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Page/Ladson (8Je591) : excavation of an early holocene occupation site in the Aucilla River, Florida

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Page/Ladson (8Je591) : excavation of an early holocene occupation site in the Aucilla River, Florida
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Carter, Brinnen S
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xvii, 260 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

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Antlers ( jstor )
Archaeology ( jstor )
Bones ( jstor )
Caves ( jstor )
Charcoal ( jstor )
Cobbles ( jstor )
Excavations ( jstor )
Projectiles ( jstor )
Sediments ( jstor )
Stone tools ( jstor )
Anthropology thesis, Ph.D ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Anthropology -- UF ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2003.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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Printout.
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Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Brinnen S. Carter.

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PAGE/LADSON (8JE591): EXCAVATION OF AN
EARLY HOLOCENE OCCUPATION SITE
IN THE AUCILLA RIVER, FLORIDA














By

BRINNEN S. CARTER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2003
































Copyright 2003

by

Brinnen S. Carter
































This document is dedicated to my dead father, Brinly Stewart Carter.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

There are many people who deserve the largest measure of thanks for their patience and support. On the intellectual side, S. David Webb and James (Jim) Dunbar are first and foremost. The Florida Department of State Special Category grants, National Geographic grants, and numerous private donations of money, time, and equipment, to the Aucilla River Prehistory Project, lead by Drs. Webb and Milanich paid for the fieldwork. Grants and salary from the Aucilla River Prehistory Project and discussions with Jim Dunbar have been important in directing the work that follows. Discussions with David Anderson (modeling Paleoindian/Early Archaic American Indian bands and macrobands), Albert Goodyear (tool technology and chronology), Jerald Milanich (hypothesis generation and testing), Louis Tesar (overall Florida Paleoindian site distribution and nature) have also contributed to the quality of work. One could hardly ask for a better archaeology faculty than the University of Florida's for understanding the breadth of New World Archaeology. The archaeology faculty of Florida State University-and especially Rochelle Marrinan-helped me keep my dignity while completing the dissertation. Teaching at FSU added notches to my resume and gave me a better understanding of the pressures under which university-based researchers work. Finally, the SEAC staff, and especially Robert C. "Bob" Wilson, have been very supportive of this effort and helpful with many things. They are gentler than I should expect and patient to a fault. John and Elise Cornelison provided needed computer-aided









design help when I needed it most. Our combined efforts may keep a roof over our heads yet.

On a more personal level, several people have been generous with their time and support. Richard Vories kicked back at the Pizza Palace with me many nights. Charles Steams put a roof over my head while I acclimated to Gainesville. Phyllis Schmidt gave me a job. Kent Spriggs lent me a place to work and challenged me to complete the dissertation before he finished his second book. He finished before me, but we are both done now. Finally, my wife Jennifer and mother Joan have been most patient. They supported the various side-ventures that have presented themselves over the past seven years. Without their emotional and financial support, I wouldn't have had the ability to see this through. Although I dedicate the dissertation to my dead father, Benjamin, Jennifer, Joan, Julia, Abigail, and Chapman are the survivors who make it worthwhile.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS
PagA

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...................................................................... iv

LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................ ix

LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................... x

ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................... xvi

CHAPTER

1 Introduction and Literature Review .............................................................................. 1

Study Objectives ...................................................................................................... 1
Geography of the Page/Ladson Site: The Aucilla River in Southeastern Context ...... 2 Environmental Change at 10,000 BP ...................................................................... 5
Paleoindian/early Archaic or late Pleistocene/early Holocene .............................. 10
Forager Theory: Sea level rise, Packing, and Foraging Change ............................ 13
Previous Pleistocene and early Holocene Archaeology in Florida ......................... 18

2 Early Holocene Excavations at Page/Ladson (8Je591) ........................................ 37

3 Underwater Excavations and Analysis of Submerged Deposits and their contents ... 47

Chronological Considerations .............................................................................. 47
Early Holocene Levels in Test B .......................................................................... 48
Artifacts and Artifact Distributions from Test B ................................................... 49
Early Holocene Levels in Test C and Adjoining Test Units ................. 49
S oils ..................................................................................................................... 50
Radiocarbon dates .......................................................................................... 53
Pollen ................................................................................................................... 54
Faunal analysis .............................................................................................. 56
Features ................................................................................................................ 56
Artifact Descriptions and Distributions .......................................................... 58
Diagnostic Points ...................................................................................... 58
Adzes/Scrapers/Bifaces .......................................................................... 60
Cores and Core Tools ............................................................................... 60
Chert Flake Tools and Flakes ................................................................. 61
Ground Stone Objects, Abraders, Ground Stone Preforms, and Ground
Stone Preform Debitage ...................................................................... 62









Fire-cracked Rock/Dolomite Cobbles .................................................... 63
Bone tools ............................................................................................... 64
W ood Stakes/Branches ............................................................................. 64
Depositional History and Overview ..................................................................... 65

4 Transformations of Early Holocene Stone Technology ........................................... 103

Early Holocene Points from the Ohmes Collection .................................................. 103
Early Archaic Point Reduction ................................................................................. 104
Resharpening ............................................................................................................ 106
A Diachronic, Explanatory Model of Late Pleistocene to Early HoloceneProjectile
Point M orphologies .............................................................................................. 108
Intensification of Quarry Stone Use .................................................................. 112
Projectile Point Conservation Steps .................................................................. 113
The M anufacturing and Use of Early Archaic "Bola" stones ................................... 114

5 The Early Holocene Bone tool kit ............................................................................ 139

Technofunctional Categories of Early Holocene Bone Artifacts ............................. 140
Sites with Early Holocene Bone Tools ..................................................................... 140
Antler and Bone Tools from Page/Ladson and Little Salt Spring ............................ 141
Antler Flakers and Probable Antler Flaker Preforms (Figures 5.2, 5.3, 5.4,
5 .5) ................................................................................................................. 14 1
Worked Antler Racks (09021A01, 0901 1B03, 07001A01, 06999A03) (Figures
5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9) ............................................................................................ 142
Antler Billet/Tool (BAR 85-59-54) (Figure 5.10) ............................................. 143
Handles (LSS 06288A01 and 05991A01) (Figures 5.11, 5.12) ........................ 145
Cups or Vessels (Table 5.4)(Figures 5.13-5.18) ................................................ 146
Bone pin (95E-209, Figure 3.28) ...................................................................... 147
Antler Points (09021A02, 09021A03, 09993A02, and 06329A01, Figures 5.19
and 5.20) ........................................................................................................ 148
Digging implements (06261B01, 06349B01, 07001B03, Figures 5.21, 5.22,
5.23) ............................................................................................................... 149
Awls (09011A04, 06290A01, 95A-2, Figures 5.24, 5.25, 5.26) ....................... 150
Bone bead (06319A01, Figure 5.27) ................................................................. 150
General Considerations ............................................................................................. 150

6 Summary and Conclusions ....................................................................................... 179

Overview ................................................................................................................... 179
Early Holocene Human Settlement in North Florida ............................................... 181
Further Research ....................................................................................................... 183









APPENDIX

A Catalog of Finds of Surface Collected Early Archaic Diagnostics and Materials
Excavated from Early Archaic dated Proveniences .................................................. 186

B Early Archaic Point M easurem ents .......................................................................... 214

C Early Archaic Point N onm etric D ata ........................................................................ 218

D Land Excavations at Page/Ladson (8Je591) ............................................................. 222

Overview of Excavations .......................................................................................... 222
Artifact analysis ........................................................................................................ 227
Ceram ics ............................................................................................................ 227
Projectile point/knives ....................................................................................... 227
Features .............................................................................................................. 228
Results of Land Excavation ...................................................................................... 228

LIST OF REFEREN CES ................................................................................................. 242

BIOG RAPH ICA L SKETCH ........................................................................................... 260















LIST OF TABLES


Table pai~e

1.1. Early A rchaic Site C lusters ................................................................................... 24

1.2. Sites with diagnostic points from dated contexts (with the exception of Little Salt
Spring). Derived from Anderson (2002) ............................................................ 25

3.1. Radiocarbon dates from early Holocene levels at Page/Ladson .......................... 68

3.2. Zones and Levels in Test B (developed from data in Dunbar et al. 1989) ........... 69

3.3. Early Holocene artifacts from Test B by Dunbar's zone and stratum .................. 70

3.4. Technical descriptions of the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene sediments and
stratum boundaries in the Test C area of the Page/Ladson site (8Je591) (developed
from K endrick 2000) .......................................................................................... 71

3.5. Test C sediment observations and environmental implications ............................ 72

3.6. Find locations and associations of diagnostic points ............................................ 73

4.1. Mean weights of extant and extinct species during the Late Pleistocene/Early
H o locene ................................................................................................................. 118

4.2. Tool Production Intensification and Conservation Measures .................................. 121

5.1. A technofunctional classification of bone artifacts .................................................. 153

5.2. Carbon dates from Little Salt Spring (Carter and Gifford 2002) ............................. 154

5.3. Possible functions of BAR 85-59-54 ....................................................................... 154

5.4. Range of Odocoileus sp. skull vessel variation ....................................................... 154















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure age

1.1. Definitions of the Southeast Cultural Area (adapted from B. Smith 1986). A)
Wissler 1922, Figure 61; B) Kroeber 1939; C) Swanton 1946:23; D) Murdock
1960; E) Willey 1966; F) Jennings 1974; G) Stoltman and Barreis 1983 ....... 29

1.2. Sea level curves for the Gulf of Mexico (Stright 1995:Figure 7) ......................... 30

1.3. Probability map of the Florida coast at 10,000 BP showing maximum and minimum
extents based on sealevel curves ........................................................................ 31

1.4. Sealevel curve for the Caribbean, based on reef data from Barbados (adapted from
Fairbanks 1989) ................................................................................................... 32

1.6. Florida initial and early Holocene site clusters .................................................... 34

1.7. Florida chert quarry clusters (compiled from Upchurch et al. 1982). Key: 1-Wright
Creek; 2-Marianna; 3-Wacissa; 4-Upper Suwannee; 5-Alapaha River; 6-Swift
Creek Swamp; 7-White Springs; 8-Lower Suwannee; 9-Santa Fe; 10-Gainesville;
I 1-Ocala; 12-Lake Panasoffkee; 13-Inverness; 14-Brooksville; 15-Upper
Withlacoochee; 16-Caladesi; 17-Hillsborough River; 18-Turtlecrawl Point; 19P eace R iver ............................................................................................................... 35

1.8. Temporal spread of projectile point styles based on dated specimens from the
Southeast (based on data from Anderson 2002). Note substantial overlap between
Dalton/Early Side Notched and Side-Notched points. Also, note longevity of
corner-notching tradition (DASN=Dalton/Side Notched, SN=Side Notched,
CN=Comer Notched, BI=Bifurcate, ES=Early Stemmed) ................................. 36

3.1. Site map of the Page/Ladson Site (8Je59 1) with underwater and land excavations
noted. Transect lines in light purple ................................................................... 74

3.2. North Profile of Test B, 8Je591 (from Dunbar, Faught, and Webb 1988). Natural
levels 1-7 are unconsolidated modem deposits. Levels 8-11 date to the early
Holocene. Levels 12 and below are late Pleistocene in age ............................... 75

3.3. Bolen Plain (top) and Bolen Bevel (bottom) projectile points from Test B ...... 76

3.4. Aucilla Adzes from Test B. All adzes are from surface or deflated contexts, except
upper left, which originated in level with antler flaker ....................................... 77









3.5. U tilized Flake from Test B ................................................................................... 78

3.6. Antler Flaker 84-527-9C from Test B on the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591) ............. 79

3.7. Antler Flaker 84-527-9B from Test B on the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591) ............ 80

3.8. Antler tool BAR 85-59-54 from Test B of the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591) .......... 81

3.9. Ground stone tool recovered from Level 12 in Test B (8Je591) .......................... 82

3.10. Distribution of artifacts and ecofacts on the Stratum 5/6 boundary in Test C, G-I,
O -Q , T -V .................................................................................................................. 83

3.11. South Profile of Excavation Units T, U, and V. Soil descriptions are given in Table
3 .4 ............................................................................................................................. 8 4

3.12. Pollen diagram developed from samples taken from Test G at Page/Ladson (from
H anson 1999, Figure 7) ...................................................................................... 85

3.13. Sedimentology of---and pollen summary for---the Early Holocene levels at
Page/Ladson (from Hanson 1999, Figure 9) ........................................................ 86

3.15. In situ wooden stake recovered from Test G ..................................................... 88

3.16. Projectile point 95E-15 (drawing by Mason Sheffield) ...................................... 89

3.17. Projectile point 95E-17 (drawing by Mason Sheffield) ...................................... 90

3.18. Projectile point 95E-18 (drawing by Mason Sheffield) ...................................... 91

3.20. Early Holocene adze from Stratum 5/6 boundary ............................................... 93

3.21. Early Holocene bifacial scrapers and biface fragments ...................................... 94

3.22. Biface, Adze, and biface fragments from the post-10,000 BP Stratum 6. Note
lighter color of cherts as compared to those the Stratum 5/6 boundary ............. 95

3.23. Cores and Core tools from the Stratum 5/6 boundary. Core fragment in upper left
may be broken haft end of Aucilla Adze ............................................................. 96

3.24. Flake tools from underwater component of Page/Ladson .................................. 97

3.25. Bolo stone preforms (92A-23[top] and 95E-90[middle]) and finished, broken bolo
stone (95E-95 [bottom]) from Stratum 5/6 boundary (life size) (drawing by Mason
Sh effi eld) .................................................................................................................. 98

3.26. Dolomite abrading stones from Page/Ladson. Note triangular to trapezoidal shape
of m ost exam ples ................................................................................................. 99









3.27. Ground stone tool preform debitage (top) and abrader preform debitage
(b ottom ) .................................................................................................................. 100

3.28. Bone pin recovered from Excavation Unit I. Note fine striations that reflect
manufacturing-related abrasion and deeper scratches indicative of usewear
(draw ing by M ason Sheffield) ................................................................................ 101

3.29. W orked w ood pin from Test C .............................................................................. 102

3.30. Detail of worked wood pin from Test C ............................................................... 102

3.31. W orked wood artifact from Test C ........................................................................ 103

3.32. Detail of worked wood artifact from Test C. Note flat, cupped carving marks on
end, indicative of flat-bitted adze chipping, not sawing ......................................... 103

4.1. Three longest examples of Bolen Plain projectile points from Ohmes Collection...122 4.2. Six Bolen Plain side-notched projectile points from Ohmes Collection .................. 123

4.3. Six Bolen Beveled side-notched projectile points from Ohmes Collection ............. 124

4.4. One Greenbriar side-notched projectile points from Ohmes Collection .................. 125

4.5. Five Bolen side-notched projectile points from Ohmes Collection that represent a
continuum of resharpening (left to right) from initial manufacture to discard ...... 126

4.6. Range of straight to highly incurvate base Bolen Side-notched points, with initial
opposite bevel resharpening ................................................................................... 127

4.7. Excurvate base Bolen Side-notched beveled points with rounded notches. Mid-stage
resharpening. Note diversity of raw materials present .......................................... 128

4.8. Range of Bolen comer-notched (or Hardin Barbed) projectile points from Ohmes
collection. Note very strong opposite beveled resharpening on both far right and
far left exam ples and variety of bases .................................................................... 129

4.9. Bolen comer-notched (Kirk comer-notched) and Kirk Stemmed projectile points
from the Ohmes Collection. Note relatively large size and strong serration on
m iddle exam ple ...................................................................................................... 130

4.10. Five Bolen side-notched points from Ohmes Collection. Note long, narrow form
resulting from highly-formalized opposite bevel resharpening of tabular blade.
Middle three examples have reverse taper discussed in text .................................. 131

4.11. Five Bolen side-notched points from the Ohmes Collection. Note range of notch
shapes, from open to constricted ............................................................................ 132

4.12. Five assorted Bolen projectile points from the Ohmes collection ......................... 133









4.13. Proposed reduction sequence for Early Archaic Bolen points (redrawn from Austin
and M itchell 1999: Figure 38) ................................................................................ 134

4.15. Scatterplots of length vs. stem width for points identified as side-notched (upper
chart) and comer-notched (lower chart). Data from Appendix B .......................... 136

4.16. Morphological transformation of Paleoindian to Early Archaic point styles based
on the addition and subtraction of individual point features (time---early to late---is roughly represented from top left to bottom right) ................................................. 137

4.17. Typical shape and size of Early Archaic "bolo", or nutting stone (redrawn from
N eill 1970 by M ason Sheffield) ............................................................................. 138

4.18. Artist's reconstruction of Early Archaic nutting stone manufacturing process.
(draw ing by M ason Sheffield) ................................................................................ 139

5.1. Cultural/Stratigraphic representation of levels from Dust Cave (adapted from
Goldman-Finn and Driskell 1994). Bone tools from the late Paleoindian and early
Side-Notched levels are comparable in age to both Page/Ladson and Little Salt
S prin g ..................................................................................................................... 155

5.2: Antler Flaker 84-527-9 from Test B on the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591) .................. 156

5.3. Antler Flaker 84-527-9B from Test B on the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591) ................ 157

5.4. Artifact 06999A02-Possible Antler Flaker Preform from Little Salt Spring ......... 158

5.5. Artifact 06999A02 and 06999A04 shown semi-articulated ..................................... 159

5.6. Artifact 0902 1A01---Shed antler with removed distal tines and scored proximal tine.
.......... .... . . ................................ � ........................................................................ 160

5.7. Artifact 0901 1B03---Antler rack with v-shaped tine removal .................................. 161

5.8. Artifact 0700 A01 ---Antler with radially-removed tines ........................................ 162

5.9. Artifact 06999A 03- W orked Antler ....................................................................... 163

5.10. Antler tool BAR 85-59-54 from Test B of the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591) ........... 164

5.11. Antler handle 06288A01 with evidence of burin parting and slotting (maximum
length : 12cm ) .......................................................................................................... 165

5.12. Antler handle 05991A01 with evidence of burin parting and drilling on one end.166 5.13. A ntler/Calotte cup 07001B01 ................................................................................. 167

5.14. Systematically-reworked calotte-possible cup (07001B02). Note small circular
hole on m id-line of parietal suture ......................................................................... 168









5.15. Artifact 0901 1B02. Possible drinking vessel ......................................................... 169

5.16. Deer skull (09011 B 11) with systematically-removed right lower occipital .......... 170

5.17. Deer Skull (07001B04) with systematically-removed ventral portion .................. 171

5.18. Deer cranium (06300B02) possibly used as vessel. (maximum length: 10cm) ...... 172 5.19. Antler projectile point tip consisting of 09021A02, 09021A02, and 09993A02...173

5.20. Socketed antler projectile point 06329A01 with evidence of radial drilling
(m axim um length: 4cm ) ......................................................................................... 174

5.21. Deer Scapula 06261 B01. Note breakage of medial edge (max. length. 17cm)..... 175 5.22. Scapula 06349B01. Note wear along medial edge, on left (maximum length [top of
item to bottom ]: 9cm ) ............................................................................................. 176

5.23. Odocoileus sp. left mandible (07001B03) used as digging implement. Note
abrasion on base of proximal end and breakage of distal end ................................ 177

5.24. Bone Awl (09011A04) made from deer ulna ......................................................... 178

5.25. Bone Awl (0901 1A04) detail showing diagonal striations near tip ....................... 178

5.26. Bone awl (06290A01) with broken tip (maximum length: 14cm) ........................ 179

5.27. Bone bead (06319A01) (maximum length: 1.7cm, diameter: 0.8cm) .................... 179

D. 1. Hafted tool 94B-6.2.1 from 35 cmbs in Test BW2 (Drawing by Mason Sheffield)230 D.2. Hafted lanceolate 94B-6.2.2 from 35 cmbs in Test BW2 (Drawing by Mason
Sheffi eld) ................................................................................................................ 230

D.3. Hafted tool 94B-12.2.13 from 65 cmbs in Test AEI ............................................... 231

D .4. Profile draw ing of Test A W l .................................................................................. 232

D .5. Profile draw ing of Test A W 2 .................................................................................. 232

D .6. Profile draw ing of Test A W 3 .................................................................................. 233

D .7. Profile draw ing of Test A E1 ................................................................................... 233

D .8. Profile draw ing of Test A E2 ................................................................................... 234

D .9. Profile draw ing of Test AE4 ................................................................................... 234

D .10. Profile drawing of Test BW 1 ................................................................................ 235









D . 11. Profile drawing of Test BW 2 ................................................................................ 235

D .12. Profile draw ing of Test BW 3 ................................................................................ 236

D . 13. Profile drawing of Test BE1 ................................................................................. 236

D . 14. Profile draw ing of Test BE2 ................................................................................. 237

D . 15. Profile drawing of Test BE3 ................................................................................. 237

D .16. Profile draw ing of Test CEI ................................................................................. 238

D.17. Profile drawing of Test CE2 ................................................................................. 238

D . 18. Profile drawing of Test CW 2 ................................................................................ 239

D . 19. Planview draw ing of fully excavated Test CW 2 .................................................. 239

D .20. Profile draw ing of Test CW 4 ................................................................................ 240

































xv














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

PAGE/LADSON (8JE591): EXCAVATION OF AN EARLY HOLOCENE
OCCUPATION SITE IN THE AUCILLA RIVER, FLORIDA By

Brinnen S. Carter

May 2003

Chair: Jerald T. Milanich
Major Department: Anthropology

The early Holocene in north Florida encompasses dramatic changes in landmass,

climate, and biotia. Foraging theory and climatic change models predict that there should have been a change in hunting/foraging strategies when climates became dramatically warmer around 10,000 BP. Pre-existing hunting/foraging strategies and low human populations in north Florida seem to have partially mitigated those changes. A review of dated early Holocene projectile points from the Southeast suggests that different projectile point styles were made concurrently by the same groups, or were made concurrently by different groups. This interpretation is very different than the traditional horizon-style interpretation of changing projectile point.

Excavations on land and underwater at the Page/Ladson site (8Je591) yielded dated projectile points, scatters of stone, bone, and wooden material from an early Holocene camp site, and significant environmental information about the Holocene transition in North Florida. Analysis of the artifact scatter suggests the underwater site component was used as either a work area or a disposal area for an adjacent upland site. Analysis of









individual stone artifacts suggests that so-called "bola" stones-here termed handstones-were manufactured nearby. A shallow depression on an inundated soil horizon is interpreted as a hearth or smudge pit. Vertical stakes driven into the same surface are likely the remains of a camp-related structure, or possibly a burial.

Evaluation of bone and antler tools from the Page/Ladson site and Little Salt Spring suggests that the extensive Middle and Late Archaic osseous tool tradition begins prior to 9,500 B.C. and is derived from the late Pleistocene Paleoindian tool tradition. Tool types include antler points, awls, beads, billets, bone pins, cups, digging implements, dippers, handles, hoes, and multi-function tools. Some of these items may have had significant ceremonial value.


xvii















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW Study Objectives

The primary goals of this dissertation are describing and interpreting the early Holocene artifacts and deposits of the Page/Ladson site (8Je591). While some components of the underwater deposits have been described elsewhere (Dunbar et al. 1988; Dunbar 1996), this is the first comprehensive report on a substantial part of the excavated remains. As part of this dissertation, previous late Pleistocene and early Holocene archeological work in Florida will be summarized. The Page/Ladson site setting, site stratigraphy, artifacts, and features will be described. Radiocarbon dates associated with diagnostic points make the Page/Ladson site particularly important for refining a chronology of point types in the Southeast.

Ground stone tools found on the inundated paleosol on the Page/Ladson site

suggest a ground stone manufacturing process that has not been previously documented or described. Reduction sequences for several other lithic tools will be proposed on the basis of finds from Page/Ladson and contemporaneous sites. The overall goal of addressing stone tools from these sites is to revisit and analyze Bullen's (1975) categories of Florida's early Holocene diagnostic points to reflect regional trends, chronologies, and type names. The other objective is to update Purdy's (1981:24-32, Fig. 10) and Milanich's (1994:53-58) characterization of the early Holocene tool assemblage to reflect data gathered from sites in the last ten years.









An important result of refining Purdy's and Milanich's work will be to establish more precisely the chronological position of side-notched points, unfluted lanceolate points, and comer-notched points with carbon dates from Page/Ladson (8Je591), 8Le2105, and Dust Cave (1Lu496). Taken together, these dates solidly push back the date of origin for notched points past 10,000 BP, suggesting that the origin of notched styles is within a late Pleistocene, unfluted lanceolate tool tradition (Dalton, Cumberland, Suwannee/Simpson) (Goodyear 1982), as suggested by Wyckoff (1999). An explanatory model for changes in projectile point sizes and shapes from late Pleistocene lanceolate to early Holocene notched will be proposed based on changes in the functional requirements for those tools.

Another objective of this dissertation is to propose an idealized bone tool

assemblage for the Earliest Archaic that complements the stone tool assemblage. The proposed assemblage will be based on examples from the Page/Ladson site and Little Salt Spring, with reference to the assemblages from Dust Cave (Goldman-Finn and Driskell 1994), Windover (Penders 2002), and Stanfield-Worley Rockshelter (DeJamette, Kujack, and Cambron 1962) (Northern Alabama).

Geography of the Page/Ladson Site: The Aucilla River in Southeastern Context

What is considered the Southeastern United States depends largely on the

investigator. Bruce Smith (1986) surveyed a number of investigators and suggests that the size range of the Southeast varies depending on the time period that interests an investigator (Figure 1.1). Despite these variations, during the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene, the Southeast likely encompassed the entire area south of the glacial and periglacial areas of Eastern North America. As a practical matter, this dissertation will not discuss sites north of the Tennessee/Carolina's northern border, although the









similarities in diagnostic points and stone tool assemblages suggest there was widespread communication among all Southeastern inhabitants, even ones north of that modem political border (see Anderson 2002, 1996; Dincauze 2002, for overviews of these areas).

Because the Florida peninsula and adjacent subregions are the foci of study, it is critical to define the Florida peninsula around 10,000 BP. Fairbridge (1961, 1983) synthesized world-wide changes in sea level, including changes for the Gulf of Mexico. Since that original study, several investigators have suggested alternative sea level curves (Fairbanks 1989, Stright 1995) (Figure 1.2). These are reviewed in Faught (1996). Using the sea level curves in conjunction with modem bathymetry, several investigators have proposed shorelines during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene ranging from 60m to 40m below average modem sea level (AMSL) (Dunbar et al. 1988; Faught 1996), roughly doubling the size of the Florida peninsula (Figure 1.3).

Despite the relatively good understanding of sea level changes' net effects on available land areas, several critical factors have not been well researched. The most important of these for archaeological purposes is tracing Florida rivers out to the Pleistocene shoreline and defining springs and karst features active during the Pleistocene (Faught 1996: Chapter 2). A number of submerged springs have been recorded on the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of Florida (Roseneau et al. 1977:Appendix A), suggesting that freshwater would have been widely available on the now-submerged continental shelf especially near the Pleistocene shoreline where the Floridan aquifer was forced to the surface by hydrostatic pressure from the sea. Prominent underwater features, such as the Florida Middle Grounds, submerged sinks, and exposed limestone reefs, suggest that currently-submerged areas of the Florida Platform were exposed long enough for karst









features to develop. Dunbar (1991) argues convincingly that late Pleistocene and early Holocene peoples focused on karst features, making the archaeological task of defining their offshore exposures a priority.

The Page/Ladson site lies in and around the Aucilla River, a karst river that

originates south and east of the Thomasville, Georgia, airport. The river flows through the Tallahassee Hills geological subregion on the surface to the edge of the Cody Scarp, the physiographic dividing line between the Tallahassee Hills and the Gulf Coastal Lowlands. The Tallahassee Hills are characterized by thick confining beds of Hawthorn clays of Miocene age, while the Gulf Coastal Lowlands have relatively thin Hawthorn clays and the underlying Floridan aquifer is unconfined. The Aucilla flows through surface and subsurface channels on the Gulf Coastal Lowlands to the Gulf of Mexico. The area immediately around the Page/Ladson site is a mixture of outcropped Suwannee limestone, vegetated sandy rises (probably late Pleistocene dunes), and broad areas of bedrock---thinly covered with diogenic clays and sands, peats, and inundated soils.

The Aucilla is tidal as much as five miles inland, and its level within this area is controlled by the sea. The upper Aucilla River drains a large number of swamps and wetlands and the resulting river water is stained dark brown. The clear, spring-fed Wacissa River-flowing through a series of braided channels-joins the Aucilla at several points 4-8km from the Gulf of Mexico. The Page/Ladson site is located in and around one of the intermittent surface channels that characterize the Aucilla Sinks portion of the river.

Page/Ladson is also located in the center of the Wacissa chert quarry cluster (Upchurch et al. 1982:108). Exposures are currently present both in the bed of the









Aucilla River and in the braided channels of the Wacissa River to the west of the Aucilla. Far greater amounts of accessible chert were available for manufacturing stone tools under the lowered water table, erosional regime of the late Pleistocene and earliest Holocene. Chert from the Wacissa Cluster "consists of microspherulitic chalcedony with a foraminiferal grainstone fabric" (Upchurch et al. 1982:109), the result of silicate replacement of Suwannee limestone. The immediate area around the Page/Ladson site on the Gulf Coastal Lowlands has been substantially different from the adjacent Tallahassee Hills since the Pliocene (Hendry and Sproul 1966:10-15). The period around 10,000 BP was no exception. Topographic relief is lower, ranging to only about 35 feet, even with no water in the stream courses. Soils are fine sands and clayey-sands instead of sandyclays, with a lower iron content. Aeolian sand deposits in the form of dunes and sand caps are common both near the current shoreline and inland to the Cody Scarp, the traditional boundary between the two subregions (Coastal Environments, Inc 1977:127). At 10,000 BP, Page/Ladson was most likely located on the northern fringe of a broad, open oak savanna that extended southward. Intersecting that low-relief savanna were intermittent karstic rivers that supported mesic vegetation. Erosion around Page/Ladson had exposed large boulders of high-quality chert of the St. Marks and Suwannee Formations (Upchurch et al. 1982:14). Early Holocene vegetation around Page/Ladson will be discussed as part of the underwater excavations.

Environmental Change at 10,000 BP

The most important environmental transition that humans have undergone in the last 25,000 years was the last deglaciation---driven by late Pleistocene global warming. Deglaciation appears to have begun around 15,000 BP and continued until around 5,000 BP, when deglaciation-driven sea level rise slowed dramatically (Figure 1.4)(Fairbanks









89). During this period of general climate warming, there were periods of re-glaciation, rapid deglaciation, and temporary climatic stability. The final rapid deglaciation began very close to 10,200 BP (Clark et al. 2001; Grimm et al. 1993), which has been confirmed by ice cores taken from the summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet (Figure 1.5). The initiation of this event is referred to as the late Pleistocene/early Holocene boundary. It now appears that the rate of environmental change around 10,000 BP was the greatest in the last 15,000 radiocarbon years (Grimm et al. 1993). This likely had profound implications for human groups living through this transitional period---and thus for investigators of human activity during this period.

The southeastern United States appears to have been buffered from the large glacial and peri-glacial environmental transformations that influenced northeast and northcentral North America. The greatest change appears to have been the general warming of peninsular Florida and an increase in the difference between summer highs and winter lows (decreased equability). Increases in rainfall begin at the initiation of the Preboreal and remain relatively high and seasonal, but gradually decrease into the mid-Holocene Hypsithermal event (circa 6,000 BP). By 8500 BP, freshwater aquifers, streams, and lakes had reached near-current levels (Watts 1983), although the climate was becoming warmer and drier (Adams and Faure 1997).

Lowered sea levels shifted the late Pleistocene convergence zone between the heavily continental-influenced climate of northern Florida and the Gulf of Mexicoinfluenced subtropical climate of peninsular Florida southward by 120km. As a result, Page/Ladson---140km inland---was 7C to 15C degrees cooler in the winter and as warm in the summer as it is today, at least until the post-Younger Dryas warming event (Adams









and Faure 1997). Without the moderating marine influence prior to 10,000 BP, the climate favored drought-tolerant xeric and mesic species (hickory and oak over pine).

The early Holocene environmental history of the Page/Ladson site is also directly related to the environmental transformations that resulted from periglacial Lake Agassiz changing drainage outlets (Clark et al. 2001; Teller et al. 2002). The most recent data suggest that two rapid drainage switches from the St. Lawrence to the Mississippi drainage at 10,100 BP and 9,900 BP likely introduced large volumes (circa 5,000km3) of glacial meltwater into the northern Gulf of Mexico. Although there is some imprecision in the dating, Emiliani et al. (1976) and Kennett and Shackleton (1975) documented the large influx of glacial meltwater into the northern Gulf of Mexico by tracking a dramatic shift in cold/warm water foramenifera and 6018 ratios from piston cores from submerged DeSoto Canyon and in the western Gulf.

The local climatic effects of this influx on adjacent Gulf coastal ecosystems have not been fully explored, but the cold surface currents along the modem California coast provide a good modem homolog. Spring and fall frontal rains were likely suppressed along the late Pleistocene/early Holocene Florida to Texas coast due to lower evaporation rates off glacial surface waters. Additionally, convective summer rains were likely substantially suppressed during the influx period. Summer temperatures were also probably reduced during the influxes. There is some suspicion among paleovegetation specialists (Paul Delcourt and Hazel Delcourt 1996, personal communication, cited in Adams and Faure 1997) that the Gulf Coastal Lowlands was a dry, savanna-like environment during the deglaciation period (18,000 BP to 10,000 BP) with warm, dry summers and cool, wet winters.









Watts et al.(1992) note that there is a spike in spruce pollen in Camel Lake--100km west of the Aucilla drainage---from 14,000 to around 10,000 BP. Spruce is not currently found south of the >1500m peaks of the southern Appalachians. Its presence around Camel Lake would tend to support the idea of moderate-to-cool spring through fall temperatures along the northern Gulf coast at the time. Alternatively, it could signal the ongoing re-seeding of spruce in the north Florida area by seasonally-transhumant mastodons or finches moving down from the piedmont and ridge-and-valley regions (S. David Webb 2002, personal communication). On the Gault site in Texas, this period is marked by the organically enriched Royalty paleosol that develops under lower water table conditions through the intermittent saturating of a developing A-horizon (Collins and Hester 2001). These data also suggest that the Tallahassee Hills subregion and the adjacent Gulf Coastal Lowlands were on average drier and cooler than modem conditions.

Several authors have summarized North Florida plant communities circa 10,000 BP (Adams and Faure 1997; Delcourt and Delcourt 1984; Delcourt et al. 1983; Watts 1980, Watts and Stuiver1983; Watts et al. 1992). At Sheelar Lake, near Gainesville, Florida, Watts and Stuiver (1983) found that pine and oak dominated the species assemblage of pollen after 10,000 BP, with reduced amounts of hickory, juniper, upland herbs, and mesic trees. This suggests that the limestone and sand ridges to the east of the Tallahassee Hills subregion were also substantially drier than they had been in the late Pleistocene, with fire-tolerant pines coming to dominate the assemblage along with patches of mesic oaks. Camel Lake pollen records indicate a relatively mixed set of upland trees, with pine, oak, and hickory dominating the assemblage prior to 10,020 BP.









After a hiatus in the pollen record of about 2,000 years, the assemblage is dominated by pine and cypress (Watts et al. 1992). Delcourt et al. (1983), characterize the 10,000 BP north Florida plant community as one of mixed oak-hickory-southern pine with the possibility of a broad, open oak savanna on the now-submerged coastal lowlands. From a human use perspective, there is a spike in oak and hickory pollen centered at 10,020 BP. Early Holocene hickory nut and acorn use is well-known from archaeological sites around the Southeast (Smith 1986).

There is no evidence of significant faunal change once the megafaunal extinctions were complete in Florida (likely prior to 10,500 BP), although this may be the result of a lack of high quality subsistence data from archaeological sites older than 8,000 BP rather than the result of a real change. Proxy data in the form of bone tools (this study) and plant remains (Doran 2002, Broom et al. 1997:82-107) suggest a strong reliance on deer and seasonally-available fruits and nuts in the north Florida subregion. This contrasts with Dust Cave in Northern Alabama, where there seems to have been an early emphasis on seasonally available waterfowl and small mammals (Goldmann-Finn 1994). However, there are numerous open, clay-lined lake basins in north Florida that could have been seasonally-flooded vernal pools and playa lakes, habitat seasonally open for migratory birds, small reptiles, and amphibians. Nalcrest, a roughly contemporaneous site in south-central Florida is strategically located near one of these early Holocene seasonal lakes. The small tool assemblage (Bullen and Beilman 1973) was speculated to have been used to fashion reed baskets and other goods, but it could also be used to grate roots and tubers and to create feather garments and ceremonial items. Without a better









sample of early Holocene sites near these seasonal resources, it is impossible to resolve their contribution to human subsistence.

Sealevel rise and salinity changes related to glacial meltwater influxes to the northern Gulf of Mexico also likely restructured the near-shore and pelagic fish populations temporarily. Unfortunately, little can be said about human coastal adaptations on the Gulf of Mexico at 10,000 BP because no coastal sites have been discovered. With the coastline over 100km south of its current position, Page/Ladson site was a riparian site removed from strong coastal climate influences. This makes it difficult to fit the early Holocene component of Page/Ladson into a regional settlement model or to examine issues like yearly range because half the potential sites in the range are now submerged on the continental shelf and are only cursorily known (Faught 1996).

The recovery of a Bison antiquus skull with an imbedded projectile point tip (Webb et al. 1982) indicates there were bison herds in the area. Deer bone tools and unmodified antler have been recovered from early Holocene deposits on Page/Ladson. A range of freshwater reptiles and fish were recovered from early Holocene levels at Page/Ladson, indicating there were surface water bodies connected to Page/Ladson at the time. Those water bodies could have been as small as cenote ponds or as large as open marshes.

Paleoindian/early Archaic or late Pleistocene/early Holocene

North American archaeology has struggled for at least fifty years (Griffin 1952)

with the definition and delineation of the early cultural periods of eastern North America. Griffin (1952) divided the time before 5,000 BP into two periods, the Paleoindian and early Archaic, the former hunting megamammals and producing fluted points, the latter more focused economically on local resources but retaining small band sizes and exogamous marriage. These broad cultural characterizations are problematic because









they tend to create perceived socio-cultural boundaries through time where no real boundaries may have existed. They also de-emphasize important changes in material culture, archaeological features, site size, and site distribution, that reflect critical cultural changes. Smith (1986) recognized the problem and adopted the combination of arbitrary and environmental chronologies suggested by Delcourt et al. (1980), based on Holocene time units. The early Holocene covers the period 12,500-8000 BP, the middle Holocene 8000-5000 BP, and the late Holocene from 5000 BP to present. This dissertation falls in the middle of the early Holocene time unit (12,500-8000 BP) (Delcourt et al. 1980).

The distinction between putative Paleoindian cultures and early Archaic cultures is often tied to the distinction between the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene geological periods and the distinction in subsistence practices (Griffin 1952; Mason 1962; Milanich 1994:38-40; Milanich and Fairbanks 1980:36-38; Smith 1986). Paleoindians are viewed as Pleistocene big-game hunters with a highly mobile lifestyle. Kelly and Todd (1988) characterize them as high technology foragers. By contrast, early Archaic (Holocene) populations are seen as generalized hunter/gathers with less residential mobility than Paleoindians, but higher logistical mobility (Anderson and Hanson 1988), or collectors (Binford 1980). Despite the proposed clarity of the distinction between Paleoindian and early Archaic modes of existence and their material correlates, the characteristics that distinguish the two in social terms and the precise timing of that transition is unknown in Florida or in adjacent states.

If the Paleoindian/early Archaic period transition is tied exclusively to changes in subsistence rather than geologic periods, the lack of many megafaunal remains on sites in the Southeastern United States dating post-10,500 BP suggests that the Archaic may









begin earlier than 10,500 BP in the Southeast. If one uses subsistence criteria, the transition to an "Archaic" subsistence mode was delayed substantially---extending to as late as 7,000 BP---on the Great Plains (Cassells 1993:28-32) and periglacial areas where human groups continued to rely heavily on migratory bison, elk, and reindeer (Johnson 1996). Defining the difference between the Paleoindian and Archaic periods by a change in subsistence strategies---and quantifying that change in terms like mean prey size and number of annual residential moves---is outside the scope of this dissertation. Despite the differences in subsistence regimes from Pleistocene to early Holocene, burial practices appear to be very similar during the Paleoindian and early Archaic, most consisting of burying extraordinarily fine projectile point examples (Anzick, Sloan, Wakulla Springs)(Wilke et al. 1991; Morse 1997:92-95; Jones and Tesar 1999) and red ochre (Anzick and Wakulla Springs) with individuals. Until archaeologists systematically re-evaluate the social criteria and archaeological bases used to divide the Paleoindian and early Archaic, it does not seem wise to use these terms.

In view of the difficulty in actually determining the Paleoindian/early Archaic

sociocultural boundary, the widely acknowledged geological/environmental periods will be used when time references are made, rather than the archaeologist-constructed periods. The Pleistocene/Holocene boundary is considered by most geologists to date to 10,200 BP (11,200 CALYBP), or the initiation of the final dramatic sea level rise. For purposes of this dissertation, the period between 12,500 BP and 10,200 BP will be called the "initial Holocene" and the period between 10,200 BP and 8,500 BP will be the "early Holocene", with the boundary event as the termination of the Younger Dryas, which appears to be at circa 10,200 BP.









Smith's (1986) broad Holocene time-frame is not sufficiently detailed to consider the temporally-limited period that dates the Page/Ladson occupation (Table 3.1). As Delcourt et al. (1983) have abundantly demonstrated, there are many scales at which environmental transformations occur, from weather events that effect less than a square mile for as little as a minute to tectonic events separating and reforming continents. Humans, like plants and other animals, have to live in---and respond to---the smallest scale environmental changes first, especially if they represent imminent death or a potential shortage in subsistence commodities for the individual or group for more than 15 days (Binford 2001:28). Environmental stochasticity between 12,500 and 8,000 BP was high, with biosphere transformations occurring in as little as 3-50 years (Alley et al. 1993). Humans, through the mitigating factors of culture (sensu Binford 2001:462) and technology, successfully coped with a series of short-term environmental changes that comprised longer-term environmental change. Subsistence risk deriving from short-term environmental changes are mitigated in ethnographically-known hunter-gatherer groups by low population densities, mobility, knowledge of consumable---but unexploited--resources, storage, and food sharing (Kelly 1995:125-130). With this in mind, relatively rapid transformations in human material culture should be expected when rapid environmental transformations occur, unless the resources targeted by humans prior to the event are not seriously effected by that climatic change.

Forager Theory: Sea level rise, Packing, and Foraging Change

Everything known about early Holocene north Florida peoples suggests they were hunter/foragers or hunter/collectors (sensu Binford 1980), without knowledge of horticulture or agriculture as it is historically known. One of the techniques used to interpret prehistoric hunter/forager/collectors is ethnographic comparison, both through









examining homologous (Binford 2001:142) and analogous attributes (Wylie 1985). Developing general foraging models based on modem and historically-known hunter/foragers has advanced considerably recently (Bettinger 1991; Kelly 1995; Binford 2001), and now includes systematic evaluation of all ethnographically-known foragers in terms of environmental contexts, food choices, residential mobility, division of labor, and other traditional anthropological research emphases.

The objective of most of these evaluations is to predict what will be found in the archaeological record from extending the models into areas where there were no groups from which to derive data for model formulation. One drawback of this approach is that ethnographically-known foragers are often in environments far removed from the environmentally moderate mid-latitudes, and far more marginal in terms of temperature (extremely hot or cold), rainfall (desert or rainforest), and primary plant productivity (low or high) (Binford 2001:133). Binford (2001:133) argues strongly that despite this empty middle where pastoralists, agriculturalists, and complex societies developed, it is still reasonable to apply other applicable knowledge to the problem of archaeologicallyknown hunter/foragers, if it is relevant and productive to do so. Binford's objective is to use existing knowledge of environmental variables in places where all ethnographicallyknown hunter/foragers lived to develop a "frame of reference" to view how archaeologically-known hunter/foragers might have interacted with their environments and arranged the adaptive components of their culture. To my knowledge, no other author has attempted to use explicitly the entire body of ethnographic hunter/forager data to develop a comprehensive "theory of human hunter/foragers." Binford (2001:468-472) makes a strong case that if an investigator can establish the environmental conditions









(temperature, precipitation, plant and animal communities) of an area, the model will predict the group size, packing threshold (where all groups are circumscribed), niche breadth, and division of labor of a group, within a limited range of variability.

The concept of packing is important because it is a more complex treatment of population density. Instead of examining human population density alone, it examines human population density, resource availability, and population density and resource availability in adjacent areas. Hunter/gatherers are circumscribed by other groups when they cannot use mobility as one method of mitigating risk of resource failure and have to intensify resource use in order to meet basic food needs. Packing is an important consideration in the Southeast because minute changes in sealevel reduce the shelf size of Gulf and Atlantic coasts disproportionately compared with other areas of the United States. Reduction in available terrestrial habitats, coupled with early extinction of large game animals in the southeastern United States may have induced packing sooner in the southeast than in the mid-continent, intermontane west, and west coast over the course of the early Holocene. Packing also may have promoted early adoption of aquatic resources along the Gulf of Mexico. There is certainly evidence for adoption of marine resources along the Peruvian coast prior to 11,000 BP (Sandweiss et al. 1998), and ongoing use of the resource into the early mid-Holocene (Quilter et al. 1991). The idea of increased sea levels inducing culture change is not new (Binford 1968), but it has surprisingly not been pursued as general research hypothesis for predicting the location of, and locating submerged sites. The terrestrial model predicts that one result of circumscription is intensified use of terrestrial plants and---where available---the incorporation of aquatic resources into the subsistence regime (Binford 2001:384-385).









Preliminary evidence---the use of forest plant products (i.e. nuts, fruits, berries)--suggests early Holocene hunter/gatherers in the southeast United States were transitioning to a more scheduled yearly round with fewer residential moves and more logistical foraging in the areas around the residential sites (Sassaman 1996), in general targeting food resources with lower total return rates due to higher handling times, but with more knowable and predictable search costs.

Although all the variables that would be needed to do this evaluation on data from early Holocene north Florida are not known, the environmental data are well established and there are enough previously excavated sites to attempt an analysis. That more complete work is not within the scope of this dissertation, but the previously-mentioned environmental data suggest that there may have been new environmental niches opening around 10,200 BP near the Page/Ladson site that were attractive to humans, including upland clay and sand hills with hickory and oak groves for nut harvesting and fall hunting, open, well-watered savannas that could support bison herds, mixed, open pine/oak uplands that supported deer and bison populations, and large, seasonally inundated marshes supporting turtles, fish, and migratory birds. Of all those resources, the only ones surviving the late Pleistocene extinctions that remained inter-regionally migratory were birds.

Long-term restructuring influences on initial Holocene human foraging were the restructuring of terrestrial prey species and lower mean prey size. The difference in prey species lifeways likely also conditioned seasonal human residential and logistical movements. Deer, turkey, and other medium sized animal species are not regionally migratory. Effective hunting of these species would favor extensive knowledge about









local areas rather than less detailed knowledge about broad, regional areas. Reduction in human foraging range size did not necessarily signal a decrease in human nutritional status or an increase in prey search times. However, it may signal a combination of reduced food resource ranges, circumscription of base residential groups ("bands" in Anderson and Hanson 1988), and net increases in population density, if not net population. This argument is testable in that there should be early Holocene sites, possibly only limited-use temporary camps, in areas previously unoccupied.

Fluctuations in effective temperature (ET) were critical from 12,500 to 8000 BP. For the purposes of the period immediately around 10,200 BP was the substantial rise in effective temperature along the Gulf of Mexico. According to the terrestrial model (Binford 2001:454), increases in effective temperature would result in the concentration on terrestrial plants in "packed" conditions. It also results in increase in proportion of diet contributed by women in modem foraging populations. Additionally, the long-term knowledge of the Gulf Coast societies likely included an understanding of 1) what resources were edible in the environment and 2) which edible resources were able to weather the Younger Dryas cold event.

In view of these two factors, it is appropriate to ask what strategy would most

effectively cope with a new environmental changes, initiated circa 10,200 BP. It seems like a mixed strategy would provide the most net resources on a seasonal basis. Males would continue to hunt larger game animals year round. Women intensified collection of edible fruits, nuts, and tubers through the growing season. Both sexes trap small game animals year-round, and possibly fish in the spring. It is a risk reduction strategy (Kelly 1995:168-170). Both sexes rely on knowledge of edible plants and animals and schedule









of availability to improve year-to-year stability of food resources. The widespread apparent homogeneity of lithic tool kits during the early Holocene for the southeast suggests the maintenance of social networks as insurance for bad seasons in which local food alternatives are insufficient to sustain the local residential group. The clustering of early Holocene sites in Florida (see below) suggests that there are core ranges for residential moves, and foraging ranges that acted as buffers between residential groups.

Previous Pleistocene and early Holocene Archaeology in Florida

The Pleistocene and early Holocene occupation of Florida was recognized early in the history of North American archaeology. Although initially focused on finds of human remains along the east coast at Melbourne and Vero Beach (Sellards 1917; Hrdlicka 1918; reviewed by Meltzer 1983), the focus for Florida investigators shifted to the center part of the state---along the karstic Santa Fe, Suwannee, Ichetucknee, and Silver Rivers. Clarence Simpson---working for the State Geological Survey---recovered a number of diagnostic projectile points, ivory foreshafts and foreshaft fragments from the Ichetucknee River (Simpson 1948). The presence of Folsom and Clovis diagnostic artifacts and artifacts made from extinct fauna along these karstic rivers suggested that other similarly-situated waterways might be fruitful places to explore.

The importance of water to both humans and the game animals---combined with a broad belief in a very dry late Pleistocene Florida---led to the development of the Oasis Hypothesis, first proposed by Neill (1964), based on his excavations and observations in and around Silver Springs and Trilisa Pond. Dunbar (1991) formalized and tested the hypothesis. The Oasis Hypothesis posits that humans and game animals congregated around karst features in Florida because they offered one of the few locales where nearconstant water was available in a much drier, over-drained Pleistocene Florida. As noted









by Milanich (1994:40-44) and Dunbar (1991), subsequent data collected on the location of isolated finds of Paleoindian projectile points have been consistent with the Oasis Hypothesis. However, Tesar (1994:99-104) has pointed out the weaknesses of relying solely on isolated finds for determining time ranges and intensities of occupation. Additional site-based data needs to be tested against predictions derived from the Oasis Hypothesis before it can be accepted fully.

The distribution of Florida late Pleistocene and early Holocene sites suggests that two socio-geographic phenomena are occurring. First, at the time of deposition these sites would have all been located in upland areas that were generally over-drained and dry (Watts 1983). However, there were likely more plentiful and more evenly-distributed water sources on what is now the outer continental shelf (between -30 and -60msl) as a result of the flattened and lowered Floridan Aquifer. The relatively flat, incised nature of the karst terrain in the northwest Florida coast would have encouraged water courses to disappear into underground rivers as they moved off the Cody Scarp and for the Floridan aquifer to emerge relatively close to the coast, displaced upward by underlying salt water. Further south on the Peninsula, the pattern would be reversed with water percolating into the high sand hills of the central uplands and emerging in the poorly-drained terraces formed by earlier Cenozoic higher---and lower---sea level stands. Second, there is geographic clustering of the known sites (Table 1.1, Figure 1.6), much as there is clustering of Florida chert resources (Upchurch et al. 1982)(Figure 1.7). This site clustering may have to do more with the co-occurrence of water sources, chert resources, closely-spaced, diverse ecosystems, and game resources, than it does with the location of water resources or chert resources alone.









Classifying sites and modeling the regional settlement pattern of early Holocene

peoples has been a major focus of previous excavations. While the Oasis Hypothesis has been extended to include early Holocene populations and used to explain the high discovery rate for points in karst regions, Daniel and Wisenbaker (1987:173-175), Homum et al. (1996:230-235), and Austin and Mitchell (1999:110-111), have all classified their sites in terms of the regional early Holocene settlement system, and speculated about the other types of sites in the system, the latter two extending the work of Anderson and Hanson (1988) and Daniel (1998:198-201) on early Holocene settlement patterns on the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina and North Carolina, respectively.

On the strength of site size and stone tool numbers and diversity, Daniel and Wisenbaker (1987:173-175) suggest that Harney Flats was a Paleoindian and early Archaic base camp, located along a strategic ecotone adjacent to several highproductivity ecosystems (marshes, upland hammocks, river valley). Hornum et al. (1996:234) suggest that 8Le2105 was either a base camp or domestic camp on the basis of stone tool diversity, geographic location (on the Cody Scarp), and a unique type of feature discovered on the site. The feature appeared to be a pit into which early Holocene people swept and buried a large quantity of lithic waste flakes, potentially indicating a concern that the waste-flakes not cut bare body parts, especially those of the young. Austin and Mitchell (1999:198) characterize the Jeannie's Better Back Site (8Lf54) as a base camp or habitation site based on the functional diversity of the stone tools and the site's strategic position at the confluence of Bethel and Mill Creek drainages, only about 1.6 km from the Suwannee River and at one outlet of the over 20,000 hectare San Pedro Bay marsh.









Several investigators (Austin and Mitchell 1999:110-112; Tesar 1994:81-82;

Daniel and Wisenbaker 1987:167-169; Milanich 1994:67-70) have suggested that the early Holocene (early Archaic) land use pattern was one in which groups established base camps on ecotones near water, especially those with ready access to more than two ecosystems, and made forays into more homogeneous ecosystems for hunting, fishing, gathering, and other resource procurement activities, a pattern similar to that suggested by Anderson and Hanson (1988) for the Upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont of South Carolina and the pattern observed on the Savannah River Plant (Sassaman 1996:Figure 4.9). Unfortunately, systematic intensive survey of these "outlying" areas has not been accomplished in Florida to the extent necessary to determine whether smaller "daycamps" or "over-night" camps are present in these more homogeneous ecosystems. Because funding of site survey in Florida is principally through private development and public road-building---and large tracts of land are privately-held---there has not been an attempt to locate and document these smaller sites. By the same token, the growing state site file database has not been used to address questions of late Pleistocene or early Holocene, although aggregating the sample may provide the first statistical confirmation of this phenomenon.

Obtaining valid dates for sites is one of most important parts of archaeological

research. Radiocarbon dates have been the traditional method for dating Early Archaic sites in the Lower Southeast. Unfortunately, most Early Archaic sites in the Southeast do not have good radiocarbon control and contain only stone tools (Sassaman 1996). However, by aggregating all the Southeastern sites that have the combination of dated strata and typed projectile points from those dated strata, we can generate a better picture









of the duration and intensity of individual projectile point traditions, the "index" artifacts (sensu Renfrew and Bahn 2001:110-135) of the Early Archaic period. Combining the dates and tool associations (Table 1.2, Figure 1.8) illustrates that there is substantial overlap between lanceolate, eared lanceolate, side-notched, and comer-notched points.

This is an especially important point because it argues strongly against a strict

"horizon" perspective, at least as it has been applied to "diagnostic" material culture for the Paleoindian and Archaic Southeast (e.g. Anderson, O'Steen, and Sassaman 1996:Fig. 1.2). Substantial and ongoing overlap among the different diagnostic points suggests that successive projectile point forms were developed within the context of earlier styles, and co-occurred with those earlier styles for perhaps as much as 350-year time periods. In this context, Page/Ladson is important because both side-notched and comer-notched projectile points co-occur---with radiocarbon dates from the site. The site serves as an additional datum point for working out the timing of the addition of comer-notched styles to the existing side-notched style. Moreover, the well-dated and complimentary bone tools from Page-Ladson, Little Salt Spring, and Dust Cave provide an opportunity to define the types of bone tools manufactured by Early Archaic individuals, a task that has not been attempted.

Paleoindian and Early Archaic archaeological sites and finds have been

summarized by several authors, including Tesar (1994:85-89), Austin and Mitchell (1999:9-16), and Homum et al. (1996:Chapter 1) for North Florida, Daniel and Weisenbaker (1987:146-161) and Horvath et al. (1998:3.1-3.4) for Central Florida, and Goodyear et al. (1983) for the Tampa Bay region, and Milanich (1994:37-59) for the state as a whole. Goodyear (1999) has recently summarized work on Paleoindian and Earliest









Archaic sites in the Southeast. These works should be consulted for more in-depth discussions of the types and geographic distributions of Late Paleoindian and Early Archaic sites.

The remainder of this study is organized as follows. First, the chronology of excavation on the Page/Ladson site (8Je591) is detailed. Results of underwater excavations conducted by, or under the responsibility of the author are then presented. Four studies (soils, fauna, pollen, and archaeology) focus specifically on the Half-Mile Rise section of the Aucilla River. By examining these individual studies concurrently, we can more completely interpret the late Pleistocene/early Holocene transition as manifested on this site. Early Holocene lithic material manufacturing processes are described and discussed, focusing on projectile points and bola stones. Next, bone artifacts from Little Salt Spring and Page/Ladson are described and analyzed together as representing a significant portion of the period's bone tool assemblage. Conclusions are then drawn from the data.











Table 1.1. Early Archaic Site Clusters.


Cluster Name Sites in Cluster Site Materials Site Features E. Archaic Dates


Miami Ridge Cluster Cutler Hammock Human Remains Burials circa 10,000 BP Isolated Hammock sites Stone tools Isolated Points Fauna

Myakka River Little Salt Spring Human Remains Discard deposits circa 8,900 to Cluster Warm Mineral Spring Bone Tools 9,400 BP

Tampa Bay Cluster Alafia River Lithic Tools Lithic Clusters None Harney Flats Isolated projectile Bay-bottom points points Colorado Site
Silver Springs/ Silver Springs Sites Lithic Tools Lithic Clusters None Oklawaha/ Bolen Bluff(Whitehurst Site) Paynes Prairie
Cluster

Santa Fe/ Darby and Hornsby Springs Lithic Tools Lithic Clusters None Suwannee/ Ichetucknee Run isolated Bone Tools Isolated Finds Ichetucknee Cluster finds
Norton Site
8Gul
8Lf54

Cody Scarp/ 8Le2105 Lithic tools Burials circa 10,000 BP Gulf Coast Cluster Wakulla Spring Bone tools Discard pits Page/Ladson Lithic clusters Wacissa Bison Kill Site Isolated Finds Johnson Sand Pit Quarry remains Ryan/Harley
J&J Hunt

Pensacola Cluster Lithic tools Quarry Deposits None













Table 1.2. Sites with diagnostic points from dated contexts (with the exception of Little
Salt Spring). Derived from Anderson (2002).


Site

Little Salt Spring, FL
Little Salt Spring, FL
Cactus Hill, VA Cactus Hill, VA

Cactus Hill, VA

Cactus Hill, VA

Cactus Hill, VA

Cactus Hill, VA

Cactus Hill, VA

Cactus Hill, VA Johnson, TN Johnson, TN Johnson, TN Cactus Hill, VA Smith Mountain, VA
Enoch Fork Rockshelter, KY Enoch Fork Rockshelter, KY Big Bone Lick, KY

Cactus Hill, VA Rodgers Shelter, MO
Rodgers Shelter, MO

Puckett, TN Dust Cave, AL Arnold Research Cave, MO Arnold Research Cave, MO Taylor, SC Olive Branch, IL


Culture 14-C date


Intercept
5


Original References


PCL PCL

PCL PCL PCL

PCL PCL

PCL PCL PCL CL CL CL CL CL

CL CL CL CL DA DA DA DA DA DA DA DA


12030 13450 15070 16670 15070

16670 16940

19700 9250 10160 11700 11980 12660 10920

10150 10960

13480 10600 10920

10200 10530 9790 10570 8190

9130 4665 9115


Minimum Calibrated Date 13488 15414 17496 18100

17496

18100 19551

22582 10239 11360 11174 13630 12687 12333 11342 12357 14842 11642 12333 10754 10293 10692 12177 8180 9530 4853 9924


14076 16157 18021 19862 18021 19862 20173 23349 10457 11822 13672 13896 15300 12964 11746 12984 16191 12731 12964 11804 12455 11196 12741 9183 10239 5409 10237


Maximum Calibrated
date 15386 16796 18611 21670 18611 21670 20825 24181 10636 12321 16444 15316 17537 13442 12323 13738 17130 13143 13442 12949 13834 11881 12932 10188 11172 5837 10549


Clausen et at. 1979:611

Clausen et al. 1979:611

McAvoy and McAvoy 1997

McAvoy and McAvoy 1997 McAvoy and McAvoy 1997, McAvoy et al. 2000 McAvoy and McAvoy 1997, McAvoy et al. 2000 McAvoy and McAvoy 1997, McAvoy et al. 2000 McAvoy and McAvoy 1997, McAvoy et al. 2000 McAvoy and McAvoy 1997, McAvoy et al. 2000 McAvoy and McAvoy 1997, McAvoy et al. 2000

Broster et al. 1991:8-9

Broster and Barker 1992

Broster et al. 1991:8-9

McAvoy and McAvoy 1997

Childress and Blanton 1997 Bush 1988:61, as cited in Tankersley 1990:82, 92 Bush 1988:61, as cited in Tankersley 1990:82, 92 Tankersley 1985:41; 1989:36-37, 1990:82 McAvoy and McAvoy 1997, McAvoy et al. 2000

Crane and Griffin 1972:159

Coleman 1972:154 Norton and Broster 1992:35, 1993

Driskell 1996:320 Crane and Griffin 1968:69; Tankersley 1990:92 Crane and Griffin 1968:69; Tankersley 1990:92 Michie 1996:249
Gramly and Funk 1990












Table 1.2. Continued


Minimum IMaximum Site Culture 14-C date Calibrated 4 Calibrated Original References


Graham Cave, MO DASN Graham Cave, MO DASN Graham Cave, MO DASN Stanfield-Worley, AL DASN Stanfield-Worley, AL DASN Stanfield-Worley, AL DASN Stanfield-Worley, AL DASN
Stanfield-Worley, AL DASN Dust Cave, AL DASN Dust Cave, AL DASN
Dust Cave, AL DASN Dust Cave, AL DASN Dust Cave, AL DASN Dust Cave, AL DASN Dust Cave, AL DASN Dust Cave, AL DASN Dust Cave, AL DASN Dust Cave, AL DASN Baucom, NC DASN
Dust Cave, AL SN Dust Cave, AL SN Dust Cave, AL SN Dust Cave, AL SN Page-Ladson, FL SN Page-Ladson, FL SN Page-Ladson, FL SN Page-Ladson, FL SN
St. Albans, WV SN Phinizy Swamp, GA SN Big Eddy, MO SN


J


9290 9470

9700 8920 9040 9340

9440

9640 10070 10310 10330

10340 10345 10390 10450

10470 10480

10490 11100
9190 9720 9890
9990 9450

9730 10000 10280 9900

8953 10185


Date 9603

9559 9605

9027 9147 9531 9552 9701 11258

11226 11579 11574 11760 11776
11954 11958
11962 11186

9005 9983 10789 11175 11167

10413 10696 11180 11442 9924

9912 11358


10438 10692 11165

9986 10213 10557 10642 11110 11618 12237 12224 12218 12215 12332 12498 12487 12482 12477 13132 10321 11169
11232 11393 10646 11171 11400 12011 11253

10166 11811


date 11233 12107

12865 11170 11226

11899 12085 12788 12115
12919 12831 12844

12813 12837
12854 12886 12896 13166 17006 10690 11230 11552 12283

11156 11338 12256 12797
12964 10219 12347


Crane and Griffin 1968:8485
Crane and Griffin 1968:8485
Crane and Griffin 1968:8485
DeJamette et al. 1962:85-87, Josselyn 1964 DeJarnette et al. 1962:85-87, Josselyn 1964 DeJarnette et al. 1962:85-87, Josselyn 1964 DeJarnette et al. 1962:85-87, Josselyn 1964 DeJarnette et al. 1962:85-87, Josselyn 1964

Driskell 1996:320
Driskell 1996:320
Driskell 1996:320
Driskell 1996:320

Driskell 1996:320

Driskell 1996:320
Driskell 1996:320

Driskell 1996:320
Driskell 1996:320

Driskell 1996:320 Peck and Painter 1984:37;Goodyear 1999
Driskell 1996:320

Driskell 1996:320
Driskell 1996:320
Driskell 1996:320 Dunbar et al. 1988:449, 1989:477-482 Dunbar et al. 1988:449, 1989:477-482 Dunbar et al. 1988:449,
1989:477-482 Dunbar et al. 1988:449, 1989:477-482
Broyles 1966:27, 40-41

Elliott et al. 1992 Hajic et al. 2000:31; Lopinot et al., eds.. 1998:91-93, 2000











Table 1.2. Continued


Minimum IMaximum
Site Culture 14-C date Calibrated Intercept Calibrated Original References CalCbaledated rgnlRfrne
Date date
Broster and Norton
Johnson, TN CN 8940 9634 10154 10357 1996:292-294 Norton and Broster 1992:35,
Puckett, TN CN 8490 9029 9509 10107 1993
Norton and Broster 1992:35,
Puckett, TN CN 8820 9488 9891 10360 1993

Thunderbird, VA CN 9900 10291 11253 12808 Gardner 1974:5 St. Albans, WV CN 8800 9033 9846 10687 Morse 1997 St. Albans, WV CN 8850 9133 10091 10734 Morse 1997 St. Albans, WV CN 8930 9547 10152 10475 Broyles 1966:27, 40-41 Patrick, TN CN 9410 9894 10610 11543 Chapman 1976:34 Ice House Bottom,
TN CN 8525 8593 9528 10466 Chapman 1976:34 Ice House Bottom,
TN CN 8715 9473 9637 10190 Chapman 1976:34 Ice House Bottom,
TN CN 9175 9604 10324 11156 Chapman 1976:3-4 Ice House Bottom,
TN CN 9350 9977 10559 11196 Chapman 1976:34 Ice House Bottom,
TN CN 9435 9922 10652 11338 Chapman 1976:3-4 Rose Island, TN CN 8060 8173 9007 9816 Chapman 1976:3-4 Rose Island, TN CN 9110 9873 10236 10668 Chapman 1976:3-4 Rose Island, TN CN 9330 9894 10517 11204 Chapman 1976:3-4 Anderson et al.,
G. S. Lewis West, eds.,1992:16;Anderson and SC CN 6950 7009 7775 8539 Sassaman 1996b:231


Rae's Creek, GA Rae's Creek, GA Rae's Creek, GA
Hester, MS Hester, MS Hester, MS St. Albans, WV St. Albans, WV
St. Albans, WV St. Albans, WV Rose Island, TN Rose Island, TN Rose Island, TN Rose Island, TN


CN CN CN CN CN CN


7570 8370 9060 6140
6965 8335 8160
8250 8820 8830 8800 8700 8660 8920


BI BI BI
BI BI


8057 8592 9895 6064 7481

8455

8778 9006
8594
8196 9157 9015 9285
9162


8382 9428 10218

7004 7770 9354
9086 9167
9891 9897 9846
9662 9593
9986


8597 10153 10492 7786

8165 10160
9466 9489 11202 11951 10558
10500 10210 11064


Crook 1992: 126 Crook 1992: 126 Crook 1992:124, 126 Brookes 1979:127-128 Brookes 1979:127-128 Brookes 1979:127-128 Broyles 1966:27, 40-41 Broyles 1966:27, 40-41

Broyles 1966:27, 40-41 Broyles 1966:27, 40-41 Chapman 1976:3-4 Chapman 1976:3-4 Chapman 1976:34 Chapman 1976:34










Table 1.2. Continued


Minimum In Maximum
Site Culture 14-C date Calibrated d Calibrated Original References Date date
Dust Cave, AL ES 8330 8812 9355 9599 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL ES 8450 9158 9486 9551 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL ES 8470 9330 9490 9538 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL ES 8720 9531 9694 10150 Driskell 1996:320



Note: (PCL=Pre-Clovis, CL=Clovis, DA=Dalton, DASN=Dalton/Side-Notched, SN=Side-Notched, CN=Comer-Notched, BI=Bifurcate, ES=Early Stemmed). Radiocarbon dates are given without error, and maximum, minimum and Intercept 5 calibrated dates are given as indication of error range of date. Carbon dates are in radiocarbon years before present (1950). Calibrated dates are in calendric years before 1950.






































Figure 1.1. Definitions of the Southeast Cultural Area (adapted from B. Smith 1986). A)
Wissler 1922, Figure 61; B) Kroeber 1939; C) Swanton 1946:23; D) Murdock
1960; E) Willey 1966; F) Jennings 1974; G) Stoltman and Barreis 1983.















0



-10



-20 .- 30



-40
0

Ca



.0






-70



-50


-12000 -10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000

Thousands of Years Before Present Figure 1.2. Sea level curves for the Gulf of Mexico (Stright 1995:Figure 7)







31

















-.


LU









-





miiu xensb do selee curve
17





7

(Pn

4L+P++









Figure 1.3. Probability map of the Florida coast at 10,000 BP showing maximum and
minimum extents based on sealevel curves



















0 0.0
10"
0.1

20
0 0.2 30 0.2 510 �0.51



0


600


07
70

0.8


0.9


1.0

IIX.)
it8)


200



Age (kyr)


Figure 1.4. Sealevel curve for the Caribbean, based on reef data from Barbados (adapted

from Fairbanks 1989)















Temperature
Warmer 4- Cookr


-33 -42 800 400
8'%Mv MUM iabe


-11 o



-11.5



-12



-12.5



-13 '0



-13.5

Tbeui of 3ea
bePffo' 'I re set


.20 .10 ASaVuui#JOA(a isaySN)


Figure 1.5. Changes in 8180 and methane from the GISP2 core as an indicator of the dramatic climate change from the Younger Dryas to the Preboreal period (adapted from Brook et aL 1996)

























Pensacola Cluster Cody Scarp! Gulf Coast Cluster Santa FeiSuwance Ichtucknee Cluster Silver Sprmgs/Oklawaha/ Paines Prairie Cluster Tampa Bay Cluster Myakka River Cluster Miami Ridge Cluster





Sealevel at 10,000 BP


Figure 1.6. Florida initial and early Holocene site clusters
















Arch


Figure 1.7. Florida chert quarry clusters (compiled from Upchurch et al. 1982). Key: 1Wright Creek; 2-Marianna; 3-Wacissa; 4-Upper Suwannee; 5-Alapaha River; 6-Swift Creek Swamp; 7-White Springs; 8-Lower Suwannee; 9-Santa Fe; 10Gainesville; 11-Ocala; 12-Lake Panasoffkee; 13-Inverness; 14-Brooksville;
15-Upper Withlacoochee; 16-Caladesi; 17-Hillsborough River; 18Turtlecrawl Point; 19-Peace River













DALTON THROUGH BIFUCATE


14000 13000
CL
o 12000

z 11000

10000
0
9000 W 8000

7000


6000
4(


000


I L
A A4


8000


6000


10000


m DASN 1o SN A CN X BI + ES


12000


RADIOCARBON DATE


Figure 1.8. Temporal spread of projectile point styles based on dated specimens from the
Southeast (based on data from Anderson 2002). Note substantial overlap between Dalton/Early Side Notched and Side-Notched points. Also, note
longevity of comer-notching tradition (DASN=Dalton/Side Notched,
SN=Side Notched, CN=Comer Notched, BJ=Bifurcate, ES=Early Stemmed).














CHAPTER 2
EARLY HOLOCENE EXCAVATIONS AT PAGE/LADSON (8JE591)

Presenting a summary of excavations on the Page/Ladson site's initial and early Holocene components is critical to understanding the excavators' conclusions about the site. The chronological, narrative form of this presentation is intended to convey the sequence of excavations and the related working hypotheses used to direct successive seasons. Field data often changed the course of subsequent excavations, a phenomenon that is conveyed most easily in narrative form. The principal goal of this chapter is to provide a written record of sequence of fieldwork conducted between 1987 and 1997 on Page/Ladson's early Holocene components. Research prior to 1987 is also included as background.

An important part of the Aucilla River Prehistory Project has been incorporating volunteer divers and field technicians into the archaeological work. A small part of the narrative will detail the expertise that some of these volunteers have brought to the project. Many of the volunteers have joined for several years, then gone on to other projects and pursuits. Some have gone on to other projects only to return after several years absence. There are also many who consider the project one of the highlights of their year and whose participation is ongoing and active.

Excavation on the Half-Mile Rise section of the Aucilla has been sporadically

attempted from the late 1960s. Early work was pursued by amateur diver/collectors with an interest in Florida's late Pleistocene megafauna. Roger Alexson, Ben Waller, Dr. Richard (Dick) Ohmes, Wayne Grisset, and Don Serbosek were all among the divers to









collect Native American artifacts and megafauna from the bottom of this part of the Aucilla River. Professional paleontologists also recognized the importance of the site in the late 1960s (Webb 1976). Don Serbosek (1983) has the distinction of being the only amateur to excavate a nearly-complete mastodon skeleton from Half-Mile Rise and write about the experience in some detail. In addition to megafaunal remains, he recovered a number of diagnostic projectile points and tools from the same deposits.

Serbosek's discoveries spurred renewed interest at the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH)---then known as the Florida State Museum (FSM)---and the Bureau of Archaeological Research (BAR) to begin systematic survey of Half-Mile Rise. The original goal of excavations was to identify sites that could provide more detailed information about interactions between the earliest Floridians and Pleistocene megafauna. S. David Webb (FLMNH) and James Dunbar (BAR) organized and led early scientific survey and excavation in the Aucilla during the early 1980's. This work has been summarized by Dunbar (1996, 2002) and will be briefly reported here.

The principal goal of initial survey work was to find a site with intact strata that held the prospect of yielding in situ artifacts and related megafaunal material. Webb (1974) had suggested that game in eastern North America had used of karst features as access points to water---an especially important resource in a more arid, late Pleistocene Florida (Delcourt and Delcourt 1984). The entire length of Half-Mile Rise was bathymetrically mapped (Figure 2.1), with special emphasis on deep holes that might represent sinks---or springs---in the Late Pleistocene. The assumption was that at least some of these deep sinks would have been open during the latest Pleistocene, providing permanent access to even the deepest aquifer water, a critical element of dry season









survival in a relatively over-drained, arid environment (Watts 1980). In all, investigators plotted seven karst features greater than 8m deep in the Half-Mile Rise section (James Dunbar 1999, personal commmunication).

Mapping began on November 14, 1983 and was followed by more detailed bottom evaluation and hand-fanning the deeper holes (8Ta120, 8Jel22, 8Je608, Aucilla 3E, 8Je591 [a.k.a. Aucilla 3J]). The density of remains in the central portion of the Page/Ladson site (8Je59 1) combined with the sizeable collection of B.F. Page from the same site convinced Webb and Dunbar to pursue it as their primary site (Dunbar 1996).

The next two field seasons (1984-1985) were dedicated to defining, testing, and mapping the Page/Ladson site. The research focus on megafauna/man interactions was unchanged. A small test excavation (Test A) was placed on the east side of Page/Ladson (see Figure 3.1). Test A's shallow sediments appeared heavily-reworked and not conducive to finding in situ materials. Moving downstream about 15m, the crew excavated a single 3m square test (Test B) in natural levels in the center of the river---just east of a large, deep sinkhole feature in the river bottom (Figure 2.1). Excavators recovered several bone tools and side-notched points from organic-rich deposits dating to around 10,000 years BP This was the first indication that there might be undisturbed Late Paleoindian/Early Archaic materials on the site as well as Early to Middle Paleoindian remains (Dunbar 1996).

Additionally, the field crew noticed there was a dramatic difference between sediments close to the river bottom and those more deeply buried. The upper levels tended to be unconsolidated and largely composed of organic debris while levels at and below a level that yielded Deptford pottery were highly consolidated and largely









sequentially deposited---as indicated by radiocarbon assays. This raised the possibility that much of the submerged site older than 4,000 BP had not been reworked by the river. Radiocarbon assays from Test B (Table 3.1) also gave some remarkably old dates for side-notched style points and related tools. Unfortunately, the team could not identify any features in Test B, despite digging into fully Pleistocene strata.

Part of the crew on a surface-collecting dive closer the western bank encountered a bone that changed the direction of study for the 1987 excavation season. When they lifted it from the bottom, it was stained on one end and tannish-brown on the other. Substantial experience with bones from tannic river contexts indicated that the bone was newly exposed to the river, with at least part (the light end) remaining in in-place deposits. These in situ deposits were the target of the next test (Test C). Early in the excavation of Test C divers encountered what appeared to be a buried paleosol with a range of artifacts and other materials scattered on its top and within the layer itself. Among those remains were side-notched points traditionally associated with Late Paleoindian/Early Archaic populations (Milanich 1994:52-58). The 1987 season closed by excavating Test C to below the newly-discovered level by a meter and driving a 7.5cm-diameter core 2.6m below the bottom of the excavated floor (Dunbar 1996).

As part of the effort to open the 2m X 3m Test C, it became clear that the deposits below the Deptford horizon straddled the most dramatic part (Jacobsen and Grimm 1988) of the Pleistocene/Holocene transition (approx. 10,500 to 9,800 BP). This convinced most of the team that at least one more season should be spent attempting to expose larger horizontal areas down to Pleistocene levels.









The following year (1988) had two principal objectives. The first was to further expand Test C, opening Im X 3m extensions to the north and south of the original test. The second objective was to examine the stratigraphy of the surrounding area through strategically-placed cores. Excavations extending Test C to the north and south proceeded through what came to be called colloquially the "Bolen dirt," after the style of point (Bullen 1975) recovered from just above, on, and in the putative paleosol.

Artifacts on and in the "paleosol" were mapped in situ and recovered. However, many of the wood pieces and limestone and dolomite cobbles on the paleosol's surface were not recorded, as they were not initially viewed as potential artifacts. A subset of the cobbles was mapped, but not bagged separately. The mapping technique is described in two publications (Dunbar et al. 1988, Dunbar 1996).

Coring work revealed more of the overall strata of the sinkhole. On the east side of the active river channel, the limestone basement rock is largely exposed. Redeposited sediments that are annually reworked by flooding events characterize the central part of the channel. These annually-reworked materials consist of leaf matter, twigs, sand, clay, small branches, and limited amounts of modem debris. Upstream (north and east) of Test C undisturbed sediments thinned dramatically, reflecting what has been interpreted as Holocene sediment stripping and higher basement rock elevations. The area 20m-40m upstream is well-scoured by the constant influx of water from the Wacissa River over a dolomite shelf.

Downstream of Test C, the sediments appear to get substantially thicker. Test B is located in these sediments. To the west of Test C, organic-rich sediments thicken until they break the modem average river level. Post-Deptford sediments (3500 BP to present)









all appear to be organic-rich, consolidated muds or degraded peats that form a massive, semi-submerged bank. The terrestrial portion of this bank is the dive station for operations in Test C and adjoining tests (Figure 3.1). This bank has not been cored. The 1988 season concluded with substantial quantities of new data on the Pleistocene/Holocene levels as well as finds and carbon dates from the pre- 11,000 levels (Dunbar 1996).

Excavations on the upper levels at Page/Ladson resumed in the fall of 1992. The research design for the two week season was dedicated to additional work on the upper levels, including work on two one-meter square tests (G and H) to the west of Test C/Test C north extension (see Figures 3.1, 3.2 ). Again, wood remains and non-chert rock were mapped, but not saved. All bones, chert pieces, and clearly worked rocks were mapped and saved. The larger goal for the season was to systematically sample a "stairway" of sediments (Test F) extending eastward into the center of the Aucilla. These samples, taken at 20cm intervals, would document on-site deposition from 10,000 BP to around 13,000 BP (Dunbar 1996, Quitmyer 1992).

Tests G and H were successfully excavated to just below the paleosol during the first two weeks of the 1992 season. Significant finds included a continued scatter of wooden, bone, and rock debris. In the central part of Test G, a two centimeter diameter wooden stake was found driven into the paleosol. This vertical stake was photographed in situ (Figure 3.), the area surrounding it was excavated and a 45cm section was removed from the sediments and subsequently carbon-dated (see Table 3.1).

During the excavation of Test H, we encountered a cypress (Taxodium sp.) log

approximately 50cm in diameter in the gray clay layers overlying the paleosol. This log









extended into the southern profile of Test H. At first, the log appeared suspiciously like the end of what Newsom and Purdy (1990) characterize as a Type I canoe. The relatively-eroded northern end of the log impeded the excavation of underlying levels, so it was carefully cut with a handsaw at the south profile wall of Test H, bagged, photographed, and subsequently drawn. A small sample of this log was carbon-dated (Table 3.1) by the bulk method.

At the end of the 1992 season, it was not clear whether the wooden object was a log or the end of a canoe, so plans were made to return and excavate the remainder of the wooden object to the south. Previous work indicated that the sediment overlying and adjacent to the "canoe-like" log were completely devoid of primary deposits of artifacts or features. These water-lain clays held isolated examples of reduction flakes and an occasional bone pin, but were largely free of archaeological materials until within 10cm of the paleosol. On this basis, in 1995 we returned to the site for a series of excavations. Activities included uncovering the "canoe-like" log, excavating several land tests on either side of the river, a controlled sampling of the sediments above and below the paleosol, and a more detailed documentation of the 2m x 3m area adjoining the Test C south extension.

A three week field season (May 1-22, 1995) consisting of two weeks of underwater work uncovering the "canoe-like" log followed by a week of excavating tests around the Page/Ladson sink. The single objective for the underwater work was to determine whether the "canoe-like" log was an artifact or simply a fallen cypress tree. As the object was uncovered, it became clear that it was a fallen cypress tree. Although the end was not ultimately uncovered during this season---in that it is buried by greater than three









meters of sediment where it disappears into the new south profile, but its rounded, unburned shape and a lateral stress fracture near the south profile suggest a fallen tree.

Once we determined that this object was a naturally-occurring log, a cross-section was removed from the largest diameter area and forwarded to David Stahle at the University of Arkansas. He and his colleagues (Anderson et al. 1995) are establishing bald cypress tree-ring chronologies for the Southeast and applying them to archaeological problems. Interestingly, as the field team uncovered the southernmost end of the log, the large number of shells and charcoal recovered from slightly below the log indicated that it rested on the paleosol. Work near this interface was terminated immediately, as we were not in a position to perform detailed point-plotting at the time.

Land work began on the land tests on May 16, 1995. The research design (Carter 1995) is summarized here. The principal question was whether in situ Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene terrestrial deposits existed on either side of the underwater site. Secondary questions included whether these deposits were largely undisturbed and if there was a change in artifact density away from the modern bank. To address this question, .5m x Im tests were placed on each side of the bank on transects perpendicular to the bank. Two tests were randomly placed within a 20m corridor along the bank on each side of the river. Another two were located in a 30m corridor adjacent to the initial 20m corridor (Figure 3.1). After the initial transect was positioned, other transects were located randomly within 30m wide corridors beginning 15m away from either side of the initial transect.

Each rectangular test was judgmentally oriented in order to avoid large rocks and trees. Each test was excavated either to limestone bedrock or to the top of pre-Late









Pleistocene clay terrace deposits. In one test (AW2), we excavated through the clay deposits to the limestone bedrock. No artifacts were encountered in the clay. It should be noted that Calvin Jones (1988) did locate several Paleoindian artifacts in the upper levels of the clays on the east side of the river during his brief land excavations in 1988, although those excavations have not been widely reported. Aucilla River Prehistory Project staff found initial and early Holocene artifacts in tests BW2 and AE2. They were buried 35cmbs in the former and 80cmbs in the latter. Appendix D summarizes land excavations.

Part of the 1995 plan was to establish a set of monuments on the land portion of the site to serve as horizontal datum references for future work. These are labeled "ARPP DATUM 1" through "ARPP DATUM 4" and are located on both sides of the river, as indicated in Figure 3.1. They are gray 3-inch diameter PVC pipes filled with concrete into which we set a 20 penny galvanized steel spike---head up---and a stainless steel tag. The monuments range from .85m to lm in length. The monuments' heads are buried to ground-level.

One of the principal weaknesses of work on the Page/Ladson site specifically, and the overall project more generally, was the emphasis---prior to 1995---on locating only remains of Clovis and other lanceolate point-manufacturing peoples. This meant that there were substantial gaps in our understanding of the post-Pleistocene underwater deposits. To partially correct this lack of understanding, ARPP staff set up a sampling excavation for September, 1995. The objective was to systematically sample the exposed west and north profiles of Tests G and H and recover sediments straddling the paleosol. These samples were directed towards understanding the environmental transitions









occurring between approximately 10,300 BP and 8,000 BP. One set of samples was collected for general soil analysis (grain size, total carbon, phosphorus), another set---in the form of blocks---was analyzed for soil structure and pedology, another for palynological work, and one held in reserve for either replacement samples or carbondating. Results are summarized in Chapter 3.

Excavation of the 2m x 3m test adjacent of Test C south extension was planned for October, 1995, in coordination with excavation of an additional portion of the Early Paleoindian levels in Test C. The former was completed from October 1 to October 15, 1995. Objects encountered on or near the surface of the paleosol were mapped and labeled in place, and recovered so that their original point proveniences were recorded. In addition to mapping finds, a video record of each one meter square test was taken using Hi-8mm video, although the results of the filming were less than satisfying. Stone, bone, and chert objects from all field seasons have been curated in the Florida Museum of Natural History. Wooden artifacts and fragments are undergoing conservation at The Florida State University and the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research Conservation Lab. Once the wooden objects are stabilized to a museum environment, they will be curated at the Florida Museum of Natural History.


In June 1997, a team of Conservation and Recreational Lands (CARL)

archaeologists (Chris Neumann, Ryan Wheeler, and Melissa Memory) visited the site and provided the project with differential Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates for several of the datum points set up on the Page/Ladson site. Finally, a detailed, topographically-correct base map of the Page/Ladson site (Figure 3.1) was generated onto which all the previously-excavated tests were plotted. Excavations of Late Pleistocene







47


deposits on Page/Ladson are documented elsewhere (Dunbar 1996) and should be consulted for a complete understanding of site excavations. There are no current plans to excavate more of the site.














CHAPTER 3
UNDERWATER EXCAVATIONS AND ANALYSIS OF SUBMERGED DEPOSITS AND THEIR CONTENTS

This chapter assembles and analyzes data by naturally-related test units collected during field seasons between 1984 and 1995, as part of the Aucilla River Prehistory Project. Soils, carbon dates, fauna, flora, and artifacts are described and analyzed below. Horizontal distributions of artifacts, test unit profiles, artifact drawings and photos, and feature descriptions are presented to support the assertion that the paleosol uncovered in Test C and adjacent tests is part of a rockshelter site occupied for a limited time prior to 10,000 rcbp and abandoned either soon before, or during a flooding event on the Younger Dryas/Preboreal boundary. Artifacts and dates from Test B verify the presence of a large site nearby. Although the activities carried out at the site can not be described fully, the presence of hearths, finished points, scrapers, ground-stone tools and tool preforms, and vertical stakes suggest that there were minimally butchering, meat-smoking, and stone tool manufacturing activities occuring on the site, and that the site was occupied, at least temporarily, in the earliest Holocene.

Chronological Considerations

One of the most important parts of excavating in-place early Holocene deposits in an underwater setting is the possibility of more firmly dating early Holocene diagnostic points. The relatively good preservation of organic materials on underwater sites (Purdy 1991:1-5) provides the opportunity to recover samples that can be radiocarbon dated. Radiocarbon dates have been run on early Holocene strata at Page/Ladson (Table 3.1).









These dates firmly place the side-notched and comer-notched projectile pointsvariously typed as Bolen, Kirk, Palmer, and Big Sandy-in the period between approximately 10,300 BP and 9,000 BP. This set of dates conforms well to similar dates run on deposits yielding Dalton and side-notched projectile points from Dust Cave in northern Alabama (Anderson 2002; Driskell 1994). Moreover, the presence of a diverse set of other lithic and bone tools suggests that projectile points are not the only potential index artifacts for the early Holocene.

Early Holocene Levels in Test B

Test B is a 9m2 test excavation located in the middle of the Aucilla River (Figure

3.1). This test was excavated to a depth of approximately 3m in two field seasons (19841985). Limited formal analysis has been done of early Holocene soils in Test B (Dunbar et al. 1988). Detailed notes were taken in the field, profile drawings are available for the (Figure 3.2), and a summary of the strata has been presented (Dunbar et al. 1988). Prior to 10,000 rcybp, organic-rich marls are the predominate sediment deposited in this area. Peats appear to begin accumulating around 9,700 BP and continue until at least 9,400 BP, at which point a long depositional/erosional cycle was established---temporarily interrupted only by a brief, purely-depositional episode during the Deptford period where sherds from an adjacent Deptford terrestrial site. The depositional/erosional cycle continues today. Levels 7 through II correspond to the early Holocene and are the primary deposits from which diagnostic early Holocene period artifacts were recovered (Table 3.2). The deposition of peat in this area suggests that a nominally still-water---at least partially-aerated---pond environment existed on the site. Enough water has been continuously available at the site since the Early Holocene to preserve relatively large tree limbs and much more fragile leaves.









Artifacts and Artifact Distributions from Test B

Two temporally-diagnostic tools were recovered from pre-9,500 rcypb levels in Test B (Figure 3.3): one Bolen Plain projectile point and one Bolen Beveled projectile point. Additionally, an Aucilla adze (Figure 3.4) was recovered from Zone C, Level 8. Other artifacts recovered from the early Holocene levels include an utilized flake (Figure 3.5), a pair of antler flakers (Figures 3.6 and 3.7) (Dunbar et al. 1989), and an antler tool of undetermined use (Figure 3.6) (see list of potential uses in Chapter 6). Additionally, a ground stone implement (Figure 3.7) was recovered from Level 12, below diagnostic early Holocene material. This ground stone tool probably is similar to artifacts recovered from early Holocene levels in Test C (see below), although both Simpson (1948) and Neill (1971)---and see the observation of Agogino (1962)---suggest that these ground stone tools are associated with Paleoindian lanceolate points and date at least to the Middle Paleoindian period (sensu Anderson 2002). No archaeological features or other observable horizontal patterning of the artifacts was recorded from Test B. A summary of early Holocene artifacts recovered from Test B is presented in Table 3.3.

Early Holocene Levels in Test C and Adjoining Test Units

Between 1987 and 1995, Aucilla River Prehistory Project personnel excavated a total of 2lm2 of what was called originally the "Bolen Dirt" in the Test C area. Work began with Test C (6m2) and proceeded through Test C/North and South extensions (6m2), then Tests G and H (2m2), and concluded during the 1995 season with Tests 0, P, Q, T, U, V, and I (7m2). During the first season of work on this stratum, artifacts and concentrations of wood and rock from the Strata 5/6 boundary suggested there might have been a human occupation on or near Test C during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition.









Items documented on that surface were mapped in situ (Figure 3.10) and recovered after mapping, either aggregated by test unit or as point-provenienced items. The horizontal distributions of items were drawn on I m x I m sand-blasted rigid plastic suitable for underwater use, then transferred to graph paper at 1:5 or 1:10 scale on the surface immediately after each dive. Recovered materials included stone, bone, and wood artifacts, and unmodified rock, bone, and wood. Items were bagged underwater either by test, or by point provenience number for individual items or item groups. A catalog of items recovered from the test units was compiled for this study (Appendix B) from data collected by James Dunbar (1984-1988 field seasons) and the author (19921995 field seasons).

Soils

Kendrick (2000) has provided a comprehensive evaluation and correlation of sediments from the Test C area of Page/Ladson. Kendrick's evaluation supercedes previous field-designated strata. In the present study, artifact proveniences have been correlated and translated into Kendrick's strata, though only those corrolated to Kendrick's Strata 4, 5, and 6 (Table 3.4), which bracket the initial and early Holocene periods, are dealt with here. Kendrick's and my personal observations are summarized below (Table 3.5), along with important environmental implications. The south profile of Tests T, U, and V (Figure 3.11) was recorded during the 1995 field season. The profile covers Kendrick's Strata 5 through 7.

Two important observations have a bearing on the artifacts from Strata 5 and 6.

First, the calcareous, largely anaerobic encapsulating sediments (Stratum 6) provided an environment that preserved even the most delicate organic materials. Bone artifacts recovered from these sediments were light tan when first uncovered, macroscopically









appearing as if they had just been discarded. Within minutes of being uncovered, the bone would visually darken, presumably taking up dissolved oxygen and tannins from the surrounding water. Other types of organics underwent the same type of change, including the fine twigs and leaves encased in Stratum 6. The presence of high levels of either precipitated or crushed limestone sand and pebbles suggests long dry periods interrupted by brief wet periods (Dunbar et al. 1989). Second, a combination of independent observations from the Strata 5/6 boundary (Table 3.4) suggests that the period Stratum 5 represents was relatively dry, dry enough to desiccate the soil at least intermittently. This period was followed by a rapid inundation and near-constant inundation to date.

In addition to Kendrick's (2000) characterization of the overall stratigraphic

profile, Scudder (1999) has focused on the origin and deposition of Strata 4, 5, and 6. Scudder's analysis included particle size, clay identification, invertebrate faunal identification, and a standard suite of total pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and aluminium analyses. On the basis of the observation of intact small bivalves and gastropods, a relatively low total phosphorus level, and the lack of observable pedogenic levels, she concluded that Stratum 5 was not the result of human occupation. She does, however, suggest that the artifacts found on the site may be the result of discard behavior from adjacent upland sites, or the result of artifacts being colluvially deposited from an adjacent upland site.

Several field observations suggest that there is likely a more complex depositional history to Strata 4-6 than suggested by Scudder. First, Stratum 4 is water-deposited and shows no signs of pedogenesis and little or no compaction. By contrast, Stratum 5 is









compacted macroscopically and much more difficult to disarticulate physically. Moreover, it is highly resistant to disarticulation with deflocculants (e.g., sodium sesquicarbonate). Wood on the surface of Stratum 5 is also dessicated and the unit has vertical fissures, both suggesting that the sediment and wood deposited on the Strata 5/6 interface underwent at least one long drying event. Finally, Stratum 6, with heavy initial deposits of aquatic gastropods, sand, wood, flint, ground stone tools, and limestone, suggests---in accordance with Scudder's (1999) conclusion---colluvial deposition, possibly through site flooding. Diagnostic points, unoxidized bone, and dates from the initial 10cm of Stratum 6 suggest that the site was reoccupied concurrently with this flooding event. The total pH of Stratum 6 is also relatively basic (7 to 8), explaining both the relatively poor pollen preservation noted by Hansen (1999, see below) and the good bone preservation.

As part of the research related to the Early Holocene depositional environment, S. David Webb, Mark Muniz, and the author visited an upland intermittent karstic stream near Gainesville, Florida, called Blue Creek, in 1995. This natural area has deeply eroded karst ravines, stream beds with limestone banks, and vertical relief of as much as I lm. A deep, humic mat covers the ravine bottom and the small creek flows in the middle of the ravine, disappearing into underground stream courses after flowing on the surface for several miles. Under high rainfall conditions, the ravine partially floods, inundating the ravine-bottom soils. This modem homologous environment documents the formation of organic, pedogenic soils on karstic ravine bottoms and confirms that in karst environments these type of intermittent streams can develop under the appropriate geological and hydrological conditions.









Radiocarbon dates

Page/Ladson is only the second archeological site in Florida to yield diagnostic early Holocene projectile points---Palmer side-notched and Kirk comer-notched---in direct association with radiocarbon dates (Table 3.1). These dates have been compared to each other, and to dates from 8Le2105, and have been found to be statistically related (Faught et al. 2003), with the exception of one date (8905+65 BP [AA-007454]) that was likely too young due to storage prior to dating. The sample was likely contaminated with modem algae. Of all the dates, the hickory nut (9950�70 BP [Beta-103888]) and the sample from a cypress log exterior (9930�60 BP[Beta-058858]) are probably the best for dating the boundary between Strata 5 and 6, the hickory nut because it was whole, undegraded, and an annual growth, the cypress because it came from the exterior surface of a whole tree, thereby approximately dating the tree's death and deposition 10cm above the Stratum 5/6 interface.

The wood samples (Table 3.1) embedded in the Stratum 5/6 interface could have been from interior sections of trees, giving older dates than the deposition layer, although one has precisely the same date as one of the vertical stakes. If this is the case, the stake and the wood dating to the same age were likely embedded prior to Stratum 5 being inundated. Interestingly, the date from below the diagnostic Kirk Corner-notched point recovered from Stratum 6 dated older (10,300�120 BP [Beta-103889]) than dates on organics from the Stratum 5/6 boundary, suggesting that the date, taken on a bulk soil sample, either had a small amount of residual "dead-carbon" in the sample, or that the organics in the sample were fixed during the Younger Dryas, which is known to have been a radiocarbon plateau that yields radiocarbon dates with large error ranges (Clark et al. 2001; Fiedel 1999).









Radiocarbon dates from Test C and adjacent units suggest two dramatic climatic shifts in the Aucilla River drainage occurred between 10,200 and 9,950 rcybp, the first marking the introduction of high volumes of midcontinental ice sheet water into the upper Gulf of Mexico (circa 10,200 rcybp) (Teller 1995), the second matching closely (within 50 years) of the radiocarbon age of the final shift of glacial outwash from the Mississippi to the St. Lawrence (Clark et al. 2001). These dates also correspond well with assays performed on the lower strata from Dust Cave in northern Alabama (Driskell 1994), where dates ranged from 9990

Pollen

As part of the environmental reconstruction of the Page/Ladson site, numerous

pollen samples were taken in 1988, 1992, and 1995. The most important for evaluating the paleoclimate circa 10,000 rcybp are those taken in Test G and H in 1995. Analyzed by Hansen (1999), these samples focused on the period between 10,300 rcybp and 9,000 rcybp (Figures 3.12 and 3.13). According to Hansen (1999), the transition marked by the "Bolen Level", or Stratum 5/6 boundary, shows a dramatic increase in Chenopodiales (Goose-foot) and other taxa that result from disturbance and/or in upland ecosystems, and a concurrent decrease in floodplain forest and cypress swamp species. Simultaneously there is a sustained increase in charcoal and degraded pollen in the sample, the former likely indicating human activity in the area---especially considering the overall reduction in forest species (Hansen 1999), and the latter indicating a potentially drier climate--likely indicated by a more erosive deposition regime. The increase in degraded pollen in the samples from Stratum 6 may also have resulted from the higher overall pH of the soils, which has been linked to poor pollen preservation (Bryant et al. 1994).









Viewed in regional perspective with nearby Camel Pond and Shellar Lake (Hansen 1999), the Bolen-age levels at Page/Ladson fit into a brief period of overall dry climateindicated at Camel Pond by an depositional hiatus-followed by a period that was also dry but punctuated by intermittent heavy rains (Figure 3.14). It is also possible that the heightened charcoal levels in the Strata 5 and 6 were the result of anthropogenic factors, including using forest fires as a game-driving and habitat-enhancing techniques for preferred species (e.g., bison, deer and turkey), more extensive use of fire for food processing and storage (e.g., drying and smoking), and using fire to produce watercraft, all occuring in the immediate vicinity of the site. The latter of these seems to be supported by the presence of adzes and adze fragments found in both Tests B and C.

Given the later adoption of chenopods as one of the first horticulturally-adopted plant foods in the central part of the Southeastern US (Smith 1985)-albeit firmly documented to a much later date (1,975�55 BP)-it is important to note there is such a dramatic spike in chenopod pollen around the Page/Ladson site. This suggests there was the potential to harvest the wild variety as a seasonal (probably early fall) food crop. Evidence from the Enterprise Site in southern Alabama (Brooms et al. 1997), indicates that early Holocene populations were already making use of local hickory nut (Carya sp.) and oak (Quercus sp.) acorn crops. This confirms previous macrobotanical evidence of early Holocene nut harvesting on Dalton sites in Alabama and Missouri (Hester, I Grl x , 1Pi61, and Rodgers Shelter sites [Smith 1986:Table 1.1 ]). Several hickory nut and oak acorn fragments were also recovered from the Stratum 5/6 boundary (Appendix B) on Page/Ladson. One hickory nut was used for carbon dating the boundary layer; another has been stored in distilled water since excavation.









Faunal analysis

Peres (1997, Peres and Carter 1999) analyzed the faunal material recovered from the surface of Stratum 5 and the first layer of Stratum 6. By applying a scoring criteria to the distribution of faunal remains and the anthropomorphic characteristics of individual faunal remains (e.g., carbonization, cut marks), Perez (1997) was able to conclude that the faunal remains were likely deposited as the result of natural processes. This conclusion does not conflict with the proposed deposition sequence (see below). In fact, it supports the conclusion that the site was rapidly inundated at the onset at approximately 9960 BP, depositing numerous bones from diverse taxa on the interface between Strata 5 and 6. Field observations of bone items from the top of Stratum 5 indicate a small number of obviously human modified items were present. Several stone and bone tools were recovered both from the Stratum 5/6 boundary and into the first 10cm of Stratum 6 (see below), documenting human activity either on the Stratum 5 surface or in the general area.

Features

Two important site features were documented in the Test C area: vertical wooden stakes and a hearth containing partially-carbonized wood. Vertical wooden stakes were documented in both Test C (Figure 3.10) and Test G (Figure 3.15). In both cases, the stakes averaged 2-2.5cm in diameter and were stripped of bark. The stake from Test C was used for radiocarbon dating, while the stake from Test G was partially removed from its find location and also was used for carbon dating. The bottom end of the latter example was not removed from the underlying Stratum 4.

The vertical orientation of these stakes was totally anomalous when compared to other recovered wood, which tended to be layed out horizontally, most commonly on the









boundary between Strata 5 and 6. The horizontal distance between the two vertical stakes

(3m) suggests they could part of a larger structure, possibly like that documented at the Vulcan Site in Georgia (Ledbetter et al. 1996:276). The type of structure could have been a bark or hide shelter, fish trap or weir, or a drying or smoking rack. As Dunbar and his colleagues (1988) have pointed out, the wood stakes did not show signs of desiccation, suggesting they were either deposited immediately before---or after---the flooding event, when higher net water levels were permanently established. If the stakes were placed in the surface within one or two years of the flooding event, they would not have degraded enough to show desiccation. In this case, they could be components of a domestic structure, smoking rack, or drying grate. If they were pushed into the bottom after the flooding event, the stakes were most likely fishing related, possibly components of fish traps, weirs, or platforms.

Another intriguing interpretation of the vertical stakes must be considered in light of the recent detailed publication of the Windover site (Doran 2002). At Windover, wooden stakes of similar dimensions were used to anchor burials into a peat-bottomed pond (Dickel 2002). Some of the burials had been disturbed, most likely by alligators (Doran 2002:8-10), the feces of which were preserved in the pond (Doran 2002:287). At Page/Ladson, the vertical stakes may have marked or pinned down burials, as well, with the lack of skeletal remains accounted for by removal of the bodies by alligators.

The hearth was located in Test P and was approximately 50cm in diameter,

although not perfectly round, and averaged 8-10cm deep (Figure 3.10). The bottom of the hearth had limited evidence of heat alteration, including a single piece of wood that was charred on the top and uncharred on the bottom. The lack of other signs of fire









alteration (e.g., cracked stone in and around the feature, ash or light-gray staining of surrounding soil) suggests either that the hearth was used as a smudge or smoking pit, or that the archaeological community does not have enough experience with hearths preserved underwater to recognize all their physical properties. Macrobotanical identification and analysis of the wood has not yet been undertaken by the Aucilla River Prehistory Project, so the wood species from in and around the hearth are not known. Artifact Descriptions and Distributions

The traditional grouping of artifacts into material classes is followed here, beginning with diagnostic projectile points and concluding with worked wood. Diagnostic Points

A total of six temporally-diagnostic projectile points were found in the Test C area within Strata 5 and 6 (previously unillustrated examples are shown in Figures 3.16-3.19). Their locations and associations are summarized below (Table 3.6). All the points originating from Strata 5 and 6 date typologically to the early Holocene and would be considered Early Archaic (Anderson 2002; Justice 1987:50-67). Arguably the most important aspect of these points is their relatively early average dating (Table 3.1). These dates place side- and comer-notching well within the time range of Dalton assemblages from other parts of the Southeast (Goodyear 1982, 1999). Other sites in the Southeast, including Dust Cave (Driskell 1994), Packard (Wyckoff 1985), and Rodgers Shelter (Kay 1982), have contemporaneous dates on side-notched points. This supports the assertion that notched points were produced concurrently with unfluted lanceolate points (e.g., Plainview, Agate Basin, Suwannee, Simpson), and are contemporaneous with, or potentially earlier than Dalton points (Wyckoff 1985; Don Wyckoff 2002, personal communication).









In Florida, sites that have unfluted lanceolate points, like Hamey Flats, Johnson

Sand Pit, Darby and Hornsby Spring, and Bolen Bluff, also have side-notched points. In the case of Harney Flats, the side-notched and lanceolate points came from stratigraphically indistiguishable contexts (Daniel and Wiesenbaker 1987), a phenomenon that the excavators explained by suggesting that the site was both exposed for a long period of time and was subject to erosive forces between the nominally noncontemporaneous time periods. However, the date ranges of non-fluted lanceolate points and early side-notched points substantially overlap (see Chapter 1), suggesting that cooccurences of the two types on a single site may be the result of the use of two different projectile points in a single socio-technical setting, which has been documented ethnographically among the Agta (Griffin 1997) among other groups.

In the case of southeastern North America, it may be a prey-based difference, with lanceolate points (Dalton, Suwanee, Simpson, Hardaway) used on larger game like bison and remnant Pleistocene megafauna and notched points used to hunt and butcher game that was deer-size and smaller. The contemporaneity of individuals making side-notched and Dalton points is suggested by the presence of Dalton adzes on the Jeannie's Better Back site (8Lf54), which only produced side-notched points from its lowest levels. The three Dalton adzes from 8Lf54 were recovered from levels that produced at least six sidenotched points (Austin and Mitchell 1999:Appendix A).

Only two sites in Florida have produced side-notched points stratigraphically above and separated from lanceolate points: Silver Springs (Neill 1964, Hemmings 1975) and Wakulla Springs (Jones and Tesar 2000). On the former site, the lanceolate points were identified as Clovis, not Suwanee or Dalton. At Wakulla Springs, the notched point is









not a typed point, but has one notch similar to those executed on Bolen projectile points. Moreover, the lower occupation did not produce diagnostic Clovis or Suwanee points, but a large preform for one of those two types.

Adzes/Scrapers/Bifaces

One complete adze (Figure 3.19) and an assortment of scrapers, biface fragments, and an incomplete preform were recovered from the Stratum 5/6 boundary (Figure 3.20). Additionally, an adze, preform, and biface fragments were recovered from the middle of Stratum 6. Items from Stratum 6 did not come from an anthropogenic soil or have any kind of recognizable spatial clustering. The adzes and adze fragments suggest that the area may have been used over centuries for woodworking. The complete adze from the Stratum 5/6 boundary compares favorably with a preform of the hafted Dalton adze (Morse 1971, 1973). The presence of these assorted bifaces suggests that the area may have been used to "rough-out" bifaces that could then be either transported or converted to finished points or adzes in the immediate area. This core-trimming activity appears to be supported by the large, cortical flakes recovered from the Stratum 5/6 boundary (see below)

Cores and Core Tools

One bifacial core was recovered from early Holocene deposits on Page/Ladson.

This core has numerous step fractures on either side of the core. It appears to have been used solely for the removal of flakes and was abandoned prior to being fully exhausted. Two random cores were recovered from the Page/Ladson early Holocene deposits. Both appear to have usewear were recovered from the Test C area excavations (Figure 3.22, lower). There is a remarkable resemblance between one core (Figure 3.22, upper right) and cores described from Dalton sites in Arkansas (Morse 1973: Figure 5-i). These cores









are unlike the bifacial cores used to produce point preforms and bifacial adzes in that they are much thicker, and likely they are used for producing either naturally-backed flakes or pices esquill~es (Morse 1971). If this core were used for producing the latter, it would be strong suggestion that bone working was carried out in the immediate vicinity, as pieces esquillies have been linked to slotting and grooving bone (Bordes 1968). Chert Flake Tools and Flakes

Numerous chert flakes and a few flake tools were recovered both from the Stratum 5/6 boundary and from levels fully within Stratum 6 (Appendix B)(see flake tool examples in Figure 3.23). Most flakes were either early stage cortical or non-cortical flakes, both with no retouch. Additionally, most of the flakes do not have the dark-brown river staining that characterizes most of the surface-collected lithics from the bottom of the river. Most of the chert is fine-grained, a light to dark gray with a black oxidized surface, and appears to have excellent fracture properties. Some have the characteristic dark gray weathered rind and fossiliferous coating St. Marks Formation chert. Others are a light to medium gray, characteristic of the Suwannee Formation chert. Both chert types are available in the Wacissa/Aucilla drainage.

Few secondary and no tertiary flakes were recovered directly from the excavated levels or from the screens. This suggests that the principal activity in the area was decortication of larger chert cores and the reduction of those cores into preforms, large flakes, and bifacial cores. Also, the low overall number of flakes suggests that there was not extensive quarrying or lithic reduction activity in the immediate vicinity of the underwater site. However, land excavations on the east side of the Aucilla have yielded large quantities of lithic debris (Chapter 4), suggesting that chertworking was common relatively close by.









A nearby site (8Le21O5 [Hornum et al. 1996:188-199]) has features that might explain the lack of secondary and tertiary debitage. On that site, small flakes were systematically gathered and deposited in small pits, suggesting early Holocene knapping went on in a domestic setting where there was concern for stepping on sharp debris (especially likely with infants and toddlers). The lack of this type of debitage in Strata 5 and 6 suggests either this stage of reduction did not occur near the site, or smaller waste flakes were also gathered up at the Page/Ladson site and buried. Ground Stone Objects, Abraders, Ground Stone Preforms, and Ground Stone Preform Debitage

Three distinctly reworked ground-stone tools were recovered from the Test C area (3.20), all part of the initial and early Holocene bolo stone manufacturing complex (see Figure 5.17). All three stones appear to be discarded portions of bolo stones broken during manufacturing or use. A hypothesized manufacturing process is described in Chapter 5 (below). Other finds of dimpled "bolo stones" suggest that they are found uniquely on Late Pleistocene and initial and early Holocene sites throughout the United States (Agogino 1958; Neill 1958, 1964). These appear to be the only examples found in a well-dated context from the Eastern United States.

Ground stone abraders (Figure 3.21) were also found both on the Stratum 5/6

boundary and into the lowest levels of Stratum 6. Although they vary in shape and size, they all have the characteristic saddling wear and edge-rounding that results from abrading stone, bone, and/or wood. The abraders can be generally grouped into large, hand-sized examples and small, finger-sized examples, possibly a reflection of the two modes of abrading, the former used for larger jobs (mass removal and shaping), the latter for finish sanding and shaping.









Fire-cracked RocklDolomite Cobbles

A wide variety of fire-cracked rocks and limestone and dolomite cobbles were recovered from the Test C area. The largest concentration was along the Stratum 5/6 boundary. Muniz (1998) recorded the material, sphericity and angularity, weight, length, volume density, use-wear, and thermal alteration characteristics of individual stones from the Stratum 5/6 boundary. Focused on the relationship between the rocks and the hearth feature, Muniz (1998) examined both non-fire-cracked and fire-cracked rock (FCR) to see if there were significant similarities between the rock by material type or distribution that might yield some behavioral information about the hearth's creators. The thermallyaltered subsample had a mean weight 150% of the non-thermally-altered sample (212.8g versus 141.6g), suggesting that the hearth-builders selected larger stones for their hearths (Muniz 1998). Moreover, dolomite dominated the thermally-altered sample, although limestone predominated in the overall sample, suggesting that dolomite was the preferred hearth building stone on the site. The presence of dolomite in the hearth area also suggests there was dolomite working in the immediate vicinity of the site.

Muniz (1998) also examined the distribution of stones around the hearth feature

and concluded that it was unlikely that colluvial forces distributed stones from around the hearth because there were many stones to the west and north of the feature, the two directions from which colluvial imputs would come. He suggests that other factors, like kick-scattering or scuffing (Muniz 1998 [citing Stephenson 1991]) may have contributed to the apparently random distribution of stones around the hearth feature. At this site, we were faced with the common equifinality problem. If there are other hearths to the west and north in unexcavated areas, cobbles scattered from these hearths might easily become









mixed with material from the excavated hearth area, obscuring any previously-discernible pattern around it.

Bone tools

One bone tool came from Excavation Unit I, from approximately 10cm above the Stratum 5/6 boundary. The bone pin was bi-pointed, with notable usewear on the nonfractured end (Figure 3.28). It is similar to bone points recovered from other parts of the Aucilla, including Little River Rise (Willis 1988). The bone pin is significant because it bore out what we had suspected about the anoxic nature of the sediments. Additionally, the excellent bone preservation observed on this specimen confirms the buffering qualities of the soil indicated by bulk pH tests and the lack of pollen (Bryant et al. 1994). Wood Stakes/Branches

A range of twigs, branches, and trunk fragments were recovered from Page/Ladson. Although all were examined closely for signs of human alteration, the only clear evidence was on the two previously-described stakes and on two unit-provenienced wood artifacts from Test C (Figure 3.29 and 3.30). The wood is particularly frustrating because there is no clear criteria for identifying worked wood that does not retain clear chipping or abrading wear, or that has a form that is clearly identifiable as a human-made object (i.e., wood at the Fort Center or Key Marco sites [Purdy 1991:23-53, 82-101]). A whole range of human-used items will likely go unrecognized (e.g., gathered wood, wood staked for a wind-break, and expedient site furniture) if the material is not found in a deposit that puts it in relation to artifacts and features with which the wood can be functionally or ceremonially related (Fort Center [Sears 1982:38-58], Monte Verde [Dillehay and Rosen 1997], Windover [Dickel 2002]).









Although naturally-formed distributions of wood are common in riparian settings (e.g., driftwood piles on sand bar), the distribution of this wood suggests that humans may have played a role in placing the wood on the Stratum 5/6 boundary. Most of the wood from the Stratum 5/6 interface was between 2cm and 10cm in diameter. Larger branches and trunks were rare. Except for the aforementioned examples, none of the wood fragments appeared peeled, chopped, or sanded. However, a substantial portion was charred on one end or on one side.

Depositional History and Overview

The overall sequence of deposition that temporally brackets the artifact-bearing stratum can be reconstructed from the available dates and observations of the strata. Water-lain deposits began accumulating prior to 10,600 rcybp, as indicated from a large oak log recovered from Stratum 4. Towards the end of the Younger Dryas (circa 10,200 rcybp), the top of Stratum 4 desiccated, possibly under the influence of glacial meltwater pouring into the northern Gulf of Mexico. This created the unknown-in-modem-times phenomenon of rapidly rising sea levels and relatively cool coastal water along the Gulf Coast. On a freshly-desiccated ravine bottom in the Aucilla drainage, early Holocene hunter/gatherers established a small camp out of the prevailing westerly winds and near a freshwater source. They moved out to the nearby quarries and knapped bifacial preforms and nutting stone preforms from chert and dolomite, respectively. They also worked wood in the area, and may have collected hickory nuts and oak acorns from nearby sandy uplands.

The desiccation regime ends abruptly sometime between 9,000 and 10,000 rcybp

when water-lain sediments again began accumulating on the site, a process that continued at least until the end of the mid-Holocene Hypsithermal (circa 5,000 rcybp), when









renewed erosion of the site diagonally truncated the deposits. Early Holocene bands reoccupied the upland portion of the site and continued depositing debitage, stone tools, and bone artifacts on the site through around 8,900 rcybp. No evidence of Middle Archaic occupation has been documented from the underwater deposits.

On the erosional surface formed at the end of the Hypsithermal, Deptford-period sherds and lithic remains were deposited. In sum, the underwater deposits at Page/Ladson provide a unique and well-dated window into early Holocene foragers and into the Deptford period. Although likely disturbed by post-occupation flooding, the artifacts and features from the circa 10,000 BP deposits allow us to expand our knowledge of early Holocene tool assemblages, site location preferences, and tool creation processes (see Chapters 5 and 6 below).















Table 3.1. Radiocarbon dates from early Holocene levels at Page/Ladson



Lab # FS # C-14 Test Sed. Level Date Material Comments Age Unit Unit Type Dated ID
Beta- 85-59-44 9450�100 B 6 9 RM-U Wood/ This level between the "Bolen 015089 Charcoal Peat" (Lv. 10 below) and the level producing antler flakers
(Lv. 8 above)
Beta- 84-527- 9730�120 B 6 10 RM-U Peat Sample taken from recovery 011905 13 locus of Bolen Beveled point.
Peat looks like chopped tobacco
as in Core 88-2 nearby.
AA- 88-60 8905�65 C 6 la AMS Wood/ Wood stake originating in U6 007454 Charcoal and driven in U5. Date may be young due to 3 year wet storage
possible and bacteria. Fraction
modem 0.3300�0.0020
Beta- 92-26 9930�60 C 6 Ia RM Wood/ Sample taken from cypress log 058858 Charcoal Beta- 95E-27 9950�70 0 5-6 1 a-2b AMS Plant Seed Hickory nut on contact of Unit 5 103888 with Unit 6 Beta- 87-09-65 10000�120 C 5-6 1 a-2b RM-U Wood/ Charred wood in Unit 5 with 021750 Charcoal upper face in Unit 6 (note lv.la lv.2a & lv.2b = Iv.3 in 87 notes)
Beta- 92-13 10000�80 G 6 la AMS Wood/ Sample of wooden stake 058857 Charcoal originating in Unit 6, Lv. la and driven through Unit 5 and Unit 4
Beta- 87-09-66 10280�110 C 5 2b RM-U Wood/ Desiccated wood in Unit 5 with 021752 Charcoal upper face in Unit 6 (note Iv. 1 a = lv.2a & Iv.2b = lv.3 in 87
notes)
Beta- 95E-29 10300�120 U 6 la RM Organic Sample from pedestal under 103889 Sediment Bolen Point taken 5cm to 10cm above Unit 5 contact






69


Table 3.2. Zones and Levels in Test B (developed from data in Dunbar et al. 1989)

Zone Level Soil Type Artifacts Beginning Date Ending Date
A 1-5 Mixed Mixed points, 3440 BP Modem
modem bone tools
B 6 Mixed peat Mixed ages 4200 BP 3500 BP
C 7-11 Peats and Points, flakes, circa 9,850 BP circa 9,000
Marls antler tools, BP scrapers
D 12 Gray sandy Bolo Stone, circa 11,900 BP circa 11,500
organic peat debitage BP
E 13-15 Calcareous None circa 12,330 BP circa 11,900
Clay BP









Table 3.3. Early Holocene artifacts from Test B by Dunbar's zone and stratum
(condensed from Dunbar, Webb, and Cring 1989 [all Figure references below
from Dunbar et al. 1989, unless otherwise noted]).


Zone Stratum/Lev Count Name Material Reference el
A 3a 1 Greenbriar Chert Fig. 4C A 3a I Kirk Comer- Chert Fig. 4H Notched
B 6 1 Suwannee Chert Fig. 4A B 6 1 Suwannee Chert Fig. 4B B 6 1 Greenbriar Chert Fig. 4D B 6 1 Bolen Side- Chert Fig. 4E Notched
B 6 1 Bolen Side- Chert Fig. 4F Notched (Beveled)
B 6 1 Bolen Chert Fig. 4G Comer-Notched
(Beveled)
B 6 1 Wacissa Chert Fig. 41 C 8 1 Aucilla Adze Chert Fig. 7A

C 8 2 Antler Flakers Bone Fig. 6
C 8 3 Preform Bases Chert No Figure C 8 N/A Debitage Chert No Figure C 9 1 Utilized Flake Chert No Figure
C 10 1 Bolen Comer- Chert Fig. 8 Notched (Beveled)

C 10 1 Utilized Flake Chert Fig. 8 C 11 1 Bolen Plain Chert Fig. 9B C 11 1 Pin Bone Fig. 9C C 11 1 Needle Bone Fig. 9D C 11 1 Utilized Blade Chert Fig. 9A
D 12 1 Bolo Stone Dolomite No Figure Fragment
D 12 N/A Debitage Chert No Figure


Note: Zone A/B artifacts are dated typologically and Zone C and D by radiocarbon. The Zone E "bolo" stone is included, even though it comes from a level dated 12,330�110 B.P. (Beta-15088).











Table 3.4. Technical descriptions of the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene sediments and
stratum boundaries in the Test C area of the Page/Ladson site (8Je591)
(developed from Kendrick 2000)

STRATUM THICKNESS BOUNDARY TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION (AVERAGE) CHARACTERISTIC
OPEN WATER River bottom
7 0.5m-2.Om Recent river bottom sediments with leaves, twigs, peat, and very fine dark sands No distinct Erosional surface sediment
6b 0.90m-1.90m Dark gray sandy silt with shell fragments, wood, leaves, and oxidized root filaments No distinct Horizontal wood fragments and oxidized roots sediment
6a 0.10-0.20m Light gray containing limestone pebbles, gastropod shell, and wood, and penetrated on the top with root filaments
Sand and silt Thin veneer of shell-rich silt with sand stringers
5 0.05m-0.25m Dark brown, sandy, clayey silt containing gastropod shells, fish bones and scales, limestone pebbles, wood, and charcoal No distinct Abrupt, smooth to undulatory contact sediment
4f 0.63m-1.31m Tan sandy silt containing scattered limestone pebbles, Oligocene echinoids, whole and fragmentary gastropods, insects, fish bone and scales, leaves and wood concentrations. Sediment does not change color on exposure to water column.
No distinct Abrupt, undulatory contact sediment
4e 0.80m-1.17m Tan sandy silt containing scattered limestone pebbles, Oligocene echinoids, whole and fragmentary gastropods, insects, fish bone and scales, leaves and wood concentrations. Sediment changes color from tan to gray on exposure to water column.
No distinct Abrupt, undulatory contact sediment
4d 0.05m-0.12m Medium-gray sandy silt Sandy Abrupt, undulatory contact of sand with compressed digesta �
4c 0.02m-0. I 7m Light-gray sandy silt Sandy Abrupt, undulatory contact of sand with compressed digesta
4b 0.03m max Medium-gray sandy silt Sandy Abrupt, undulatory contact of sand with compressed digesta
4a 0.05m-. I I m Gray sandy silt with intermixed mastodont digesta









Table 3.5. Test C sediment observations and environmental implications

Macroscopic Observation Environmental implication

Stratum 6 has scattered lithic artifacts Water levels in the Aucilla have been and unoxidized bone artifacts high enough since approximately 9,800 rcybp to leave Stratum 6 intact, fully hydrated as deposited, and without
obvious human disturbance
Wood on Stratum 5/6 boundary is Dry period characterizes transition dessicated between deposition of Unit 5 and Unit 6 Boundary between Strata 5 and 6 is Dry, windy period characterizes characterized by sand stringers transition Stratum 5 is highly consolidated Subaereal exposure Stratum 5 is highly organic Leaf-molt/organic matter accumulation was high on the site









Table 3.6. Artifact Number
N/A

92A-07 95E-15 95E-17 95E-18 95E-241


Notes

(Dunbar et al. 1989:Figure 3)


Find locations and associations of diagnostic points

Test Stratum (s) Level Type Name Unit
C 5/6 N/A Bolen Plain

G 6 2 Kirk Serrated

U 6 3 Kirk CornerNotched
P 6 3 Kirk ComerNotched
P 6 3 Bolen Bevel C 5/6 N/A Bolen Plain






















































0 30
Meters N


8JeS91--Land and Underwater Excavations Aucilla River Prehistory Project-Florida Museum of Natural History





Figure 3.1. Site map of the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591) with underwater and land
excavations noted. Transect lines in light purple.













METER ,5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5





0-- ",1.0 "-,' -2.0




2.5 A3




3.0













Figure 3.2. North Profile of Test B, 8Je591 (from Dunbar, Faught, and Webb 1988).
Natural levels 1-7 are unconsolidated modem deposits. Levels 8-11 date to
the early Holocene. Levels 12 and below are late Pleistocene in age.


















































Figure 3.3. Bolen Plain (top) and Bolen Bevel (bottom) projectile points from Test B










































Figure 3.4. Aucilla Adzes from Test B. All adzes are from surface or deflated contexts,
except upper left, which originated in level with antler flaker.
































Figure 3.5. Utilized Flake from Test B.






















1i 2 3 45


Bureau of Archaeoongia Research


' I 0 1


Figure 3.6. Antler Flaker 84-527-9C from Test B on the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591)






































Figure 3.7. Antler Flaker 84-527-9B from Test B on the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591)





























Figure 3.8. Antler tool BAR 85-59-54 from Test B of the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591)






































111111 ~


Figure 3.9. Ground stone tool recovered from Level 12 in Test B (8Je591)


I I I I I I I 1111*11111111 ftm
6P 2














t-~
* *~










/4 '4
/


4\


9, ~-, I;


p


A".
(4










I* *D0


0
Meter



8Je591--Composite Underwater Map Aucilla River Prehistory Project--Florida Museum of Natural History


Figure 3.10. Distribution of artifacts and ecofacts on the Stratum 5/6 boundary in Test C,

G-I, O-Q, T-V.


URock Eroded Aeas FosUShell




Full Text

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PAGE/LADSON (8JE591): EXCAVATION OF AN EARLY HOLOCENE OCCUPATION SITE IN THE AUCILLA RIVER, FLORIDA By BRINNEN S. CARTER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2003

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r ' Copyright 2003 by Brinnen S. Carter

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This document is dedicated to my dead father, Brinly Stewart Carter.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There are many people who deserve the largest measure of thanks for their patience and support. On the intellectual side, S. David Webb and James (Jim) Dunbar are first and foremost. The Florida Department of State Special Category grants, National Geographic grants, and numerous private donations of money, time, and equipment, to the Aucilla River Prehistory Project, lead by Drs. Webb and Milanich paid for the fieldwork. Grants and salary from the Aucilla River Prehistory Project and discussions with Jim Dunbar have been important in directing the work that follows. Discussions with David Anderson (modeling Paleoindian/Early Archaic American Indian bands and macrobands), Albert Goodyear (tool technology and chronology), Jerald Milanich (hypothesis generation and testing), Louis Tesar (overall Florida Paleoindian site distribution and nature) have also contributed to the quality of work. One could hardly ask for a better archaeology faculty than the University of Florida's for understanding the breadth of New World Archaeology. The archaeology faculty of Florida State University — and especially Rochelle Marrinan — helped me keep my dignity while completing the dissertation. Teaching at FSU added notches to my resume and gave me a better understanding of the pressures under which university-based researchers work. Finally, the SEAC staff, and especially Robert C. "Bob" Wilson, have been very supportive of this effort and helpful with many things. They are gentler than I should expect and patient to a fault. John and Elise Comelison provided needed computer-aided iv

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design help when I needed it most. Our combined efforts may keep a roof over our heads yet. On a more personal level, several people have been generous with their time and support. Richard Vories kicked back at the Pizza Palace with me many nights. Charles Steams put a roof over my head while I acclimated to Gainesville. Phyllis Schmidt gave me a job. Kent Spriggs lent me a place to work and challenged me to complete the dissertation before he finished his second book. He finished before me, but we are both done now. Finally, my wife Jennifer and mother Joan have been most patient. They supported the various side-ventures that have presented themselves over the past seven years. Without their emotional and financial support, I wouldn't have had the ability to see this through. Although I dedicate the dissertation to my dead father, Benjamin, Jennifer, Joan, Julia, Abigail, and Chapman are the survivors who make it worthwhile. V

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv LIST OF TABLES ix LIST OF FIGURES x ABSTRACT xvi CHAPTER . .. ' • . . 1 Introduction and Literature Review 1 Study Objectives 1 Geography of the Page/Ladson Site: The Aucilla River in Southeastern Context 2 Environmental Change at 10,000 BP 5 Paleoindian/early Archaic or late Pleistocene/early Holocene 10 Forager Theory: Sea level rise, Packing, and Foraging Change 13 Previous Pleistocene and early Holocene Archaeology in Florida 18 2 Early Holocene Excavations at Page/Ladson (8Je591) 37 3 Underwater Excavations and Analysis of Submerged Deposits and their contents ...47 Chronological Considerations '. 47 Early Holocene Levels in Test B 48 Artifacts and Artifact Distributions from Test B 49 Early Holocene Levels in Test C and Adjoining Test Units 49 Soils 50 Radiocarbon dates 53 Pollen 54 Faunal analysis 56 Features 56 Artifact Descriptions and Distributions 58 Diagnostic Points 58 Adzes/Scrapers/Bifaces 60 Cores and Core Tools 60 Chert Flake Tools and Flakes 61 Ground Stone Objects, Abraders, Ground Stone Preforms, and Ground Stone Preform Debitage 62 vi

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Fire-cracked Rock/Dolomite Cobbles 63 Bone tools 64 Wood Stakes/Branches 64 Depositional History and Overview 65 4 Transformations of Early Holocene Stone Technology 103 Early Holocene Points from the Ohmes Collection 103 Early Archaic Point Reduction 104 Resharpening 106 A Diachronic, Explanatory Model of Late Pleistocene to Early HoloceneProjectile Point Morphologies 108 Intensification of Quarry Stone Use 1 12 Projectile Point Conservation Steps 113 The Manufacturing and Use of Early Archaic "Bola" stones 1 14 5 The Early Holocene Bone tool kit 139 Techno functional Categories of Early Holocene Bone Artifacts 140 Sites with Early Holocene Bone Tools 140 Antler and Bone Tools from Page/Ladson and Little Salt Spring 141 Antler Flakers and Probable Antler Flaker Preforms (Figures 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5; 141 Worked Antler Racks (09021 AOl, 0901 1B03, 07001A01, 06999A03) (Figures 5.6,5.7,5.8,5.9) 142 Antler Billet/Tool (BAR 85-59-54) (Figure 5.10) 143 Handles (LSS 06288A01 and 05991 AOl) (Figures 5.11, 5.12) 145 Cups or Vessels (Table 5.4)(Figures 5.13-5.18) 146 Bone pin (95E-209, Figure 3.28) 147 Antler Points (0902 1A02, 0902 1A03, 09993 A02, and 06329A01, Figures 5.19 and 5.20) 148 Digging implements (06261B01, 06349B01, 07001B03, Figures 5.21, 5.22, 5.23) 149 Awls (0901 1A04, 06290A01, 95A-2, Figures 5.24, 5.25, 5.26) 150 Bone bead (06319A01, Figure 5.27) 150 General Considerations 150 6 Summary and Conclusions 179 Overview 179 Early Holocene Human Settlement in North Florida 181 Further Research 183 vii

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APPENDIX A Catalog of Finds of Surface Collected Early Archaic Diagnostics and Materials Excavated from Early Archaic dated Proveniences 186 B Early Archaic Point Measurements 214 C Early Archaic Point Nonmetric Data 218 D Land Excavations at Page/Ladson (8Je591) 222 Overview of Excavations 222 Artifact analysis 227 Ceramics 227 Projectile point/knives 227 Features 228 Results of Land Excavation 228 LIST OF REFERENCES 242 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 260 vin

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LIST OF TABLES Table page \.\. Early Archaic Site Clusters 24 1.2. Sites with diagnostic points from dated contexts (with the exception of Little Salt Spring). Derived from Anderson (2002) 25 3.1. Radiocarbon dates from early Holocene levels at Page/Ladson 68 3.2. Zones and Levels in Test B (developed from data in Dunbar et al. 1989) 69 3.3. Early Holocene artifacts from Test B by Dunbar's zone and stratum 70 3.4. Technical descriptions of the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene sediments and stratum boundaries in the Test C area of the Page/Ladson site (8Je591) (developed from Kendrick 2000) 71 3.5. Test C sediment observations and environmental implications 72 3.6. Find locations and associations of diagnostic points 73 4.1. Mean weights of extant and extinct species during the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene 118 4.2. Tool Production hitensification and Conservation Measures 121 5.1. A techno functional classification of bone artifacts 153 5.2. Carbon dates from Little Salt Spring (Carter and Gifford 2002) 154 5.3. Possible functions of BAR 85-59-54 154 5.4. Range of Odocoileus sp. skull vessel variation 154 ix

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1.1. Definitions of the Southeast Cultural Area (adapted from B. Smith 1986). A) Wissler 1922, Figure 61; B) Kroeber 1939; C) Swanton 1946:23; D) Murdock 1960; E) Willey 1966; F) Jennings 1974; G) Stoltman and Barrels 1983 29 1.2. Sea level curves for the Gulf of Mexico (Stright 1995:Figure 7) 30 1.3. Probability map of the Florida coast at 10,000 BP showing maximum and minimum extents based on sealevel curves 31 1.4. Sealevel curve for the Caribbean, based on reef data from Barbados (adapted from Fairbanks 1989) 32 1 .6. Florida initial and early Holocene site clusters 34 1.7. Florida chert quarry clusters (compiled from Upchurch et al. 1982). Key: 1 -Wright Creek; 2-Marianna; 3-Wacissa; 4-Upper Suwarmee; 5-Alapaha River; 6-Swift Creek Swamp; 7-White Springs; 8-Lower Suwannee; 9-Santa Fe; 10-Gainesville; 11-Ocala; 12-Lake Panasoffkee; 13-Invemess; 14-Brooksville; 15-Upper Withlacoochee; 16-Caladesi; 17-Hillsborough River; 1 8-Turtlecrawl Point; 19Peace River 35 1.8. Temporal spread of projectile point styles based on dated specimens from the Southeast (based on data from Anderson 2002). Note substantial overlap between Dalton/Early Side Notched and Side-Notched points. Also, note longevity of comer-notching tradition (DASN==Dalton/Side Notched, SN=Side Notched, CN=Comer Notched, BI=Bifurcate, ES=Early Stemmed) 36 3.1. Site map of the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591) with underwater and land excavations noted. Transect Hnes in light purple 74 3.2. North Profile of Test B, 8Je591 (from Dunbar, Faught, and Webb 1988). Natural levels 1-7 are unconsolidated modem deposits. Levels 8-1 1 date to the early Holocene. Levels 12 and below are late Pleistocene in age 75 3.3. Bolen Plain (top) and Bolen Bevel (bottom) projectile points from Test B 76 3.4. Aucilla Adzes from Test B. All adzes are from surface or deflated contexts, except upper left, which originated in level with antler flaker 77 X

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3.5. Utilized Flake from Test B 78 3.6. Antler Flaker 84-527-9C from Test B on the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591) 79 3.7. Antler Flaker 84-527-9B from Test B on the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591) 80 3.8. Antler tool BAR 85-59-54 from Test B of the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591) 81 3.9. Ground stone tool recovered from Level 12 in Test B (8Je591) 82 3.10. Distribution of artifacts and ecofacts on the Stratum 5/6 boundary in Test C, G-I, 0-Q, T-V 83 3.1 1. South Profile of Excavation Units T, U, and V. Soil descriptions are given in Table 3.4 84 3.12. Pollen diagram developed from samples taken from Test G at Page/Ladson (from Hanson 1999, Figure 7) 85 3.13. Sedimentology of— and pollen summary for — the Early Holocene levels at Page/Ladson (from Hanson 1999, Figure 9) 86 3.15. In situ wooden stake recovered from Test G 88 3.16. Projectile point 95E-15 (drawing by Mason Sheffield) 89 3.17. Projecfile point 95E-17 (drawing by Mason Sheffield) 90 3.18. Projectile point 95E-18 (drawing by Mason Sheffield) 91 3.20. Early Holocene adze from Stratum 5/6 boundary 93 3.21. Early Holocene bifacial scrapers and biface fragments 94 3.22. Biface, Adze, and biface fragments from the post-10,000 BP Stratum 6. Note lighter color of cherts as compared to those the Stratum 5/6 boundary 95 3.23. Cores and Core tools from the Stratum 5/6 boundary. Core fragment in upper left may be broken haft end of Aucilla Adze 96 3.24. Flake tools from underwater component of Page/Ladson 97 3.25. Bolo stone preforms (92A-23[top] and 95E-90[middle]) and finished, broken bolo stone (95E-95 [bottom]) from Stratum 5/6 boundary (life size) (drawing by Mason Sheffield) 98 3.26. Dolomite abrading stones from Page/Ladson. Note triangular to trapezoidal shape of most examples 99 xi

PAGE 12

3.27. Ground stone tool preform debitage (top) and abrader preform debitage (bottom) 100 3.28. Bone pin recovered from Excavation Unit I. Note fine striations that reflect manufacturing-related abrasion and deeper scratches indicative of usewear (drawing by Mason Sheffield) 101 3.29. Worked wood pin fi-om Test C 102 3.30. Detail of worked wood pin from Test C 102 3.3 1 . Worked wood artifact from Test C 103 3.32. Detail of worked wood artifact from Test C. Note flat, cupped carving marks on end, indicative of flat-bitted adze chipping, not sawing 103 4.1. Three longest examples of Bolen Plain projectile points fi-om Ohmes Collection... 122 4.2. Six Bolen Plain side-notched projectile points from Ohmes Collection 123 4.3. Six Bolen Beveled side-notched projectile points from Ohmes Collection 124 4.4. One Greenbriar side-notched projectile points from Ohmes Collection 125 4.5. Five Bolen side-notched projectile points from Ohmes Collection that represent a continuum of resharpening (left to right) from inifial manufacture to discard 126 4.6. Range of straight to highly incurvate base Bolen Side-notched points, with initial opposite bevel resharpening 127 4.7. Excurvate base Bolen Side-notched beveled points with rounded notches. Mid-stage resharpening. Note diversity of raw materials present 128 4.8. Range of Bolen comer-notched (or Hardin Barbed) projectile points from Ohmes collection. Note very strong opposite beveled resharpening on both far right and far left examples and variety of bases 129 4.9. Bolen comer-notched (Kirk comer-notched) and Kirk Stemmed projectile points from the Ohmes Collection. Note relatively large size and strong serration on middle example 130 4.10. Five Bolen side-notched points from Ohmes Collection. Note long, narrow form resulting from highlyformalized opposite bevel resharpening of tabular blade. Middle three examples have reverse taper discussed in text 131 4.1 1. Five Bolen side-notched points from the Ohmes Collection. Note range of notch shapes, from open to constricted 132 4.12. Five assorted Bolen projectile points from the Ohmes collection 133 xii J I

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4.13. Proposed reduction sequence for Early Archaic Bolen points (redrawn from Austin and Mitchell 1999: Figure 38) 134 4.15. Scatterplots of length vs. stem width for points identified as side-notched (upper chart) and comer-notched (lower chart). Data from Appendix B 136 4.16. Morphological transformation of Paleoindian to Early Archaic point styles based on the addition and subtraction of individual point features (time — early to late — is roughly represented from top left to bottom right) 137 4.17. Typical shape and size of Early Archaic "bolo", or nutting stone (redrawn from Neill 1970 by Mason Sheffield) 138 4.18. Artist's reconstruction of Early Archaic nutting stone manufacturing process, (drawing by Mason Sheffield) 139 5.1. Cultural/Stratigraphic representaUon of levels from Dust Cave (adapted from Goldman-Finn and Driskell 1994). Bone tools from the late Paleoindian and early Side-Notched levels are comparable in age to both Page/Ladson and Little Sah Spring 155 5.2: Antler Flaker 84-527-9 from Test B on the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591) 156 5.3. Antler Flaker 84-527-9B from Test B on the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591) 157 5.4. Artifact 06999A02— Possible Antler Flaker Preform from Little Sah Spring 158 5.5. Artifact 06999 A02 and 06999 A04 shown semi-articulated 159 5.6. Artifact 09021 AO 1 — Shed antler with removed distal tines and scored proximal tine. 160 5.7. Artifact 0901 1B03 — Antler rack with v-shaped tine removal 161 5.8. Artifact 07001 AO 1— Antler with radially-removed tines 162 5.9. Artifact 06999A03— Worked Antler 163 5.10. Antler tool BAR 85-59-54 from Test B of the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591) 164 5.1 1. Antler handle 06288A01 with evidence of burin parting and slotting (maximum length: 12cm) 165 5.12. Antler handle 05991A01 with evidence of burin parting and driUing on one end.166 5.13. Antler/Calotte cup 07001 BO 1 167 5.14. Systematically-reworked calotte — possible cup (0700 1B02). Note small circular hole on mid-line of parietal suture 168 xui

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5.15. Artifact 0901 1B02. Possible drinking vessel 169 5.16. Deer skull (0901 IBl 1) with systematically-removed right lower occipital 170 5.17. Deer Skull (07001B04) with systematically-removed ventral portion 171 5.18. Deer cranium (06300B02) possibly used as vessel, (maximum length: 10cm) 172 5.19. Antler projectile point tip consisting of 09021A02, 09021A02, and 09993 A02... 173 5.20. Socketed antler projectile point 06329A01 with evidence of radial driUing (maximum length: 4cm) 174 5.21. Deer Scapula 06261B01. Note breakage of medial edge (max. length. 17cm) 175 5.22. Scapula 06349B01. Note wear along medial edge, on left (maximum length [top of item to bottom]: 9cm) 176 5.23. Odocoileus sp. left mandible (0700 1B03) used as digging implement. Note abrasion on base of proximal end and breakage of distal end 177 5.24. Bone Awl (0901 1 A04) made from deer ulna 178 5.25. Bone Awl (0901 1A04) detail showing diagonal striations near tip 178 5.26. Bone awl (06290A01) with broken tip (maximum length: 14cm) 179 5.27. Bone bead (06319A01) (maximum length: 1.7cm, diameter: 0.8cm) 179 D.l. Hafted tool 94B-6.2.1 from 35 cmbs in Test BW2 (Drawing by Mason Sheffield)230 D.2. Hafted lanceolate 94B-6.2.2 from 35 cmbs in Test BW2 (Drawing by Mason Sheffield) 230 D.3. Hafted tool 94B-12.2.13 from 65 cmbs in Test AEl 231 D.4. Profile drawing of Test AW 1 232 D.5. Profile drawing of Test AW2 232 D.6. Profile drawing of Test AW3 233 D.7. Profile drawing of Test AEl 233 D.8. Profile drawing of Test AE2 234 D.9. Profile drawing of Test AE4 234 D.IO. Profile drawing of Test BWl 235 xiv

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D. 1 1 . Profile drawing of Test B W2 235 D.12. Profile drawing of Test BW3 236 D.13. Profile drawing of Test BE 1 236 D.14. Profile drawing of Test BE2 237 D.15. Profile drawing of Test BE3 237 D.16. Profile drawing of Test CEl 238 D.17. Profile drawing of Test CE2 238 D. 1 8. Profile drawing of Test CW2 239 D.19. Planview drawing of fully excavated Test CW2 239 D.20. Profile drawing of Test CW4 240 XV

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy PAGE/LADSON (8JE591): EXCAVATION OF AN EARLY HOLOCENE OCCUPATION SITE IN THE AUCILLA RIVER, FLORIDA By Brinnen S. Carter May 2003 Chair: Jerald T. Milanich Major Department: Anthropology The early Holocene in north Florida encompasses dramatic changes in landmass, climate, and biotia. Foraging theory and climatic change models predict that there should have been a change in hunting/foraging strategies when climates became dramatically warmer around 10,000 BP. Pre-existing hunting/foraging strategies and low human populations in north Florida seem to have partially mitigated those changes. A review of dated early Holocene projectile points from the Southeast suggests that different projectile point styles were made concurrently by the same groups, or were made concurrently by different groups. This interpretation is very different than the traditional horizon-style interpretation of changing projectile point. Excavations on land and underwater at the Page/Ladson site (8Je591) yielded dated projectile points, scatters of stone, bone, and wooden material from an early Holocene camp site, and significant environmental information about the Holocene transition in North Florida. Analysis of the artifact scatter suggests the underwater site component was used as either a work area or a disposal area for an adjacent upland site. Analysis of xvi

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individual stone artifacts suggests that so-called "bola" stones — here termed handstones— were manufactured nearby. A shallow depression on an inundated soil horizon is interpreted as a hearth or smudge pit. Vertical stakes driven into the same surface are likely the remains of a camp-related structure, or possibly a burial. • Evaluation of bone and antler tools from the Page/Ladson site and Little Salt Spring suggests that the extensive Middle and Late Archaic osseous tool tradition begins prior to 9,500 B.C. and is derived from the late Pleistocene Paleoindian tool tradition. Tool types include antler points, awls, beads, billets, bone pins, cups, digging implements, dippers, handles, hoes, and multi-function tools. Some of these items may have had significant ceremonial value. xvn

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW Study Objectives The primary goals of this dissertation are describing and interpreting the early Holocene artifacts and deposits of the Page/Ladson site (8Je591). While some components of the underwater deposits have been described elsewhere (Dunbar et al. 1988; Dunbar 1996), this is the first comprehensive report on a substantial part of the excavated remains. As part of this dissertation, previous late Pleistocene and early Holocene archeological work in Florida will be summarized. The Page/Ladson site setting, site stratigraphy, artifacts, and features will be described. Radiocarbon dates associated with diagnostic points make the Page/Ladson site particularly important for refining a chronology of point types in die Southeast. Ground stone tools found on the inundated paleosol on the Page/Ladson site suggest a ground stone manufacturing process that has not been previously documented or described. Reduction sequences for several other lithic tools will be proposed on the basis of finds from Page/Ladson and contemporaneous sites. The overall goal of addressing stone tools from these sites is to revisit and analyze BuUen's (1975) categories of Florida's early Holocene diagnostic points to reflect regional trends, chronologies, and . type names. The other objective is to update Purdy's (1981:24-32, Fig. 10) and Milanich's (1994:53-58) characterization of the early Holocene tool assemblage to reflect data gathered from sites in the last ten years. 1

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An important result of refining Purdy's and Milanich's work will be to establish more precisely the chronological position of side-notched points, unfluted lanceolate points, and comer-notched points with carbon dates from Page/Ladson (8Je591), 8Le2105, and Dust Cave (lLu496). Taken together, these dates solidly push back the date of origin for notched points past 10,000 BP, suggesting that the origin of notched styles is within a late Pleistocene, unfluted lanceolate tool tradition (Dalton, Cumberland, Suwarmee/Simpson) (Goodyear 1982), as suggested by Wyckoff (1999). An explanatory model for changes in projectile point sizes and shapes from late Pleistocene lanceolate to early Holocene notched will be proposed based on changes in the functional requirements for those tools. Another objective of this dissertation is to propose an idealized bone tool assemblage for the Earliest Archaic that complements the stone tool assemblage. The proposed assemblage will be based on examples from the Page/Ladson site and Little Salt Spring, with reference to the assemblages from Dust Cave (Goldman-Finn and Driskell 1994), Windover (Penders 2002), and Stanfield-Worley Rockshelter (DeJamette, Kuijack, and Cambron 1962) (Northern Alabama). Geography of the Page/Ladson Site: The Aucilla River in Southeastern Context What is considered the Southeastern United States depends largely on the investigator. Bruce Smith (1986) surveyed a number of investigators and suggests that the size range of the Southeast varies depending on the time period that interests an investigator (Figure 1.1). Despite these variations, during the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene, the Southeast likely encompassed the entire area south of the glacial and periglacial areas of Eastern North America. As a practical matter, this dissertation will not discuss sites north of the Tennessee/Carolina's northern border, although the

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similarities in diagnostic points and stone tool assemblages suggest there was widespread communication among all Southeastern inhabitants, even ones north of that modem political border (see Anderson 2002, 1996; Dincauze 2002, for overviews of these areas). Because the Florida peninsula and adjacent subregions are the foci of study, it is critical to define the Florida peninsula around 10,000 BP. Fairbridge (1961, 1983) synthesized world-wide changes in sea level, including changes for the Gulf of Mexico. Since that original study, several investigators have suggested alternative sea level curves (Fairbanks 1989, Stright 1995) (Figure 1.2). These are reviewed in Faught (1996). Using the sea level curves in conjunction with modem bathymetry, several investigators have proposed shorelines during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene ranging from 60m to 40m below average modem sea level (AMSL) (Dunbar et al.l988; Faught 1996), roughly doubling the size of the Florida peninsula (Figure 1 .3). Despite the relatively good understanding of sea level changes' net effects on available land areas, several critical factors have not been well researched. The most important of these for archaeological purposes is tracing Florida rivers out to the Pleistocene shoreline and defining springs and karst features active during the Pleistocene (Faught 1996: Chapter 2). A number of submerged springs have been recorded on the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of Florida (Roseneau et al. 1977:Appendix A), suggesting that fi-eshwater would have been widely available on the now-submerged continental shelf especially near the Pleistocene shoreline where the Floridan aquifer was forced to the surface by hydrostatic pressure ft"om the sea. Prominent underwater features, such as the Florida Middle Grounds, submerged sinks, and exposed limestone reefs, suggest that currently-submerged areas of the Florida Platform were exposed long enough for karst

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4 features to develop. Dunbar (1991) argues convincingly that late Pleistocene and early Holocene peoples focused on karst features, making the archaeological task of defining their offshore exposures a priority. The Page/Ladson site lies in and around the Aucilla River, a karst river that originates south and east of the Thomasville, Georgia, airport. The river flows through the Tallahassee Hills geological subregion on the surface to the edge of the Cody Scarp, the physiographic dividing line between the Tallahassee Hills and the Gulf Coastal Lowlands. The Tallahassee Hills are characterized by thick confining beds of Hawthorn clays of Miocene age, while the Gulf Coastal Lowlands have relatively thin Hawthorn clays and the underlying Floridan aquifer is unconfined. The Aucilla flows through surface and subsurface channels on the Gulf Coastal Lowlands to the Gulf of Mexico. The area immediately around the Page/Ladson site is a mixture of outcropped Suwannee limestone, vegetated sandy rises (probably late Pleistocene dunes), and broad areas of bedrock — thinly covered with diogenic clays and sands, peats, and inundated soils. The Aucilla is tidal as much as five miles inland, and its level within this area is controlled by the sea. The upper Aucilla River drains a large number of swamps and wetlands and the resulting river water is stained dark brown. The clear, springfed Wacissa River — flowing through a series of braided channels— joins the Aucilla at several points 4-8km fi-om the Gulf of Mexico. The Page/Ladson site is located in and around one of the intermittent surface channels that characterize the Aucilla Sinks portion of the river. Page/Ladson is also located in the center of the Wacissa chert quarry cluster (Upchurch et al. 1982:108). Exposures are currently present both in the bed of the

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5 Aucilla River and in the braided charmels of the Wacissa River to the west of the Aucilla. Far greater amounts of accessible chert were available for manufacturing stone tools under the lowered water table, erosional regime of the late Pleistocene and earliest Holocene. Chert from the Wacissa Cluster "consists of microspherulitic chalcedony with a foraminiferal grainstone fabric" (Upchurch et al. 1982:109), the result of silicate replacement of Suwannee limestone. The immediate area around the Page/Ladson site on the Gulf Coastal Lowlands has been substantially different from the adjacent Tallahassee Hills since the Pliocene (Hendry and Sproul 1966:10-15). The period around 10,000 BP was no exception. Topographic relief is lower, ranging to only about 35 feet, even with no water in the stream courses. Soils are fine sands and clayey-sands instead of sandyclays, with a lower iron content. Aeolian sand deposits in the form of dunes and sand caps are common both near the current shoreline and inland to the Cody Scarp, the traditional boundary between the two subregions (Coastal Environments, hic 1977:127). At 10,000 BP, Page/Ladson was most likely located on the northern fringe of a broad, open oak savanna that extended southward. Intersecting that low-relief savanna were intermittent karstic rivers that supported mesic vegetation. Erosion around Page/Ladson had exposed large boulders of high-quahty chert of the St. Marks and Suwannee Formations (Upchurch et al. 1982:14). Early Holocene vegetation around Page/Ladson will be discussed as part of the underwater excavations. Environmental Change at 10,000 BP The most important environmental transition that humans have undergone in the last 25,000 years was the last deglaciation — driven by late Pleistocene global warming. Deglaciation appears to have begun around 15,000 BP and continued until around 5,000 BP, when deglaciation-driven sea level rise slowed dramatically (Figure 1 .4)(Fairbanks

PAGE 23

89). During this period of general climate warming, there were periods of re-glaciation, rapid deglaciation, and temporary climatic stability. The final rapid deglaciation began very close to 10,200 BP (Clark et al. 2001; Grimm et al. 1993), which has been confirmed by ice cores taken from the summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet (Figure 1.5). The initiation of this event is referred to as the late Pleistocene/early Holocene boundary. It now appears that the rate of environmental change around 10,000 BP was the greatest in the last 15,000 radiocarbon years (Grimm et al. 1993). This likely had profound implications for human groups living through this transitional period— and thus for investigators of human activity during this period. The southeastern United States appears to have been buffered from the large glacial and peri-glacial environmental transformations that influenced northeast and northcentral North America. The greatest change appears to have been the general warming of peninsular Florida and an increase in the difference between summer highs and winter lows (decreased equability). Increases in rainfall begin at the initiation of the Preboreal and remain relatively high and seasonal, but gradually decrease into the mid-Holocene Hypsithermal event (circa 6,000 BP). By 8500 BP, freshwater aquifers, streams, and lakes had reached near-current levels (Watts 1983), although the climate was becoming warmer and drier (Adams and Faure 1997). Lowered sea levels shifted the late Pleistocene convergence zone between the heavily continental-influenced climate of northern Florida and the Gulf of Mexicoinfluenced subtropical climate of peninsular Florida southward by 120km. As a result, Page/Ladson — 140km inland— was 7C to 15C degrees cooler in the winter and as warm in the summer as it is today, at least until the postYounger Dryas warming event (Adams

PAGE 24

and Faure 1997). Without the moderating marine influence prior to 10,000 BP, the climate favored drought-tolerant xeric and mesic species (hickory and oak over pine). The early Holocene environmental history of the Page/Ladson site is also directly related to the environmental transformations that resulted from periglacial Lake Agassiz changing drainage outlets (Clark et al. 2001; Teller et al. 2002). The most recent data suggest that two rapid drainage switches from the St. Lawrence to the Mississippi drainage at 10,100 BP and 9,900 BP likely introduced large volumes (circa 5,OOOkm3) of glacial meltwater into the northern Gulf of Mexico. Although there is some imprecision in the dating, Emiliani et al. (1976) and Kennett and Shackleton (1975) documented the large influx of glacial meltwater into the northern Gulf of Mexico by tracking a dramatic shift in cold/warm water foramenifera and 5018 ratios from piston cores from submerged DeSoto Canyon and in the western Gulf. The local cUmatic effects of this influx on adjacent Gulf coastal ecosystems have not been fully explored, but the cold surface currents along the modem Califomia coast provide a good modem homolog. Spring and fall frontal rains were likely suppressed along the late Pleistocene/early Holocene Florida to Texas coast due to lower evaporation rates off glacial surface waters. Additionally, convective summer rains were likely substantially suppressed during the influx period. Summer temperatures were also probably reduced during the influxes. There is some suspicion among paleovegetation specialists (Paul Delcourt and Hazel Delcourt 1996, personal communication, cited in Adams and Faure 1997) that the Gulf Coastal Lowlands was a dry, savanna-like environment during the deglaciation period (18,000 BP to 10,000 BP) with warm, dry summers and cool, wet winters.

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8 Watts et al.(1992) note that there is a spike in spruce pollen in Camel Lake— 100km west of the Aucilla drainage— from 14,000 to around 10,000 BP. Spruce is not currently found south of the >1500m peaks of the southern Appalachians. Its presence around Camel Lake would tend to support the idea of moderate-to-cool spring through fall temperatures along the northern Gulf coast at the time. Alternatively, it could signal the ongoing re-seeding of spruce in the north Florida area by seasonally-transhumant mastodons or finches moving down from the piedmont and ridge-and-valley regions (S. David Webb 2002, personal communication). On the Gault site in Texas, this period is marked by the organically enriched Royalty paleosol that develops under lower water table conditions through the intermittent saturating of a developing A-horizon (Collins and Hester 2001). These data also suggest that the Tallahassee Hills subregion and the adjacent Gulf Coastal Lowlands were on average drier and cooler than modem conditions. Several authors have summarized North Florida plant communities circa 10,000 BP (Adams and Faure 1997; Delcourt and Delcourt 1984; Delcourt et al. 1983; Watts 1980, Watts and Stuiverl983; Watts et al. 1992). At Sheelar Lake, near Gainesville, Florida, Watts and Stuiver (1983) found that pine and oak dominated the species assemblage of pollen after 10,000 BP, with reduced amounts of hickory, juniper, upland herbs, and mesic trees. This suggests that the limestone and sand ridges to the east of the Tallahassee Hills subregion were also substantially drier than they had been in the late Pleistocene, with fire-tolerant pines coming to dominate the assemblage along with patches of mesic oaks. Camel Lake pollen records indicate a relatively mixed set of upland trees, with pine, oak, and hickory dominating the assemblage prior to 10,020 BP.

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9 After a hiatus in the pollen record of about 2,000 years, the assemblage is dominated by pine and cypress (Watts et al. 1992). Delcourt et al. (1983), characterize the 10,000 BP north Florida plant community as one of mixed oak-hickory-southem pine with the possibility of a broad, open oak savanna on the now-submerged coastal lowlands. From a human use perspective, there is a spike in oak and hickory pollen centered at 10,020 BP. Early Holocene hickory nut and acorn use is well-known from archaeological sites around the Southeast (Smith 1986). There is no evidence of significant faunal change once the megafaunal extinctions were complete in Florida (likely prior to 10,500 BP), although this may be the result of a lack of high quality subsistence data from archaeological sites older than 8,000 BP rather than the result of a real change. Proxy data in the form of bone tools (this study) and plant remains (Doran 2002, Broom et al. 1997:82-107) suggest a strong reliance on deer and seasonally-available fruits and nuts in the north Florida subregion. This contrasts with Dust Cave in Northern Alabama, where there seems to have been an early emphasis on seasonally available waterfowl and small mammals (Goldmann-Fiim 1994). However, there are numerous open, clay-lined lake basins in north Florida that could have been seasonally-flooded vernal pools and playa lakes, habitat seasonally open for migratory birds, small reptiles, and amphibians. Nalcrest, a roughly contemporaneous site in south-central Florida is strategically located near one of these early Holocene seasonal lakes. The small tool assemblage (BuUen and Beilman 1973) was speculated to have been used to fashion reed baskets and other goods, but it could also be used to grate roots and tubers and to create feather garments and ceremonial items. Without a better

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10 ^> I f sample of early Holocene sites near these seasonal resources, it is impossible to resolve their contribution to human subsistence. Sealevel rise and salinity changes related to glacial meltwater influxes to the northern Gulf of Mexico also likely restructured the near-shore and pelagic fish populations temporarily. Unfortunately, little can be said about human coastal adaptations on the Gulf of Mexico at 10,000 BP because no coastal sites have been discovered. With the coastline over 100km south of its current position, Page/Ladson site was a riparian site removed from strong coastal climate influences. This makes it difficult to fit the early Holocene component of Page/Ladson into a regional settlement model or to examine issues like yearly range because half the potential sites in the range are now submerged on the continental shelf and are only cursorily known (F aught 1996). The recovery of a Bison antiquus skull with an imbedded projectile point tip (Webb et al. 1982) indicates there were bison herds in the area. Deer bone tools and unmodified antler have been recovered from early Holocene deposits on Page/Ladson. A range of freshwater reptiles and fish were recovered from early Holocene levels at Page/Ladson, indicating there were surface water bodies coimected to Page/Ladson at the time. Those water bodies could have been as small as cenote ponds or as large as open marshes. Paleoindian/early Archaic or late Pleistocene/early Holocene North American archaeology has struggled for at least fifty years (Griffin 1952) with the definition and delineation of the early cultural periods of eastern North America. Griffin (1952) divided the time before 5,000 BP into two periods, the Paleoindian and early Archaic, the former hunting megamammals and producing fluted points, the latter more focused economically on local resources but retaining small band sizes and exogamous marriage. These broad cultural characterizations are problematic because

PAGE 28

11 they tend to create perceived socio-cultural boundaries through time where no real boundaries may have existed. They also de-emphasize important changes in material culture, archaeological features, site size, and site distribution, that reflect critical cultural changes. Smith (1986) recognized the problem and adopted the combination of arbitrary and environmental chronologies suggested by Delcourt et al. (1980), based on Holocene time units. The early Holocene covers the period 12,500-8000 BP, the middle Holocene 8000-5000 BP, and the late Holocene from 5000 BP to present. This dissertation falls in the middle of the early Holocene time unit (12,500-8000 BP) (Delcourt et al. 1980). The distinction between putative Paleoindian cultures and early Archaic cultures is often tied to the distinction between the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene geological periods and the distinction in subsistence practices (Griffin 1952; Mason 1962; Milanich 1994:38-40; Milanich and Fairbanks 1980:36-38; Smith 1986). Paleoindians are viewed as Pleistocene big-game hunters with a highly mobile lifestyle. Kelly and Todd (1988) characterize them as high technology foragers. By contrast, early Archaic (Holocene) populations are seen as generalized hunter/gathers with less residential mobility than Paleoindians, but higher logistical mobility (Anderson and Hanson 1988), or collectors (Binford 1980). Despite the proposed clarity of the distinction between Paleoindian and early Archaic modes of existence and their material correlates, the characteristics that distinguish the two in social terms and the precise timing of that transition is unknown in Florida or in adjacent states. If the Paleoindian/early Archaic period transition is tied exclusively to changes in subsistence rather than geologic periods, the lack of many megafaunal remains on sites in the Southeastern United States dating post10,500 BP suggests that the Archaic may

PAGE 29

12 begin earlier than 10,500 BP in the Southeast. If one uses subsistence criteria, the transition to an "Archaic" subsistence mode was delayed substantially — extending to as late as 7,000 BP — on the Great Plains (Cassells 1993:28-32) and periglacial areas where human groups continued to rely heavily on migratory bison, elk, and reindeer (Johnson 1996). Defining the difference between the Paleoindian and Archaic periods by a change in subsistence strategies — and quantifying that change in terms like mean prey size and number of armual residential moves — is outside the scope of this dissertation. Despite the differences in subsistence regimes from Pleistocene to early Holocene, burial practices appear to be very similar during the Paleoindian and early Archaic, most consisting of burying extraordinarily fine projectile point examples (Anzick, Sloan, Wakulla Springs)(Wilke et al. 1991; Morse 1997:92-95; Jones and Tesar 1999) and red ochre (Anzick and Wakulla Springs) with individuals. Unfil archaeologists systematically re-evaluate the social criteria and archaeological bases used to divide the Paleoindian and early Archaic, it does not seem wise to use these terms. In view of the difficulty in actually determining the Paleoindian/early Archaic sociocultural boundary, the widely acknowledged geological/environmental periods will be used when time references are made, rather than the archaeologist-constructed periods. The Pleistocene/Holocene boundary is considered by most geologists to date to 10,200 BP (1 1,200 CALYBP), or the initiation of the final dramatic sea level rise. For purposes of this dissertation, the period between 12,500 BP and 10,200 BP will be called the "inifial Holocene" and the period between 10,200 BP and 8,500 BP will be the "early Holocene", with the boundary event as the termination of the Younger Dryas, which appears to be at circa 10,200 BP.

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13 Smith's (1986) broad Holocene time-frame is not sufficiently detailed to consider the temporally-limited period that dates the Page/Ladson occupation (Table 3.1). As Delcourt et al. (1983) have abundantly demonstrated, there are many scales at which environmental transformations occur, from weather events that effect less than a square mile for as little as a minute to tectonic events separating and reforming continents. Humans, like plants and other animals, have to live in — and respond to — the smallest scale environmental changes first, especially if they represent imminent death or a potential shortage in subsistence commodities for the individual or group for more than 15 days (Binford 2001 :28). Environmental stochasticity between 12,500 and 8,000 BP was high, with biosphere transformations occurring in as little as 3-50 years (Alley et al. 1993). Humans, through the mitigating factors of culture (sensu Binford 2001 :462) and technology, successfully coped with a series of short-term environmental changes that comprised longer-term environmental change. Subsistence risk deriving from short-term environmental changes are mitigated in ethnographically-known hunter-gatherer groups by low population densities, mobility, knowledge of consumable — but unexploited — resources, storage, and food sharing (Kelly 1995:125-130). With this in mind, relatively rapid transformations in human material culture should be expected when rapid environmental transformations occur, unless the resources targeted by humans prior to the event are not seriously effected by that climatic change. Forager Theory: Sea level rise, Packing, and Foraging Change Everything known about early Holocene north Florida peoples suggests they were hunter/foragers or hunter/collectors (sensu Binford 1980), without knowledge of horticulture or agriculture as it is historically known. One of the techniques used to interpret prehistoric hunter/forager/collectors is ethnographic comparison, both through

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14 examining homologous (Binford 2001:142) and analogous attributes (Wylie 1985). Developing general foraging models based on modem and historically-known hunter/foragers has advanced considerably recently (Bettinger 1991; Kelly 1995; Binford 2001), and now includes systematic evaluation of all ethnographically-known foragers in terms of environmental contexts, food choices, residential mobility, division of labor, and other traditional anthropological research emphases. The objective of most of these evaluations is to predict what will be found in the archaeological record from extending the models into areas where there were no groups from which to derive data for model formulation. One drawback of this approach is that ethnographically-known foragers are often in environments far removed from the environmentally moderate mid-latitudes, and far more marginal in terms of temperature (extremely hot or cold), rainfall (desert or rainforest), and primary plant productivity (low or high) (Binford 2001:133). Binford (2001:133) argues strongly that despite this empty middle where pastoralists, agriculturalists, and complex societies developed, it is still reasonable to apply other applicable knowledge to the problem of archaeo logicallyknown hunter/foragers, if it is relevant and productive to do so. Binford's objective is to use existing knowledge of environmental variables in places where all ethnographicallyknown hunter/foragers lived to develop a "frame of reference" to view how archaeologically-known hunter/foragers might have interacted with their environments and arranged the adaptive components of their culture. To my knowledge, no other author has attempted to use explicitly the entire body of ethnographic hunter/forager data to develop a comprehensive "theory of human hunter/foragers." Binford (2001 :468-472) makes a strong case that if an investigator can establish the environmental conditions

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(temperature, precipitation, plant and animal communities) of an area, the model will predict the group size, packing threshold (where all groups are circumscribed), niche breadth, and division of labor of a group, within a limited range of variability. The concept of packing is important because it is a more complex treatment of population density. Instead of examining human population density alone, it examines human population density, resource availability, and population density and resource availability in adjacent areas. Hunter/gatherers are circumscribed by other groups when they cannot use mobihty as one method of mitigating risk of resource failure and have to intensify resource use in order to meet basic food needs. Packing is an important consideration in the Southeast because minute changes in sealevel reduce the shelf size of Gulf and Atlantic coasts disproportionately compared with other areas of the United States. Reduction in available terrestrial habitats, coupled with early extinction of large game animals in the southeastern United States may have induced packing sooner in the southeast than in the mid-continent, intermontane west, and west coast over the course of the early Holocene. Packing also may have promoted early adoption of aquatic resources along the Gulf of Mexico. There is certainly evidence for adoption of marine resources along the Peruvian coast prior to 1 1,000 BP (Sandweiss et al. 1998), and ongoing use of the resource into the early mid-Holocene (Quilter et al. 1 991). The idea of increased sea levels inducing culture change is not new (Binford 1968), but it has surprisingly not been pursued as general research hypothesis for predicting the location of, and locating submerged sites. The terrestrial model predicts that one result of circumscription is intensified use of terrestrial plants and — where available — the incorporation of aquatic resources into the subsistence regime (Binford 2001:384-385).

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16 Preliminary evidence — the use of forest plant products (i.e. nuts, fruits, berries) — suggests early Holocene hunter/gatherers in the southeast United States were transitioning to a more scheduled yearly round with fewer residential moves and more logistical foraging in the areas around the residential sites (Sassaman 1996), in general targeting food resources with lower total return rates due to higher handling times, but with more knowable and predictable search costs. Although all the variables that would be needed to do this evaluation on data from early Holocene north Florida are not known, the environmental data are well established and there are enough previously excavated sites to attempt an analysis. That more complete work is not within the scope of this dissertation, but the previously-mentioned envirormiental data suggest that there may have been new environmental niches opening around 1 0,200 BP near the Page/Ladson site that were attractive to humans, including upland clay and sand hills with hickory and oak groves for nut harvesting and fall hunting, open, well-watered savannas that could support bison herds, mixed, open pine/oak uplands that supported deer and bison populations, and large, seasonally inundated marshes supporting turtles, fish, and migratory birds. Of all those resources, the only ones surviving the late Pleistocene extinctions that remained inter-regionally migratory were birds. Long-term restructuring influences on initial Holocene human foraging were the restructuring of terrestrial prey species and lower mean prey size. The difference in prey species lifeways hkely also conditioned seasonal human residential and logistical movements. Deer, turkey, and other medium sized animal species are not regionally migratory. Effective hunting of these species would favor extensive knowledge about

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17 local areas rather than less detailed knowledge about broad, regional areas. Reduction in human foraging range size did not necessarily signal a decrease in human nutritional status or an increase in prey search times. However, it may signal a combination of reduced food resource ranges, circumscription of base residential groups ("bands" in Anderson and Hanson 1988), and net increases in population density, if not net population. This argument is testable in that there should be early Holocene sites, possibly only limited-use temporary camps, in areas previously unoccupied. Fluctuations in effective temperature (ET) were critical from 12,500 to 8000 BP. For the purposes of the period immediately around 10,200 BP was the substantial rise in effective temperature along the Gulf of Mexico. According to the terrestrial model (Binford 2001 :454), increases in effective temperature would result in the concentration on terrestrial plants in "packed" conditions. It also results in increase in proportion of diet contributed by women in modem foraging populations. Additionally, the long-term knowledge of the Gulf Coast societies likely included an understanding of 1) what resources were edible in the environment and 2) which edible resources were able to weather the Younger Dryas cold event. In view of these two factors, it is appropriate to ask what strategy would most effectively cope with a new environmental changes, initiated circa 10,200 BP. It seems like a mixed strategy would provide the most net resources on a seasonal basis. Males would continue to hunt larger game animals year round. Women intensified collection of edible fruits, nuts, and tubers through the growing season. Both sexes trap small game animals year-round, and possibly fish in the spring. It is a risk reduction strategy (Kelly 1995:168-170). Both sexes rely on knowledge of edible plants and animals and schedule

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18 of availability to improve year-to-year stability of food resources. The widespread apparent homogeneity of lithic tool kits during the early Holocene for the southeast suggests the maintenance of social networks as insurance for bad seasons in which local food alternatives are insufficient to sustain the local residential group. The clustering of early Holocene sites in Florida (see below) suggests that there are core ranges for residential moves, and foraging ranges that acted as buffers between residential groups. Previous Pleistocene and early Holocene Archaeology in Florida The Pleistocene and early Holocene occupation of Florida was recognized early in the history of North American archaeology. Although initially focused on finds of human remains along the east coast at Melbourne and Vero Beach (Sellards 1917; Hrdlicka 1918; reviewed by Meltzer 1983), the focus for Florida investigators shifted to the center part of the state — along the karstic Santa Fe, Suwannee, Ichetucknee, and Silver Rivers. Clarence Simpson — working for the State Geological Survey — recovered a number of diagnostic projectile points, ivory foreshafts and foreshaft fi-agments from the Ichetucknee River (Simpson 1948). The presence of Folsom and Clovis diagnostic artifacts and artifacts made from extinct fauna along these karstic rivers suggested that other similarly-situated waterways might be fruitful places to explore. The importance of water to both humans and the game animals — combined with a broad belief in a very dry late Pleistocene Florida — led to the development of the Oasis Hypothesis, first proposed by Neill (1964), based on his excavations and observations in and around Silver Springs and Trilisa Pond. Dunbar (1991) formalized and tested the hypothesis. The Oasis Hypothesis posits that humans and game animals congregated around karst features in Florida because they offered one of the few locales where nearconstant water was available in a much drier, over-drained Pleistocene Florida. As noted

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19 by Milanich (1994:40-44) and Dunbar (1991), subsequent data collected on the location of isolated finds of Paleoindian projectile points have been consistent with the Oasis Hypothesis. However, Tesar (1994:99-104) has pointed out the weaknesses of relying solely on isolated finds for determining time ranges and intensities of occupation. Additional site-based data needs to be tested against predictions derived from the Oasis Hypothesis before it can be accepted fully. The distribution of Florida late Pleistocene and early Holocene sites suggests that two socio-geographic phenomena are occurring. First, at the time of deposition these sites would have all been located in upland areas that were generally over-drained and dry (Watts 1983). However, there were likely more plentiful and more evenly-distributed water sources on what is now the outer continental shelf (between -30 and -60msl) as a result of the flattened and lowered Floridan Aquifer. The relatively flat, incised nature of the karst terrain in the northwest Florida coast would have encouraged water courses to disappear into underground rivers as they moved off the Cody Scarp and for the Floridan aquifer to emerge relatively close to the coast, displaced upward by underlying salt water. Further south on the Peninsula, the pattern would be reversed with water percolating into the high sand hills of the central uplands and emerging in the poorly-drained terraces formed by earlier Cenozoic higher — and lower — sea level stands. Second, there is geographic clustering of the known sites (Table 1.1, Figure 1.6), much as there is clustering of Florida chert resources (Upchurch et al. 1982)(Figure 1.7). This site clustering may have to do more with the co-occurrence of water sources, chert resources, closely-spaced, diverse ecosystems, and game resources, than it does with the location of water resources or chert resources alone.

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Classifying sites and modeling the regional settlement pattern of early Holocene peoples has been a major focus of previous excavations. While the Oasis Hypothesis has been extended to include early Holocene populations and used to explain the high discovery rate for points in karst regions, Daniel and Wisenbaker (1987: 173-175), Homum et al. (1996:230-235), and Austin and Mitchell (1999:1 10-1 11), have all classified their sites in terms of the regional early Holocene settlement system, and speculated about the other types of sites in the system, the latter two extending the work of Anderson and Hanson (1988) and Daniel (1998:198-201) on early Holocene settlement patterns on the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina and North Carolina, respectively. On the strength of site size and stone tool numbers and diversity, Daniel and Wisenbaker (1987:173-175) suggest that Harney Flats was a Paleoindian and early Archaic base camp, located along a strategic ecotone adjacent to several highproductivity ecosystems (marshes, upland hammocks, river valley). Homum et al. (1996:234) suggest that 8Le2105 was either a base camp or domestic camp on the basis of stone tool diversity, geographic location (on the Cody Scarp), and a unique type of feature discovered on the site. The feature appeared to be a pit into which early Holocene people swept and buried a large quantity of lithic waste flakes, potentially indicating a concern that the waste-flakes not cut bare body parts, especially those of the young. Austin and Mitchell (1999:198) characterize the Jeannie's Better Back Site (8Lf54) as a base camp or habitation site based on the functional diversity of the stone tools and the site's strategic position at the confluence of Bethel and Mill Creek drainages, only about 1.6 km from the Suwarmee River and at one outlet of the over 20,000 hectare San Pedro Bay marsh.

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21 Several investigators (Austin and Mitchell 1999:1 10-1 12; Tesar 1994:81-82; Daniel and Wisenbaker 1987:167-169; Milanich 1994:67-70) have suggested that the early Holocene (early Archaic) land use pattern was one in which groups established base camps on ecotones near water, especially those with ready access to more than two ecosystems, and made forays into more homogeneous ecosystems for hunting, fishing, gathering, and other resource procurement activities, a pattern similar to that suggested by Anderson and Hanson (1988) for the Upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont of South Carolina and the pattern observed on the Savannah River Plant (Sassaman 1996:Figure 4.9). Unfortunately, systematic intensive survey of these "outlying" areas has not been accomplished in Florida to the extent necessary to determine whether smaller "daycamps" or "over-night" camps are present in these more homogeneous ecosystems. Because funding of site survey in Florida is principally through private development and public road-building — and large tracts of land are privately-held — there has not been an attempt to locate and document these smaller sites. By the same token, the growing state site file database has not been used to address questions of late Pleistocene or early Holocene, although aggregating the sample may provide the first statistical confirmation of this phenomenon. Obtaining valid dates for sites is one of most important parts of archaeological research. Radiocarbon dates have been the traditional method for dating Early Archaic sites in the Lower Southeast. Unfortunately, most Early Archaic sites in the Southeast do not have good radiocarbon control and contain only stone tools (Sassaman 1996). However, by aggregating all the Southeastern sites that have the combination of dated strata and typed projectile points from those dated strata, we can generate a better picture

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22 of the duration and intensity of individual projectile point traditions, the "index" artifacts (sensu Renfrew and Bahn 2001 :110-135) of the Early Archaic period. Combining the dates and tool associations (Table 1.2, Figure 1.8) illustrates that there is substantial overlap between lanceolate, eared lanceolate, side-notched, and comer-notched points. This is an especially important point because it argues strongly against a strict "horizon" perspective, at least as it has been applied to "diagnostic" material culture for the Paleoindian and Archaic Southeast (e.g. Anderson, O'Steen, and Sassaman 1996:Fig. 1 .2). Substantial and ongoing overlap among the different diagnostic points suggests that successive projectile point forms were developed within the context of earlier styles, and co-occurred with those earlier styles for perhaps as much as 350-year time periods. In this context, Page/Ladson is important because both side-notched and comer-notched projectile points co-occur — with radiocarbon dates from the site. The site serves as an additional datum point for working out the timing of the addition of comer-notched styles to the existing side-notched style. Moreover, the well-dated and complimentary bone tools from Page-Ladson, Little Salt Spring, and Dust Cave provide an opportunity to define the types of bone tools manufactured by Early Archaic individuals, a task that has not been attempted. Paleoindian and Early Archaic archaeological sites and finds have been summarized by several authors, including Tesar (1994:85-89), Austin and Mitchell (1999:9-16), and Homum et al. (1996:Chapter 1) for North Florida, Daniel and Weisenbaker (1987:146-161) and Horvath et al. (1998:3.1-3.4) for Central Florida, and Goodyear et al. (1983) for the Tampa Bay region, and Milanich (1994:37-59) for the state as a whole. Goodyear (1999) has recently summarized work on Paleoindian and Earliest

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23 Archaic sites in the Southeast. These works should be consulted for more in-depth discussions of the types and geographic distributions of Late Paleoindian and Early Archaic sites. The remainder of this study is organized as follows. First, the chronology of excavation on the Page/Ladson site (8Je591) is detailed. Results of underwater excavations conducted by, or under the responsibility of the author are then presented. Four studies (soils, fauna, pollen, and archaeology) focus specifically on the Half-Mile Rise section of the Aucilla River. By examining these individual studies concurrently, we can more completely interpret the late Pleistocene/early Holocene transition as manifested on this site. Early Holocene lithic material manufacturing processes are described and discussed, focusing on projectile points and bola stones. Next, bone artifacts from Little Salt Spring and Page/Ladson are described and analyzed together as representing a significant portion of the period's bone tool assemblage. Conclusions are then drawn from the data.

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24 Table 1.1. Early Archaic Site Clusters. Cluster Name Sites in Cluster Site Materials Site Features E. Archaic Dates Miami Ridge Cluster Cutler Hammock Isolated Hammock sites Human Remains Stone tools Fauna Burials Isolated Points circa 10,000 BP Myakka River Cluster Little Salt Spring Warm Mineral Spring Human Remains Bone Tools Discard deposits circa 8,900 to 9,400 BP Tampa Bay Cluster Alafia River Harney Flats Bay-bottom points Colorado Site Lithic Tools Isolated projectile points Lithic Clusters None Silver Springs/ Oklawaha/ Paynes Prairie Cluster Silver Springs Sites Bolen Bluff (Whitehurst Site) Lithic Tools Lithic Clusters None Santa Fe/ Suwannee/ Ichetucknee Cluster Darby and Homsby Springs Ichetucknee Run isolated finds Norton Site 8Gul 8Lf54 Lithic Tools Bone Tools Lithic Clusters Isolated Finds None Cody Scarp/ Gulf Coast Cluster 8Le2105 Wakulla Spring Page/Ladson Wacissa Bison Kill Site Johnson Sand Pit Ryan/Harley J&J Hunt Lithic tools Bone tools Burials Discard pits Lithic clusters Isolated Finds Quarry remains circa 10,000 BP Pensacola Cluster Lithic tools Quarry Deposits None

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i. 25 Table 1.2. Sites with diagnostic points from dated contexts (with the exception of Little Salt Spring). Derived from Anderson (2002). Site Culture 14-C date Minimum Calibrated Date Intercept 5 Maximum Calibrated date Original References Little Salt Spring, FL PCL 12030 13488 14076 15386 Clausen etal. 1979:611 Little Salt Spring, FL PCL 13450 15414 16157 16796 Clausen etal. 1979:611 Cactus Hill, VA PCL 15070 17496 18021 18611 McAvoy and McAvoy 1997 Cactus Hill VA PCL 16670 18100 19862 21670 McAvoy and McAvoy 1997 Cactus Hill, VA PCL 15070 17496 18021 1861 1 McAvoy and McAvoy 1997, McAvoy et al. 2000 Cactus Hill, VA PCL 16670 18100 19862 21670 McAvoy and McAvoy 1997, McAvoy et al. 2000 Cactus Hill, VA PCL 16940 19551 20173 20825 McAvoy and McAvoy 1997, McAvoy et al. 2000 Cactus Hill, VA PCL 19700 22582 23349 24181 McAvoy and McAvoy 1997, McAvoy et al. 2000 Cactus Hill, VA PCL 9250 10239 10457 10636 McAvoy and McAvoy 1 997, McAvoy et al. 2000 Cactus Hill, VA PCL 10160 11360 11822 12321 McAvoy and McAvoy 1997, McAvoy et al. 2000 Johnson, TN CL 11700 11174 13672 16444 Brosteretal. 1991:8-9 Johnson, TN CL 11980 13630 13896 15316 Brosterand Barker 1992 Johnson, TN CL 12660 12687 15300 17537 Brosteretal. 1991:8-9 Cactus Hill VA CL 10920 12333 12964 13442 McAvoy and McAvoy 1997 Smith Mountain, VA CL 10150 1 1342 1 1746 12323 Childress and Blanton 1 997 Enoch Fork ivuci^ol ici LCI , rv I 12357 12984 13738 Bush 1988:61, as cited in Tankerslev 199082 92 Enoch Fork Rockshelter, KY CL 13480 14842 16191 17130 Bush 1988:61, as cited in Tankersley 1990:82,92 Big Bone Lick, KY CL 10600 11642 12731 13143 Tankersley 1985:41; 1989:36-37, 1990:82 Cactus Hill, VA CL 10920 12333 12964 13442 McAvoy and McAvoy 1997, McAvoy et al. 2000 Rodgers Shelter, MO DA 10200 10754 11804 12949 Crane and Griffin 1972:159 Rodgers Shelter, MO DA 10530 10293 12455 13834 Coleman 1972:154 Puckett, TN DA 9790 10692 11196 11881 Norton and Broster 1992:35, 1993 Dust Cave, AL DA 10570 12177 12741 12932 Driskell 1996:320 Arnold Research Cave, MO DA 8190 8180 9183 10188 Crane and Griffin 1968:69; Tankersley 1990:92 Arnold Research Cave, MO DA 9130 9530 10239 1 1 172 Crane and Griffin 1968:69; Tankersley 1990:92 Taylor, SC DA 4665 4853 5409 5837 Michie 1996:249 Olive Branch, IL DA 9115 9924 10237 10549 Gramly and Funk 1990

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26 Table 1.2. Continued Site Culture 14-C date Minimum Calibrated Date Intercept 5 Maximum Calibrated date Original References Graham Cave, MO DASN 9290 9603 10438 11233 Crane and Griffin 1968:8485 Graham Cave, MO DASN 9470 9559 10692 12107 Crane and Griffin 1968:8485 Graham Cave, MO DASN 9700 9605 11165 12865 Crane and Griffin 1968:8485 Stanfield-Wodey, AL DASN 8920 9027 9986 11170 DeJamette et al. 1962:85-87, Josselyn 1964 Stanfield-Worley, AL DASN 9040 9147 1 AO 1 ^ 1 1 zio DeJamette et al. 1962:85-87, Josselyn 1964 Stanfield-Worley, AL DASN 9340 9531 10557 11899 DeJamette et al. 1962:85-87, Josselyn 1964 Stanfield-Worley, AL DASN 9440 9552 10642 12085 L/CJarricllc vl dl. t7UZ.oJ 0/, Josselyn 1964 Stanfield-Worley, AL DASN 9640 9701 1 1 1 10 12788 DeJamette et al. 1962:85-87, Josselyn 1964 Dust Cave, AL DASN 10070 11258 1 1618 12115 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL DASN 10310 11226 12237 12919 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL DASN 10330 11579 12224 12831 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL DASN 10340 11574 12218 12844 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL DASN 10345 11760 12215 12813 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL r\ A CM 10390 11776 12332 12837 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL DASN 10450 11954 12498 12854 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL DASN 10470 11958 12487 12886 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL DASN 10480 11962 12482 12896 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL DASN 10490 11186 12477 13166 Driskell 1996:320 Baucom, NC DASN 11100 9005 13132 17006 Peck and Painter 1984:37;Goodyear 1999 Dust Cave, AL SN 9190 9983 10321 10690 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL SN 9720 10789 1 1 169 1 1230 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL SN 9890 11175 11232 11552 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL SN 9990 11167 11393 12283 Driskell 1996:320 Page-Ladson, FL SN 9450 10413 10646 1 1 156 Dunbar etal. 1988:449, 1989:477-482 Page-Ladson, FL SN 9730 10696 11171 11338 Dunbar etal. 1988:449, 1989:477-482 Page-Ladson, FL SN 10000 11180 11400 12256 Dunbar etal. 1988:449, 1989:477-482 Page-Ladson, FL SN 10280 11442 12011 12797 Dunbar etal. 1988:449, 1989:477-482 St. Albans, WV SN 9900 9924 11253 12964 Broyles 1966:27, 40-41 Phinizy Swamp, GA SN 8953 9912 10166 10219 Elliott etal. 1992 Big Eddy, MO SN 10185 11358 11811 12347 Hajic et al. 2000:31; Lopinot etal.,eds., 1998:91-93, 2000

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27 Table 1.2. Continued Site Culture 14-C date Minimum Calibrated Date Intprrpnf 5 Maximum Calibrated date Original References Johnson, TN CN 8940 9634 10154 10357 Broster and Norton 1996:292-294 Puckett, TN CN 8490 9029 9509 10107 Norton and Broster 1992:35, 1993 Puckett, TN CN 8820 9488 9891 10360 Norton and Broster 1992:35, 1993 Thunderbird, VA CN 9900 10291 11253 12808 Gardner 1974:5 St. Albans, WV CN 8800 9033 9846 10687 Morse 1997 St Albans WV CN 8850 9133 10091 10734 Morse 1997 St. Albans, WV CN 8930 9547 10152 10475 Broyles 1966:27,40-41 Patrick, TN CN 9410 9894 10610 11543 Chapman 1976:3-4 Ice House Bottom, TN CN 8525 8593 9528 10466 Chapman 1976:3-4 Ice House Bottom, TN CN 8715 9473 9637 10190 rhanman 1976-3-4 Ice House Bottom, TN CN 9175 9604 10324 11156 Chapman 1976:3-4 Ice House Bottom, TN CN 9350 9977 10559 11196 Chapman 1976:3-4 Ice House Bottom, TN CN 9435 9922 10652 11338 Chapman 1976:3-4 Rose Island, TN CN 8060 8173 9007 9816 Chapman 1976:3-4 Rose Island, TN CN 9110 9873 10236 10668 Chapman 1976:3-4 Rose Island TN CN 9330 9894 10517 1 1204 Chapman 1976:3-4 G. S. Lewis West, SC CN 6950 7009 7775 8539 Anderson et al., eds., 1 992: 1 6; Anderson and Sassaman 1996b:231 Rae's Creek, GA CN 7570 8057 8382 8597 Crook 1992: 126 Rae's Creek, GA CN 8370 8592 9428 10153 Crook 1992: 126 Rae's Creek, GA CN 9060 9895 10218 10492 Crook 1992:124, 126 Hester, MS CN 6140 6064 7004 7786 Brookes 1979:127-128 Hester, MS CN 6965 7481 7770 8165 Brookes 1979:127-128 Hester, MS CN 8335 8455 9354 10160 Brookes 1979:127-128 St. Albans, WV BI 8160 8778 9086 9466 Broyles 1966:27,40-41 St. Albans, WV BI 8250 9006 9167 9489 Broyles 1966:27, 40-41 St. Albans, WV BI 8820 8594 9891 11202 Broyles 1966:27, 40-41 St. Albans, WV BI 8830 8196 9897 11951 Broyles 1966:27, 40-41 Rose Island, TN BI 8800 9157 9846 10558 Chapman 1976:3-4 Rose Island, TN BI 8700 9015 9662 10500 Chapman 1976:3-4 Rose Island, TN BI 8660 9285 9593 10210 Chapman 1976:3-4 Rose Island, TN BI 8920 9162 9986 11064 Chapman 1976:3-4

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28 Table 1.2. Continued Site Culture 14-C date Minimum Calibrated Date Intercept 5 Maximum Calibrated date Original References Dust Cave, AL ES 8330 8812 9355 9599 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL ES 8450 9158 9486 9551 Driskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL ES 8470 9330 9490 9538 Dnskell 1996:320 Dust Cave, AL ES 8720 9531 9694 10150 Driskell 1996:320 Note: (PCL=Pre-Clovis, CL=Clovis, DA=Dalton, DASN=Dalton/Side-Notched, SN=Side-Notched, CN=Comer-Notched, BI=Bifurcate, ES=Early Stemmed). Radiocarbon dates are given without error, and maximum, minimum and Intercept 5 calibrated dates are given as indication of error range of date. Carbon dates are in radiocarbon years before present (1950). Calibrated dates are in calendric years before 1950.

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ure 1.1. Definitions of the Southeast Cultural Area (adapted from B. Smith 1986). A) Wissler 1922, Figure 61; B) Kroeber 1939; C) Swanton 1946:23; D) Murdock 1960; E) Willey 1966; F) Jennings 1974; G) Stoltman and Barreis 1983.

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30 — -.-7.V. i^-*--^i"^::::*; San Francisco Bay, California Santa Monica, California Gulf of Mexico (Texas) Gulf of Mexico (West of 93 degrees) Gulf of Mexico (Sabine/High Island Area) (Nelson and Bray, 19701 Gulf of Mexico (Sabine/High Island Area) (Pearson et al., 1986) Central Louisiana Louisiana Everglades, Florida South Florida -12000 -10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 Thousands of Years Before Present -2000 Figure 1.2. Sea level curves for the Gulf of Mexico (Stright 1995:Figure 7)

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Figure 1.3. Probability map of the Florida coast at 10,000 BP showing maximum and minimum extents based on sealevel cxirves

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32 11 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 K ') 10 11 i: 1.1 14 15 16 17 18 Age (k> r) Figure 1.4. Sealevel curve for the Caribbean, based on reef data from Barbados (adapted from Fairbanks 1989)

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33 Temperatnre .20 .10 Figure 1.5. Changes in 5^*0 and methane from the GISP2 core as an indicator of the dramatic climate change from the Younger Dryas to the Preboreal period (adapted from Brook etal. 1996)

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34

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35 Figure 1.7. Florida chert quarry clusters (compiled from Upchurch et al. 1982). Key: 1Wright Creek; 2-Marianna; 3-Wacissa; 4-Upper Suwannee; 5-Alapaha River; 6-Swift Creek Swamp; 7White Springs; 8-Lower Suwannee; 9-Santa Fe; 10Gainesville; 11-Ocala; 12-Lake Panasoffkee; 13-lnvemess; 14-Brooksville; . 15-Upper Withlacoochee; 16-Caladesi; 17-HillsboroughRiver; 18Turtlecrawl Point; 19-Peace River

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36 ALTON THROUGH BIFUCATE 14000 1 |2 13000 6000 4 \ > \ , 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 RADIOCARBON DATE Figure 1.8. Temporal spread of projectile point styles based on dated specimens from the Southeast (based on data from Anderson 2002). Note substantial overlap between Dalton/Early Side Notched and Side-Notched points. Also, note longevity of comer-notching tradition (DASN=Dalton/Side Notched, SN=Side Notched, CN=Comer Notched, BI=Bifurcate, ES=Early Stemmed).

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CHAPTER 2 EARLY HOLOCENE EXCAVATIONS AT PAGE/LADSON (8JE591) Presenting a summary of excavations on the Page/Ladson site's initial and early Holocene components is critical to understanding the excavators' conclusions about the site. The chronological, narrative form of this presentation is intended to convey the sequence of excavations and the related working hypotheses used to direct successive seasons. Field data often changed the course of subsequent excavations, a phenomenon that is conveyed most easily in narrative form. The principal goal of this chapter is to provide a written record of sequence of fieldwork conducted between 1987 and 1997 on Page/Ladson's early Holocene components. Research prior to 1987 is also included as background. An important part of the Aucilla River Prehistory Project has been incorporating volunteer divers and field technicians into the archaeological work. A small part of the narrative will detail the expertise that some of these volunteers have brought to the project. Many of the volunteers have joined for several years, then gone on to other projects and pursuits. Some have gone on to other projects only to return after several years absence. There are also many who consider the project one of the highlights of their year and whose participation is ongoing and active. Excavation on the Half-Mile Rise section of the Aucilla has been sporadically attempted from the late 1960s. Early work was pursued by amateur diver/collectors with an interest in Florida's late Pleistocene megafauna. Roger Alexson, Ben Waller, Dr. Richard (Dick) Ohmes, Wayne Grisset, and Don Serbosek were all among the divers to 37

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38 collect Native American artifacts and megafauna from the bottom of this part of the Aucilla River. Professional paleontologists also recognized the importance of the site in the late 1960s (Webb 1976). Don Serbosek (1983) has the distinction of being the only amateur to excavate a nearly-complete mastodon skeleton from Half-Mile Rise and write about the experience in some detail. In addition to megafaunal remains, he recovered a number of diagnostic projectile points and tools from the same deposits. Serbosek's discoveries spurred renewed interest at the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH)— then known as the Florida State Museum (FSM)— and the Bureau of Archaeological Research (BAR) to begin systematic survey of Half-Mile Rise. The original goal of excavations was to identify sites that could provide more detailed information about interactions between the earliest Floridians and Pleistocene megafauna. S. David Webb (FLMNH) and James Dunbar (BAR) organized and led early scientific survey and excavation in the Aucilla during the eariy 1980's. This work has been summarized by Dunbar ( 1 996, 2002) and will be briefly reported here. The principal goal of initial survey work was to find a site with intact strata that held the prospect of yielding in situ artifacts and related megafaunal material. Webb (1974) had suggested that game in eastern North America had used of karst features as access points to water — an especially important resource in a more arid, late Pleistocene Florida (Delcourt and Delcourt 1984). The entire length of Half-Mile Rise was bathymetrically mapped (Figure 2.1), with special emphasis on deep holes that might represent sinks— or springs— in the Late Pleistocene. The assumption was that at least some of these deep sinks would have been open during the latest Pleistocene, providing permanent access to even the deepest aquifer water, a critical element of dry season

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39 survival in a relatively over-drained, arid environment (Watts 1980). In all, investigators plotted seven karst features greater than 8m deep in the Half-Mile Rise section (James Dunbar 1999, personal commmunication). Mapping began on November 14, 1983 and was followed by more detailed bottom evaluation and hand-fanning the deeper holes (8Tal20, 8Jel22, 8Je608, Aucilla 3E, 8Je591[a.k.a. Aucilla 3 J]). The density of remains in the central portion of the Page/Ladson site (8Je591) combined with the sizeable collection of B.F. Page from the same site convinced Webb and Dunbar to pursue it as their primary site (Dunbar 1996). The next two field seasons (1984-1985) were dedicated to defining, tesfing, and mapping the Page/Ladson site. The research focus on megafauna/man interactions was unchanged. A small test excavation (Test A) was placed on the east side of Page/Ladson (see Figure 3.1). Test A's shallow sediments appeared heavily-reworked and not conducive to finding in situ materials. Moving downstream about 15m, the crew excavated a single 3m square test (Test B) in natural levels in the center of the river— just east of a large, deep sinkhole feature in the river bottom (Figure 2.1). Excavators recovered several bone tools and side-notched points fi-om organic-rich deposits dafing to around 10,000 years BP This was the first indication that there might be undisturbed Late Paleoindian/Early Archaic materials on the site as well as Early to Middle Paleoindian remains (Dunbar 1996). Additionally, the field crew noticed there was a dramatic difference between sediments close to the river bottom and those more deeply buried. The upper levels tended to be unconsolidated and largely composed of organic debris while levels at and below a level that yielded Deptford pottery were highly consolidated and largely

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40 sequentially deposited — as indicated by radiocarbon assays. This raised the possibility that much of the submerged site older than 4,000 BP had not been reworked by the river. Radiocarbon assays from Test B (Table 3.1) also gave some remarkably old dates for side-notched style points and related tools. Unfortunately, the team could not identify any features in Test B, despite digging into fully Pleistocene strata. Part of the crew on a surface-collecting dive closer the western bank encountered a bone that changed the direction of study for the 1987 excavation season. When they lifted it from the bottom, it was stained on one end and tannish-brown on the other. Substantial experience with bones from tannic river contexts indicated that the bone was newly exposed to the river, with at least part (the light end) remaining in in-place deposits. These in situ deposits were the target of the next test (Test C). Early in the excavation of Test C divers encountered what appeared to be a buried paleosol with a range of artifacts and other materials scattered on its top and within the layer itself. Among those remains were side-notched points traditionally associated with Late Paleoindian/Early Archaic populations (Milanich 1994:52-58). The 1987 season closed by excavating Test C to below the newly-discovered level by a meter and driving a 7.5cm-diameter core 2.6m below the bottom of the excavated floor (Dunbar 1996). As part of the effort to open the 2m X 3m Test C, it became clear that the deposits below the Deptford horizon straddled the most dramatic part (Jacobsen and Grimm 1988) of the Pleistocene/Holocene transition (approx. 10,500 to 9,800 BP). This convinced most of the team that at least one more season should be spent attempting to expose larger horizontal areas down to Pleistocene levels.

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41 The following year (1988) had two principal objectives. The first was to further expand Test C, opening Im X 3m extensions to the north and south of the original test. The second objective was to examine the stratigraphy of the surrounding area through strategically-placed cores. Excavations extending Test C to the north and south proceeded through what came to be called colloquially the "Bolen dirt," after the style of point (BuUen 1975) recovered from just above, on, and in the putative paleosol. Artifacts on and in the "paleosol" were mapped in situ and recovered. However, many of the wood pieces and limestone and dolomite cobbles on the paleosol's surface were not recorded, as they were not initially viewed as potential artifacts. A subset of the cobbles was mapped, but not bagged separately. The mapping technique is described in two publications (Dunbar et al. 1988, Dunbar 1996). Coring work revealed more of the overall strata of the sinkhole. On the east side of the active river channel, the limestone basement rock is largely exposed. Redeposited sediments that are annually reworked by flooding events characterize the central part of the channel. These annually-reworked materials consist of leaf matter, twigs, sand, clay, small branches, and limited amounts of modem debris. Upstream (north and east) of Test C undisturbed sediments thinned dramatically, reflecting what has been interpreted as Holocene sediment stripping and higher basement rock elevations. The area 20m-40m upstream is well-scoured by the constant influx of water from the Wacissa River over a dolomite shelf Downstream of Test C, the sediments appear to get substantially thicker. Test B is located in these sediments. To the west of Test C, organic-rich sediments thicken until they break the modem average river level. Post-Deptford sediments (3500 BP to present)

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42 all appear to be organic-rich, consolidated muds or degraded peats that form a massive, semi-submerged bank. The terrestrial portion of this bank is the dive station for operations in Test C and adjoining tests (Figure 3.1). This bank has not been cored. The 1988 season concluded with substantial quantities of new data on the Pleistocene/Holocene levels as well as finds and carbon dates from the pre-1 1,000 levels (Dunbar 1996). Excavations on the upper levels at Page/Ladson resumed in the fall of 1992. The research design for the two week season was dedicated to additional work on the upper levels, including work on two one-meter square tests (G and H) to the west of Test C/Test C north extension (see Figures 3.1, 3.2 ). Again, wood remains and non-chert rock were mapped, but not saved. All bones, chert pieces, and clearly worked rocks were mapped and saved. The larger goal for the season was to systematically sample a "stairway" of sediments (Test F) extending eastward into the center of the Aucilla. These samples, taken at 20cm intervals, would document on-site deposition from 10,000 BP to around 13,000 BP (Dunbar 1996, Quitmyer 1992). Tests G and H were successfully excavated to just below the paleosol during the first two weeks of the 1992 season. Significant finds included a continued scatter of wooden, bone, and rock debris. In the central part of Test G, a two centimeter diameter wooden stake was found driven into the paleosol. This vertical stake was photographed in situ (Figure 3.), the area surrounding it was excavated and a 45cm section was removed fi-om the sediments and subsequently carbon-dated (see Table 3.1). During the excavation of Test H, we encountered a cypress (Taxodium sp.) log approximately 50cm in diameter in the gray clay layers overlying the paleosol. This log

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43 extended into the southern profile of Test H. At first, the log appeared suspiciously like the end of what Newsom and Purdy (1990) characterize as a Type I canoe. The relatively-eroded northern end of the log impeded the excavation of underlying levels, so it was carefully cut with a handsaw at the south profile wall of Test H, bagged, photographed, and subsequently drawn. A small sample of this log was carbon-dated (Table 3.1) by the bulk method. At the end of the 1992 season, it was not clear whether the wooden object was a log or the end of a canoe, so plans were made to return and excavate the remainder of the wooden object to the south. Previous work indicated that the sediment overlying and adjacent to the "canoe-like" log were completely devoid of primary deposits of artifacts or features. These water-lain clays held isolated examples of reduction flakes and an occasional bone pin, but were largely free of archaeological materials until within 10cm of the paleosol. On this basis, in 1995 we returned to the site for a series of excavations. Activities included uncovering the "canoe-like" log, excavating several land tests on either side of the river, a controlled sampling of the sediments above and below the paleosol, and a more detailed documentafion of the 2m x 3m area adjoining the Test C south extension. A three week field season (May 1-22, 1995) consisting of two weeks of underwater work uncovering the "canoe-like" log followed by a week of excavating tests around the Page/Ladson sink. The single objective for the underwater work was to determine whether the "canoe-like" log was an artifact or simply a fallen cypress tree. As the object was uncovered, it became clear that it was a fallen cypress tree. Although the end was not ultimately uncovered during this season — in that it is buried by greater than three

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44 meters of sediment where it disappears into the new south profile, but its rounded, unbumed shape and a lateral stress fracture near the south profile suggest a fallen tree. Once we determined that this object was a naturally-occurring log, a cross-section was removed from the largest diameter area and forwarded to David Stable at the University of Arkansas. He and his colleagues (Anderson et al. 1995) are establishing bald cypress tree-ring chronologies for the Southeast and applying them to archaeological problems. Interestingly, as the field team uncovered the southernmost end of the log, the large number of shells and charcoal recovered from slightly below the log indicated that it rested on the paleosol. Work near this interface was terminated immediately, as we were not in a position to perform detailed point-plotting at the time. Land work began on the land tests on May 16, 1995. The research design (Carter 1995) is summarized here. The principal question was whether in situ Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene terrestrial deposits existed on either side of the underwater site. Secondary questions included whether these deposits were largely undisturbed and if there was a change in artifact density away from the modem bank. To address this question, .5m x Im tests were placed on each side of the bank on transects perpendicular to the bank. Two tests were randomly placed within a 20m corridor along the bank on each side of the river. Another two were located in a 30m corridor adjacent to the initial 20m corridor (Figure 3.1). After the initial transect was positioned, other transects were located randomly within 30m wide corridors beginning 15m away from either side of the initial transect. Each rectangular test was judgmentally oriented in order to avoid large rocks and trees. Each test was excavated either to limestone bedrock or to the top of pre-Late

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45 Pleistocene clay terrace deposits. In one test (AW2), we excavated through the clay deposits to the limestone bedrock. No artifacts were encountered in the clay. It should be noted that Calvin Jones (1988) did locate several Paleoindian artifacts in the upper levels of the clays on the east side of the river during his brief land excavations in 1988, although those excavations have not been widely reported. Aucilla River Prehistory Project staff found initial and early Holocene artifacts in tests BW2 and AE2. They were buried 35cmbs in the former and 80cmbs in the latter. Appendix D summarizes land excavations. Part of the 1995 plan was to establish a set of monuments on the land portion of the site to serve as horizontal datum references for future work. These are labeled "ARPP DATUM 1" through "ARPP DATUM 4" and are located on both sides of the river, as indicated in Figure 3.1. They are gray 3-inch diameter PVC pipes filled with concrete into which we set a 20 penny galvanized steel spike — head up — and a stainless steel tag. The monuments range from .85m to Im in length. The monuments' heads are buried to ground-level. One of the principal weaknesses of work on the Page/Ladson site specifically, and the overall project more generally, was the emphasis — prior to 1995 — on locating only remains of Clovis and other lanceolate point-manufacturing peoples. This meant that there were substantial gaps in our understanding of the post-Pleistocene underwater deposits. To partially correct this lack of understanding, ARPP staff set up a sampling excavation for September, 1995. The objective was to systematically sample the exposed west and north profiles of Tests G and H and recover sediments straddling the paleosol. These samples were directed towards understanding the environmental transitions

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46 _ occurring between approximately 10,300 BP and 8,000 BP. One set of samples was collected for general soil analysis (grain size, total carbon, phosphorus), another set — in the form of blocks — was analyzed for soil structure and pedology, another for pal3Tiological work, and one held in reserve for either replacement samples or carbondating. Results are summarized in Chapter 3. Excavation of the 2m x 3m test adjacent of Test C south extension was planned for October, 1995, in coordination with excavation of an additional portion of the Early Paleoindian levels in Test C. The former was completed from October 1 to October 15, 1995. Objects encountered on or near the surface of the paleosol were mapped and labeled in place, and recovered so that their original point proveniences were recorded. In addition to mapping finds, a video record of each one meter square test was taken using Hi-8mm video, although the results of the filming were less than satisfying. Stone, bone, and chert objects from all field seasons have been curated in the Florida Museum of Natural History. Wooden artifacts and fragments are undergoing conservation at The Florida State University and the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research Conservation Lab. Once the wooden objects are stabilized to a museum environment, they will be curated at the Florida Museum of Natural History. In June 1997, a team of Conservation and Recreational Lands (CARL) archaeologists (Chris Neumann, Ryan Wheeler, and Melissa Memory) visited the site and provided the project with differential Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates for several of the datum points set up on the Page/Ladson site. Finally, a detailed, topographically-correct base map of the Page/Ladson site (Figure 3.1) was generated onto which all the previously-excavated tests were plotted. Excavations of Late Pleistocene

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47 deposits on Page/Ladson are documented elsewhere (Dunbar 1996) and should be consulted for a complete understanding of site excavations. There are no current plans to excavate more of the site.

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CHAPTERS UNDERWATER EXCAVATIONS AND ANALYSIS OF SUBMERGED DEPOSITS AND THEIR CONTENTS This chapter assembles and analyzes data by naturally-related test units collected during field seasons between 1984 and 1995, as part of the Aucilla River Prehistory Project. Soils, carbon dates, fauna, flora, and artifacts are described and analyzed below. Horizontal distributions of artifacts, test unit profiles, artifact drawings and photos, and feature descriptions are presented to support the assertion that the paleosol uncovered in Test C and adjacent tests is part of a rockshelter site occupied for a limited time prior to 10,000 rcbp and abandoned either soon before, or during a flooding event on the Younger Dryas/Preboreal boundary. Artifacts and dates from Test B verify the presence of a large site nearby. Although the activities carried out at the site can not be described fully, the presence of hearths, finished points, scrapers, ground-stone tools and tool preforms, and vertical stakes suggest that there were minimally butchering, meat-smoking, and stone tool manufacturing activities occuring on the site, and that the site was occupied, at least temporarily, in the earliest Holocene. Chronological Considerations One of the most important parts of excavating in-place early Holocene deposits in an underwater setting is the possibility of more firmly dating early Holocene diagnostic points. The relatively good preservation of organic materials on underwater sites (Purdy 1991:1-5) provides the opportunity to recover samples that can be radiocarbon dated. Radiocarbon dates have been run on early Holocene strata at Page/Ladson (Table 3.1). 48

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49 These dates firmly place the side-notched and comer-notched projectile points — variously typed as Bolen, Kirk, Palmer, and Big Sandy — in the period between approximately 10,300 BP and 9,000 BP. This set of dates conforms well to similar dates run on deposits yielding Dalton and side-notched projectile points from Dust Cave in northern Alabama (Anderson 2002; Driskell 1994). Moreover, the presence of a diverse set of other lithic and bone tools suggests that projectile points are not the only potential index artifacts for the early Holocene. Early Holocene Levels in Test B Test B is a 9m test excavation located in the middle of the AuciUa River (Figure 3.1). This test was excavated to a depth of approximately 3m in two field seasons (19841985). Limited formal analysis has been done of early Holocene soils in Test B (Dunbar et al. 1988). Detailed notes were taken in the field, profile drawings are available for the (Figure 3.2), and a summary of the strata has been presented (Dunbar et al. 1988). Prior to 10,000 rcybp, organic-rich marls are the predominate sediment deposited in this area. Peats appear to begin accumulating around 9,700 BP and continue until at least 9,400 BP, at which point a long depositional/erosional cycle was established — temporarily interrupted only by a brief, purely-depositional episode during the Deptford period where sherds from an adjacent Deptford terrestrial site. The depositional/erosional cycle continues today. Levels 7 through 1 1 correspond to the early Holocene and are the primary deposits from which diagnostic early Holocene period artifacts were recovered (Table 3.2). The deposition of peat in this area suggests that a nominally still-water — at least partially-aerated — pond environment existed on the site. Enough water has been continuously available at the site since the Early Holocene to preserve relatively large tree limbs and much more fragile leaves. .f.

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50 Artifacts and Artifact Distributions from Test B Two temporally-diagnostic tools were recovered from pre-9,500 rcypb levels in Test B (Figure 3.3): one Bolen Plain projectile point and one Bolen Beveled projectile point. Additionally, an Aucilla adze (Figure 3.4) was recovered from Zone C, Level 8. Other artifacts recovered from the early Holocene levels include an utilized flake (Figure 3.5), a pair of antler flakers (Figures 3.6 and 3.7) (Dunbar et al. 1989), and an antler tool of undetermined use (Figure 3.6) (see list of potential uses in Chapter 6). Additionally, a ground stone implement (Figure 3.7) was recovered from Level 12, below diagnostic early Holocene material. This ground stone tool probably is similar to artifacts recovered from early Holocene levels in Test C (see below), although both Simpson (1948) and Neill (1971) — and see the observation of Agogino (1962) — suggest that these ground stone tools are associated with Paleoindian lanceolate points and date at least to the Middle Paleoindian period {sensu Anderson 2002). No archaeological features or other observable horizontal patterning of the artifacts was recorded from Test B. A summary of early Holocene artifacts recovered from Test B is presented in Table 3.3. Early Holocene Levels in Test C and Adjoining Test Units Between 1987 and 1995, Aucilla River Prehistory Project personnel excavated a total of 21m of what was called originally the "Bolen Dirt" in the Test C area. Work began with Test C (6m^) and proceeded through Test C/North and South extensions 2 2 (6m ), then Tests G and H (2m ), and concluded during the 1995 season with Tests O, P, Q, T, U, V, and I (7m^). During the first season of work on this stratum, artifacts and concentrations of wood and rock from the Strata 5/6 boundary suggested there might have been a human occupation on or near Test C during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition.

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51 Items documented on that surface were mapped in situ (Figure 3.10) and recovered after mapping, either aggregated by test unit or as point-provenienced items. The horizontal distributions of items were drawn on Im x Im sand-blasted rigid plastic suitable for underwater use, then transferred to graph paper at 1 :5 or 1 : 10 scale on the surface immediately after each dive. Recovered materials included stone, bone, and wood artifacts, and unmodified rock, bone, and wood. Items were bagged underwater either by test, or by point provenience number for individual items or item groups. A catalog of items recovered from the test units was compiled for this study (Appendix B) from data collected by James Dunbar (1984-1988 field seasons) and the author (19921995 field seasons). Soils Kendrick (2000) has provided a comprehensive evaluation and correlation of sediments from the Test C area of Page/Ladson. Kendrick's evaluation supercedes previous field-designated strata. In the present study, artifact proveniences have been correlated and translated into Kendrick's strata, though only those corrolated to Kendrick's Strata 4, 5, and 6 (Table 3.4), which bracket the initial and early Holocene periods, are dealt with here. Kendrick's and my personal observations are summarized below (Table 3.5), along with important environmental implications. The south profile of Tests T, U, and V (Figure 3.1 1) was recorded during the 1995 field season. The profile covers Kendrick's Strata 5 through 7. Two important observations have a bearing on the artifacts from Strata 5 and 6. First, the calcareous, largely anaerobic encapsulating sediments (Stratum 6) provided an environment that preserved even the most delicate organic materials. Bone artifacts recovered from these sediments were light tan when first uncovered, macroscopically

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52 appearing as if they had just been discarded. Within minutes of being uncovered, the bone would visually darken, presumably taking up dissolved oxygen and tannins from the surrounding water. Other types of organics underwent the same type of change, including the fine twigs and leaves encased in Stratum 6. The presence of high levels of either precipitated or crushed limestone sand and pebbles suggests long dry periods interrupted by brief wet periods (Dunbar et al. 1989). Second, a combination of independent observations from the Strata 5/6 boundary (Table 3.4) suggests that the period Stratum 5 represents was relatively dry, dry enough to desiccate the soil at least intermittently. This period was followed by a rapid inundation and near-constant inundation to date. In addition to Kendrick's (2000) characterization of the overall stratigraphic profile, Scudder (1999) has focused on the origin and deposition of Strata 4, 5, and 6. Scudder's analysis included particle size, clay identification, invertebrate faunal identification, and a standard suite of total pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and aluminium analyses. On the basis of the observation of intact small bivalves and gastropods, a relatively low total phosphorus level, and the lack of observable pedogenic levels, she concluded that Stratum 5 was not the result of human occupation. She does, however, suggest that the artifacts found on the site may be the result of discard behavior fi-om adjacent upland sites, or the result of artifacts being colluvially deposited from an adjacent upland site. Several field observations suggest that there is likely a more complex depositional history to Strata 4-6 than suggested by Scudder. First, Stratum 4 is water-deposited and shows no signs of pedogenesis and little or no compaction. By contrast, Stratum 5 is

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53 compacted macroscopically and much more difficult to disarticulate physically. Moreover, it is highly resistant to disarticulation with deflocculants (e.g., sodium sesquicarbonate). Wood on the surface of Stratum 5 is also dessicated and the unit has vertical fissures, both suggesting that the sediment and wood deposited on the Strata 5/6 interface underwent at least one long drying event. Finally, Stratum 6, with heavy initial deposits of aquatic gastropods, sand, wood, flint, ground stone tools, and limestone, suggests — in accordance with Scudder's (1999) conclusion — coUuvial deposition, possibly through site flooding. Diagnostic points, unoxidized bone, and dates from the initial 10cm of Stratum 6 suggest that the site was reoccupied concurrently with this flooding event. The total pH of Stratum 6 is also relatively basic (7 to 8), explaining both the relatively poor pollen preservation noted by Hansen (1999, see below) and the good bone preservation. As part of the research related to the Early Holocene depositional environment, S. David Webb, Mark Muniz, and the author visited an upland intermittent karstic stream near Gainesville, Florida, called Blue Creek, in 1995. This natural area has deeply eroded karst ravines, stream beds with limestone banks, and vertical relief of as much as 1 Im. A deep, humic mat covers the ravine bottom and the small creek flows in the middle of the ravine, disappearing into underground stream courses after flowing on the surface for several miles. Under high rainfall conditions, the ravine partially floods, inundating the ravine-bottom soils. This modem homologous environment documents the formation of organic, pedogenic soils on karstic ravine bottoms and confirms that in karst environments these type of intermittent streams can develop under the appropriate geological and hydrological conditions.

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54 Radiocarbon dates Page/Ladson is only the second archeological site in Florida to yield diagnostic early Holocene projectile points — Palmer side-notched and Kirk comer-notched — in direct association with radiocarbon dates (Table 3.1). These dates have been compared to each other, and to dates from 8Le2105, and have been found to be statistically related (Faught et al. 2003), with the exception of one date (8905±65 BP [AA-007454]) that was likely too young due to storage prior to dating. The sample was likely contaminated with modem algae. Of all the dates, the hickory nut (9950±70 BP [Beta103 888]) and the sample from a cypress log exterior (9930±60 BP[Beta-058858]) are probably the best for dating the boundary between Strata 5 and 6, the hickory nut because it was whole, undegraded, and an annual growth, the cypress because it came from the exterior surface of a whole tree, thereby approximately dating the tree's death and deposition 10cm above the Stratum 5/6 interface. The wood samples (Table 3.1) embedded in the Stratum 5/6 interface could have been from interior sections of trees, giving older dates than the deposition layer, although one has precisely the same date as one of the vertical stakes. If this is the case, the stake and the wood dating to the same age were likely embedded prior to Stratum 5 being inundated. Interestingly, the date from below the diagnostic Kirk Comer-notched point recovered from Stratum 6 dated older (10,300±120 BP [Beta-1 03889]) than dates on organics from the Stratum 5/6 boundary, suggesting that the date, taken on a bulk soil sample, either had a small amount of residual "dead-carbon" in the sample, or that the organics in the sample were fixed during the Younger Dryas, which is known to have been a radiocarbon plateau that yields radiocarbon dates with large error ranges (Clark et al. 2001; Fiedel 1999).

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Radiocarbon dates from Test C and adjacent units suggest two dramatic climatic shifts in the Aucilla River drainage occurred between 10,200 and 9,950 rcybp, the first marking the introduction of high volumes of midcontinental ice sheet water into the upper Gulf of Mexico (circa 10,200 rcybp) (Teller 1995), the second matching closely (within 50 years) of the radiocarbon age of the final shift of glacial outwash from the Mississippi to the St. Lawrence (Clark et al. 2001). These dates also correspond well with assays performed on the lower strata from Dust Cave in northern Alabama (Driskell 1 994), where dates ranged from 9990 Pollen As part of the environmental reconstruction of the Page/Ladson site, numerous pollen samples were taken in 1988, 1992, and 1995. The most important for evaluating the paleoclimate circa 10,000 rcybp are those taken in Test G and H in 1995. Analyzed by Hansen (1999), these samples focused on the period between 10,300 rcybp and 9,000 rcybp (Figures 3.12 and 3.13). According to Hansen (1999), the transition marked by the "Bolen Level", or Stratum 5/6 boundary, shows a dramatic increase in Chenopodiales (Goose-foot) and other taxa that result from disturbance and/or in upland ecosystems, and a concurrent decrease in floodplain forest and cypress swamp species. Simultaneously there is a sustained increase in charcoal and degraded pollen in the sample, the former likely indicating human activity in the area — especially considering the overall reduction in forest species (Hansen 1999), and the latter indicating a potentially drier climate — likely indicated by a more erosive deposition regime. The increase in degraded pollen in the samples from Stratum 6 may also have resulted from the higher overall pH of the soils, which has been linked to poor pollen preservation (Bryant et al. 1994).

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56 Viewed in regional perspective with nearby Camel Pond and Shellar Lake (Hansen 1999), the Bolen-age levels at Page/Ladson fit into a brief period of overall dry climate — indicated at Camel Pond by an depositional hiatus — followed by a period that was also dry but punctuated by intermittent heavy rains (Figure 3.14). It is also possible that the heightened charcoal levels in the Strata 5 and 6 were the result of anthropogenic factors, including using forest fires as a game-driving and habitat-enhancing techniques for preferred species (e.g., bison, deer and turkey), more extensive use of fire for food processing and storage (e.g., drying and smoking), and using fire to produce watercraft, all occuring in the immediate vicinity of the site. The latter of these seems to be supported by the presence of adzes and adze fragments found in both Tests B and C. Given the later adoption of chenopods as one of the first horticulturally-adopted plant foods in the central part of the Southeastern US (Smith 1985) — albeit firmly documented to a much later date (1,975±55 BP) — it is important to note there is such a dramatic spike in chenopod pollen around the Page/Ladson site. This suggests there was the potenfial to harvest the wild variety as a seasonal (probably early fall) food crop. Evidence from the Enterprise Site in southern Alabama (Brooms et al. 1997), indicates that early Holocene populations were already making use of local hickory nut {Carya sp.) and oak {Quercus sp.) acorn crops. This confirms previous macrobotanical evidence of early Holocene nut harvesting on Dalton sites in Alabama and Missouri (Hester, IGrlxl, lPi61, and Rodgers Shelter sites [Smith 1986:Table 1.1]). Several hickory nut and oak acorn fragments were also recovered fi-om the Stratum 5/6 boundary (Appendix B) on Page/Ladson. One hickory nut was used for carbon dating the boundary layer; another has been stored in distilled water since excavation.

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57" Faunai analysis Peres (1997, Peres and Carter 1999) analyzed the faunai material recovered from the surface of Stratum 5 and the first layer of Stratum 6. By applying a scoring criteria to the distribution of faunai remains and the anthropomorphic characteristics of individual faunai remains (e.g., carbonization, cut marks), Perez (1997) was able to conclude that the faunai remains were likely deposited as the result of natural processes. This conclusion does not conflict with the proposed deposition sequence (see below). In fact, it supports the conclusion that the site was rapidly inundated at the onset at approximately 9960 BP, depositing numerous bones from diverse taxa on the interface between Strata 5 and 6. Field observations of bone items from the top of Stratum 5 indicate a small number of obviously human modified items were present. Several stone and bone tools were recovered both from the Stratum 5/6 boundary and into the first 10cm of Stratum 6 (see below), documenting human activity either on the Stratum 5 surface or in the general area. Features Two important site features were documented in the Test C area: vertical wooden stakes and a hearth containing partially-carbonized wood. Vertical wooden stakes were documented in both Test C (Figure 3.10) and Test G (Figure 3.15). In both cases, the stakes averaged 2-2. 5cm in diameter and were stripped of bark. The stake from Test C was used for radiocarbon dating, while the stake from Test G was partially removed from its find location and also was used for carbon dating. The bottom end of the latter example was not removed from the underlying Stratum 4. The vertical orientation of these stakes was totally anomalous when compared to other recovered wood, which tended to be layed out horizontally, most commonly on the

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58 boundary between Strata 5 and 6. The horizontal distance between the two vertical stakes (3m) suggests they could part of a larger structure, possibly like that documented at the Vulcan Site in Georgia (Ledbetter et al. 1996:276). The type of structure could have been a bark or hide shelter, fish trap or weir, or a drying or smoking rack. As Dunbar and his colleagues (1988) have pointed out, the wood stakes did not show signs of desiccation, suggesting they were either deposited immediately before — or after — the flooding event, when higher net water levels were permanently established. If the stakes were placed in the surface within one or two years of the flooding event, they would not have degraded enough to show desiccation. In this case, they could be components of a domestic structure, smoking rack, or drying grate. If they were pushed into the bottom after the flooding event, the stakes were most likely fishing related, possibly components of fish traps, weirs, or platforms. Another intriguing interpretation of the vertical stakes must be considered in light of the recent detailed publication of the Windover site (Doran 2002). At Windover, wooden stakes of similar dimensions were used to anchor burials into a peat-bottomed pond (Dickel 2002). Some of the burials had been disturbed, most likely by alligators (Doran 2002:8-10), the feces of which were preserved in the pond (Doran 2002:287). At Page/Ladson, the vertical stakes may have marked or pinned down burials, as well, with the lack of skeletal remains accounted for by removal of the bodies by alligators. The hearth was located in Test P and was approximately 50cm in diameter, although not perfectly round, and averaged 8-lOcm deep (Figure 3.10). The boUom of the hearth had limited evidence of heat alteration, including a single piece of wood that was charred on the top and uncharred on the bottom. The lack of other signs of fire

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•Vis?.", I 59 alteration (e.g., cracked stone in and around the feature, ash or light-gray staining of surrounding soil) suggests either that the hearth was used as a smudge or smoking pit, or that the archaeological community does not have enough experience with hearths preserved underwater to recognize all their physical properties. Macrobotanical identification and analysis of the wood has not yet been undertaken by the Aucilla River Prehistory Project, so the wood species from in and around the hearth are not known. Artifact Descriptions and Distributions The traditional grouping of artifacts into material classes is followed here, beginning with diagnostic projectile points and concluding with worked wood. Diagnostic Points A total of six temporally-diagnostic projectile points were found in the Test C area within Strata 5 and 6 (previously unillustrated examples are shown in Figures 3.16-3.19). Their locations and associations are summarized below (Table 3.6). All the points originating from Strata 5 and 6 date typologically to the early Holocene and would be considered Early Archaic (Anderson 2002; Justice 1987:50-67). Arguably the most important aspect of these points is their relatively early average dating (Table 3.1). These dates place sideand comer-notching well within the time range of Dalton assemblages from other parts of the Southeast (Goodyear 1982, 1999). Other sites in the Southeast, including Dust Cave (Driskell 1994), Packard (Wyckoff 1985), and Rodgers Shelter (Kay 1982), have contemporaneous dates on side-notched points. This supports the assertion that notched points were produced concurrently with unfluted lanceolate points (e.g., Plainview, Agate Basin, Suwannee, Simpson), and are contemporaneous with, or potentially earlier than Dalton points (Wyckoff 1985; Don Wyckoff 2002, personal communication). i

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60 In Florida, sites that have unfluted lanceolate points, like Hamey Flats, Johnson Sand Pit, Darby and Homsby Spring, and Bolen Bluff, also have side-notched points. In the case of Hamey Flats, the side-notched and lanceolate points came from strati graphically indistiguishable contexts (Daniel and Wiesenbaker 1987), a phenomenon that the excavators explained by suggesting that the site was both exposed for a long period of time and was subject to erosive forces between the nominally noncontemporaneous time periods. However, the date ranges of non-fluted lanceolate points and early side-notched points substantially overlap (see Chapter 1), suggesting that cooccurences of the two types on a single site may be the result of the use of two different projectile points in a single socio-technical setting, which has been documented ethnographically among the Agta (Griffin 1997) among other groups. In the case of southeastern North America, it may be a prey-based difference, with lanceolate points (Dalton, Suwanee, Simpson, Hardaway) used on larger game like bison and remnant Pleistocene megafauna and notched points used to hunt and butcher game that was deer-size and smaller. The contemporaneity of individuals making side-notched and Dalton points is suggested by the presence of Dalton adzes on the Jeannie's Better Back site (8Lf54), which only produced side-notched points from its lowest levels. The three Dalton adzes from 8Lf54 were recovered from levels that produced at least six sidenotched points (Austin and Mitchell 1999: Appendix A). Only two sites in Florida have produced side-notched points stratigraphically above and separated from lanceolate points: Silver Springs (Neill 1964, Hemmings 1975) and Wakulla Springs (Jones and Tesar 2000). On the former site, the lanceolate points were identified as Clovis, not Suwanee or Dalton. At Wakulla Springs, the notched point is

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61 not a typed point, but has one notch similar to those executed on Bolen projectile points. Moreover, the lower occupation did not produce diagnostic Clovis or Suwanee points, but a large preform for one of those two types. Adzes/Scrapers/Bifaces One complete adze (Figure 3.19) and an assortment of scrapers, biface fragments, and an incomplete preform were recovered from the Stratum 5/6 boundary (Figure 3.20). Additionally, an adze, preform, and biface fragments were recovered from the middle of Stratum 6. Items from Stratum 6 did not come from an anthropogenic soil or have any kind of recognizable spatial clustering. The adzes and adze fragments suggest that the area may have been used over centuries for woodworking. The complete adze from the Stratum 5/6 boundary compares favorably with a preform of the hafted Dalton adze (Morse 1971, 1973). The presence of these assorted bifaces suggests that the area may have been used to "rough-out" bifaces that could then be either transported or converted to finished points or adzes in the immediate area. This core-trimming activity appears to be supported by the large, cortical flakes recovered from the Stratum 5/6 boundary (see below) Cores and Core Tools One bifacial core was recovered from early Holocene deposits on Page/Ladson. This core has numerous step fractures on either side of the core. It appears to have been used solely for the removal of flakes and was abandoned prior to being fully exhausted. Two random cores were recovered from the Page/Ladson early Holocene deposits. Both appear to have usewear were recovered from the Test C area excavations (Figure 3.22, lower). There is a remarkable resemblance between one core (Figure 3.22, upper right) and cores described from Dalton sites in Arkansas (Morse 1973: Figure 5-i). These cores

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62 are unlike the bifacial cores used to produce point preforms and bifacial adzes in that they are much thicker, and likely they are used for producing either naturally-backed flakes or pieces esquillees (Morse 1971). If this core were used for producing the latter, it would be strong suggestion that bone working was carried out in the immediate vicinity, as pieces esquillees have been linked to slotting and grooving bone (Bordes 1968). Chert Flake Tools and Flakes Numerous chert flakes and a few flake tools were recovered both from the Stratum 5/6 boundary and from levels fully within Stratum 6 (Appendix B)(see flake tool examples in Figure 3.23). Most flakes were either early stage cortical or non-cortical flakes, both with no retouch. Additionally, most of the flakes do not have the dark-brown river staining that characterizes most of the surface-collected lithics from the bottom of the river. Most of the chert is fine-grained, a light to dark gray with a black oxidized surface, and appears to have excellent fracture properties. Some have the characteristic dark gray weathered rind and fossiliferous coating St. Marks Formation chert. Others are a hght to medium gray, characteristic of the Suwannee Formation chert. Both chert types are available in the Wacissa/Aucilla drainage. Few secondary and no tertiary flakes were recovered directly from the excavated levels or from the screens. This suggests that the principal activity in the area was decortication of larger chert cores and the reduction of those cores into preforms, large flakes, and bifacial cores. Also, the low overall number of flakes suggests that there was not extensive quarrying or lithic reduction activity in the immediate vicinity of the underwater site. However, land excavations on the east side of the Aucilla have yielded large quantities of lithic debris (Chapter 4), suggesting that chertworking was common relatively close by.

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63 A nearby site (8Le2105 [Homum et al. 1996:188-199]) has features that might explain the lack of secondary and tertiary debitage. On that site, small flakes were systematically gathered and deposited in small pits, suggesting early Holocene knapping went on in a domestic setting where there was concern for stepping on sharp debris (especially likely with infants and toddlers). The lack of this type of debitage in Strata 5 and 6 suggests either this stage of reduction did not occur near the site, or smaller waste flakes were also gathered up at the Page/Ladson site and buried. Ground Stone Objects, Abraders, Ground Stone Preforms, and Ground Stone Preform Debitage Three distinctly reworked ground-stone tools were recovered from the Test C area (3.20), all part of the initial and early Holocene bolo stone manufacturing complex (see Figure 5.17). All three stones appear to be discarded portions of bolo stones broken during manufacturing or use. A hypothesized manufacturing process is described in Chapter 5 (below). Other finds of dimpled "bolo stones" suggest that they are found uniquely on Late Pleistocene and initial and early Holocene sites throughout the United States (Agogino 1958; Neill 1958, 1964). These appear to be the only examples found in a well-dated context from the Eastern United States. Ground stone abraders (Figure 3.21) were also found both on the Stratum 5/6 boundary and into the lowest levels of Stratum 6. Although they vary in shape and size, they all have the characteristic saddling wear and edge-rounding that results from abrading stone, bone, and/or wood. The abraders can be generally grouped into large, hand-sized examples and small, finger-sized examples, possibly a reflection of the two modes of abrading, the former used for larger jobs (mass removal and shaping), the latter for finish sanding and shaping.

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64 Fire-cracked Rock/Dolomite Cobbles A wide variety of fire-cracked rocks and limestone and dolomite cobbles were recovered from the Test C area. The largest concentration was along the Stratum 5/6 boundary. Muniz (1998) recorded the material, sphericity and angularity, weight, length, volume density, use-wear, and thermal alteration characteristics of individual stones from the Stratum 5/6 boundary. Focused on the relationship between the rocks and the hearth feature, Muniz (1998) examined both nonfire-cracked and fire-cracked rock (FCR) to see if there were significant similarities between the rock by material type or distribution that might yield some behavioral information about the hearth's creators. The thermallyaltered subsample had a mean weight 150% of the non-thermally-altered sample (212.8g versus 141. 6g), suggesting that the hearth-builders selected larger stones for their hearths (Muniz 1998). Moreover, dolomite dominated the thermally-altered sample, although limestone predominated in the overall sample, suggesting that dolomite was the preferred hearth building stone on the site. The presence of dolomite in the hearth area also suggests there was dolomite working in the immediate vicinity of the site. Muniz (1998) also examined the distribution of stones around the hearth feature and concluded that it was unlikely that coUuvial forces distributed stones from around the hearth because there were many stones to the west and north of the feature, the two directions from which colluvial imputs would come. He suggests that other factors, like kick-scattering or scuffing (Muniz 1998 [citing Stephenson 1991]) may have contributed to the apparently random distribution of stones around the hearth feature. At this site, we were faced with the common equifinality problem. If there are other hearths to the west and north in unexcavated areas, cobbles scattered from these hearths might easily become

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mixed with material from the excavated hearth area, obscuring any previously-discernible pattern around it. Bone tools One bone tool came from Excavation Unit I, from approximately 10cm above the Stratum 5/6 boundary. The bone pin was bi-pointed, with notable usewear on the nonfractured end (Figure 3.28). It is similar to bone points recovered from other parts of the Aucilla, including Little River Rise (Willis 1988). The bone pin is significant because it bore out what we had suspected about the anoxic nature of the sediments. Additionally, the excellent bone preservation observed on this specimen confirms the buffering qualities of the soil indicated by bulk pH tests and the lack of pollen (Bryant et al. 1994). Wood Stakes/Branches A range of twigs, branches, and trunk fragments were recovered from Page/Ladson. Although all were examined closely for signs of human alteration, the only clear evidence was on the two previously-described stakes and on two unit-provenienced wood artifacts from Test C (Figure 3.29 and 3.30). The wood is particularly frustrating because there is no clear criteria for identifying worked wood that does not retain clear chipping or abrading wear, or that has a form that is clearly identifiable as a human-made object (i.e., wood at the Fort Center or Key Marco sites [Purdy 1991:23-53, 82-101]). A whole range of human-used items will likely go unrecognized (e.g., gathered wood, wood staked for a wind-break, and expedient site ftimiture) if the material is not found in a deposit that puts it in relation to artifacts and features with which the wood can be functionally or ceremonially related (Fort Center [Sears 1982:38-58], Monte Verde [Dillehay and Rosen 1997], Windover [Dickel 2002]).

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66 Although naturallyformed distributions of wood are common in riparian settings (e.g., driftwood piles on sand bar), the distribution of this wood suggests that humans may have played a role in placing the wood on the Stratum 5/6 boundary. Most of the wood from the Stratum 5/6 interface was between 2cm and 10cm in diameter. Larger branches and trunks were rare. Except for the aforementioned examples, none of the wood fragments appeared peeled, chopped, or sanded. However, a substantial portion was charred on one end or on one side. Depositional History and Overview The overall sequence of deposition that temporally brackets the artifact-bearing stratum can be reconstructed from the available dates and observations of the strata. Water-lain deposits began accumulating prior to 10,600 rcybp, as indicated from a large oak log recovered from Stratum 4. Towards the end of the Younger Dryas (circa 10,200 rcybp), the top of Stratum 4 desiccated, possibly under the influence of glacial meltwater pouring into the northern Gulf of Mexico. This created the unknown-in-modem-times phenomenon of rapidly rising sea levels and relatively cool coastal water along the Gulf Coast. On a freshly-desiccated ravine bottom in the Aucilla drainage, early Holocene hunter/gatherers established a small camp out of the prevailing westerly winds and near a freshwater source. They moved out to the nearby quarries and knapped bifacial preforms and nutting stone preforms from chert and dolomite, respectively. They also worked wood in the area, and may have collected hickory nuts and oak acorns from nearby sandy uplands. The desiccation regime ends abruptly sometime between 9,000 and 10,000 rcybp when water-lain sediments again began accumulating on the site, a process that continued at least until the end of the mid-Holocene Hypsithermal (circa 5,000 rcybp), when

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67 renewed erosion of the site diagonally truncated the deposits. Early Holocene bands reoccupied the upland portion of the site and continued depositing debitage, stone tools, and bone artifacts on the site through around 8,900 rcybp. No evidence of Middle Archaic occupation has been documented from the underwater deposits. On the erosional surface formed at the end of the Hypsithermal, Deptford-period sherds and lithic remains were deposited. In sum, the underwater deposits at Page/Ladson provide a unique and well-dated window into early Holocene foragers and into the Deptford period. Although likely disturbed by post-occupation flooding, the artifacts and features from the circa 10,000 BP deposits allow us to expand our knowledge of early Holocene tool assemblages, site location preferences, and tool creation processes (see Chapters 5 and 6 below).

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68 Table 3.1. Radiocarbon dates from early Holocene levels at Page/Ladson Lab# FS# C-14 Test Sed. Level Date Material Comments Age Unit Unit Type Dated ID Beta85-59-44 9450±100 B 6 9 RM-U Wood/ This level between the "Bolen 015089 Charcoal Peat" (Lv. 10 below) and the level producing antler flakers (Lv. 8 above) Beta84-5279730±120 B 6 10 RM-U Peat Sample taken from recovery 011905 13 locus of Bolen Beveled point. Peat looks like chopped tobacco as in Core 88-2 nearby. AA88-60 8905±65 C 6 la AMS Wood/ Wood stake originating in U6 007454 Charcoal and driven in U5. Date may be young due to 3 year wet storage possible and bacteria. Fraction modem 0.3300±0.0020 Beta058858 92-26 9930±60 C 6 la RM Wood/ Charcoal Sample taken from cypress log Beta95E-27 9950±70 0 5-6 la-2b AMS Plant Seed Hickory nut on contact of Unit 5 103888 with Unit 6 Beta87-09-65 10000±120 c 5-6 la-2b RM-U Wood/ Charred wood in Unit 5 with 021750 Charcoal upper face in Unit 6 (note lv. 1 a = lv.2a & lv.2b = lv.3 in 87 notes) Beta92-13 10000±80 G 6 la AMS Wood/ Sample of wooden stake 058857 Charcoal originating in Unit 6, Lv. la and driven through Unit 5 and Unit 4 Beta87-09-66 10280±110 C 5 2b RM-U Wood/ Desiccated wood in Unit 5 with 021752 Charcoal upper face in Unit 6 (note lv. la = lv.2a & lv.2b = Iv.3 in 87 notes) Beta103889 95E-29 10300±120 u 6 la RM Organic Sediment Sample from pedestal under Bolen Point taken 5cm to 10cm above Unit 5 contact

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69 Table 3.2. Zones and Levels in Test B (developed from data in Dunbar et al. 1989) Zone Level Soil Type Artifacts Beginning Date Ending Date A 1-5 Mixed modem Mixed points, bone tools 3440 BP Modem B 6 Mixed peat Mixed ages 4200 BP 3500 BP C 7-11 Peats and Marls Points, flakes, antler tools, scrapers circa 9,850 BP circa 9,000 BP D 12 Gray sandy organic peat Bolo Stone, debitage circa 11,900 BP circa 11,500 BP E 13-15 Calcareous Clay None circa 12,330 BP circa 11,900 BP

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70 Table 3.3. Early Holocene artifacts from Test B by Dunbar's zone and stratum (condensed from Dunbar, Webb, and Cring 1989 [all Figure references below from Dunbar et al. 1989, unless otherwise noted]). Zone Stratum/Lev el Count Name Material Reierence A 3a 1 Greenbriar Chert Fig. 4C A 3a 1 Kirk ComerNotched Chert Fig. 4H B 6 1 Suwannee Chert Fig. 4A B 6 1 Suwarmee Chert Fig. 4B B 6 1 Greenbriar Chert Fig. 4D B 6 1 Bolen SideNotched Chert Fif 4F B 6 1 Bolen SideNotched (Beveled) Chert Fig. 4F B 6 1 Bolen Comer-Notched (Beveled) Chert Fig. 4G B 6 1 Wacissa Chert Fig. 41 c 8 1 Aucilla Adze Chert Fig. 7A c 8 2 Antler Flakers Bone Fig. 6 c 8 3 Preform Bases Chert No Figure c 8 N/A Debitage Chert No Figure c 9 1 Utilized Flake Chert No Figure c 10 1 Bolen ComerNotched (Beveled) Chert Fig. 8 c 10 1 Utilized Flake Chert Fig. 8 c 11 1 Bolen Plain Chert Fig. 9B c 11 1 Pin Bone Fig. 9C c 11 1 Needle Bone Fig. 9D c 11 1 Utilized Blade Chert Fig. 9A D 12 1 Bolo Stone Fragment Dolomite No Figure D 12 N/A Debitage Chert No Figure Note: Zone A/B artifacts are dated typologically and Zone C and D by radiocarbon. The Zone E "bolo" stone is included, even though it comes from a level dated 12,330±1 10 B.P. (Beta15088).

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71 Table 3.4. Technical descriptions of the Late Pleistocene/Eariy Holocene sediments and stratum boundaries in the Test C area of the Page/Ladson site (8Je591) (developed from Kendrick 2000) STRATUM THICKNESS (AVERAGE) BOUNDARY CHARACTERISTIC TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OPEN WATER River bottom 7 0.5m-2.0m Recent river bottom sediments with leaves, twigs, peat, and very fine dark sands No distinct Erosional surface sediment 6b 0.90m1.90m Dark gray sandy silt with shell fragments, wood, leaves, and oxidized root filaments No distinct Horizontal wood fragments and oxidized roots sediment 6a 0.10-0.20m Light gray containing limestone pebbles, gastropod shell, and wood, and penetrated on the top with root filaments Sand and silt Thin veneer of shell-rich silt with sand stringers 5 0.05m-0.25m Dark brown, sandy, clayey silt containing gastropod shells, fish bones and scales, limestone pebbles, wood, and charcoal No distinct sediment Abrupt, smooth to undulatory contact 4f 0.63m1.31m Tan sandy silt containing scattered limestone pebbles, Oligocene echinoids, whole and fragmentary gastropods, insects, fish bone and scales, leaves and wood concentrations. Sediment does not change color on exposure to water column. No distinct sediment Abrupt, undulatory contact 4e 0.80m1.1 7m Tan sandy silt containing scattered limestone pebbles, Oligocene echinoids, whole and fragmentary gastropods, insects, fish bone and scales, leaves and wood concentrations. Sediment changes color from tan to gray on exposure to water column. No distinct sediment Abrupt, undulatory contact 4d 0.05m-0.12m Medium-gray sandy silt Sandy Abrupt, undulatory contact of sand with compressed digesta 4c 0.02m-0.17m Light-gray sandy silt Sandy Abrupt, undulatory contact of sand with compressed digesta 4b 0.03m max Medium-gray sandy silt Sandy Abrupt, undulatory contact of sand with compressed digesta 4a 0.05m-. 11m Gray sandy silt with intermixed mastodont digesta

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72 Table 3.5. Test C sediment observations and environmental implications Macroscopic Observation Environmental implication Stratum 6 has scattered lithic artifacts and unoxidized bone artifacts Water levels in the Aucilla have been high enough since approximately 9,800 rcybp to leave Stratum 6 intact, fully hydrated as deposited, and without obvious human disturbance Wood on Stratum 5/6 boundary is dessicated Dry period characterizes transition between deposition of Unit 5 and Unit 6 Boundary between Strata 5 and 6 is characterized by sand stringers Dry, windy period characterizes transition Stratum 5 is highly consolidated Subaereal exposure Stratum 5 is highly organic Leaf-molt/organic matter accumulation was high on the site

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73 Table 3.6. Find locations and associations of diagnostic points Artifact Number Test Unit Stratum (s) Level TvDC Name Notes N/A c 5/6 N/A Bolen Plain 1989 Fi2ure 3") 92A-07 G 6 2 Kirk Serrated 95E-15 U 6 3 Kirk ComerNotched 95E-17 P 6 3 Kirk ComerNotched 95E-18 P 6 3 Bolen Bevel 95E-241 c 5/6 N/A Bolen Plain

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74 Figure 3.1. Site map of the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591) with underwater and land excavations noted. Transect lines in light purple.

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;ure 3.2. North Profile of Test B, 8Je591 (from Dunbar, Faught, and Webb 1988). Natural levels 1-7 are unconsolidated modem deposits. Levels 8-1 1 date to the early Holocene. Levels 12 and below are late Pleistocene in age.

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76 Figure 3.3. Bolen Plain (top) and Bolen Bevel (bottom) projectile points from Test B

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Figure 3.4. Aucilla Adzes from Test B. All adzes are from surface or deflated contexts, except upper left, which originated in level with antler flaker.

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79 ure 3.6. Antler Flaker 84-527-9C from Test B on the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591)

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80 Figure 3.7. Antler Flaker 84-527-9B from Test B on the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591)

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Figure 3.8. Antler tool BAR 85-59-54 from Test B of the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591)

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82 ^tmpr Figure 3.9. Ground stone tool recovered from Level 12 in Test B (8Je591)

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83 • % <'~\ 1 «• ^ f "* as\ M i..^ V _ t. \ ) ® \ • ex. J ^ --^^ ^ IS/ ' V *^ ...0... ^ ^ r ^ 1 \ • v»V f » % • 0 o V Q ° o • " ^ 1 -^m. *•. • % . •* • •s • Clwrt J Wood I Rock Eroded Areas Fossil/SheH N 0 Meter 8Je591 -Composite Underwater Map Aucilla River Prehistory Project--Florida Museum of Natural History Figure 3.10. Distribution of artifacts and ecofacts on the Stratum 5/6 boundary in Test C, G-I, 0-Q, T-V.

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84 Figure 3.11. South Profile of Excavation Units T, U, and V. Soil descriptions are given in Table 3.4.

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85 Figure 3.12. Pollen diagram developed from samples taken from Test G at Page/Ladson (from Hanson 1999, Figure 7).

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Figure 3.13. Sedimentology of— and pollen summary for — the Early Holocene levels at Page/Ladson (from Hanson 1999, Figure 9)

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89 Figure 3.16. Projectile point 95E-15 (drawing by Mason Sheffield).

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90 Figure 3.17. Projectile point 95E-17 (drawing by Mason Sheffield).

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91

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92 Figure 3.19. Projectile point 95E-241 (drawing by Mason Sheffield).

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93

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94 Figure 3.21. Early Holocene bifacial scrapers and biface fragments

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Figure 3.22. Biface, Adze, and biface fragments from the post-10,000 BP Stratum 6. Note lighter color of cherts as compared to those the Stratum 5/6 boundary.

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Figure 3.23. Cores and Core tools from the Stratum 5/6 boundary. Core fragment in upper left may be broken haft end of Aucilla Adze.

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Figure 3.24. Flake tools from underwater component of Page/Ladson.

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98 Figure 3.25. Bolo stone preforms (92A-23[top] and 95E-90[middle]) and finished, broken bolo stone (95E-95 [bottom]) fi-om Stratum 5/6 boundary (life size (drawing by Mason Sheffield).

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99 Figure 3.26. Dolomite abrading stones from Page/Ladson. Note triangular to trapezoidal shape of most examples.

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100 Figure 3.27. Ground stone tool preform debitage (top) and abrader preform debitage (bottom)

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101 Figure 3.28. Bone pin recovered from Excavation Unit I. Note fine striations that reflect manufacturing-related abrasion and deeper scratches indicative of usewear (drawing by Mason Sheffield).

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102 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 3.29. Worked wood pin from Test C. 0 3 4 Figure 3.30. Detail of worked wood pin from Test C.

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0 1 " 2 3 4 5 M M ^ Figure 3.31. Worked wood artifact from Test C. 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 3.32. Detail of worked wood artifact from Test C. Note flat^ cupped carving marks on end, indicative of flat-bitted adze chipping, not sawing.

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CHAPTER 4 TRANSFORMATIONS OF EARLY HOLOCENE STONE TECHNOLOGY In this chapter two critical components of the early Holocene stone tool assemblage — projectile points and ground-stone bola stones — are reviewed. Explanatory models are also proposed for the purpose of putting the observed initial and early Holocene projectile point reduction sequence in chronological perspective and put the ground "bola" stone reduction sequence in its early Holocene technological context. Early Holocene Points from the Ohmes Collection Between 1950 and 1970, Dr. Richard Ohmes and members of his family collected Paleoindian and Early Archaic diagnostic materials from the bottom of the Aucilla River and from its surrounding pastures in Jefferson County, Florida, and in southern Georgia around the town of Boston. Dr. Ohmes donated his collection to the Florida Museum of Natural History in 1998. Included in his collection are 121 diagnostic early Holocene, notched points (See examples in Figures 4.1-4.12). As part of this dissertation, these points were measured along with 24 points recovered by ARPP crews from Page/Ladson and Sloth Hole. Data on these points are presented Appendix B. As with many surface-collected assemblages, little can be said about the geographic aspects of projectile point re-tooling (Daniel 1 998 : 1 701 86) through examining the distribution of eariy-stage vs. exhausted points, much less other kinds of distribution analysis. However, if the surface-collected assemblage is examined in aggregate, there are aspects of manufacturing, resharpening, and discards that can be examined. 104

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105 Early Archaic Point Reduction Austin and Mitchell (1999:104-109, Fig. 38) have suggested a systematic reduction strategy for Bolen projectile points starting with the removal of relatively large flakes from prepared cores and continuing through discard (Figure 4.13). Several stages of reduction, finishing and resharpening have been added to the following figure (Figure 4.14) that more closely reflect a complete reduction, resharpening, and discard cycle of Early Archaic sideand comer-notched points based on both the sample from other excavated sites on the Aucilla, the Ohmes Collection, and Page/Ladson. Evidence from early stage preforms from multiple sites suggests multiple "prepreform" flakes were removed from either polyhedral or hemispherical cores during a single reduction episode. The results are flakes with continuous ventral surfaces and dorsal surfaces characterized by multiple negative flake scars paralleling the flakes' longitudinal axes. Overall flake size controls the ultimate size of the finished points. The next step appears to be the systematic thinning of these flakes through lateral, bifacial reduction, often with long, thin reduction flakes that extend past the mid-line of each face, and occasionally extend to the opposite edge of the preform (i.e. outre passe flaking). These lateral flakes are accomplished through carefiil platform preparation (e.g. grindmg). Soft-hammer techniques were likely used during biface thinning. It is not yet clear how many rounds of lateral thinning were performed to produce a "finished" preform, or if the thinning flakes were used for expedient tools. There appears to be a "pause" in the reduction sequence at the prepared preform stage. Preforms appear to be the preferred form for medium to long distance transportation (Goodyear 1982, 1999). Once there was a need for a more "finished" tool, point preforms were again thinned— both laterally and basally— to a fmished overall

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106 shape, notched laterally or from the comers, and the base either left unground or basally ground. The "finished" point was then hafted to some kind of dart, foreshaft, or handle. Plotting the length vs. stem width of side-notched vs. comer-notched points (Figure 4.15) demonstrates some interesting trends in the manufacturing of both types of points. First, there is a very strong clustering among both types for stem widths between 14mm and 1 8mm, suggesting the shafts to which the points were hafted were approximately 15mm in diameter. Second, comer-notched points generally have a wider stem (16.7mm vs. 15.5mm) than side-notched points. Finally, there appears to be a significant grouping of side-notched projectile points over 80mm long with stem widths narrower than 15mm. Most of the projecfile points of both morphologies are continuously distributed in terms of length fi-om about 65mm to 30mm. The overall length of Aucilla River points hints at a phenomenon observed on Clovis burial sites (e.g. Anzick [Wilke et al. 1991]) and at Dalton burial sites (e.g. Sloan [Morse et al. 1997, Goodyear 1999]), namely the segregafion of points into those used for hunting purposes and those used as ceremonial or grave goods. Both tend to have the same width range, but the ones destined for use in burial rites are typically longer and are not successively reworked or otherwise intensively used for hunting or butchering activities. One Ohmes Collection example (2000-20-2-201) (Figure 4.1, middle) is 13.5cm long, an unlikely length for use as a projectile or knife. It has no use-wear or resharpening, but heavy basal grinding. The grinding implies hafting before abandonment or burial. Although it is impossible to connect the burial of projectile point/knives during the Paleoindian and Early Archaic periods with historic burial practices in the southeastem United States, the Chickasaw traditionally buried their men

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107 with a "fighting knife" to ward off and kill spirits in the next world (Anthony Paredes 2002, personal communication). Comer-notching and side-notching are ubiquitous across all Early Archaic projectile points in the lower Southeast, hi most cases, the notching appears to have been accomplished with a deer antler tinge or a thin, hard, bone tool. In the case of sidenotched points, the notch is usually initiated approximately 0.5cm above the lower comers of the projectile point and is typically at least as deep as it is long (dimension parallel to point's tip to base axis). In some types (e.g. Hardaway Dalton, St. Charles, Big Sandy, Graham Cave, Kessel [Justice 1987:39, 55, 62-64]), there is a weak to strong incurvate base associated with the side-notching. Most explanations of side-notching and basal-thinning development revolve around increasing the haft strength of the point, although that may not be the only reason (see below). Resharpening Resharpening is ubiquitous on both sideand comer-notched points from the Aucilla. There is a direct correlation between the number of resharpenings and the overall length of both sideand comer-notched points, as each resharpening event occurs, the overall length of the blade is reduced, although the length reduction appears to be linear and perhaps be as little as l-2mm per episode. Additionally, in light of the potential for catastrophic blade breakages, as seen on example 95E-241 from Page/Ladson, the opposite beveling technique of resharpening could rejuvenate even this type of break through immediate, successive opposite resharpenings. Some of the Ohmes collection examples show a two-technique resharpening strategy, as well. The main blade section, from 1-2 cm below the tip to the shoulder is , resharpened bifacially, or with opposite beveling. By contrast, the area around the tip is

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108 ^treated separately and either sharpened bifacially, even on some opposite beveled examples, or bevel resharpened with very fine pressure flaking that leaves little or no serration. This supports the idea forwarded by many investigators that these notched points were multiple-use projectile and cutting implements because the tip is clearly being resharpened to enhance each point's penetration capability while the edges are being opposite beveled — with serration as the result — to enhance cutting longevity and meat stripping ability. Opposite beveling has been identified as one of the hallmarks of a large portion of side-notched and comer-notched points in Florida. Milanich (1994:54) cites an unpublished study of the Florida Museum of Natural History side-notched points where 97% of the Bolen points were resharpened in one direction. This might indicate the handedness of the makers. However, of the 144 Aucilla examples studied here, only one point was resharpened in the opposite direction, suggesting points sharpened in the opposite direction may merely be accidents, rather than an indication of handedness, which tends to split around 90% right-handed/ 10% left-handed in most human populations (Corbalhs 1997). ^ The examined projectile point/knives appear to be abandoned when they reach between 30mm and 40mm long (Figure 4.15). Exhaustion of the shoulder region of the point appears to be the underlying characteristic of these fully-resharpened points. As Early Archaic chertworkers narrowed the point's shoulders, the hafting became ' progressively more exposed, reducing the point's effectiveness as both a projectile point and as a cutting tool. The importance of not exposing the haft is confirmed by specimen 95E-241 fi-om Page/Ladson (Figure 3.16), which appears to have been abandoned

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109 immediately after losing one cutting edge to a burin-like blade removal. Another reason for abandoning short points may result from the reduction of their effective cutting edge to the 10mm to 20mm range, limiting their meat-cutting utility. Austin and Mitchell (1999:40) note that several points from the Jeannie's Better Back site were converted to endscrapers when they became too short to use as cutting tools. This type of converted tool may be the functional equivalent to the more systematically manufactured and resharpened Edgefield scraper (Purdy 1981:26-29), with its similar hafting and unifacial blade. A subset of the Ohmes/ARPP Collection side-notched points has a strongly patterned shape (Figure 4.8, far left; Fig. 4.10, all). This subset appears to be uniformly derived from a very regular, flat, tapered blade or blade-like flake. Contrary to most sideand comer-notched points in the collection, these points have a reverse thickness taper (i.e. thick at the point, thirming to the haft), probably a result of having the bulb of force near the tip in the preform stage rather than near the preform shoulder or base. They have relatively tabular sides and very regular opposite beveling resulting in an even, serrated edge and a pronounced trapezoidal blade cross-section. It is unclear whether this variant has been observed on other Early Archaic sites. hi general, the flaking patterns observed for Big Sandy/Bolen/Palmer/Taylor/Kirk points by previous investigators (Justice 1987:60-82) is largely confirmed by the Ohmes/ARPP collections. A Diachronic, Explanatory Model of Late Pleistocene to Early HoloceneProjectile Point Morphologies One of the most significant "indicator fossils" of the change from the Late Paleoindian period to Early Archaic period has been the adoption of notched and

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110 stemmed projectile points (Anderson 2002; Anderson and Sassaman 1996; Morse 1997). Despite the recognition — even though informal — of the changing point morphology's importance, there hasn't been a rigorous, systematic attempt to explain this change in a way that bridges the change back to the socio-technical, economic, or ceremonial factors driving it. Two background issues must be synopsized prior to moving to an explanatory model that will attempt this task. The first is establishing the socio-technic function of lanceolate points during the Paleoindian through Early Archaic period, the second is what occurred to animal populations between 10,500 and 9,500 BP that could have effected the tools used to hunt and butcher them. Several investigators have addressed the former issue, and most Paleoindian specialists favor a functional explanation for the points as the stone points for multi-component atlatl darts and knives. The strongest evidence for these functions is the association of lanceolate points with mammoth remains (Taylor et al. 1996), American mastodon (C. Andrew Henmiings 2002, personal communication), bison remains (Meltzer et al. 2002, also possibly in the Wacissa [Webb et al. 1984]), reindeer (Dincauze 2002), ground sloths (Meltzer 2002), and other large mammals. The principal problem in distinguishing hunting use (as a dart tip) from processing use (presumably as a hafted knife) is equifinality; direct association of points and skeletons could be the result of either process. Only a hmited number of sites, and especially large bison kill sites (e.g. Wheat 1967), provide the type of data to distinguish the two uses. Of course, it is just as likely lanceolate points were used both for hunting (as projectiles) and butchering (Tesar 1994:24-26; Yerkes and Gertner 1997) as for exclusively one or the other.

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Ill Second, evaluations of faunal data from the latest Pleistocene fossil and sub-fossil deposits in North America suggest there is a precipitous drop off in megafaunal populations between 1 1,000 and 10,500 BP across much of the continent (Anderson 2001), which largely confirms what had been observed with a more limited data set in the 1980s (Graham and Lundelius 1984), and can be accurately modeled with a limited number of variables (Alroy 2001). Only a subset of megamammal species (e.g. bison, musk ox, elk, reindeer, mule deer, white-tail deer, manatee, grizzly and black bear, pronghom, and mountain sheep) survived the transition to, and establishment of the Younger Dryas and subsequent Early Holocene (Preboreal in Europe). Aggregating and averaging the weight of all the mammals present before 1 1,000 rcybp and after 10,500 rcybp shows how dramatically the large end of the mammal spectrum was restructured (Table 4. 1). Mean weight of large mammal species went from 654kg in the late Pleistocene to 220kg in the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene. If one assumes a relatively steady (within 2 standard deviation) primary forest productivity over the same period, the drop in mean weights suggests that himters would have had to produce many more projectile and cutting tools in order to maintain meat intake levels during the latter period. In the Southeast, there was a likely increase in primary forest productivity in the early Holocene due to increases in ambient temperature and armual moisture. With no larger game competing for this plant productivity, and a range extension of mastproducing trees (Delcourt et al. 1983), populations of mast-dependent species (e.g. deer, squirrels, turkey) likely exploded due to a combination of high reproductive rates,

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112 abundant food during mating and over winter seasons, and generally shorter and warmer winters. Although the results of faunal restructuring during the Late Pleistocene are not completely understood, several major changes in fauna have been documented from Early to Middle Holocene occupation sites. A review of these taxa suggests while there is a broader spectrum of harvested species in the Middle Archaic, there is still a focus on relatively large mammalian taxa, with white-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as the principal game animal in the Southeast. Ethnographic data collected by Ellis (1997) suggests stone projectile points were the preferred type for hunting large game, including deer, and most often their killing power was cited as the principal reason for its use. There are two related, but distinct inferences to draw from a focus on hunting deer. First, the multi-thousand year heavy representation of white-tail deer on southeastern United States sites implies the species experienced a sustained population boom during the Early Holocene. Ongoing human hunting does not seem to have effected the relative importance of deer as a prey species from approximately 10,500 BP to at least 6,000 BP. Second, for human hunters to maintain meat intake levels on par or close to Late Pleistocene levels including mega-mammals, deer kill rates would have needed to be high. Killing and butchering deer requires more useable blade length for cutting and rendering equivalent meat amounts than for larger Pleistocene game because of their smaller mean size. This would have put pressure on hunters to increase the numbers of tough projectile points and amount of available blade length on butchering tools, either through intensifying quarry stone use (i.e. make more points) or adopting stone projectile

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113 point/knife conservation measures — especially where tool stone was scarce or unevenly distributed on the landscape, and to adopt new materials for projectile points and knives. Hunters' responses to changes in game size — while apparently dramatic in terms of point morphology — were tempered by both what was known about the physical properties of their tool stone and the knapping techniques they used to produce fluted lanceolate points. While much Paleoindian lithic technology literature has focused on the production of fluted points (Morrow 1996:201-212; Tankersley 1994), nothing has been written about how each stage of production can be altered to produce larger points, smaller points, unfluted points, notched points, stemmed points, and other shapes of points that archeologists would recognize as "new" types. • ^ Intensification of Quarry Stone Use Although noone has compiled the total number of Paleoindian and Early Archaic points in the Lower Southeast and compared the numbers of each, on a qualitative level many archeologists have noted that far more sideand comer-notched points have been recovered from the landscape than lanceolate points. This has been broadly interpreted as an increase in population (Goodyear 1999, Anderson 2001, Anderson 2002). Although there are many potential explanations for the difference in numbers, there is general aggreement that there was an overall increase in the amount of toolstone used during the Late Pleistocene into the Early Holocene. The overall increase in manufactured points required intensified quarrying activity. Unfortunately, few excavations have focused on early Holocene near-quarry areas— with the notable exception of Page/Ladson and the Allendale quarry sites (Albert Goodyear 2002, personal communication). When these excavations are done, not only will we know more about the structure of quarrying activity, that is to say the steps adopted to render useable cores, flakes, and blades, but we

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114 will also be able to say more about the transport of rendered stone and manufacturing of finished tools during each period. There are already studies (Sassaman 1996, Daniel 1998:170-185) that have been used to support drainage-based band ranges and quarrybased band ranges. Projectile Point Conservation Steps Given the well-explored reduction sequence of lanceolate Middle and Late Paleoindian points (Morrow 1996, Wilke et. al 1991) (Figure 4.13), there are many toolstone conservation measures that would increase the total number of finished points produced and the amount of useable blade length. These measures are logically grouped into ones involving production and ones involving reuse (Knecht 1997), which I have divided into subcategories (Table 4.2). The model linking the adoption of these intensification/conservation processes to reductions in mean prey size predicts that more traits will be adopted sooner by populations that experience more dramatic drops in mean prey size. In North America, one would expect to see delayed adoption of tool stone intensification/conservation measures in the Great Plains and in peri-glacial areas where human populations continued to rely on relatively large game (>300 kg) like bison, elk, reindeer, and large sea mammals, and more rapid adoption of conservation measures in regions where mean large game size was considerably smaller (<100 kg), a phenomenon that appears to be robustly supported by archaeological evidence (Anderson 2001, Justice 1987:30-35). Given a decreasing mean game size and a flexible set of potential responses in the Hthic tool kit, we can model changes in projectile point morphology from the basic Clovis style to other hypothesized styles, as individual measures are adopted, either individually, or as a suite of changes (Figure 4.16). The importance of these

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115 transformations is not the identification of named types and the morphological changes that distinguish them, but the manufacturing steps that had to change to render each new form. For most Paleoindian and Early Archaic points, the change in manufacturing steps was minimal, suggesting modifications on a single projectile point tradition, rather than some more radical socio-technic transformation. Because of the proximity of projectile point/knives to hunting activity, it is suprising how little the manufacturing process changed in the Southeast from fluted-style to side-notch-style points. Moreover, every altered step appears to have focused on increasing the available blade length for each projectile and cutting tool, rather than being focused on new ways of hunting game. The Manufacturing and Use of Early Archaic "Bola" stones. The adoption of ground stone tools is another traditional hallmark of the Archaic. The "bola" stone is one of the earliest examples of these ground stone tools. These stones are teardrop-shaped ground stone artifacts, sometimes with a dimple on one end (Figure 4. 1 7). Although this artifact' s flinction has been proposed as a clubhead, hammerstone, milling stone, nutting stone, or bow-drill cap (Neill 1971, Whatley 1986), the principal one discussed in the literature is as a weight for an entangling devise, known as a "bola" (Cotter 1962) from ethnographic examples from South America. Although there have been general discussions of how these artifacts were made, no one has recovered the mid-manufacturing stage artifacts to demonstrate its more detailed aspects. Early stage bola stones and completed but fractured bola stones were recovered from the Page/Ladson site (Figure 3.25). On the basis of these items, one can propose the manufacturing steps (Figure 4.17). First, a large dolomite or limestone slab or cobble was selected. Second, this slab or cobble was systematically flaked to yield a sub-round, fist-sized cobble, using the same mass-reduction techniques practiced on chert slabs and

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116 cobbles. Third, the flaked stone preform' s fractured margins were pecked and ground down to a tear-drop or round shape. Although there is no direct evidence from Page/Ladson in the form of a partially-abraded bola stone, the final shaping was probably accomplished by abrasion, as evidenced by the presence of dolomite abraders on the site. The dimple would have been ground into one end at this point, first as a flat surface, then as an indented area by rotary abrasion. Several interesting conclusions can be drawn from the bola stone manufacturing fragments. First, their embedded find location in the Stratum 5/6 boundary establishes their early Holocene date, which had only been previously established by associations with Paleoindian and early Archaic points. Second, the use of flaking as the initial reduction method suggests that the same individuals producing chert points and tools could also produce the initial preforms for these "ground" stone tools. This in turn suggests at least some of the smaller, sub-round cores recorded from other Early Archaic sites may be preforms for this tool. It seems likely that these ground stones were highly-curated, portable nutting stones used in conjunction with less mobile, more site specific anvil stones to render large quantities of nutmeats from mid-fall to early winter. The small, dimpled end would work well to contain potentially unstable acorns, if placed in the dimple for cracking. The stone has enough weight that the larger end — sometimes pointed — would provide enough force to crack larger, tougher hickory nuts, butternuts, chestnuts, and walnuts, without crushing delicate nutmeats. Intriguingly, many of the stones have the same overall shape as a pignut hickory nut {Carya glabra), and other hickory species. Smith (1986) notes that both hickory nuts and acorns were the first edible plant remains

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117 recovered from Late Paleoindian/Early Archaic sites in the Southeast. Additionally, Brooms et al. (1997:83, 91) have documented acorn and hickory nut remains from early Holocene pit features on the Enterprise Site (lCo54), only 160km northwest of Page/Ladson. It is likely that the band of clay and sand hills that characterize the lower Southeastern Coastal Plain was a preferred habitat during the late summer, fall, and early winter due to abundant hickory and oak mast, relatively abundant water sources, game, and relative proximity to easily-extractable cherts (e.g. Tallahatta Quartzite, Flint River Chert, and St. Marks formation cherts). The ground stone tool's high value would account for their relative rarity on early Holocene sites — the tool was carefully curated and passed from generation to generation. It would be durable enough to break only rarely and large enough to not be lost easily. Careful curation would also account for the relatively high amount of effort expended to produce the stones in materials typically used for flaked stone tools. The distribution of these tools across southern Georgia and northern Florida (Whatley 1986) appears to correspond with a lack of naturally-occurring river cobbles, suggesting the stones may have been manufactured when Early Archaic foragers anticipated prolonged occupation of these cobble-poor areas. The presence of nutting stone preforms and broken completed stones on the Page/Ladson site suggests there was a multipurpose re-tooling station either on the site or nearby. Additionally, the flaking technique used to render the earlier-stage preforms suggests dolomite and limestone flakes normally discarded on early Holocene quarry sites may be ground-stone tool manufacturing debitage.

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118 Table 4.1. Mean weights of extant and extinct species during the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Scientific Name Common Name Weight KG STATUS Source Cervus elaphus WAPITI 500 EXTANT Jensen 2000 Alces alces MOOSE 457 EXTANT Jensen 2000 VV LfO 1 L
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Table 4.1. Continued Bootherium HELMETED COR X. JLJL^ .L^L T ^ X X^ X^^ 1 X.\k 753 EXTINCT X—i^ m. X XX 1 V_' X Alrov2001 bombifrons HARLAN'S) MUSKOX Equus MEXICAN 306 EXTINCT Alrov 2001 X kxx V \/ v_/ X conversidens HORSE Equus 439 EXTINCT Alrov 2001 complicatus Equus francisi FRANCIS' HORSE 368 EXTINCT J-^./V X XX ^ V> X Alrov 2001 Equus NIOBRARA 533.4 EXTINCT Alroy 2001 niobrarensis HORSE Equus WESTERN 574 EXTINCT Alrov 2001 occidentalis HORSE Equus scotti SCOTT'S HORSE 555 EXTINCT Alroy 2001 HART AN'S 1 000 Alrnv 9001 harlani GROUND SLOTH Holmesina HOLMESINA 312 EXTINCT i-j./v X XX '(v^ X American septentrionalis PAMPATHERE Museum of Mpfiiral FTiQtnrv Bestiarv Platygonus FLAT-HEADED 52 5 EXTINCT X Xi. ^ X Alrnv 9001 compressus PECCARY Hemiauchenia .A. .A. WAX X A C^^A vX X wXXJL v% LARGE238 1 FXTINCT Alrnv 9001 macrocephala HEADED LLAMA Capromeryx DIMINUTIVE 21 EXTINCT x— V X Xx 1 V_/ X Alrov 2001 minor PROGHORN Eucerotherium coUinum SHRUB OX 498.8 EXTINCT X-^y V X Xi. ^ V_-X Alrov 2001 Cervalces scotti STAG-MOOSE 485.6 EXTINCT Alroy 2001 lVfvlohvii<; T ONG-NOSFD /J.J FYTTMPT A }rr\\r THAI A.iroy zuu i fossilis PECCARY Navahocerns FT FT
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120 Table 4.1. Continued Tapirus veroensis VERO TAPIR 324 EXTINCT Alroy 2001 Tetrameryx PRONGHORN 60.6 EXTEMCT Alroy 2001 shuleri Bison priscus PLEISTOCENE 522.8 ^ EXTINCT Alroy 2001 BISON

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121 Table 4.2. Tool Production Intensification and Conservation Measures Production Measures Result of Change Reference Produce more preforms More points created Heavier quarry use This paper Increase preform size Larger overall points This paper Reduce preform size Smaller overall points Ellis 1997 Cession of fluting Increase in useable points Goodyear 1999 Drop earlystage preform fluting Thicker points Goodyear 1999 Blade-based points Retouched blade points Goodyear 1999 Narrow haft width (notching) Increased number of possible resharpenings This paper Heat treating Improve flaking properties of most tool stone Purdy 1981 Use and Reuse Measures Strengthen haft design Change in haft morphology This paper Adopt uni facial resharpening Opposite beveling of points Milanich 1994, This paper Conversion of blades/broken points to Introduction of point-style hafted scrapers into assemblage This paper scrapers

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Figure 4.1. Three longest examples of Bolen Plain projectile points from Ohmes Collection.

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123 Figure 4.2. Six Bolen Plain side-notched projectile points from Ohmes Collection.

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Figure 4.3. Six Bolen Beveled side-notched projectile points from Ohmes Collection.

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125 Figure 4.4. One Greenbriar side-notched projectile points from Ohmes Collection.

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Figure 4.5. Five Bolen side-notched projectile points from Ohmes Collection that represent a continuum of resharpening (left to right) from initial manufacture to discard.

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128 Figure 4.7. Excurvate base Bolen Side-notched beveled points with rounded notches. Mid-stage resharpening. Note diversity of raw materials present.

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129 Figure 4.8. Range of Bolen comer-notched (or Hardin Barbed) projectile points from Ohmes collection. Note very strong opposite beveled resharpening on both far right and far left examples and variety of bases.

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130 Figure 4.9. Bolen comer-notched (Kirk comer-notched) and Kirk Stemmed projectile points from the Ohmes Collection. Note relatively large size and strong serration on middle example.

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131 Figure 4.10. Five Bolen side-notched points from Ohmes Collection. Note long, narrow form resulting from highlyformalized opposite bevel resharpening of tabular blade. Middle three examples have reverse taper discussed in text.

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Figure 4.1 1. Five Bolen side-notched points from the Ohmes Collection. Note range of notch shapes, from open to constricted.

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Figure 4.12. Five assorted Bolen projectile points from the Ohmes collection.

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134 and Recycling Figure 4.13. Proposed reduction sequence for Early Archaic Bolen points (redrawn from Austin and Mitchell 1999: Figure 38)

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136 ^ 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Figure 4.15. Scatterplots of length vs. stem width for points identified as side-notched (upper chart) and comer-notched (lower chart). Data from Appendix B.

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137 CLOVIS (Lanceolate, Fluted, outre-passe flaking, basallyground) Drop Fluting SUWANEE (Lanceolate, outrepasse flaked, basally-ground) QUAD Emphasize Fluting Emphasize Size Adopt unifacial resharpening FOLSOM REDSTONE CUMBERLAND DALTON Adopt unifacial resharpening SIMPSON (Lanceolate, outrepasse, basal, large blade) Narrow Haft GREENBRIAR PALMER BOLEN PLAIN BOLEN BEVEL KIRK SERRATED KIRK PLAIN Figure 4.16. Morphological transformation of Paleoindian to Early Archaic point styles based on the addition and subtraction of individual point features (time — early to late — is roughly represented from top left to bottom right).

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138

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139 Figure 4.18. Artist's reconstruction of Early Archaic nutting stone manufacturing process, (drawing by Mason Sheffield).

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CHAPTER 5 THE EARLY HOLOCENE BONE TOOL KIT An early Holocene bone tool kit has never been proposed for the Southeast United States, although the use of animal bone from Holocene species is one of the most longHved technological traditions in the North American archeological record. The early Holocene bone tool kit — as represented from Page/Ladson, Dust Cave, and Little Salt Spring — will be detailed and illustrated in this chapter. Techno-functional uses of some of the tools will be explored and the potential ceremonial uses of a few bone items will be proposed. Bone tools and other bone artifacts played an important role in early Holocene Ufe in the southeastern United States. Bone tools excavated from early-Middle and Middle Archaic period shell mound sites in the Tennessee Valley (Lewis and Kneeburg 1961:75102), from the Windover site (Penders 2002), and in later sites along the southwest Florida coast (Walker 1992) encompass a much wider range of potential fuctions than contemporaneous stone tools. The more plastic nature of bone — its flexibility and durability — and the availability of numerous different sizes and shapes of bone contributed to its use for a wide diversity of tool and non-tool functions. Semenov (1973), Knecht (1997), and Walker (1992), are used here as points of departure for defining the fiinctional classes of bone tools and into which functional class each bone tool fits. Semenov (1973) provides a basis for a discussion of potential ceremonial uses of some bone artifacts. 140

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141 Technofunctional Categories of Early Holocene Bone Artifacts Both ethnological and archaeological lines of evidence suggest Archaic period bone artifacts were used by prehistoric groups as part of daily activities, including flintworking, hunting/fishing, garment production, basketry, net production, music, ceremonies, and decoration. The types of artifacts that have been attributed to each of these activities are summarized below (Table 5.1). Sites with Early Holocene Bone Tools Most individual bone tools from Dust Cave, Page/Ladson, and Little Salt Spring fit into one of the categories. The potential systemic function of each artifact will be discussed after it is described and illustrated. Before discussing the bone artifacts, however, it is important to review briefly the stratigraphy of Dust Cave and Little Salt Spring, as they have not been previously discussed. Dust Cave, located in northern Alabama, has been excavated yearly for over a decade (Goldman-Finn and Driskell 1994). Excavations in the cave have uncovered an extensive early Holocene occupation roughly divided by the excavators into late Paleoindian and early Side-Notched periods (Figure 5.1) based on the types of projectile points recovered from each level. Radiocarbon dates from the cave indicate an initial occupation sometime around 10,500 rcybp and on-going occupation until circa 3,500 rcybp. Excavations in the lowest two cultural levels in the cave have yielded a diversity of bone tools, mostly in the small to medium size range (Goldman-Finn and Walker 1994). The strata from which Little Salt Spring bone tools were recovered also spans the late Pleistocene to early Holocene periods. Recent excavations by the University of Miami in the submerged deposits have been termed "Operations," each of which is a

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142 uniform 2m x 2m test unit. Within those test units, 10cm arbitrary levels are excavated and measured from the current spring surface. Within each arbitrary level, natural strata~or loci — are tracked as either numbers or letters, followed by a letter indicating the field identification of broad material type (e.g. B=Bone) and a sequential number for that arbitrary level. An object's vertical find location and depositional zone are reflected in its catalog number. Operation Level Locus Artifact The first artifact in level 06288A01 Excavations in the basin area of the spring have yielded strata that were initially deposited in a subaerially-exposed, sandy basin, then — around 8,000 BP — in a shallowwater basin. Accordingly, the lower strata are sands overlain by calcareous marls and then thick peats (Dietrich and Gifford 1996). Many of the bone tools discussed below were recovered from loci that date to between 10,000 BP and 8,500 BP (Table 5.2). These loci are typically calcareous marls and quartz sands. Antler and Bone Tools from Page/Ladson and Little Salt Spring Antler Flakers and Probable Antler Flaker Preforms (Tigures 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5; Two antler flakers were recovered from Levels 7 and 8 in Test B of the Page/Ladson site in 1984 (Dunbar et al. 1988). This context was underlain by Level 9, which dates to 9,450±100BP (Table 3.1). The lack of an erosional contact between these three levels suggests that they are close to the same age. The antler flakers themselves are relatively small, with the distal ends resharpened-rnost likely by abrasion — to a point. The two points average 3mm across. In both instances, the flakers were manufactured by systematically girdling the antler above and

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143 below where the tine was joined to the main part of the rack. A tool very similar in shape is used by modem knappers as a notching tool (Whittaker 1994:20-25). This style of tool can also be used as a general resharpening tool for both bifacial chert points and unifacial scrapers, both tools common in early Holocene (Purdy 1981:8-21). One possible antler flaker (06999 A02, Figure 5.4) was recovered from Little Salt Spring. The artifact was discovered out of context. However, the antler surface is coated with a calcareous deposit that is common on artifacts recovered from Locus 0 and Locus 1 . This example does not have evidence of working at the tip. It articulates with another antler artifact from the same context (06999 A04, Figure 5.5). Worked Antler Racks (09021 AOl, 0901 1B03, 07001 AOl, 06999 A03) (Figures 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9) This is a tentative grouping. Two of these racks— 09021 AOl and 0901 1B03, both from Little Salt Spring — appear to be similar in one respect, but different in another. Both have been scored and had some or all of the tines broken off The former has clear burin-parted scoring around the first proximal tine, as well as radial parting and snapping of the second and third proximal tines. The latter has the four proximal tines broken off, but by a different method. Close examination of this artifact revealed that the slotting used to prepare the tine for separation was v-shaped scoring on the distal side of each tine (Figure 5.8), rather than radial scoring around the tine. The former rack (09021 AOl) also has a pair of grooves on the first tine are slots that indicate that the tine was going to be both broken into a tip and an intermediate section. Given the antler tip recovered from nearby (see below), it seems possible that multiple tool types were rendered from individual antlers. In terms of overall appearance, antler 0901 1B03 looks the most like the remains of a deer costume that could

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144 have been used for either ceremonies (e.g. dancing, ritual dragging) or hunting. The use of deer skins and antlers for hunting camouflage is well-documented among early historic Native American groups. It could even have been used for that purpose until the calotte cracked down the middle, then converted to raw material for antler projectile points, atlatl hooks, handles, or other objects. Antler 07001 AO 1 from Little Salt Spring has a different configuration than the previous two. Again, it was found out of context, but with the characteristic calcareous deposits that characterize early Holocene materials from the site. This artifact has two radially-removed tips. Moreover, the tips were removed on a single plane, such that the remaining antler had a flat set of resting points. This suggests a possible piece of site furniture, possibly a votive dish or cup holder. Finally, artifact 06999 AOS (Figure 5.9) is both scored between the second and third distal tines and is abraded on the proximal end. Again, this antler appears to be a preform for either an antler billet, pressure flaker, or some type of combination tool. •. ' h . Antler Billet/Tool (BAR 85-59-54) (Figure 5.10) This tool was recovered from Level 10 in Test B in the Page/Ladson site which dates to circa 10,000 BP. Associated artifacts include antler flakers, a Bolen-style projectile point, and a fractured bola stone. No archaeological features were observed in this level. Although there is a general consensus among lithic technology experts that billets were used to shape stone tools from the Paleoindian period forward in North America, few, if any, have been found in Paleoindian or early Archaic period archeo logical contexts. This antler tool appears to be substantially battered on one end, suggesting that it was used as a billet for soft-hammer flake removal. Perhaps more interesting is the

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145 other end, which appears to have been systematically slotted. The slot tapers from 2.8 cm to 3.9 cm in width from one side to the other. There is no indication that a tool was hafted into the slot. The distal end of the slot has been broken out, making it difficult to fully evaluate the original tool function. However, Table 5 details a few of the tool's possible functions. The most physical evidence exists for use as a billet and as a sinew/fiber strecher. There is substantial battering on the proximal end. All three of the existing slot margins show evidence of grooving, possibly from drawing cordage or sinew through the slot. The grooving is only present on the slot ends, not in the slot's walls, indicating an avoidance of lateral surface use. Although the grooving indicates a direct use for making binding material, the width and length of the slot is also consistent with the basal thicknesses and widths of many of the 100+ side-and comer-notched projectile points from the Ohmes collection (see Chapter 5), a collection made from the Aucilla River by Dr. Richard Ohmes during the 1950s1970s and now curated by the Florida Museum of Natural History. It is highly suggestive of a gauge that this shaped slot would occur on a tool with clear billet-wear on the opposite end. The possibility that this type of slot could have held a tapered tool can not be ruled out. James Dunbar (1999, personal communication) has suggested that it was used as a spokeshave handle, or as the handle for a draw-knife. While it seems clear that tool BAR 85-54-59 was used for at least one of the previously detailed functions, it may be a mistake to ascribe it a single fiinction. If we view the artifact as a generalized point production tool, it could as easily have held a number of different sized pieze d'esquis, burins, end scrapers, and spokeshaves, and still

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146 functioned as a gauge for sizing the completed hafts of side-notched points and Edgefield scrapers, and been used for stretching sinew and/or plant cordage. In fact, with a tool kit composed of this tool, one antler pressure flaker, and a medium-sized hammerstone, an early Holocene knapper would have possessed a fully functional point production tool kit. Given the premium placed on mobility during the Paleoindian and early Archaic periods (Kelly and Todd 1988; Anderson and Hansen 1988), it seems reasonable to predict that durable, multi-purpose tools would have been adopted to save weight and carrying space, especially when those tools required large time investments to produce. They would have been the functional equivalent of a modem multi-purpose knive, and would compliment a curated-biface lithic strategy (Goodyear 1999). One feature on BAR 85-54-59 bears noting. The exterior of the tool from the billet end to 5cm from the slotted end is covered with a relatively solidified deposit. Macroscopically, this deposit appears to be the cumulative residue of years of dirt and sebaceous oils applied to the object, possibly through use. Without testing, this interpretation is purely speculative. Handles (LSS 06288A01 and 05991 AOl) (Figures 5.11, 5.12) Handle 06288 AOl from Little Salt Spring was systematically scored 10cm from the antler's proximal end. Another groove was incomplete when the entire piece was deposited in the spring. Although it is unclear how this object would have been used, the hollowing of the end suggests that it was used as a handle "collar" used to hold a cylindrical tool, a feature that is better developed on the second example (05991 AOl). Although hafting evidence does not exist on any of these examples, the intuitive means of using these tools is to insert a bi-pointed bone or wooden point into the socket. The bone

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147 pin either takes on a friction fit or could be secured with rosin or some type of collagenbased glue (e.g., hide glue). Cups or Vessels (Table 5.4)(Figures 5.13-5.18) These artifacts are some of the most remarkable found from early Holocene sites in the Southeast. As far as we know, no other artifact of this type has been excavated from initial or early Holocene contexts besides Page/Ladson and Little Salt Spring in the eastem United States. They are the calottes of relatively large deer (Odocoileus sp.) both with and without antler segments attached. The samples given here can be divided into three basic groups: carefullyworked calottes with no antler, one antler, or two antlers — or antler fragments attached. On the specimen from Page/Ladson (95E-238, Figure 3. ), the left antler was scored at the base, then broken from the skull. The most remarkable feature of this artifact is the care with which the calotte was preserved, with bone systematically removed in a rough hemisphere moving horizontally from the top of the orbits to the parietals. This care suggests that the remaining cranial material and right antler was intended for subsequent use, possibly as a hand-held cup (Semenov 1973:167). A remarkable similarity exists between the example from Page/Ladson and one example (0700 1 BO 1, Figure 5.13) from Little Salt Spring. In both cases, the calotte forms a wide, open bowl that was carefully worked to remove all cranial material below the orbit tops and mid-parietal area. There is a striking resemblance between two other examples (0700 1B04, Figure 5.17, and 0901 1B02, Figure 5.15) from Little Salt Spring. In both examples, most of the right antler has been removed, a portion of the basocranium has been removed to form a semi-enclosed vessel, and the foramen magnum was retained. These features suggest that

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148 these examples could have been used as serving vessels, with the foramen magnum serving as a pouring spout. These could be the functional equivalent of conch dippers recovered from later prehistoric sites and ethnohistorically documented as serving utensils for drinking rituals . One cup (0700 1B02) has a unique feature in that there is a distinct hole along the sagittal suture. The hole appears to have been drilled and would easily serve as a drinking hole, a hole through which a liquid could be poured, or one used for filling the cup — which would make a liquid froth (Jerry Milanich 2002, personal communication). This feature is unique among the examples described here. The calotte from Page/Ladson (95E-238) was recovered from Stratum 6 in Test S, 1015cm above the Stratum 5/6 interface. This same level yielded a carbon date of 10,280±120 BP (Beta-103888) on the organic-rich soil immediately adjacent to a Kirkstyle projectile point. Although the date on this level is older than dates run on materials fi-om the Stratum 5/6 interface, there is a good chance that minor amounts of inorganic carbon could have skewed the date older than expected for this level. All of the calottes fi-om Little Salt were recovered from either Locus 0 or 1, which are firmly dated to the early Holocene (Table 5.2). Bone pin (95E-209, Figure 3.28) The single bone pin described here was recovered from Page/Ladson, Test I, Zone 6. This stratum corresponds to the period between 10,000 BP and 8,500 BP. The bone pin was found in approximately the same vertical level as the antler cup (Test S) and a Kirk (or Bolen) Comer-notched point (Test U). In the field, the pin appeared to have been deposited directly into the river bottom sediments. It came out of the sediment a hght cream color. On exposure to river water — then air — the point almost immediately

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149 began to change color to a medium tan. This seems to suggest not only that the pin had never been exposed to the tannic-stained water of the Aucilla, but that the silty-clay sediments effectively sealed the bone in a largely anaerobic, neutral-to-mildly-alkaline environment that prevented the normal darkening of bone through oxidation. Physically, the pin appears to have been made out of the long bone of a deer {Odocoileus virginianus), although other ungulates can not be excluded. One end of the bone pin is sharpened to a point, while the other is broken. Close examination of the marks on the pin indicate that there was ongoing, late-stage scraping of the unfinished pin. Additionally, transverse chatter ridges indicate that considerable force was used to reduce the pin to its current size, probably with chert scrapers or flakes. Fine transverse and diagonal striations near the tip indicate use as a perforator or awl. This artifact could have been an awl, pin, or projectile point. Antler Points (09021A02, 09021A03, 09993A02, and 06329A01, Figures 5.19 and 5.20) • . . Both of these Little Salt Spring points show important aspects of the bone-point manufacturing process. Both were radially parted from the parent antler. One point, assembled from 09021 A02, 09021 AOS, and 09993A02, has clear drill marks on the interior surface of the point (Figure 5.19). Work marks on this artifact suggest several manufacturing processes, including the use of some type of vise to hold the tine during drilling. The unsmoothed, spiral marks on this artifact suggest a use for the side-notched and stemmed chert drills recovered from early Holocene sites in the Southeast. The nearcircular shape of the hole and the fineness of the interior striations also suggest that either a fiicfion drill (hand-operated) or a bow drill was used.

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150 Doran (2001, personal communication) and Dickel (2002) have observed these types of antler points in direct association with many different individual early and Middle Archaic burials, sometimes actually imbedded into skeletal material he has examined. He suggests that this type of point could be specifically used for warfare and/or interpersonal conflicts. In terms of effectiveness, an antler point could be considered a more effective interpersonal weapon. First, the back of the tip could be packed with poison. Second, if the point hit bone in the intended target, it could easily fi-acture and become impossible to remove. Finally, unlike stone, which the body will spontaneously push out unless surrounded by bone (Powell and Rose 1999), bone shards would not be ejected, increasing the chance of long-term infection. Digging implements (06261B01, 06349B01, 07001B03, Figures 5.21, 5.22, 5.23) Two types of digging implements are represented fi-om Little Salt Spring. The first type corresponds to a small shovel, or broad-bladed digging tool. These tools are made of deer scapula and were likely used to dig in relafively soft soils. On both examples, the scapula shovels have medial edge wear, an indication that they were either held on their lateral end, or hafted onto a wood shaft for use. The second type is a narrow-bladed digging implement more appropriate for digging in harder soils, or in and around tree roots. The example fi-om Little Salt Spring is made from half a deer mandible. The person who made the tool removed the molars, presumably to make it more comfortable to handle. Incisors are also missing from this example, although it is not clear whether they were purposely removed, fell out, or were worn away through use. The presence of digging tools also implies the use of buried food and medicinal plants, which could have included sassafras, smilax, and arrowroot. In terms of animal

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151 resources, several species of animals — including the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) and other species that rely on its burrow for habitat — could be excavated using this type of digging implement in the sandy soils of peninsular Florida. Awls (0901 1A04, 06290A01, 95A-2, Figures 5.24, 5.25, 5.26) Use wear on specimen 0901 1 A04 from Little Salt Spring (Figure 5.26) indicates it was used in a radial, or twisting motion. This is consistent with perforating hides and/or boring holes in other types of material. Additional diagonal striations further from the tip appear to be the result of sharpening episodes. The other specimen (06290A01) is made from a deer ulna, and has a broken tip. Its shape is especially conducive to heavy duty perforating tasks. The proximal articulation surface is the type of handling area that provides a secure hold on the tool. Bone bead (06319A01, Figure 5.27) This small bone bead is one of the oldest found in the New World. Although it is not certaion exactly how these bone beads were used at the time, Middle Archaic bone beads have been found as part of burial necklaces and as part of loose fill in midden mounds. This suggests that — as is done today — beads were used in both everyday settings (e.g., personal decoration or clothing decoration) that would lead to loss, and in ritual settings. General Considerations The assemblages from Page/Ladson and Little Salt Spring suggest that deer antler was the most utilized type of raw material for bone tools during the early Holocene. Systematically slotting and removing tines from antler racks further suggests that the tines were being used as pressure flakers, perforators, and points. Additional slotting along the main antler shaft suggests that antler sections were used for handles, drifts,

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152 billets, slotted multi-function tools, and possible camouflage garb. Retaining antler sections on systematically-reworked skulls yielded useable cups or antler headgear, both of possible ritual significance. Both shed and un-shed antler pieces were recovered at the Little Salt Spring and Page/Ladson sites, indicating that deer were hunted during at least three seasons of the year: fall, winter, and spring. The girdling of antler suggests use of burin technology on both shed and un-shed antlers. It is clear from the antiquity of these specimens that the long-recognized suite of antler and bone tools dating to the early Middle Archaic period actually has its roots in the initial or early Holocene, and likely overlaps with "Paleoindian" traditions, as well. There appears to have been a major shift in bone tool manufacturing techniques from those described for the early Paleoindian period (Dunbar et al. 1989), which could have had a considerable effect on the socio-technic and ceremonial aspects of early Holocene life.

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153 Table 5.1. A techno functional classification of bone artifacts Activity Naine(s) Functioii(s) References Basket makine Needle Weaving Semenov 1973; Mat making Awl/Fid Walker 1992 Personal decoration Needle Pigment Application Semenov 1973; Awl Jewelry making McComb 1989:104 Flintworking Billet Pressure Flaker Flake Removal Whittaker • T 1 i.1 1. kCUV wl. 1994:129 Garment Production Awl Hole puncturing Semenov 1973 Needle Stitching Goldman-Finn T Gather smoother Tan n i n i?/T .eath er finishing and Walker 1 994 Sinew processing Grooved bone Stretching/thinning smew Semenov 1973 T-Tiintin (j/Ri cnin o IVHilC JTltllllilC Hanrllp ociiiciiwv vy I D Foreshaft Joining projectile Walker 1992 Hook finint^ to
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154 Table 5.2. Carbon dates from Little Salt Spring (Carter and Gifford 2002) Lab No. Sample No. C14 y B.P.±1(T C13/C 12 €13 Adj. Age Depth BSS Beta-54180 06242W02 8140±60 -27.9 8090±60 bp ~7.10m Beta-54897 0624 1W04 8790±50 -27.5 8750±50 bp ~7.10m Beta-54181 0627 1W06 8460±70 -29.1 8390±70 bp ~7.35m Beta-54896 06260 WO 1 8610±80 -27.7 8570±80 bp ~7.26m Beta-54898 06290W01 9010±60 -30.5 8920±60 bp ~7.55m Beta-54182 06290W19 9060±60 -30.3 8980±60 bp ~7.63m Beta-54179 0636ZW01 8970±60 -28.7 8920±60 bp ~8.30m Beta-54726 0636ZW04 9020±70 -28.7 8970±70 bp ~8.3m Beta-62562 0636ZW19 9030±90 -29.3 8960±90 bp ~8.3m Table 5.3. Possible functions of BAR 85-59-54 Name Possible function or systemic use Stretcher/Fiber processor Working sinew or cordage into usable binding materials Gauge Checking stem thickness and width of notched points Handle Holding a chert spokeshave or spatulate bone or wooden bit Billet Soft hammer flaker for stone tool production Table 5.4. Range of Odocoileus sp. skull vessel variation No Antler One Antler Two Antlers Open Calotte Bowl 0700 1B02 95E-238 07001 BO 1 Semi-closed Vessel 09011B11 0901 1B02, 07001B04 Possible Cup use 06300B02 0901 1B03

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155 cm below da 0 100200300400SOO-' Figure 5.1. Cultural/Stratigraphic representation of levels from Dust Cave (adapted from Goldman-Finn and Driskell 1994). Bone tools from the late Paleoindian and early Side-Notched levels are comparable in age to both Page/Ladson and Little Salt Spring.

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Figure 5.2: Antler Flaker 84-527-9 from Test B on the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591)

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Figure 5.3. Antler Flaker 84-527-9B from Test B on the Page/Ladson Site (8Je591).

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158 i Figure 5.4. Artifact 06999 A02— Possible Antler Flaker Preform from Little Salt Spring

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159

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Figure 5.6. Artifact 09021 AO 1 proximal tine — Shed antler with removed distal tines and scored

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Figure 5.1 1. Antler handle 06288A01 with evidence of burin parting and slotting (maximum length: 12cm).

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Figure 5.12. Antler handle 05991A01 with evidence of burin parting and drilling on one end.

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167 f

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Figure 5.14. Systematically-reworked calotte — possible cup (07001B02). circular hole on mid-line of parietal suture. Note small

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169 Figure 5.15. Artifact 0901 1B02. Possible drinking vessel

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170

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Figure 5.17. Deer Skull (0700 1B04) with systematically-removed ventral portion

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172 Figure 5.18. Deer cranium (06300B02) possibly used as vessel, (maximum length: 10cm)

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Figure 5.19. Antler projectile point tip consisting of 09021 A02, 09021 A02, and 09993A02.

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174

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Figure 5.21. Deer Scapula 06261B01. Note breakage of medial edge (maximum length. 17cm).

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176

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Figure 5.23. Odocoileus sp. left mandible (07001 BOS) used as digging implement. Note abrasion on base of proximal end and breakage of distal end.

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178 . CM Figure 5.24. Bone Awl (0901 1 A04) made from deer ulna. Figure 5.25. Bone Awl (0901 1 A04) detail showing diagonal striations near tip.

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Figure 5.27. Bone bead (06319A01) (maximum length: 1.7cm, diameter: 0.8cm).

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CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Overview There were two principal objectives to this dissertation. First, to provide detailed descriptions of material recovered from the underwater and land components of the Page/Ladson site. The second objective was to document and discuss the early Holocene stone and bone tool assemblages from Page/Ladson and Little Salt Spring and discuss them in terms of changing early Holocene foraging strategies. Both objectives have been met. This work has contributed to Florida archaeology methodologically, in substance, and theoretically. On methodology, it is clear that excavations under water and on land at the same site are complementary. At the time most of the site was deposited, there was no "underwater/terrestrial" dichotomy. Through the subsequent inundation of one part of the site, site features and organics were preserved that would not have been otherwise. On many historic sites, excavation of land and underwater archeological components of near-water sites tends to expose different components of the social systems that created them (e.g. architecture/domestic life vs. boat-building/commerce). Excavation of the "total" prehistoric site, underwater and on land, shows that it can be done— and should be done where the results of such amphibious archaeology are complementary. On the substantive side, Page/Ladson and Little Salt Spring have some of the eariiest excavated bone tools from the Southeast. Documenting bone tools from this site defines preliminarily the bone tool assemblage for the eariy Holocene Southeast. 180

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181 Moreover, finding pre-completion forms and fragments of completed early Holocene ground stone tools illuminates their previously-undocumented manufacturing and use. Correlating these bone and stone tools with a suite of radiocarbon dates solidifies the antiquity of both tool classes in the Americas, and strongly suggests that ground stone tools were either produced or developed during the late Pleistocene, but at low enough numbers to not appear on many late Pleistocene sites. Dated projectile points fi-om Southeastern sites also suggests that the "horizon" model of projectile point style changes does not capture the complexity of how they were manufactured and used. It seems just as likely that different point styles were used concurrently for different game animals. Where deer were the exclusive large game animal, lithic craftspersons rapidly adopted notched points and stabilized production around sideand comer-notched forms. Theoretically, part of this dissertation proposed an explanatory model of point transformation from the late Pleistocene through early Holocene. By linking points closely to the game they were intended to kill and butcher, the model does not have to rely on anything other than faunal community transformations to explain transformations in point morphology. Additionally, the model avoids discussing the ceremonial and/or ritual aspects of point production and burial, most of which are probably unretrievable fi-om the archeological record. Artifacts from Page/Ladson also have provided limited support to the hypothesis that early Holocene hunter/foragers were pursuing mixed subsistence strategies prior to 10,000 BP. It seems like the ground bolo stones were a curated tool, like other curated tools in early Holocene assemblages, but directed at extracting previously untapped resources.

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182 Early Holocene Human Settlement in North Florida Early Holocene human settlements in north Florida were directed at balancing access to different human needs (water, food, chert resources, mating networks, ceremonial goods). Page/Ladson, with points, bifaces, abraders, handstones or nutting stones, and evidence of hearths and vertical structures, fits into that regional settlement system. The diversity of stone tools on the site, and the presence of camp-like site features suggests that it was either a multi-purpose logistical procurement station for different types of stone tools, or it was a component of a larger base camp located nearby. Other sites near Page/Ladson (e.g. 8Le2105, 8Le73, and 8Lf54) appear to be large base camps with longer-term occupation and re-occupation. Environmental evidence from sites in north Florida suggests that an increase in hickory trees in the Tallahassee Hills subregion may have opened a niche for local hunter/foragers. The use of hickory nuts on other Southeastern sites is well-documented during the early Holocene, both near Page/Ladson and further north in the upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont. Page/Ladson, with access to water, abundant nearby chert quarries and dolomite outcrops, would have been a prime location for "gearing up" for hunting and foraging trips into the Red Hills and Gulf Coastal lowlands subregions where those resources were not easily available. By the time Page/Ladson was occupied, eariy Holocene inhabitants of north Florida were well-versed with seasonally-available food resources. Using this knowledge, they probably scheduled eariy fall visits to north Florida quarry areas to make stone tools, mid-to-late fall visits to the Red Hills hickory, persimmon, and oak groves to harvest nuts, squirrels, and deer, and late winter to eariy spring visits to the now-drowned Gulf coast to harvest fish, migrating birds, and other

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183 coastal food resources. These same inhabitants likely harvested fish, shellfish, crabs, and native plums, berries, and tubers during the late spring and summer. Binford's (2001) model predicts that an upward shift in the effective temperature will result in increased rehance on plant foods by hunter/foragers. There appears to be support for this model in the increased utilization of plant resources by early Holocene peoples in the southeastern United States. However, the dating of most southeastern late Pleistocene/early Holocene sites is not good enough to causally link the environmental change to the human shift in resource use. The environmental picture may be complicated by human control over important land-ahering processes like fire. The increase in charcoal found in post10,000 BP Page/Ladson sediments could be the result of either natural factors (lightning) or human causes (land burning, camp fires). Early Holocene hunters may have noted the effectiveness of burning at improving the habitat quality for human-favored species (e.g. turkey, quail, deer), and adopted it as a strategy for improving hunting yields. Advantages would have included increased ease of hunting (open understory), game congregation during burning, increased amount of "edge" habitat preferred by deer, improved early spring grass for deer and birds, and selection for larger nut-bearing trees in mixed hardwood hammocks. Even one natural fire would have demonstrated the advantages of this land-management technique to early Holocene inhabitants of north Florida. The circumscription of hunter/gatherer groups in north Florida that may have caused the shift to forest plant products may also have provided a mofivation to pursue aquatic food resources. If this is the case, there should be early Holocene coastal middens located on the submerged continental shelf. If this is the case, early middle

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184 Archaic middens found on the Florida Gulf Coast (Russo 1996) are just the first middens to not be completely inundated by rising seas. Further Research Florida archeologists and the collector community have long been interested in the Late Pleistocene and early Holocene sites and artifacts. A Florida early Holocene survey should be attempted to search for single-component lanceolate, mixed lanceolate-early notched, and single-component notched point sites. These types of sites would provide the types of dates, stone and bone tools, and intraand inter-site distribution data that would clarify the boundaries and longevity of Florida's Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene hunter/gatherer groups. Such a survey should first focus on first and second magnitude springs. Large Paleoindian and Early Archaic sites have been tested and/or excavated around Wakulla Spring, Darby and Homsby Spring, and Silver Spring. Florida river valleys and stream junctions that would have intermittently held water during the Pleistocene/Ho locene transition should also be targeted using sampling strategies that have been used effectively on large tracts elsewhere in the country. Ridge areas with broad vistas should be sampled. Evidence fi-om Alaska and other areas suggests that Paleoindians used these areas to ascertain the location of game animals and to plan hunting. Additionally, previously-excavated Paleoindian sites with good stratigraphy should be revisited with the clear aim of gathering datable materials. y • Using projectile points as the means to infer social differences, as has been done to characterize late Pleistocene and early Holocene settlement in the southeast, seems to be fraught with problems. These proposed social boundaries should be tested by comparing entire stone tool assemblages from each area. Such tests would give us a better idea of

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185 whether the social boundaries really existed, or if the projectile point style differences were just superficial differences in a more stable late Pleistocene to early Holocene tool tradition. Early Holocene emphasis on blade tools in the Tennessee River valley (Kimball 1996) would suggest such a stable tool tradition. Another productive line of research would be to use the extensive database on ethnographically-known hunter/foragers from similar effective temperature (ET) zones, predict site types and locations based on favored habitats for known early Holocene food resources, and test those modeled locations against both existing Florida Master Site File data and archaeological testing. Finally, an extensive excavation of a larger residential base camp with good stratigraphy would help characterize the total stone tool assemblage of early Holocene foragers as well as help archaeologists determine how an early Holocene camp was arranged. Without information about site construction and dwelling arrangements, important aspects of early Holocene band-level social interaction will remain unknown.

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APPENDIX A CATALOG OF FINDS OF SURFACE COLLECTED EARLY ARCHAIC DIAGNOSTICS AND MATERIALS EXCAVATED FROM EARLY ARCHAIC DATED PROVENIENCES Field Specimen Description Count Weight Comments and Lot or Quantity 85A.059.000036.0001 BIFACIAL CHOPPER 1 not wei&hed not weighed ojA.usy.uouojo.oooi DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed OjA.Ujy.UUUUjO.Ul)U4 DbBIi AGE 1 BAG not weighed ojA.Ujy.UUUUjo.UOj J T TTTT T "7 r* r\ T A 1^ 117/ U 1 ILIZED FLAKE W/ 1 not weighed POT y^H 1 RAH not weighed Q< A ACn AAAATT AAA 1 ojA.Ujy.UUUUi / .UUUl DEBITAGE FLAKE 1 not weighed A ACA AAAATT AAA1 GROUND STONE, 1 not weighed RDf n 85A.059.000039.0009 ANTLER KNIFE 1 HANDLE FRAGMENT 85A.059.000039.001l HAMMERSTONE 1 not weighed 85A.059.000039.0032 BIFACE, BOLEN 1 not weighed BEVELED 85A.059.000039.0033 BIFACE, BOLEN 1 not weighed BEVELED 85A.059.000039.0034 BIFACE, BOLEN 1 not weighed BEVELED 85 A.059.00004 1.0001 DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed 85 A.059.00004 1.0031 BIFACIAL SCRAPER 1 not weighed 85A.059.000045.0001 BIFACIAL CHOPPER 1 not weighed 85A.059.000046.0001 SANDSTONE BALL 1 not weighed (SMALL) 85A.059.000046.0002 BIFACE FRAGMENT 1 not weighed 85A.059.000046.0005 DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed 85A.059.000046.0012 HAMMERSTONE 1 not weighed 85A.059.000046.0013 HAMMERSTONE 1 not weighed 85A.059.000054 DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed 85A.059.000054 MODIFIED, UNSORTED 1 BAG not weighed 85A.059.000054 CHARCOAL 1 BAG not weighed 85A.059.000054 POTTERY 1 BAG not weighed 85A.059.000054.0001 UNIFACE TOOL, SCRAPER (84.527.9.22) 1 not weighed 85A.059.000054.0002 SHATTER 1 not weighed 186

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187 Field Specimen Description Count Weigilt Comments and Lot or Quantity 85A.059.000054.0003 DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed 85A.059.000054.0004 DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed 85A.059.000054.0005 WORKED BONE PIN OR AWL FRAGMENT 1 not weighed 85A.059.000054.0006 TOOL, ANTLER 1 not weighed 85A.059.000056.0001 BIFACE, DALTON 1 not weighed ADZE 85A.059.000057 MODIFIED, 1 not weighed UlNisOKlbD 85A 059 000057 DFRTTAGF 1 RATi IIUL WCIgllCU 85A 059 000057 \j i\..\J -J ^ .\j\J\j\J ^ 1 POTTFRY 1 RAr; IlUl WCl^IlCU 85A 059 000057 MODTFIFD rORF 1 i uui wcigncu 85A 059 000059 'ill. \J J 2/ . \J\J\J\J ^ 7 DEBITAGE 1 BAG iioi wcigncci 85A.059.000059 FOSSIL, UNMODIFIED 1 IIUL WClKilCQ 85A 059 000059 CHARCOAL 1 BAG IlUl WClgllCtl ojA.ujv.uuuujy POTTERY 1 BAG not weighed 85A.059. 000059 FAUNAE BONE 1 BAG not weighed 87A.009. 000058.0030 BIFACE, GREENBRIAR 1 not weighed 87A.009.000060.0005 DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed 87A.009.000060.0006 MODIFIED, UNIFACE 1 not weighed 87A.009.000060.0007 MODIFIED, 1 not weighed HAMMERSTONE 87A.009.00006 1.0008 DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed 87A.009.000061.0009 MODIFIED, UNIFACE 1 not weighed 87A.009.000061.0010 UNIFACE TOOL, 1 not weighed WEDGE FLAKE SCRAPER 87A.009.000061.001 1 BIFACE, ADZE BIT 1 not weighed 87A.009.000061.0012 BIFACE, PREFORM 1 not weighed 87A.009.000063.0013 ROCK SAMPLE 1 BAG not weighed 87A.009.000063.0014 DEBITAGE OF LARGE 1 BAG not weighed GRAINED ROCK 87A.009.000063.0015 DEBITAGE I BAG nnt wpipHpH 87 A 000 OOOOfi"? OOlfi MODIFIED, HAMMERSTONE 1 not weighed 87A.009.000063.0017 UNIFACE TOOL, SCRAPER/KNIFE 1 Tint wpictIipH 87A.009.000063.0018 UNIFACE TOOL, 1 not weighed SCRAPER FRAGMENT 87A.009.000063.0019 BIFACE CONICAL 1 not weighed CORE 87A.009.000063.0020 BIFACE, ADZE BIT 1 not weighed 87A.009.000063.0021 BIFACE, ADZE BIT 1 not weighed 87A.009.000063.0031 CORES, LARGE 2 not weighed GRAESfED POROUS ROCK

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188 Field Specimen Description Count Weight Comments and Lot or Quantity 87A.009.000070.0022 LARGE GRAINED CHERT 1 not weighed 87A.009.000070.0023 DEBITAGE, LARGE 1 BAG not weighed GRAINED CHERT 87A.009.000070.0024 DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed 87A.009.000070.0025 UNIFACE TOOL, SCRAPER 1 not weighed 87A.009.000070.0026 UNIFACE TOOL, 1 not weighed SCRAPER 87A.009.000070.0027 BIFACE, PREFORM 1 not weighed 87A.009.000079.0001 DEBITAGE FLAKE 1 not weighed 88A.0 11.000092.0023 DEBITAGE (2 FLAKES) 2 not weighed 88A.0 11.000094.0001 ROCK SAMPLE, NONCULTURAL 1 BAG not weighed 88 A.0 11.000096.0003 ROCK SAMPLE, NON1 BAG not weighed CULTURAL 88A.0 11.000096.0024 UTILIZED FLAKE/ 1 not weighed UNIFACE TOOL 88A.01 1.000096.0025 DEBITAGE FLAKE 1 not weighed 88 A.0 11.000096.0026 DEBITAGE FLAKE 1 not weighed 88A.0 11.000097.0001 UNMODIFIED, CLAY 1 BAG UKtl WCltllCU ROCK SAMPLE 88A.01 1.000098.0001 UNMODIFIED, CLAY 1 BAG not weighed ROCK SAMPLE 88A.0 11.000098.0002 UNMODIFIED, ROCK 1 BAG not weighed SAMPLE, NON CULTURAL 88A.01 1.000098.0027 BIFACE, PREFORM TIP 1 not weighed 88A.0 11.000098.0028 DEBITAGE (N=3) 3 not weighed 88 A.0 11.000103.0002 UNMODIFIED, ROCK 1 BAG not weighed SAMPLE, NON CULTURAL 88A.01 1.000103.0018 MODIFIED, CORE 1 not weighed 88A.01 1.000103.0019 MODIFIED, HAMMERSTONE 1 not weighed 88A.01 1.000103.0020 GROUND STONE, 1 not weighed BOLO? 88A.0 11.000103.0021 DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed 88 A.0 11.000106.0022 MODIFIED, CORE 1 not weighed 88A.01 1.0001 10.0029 BIFACE, PREFORM 1 not weighed BASE 88A.01 1.0001 10.0030 MODIFIED, UNIFACE 1 not weighed 88A.01 1.0001 10.0031 DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed 88A.01 1.0001 11.0045 BIFACE, LANCEOLATE PREFORM 1 not weighed 88A.01 1.0001 12.0032 DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed 88A.01 1.0001 18.0034 DEBITAGE (N=2) 2 not weighed

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189 Field Specimen Description Count Weiglit Comments and Lot or Quantity THUMBNAIL noi weigneci 88A.0 11.000133.0035 BIFACE, BOLEN DC V CLCJL' 1 not weighed 88A.01 1.000133.0076 CORE W/ ADZE-LIKE SHAPE not weighed 88A.01 1.000133.0077 UNIFACE TOOL, SCRAPER/ADZE (N=2) not weighed 88A.01 1.000133.0089 WORKED IVORY FORESHAFT FRAG. not weighed 88A.01 1.000134.0019 DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed 88A.01 1.000134.0020 DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed 88A.01 1.000134.0021 DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed 88A.01 1.000134.0022 DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed 88A.0 11.000134.0023 DEBITAGE 1 BAG not weighed R8A Oil nnoi "^d ociid oo/\.u 1 1 .xjyjyj I jH.uuzt nPRTTAnP' FT AVV! LfrLDi I J\\jtij rLAlvJ:!. W 1 1 n vJlvM. V CIV or Uivo not weighed TTMTFAPF TOOT SCRAPER -j not weigneu 88A.0 11.000134.0026 UNIFACE TOOL, QPP A PPT? /PT TTTrwn TOOL I not weighed 88A.01 1.000134.0027 UNIFACE TOOL, 1 . not weighed ^PP APPP/An7T^ 88 A nil nnm ia nms ooA.Ui l.UUUl j4.UUZo T TXTTC A r^t; ^r\r\j UlNlrAL,!! lUUL, CPP A PTI^P /VXTTTTC W/GRAVER not weighed 88A.01 1.000134.0029 UNIFACE TOOL, CPD A DCD /PT TXT^TXTP TOOL 1 not weighed 88A.0 11.000134.0030 UNIFACE TOOL, not weighed SCRAPER 88A 01 1 000134 0031 irNTFAPF TOO! CUTTING TOOL W/GRAVER IlUl WClgXlCU 88A.01 1.000134.0032 CORE, BIFACIAL not weighed 88A.0 11.000134.0033 SHERD, DEPTFORD I INFAR PHFPK STAMPED not weighed 88 A.0 11.000134.0034 DEBITAGE, PATINATED LITHICS 1 BAG not weighed 88A.01 1.000134.0035 CORE, BIFACIAL not weighed 88A.01 1.000134.0036 BIFACE PREFORM? BASE FRAGMENT not weighed 88A.01 1.000134.0037 CORE, BIFACIAL not weighed 88A.0 11.000134.0038 CORE, BIFACIAL not weighed 88A.01 1.000134.0039 CORE, BIFACIAL not weighed 88A.0 11.000134.0040 CORE, BIFACL\L not weighed

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190 Field Specimen Description Count vveignt Comments and Lot or Quantity 88 A.0 11.000134.0041 CORE, BIFACIAL not weighed 88A.01 1.000135.0007 BIFACE FRAGMENT, BOLEN PLAIN? 1 not weighed 88A.0 11.000136.0009 IVORY FORESHAFT FRAGMENT not weighed 88 A.0 11. 000 136.0038 BIFACE BASE, LANCEOLATE not weighed 88 A.0 11.000136.0060 BIPOLAR FLAKE not weighed 88A.01 1.000136.0066 UNIFACE TOOL, TURTLE BACK SCRAPER not weighed 88A.0 11.000138.0001 BIFACE, CRUDE ARCHAIC STEMMED POINT not weighed 88A.01 1.000138.0002 UNIFACE TOOL, TEARDROP SCRAPER 1 not weighed 88A.01 1.000138.0039 BIFACE, LANCELOT 1 not weighed BASE 88 A.0 11.000138.0040 BIFACE, GREENBRIAR -j not weighed 88A.0 11.000138.0041 BIFACE, BOLEN not weighed BEVELED 88A.0 11.000138.0042 BIFACE, BOLEN not weighed BEVELED 88A.01 1.000138.0043 BIFACE BASE, BOLEN BASE, SIDE NOTCHED not weighed OIA.048.000001.0001 BIFACE, BOLEN 1 not weighed CORNER NOTCHED, BROKEN bherd, Deptiord Cross 26.4 sooted 92A.01.2 Preform, Cortex 13.5 banded chert 92A.02.1 Wood 27 21.4 92A.02.2 Echinoid 2 6.2 92A.03.1 Flake, Decortication 4 32.5 92A.03.2 Abrader 2 152 92A.03.3 Rocks, Fractured 10 336.9 (Trnv 92A.03.4 Gastropoda 100 37.6 92A.03.5 Testudines 69 33.7 92A.03.6 Serpentes, Vertebra 4 0.81 92A.03.7 Osteichythes 12 2.2 92A.03.8 Soil Concretions 50 31.9 92A.03.9 ivcbiuue, oampie 1 r\c\ A 1 4. J 92A.04.1 Gastropoda 55 13.6 92A.04.2 Osteichythes 64 7.3 92A.04.3 Flake, Unmodified 1 0.7 92A.04.4 Testudines 47 98.1 92A.04.5 Flake, Unmodified 1 87.4

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191 Field Specimen Description Count Weight Comments and Lot or Quantity 92A.04.6 Pebble 3 40,6 92A.04.7 Pebble 5 19.8 92A.04.8 Reptilia, Vertebra 2 0.5 92A.04.9 Bivalvia 17 9.3 m A r\A 1 f\ Loprolite 3 0.7 f^T A A /i 11 yIA.[)4. 1 1 Aves 1 0.3 Amphibia 2 A 0.2 92A.05 NOT USED yZA.O/A Projectile Point, Kirk1 31.4 side-notched 92A.09.1 Scraper, uid, Debitage (?) 1 152.6 92A.10.1 Cobble 4 501.1 92A.10.2 Pebble, Abrader (?) 2 71.8 92A.11.1 Gastropoda 100 68,8 92A.11.2 Testudines, drilled 1 1.6 worked 92A.11.3 Reptilia 1 0.5 Alligator scute (?) 92A.11.4 Testudines 10 10.3 92A.11.5 Coprolite 15 13.6 92A.11.6 Osteichythes 27 3.9 92A.11.7 Charcoal 8 0.7 92A.11.8 Reptilia 1 0.1 92A.11.9 Aves 2 0.4 92A.12.1 Cobble 3 328 92A.12.2 Cobble 3 118.6 92A.12.3 shatter 4 30.5 01 A 10/1 Pebble 1 1 30.6 yZAAZ.j Pebble 5 12 V2A. 14. 1 Charcoal 4 18.5 92A.15.1 Pebble 1 9.2 92A.16.1 Scraper, noncortical 1 22 Has crystaline quartz on back (pretty) yiA.io.z Wood 4 0.1 Fragments m A 1 "7 1 rlake, Unmodified 1 2.9 m A 1 o 1 yzA.io.i Flake, Unmodified, 1 22.3 92A.19.1 Core, cortical 1 179.4 TTIpHlItm OTCt\f lllCUlLllli ^ItXy 92A.20.1 Cobble 1 175.6 92A.21.1 Gastropoda 50 21 92A.21.2 Testudines 32 41.3 92A.21.3 Testudines, drilled 1 0.1 worked 92A.21.4 Osteichythes 23 6.7 92A.21.5 Coprolite 8 2.7 92A.21.6 Wood 24 1.8 one acorn and caps 92A.21.7 Charcoal 15 3.2

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192 Field Specimen Descrintion Count Weight C^ommpnts; and Lot or Ouantitv 92A.21.8 Reptilia 2 0.2 92A.21.9 Mollusca 2 0.2 92A.22.1 Gastropoda 6 4.9 92A.22.2 Osteichythes 4 1.2 92A.22.3 Testudines 4 1.7 92A.22.4 Preform 21.1 92A.22.5 Flake I Jnmodified A AUIVV y V_> AAA A Av vAl A i w — 7 92A.22.6 Scraner side Ad/e — 124.5 92A.23.1 Stone bolo Preform — 163 92A.23.2 Flake, Unmodified 1 13.8 92A.23.3 Debitage 39.5 92A.27.1 Debitage 10.5 92A.27.2 Debitage 1.8 92A.28.1 Gastropoda 2 92A.20.2 Wood, Burned and Unbumed 5 2.5 m A TOT 9/A.Z5.3 Coprolite 3 0.5 m A TO /I yiA.Z5.4 Osteichythes 59 32.5 OT A TO C I estudines 19 14.9 92A.28.6 Aves 0.3 m A T O "7 Mammalia, cf. Camivora 20.3 92A.50.1 Debitage _ 41.8 92A.51.1 Testudines 12.3 92A.52.1 Flake, Unmodified -^^ 33 92A.53.1 Debitage -j 39 8 92A.54.1 Ground Stone -^^ 85 92A.55.1 Abrader 37 7 92A.56.1 Gastropoda 0.7 92A.56.2 Xestiidines 92A.57.1 Cobble 1 uZH 92A.58.1 Cobble Ahrader C'l 1 92A.58.2 Cobble dOd d 92A.58.3 Pebble Abrader C'l 9 1 7 Z 1 . / 92A.58.4 Oehitflpp zz 92A.58.5 Flake T Inmndifipd bladp 1 u 92A.58.6 ChnndriphtVi VPS n 7 u.z 92A.58.7 Wood I Inbiimed 8 7 o.z 92A.58.8 Charcoal 26 3.5 92A.58.9 Reptilia 18 4.1 92A.58.10 Osteichythes 100 24.8 92A.58.11 Mammalia 5.1 92A.58.12 Testudines 100 64 92A.58.13 Bivalvia 12 7.3

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193 Field Snecimen M. IV AU |J Willi ViU Opsrrintion Count Weight Commpnts and T,ot UllU M^XJX. or Quantity 92A.58.14 Gastropoda 100 60.3 92A.58.15 Coprolite 28 1.7 92A.58.16 Sample Residue N/A 58.9 92A.58.17 Sample Residue, Bulk N/A 246 94B.1.1.1 Whole flakes, cortical and 2 1 84.7 noncortical 94B.1.1.2 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 35.7 94B.1.1.3 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 21 18.6 94B.1.1.4 Flake tool, noncortical 6 56.8 94B.1.1.5 Shatter, cortical and noncortical 13 8.4 94B.1.1.6 Shatter 51 432.8 94B.1.1.7 Sherd, Deptford Cross Simple Stamp 2 34.3 94B.1.1.8 Sherd, Deptford Simple Stamp 2 10 94B.1.1.9 Sherd, Wakulla Check Stamp 9 49.6 94B.1.1.10 Sherd, Chattahoochee Brushed 2 4.3 94B.1.1.11 Sherd, UID Check Stamp 1 0.5 94B.1.1.12 Sherd, UID Sand Tempered Plain 35 67 94B.1.1.13 Shackle, Dog 1 41.3 94B.1.1.14 Charcoal 40 6.7 94B.1.2.1 Sherd, Deptford Simple Stamn 1 3.7 94B. 1.2.2 Flake tool, cortical and noncortical 3 20.7 94B. 1.2.3 Incomplete Blade 1 2.6 94B. 1.2.4 Whole flakes, cortical and noncortical 8 20.3 94B. 1.2.5 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 9 4.5 94B. 1.2.6 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 8 3.5 94B.1.2.7 Shatter 3 28.4 94B. 1.2.8 Shatter 3 71.9 94B.1.1.1 Sherd, Wakulla Check Stamped 1 3.7 94B.1.1.2 Sherd, Weeden Island Plain 1 14.4 94B. 1.1.3 Sherd, Untyped, Sand and 2 11.8 Mica temper 94B.1.1.4 Flake tool, noncortical 1 3.8 94B.1.1.5 Core, bifacial, cortical 1 67.7

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194 Field Specimen Description Count Weight Comments and Lot or Quantity 94B.1.1.6 Whole flakes, cortical and 5 24.2 noncortical 94B.1.1.7 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 19 14 94B.1.1.8 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 21 23.4 94B.1.1.9 Blade fragments, cortical and noncortical 2 1.2 94B.1.1.10 Shatter, cortical and noncortical 4 6.8 94B.1.1.11 Cobble, worked 1 73.1 94B.1.1.12 Cobble 2 98.9 94B.2.1.1 Sherd, Deptford Cross Simple Stamp 2 5.4 94B.2.1.2 Incomplete flakes, noncortical 4 4 94B.2.1.3 Whole flakes, cortical and 3 1.3 noncortical 94B.2.1.4 Shatter, cortical 1 0.5 94B.2.1.5 Bone, mammal. Cranial 11 7 94B.2.1.6 Shatter 2 11 94B.2.2.1 Sherd, Deptford Cross Simple Stamp 22 69.7 94B.2.2.2 Sherd, Deptford Linear Check Stamp 3 10.5 94B.2.2.3 Sherd, Deptford Bold Check Stamp 1 1.9 94B.2.2.4 Sherd, Fort Walton Plain 3 4.2 94B.2.2.5 Sherd, Wakulla Check Stamp 2 3 94B.2.2.6 Sherd, Untyped, Impressed 4 19.8 94B.2.2.7 Sherd, Untyped, Sand Tempered 22 43 94B.2.2.8 Sherd, Untyped, Sand and 1 Grit Tempered o 94B.2.2.9 Sherd, Untyped, Sand Tempered 1 0.9 possible effigy vessel 94B.2.2.10 Incomplete Blade, cortical 3 2.7 and noncortical 94B.2.2.11 Whole flakes, cortical and 14 20 noncortical 94B.2.2.12 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 23 19.4 94B.2.2.13 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 14 10.4 94B.2.2.14 Shatter, cortical and noncortical 5 3.3 94B.2.2.15 Shatter, cortical 13 39.9

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195 Field Specimen 1~\ " J.* Description Count Weight Comments and Lot or Quantity A/in "1 1 ^ 94B.2.2.16 Flake tool, Incomplete, 1 6.7 94B.2.2.17 Bone, mammal 2 5 94B.2.2.18 Gaming piece 1 5.2 94B.2.2.19 Seed 1 0.05 94B.2.2.20 Charcoal 11 1.3 94B.2.3.1 Flake tool 4 21.2 94B.2.3.2 Biface, fragment 1 20.2 94B.2.3.3 sherd, Deptford Linear Check Stamp 3 33.1 94B.2.3.4 sherd, UID Sand Tempered Plain 2 7.4 94B.2.3.5 Whole flakes, cortical and 3 3.2 noncortical 94B.2.3.6 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 9 5.6 94B.2.3.7 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 2 0.3 94B.2.3.8 Shatter 5 33.6 94B.3.1.1 Biface 1 6.6 94B.3.1.2 Whole flakes, cortical and 2 2.1 noncortical 94B.3.1.3 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 7 11.5 94B.J.1.4 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 3 1.2 94B.3.1.5 Unmodified Stone 2 0.8 94B.3.1.6 Shatter 3 5.4 94B.3.1.7 Charcoal 1 0.5 94B.3.1.8 Pebble, heat-altered 1 45.2 94B.3.2.1 Whole flakes, cortical and 4 63.6 noncortical 94B.3.2.2 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 8 11.1 94B.3.2.3 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 4 2.5 A /in T 4 94B.3.2.4 Shatter 6 30.9 94B.3.2.5 Core, complete 1 132 94B.3.2.0 Core, fragment 1 9.6 A /I n T T 94B.3.2.7 Cobble 10 1184.1 A /I n /I 1 1 94B.4. 1.1 Sherd, Deptford Cross Simple Stamp 1 7 94B.4.1.2 Whole flakes, cortical 1 0.8 94B.4.1.3 Bone, mammal. Fossil 2 1.7 94B.4.1.4 Cobble 2 29.4 94B.4.1.5 core 1 56.1 94B.4.1.6 shattter 32 37.6

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196 Field Specimen and Lot Description Count or Quantity VV eight Comments 94B.4.1.7 Seed 1 0.1 94B.5.1.1 Whole flakes, cortical and 1 noncortical 0.2 94B.5.1.2 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 2 2 94B.5.1.3 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 1 0.1 94B.5.1.4 Charcoal 15 1.5 94B.5.1.5 Shatter 1 36.4 94B.5.2.1 Flake tool, cortical 1 10.8 94B.5.2.2 Testudines 3 2.1 n /I n c 1 T y4B.j.z.J Scraper, Possible Hoe 1 732.6 y4B. 0.1.1 Whole flake 1 195.4 94B.6.1.2 Whole flake, cortical 1 5.9 94B.6.1.3 Incomplete flakes, noncortical 1 0.1 94B.6.1.4 shatter 1 0.7 94B.6.1.5 charcoal 1 0.9 94B.6.2.1 Projectile point 1 See Appendix B 94B.6.2.2 Projectile point 1 See Appendix B 94B.6.2.3 Whole flakes, cortical and 3 noncortical 1.3 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 5 7.5 94B.6.2.5 shatter 2 1.6 y4r>.o.z.o shatter 3 35.5 94B.6.2.7 charcoal 1 0.6 94B.7.1 Pin fragment 1 1 94B.7.2 Testudines 11 15.4 94B.7.3 Whole flakes, cortical and 1 noncortical 4.3 94B.7.4 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 1 0.5 94B.7.5 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 3 1.3 y4B.7.1.1 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 3 1 94B.7.1.2 UID 2 £. 94B.7.1.3 Cobble, burned 3 97.1 94B.7.1.4 Cobble 12 J ID 94B.7.1.5 Shatter 4 62.7 94B.8.1.1 Flake tool, Side Scraper 1 2.8 94B.8.1.2 Core, fragment 1 4.7 94B.8.1.3 sherd, Deptford Simple Stamp 2 12.5

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197 Field Specimen and Lot Description Count or Weight Comments Quantity 94B.8.1.5 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 94B.8.1.6 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 9 2.8 y4i}.8.1./ sherd, UID Impressed 1 4.8 y4h5. 0.1.0 sherd, UID Sand iciiipcicu pidin 6 9 94B.8.1.9 Gastropod 1 0.1 94B.O.1.10 Charcoal 12 2.9 94B.8.1.11 Seed 1 0.4 94B.8.1.12 shatter 3 2 94B.8.1.13 shatter 8 30.1 94B.8.2.1 Sherd, Deptford Cross Simple Stamp J JO. / y4B.o.z.2 0 1 ITT* 1 Sherd, Untyped, Sand Tempered 14 98 1 Zo. 1 0/1D 0 0 T y4o.o.z.3 Flake tool 2 0 . 1 94B.8.2.4 Incomplete flakes 3 855.5 94B.8.2.5 Charcoal 4 1.9 94B.8.2.6 shatter 4 35.6 94B.10.1 Sherd, Wakulla Check Stamped 1 6.9 94B.10.2 Sherd, Untyped, Sand Tempered 1 8.5 94B.10.3 Whole flakes, cortical and 4 33.6 noncortical 94B.10.4 Incomplete flakes, noncortical 1 0.3 94B.10.5 Fragmentary flakes, noncortical 1 0.6 94B. 12.1.1 sherd. Untyped, Incised 1 1.5 94B.12.1.2 sherd. Untyped, Sand tempered plain 2 2.4 94B. 12.1.3 Whole flakes, cortical and 5 2.8 noncortical 94B.12.1.4 Incomplete flakes, noncortical 4 7.1 94B.12.1.5 Fragmentary flakes, noncortical 5 1.9 94B.12.1.6 shatter 2 1.9 94B.12.1.7 charcoal 50 3 94B. 12.2.1 Sherd, Deptford Bold Check Stamp 9 36.1 94B. 12.2.2 Sherd, Deptford Simple Stamp 7 23.7 94B.12.2.3 Sherd, Untyped, Sand tempered plain 5 15.3 94B. 12.2.4 Blade, Complete 1 4.6

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198 Field Specimen Description Count Weight Comments and Lot or Quantity 94B.12.2.5 Whole flakes, cortical and 17 87.2 noncortical 94B. 12.2.6 Incomplete flakes, noncortical 33 47.2 94B. 12.2.7 Fragmentary flakes, noncortical 34 18.1 94B.12.2.8 Potlid 1 0.1 94B. 12.2.9 Shatter 6 7.9 94B.12.2.10 charcoal 6 0.7 94B. 12.2.11 Shatter 6 26.8 94B. 12.2.12 Rock, Unmodified 2 23.1 94B.13.1 Flake tool, cortical 1 39 94B.13.2 Core, cortical and noncortical 2 48.9 94B.13.3 Whole flakes, cortical and 9 32.8 noncortical 94B.13.4 iiiLumpicic iidKcs, cortical and noncortical 1 ft 59.7 94B.13.5 riagiiiciiidry iiaKcb, cortical and noncortical 1 z 12.6 94B.13.6 Shatter, cortical and noncortical z 20 94B.13.7 Pebbles 13 71 94B.13.1.1 Sherd, Wakulla Check Stamped 2 3.5 94B.13.1.2 Sherd, Deptford Linear Check Stamp 10 42.4 94B.13.1.3 Sherd, Deptford Bold Check Stamp 1 11.4 94B.13.1.4 Sherd, Untyped, Sand Tempered 9 22.1 94B.13.1.5 Flake tool, noncortical 1 10.6 94B.13.1.6 Whole flakes, cortical and noncortical 8 56 94B.13.1.7 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 4 5.2 943.13. 1.8 Fragmentary flakes, noncortical 4 3.5 94B.13.1.9 shatter, noncortical 2 1 94B.13.1.10 charcoal 2 0.5 94B.13.2.1 Sherd, Deptford Bold Check Stamp 1 6.4 94B. 13.2.2 Sherd, Deptford Linear Check Stamp 32 133.6 94B. 13.2.3 Sherd, Deptford Cross Simple Stamp 7 28.6 94B. 13.2.4 Sherd, Untyped, Check Stamp 3 40.9

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199 Field Specimen Description Count Weight Comments and Lot or Quantity 94B.13.2.5 Sherd, Untyped, Sand Tempered 26 36 94B. 13.2.6 Fired Clay 1 22.5 94B.13.2.7 PPK, Untyped 1 8.9 94B.13.2.8 Endscraper 1 23.5 Patinated like from Early Archaic £ 94B. 13.2.9 Drill tip 1 0.6 94B. 13.2.10 Flake tool, cortical and noncortical 3 26.8 94B.13.2.11 Blade, Incomplete, noncortical 1 2.2 94B. 13.2.12 Whole flakes, cortical and 22 56.8 noncortical 94B.13.2.13 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 36 25.1 94B.13.2.14 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 37 19.3 94B.13.2.15 Resharpening flake, PPK 1 0.2 94B.13.2.16 shatter, noncortical 4 4.5 94B. 13.2.17 Pebble, unmodified 1 3.3 94B.13.2.18 shatter 7 70.6 94B.13.2.19 Plant remains 10 1.1 charcoal, nut shells 94B.14.1.1 Sherd, Wakulla Check Stamped 6 73.4 94B.14.1.2 Sherd, Deptford Simple Stamp 4 13.3 1 bowl represented 94B. 14.1.3 Sherd, Deptford Linear Check Stamp 3 13.3 94B.14.1.4 Sherd, Untyped Fabric Marked, sand temper 1 24.8 1 bowl represented 94B.14.1.5 Sherd, Untyped Plain, Sand tempered 12 38.2 94B. 14.1.6 Biface fragment, noncortical 1 2.7 94B.14.1.7 Flake tool, noncortical 2 0.6 94B.14.1.8 Whole flakes, cortical and 23 21.2 noncortical 94B.14.1.9 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 25 15.8 94B.14.1.10 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 32 31.7 94B.14.1.11 Shatter, cortical and noncortical 14 14.9 94B.14.1.12 Shatter 5 6.4 94B. 14.2.1 Sherd, Deptford Cross Simple Stamp 10 104.8 943. 14.2.2 Sherd, Deptford Check Stamp 8 33.1

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200 rieiu opecimen Description Count Weight Comments and Lot or Quantity 94B. 14.2.3 Sherd, Untyped Plain, Sand tempered 6 21 3 94B. 14.2.4 Burin, noncortical 1 3 6 94B. 14.2.5 Uniface fragments, noncortical 4 3 94B. 14.2.6 Flake tool, noncortical 2 2.6 94B. 14.2.7 Flake tool, cortical 1 65.9 94B. 14.2.8 Blade fragment, noncortical 1 1.4 94B.14.2.9 Core, cortical 1 292.4 94B.14.2.10 Whole flakes, cortical and 42 61.1 noncortical 94B.14.2.11 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 58 57.9 94B. 14.2.12 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 113 72.1 94B.14.2.13 Shatter, cortical and noncortical 13 3.8 94B.14.2.14 Shatter 12 58.9 94B.15.1.1 Sherds, Deptford Cross Simple 20 230.2 1 bowl represented 94B.15.1.2 Sherd, Deptford Check Stamp 2 8.4 94B.15.1.3 Sherd, Untyped, Sand Tempered 7 8.9 94B.15.1.4 Uniface fragment, noncortical 1 16.3 94B. 15.1.5 Incomplete Blades, noncortical 3 8.1 94B.15.1.6 Flake tool, noncortical 3 11.2 94B.15.1.7 Flake tool fragments, noncortical 3 3.4 94B.15.1.8 Whole flakes, cortical and 39 67.2 noncortical 94B.15.1.9 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 81 60.6 94B.15.1.10 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 86 55.2 94B.15.1.11 shatter, cortical and noncortical 15 28.7 94B.15.1.12 shatter 9 3.8 94B.15.1.13 Pebble, unmodified 30 29.5 94B.15.1.14 Charcoal 37 4 94B.15.2.1 Sherd, Deptford Simple Stamp 8 54.7 94B. 15.2.2 Sherd, Deptford Check Stamp 13 45.6 94B. 15.2.3 Sherd, Untyped, Sand Tempered 2 4.1

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201 Field Specimen and Lot Description Count or Weight C^omiTipnts Quantity 94B. 15.2.4 Unifacial scraper 1 41.7 94B.15.2.5 Unifacial scraper 1 116.6 94B. 15.2.6 Unifacial scraper 1 154.5 Q4R I S 9 7 Flake tool, noncortical 6 47 9 94B. 15.2.8 Abrader 1 1 09 94B.15.2.9 Preform, broken 1 72.3 94B.15.2.10 Tool fragment 7 5.7 94B.15.2.11 Whole flakes, cortical and 57 39.6 noncortical 94B.15.2.12 Tncnmnlptp flaWp^ cortical and noncortical 46 '>. 94B.15.2.13 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 76 17 7 04.R 1 S 9 1 4 Blade fragment 3 9 1 94B.15.2.15 Shatter, cortical and noncortical 17 26.1 94B. 15.2.16 flakes 6 1 6 1 94B.15.2.17 Charcoal 150 14.4 94B. 15.2.18 Pebble 3 1.3 94B.15.2A.1 Sherds, Deptford Cross Simple 7 69.7 94B.15.2A.2 Sherd, Deptford Bold Check Stamp 8 51.8 94B.15.2A.3 Sherd, Untyped, Sand Tempered 8 15.2 94B.15.2A.4 Biface, Untyped 2 35.8 94B.15.2A.5 Flake tool, cortical and noncortical 7 51.6 94B.15.2A.6 Whole flakes, cortical and 27 24.1 noncortical 94B.15.2A.7 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 57 26.8 94B.15.2A.8 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 66 28.2 94B.15.2A.9 Incomplete Blade, noncortical 1 0.6 94B.15.2A.10 Shatter, cortical and noncortical 8 3 94B.15.2A.il flake 5 23.6 94B.15.2A.12 Charcoal 50 5 94B.15.2A.13 Projectile point fragment. Untyped 1 0.5 94B.15.3B.1 Whole flakes, cortical and 4 0.7 noncortical 94B.15.3B.2 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 10 3.6 94B.15.3B.3 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 4 1.3

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202 Riplfi SnpriiTipn X tVIU OLIVVlllIvll repent"! rii'i/\n Cnunt n tn in p n t v^UllllllCU Id nnri 1 .ot Quantity 94B.15.3B.4 Unidentified artifact 1 0.3 94B.15.3C.1 Flake tool, noncortical 1 0.1 94B.15.3C.2 Flake tool, fragment 5 3.1 94B.15.3C.3 Blade, fragment 1 1.4 94B.15.3C.4 Whole flakes, cortical and 20 7.7 noncortical 94B.15.3C.5 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical /in 12.8 94B.15.3C.6 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 36 9-3 94B.15.3C.7 Shatter 3 1.3 94B.15.3C.8 Flake 2 0.6 94B.16.1.1 Sherd, Wakulla Check Stamp 1 2 94B. 16.1.2 Sherds, Deptfr)rd Cross Simple 5 35.9 94B.16.1.3 Sherd, Deptfr)rd Simple Stamp 3 44.8 94B.16.1.4 Sherd, Deptfr)rd Linear Check Stamp 3 23.7 . one bowl represented 94B.16.1.5 Sherd, Untyped, Sand Tempered 3 12.2 94B. 16.1.6 Abrader 1 322.9 3 grooves 94B.16.1.7 Whole flakes, cortical and 1 0.5 noncortical 94B.16.1.8 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 26 17.4 94B.16.1.9 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 13 4.3. , . 94B.16.1.10 Shatter, cortical and noncortical 4 2.7 94B.16.1.11 Shatter 5 16.1 94B.16.1.12 Charcoal 20 1.9 94B. 16.2.1 sherd. Untyped Cob Mark 3 11.3 94B. 16.2.2 Sherd, Deptfr)rd Cross Simple 3 50.7 1 ifir rpr*rpcpnt**H 94B. 16.2.3 Sherd, Untyped, Sand Tempered 2 4.5 94B. 16.2.4 tool fragment 2 2 94B.16.2.5 Flake tools, cortical and noncortical 3 37.9 94B.16.2.6 Core, cortical 1 59.8 94B. 16.2.7 Hammerstone, cortical 1 84.3 core 94B.16.2.8 Whole flakes, cortical and 6 20.5 noncortical 94B.16.2.9 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 24 22.3

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203 Field Specimen Description Count Weight Comments and Lot or Quantity 94B.16.2.10 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 29 18.5 94B.16.2.11 Blade tool 1 2.5 tip wear 94B. 16.2.12 Shatter, cortical and noncortical 9 7.5 94B. 16.2.13 Cobble 1 31.3 95A.1.2.1 Blade, Incomplete 1 0.9 95A.1.2.2 Flake tool 1 1.1 95A.1.2.3 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 3 1.4 95A.1.2.4 Shatter 1 2.2 95A.1.2.5 Unmodified Stone 4 7.8 95 A. 1.3.1 Sherd, Untyped, Sand tempered plain 2 7.6 95A.1.3.2 Whole flakes, cortical and 1 0.1 noncortical 95A. 1.3.3 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 3 1.7 95A. 1.3.4 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 3 0.8 95A.2.1.1 Sherd, Lake Jackson Plain 1 6.7 95A.2.1.2 Flake tool, fragment 1 1.4 95A.2.1.3 Whole flakes, cortical and 7 2.2 noncortical 95A.2.1.4 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 13 7 95A.2.1.5 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 15 5.1 95A.2.1.6 Shatter 13 12.1 95A.2.1.7 Unmodified stone 1 0.2 95A.2.2.1 Sherd, Untyped, Sand tempered plain 2 3.3 95A.2.2.2 Whole flakes, cortical and 2 0.3 noncortical 95A.2.2.3 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 5 2.8 95A.2.2.4 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 7 3.7 95A.2.2.5 Shatter 6 2.2 95A.2.2.6 Unmodified stone 1 0.6 95A.2.3.1 Sherd, Untyped, Sand tempered plain 2 0.7 95A.2.3.2 Blade, Incomplete 1 0.5 95A.2.3.3 Biface, Fragment 1 2.1 95A.2.3.4 Flake tool, Fragment 1 2.2 95A.2.3.5 Whole flakes, cortical and 15 3.1 noncortical

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204 Field Specimen Description Count Weight Comments and Lot or Quantity 95A.2.3.6 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 16 9.1 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 14.0 Shatter 25 1 n "7 95A.2.3.9 Flakes 6 2.4 95A.2.4.1 Blade, Utilized 1 1.9 95A.2.4.2 Flake tool. Fragment 2 4.7 95A.2.4,3 Whole flakes, cortical and 1 1 5.3 noncortical 95A.2.4.4 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 13 12.7 95A.2.4.5 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 16 5.5 95A.2.4.6 Shatter 5 3.2 95A.2.4.7 Flake 1 1.8 95A.2.4.8 Sherds, Untyped, Sand tempered plain 12 4.4 95A.2.6.1 Sherd, Deptford Simple Stamp 1 11.6 95A.2.6.2 Sherd, Impressed Rim, Untyped, Sand tempered plain 1 6.5 95A.2.6.3 Sherds, Untyped, Sand tempered plain 19 31.4 95A.2.6.4 Blade tool 1 3.4 95A.2.6.5 Whole flakes, cortical and 1 1 8.6 noncortical 95A.2.6.6 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 12 16.6 95A.2.6.7 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 16 13.5 95A.2.6.8 Shatter 5 1.8 95A.2.7.1 Sherds, Untyped, Sand tempered plain 1 1.5 95A.2.7.2 Biface, Tip 1 0.2 95A.2.7.3 Whole flakes, cortical and 16 12.9 noncortical 95A.2.7.4 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 21 3.1 95A.2.7.5 Core, Fragment 1 11.2 95A.2.7.6 Shatter 6 6.9 95A.2.8.1 Sherds, Untyped, Sand tempered plain 55 123.4 95A.2.8.2 Sherds, Untyped, Sand tempered plain smoothed 1 2.2 95A.2.8.3 Rock, Unmodified 5 52.8 95A.2.8.4 Flake tool. Fragment 2 14.2 I

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205 Description Count Wpioht and Lot or Quantity 95A.2.8.5 Blade, Fragment 2 4.1 95A.2.8.6 Whole flakes, cortical and 1 5 16.8 noncortical 95A.2.8.7 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 21 20.2 95A.2.8.8 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 44 10.6 95A.2.8.9 Shatter 7 5.8 95A.2.8.10 Sherds 1 57.4 Conglomerate 95A.2.9.1 Sherds, Deptford Cross Simple Stamp 2 9.9 95A.2.9.2 Sherds, Untyped, Sand tempered plain 12 12.9 95A.2.9.3 Blade tool. Incomplete 1 2.1 95A.2.9.4 Whole flakes, cortical and 7 2.4 noncortical 95A.2.9.5 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 8 7 95A.2.9.6 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 4 0.7 95A.2.10.1 Whole flakes, cortical and 6 2 noncortical 95A.2.10.2 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 5 2.9 95A.2.10.3 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 5 0.7 95A.2.10.4 Shatter 1 1.3 95A.2.10.5 Sherds, Untyped, Sand tempered plain 1 0.6 95A.2.11.1 Sherds, Untyped, Sand tempered plain 17 17.3 95A.2.11.2 Whole flakes, cortical and 6 7.3 noncortical 95A.2.11.3 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 5 3.5 95A.2.11.4 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 18 3.7 * 95A.2.11.5 Flake 1 1.1 95A.2.11.6 Fossil endocast 1 1 95A.2.11.7 Shatter 3 1.4 95A.3.1.1 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 1 1.3 95A.3.2.1 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 2 0.4 95A.3.2.2 Flake 1 2.3 95A.4.1.1 Incomplete flakes, cortical and noncortical 6 9.9 95A.4.1.2 Fragmentary flakes, cortical and noncortical 3 1.5

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206 Field Specimen Description Count Weight Comments and Lot or Quantity 95A.4.1.3 Seeds, Taxodium 5 0.6 95A.4.1.4 Fossil 2 0.9 95A.4.1.5 Sherds, Untyped, Sand tempered plain 2 2.1 95E.1.1 Flake, Unmodified, Secondary 1 5.9 95E.2.1 Tools 1 not weighed weathered 95E.3.1 Sherds, Deptford Cross Simple 2 19.2 95E.3.2 Preform 1 21.5 95E.3.3 Side scraper fragment 1 8.9 heat shattered 95E.3.4 Flake, Unmodified, Abrader (?) 1 12.4 black chert 95E.3.5 Flake, Unmodified 2 9 possible bola stone flakes 95E.3.6 Flake, Unmodified 1 36.5 95E.3.7 Flake, Unmodified, noncortical 7 56.1 95E.3.8 Flake, Unmodified, cortical 10 81.6 95E.3.9 scraper, end, cortical 1 424.4 large tabular 95E.3.10 Flake, Unmodified, cortical 1 60.5 possible bola stone flakes 95E.3.11 Core 1 108.5 95E.3.12 Flake, Uimiodified, cortical 1 279 95E.4 NOT USED 95E.5.1 Core, noncortical 1 44.2 heat shattered 95E.5.2 Flake, Unmodified, noncortical 1 17.5 95E.5.3 Flake, Unmodified, cortical 3 36.7 yDb.o.l flake tool, cortical 2 42.8 95b. 0.2 Abrader 1 435.2 Possible Mano 95E.7.1 flake tool, noncortical 1 23.6 heavy scraper wear 95E.8.1 Flake, Unmodified, cortical 1 10.7 light gray 95E.9 NOT USED 95E.10.1 Soil Sample 2 not weighed Vials 95E.11.1 Tools 2 22.7 dark gray, possible abraders 95E.1 1.2 1 1 1 A l5 1 A medium tan, possible bola stone 95E.11.3 Cobble 3 147.3 95E.11.4 Flake, Unmodified 3 28.8 95E.11,5 Pebble 15 80 95E.12.1 Sample 1 not weighed Vial

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207 Field Specimen and Lot Description Count or Quantity Weight Comments 95E.13.1 Flake, Unmodified, cortical 11.9 95E.14.1 Flake, Unmodified, cortical 1 14.2 95E.14.2 Coprolite 0.2 Species unknown 95t.l4.3 Pebble 0.2 95E.15.1 Beveled Kirk, noncortical See Appendix light gray B 95E.16.1 Bone not weighed turtle and fish 95E.17.1 Beveled Kirk 1 not weighed black 95E.18.1 Beveled Kirk not weighed black 95E.19.1 Flake, Unmodified, noncorrical 7.8 95E.19.2 Abrader 201.6 95E.20.1 Preform, noncortical 65.6 Appears to have some scraper wear 95E.21.1 Flake, Unmodified, noncortical 3.9 95E.22.1 Flake, Unmodified, noncortical 2.9 95E.22.2 Cobble 1 possible bola stone preform 95E.23.1 Flake, Unmodified, noncortical -j 1/11 14. 1 95E.23.2 Flake, Unmodified, noncortical -j lie 1 1.5 95E.23.3 Shatter, cortical 1 134.8 95E.24.1 Assorted not weighed dolomite, wood, bone 95E.25.1 Assorted 1 not weighed dolomite wood bone Biface fi-agment, cortical 15.9 black patina 95E.27.1 Seed 1 not weighed hickory nut (dated) 95E.28.1 Flake, Unmodified, noncortical 5 95E.28.2 Charcoal 0.5 95E.29.1 Soil Sample 1 not weighed dated 95E.30.1 flake tool, cortical 1 24.3 95E.30.2 Flake, Unmodified, cortical 36.1 Possible Bola Stone Fragment 95E.30.3 Flake, Unmodified, noncortical 8.1 95E.30.4 Shatter, cortical 9.3 95E.31.1 Biface fi-agment, cortical 18.5 95E.31.2 Flake, Unmodified, noncortical 2 7.4 95E.31.3 Cobble 1 627.6 95E.31.4 Abrader 7 329.7

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208 Field Specimen Description Count Weight Comments and Lot or Quantity 95E.31.5 Flake, Unmodified, cortical 1 13.9 95E.31.6 Flake, Unmodified, cortical 2 63.9 low grade 95E.31.7 Cobble 1 183.5 95E.31.8 Shatter, cortical 2 43.9 95E.31.9 core tool, cortical 1 103.7 95E.31.10 Biface fragment, noncortical 1 7.2 95E.31.11 flake tool, noncortical 3 4.6 95E.31.12 Flake, Unmodified, noncortical 2 9 95E.31.13 Flake, Unmodified, noncortical 1 1.6 heat shattered 95E.31.14 Flake, Unmodified, cortical 5 5.8, 95E.31.15 Flake, Unmodified, nunconiCai 4 1.2 resharpening 95E.32.1 Samnle 1 not weighed 95E.33.1 Sample 1 not weighed 95E.34.1 Abrader 1 71.4 95E.35.3 SamT>le 1 not weiphed 95E.36.1 flake tool cortical 1 5.6 95E.37.1 Cobble 1 not weiphed 01 95E.38.1 Cobble 1 47.4 02 95E.39.1 Cohhle 1 not wpioVipd LIU I W & 1^11^ U 03 95E.40.1 Cobble 1 not wpipVipd 04 95E.41.1 Cobble I RAG 1 U/VvJ 05 95E.42.1 Cobble not u/pi onpH 95E.43.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed OlO 95E.44.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed oil 95E.45.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 012 95E.46.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 013 95E.47.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 014 95E.48.1 Flake, Uimiodified, Possible Bola Stone Fragment 1 15.3 016 95E.49.1 1 RAn noi wcigficu 95E.50.1 Cnhh\p V^UUUIC 1 RAH IlUl WClgllCU 95E.51.1 1 RAn 1 i J / \ v_I noi wcigneu n 1 Q 95E.52.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 021 95E.53.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 022 95E.54.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 024 95E.55.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 025 95E.56.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 026 95E.57.1 Wood 1 BAG not weighed 027

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209 Field Specimen Description Count Weight Comments and Lot or Quantity 95E.58.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 028 95E.59.1 Wood 1 BAG not weighed 029 95E.60.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed O30 95E.61.1 Wood 1 BAG not weighed 031 95E.62.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 032 95E.63.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 033 95E.64.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 036 95E.65.1 Flake tool, Cortical 1 36.5 95E.66.1 Charcoal, Cobbles 1 BAG not weighed 95E.67.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed O20 95E.68.1 Fossil Rib 1 BAG not weighed PI 95E.69.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed P2 95E.70.1 Flake 1 39.3 P4 95E.71.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed P5 95E.72.1 Wood 1 BAG not weighed P7 95E.73.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed P8 95E.74.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed P9 95E.75.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed PIO 95E.76.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed Pll 95E.77.1 Wood 1 BAG not weighed P12 95E.78.1 Wood 1 BAG not weighed P13 95E.79.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed P14 Q^p 1 Vje-.oU. i Cnarcoal 1 BAG not weighed P16 O^P Q 1 1 Vjc.o 1 . 1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed P17 OCT? O 1 Wood I BAG not weighed P19 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed P40 95E.84.1 abrader, multiple wear facets 1 53.4 P41 yjc.oj. 1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed P42 95E.86.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed P43 95E.87.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed P44 95E.88.1 Charcoal, In Hearth bottom 1 BAG not weighed P45 rtcr? OA 1 95b. 89.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed P46 93b. 90.1 Bola stone fragment, Cortical 1 97.4 P47 yjb.yu.z Flake, Urmiodified 1 11 1.4 P47 95E.90.3 Cobble 1 37.1 P47 95E.91.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed P50 95E.92.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed P, GSC 95E.93.1 Flake, Unmodified, 1 25.5 Ql Secondary 95E.94.1 Flake, Unmodified, 1 8 Q2 Secondary 95E.95.1 Bola stone fragment 1 68.8 Q4

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210 Field Specimen Descriotion Count Weight Comments and Lot or Quantity 95E.96.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 05 95E.97.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 06 95E.98.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 07 95E.99.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 08 95E.100.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 010 95E.101.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed oil 95E.102.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 012 95E.103.1 turtle, plastron 1 25.7 Q16 95E. 104.1 Wood 1 BAG not weighed 018 95E.105.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 019 95E. 106.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weiphed Q20 95E.107.1 Cobble 1 44.1 Q40 y5b. 108.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 041 OCC 1 Afi 1 yjb. luy. 1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 042 yDh. 1 lU. 1 Preform 1 43.3 Q43 Qcr: 111 1 yjt. 111.1 Wood, cobbles 2 BAGS not weighed Q48 OCT? 110 1 VjE.l IZ.l 171 ^ 1 T T IT* 1 rlake, Unmoaiiiea, 1 12.7 049 95E.113.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 050 95E. 114.1 Wood, cobbles 2 BAGS not weighed MAP 95E.115.1 Wood, cobbles 3 BAGS not weighed 0 95E.116.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed Tl 95E.117.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weiffhed T2 95E.118.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed T3 95E.119.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed T4 95E. 120.1 Bone, plastron 1 BAG not weiphed T5 95E.121.1 Cobble 1 BAG not wpiphpd T6 95E. 122.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weifhed T7 95E.123.1 Cobble 1 BAG not wei&hed T9 95E.124.1 Cobble 1 BAG nrit wpiohpH Tt 1 111 95E.125.1 Cobble 1 BAG not wpit^hpd TIO 95E.126.1 Cobble 1 BAG nnt wficrhpd 1 LJ 95E.127.1 Wood 1 BAG Tint wpiffVipH T14 1 1*T 95E.128.1 Cobble 1 BAG Tint \x/f*ioVif>H llXJl WClgilCU Tl S 1 I J 95E.129.1 Cobble 1 BAG nr\t \i/picjnpH llUl VVClgllCU Tl 7 95E.130.1 Wood 1 BAG iiUL WCigllCLl Tl k 95E.131.1 Cobble 1 BAG not \x/f*ioVipH Tl Q 95E.132.I Wood 1 BAG not weighed T20 95E.133.1 Charcoal 1 BAG not weighed T21 95E. 134.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed T24, T25 95E.135.1 Wood 1 BAG not weighed T27 95E.136.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed T28 95E.137.1 Wood 1 BAG not weighed T29

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211 Field Specimen Description Count Weight Comments and Lot or Quantity 95E. 138.1 Cobble 1 BAU not weighed 1 3U Charcoal 1 dAO not weighed 132 95E. 140.1 rlake, Unmoairiea, 1 135.9 133 95E. 141.1 Cobble 1 444.8 T34 95E. 142.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed T35 95E. 143.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed T37 95E. 144.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed T 95E. 145.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed Ul 95E. 146.1 Wood 1 BAG not weighed U3 95E. 147.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed U4 95E.148.1 Wood, cobbles 1 BAG not weighed U5 95E.149.1 Shatter 1 82.7 U6 95E.150.1 Wood 1 BAG not weighed U8 95E.151.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed U12 95E.152.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed U14 95E.153.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed U15 95E.154.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed U16 95E.155.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed U17 95E.156.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed U18 95E.157.1 Flake, Unmodified 1 29.3 U19 95E.158.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed U20 95E.159.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed U21 95E. 160.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed U22 95E.161.1 Wood 1 BAG not weighed U23 95E.162.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed U24 95E.163.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed U25 95E.164.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed U27 95E.165.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed U28 95E.166.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weiphed U30 95E. 167.1 Cobble 1 BAG not wpiphpH U31 95E. 168.1 Cobble 1 BAG not wpitrVipH 95E. 169.1 Cobble 1 BAG not wpipIipH U33 95E.170.1 Cobble 1 BAG not wpitJhpH MAP 95E. 171.1 Wood 1 BAG not wpiphfd U9, U7 95E.172.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weifhfH CSC 95E. 173.1 Cobble 1 BAG not wpiP'hpH CSC 95E.174.1 Wood, cobbles 1 BAG not weighed CSC 95E.175.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V4 95E.176.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V5 95E.177.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V7 95E.178.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V9 95E.179.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V13

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212 Field Specimen Description Count Weight Comments and Lot or Quantity 95E.180.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V15 95E.181.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V16 95E.182.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V17 95E.183.1 Wood, cobbles 1 BAG not weighed V19 95E.184.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V20 95E. 185.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V21 95E. 186.1 Cobble I BAG not weighed V22 95E. 187.1 Wood, cobbles 1 BAG not weighed V8 95E. 188.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V24 95E.189.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V25 95E.190.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V26 95E.191.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V27 95E.192.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V28 95E.193.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V29 95E.194.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V30, V36 95E.195.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V3I 95E.196.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V32 95E.197.1 Wood , post diameter 1 BAG not weighed V33 95E.198.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V34 95E.199.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V37 95E.200.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed MAP 95E.201.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed V 95E.202.1 Soil Sample 1 1 BAG not weighed PROFILE 95E.203.1 Soil Sample 2 1 BAG not weighed PROFILE 95E.204.1 Soil Sample 3 1 BAG not weighed PROFILE 95E.205.1 Soil Sample 4 1 BAG not weighed PROFILE 95E.206.1 Soil Sample 5 1 BAG not weighed PROFILE 95E.207.1 Soil Sample 6 1 BAG not wei(?hed PROFILE 95E.208.1 Flake 1 BAG not weipheH T 95E.209.1 Flake 1 BAG not wpichpH I 95E.210.1 MISSING 1 BAG Tint wpioVipH LL\J I W t IgilvU IV 95E.211.1 Wood "Canoe" 1 BAG not wpitilipH 1*1 Lil LIUIC 95E.212.1 Wood Oak lop to Stable 1 BAG not wpi (J IipH U\J I VV t i^xitu c 95E.213.1 Wood 1 BAG l±\J I W lie Li T1 1 i 95E. 214.1 1 BAG T7 1^ 95E. 215.1 Core Cnrtiral 1 155 IT. 95E.216.1 1 BAG 14 95E.217.1 Wood 1 BAG not weighed 15 95E.218.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 16 95E.219.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 17 95E.220.1 Charcoal 1 BAG not weighed 18 95E.221.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed 19 95E.222.1 Wood 1 BAG not weighed 110

PAGE 230

213 F) p c n r* j n t j n n ILJllUli Wpioht ^inii T nt Cnbhle 1 RAG not \x/f^ionpn 11 1 ill 95E. 224.1 1 BAG nnt wpicjVipH 112 9SF 22S 1 WnnH 1 RAG nr\t u/PionpH f 1 s rnhhlp 1 RAH 1 D /AVJ rir\t" \x/pifinpH T1 1 1 o rnhhle 1 RAG nr\t wpioVipfi 117 1 RAn IlUl WCIgllCU 11 S 1 1 o OSF 99Q 1 Pnhhlp 1 RAH 1 DrVVJ IlUl WClgllCU no OUll OalllUlC 1 RAH IlUl WClgilCU T rMTT U iN i 1 O QSF 9^^ 1 1 oVJll OalllUlC 1 RAPt nr\t \x/Pi fTnpH IlUl WClgliCLl T FT r OSF 9'^9 1 ^ r\ 1 1 ^ Q fnr\ 1 a OUll OalllUlC 1 RAH IlUl WCl^IlCU n OSF 9^'^ 1 OUH oallipiC 1 RAH nui wcigiicu n p 1 RAG T\r\t \x/picTnpri P D 95E.235.1 Soil Sample 1 BAG not weighed V 95E.236.1 Soil Sample 1 BAG not weighed T 95E.237.1 Antler, Deer 1 BAG not weighed U 95E.238.1 Antler, with callote. Deer 1 BAG not weighed S 95E.239.1 Cobble 1 BAG not weighed I 95E.240.1 Flake, Unmodified, Cortical 1 17.9 c 95E.241.1 Bolen point, Impact Fractured 1 BAG not weighed c 95E.242.1 Preform, Noncortical 1 21.8 c 95E. 243.1 Flake tool. Cortical 1 12.5 u 95E.243.2 Seed husk 1 1 u 95E.244.1 Core, Noncortical 1 72.8 GSC 95E.245.1 Wood, cobbles 1 BAG not weighed GSC 95E.246.1 Core, Noncortical 1 68.5 Black patina over Light Gray chert

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APPENDIX B EARLY ARCHAIC POINT MEASUREMENTS Specimen Length Width Thick Shoulder Stem Base WT Number Width Width Width 95E-241 86 35.2 7.8 33.3 15.2 29.2 21.4 8Jel21-Area7S 58.1 20.6 8.2 20.6 14.3 19.8 7.5 8Jel21-Unit3638.3 29.5 7.5 29.5 14.5 22 6.2 8Jel21-Unit 36.2 25 6.9 25 14.7 23.4 6 95E-15 60.8 32.4 8.8 32.4 17.8 25.9 14.3 8Jel21-Area 15 44.4 22.5 6.8 21.1 14 22.5 6 8Jel21-Area5 52.3 35.1 8.9 35.1 17.9 23.7 11.3 8Jel21-Area 1 44.4 22.6 7 22.6 14.9 20.6 8.6 8JeI21-Area 36.9 31.9 7.5 31.9 18.3 24.6 6.9 95E-17 47 41.1 8 41.1 18.4 25.5 12 8Jel21-Unit 34.5 25.5 7.1 24.1 15.1 25.5 5.4 8Jel21-Area 53.8 26.6 7.1 26.6 15.2 22.7 8.2 8Jel21-Area9P 38.8 25.6 6.6 25.6 16.7 25.1 6.3 8Jel21-Unit 46.3 39.1 9 39.1 15.5 0 10.3 8Jel21-Unit 53.7 30.3 6.7 30.3 15.6 25.4 8.8 8Jel21-SEof 47.5 25.7 7.4 25.7 16.5 24.5 12 8Jel21-Unit 65.7 32.3 6.4 32.3 15.6 17.5 11.3 95E-18 40.8 24.3 6.8 24.3 12.3 22.1 4.8 8Jel21-NEor 79.9 32.3 5.3 30.2 16.4 26.2 16.2 8Jel2I-Area 1 26.1 13.9 2.3 26.1 8.2 11.5 1 8Jel21-Area8E 60.3 28.6 7.1 27.3 11.5 17 11.6 8Jel21-Area IC 63.4 25.9 7.7 24.6 16.4 25.9 12.7 2000-20-2-193 52.3 34 6.1 34 17.1 23 9 2000-20-2-237 53.4 32.1 7.6 31.7 17.2 22.7 11.1 2000-20-2-217 57.8 28.9 7.8 28.9 17.2 23.4 10.5 2000-20-2-223 76.7 29.2 7 29.2 16.3 22.2 18.1 2000-20-2-191 35.8 24.1 5.1 24.1 17.3 24.2 4.9 2000-20-2-228 44.7 27.8 8.1 27.8 16.3 26.2 8 2000-20-1-336 49.2 29.4 7.2 29.6 17.3 26.2 9.7 2000-20-1-293 60.7 27.1 8.8 27.1 16.2 0 12.2 2000-20-1-353 68.3 28.5 9.1 27.5 16.3 24.4 16.8 2000-20-2-190 62.9 35.9 8 35.9 16.7 21.9 17.1 2000-20-2-210 67.6 25.5 7.6 25.5 17 24.1 14.6 2000-20-2-343 61.8 36.8 7.9 36.8 16.4 23.4 16.2 2000-20-2-231 46.5 30.6 6.9 30.6 17 27.1 9.1 2000-20-1-357 41.6 32.2 6.2 32.2 16.8 27.1 7.2 2000-20-2-196 53.5 31.6 8.1 31.6 16.8 27.4 11 2000-20-2-125 43.6 28.7 6.6 43.6 17.4 23 8.5 2000-20-1-318 63.7 28 8.5 28 17.5 28.1 12.8 2000-20-2-220 43.9 29.2 5.7 29.2 16.6 26.8 6.5 2000-20-2-197 56.3 29.5 7 29.5 16.5 22.4 9.6 2000-20-2-233 66.8 28.5 7.7 28.5 16.4 27.5 13.6 20OO-20-2-O22 94 29.1 7.8 29.1 17 26.8 21.2 2000-20-2-128 54.4 43.5 8.2 43.5 21 0 15.4 214

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215 Specimen Length Width Thick Shoulder Stem Base WT Number Width Width Width 2000-20-1-362 53.7 37.4 8.7 37.4 19.2 27.2 15.4 2000-20-1-355 53.5 38.4 7.7 38.4 19.4 26.8 12.7 2000-20-1-352 76 31.5 8.6 31.5 19.4 23 21.9 2000-20-2-227 56.6 34.5 6.1 34.5 19.8 27.1 12.2 2000-20-2-124 47.6 22.3 9.2 22.1 19.8 22.3 10.1 2000-20-1-360 77.2 38.6 8.4 38.6 20 29.1 27.6 2000-20-1-363 72.9 34.4 7.5 34.4 17.5 25.2 17.8 2000-20-2-230 76.8 27.7 9 24 20.7 27.7 16.6 2000-20-2-120 65.8 40 9.5 34.6 19 23.8 26.9 2000-20-2-280 77.3 42.7 8.8 42.7 21.7 29.4 25.2 2000-20-2-349 68.7 31.1 8.4 31.1 22.1 29.7 16 2000-20-1-286 45 28.1 6.4 26.6 22.3 28.2 7.4 2000-20-2-226 55.3 30.9 7.9 30.9 22.5 30.9 13.3 2000-20-1-361 56.7 35.5 9.6 35.5 22.5 30.3 15.9 2000-20-1-291 47.6 27.7 7.5 27.7 22.8 24.9 9.1 2000-20-2-225 68.1 28.3 10.2 28.3 20.3 26 17.2 2000-20-1-348 71.6 28.4 8 28.4 18.1 27 15.8 2000-20-1-335 49 26.9 7.1 26.9 16.2 26.9 8.2 2000-20-1-349 73.4 27.6 7.9 27.3 17.5 28 15.4 2000-20-1-325 42.3 32.1 5.9 26.6 15.8 32.1 5.6 2000-20-2-349 49.7 36.6 8.6 36.6 17.7 29.3 14.7 2000-20-2-192 56.4 31.2 7.1 31.2 17,8 23.9 11.7 2000-20-2-346 73 28.7 8.7 28.1 18 28.7 15.4 2000-20-1-364 60.9 38.3 8.4 38.3 19.2 27.9 17 2000-20-1-358 63.1 33.7 8 33.7 18 26.1 15.3 2000-20-2-222 62.3 32.3 8.7 32.3 19.1 29 17.2 2000-20-1-354 67 30.8 8 29.2 18.2 26.1 15.6 2000-20-1-365 69.6 29.1 7.5 29.1 18.4 24.9 13.5 2000-20-2-341 87.9 32.5 7.9 32.5 18.6 26.1 21.7 2000-20-2-203 81.7 24.8 7.4 24.8 18.6 27.4 15.9 2000-20-2-188 47.2 37 6.9 37 18.6 12.8 10.9 2000-20-1-356 51 36.1 7.4 36.1 18.6 26.5 11.8 2000-20-1-332 43.2 25.4 6.7 22.7 17.4 25.4 5.6 2000-20-1-359 58.3 32.4 8.9 31.4 18 24.9 14.1 2000-20-2-210 52.7 27.1 6.8 27.1 13.5 26.5 8.9 2000-20-1-320 41.7 27 6.4 27 15.9 26.7 6.5 2000-20-2-181 43.9 30.2 6.8 30.2 13.1 22.4 8.2 2000-20-1-327 51 26.5 8.8 26.5 13.1 22.2 7.9 2000-20-2-184 65.9 27.3 8 26.9 13.3 21.7 12.8 8Jel21-Ohmes 53.9 29.4 7.7 29.4 13.4 21.1 11. 1 2000-20-2-207 58.4 29.4 6.5 29.4 13 22.7 9.5 2000-20-1-330 42 26.4 6 26.4 13.4 24.7 6.4 2000-20-1-331 45.9 25.4 6.7 25.4 12.8 22.8 6 2000-20-2-183 45.4 28.4 7 28.4 13.5 22.1 7.8 2000-20-2-200 36.6 22.2 8.9 21.2 13.6 22.2 5.5 2000-20-1-322 46.5 22.8 7.6 21.6 13.6 23.4 5.7

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216 Specimen Length Width Thick Shoulder Stem Base WT Number Width Width Width 2000-20-2-195 66.2 26.1 7 25.1 13,7 26.1 10.5 2000-20-1-323 36.5 22.9 7.1 22.9 13,7 18.5 4.3 2000-20-2-198 51.9 25 7.5 25 13,8 22.4 9.3 2000-20-2-205 46.1 25.4 6.7 25.4 13.4 24.1 6.7 2000-20-2-344 51.6 30.2 7 30.2 12 21 10.3 2000-20-2-178 56.5 35.7 4.6 24.8 8.3 9,4 10.6 2000-20-2-204 80.6 29.1 8.2 29 10.7 20,1 17.2 2000-20-2-235 46.1 25 6.8 24.8 11.3 17 7.2 2000-20-2-234 36 26.5 7.5 26.5 11.4 19,7 6 2000-20-1-328 53.3 19.7 7.6 18.5 11.5 19.7 6 2000-20-2-213 42.1 25 7.1 25 13.1 21.3 6.8 2000-20-1-326 40.1 21.7 6.1 21.6 11.7 19.3 4.5 2000-20-2-221 42.4 24.2 6.8 24.2 14 25.4 8.7 2000-20-2-218 32.6 27.9 7.8 27,9 12,2 20.5 6.1 2000-20-2-340 47.5 30.3 7 30,3 12.3 16.4 7.8 2000-20-2-238 46.6 25.2 5 25.2 12.4 17,1 5.7 2000-20-2-206 53.3 30.5 5.8 30.5 12.4 23.5 7.6 2000-20-2-202 82.9 23.2 7.9 23.2 12.5 19,3 11.1 2000-20-2-214 38.7 25 7.4 25 12.7 21,8 6.6 2000-20-1-321 41.6 23 6.6 23 11.5 20,7 4.6 2000-20-1-350 47.7 19.4 7.1 19,4 15.9 18,6 4.4 2000-20-2-194 60.9 30.3 7.8 27,7 15.1 30,3 9.3 2000-20-2-187 46.6 32.2 7.6 32.2 15.2 21,7 11 2000-20-2-239 55.5 28 6.5 28 15.3 21,7 10.7 2000-20-2-232 51.1 28.4 8.3 28,4 15.4 25,5 9.5 2000-20-2-189 54.3 32.5 8 32,5 15.5 21,9 10.8 2000-20-2-342 64.4 33.3 7.6 33,3 13.9 21,7 11.8 2000-20-1-351 45,1 26.4 7,7 26,4 15.7 20,4 7 2000-20-2-229 36.9 22.8 7.5 17,7 15 22.7 4.6 2000-20-1-289 29.9 26.6 7.1 26,6 23.4 26.7 5.9 2000-20-2-347 67.5 28.3 9 28,3 16 26.6 15.7 2000-20-1-334 35.7 20.2 6 18,8 16 20.2 3.7 2000-20-1-320 49.2 25.7 7.3 25,7 16 22.6 8.1 2000-20-1-320 46.6 32.6 8.4 32.6 16 23.2 11.3 2000-20-2-186 63.4 34.4 6.9 34,4 16.1 22.1 15.3 2000-20-1-333 30.2 24.9 5.7 26,6 15.5 26.7 4 2000-20-1-329 44 29.1 7.5 29,1 14.6 23.3 8.9 2000-20-2-230 42.7 24.7 7.9 24,8 16.2 23.9 7.3 2000-20-1-366 57.4 29.1 6.1 28,2 14 22.7 10.1 2000-20-1-324 40.5 27.2 8 27 14 20.6 7.4 2000-20-2-350 78.2 30 6.9 30 14.1 19.5 17 2000-20-2-182 63 27.3 7.1 26,5 14,1 21.5 13.5 2000-20-2-219 54.3 29.1 8.4 29,1 14,3 27,3 7.7 2000-20-2-199 42.2 27.5 5.7 27,5 15 20,1 5.5 2000-20-2-201 134.6 32.4 10.3 30 14,4 25,4 45.5 2000-20-2-216 41.6 25.2 7 25,2 15 23,5 7

PAGE 234

217 Specimen Length Width ThickShoulder Stem Base WT Number Width Width Width 2000-20-2-215 53.4 26.1 6.3 25.7 14.7 26.1 9 2000-20-2-209 57.1 29.8 7.6 29.7 14.8 25.6 13.2 2000-20-2-185 59.4 33.5 9 33.5 14.8 22.6 13.5 2000-20-2-236 56.4 25.3 6.8 25.3 14.9 24.3 8.9 2000-20-2-225 52 32.3 7.5 32.3 14.9 20.6 10.5 2000-20-2-345 55.6 31.5 9.2 31.5 14 20.7 11.6 2000-20-2-208 44.1 28.7 6.9 28.7 14.4 24.5 7.5

PAGE 235

APPENDIX C EARLY ARCHAIC POINT NONMETRIC DATA Item Type Number 2000-20-1-286 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-289 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-291 BOLEN 2000-20-1-293 BOLEN/KIRK 2000-20-1-318 BOLEN/KIRK 2000-20-1-320 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-320 BOLEN/KIRK 2000-20-1-320 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-321 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-322 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-323 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-324 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-325 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-326 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-327 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-328 BOLEN/KIRK 2000-20-1-329 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-330 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-331 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-332 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-333 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-334 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-335 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-336 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-348 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-349 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-350 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-351 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-352 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-353 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-354 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-355 BOLEN/PALM 2000-20-1-356 BOLEN/KIRK 2000-20-1-357 BOLEN/KIRK 2000-20-1-358 BOLEN/KIRK Base Basal Base shape Bevel Serrati Form Grinding SN LT INC RH N SN/CN LT INC RH N SN/ES N STR N N SN/CN RH Y CN LT EXC RH Y SN HVY STR RH N ES HVY EXC N N SN LT EXC RH N SN/CN LT STR N N SN LT STR RH N SN LT EXC RH N SN N EXC RH N SN HVY STR RH N SN LT STR RH Y SN HVY INC RH Y SN/CN HVY STR RH Y SN LT EXC RH N SN/CN HVY EXC RH Y SN/CN HVY EXC RH Y SN HVY INC RH Y SN LT INC RH N SN HVY INC RH N SN HVY INC RH N SN HVY INC RH N SN LT INC RH Y SN LT STR RH Y SN LT INC RH N CN LT INC N N SN LT INC N N SN N INC N N SN LT INC N N CN HVY EXC RH Y CN/BN LT EXC RH N CN LT EXC N N CN HVY EXC RH Y 218

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219 Item Type Base Basal Base shape Bevel Serra Number Form Grinding ?finn 9f> 1 '^'iQ zuuu-iiuL-jjy n V I PYP RH INll V I 7000 70 1 1^0 Rni PM/K'TRK' T T PYP RT4 M IN 7000 70 1 1A1 I T 1^ 1 IMP M IN M IN 7000 70 1 '?^;7 RDI PM/KTRK" T T TMP RH INll M IN 7000 70 1 I/;! xlV I TMP R H Krl M IN 7000 70 1 "JAzl ZUUU-ZU1 -J O'l nOT PMAWTDV T T b 1 PYP bAU Krl XT IN 7000 7n 1 ZUuU-ZU1 -JOJ tsuLcrN/ JS.11VJS. XT IN TXTP XT IN XT IN 7000 70 1 'Xf\fk r T PYP IN M IN 7000 70 7 077 zuuu-zu-z-uzz T t PYP RH INll V I 7000 70 7 I 70 RDI PM/PAT \A o 1 T T PYP M IN M IN 7000 70 7 1 74 ZUUW-Zw-Z1 zt RPlI PlsJ/PAI \A c\i/r''M T T <;tr O 1 IV M IN M IN 7000 70 7 1 7S RDI PN/PAT M T-TVY XI V I rMP IN 7000 70 7 178 ROI P>J/I( 7000 70 7 1 ROI PTsJ/KTRlf PM n V I ULtiN/r ALM CXI XT IN P VP bALKn XT IN zuuo-zu-z-iy / hsULbN/rALM OXT bN rlV Y c v^ bAC KH XT IN 700A 7r\ 7 1 OO zuuu-zu-z-iyo BULblN/rALM OXT bN HV Y IT v/^ bAC Kri XT N 2000-20-2-199 BOLEN/PALM SN LT EXC RH N 2000-20-2-200 BOLEN/PALM SN HVY EXC RH N 2000-20-2-201 BOLEN/PALM SN HVY EXC N N 2000-20-2-202 BOLEN/PALM SN LT EXC RH Y 2000-20-2-203 BOLEN/PALM SN HVY EXC RH Y 2000-20-2-204 BOLEN/PALM SN LT EXC RH Y

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220 Item Type Base Basal Base shape Bevel Serration Number Form Grinding 2000-20-2-20'5 ROT FN/PAI M <;n 14 'VV n V I IVl 1 V I 2000-20-2-206 BOI FN/KTRK sn/on I T FYP RT-I Ivi 1 V 1 2000-20-2-207 RDI FN/PAT M "iN HW n V I F"VP IN 2000-20-2-208 ROI FN/PAI M n 2n 2 2'in ROT FN/PAI \A Q'M wv/v ri V I IMP DH Krl V I 2nnn 2n ? 9in ROT FM/PAI \A II V I TMP "M IN XT IN 2fiftn ?n 7 7"? I ivWU-iU-Z-ZJ 1 ROT FlvJ/PAI M "I'M WW xl V I rMP Kxl 'M IN 2nnf)-2fl.2-2'?2 ROT FN/P A I \A <;'M I T IMP DH tVI 1 V 2nnn 2n 7 7'<'< ROT F'M/P A T M Q'M 'M rMP Drr Krl Y 7f)nO 20 7 7^4 RDI FM/PAT M "I'M 'M rMP D w Kxl XT IN 7000 70 7 71S ROI F'M/P AT \yf I'M 0 1 K D w Krl XT IN 7000 70 7 2'lfi ROT F\I/PAT IVI 'M CXD 0 1 K JN XT IN ^UOU-zU-Z-Zj / D/^T CXI /!/ TT> I/' CN HVY EXC RH Y 2000-20-2-238 BOLEN/KIRK CN LT EXC RH N 2000-20-2-239 BOLEN/KIRK CN LT EXC RH N 2000-20-2-280 BOLEN/KIRK CN N INC RH Y 2000-20-2-340 BOLEN/KIRK CN LT EXC RH Y 2000-20-2-341 BOLEN/KIRK CN HVY INC N Y

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221 Item Type Base Number Form oULiirS/KiKJS. rJ U L r, IN / ISJ K_N. OXT onnA "^n 1/1/1 ZUUU-ZU-Z-J44 DOT trXT/VTt>V oxr TArin T izis ZUUU-ZU-Z-J4J OXT ZUUU-ZU-Z-J40 DOT T7Xr/VTDV OXI ZUUU-ZU-Z-J4/ DOT CXT/VTDI;' OXT Z(JU(J-ZU-Z-34y DOT Trxr/VTOI/" zuuu-zu-z-34y DOT I^XT/Tf^TDV /"•XT ZUUU-ZU-Z-jjU V TD V C5 1 Q Ta 1 1 1 A wan 1 oJelzl-Area l TTXTV DOT CXIO 1 IN Y BULbN / b>N oJelzl-Area 1 DOT CXT/D A T \J{ CXT Q 1 T 1 A ran 1 ^ oJelzl-Axea o DOT CXT/L'TDV CIN oJelzl-Area DOT rrxT/n a t \x hJULblN/f ALM CXT 0 T*»1 T 1 A *-an < oJelzl-Area 5 DOT CXI/VTOT/" OXT 5 J e 1 z 1 Area DOT CTXT/l^TDI^ CXT/OXI aiN/CJN C 1 ') 1 A r-an 7C DOT trXI/D A T \Jf rSULblN/r ALM CXT oJeizi-Area ot DOT CTXT/VTDV CXT /OXT 5 J e 1 z 1 Area y r DOT tJXT/DAT \A cxr I) IN ojeizi-Area DOT PXT/VTDV I>IN/i_IN oJeiz i-iNt or DOT T7XT/VTT5V CXI/OXT oIN/l^IN ojc iz i-wumcs ROT TTXT/PAT \/f QXI oIN OJCIZI-OC Ol oIN 81(^191 Unit oje iz i-unii DOT PXT/PAT \/{ oIN OjCiZ i-UIlll DOT pxiAPAI \/f oIN oJc i z 1 -unii DOT CXT/V'TDIt' L^IN oJe iz 1-unii fTD V V^IN 8Jel21-Unit BOLEN/KIRK SN/CN 8Jel21-Unit36BOLEN/KIRK CN 95E-15 BOLEN/KIRK CN 95E-17 BOLEN/KIRK CN 95E-18 BOLEN/PALM SN 95E-241 BOLEN/PALM SN Basal Base shape Bevel Serration Grinding HVY EXC RH Y LT EXC RH N LT EXC RH Y LT EXC RH Y LT INC RH Y LT INC RH Y N INC N N N INC N N LT EXC N N LT EXC N N HVY INC RH N HVY INC RH Y LT INC RH Y LT EXC RH Y LT INC RH Y HVY INC RH N LT ASYMETRICAL N Y LT STR RH N HVY EXC RH Y N STR N N LT EXC N Y HVY INC RH Y HVY STR RH N LT EXC RH N LT STR RH N LH Y HVY EXC RH Y N EXC RH N LT STR RH Y LT STR RH N HVY EXC RH Y HVY EXC RH Y

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APPENDIX D LAND EXCAVATIONS AT PAGE/LADSON (8JE591) Overview of Excavations One of the less well-known aspects of the Aucilla River Prehistory Project is the investigation of terrestrial deposits on the riverbanks around the underwater sites. In the case of the Page/Ladson site, there have been three systematic excavations. Bob Carr excavated six Im by Im squares during one week of excavation in 1988 (Carr 1988). B. Calvin Jones excavated an area on the opposite (eastern) riverbank in 1989 (Jones 1989). Finally, two teams of volunteers excavated twenty-one 50cm x 100cm units in October, 1994, and May, 1995. In addition to encountering side-notched and lanceolate materials, all of the test pits (Figure 3.1) yielded Precolumbian artifacts, ranging from Middle Archaic period to late Prehistoric period, suggesting that the boundaries of the Page/Ladson site have not yet been accurately defined. Summaries of the artifacts recovered in each test pit are given in Appendix A. The land excavations revealed a variety of cultural components across the site. The objective of the Carr excavations was to excavate only on the upslope and upstream sandy areas overlooking the underwater component. Most of his test units encountered bedrock limestone within 30cm of the surface, with the exception of units closest to the underwater excavation (northem-most units). The majority of artifacts recovered from his excavations were Middle to Late Archaic in age. Jones' 1989 excavations focused on a relatively high sand ridge on the east bank of Half Mile Rise. He confirmed the basic sequence of occupations had been established 222

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223 on the underwater site, with pronounced peaks in temporally-diagnostic artifacts representing the Late Paleoindian, Middle Archaic, and Deptford periods. Most interestingly, he recovered Paleoindian diagnostics in what had previously been thought as Miocene to Middle Pleistocene, non-cultural clays. A similar feature was observed on the Santa Fe river, where water-tumbled deposits — possibly lag deposits — were noted above much older clays (Milanich 2002, personal communication). Due to the strong evidence of occupation around the underwater site, a testing pattem for the 1995 excavations was developed that would address any potential fall-off in archaeological remains away from the active river channel, thereby establishing site boundaries. To accomplish this, a 50m wide corridor on each side of the river was divided into a 20m wide near-bank corridor and an abutting 30m corridor. Lines perpendicular to the bank and spaced 30m apart were used to place four test units on each bank. Two units were placed at random distances from the bank within the 20m swath; another two were placed in the adjacent 30m swath (see Figure 3.1 for placement of test pits). Late Paleoindian/Early Archaic diagnostic materials were recovered from two of the 21 test units (Figures D.l , D.2, D.3). On the basis of the positive test units within the 20m corridor adjacent to the riverbank and the lack of materials away from the bank, it appears that the Paleoindian component of the Page/Ladson site is localized around the submerged part of the site. However, Middle Archaic and Deptford remains were more concentrated on the eastern bank of Half-Mile Rise. One test unit (AE-4) yielded a range of stone tools, flakes, and pottery remains (see Appendix A) that likely date to the Middle to Late Archaic.

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224 Profiles of each test unit excavated during the 1994-1995 season were drawn, as well as planview drawings when required (Figures D.4 through D.20). In test units AWl and AW2, deposits corresponded to the relatively normal set of surficial sediments found on the Gulf Coastal Lowlands (Coastal Environments, Inc. 1977:10-18), namely a roughly 10cm organic mat overlying 80 to 150cm of white sand that fades into an oxidized, iron-rich yellow sand, which in turn overlies a BT horizon of alluviallydeposited clays. In test pits BW2, BW3, and BEl, much of the sediment has been stripped off the underlying bedrock, leaving a 1 0cm-20cm sandy, organic-rich A horizon that immediately overlies a thin yellow sand and bedrock. In test units AEl and AE2, the gray to white sand that homogeneously covers bedrock and Plio-Pleistocene clays gives way to a yellow sand at around 75cm below surface. Test Unit AE3 and AE4 consists of gray sand directly overlying limestone bedrock Several important observations were made on the basis of soil depths, recovered artifacts, and test unit placement. First, test units BWl and BW2 could be excavated only to average depths of 50cm and 30cm, respectively. Bedrock was immediately encountered. Compared to other test units (e.g. AW2 and AE2 through AE4), where a sequence of humus, sand, and clay was found, it seems likely that local flooding firom the Wacissa drainage stripped the limestone/dolomite ridge immediately above the underwater component of the site. The modem Wacissa enters the Aucilla at various points, including just north of the Page/Ladson site (Figure 3.1). It is likely that lowered aquifer levels combined with slightly higher-than-modem rainfall in the Wacissa drainage would result in higher stream flows and subsequent water-stripping of terraced sediments in the vicinity of the modem confluence. The landscape would have been

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225 especially vunerable to episodic water-stripping if the local climate were generally drier and better drained (i.e., lowered water table). The massive gray clay beds above and below the submerged "Bolen level" suggest that these coUuvial depositional events likely occurred during the latest Pleistocene and Early Holocene. Fluctuations in the soil moisture and water table levels appear to have caused other modifications to the excavated soils. In test units AEl, AE2, AE4, and BW2, the lowest sand level above Pleistocene clays was an orange (5YR6/8), clayey sand. This soil was associated with Eariy Archaic diagnostics in AEl and BW2. The phenomenon of yellow to orange sands being associated with early diagnostics is relatively wellknown to professionals and amateurs, alike. James Dunbar (1997, personal communication) reports that site preparation workers for the large plantation pine companies often recognize and recover Paleoindian and Early Archaic points from these orange-colored sands at a much higher rate than from other types of sands during preparation furrowing in northwest Florida. Numerous investigators have noted that Paleoindian and Early Archaic lithic materials from both these orange sands and from deeply buried sandy-clays are highly weathered, or patinated (see Purdy 1981:82, 86). At Hamey Flats, Late Paleoindian and Early Archaic materials were recovered from below a hardpan of Leon Fine sands (Daniel and Weisenbaker 1987:33). The deeply-patinated condition of the side-notched and lanceolate points from the land excavations can be explained in three ways. First, the artifacts could have lain in a shallowly-buried or exposed position for several thousand years before soil moisture levels were high enough and steady enough to keep water trapped in the chert from escaping (Purdy 1981:82-83). This would have exposed the stone to substantial leaching

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226 from being wetted and dried. Evidence of the length of time the points were exposed to leaching can be found in the iron oxide/sand concretions that adhere to the bottom of lithic materials from Early Archaic contexts (Scudder 1999). Second, it is possible that even when the lithic remains were buried in deep sands, the soils were dry enough to continue the patination process. Finally, the relatively deep burial contexts of some Paleoindian and Early Archaic remains could have resulted in them being wetted and dried regularly once aquifer levels reached essentially modem levels, resulting in the bearing off of soluble materials. The minimal patination of sideand comer-notched points from the underwater levels (e.g. 95E-15, 95E-17, 95E-18) suggests that exposure and periodic wetting within a generally dry, sandy soil may promote patination, while burial in consistently hydrated or clay-rich sediments reduces patination. Additional evidence for these trends has been observed in Pleistocene/Early Holocene artifacts from other sandy sites (BuUen and Dolan 1959, Neill 1958, Austin and Mitchell 1999) and artifacts recovered from riverbottom sites in Northwest Florida (Dunbar, personal communication 1997). The highly patinated artifacts from Page/Ladson land units seem to have picked up an orange secondary stain of iron-rich minerals. Although it is not entirely clear when the staining occurred, it may be associated with the establishment of modem water levels. Often, the soil matrix from which these orange-stained stone tools are recovered is also orange, an indication that certain soil processes may be differentially oxidizing iron within the soils.

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227 Artifact analysis The following section summarizes and discusses the significant Early Archaic age artifacts recovered and analyzed (Appendix A) from the 1994-1995 land excavations, and briefly discusses the Deptford component of the same excavations. Ceramics A majority of the ceramic vessel fragments recovered from the land excavations dates to the Deptford period and consists of Deptford Linear Check and Deptford Simple Stamped. The Deptford occupation of the terrestrial component of the Page/Ladson site appears to corrolate with Deptford ceramics from a red, clay-rich layer on the underwater component of the site. A heavy concentration of Deptford ceramics was noted in a 5-7cm band of organic-rich red clay that is a subcomponent of Sedimentary Unit 7 of the underwater component. In the AucillaAVacissa drainage, the only source of this type of clay is through the Aucilla drainage. This suggests that there may have been extensive clearing and subsequent erosion in the Miccosukee Hills subregion of the Tallahassee Hills, the source area of the Aucilla. This would correspond well with the observation of increased inland village sites during the Deptford period (Milanich 1994:134). Although it is unclear whether the clearing was for obtaining firewood, garden lands, or for some other purpose, it is a good sign of a frindamental change in the intensity of human activity in the headwaters of the Aucilla River around 2,500 BP. Projectile point/knives Two Late Paleoindian/Early Archaic points were recovered from Test BW2 during the 1994 field season (Figures D.1-D.2), and one hafted knife was recovered from Test AEl (65cmbs) (Figure D.3). The lanceolate point from BW2 is similar to unfluted lanceolate points called Tallahassee points recovered from other Paleoindian sites in the

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228 Southeast US. The other two points fit within a generahzed Early Archaic point assemblage. Metric data on these points are presented in Appendix B as part of the Ohmes Collection point measurements. Features Only two features were encountered during test pit excavation, one in Unit AE4 (Figure D.9), the other in CW2 (Figures D.18-D.19). The former consisted of a small pit filled with ash, small non-cortical flakes, and sand. It originated at around 35cmbs, suggesting it dates to either the Deptford period or Late Archaic period. The latter feature also originated at around 35cm below surface, but included stacks of Deptford Simple Stamped pottery and charcoal. Encountering two likely Deptford period features in such limited testing suggests there is a significant, undisturbed Deptford-period occupation of the site. ' *' ' Results of Land Excavation There are several conclusions to draw fi-om the land excavations. First, there is ample evidence from the intact and temporally-ordered profiles that in situ Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene terrestrial deposits exist all around the underwater component of the Page/Ladson site. This results presented in this chapter have only hinted at the terrestrial archaeological potential of the site. Early Archaic components likely lie to the south of the underwater portion of the site in the deep sands on the east bank of the Half-Mile Rise. Second, the terrestrial deposits may also contain intact features. Only limited numbers of features have been found on sites where Early Archaic materials were recovered (e.g., Wakulla Springs [Jones and Tesar 2000, 8Le2105 [Homum et al. 1996], 8Lf54 [Austin and Mitchell 1999]). Excavations at the Page/Ladson site that expose large numbers of features from the Early Archaic period

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229 will add to our understanding of Early Archaic site structure, as well as tool manufacturing and use processes. Third, excavations helped answer questions about Early Archaic site boundaries. To the immediate east of the underwater component, there were no Early Archaic materials. However, the site appears to extend to the west at least 40m, to the south on the west bank for at least 50m, and to the southeast on the east bank for at least 50m, into both water-stripped and deep sand deposits. To conclude, analysis of the materials recovered in Carr's and Jones' excavations should be carried out and reported. This would serve to supplement the information presented here. Finally, a high priority should be given to delimiting the remaining site boundaries for both the Deptford and Early Archaic components.

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230 Figure D.l. Hafted tool 94B-6.2.1 from 35 cmbs in Test BW2 (Drawing by Mason Sheffield) Figure D.2. Hafted lanceolate 94B-6.2.2 from 35 cmbs in Test BW2 (Drawing by Mason Sheffield)

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231

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232 Figure D.3. Hafted tool 94B-12.2.13 from 65 cmbs in Test AEl (Drawing by Mason Sheffield)

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233 Dark gray sandy organic mat .Medium gray bioturbated sand Yellow sand 5 0 centimeters 8Je591--Unit AWl (North Profile) Aucilla River Prehistory Project--Florida Museum of Natural History Figure D.4. Profile drawing of Test AWl YdtovMUgM Blown land wiVi day UgM Yalew to wMto Mnd Oafh 9'av clay wi9i dark otang* motUad MCttont Sand coniani 10-20% centimeters 50 [ 8JeS91-Unit AW2 (North Profile)] Aucilla River Prehistory Project— Florida Museum of Natural History Figure D.5. Profile drawing of Test AW2

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234 0 50 centimeters 8Je591-Unit AW3 (South Profile) Aucilla River Prehistory Project—Florida Museum of Natural History Figure D.6. Profile drawing of Test AW3 (Rool) Root mat Medium gray sand , ^ L T^^^^^v^^^^^^ \ \ Light Ian clayey sand — | Clay hardpan \^ 0 50 centimeters 8Je591~Unit AEl (South Profile) Aucilla River Prehistory Project— Florida Museum of Natural History | Figure D. 7. Profile drawing of Test AEl

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235 50 centimeters 8Je591-Unit A£2 (North Profile) Aucilla River Preiiistory Project-Florida Museum of Natural History Figure D. 8. Profile drawing of Test AE2 Root mat Light gray sand "~ Medium gray sand with charcoal Feature A A Tan sand with 1 abundant artifacts \ Clay wan tike V structure (unexcawaM) 1 0 so centimeters 8Je591--Unit AE4 (South Profile) 1 Aucilla River Prehistory ProjectFlorida Museum of Natural History Figure D.9. Profile drawing of Test AE4

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236 50 centimeters 8Je591--UnitBWl (North Profile) Aucilla River Prehistory Project-Florida Museum of Natural History Figure D.IO. Profile drawing of Test BWl 50 centimeters 8Je591--Unit BW2 (North Profile) Aucilla River Prehistory Project— Florida Museum of Natural History Figure D. 11 . Profile drawing of Test B W2

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237 Dark gray sandy organic mat Yellow sand with artifacts(very few) 0 50 centimeters 8Je591--Unit BW3 (North Profile) Aucilla River Prehistory Project—Florida Museum of Natural History Figure D.12. Profile drawing of Test BW3 Root mat Medium gray sand wilt, some organic matter Light tan dayey sand Clayhardpan 50 centimeters 8Je591-Unit BEl (South Profile) Aucilla River Prehistory Project—Florida Museum of Natural History Figure D.13. Profile drawing of Test BEl

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238 Root mat /— ^ ^ — A'^y No observable ' Light tand clayey sand dark light line (even gradation) ^ — ' Clay hardpan 50 centimeters 8Je591"Unit BE2 (North Profile) Aucilla River Prehistory Project-Florida Museum of Natural History Figure D.14. Profile drawing of Test BE2 Root mat Medium tan with some iron nodules Reddish brown with many iron oxide nodules Clay substrateDark gray with some orange chunks 50 centimeters 8Je591-Umt BE3 (South Profile) Aucilla River Prehistory Project—Florida Museum of Natural History Figure D.15. Profile drawing of Test BE3

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239 0 50 centimeters 8Je591-Unit CEl (South Profile) Aucilla River Prehistory Project-Florida Museum of Natural History Figure D.16. Profile drawing of Test CEl Root mat j Light gray sand \ J" Medium tan sand / jP' ^''^^ Clayhardpan^^ 1 0 50 centimeters 8Je591-Unit C2 (North Profile) Aucilla River Prehistory Project--FIorida Museum of Natural History Figure D.17. Profile drawing of Test CE2

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240 M«
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241 centimeters 8Je591-Umt CW4 (North Profile) Aucilla River Prehistory Project— Florida Museum of Natural History Figure D.20. Profile drawing of Test CW4

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LIST OF REFERENCES Adams, J.M., and H. Faure, eds 1997 Review and Atlas of Palaeovegetation: Preliminary land ecosystem maps of the world since the Last Glacial Maximum. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN, USA. Electronic document, http://www.esd.oml.gov/proiects/qen/adamsl.html , accessed on April 18, 2003. Agogino, George 1958 Recent Archaeological Developments Involving Pre-Ceramic Cultures in the Middle Rio Grande. Doctoral Dissertation, Syracuse University. 1962 A FortyYear Look at the Paleo-lndian Picture in North America. Tennessee Archaeologist 18(2):70-74. Alley, R. B., D. A. Meese, C. A. Shuman, A. J. Gow, K. C. Taylor, P. M. Grootes, J. W.C. White, M. Ram, E. D. Waddington, P. A. Mayewski, and G. A. Zielinski 1 993 Abrupt increase in Greenland snow accumulation at the end of the Younger Dryas event. Nature 362:527-529. Alroy, John 2001 A Multispecies Overkill Simulation of the End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Mass Extinction. Science 292:1893-1896. Anderson, David G. 1996 Models of Paleoindian and Early Archaic Settlement in the Lower Southeast. In The Paleoindian and Early Archaic Southeast, eds. D. G. Anderson and K. E. Sassaman, pp. 29-57. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. 2001 Climate and Culture Change in Prehistoric and Early Historic Eastern North America. Archaeology of Eastern North America 29:143-186. 2002 Southeastern Context. In The Earliest Americans Theme Study for the Eastern United States, edited by E. K. M. Seibert, pp. 42-80. Manuscript submitted to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, Washington, D.C. Anderson, David G., and Glen T. Hanson 1988 Early Archaic Settlement in the Southeastern United States: A Case Study from the Savannah River Valley. American Antiquity 53:262-86. 242

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243 " Anderson, D.G., and K.E. Sassaman 1996 Paleoindian and Early Archaic Research in the South Carolina Area. In The Paleoindian and Early Archaic Southeast, edited by David G. Anderson and Kenneth E. Sassaman, pp. 222-237. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. Anderson, David G., Kenneth E. Sassaman, and Christopher Judge (editors) . 1992 Paleoindian and Early Archaic Period Research in the Lower Southeast: A South Carolina Perspective. Council of South Carolina Professional Archaeologists, Columbia, South Carolina. Anderson, David G., Lisa D. O'Steen, and Kenneth E. Sassaman 1996 Environmental and Chronological Considerations. In The Paleoindian and Early Archaic Southeast, edited by D. G. Anderson and K. E. Sassaman, pp. 3-15. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. David G. Anderson, David W. Stable and Malcolm K. Cleaveland 1995 Paleoclimate and the potential food reserves of Mississippian societies: a case study from the Savannah River Valley. American Antiquity 60:258-287. Andrefsky, William " " • . 1998 Lithics : macroscopic approaches to analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press. Austin, Robert J., and Scott E. Mitchell 1 999 Archaeological Investigations at Jeanie 's Better Back (8LF54), An Early Archaic Site in Lafayette County, Florida. Gainesville: Southeastern Archaeological Research, Inc. Bettinger, Robert L. 1 99 1 Hunter-Gatherers: Archaeological and Evolutionary Theory. New York: Plenum Press. Binford, Lewis R. 1968 Post-Pleistocene Adaptations. In. New Perspectives in Archaeology, edited by Sally R. Binford and Lewis R. Binford, pp. 313-342. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company. 1980 Willow Smoke and Dog's Tails: Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems and Archaeological Site Formation, ^/ner/can ^wf/'^MzTy 45(1 ):4-20. 2001 Constructing Frames of Reference: An Analytical Method for Archaeological Theory Building Using Ethnographic and Environmental Data iSe/^. Berkeley: University of Cahfomia Press. Bordes, Fran9ois 1968 r/ze O/J i'fone ^ge. London: World University Library.

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244 Brook, Edward J., Todd Sowers, and Joe Orchardo 1996 Rapid Variations in Atmospheric Methane Concentration During the Past 110,000 Years Science 111>: 1087-1091. Brookes, Samuel O. 1 979 The Hester Site, An Early Archaic Site in Monroe County, Mississippi: A Preliminary Report. Jackson: Mississippi Department of Archives and History. Brooms, MacDonald, Tray Earnest, and Sharon B. Hendrick 1997 Phase III Mitigation of lCo54 in Association With the Enterprise Bipasss Project F-395 (14) in Coffee County, Alabama. Troy, Alabama: Archaeological Research Center, Troy State University. Broster, J.B., and G.L Barker 1992 Second Report of Investigations at the Johnson Site (40Dv400): The 1991 Field Season. Tennessee Anthropologist 17(2):120-130. Broster, J.B., D.P. Johnson, and M.R. Norton 1991 The Johnson Site: A Dated Clovis-Cumberland Occupation in Tennessee. Current Research in the Pleistocene 8:8-10. Broster, J.B., and M.R. Norton 1996 Recent Paleoindian Research in Termessee. In The Paleoindian and Early Archaic Southeast, edited by David G. Anderson and Kenneth E. Sassaman, pp. 288-297. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. Broyles, Bettye J. 1 966 Preliminary Report: The St. Albans Site (46KA27), Kanawha County, West Virginia. West Virginia Archaeologist 19:1-43. Bryant, Vaughn M., Jr, Richard G. Holloway, John G. Jones, and David L. Carlson 1994 Pollen preservation in alkahne soils of the American Southwest. In Sedimentation of organic particles, edited by Alfred Traverse, pp. 47-58. London: Cambridge University Press. BuUen, Ripley P. 1975 A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile Points. 1968. Reprint. Gainesville, Florida: Kendall Books. BuUen, Ripley P. and Lawrence E. Beilman 1973 The Nalcrest Site, Lake Weohyakapka, Florida. Florida Anthropologist 26:1-22.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Brinnen Carter was bom in Orlando, Florida, in 1966 and raised in DeLand, Florida. He was graduated from DeLand High School in 1982. He was graduated from Bowdoin College in 1986 with an A.B. in history and anthropology. After a brief career as a lifeguard and adventurer, he attended and was graduated from Texas A&M University in 1995 with an M.A. in anthropology with a specialization in nautical archaeology. He has been employed with the National Park Service since May 1998. 260

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality ^ae a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of PMpsc^h^ . Jeraiyi T. Milanich, Chair Professor of Anthropology I certify that I have read this study aiKTmat in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Steven A. Brandt Associate Professor of Anthropology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. UaJ^ 7. K William F. Keegan Professor of Anthropology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, a^a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. a<' /a u-L. Barbara A. Purdy ______ Professor of Anthropology, Emerita I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality^ ^s a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosop^y( ^SrDavid WeBb Distinguished Research Professor of Zoology

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This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Facuhy of the Department of Anthropology in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial flilfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. May 2003 Dean, Graduate School