and Met.hndg Three experiments were conducted at the Swine Research Unit, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Route 2, Box 2181, Live Oak, FL 32060. In experiment 1, 23 pnmiparous crossbred sows were divided into three groups of six sows each; and one group of five sows. Each group of sows was randomly assigned at breeding to one of four gestation diets containing 0%, 40%, 60% and 80% ground perennial peanut hay (PPH) . In experiment 2, sows that were allotted to the 0% and 80% PPH gestation diets during experiment l, continued in their respective diets over a period of three additional successive parities, in experiment 3, 20 second-parity crossbred sows were randomly assigned in equal sized groups at breeding to the 0% and 80% PPH gestation diets. The fresh perennial peanut forage was cut and allowed to dry under field conditions for a period of three days. Subsequently, it was compressed into square bales, then it was passed through a portable hammer mill 1 with a screen having openings of 9 mm. Ground PPH samples were analyzed for nitrogen content by the standard Kjeldahl procedure (AOAC, 1980) and values obtained were used to formulate the T Gehl Bros. Mfg. Co., West Band, WI.

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38 experimental gestation diets (table 1 ) . sows in each of the three experiments were fed diets calculated to offer 127.0 kcal/kg BW75 /day in metabolizable energy (ME) , and were adjusted biweekly to accommodate for weight gain during gestation. Sows were fed individually their measured ration of the diet once at 0900 hr each day during experiment 1 and twice at 0900 hr and 1800 hr during experiments 2 and 3. Throughout the gestation period, sows were penned, by experimental diet, in an open-sided shelter on solid concrete floors. Each pen contained six sows in gestation crates to allow individual feeding. Water was supplied on an ad libitum basis during gestation and lactation. At approximately 110 days postcoitum, sows were moved into a central farrowing barn and confined in individual farrowing crates with plastic-coated expanded metal floors. Following parturition, gestation diets were discontinued and all sows were fed ad libitum a standard corn-soybean meal lactation diet containing 15% crude protein. Feed intake was measured during lactation only during experiment 3. Sows were weighed at breeding, no days postcoitum, within 24 hr following parturition and at 21 days postpartum. Placental membranes were collected and weighed immediately after farrowing. Number of piglets and piglet weights were recorded at birth and at days 7, 14 and 21 postpartum. No creep feed was given during lactation, but the piglets had access to the sow's feed.

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39 Table 1. Composition of Gestation Diets Diets 8 Ingredient 0% PPH 40% PPH 60% PPH 80% PPH Peanut hay b Corn Soybean meal Def. Phos. Limestone Salt Vitamin Premix c Mineral Premix d 81.3 15.5 1.8 .6 .5 . 3 . 1 39.7 49.0 8.5 1.9 .5 .3 . 1 59.7 32.5 5.0 2.0 .5 .3 .1 79.6 16.0 1.5 2.1 .5 .3 .1 Calculated analysis, % Protein Ca P ME (Meal/ kg) 14.00 . 85 .65 3.25 14.00 1.26 .65 2.39 14.00 1.57 .65 1.96 14.00 1.88 .65 1.53 a PPH = perennial peanut hay. sun-cured perennial peanut hay, ground, (9 mm screen) . "Provided 7,700 iu vitamin A; 1,100 IU vitamin D,; 16.5 IU vitamin E; 26.5 meg vitamin B„; 5.5 mg riboflavin; 33 mg niacin; 22 mg pantothenic acid; 275 mg choline; 4.0 mq menadione; .66 mg folic acid; 2.2 pyridoxine; l.i mg 9 thiamine; and no meg biotin per kg of finished feed. Courtesy of Hof fman-LaRoche Inc., Nutley, NJ 07110. d 9 1 ! 0 * g /. inC7 60 manganese; 175 mg iron; 17.5 mg pper, 2 mg iodine; and 40 mg calcium per kg of finished feed. Courtesy of J.M. Huber Corporation, Quincy, IL.

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40 Milk samples were collected from five sows in each dietary treatment (0% and 80% PPH) within 3 hours after parturition and on all sows at day 7 of lactation during experiment 3. A dose consisting of 40 USP units of oxytocin was injected intramuscularly to enhance milk letdown and milk samples were collected by manual expression from functional mammary glands. Immediately after collection, the milk samples were strained through layered cheesecloth and frozen for later analysis. Lactose in milk, was determined by the Method of Marier and Boulet ( 1959 ) , fat by the modified Babcock method (Atherton and Newlander, 1977) . Total solids were determined gravimetrical ly from lyophilized aliquots of whole milk. Ash in milk was determined gravimetrically from the residual following ignition of 1 gram samples of dry milk in a furnace at 550°C. Gross energy was measured with a Parr adiabatic calorimeter 2 using one gram samples of dry milk. Proteins in milk were calculated as total solids minus lactose, fat and ash. Data for experiments 1, 2 and 3 were analyzed by the General Linear Model procedure (Barr et al., 1979) as a complete random design where sows and/or litters were considered the experimental units. Effects of dietary treatment, parity and dietary treatment x parity were tested for all measurements in experiment 2, and individual ^Parr Instruments, Inc., Moline, IL.

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41 treatment means were separated by using the least significant difference procedure. Results and Discussion Experiment l The effect of feeding 0%, 40%, 60% and 80% PPH diets during gestation on reproductive lactation and weaning performance is summarized in tables 2 and 3. The feeding of PPH had no significant effect on litter size, piglets born alive and piglets alive at 7, 14 and 21 days postpartum (table 2). Although, litter size and piglets born alive were slightly greater for sows fed the 40%, 60% and 80% PPH diets, the number of weaned piglets was not influenced by dietary treatments fed during gestation. Similar results in birth-to-weaning performance of piglets have been reported when sows were fed alfalfa (Seerley and Wahlstrom, 1965; Danielson and Noonan, 1975; Pollmann et al., 1979, 1980; Calvert et al., 1985; Pond et al., 1986b), alfalfa-orchard grass (Holzgraefe et al., 1986), peanut hulls (Leibbrandt, 1977), oat hulls (Zoiopoulos et al., 1983) or wheat shorts (Young and King, 1981) during gestation. Overlayed piglets and weaning percentage were also not affected by treatments, but there was a tendency for more overlayed piglets from sows fed the 40% and 80% PPH diets which, in part, can explain the lower weaning rate of these two groups (table 2) . Table 3 gives birth weights and growth performance of piglets at days 7, 14 and 21 together with net weight gains

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42 Gestation ®“; ct °5 P ? rennial Peanut Hay Fed to Sows During ?i5p? i° Reproductlve ' Lactation and Weaning Performance Item Litters 6 o r at ii 6 ou-6 t't'n 5 8 ur PPH £ SE Litter size Piglets 8.8 11.0 10.6 11.5 1.26 Born alive 8.5 10.3 10.4 11.2 1.22 1.34 1.37 1.35 1.09 12.16 Alive, day 7 6.8 6.8 7.2 6 . 8 Alive, day 14 6.8 6.7 5.8 6 . 7 Alive, day 21 6.7 6.5 5.6 6 . 7 Overlayed .7 1.3 .2 3 . 0 Weaned. % 72.7 63.0 57.5 61.4 a Pooled standard error of the LS Mean, Table 3. Effect of Perennial Peanut Hay Fed to Sows Gestation on the Subsequent Weights of Their Piglets During (Exp. Item. -Q% PPH 40% PPH 60% pph ao* pph SEl Litters Piglet wt. , Birth wt. 7 day wt. 14 day wt. 21 day wt. Net wt. gain kg 1 . 37 b 1 . 34 b 1 . 32 b . 97 c .07 2 . 53 b 2 . 73 b 2 . 78 b 2 . 05 c .11 3 . 71 c 4 . ll b,c 4 . 22 b 3.10 d . 17 5. 14 c ' d 5 . 78 b,c 6 . 34 b 4 . 84 d . 30 3 . 80 c 4 . 44 b,c 5 . 01 b 3 . 84 c .29 Note: Least-square means. “ a Pooled standard error of the LS Mean. -LS Means in rows with different superscripts differ (P< . 05) .

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43 from birth to 21 days postpartum. The birth and 7-day weights of piglets from sows fed the 0%, 40% and 60% PPH diets were heavier (P<.05) than piglets from sows fed the 80% PPH diet. Other researchers (Danielson and Noonan, 1975; Pollmann et al., 1980; Calvert et al., 1985; Pond et a ^*' 1986b) have observed a similar decrease in birth weight when graded levels of alfalfa have been fed during gestation. The 14-day weights of piglets from sows fed the 60% PPH was greater (P<.05) than piglets from sows fed the 0% and 80% PPH diets. Also, there was no difference between the 14-day weight of piglets from sows fed the 0% and 40% PPH diets, but both groups were heavier (P<.05) than piglets from sows fed the 80% PPH diet. The 21-day weights of piglets from sows fed the 0% and 80% PPH diet did not differ. Based on net weight gain of weaned piglets, it appears that lactation performance of sows on the 60% PPH diet during gestation was improved (P<.05) when compared with those fed the 0% and 80% PPH diets. However, differences in sow's lactation performance were attributed to a lower number of weaned piglets at 21 days postpartum (table 2) . A trend was observed where sows fed the 60% PPH diet during gestation weaned fewer piglets than sows on the 0%, 40% and 80% PPH diets, however, differences were not statistically significant.

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44 Maternal and placental weights are shown in table 4. The average breeding weight of sows fed the diet containing 60% PPH was greater (P<.05) than sows fed the 0%, 40% and 80% PPH diets. Difference in breeding weights was the result initially of experimental randomization. The 110-day gestation, 2 4 -hour postpartum and 21-day postpartum weights of sows fed the 60% PPH were also greater. Although, Table 4. Changes Weights Effect of Perennial Peanut Hay Diets on Sow Weight During Gestation and Lactation, and Their Placental (Exp. 1) 0% PPH Sow number 6 Sow weights, kg Breeding 132 f 110 day gestation 165 f,s 24-hr postpartum 155 f > 9 21-day postpartum 149 f * 9 Gestation wt. gain b 33 e Gestation wt. change c 23 e Lactation wt. change d -2 Placenta wt., kg 2.09 Note: Least-square means. 4 0% PPH 60% PPH 80% PPH XV * 6 5 6 146 f 171 e 132 f 7.17 184 e f 209 e 151 9 8.76 169 f 196 e 140 s 7.93 166 e,f 185 e 134 9 8.90 38 e 3 7 e 19 f 3.58 23 e 2 5 e 8 f 2.76 -3 -11 -5 3.77 1.94 1.70 1.94 .42 a Pooled standard error of the LS Mean. Gestation wt. gain = breeding wt. to wt gestation. at no days of '^ostpartu^ ' Change “ breedin 9 wt to wt. at 24 hr Vo C stp t aitum Wt wt. Chan9e ’ 24 ' hr P° st P artuI " wt to 21-day 9LS (p
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45 differences in maternal weights were present throughout gestation and lactation, the breeding, lio-day gestation, 2 4 -hour postpartum and 21-day postpartum weight of sows fed the 80% PPH diet were significantly lower (P<.05) than those fed the 40% and 60% PPH diet. Gestation weight gain and gestation weight change among sows fed the 0%, 40% and 60% PPH diets were significantly (P<.05) higher than for sows fed the 80% PPH diet. Lactation weight change and placenta weight did not differ among dietary treatments. These data are in agreement with the findings of Danielson and Noonan, 1975; Pollmann et al. , 1979, 1980; and Calvert et al., 1985 who reported a reduction in gestation weight gain and gestation weight change when levels up to 97.5% alfalfa meal were fed during gestation; and with the findings of Pollmann et al., 1980 and Calvert et al., 1985 that when levels up to 95% alfalfa meal were fed during gestation, lactation weight change was not affected. Experiment 2 The effects of feeding 0% and 80% PPH diets during gestation on litter performance over three parities using 12 sows (6 sows per treatment) are summarized in tables 5 and 6. As in experiment 1, the 80% PPH diet had no effect (P>. 05) on litter size, piglets born alive, overlayed piglets and piglets alive at days 7, 14 and 21 postpartum, or weaning percentage of piglets for any of the three panties and three parities average (table 5) . Although not

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46 statistically significant, there was a tendency for a higher weaning percentage for sows fed the gestation diet containing 80% PPH during parities 1 and 2, and when summarized over all three parities. Table 6 gives the birth weights and growth performance of piglets at 7, 14 and 21 days postpartum, together with net weight gains from birth to 21 days postpartum. Feeding sows the 80% PPH diet had no effect (P>.05) on piglet birth weight, and piglet weights at 7, 14 and 21 days postpartum, or net weight gain of weaned piglets for any of the three parities. The average of the three parities showed that when sows were fed the 80% pph diet during gestation, piglet weights were lower (P<.05) only at 21 days postpartum and that net weight gain of piglets during lactation was not affected by the 80% pph diet fed during gestation. This observation indicated similar lactation performance for sows in both treatments . Maternal and placental weights are given in table 7. Body weight at breeding differed (P<.05) between sows fed 0% and 80% PPH diets during parity 3 and when summarized over the three parities only. Much of this difference can be attributed to weight change associated with normal growth patterns and the time required to progress through

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47 P <1) C/3 P a) r— I &> •H A 4-1 o p o CO a) o < <#> ffi O ft CO o H H I"• CO H rH H t'' H ^ X O * CO ft eg VO ffi O ‘ & 00 vo eg rH hOcohrg^f • ••••• o av co oo eg h > O' c •rH P 3 Q T3 a> ft >i X p 3 C «3 a) ft rtJ •H c C -s 0 ) eg P <0 • ft a X 4-1 W 0 -P >i U -P 0 > -H 4-1 p 4-1 (0 W ft in at rH XJ (T> H CQ P a; p p eg <#> X o ft co ft <*> X o ft ft <#> X O ft co ft <#> ffi O ft ft in VO cv VO vo cv VO o rH in n co co o n •••••• O' co c^ eh ci CO in eg rh o © •••••• rH CO O'CH O' H IT) CO CCl C) W t' co rco t" co eg co rco O' vo in in eg vo w G (0 a) in a) •H p •H p (0 ft a> 0) p X! P P O 4H a) tr> (0 P fvJ >1 p -H P (0 ft E a> p in P i KJ TJ >i >i (0 (0 TJ T 3 P 0) P P •H PJ ft « < < < O' •H a) a) > > H -rH T* <##> a) >1 ' (0 TJ Q) G re! Q) s a) P re! 3 6 1 in in a) P G 0) e p (0 0) p p >1 p re) P a) Q C 0

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48 A M P A Oi -H a) s p a) i— i tr H cu c o c o •H p c 0 p W QJ o <*> o co C4 <*> X o cu CO CU ro CM in CM rH •y VO CO • • • • • 00 rH CM m CO rH JQ CO CO M 1 rH in r> CM r' CM 00 00 rH CM n in n rH CM 1-" n 01 r> ai Cl Oi VO • • • • • VO rH rH 0M cn CM n <#> X o & co co ^ o in fl) IP >i (U K P 3 G
a. 4-1 o p o — . a) cm 4-1 4-1 . w a x w • w VO x O Ol, 00 04 dp X o G dp X o Oi 00 Oi <#> X o Oi « 3 Oi E 0) P H VO VO VO VO 't oi in oi vo cn h m oi vo • • • « * H (i) n n o cm in tt n M* CM 00 ^ H • ••ii H C 4 01 If) M VO VO CM nH h cm h m h • • • • * H CM OI d Ol in oi oi vo f I'HHh • • • • • H CM If in 01 Ol in p a) p p p p 0 ) A p tJI p •H -H Oi m • p $ 3 >i Jp to (0 TJ TJ rH C •H • CO P tr> S >iP* (0 > T) P rH Q) CM X in G C0 a) 0) p to 3 & in in (0 a) a) in 0) •H P •H P (0 a 0) a} p jG p p 0 4H a> 01 (0 p G 0) E P (0 Q) P P >i P CO P
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Weiaht T Cha^I n ^nH n Di Pari J y . E t f fl f cts of Perennial Peanut Hay Fed During Gestation weight Change and Placental Weights (Exp. 2) 49 c o JQ 3 tC 0 ^ CO co co fp VO VO VO VO VO VO VOmCMCMVOVOOCTl vo ov O' rcm o r-H rH rH H . CM 4> «»fHV*H_ NOV^rlai'#(NO ov cm h h co cm i rH (VJ (Vl M . CM 1J» O co o co H CM I— I I-H in o in co H rl | CO I CM e> u a; a> H VO lO CM ^ CM CM CM CM CM CM CM VO O CO CO CO H H CM H H ^ O CO CM VC ^ OV ^ CM CM CO H CM CM CM O ^ PI VO o MO in CM H H H H H I rCM CM 00 cn C c c c S -H Cd « o E 3 (0 A A tn Tl 3 V ° ° « 4-> P p t0 P t0 • • . *. p P tfl *»• O W O l O Cl ( P * a) >3 ^ E • C >.C1 3 P -H (0 >, jj 55 SC TJ -0 P (0 to ,® x: TJ P 3 3 (0 p c 0) o (0 rH he • p p VO CM • 3 CO p a • • 3 • | CO 8* P p X c 3 in w 0 0 •p E a TJ p 3 C cd P >1 CM 10 P P C0 ID in <0 TJ • rH a) a 1 CM tr> rH • p CM Cl p in X 0 0 O CO w a P Q) P tC 3 & in in a) •H p •P P
<0 P c a) s p <0 a> p p >. to V o rH O P &> P X! CM O -P P 3 tn c E 2 E 3 P P (0 Cl I p in o a c TJ P p 0) X! TJ 0) 1
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50 subsequent reproductive cycles. The lio-day gestation, 24 hour postpartum, 21-day postpartum weight and gestation weight change were significantly higher for sows fed 0% PPH during each parity (P<.05) and the average of the three panties (P<.0001). Gestation weight gain was significantly higher for the 0% PPH group in parity l (P<.05) and the average of three parities (Pc.0001). However, no treatment differences (P>.05) were measured for lactation weight change and placental weight during any parity or three parities average. Experiment 3 The effects of feeding 0% and 80% PPH diets to sows during gestation on litter performance are summarized in tables 8 and 9. Feeding the 80% PPH diet during gestation did not affect the number of piglets per litter, weaning percentage (table 8) or piglet weights (table 9). Maternal and placental weights along with lactation feed intake are given in table 10. Breeding, 110-day gestation and 21-day postpartum weights did not differ between the groups fed 0% and 80% PPH, but weight at 24 hours postpartum was higher ( P <* °5) for the 9 rou P fed 0% PPH. The gestation weight gain and gestation weight change of sows fed the 0% PPH diet were greater (Pc. 0002) than sows fed the 80% pph diet. No difference was found between the two dietary groups for lactation weight change and placenta weight. Lactation

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51 Table 8. Effect of Perennial Peanut Hay Fed To Gestating Sows on Number of Piglets Per Litter (Exp. 3) Item 0% PPH 80% PPH SE a Litters 9 b 10 Litter size 9.2 10.6 . 85 Piglets Born alive 8.7 10.4 .80 Alive, day 7 8.3 9.3 .80 Alive, day 14 8.1 9.2 . 80 Alive, day 21 8.1 9.2 . 80 Overlayed . 1 .5 .24 Weaned. % 92 . 0 88.6 3 . 30 Note: Least-square means. a Pooled standard error of the LS Mean • b 0ne sow aborted at approximately 105 days of gestation • Table 9. Effect of Perennial Peanut Hay Fed To Gestating Sows on Piglet Weight (Exp. 3) Item 0% PPH 80% PPH SE a Litters 9 b Piglet wt . , kg Birth wt. 1.41 7 day wt. 2.78 14 day wt. 4.44 21 day wt. 6.22 Net wt. gain 4.81 Note: Least-square means. 10 1.29 .05 2.64 .06 4.46 .30 5.57 .23 4.27 .21 a Pooled standard error of the LS Mean. b 0ne sow aborted at approximately 105 days of gestation.

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52 Table 10. Effect of Perennial Peanut Hay Diets on Sow Weight Change, Placental Weights and Lactation Feed Intake (Exp. 3) Item 0% PPH 80% PPH SE 9 Sow No Sow weights, kg Breeding 110 day gestation 2 4 -hr postpartum f 21-day postpartum Gestation wt. gain 0,9 Gestation wt. change^' 9 Lactation wt. chanqe e Lactation ADFI , kg^ Placenta wt. . ka Note: Least-square 9 b 10 162 172 211 197 204 183 194 176 49 26 43 11 -11 -6 5.86 6.84 1.93 2.42 means. 7.44 6.10 6.48 6.66 3.60 3.85 2.73 .32 .25 a Pooled standard error of the LS Mean. b One sow aborted at approximately 105 days of gestation. Gestation wt. gain = breeding wt. to wt. at 110 days of Gestation wt. change = breeding wt. to wt. at 24-hr postpartum. Lactation wt. change 24-hr postpartum wt. to 21-dav postpartum. * f Diet effect (Pc. 05). 9 Diet effect (Pc. 0002). average feed intake was greater (Pc. 05) for sows fed the diet containing 80% PPH during gestation. This observation was consistent with findings of Calvert et al. , 1985 and Hoizgraefe et al., 1986; who reported a greater feed intake during lactation when sows were fed alfalfa meal diets during gestation.

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53 The effect of dietary treatments during gestation on milk composition is summarized in table ll. The 80% PPH diet did not affect the percentage of solids, protein, ash and caloric value of colostrum, but the percentage of fat was increased (P<.05) while lactose was decreased (P< . 05) .The higher fat percentage in colostrum of sows fed 80% PPH during gestation is in agreement with the hypothesis that feeding high fiber during gestation should increase the percentage of fat in milk (Holzgraefe et al., 1986). Comparison between dietary groups of milk samples collected at day 7 of lactation indicated that the 80% pph diet did not affect the percentage, of fat, ash or the caloric value but increased (P<.05) protein and decreased the percentages of total solids (Pc. 05) and lactose (Pc. 05).

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54 Table 11. Analysis of Milk Samples From Sows Fed Perennial Peanut Hay During Gestation (Exp. 3 ) Colostrum 0 % 80% Item PPH pph Sow No. 5 5 Solids, % 22.70 23.81 Fat * % 4 . 07 c 6.62 Protein, % 15.45 14.50 Lactose, % 2 . 42 c 1.87 As h, % .76 .78 Energy, kcal/g 1.29 1.43 Note: Least-square means. 7 -Day Milk SE 8 0 % PPH 80% PPH SE' 9 10 11.11 18 . 93 c 17.94 .28 .70 7.04 6.15 .33 1.46 7 . 48 c 8.24 .22 . 17 3 . 61 b 3.02 .06 .02 .80 .79 .02 . 07 1.06 1.07 .09 a Pooled standard error of the LS Mean. b Diet effect (Pc. 0001 ). c Diet effect (P<.05).

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CHAPTER 4 EFFECT OF PERENNIAL PEANUT HAY ON NUTRIENT UTILIZATION BY GRAVID SOWS Introduction Fibrous material which is comprised primarily of cellulose and hemicellulose is digested mainly in the large intestine of the pig by anaerobic microbial fermentation. The volatile fatty acids (VFA) produced are absorbed from the cecum and colon to provide part of the animals energy requirements (Kass et al., 1980b; Rerat et al., 1987; GiusiPerier et al., 1989). Utilization of nutrients from dietary fiber by growingfinishing swine has been shown to be minimal. High levels of fiber in swine diets reduce average daily gain and feed utilization (Bohman et al., 1953, 1955; Hanson et al., 1956; Becker et al, 1956; Heitman and Meyer, 1959; Kornegay, 1978; Kass et al., 1980a; Powley et al., 1981; Frank et al., 1983; Lindemann et al., 1986; Pond et al., 1989). The depression in growth has been attributed to a reduction in the concentration of digestible energy as the level of fiber was increased in the diet. However, high fiber, low energy diets fed to sows during gestation has been shown not to affect reproductive performance of sows (Danielson and 55

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56 Noonan, 1975; Pollmann et al., 1980; Calvert et al., 1985; Pond et al., 1985; Holzgraefe et al., 1986). Of the forages grown in Florida, perennial peanut appears to have a great potential for feeding sows during gestation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding an 80% perennial peanut hay diet during gestation on the utilization of dietary nitrogen, energy, ether extract and fiber. Materials and Methods Twenty crossbred sows in second gestation with an average initial weight of 166 kg were randomly assigned in equal sized groups at breeding to a diet containing 0% or 80% perennial peanut hay (PPH) . Composition and chemical analyses of diets are presented in tables 12 and 13. Sun-cured PPH was ground through a portable hammer mill 1 (9.0 mm screen) and mixed with other ingredients to obtain the 80% PPH diet. Analysis of the PPH used in this trial is given in tables 14 and 15. Diets were formulated to contain approximately the same amount of crude protein but no attempt was made to equalize metabolizable energy (ME), as shown in table 12. Table 13 shows that the 80% PPH gestation diet contained less crude protein but more crude fiber and fiber constituents than the 0% PPH diet. An ME value of 1190 kcal/kg for perennial ^elh Bros'. Mfg., West Bend, WI.

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57 Table 12. Composition of Gestation Diets Ingredient Peanut hay b Corn Soybean meal Def. Phos. Limestone Salt Vitamin Premix c Mineral Premix d 0% PPH Diets 8 -8.0% PPH 79.6 81.3 16.0 15.5 1.5 1.8 2.1 .6 .5 .5 .3 .3 . 1 .1 14.00 14.00 .85 1.88 .65 .65 3.25 1.53 Calculated analysis, % (as fed) Protein Ca P ME (Mcal/kg) a PPH = perennial peanut hay. b Sun-cured perennial peanut hay, ground, (9 mm screen). 'Provided 7,700 iu vitamin A; l,ioo IU vitamin D,; 16.5 IU itamin E; 26.5 meg vitamin B„; 5.5 mg riboflavin; 33 mg niacin; 22 mg pantothenic acicf; 275 mg choline; 4.0 mg 9 menadione; .66 mg folic acid; 2.2 mg pyridoxine; l.l mg ? n u 11° mCg biotin P er k< 3 of finished feed. Courtesy of Hof fman-LaRoche Inc., Nutley, NJ 07110. Supplied 150 mg zinc; 60 mg manganese; 175 mg iron; 17 5 mo 5°K er V 2 "2 iod “ e; and 40 "9 per kg of finished 9 feed. Courtesy of J.m. Huber Corporation, Quincy, il.

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58 Table 13. Chemical Analyses of Gestation Diets Item b Diets 8 0% PPH 80% PPH Dry matter, % Crude protein, % Ether extract, % Crude fiber, % Ash, % Fiber constituents, % NDF ADF Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignin 90.46 16.18 4.41 1.94 6.15 9.05 3.76 2.96 5.29 0.93 89.62 11.76 3.95 24.50 9.00 42.58 36.60 24.34 5.98 10.60 Gross energy, Mcal/kg 4.29 Calculated ME, Mcal/kg 3.59 a PPH = perennial peanut hay. b All analyses are reported on dry matter basis. Table 14. Chemical Analyses of Sun-Cured Perennial Peanut Hay Item 8 % Dry Matter — £.. .. 90.49 12.00 3.82 30.00 Crude Protein Ether Extract Crude Fiber Ash NDF 7.69 ADF 52.03 Hemicellulose 41.24 10.79 Cellulose Lignin 28 . 29 11.82 Gross Energy, Mcal/Kg 4.35 a All analyses are reported on dry matter basis.

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59 Table 15. Amino Acid and Protein Composition in Selected Samples of Fresh and Sun-Cured Perennial Peanut Amino Acid 8 Perennial PeanutHomogenate^ Sun-Cured Hav Aspartic Acid Glutamic Acid Histidine Serine Arginine Glycine Threonine Alanine Tyrosine Methionine Valine Phenylalanine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Cysteine Tryptophan 1.24 1.58 .40 .65 .72 .72 .59 .81 .55 . 11 .74 .71 .59 1.10 .82 .07 N.A C % Sample 1.13 1.23 .25 .50 .50 .63 .48 .60 .43 .07 .59 .60 .49 .89 .49 .06 N. A Crude Protein d 14.55 13.30 Note: Analyzed by Woodson-Tenent Laboratories, Inc. Memphis, TN 38101. a All analyses are reported on dry matter basis. b Homogenized leaves and stems from mature plants. Lyophilized following homogenization. c Not available. d Kjeldahl procedure.

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60 peanut hay (estimated at approximately 90% of ME of suncured alfalfa; NAS, 1971) was used to calculate the overall ME value of the 80% PPH diet. Gross energy content in Mcal/kg was similar for both diets but calculated ME was lower for the 80% PPH diet as a result of the fiber concentration (table 13). The intake of sows was adjusted to provide 127.0 kcal of calculated ME/kg BW ,75 /day, and feeding level was readjusted biweekly thereafter to accommodate for weight gain during gestation. Because of the difference in the calculated ME of the diets, the average feed intake on a dry matter basis (DMB) was 1.82 and 3.36 kg/day for sows fed the 0% and 80% PPH diets, respectively. Diets were fed in meal form at 0900 and 1800 hr daily from breeding until parturition and water was °^ erec * on an a< ^ libitum basis throughout gestation. Sows were penned by experimental diet, in an open-sided shelter with pens on solid concrete floors. Each pen contained gestation crates to allow individual feeding. At 48 days postcoitum sows were tethered in metabolism crates also located in the open-sided shelter and total feces were collected from 50 to 53 days postcoitum. To facilitate separation of feces and urine, a Foley catheter (size 20, 5cc, balloon type) was inserted into the bladder of all sows 1 day prior to the collection period (Pollmann et al., 1979). Urine was collected in 20-liter plastic

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61 containers to which 100 ml of concentrated HCl had been added to prevent ammonia loss and bacterial contamination. Urine output was strained through glass wool, measured volumetrically and recorded daily. An aliquot comprising 10% of the daily urine void was refrigerated and then aliquots were combined at the end of the trial, and subsamples were taken and frozen at -20°C until analyzed. Feces were collected three times daily, placed in plastic bags and refrigerated. At the end of the collection period, the feces were combined with water to make an homogenate when mixed with a high speed commercial blender. The homogenate was weighed and two 250 g subsamples were transferred into plastic bags and frozen at -20°C until analyzed. Fecal and urine samples were lyophilized to dryness prior to analysis. Feed samples were collected at the beginning of the collection period and feed or dried fecal samples were ground through a Wiley Mill (l mm screen) before analysis. Energy determinations of feed, feces and urine were made by adiabatic calorimetry using a Parr Model 1241 oxygen calorimeter interfaced with a Parr Model 1710 calorimeter controller 2 . Dry matter (DM) determination was conducted as described by AOAC (1980) . z Parr Instruments, Inc., Moline, IL.

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62 Feed, fecal and urinary nitrogen (N) were determined by the Kjeldahl procedure (AOAC, 1980) . Ether extract (EE) was determined by using a modified Soxhlet extractor which accommodated multiple one gram samples of feed or feces batched together by treatment and extracted for 24 hr with a , 50:50 v/v mixture of ethyl and isopropyl ethers. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) , acid detergent fiber (ADF) , permanganate lignin and cellulose in feed and feces samples were determined according to the procedures described by Goering and Van Soest (1970); with NDF determinations modified by a-amylase inclusion (Robertson and Van Soest, 1977) to facilitate filtration. Hemicellulose (HEM) was calculated as ADF subtracted from NDF. Data were analyzed by the General Linear Model procedure of SAS (Barr et al., 1979) as a complete random design where sows were considered the experimental units. Results and Discussion A summary of the energy metabolism data is reported in table 16. The diet containing 80% PPH increased (Pc. 0001) gross energy intake, and fecal and urinary (Pc. 004) energy voids, but it did not affect digestible energy (DE) intake. Total ME intake was higher (Pc. 04) for the 0% PPH diet. Because of the higher fecal and urinary energy voided by sows fed the 80% PPH diet, DE and ME concentrations, expressed as a percentage of intake (table 16) and in Mcal/kg diet (table 17), were lower (Pc. 0001). Similar

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63 Table 16. Effect of 0% and 80% PPH Diets on Energy Metabolism in Gestating Sows Energy Intake, Mcal/day b Fecal, Mcal/day b Urinary, Mcai/day c Digestible, Mcal/day Metabolizable, Mcal/day c Digestibility, % b Metabolizable, % b ME/DE ratio 0 Diets 0% PPH 80% PPH SE‘ 7.79 14.27 .34 1.43 8.33 .36 .23 .37 .03 6.36 5.94 .31 6.13 5.30 .26 81.72 41.73 .02 78.75 36.96 1.98 96.35 93.37 .54 a Pooled standard error of the mean. hMeans differ (P<.0001). c Means differ (P<.04). Table 17 . Energy Partitioning of Gestation Diets Containing 0% or 80% Perennial Peanut Hay Energy 8 Diets 0% PPH 80% PPH Gross, Mcal/kg 4.29 Digestible, Mcal/kg c 3.50 Metabolizable, Mcal/kg c 3.38 a Values reported on dry matter basis. b Pooled standard error of the 4.24 1.77 1.57 c Means differ (Pc. 0001). SE b .09 .08 mean.

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64 results for DE and/or ME percentages have been reported by other researchers when high fiber diets were fed to sows during gestation (Pollmann et al., 1979, 1983; Kornegay, 1981; Holzgraefe et al., 1985b; Calvert et al., 1985; Pond et al., 1986b). The ME in swine diets generally comprises between 90 to 97 percent of DE (NRC, 1979) ; and the ME values as percentages of DE for 0% and 80% PPH were within that range, although they differed (P<.04) from each other. In general, energy balance for all sows allotted in either dietary treatment was adequate as indicated by DE and ME intakes (NRC, 1979) . The actual ME content of the 80% pph diet was found to be 1.57 Meal/ kg on a dry matter basis instead of the calculated 1.72 Mcal/kg and this difference might have accounted for the lower ME intake of the 80% PPH diet. Using the prediction method described by Pollmann et al. (1979) it is possible to predict the ME value of pph in the present study. The 0% and 80% pph diets averaged 3.38 and 1.57 Mcal/kg, respectively. Since the remaining 20% of the 80% PPH diet was accounted for by corn and soybean meal, that percentage of the diet supplied 0.68 Mcal/kg (.20 x 3.38). Therefore, when the .68 Mcal/kg energy supplied by the corn-soybean meal fraction was subtracted from 1.57 Mcal/kg of 80% pph, the difference was 0.89 Mcal/kg. That value represented the ME contributed by pph.

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65 Table 18. Effect of 0% and 80% PPH Diets on Nitrogen Metabolism in Gestating Sows. Nitrogen 0% PPH Diets 80% PPH SF a Intake, g/day b 47.05 63.31 A?.*!* 1.56 Fecal, g/day b 10.27 39.28 1.88 Urinary, g/day 21.20 14.89 1 . 71 Digested, g/day b 36.78 24.03 1.45 Retention, g/day c 15.58 10.24 1 . 54 Digestibility, % b 78.29 38.18 2 . 45 Retention, % of intake 0 33.36 16.20 3 . 34 Retention, % of digested 42.08 41.87 4.05 a Pooled standard error of the mean. ‘’Means differ (Pc. 0001). c Means differ (Pc. 03). A summary of the nitrogen metabolism data is reported in table 18. Because sows were fed to achieve isocaloric intake, those fed the 80% PPH diet consumed more (Pc. 0001) N and excreted more (Pc. 0001) fecal N than sows on the 0% PPH. Nitrogen digested (g/day and apparent N digestibility) was lower (Pc. 0001) for the 80% PPH group. Urinary nitrogen void was not affected by dietary treatment. Nitrogen retention in g/day and as a percentage of intake was also lower (Pc. 03) for sows fed 80% PPH, but no treatment ^^^^ erence was found for N retention as a function of that digested. Lower N digestibility and/or retention as a percentage of intake have been reported when high fiber diets were fed during gestation (Pollmann et al., 1979 ,

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66 1983; Young and King, 1981; Kornegay, 1981; Holzgraefe et al., 1985b; Calvert et al., 1985; Pond et al., 1986b). Rate of digesta passage (Farrell and Johnson, 1970; Kass et al., 1980a; Ranvindran et al., 1984; Lindemann et al., 1986; Holzgraefe et al . , 1985 a,b) and metabolic fecal nitrogen (Forbes and Hamilton, 1952; Cunningham et al., 1962; Farrel, 1973; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981a; Ranvindran et al., 1984; Pollmann et al., 1979; Holzgraefe et al., 1985b) were increased when fibrous materials were fed to swine. Each of these factors had the effect of lowering N digestibility. The apparent digestibilities and relative quantities digested of DM, EE, and fiber constituents are presented in tables 19 and 20. The 80% PPH diet lowered (P<.0002) apparent digestibilities of DM, EE, NDF, ADF, HEM, cellulose and lignin when compared with the 0% PPH diet (table 19). However, because of increased intake sows fed the 80% PPH diet digested more (P<.0002) NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin (g/day) than sows fed the 0% PPH diet (table 20) . No differences (P>.05) were found in the quantities of DM and HEM digested (table 20) . Values for apparent digestibility (table 19) and the quantity of EE digested (table 20) were (P< . 0002 ) negative when sows were fed the 80% PPH diet. The lower digestibilities for DM and fiber constituents in the 80% PPH diet reported here are in agreement with results reported by Pollmann et al. (1979, 1983), Zoiopoulos et al. (1983), Holzgraefe et al . (1985b), and Calvert et al.

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67 Table 19. Percentage of Apparent Digestibilities of Dry Matter, Ether Extract and Fiber Constituents in Sows Fed 0% or 80% PPH Item 8 0% PPH 80% PPH SE b Dry matter 82.79 43.88 1.72 Ether extract 57.82 -11.88 5.16 Neutral detergent fiber 56.94 30.40 3.58 Acid detergent fiber 59.37 32.00 3.12 Hemicellulose 55.22 20.66 4.84 Cellulose 58.86 35.67 3.57 Lignin 72.13 29.08 3.47 a Means within the row for each item differ (Pc.0002). b Pooled standard error of the mean. Table 20. Relative Quantities in Grams Per Day of Dry Matter, Ether Extract and Fiber Constituents Digested by Sows Fed 0% or 80% PPH Item 8 0% PPH 80% PPH SE b Dry matter 1503. 40 1474.00 62.61 Ether extract 46. 27 -13.26 5.37 Neutral detergent fiber 93. 74 435.32 37.62 Acid detergent fiber 40. 63 392.96 31.03 Hemicellulose 53. 11 42.36 8.29 Cellulose 31. 72 291.89 24.78 Lignin 12. 20 103.88 11.90 a Means within the row for DM and HEM did not differ (P>.05). All others differ (P<.0002). D Pooled standard error of the mean.

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68 (1985) ; in which DM and the fiber constituents NDF, ADF, HEM and cellulose decreased with increasing levels of dietary fiber intake during gestation. Lignin digestibility has been reported to increase (Kornegay, 1978 and 1981) or decrease (Ranvindran et al., 1984; Pond et al. # 1986a; Lindemann et al., 1986) as the level of fiber was increased in the diet of growing-finishing pigs. The digestibility of EE has been reported to decrease when swine were fed high fiber diets (Kornegay, 1978; Pond et al., 1986b). Schneider and Flatt (1975) also confirmed that it is not unusual for EE of the feces to exceed that of the feed and their statement can be used in part to explain the negative EE digestibility of the 80% PPH diet in this experiment. The lower digestion coefficients for the 80% PPH diet were likely caused by elevated dietary fiber level and an accelerated rate of digesta passage (Farrell and Johnson, 1970; Kass et al., 1980a; Ranvindran et al., 1984; Lindemann et al., 1986; Holzgraefe et al., 1985 a,b). with the more rapid transit of digesta, less opportunity existed for both enzymatic and microbial digestion to occur.

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CHAPTER 5 EFFECT OF PERENNIAL PEANUT HAY ON THE CONCENTRATION OF PLASMA CONSTITUENTS DURING GESTATION Introduction There is a paucity of published information reporting effects of high fiber diets on concentrations of blood constituents in gestating sows. The majority of published data concerning swine summarize blood constituents of growing-f ipishing pigs. During gestation, numerous physiological adaptations must be made to ensure that all the needs of growing fetuses are met and that maternal vital functions are maintained (Anderson et al., 1970). Values of blood constituents reported for growing-finishing pigs, therefore, should not be extrapolated to the gestating sow. Addition of fiber to diets fed to growing -finishing pigs has been shown to affect the concentrations of blood glucose (Col lings et al., 1979; Pond et al., 1981; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981b; Frank et al., 1983), urea nitrogen (Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1980, 1981a, b; Frank et al., 1983) and cholesterol (Collings et al., 1979; Gargallo and Zimmerman, 1981a; Pond et al., 1981 ). 69

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70 The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of feeding a diet containing 80% perennial peanut hay to gestating sows on plasma concentrations of glucose, protein, urea nitrogen, lactic acid, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides. Materials and Methods Twenty crossbred sows in second gestation with an average initial weight of 166 kg were randomly assigned in equal sized groups at breeding to a diet containing 0% or 80% perennial peanut hay (PPH) . Composition and chemical analyses of diets are presented in tables 21 and 22. Sun-cured PPH was ground through a portable Hammer Mill 1 (9 mm screen) and mixed with other ingredients to obtain the 80% PPH diet. Diets were calculated to contain approximately the same amount of crude protein but no attempt was made to equalize metabolizable energy (ME) . Sows in both treatments were fed their assigned diets to provide 127.0 kcal of calculated ME/kg BW75 /day, and the daily ration was readjusted biweekly to accommodate weight gain during gestation. Experimental Gehl Bros. Mfg. Co., West Bend, wi .

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71 Table 21. Composition of Gestation Diets Ingredient 0% PPH Diets 8 80% PPH Peanut hay b Corn Soybean meal Def. Phos. Limestone Salt Vitamin Premix c Mineral Premix d Calculated analysis, % (as fed) Protein Ca P ME (Mcal/kg) 79.6 81.3 16.0 15.5 1.5 1.8 2.1 .6 .5 .5 . 3 .3 . 1 .1 14.00 14.00 .85 1.88 .65 .65 3.25 1.53 a PPH = perennial peanut hay. b Sun-cured perennial peanut hay, ground, (9 mm screen) . Provided 7,700 IU vitamin A; 1,100 IU vitamin D 3 ; 16.5 IU vitamin E; 26.5 meg vitamin B 12 ; 5.5 mg riboflavin; 33 mg niacin; 22 mg pantothenic acid; 275 mg choline; 4.0 mg menadione; .66 mg folic acid; 2.2 pyridoxine; 1.1 mg thiamine; and no meg biotin per kg of finished feed. Courtesy of Hof fman-LaRoche Inc., Nutley, NJ 07110. Supplied 150 mg zinc; 60 mg manganese; 175 mg iron; 17.5 mg copper; 2 mg iodine; and 40 mg calcium per kg of finished feed. Courtesy of j.m. Huber Corporation, Quincy, IL.

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72 Table 22. Chemical Analyses of Gestation Diets s Diets 8 iter 0% PPH 80% PPH Dry matter, % Crude protein, % Ether extract, % Crude fiber, % Ash, % 90.46 16.18 4.41 1.94 6.15 — — £_£_±1 89.62 11.76 3.95 24.50 9.00 Fiber constituents, % NDF ADF Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignin 9.05 3.76 2.96 5.29 0.93 42.58 36.60 24.34 5.98 10.60 Gross energy, Mcal/kg Calculated ME, Mcal/kg 4.29 3.59 4.24 1.72 a PPH = perennial peanut hay. b All analyses are reported on dry matter basis.

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73 diets were fed in meal form at 0900 and 1800 hr daily from breeding until parturition. Water was supplied ad libitum. Sows were penned by experimental diet in an open-sided shelter with pens on solid concrete floors. Each pen contained gestation crates to facilitate individual feeding. Blood sample collection was performed on days 0 (prior to breeding), 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 postcoitum. Thirty millimeters of blood was collected into heparinized tubes via jugular puncture immediately prior to 0900 hr before the morning feeding on each collection day. Fasting blood samples were expected to provide more consistent concentrations of blood metabolites (Pond et al., 1981). Blood was centrifuged at 3000 x g for 10 minutes and the harvested plasma was subdivided into seven equal aliquots which were stored at -20°C until analyzed for concentrations of glucose, protein, urea nitrogen, lactic acid, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Plasma glucose concentrations were determined color imetrically by the glucose oxidase: peroxidase method 2 using o-dianisidine dihydrochloride as the chromagen acceptor. Plasma protein concentrations were determined by using brilliant blue in the colorimetric method described by Bradford (1976). Plasma cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, Bu h l S i colorimetric determination of glucose, Tech. Bull. No. 510. Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO 63178.

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74 triglycerides, urea nitrogen and lactic acid concentrations were determined colorimetrically using procedures described by, and reagents purchased from Sigma Diagnostics 3 . All samples were assayed in duplicate using a Bausch and Lomb Spectronic 21 spectrophotometer 4 . Low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma was calculated as: LDLcholesterol = [total cholesterol] [HDL-cholesterol] [triglycerides/5]. Concentrations for each plasma constituent were pooled for day 0 prior to randomization and allotment in order to establish a baseline to evaluate the effect of high fiber diets on plasma constituents at each subsequent collection period. Data were analyzed by the General Linear Model procedure of SAS (Barr et al., 1979) as a split-plot design in which the whole units were arranged completely at random (Steel and Torrie, 1980). Dietary treatments were considered the whole-plot and the collection period was the sub-plot dietary treatment. Sows were considered the experimental units. The model included diet (0% and 80% PPH) , collection period at days 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 3 Sigma Diagnostics Procedures: cholesterol. No. 352? HDLcholesterol, No. 352-3; urea nitrogen. No. 640; UV/R^ C Tm lde S' N °‘ i° 5: . and PY^uvate/lactate, No. 726UV/826-UV. Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO 63178. Milton Roy Co. , Rochester, NY 14625.

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75 postcoitum, and the interaction between diet and collection period. The whole-plot error term was sows within diets and was used to test effects of dietary treatments. Results and Discussion The concentrations of plasma constituents in sows fed 0% and 80% PPH diets are presented by collection period in table 23. The overall mean concentrations of glucose, protein, urea nitrogen, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in the plasma of sows fed the 0% and 80% PPH diets during gestation did not differ (P>.05). The overall mean concentration of lactic acid in plasma of sows fed the 80% PPH diet was higher (P<.008) than for sows fed the 0% PPH diet (23.81 vs. 15.53 mg/100 ml). The concentration of HDL-cholesterol in plasma of sows fed the 0% PPH diet was higher (P<.05) than for sows fed the 80% PPH diet (29.28 vs. 26.12 mg/100 ml). Plasma values for LDLand HDLcholesterol in this experiment are in agreement with values cited by Grummer and Carroll (1988) in which LDL-cholesterol accounts for the majority of the blood cholesterol in pigs. Time trends for changes in the concentration of plasma constituents are reported in table 23 and presented graphically in figures l through 7. Plasma glucose concentration changed guadratically (P< . 0007) over the collection periods (figure l) for sows fed 0 and 80% PPH. The major increase in plasma glucose concentration occurred between days 60 and 100 postcoitum

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of Plasma Constituents by Collection Period in Sows Fed 0 % or 76 W c o •H -P Id P P c c o •H +J Id -p w ( 1 ) n o •H u Q) Oh G O H X> O o HO •p c 0 ) 3 •P id E +J (0 VI id c ^ 0 Oh O O' CO co oo o co • • I s CO 00 0> in h CO rH • • co co CP rH rH cm in p in • • vo vo co o rH co co CM CM « • cn cm cn in in in o< • • O VO cn cn o vo O' o • • 00 00 p oo p co • CO o o 00 a> to o o 3 rH o 00 P VO o CO cn in oc oc o rH • * • • • • rH CM rH m CM CO in co CO H CP O' 00 CM in ov VO CP VO VO in co CO P CM H 00 CM • • • • • • • • o' ocn cn in co CM CP CP vo O CM rH CM 00 PCM CM O O' p cn cn o' in cn o' in h VO H CM P H o in cm rH CO CM CM cn in in o' co o in p in cm in cn O' CM rH CM CM vo vo CM rH CM CO 00 CM in p in cn CO vo cm in O CO CM H o vo Cn rH VO H O O co CP in in cn o rH rH CO O P* CM CM CO rH H CM rpCM CM CO CO in p CM P cn co CM VO CO o CM CM VO rH CO Pvo vo rH CO CO CO *H VO • • • • • • • • o* in O P o cn VO vo VO CO 00 G\ rH H rH CO PCM CM O' CO P VO VO H p co PCO CO H cn vo VO o co m P 00 in co O CO in co co in cn cn co o CO PP *° 3 < CO o rH CM 00 P' CM CM O' O' CM rH cn rin 00 O CO in cm in vo cn oo • • O' vo • • OV VO • • CO vo • • P o • • VO CM cn kj* 00 PrH O' Po CO CM co h cn P CO CM CM CO O' VO VO o cn rH • o CO o CO in O' CM CP H o • CO rH rH H O' in o o CO Cn o P p •H G 10 Q) P G> -a •H a (0 u •H P O <0 PI o o CO o p a) p> w a> o jC u (0 p o &H o o 00 o p ai -p m 0 ) i— i o x: u ! P) Q SJ o o CO o p 0 ) 4 -> a) r-l o X 5 0 1 PI Q PI P co CO VO P vo • • CO vo vo in CP CM 00 H O' p co co in co • • H O p p o o cn cm • • in cm in m 1 P Htf o in • • in co vo vo cn o> cn cn • • VO rH in in o co • CO in o o oo w a) v -H p a) a rH CP •H P Eh G 0 •H JJ 1 Id TJ e o p

P o o •H *H P 4 J Oh U 5 id T 3 I 0 CM 4 J id co c id 0 ) E a) p id 3 CJ 1 (0 1 4 J (0 id a) PI e o co co P o a) cm x: 4 J rH O rH id id P o

\ * CP CO II +J G a> co a> p 'a a) p CJ <*H •H V CO G id o E & id 4J a> H a id p a a) « >

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77 for sows fed the diet containing 80% PPH. Although the plasma glucose curve for sows fed the 80% PPH diet was slightly higher than those fed 0% PPH, there was no evidence for heterogeneity of regression (P>.05). The mean plasma protein concentration remained constant (4.80 g/100 ml) throughout collection periods and individual means did not differ (P>.05) between dietary treatments (table 22). Plasma urea nitrogen concentrations changed quadratically (P<. 002) over the collection periods (figure 2); however, the magnitude of change was dependent on the dietary treatment, resulting in a dietary treatment x collection period interaction (P<.003), and heterogeneity of regression. Sows on the 0% PPH diet experienced a linear (P< .05) decline in the concentration of plasma urea nitrogen throughout gestation, whereas, sows on the 80% PPH diet experienced a quadratic (P<.001) change explained by a plasma profile where urea nitrogen was lowest during the first 60 days of gestation then increased thereafter. Plasma lactic acid concentrations changed cubically (Pc. 001) over the collection periods (figure 3); however, the magnitude of the change was dependent on the dietary treatments and resulted in a dietary treatment x collection period interaction (P<.001). Sows on the o% PPH diet experienced a quadratic (Pc. 0001) change in plasma lactic acid m which lactate decreased up to 40 days postcoitum, then increased thereafter, whereas, sows on the 80% PPH diet

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78 experienced a cubic (P<.005) change in which plasma lactate increased up to 20 days postcoitum, decreased out to 80 days then increased throughout the remainder of gestation. Sows in both dietary groups experienced cubic decreases in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (P<.0001), HDL-cholesterol (P<.0001) and LDL-cholesterol (P<.01) with time as shown in figures 4, 5 and 6, respectively. The pooled means from both dietary treatments indicated that the concentration of plasma triglycerides increased linearly (P< . 02 ) over the collection periods (figure 7). Although plasma triglycerides concentration for the 80% PPH group remained unchanged throughout gestation and, there was no evidence of heterogeneity of regression (P>.05). The apparent contradiction of these two statements is the result of the highly significant increase in the plasma triglycerides measured in the sows group fed the 0% PPH diet, and the combining of the two data sets for this observation. The nutrition of the fetus depends on the transfer of nutrients across the placenta from maternal blood. Thus, adequate fetal nutrition depends on adequate levels of circulating nutrients in the maternal blood. Further, the amount of major nutrients (protein, energy and minerals) deposited in the fetus are extremely large during the terminal stage of pregnancy (Pond and Maner, 1984).

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79 The main source of energy for the fetal piglet is glucose derived from maternal blood (Pond and Maner, 1984). The observed increase in the mean plasma glucose concentration throughout gestation reflected the higher maintenance energy requirement of the sow, and the energy requirements of growing fetuses during the last stages of gestation. Plasma protein concentration from sows fed the 80% PPH diet was constant throughout gestation, while plasma urea nitrogen increased dramatically from about day 60 postcoitum. The higher plasma urea nitrogen measured in sows fed the 80% PPH diet may have reflected tissue protein catabolism and mobilization of amino acids for biosynthesis of fetal tissues and conversion to plasma glucose from gluconeogenesis . These events were necessary to accommodate the greatly accelerated fetal growth during the last third of gestation, and to maintain homeostasis of circulating plasma protein. Cholesterol is the major sterol in animal tissues and it is an important component of outer cell membranes (Lehninger, 1982 ). Thus, the lower plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDLand LDL-cholesterol as gestation progressed into the final trimester may indicate the high demand of cholesterol required for fetal tissue synthesis.

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80 The increase in lactic acid observed in figure 3 for sows fed the 80% PPH diet could reflect increased lactate entering peripheral circulation as VFA from intestinal origin during the first 20-30 days postcoitum. Thereafter, plasma lactate was observed to decline out to day 80 postcoitum. A plausible explanation for this occurrence could be lactate utilization for development of adipose and mammary tissues in the sow, and fetal membranes (Harper, 1969) . The constant level in plasma triglycerides that was measured in sows fed the 80% PPH diet could have reflected low dietary fat digestibility or could have resulted from nonfunctional lipogenesis biosynthetic pathways for triglyceride synthesis from plasma VFA. Further study should be conducted to explain the dynamics of these circulating metabolites absorbed from high fiber diets fed to gestating swine.

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81 Collection Period (days) Figure 1. Plasma concentrations of glucose in sows f< gestation diets containing 0 % or 80% PPH. Regression equations for curves plotted are given below 9 1 . 0 % Y 91.69 0.393X + 0.0041X 2 2. 80% Y = 92.94 0.171X + 0.0038X 2 120

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82 o o S' e z QJ 1 (0 <0 iH On Collection Period (days) Figiare 2. Plasma concentrations of urea nitroaon -in on,,fed gestation diets containing 0% or 80% PPH Reares-ion equations for curves plotted are given below! Regresslon 1* 0% Y = 10.79 0.023X 2. 80% Y = 11.18 0.107X + 0.0010X 2

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83 Collection Period (days) Pifsma concentrations of lactic acid in sows fed gestation diets containing 0% or 80% PPH. Regression equations for curves plotted are given below. 1 . 0 % Y = 19.62 0.417X + 0.0046X 2 2. 80% Y = 20.98 + 0.812X 0.0235X 2 + 0.00016X 3

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Plasma Cholesterol (mg/100 ml) 84 Collection Period (days) Figure 4. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol in sows fed gestation diets containing 0% or 80% PPH. Regression equations for curves plotted are given below. 1. 0% Y 108.85 1.903X + 0.0388X 2 0.00024X 3 2. 80% Y = 109.94 1.876X + 0.0329X 2 0.00020X 3

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85 Collection Period (days) f^L 5 *f Pla f a concentrations of HDL-Cholesterol in sows fed gestation diets containing 0% or 80% PPH. Regression equations for curves plotted are given below. 1* 0% Y 40.54 0.794X + 0.0139X 2 0.00008X 3 2. 80% Y = 39.70 1.139X + 0.0236X 2 0.00014X 3

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86 Collection Period (days) Figure 6. Plasma concentrations of LDL-Cholesterol in sows fed gestation diets containing 0% or 80% PPH. Regression equations for curves plotted are given below. 1. 0% Y _ 56.69 1.117X + 0.0250X 2 0.00017X 3 2. 80% Y = 58.50 0.637X + 0.0066X 2 0.00003X 3

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87 Collection Period (days) Figure 7. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides in sows fed gestation diets containing 0% or 80% PPH. Regression equations for curves plotted are given below. 1. 0% Y = 55.39 + 0.168X 2. 80% Y = 55.98 + 0.014X

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CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Five experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of ground perennial peanut hay (PPH) in sow gestation diets. Experiments 1, 2 and 3 were conducted to (1) determine the maximum level at which PPH could be added to sow gestation diets without affecting reproductive performance, (2) to determine if this maximum level of PPH could be fed during three successive gestations, and (3) to compare the composition of colostrum at day l and milk at day 7 of lactation when sows were fed a standard gestation diet or a diet containing PPH during gestation. The feeding of 0%, 40%, 60% and 80% PPH diets (experiment 1) or 0% and 80% PPH diets (experiments 2 and 3) during gestation had no effect (P>.05) on litter size, piglets born alive and piglets alive at 7, 14 and 21 days postpartum. There was a trend for more overlayed piglets from sows fed the 80% PPH diet, but piglet weaning percentage was not affected (P>.05) by dietary treatments fed during gestation. No explanation is offered for the low weaning percentages found in experiment 1. It is possible that ttie level of physical and mental maturity regulating mothering ability during lactation may have been altered by 88

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89 feeding fibrous diets to primiparous sows during gestation. However, this effect disappeared in multiparous sows during experiments 2 and 3. The lack of statistical significance in the number of piglets alive from birth to 21 days postpartum, or the weaning percentages in the present study was attributed to the high degree of variation in mothering ability of young sows, the high degree of variation in these traits and the low number of replications in the experimental design. In experiment 1, the birth weight and 7and 14-day weights of piglets from sows fed the 0%, 40% and 60% PPH diets were higher (P<.05) than piglets from the sows fed 80% PPH diet. The piglet weights at 21 days and net weight gain of weaned piglets from sows fed the 0% and 80% PPH diets did not differ (P>.05). However, the 21-day weight and net weight gain of weaned piglets from sows fed the 40% and 60% PPH diets were higher (Pc. 05) than those from sows fed the 80% PPH diet. In experiment 2, feeding sows 0% or 80% PPH diets during gestation had no effect (P>.05) on piglet birth weight, and piglet weights at 7, 14 and 21 days postpartum, or net weight gain of weaned piglets for any of the three parities. Similar results were obtained when piglet birth weight, and piglet weights at 7 and 14 days postpartum were summarized over three parities. Although piglets from sows fed the 80% PPH diet during gestation had lower (Pc. 05)

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90 weights at day 21 postpartum, net weight gain of weaned piglets was not affected by gestation dietary treatment. When data from experiment 3 were considered alone, feeding sows the 80% PPH diet did not affect (P>.05) piglet birth weight, and piglet weights at 7, 14 and 21 days postpartum, or net weight gain of weaned piglets during the 21-day lactation period. This observation may suggest that body size and maturity of the sow play an important role in adaptability of the digestive tract to high fiber diets. Sow weights at breeding, 110 days postcoitum, 24 hr postpartum and 21 days postpartum were significantly lower (P<. 05) for sows fed the 80% PPH diet. Therefore, gestation weight gain and gestation weight change among sows fed the 0%, 40% and 60% PPH diets (experiment 1) or 0% PPH diet (experiments 2 and 3) were significantly higher (Pc. 05) than for sows fed the 80% PPH diet. A gestation weight gain of 22.0 kg has been reported to be adequate for the normal development of a litter of 12 piglets (Noblet et al., 1990). In the present study, sows fed the 80% PPH diet had an average gestation weight gain of 24.0 kg, therefore, gestation weight gain from sows fed the 80% PPH diet should not have been a limiting factor on sow reproductive performance. Lactation weight change and placenta weight were not affected (P>.05) by dietary treatments.

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91 Data for reproductive traits from experiments 1, 2 and 3 represent a number of observations possibly too low to prevent high variability in the reproductive parameters measured (Hays et al., 1969), especially with the very low weaning rates on all treatments in experiment 1. Therefore, low numbers of replications (observations) in reproductive traits was a limiting factor contributing to high variability. This factor resulted in mean differences of some reproductive parameters to have high standard errors? and, coefficients of variation were too great to reach statistical significance . In experiment 3, lactation feed intake was greater (P< . 05) for sows fed the 80% PPH diet during gestation. On day 1 of lactation, sows fed the 80% PPH diet displayed increased (P<.05) percentage of fat in colostrum while lactose was decreased (P<.05). Milk samples collected at day 7 of lactation from sows fed the 80% PPH diet did not differ in fat percentage from those fed the 0% PPH diet, but contained higher (P<.05) protein percentage and lower percentages of total solids and lactose (P<.05). These data suggest that influences of the high fiber diet fed during gestation on milk fat disappeared quickly when the diet was discontinued at parturition. Therefore, the beneficial effect (s) that high milk fat may have exerted upon piglet survivability early in lactation was fleeting.

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92 In experiment 4, a metabolic study utilizing 20 crossbred sows in gestation was conducted from 50 to 53 days postcoitum to determine the effect of feeding 0% or 80% PPH diets on nutrient utilization. The intake of sows in both treatments was adjusted to provide 127.0 Kcal of calculated ME/kg BW -75 / day . Because of the lower ME density of the 80% PPH diet, average daily feed intake (DMB) of sows fed the 80% PPH diet was 3.36 kg/day while those fed the 0% PPH diet consumed an average of 1.82 kg/day. Sows fed the 80% PPH diet had higher (Pc.0001) gross energy intake but lower (P<. 04) ME intake than sows fed the 0% PPH diet. Digestible energy intake was not affected (P>.05) by dietary treatments. Digestible energy and ME expressed as a percentage of gross energy intake were lower (Pc. 0001) for the 80% PPH diet. This observation might suggest that gestating sows adapted to the 80% PPH diet by increasing feed intake in order to compensate for the lower apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients and the lower ME associated with the high fiber diet. Sows fed the 80% PPH diet had higher (Pc.0001) nitrogen intake but lower (P<.03) digestible and retained nitrogen than sows on the 0% PPH diet. Digestible nitrogen and retained nitrogen as a percentage of nitrogen intake were lower (Pc. 03) for the 80% PPH diet. Low nitrogen retention from sows on the 80% PPH diet, as observed during the metabolic study, may be a plausible explanation for the lower gestation weight gains.

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93 Feeding the 80% PPH diet reduced (P<.002) the apparent digestibilities of dry matter (DM), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) , acid detergent fiber (ADF) , hemicellulose (HEM) , cellulose and lignin when compared with the 0% PPH diet. No treatment differences (P>.05) were measured between the quantities of DM and HEM digested by the two groups of sows. However, because of greater intake, sows fed the 80% PPH diet digested more quantity of ( P< . 0002 ) NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin than those fed the 0% PPH diet. Values for apparent digestibility of EE and quantity of EE digested were negative when sows were fed the 80% PPH diet, and these values resulted from the higher levels of fecal endogenous fat as discussed by Schneider and Flatt (1975). In experiment 5, 20 crossbred sows in second gestation were utilized to evaluate the effects of feeding a diet containing 0% or 80% PPH to gestating sows on plasma concentrations of glucose, protein, urea nitrogen, lactic acid, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol , and triglycerides. Feeding sows the 80% PPH diet during gestation had no effect (P>.05) on the overall plasma mean concentration of glucose, protein, urea nitrogen, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. However, sows fed the 80% PPH diet had higher (P<.008) lactic acid and lower HDL-cholesterol (Pc. 05) concentrations in plasma than sows fed the 0% PPH diet.

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94 The observed increase in the mean plasma glucose concentration throughout gestation reflected the high energy supply necessary to satisfy the energy needs of the sow and growing fetuses during the last stages of gestation. Plasma protein concentration from sows fed the 80% pph diet kept constant throughout gestation, while plasma urea nitrogen increased dramatically from about day 60 postcoitum. High plasma urea nitrogen may have reflected tissue protein catabolism and mobilization of amino acids to accommodate the greatly accelerated fetal growth that occurs during the last third of gestation. The relatively constant plasma protein concentration measured throughout gestation in sows fed the 80% PPH diet most likely reflected the metabolic response to negative N balance created by lower digestibility of dietary N. Homeostasis of circulating plasma protein further reflected the response to increased demand placed by the combined protein requirements of the sow and her developing fetuses, and the high physiology priority assigned to reproduction. Further, the amount of major nutrients (protein, energy and minerals) deposited in the fetus increase by approximately 3% per day. The absolute amounts of these essential nutrients, therefore, are extremely large during the terminal stage of pregnancy (Pond and Maner, 1984) .

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95 The lower plasma concentration of total cholesterol, HDLand LDL-cholesterol as gestation progressed into the final trimester may indicate the high demand of cholesterol required for fetal tissue synthesis. The observed increase in lactic acid concentration from sows fed the 80% PPH diet could reflect absorption of lactic acid from intestinal VFA during the first 20 days postcoitum. Whereas, the decline in plasma lactic acid out to day 80 postcoitum could indicate lactic acid utilization for development of adipose and mammary tissues in the sow. The constant level in plasma triglycerides in sows fed the 80% PPH diet, could have reflected the negative EE digestibility found in experiment 4, or could have resulted from lack of triglycerides synthesis from plasma free fatty acids and VFA. Recommendations for Feeding Perennial Peanut Hav to Gestating Swine Observations from this study suggest that first parity sows can be fed up to 60% PPH during gestation without affecting sow reproductive performance and that lower piglet weights from birth to 21 days postpartum might be expected by feeding 80% PPH to first parity sows. However, 80% PPH may be fed to sows in second or greater parity without affecting reproductive performance if the high fiber diet is discontinued during lactation and is not resumed until the sow is rebred. Increasing digestible energy and other

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96 dietary components to NRC levels at the start of lactation appeared to support requirements for milk synthesis in sows previously fed 80% PPH during gestation. Continuing the dietary regimen until rebreeding may also have induced maximum follicular development and elicited a characteristic "flushing effect" referred to often in the literature as an ovulatory response to increased energy when high energy diets are provided to sows 2-3 weeks prior to breeding. Grinding perennial peanut hay through a 9 mm screen produced a particle size that increased surface area available to digestive fluids and enzymes. When combined with corn and soybean meal in proportions recommended herein, a bulky but palatable diet was formed. VThen the 80% diet was offered ad libitum the daily intake necessary to meet calculated energy requirements was very near the sow's maximum daily capacity for intake. Therefore, this feed formulation could be offered in large bulk feeding systems such as round bulk field feeders that require low attendant maintenance. This method of feeding would provide local swine producers, many of whom are part-time farmers, with the alternative of preparing batch feeds and lowering both the frequency of hand feeding and time required to feed gestating sows. High fiber diets are characteristically bulky and dry. Therefore, feeding high fiber perennial peanut diets requires a readily available source of fresh water. Cup-

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97 type waterers should not be provided because they offer opportunity for feed adhering in the bristles of hair covering the sow's lower jaw to wash into the bowl and accumulate. To circumvent this potential undesirable aspect, nipple waterers should be placed as near the feed source as possible, vet located where water cannot splash into the feed when the sow drinks. Ideally, one waterer should be provided at each feeding station in order to curtail competition for water during feeding. Following these management tips could greatly minimize the requirements to hand feed sows daily and might eliminate requirements for individual feeding stalls used to insure adequate gestation intake by sows of dissimilar age and body weight.

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APPENDIX

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1 (Chapter 3) Table 24. Statistical Analysis For Experiment Dependent Variable: Litter Size Mean 10.48 MSE 9.55 Root MSE 3 . 09 AOV Table R-Square 0.12 CV 29.50 Source DF SS F— Va 1 ne Diet Error 3 19 24.206 181.533 0.84 JrK>r 0.4864 Dependent Variable: Piglets Born Alive Mean 10.09 MSE 8.99 Root MSE 3.00 R-Square 0.12 CV 29.73 Source DF SS F— Va 1 no Diet Error 3 19 22.959 170.867 0.85 FK>F 0.4832 Dependent Variable: Piglets Alive, Day 7 Mean 6.91 MSE 10.70 Root MSE 3.27 R-Square 0.0026 CV 47.32 Source DF SS F— Va 1 no Diet Error 3 19 0.526 203 . 300 0.02 x , K>r 0.9970 Dependent Variable: Piglets Alive, Day 14 Mean 6.52 MSE 11.28 Root MSE 3.36 R-Square 0.02 CV 51.50 Source DF SS Diet Error 3 19 3.439 214 .300 0.10 FK>F 0.9581 99

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100 Table 24continued. Dependent Variable: Piglets Alive, Day 21 Mean MSE Root MSE R-Square CV 6.39 11.02 3.32 0.02 51.94 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet 3 4.112 0.12 ±Jy.rz * 0.9445 Error 19 209.367 Dependent Variable: Piglets Overlayed Mean MSE Root MSE R-Square CV 1.3b 7.13 2.67 0.16 198.11 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet 3 25.751 1.20 0.3353 Error 19 135.467 Dependent Variable: Piglets Weaned, % Mean MSE Root MSE R-Square CV 63.94 887.29 29.79 0.04 46.59 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet 3 711.123 0.27 0.8482 Error 19 16858.508 Dependent Variable: Piglet Birth Weight, kg Mean MSE Root MSE R-Square CV 1.2b 0.028 0.17 0.55 13.36 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet 3 0.641 7.68 0.0015 Error 19 0.528

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101 Table 2 4 -continued. Dependent Variable: Piglet 7 Day Weight, kg Mean 2.52 MSE 0.060 Root MSE R-Square 0.24 0.63 CV 9.68 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 3 16 1.659 9.27 0.955 0.0009 Dependent Variable: Piglet 14 Day Weight, kg Mean 3.79 MSE 0.150 Root MSE R-Square 0.38 o,62 CV 10.13 Source DF SS F— Val iif> PR>F Diet Error 3 16 3.888 8.82 2.351 0.0011 Dependent Variable: Piglet 21 Day Weight, kg Mean 5.53 MSE 0.440 Root MSE R-Square 0.66 0.49 CV 12.01 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 3 16 6.698 5.07 7.042 0.0117 Dependent Variable: Piglet Net Weight Gain, kg Mean 4.27 MSE 0.411 Root MSE R-Square 0.64 0.43 CV 15.00 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 3 16 4.925 4.00 6.568 * 0.0266

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102 Table 24-continued. Dependent Variable: Sow Breeding Weight, kg Mean 144.33 MSE 309.102 Root MSE R-Square 17.58 0.49 CV 12.18 Source DF SS F-Valne PR>F Diet Error 3 19 5611.161 6.05 5872.933 K£\r* 0.0045 Dependent Variable: Sow Weight at 110 Day of Gestation, kg Mean 176.00 MSE 461.29 Root MSE 21.48 R-Square 0.54 CV 12.20 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 3 19 10164.913 8764.545 7.35 0.0018 Dependent Variable: Sow Weight at 24 Hour Postpartum, kg Mean 163.83 MSE 377.68 Root MSE 19.43 R-Square 0.56 CV 11.86 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 3 19 9250.757 7175.906 8.16 0.0011 Dependent Variable: Sow Weight at Day 21 of Lactation, kg Mean 158.70 MSE 396.334 Root MSE 19.91 R-Square 0.52 CV 12.54 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 3 16 7004 .444 6341.340 5.89 0.0066

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103 Table 2 4 -continued. Dependent Variable: Gestation Weight Gain, kg Mean 31.66 MSE 77.21 Root MSE 8.79 R-Square 0.47 CV 27.76 Source DF SS F-Valiie Diet Error 3 19 1315.852 1467.055 5.68 0.0060 Dependent Variable: Gestation Weight Change, kg Mean 19.51 MSE 45.84 Root MSE 6.77 R-Square 0.55 CV 34.71 Source DF SS F— Va 1 lie DDsP Diet Error 3 19 1075.852 870.879 7.82 0.0013 Dependent Variable: Lactation Weight Change, kg Mean -5.23 MSE 71.18 Root MSE 8.44 R-Square 0.18 CV 161.39 Source DF SS F-Value DD\r Diet Error 3 16 247.209 1138.812 1.16 0.3565 Dependent Variable: Placenta Weight, kg Mean 1.93 MSE 1.06 Root MSE 1.03 R-Square 0.02 CV 53.46 Source DF SS F— Va 1 Diet Error 3 19 0.430 20.170 0.14 FK>F 0.9379

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104 Table 25. Statistical Analysis for Experiment 2 (Chapter 3). Dependent Variable: Litter Size Mean 11.08 MSE 8.31 Root MSE 2.88 AOV R-Square 0.18 Table CV 26.00 Source DF SS F-Value Model Diet Parity Diet*Parity Error 5 1 2 ’ 2 30 55.583 14.694 37.167 3.722 249.167 1.34 1.77 2.24 0.22 0.2752 0.1935 0.1242 0.8006 Dependent Variable: Piglets Born Alive Mean 10.19 MSE 10.09 Root MSE 3.18 R-Square 0.09 CV 31.17 Source DF SS F— Va 1 no Model Diet Parity Diet*Parity Error 5 1 2 2 30 28.806 8.028 13.722 7.056 302.833 0.57 0.80 0.68 0.35 FK>Jf 0.7218 0.3796 0.5144 0.7079 Dependent Variable: Piglets Alive , Day 7 Mean 7.94 MSE 14.92 Root MSE 3.86 R-Square 0.06 CV 48.62 Source DF SS F— Va 1 no Model Diet Parity Diet*Parity Error 5 1 2 2 30 28.222 1.000 20.056 7.167 447.667 0.38 0.07 0.67 0.24 FK>F 0.8596 0.7975 0.5182 0.7880

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105 Table 25-continued. Dependent Variable: Piglets Alive, Day 14 Mean 7.42 MSE 15.11 Root MSE 3.89 R-Square 0.06 CV 52.40 Source DF SS F— Va 1 ii(=> Model Diet Parity Diet*Parity Error 5 1 4 . 2 r 2 30 29.583 0.028 12.667 16.889 453.167 0.39 0.00 0.42 0.56 0.8506 0.9661 0.6613 0.5776 Dependent Variable: Piglets Alive, Day 21 Mean 7.25 MSE 15.92 Root MSE 3.99 R-Square 0.07 CV 55.03 Source DF SS F— Va 1 PR>F 0.8149 0.9011 0.7216 0.4721 Model Diet Parity Diet*Parity Error 5 1 2 2 30 35.250 0.250 10.500 24.500 477.500 0.44 0.02 0.33 0.77 Dependent Variable: Piglets Overlayed Mean 1.03 MSE 2.86 Root MSE 1.69 R-Square 0.15 CV 164.58 Source DF SS F-Value Model Diet Parity Diet*Parity Error 5 1 2 2 30 15.139 4.694 9.389 9.389 85.833 1.06 1.64 0.18 1.64 irK>r 0.4027 0.2100 0.8325 0.2107

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106 Table 25-continued. Dependent Variable: Piglets Weaned, % Mean MSE Root 69.50 1066.79 32 . 66 Source DF SS Model 5 3216 Diet 1 748 Parity 2 225 Diet*Parity 2 2242 Error 30 32003 4SE R-Square CV 0.09 47.00 F-Value PR>F 700 0.60 0.6980 932 0.70 0.4087 130 0.11 0.9002 638 1.05 0.3621 794 Dependent Variable: Piglet Birth Weight, kg Mean MSE Root MSE 1*32 0.05 0.22 R-Square 0.17 Source DF ss Model 5 0.309 Diet 1 0.096 Parity 2 0.036 Diet*Parity 2 0.177 Error 30 1.491 F-Value 1.25 1.93 0.36 1.79 CV 16.84 PR>F 0.3130 0.1745 0.7004 0.1851 Dependent Variable: Piglet 7 Day Weight, kg Mean 2.21 Source MSE 0.15 DF Root W 0.39 SS Model 5 0.774 Diet 1 0.165 Parity 2 0.552 Diet*Parity 2 0.049 Error 29 4.330 R-Square 0.15 F-Value 1.04 1.11 1.85 0.16 CV 17.51 PR>F 0.4143 0.3014 0.1754 0.8499

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107 Table 25-continued. Dependent Variable: Piglet 14 Day Weight, kg Mean 3.55 Source MSE 0.49 DF Root MSE 0.70 R-Square 0.28 Model 5 Diet i Parity 2 Diet*Parity 2 Error 28 Dependent Variable: Piglet 21 Day Weight, kg Mean 4.89 Source MSE 0.64 DF Model 5 Diet i Parity 2 Diet*Parity 2 Error 27 Root MSE 0.80 SS 6.971 2.883 3.053 0.751 17.392 R-Square 0.29 F-Value 2.16 4.47 2.37 0.58 CV 19.67 SS F-Value PR>F 5.189 2.13 0.0906 0.997 2.05 0.1633 4.356 4.48 0.0205 0.022 13.615 0.02 0.9733 CV 16.42 PR>F 0.0880 0.0438 0.1127 0.5650 Dependent Variable: Piglet Net Weight Gain, kg Mean 3.57 Source MSE 0.58 DF Root MSE 0.76 Model 5 Diet i Parity 2 Diet*Parity 2 Error 21 R-Square 0.30 CV 21.38 SS F-Value PR>F 6.801 2.33 0.0700 2.050 3.51 0.0718 3.245 2.78 0.0799 1.191 15.768 1.02 0.0799

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108 Table 25-^-continued. Dependent Variable: Sow Breeding Weight, kg Mean 178.89 MSE 408.02 Root MSE 20.20 R-Square 0.66 CV 11.29 Source DF SS F— Value Model Diet Parity Diet*Parity Error 5 1 2 2 30 23476.648 5751.453 17249.798 475.397 12240.655 11.51 14.10 21.14 0.58 ***>* 0.0001 0.0007 0.0001 0.5647 Dependent Variable: Sow Weight at 110 Day of Gestation, kg Mean 210.92 MSE 346.44 Root MSE 18.61 R-Square 0.70 CV 8.82 Source DF SS F— Va 1 up DDsr Model Diet Parity Diet*Parity Error 5 1 2 2 30 23879.752 12083.139 11636.274 160.339 10393.06 13.79 34.88 16.79 0.23 — 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.7948 Dependent Variable: Sow Weight at 2 4 -Hour Postpartum, kg Mean 192.11 MSE 367.40 Root MSE 19.17 R-Square 0.68 CV 9.98 Source DF SS F— Val up DDS.P Model Diet Parity Diet*Parity Error 5 1 2 2 29 23048.873 15423.107 7873.924 133.486 10654.722 12.55 41.98 10.72 0.18 0.0001 0.0001 0.0003 0.8348

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109 Table 25-continued. Dependent Variable: Sow Weight at Day 21 of Lactation, kg Mean MSE Root MSE R-Square CV 190.19 282.91 16.82 0.75 8.84 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Model 5 21451.801 15.17 0.0001 Diet 1 12176.314 43.04 0.0001 Parity 2 8001.115 14 . 14 0 . 0001 Diet*Parity 2 633.492 1.12 0 . 3422 Error 25 7072.712 Dependent Variable: Gestation Weight Gain, kg Mean MSE Root 32.03 86.15 9.28 Source DF SS Model 5 4273 Diet 1 1161 Parity 2 2992 Diet*Parity 2 119 Error 30 2584 *SE R-Square CV 0.62 28.98 — ErValue PR>F 651 9.92 0.0001 787 13.49 0.0001 248 17.37 0.0001 616 0.69 0.5073 560 Dependent Variable: Gestation Weight Change, kg Mean MSE Root MSE 14.94 71.69 8.47 R-Square 0.79 S ource DF Model 5 Diet i Parity 2 Diet*Parity 2 Error 29 SS 7891.838 2815.076 4402.547 52.684 2078.920 F-Value 22.02 39.27 32.80 0.37 CV 56.68 -PR>F 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.6957

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110 Table 25-continued. Dependent Variable: Lactation Weight Change, kg Mean -1.01 MSE 170.76 Root MSE 13.07 R-Square 0.10 CV 1291.76 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Model Diet Parity Diet*Parity Error 5 1 2 2 25 450.645 27.881 10.845 413.152 4719.670 0.53 0.16 0.03 1.21 0.7530 0.6896 0.9688 0.3151 Dependent Variable: Placenta Weight, kg Mean 2.52 MSE 0.83 Root MSE 0.91 R-Square 0.28 CV 36.01 Source DF SS F— Va 1 up PDsP Model Diet Parity Diet*Parity Error 5 1 2 2 27 8.751 0.806 7.964 0.185 22.293 2.12 0.98 4.82 0.11 — 0.0936 0.3320 0.0162 0.8945

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Ill Table 26. Statistical Analysis for Experiment 3 (Chapter 3). Dependent Variable: Litter Size Mean 9.95 MSE 6.59 Root MSE 2.57 AOV Table R-Square 0.07 CV 25.80 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 17 8.992 111.956 1.37 ±-i x 0.2587 Dependent Variable: Piglets Born Alive Mean 9.58 MSE 6.02 Root MSE 2.45 R-Square 0.12 CV 25.62 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 17 14.232 102.400 2.36 0.1427 Dependent Variable: Piglets Alive , Day 7 Mean 8.84 MSE 6.12 Root MSE 2.47 R-Square 0.04 CV 28.00 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 17 4.426 104.100 0.72 0.4070 Dependent Variable: Piglets Alive / Day 14 Mean 8.68 MSE 5.91 Root MSE 2.43 R-Square 0.05 CV 28.00 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 17 5.616 100.489 0.95 ±LtSr r 0.3434 Table 26-continued.

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112 Dependent Variable: Piglets Alive, Day 21 Mean 8.68 MSE 5.91 Root MSE 2.43 R-Square 0.05 CV 28.00 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 17 5.616 100.489 0.95 0.3434 Dependent Variable: Piglets Overlayed Mean 0.32 MSE 0.55 Root MSE 0.74 R-Square 0.07 CV 235.33 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 17 0.716 9.389 1.30 0.2705 Dependent Variable: Piglets Weaned, % Mean 90.19 MSE 102.83 Root MSE 10.14 R-Square 0.03 CV 11.24 Source DF SS F-Value Diet Error 1 17 54.697 1748.108 0.53 0.4757 Dependent Variable: Piglet Birth Weight, kg Mean 1.35 MSE 0.02 Root MSE 0.14 R-Square 0.16 CV 10.61 Source DF SS F-Value Diet Error 1 17 0.069 0.349 3.34 0.0850

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113 Table 26-continued. Dependent Variable: Piglet 7 Day Weight, kg Mean 2.71 MSE 0.04 Root MSE 0.20 R-Square 0.11 CV 7.24 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 17 0.083 0.653 2.17 0.1589 Dependent Variable: Piglet 14 Day Weight, kg Mean 4.45 MSE 0.86 Root MSE 0.93 R-Square 0.0001 CV 20.84 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 17 0.002 14.625 0.002 0.9611 Dependent Variable: Piglet 21 Day Weight, kg Mean 5.88 MSE 0.53 Root MSE 0.73 R-Square 0.19 CV 12.38 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 17 2.053 9.001 3.88 0.0655 Dependent Variable: Piglet Net Weight Gain, kg Mean 4.53 MSE 0.44 Root MSE 0.67 R-Square 0.15 CV 14.72 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 17 1.370 7.547 3.09 0.0969

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114 Table 26~continued . Dependent Variable: Sow Breeding Weight, kg Mean 166.86 MSE 554.03 Root MSE 23.54 R-Square 0.04 CV 14.11 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 18 429.940 9972.560 0.78 0.3900 Dependent Variable: Sow Weight At 110 Day of Gestation, kg Mean 204.20 MSE 371.73 Root MSE 19.28 R-Square 0.13 CV 9.44 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 18 972.594 6691.084 2.62 0.1232 Dependent Variable: Sow Weight at 2 4 -Hour PostPartum, kg Mean 193.01 MSE 420.61 Root MSE 20.51 R-Square 0.24 CV 10.63 Source DF SS F-Value PTJ'»'P Diet Error 1 17 2214.502 7150.345 5.26 0.0348 Dependent Variable: Sow Weight at 21 Day of Lactation, kg Mean 184.52 MSE 399.51 Root MSE 19.99 R-Square 0.17 CV 10.83 Source DF _ss F-Value PPM? Diet Error 1 17 1404.953 6791.700 3.52 0.0780

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115 Table 26-continued. Dependent Variable: Gestation Weight Gain, kg Mean 37.34 MSE 129.41 Root MSE 11.38 R-Square 0.54 CV 30.47 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 18 2695.842 2329.395 20.83 0.0002 Dependent Variable: Gestation Weight Change , kg Mean 26.21 MSE 141.35 Root MSE 11.89 R-Square 0.66 CV 45.35 Source DF SS F— Value PP-sT? Diet Error 1 17 4716.958 2402.943 33.37 ir 0.0001 Dependent Variable: Lactation Weight Change, kg Mean -8.49 MSE 72.56 Root MSE 8.52 R-Square 0.07 CV 100.31 Source DF SS F-Value PP^F Diet Error 1 17 91.696 1233.546 1.26 0.2766 Dependent Variable: Placenta Weight, kg Mean 2.19 MSE 0.65 Root MSE 0.80 R-Square 0.09 CV 36.70 Source DF SS F— Value PP^F Diet Error 1 17 1.146 10.983 1.77 r 0.2005

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116 Table 26-continued. Dependent Variable: Solids in Colostrum, % Mean 23.25 MSE 6.21 Root MSE 2.49 R-Square 0.06 CV 10.71 Source DF SS F-Value. PR>F Diet Error 1 8 3.047 49.659 0.49 0.5034 Dependent Variable: Fat in Colostrum, % Mean 5.36 MSE 2.46 Root MSE 1.57 R-Square 0.46 CV 29.24 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 8 16.848 19.678 6.85 * 0.0308 Dependent Variable: Protein in Colostrum, % Mean 14.98 MSE 10.64 Root MSE 3.26 R-Square 0.03 CV 21.78 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 8 2.294 85.137 0.22 Oaesa 0.6548 Dependent Variable: Lactose in Colostrum, % Mean 2.15 MSE 0.14 Root MSE 0.37 R-Square 0.41 CV 17.25 Source DF SS F-Value PTJ'y'P Diet Error 1 8 0.751 1.096 5.48 0.0474

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117 Table 26-continued. Dependent Variable: Ash in Colostrum, % Mean 0.77 MSE 0.002 Root MSE 0.04 R-Square 0.03 CV 5.59 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 8 0.0005 0.0148 0.26 0.6207 Dependent Variable: Energy in Colostrum, cal/g Mean 1361 MSE 23996.90 Root MSE R-Square 154.91 0.20 CV 11.38 Source DF SS F-Va 1 PR>F Diet Error 1 8 49420.900 2.06 191975.200 0.1892 Dependent Variable: Solids in Milk, % Mean 18.41 MSE 0.78 Root MSE 0.88 R-Square 0.26 CV 4.80 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 17 4.662 13.286 5.97 0.0258 Dependent Variable: Fat in Milk, % Mean 6.57 MSE 1.11 Root MSE 1.05 R-Square 0.17 CV 16.00 Source -OF SS F-Value DDsf Diet Error 1 17 3.780 18.800 3.42 0.0819

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118 Table 26-continued. Dependent Variable: Protein in Milk , % Mean 7.88 MSE 0.47 Root MSE 0.68 R-Square 0.26 CV 8.66 Source DF SS F-Value Diet Error 1 17 2.775 7.921 5.95 ± r 0.0259 Dependent Variable: Lactose in Milk , % Mean 3.30 MSE 0.04 Root MSE 0.20 R-Square 0.72 CV 5.95 Source DF SS F-Valup. P15S.T? Diet Error 1 17 1.650 0.656 42.74 0.0001 Dependent Variable: Ash in Milk, % Mean 0.80 MSE 0.005 Root MSE 0.07 R-Square 0.003 CV 8.84 Source DF SS F-Value Diet Error 1 17 0.0002 0.0840 0.05 0.8337 Dependent Variable: Energy in Milk, cal/g Mean 1067 MSE 76765.43 Root MSE 277.06 R-Square 0.0004 CV 25.97 Source df SS F-Value PPSP Diet Error 1 17 507.640 1305012.344 0.01 ~ 0.9361

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119 Table 27. Statistical Analysis for Chapter 4. Dependent Variable: Energy Intake, kcal/day Mean 11029 MSE 1122666. Root MSE 30 1059.56 AOV Table R-Square 0.91 CV 9.61 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 18 209648656.7 20207994.2 186.74 0.0001 Dependent Variable: Fecal Energy, kcal/day Mean 4878 MSE 1292747. Root MSE 9 1136.99 R-Square 0.91 CV 23.31 Source . DF .. SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 18 237971782.3 23269462.7 184.0 0.0001 Dependent Variable: Urinary Energy, kcal/day Mean 290 MSE 7354.05 Root MSE 85.76 R-Square 0.43 CV 29.56 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 15 82966.10 110310.67 11.28 0.0043 Dependent Variable: Digestible Energy, kcal/day Mean 6151 MSE Root MSE 949594.68 974.47 R-Square 0.05 CV 15.84 Source DF SS F-Value Diet Error 1 18 896969.764 17092704.264 0.94 0.3440

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120 Table 27-continued. Dependent Variable: Metabolizable Energy, kcal/day Mean 5789 MSE 542739. Root MSE 56 736.71 R-Square 0.26 CV 12.73 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 15 2850964.52 8141093.42 5.25 ^ 0.0368 Dependent Variable: Energy Digestibility, % Mean 61.73 MSE 43.63 Root MSE 6.61 R-Square 0.91 CV 10.70 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 18 7996.989 785.296 183.30 0.0001 Dependent Variable: Metabolizable Energy, % Mean 61.54 MSE 32.29 Root MSE 5.68 R-Square 0.94 CV 9.23 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 15 7189.942 484.377 222 . 66 0.0001 Dependent Variable: ME/DE Ratio Mean 95.12 MSE 2.43 Root MSE 1.56 R-Square 0.50 CV 1.64 Source DF SS F-Value Diet Error 1 15 36.568 36.462 15.04 0.0015

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121 Table 27-continued. Dependent Variable: Digestible Energy, kcal/kg diet Mean 2636 MSE 78615.95 Root MSE 280.39 R-Square 0.91 CV 10.63 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 18 15035360.29 1415087.17 191.25 0.0001 Dependent Variable: Metabolizable Energy, kcal/kg diet Mean 2631 MSE 58283.47 Root MSE 241.42 R-Square 0.94 CV 9.18 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 15 13471462.41 874252.08 231.14 0.0001 Dependent Variable: Nitrogen Intake, g/day Mean 55.18 MSE 24.34 Root MSE 4.93 R-Square 0.75 CV 8.94 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 18 1322.302 438.204 54.32 0 .0001 Dependent Variable: Fecal Nitrogen, g/day Mean 24.78 MSE 35.49 Root MSE 5.96 R-Square 0.87 CV 24.04 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 18 4209.358 638.736 118.62 r 0.0001

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122 Table 27-continued. Dependent Variable: Urinary Nitrogen, g/day Mean 18.60 MSE 24.24 Root MSE 4.92 R-Square 0.31 CV 26.47 Source DF SS F-Value PPST? Diet Error 1 15 164.030 363.551 6.77 0.0200 Dependent Variable: Nitrogen Digested, g/day Mean 30.40 MSE 20.93 Root MSE 4.58 R-Square 0.68 CV 15.05 Source DF SS F-Value PP*>P Diet Error 1 18 813.168 376.758 38.85 0.0001 Dependent Variable: Nitrogen Retention, g/day Mean 13.38 MSE 19.59 Root MSE R-Square 4 -43 0.29 CV 33.07 Source DF SS F— Valine PP^TT Diet Error 1 15 117.459 6.00 293.778 0.0271 Dependent Variable: Nitrogen Digestibility, % Mean 58.24 MSE 60.98 Root MSE 7.81 R-Square 0.88 CV 13.41 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 18 8044 . 18 1097.69 131.91 0.0001

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123 Table 27-continued . Dependent Variable: Nitrogen Retention, % (of intake) Mean 26.30 MSE 92.50 Root MSE 9.62 R-Square 0.47 CV 36.58 Source DF SS F-Value PP*sF Diet Error 1 15 1212.518 1387.541 13.11 *.**<£ 0.0025 Dependent Variable: Nitrogen Retention, % (of digested) Mean 41.99 MSE 161.68 Root MSE 12.72 R-Square 0.00007 CV 30.28 Source DF SS F— Value PP^>F Diet Error 1 15 0.174 2425.237 0.00 0.9743 Dependent Variable: Dry Matter Digestibility, % Mean 63.33 MSE 29.52 Root MSE 5.43 R-Square 0.93 CV 8.58 Source DF SS F-Value PP>F Diet Error 1 18 7568.866 531.292 256.43 0.0001 Dependent Variable: Ether Extract Digestibility, % Mean 22.97 MSE 266.63 Root MSE 16.33 R-Square 0.84 CV 71.08 Source DF SS F— Val ue PPM? Diet Error 1 18 24288.742 4799.251 91.10 0.0001

PAGE 131

124 Table 27-continued. Dependent Variable: NDF Digestibility, % Mean 43.67 MSE 128.24 Root MSE 11.32 R-Square 0.60 CV 25.93 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 18 3522.205 2308.311 27.47 0.0001 Dependent Variable: ADF Digestibility, % Mean 45.68 MSE 97.16 Root MSE 9.86 R-Square 0.68 CV 21.58 Source DF SS F-Value P'D's'P Diet Error 1 18 3746.387 1748.964 38.56 0.0001 Dependent Variable: Hemicellulose Digestibility, % Mean 37.94 MSE 234.42 Root MSE 15.31 R-Square 0.59 CV 40.35 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 18 5971.932 4219.505 25.48 0.0001 Dependent Variable: Cellulose Digestibility, % Mean 47.27 MSE 128.15 Root MSE 11.32 R-Square 0.54 CV 23.95 Source DF SS F-Value Diet Error 1 18 2688.162 2306.711 20.98 0.0002

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125 Table 27-continued. Dependent Variable: Lignin Digestibility, % Mean 50.61 MSE 120.99 Root MSE 11.00 R-Square 0.81 CV 21.74 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 18 9264.662 2177.897 76.57 0.0001 Dependent Variable: Dry Matter Digested, g/day Mean MSE Root MSE R-Square CV 1488.65 39210.25 198.02 0.006 13.30 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet 1 4333.274 0.11 * 0.7434 Error 18 705784.518 Dependent Variable: Ether Extract Digested, g/day Mean 16.50 MSE 288 . 00 Root MSE 16.97 R-Square 0.77 CV 102.82 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Diet Error 1 18 17722.891 5184.023 61.54 0.0001 Dependent Variable: NDF Digested, g/day Mean 264.53 MSE 14155.58 Root MSE R-Square 118.98 0.70 CV 44.98 Source DF SS F-Value PP>F Diet Error 1 18 583384.293 41.21 254800.397 £^4. 0.0001

PAGE 133

Table 27-continued. Dependent Variable: 126 Mean 216.79 Source Diet Error ADF Digested, g/day MSE 9628.66 Root MSE 98.13 R-Square 0.78 DF SS 1 620678.943 18 173315.842 F-Value 64.46 CV 45.26 PR>F 0.0001 Dependent Variable: Hemicellulose Digested, g/day Mean 47.73 MSE Root MSE 687.97 26.23 R-Square CV 0.04 54.95 Source DF Diet i Error is SS 577.721 12383.429 F-Value pr>f 0-84 0.3716 Dependent Variable: Cellulose Digested, g/day Mean 161.81 MSE 6140.26 Root MSE 78.36 R-Square 0.75 Source DF SS F-Value Diet Error 1 338446.021 55.12 18 110524.652 CV 48.43 PR>F 0.0001 Dependent Variable: Lignin Digested, g/day Mean 58.04 MSE Root MSE 1417.96 37.66 R-Square CV 0-62 64.88 SS 42021.611 25523.314 F-Value 29.64 PR>F 0.0001

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127 Table 28. Statistical Analysis For Chapter 5. Dependent Variable 3 : Plasma Glucose, mg/100 ml Mean 92.70 MSE 150.74 Root MSE 12 . 28 AOV Table R-Square 0.71 CV 13.24 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Model Diet Sow (Diet) Period Diet*Period Error 29 1 18 5 5 90 34023.985 3865.016 23301.512 5324.782 1532.676 13566.978 7.78 2.99 8.59 7.06 2.03 0.0001 0.1011 0.0001 0.0001 0.0814 Dependent Variable: Plasma Protein, g/100 ml Mean 4.80 MSE 1.27 Root MSE 1.13 R-Square 0.62 CV 23.44 Source DF SS F— Va 1 Model Diet Sow (Diet) Period Diet*Period Error 29 1 18 5 5 90 182 . 885 3.939 154.298 12.444 12.203 113.942 4.98 0.46 6.77 1.97 1.93 x rv->r 0.0001 0.5065 0.0001 0.0913 0.0974 Dependent Variable: Plasma Urea Nitrogen, mg/lQO ml Mean 9.64 MSE 4.04 Root MSE 2.01 R-Square 0.63 CV 20.86 Source DF SS F— Va 1 DDsl? Model Diet Sow (Diet) Period Diet*Period Error 29 1 18 5 5 90 611.072 0.015 355.849 174.432 80.776 363.829 5.21 0.00 4.89 8.63 4.00 0.0001 0.9780 0.0001 0.0001 0.0026 a Mean square of sow (diet) was used to test the effect of diet for every dependent variable. errect of diet

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128 Table 28-continued . Dependent Variable: Plasma Lactic Acid, mg/100 ml Mean MSE Root 19.67 69.69 8.35 Source DF SS Model 29 9700 Diet 1 2056 Sow (Diet) 18 4144 Period 5 1883 D.i et*Period 5 1615 Error 90 6272 MSE R-Square cv 0.61 42.44 F-Value pr>f •302 4.80 0.0001 .752 8.93 0.0079 296 3.30 0.0001 637 5.41 0.0002 616 4.64 0.0008 495 Dependent Variable: Mean MSE 81.32 71.98 Source DF Model 29 Diet l Sow (Diet) 18 Period 5 Diet*Period 5 Error 90 Plasma Cholesterol Root MSE 8.48 35567 . 758 297.612 9092.999 25693.768 483.378 6478.071 mg/100 ml R-Square CV 0.85 10.43 F-Value PR>F 17.04 0.0001 0.59 0.4527 7.02 0.0001 71.39 0.0001 1.34 0.2535 Dependent Variable: Plasma HDL-Cholesterol , mg/100 ml Mean MSE Root MSE 27.70 48.48 6.96 R-Square CV 0*58 25.14 Source DF Model 29 Diet 1 Sow (Diet) 18 Period 5 Diet*Period 5 Error 90 SS 6144.299 300.390 1139.839 4424.363 279 .707 4363.349 F-Value 4.37 4.74 1.31 18.25 1.15 PR>F 0.0001 0.0429 0.2033 0.0001 0.3382

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129 Table 28-continued. Dependent Variable: Plasma LDL-Cholesterol , mg/100 ml Mean MSE Root MSE R-Square CV 41.57 130.75 11.43 0.66 27.51 Source DF SS F-Value PR>F Model 29 22540.982 5.94 0.0001 Diet 1 62.012 0.11 0.7496 Sow (Diet) 18 10627.263 4.52 0.0001 Period 5 10655.730 16.30 0 . 0001 Diet*Peiriod 5 1195.977 1.83 0.1150 Error 90 11767.823 Dependent Variable: Plasma Triglycerides, mg/100 ml Mean MSE Root M 60.22 187.29 13.69 Source DF SS Model 29 24541 Diet 1 1518 Sow (Diet) 18 14827 Period 5 6265 Diet*Period 5 1929 Error 90 16855 3E R-Square CV 0.59 22.72 F-Value PR>F 540 4.52 — * 0.0001 839 1.84 0.1913 563 4.40 0.0001 176 6.69 0.0001 962 2.06 0.0776 651

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141 Varel, V.H., H.G. Jung and W.G. Pond. 1988. Effects of dietary fiber of young adult genetically lean, obese and contemporary pigs: Rate of passage, digestibility and microbiological data. J. Anim. Sci. 66:707. v arel, V .H. and W.G. Pond. 1985. Enumeration and activity of cellulolytic bacteria from gestating swine fed various levels of dietary fiber. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49:858. Varel, V.K., W.G. Pond and J.T. Yen. 1984. Influence of dietary fiber on the performance and cellulase activity of growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 59:388. Wahlstrom, R.C. and G.W. Libal. 1977. Effect of dietary protein during growth and gestation on development and reproductive performance of gilts, j. Anim. Sci. 45 : 94 . White, C.E. and D.R. Campbell. 1984. Effect of dietary carbohydrate source on sow lactation performance and growth of nursing pigs. Nutr. Rep. Int. 29:579. White, C.E. , H.H. Head, K.C. Bachman and F.W. Bazer. 1984. Yield and composition of milk and weight gain of nursing pigs from sows fed diets containing fructose or dextrose J. Anim. Sci. 59:141. Wiley, J.R. 1919. Purdue Univ. How to grow and use forage crops for hogs Dept. Agr. Ext. Bull. 66. Yen, J.! 1 . and J. Killefer . 1987. a method for chronically quantifying _ net absorption of nutrients and gut me abolites into hepatic portal vein in conscious swine J. Anim. Sci. 64:923. Young, L.G. and G.L. King. 1981. Wheat shorts in diets of gestating swine. J. Anim. Sci. 52:551. Zoiopoulos, P.E. P R. English and J.H. Topps. 1983. A note of intake and digestibility of a fibrous diet self fed to pnmiparous sows. Anim. Prod. 37 : 153 .

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Fred Douglas Lopez, son of Carmen Sales de Lopez and Vicente Lopez, was born in Chalatenango, El Salvador, on January 19, 1957. He graduated from the National High School of El Salvador, in 1975. From May, 1977 to March, 1980 he attended the National School of Agriculture of El Salvador, La Libertad, and received the Agronomo degree. He has attended the University of Florida since the Spring of 1981 where he was awarded a Bachelor of Science degree in 1983 and a Master of Agriculture degree in 1985. He is currently a Ph.D. candidate in animal science with a specialization in swine nutrition, under the guidance of Dr. C.E. White. He is a member of the Gamma Sigma Delta Honor Society for Agriculture. He is married to Blanca Luz Lopez and they have three daughters, Carla Maria, Gabriela and Daniela Nicole. 142

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I certify that I have read this study and that in mv opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Phiko^ophy . CgJiUvv ?. Calvin E. White, Chairman Associate Professor of Animal Science 1 certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, a dissertation for the degree o:^T><^fctor pf Philosophy. Josephs H.' Conrad as / Professor of Animal Science (y 1 certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality a dissertation for the degree of Dscteor of Phil< ' Alvin C. Warnick Professor of Animal Science 1 certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. W . Randy Weaker Associate Professor of Animal Science 1 certify that I have read this study and that in mv opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Y ' Ed^?in C. Frenc Associate Prdfessor of Agronomy

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Of fJ h ^f SSer ^ ion Was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Agriculture and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the reguirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. December, 1990 College < of/ / A Agriculture Dean, Graduate School