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Philippe Jacques de Lotherbourg : eighteenth century romantic artist and scene designer

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Philippe Jacques de Lotherbourg : eighteenth century romantic artist and scene designer
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Preston, Lilliam Elvira
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vii [308] leaves. : illus. ; 28 cm.

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Thesis--University of Florida, 1957.
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Bibliography: leaves 288-306.
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Manuscript copy.
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Vita.

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Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg: # Eighteenth Century Romantic Artist

and Scene Designer











By

LILLIAN ELVIRA PRESTON


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY











UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
January, 1957















AC N16EDIM


The writer desires to express appreciation to Professor H. P. Constans for bis ti, pet4..c. and assistance cn this etudy,, and also to Dr. L, Zimerai for his tremdous, aumt of editorial vwk SSOIW thanks to Dr. and Ws. (ksdca Bigelow and to Mary King Humhy for their knnes and assistance. Deepest gratitude goes to the writer's sister, W* Thelma Fiske, for it was he uers e m financial assistance that mad. the tim spuien stud4y at the University of Florida possible,

The writer also wishes to thank the following for assisane in locating material and plates usned in this study: Dr. Richard Southern, Director of the British Centre of the Internaational Theatre Institute, Ym. Genevieve Ievallet-Haag of the Uais~ee de Strambug,, Dw. D. "%. Uash Of the, Victoria end Albert 2-iseump and the editors of the Apollo hMaainep Cnoisseur$ B~Urlingtons and Theatre Notebook.















TABLE OF 00TEMS


ACNOLDWM


9 * 9 * *9 9 9 9 * 9 9 * * * 0 0w*


LIST OF PLATE...





I. TRENDS AND THE TI


M. PIGME AND PALETTE . . . III. ! OF SCLR DESIGNERS IV. A NOFMANY PARTS


V. ONCLUSION . . . . . . BIBLIOGRAH . . . . . . . . .


* 9 9 S 9

* 9 9 9 9


* * 9 9 99 99*


* 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 * .Se


* 9 9 9 9 9


* 9 9 9 9 9


* 9 9 9 9 9


* 9 9 9 9 9


B1OGRU .iICALITEM *. . * . *.. **9


iii


Page

ii iv

Y


I


74 flu



257 280


288 307
















LIST OF PLATES


MAftermno vith a kIsthodist P*h


# 0 * 9 * 9 0 0 * *0*


1I. Garrick in Richard III


Falls on the ne . a. . . . , Cataract n the Llugwy #. . * . Landcap with Travellsrs ... Cataract on the Rhine . . . . . Cahiabrooke Castle . . . . . David Garrick in the Chance . . The Christma Tale . . . . . * a The Cristia Tale (Sepia Sketch) The Christmas Tale (Sepia Sketch) Peaks Hole, Wonders of Derbyshire Y-nsington Gardmo.* . . . . . . Cliff and Beach See . . . . . . Native Fishing Ht . . .. .. . Sketches for Richard III . ..


9

9


* . . o ,

* 999 4 .

* * 9990*

* 9 9 * * 9

* O9* 9 9

* 9 *9 0 9 9

* 9 9 9 * 9

* 9.9 99.

* 9** S 9*

* .0 9 9 99

* 09 9 9 9 9

* *0999*9

* . .9 999


III.

IV.

V.

VI.

VII. VIII.

IX.



X.

XII.



XIV. XVV. XVI.


XVII. XVIII. xIl.


9


Mountain Scenery (Designed for Eidouaikcn) . Prism Scene * o * * * . . . . * e # PbilippO .JACqUeS dO LoutherboUz'g * # * # *..


Flat.

I.


* 9 0 * 099


Peg. 93

96



117

120 122



128 169 171 173 180 195

196 197

249

252

254i 261















INTRODUCTION


The purpose of this study was to gather together what could be discovered concerning Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg in order to present a sketch of one of the remarkable figures of eighteenth century English art and stage d~oo, and by investigating his theatrical activities to present information which would fill in some gaps in the history of stage design during the late eighteenth century in England.

The first step taken in this study was to consider the trends of romanticism because the creative activity and influence of the painter and scene designer, Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg, came during an age of romantic transition in English art and staging. It was an age in which the trend in life and art was away from the aristocratic and classical and toward the bourgeois and sentimental. This romantic transition occurred in England during the middle and later years of the eighteefth cmvtury, the period in which Loutherbourg made his contributions.

The second step was to investigate the romantic trends in the

art of the period since English art was in a plastic state and received impressions and influences from many sources. Loutherbourg was able to play a major role in bringing the romantic tradition to English art because his mastery of dramatic presentation, which he had learned in continental art studies, was thoroughly opposed to the classical serenity of the dominant school of English landscape painters. It was











his influence which helped to develop the growing taste for "the sublime" in painting and the more emotional "picturesque" style.

To complete the study of the romantic background of this artist's period of activity it was necessary to investigate the theatrical conditions. The dram itself has been gone over quickly by most historians, who believed that it offers little for serious study outside the works of Goldsmith and Sheridan* These literary historians have not considered the inter-relationship of staging and drama. They only casually mention that, in this period, melodrama developed and that the great panoramic spectacles arose. The poet's art had been eclipsed by that of the carpenter and seene painter. It was in this connection that Loutherbourg left his deepest mark for he was an innovator and yet, after his arrival, there was an increasing sensitiveness to the possibilities of a better co-ordinated mise en scene.

The third step in this study was to investigate the work of this artist as a painter and then as a stage designer. The major emphasis has been on his work in the theatre but he was equally successful as an easel painter. He professed to two objects; to display his skill as a scene designer by his masterful techniques with dioramic spectacular effects, and to demonstrate to the English people the beauties of their own country. 'hilse his art was essentially dramatic, his tremendous power, his invention, and his rather phenomenal speed of execution carried over into his sene painting. It was in this department that his genius was expressed and it was through his efforts that a new conception of the possibilities of stage










design, stage lighting, and mechanical novelty were given to the public.

The final step in this study was to consider briefly the

events in the life of this versatile man which might have affected his work as an artist and to consider the romantic qualities of his life and personality.

In general, material for this study was obtained from

eighteenth century newspapers and periodicals, from autobiographies, confessions, and memoirs of theatrical personalities of the time, and from existing paintings and scene designs. Loutherbourg was a man of considerable versatility and this quality has resulted in the fact that it was necessary to seek out information about him frca memoirs and pamphlets of widely different kinds. The early life of the artist was traced through French sources, archives and records of L'Academe Royalej his years in England, through the diaries and records of conte porary artists and the accounts of the London Royal Academy.

It seems, therefore, pertinent to investigate the influence of the scene designer who, for more than a decade, was without a rival on the English stage. This man's success as a designer influenced the stage docor which, in turn, influenced the drama of the eighteenth century. Loutherbourg was the first of a long line of scenic artists in the modern style who developed a form of mitigated realism and who were to revolutionise the stagecraft of the English stage, substituting for mere glitter and magnificence, scenery which created a pleasing illusion for the play it illustrated, and scenic effects which became predominant parts of most performances.
vii














CHAPTER I


THE TRENDS AND THE TIMES


Elmets of thieRomantic 20pirit

Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg was a romantic spirit. In his life and in his work he embodied most of the elements which have been used to define romanticism,, a movement which sought to evoke from the past a beauty that was wanting in the presents this movement developed a himantaian intrest and a nebulous identification with pathos and virtue. It allotted freedom of expression to the iuagination and fostered a concept of the free individual as opposed to the static conventions of the past. It was a movement wAich influenced every fom of ETglish expression and life in the last half of the eighteenth century.
In order to identify Loutherbourg with the elements of the

romantic spirit it is necessary to consider certain of then under more specific headings: (1) The Revolutionary Spirit, (2) The Gothic Revival, (3) The Noble Savage, (4) Sentimentalism, (5) The RoawticRalists, and (6) The Picturesque.

Revolutionar7 Spirit

The most characteristic attitude of romanticism was a revolutionary one. In general, it was revealed by the discontent for things as they were and a love of change. This discontent manifested itself










not only in politics and literatures but also in art, uasic, costumes, and manners.1 It is essential to note the true representation of the romantic tradition harbored a love of change for its own sake. In many wayvs, this led the eighteenth century to look for something different, rather than something news whether it was "to be found in the pat, in foreign realms, in imaginative visions, or in the fields of human life untouched by contemporary society."2

The search for something different was an endeavor to break aways, going in several directions at noe, from all that was the established foam. 'The freedom and lawlessness, the love of novelty, and the interest in experiments# as well as the desire for 'str-.eness added to beauty," were the result of a break from the classical respect for rules, conventions, and models. The break was also revealed in the discontent for things that were; for instance, the new idealism and eroticism were both in strong contrast to the 'rastt's conscientious admhence to fact,'3 which was characteristic of the Augustan period in England. In another way, it can be said that the love of oane was a reaction to the values of the preceding period. At this time, it was a movement MWy from the Augustan conventionallml that is#. from neoclassicism. The thUtre's revolt against the st&adards of the previous


1Agnes Addison Romanticism and the Gothic Revival (New Yorki Richard R. Smith, 19381, p. 20.
2A.lardyce Nicoll, The Enlish Theatre A Short Histo
(Londont Thomas Nelson and Sons, ly36), h4a,
'henry A. Beers, A Histo! of ln3ish Romntician in the Eighteenth Century (New York: Henry Hol and C., 60, p. 2.











age, against its cov.ntionalism and formality, serves as an illustration of this tendency. For instance, as far as this revolt in acting was concerned# it was toward a natural and realistic type. This meant an imitation of the details of nature; it included the ugly as well as the beautiful and the emphasis was on action rather than on

rhetoric.
This revolutionary spirit led man to indulge in his propeuity for dreaming His romantic artistic produotions were all designed to help him reconstruct other enviWr aments in his own fancy carry his w from the eeryday atualities and into senems of past or even future glory.5 Regarding the unknown with gsep the eighteenth century man derived a pleasing thrill from specat about its mybries, a process by which he not only filled it with the "nameless terrors which he dreaded, but with the beauty, love and moral guidance for which he hungered."6

This was a tine when the discoveries of science had made

possible the Industrial Revolution, a time when Eagland was involved In an irremediable qurl with her American colonies, and a time when the French Revolution shook the foudtions of the social orde .7

4ily B. Campbell, "The Rise of a Theory of Stage Presentation in IWland During the Eighteenth Century," Nblications of the Modern Language Association of Amrica, XXII 11) .10
hrank Lawrence uoas, The Decline and Fall of the Rntic Ideal (New York, The Universty es, 8), p. 9). ..
6N.ale Ho Fairchild, T anti -t (New Yorks Columbia University Pross, 1931), p. 2 J5.
7Ashloy H. Thordike, ish C (New York: The Co., 1929), p, 437. (










This was a time for men to drem great dreame and for the artists to present these dreams in aesthetic foam. Sme of these impaises assum d the guise of a philosophical force opposed to science and to the scientific element in nationalism.8

The revolutionary spirit turned to research which carried man

far out into the infinity of the stars there, man fonid In the universe ever n aspects of his own "soul revealed in natureI thus, painters sought to express themselves through the medium of landscapes, and musicians through a music that made a conscious attempt to imitate nature's very sounds. The revolutionary spirit saw the ugly slums that grew up in the factory toens and turned from them to dreams of Utopia and to elaborate plane for arsthetic cities in a future which would

free man from many of the burdens and the struggls for existence.9

The reaction against things as they were focused the attention of eighteenth century men on their own imaginations, the true abiding place of the *power to ake dreams real, and the real a drem."10 As a consequene,# the romantic artist created for himself phantom forms and strange new symbols to express the wish for death. Hampered In the normal expression of love by a strong Puritan conscience bred from "ancient patriarchal Misopotsmian ideologies* ih a dominant Protestant church, the revolutionary spirit returned to a worship of


8 hairchild$ g , p. 238.
%ichard Hither, The History of Psintiwg From the Fmurth to the Ealy Nineteenth Centur (London, 0 *G P. Putnam's Son,, 1907) , II$ p. T61.


"0Fairchild. o. cit., p. 256.











lahtar, the fatal goddess, and visualized her as froserpine, the Queen of Death, or Ia Belle Dam Sans Merci - The legend of Ishtar not only expressed man's unconscious fear of the mystifying elemnts in the eternal feminine, but gave free-rein to his imagination, Marr of the romantic painters became proeoccupied with the relatisp of creative man to the fatal woman.

Gothic

The romantic love of change did not always imply a desire for something new; it was also content with something different, This was precisely what happened to the architecture of the period; through it, men registered a protest against the late Renaissance styles which were to be found everywhere in Europe and America. In this case, no am style wa created; instead, there was a revival of former style, and above all, those of the Greek and Madiaeva.11 The nm applied to this return to the Mediaeval style was the Gothic Revival. It was a convenient label for all the eighteenth century buildings designed to resemble medisaval architecture. The term itself was first used in England about the middle of the century.12

The taste for things mediaeval in form was so essential expression of romanticism and was closely related to every other expression of the same spirit.13 At first, the new trend toward

1Addism, op. cit.o, p. 21.
12 bid., p. 22.

3Kenneth Clwk, The Gothic Revival (London, Constable, 19O), p. 87.











buildings in the Gothic style was no more than a symptom of the change that was taking place in ideas, but it soon developed into something More.1& Looking to the past stirred the Imagination of those searching for new means of depression. The arts of the period found new values in ruined astlos and abbeys, coats of mail* illuminated issals#, manuscript romances, black-letter ballads, old tapstries, and wood carvings*lS What these revived was only an wilge of mediaeval sociot," not the reality of it.16

This fandness for the pat, vhich was clearly "a tendency

away from actuality,'17 was found in the glamour of distance, not as it actually was, but rather as one wanted it to be, so that the dospised age of Omonker, feudalism, and superstition began to reassert its claim on the Imgintion.18 In fact, it has been defined as a means of finding a "dream-picture of life."19

Descriptions of sme of the mediaeval Imitations built at that time do not suggest real structures, but rather old-fashioned stage scenery, and it takes only a :Little imagination to see the moonlight streaming down from the wings or hear a stage owl hooting.20 In

lII1hid.

5BeOs, OP. Cit., po 30.

?Ibid.



SIbid., pp . 35-36 .
20Cark p.* p. 39.











essence, the Gothic mood was permeated with aln the heavy machinery of melancholy.
There wa aleo certain qualities which the artistic souls of the time believed were resent in the life and thought of the middle Ages and which they attempted to Interpret for Georgian England. As a result of the blue hase of distance and their am imagination, they believed that mediaeval art was identifiable by an exceas of sentiment, over-lavish decorstion, and strong aerse of olour. They considered that it had a feeble sense of form and that the emphasis was on detail rather than cc an over-all conception of the whole Impvession. In consequence, they had a tendency to employ the "exaggerated, the fantastic, and the gratesque."21 Yet to the romantic spirit, Othe blue of distance" or the remoteness of tim and place gave them a feeling which was associated with dream and with imagination.22

There were two examples of the Gothic Revival in architecture which illustrate perfectly all the faults and all the good qualities of that element of the romantic. These structures were Stravbe Hill and Fothll Abbey.

The miniature Gothic caetle known as Strawberry Hill was the most famous of the eighteenth century attempts to revive Gothic formas it was the chief exampIe of the prevalent fashion. It became important because it belonged to the cultivated Horace alpole, and when he took


41f SM, p it. p. 2.
22Lucas, 2. cite p. 52.











up Gothic architecture, members of society not only began to feel that there might be something to it# but were willing to imitate his example. Horac* Walpole can be said to have given social standing to buildings imitating the Gothic form. It was Peaps his greatest contribution to the revival.23

The faults of the Gothic Revival wer very obvious in Strawberry Hill, for, here, the "gimcracks, its pasteboard battlements and stained-paper carvinge,'24 illustrated the romantic tendency to use the borroed form so freely that they were just copies, or better yet, parodies.
It should be said that too much of the eighteenth century

crept into their interpretation of msdiaevalism. The results we in opposition to anytin made of its right material and Strawberry Hill was filled with new devices to render craftsmanship unnecessary"new wallpaper which was stamped to imitate stucco-work, and new artificial stone which allowed the architect to order his detail wholesale."25 The constructive features, "its gables, buttresses, fliils, lath and plaster parapets, wooden pinnacles wer all . . ." Just what one might expect from a period which possessed an admiration for the Gothic without actually having any knowledge of the proper adaptation of its basic features.26

23Thelpe, co. cit. p. 105.

2clark, op. cit., p. 85.
2SClark, op. cit., p. 85 26B ,#op. cit., p. 232.










Out of the mediaeval atmosphere of gloom and darkness Created by Strawbe7 Hill, cam the first Gothic novels The Castle of Otranto. Hoace Walpole confessed later that his concepts of Strmberry Hill had been his Inspiration for the story.27 From The Casle of Otranto me a long stream of horror tales, thus adding another overtone to the adjective Gothic* While the teu formerly meat wbarbaus and uncouth," it came to signify something Owondrous, 8uperntural, *Sird, strane and out of the ordinery."28

The building which concentrated in itself all the romaticim of the 1790's and besame the epitome of eighteenth century Gothic was Fonthi Abbey, designod by James Wyatt for William Bekterd.29 This Abbey actually origin ted in his desire to live in a structure resembling an old ruin. He had ordered James Wyatt to design a "ruined convent of which the chapel par our, dormitory and part of a cloister alone should have survived.*3O Fonthil Abbey, the clima of eighteenth century Gothic, with its high central tower, enorms hall and indoor staircase, was the result.31
The some faults which appeared in Strawberry Hill were evident in the Abbey. In this struct-re, the detail was especially bad, even to the point of looking insecure. It was even more insecure than it looked and shortly after Beokford sold it to an eccentric, John

2?Ibid.. p. 236.
28AddLsn, op. cit., p. 141.
29Clark op. cit., p. 121.
30bid., p. 116.
3 3uy Chapmn, Beekford (New ork, Charles Scribner's Son, 1937), p. 289.










Farquhar, a clerk confosod that the solid foundations under the central tower had not been provided We Farquha was Informed he replied that the house would probably last his lift tim., He was mistake. uring a gale, in 1825, Foothill Abbey collapsed without a noi32

Wyatt's Ignora= of Gothic methods of construction , typical of the romantic period's superficialviewpoint, Inevitably falsified the general affect and Fothi Abbey could hadldy be considered as more than stage scenery. Yet, as scenery, it was excellent. Al that the eighteenth century demmided from its Gothic (unimpeded perspetiv, Inse height,x and sublime as ) was present in Foathill and present more lavishly, per ep, than in any real mediasval building.'3 The Noble Saage,

Another elon typical of the romantic spirit was a new

sympathy for humble life which was manifested in a return to nature and to native gen.ai a34 The true "Mn of fee*ing" wa lo0d for and found in what became the cult of the Noble Savage. The idea of the Noble Savage was simply any free and wild being who drew directly from nature virtues which mad the values of civilization seem rather doubtful. For insanics, the mind of that Being had not been chilled and mechanised by science, nor had his emotions been withered by scepticism.


321bid.
33Clark, op. cit., p. 119.

34'alrchild, op. cat., p. 237.











The "mn of feelings" or rather the Noble Savage# "dared and strove and believed" and lot hireif go, according to the romantic spirits of the tim. It was possible for him to do this baoams bi pensions were simple and strong, his loyalty was of the highest type, his faith w ompl.pet, and his ideals were origoal. Most Important of all he was picturesque and thrilling became he was viewed from a distance.35

The interest In the Noble Savage was the result of the fusion of three elements: (1) the observations of explorers, (2) various classical and mediaeval coentions, and (3) deductions of piesophers and m of letters.36
The observations of explorers found a large audience during

the eighteenth cent=, and accowts of travels we read with interest. This interest reflected the new concern in the pecularities of nature, regardless of whether the travel literature waste scientific, pseudo scientifie, or esthetic.3? Prodwts of remote countries wese their way back to England where they not onlyv lent variety to English fare, but also helped to broaden the Intellectual horison of those who remained at hoe. One interesting extple of this was the fact that tea from Cia became the new poplar drink in the eightenth century,. Also, the ever increasing trae to foreign pats brought mare sad hglishei into contact with native peoples. At the m time , the


3hIbid., 238.
36N4ee 4. Fairchild, te Noble �MLat A SUin Remantic .aturalism (New York: CoIubjAdia versity Pr e?,l9p.2..

3?hides p. 7.










lishwere expaing their colonial holdings and estlishing world trade routes.38

The various classical and m ,diaval convantions which were
interwoven with the idea of the Noble Savag, wer a pat of the impulse to derive real satisfaction from an "impuls to blend the known and the supornationalised unknown."9 It was also a form of imaginative escape, since illusions could be created armd the dim, ancestral figures that were distant in time as well as in s.pwoeO
The dedication of philosophe and men of l tters to the Noble Savage was a reaction against the contemporary glorification of culture. They took the explorer picture of a saae who was a virtuous being and made him represent the ingenuous and passionate form of le", the religion Of nature, and the revival of primtive poe 1.'r1
An illustration of these three trends can be found in the druma and theatre of the poriod. The playwrights were supplied with new material and with now baskgromno. Drama began to include characters drown from natives of other distant lands and frnm Enlish importers and jgerchantso Stage designs wase constantly depicting scenes from the Americas, the Orient, or other far off placets which were in the public interest at the tim.42 The audience itself reflected the changing

38Jmes J. Lynch* Bo pit d G i
Johnson's London (Berkelyt : pP 2
39Fs rhI # Romantic. qges. op. cit.. p. 238.


I' airhild, The Noble Savage, p. 498.
Lyanoh, op. cit., p. 2.











nature of the scial stucture.3

Since the Noble Savage, was any free and wild being, It included the humble peasant and the innocent child, yet there was certain races which held greater interest for the romantic spirit. The American Indion was the aristocrat of the group. His scrn of oivilisation, his lively sense of gratitude, his natural msticism, and his courage all vary Iressive,. His blood--birstiness only provided agreeabl. thrills and could be exlaned may in term of *resistance to European opession or by glans t the vices of 'mase refined nations.1" Beneath his stoical exterior# he was a true ,man of feling."

The South Sea Islander c next and# though a now mlable

figure, was only a little less imposing; Tahiti and other islands provided a nsmbe of female Noble Svages. In fact, from the abundant eighteenth century travelogues down to the present time the Noble Nlynasion tradition has been Identified with a freer and more spotanous kind of love than our own civiliston provides.6 The African Negro Joined the Noble Sa group rather l-te*.6
This romntio Interest in the wild and ree beim* s alse related to -oussem's conception of Natural Man," to the gospel of nature worsip, the enthumsaim for innocent simlicityp and to an tintelectualismo7 In this way the cult of the Noble Savage was a

I&)Ibid.


I5ibid.
d, 2p. 51.
4?I,:w., p. 353.










tread wmay tic. inteetuls and tic. sojhistioatiOn toward the primitive wipio.ity at anl the expe which could be hieed tiM the .easee.



The romantic spirit enjocyed luxuriatiag in emotion for emotion's sk. and can be beat described, aS tendenc to respond with feeling rather than with reason)'8 It was the kind of respos which is found in the human desire to find in ia-ma, in resng, or in theatrcal entertainment those amen and Iwhich r so difficult to bring to pass in aotusuty.*49 This elem, of the r romantic emasized the worth of the i.inot, of intuiton, and of Imagination. Romantic reason was O'va, fervent, shot through with


Confidene in the goodmes of the average hma nature Is the Usapring of sent iatalisa. In the romantic pewiod, thatsm beeam- the e l point of mw belief ; for exasple, it beoam the udrYing ethioal principle of a new school in litratur.52 flustraions of this can be found in the works of Samel RIn who is often called the "invmto of the novel of sensibility. If the



P, 2611.

19'Thordike, op. cit., p. I469.


51Ernes Bwnboam, The Dra of Sensibiit . (Boston, Gin and co., 191)0 p. 12. �










moaut of tears shed wrs an kind of criterion, there is no doubt that the tos shed over Clariese were greater than for an previous workj Rousses's Nouzv11 Helving an imitation of C was also capable of encouragLng tas. This was only the beginening yet when ono considers that the rediscovery of feelings in lterature and drem filled most of this pmriod, it is hard to say exactly who Oinvented" it*-" Sentimental'sm was, however, characteristic of the times and to the rma.ticist there was nothing derogatory in the use of the term. To him it was merely a sensitiveness in emotion, mnase or less refined, end often deliberately cultivated# with a particular responsiveness to the pathetic. All this had a special application for the theatre sieoo, at this tivme theatre adience s were looking for motionalism and they remponed to dramatic or historic stiml with feeling, rather than with aow reasoned, or aesthetic faculty. %3
The romantic sntimentalim wa perverted for It often united social and litsrary penomea that had little, or apparently little, connection with each other. It was concerned with religious seats which did not belive in the realty of sin; it entrusted the &ve with his freedom; it bestowed upon the average, unpecedented political respansibi les. At the smne time that it attempted to revolutionise education, it insisted that the child Wuld not be hapered by discipine.54 However foolish same of the aspects of

5o Cit, p. 277.

, 3Id.
N4ermbave, Th Dama of Sonaibllit (Bostont Ginn ad Co., 1M2), p. 2.











this sensibility may have bees it often went slong with a genuine dee for social reforms both at home and abroad.
Sin e its mainspring was a belief in the goodness of the

nature of the averge hvnm being, it asserted that the por wer not responsible for their poverty nor the criminal for his rie. The influence of this k1d of an attitude was reflected in the dramatic writing of the period. Audiences expected the charatern of senti. mantel cmwy, who struggled against distressing problems to be rrnrded merely because, maly, they deserved -happiness. In domastic tragedy this am thing could be found, since the characters were overwhelmed by oata-troihe and were not responsible for the event. As defined by Erest Berubai:
The dram of sensibility, which includes sentimental cindy
and domestic trago7, was from its birth a protest against the orthodox vlew of life, and against those literary conventions which had sermed that view. It implied that human
nature, when not, as in some ca s already perfect, was perfectible by an appeal to the emotions. It refused to assme that virtues persons maenat be sought in a romntic realm apart from the every day wold. It wished to sho
that beings who wes good at heart wore found in the ordinary walks of lioo. It so represented their conduct as to
arouse radiation for their virtue and pity for their
sufferings.55



My of the aspects of the romantic spirit wwo realistic in appreach; being oncred more with the living object than the artificial one and with the true rather than the established ideal. The new reality consisted of a personal response which led to now creatve


5 %, p. 10.










jag,,es aesthetic discoveries, ad technical inventions. The reaction to the aspects of reality brought about the term rmnticreallm. As the ram-ntic spirit looked toward the romct and the singular, it also leod toward the realistic in Its inOInatiAM to indtate with sa degree of topographioal and architectural wactn.ss,6 In the thestre, this realistio movement assmed two forms, the em leading toward the attempt to secure oauplet illusion and the other tending toward mere antiquarian offerts. In the first instance, a good ezaple mould be Louthbourg s senes for the production of Wondws of shire, in 1779. Here the actual seees were sketc at the locale and wore realistically interreted into stae designs for the D'ur Lane. The sen kind of attempts at realism inspired later thoetre mnaer-s to give the audience a bird's-eye picture of Dover Cliff in a production of t! *5
Momntic-realism was also demonstrated in the prevailing
interest in the Colonial Wars. Such events were r tic and realistie simply for the reason that they were both rmate and actual at the sam time. When the arts attonpted to reprode thes events, there developed a style that might well be called mtstdPls' Theatrical scen represented in this manner, for instance, we neither as plinly realistic as those called for in Denis Diderot's drinas nor Iwer they as frankly unreal as those fhich odaracteised

$5'Al2ardyce Nicoll, A Histr of Ceni .4he t

57Ibid.

58Ibid.










the grand style.9 Historical amacy under these ei-e w a was hopelessl inaccurate according to modern scholarly standards.'0
Stag designers , dramatists, and history painters found that distanc of country was as capable of grandor as dista e of timw, It also allasd them to rerese the oo1 event without disguise and in a realistic a form as possible, a Possibility not

*ztended by the classical rules of the grand style* Historical realism extended fron patriotic scones of the remote pest to canitOOpora7.u' trictift in distat countries. The colonial officer and the explore asmumd the role of the tragic hero. Bsn.Iiu Wet's Death o -a'.. which was the first painting to show a national here in a realistic jetting and in c o ay ostw, had its oowArpart in the dr , The first tragedy in verse in which the hero appeared as a modern character, without reliuishing a eOf his traditional grw ,eur, was Ia Veuve de Malabar by 1 erre# produced in 1770, a piece which is remarkable for no other reason than that Its hero, as in Wet's picture represented a colonial offieer.6A

It was, in fat, this interest in realistic settings, costue, characters, and local color, that provided one source of natualim in the later novel. Thee is nohvg more realistic than the peassat ife as described in Sir Walter Scott's romsancosa

5wind, oe. cit,. p. 177.
60mcol11 p. cit.# p. 29.

61Wind, cit* p. 11.
62IAlcas op. cit., p. 1.3e










Since the romantic spirit pursued violent feelings, there, was a strong tendency to lock for them in the cruditi s of reality, as well as in the fantasies of dems or in the vrld of Imagination. Indeed# dramws themelves can be at times far too reaistic.63 The spirit of the realistic rowfticist loved to contemplate such things an stars in puddles and other unusual contrasts, such as those represented by the remUte Orient with "its perfumes and its vermin, the silver bracelet on the u1cered arm, the plague-stricken corpses among the golden oranges of Jaffa."64
There is no doubt that snatches of this kind of realis were very welcome to the romantie asnstionalists, for they offered another method of escape from the dignties of classicim.65


Picturesque
The beginning and presence of a creative, romantic uovemen Is almost alwys shwn by the love, study, and interpretation of pbesioal nature* When the eighteenth century romntic spirit took possession of the study of ature, It manifested itself in a pasaion for what was termed the wild5 the grald, and the solitary# all of which came to be associated with the picturesque.66
The word t has had a varied careers it found its way



63Ibid., p. 15.


6c Ibid.._o.
66Bma 22. cit., p. 102.











into the poplar vocabulary when the Reverend William OipinIs amounts of descriptive tours (1782 and 1809) were devoted to lustrating hi conception of pictureu scenery.67 It is in Gilpin's ! Prints that the temptsqebaut a 1" rgiually defined as eiesive of that peculiar kind of beauty whih vis agrbeea e in a


The term was in general use for som years before It becam a subject of controveMs. Then, in 1794, a ps warfare developed between Uvidale Price and his friend Richard nes Knight, in which they tried to demolish one another's theories of picturesque beauty. The chief diffeameo between Puie and the earlier theorists was tht he was concerned with the effect of the object on the eye, with light and *ad, rather than with anotons and the association of Idess.68 The picturesque, according to Knight, was "a sode of vision."' Both of these writers agreed that their idsas of the picturesque iqpUed a certain roughness and not the "tender smtoothness' of the beautiful (the abruptness of the sublim without its overwhelzinz petess). Thus* it blendd vith either the subIm or the beautiful and ramdered beauty mae aptivating and sublinity lo mrftl.

The world of dress and r noe revel In the landscape

67Smuel K. Monk, The Sublime-A St!! of Cr2iicl Theories of
A~ttsnth E~t~ ftl Yorks Modemn Language Association,,

681id., p 159.

6-9Chritopher Hussey, The PicturesqM SMudies In a Point of Viw (Londons:Ntnam's,, 1927), p.a7










paings of Claude Lorraina Gaspar Paussin, Salvator Roaw, and other artists 'who painted remto and extravagant Italian visam tiL.ted the imagintio. Thee lundsOpes with their roaugness, abruptness, and wild disorder were labeled romwitic, not merely because, they w'e similar to those usualy dcribed in ro,es, but becms they offerd a meams of seeing the visual quaties of r_-r.
The society of the day craved pictures which contained ruins, aterfafls, shipmecks and temest, md moonlight scees.71 Te looked for a species of landscape in which every obje@t was wild, abrupt, fa tastlo, or which satieted their desiref a 1t.-.rsenes added to beenty."72
The clearest und0rstandtJ of the qualities of the pioturesqu can be found in the changes taking place in the English gardens of the seventeenth century. Their formal pattern were replaced by landsoapes that emphasized a studied carelessness. The picturesque was particularly adverse to symetry and regularity and* as a result, the prim box hWg and clipped trees wer replaced by "an appearmac of splndid ondWdon and romantic doa, enhanced by a ruin."73 Solitiary groves and tangled trees ould only work enhnmnuhen they


701b. p.
Sn L) out Hourtiq, Art in ra e (Ne york, .res Scrib ,'s Sons, 19), p* 278.
T2 Elisa e W.ftwarings tla eI o et
C, ftla d (w' York Oxford nvrsity Ps, ), p.
73JOhn .Stegmnn, of Tast I to
IV (London: Ikomillan and UO. 'syj IP. s .










w ctrasted with saw work of man. Just as few landscape paintings we without a ruin to stand as a melancholy-reminder of the triumph of time, so the &glsh garden contained such objects as delighted the hearts of the rcmontic spirit.7
A study of romanticism reveal that the most characteristic
attitude of the movement viw a revolutionary one. This was antfeted in a discontent for things as they were and a love of change. The loe of change was expressed in a search for omhng different, a search that.. in som instnesg went back into mediaeval times. This offered new possibilities for the use of Imagination, since the eighteenth century saw the pst under the glamour of distance. This new iterest brought about the Gothic Revival in arohitetawe475
The Romantic Sprit was Also expressed in a new sympathy for hle life; this wa manifested in a return to nature and to native genius via the cult, of the Noble Savage. A strong feeling of sensibility us characteristic of the movement. The nebulm identification of pathos and virtue found satisfaction in luxuriating In emotion for ewtion's sake. The Romantic Spirit turned to drem and to Usgnation as an escape from the restraints of classicisa.
Intuition contended with the intellect, Just as the reality of the living formn opposed the established Ideal beauty. The approach to reality was complete ranmtic in that it was a persoml rep se and part of the pression of the individual's nm freedom from the static conventions of the past. The return to natre was expressed in the pictureque which s adverse to symmetry and regulaity; it als*


714Tid.

?5Hourticq, op. cit., p. 279.











found eoa it in strata and um mmon shapes which expressed the wilds grand, and solitary in nature.

M~ilippe, acques de Ioutherbourg, a romantic artist and

sc010e designer It"aplified these elements of the Romntio Spirit in the different Phases of his life and work.


Art
The elements of roanticism are &a s latent in mm' s hearts, and In almost ow period traoe of it can be found In the cueitos, literature sciences, and especially, in art. The elements of the romantic spirit nay be traced far baok in the eighteenth century wer, in England& it was gently and unconsciously reactionary and, in Frarnce proudly and fiercely rebeniou.76 By the rnuenth century romanticim had come out in the open. Its basi principles weemwany and one of the foremost of these, the supremacy of the mdividual, as a sensitive being in his relations with himself and with the outside world, found streuous expression in art. The world offered the romantic artist a boundles range in which to work. There wer nw romantic things to choose from, the Oalent# the deserts, the primitie peoples, the Mi.ddle, Ages. Besides these, he possessed the whole world of Imagination and his own wild passions untamed by conventions. Freed as he was from the restraints of the clasaiwa pat, he turned to the amresion of a rich nw world in ordw to establish


761bolpso. cit. p. M.











a new concept of art, its nmthods, and Its f-natios.77

The deeper scrutiny hich the romantic artist used to understand "self" brought to light feelings which others had not dared to give full depression. Thes gave rise to lyrical fantasies that sprang both from the imagination and from an increasingly w eate oavation of sensations and reality. The romantic artist's approach to the technical problm of color most clearly st him apart from the classioists. The letter hold that the color should ulwas be subservient to the deign; whereas, the romanticist, believed that color was the *life and soul of the picture and was in itself capable of building up form without recourse to contour-lnes,'*78

The longing which the romantic artist put into his work helped him to escape into other lands and other timas, helped him to break from the conventional forms, and led him to expres his on individual sensibility and to interpret his own responses to the private and public world of his romantic spirit.

Loutherbourg was one of the major agents responsible for
bringing the romantic tradition to England. His Europen training and wide range of study fostered a remarkable versatility and made it possible for him to be competent in many areas.79 His traniag,

ThJoueph Pijoan, Art in The Moden World (*University of Knledg,'" III, Chicagot University of MWIR~po, 194.0), p. 321.

78IUriceO Ronalt The Nineteenth Cen~ty New Sources of
motion (The Great Century of Painting"I Genea: Skira, 1951), p. 28.
79Dutton Cook, Art in yg (london s on Lw, 1869), p . 210. ....










background, and ability as an artist were fundamental reasons w1y he was able to revolutionise ocene painting in England.

While the last twenty-flve year. of the eighteenth century witnessed the de-.lopmest of the romantic spirit in art, certain qualities began to make their appearance much earlier. Sao artiets may be aid to have iluened on2y the vague beginnings of the romantic spirit in art, while others embodied all the elements of it. It would be impossible to consider, even briefLy, the artistic tradition to which Louthbourg belonged and in which he worked without mentioning Antoine Wattea (1648-1721), the dominant figure in Fr"nh art during most of the eighteenth century. The benchmark of his exemplary work as a Rococo painter, its reactionary spirit,# Anks him with one of the romantic tradition's basic qualities. The spirit of the French Rococo was a reaction to the proud, rigid# bomastic age of Louis lIV. In the course of this reaction, artists turned in the opposite direction to produce works characterised by grace* delioeay, elegance* and daintinos.80 The the qualities of the Rococo which Watte= represented, for his world was a dream-world in which the elements, though bonowe from reality, were ubImat d to his poetic anatlon."8l That drem-orld a re n by his landscapes mare than by anything else, for in them, the-trees, the WWr, and the water are all bathed in an opalescent light. WatteaU'se Sarkment for & is a masterpiece of romantic fairyland. In this painting, the


80" either, op. cit., p. 658.
8ffranqois Fosca, enth CentMWatteau to TUI D ("The Great Ce-turies of Pa ing"; Gena: , L ,); p. 909











softened, morbidly refined color correspods to the et hea charm, of the figures, He possessed a genius for colors hich convey a sme of softness and uytry, Oe In br iant Ught,82 Watteau worked on4 a few years and died at an early ages yet his �nf2usnae was felt through the rest of the oeatuny. Loutherbourg' major works, while a stunt in Frame# revealed the Rococo qualities of daintiness and elegance which Wattsa had given such g encanm t83 # elegance was combined with a respect for the grandeur of a landscape and for light and aiq distant views,

After Antoine Watteau# the Paintings of Jen Honors Fragonard (17334806), enriched by his extensive studies In Italy, gave the most original interpretation to the Frenh Rococo. Jean Honors Fr gnard not conl captured all of the Jay in life, grace, and light-heartedness of the Room, but also brought it to a harmg end. He was dietinguished for no great masterpiece, but reebrdfor such charming paintings as Th ~j~,or Th !II He painted an his canvases the momentary grace of the pleasure loving life that lomes its charm if elaborated and too long clung t.8

Fraonard's paintings perfectly reflected the ast grasp of the decadent Parisian court at the cloe. of the century. He depleted the jaded pleasure seker with surprising realis, yet his artistic


t2Fijoan, op ct p. 292.
83winim H. Oerdt , Jr., PThlip de lutherbouwg,' N M V (N.over# 1955), 464.

w1~fitherp o cit, p. 711.










se kep him from being haergod with impropriety.

Although for a time he was a student of Francois Boucher

(1703-1770), the French decorator for La P -mdow ther Is new of Soucherts old1 and oaclt~sensuality in Fragonardt s woik. His last partings wrpervaded with a mournful malanchoy and a light


Smwthing of Watteau$* melanoholy and abstraction is found in the p&ntin p of Thaws (1727-788). Uke Wattau, this English artist invested his models with a postic glamr- typael of the romantic school, hi1e his oolor had the same "p ly lustr, his brwshwo the e vibrant sensitivity"86 There wee other things which tbe had In coo, for Oansborough as Watteau in Ftm, was the perfect smodasnt of what the Rococo movement meant In EnlatW Althoudh Wilia Hcgartih (1697-1764i) was onsidered the first native artist in point of tim Gainaboroug was in mwr wWs the most typt1, the most reproentative.87* He was the romantic pain er e with Us plaion for landscape, "the extraordinary refinment and elegance, of handling, the delicacy and subtlety of his eolour.88 Noe was not an imseable draughtsman, and his composition wer not skillfu3y iced, bt la --h's paintings had chazu. He was a poet,

8C. H. tra hm, A (ew Yrk: Charles Scribnr's, 1888), p . . ..
86FOsea, -OO io Pe 900

87lierberb Read., The ThilospOw* of Modemn Art (London. Faber end Faber, 1951)., p.2 7#

Bkoofre Web, "ghtenthConuryArt. ,' a n Rutios by f. V. D. Arson and John Btt (LondonT P"op. 131.











and a "poet by instinct, qLvering with sensitiveness, capricious and fantastic but alay natural*O89 Although he painted soe good portraits of mam, he is best known as a painter of uren and children. Almost inadvertwitly, and with no thought except to satisfy his lv of the country, he was the veritable creator of the great Elish school of landscape paiziters.90~ Early in his career he created an &,glish version of the French Rococo pastoral# translating the French decorative pastoral into a native art in a highly personal w Behind the superficial decorative elment, hoever, there was a passionate but fragmentary observation of nature. The sam pa-t'eal element was found in the early work of Loutherbourg vho tuzd from the elegant plqacting of Watteau and Fragonard to the solamity of the Eglish country side.1 He demonstrated to the ftglsh people the beauties of their own country and averred "that no Eglish land-soaps-painter needed fm-eign travel to collect grand prototypes for his studyon"

thndoubtedly the most comnigeighteenth century figure in English art was Sir Joshua Rnolds (1733-1792). He was not oy the mest learned and sophisticated of the English portrait painters, tat he was the great advocate of U21ish art erxtiion.93 There Is an

89paul 0. Zonody at al.$ 3anr (Now Yorks Garden City Publishing Co., 1929), p.--88'
90hs Ki, Waterhouse, "English Painting and France in the


920erdts, op. cit.. P. 166*
92Cook, 2Eai. p. 210.

9kWp, cI it., ps 236.











obvious contrast between Oainsborough and Sir Joshua Reno]As. Gansborough woz*. in an extrmely personal xmher whi*e Sir Josha Reynolds worked in a style that constanty reflected his knowled and amiration of the geat mters of the past. He Xvached the doctrine of the "rad style" of the Italians, This was the heroic style of paintimg, with subjects taken from classical sources# mthology and relgimn, and treated in a lofty winer.-94 The clasuicism of Rqn.lds urged the study of the old nasters and encouraged rigid discipline. Ina place of the interest in the froedoau of the snse which the ransatiists esxprsed, Reynolds stressed the diwdpline of the mind and left out the passions.95 If did not alws P oine Vhat he PwLahed he did not paint great Imaginative fiure compositions# but rather portivits, of his contemoraries in athological or historical cost=* Picture like Ia., Siddons as St. Cecilia the TragU Vase, or the actor Garrick between the allegorical figures of Tragedy ad Camadys, evidence of this. "In clour and poe he sought to impart to his sitters a resemblance to the man of the R eane, a sort of typical, classical air," While Gainshorcigh turned to colors of the light greenish blue scale in his response to the ruamntic iqlse Reynolds turned to the wa brm tAnes of the old maters
The visual counterparts of a iterar7 romanticism and the

9,iOens, op* cit., P. 3139-g ,p cit.p. .260 96KOnOd, OP Pitp. 89.










English version of the French Rocoo found manifestations in the Gothic Revival and in the Picturesque movamnt in landscape gardening and painting. The strength of the true renewal of Gothic was a way of "monumeal building, and a profound and often most fortunate modification of the nature of the revived claosic."97

Another form of painting, one typical of the Romantic tradition, was the large-scale decorative painting, religious and socular, which had begun with the Renuissance and spread throughout saw** These stretched the imagination in their scope and oblour as thay contained all the spectacular effoots of panormic views. The decorative artists drew freely on the o theatre. for their subjects; thaV turne especially to the light opera, spectacularst and pantomimes, for there th4r found showy sets and costumeso M&zW of those compositions gave the impression of duets or of ensmbes with the star performers well in view and backed by the chorus. The taste of the time., both on the stage and in painting, reveled in these tremendous views filled with color and action.

The most important of the French paintrs-to emplo this style was Francois Boucher (1703-1770). He enjoyed immense success in his day and is still regarded by many as the typical French artist of the eighteenth century.99 His work was sufficiently famus to cast into shade that of such infinitely superior artists as Watteau, Chardin, and



91ebbop. cit, p. 122.

"Fosoat op. cit. p. 87.

95'lbid*A pO 8.











Fragonard. Bmoher typified the taste of the century in his desire to pleas. his co.traries and, in his better mments, ralised perfectly what he set out to do* He had a decorative genius and a gift for compcsition that was facile, elegant, and perfectly baUnced Boucher's activity included everything. His range of subjects krew no baunds. He was at hom, in ever form of art frm setting s71mes fer tapeetris to staging court festivals, ballets, Japans. fies, and theatrical rejteeeatations for which he designed everything eve to the smllest details. His activities took him to the theatre where he designed curtains and senery, gardens adorne with statues# waterfalls, palaes, and lands* " s.100
In the decorative domao, Boucher had a rival in 'Giovani
Batista Tiepolo (1693-1770), who was without a doubt the great outer of eighteenth century Voetian painting and one of the finest deora.tive painters the world has kno .0 Tiepolo's art is no walldidacticism* but raher, Wq be described as "decorative sasic reverber,ating in Jubilant accords.20 His scenes, might well, hav been designed for r oductions of the type and quality found in England's ramantic stage productions at the close of the century. He painted spectacular views such as one in which the spectator "gae Upon distant palaces and sunbathd landscapes,* or other which enad


10O~kitoge cit., p. 701.*
101Fo~cat V* ..2to p. 8.

20 2bthers op. cit.. p. 752*










him to watch "angels and geniuses soar through apse," and "knights upom vhit. studs gallop past with waving barAws.O3 In faet, Tiepolo, sw the great epochs of history as ens "vast carnival in hich all agesp all the natio of the wvrld gather tim itself is an Liakrmt"1 Like the better dsgn of s-eyae lws he wa able to delight with a gaT concourse of enh gUa form and color. To am his best work, am must go to Veanie and view his deo rations of the basonico and Isba Palace, where the hall ae deorted with facade and magniiont poru.ooe..,
The reactary spIrit of the French painters Jean Baptisto $imon Chardin (1699.1779) and Jean Baptistei Gz'ea (1727-l8O5) and the Euha, wiflimn Hogwrth (26971764)s not only fiotered. on approach different from that of the decorative painters, but a differam*e of subject matter as wells They tw'ned, to the realistic rpe sentation, of the dslU life of ordinary people. Orouse SM Chardin definitely abandoned vthologoal scenes and msbeots relating to owut lift.206
Ohardin was called the great paintor of little things, for his work had the '*seae of intimacy an the poetry of h.be thigs.'lO? A sort of retinseet and good-fellaowsp filled his little pictures of





10%5PLea, op. cite. P. 16.
2"ImodysO, #t 0L P# 74.

107Tide, p. 7 ,











dmoeti life with ohaMu. "His simplicity am beanty in his daly surroundi !s his honesty reered then with absolute truth. ,
Groum'a pictures of family life, The ile Betrothal and The PartS*hod Son, with their forced pathos and seaitintalitys we igenous . Mositilu, �e367 detil is Uke an actor plying a purt, an actor brrowd from em c or contemporry molc. dwn.109 Oe-us, did not attack vice, but wakened snut a~d.ration for virtue, Lke the ramant$.os Orono proclaimd the doctrine that "pwe u tenderness lives only in the cottage."110 The romantic theatre sudince ibwh enjoyed it, sntisal tears wept pleasant tears as a result of the neblous identification of pathos and virtue in Grouse' s pictures * Of all the eighteenth century painta, it was Orsuft, perhaps, iw had the most lasting success. Today his art is distasteful for his executon appe ek and conventional and most of his color lacks warmth.

The workof William Hogath corresponds me to that of Orono then it does to Chardn. Yet, they are not alke. A mor4sat quality of satire saves Hogwth; nothing of the kind is found in the sdiLea tnmp ewmt of Orouse. Jogarth painted smal conversati pi ee-. a series of four or peorha six little pictures, which he ecuted with penetrating roalium. The first set was called A Harlot' s MM LA

~P. 113.

109Foa$, op. cito. p. 8.
lno thears op. a tos p. 717.

lnvoesa, * Ot p. 8.










another, A P-810014 Pr.OJMe. still anobth rr iage &* laod'l Thes IWO pictoria moralities of a kind which, at the timst &qnd complotsy outside the dmdn of art. In his Anysis of BMUHogarth professed to fix the fluotuating ideas of taste by a pAn standard of beauty21 His sethatic theory and rtistic praetie had little in canon his drani.,s and paitlngs, while showing fares. ful drwughtsmanship, good color snse, and an independenc, from the reigning =do,, are lartant for their histerical and lterwar ntnt rather than for forol exllence. Orsuze had shown the virtue of peasat lfej H.garth showed the vices of socisty. The mesas of these two artists weefor different V=rposee and for different au nes,#1 In &iglnd, the ddle classes had al.re beom a fator in intellectual ife They made up tte mjoity of the theatre audience; as a stage designer, Louthrbourg had to satisfy their tastes for the nw sentimantal comedy with its um telling pathos.

Beside the moralizing oanvases and the realistic representation of the daily lif of ordinary people, the reaentio realists

infuenedhistaoa peirting * This was an almost completed. English contributions The on O eo a 7 events in a mmental style of painting, vhich combined a pretentious display of heroic grandeur with a claim for truthfulnoes in cstu and petsraitu-e, ms censured by the Aoadei of the eighteenth centvry as an offeme

332Konodyl op Ao p. 89.
123IEsabeth Gilmor Holt, Literal" Sources of Art History (ed.) (New Jersey, ftincston tZver Y rs, W); 27.
l2ll6the, o Cit p. 732.











against good taste. They aditted only the universal and idealised fwo. Dwrt iveidiviuwa was considred vulgar. They declared that the grad style ad the fithfl portrait mawr were with one another,. The artist who as ambitious enough to paint heres should nt make thou lck too much like thamsolves* their asighborso or the soldier* they s walking about in the streets, Yet, this advice ran counter to the trend of historial literature and the technique of enlightened critcism. Traditional heroes w, approached vith an air of faaliarityj Voltaire, ums end G:bbon, for Mov ,p were all beat upon destroying the "Peratu rptations of haoe,

*sints and other aspirants to supern-turl glories. Stag desiners dibwtiese, and hisxtory painters discovered that distance of oountry could be Just as grand as distanc. of time Hiistoria ciracy ms extended from patriotic seems of the rmte past to cilteorary patr-otm in distant cmntriesj this had the advantage of beifg actual and at the am time remote. This far. of approach veiled the distinction between the old and the new bridged the gulf between the oaoserativ quality of classicism and the revoxtionary element of


The first artist to paint his hero as a realistic, contemporary figure was Benjamin West (1738-820), in his well knwn picture Deah ofOm I Iof (1771). In it he protest successfuly against the treatment of modern subJects in classical garb.
Sine the "man of fleeing was coming into his om drig the

.. . .. .. .. . -2 S i e I' p e W e '. II Illllll l I/l II I1










last half of this period, he expected the painted landscape to be smethin more than a scene agroeale to the eye. Hence, the fashion for what the aesthetics of the day called the picturesque landsape. It was in this field of art that Louthebourg' influence was mot stroynly felt. He wa the chief exponent of the picturesque lndseope in Gland and was conside ed the greatest of the EngIlsh picture" paintes.1 The mont towards the picturesquo was one of the strongest trends of late eighteenth cent=ry romant cim and the most

obvious point at which the fine arts and literature came together.117

The picturesque quality of the paintings of such seventeenth century masters as Nicolas Poussin (%594-1665) and Claude Lorrain (1600-1682) was very popular and thee was eager competition for their caawases. The work of Salvator Roa (1616-1673) was an isolated instance of ramnticim in the seventeenth century. His influence was strongly felt in England because the plastic appearance of the Roman landscape, as he aw it, was in harimny vith contemporary taste.11B He was considersd the real discoverer of the picturese, the first enthusiast for the savage aspects of nature. ewise, he was one of the first artiste to study natural effects such as suaets, stars, aiss, and whirling clouds,, and to use them dramatically in his landscaps.11


lAruaring, op. cit., p. 73.

Il7'ebb# op. cit., p. 133.

IIS aher ,op. cit,, p. 5O3,
W9Yrahk Jewell Mather, A itz fItla IH (Now York Hery Holt, 1923), p. 6










Part of the popularity of this styl of landscape was bog about by the fact that, in the eighteenth century, Venice was a tourist center. It was crwmd with wealthy foreignae, particularly Englishmen, whom eager to take souvenirs back with them. The Italian landsapes wr admired by travellers who delighted in recognisin soon" they had visited and by reads who found the appeal of Italy's classic ruins and nowe Irresistible.1 Esblied by the leaders of fashion as the correct pattern, the landscapes we" taken as models by posts# paiutrs, and even gardnes, and beome a smore for the rulas of pituresqe beauty.21
Claude, Joei* Vernet (1712-1789) was a precursor of the =xmod natural treatment and occupais a stylistic niche between the fashion of Bmher and conventional olassici*22 Following the style of Poussin, Lo'raing and Rosa# he became owe of the most popular of the landscape painters. Ho was obliged to repeat again and again the tm , t, and E g ts which collectors ordered frau hbin.23 Vernst went so far as to Jot down in his notebook a list of the accessories he would do well to include in his landscapes if he wanted to please his publi.o That list included such things as "watrfalls, big rocks, fallen-tre.-trunks, ruins, wild and desolate scenery." Vernst's style was dramatic and closely akin to scmne painting. It was


2OFosca, . to p. 4j.
12--mw g, o. cit., p. 33.
122Stranahau, p. cit., p. 109.
123FOs oL. clt., p. 12.*










his maimer which Lcthrourg echoed am took to wPla ,,1d 4

As an artist representative of the romantic movemnt', LoutbezbOUrg Was influenced by the various trends that took place in pro* w6r he received his training, and in England, where his aLities as a Stage designer and painter wa C -0e4 exrisd Hsearly landscape reflected the delicate grace of the Frech Rocoo of Watteau and Fragonazd and developed into the bi1ish pastoral scem of Gainborouigh. His Abilities Ma a d4sge of stage spectacls, his use of color, otion and grand effects, echoed the taste for the 2&rge-scalj, decorative, panoramic paintings of Boucher and Tiepolo.

Loutheebourgts theatre hatred to the same sensibility which Grouse did with his pictures of virtuous "cottage life." His audience was the middle class whos morals Hogarth wished to lxprove by his series of moralising canvases. The romntic-realim of history painting found its way into Lautherbourg' s designs of places that were actual and yet remote. In his stage designs and his painting, the picturesque tradition reached its height in England.

In spite of the fact that Louthexbourg was a man of inventive curiosity and mechanical skill, without his knowledge and training as an artist and his understanding of artistic philoeoitie and theories, it would have been impossible for him to become the romantic scone designer that he was.


124 mil4 I.chel, Great Masters of Lardsce Painting (London: HeinmaP 1910), p. 286.











Theatre
The stirring of the razantic spirit was already aking itself felt on the Elish stage beflr the arriva, of Philippe Joqum do Loutherbourg in 1771. His acttvities in the theatre phasised the el nt@ of romani- i#am od through them, he Influenced the trent In dram itself.

In theatrical soa y the offet of rlntici was to s thaoe the architect in favour of the landscape painter. Designers like 0Guiseppe Olli-ibinta the rl oy eighteenth century ama of the fo family of Italian stage artists wre architects, whilo designers like L herbourg were landscape painters. As the rm of the scene designer's artistic expression changed, the romntic changes from the foml. recession of baroque pillars to Owide stretches of blasted heath or distant vistas of town and village beca appmtr."25 kren =,ohitecture, itself, was treated in a prwely pictorial, way in the theatre.

before Louthat'oua'g arrivedl on the London theatrical scee there was little evidence of attempts to co-ordinate the efforts of author, ompoeer scene-desigarl machinist, and musician. There was no evidence that scene-painting was regarded seriously by English critics of at or the memboe of the press during the eighteenth cen~tuy. *Thero were n6 thewrles of mise, en $"no*." The gmna absence of serious critical regard for staging my a me as a surwise


125James Laver, Draas its Costume and Decor (Londons The Studio Publications 19%].), p.19










but, until Lo-therbourg became chief of the scene department of the In7 Lane,, Wey little attention was given to the m a w in general*. Now decoratins and expenditures wer& into the oductions for pmntomimes and ether sp.ctacls.126

'When wnt to work in the London playboun thene

were two major theatres. The " Irst* theatre wr the Vmy Ian., under the managemnt of Dlvd G rick until he retire in 1776, and then of Richard B. Sheridan, up to 1788. The other major theatre was the Covent Gard. This theatre wam geneval]y less distinuishad# but George Colmn the Eldw, as manager until 1777, staged both of Oliver Oldsdth's comedies which had been refused by Garrisk. This gave the theatre a ceart4a prestige.l? The Licersing Act, of 1737 had confined dramatic pe'tsom e to the two patented hones in ian#, but there wo other theatres that wre able to operate by suIberlg. The mnagers of thes nr theatres soon learned to advertise a concert or a 'tea," at whioh a rehearsal of a play was presented*. Headless to sW, a fairly high price was charged for the "tea,' but the play rehearsal could be oserved free of harpe. Others advertised speotaculars, whic, we exploited for all they veswortho The a#jor theatres had a hard time competing with this form of entertaizxt The supirme iadc of the period, Samwl Feot., gained control of the Little Theatre in the Haymarket and advertised 1persowtiop, farcee,,


125.tesel Thow, 'ConteMPorary Ta in the Stag* Decoratims of London Thetres, 1770-4800,'f Moen k m 1= 11 Noeder 1944)o 65.

'John Forster, The Life -anid Times of Oliver Ooldmith (6th, ed-j Landon, Deekes & asn 157), p4, 313.










musical ohms* and other entrt4uuats-but not drama.128

The most specific and authentic evidence of what seen. doignor had at their disposal in the scene-loft and the prop roam of the theatres is found in the theatrical inventouies. There n iMortant oes* The first was made at Coet Garden in 1743 when John Rich took cut a mortgage an the theatre psropertyv th, inventory lists evaything, uneable and not so usable, scattered about the iffrent places in the theatre. It "beins with a list of Ofats" to be found in the scene rooml these av. such in teresting titles as ldusal s Cave,' 'Clock Chaer,' 'Fam Yard,' " "Clontry Hpas0, 'Othello's ou Rall* *Arch to Waterfall,' In the top fle there wax other fltt and the scow. roama and the great roam contained back flate representing popular view such a Harveys palace, Biabop' s garifen, a sal, a seaport. The wings one also located in the sow ro# while other parts of the scenery wa widely scattered, A stag hand of the tize had to search for the border, and cloudings as they wer stored in vaeous parts of the theatre. Haove, a search would locates "y border to Arch in oremtion," 'omnes border to Atlanta's gardsn," 'old sky border#, " and other pieces of similar description, m matching and so quit. geeMral*

This inventory also reveas the munt of attention put on, the 'aaiflelW of pautamimto spectacle at that time, In reading the list one atchs the nm of such contrivances a 'body of a machine In Apolli and Daphne, "the back machine In Jupiter and Euope," and 'the

128Albez Baugh (ed.), A igan ffln (Nor York: Appleton.-Centuy-Croftss TW8J p.105.










grea traveling maWhine mae for Orphous.10129
The other inventory, mades at the Crw StreetThatre,, Dubin, in 1776, 'when 8'mnIPV Binrr left the theatre, containsu an imposing a2rrik of mechanical device, for lifting andi placing s0eMX7 The ist Was moc Ilke that mede at the Covent Garden thirty ym earlier and nhowd that the staVing of stock~ pLays bad changed little during that


frm thoes UNvotries, it seem that# evue to the very ed of Garr'ick's managuient, the legtiAX. stage was aned as little as possible and only with *,at the stockroom provided. Cext&Win] a long as thib Stage setting remained Primarily a bcg oOf action,, there was little ned for little ame than the stock.,peoe listed in the inVentorie&. As the action withdrw m and nor* behind the& proscenium and staging assumed greater importance to the action, it Vw attural that the audience should show greate interest in the earre'Otnes Of the illusion- Mhatever Mw used to increase, the effectivenes, of the de"oor was worthy of wam~ praise.131

One critic, vho signed himself O" sius XO lwjs
wa one could expect when attending the theatre. H compluins about soe- actual in t.he cenecry depatment whl ae in direct opposition to conm e t


19HOenr Sa=c Wndham, Th mL fCvntGre har

13. .erge C, Do C. St E!L (New ok: Chales Sorib er's s , IWO)* Is P# 4. .
13-Thomas, O p. 70.










The want of due order and regulation in the lower departsent of sce~fRbters (who awe complimnted in France by the genteslar mm of mahrits, by whose frequent inattention we are often with dun loud hanging in a 214's dwsssing-room# or overcasting an antiohamber; trees inta'idixd with disunited portions of the peristyle, vaulted.
roofs uiuupsbtadj or a chief comndw giving his orders
for Battle frm a pism instead of from the head of a cp.
the stop-somn not crepnigwith the marials etc.J31

One is not supised that '"Dsatim felt the gravity of the drama would suffer considerably under such a lack of order and reulation. Another coplaint which "ramticus" felt justified In msi, was directed against the um r in which actors got an and off the

-tep He wrotea
It is equally ridiculous to beheld the, actors making
their entr e and eits through plastered walls aid wainscot panels the vo by double doors in the bottom s would be
mare natural It might suit the ghosts and aerial spirits
thus to enter, better than through the gaping moths of noisy twapsdmr as if spectre resided sIxays, in the
bwels of the eth.133

These Oplastered walls* wer part of the standard equipment of the Georian theatre. On the ontinent, In contrast to Ulandj great alse w dmnded and a deep collar a to be provided in order to at lag p1eces of scer duri sene SO ag,.sw.w In nland, the scenes we desired sothe weuld open in the middle and slide sidareys on both side, a method which required very little, depth under the stsgse. It is iqntresting to te that it was the custom to


3%entlmns 1MM&M, 3a 1789, p. W7.


13URichard Southern, The Rgiangoe s Books uiteds 2948)v p. 21. Lno eae











change th, socee while the actor remained stationar on the ste; sometims the seen. itself loft the stage and the net weplased it wile the actor continued with the action A35 This was pert of thle zoitmseont of the suiftlymeving showo The Engliuh uthod of making a quick transition or scone cang vw to place all the %ieoes of a certain se in horisotal grooes above and below so thy ould easily be pwhed on or off the stage. This ssem was, of courve, eminently suited to the typical Engish drm with Its na'W short and VaIe eeens. Th, Te Ags pro-tlee f creating a x setting with a book painting, drop or flat# and aide wings, litoer forced the oharacters to enter through the walls of the room. When this type of st"tn was angd to t en.ete, a quiek visible change of sce_.,, was no longer possible.

71%n the Resteration stage, down to about 1770 back shutters and Sde wing* . fir e tald in A the thtr s, with an oeesional eonsucted set for special effects* In thes threedimnsional sets Owe ,m ay fly canvas on frau,273 whj the back was one broad flat which covered the whoe breadth and height of the stage.3 A scarce, print of UW'en's Drury Lane Theatre cleowly shows


1)SO efl 02. cit.. p. 299.


138jaen o'Kenff, I of t hfe of Joh 0'Me



5 ncu.4 Hsaf j6 e (d~dlA'a RbrtH










the typo of sowm Qarrick used. Dm the s4es are rows of column vhich wa In a sort of temple, the colu and their' pedestals being on the wide scenes. The se was tmue of farest soumms the tree wor dpcted on the side wme and the view wa o.owd by a lat som at the back.139 This type of sobting mad., it possible, fear *
prouitinsto use tYpiCal eceneS Of a very geia charaotW-' Suoh seme as "a str et' 'a oest," or 'a gordan' could nwv for Innxmprabl plqs, as 1= as they woul hold up, seaso after #*s.aem? for all that, the PRO* I nd VUaty of the stock viewan m sapd~'iiz
There is evidence thA pantWnl, wbich bad us&e its apeinoe, e6101 in the cOnt, feared mh better as far as the sNny was cmown ed* ftb w records which whw that special eq*iLais was Placed on startling, eliborv*e scnr and stage tricks. The trodsticm were anmuned, as balm *set off with new s.m , decorations and f
lnp**IUGrand opera, Wthologoal masque, slabca* uschanleal. sputoa all had a place In Its make-up# but the basic 61swat was the ooWW duwh whor of the fti uif~pt1 tyPes.
atonus %a Introduced to the EMU*w stage by John Rich as early as lI6, izt an attempt to satisfy the audiene' passion, for masque d opm as well as thei enthusir for a *pe af dande s


lJ9percy rit e'aldo The -world Behind the Soem (iondon: Chatto and Wind0,, M p. M.
n p. 6.
,J. Boadbent, AHipZ ofPa ie (London SlApdn,











drollerr characteristic of the booths at the great, fjjsW The , xwatice of staging Psutanims as Special Christine per ftoes since bece=e an English tradition, but in the eigteent century it Was an esmiting am Vea~ &Wm& raws began an the day before or the day after Cristms.W One of the mot pctcua of a11 these production w a o podced at Covent Gawdafs In 1785, with designs by Luthex 0g The Petmn wMSasmn of the Important aspects of the speata.3a brig1W with it 9049u7 aid inad"W of marveaams 1qg.o. ity,
Ekigih stag ssory changed very ttlo frou the time of the storation. until LouhUrbourg beoome the designer at the Dwy tan,, but shortly after ei4.omitut7 eain aInts 01 11 made in the method of Ifl uatz the theatre Untl that times the thoatres had been gt by throe main sooe of illiastlonn The i*t of these v the Ofists' or footligts hioh wa identified as early s2673 in an earaving called The Wit. Those were a series of candles or lamps without a shields originally placed along the front of the apron, and later coneeled by a bar of vood cc placed in a trovh. Secondly, there vore the * or *hoops" fizad at the front of the prmeium and used for the 112maination of the aprn stage. Thirdly there were adjust l riv8 of candles which hung over the stp. The latter can be plaial seen in ma y of the thestrical prints


10taClo1s Rad Bask nrille' Play-Lit. and After--pieces of the Mi-eighteent Century,' MoenRx~o XXI1I (Ny, 192), p. J4I.6
143bids * jW*










of the period and In TAte Wi3kJden'a personal reoard, ther is a statement to the effect that "s branches that used formerlY to be lA down at the end of evn7 aets *hih required a nigled-fingered .andle~niffer."lI#I Wei would Indicate the chandler were, arrange so that they could be *~wn up into the OlU.." or loered for night som. According to .xtwft references, the footlights also appor to have been mov.ble.

Another reference to eighteenth century stg lighting ean be found in a siU painting called The Lsighing Ldis which oh pert of the oroeetro as wel as pert of the spiked partition-oWl separating audience and orchestra. Candles, ane above the other, are early shown on the plar at the sie of the stap. This painting reveols that the boes were lit with occasional cadles and candlabra. In the oompanlon paiLnting, which is clled Th. Weepin Audisee the foeights em be eem; in thin instmow they consisted of sit eans in the middle and fto at either ed.W

Continental stages had moved ahead of the English in lighting methods. It was to Garrio' a credit that# in 17650 he intro&ced an etrel nOW principle of lighting. On his return fro, a visit to the continot, he instartlled two new types of lips that wore especially designed for him by the Frenchmen Boquat. The first of these was the

l hbodAll r Niol l, .. ..



.4.lter Bea*, C (L.don Adam & Charles 3Ak, 1903 ;-)* Pe- ---------











oil.-burning reflector type lap in the footlight trough. The second wo the oandle-4tp, refleotor lamp which was used in the lustre. and sconc .*.7 "I have carried out your two commsions," wrote the director of the Opera Gomisu, Jean ftnet, concerning the nw equipments
And with Mr. oquet s designs I ill send you a reflector
and two different samples of the lap You want fer the footlights
at your theatre. There m two kinds of reflectors; those that are placed in a niche in the wal and which hav one wick; and thoese which ~ hung up like a chandelier, and have five . . * as to the lamps for lighting your stage# they a of two kinds; sou are of erthen ware, and in biscuit foaI they have six or eight wicks, and you put oil in thee; the others e of tin, in
the s14s of a oandle, with a spring# and you put candles in

Afe hesr," it was reported in one of the Journals in Seeer of that year, fthat the liners of Drury Lane Theatre will endeavor to light te stag this son without the bra bs which have been thought a very grea obstruction to the entertainment of the spectators* It is said that this change is now sa..", Oarrik did just that and in September of 1765 the following caint appeared in the Universal Ws.,
One very c n iderable iaps'oqv1men introduced by W. Garriok
on the stage this seson is the removal of the six rings that used to be suspended over the stage, In order to ilhi~inats the house the French theatre is illuminated by another method, but
the light that is cast on Uhir stage is extremely faint ad

4Hista of Late Eghteenth 'tnw, 9 D citp. p39.

148doolp ~nlish Theatre. op. cit*a P. 128,

lWIPercy Fitzgerald, A Now His of the U2lsh Mefo











disagroeablej our Egish iiqu w has vaild hielf of
the hint from the Frwh, and given to mry Uena the.
perfections 'ch the other wants. The pblic ',
agreeably surprised on the opening of Drury Lane theatre,
to see the stage iiaed with a strong and clea light,
and the rins removed that used to supply it, though to
the gre ann ace of mane of the adience, and frequently
of the aeters theelves.,

These inprm -ss do not appear to be exactly epoch-aking,
but the results of Derrick's change in the lighting syste r almost revolutimy. As a result of the new system, the portion of the stage behind the proeosuim arch was more brightly Mlbunated than the apron and., as has been sugsted, the actors tended to a back and the already curtailed apr lost the last remnat of it. signifiCAn.31 It meant, too, that the view of the galler spectators was no lo, er blockd by rows of lights. With the st ge vIsibe from all points In the houses designers were free to use the entir stage for processions and mass effects.

The improvements iih Garriok made in lighting did not
foteor any imomeents in the soundd-offeets department. Aside from the usual off-estq noises, these effects seem to have received very little attention, and continued to folle the pattern of the sixteenth century smase. There Is evidene that somuni4ffects were considered In DavId ,arriIs farce, MgeII II of the 15a l2 InA this


lOUnivera Museu (Septmber, 1765).p

3$5lNiooU# Enlsh Tet..ope cites p. 128.

15hliaabeth Ztein, David Garri~ck Draist (New York: IkWern Language Association, M~), p. 1rd.










farce, the cwutan rime on a st which reeeits the stage of Dk'ry Lane at the opening of a theatrical maso. Painters, crpters and stage-bands are at work. The chief carpenter orders one of the stgeebands "to low the Clmds" and to 'bid Jack Tnle sweep out the Thunder Trunks* ad adds$ "we bd very sloveay storm last s5
In the early eighteenth oentu.7, the stock devices for certan effects wn "ttled lighting, a mstard bowl for the thunder's rumble, pea for hal, spirits of brady, for 1a14.nt flms and appritione., ands no doubt, uztitie of nondescript peper, preferably white, for snow.1%
The iq-rovemnts in lighting onouraged the a&tor to besom more a pat of the stage pLture. Garrick s.t al&o be given credit for another refors, one primarily responsible f or noing the action of the pbL Into the proseniom frame. In 1763, he banished the auisise from the stae and put an wd to the practice of building msts upon the stage at boents. "The absurdities this v=7 famli custom gave rise to," wrote Parcy Fitzgerald, 'mar be oonoeived; its worst results weeo, that it kept the door opened for admission behind the soon.., on other night s and brought about irreglartie, which mde it hopeless to keep strict discipline an the stage.1l$%

When Garrick resolved to keep the public frou the stages there


153Iidegp. 18%,

1-U rit, oWtes on Early Progress in 'The Picturespe of Sound," Arican Notes & Qudes, VII (November, 194i7), 1S.

T55Percy Fit -,"I The Life of David Garrick (London Tinsley Brothersp I psI~. 22,











was an outcry on the part of his actors, who, feared that urales the mwe expensive seats and boxes werieneted on the stage, they would lose a great uazq of their best paying patrons.* A compromise follinmd anad Garrick agreed to compenate by elrging the house, thus affordIng more eas.6 This wes an Important reform sinoe the codon the stfte had prwea-- any possibility of elaborate scenery. Oy tho middle of the catr, play-gosrs had all been induced to seat thmselves c th oper side of the cuarain. This change made for dramatic M sion and fostered a closer reltionship between the sodc bacII1kgrou11 111 and the action.? It was then possible* for Louthebug and othw designes of a rauntic bent to advanm e perspectsve dOsM, trick btig eft ets trna ces, and all the other t which led to a mre rlis-tic Stag .
The Possibilities of mors realistic staging fostered a slow ani funbing attempt at reelian in costusing, or rather, a sporadic Porsit of .historial accuracy," even in plays In hich the athors had nver pose the question of exact tim and place. It is, of cours", aPParn that the use of the real Materials in stage oosMM and the hitOrieal scuracy of their design rw out of the proailirg donand for reallum.2$8 The growth of thi n style was largely due to the newy arrived passion for patrioti Students of theatrical




l5w. j. Lwrenc, "Stage Sceerm in the Eighteenth Cmtury,' Sof Art,, xvi (August, 95), 85.
15%4MLaMl, 220, . cit., p. 2oM.










history he observed, and htr s of painti confirm, that the desire for hictoroally accurate costes was first Ins red by a patriotic interest in their own past and was r confined to subjects of natural history,1S9 Prior to this period, costumes made lUttle pretense of bein historically correct and fashion was attended to, rather than histmy. Peap this desire to be fashionabloexplains why actresses lgged behi the actors in aking the tradition to the w mode of coetumif.160 As indicated in the theatrical prts of the time, the male costs eemed to appr imte historical accuracy far more oloey than those of the women. The firmt woman who appeared to have a sense of historical propriety was We. Siddons, but aecordin4g to the record, even she played Xmogee, in g l in a "rock coat and tmsers of our modern beaux.lt
Stage costumes were general left up to the selection of the individual plae. N of the costumes worn by the actresses were gSaws given to then by some umber of roqalty. Garrick used elegant materials, real jewls, and simia luwrious trappings on his stpe, not because they answered the artistic demnd for reality, but because they were extravagnces which the oriented pblic would pay to see--jst as they eeme to oe the nw noveties in lighting, machinery, and trick effes.162 Rich costmes received more and meo

259#od, E. cit.- p. 117.
l6OLaver, ggct p. 155.




l62Campbell, op. cit. p, 210.










attention. A costume wn by I'. Siddoms called forth the following oment from th. reviewer of the play:

The dress worn by rs. Siddons as Queen, in Mabeth, is
truly rich and regal* The petticoat was a gold tabby,
trimed with sables, and the robe is satin of the most beautiful purple, lined with wmlM. The whole .me a most superb appear eop and added1 oh majesty to the natural dignity to
our modern Mulpwme.

There mwe of course, sm spasmodic attempts to observe

fidelity to historical truth. The productions of Omai at Covent Gardens wer good .zVles of this. designed all the costms for the prouction from drwngs made by an artist who had actu&ly been at the soene.164 This not only satisfied the romantic demand for realism, but by showing exotic costumes, unusual customs, and far away plmcss it also appeased the Interest in the Noble Savag.

The accounts of eightenth century stage productions abound In .scri _ions of incongruous costumes. One reads of a Cordelia, as played by Geerg Am* Bellam, receiving a sharp cement from Louis XV to the effect, "umpat very wllt but her hoop is so argel"165 Garrick was reported to have played kcbsth in "a scarlet cost, silverlaced waistcoat,0 an eighteenth century wig and brechs."1 In 1774, Charles Macklin introduced a Scottish costume for Mcbeth. In contrast, the witcha In Garrick's Macbeth were arrayed in "mittens# plaited cape,

:l63h Time (London), ctober 5# 1785.
164Csmbenl, p. cit,, p. 210.
l56eorge Anm BellIw, A An for the Life of e.. Anne Bn (2nd ed.j . .blinI
1661jnoh, op. cit. P. 103.










lace apmoo, red stomachers ruffs, et.16 Garrik also playe Othello in a ioorish dress whieh inspired his atr frind, Jam Quin, to give him the mch detested appelation of "leedmonato litt black boy.U1.6 ha Ddle~! Diggs played Cato, he was dressed# "exftly like Sir Roger do Coverly, as chairman of a bench of jud.es*"169 A portrait by Sir Thoins Lwenoe of Cato called forth the c --me-t that "with his bare logo and short~ petticoats be looks m like a highlander going to bed than that noble RWn, John Ke e."17

The critic Dramsticus" also had a few words to s a on the

subject of costs. If the gravity of the dram suffered from having "dull clouds charging in a la 's dre g- " as he olaid, it also suffered when:

King Richard's troops appear in t Viaprsent uiform of the
soldiers in St. James 's perk, with short Jackats and cocked-up
hats. King Richard wea indeed the habilimet of his tim,
but Richmond i dressed a la vrsie modea whilst the Bishop is stiffened in the refrmed lawn sleeves, with trencher cap
and tassel, instead of the pontifical hat, cloak, and casock.
The Lord Mayors it is trej figures in his cim character; but
the othr attants in the play not so. I have seen cardinal with his cross-pendant large enough for the back of a weathercock. mnick, in the Spanish Friar, is dressed not like a frirpraher, but somewhat of a Crdlier,which sem the
mmo dress appoiate to nuks and friars of den
nation, thouh, in fact, the fashion belongs to no order at all: and a black bowbomems with two Yards of white g983e for a veil,
forms a nun of any sort mhat so ever.1.





168Bs11aat op. cit. -pp. 21..22.
169Boaden, *. Sidons. op. cit. pp. 126-27.

170Capbell, op. cit.# p, 210.

1T7kentlmwn's Magazine (May, 1789), 40O9.










Sir Joshua Reynolds approved of ]Aso Siddons "innovation" of appearing in her nztural hair, without U p -(a fahinable reddish brow cotic worn with abundancee of pnatunm In the tubular curles of the ladies head-dresses. ") And King George II warned Irs. Siddon. *against using white paint (blane 4' agn) an her neck, as dangerous to hst.h.172

Sinci the stpe costume had nwer be as styli ed in Eland as it hod bo on other stagsj the *barges were very gradual. Ba at the end of the century# it could not have been called opltel realistic. While actors my not have been ready to dress the part, they warsh ver, reedy to make a change in acting tech-niqwe. Th s was th era of groat aetors, the perod of Garrick, lko. Siddmons, and the emubles. ?he foot that so rush of the acting was dependent on so f beca.. one of the major weaknesses of the eighteenth caftury theatre. The star-acting da the audience to ee Cne or two p2ayes, but other parts of the pro dtion w , mame ofte then not, inompstently handled. This ws partly duo to the fact that, at that tine, sating was mre rhetorical than represeutatioaelo Xvy of the actors dropped out of character ihen they finished their lines,$ looked idl about until they hand a cue, and then returned to the part. The ce=n pratice of soliloquizing encouraged this as it was customary for the actor to lev the play, as it we, and me don sta and take the adience directly into his on The acting of th period was oharaterimed, by a "palpable laok of tom wo.-* and the


1721D)oran op. cit p. 22I .










absome of OW kind of uiform inUrt otation.173

This period has also been cefled the ea of the repertory theatre., One of the forams which helped to sustain the vitality of the theatre was the fact that the major theatres had a strong rep tory of "stock plays" which rovidsd the continuity necessary to a dramatio tradition. In addition, the actors possed a measure ao us which ena~bled them to trfw~b# notV nwly in the sumesses of the past, but even in the mediocre roductions of the contemporary drma.174 New plas w never as attractive as a gr t star in a favrt, role and the most eitng weeks of the seson w those in which two stars performed the sm role at rival tbeatres.17

Garrick# whose influence an acting was considerable, was
esteemed the greatest theatrical genius of the century. As early as 17U, while acting BM" in the Duke of Bc.gmIs he throw down the gauntlet to the "old school" by mocking the acting sty.e of all the principal perfotors of the tim..176 Rio contributin con. listed of a d approach to reality, one which had a distinot relationship to the growing dams for romantic sentiment.177 Re was,

.73w, J. Lwrz , ,The Dra and the Theatre,I ( ,lnd An,, AccoJ, of th iean ans o i Ae 6.,S

171ewg H Netleon &WshDrama of The Rsoainand EIMgh at (New Y'ork, MA.W 11 A , 9 , p. 227: ...

175A .la SoDwwj "Nature to Advantage Dresaeds Eighteenth Century Acting,9" Mdr sino mrcnPbiai

176jolm Genests, Some Account of the English o1' From the


17TTNcofl, Me BLTete .i t.,# p. 134.











however more of a refiner than a reformer of previous acting tookniques. FraM aklin, he took the "natural speech ad the broken tones of utteranse, from the al school he took the fire of romantic acting and th. careful attention to grace In posture and gosture,"178

Qarriok's acting style was weo of artful naturalness; it was a studied and practiced saem of achieving realistic naturalness. Hie belied that imitative action was the business of the actor and Imitation of atw- , the fumtion of at. *Therefore anything in nature could rightfully find its place in art; the ugly and the brutal could not be Ignored but rest be .resente.P179 Th tendency to include the ugly with the beautiful was not so such realstic as it was picturoeque, and, hece purt of the tciof the period. Garrick wanot realy the creator of a school of acting bow"us, in his extraordinary guess and popularity, he refined a solitary figur; however, he infused something nw into an art that had become traditional. He approaches his parts smotionall and from a fresk angle, Instead of intellectually and from the point of view of the pat.180 His approach to reality, his break with past treditions, his use of the ugly as well as the beautiful were all features of the romntic syirit. The natural methods of his art affected the olA school of acting and the artificiality of the ama; they also made possible the development of nw forms of staging which led, in time, to the creation of the realistic



17tmpen, op. cit. p 3.88.

18m..calls English Theatre, o cit*# p. 3i.










stage.181 Garrick's contributicas were perhaps most neatly med up by Henr Irin. when he said, "Garriok made a revolution in English declamation by shosing that Hamlet's advice to the players might be literally obeyed.'lft
The actor was not alone in his more "realistic" interpretation of drama. The scow designers were al moving along much the sone lines,. William Capon, while working for em.lej, brought the taste for antiquarian research in staging to the attention of the thestre audience,183 'This artist based his designs on Gothic architecture, striking away from the classical teWples and palaces which had been standard before the romantic trend and Gothic Revival. He attempted to provide reproductions of various buildings as they would have "appeared to an inhabitant of the Middle Ag-es."18 Later, in 1809, when Kemble had a free hand at the Covent Garden# he engaged Capon as stage artists Capon's name is often connected with Loutherbourgl', since they wee both eager to escae the dry formalism of earlier neoclassical settings, and sine their attempts at reform were characterised by a type of realsti-romanticism which inevitably led to more copleat theatrical illusion and antiquarian research.B%
Another Covent Garden scene designer wae Nicholas Thomas Dal,

18Laver, ep. cit, p. 194I.
18Car # op. cit., p. 210.

1"3Baker, o. 0cit, p. 267.

184Nicol, Rylsh Theatre, op. cit., p. 153.
l8 w e2.* ci,,. p. 267.











a Danish landscape painter who settled in London in 1760, beoe an associate of tae Royal Acadow in 1771, and worked in the theatre u.til 1777. He wa succeeded by InIgo Richadap also a umber of the Royal Acad, who was chief of the seenio staff at the Covent Garden during most of the years Loutherbourg had charge of the Drury Lne's xcenery.186 Another of Loutherbouzg vas the self-tyled "Signor Rookerini,'0 WIohael Angelo, Rocker, who was the chief designer for the Haymarket. He was versatile enough to be painter, harlequin, soar.wch. and enr .ar18

'"he designers Who, were 'historicafl~y accurate" at this tim

were faithful to the historical period they endeavored to recreate, but net faithful to their own ties. They were archaeologists rather than naturalists, realistic about the past, rather than the psnt. The mw tre7ds in lighting, coste,, acting, and designing led the theatregoing pblic to expect more realistic and inginative designs than they haid been acoustimed to.18
Vhie this was a period for plagers, it was not a period for playwrights. Th history of the Georgian thesat shms that the playwrights of the tie were poducing smucrijbs that were "for the moet part dead tJhingn, weak iitaions of past successes which had

28k0def, 229 p. N 4u1#

187,scee-ftpating in ngand,' The Art Journal (1873), p. 27.
Baker, 92. t., p. 267.

IPAlan S. Downer, The British Dra AH o Chronicle (No York, l, 10 i. . ..











little or no reference to the lit and opinion of the audience of the day.90

Part of this was the reasult of a chang in the attitude
toward playwriting. In Carolina da#, writing can to be l upon by courtiers and university men as a n pasti and it m cnideed unbeoming to take mney for the uss of a play. This attitude developed into a convntion which altered the whole trend of Eng~sh ftrinttrg krery gentleman with a mttwing of taste and every scholar desired to be reported as the author of at lest one tragedy. It was even considered better to have a dmd pla to c's credit than no pb at &1.93
The conditions were not the one that faced the eighteenth century playwright who attapted to ke a living by his pa. Po t was pmey for results and$ in those do" of tUoe, intu and capricep the relta swe often problematical to say the least. The maximum rward that the drwjatist could receive was the proeed fron three benefits-4he third, sixth, and ninth night. of the rm of the play. It should be noted, however, that- the daily cost of operation had to be deduoted fresh these procews. It ws wt unusual for a piete to run only three or four nights, thus Oliadanting tw of the beneft,. Occasionally, the author vs m fortumat for instance, Goidmith' a Good Natured Man ran for ton nights and brough hi


190Iavig, op ci.p. 89%.
191Lruace, oX. cit. - p. 167.*










Z I0, with an additional 1 200 for th PublisbIg rights of the plaq.
Mot of the u'e demanded a guarantee against loss on the auhoras first benlt night and a playwright who was unable to Provide ouch a guarantee was driven to the h ilaigexpedienxt of selling tikets as soon ass, and sometimes boforej, the play was r .o Sometimes if a play was not to their tast,# isting bands of authorbatters wotd terrupt Its perforne. The = h y plaright,, who was powwrles to raise a formIdable prty of player. in his suppwt, was wholly at their wm11

Another problem facing the playwright was the fact that the

Licensing Act of 1737 had put all play scripts. under the dictatorship of the Lord Chm -laln whos e methods discouraged inw siner literary - from writing for the theatre. FieldwimIs highl promising dramatic Ulwnt for exaple, was turned to the novel. Other liUterr mn foud that, although their work was forbidden by the Lord Chamberlain when resented as a play, it was acceptable n another torm. Two oase in point would be Brooke's GutvsV~p and Jame Thopso's both of which were tured don as plays. Literary men soon larned they could writ, what thay pleased for the bock sellers but,, for the dr=&# they could write onlywhat pleased the Lord hmerlain. For am literary mn of originalitr and indspL ge2 there was


MBasant 9 c p. 133.
l93j~ftV oP 9 cit. p. 168.
1941idep. 171.











40o haoe. !"Grub Street gained what Dr'ury Laow and Covent Garden


An interestig l ttle satire on the low station of the plq. wright and the suprommy of the deigners, painters, and capetrs is S40 in a pamPhlet publiuhed in 1772, under the title of TheThates A Poetical Disection, My Sir Nicholas Niploe, Barnet. On the title, Page Is a caricature nodeled after RynoLds pieturo of G iet DA and comey In this drwaix, the to uses have united on o aide and wre trying In vain to keep Garrick friu the clutches of the* taiors and carpenters an the other side. The caption reads as fMllr

Behold the we s Rosu me in vain'
Tailors and carpenters usurp their roign.1%
The plawright also had to face the fact that the peiod's dramatic literature was influemeds direct)y or indirectly, by sentanl.ism,# This dmnid fcar saintumt on the stage appears to have been on* of the early awidfstatios of the wave of humanitarian which Wept aside the rationass and restraint of the eighteenth century. It mes due, in large n -ae, to the ie of the omercial middle alas.I7 Garriok, hiamdt, is reported to have joked about the advisability of putting a steeple on the playhous. now that it was a tauple of virtue.' Since sentimentalim burdened dramtic writing, the tragedies of the




l-44Ind op-ci* p. 118.
197Thorndike, op. cit.- p. 46.










period lacked both novelty and f.esaeas. There were sae attsu. to use native historical stories for tragic plots$ but this was usually done without great uces.o Skser'is pleys bcema exbtoU~ popular durin th era, partially due to the efforts of Garrick. By partly redemig the text from murrent perversion. and adin pea*z modifications of his own# the actor-plqwright did mch to increase the popularity of Mhaepare.199
Near trageds on English thes did not hold the stage lcsW. A few plays based o an iterpretation of ar life were sweesuftl. In this "drumatio trsge," the Mnish dramatists of the period overlooked one of their greatest opportunities they might have led the continental playwrights in the oouon search for santhing vital, for something expressive of mode= conditions, Instead, lofty plots wee in demand and, although stories frm English history ueed with increasing frequency, the Orientals, Prwians, royal slaves, and other Noble Savages" were much m acceptable heroe. The roamtic tragedy developed into lodra=, both with and without muaic, and manifested the cruder and wilder eloeft of the ro-sitic sjir t.2O

The origin of umloftma. has beset traced to the Frmnch bouvelard theatre of the late eighteenth centux7 through the work of Gui~bet de Pi ourt, the specialist in Gothic rmen . The first oxwp was his play cale" Victor. ou l'a it deo produced In 1798. it

1983mgh, 2a cdto p. 1042.

199Uttleton, on. cit.- p. 22?.
20C)augh 9V cit, p 108.











/
is inter.sting to note that the fundamental features of the ee in existeme in French theatres ong before the date of 1798 and the urns features =n be found in English p s ftom 1770 owavds.201

While it is true that nearly oneaf of all Eglish a 4drams, including the frst to be so labeled, a translati..s fw. the Frnch, the elements recognised as lodriatic are as Lilish as Torkshire fng and the form itself is little am than the pmnorami dnm debased.202
The malodm not only made free use of the a effect so popular with the eighteuzth century mudienoep bet it indulged in messes of senturot as wel.3.1 The m ental quality of Ta Chausee's Asm or oamdke layate was iwobablvy traceable to the sentimental literature of Englan. In ike m wa., its sinister el nts amn be traced to Walpob's Cast Otranto (176), which appealed to the semses and satisfied the exiting tate for the unknown, the unu-ual and the novel. The novels of Ann Radoliffe we ve7 obviously the models for -rV tn 's zmmo, fmm vhich pi~rt ou wrote his play; In fact, even part of the nas was the result of English inprto.2'4 Long before this French product


20o-ieoii, 5ghteenth Ce tur 1aa, op. cit.. p. 8

202Donz er, o. cit. p. 275.

203Ibd. w
204&est B. Watson, Sheridan to Rbertson: A of the
enup.ono










had found its way back Into the Evglsh theatre, as it aw, a Wiilr though le cplete, compilation of vstery, horrors sensation, ad spe ular thrills had been made in several pl-s.-20
Original., the term melodrama was applied to a serious play with nusi, but it quickly acquired many otber features. Allarde lhood sas ,

In gwrl, on* might hazard as a definition of these
c features the nature of the setting,
the love of gloom and Mstr7# the excess of artificial osetimwntalim, the hopelessly unnatuzal poetic justice and the gwel air of pathetic nralty. Added to these should go
the presenoe of a set of stage figures-vil.lains hero in die..
tress but thoroughly virtuous, hero guarding and alert, servant
or friend hbmnet but full of comic pe'ank-flgures without
wich no later example of the type could be considered complate.206

The exess of artificial sentimentalam one of the characteristics of the meodram also influenced the comedy of the period. The comedies were either old-fashioned witty comedies with laughter as their ai or seumal comedies with tears in view. Pr4ctical all. of the so-called comedies of the tim had lost the spice that was typical of the Restoration.207 If the Restoration comedies we used at al, they had to be soft moral. Garrick made Wyherley's country wife into a decent woman in his Countr Girl and there were man imilar moral imps ovmemnts in the plays of the perod.208

The appearance of Goldsmith and Sheridan amidst all. the

205NicOll1, Eigteent ;entur DMa: Op. cit.x *p. 99.
20I O *980

2MBAugh# q p. 2038.
2O8stelnp op. cit., p. 268.











emotional softness of the period was not as of as it might seem n way2 of the sentimental comedcies contained see of 'uennar.* The two great writers, Go ith and Sheridn, supposedly hostile to weepIn omelss mae ocesin to mrality juat as Ue12y and Ouerland made obvious concessions to mi.rth,09

The sentimentality of the period often becaes confused with a feeling of mral approbation, The romantic audience, which was moved to tears by the distress of the pereuted heroix, the offended parent, the wayward husband, or the dying hero, gave *homage before the ahrine of vrtue."10 The late eighteenth cantury audiewe was me willing to pay for teas than for laughter. This sentimtality had a harmful effect on the drama of the tim since it "kept the laywrights within one narrow eirelej it prevented them frm dealing with events natural and strikingl It led towards artificiality in oharacteri-ation and in


If, at tim"s, the breath of the restoration spirit "rippled

the placid waters of formal come," the morased tragedy and moralised coedy contributed to the stream of sentimental dra. Not being able to compete against the poapa appeal of pantomime, ballad-opera burlesque, and fare, the cm4 roduced after 1760 capitulated and began to include elements traditionally found in the other forms.

2.9NIcofl , 11111 11nct. Dpam. op* cite


pop. cit. p. 276.
211KCoo11, CenturDram, op. ct., p. 17.










Thogh farce tended to mix with pantomime or to beoa msicalisod. it probably never before and never since occupied so distinctive and so important a place in the thetro*. As proof of this, records indicite practically every serious play had its farcial aftorpieoe.212

The afterpiece was a development of the second decade of the eighteenth century. Since the poest-restoraton days, a "second price" was charged for the spectator who arrived at the close of the third act of the play. This had been a regular means of dividing up the evening. This tm was also given to embers of the audience who arrived after the prics had changed and marked them as the ones who can for the lighter part of the pro . It was this practice that proved to be oe of the deciding factors in enouraging the masses to return to the theatre,2l During the period of Garrick' s activities, and for some years prior to them, it was cust= for the doors to open at five and the curtain to go up at six. For a long tins, the pri e remained the same as in Pepys' day#, that is, boxes hs. and the pit Re. 6*. The first gallery was 1.. 6d. and the upper gallery Just ls*. Anyone wanting a good seat had to go to the theatre early or send mon. to hold a place, The long wait was side bearable by the orchestra which, at intervals, played three selections knwn as fir3, second, and third musio.21



...awre nc oi. cit. p. 172.



2,Arenoe, o , p. 172.
-n~e =.%t.,* p- 172.












It was seldom onvidAnt for the middle clase to arrive at the theatre at such an early hour and it became obvious that,, if the solid support of the new public was to be maintained, soothing more substantial than the "fog-end of a tragedy or short farces would have to be offered. This led to the remrkable dwelopment of the afterpieco. The "second rwice public" was offered a wide variety of entertainment, from comedy to ballad opera and pantomime, and most emiting of all, the ,01.26 As a matter of fact, the afterpieces consisted of an form of dramatic entertaiment that would fit into the latter part of the orainw ands not infrequently, they were performances of a regular farce, Also, between the play and the farce or bete en the parts of the main bill, there usually was om form of entertainment. This ranged from sImpe elments such songs, dances, and recitations, to elaborate interludes.7

Afterpieces often extended to two or even three acts and many time were, ju.t ravV s or condemnations of old comic plays. Many =w plop were made into afterpieces by being put into ono-act fae or throe-act comedy form. For example, h O~smsTA which was written by Garrick, but which sky-ocketed Loutherbourg before the Engliuh public as a romantic on-egerbcaenafrp e#8

2161bid.
21?Dougad mac.Uan, Lr Lane Calendar, &177-2776 (Oxfords Clarendma Press, 1938), p. xxv.











Wat of the aftqrpieces were wholly spectacular in nature.
These spectaculars, because of the money and time spent in maling their decor pleasing, stimulated novelty and invention in the theatrical presentations of the romantic period. The success of Garrick's speotaculars was a major factor in bringing about the first imortant change in the construction of the London playhouses after the Restoration.2 From this tim on, the msic and the spectacle, the "sound and show" means of entertainment, joined forces to furnish audiences with various novelties. Beyond thatp they e d an influene on the melodras and light operatic farces that beame the chief staples of the next otury.220

The make up of the audience illustrate., in one way, the

struggle between the roactiony elements of the romantic spirit and the previous conditions and conventions. In this case, the struggle was between the cultivated idler, who insisted that the roductions should go strictly according to rules, and the new citisen, with his more ordered method of life and a simple desire for mholesome azsementO221. The composition of this audiene was more heterogeneous than it had been since Elizabethan tines. After a long absence, the middle classes returned to the playhouse in full force and the "infn.ence of their unsophisticated taste, proved a vital factor in the

219Rusel Thomas, *Spectacle in the Theatres of London from 1767 to 1802," (unpublished Th.D. dissertation, Dept. of English, University of Chicago, 1I2)p p. 33.

22 Ly-nch, op. cit. p. 212,
22 IArnO, 2R. cit., P. 160











OhapMg of the new tr=W in drna and gteging.m

Part of this change in the audience was brought about by the fact that many of the aristocratic families, because of me-ses in the tim of the -m-y onarch and ill-advised expenditures in the days which pmeded the succession of Queen Anne, had grown impoverished and attptd to hold their own by malting overtures to the new Wealthy . Tradesmen and aristocrats gradually cow togther, the one seeking the distinction of birth, the other, financial aid. Hogarth moraised on this in his rriage a I mds, a graphic series whioh shows what happens when a lord, overburdened with dbts, mrries his son to the daughter of a rich shopkeeper of the eity.23 The new elas of society was also the result of the develapowt n industry and caaere. hich, in turn, had been the result of colanW expansion, world trade, and the Industrial Revol.tion* The nw class based their position and influee on the merchandise in their ships and ws houses, rather than on the color of the blood in their veins.2

The audienee attending the rury Lane and Covent Garden cam

primarily to be aimmseci They preferred comdy to tragedy, and#, roughly speaking, the olde plays to the newer ones. They reserved their severest criticism for the farces and afterpieces which they expected to be entertaining. They were tolerant of the banad operas, coic


2221bid.

j ohe p . cit., p. 733.

22I4IYnh4 gL Ct#p. 2.










operas, and other usical extmaagansasj they wecordial in their

*W earte, . approval of pantomim and of speotacls.22% They vwre an the vhale a uaiter and les uproImus audience than their predecessorsj however, the pit was still considered the critical part of the audiencoo It occupied the whole of the floor of the theatre, right up to the orchestra. With the exception of the boes, the pit seats, at half- -cro, were the most expensive In the house. The gentlemen of the pit gave their oriticim freely and oftm conveyed it audibly to the perss on the stage.226
It is not uurpo'siM that the audiences of the eighteenth century were given ove to extramly ardent and caustic criticism. Mwer was# after all, very little written dramatic criticism in the sense that we understand it now.227 In fact, nwsper ifferyn of evey possible kind was advancoed to a fine art long before organimd dramatic criticism secured a foothold.28 This wee discussed in an arUle in the T called "On PhffingR which said in susma171
such is the influence which the puffs of newsppers and
the tinsel of thearical decoration has over the public, that the far greater part of new pieces of Covent-zadm
the tre, had they bon brought ou t at # would have
been completely damnd the first night% Y-M



2261bd.

227Dans e Smth$ The Critic in the Audience of The Lno


2Z8Lrence, P. dt. p. 79.
229The Times (LOndon), JanM-u7 10, 1786.











In spite of the supply of very able actors during this period and the use of the standard dramatic masterpieces, the Increasinly plebeian taste of the audience helped to place an emphas on supplet e i .2 The most outstan feature of ths taste m an excessive sensibility which '"aLed itself to a prudery unknown befmo,."Mi The middle classes wanted to have their emotions played upon, rather than that their intellects should be exercised.

These evidences of the romntic spirit were already in the

English theatre before Informed the manager of the Drury Lan that he would design such productions as would delight and mae the audience. It reinesg then, for touthe. to use his exOeptUio l ehai a blity, his excellence as a painter, ma his inventive sWI to bring out the various romantic trends in the theatre.

The stage had beow cleared and lightedl so that he could display his skill in creating ilusins. The attempts to develop a more naturalistic style of acting wex also a contribution to a reotic stage. The formalism of the past period disappeared from the stae settings. The audience that- Iutherbourg chose to delight and mae was rot interested in the delivery of fine lines or shades of sm , but demanded action and show. These were found in the grend spectaeles, afterpLfes, and e a antertaimenuts which overshadowed all




23p.jeol, Wigteeth Centura. 02. cit, p. 5*








73


forms of the thetrial production.

Liteary amn found too uan thin. to overce in order to wrAte for this theatre nd turned to other fe o e .prveon, mking the eriod one in uhich the uaais wes not on the ployWright or the play# but an the player and the production. Mny of these production problem we placed in the hal.s of Philippe Jac.es 4. Itharourg, a ramatic painter and a ingetous enedesigner.














CIAERU n


PIGUIFI AND PALZTE

The 4.moubs of the rmnt4. spirit which e stiring In FVWio and RIish at durin the lat twenty-five yers of the eighteeth century wes evi det in the drawings and paintings of Philippe Jacques de . Thowle.gs* t.,iuej and artistic philosophis which chszaoterid his work as a painter also influenced his theatrical designs and innovations.

He began to show a resistance to the conly accepted artistic mthods and forms vy earlv in his cae. His father, Thilipp Jacques I, a miniature painter and e.,aver who had studied art with Nicolas Iargillsre, and was a friend of King Stwilas, attempted to teach him som rules of painting.1 Louthebourg turned out to be something of a troublesome student and *caused much chagrin to his father by being unwilling to subuit to any method, so that, if, for ap he wished to drw a man, instead of making a sketch of the head and l1*., he began by d*wing the hat."1 He Stot"'to express his individuality by resistance to form at a very ea.1y #o.

Since Loutheabourg appeed to paint Almost all subjects,





2tasinML

714










Thomas Gainsbaogh referred to his as being *so dauIb variouU0 The list which usually follows after his nom includes 13AnS ess b -ttl. ese1sj bandittis still-life, reviews, and meees. Surrisingly enough, there se. to be sufficient evidence to show that he was proficient in whatever subject matter appealed to him at the time, An extrmo3lr flowery obituary account appeared in the Euiropean Main in 1812 stating:
He did not confine his pencil to portraits. laasiapes,
battles, still lit, o sea pieoes, but excelled in each, so
as to dispute the pea with those artists who have been
deservedly einent in either partcular line. In all those
persuits he followed nature alone, who in return for the
hage he paid to hers crowned him with her choicest gr&cos 4
This amount suggests that his ability ncompassed every

possible type of subjot matter. His excellence, according to Most of the acounts, was in the field of landscape painting, "in which his scenery is fascinating.05 It was in this field that he gained pradne in Engla'd, He was also extremely "various" in his selection of subject matter for these landscapes and approached them from almost every point of v'iw. He painted pastoral, s&ea-Sap, genre, and social satire, to Vam a few.6 His interpretation of these landscapes

3Maurice H. Grant, A m ~ a itr fOdDls ....a... Painters in Oil (I Hs & 19141), p. 105.
6hnecdote. of Mr. de otebug" uoMMgzn (March, 1872), 181,

Sltthew Pilkington, A General ]lictiona of Painters (Lcndon: William Tegg & Co., M 52), p 317.

- aifliam H. Gerdt s "Phi ..... LVII (November* 1955)s 464.










vw varied. The mode of his smal pastoral scenes iw completely different from that of his storm and mi-decorative landscape.? It is apparent, then, that he developed two separate manners or styles. For his romanic and stmw pieces,. he used a broads, dashing, and brilliant style. In his ore intimate or topographical scenery, his style was finer and more trsuly Bitish.8 M of his wiler landsoapes had olments of true rusticity. Part of this was a heritage from the seventeenth century Dutch landscape painters iho had influeed both the French &4 English artists. These Du1tch painters found beauty in the soft carpst of turf, in clover and vegetable fields, or splendid neado with tat in, sheep, and cattle as i*it as though they had just been wshd."9 Thes landscapes contained a colouring peculiar to the Dutch landscape painters, wbo were so interested in beauty of tone than beauty of colour.10

Som of Lmtherbourg's very early landscapes vwre based on the imitation of this kind of pastoral landspo with figures and cattle represented in the chasing style of Nicolas Berchem.11 His name was

7Frederick P. Seguier, Diqkar of the World of Painters (London# T onans, 1870), p. po.




9kichad Maher, TeHist of Paintj~. i From the F~hto

p. 314

nMiohael Bryan, Dit2Mo gA , w (1w edo;
tadp Bell & 8cr., 1919) 11,v po 52










first publicly connected with Berchm'l a at the French Salon of 1763, when Deals Didrot, the ritiS , was said to have r ._sd owt' Lsathwbourg's painting of a "forest som." Didrot extolled "the bmeeth the haiWO~ the excellent a MIpainting of this youthful p'odigyp who* at a bounds had raised hiuseif to the level of Nisolas Berche.."ll
At this t ep LoutheMurg's work was not only raenisont of Bwachem, but it also refClected that of th Dutoh painter Philips Woiveum. The grceful and elegant Pzilps Wowoonn was another painter of aninalop but -in his case, it was the hose which. received the fullest tr'eatments His canvases contained sees of "soldiers having their horses shod;gUpise, and peasants going to mart; ladies and gu aion riding to a dew or falcon hunt; i s caeaw,,s of hunters at breakfast, or cavaliers in a ridim-hoao.3 His execution was clever anid distinguished, and not infroquently# he placed his favorite animal, a white horse, in the foreground for his center of interest .

Louthsrbowugf a ear3jy landscapes wow filled with cattle. In many of his caraa subeocts the figures and sldllfully deleted animals stand in a confused space of "grassy hillocks and mall boulders His landsaes also revealed a taste for panoriic visas, an eleionat


IlAustin Dobsou, At Prior Pak(London. Chatto, & Winuso IS1),

231rusropt cit.- Ip. 633-634&.

p. 63I4.










dwelpod to masterful proportions In his later weak.t3

His studi e with his first teacher after his father had an even mo. iqwarnt infl2ence on his landsaews. This was the elder Tischbein whos In 1.751, had been 100e1 cort pointer to Willian VI of , .se. . Tischbein us a history and porrait paInte who was greatly inf.uenced by the Rosos sty'les of BOhW and Wattea.16 The dantiness and elegance of Tisohbein and the, French Row oopinters was evident in pa's ptora1 landscapes. The busy figures in these amvu was well elad, that Is# the w often wdroWe ladies and gentln.o traveling by mulewback, silbon.. etted against a wild stad w sky, and passing between high rec rap, an dressed In a fa a oste and boanet nd, in spite of their mode of travel, rein dainty she rd*ns, theWr skirts unaled. Ths elegance Us alsO typtoa of the decostive pdeOeS fteganard produced for HWie Antcinette. While L Uthu b Mo Wa a student in Pert, this oegme beeam a dao t element in paintir.1? faonard is ragglbere for his Rococo style, of "hoop-okirts, silken tdrIs fine camric chemises gliding frm rosy shouldwso of eu" kisse and lce*-pWq" but he was also a painter of delicate landscapes in ih am might find cen at w or laundress spreading out linen an the rocks18 It was this pastoal s. et



16ohn D. pin9 ad. of
(NR Yorks Charles Scr:ibur's

181fiher, op, ci,, ?, 1.










that Louthwbourg so often reflected in his paintins, His treatment of it was ich like the treatment given tha distinguished ladies and gentlasio in Watta' a paintings.19 Louthebowg' e early cmpoitioa hold the O'da tiness an elegane of the Mes of Wattem, which beect part and parcel of the f" rstqe of Fragonard and reflected the court t.' of the elegant U" XY.20
After went to Enigiand in 17T1, the pasto rl lioums of his lardscasq tended to disappear in the scUumdity of the British country vias# The confused aotment of farm anim&alsso tended to diminish in his British scenes. His interest in the British ncne paraWlleld the rmati e.,t ias for the retum to nature, fe the turning asde of the established artificial ideal beauty and the acceptance of the truo In nature. This was a fom of vslim which atted to Initat sean vis and localities with sm degree of

toporaphcaland architectural exactness.
With thin interest In mind, coo of the things Loutherbug
dmostrte to the Enlish people was the beauty of their countryside. He opposed the projudiasp then rife, among professional and atwu alike, that the bglish ountryuide afforded no subjects for the higher display of the pointer's art. Iothelbourg, tho had studied midst the risntic regions of the Pyrenees, the Alps, and his a native mountains in As ,mta that *no Mlih landsap painter need foreign travail to collect grand prototype for his

p. 678.












Study. .21 He famid the Lake district of Cubrl% the rugged acWMy of North Weilss, ead the mountainous grandur of parts of Scotland filled with inexhaustible subjects for pant- As a result of hie belief in the beauty of the Engih countryside them a*e IM man oawaes, sighte by twaeb--ouor laches or seveteen by twenty--one inches *depicting in the neatest, swatest, quietest, way lginable# noois and corners of this Island from Cbland to C _awll, from .ales to Essx."23 In 1S, he pdblIsed a book called PictRE!!Mx ScsnSy of hEg~ap and Waless which ontainaed a saies of aquatint. repesentng his many drungs of local vivo.

A typical description of cme of 's Engl ,,a. scapes, shown at the exhibition of the Ral Academy in 1786, was described by the Ian4du Times

8un-.set neinr the W f-ini4:1621e is beautiful beyond
desiion. It reprsents a piece R water reflcting
the hills and country round. Toward the middle he has introduced a boat, with a great nuber of pasegersa n board, who seem to be njoying the tanquility of the evening. Sevel
figures are dispersed cn t hire and rockol and the whols, in
treated in his beat innner.9#

nmrwlly, Louthebouwg showed sm Enlish scones at the Royal Acad.W eachz yew. in 178149 his list of paintings included


Uwlim H. Pyne, Wine and Walnuts: orA After Dinr ChitCh t.. .m L ng a.. - 8Z " " 'm' "" ""' IIII II - III 7.l

2hilli.1am B. Bo-_lton hmsGin'2mSHs ieadWr


2Gat, Chmloia op. m cit.; p. 109.

24TeTm (London), May, 1786.










Davedale which was located in Dexbyshires as well as which is ner atloek Bath, Dozbyshfre. This sme eibition hold his canvases of Brtee r& located between Westmoreland and Cabr land, and two vim of Ciberland, Ski , and P which Is in Ulowater, In the exhibition of 1785j, he exhibited views of Keswick LAke's* Limwsr WaterfaUl A 11!U vow nea Rdell Water, and a painting of Brick Kilne at the entrance of Keewick with a distant view of Skiddow and Baselthmuite. These are but a few of the aan views of the EngUh countryside which he sent to the wthibitions each


There is little doubt that Louthorburg sat a fashion in the style of rural lanscape which was to "bear briliant fruit." To sq that he "invented it is probably to say too mah," for as one critic stated: "It were strange if a foreigner should be the first to draw attention to the activities, and genuine appearance of . . * rtile workers, as fro the refinu- is of Gaineborough and the artificialities of Metley and He ,ilton.*M

Although Luhzorgencouraged the British landsape school to find subjects in their own couztftuide, he established another more striking appoach to the art of landscape painting. This ws the picturesque landscape. The mea&n of the word picturesque, as it was used in the eighteenth entur7, has been explained briefly. It was me

25AUnoM Graves, The of Arts A
DiUof Contributors an hi2okfomisPna t. 6

26Grant, P op cit. p. 110.










of the wore outstanding characteristics of rmantic pinting.

Many of Louthertourg' s picturesque paintings have been ident4. fied with the maer of Salvate' Rosa, the Italian landsoap painter,? Loutherbourg was equally skillful in the representation of bold, grad, and stupendous sinery it has been said that he was "perhaps the greatest painter who an be set down as pit u.*8 H shapes represnted all the qualities which we-e identi.ed with the picturesque Sir ftedale Price clarified some of these hen he said Gethic architecture i. generally considered as more though I... beti , than Grecian, and upon the sams principle that a ruin is more so than a now difiee.'29 The two opposing qualities of r and sudden variation, along with that of irregularity, were, in his definition, the most important reason for calling a view picturesque. He said, "synwtry and regularity are particularly adverse to the picturesque." This explains the Importance attached to Gothic architecture by worshippers of the picturesque.

All water of which the surface is broken and the motion
abrupt and irregular, as universally accords with our idea
of the picturesque; and whenever the word is mentioned, rapid
and stony torrents and waterfalls, and waves dashing against
rocks, are among the first objects that present themselves
to our imagination.30


27Elisabeth 7?J. Manaring, Italian Landscape nEgtet



28Christopher Hussey The Pisremo Studies in a Point of View (London s utnm's., IMI7 p, 259.
2s9r Uvedale Price, On the.cturesue (eaburgh, 18W), p. 83.
301bid p. 84.











As far as trees were concerned, Price considered that it was not the "smooth young birch nor the fresh and tender ash, but the rugged old oak or knotty . . . elm" that are, in his terms, picturesque. "It is sufficient." he said, "if they are rough, mossy, with a character of age, and with sudden variation of their forms."31 He also considered that wild and savage animals have generally marked and picturesque characteristics.

It is true, that in all animals where great str ngth and
destructive fierceness are united, there is a mixture of grandeur but the principles on which a greater or lesser
degree of picturesqueness is found may clearly be distinguished;
the lion, for instance, with his shaggy mane, is much more
picturesque than the lioness, though she is equally an object
of terror,32

These are only some of the things found in the picturesque, but they suggest its essential characteristics. With these in ind, it is easy to understand how much of Loutherbourg s work was picturesque. A Landscape with Ruins and Cattle (1777), shows the huge Mass of the rocky crag and an old bent tree against an agitated sky. Landsc.e with a Cascade (1780), and A Sgieek (1792), both create a mood of violence with their turbulent waters and troubled skies, while in A View in the Appenine Mountains (1801), he paints a "story evenings with bandittiO in which bold masses of mountains and wild skies completely overwhelm the small figures.33 Through the popu.larity of canvases such as these, he was able to influence the

1bidt. p. 86.

321thd., p. 88.

33Graves, op. cit., p. 300.











eighteenth century interpretAtion of the picturesque in romnatic ladcpes.

The Industrial Revolutions fostered by the romantic interest in the freedom of the individual, brought about a new relationship between man and nature. Places like Colebrookdale held an attration for the artist for a period of years because it combined the period's most up-to-date and impressive industrial enterprises with an exceptionally romantic landscape setting. In the romantic consideration of those new developments, the emphasis shifted from discovery to contemplation and the poetic recording of the artist's emotions while viewing the scene.34 The draatic appeal of the new industries had a special fascination for Loutherbourg. His published industrial subjects include A View of Blacklead in Cumberland (1787), The Slate ine (1800), and Colkbrook Dale, often described as "the middle steam engine in the dale, with the surrounding scenery."35 Although dated 180l5, when Loutherbourg was sixty-five years old, the Colebrookdale prints belong to a series of views from all parts of Britain. These were published by R. Bowyer's Historical Gallery, Pall Mall, between 18O) and 1806 home, the sketches on which these prints were based were probably produced over a long periodp before the turn of the century.36 Loutherbourg's early drawing of the York Gete Water Works,

31'francle D. Klingender, Art and the Industrial Revolution (Londons Noel Carrington, 1947), p. .l.
35Tbid., p. 79.
3Ibid.











which probably dates from the 1770' s or early 1780's, exemplifies his delightfully serene style, an unaran goed and uncluttere scene, which was based on direct observation from a single viewpoint and reminiscent of the painter Paul Sandly.37

Besides these industrial subjects, Loutherbourg was interested in human activity and he often represented people in the common pursuits of life. Some of these were situations indeative of a strong sense of- humour. One of his better early Eglish works is a skating scene in St. James' Park. In this scene gnarled tress echo the absurd gesticulations of the skaters and the well-bundled, shivering people around a small fire suggest the cold, windy day.38 In these landscapes the mood of the whole is generally determined by some form of human activity and, because of that# they might well be called genre scenes with landscape backgrounds.

The interest in nationalism, which encouraged artists to put the new industries on canva, also developed into an interest in the realistic interpretation of battles on large-scale canvases. Loutherbourg got his start in this realm of subject matter while a student with the well known battle-painter Francois Casanova, the clever, but indolent Snd erratic, Younger brother of the notorious Jacques Casanova de Saingalt. From a remark of Didervt, who apparently knew him personally, it appears Loutherbourg remained with Cassnov several


371b .# p. 71.

AeGrdts, op. cit., p. I466*










ye s and must have been still working at Casanova's atelier in 1758, or even 1759.
At the French Salon in 1763, it was whispered that Louthebourg had surpassed his preceptor, Casanova, in his own field, for cue of Louthexbourg ' spirited battle-pieces, hung craftily between two restful landscapes, had the name Loutherbourg signed in large letters on its frame; "as if," Diderot wrote, "the artist had sidd to all the world: 'Gentlemen, recall those efforts of Casanova which so much astonished you two years ago; look closely at this, and decide to whom belongs the credit of the others.'"hO

One of Louthebourg 's earliest assipuents, at the request of La Czarine, was to paint the Russian Army's crossing the Danube. In order to be able to do the detail for this canvas, Loutherbourg requested that the armor and battle equipment used by the different nations be sent to him. He received all the necessary military equipment and thus started his unusual and um atched collection of armor.4

Loutherbourg developed a passion for the study and discovery of ancient ar=r and as a result of his care and work, his collection actually became a magnificent one. After his death, it became the foundation of many famous nineteenth century collections., the most notable of


39NOuvenes Archives de L'art Fraq.ais (3 ser.I Paris, Charavey Freres, l8)p sV p. 206i
hbenis Diderot, Oeuvres C tes do Diderot. Revue. our leg FWditions .I.. nale_ ( ai:.erli M-ieFres, , 76) , Xs p, 2.

1. BiogIatihie Unioverslle (Paris: MIchaud, 1820), XXV, p. 271.











which were the 6syrick, Brocas, and Bernal conections,42 xouter bourg's armory was sold by P. Coxe, the aucti.oneer, in 1, and many valuable articles were added to other collections, although there is a record that some of the pieces were ubsequently an viw in the exhibition at the Oplotheea in 1816, first at the Gothie Ra, Pall all, later at 20 Lw., Brook Street, and finally, at the Harmarket. What was left of Loutherbourg's collection by 18,l1 was sold at Oxenham'. Sine then, catalogues of important arair collections, private and pablic, list many interesting collectors items as being Loutherbowg's early acquisitions. i
This collection of armr was of great value to Loutherbourg in working out exact details for his many battle soens, He was fond of depicting bivouacs and camp-scns, or struggling lines of soldiers on the march. His figures were always full of spirit and mov.1nt.44 In 1783, he exhibited a picture called A Battle in %bich the Turks were Surprised and Driven AaM from Their ines and Defeated near B~ender. by a Detachment of the Russian A~wpy Under the ommand of Gen. Ptaddn. In 1799, he exhibited a picture called A Distant Hall Stom on On and the IAroh of Soldiers with Their Baggao. Then, in his first showing at the Royal AcadoW (1772), there was a showing of one

2Grant, A Chronological History p. it, p. 108.

43F. H. Cripp Day, "Yayrik Collection of Arcour," Le (London January 14, 1922 ), p. 59.

4k# H. S. John, Bartototi Zoff, & Kauffman, with Other
FoegaMmers of the oa ! Wm 7 9kBrtsAti"Lodo:t p l, Ala ,o 94sp# 31











called The Dressi n of a Wounded Geweal. In 1783, there was one simply listed as A Lmndsca~ r the F 'ai C a sion to the Distressed Sldier. Most of his battle-scenes, ptcularly the one of 1783, appealed to the senses. The hero of Loutherbairg' s pictures was painted as realistically as possible in contemporary costue. His canvases were filled with colow, action, and emotion. As subjectmatter, they satisfied the romantic-realistic desire to view contempo.rary situations which were remote and yet actual.
In his battle-seone, Loutherbourg was very careful that the
details of his work were accurate and historically correct,, as is indicated by the numerous drawings on record.4 There is a note upon a drawing of the sinking FNch ship VeIM 0to ask if the French colours should only be struck as a mark of surrender or if beside it the Eglsh colours should be above as it was not taken possession of but v ."47 There is, however, another interesting account in Joseph Farington 's Which states that in the painted hall of Grewich there is a picture of Louthebourg's which wrongly shows the chalotte on the Montgane's lee bow in a battle scene. Bowa, the ship's mA r, is reported to have said on seeing the pictures "If we could have'got the old ship into that position we must have taken the French Admiral.n48

46Grave o2. cit., p. 301.
4TBaron Roger Portali, e Dissinateurs DIlustrations s Dix-uitins, Si ole (Paris:t Camascene WMogn Rt Chaes Fataut, 167) p. 362.
o7Jchn, geo cit., p. 130.
jo-s Fa-rington, Te Lad- 40 Dia.- 3rd. ed. (London: Hutc insn & Co ,., 3922), is p. 63.










His two mjor English military subjects resented a review

and maneuvers at arir aw in 1778, These were on exhibit as !can in Which are Re!2exted the Maneuveres of an Attack Parformed fore Their Josties in Little Wao Comon, Under the Command of Oon, Pierson on the 10th of October, 1778 (1779). His Battle of the Mlse, painted in 1789, is familiar in James Fetter's engravings,.9

The tragedy of Louis XVI and Frame's declaration of war with England came in 1793, Loutherbourg's efforts in depicting the activities at Warley Camp had been rab red and he was commissioned by King George Iin to paint the conflict . Lo.therbourg became the first English artist (though born in Hease-fassu, he was a naturalised British subJect) who accom laid the English forces in an official capacity. He was dispatched with the English arW on the ill-fated ton to flanrs in 1793 to lnnortalise, on oanvas, the trtum*x of that noto-ditod comuadw, King Oeorge's soldier sn, the Duke of ork. The apedition scored a solitary success in the capture of Valeniens, which Louthe'bourg, In duty bound, pepetuated in his Grave Attack on Vaolemennes.5� In the following June of 1794, when Howe's smeoos in the Brest waters served to counteract the land triumphs of the French at Tourny and elswhere, Loutherbourg was comwissioned to prope a companion canvas comemmrting the opening en.. counter of the rival flagships. He must have executed this task with


4Grave, 2. , p. 300.

5.ReginAl Guz~ys "British Military and Naval Prints,' The Connoisseur (London: October, 1914a)s XL 76.











his usual rapidity* f9r in Nuvh of the next year both picture va
ezhibited at the isterieal Gallery in Pa ll Xml.k

After Ron's enlagie t came Duncan'a great battle with Do
Winter off Caperdown which provided a fresh subject for another of

Loutherbourg' a military peaintins. The plate was original published

in 1801, but a reprint of it was issued in I .5 A interesting

first4und account of thes works is found in Holeroft, s diary. On

July 25th, he wrote that

Went with Geiseviller to see the picture of the siege of
Valenoivmnes, by lartherbourg. He went to the soen of action
aompanied by Gilleray, a Scotoman famous am the loves of caricature; a man of talents, however, and unco only apt
at sketching a hasty likeness. One of the mits of the
picture is the portraits it contains, Eng~ih and Astri.an.
The Duke of York is the principal figure as the
con uerorl and the Austrian General, who actually directed the sioge, is placed in a group, where, far from attracting
attetion, he is but just seen. The picture has gat
merit,-the difference of costume, Daglish and Austrian,
Hulan, ete, is picturesque, The horse drawing a a in the
fore-grund has that faulty affected energy of the French
school, which too often disgraoes the works of I4thebourg.
Another picture of the same artist, as a to
this, is the victory of Lord How on the 1st of June, both
were painted at the expense of Mahel, printeeer at Bhls, and of V. and R. Green# purposely for prints to be ered from then. For the pictures they paid 500 each$ beside th exf Genseray' anv Journeys to Valenciennes, Port th,

The most admrable of Loutherbourg's picts, in

eyes, was his pani Ar-.. This work, n at Greenwich Hospital,


5IDobson, om* cito., p. 123.
2ruxldY, oP. cit., p. 76.

C3Thas Hol.roft, T L o m Holcroft (ondon Constable & Co., 1925)9 Il .10











has been described as "one of the finest sea-fights vvn realised on , .s5 This pictu e w engraved at least twice. Loutherbouwg also interpreted two military events which took place in archq 1801. These were the Decisive Battle of Alexandria.# fought on 21st Mno, 18011, When unfortunat-0l1Y Sir H. AbeorrmbywsU~~'Wudd n the 1midiz% of the British Mroop In the ftZ of Aboukir in the Face of an E~tAand frepared Re on_ the fth of arch. 180.55

It has been said of his battle-pleoes that the *various

Incidents we well received, painted with fire and anition# and have semblance of truth. His subjects are noble and grandly treated and he deserved the reputation he njoyed.46

Most of Luthe-bourg' subject matter was within the rel.. of romanticism, but thee was one specific treatment of this subject matter which needs to be mentioned. This stemd ftom the influmsoe of Wtllim Hog rth and the satirical aspects of same of his interpret-tions. The ,4umner Afternoon with a Methodist Preacher often has been considered Loatherbourg's masterptece; in this picture the "buff coniag piousness of the hypocritical scalawags and gentry surrounding the preaher contrasts with the passive animals, and with .ths, unconcerned youngsters In the foreground,, portrayed with ,,ll,.olike sentimuat."57 (See Plae 1) The oosio~tion produces an

54c , p. cite, p. 12h.

5-raves, OP. ct. p. 300.

5Sme, l Redgrave, A D 'i. School (London' George Bel&SntlU1~ o13

57oerdtas op. cit.. p. I66.























up O 3 �.LiKWO ITUwV4 Y HtI& NOMMMV mEuRwflII
I uJYL















































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lv




Full Text

PAGE 1

Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg: ^ Eighteenth Century Romantic Artist and Scene Designer By LILLIAN ELVIRA PRESTON A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNQL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA January, 1957

PAGE 2

Thu vriteor d»8ir«8 to eocpreas apfovclation to Professor H. P. Constans fttr hie tlne> pstionee ai^ assistance cn this study, and also to Dr. L. Zinmeraan for his tranendous amount of editorial work. Special thanks to I^. «nd Itts* Goz^cn Bigeloir and to Mary King Humphrey fa: their kindness and assistance. Deepest gratitude goes to the writer's sister, Urs. Thelma Fiske, for it was her understanding, OTCoTuragement and financial assistance that made the time spent in study at the University of Flcarida possible. The writer also wishes to thank the following for assistance in locating material and plates used in this study: Dr. Richard Southern, Director of the British Centre of the International Theatre Institute, me, Genevieve Levallet-Haug of the Musees de Strasbourg, Dr. D. ?r. Sash of the Victoria and Albert liisexm, and the editors of the Apollo Magazine, Connoisseur, Burlingtai, and Theatre Notebook.

PAGE 3

TABLE OF OOmEmS Page AcxNOifuajQifiaas • u LIST OF PLATES iv INTRODUCTION v Chapter I. THE TRENDS AND THE TIMES 1 n. HGffiOT A!JD RLIETTE 7lt * i m. FRI1«CE OF SCEHE DESIGNERS HJi IV, A MAN OF KANI PARTS 257 7. CONCLUSION 280 BIBLIOGRAPHT 288 BIOGRAIHICAL ITEie 3O7 ill

PAGE 4

LIST OF PLATES Hate Page I. MLdsummer Afternoon vdth a Usthodist IVeacher . . 93 II. Garrick in Richard III 96 in. Falls on the Rhine lilt IV. Cataract on the Lliigivy 117 V. Landscape irith Travellers 120 VI. Cataract on the Rhine 122 VII. Carisbrooke Castle 12li VIII. David Garrick in the Chance . 128 IX. The Christmas Tale 169 Z. The Qiristnas Tale (Sepia Sketch) . 171 XI. The Christmas Tale (Sepia Sketch) 173 XII. Peaks Hole, v/onders of Derlayshire 180 XIII. Kmsingtcn Gardens 195 XIV, Cliff and Beach Scoie 196 XV. Kative fishing Hut 197 XVI. Sketches for Richajrd III 21*9 XVn. Mountain Scenery (Designed for Eidophusikcn ) . . 252 XVin. Priaaa Scene 252i XIX. PMlippe Jacques de Louth(»rbourg • 26l

PAGE 5

INTRODUCTION . . The pvirpose of this study was to gather together vihat could be discovered concerning Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg in order to present a sketch of one of the remarkable figures of eighteenth centuryEnglish art and stage decor , and by investigating his theatrical activities to present information which would fill in some gaps in the history of stage design during the late ei^teaith century in England. The first step taken in this study was to consider the trends of romanticism because the creative activity and influence of the painter and scene designer, Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg, came during an age of romantic transition in English art and staging. It was an age in which the trend in life and art was away frm the aristocratic and classical and toward the bourgeois and sentimental. This romantic transition occurred in England during the middle and later years of the eighteenth centuiy, the period in which Loutherbourg made his contributicajs . The second step was to investigate the romantic trends in the art of the period since Qiglish art was in a plastic state and received impressions and influences fipom many sources. Loutherbourg was able to play a major role in bringing the romantic tradition to English art because his mastery of dramatic presentation, which he had learned in ccxitinental art studies, was thoroughly opposed to the classical serenity of the dominant school of English landscape painters. It was

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his influence which helped to develop the growing taste for "th« sublime" in painting and the more emotional "picturesque" style. To Complete the study of the romantic background of this artist ' s period of activity it was necessary to investigate the theatrical conditions. The drama itself has been gone over quickly by most historians, irtio believed that it offers little for serious study outside the works of Goldsmith and Sheridan. These literary historians have not considered the inter-relationship of staging and drama. They only casually mention that, in this period, melodrama developed and that the great panoramic spectacles arose. The poet's art had been eclipsed by that of the carpenter and scene painter. It Has in this connection that Loutherbourg left his deepest mark for he was an innovator and yet, after his arrival, there was an increasing sensitiveness to the possibilities of a better co-ordinated mise en scene . The third step in this study was to investigate the work of this artist as a painter and then as a stage designer. The major emphasis has been on his v.ork in the theatre but he was equally successful as an easel painter. He professed to two objects J to display his skill as a scene designer by his masterful techniques with dioramic spectacular effects, and to demonstrate to the English people the beauties of their own country, .hile his art was essentially dramatic, his tremendous power, his invention, and his rather phencoienal speed of execution carried over into his scene painting. It was in this department that his genius was expressed and it was through his efforts that a new conception of the possibilities of stage

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design, stage lighting, and mechanical novelty were given to the public. The final step in this study ims to consider briefly the events in the life of this versatile man which might have affected his work as an artist and to consider the romantic qualities of his life and personality. In general, material for this study was obtained from eighteenth century newspapers and periodicals, trm autobiograpAiies, confessions, and memoirs of theatrical personalities of the time, and from existing paintings and scene designs. Loutherbourg was a man of considerable versatility and this quality has resulted in the fact that it was necessary to seek out information about him from memoirs and pamphlets of widely different kinds. The early life of the artist was traced through French sources, archives and records of I' Academe Royale ; his years in EJngland, throvigh the diaries and records of contemporary artists and the accounts of the Icndon Royal Academy. It seems, therefore, pertinent to investigate the influence of the scene designer if^o, for more than a decade, was without a rival on the English stage. This man's success as a designer influenced the stage decor urtiich, in turn, influenced the drama of the eighteenth centwy. Loutherboui^ was the first of a long line of scenic artists in the modem style who developed a form of mitigated realism and v/ho were to revolutionize the stagecraft of the EJiglish stage, substituting for mere glitter and magnificence, scenery which created a pleasing illusion for the play it illustrated, and scenic effects which became predominant parts of most performances. 11

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CHAFIER I THE TRENDS AND THE TIMES Elements of the Raaanblc Spirit Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg was a ronantic spirit. In his life and in his work he enibodied most of the elanents vhlch have been used to define romanticism^ a movement which sought to evoke from the past a beauty that was wanting in the present; this movement developed a humanitarian interest and a nebulous identification with pathos and virtue. It allotted freedom of expression to the imagination and fostered a concept of the free individual as opposed to the static conventions of the past. It was a movement iriiich influenced every form of English expression and life in the last half of the eighteenth century. In order to identify Loutherbourg with the elements of the romantic spirit it is necessary to consider certain of them under more specific headings: (1) The Revolutionary Spirit, (2) The Gothic Revival, (3) The Noble Savage, (U) Sentimentalism, {$) The RomanticRealists, and (6) The Picturesque. Revolutionary Spirit The most characteristic attitude of romanticism was a revolutionary one. In general, it was revealed by the discontent for things as they were and a love of change. This discontwat manifested itself 1

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t • not csily In politics and llteratiire, but also in art, music, costvunes, and manners.^ It is essential to note the true representation of the rcniantic tradition harbored a love of change for its cntn sake. In many ways, this led the eighteenth centtiry to look for something different, rather than something new, whether it was "to be fotxnd in the past, in foreign realms, in imaginative visiois, or in the fields of human life untouched oont«ag|)orary society."^ The search for something diffwreni was an endeatvor to break •way, going in several directions at once, from all that was the established form. The fl*eedcnn and lawlessness, the love of novelty, and the interest in experiments, as well as the desire for "strangeness added to beauty," were the result of a break from the classical respect for rules, convmitions, and models. The break was also revealed in the discontent for things that were; for instance, the new idealism and mysticism were both in strong contrast to the "realist's conscientious adherence to fact, "3 which was characteristic of the Augustan period in England, In another way, it can be said that the love of change was a reaction to the values of the preceding pwiod. At this time, it was a movanent away from the Augustan conventionalism j that is,from neoclassicism. The theatre's revolt against the standards of the previous ^Agnes Addison, Romanticism and the Gothic Reviva l (New York* Richard R. Sadth, 1938 >, p. 20. ~ ^Allarttyce lacoll. The English Theatre, A Short History (London* Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1936), p. ii8. 3Henr/ A. Beers, A History of English Romanticism in the Eighteenth Century (New York: Henry Holt and Co., ia98), p. 23.

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Mf^f gainst its conventionalism and formality, serves as an illustration of this tendency. For instance, as far as this revolt in acting was concerned, it was toward a natural and realistic type* This Meant an imitation of the details of nature; it included the ugly •8 well as the beautiful and the emphasis was on action rather than on rhetoric.** This revolutionary spirit led man to indulge in his propensity for dreaming. His romantic artistic productions were all designed to lldtp hlia reconstruct other envircmments in his own fancy, carry hin mny from the everyday actualities and into scenes of past or even future glory.^ Regarding the unknown with am; the eighteenth century man derived a pleasing thrill from speculation about its aqrateries, a process by which he not only filled it with the **nai!»less terrors irtiich he dreaded, but with the beauty, love and moral guidance for which he hungered."^ This was a time when the discoveries of science had made possible the Industrial Revolution, a time when England was involved in an irranediable quarrel with her American colonies, and a time vhen the French Revoluti
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k • This vas a time for men to dream great dreams and for the artists to present these dreams in aesthetic form* Sam of these Inpilses assiuaed the guise of a philosophical force opposed to science and to the scientific element in nationalism.^ The revolutionary spirit turned to research iihich carried man far out into the infinity of the stars} there, man found in the universe ever new aspects of his own "soul revealed in natur«"| thus, painters •ought to express themselves through the medium of landscapes, and musicians through a music that made a conscious attempt to imitate nattire's very sounds. The revolutionary spirit saw the ugly slums that grew up in the factory towns and turned from them to dreams of Utopia and to elaborate plans for aesthetic cities in a future which would free man frcHn many of the burdens and the struggles for exlstmce.^ The reaction against things as they were focused the attention Of eighteenth century men on their own imaginations, the tme abiding place of the "power to make dreams real, and the real a dream. "-^^ As a consequence, the romantic artist created for himself phantom forms and strange new symbols to express the wish for death. Hampered in the normal expression of love by a strong Puritan conscience bred from "ancient patriarchal Ifesopotamian ideologies" in a dcodnant Rpotestant church, the revolutionary spirit returned to a worship of QFalrchlld, op. clt. , p. 238. Richard Muther, The History of Painting i •r
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I^tar, the fatal goddess, and visualized her as Proserpine, the Queen of Death, or La Belle Dame Sans Iferci . The legend of Ishtar not only expressed man's uncexiscious fear of the mystifljrLng elements in the eternal feminine, but gave fk-ee-rein to his imagination. Many of the romantic painters became preoccupied idth the relationship of creative man to the fatal vooan* Gothic , j ; . : The romantic love of change did not always imply a desire for •oaething new} it was also content with something different* This tma precisely irtiat happened to the architecture of the period} through it, men registered a protest against the late Renaissance styles irtiich were to be found everyiriiere in IXirope and America. In this case, no new style was created} instead, there was a revival of former style, and above all, those of the Greek and Mediaeval.-'-'" The name applied to this jretum to the Mediaeval style was the Gothic Revival. It was a convenient label for all the eighteenth century buildings designed to resemble mediaeval architectiure. The term itself was first tt8«d in Ehgland about the middle of the century. The taste for things mediaeval in form was an essential expression of romanticism and was closely related to evmry other expression of the same spirit. ^3 At first, the new trend toward ^Addison, op. cit« , p. 21. ^ ^Ibld. , p. 22. ^ ^Kenneth Clark, The Gothic Revival (London: Constable, 19$0), p. 87.

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buildings in the Gothic style was no more than a symptom of the change that was taking place in ideas, but it soon developed into something jQore*^ Looking to the past stirred the imagination of those searching for new means of expression. The arts of the period found new yalaes in ruined oastles and abbeys, coats of mail, illuminated missals, manuscript romances, black-letter ballads, old tapestries, and wood carvings*^ ^liat these revived was only ua "image of mediaeval society," not the z-oality of it.^ This fondness for the past, which was clearly "a tendency way from actuality,"^^ was found in the glamour of distaiKse, not as it actually was, but rather as one wanted it to be, so that the despised age of "monkery, feudalism, and superstition began to reassert its claims on the imagination*"'^^ In fact, it has been defined as a means of finding a "dream-picture of life."^^ . , Descriptions of seme of the mediaeval lmltati(»is built at that time do not suggest real structures, but rather old-fashioned stage scraiery, and it takes only a little imagination to see the moonlight streaming dorni frcmi the wings or hear a stage owl hooting. In ^Ibld. ^Beers, op. cit., p. 30. ^Ibid. 17ibid. ^^cas. • cit., p. 52. l^Ibid,, pp. 35-36. ^Clark, op. cit., p. 39.

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7 essence, the Gothic mood was permeated with all the heavy machinery of melancholy. There were also certain qualities which the artistic souls of the time believed were present in the life and thoo^ of the Middle Ages and which they attempted to interpret for Georgian England* As a result of the blue hase of distance and their own imagination, th^ believed that mediaeval art was identifiable by an excess of sentiment, over-lavish decoration, and strong sense of col<»2r. They considered that it had a feeble sense of form and that the anphasis was on detail rather than can an over-all conception of the whole impression. In consequence, they had a tendency to enqjloy the "exaggerated, the fantastic, and the grotesque. "^l Yet to the romantic spirit, "the blue of distance" or the remot«ies8 of time and place gave th«n a feeling which wa« associated with dreams and with imaginati<»i.22 There wars two examples of the Gothic Revival in architecture •rtiich illustrate perfectly all the faidts and all the good qualities of that element of the romantic. These structures were Str a sb ex T y Hill and Fonthill Abbey. The miniature Gothic castle known as Strawberry Hill was the most famous of the eighteenth century attanpts to revive Gothic forms j it was the chief example of the prevalent fashion. It became important because it belonged to the cultivated Horace Walpole, and yihm he took ^^Bs*rs, op. cit. « p. 2. ^^Luoas, op. cit., p. 52.

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up Gothic architecture, members of society not only began to feel that there might be something to it^ but were Trilling to imitate his example. Horace ?ialpole can be said to have given social standing to buildings imitating the Gothic form. It was perhaps his greatest contribution to the revival. The faults of the Gothic Revival were very obvious in Strawbeny Hill, for, here, the "gimcracks, its pasteboard battlements and stained-paper carvings, "^^ illustrated the rosuuxtio tendency to us* the borrowed forms so freely that they wwre just copies, or better yet, parodies. It should be said that too much of the eighteenth century crept into their interpretation of raediaevalisra. The results were in opposition to anything made of its right material and Strawberry Hill was filled with new devices to render craftsmanship unnecessary— "new wallpaper which was stamped to imitate stucco^ork, and new artificial stone vhich allowed the architect to order his detail wholesale. "^^ The constructive features, "its gables, buttresses, finials, lath and plaster parapets, wooden pinnacles were all . • Just what one might expect £rom a period which possessed an admiration for the Gothic without actually having any knowledge of the proper adaptation of its basic features.^^ 23FhelpSj , op 1 cit. » P . 1Q5. 2i»Clark, op. cit.. p. 85. ^^Clark, op. cit.. ?• 85. ^^ers. op. cit.. P« 232.

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9 Out of the mediaeval atmosphere of gloom and darkness created by Strawberry Hill, eame the first Gothic novel. The Castle of Otranto . Horace Walpole confessed later that his concepts of Stravrberry Hill had been his inspiration for the story.^? From The Castle of Otranto came a long stream of horror tales, thus adding another overtone to -Uie adjective Gothic. ^Mle the term formerly meant "barbarous and uncouth," it carae to signify something "wondrous, supernatural, iroird, strange and out of the ordinary. "^^ The building nhich conc«xtrated in itself all the rcmantioisa of the 1790' s and became the epitome of eighteenth coituiry Gothic was Fonthill Abbey, designed, by James Wyatt for William Beckford.29 This Abbey actually originated in his desire to •II?* in a structure resembling an old ruin* He had ordered James 1?yatt to design a "ruined convent of which the chapel parlour, dormitory and part of a cloister •lone should have survived. "^^ Fonthill Abbey, the climax of eighteenth century Gothic, with its high central tower, enoztnous hall and indoor stalzxsase, was the result .3^ The same faults iRliich appeared in Strawberry Hill were evident in the Abbey. In this structure, the detail was especially bad, even to the point of looking insecure. It was even more insecure than it looked and shortly after Beekford sold it to an eccentric, John 27ibid., p. 236. ^^Addison, op., cit. , p. Uk» ^^Claj*, op. cit«, p« HI. 3 0lbid. , p. 116. 3l0uy Chapman, Beekford (Hkm Twkt Charles Scribner's S<»i, 1937), p. 289.

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1» Farquhar> a clexic confessed that the aolid foundati(«s voider the central tower had not been provided. ?/hen Farquhar was informed he z>eplied that the house would probably last his life time* He was nistak«a. During « g«l«> in 1825» Fonthlll Abbey collapsed 'Hrithoixt a noise. . , .. w l^fBtt's igoorazice of Gothic aethode of constructicn, typical of the ronantic period's superficial "rLewpoint, ineritably falsified the general effect and FcnthiU Abbey could hardly be considered as aore than stage scenery. Yetj as scenery^ it was excellent. All that the eighteenth century demanded from its Gkjthic (unimpeded perspective, ianense heights, and sublia* mum) was present in Fonthlll and present aore lavishly, perhaps, than in any real mediaeval building. ^3 The Noble Savage Another element typical of the romantic spirit was a new sympathy for humble life which was manifested in a return to natiare and to native genius .3li The true "man of feeling" was looked for and found in what became the cult of the Noble Savage. The idea of the Moble Savage was simply any free and wild being who drew directly from nature virtues which made the values of civilization seem rather doubtful. For instance, the mind of that Being had not been chilled and mechanized by science, nor had his emotions been withered by sceptldsa. 3 2ibid. 33ciark, op» dt. , p. 119. 3liFairchlld, op. cit. , p, 237.

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31 The "nan of feeling," or rather the Noble Savage, "dared and strerre and believed" and let himself go, according to the rcanantic spirits of the time. It nas possible for hia to do this because his passions were 8iii9>le and strong, his loyalty was of the highest type, his faith was ccxnplete, and his ideals were original, llost inqportant of all, he was picturesque and thrilling because he was viewed frcmi a distance .35 The interest in the Noble Savage was the resvilt of the fusion of three elenentst (1) the observations of explorers, (2) various elassieal mA mediaeval cmventions, and (3) deductions of jdiilosophers and men of letters. 36 The observations of explorers found a large audience during the eighteenth centtiry, and accounts of travels were read with interest. This interest reflected the new concern in the pecularities of nature, regardless of whether the travel literatTire was scientific, peexidosdentific, or aesthetic. 37 ft»oducts of remote countries w«re nt^Mn f their uray back to England where they not only laot variety to English fare, but also helped to broaden the Intellectual horizwi of those who roMined at home. One interesting exam^e of this was the fact that tea trm Caiina beoaone the new popular drink in the eighteenth century. Also, the ever increasing travel to foreign ports brought more and more Qoglishmen into contact with native peoples. At the same time, the ^^Ibid,, 238. ^^Neale H. Fairchild, The Noble Savage; A Study in Romantic Naturalism (New York: Columbia University Press, 15^8), p. 37ibid.. p. ^.

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It BogUsh w«r« 9xpmdlttg th«ir colonial holdings and astablishing world trade routes.^^ Hm Tarlous classical and mediaeval conventions which were intervoran with the idea of the Noble Savage were a part of the impulse to derire real satisfaction from an "impulse to blend the knovm and the supemationallzed unknown. It was also a form of imaginative escape, since illusions co\ild be created around the dim, ancestral figures that were distant in time as well as in space. The dedication of philosophers and men, of letters to the Hohle Savage was a reaction against the contemporary glorifleation of culture* They took the explorer's picture of a savage ritio was a virtuous being and made him vjaemamA the ingenuous and passicnate form of love, the religion of nature, and the revival of primitive poetry.^ An illustration of these three trends can be found in the droui and theatre of the period* The playwrights were supplied with new material and with new backgrounds. Drama began to Include characters drawn fron natives of other distant lands and from English Importers and nnrchants* Stage designs were constantly depicting scenes tram the Americas, the Orient, or other far off places iriiich were in the public interest at the time.^ The atidience Itself reflected the changing ^® James J. lynch. Box Pit and Gallery, Stage and Society in Johnson's London (Berkelyi University of California Press, 1^2), p* 2* 3%«irchlld, Romantic. Quest , op» cit», p. 238. ^alrchild. The Noble Savage, p, U9Q» * " ' ^I^mch, op* cit. , p. 2. •

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nature of the social structure.^ Since the Noble Savage iras any flree and wild being » it included the humble peasant and the innocent child, yet there were certain races which held greater interest for the romantic spirit* The American Indian was the aristocrat of the group* His scorn of civilisation, his lively sense of gratitude, his natural mysticism, and his courage were all very iupressive. His blood-thirstiness only provided agreeable thrills and cculd be explained away in terms of "resistance to European oppression or by glances at the vices of *more refined nations.'"^ Beneath his stoical exterior, he was a true "man of feeling*" The South Sea Islander came next and, though a more amiable figure, was only a little less imposing; Tahiti and other islands pcovided a nundser of female Noble Savages* In fact, from the abundant eighteenth century travelogues down to the present time, the Noble Polynesian tradition has been identified with a freer and mare spontaneous kind of love than our own civilisation provides.'^ The AArican Negro joined the Nlicity, and to antiintellectualian*^^ In this way the cult of the IJbble Savage was a ^Ibid. Wff'airchild, Romantic Quest , op. cit* , p* 250* ^ 5ibid. ^Ibid. , p* 151. * ^7ibid*, p* 153. ^

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trend away fran intellectualism and from sophisticatlcm toward th« primitive simplicity of all the experiences irtiich could be achieved trom the senses. Sentifficntalism The roomntic spirit enjoyed luxuriating in emotion for emotion's sake and can be best described as a tendency to respond with feeling rather than with reason.'*^ It was the kind of response which is found in the human desire to find in dreams, in reading, or in theatrical entertainment those "denouncanents and reconciliations which are •o difficult to bring to pass in actuality."^ This element of the imantic emphasised the worth of the instinct, of intuition, and of laagination. Ronantlc reason was 'hrarm, fervent, shot through with emotions."^ Confidence in the goodness of the average h\iman nature is the mainspring of sentimentalism* In the romantic period, that confidence became the established point of new belief? for example, it became the underlying ethical principle of a new school in literature .^^ Illuetrations of this can be found in the works of Samuel Richardson, irtio is often called the "inventor" of the novel of sensibility. If the iiSoeorge H. Nettleton, English Drama of the Restoration and Eighteenth Century (162U-1780) {tUtm Yorki The Macmillan Co., I9II4), p* 261(. '^^omdike, op» oit» , p, U69. ^airchild. Romantic Quest , op» cit. , p, 110, ^Ernest Bembaum, The Drama of Sensibility (Bostoni Ginn and Co., 1915), p. 12.

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II amount of tears shed was any kind of criterion, there is no doubt that the tears shed over Clarissa were greater than for any previous work} Rousseau's Nouvelle Heloi8e « an imitation of Clarissa, was also capable of encouraging tears. This was «ily the b^inning, yet when one considers that the rediscovery of feelings in literature and drama filled most of this period, it is hard to say exactly who "invented" it*'' Sentinentalism was, however, characteristic of the times and to the romanticist there was nothing derogatory in the use of the twm. To him it was merely a sensitiveness in einotion, more or less refined, and often deliberately cultivated, with a particular responsiveness to the pathetic. All this had a special application for the theatre since, at this time, theatre audiences were looking for emotionalism and they responded to dramatic or historic stimuli with feelings, rather than with aqy reasoned or aesthetic faculty. ^3 The romantic switimMitalism was perverted for it often united social and lit wary phenomena that had little, or apparently little, connection with each other. It was concerned with religious sects which did not believe in the reality of sin| it entrusted the slave with his freedom; it bestowed upon the average man unprecedented political responsibilities. At the same time that it attea^jted to revolutionize education, it Insisted that the child sh«ad not be hampered by discipline. However foolish seme of the aspects of ^^lynch, op, cit. , p. 277 • ^ ^ibid. • • .. . ' ^^Bernbaum, The Drama of Sensibility (Boston: Ginn and Co., 1915), p. 2.

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this MnslbiUty may have been, it often went along with a genuine desire for social reform, both at hone and abroad. Since its mainspring was a belief in the goodness of the nature of the average human being, it asserted that the poor were not responsible for their poverty nor the criadnal for his crinws. The influence of this kind of an attitude was reflected in the dramatic writing of the period* Audiences expected the characters of sentim«ital comedy, who struggled against distressing problems, to be rewarded merely because, morally, they deserved happiness. In domestic tragedy this same thing could be found, since the characters were overwhelmed by catastrophe and were not responsible for the event. As defined by Ernest Bemboomi The drama of sensibility, which includes sentimental cooiedy and domestic tragedy, was from its birth a protest against the orthodox view of life, and against those literary conventions which had served that view. It implied that human nature, yitim not, as in some cases, already perfect, was perfectible by an appeal to the emotions. It refused to assume that virtuous persona must be sought in a romantic realm apart from the every day world. It wished to show that beings viio were good at heart were found in the ordinary walks of life. It so represented their conduct as to arouse admiration for their virtues and pity fca: their sufferings. 55 Romantic-Realism Muy of the aspects of the romantic spirit were realistic in •pproachj being concerned more with the living object than the artificial one and with the true rather than the established ideal. The new reality consisted of a personal respozise which led to new creative ^ ^Ibid. , p. 10.

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tf impulses f aesthetic discoveries, and technical inventions. The reaction to the aspects of reality brought about the term romanticrealism. Am the ronantlc spirit looked toward the remote and the singular, it also leaned toward the realistic in its inclination to iBdtate with some di^ree of topographical and architectural exactness.^ In the theatre, this realistic movement assumed two forms, the one leading toward the attempt to sectire complete illusion and the other tending toward more antiquarian efforts,^^ j,, ^^jjg first instance, a good example would be Loutherbourg « s scenes for the production of The Wonders of Derbyshire , in 1779. Here the actual scenes were sketched at the locale and were realistically interpreted into stage designs for the Drury Lane. The same kind of attempts at realism inspired later theatre managers to give the audience a bird's-eye picture of Dover Cliff in a production of King Lear .^Q RCTnantlc-reali am was also demonstrated in the prevailing interest in the Col<»iial Wars. Such events were rranantlc and realistic simply for the reason that they were both remote and actual at the sane tins. liVhen the arts attempted to reproduce these events, there developed a style that might well be called mitigated realism . Theatrical scenes represented in this manner, for instano«« w«r« neither as plainly realistic as those called for in Denis Diderot's dramas nor were they as flpankly unreal as those which characteriaed ^Allardyce l«.coll, A History of Late Eighteenth Century Drama, 17gO-l800 (Cambridge j University Press, 19^7), p. 2^. ^7 lbid. ^^ Ibid.''< . -V

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ii th« grand style. Hlstoxlcal aeettraey tmder thoM eireumatances was hopelessly inaccurate accozxilng to modern scholarly standards.^ Stage designers, dramatists, and history painters found that distance of country was as capable of grander as distance of time. It also allared them to represent the contemporary event ulthout disguise and in as realistic a form as possible, a possibility not extended by the classical rules of the grand style. Historical realism extended from patriotic scenes of the remote past to conteraporary patriotiaa in distant countries. The colonial officer and the explorer assumed the role of the tragic hero. Benjamin West's Death of General Wolie. which was the first paiixting to show a national hero in a jrealistic jetting and in contemporary costume, had its counterpart in the drama. The first tragedy in verse in which the hero appeared as a modern character, vdthout relinquidiing any of his traditional grandeur, was La Veuve de Malabar by Lonierre, produced in 1770, a piece which is remarkable for no other reason than that its hero, as in West's picture, represented a colonial officer.^^ It was, in fact, this interest in realistic settings, costumes, characters, and local color, that provided one source of naturalian in the later novel. There is nothing more realistic than the peasant life as described in Sir Walter Scott's rcanances.^ 5%ind, op. cit. , p. 177. ""Micoll, op. cit. . p. 29. / " ^Ind, op. cit. . p. 118. ^Lucas, op. cit. , p. 13,

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It since the ronantlc spirit pursued Tiolent feelings, there was a strong tendency to look for them In the crudities of reality, as well as in the fantasies of dreams or in the world of imagination. Indeed, dreams themselves can be at times far too realistic. The spirit of the realistic romanticist loved to contemplate such things as stars in puddles and other unusual contrasts, such as those represented fay the remote Orient with "its perfomes and its vermin, the silver bracelet on the ulcered arm, the plague-stricken corpses among the golden oranges of Jaffa. There is no doubt that snatches of this kind of realism were very welcome to the romantic sensationalists, for th^ offered another method of escape from the dignities of classldsm.^^ Ploturesque The beginning and presence of a creative, romantic movemmt is almost always shown by the love, study, and interpretation of physical nature, lichen the eighteenth century romantic spirit took possession of the study of nature, it manifested Itself in a passion for trtiat was termed the wild, the grand, and the solitary, all of irtjich came to be associated with the picturesque.^ The word picturesque has had a varied career} it found its way 6 3ibid. , p. 15. ^Wd,, p. k7, ^ ^Ibid. ^^Beers, op. dt. , p. 102.

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into the popular vocabulary nhen the Reverwid William Gilpin's accounts of descriptive tours (1782 and 1809) were devoted to illustrating his conception of picturesque scenery.^7 it is in Gilpin's Essay on flrints that the term picturesque beauty was originally defined am expressive of that peculiar kind of beauty which was agreeable in « picture. , The term was in general use for acem years before it became a subject of controversy. Then, in 179h> a paper warfare developed between Uvedale Trice and his friend Richard Payne Knight, in irtiich they tried to demolish one another's theories of picturesque beauty. The chief difference between Price and the earlier theorists was that he was concerned with the effect of the object on the eye, with light and shade, rather than with wnotions and tdie association of ideas The picturesque, according to Knight, was "a mode of vision.''^^ Both of these writers agreed that their ideas of the pictiiresque iiqxLied a certain roughness and not the "tender smoothnew" of the beautiful (the abruptness of the sublime without its overwheLning greatness }* Thus, it blended wi-Ui either the sublime or the be&utifUl and rendered beauty more captivating and sublimity less awful. The world of dreams and romance revealed in the landscape ^^samuel H, Monk, The Sublime— A Study of Critical Theories of Eighteenth Century England (New Yorkt Modem Language AHRociatlnn. 1935;, p. 157. T""^ ^Qjbid., p. 159* ^^Christopher Hussey, The Picturesque, St udies in a Pbint of View (London I Putnam's, 1927), p. ^.

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paintings of Claude Lorrain, Gaspar Poussin, Salvator Rom^ uad other artists nho painted remote and extravagant Italian views stimoljrted the imagination. These landscapes with their roughness, abruptness, and «ild disorder were labeled romantic , not men^ly because they were similar to those usually described in ronances, but because they offered a means of seeing the visual qualities of nature. The society of the day craved pictures n^eh contained ruins, waterfalls, shipvrecks and tempest, and moonlight scenes. They looked for a species of landscape in i^ch evezy object was wlld« abrupt, fantastic, or which satisfied their desire fear a ^strangeness added to beauty. "^2 The clearest understanding of the qualities of the picturesque can be found in the changes taking place in the English gairdens of the sevaiteenth century. Their formal patterns were replaced by landscapes that emphasized a studied carelessness. The picturesque was particularly adverse to symmetry and regularity and, as a result, the prim box hedges and clipped trees were replaced by "an appearance of splendid confusion and romantic decay, enhanced by a ruin."^^ Solitary groves and tangled trees could only work enchantment when they ^ °Ibid. , p. 17. 7lLouis Hourticq, Art in France (New Torki Charles Scribner's Sons, 1911), p. 273. [ 72 ' Elizabeth W. Manwaring, Italian Landscape in Eighteenth Century England (New Yorici Oxford University ftress, 1925;, p. 73, 73 John Ste^mann, The Rule of Taste t From George I to George IV (Londonj Macmillan and Co., 1936), p. 65.

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vara contrasted with saws mak of man. Just as fenr landscape paintings men irithout a ruin to stand as a melancholy rendnder of the triuuqjh of time, so the English garden contained such objects as delighted the hearts of the rcraantic spirit. A study of rootnticiffli reveals that the moat characteristic attitude of the movement was a revolutionary one. This «u aianifested in a discontent for thii^s as they were and a love of change. The love of diange was eacpressed in a 8eaz>ch for sooething differoit, a march that, in soane instances, went back into mediaeval times. This offered new possibilities for the use of imagination, since the eighteenth century saw the past under the glamour of distance. This now interest brought about the Gothic Revival in architecture. The Romantic Spirit was also expx^ssed in a new sympathy for htmible life; this was manifested in a return to nature and to native genius via the cult of the Noble Savage. A strong feeling of 8«isibility was characteristic of the movement. The nebulous idoitification of pathos and virtue found satisfacticm in luxuriating in enotion for motion's sake. The Romantic Spirit turned to dreams and to imagincticn as an escape £ram the restraints of classicisa. Intuitl
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found exKshantinent in strange and uncommon shapes nhich exiaresaed the idldf grandf and solitary in nature* Fhillppe Jacques de Loutherbourg, a romantic artist and scene designer ^ exemplified these elements of the Romantio Spirit in the different phases of his life and work. Art The elements of romanticism are almgrs latent in men's hearts, and in almost any period traces of it can be found in the customs, literature J sciences, and especially, in art. The elements of the romantic spirit may be traced far back in the eighteenth century where, in England, it was gently and unconsciously reactionazy and, in France, proudly and fiercely rebellious. 76 By the nineteenth c«itury, romanticism had come out in the open. Its basic principles were many and one of the foremost of these, the sujfnremacy of the individual as a sensitive b^g in his relations with himself and with the outside world, found strenuous expression in art. The world offered the roiBantic artist a boundless range in which to work. There were many romantic things to choose f3r<»n, the OAent, the deserts, the primitive peoples, the Middle Ages. Besides these, he possessed the whole world of imagination and his own wild passions untamed by conventions. Freed as he was £rora the restraints of the classical past, he turned to the expression of a rich new world in order to establish 76Hielps, op. cit. . p. 111

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a nm oonoept of art* its methods, and its functions* The deeper scrutiny which the ranantic artist used to iindei^ stand "self" brought to light feelings irhich others had not dared to give full expression. These gave rise to lyrical fantasies that sprang both from the imagination and firora an increasingly acute observation of sensatiais and reality. The romantic artist's approach to the technical probloa of color most clearly set him apart flpom the classicists. The latter held that the color idiould always be subservient to the design J whereas, the romanticist believed that color was the "life and so\a of the picture and was in itself capable of building up form without recourse to contour-lines."^^ The longing which the rcanantic artist put into his work helped him to escape into other lands and other tiiaesy helped him to break from the conventional forms, and led him to express his own individual sensibility and to interpret his own jresponses to the private and public world of his romantic spirit. Loutherbourg was one of the major agents respcmaible for bringing the romantic tradition to England. His European training and wide range of study fostered a remarkable versatility anc' made it possible for him to be compet«it in many areaa.'^^ His training, 77 Joseph Pijoan, Art in The Modem VJorld ("University of Knowledge," III, Chicago: University of Knowledge, 191*0), p. 321. 78Maurice Rpynal, The Nineteenth Century » New Sources of Etootion ("The Great Century of Painting" j Graevai Skira, 19^1), p. 28. 79Dutton Cook, Art in England (London x Sami»on Low, 1869), p. 210.

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background, and ability aa an artist ware fundamental reasons why he vas able to revolutionise eeene painting in Ei^land* ^yhile the last twenty-five years of the eighteenth century witnessed the development of the romantic spirit in art, certain qualities began to make their appearance nmch earlier. Saae artists may be said to have influenced only the vague beginnings of the romantic spirit in art, nhile others embodied all the elements of it* It would be impossible to consider, even briefly, the artistic tradition to which Loutherbourg belonged and in which he worked without mentioning Antoine Watteau (16U8-1721), the dominant figure in French art during most of the eighteenth century. The benchmark of his exemplary work as a Rococo painter, its reactionary spirit, links hln with one of the ronantlc tradition's basic qualities. The spirit of the French Rococo was a reaction to the proud, rigid, bari&astic age of Louis XIV. In the course of this reaction, artists turned in the opposite direction to produce works characterized grace, delicacy, elegance, and daintiness.^ These were the qualities of the Rococo Tdiich Vfatteau represented, for his world was a draasHirorld in irtiich the elements, thou^ borrowed from reality, were "sublimated to his poetic imagination."*'-^ That dreacHworld was represented \iy his landscapes more than by ai^hing else, for in them, the 'trees, the sky, and the water are all bathed in an opalescent light. Watteau*s Bnbarkment for Qythera is a masteirpiece of romantic fairyland. In this painting, the ^^ther, op» cit. . p. 658. ^^ranqois Fosca, Eighteenth Century ^ ^atteau to Tlepolo ("The Great Centuries of Painting"; Geneva: Skira, 1952), p, 90,

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80ft«n«d, ncrbidly refined color eoiresptmds to the ethereal charm of the figures* He possessed a genius for colcn^ which convey a smee of softness and nystery, even in brilliant light. ^2 watteau woriced only a feir years and died at an early age, yet his influence was felt through the rest of ihe oenttiry* Louthei^bourg' s major wozics, while a student in France, revealed the Rococo qualities of daintiness and elegance which Watteau had given such enchantment*^^ Loutherbourg's grace and elegance waa coabined with a respect for the grandeur of a landscape and for light and airy distant views. After Antoine Yt'atteau, the paintings of Jean Honore Fragonard (1733-1806) , enriched by his extensive studies in Italy, gave the most original interpretation to the French Rococo. Jean Honore Fragonard not only captured all of the joy in life, grace, and li^t-heartedness of the Rococo, but also brought it to a charming end* He was distinguished for no great masterpieces, but remei!4>ered for such charming paintings as The Meeting or The Swing . He painted od his canvases the momentary grace of the pleasure loving life that "loses its charm if elaborated and too long clung to*"®^ Fragonard' s paintings perfectly reflected the last grasp of the decadent Parisian court at the close of the century. He depicted the jaded pleasure seek«r with surprising realism, yet his artistic Q2pij
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if sense kept him from being charged with impropriety* Although for a time he was a student of f^ancois Boucher (1703-1770), the French decorator for La Pompadour, there is none of Bouchffir's cold and calculating sensuality in Fragonard's work* His last paintings w«re pervaded with a ooumfal melancholy and a U^xt sentimentality*^^ ScaMthing of Watteau's melancholy and abstraction is found in the paintings of Thcsms Qain8b<»rough (1727-1788). like V.'atteau, this English artist invested his models with a poetic glamor typical of the romantic school, irtuLle his color had the saii» "pearly lustn, his 86 brushwork the same vibrant sensitivi-ty*" There were other things which they had in commcm, far Qainsborouj^^ as Watt«wu in France, was th« perfect embodlnmt of what the Hoeoeo movement meant in England* Although William Hogarth (1697-176U) was considered the first native artist in point of time, Gainsborough was in maiiy ways the most typical, the most representative.^ He was the romantic painter par excellence , with his passion for landscape, "the extraordinary refinemait and el^ance of handling, the delicacy and subtlety of his colour."^ H« was not an impeccable draughtsman, and his coirpositions were not skillfully balanced, but Gainsborough's paintings had chara* He was a poet, ^^C. H. Stranaham, A History of French Painting (New York: Charles Scribner»s, I888), p* 108. ; ^osca, op* cit«, p. 90, , ^Hert)ert Read, The Philosophy of Modem Art (London i Paber and Faber, 1951), p. 257": ®%eoffrey Webb, "Eighteenth-Century Art," Augustans and Romantics, by H, V, D. Oyson and John Butt (London: The Cresset hress, 19hO)t p* 131*.

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4HP lid a "po«t tjy instinct, quivering with sensitiveness, eapriolotts and 89 fantastic but always natxxral." ' Although he painted seme good portMlts of men, he is best known as a painter of iromen and children* Almost inadvertently, and with no thought except to satisfjr his love of the country, he was the veritable creator of the great English school of landscape painters.^ Early in his career he created an English version of the French Rococo pastoral, translating the French decorative pastcural into a native art in a highly personal way* B^hdnd the superficial decorative elment, hewtver, there was a passionate but fragmentary observation of nature* The same pastoral eleinent was found in the early work of Loutherbourg who turned ttm. the elegant playacting of ?iatteau and F^agonard to the solaimity of 91 the English country side. He demonstrated to the aielish people the beauties of their otm country and averred "that no English land' scape-painter needed foreign travel to collect grand prototypes for his study,"^ * • • ' ' ^ tftidoubtedly the isost ecmsianding eighteenth eenttiry figure in ' English art was Sir Joshua Reynolds (1733-1792). He was not only the Boot learned and so^sticated of the English portrait painters, but he was the great advocate of English art criticism. There is an Q^Paid G* Konody et al .. Painting (New York* Garden City Publishing Co., 1929), pTTBT 90^1113 K, Wateriiouse, "English Painting and France in the Eighteenth Century," London University. Journal of the V.arburg and Courlauld Institute , W (July, 1952), 150. . 9lGerdts, op. cit. , p. ij66« ^Cook, op. cit. , p, 210. • • "• 93webb, op. cit« , p, 136.

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t9 obvious contrast between Qainsborough and Sir Joshua Bqmolds. Gainsborough urorked in an extronely personal maimer^ vjhile Sir Joshua B^ynolds worked in a style that constantly reflwrted his knoirledg* and admiration of the great siasters of the past. He preached the doctxlne of the "grand stylo" of the Italians* This was the hmroic style of painting) with subjects taken from classical sources^ itythology and religion, and treated in a lofty manner. The classicism of Reynolds urged the study of the old masters end encouraged rigid discipline* In place of the interest in the fr^sedcan of the senses which the rcaoanticists expressed, Reynolds stressed the discipline of the fldnd and left out the pa8sic»ui.^ He did not alwaiys practise yih&t he preached} he did not paint great imaginative figure eompositionSf but rather portraits of his conteoQToraries in oythological or historical costvuae* Pictures like Vn* Siddons as St* Cecilia the Tragic Ii&ise, or the actor Garrick between the allegorical figures of Tragedy and Comedy, are evidence of this. "In colour and pose he sought to i]^part to his sitt«?s a resemblance to the man of the Benaissance, a sort of typical, classical air*" Wiile Qainsborough titratd to colors of the light greenish blue scale in his response to the romantic inqsulse, Reynolds turned to the warm brown tones of the •34 masters.^ , " . The visual counterparts of a literary rcnsanticism and the ., ^^Pijoan, op, cit. , p. 313* . 9%ead, op* cit. , p. 260. Monody, op* cit*, p* 89.

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English version of the French Roooco found inanifestations in the Gothic Revival and in the Picturesque moveoient in landscape gardening and painting. The strength of the true renewal of Gothic was a way of "monumental building, and a |n*ofound and often most fortxinate modification of the nature of the revived classic."^ Another form of painting, one typical of the Romantic tradition, was the large-scale decorative painting, religious and secular, which had begun with the Renaissance md spread throughout Europe. These stretched the imagination in their scope and colour as they contained all the spectacular effects of panoramic views. The decorative artists drew freely on the contemporary theatrefor their subjectsj th^ turned especially to the light opera, spectaculars, and pantomimes, for there they found shony sets and costumes. Many of these compositions gave the impression of duets or of ensembles with the star performers well in view arKl backed by the chorus .^^ The taste of the times, both on the stage and in painting, reveled in these tremendous views filled with color and action. The most important of the French painters to employ this style was Francois Boucher (1703-1770). He enjoyed immense success in his day and is still regarded by many as the typical French artist of the eighteenth century. His work was sufficiently famous to cast into shade that of such infinitely superior artists as Watteau, Chardin, and ''^Teteb, op. cit. , p. 122. 9%osca, op. cit., p. 87.

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31 PPagonard. Boucher typified the taste of the centtay in his desire to please his contemporaries and, in his better raonents, idealized perfectly nhat he set out to do. He had a decorative genius and a gift for cob^x>sition that was facile, elegant, and perfectly balanced. Boucher's activity included everythii^. Hie range of subjects knew no bounds. He was at hone in every forw of art from setting styles for tapestries to staging court festivals, ballets, Japanese fetes, and theatrical representations for which he designed everything even to the smallest details. His activities took him to the theatre vhere he designed curtains and scenery, gardens adorned with statues^ waterfalls, palaces, and landscapes. In the decoirative domain, Boucher had a rival in Giovanni Batista Tiepolo (1693-1770), who van without a doubt the great master of eighteenth cmtoxy Venetian painting and one of the finest decora^ tive painters the world has knovm.''"^"*" Tiepolo 's art is no walldidacticism, but rather, may be described as "decorative music reverberating in jubilant accords. "^^^ His scenes might well have been designed for spectacular productions of the type and quality found in England's romantic stage productions at the close of the century. He painted spectacular views such as one in irtiich the spectator "gazes upon distant palaces and sunbathed landscapes,*' or others iMch enabled lO^Muther, op. cit. , p. 701. l^Fosca, op. cit«, p. 8. ^Ibther, op. cii.% "p. 752.

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n him to watch "angels and geniuses soar through space," and "knights upon trtiite studs gallop past irith waving banners. In fact, Tiepolo saw the great epochs of history as one "vast carnival in idildi all ages, all the nations of the -world, gather indiscriininately~-and tiiae itself is an anachronismt'*'^^^ Like tiie better designers of spectaculars, he was able to delight with a gay concourse of enchanting fona and color* To see his beat work, one must go to Venice and view his deccxrations of the Rezsonioo and Labia Palaee, where the halls are decorated with facades and magnificent porticoes. "'^^ The reactionary spizlt of l^e French painters Jean Baptiste Simeon CJhardin (1699-1779) and Jean Baptiste Greuse (1727-1805) and the Englishman, >Villiam Hogarth (1697-176U), not only fostered an apporoach different fron that of the decorative painters, but a diffeir* ence of subject matter as well. They turned to the realistic ropreseotation of the daily life of oerdinazy people. Oreuae and Chardin definitely ahan!<»ed nQrthologleal scenes and subjects relatli^ to court life.l^ > Chardin was called the great painter of little things, for his work had the "sense of intimacy and the poetry of humble things. "107 A sort of refinement and good-fellowship filled his little pict^u«s of 103 ibid. , p. 752. ^O^osca, op« cit« , p» 81. ^Pijoan, op. cit. , p. I6ii. •'•^Konody, op. cit., p. 7U» ^Ibid., p. 75« . •

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0 dasMiatlc life irlth diarn. "fflLs aliaspHclty sar beauty in his daily surroundings} his honesty rendered th«n with absolute truth."^^^ Gr«i««»8 FiotttrM of family life. The Village Betrothal and The Poniahed Son , yrith their forced pathos and sentimentality, are ingenious compositions. Every detail is like an actor pl«odng a part, an actor borroired from soiiib comedie~larmoyante or contemporary melodrama. -^^^ Greuze did not attack vice, but airakened sentimental admiration for virtue. Like the romantics^ GrvuM proelainsd tb» doctrina thict "pure unadorned tenderness lives only in the cottage. Th« romantic theatre audience ifliich «ijoyed its sentimental tears irept pleasant tears as a result of the nebulous identification of pathos and virtue in Greuze' s pictures. Of all the eighteenth century painters, it iras Greuze, peziiaps, -who had the most lasting success. Today his art is distasteful for his execution appears neak and conventional and most of his color lacks warmth.^^ The work of Willi an Hogarth corresponds store to that of Greuze than it does to ChardLn. Tet, they are not 'alike* A mordant quality of satire saves Hogarth; nothing of the kind is found in the mediocre tiUlHii Hiiiiint of Greuze. Hogarth painted "small conversation pieces"— a series of four or perhaps six little pictures, which he wcecuted with penetrating realism. The first set was called A Harlot's Progress, ^Q Qjbid. , p. 11j3. 3* 8. p. 717. }. 8. WAV., > cit* op. clt..

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another, A Rake's Progress , still another. Marriage a la Mode »-^ These we pictorial moralities of a kind which, at the time, seemed completely outside the domain of art. In his Analysis of Beauty , Hogarth psrofessed to fix the fluctuating ideas of taste by a permanent standard of beauty,^ His aesthetic theory and artistic practice had little in coramonj his drawings and paintings, while showing forceful draughtsmanship, good color sense, and an independaice from the reigning mode, are ingxMPtant for their historical and literary content rather than for formal excellence, Grevze had shown the virtues of peasant life; Hogarth showed the vices of society* Tbm niMHiges of these two artists were for different purposes and for different audiences*-^ In Ekigland, the middle classes had already becan» a factoar in intellectual life. They mads up the majority of the theatre audierwej as a stage designer, Loutherbourg had to satisfy their tastes for the new sentimental comdy idth its mare telling pathos, . BMide the moraliaing canvases and the realistic representation of the daily life of oixiinary people, the romantic realists influenced historical-painting. IMs was an almost completely English contribution. The coraraaaoration of contemporary events in a monumental style of painting, i^ich combined a pretentious display of heroic grandeur with a claim for truthfulness in coetuBje and portraiture, was censured by the Academies of the eighteenth century as an offense ^Konody, op. cit., p. 89. ^Elizabeth Gilmore Holt, Literary Sources of Art History (ed.) (New Jersey* Princeton University PSress, l^U?), Ii8?. ^^utfaer, op. cit.. p. 732.

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against good taste. They admitted only the universal and idealised fonas* Everything individual was considered viilKar. They declared that the grand style and the faithful portrait nanner nwra ineootpatible with one another. The artist who was ambitious enough to paint hetow should not make them lodk too ouch like themselves, their neighbors, or the soldiers they saw walking about in the streets. Yet, this advice ran counter to the trend of historical literature and the technique of enliglhtened criticism. Traditional heroes were approached with an air of familiarity; Voltaire, Hume, and Gibbon, for example, were all bent upon destroying the ataggerated reputations of heroes, saints and other aspirants to supecrnatural glories. Stage designers, dramatists, and history painters discovered that distance of country could be just as grand as distance of time. Historical accuriey was extended fl*om patriotic scenes of the remote past to contonporary patriotism in distuit countries; this had the advantage of being actual and at the same time remote. This forn of approach veiled the distinction between the old and the new bridged the gulf between the conservative quality of classicism and the revolutionary element of roftantleiaa. The first artist to paint his hero as a realistic, contemporary figure was Benjamin West (1738-1820), in his well known picture Death of General wolfe (1771). In it he protested successfully against the tireatment of modem subjects in classical garb. Since the "man of feeling" was coming into his o»m during the ll^ind, Cjp» cit. , p, 116.

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36 last half of this period, he aqpected the paintod laixiscapo to b« 8on>0thing more than a scene agreeable to the eye. Hence, the fashion for what the aesthetics of the day called the picturesque landscape. It was in this field of art that Louthertoourg's influence was most strongly felt. He was the chief ejqponent of the picturesque landscape in England and was considered the greatest of the English pict\aresque painters.-'-^ The movesaent towards ths {dcturesque was one of the strongest trends of late eighteenth century romanticism and the most obvious point at TMch the fine arts and literature came together .-^^ The picturesque quality of the paintings of such seventeenth centiay masters as Nicolas Poussin (159U-1665) and Clauds Lorrain (1600-1682) was very popular and there was eager competition for their canvases. The work of Salvator Rosa (1616-1673) was an isolated instance of romanticism in the seventeenth century. His influaice was strongly felt in England because the plastic appearazxse of the Bcmn landscape, as he saw it, was in harmony with conten^xsrary taste. 1^8 Re was considered the real discoverer of the picturesque, the first enthusiast for the savage aspects of nature. Likewise, he was one of the first artists to study natural effects such as sunsets, storras, mists, and whirling clouds, and to use thera dramatically in his landscapes.^^ ^Manraring, op. cit> , p. 73. '^hehh, op. cit. , p. 133. ^^liluther, op. cit. , p. $03* • ^^^Frank Jewell Mather, A History of Italian Painting (Itew lork: Henry Holt, 1923), p. h$6f

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3t Bart of the popularity of this style of landscape was brought about by the fact that, in the eighteenth century, Venice was a tourist center. It was crowded with wealthy foreigners, particularly Englirfuaen, who wew eager to take souvanirs back with then. The Italian landscapes were admired by travellers yAio delighted in recognizing scenes they had visited and by readers who found the appMl of Italy's classic ruins and names irjMSsistible.^^ E»tablidi«d by the leaders of fashion as the correct pattern, these landscapes were taken as models by posts, painters, and even gardeners, and became a soure* for the rules of picturesque beauty.^-^ Claude Joseph Vemet (1712-1789) was a precursor of the modem natural treatment and occupies a stylistic niche between the fashion of Boucher and conventional classicism.-^^ Following the style of Poussin, Lorrain, and Rosa, he became one of the most popular of the landscape painters. He was obliged to repeat again and again the storms , tempests , shipwrecks , and moonlights which collectors ordered from hia«123 Vernet went so far as to jot down in his notebook a list of the accessories he would do well to include in his landscapes if he wanted to please his pwblic. That list included such things as "waterfalls, big rocks, fallen-tree-trunks, ruins, wild and desolate scenery. Vemet 's style was dramatic and closely akin to scene painting. It was l^Opoaca, op. cit., p. lil. ^'^Muwaring, op. cit. , p. 33. ^Stranaham, op. cit. , p. 109, ^^Fosca, op. cit. , p, 102.

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38 his manner irtiich Lcutherbotirg echoed and took to Bt^land.^^ . : ^ . As an artist rep:«sentative of the romantic movement, Loutherbofurg was influenced by the various trends that took place in France, where he received his training , and in England, where his abilities as a stage designer and painter were exercised. His early landscape reflected the delicate gz^e of the French Rococo of Watteau and Fragonard and developed into the English pastoral scene of Gainsborough. His abilities as a designer of stage spectacles, his use of eol<»*, action and grand effects, echoed the taste for the large-scale, decorativtii panoramic paintings of Bouch«r and Tiepolo. Iiouthez^ourg's theatre catered to the same sensibility ifhidi Greuze did irith his pictures of virtuous "cottage life." His audieiwe was the middle class nhose morals Hogarth nished to improve his series of moralising canvases. The romantic-realism of history painting found its way into Loutherbourg's designs of places that were actual and yet remote. In his stage designs and his painting, the picturesque tradition reached its height in England. In spite of the fact that Loutherfoourg was a man of inventive curiosity and mechanical skill, without his knowledge and training as an artist and his understanding of artistic philosopMes and theories, it would have been impossible for him to become the romantic scene designer that he was. < Michel, Great Masters of Landscape Painting ( London t Heinemann, 1910), p. 286.

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Theatre The stirring of the rceiantic spirit was already making itself felt on the English stage beftore the arrival of Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg in 1771. His activities in the theatre emphasiaed the elements of romanticism and, through th«n, he influenced the trends in drama itself. In theatrical scenery, the effect of romanticism was to ex> change the architect in favour of the landscape painter. Designers like Guiseppe Galli-Bibiena, the early eighteenth century member of the faoous family of Italian stage artists, were architects, idille designers like Loutherbourg were landscape painters. As the form of the scene designer's artistic expression changed, the romantic changes from the formal recession of baroque pillars to "wide stretches of blasted heath or distant vistas of tonn and village became apparent. ..125 £ven architecture, itself, was treated in a purely pictorial way in the theatre* Before Loutherbourg arrived on the London theatrical scene, th«r* was little evidence of attempts to co-ordinate the efforts of author, composer, scene-designer, machinist, and musician. There was no evidence that scene-painting was regarded seriously by English czdtics of airt or the maobers of the press during the eighteenth centiiry. "There were no theories of mlse en scene . * The general absence of serious critical regard for staging may come as a suz>prise 125 James Laver, Drama » its Costume and Decor (London: The Studio Publication, 195i;, p. 198.

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but, until Louth«?boiurg became chief of the scene department of the Darury Lane, very little attention was given to the laise en scene in general. New decorations and expenditures went into the productions for pantranimes and other spectacles. Hhen Loutherbourg went to work in the London playhouse, there were two major theatres. The "first" theatre was the Drury Lane, under th9 nuemgmumt of David Garrick until he retired, in 1776, and then of Richard B. Sheridan, tip to 1788. The other major theatre was the Covent Garden. This theatre was generally less distinguished, but George Colnan the Elder, as manager until 1777, staged both of Oliver Goldsmith's comedies which had been refused hy Gazriok. This gave the theatre a certain prestige. 127 The Licensing Act of 1737 had confined dramatic performances to the two patented houses in London, but thera were other theatres that were able to operate by subterfuge. The aaaagars of thasa minor theatres soon learned to advertise a concert or a Haa," at which a r^riiaarsal of a pli^ was presented. Needless to say, a fairly high price was charged for the "tea," but the play rehearsal coiad be observed £ree of chaz^e. Others advertised spectaculars, which were exploited for all they were worth. The major theatres had a hard time competing with this form of entertainment. The supreme mimie of the period, Sainiel Foote, gained control of the Little Theatre in the Haymarket and advertized impersonations, farces, 126Ru38el Thomas, "Contempojrary Taste in the Stage Decorations of London Theatres, 1770-1800," Modem BMLlology , XLU (Noveriber, 19UU), 65. *''JFohn Forster, The Life and Times of Oliver Goldsmith (6th, ed*j London t Beckers & Son, 1077 >, p» 313. ~

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musical shows, and other entertainments—tut not drama. The most specific and authentic evidence of irtiot scene designers had at their disposal in the scene-loft and the prop rooms of the theatres is found in the theatrical inventories* Theire irere two important onM* The first was nade at Covent Gardan lit 17U3 iihen John Rich took out a mortgage on the theatre property. The inventory lists •vorythingf useable and not so useable, scattered about the different places in the theatre. It begins with a list of "flats" to be found in the scene room; these have such interesting titles ast "Medusa's Cave," "Clock Chamber," "Farm Yard," "Country House," "Othello's New Hall," "Arch to Waterfall." In the top flies, there were other flats and the scene room and the great room contained back flats representing popular views such ast Harvsy's palace. Bishop's gaj-tisn, a canal, a seaport. The wings were also located in the scene ro<»n, while other parts of the scenexy if«rs widely scattered. A stage hand of the tisis had to search for the b<»:*ders and cloudings as they were stored in various parts of the theatjre. However, a search would locate: "sky border to Arch in COTonation," "cosnpass boi'dmr to Atlanta's gazHien," "old sky border," and many other pieces of similar description, some matching and aom quite general. This inventory also reveals the amount of attention pwt cm the "machinery" of pantomimic spectacle at that tins* In reading the list one catches the nastss of sudi oontrivanoes ast "boc^ of a machine in Apollo and Daphne,'* '*the back machine In J^pltsr and Europe," and "the 128Aibert Bough (ed.), A Ilteraxy History of England (Nsv York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, l^U^), p. 1038.

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hz great traveling machine nade for Orpheus. The other inventory, made at the CJrow Street Theatre, Didblin^ in 1776, Trtien Spranger Barry left the theatre, contains an imposing array of mechanical devices for lifting and placing SGeoexy* The list mul iwich like that made at the Covent Garden thirty yfMn earlier and showed that the staging of stock plays had changed little during that Trim these inventories, it seems that^ even to the vsry end of Oarrick's managemott, the legitimate srtage was adorned as little as possible and only with what the stockroom provided. CertairCLy^ am long as the stage setting remained primarily a backgrou»l of action, there was little need for little more than the "stock-pieces" listed in the inventories* As the action withdrew mere and moire btiiind the proscenium and staging assumed greater ii^wrtance to the action, it was natural that the audience should show greater interest in the co rre ct ness of the illusion* Whatever was used to increase the effectiveness of the decor was worthy of warm praise. ^1 ; One exitic, who signed himself "Dramaticus," makes clear Just what one could expect when att«iding the theatre. He complains about sane actual inconsistencies in the scenery department which are in direct opposition to common senaei '29Henry Saxe ITyndham, The Annals of Covent Garden Theatre from 1732 to 1897 (London: Chatto & 7/indus, 1906), 11, pp* jOWUi* 130George C* D. Odell, Shakespeare from Bettex-ton to Irving (New York I Charles Scribner's Sons, 1920;, I, p, 105, ^•^Irhoraas, op* cit*, p* 70*

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The want of due order and regulation In the lower department of scene-shifters (irtio are complimented in France by the genteeler name of machinlstes )^ by whose frequent inattention we are often presented with dull clouds hanging in a lady's dressing-room, or overcasting an antichamber; trees intermixed with disunited portions of the peristyle, vaulted roofs unsupported; or a chief commander giving his orders for Battle from a prison instead of traa the head of a caim. the stop-scene not corresponding with the matezdals, etc .1^2 Cm is not surprised that '^Dramaticus'* felt the gravity of the drama would s\xf f er considerably under such a lack of order and regulation. Another complaint which "Dramaticus" felt Justified in making, was directed against the manner in which actors got on and off the stage. He wrotei It is equally ridiculous to behold the actors making their entrees and exits through plastered walls and wainscot panels} the way by double doors in the bott<^ scene would be more natural. It might suit the ghosts and aerial spirits thus to enter, better than through the gaping mouths of noisy trap-doors, as if spectres resided always in the bowels of the earth .133 These "plastered walls" were part of the standard equlpoient of the Georgian theatre. On the continent, in contrast to £^land, great sise was demanded and a deep cellar had to be provided in order to acccmmiodate large pieces of scenery during scene changes. In England, the scenes were designed so they would open in the middle and slide sideways on both sides « a method which required very little depth under the stage. It is interesting to note that it was the custom to ^ ^Gentleman's Magazine, Jfey, 1769, p. i»07. ^^Ibld. ^^Mchard Southero, The Georgian Playhouse (London: Pleiades Books limited, 19hS), p. 21.

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hk change the scenes rrhile the actor remained stationary on the stage) sometissa the BO«a» itself left the stage and the nmt replaced it Tthile the actor eontlntwd vith the action. This me part of the excitement of the swiftly-^noving i^oir* The English method of making a quick transition or scene change was to place all the pieces of a certain set in horizontal gz>oo7es, above and below, so they could easily be pushed on or off the stage. This system was, of coxurse, eminently suited to the typical English drama with its maz^ shoxi; and aried scenes.^ The English practice of creating a room setting with a back painting, drop or flat, and side wings, literal^ fmrced ih» characters to enter through the walls of the room, mien this type of setting was changed to three-dimensional units, a quick visible diange of scenery was no longer possible* From the Restoration stage down to about 1770, back shutters and side wings were firmly established in all the theatres, with an occasional constructed set for special effects. Even these threedimensional sets were only flimsy canvas on framea,^ while the back was one broad flat vhich covered the whole breadth and height of the 8tage*X38 a scarce print of Hi^ren's Drury Lane Theatre clearly shons 13Sodell, op. cit.. p. 299* •^^outhem, op, cit.» p. 21. ^John O'Keeffe, Recollections of the Life of John 0»Keeffe . writtOT by Himself (London i Hemy Colburn, 1826;, I, p. Wu ^38 James Boaden, Memoirs of the life of John Philip Kemble , Esq. Including a History of the Stage (Hiiladelphiai Robert H. Small. 1025;, p. 266.

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the type of scenes Garrick used. Down the aides are rows of columns which end in a sort of temple, the colunms and their pedestals being on the side scenes* The sane was true of "forest acenet"! the tree* were depicted on the side seoies and the view waa cloeed by a flat scene at the back.139 This type of setting made it possible for nax^ laroduetions to use typical scenes of a very gemral character. Such scenes as "^a street," "a forest," or "a garden" could senre for innumerable plays, as long as they would hold up, season after season.^ For all that, the number and variety of the stock pieces are surprising. There is evidence that pantoaidme, which had made its appeax«nce early in the century, fared much better as far as the soeoexy was concerned. There are records which show that special enphasis was placed on startling, elaborate scenery and stage tricks. The productions were announced as being "set off with new scenery, decoration, and flyIngs."^ Grand opera, Eoythological masque, elaborate mechanical spectacle, all had a place in its make-up, but the basic elenient was the coodo dudb show of the cocmedia dell' arte types. Pantomime was introduced to the English stage by John Rich as early as 1726, in an attec^Tt to satioj^ the audienoe' a passion for masque and opera, as well as their enthuaiaan for a type of dance and 139percy Fitzgerald, The World B^iind the Scenes ( London t CJhatto and Windus, l88l), p, JT* ~ ". _ , l%bid., p. 6. ' ' 1^. J. Broadbent, A History of Pantoroiiae (London: Slmpk Hinrshall, Hamilton, Kent, 1901), p. 186. ' •

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droUexy charaotezdstio of the booths at the great fairs .^"^ The • practice of staging pantomimes as special Christmas performances has since become an English tradition, but in the eighteenth cmtxuy it vas an exciting nev vogue and many runs began on the day before or the day after Christmas."'^ One of the most spectacular of all these piroductions was Cteai , produced at Covent Qardms in 17S$, with designs by Loutherbotirg. The pantcmdne iras one of the important aspects of the spectacle, bringing with it scenery and macbinexy of narvelous ix^enuity» . .'•>..;., ^ ^ , ; ' English stage scenery changed very little fron the time of the BMtoration until Loutherbourg became the designer at the Drury Lane» bat shortly after mid-centuzy certain inprovements ir&re made in the method of illuminating the theatre* Until that time, the theatres had been lifted by three main sources of illumination. The first of these was the "floats'* or footlights irtiich were identified as early as 1673 in an engraving called The Wits * These were a series of candles er lamps without a shield, originally placed along the front of the apron, and later concealed by a bar of wood or placed in a trough. Secondly, there were the "branches" osr "hoops" fixed at the front of the proscenium and U8«l for the illumination of the apron stage. Thirdly, there wej:^ adjustable rings of candles which hung over the stage. The latter can be plainly seen in many of the theatrical prints ^Charles Read Baskerville, "HLay-Idst and After-pieces of the md-eighteenth Centiay*" Modem Hvllology , mn (Ifay, 1926), p. hhlS, 3J*3ibid., p.

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of the period and In Tate VfiUdnson's personal z^cord, there is a statement to the effect that "six branches that used foznerly to be let dovm at the end of every act, iihich required a nimbled-fingered oandle-sniffer*"-'^ This ifould Indicate the chandeliers were arranged so that they could be draim up into the "flies" or loirered for night scenes. According to extant references^ the footlights also appear to have be«i movable. ' Another reference to eighteonth century stage lighting can be found in a small painting called The Laughing Audience irtiich shews part of the orchestra as well as part of the spiked partition-wall separating audience and orchestra. Candles, one above the other, are elearly shoim
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oil-burning, reflector type lamp in the footlight trough. The second VBs the candle-type, reflector lamp which was used in the lustres and sconces. ^7 nj have carried out your two ccmnnissions," wrote the director of the Opera Coiaique, Jmq Monnet^ concerning the nor eqtiipflMlitt And with Mr. Boquet's designs I will send you a reflector and two different samples of the lamp you want for the footlights at your theatre. There are two kinds of reflectors j those that are placed in a niche in the wall and T^ch have one Tdck; and those ivhich are hung up like a chandelier, and have five . . . as to the lamps for lighting your stage, they are of two Icindsj some are of earthen ware, and in biscuit form; they have six or eight wicks, and you put oil in themj the others are of tin, in the shape of a candle, with a spring, and you put candles in them.ltio *We hear*" it was repotrted in one of the journals in 5epteid>tr of that year, "that the managers of I^rury Lane Theatre will endeavor to light the stage this eeascm without the branches which have been thought a very great obstruction to the entertaimttent of the spectators* It is said that this change is noir made."^^ Garrick did j«at that and in September of 1765 the foUowing comment appeared in the Iftdversal Iluseum t One very considerable improvement introduced by Ur. Garrick on the stage this season, is the removal of the six rings that used to be suspended over the stage, in order to illuminate the housej the French theatre is illuminated by another method, but the light that is cast on their stage is extremely faint and ^7}iicoll, History of Late Eighteenth Century , op, cit« , p. 39* . ^lish Theatre, op. cit«, p, 128, Fitzgerald, A New History of the Bttglii^ Stage trm the Restoration to the Liberty of the Theatres CLondwit Tinsley Brothers , 19(32), II, p, 23k»

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,' . . , 4l8agr4MiS>le; our English improver has availed himself of ', the hint from the Rrench, and given to Drury Lane those perfections vMch the other wants. The piblic were agreeably surprised on the opening of Drury Lane theatre, J , J to see the stage illuminated with a strong and clear light, .and the rings removed that used to supply it> though to , the great annoyance of many of the audience, and fi-equently of the actors themselves. 1>0 These improvements do not appear to be exactly epoch-making, but the results of Qurick's change in the lighting system were almost revolutionary. As a result of the new system, the portion of the stage behind the proscenium arch was more brightly Illuminated than the apron and, as has been suggested, the actors tended to move back and the already curtailed apron lost the last i«nnant of its signif icanoe.^-^ It meant, toO| that the view of the gallery spectators ma no longer blocked tjy rows of li^s. With the stage visible from all points in the house, designers were free to use the entire stage for processions and mass effects. , . ^ ^ The improvements vdiich Garriek made in lighting did not foster any inprovements in the sound-effects department. Aside from the usual off-stage noises, these effects seem to have received very little attention, and continued to follow the pattern of the sixteenth century masques. Theire is evidexwe that sound-effects were considered in David Qarrlck's farce. The ^Mting of the Company * In this I^ Ouniversal Museum (Sept«ai>«r« : •^^NicoU, English Theatre , op. clt«, j*. ^Elizabeth Stein, David Garriek. Dramatist (New York: Modem Language Associaticm, 1938), p» 18z«

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faroe, the cturtaln rises on a set ivhlch represents the stage of Drury Lane at the opening of a theatrical season* Painters, carp^iters, and stage-hands are at work. The chief carpenter oixlers one of the stagehands "to loirer the Clouds" and to "bid Jack Trundle sweep c«t the Thunder Txoink," and adds, "we had very slovenly Storms last season* «153 In the early eighteenth centuxyy the stock devices far certain effects were "bottled lighting," a nustard bowl for the thunder's runSble, peas for hail, spirits of brandy for "lanbent flames and apparitions," and, no doubt, quantities of nondescript paper, preferably Trtiite, for snow*-'^^ The improvetoents in lighting encouraged the actor to become more a part of the stage picture* Garrick must also be given credit for another reform, one primarily responsible for moving the action of the play into the prosoeniua frame* In X763« he banished the audience frcai the stage and put en end to the practice of building seats upon the stage at benefits. "The absurdities this very familiar custom gave rise to," wrote Percy Fitzgerald, "may be 0(Miceivad; its worst results were, that it kept the door opened for admission behind the scenes, m other nights, and brought about irregularities, which mad* it hopeless to keep strict discipline on the stage. "^^ When Qarrick resolved to keep the public from the stage, there 353ibid., p. 185. ^•'^Le Bruit, "Notes on Early Prepress in 'The Picturesque of Sound,'" American IJotes & Queries , VII (November, 191*7), ll5. l55pBrcy Pitagerald, The Life of David Garrick (Londont Tinsley Brothers, 1868), II, p. 22«

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9i was an outcry on the part of his actors, irtio feared that unless the more expensive seats and boxes were erected on the stage, they would lose a great laany of their best paying patrons. A eompronise followed and Garrick agreed to compensate by enlarging the house, thus affording more seats •-'^ This was an iisportant reform since the onwd on the stage had preeltded any possibility' of elaborate scenery. By the middle of the century, play-goers had all been Induced to seat the»> •elves coi the proper side of the curtain. This change made for dramatic illusion and fostered a closer relationship between the scenic background and the action. ^7 was then possible for Loutherbourg and other designers of a romantic bent to advance perspective designs, trick lighting effects, transparencies, and all the other innovations which led to a more realistic stage* The possibilities of mcore realistic staging fostered a slow and fumbling att«apt at realism in costuming, or rather, a sporadic pursuit of "historical accuracy," even in plays in which the authors had never posed the question of exact tims and place. It is, of course, apparmt that the use of the real materials in stage costumes and the historical accuracy of their design grew out of the fS'svailing demand for realian.-^^ The growth of this intermediate style was largely due to the newly arrived passion for patriotism. Students of theatrical ^^John Doran, Annals of the Emlish Stage from Thwaaa Betterton to Ednamd Kean (London; Jdin C. Nimmoj 1887J, III, p. 14^, Lawrence, "Stage Scenery in the Eighteenth Century," Magazine of Art . XVin (August, 1895), 385. ^^ampbell, op. cit. , p. 209.

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52 history have observed, and historians of painting confirm, that th« dftsire for historically accurate costumes vas first inspired by a patriotic interest in their own past and was originally confined to subjects of natural history.l59 Prior to this period^ costumes mide little pretense of being historically correct and fashion was attended to, rather than history. Perhaps this desire to be fashionable explains wtgr actresses lagged behind the actors in making the transition to itom new mode of costuming As indicated in the theatrical prints of the time, the male costmes seemed to approximate historical accuracy flir more closely than those of the women* The first woman who appeared to have a sense of historical propriety was ISra, Siddons, but accozntLng to the voardf even she played Xiaogenei in Cymbellne in a "i^rock coat and trousers of oar mod«m beaux.*^^ Stage costumes were generally left up to the selection of the individual player. Many of the costTJones worn by the actresses were gowns given to thoa by some member of royalty. Garrick used el^ant matexlals, real Jewels, and similar luxurious trappings on his stag*, not because they answered the artistic demand for reality, but because they were extravagances irtiich the romantically oriented public would pay to see— Just as they came to see the rum zunrelties in lighting, machinery, and trick effect s.-^^ Ridi costumes received more and more I59»ind, op. cit. , p. 117. l60Laver, op. cit., p. 155. ^ ' 161 James Boaden, MMK)irs of Mrs . Siddons , Interspersed with Anecdotes of Authors and Actors (Fhiladelphia: J'. B. ULppincott, 1893), n, p. 221. I62campbell, op. cit. , p. 210.

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attention. A costume worn by Ift-s. Siddons called forth the following conaaent fron th« reviewer of the play: The dress worn by I6rs, Siddons as Queen, in Ifacbeth, io truly rich and r^al. The petticoat was a gold tabby, trliaaed with sables, and the robe is satin of the most beautiful purple, lined with ermine. The whole made a nwst superb appearand, and added much majesty to the natural dignity to our nodem Melpomene. Th«re were, of course, some spasmodic attwrrpts to observe fidelity to historical truth. The productions of Omai at Covent Gardens war* good examples of this. Loutherbourg designed all the costumes for the production from drawings made by an artist who had actually been at the scene. This not only satisfied the romantic danand for realism, but by showing exotic costumes, unusual custoas, and far away places, it also appeased the interest in the Noble Savage. The accounts of eighteenth cnstury stage productions abound in descriptions of Incrnigruous costumes. One reads of a Cordelia, as plaQred by Gewge Anne Bellamy, receiving a sharp ctMnment from Louis XV to the effect, "Huaophi very well I but her hoop is so large I Qarrick was reported to have played Macbeth in "a scarlet coat, silverlaced waistcoatj an eighteenth century wig and bre«;hes."-^ In 177lt, Charles MBCkUn introduced a Scottish costtone for Macbeth. In contrast, tee witches in Garrick's Macbeth were arrayed in "mittens, plaited caps, l6 3jhe Times (London), October 5, 1785. l6^*Caiaf*ell, op. cit. , p. 210» ^^^Seerge Anne Bellamy, An Apolc^ for the Li fe of George Anne Bellamy (2nd ed.j Dublini Moncrieffe, ITHS;, 11, pp. 96-98. l^diynch, op. elt., p. 103.

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Ik lace a^JTons, red stcanachers, ruffs, etc. "1^7 Garrick also played Cthello in a Moorish dress idilch inspired his actor fri^« James Quin, to give him the much detested appelation of "Desde!aona»s little black boy."^^ Ahen Dudley Diggs played Cato, he was dressed, "exactly like Sir Roger de Coverly, as chairnjaa of a bench of judges. "l^? 4 portrait by Sir Thomas Laurence of Cato called forth the conBaent that "with his bare legs and short petticoat, he looks aore like a highlander going to bed than that noble Roman, John Keirible.w^TO The critic "Eranjaticus" also had a few words to say on the subject of costumes. If the gravity of the drsna suffered from having "dull clouds hanging in a l«iy*s dressingHroon," as he elaiosd, it also suffered when s i King Richard's troops appear in the jaresent uniform of the soldiers in St. James's park, with short jackets and cocked-t^) hats. King Richard wears indeed the habilinait of his time, but Hichracmd is dressed a la vraie moderne ; iriiilst the Bishop is stiffened in the reformed lawn sleeves, vith trencher cap and tassel, instead of the pontifical hat, cloak, and cassock. The Loz^ l!ayor, it Is true, figures in his own character; but the other attendants in the play not so. I have seen cardinal . with his cross-pendant large enough for the back of a weathercock. Oominick, in the Spanish Ftdar, is dressed not like a friar-preacher, but scmwnhat of a Cordeliw, ii^iich seems the cc^nmon dress appropriate to monks and friars of every doiominaticm, though, in fact, tiie fashicai belongs to no order at all: and a black bosdsozeen, with two yards of white gauze for a veil, forms a nun of any sort what so ever. ^71 l67Thoraa8 Davies, Dramatic Lfiscellaniesi Consisting of Critical Observations on Several Plays of Shakespeare (Dublin: 3. Frtce, 178Jltj» I, p. 1U5. ^^^Bellaay, op. clt., pp. 21-22. ^^^Boadan, Urs. Siddcms . op. cit. , pp. 126-27. i' 170campbell, op. cit. , p. 210. ^7l Gentleman*s Magazine (May, 1789), U09»

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55 Sir Joshua Reynolda approved of Mrs* Siddons "Innovation" of appearing in her natural hair, without Marlschal ponder— (a fashionable reddish brown cosmetic vrom with "abundance of ponatuai in the tubular curies of the ladies head-dresses*") And King George II warned Vita* Siddons "against using i^ite paint (blano d'Espagne) on her neck J as dangerous to health. "•'72 Since the stage costtone had nev«r been as stylised in England as it had been on other stages, the changes wwe very gradual. Even at the end of the century, it could not have been called completely realistic* IMle actors my not have been ready to dress the part, they were, however, ready to make a change in actir^ techniques. This was the era of great actors, the period of a«rriek« Mrs* Siddons, and the Kentoles. The fact that so mdh of the afiting was deperelent on so few became one of the major weaknesses of the eighteenth century theatre. The star-acting drew the audience to eee oa» or two players, but other parts of the production were, more often than not, incompetently handled. This was partly due to the fact that, at that tine, acting was more rhetorical than representational. Many of the actors dropped out of character when they finished their lines, looked idly about imtil they heard a cue, and then roturoed to l^e part. The common practice of soliloquieir^ mecuraged this as it was oustomazy for the actor to leave the play, as it were, and move dcnm stage and take the audience directly into his confidence. The acting of the period was characterized by a "palpable lack of team woric" and the Doran, op. eit», p# fjEI.

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56 tbaaoM of any kind of uniform interpretation. ^73 This period has also been called the era of the repwrtwy theatre. One of the fwces which helped to sustain the vitality of the theatre was the fact that the major theatres had a strong repertory of "stock plays" which provided the continuity necessary to a dramatic tradition* In addition* tiM actors poasesMd « neasure of genius which enabled than to triumph* not Bisrely in the sueeesses of the past* but even in the mediocre productions of the contemporary drama. ^^U New plays were never as attractive as a great star in a favorite role and the most ejojiting weeks of the season were those in which two stars performed the same role at rival theatres. Garrick* whose influence on acting was ccmsiderable* was •stMmed the greatest theatrical genius of the century. As early as X7lt2* while acting Bay«8 in the Duke of Buokinghan' s Rehearsal , he thr«w down the gaufltle* to tte "old school* by mocking the acting style of all the principal perfonaars of the tiiae.176 contribution consisted of a determined approach to reality, one irtiich had a distinct relaticmship to the growing demands for romantic sentiment. ^77 He wac* 173w. J. Lawrence* "The Drama and the ThMtre*" Johnson's England, An Account of the Life and banners of his Ajg e, ed. A. S. Turberville (Oxford t Clarendon Press* 1933 j, p. 181, 17liGeorge H. Nettleton* English Drama of The Restoration and Eighteenth Century (ifew Yorki HMmillan Co.* l^liiJ* p. 227. ^75j^^an S, Downer* "Natia^e to Advantage Dressed: Eighteenth Century Acting," Modern Language Association of American Publications, LVUI (Decentoer, 19b3)f 1002. '. ' ' -'•76 John Genests, Some Account of the English Stage From the Restoration in 1660 and 1030 (Bath: H. £. Carrington. IBl^J. pp. 20-22. ' 177iiiooll, English Theatre , op« cit. . 13U.

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57 homver, more of a refiner than a reformer of previous acting techniques. From Micklin, he took the "natural speech and the broken tones of utterance, from the older school he took the fire of ranantic acting and the careful attention to grace in posture azid gesture. 0axTick>8 acting style m» one of artftd natturalnessj it was a studied and practiced means of achieving realistic naturalness. He believed that imitative action vas the business of the actor and imitation of nature the function of art. "Therefore anything in nature could rightfully find its place in art} the ugly and the brutal could not be ignwed but naist be presented, "^7? The tendency to include the ugly with the beautiful was not so much realistic as it was picturesque andf hence» part of the raoanticiam of the period. Qarrick was not really the creator of a school of acting because, in his extraordinary success and popularity, he remained a solitary figure; however, he Infused sonething new into an art that had becooe traditional. He approached his parts emotionally and from a fire^ angle, instead of intellectually and from the point of view of the past.^^ His approach to reality, his break with past traditions, his use of the ugly as well as the beautiful were all features of the romantic spirit. The natural methods of his art affected the old school of acting and the artificiality of the drama; they also made possible the developmwrt of new forms of staging which led, in time, to the creation of the realistic 17QDo»mer, op. cit. , p. 1012. IT^jampbell, oi?« cit.j p. 188. IQOnIcoII, Snf:ll3h Tneatre , op. cit. , p. Hh*

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58 stage. -'^-^ Qarrlck's contribxitlons were pex^pe ino«t neatly suinsad up by Henzy Irving irhen he said, "Ganrick made a revolution in Eiiglish declamation by showing that Hamlet's advice to the players might be Uterally obeyed.^lS^ The actor iras not alone in his more •"realistic" interpretation of drama. The scene designers were also moving along much the same lines. William Capon, iriiile working for Kemble, brought the taste for antiquarian research in staging to the attention of the theatre audience. ^83 xhis artist based his designs on Gothic architecture, striking away fr<»n the classical t«35>les and palaces which had been standard before the romantic trend and Gothic Revival. He attempted to provide reproductions of various buildings as they woxild have "appeared to an inhabitant of the Middle Ages."l8it Later, in 1809, when Kemble had a free hand at the Covent Garden, he engaged Capon as stage artist. Capon's name is often connected with Loutherbourg's, since they were both eager to escape the dry formalism of earlier neoclassical settings, and since their attempts at reform were characterized by a type of realistic-romanticiam irtiich Inevitably led to more complete theatrical Illusion and antiquarian research. ^85 Another Covent Garden scene designer was Nicholas Thomas Dall, iSli^ver, op. clt. , p. X9h* ^^^canpbell, op. clt. , p. 210. ^^aker, op. clt. , p. 267. « ^^^Nicoll, Biglish Theatre , op. clt. , p. 153. l85Baker, op. clt. , p. 267.

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S9 a Danl^ landscape painter irho settled in UaOm In 1766, became an associate of the Royal Academy in 1771, and worked in the theatre until 1777. He iraa succeeded by Inigo Richards, also a member of th« Royal Academy, nho was chief of the scenic staff at the Covent Garden during most of the years Loutherbourg had charge of the Drury Lane's scenery.*^^ Another contemporsury of Loutherbourg was the self-styled "Signer Rookerini," Michael Angelo Rooker, who was the chief designer for the Haymarket* He was versatile enough to be painter, harlequin, scaramouch, and engraver. The designers irtio were "historically accurate" at this time were faithful to the historical period they endeavored to recreate, but not faithful to their om tiaes. They were archaeologists rather than naturalists, realistic about the past, rather than the present. The new trends in lighting, oostune, acting, and designing led the theatregoing public to expect more realistic and imaginative designs than they bad been accttstOBted to.^^^ While this was a period for players. It was not a period for playwrights. The history of the Georgian theatre shows that the playwrights of the time were producing manuscripts that were "for the most part dead things, "•'•^^ weak imitations of past successes irtiich had iS^odeU, op. cit. , p. Ua. ^S7>iscene-Painting in England," The Art Journal (1873), p. 27. 188Baker, op. cit; , p; t^. ^S^Alan S. Doimer, The British Drama, A Handbook and Brief Chronicle (New Yorki Applet on-Century-Crofts, 1950), p, 268.

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little cr no reference to the life and opinion of the atH!l«ice of the day.190 . ' Part of this was the result of a change in the attitude towai?d playwriting. In Caroline days, writing came to be looked upcai courtiers and university men as a gsntlsoanly pastime and it was considered unbecoming to take money for the use of a play» This attitude developed into a convention irtiich alter«i the whole trmd of English dramaturgy. Srexy gentlMiaD with a smattering of taste and •v«ry scholar desired to be reported as the author of at least one tragedy. It was even considered better to have a daranod play to one's credit than no play at all.^^ These conditions were not the ones that faced the eighteenth century plajnsright who attempted to make a living by his poi. Payment was purely for results and, in those d^ of malice, intrigue, and caprice, the results were often problematical to say the least* The naximun reward that the dramatist c^iXd receive was the proceeds from three bwjeflts— the third, sixth, and ninth nights of the run of the play. It should be noted, however, that the daily cost of operation had to be deducted froa these proceeds. It was not unusual for a piece to ran only «iree or four nights, thus eliminating two of the benefits. OccasicaiaUy, the author was nKxre fortunate; fear instance. Goldsmith's Good Natured Man ran for ten nights and brou^t hia i^Oij-ying, op. clt., p, Q9$. l»L«»rence. op. eit. , p. 167. 1

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61 t UOO, with an additional E 100 for the publishing rights of the play.^^ Most of the managers demanded a guarantee against loss on the author's first benefit night and a playwright irtio was unable to provide such a guarantee was driven to the humiliating expedient of selling tickets as soon as, and sometimes before, the play was produced.^ Sonet imes if a play was not to their taste, existing bands of authorbaiters would intenmpt its performance* The unhappy playwright, who was powerless to raise a formidable party of playgo«rs in his support, was wholly at their mercy. Another problem facing the playwrl^t was the fact that the Ilcensii^ Act of 1737 had put all play scripts under the dictatorship of the Lord Chandt^erlain whose high-handed methods discouraged mazQr sincere literary men f^m writing for the theatre. Fielding's highly ia*omising dramatic talent, for example, was ttimed to the novel* Other literary men found that, although their work was forbidden by the Lord Quunberlain when presented as a play, it was acceptable in another form* Two cases in point would be Brooke's Gustavus Vasa, and James Thonpson's ELeanora t both of which were tiimed down as plays* Zlterazy men soon learned they could write irtiat th^ pleased for the book sellers, but, for the drama, they could write only what pleased the Lord Chamberlain* FcT any literary man of originality and independence, the2*e was 192Basant, op* cit*j p# li33* ^^iBurenoe, op* clt* , p* 168* ^^ ^Ibid*, p, 171.

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6a no choice. "Qrub Street gained vhat Drury Lane and Covent Garden An Intereflttlng little satire cn the Icnr station of the playuright and the supremacy of the designers, painters, and carpenters ia Mwa in a pampdilet published in 1772, under the title of The Theatres , A Poetical Dissection, by Sir Nicholas Nipclose, Baronet * On the title page is a caricature modeled after Rejnaolda' picture of Gairick Betvreen Tragedy and Gcanedy . In this drairing, the tiro imises have united on one side and are trying in vain to keep Oarrick from the clutches of the tailors aiKi oarpeoters on the other side* The capbion reads as folloirst B^old the His^ Rosdus sue In vain. Tailors and carpenters usurp their reign. 196 • The playnrlght also had to face the fact that the period's dramatic literature was influenced, directly or indirectly, by sentlnentallan* This demand for sentlnsnt on the stage appears to have been one of the early manifestations of the wave of humanitarlanism which swept aside the rationalism and restraint of the el^teenth century. It was due, in large measure, to the rise of the ccramerclal middle olass.^ Garrick, himself, is reported to have Joked about the advisability of putting a steeple on the playhouse, new that it was a temple of virtue. Since saattimentaliam burdened dramatic writing, the tragedies of the ^i'feonner, op« cit.^ p'. 272» 196flfind, op« cit. . p. 118, ^Thomdlke, op. cit. , p. I469.

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63 198 period lacked both novelty and freshness. There were scane attangjts to UM native historical stories for tragic plots, but this was usually done without great success. Shakespeare's plays beceune extremely popular during the era, partially due to the efforts of Garrlek* By partly redeeming the text from current perversions and adding pleasing modifications of his oim, the actor-playwright did much to increase the popularity of Shakmpme^*^ . ' Mm tvigidies on finglish themes did not hold the stage lar^, A tm pllQns based on an Interpretatlcm of contemporary life were more successful. In tills "dramatic tragedy," the English dramatists of Uie period overlodced one of their greatest opporttinitiesj they might have led the continental playifrlghts in the ccmaon search for something vital, for something expressive of modem conditions. Instead, lofty plots were in demand and, although stories from English history were used with increasing frequency, the Orientals, Peruvians, royal slaves, and other "Noble Savages'* were nueh nore aooeptable heroes. The romantic tragedy developed into melodrama, both with and without music, and manifested the cruder and wilder elements of the ronemtio spirit. 200 The oxdgln of melodrama has been traced to the French bouvelard theatres of the late eighteenth century thirough the work of Qullbert de Fixerecourt, the specialist in Qothle romances. The first example was his play called Victor, on 1' Enfant de La Foret, produced in 1798. It 198Baugh, op. cit. , p. 2jOli2, ^^Nettleton, op, cit., p. 227. '^""'^teo^* op* clt« , p. 1038.

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6h Is interesting to note that the fundamental features of the melodrane were in existence in French theatres long before the date of 1798 and the same featxires can be fovxA in English plays from 1770 omrards.^Ol While it is true that nearly one~half of all Engliah loelodnnas, including the first to be so labeled, are 'bnnuiia^ons frcin the F^nch, the el^ents recognized as '^melodramatic are as English as Yorkshire pudding** and the form itself is little mor« than the panoramic dmia debased.^ The melodrama not only made free use of the spectacular effects so popular with the eighteenth century audience, but it indulged in excesses of sentiment as well»^^^ The sentimental quality of La Chaussee's drame or comedie lanm^rante was probably traceable to the sentimental literature of England. In like manner, its sinister eleasnents can be traced to Walpole's Castle of Ctranto (1765), which cgppealed to the smees and satisfied the existing taste for the untaMMn, the unusual, and the novel. The novels of Ann Radcliffe were ery obviously the models for Ducray-Duminil's romance, from which Fixereoourt wrote his play; in fact, even part of the name was the result of Et^llsh insjrfjration.^Oi* Long before this French product ^^'•Nicoll, Eighteenth Centiiry Drama , op» cit« , p. 98» ^^Itonner, op. cit. , p. 27$. ^ ^Ibid. . ' • ^^^Erneat B. Watson, Sheridan to Robytsont A Study of the Nineteenth Century London Stag e (Cambridge t Harvard Ifalversitv Press. 1926;, p. 350. / ]

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had found its way back into tho Ei^^Ush theatre, as it irere, a similar, though less conplete, craqpilation of mystery, horror, sensation, and spectacular thrills had been made in several plays. Originally^ the term melodrama was apixLied to a serious play Tfith music, but it quickly acquired many other features. Allardyee Mooll Buynt ''M In general, one mi^t hazard as a definition of these melodramatic features the spectacular nature of the setting, the love of glocmi and mystery, the excess of artificial sentimentalism, the hopelessly unnatural poetic justice and toe general air of pathetic morality. Added to these should go the presence of a set of stage figures — villain, hero in distress but thoroughly virtuous, hero guaixSing and alert, seirvant or friend honest but full of cranio pranks — figures without which no later example of the type could be considered cooplete.^^ The excess of artificial sentimentalism, one of the characteristics of the melodrama, also influenced the comedy of the period. The comedies were either old-fashioned witty comedies with laughter as their aim or sentlnental comedies with tears in view. Flractically all of the so-called comedies of the time had lost the spice that was typical of the Restoration. if the Restoration comedies were used at all, they had to be made moral. Garrick made '.Vycherley' s country wife into a decent woman in his Country Girl and there were many similar moral iiiq[>roveaients in the pl^^rs of the period.^O^ The appearance of Goldsmith and Sheridan amidst all the 205ijicoll, Eighteenth Century Drama, op» cit., p, 99 • ^Q ^id., p, 98, 207Baugh, op. cit. . p. 1038. 208stein, op. cit.^ p. 268.

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66 emotional softness of the period mus not as odd as it might seem since many of the sentimental comedies contained scenes of "manners." The tiro great writers, Goldsmith and Sheridan, supposedlyhostile to "weeping comediesy" made concessions to morality Just as Kelly and Cuiift>er-land made obvious concessicais to mirth. The sentiji»ntality of the period often became confused with a feeling of moral approbation. The rranantic audience, which was moved to tears by the distress of the persecuted heroine, the offended parent, the wayward husband, or the dying hero, gttve "homage before the shrine of virtue. "^^^ The late eighteenth century audience was more willing to pay for tears than for laughter. This sentimentality had a harmful effect on the drama of the time since it "kept the playwrights within (Moe narrow cirelej it prevented them frcm dealing with events natmral and striking} it led towards artificiality in characterization and in d^ouement ."^"' If, at tines, the brMth of the restoration spirit "rii^ed the placid mttetB of formal comedy, ** the moraUsod tragedy and moralized comedy contributed to the stream of sentimental drama. Not being able to compete against the popular appeal of pantomime, ballad-opera, burlesque, and farce, the comedy produced after 17^ capitulated and began to include elements traditionally found in the other forms. ^^Micoll, Eighteenth Century Drama, op. cit»» p. iSk* 210lynch, op. cit« , p. 276. ^^Nicoll, Eighteenth Century Drama , op. ctt. , p. 17.

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67 Though farce tended to mix vrlth pantomiiae or to become mslcalizedf it probably never before and never since occupied so distinctive and 80 important a place in the theatre. As proof of this, records indicate practically every serious play had its farcial afterpiece. 212 The afterpiece was a developnent of the second decade of the eighteenth cojtury. Since the post-restoration days, a "second price" was charged for l^e spectator vho arrived at the close of the third act of the play. This had been a regular means of dividing up the evening. This term was also given to members of the audience who arrived after the price had changed and marked them as the ones who came for the lighter part of the program. It was this practice that proved to be one of the deciding factors in encouraging the masses to return to the t heat jre. 213 During the period of Garrick's activities, and for some years prior to them, it was customary for the doors to open at five and the curtain to go up at six* For a long time, the price remained the same as in Pepys' day, that is, boxes Us. and the pit 2s. 6d. The first gallery was Is. 6d. and the Mpper gallery just l8.21ii Anyone wantir^ a good seat had to go to the theatre early or send smeone to hold a place* The long wait was made bearable by the orchestra which, at intervals^ played three selections knovn as first, second, and third music. 21^ 212-pjjomdike, op. cit. , p. lill. ^'^Lawrence, op. cit., p. 172 . , , ^•^Baaant, op. cit« , p. U30, ' • ''''^'^tiBiirence, op. cit. , p. 172,

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68 It mui seldcas conrvenient far the middle classes to arrive at th« theatre at such an early hour and it become obvious that, if the solid support of the new public was to be maintained, sonwthing more substantial than the "fog-end" of a tragedy or short farces would have to be offered* This led to the remarkable development of tha afterpiece. The "second price public" was offered a wide variety of entertainment, frcaa ccanedy to ballad opera and pantomime, and most exciting of all, the spectaculars.^^ As a matter of fact, the afterpieces consisted of axxy form of dramatic entertainment that would fit into the latter part of the program and, not infrequently, they were performances of a regular farce. Also, between the play and the farce or between the parts of the main bill, there usually was sqbmi form of entertainment. This ranged from simple elements such as songs, dances, and recitations, to elaborate interludes. 217 Afterpieces often extended to two or even thr^e acts and maxty times were just revampings or condensations of old ccolc plays* Many new plays were made into afterpieces by being put into one-act farce or three-act cotne<^y form. For example. The Christmas Tale , which was written by Garrick, but which sky-rocketed Loutherbourg before the English public as a rranantic scene-designer, became an afterpiece. ^l ^bid. 217Dougald MacMlllan, Drury Lane Calendar, 17U7-1776 (Oxford i Clarendon Press, 1938), p* xxvi. 2l8i?illard A. Kinne, Revivals and Importations of French Canedies in England, 17US>-l800 (New Yorkt Coluabia University Rress, 1959), p. I5a. ' ,

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0 r Many of the afterpieces were Tiholly spectacular in nature. These spectactilars, because of the money and time spent in making their decor pleasing, stimulated novelty and invention in the theatrical presentations of the romantic period. The success of Garrick's spectaculars was a major factor in bringing about the first important change in the construction of the London playhouses after the Restoration. 2^ Prom this time on, the rnQsic and the spectacle, the "soimd and show" means of entertainment, joined forces to furnish audiences with various novelties. Beyond that, they exerted an influence on the melodramas and light operatic farces that became the chief staples of the next century. The make up of the audience illustrates, in cm way, the struggle between the reactionary elements of the romantic spirit and the previous conditions and conventions* In this case, the struggle was between the cultivated Idlir, who insisted that the Foroductions should go strictly according to rules, and the new citizen, with his more ordered method of life and a simple desire for Tdiolesome amuse— 221 ment. The canposition of this audience was more heterogeneous than it had been since Elizabethan times. After a long absence, the middle classes returned to the playhouse in full force and the "influence of iheir unsophisticated taste, proved a vital factor in the 219Russel Thomas, "Spectacle in the Theatres of London from 1767 to 1802," (unpublished Fh.D, dissertation, Dept. of Eiigllsh, University of Chicago, 19l»2), p. 33. ^ lyneh, op« elt.^ p, 2I42. • 221 Lawrence, op. cit. , p. I6O.

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70 shaping of the new trends" in drama and staging. 2^ , t'vet of this change in the audience was Ixrought about hy th« fact that many of the aristocratic faniilies, because of excesses in the time of the Merry Monarch and ill-advised expenditures in the days which preceded the succession of Queen Anne« had grown impoverished and attengjted to hold their own by making overtures to the new wealthy bourgeoisie . Tradesmen and aristocrats gradually came together « the one seeking the distinction of birth, the other, financial aid* Hogarth moralized on this in his Marriage a la mode , a graphic series which shows liiat happens when a lozxi, overbiirdened with debts, iMtrries his SMI to the daughter of a rich shci^eeper of the city.223 The new class of society was also the result of the development in industry and conraerce which, in turn, had been the result of colonial expansion, world trade, and the Industrial Revolution. The new class based their position and influence on the merchandise in their ships and warehouses, rather than on the color of the blood in their reins. '^'^^ The audience attending the Druzy Lane and Covent Garden came primarily to be amused* They pref wired comedy to tragedy, and, roughly speaking, the older plays to the nmnr cmss* "niey reserved their severest criticism for the farces and afterpieces which they expected to be entertaining. They were tolerant of the ballad operas, comic 222ibld. .... 223?4ither, op. cit« > p, 733* ^^^Ijrnch, op» cit. , p. 2. -

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71 operas, and other musical extravaganzas j they were cordial in their irtiolehearted approval of pantominie and of spectacles .2^5 Thisy imVf on the Tfhole, a quieter and less uproarious audience than their predecessors; however, the pit was still considered the critical part of the audience. It occupied the whole of the floor of the theatre, right up to the orchestra. With the exception of the boxes, the pit seats, at half-a-crown, were the most expensive in tJxe house. The gentlanen of the pit gave their criticism freely and often conveyed it audibly to the persons on the stage. 226 , . It is not surprising that the audiences of the eighteenth century were givai over to exti*emely ardent and caustic criticism. IlMKre was, after all, vezy little written dramatic criticism in the sense that we imderstand it now. 227 in fact, newspaper "puffery" of every possible kind was advanced to a fine airt long before organised dramatic criticism secured a foothold»228 This was discusscKi in an article in the London Times called "On Puffing ," 'rtiich said in summaryt Such is the influence which the puffs of newspapers and the tinsel of theatrical decoration has over the public, that the far greater part of new pieces of Covent-Garden theatre, had they been brought out at Drury-Lane, would have been ccaipletely damned the first night, 229 225irving, op» cit. , p» Q99» 22 6ibid. 227£)ane F. Smith, The Critic in the Audience of The London Theatres from Rickingham to Sheridan (Alburquerque : University of ii«w Mexico, 1952;, p. 101. 228i,awrence, op. cit« , p, 179. 22 9rhe Times (London), January 10, 1786.

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72 ! In spite of the supply of very able actors during this period and the use of the standard dramatic masterpieces, the increasingly |}Xab«ian taste of the audience helped to place an emphasis on supple* BMmtary entertainments. The most outstanding feature of this taste was an excessive sensibility which "allied itself to a prudery unknoim before. "231 The middle classes wanted to have their emotions played upon, rather than that their intellects ^ould be exercised. These evidences of tha arcaoantic spirit were already in the English theatre before LouthtztMSurg informed the rnnagsr of the Drury Lane that he would design such productions as would delight and amaze ibm audience* It remained, then, for Loutherbourg to use his ex* ceptional mechanical ability, his excellence as a painter, and hit inventive skill to bring out the various romantic trends in the theatre* The stage had been cleared and lighted so that he could display his skill in creating illusions* The attempts to develop a more naturalistic style of acting were also a contribution to a romantic stage. The formalism of the past period disappeared from the stage settings. The audience that Loutherbouz^ chose to delight and amaae was not Interested in the delivery of fine lines or shades of meaning, but donanded action and show. These were found in the grand spectacles, afterpieces, and extravagant entertainments which overshadowed all ^•'^^••kerville, op* cit* , p* U45* 23lNicoll, Eighteenth Century DraiBa , op. eit», p. 5*

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73 forms of the theatrical production. Literary men found too many thlnga to overc«&e in order to write for this theatre and turned to other forms of expression, making the period one in urtiich the emphasis was not on the playmright or the 0a.y, but on the player and the production. Many of these production problems were placed in the hands of Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg, a rcmntic painter and an ingenious scene-' designer. \. _

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(2IAFTER n . . r PIGliENT AND PALETTE ... The elements of the romantic spirit which were stirring in French and English art during the last twenty-five years of the eighteenth century were evident in the drawings and paintings of Hiilippe Jacques de Loutherbourg . The knowledge, techniques, and artistic philosophies irtiich chazacterized his work as a painter also influenced his theatrical designs and innovations* He began to show a resistance to the ccmnnonly accepted artistic methods and forms very early in his career. His father, Philippe Jacques I, a miniature painter and engraver who had studied art with Nicolas Largilliere, and was a friend of King Stanislas, attempted to teach him some tvlIbb of painting. ^ Loutherbourg turned out to be sranething of a troublesome student and "caused much chagrin to his father by beizig unwilling to submit to any method, so that, if, for example, he wished to draw a man, instead of making a sketch of the head and limbs, he began by drlpiing the hat."^ He started to express his individuality by resistance to form at a very early age. Since Loutherbourg appeared to paint almost all sub;Jects, 1e. Benezit, Dictionnalre Critique et Documentaire des Peintres, Sculpteurs, Dessinateurs et Graveurs (Novelle ed.; Paris i Librairie grund, 1952;, V, p, 6h5* ^Magasin Encyclopedique « IV (1809), p. 390. 7i*

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Thomas Gainsborough referred to him as being "so damnable various ."^ The list nhich usually follovs afttr his name includes landscapes, battle-scenes, banditti, still-life, ireviews, and sea-pieces* Surprisingly enough, there seans to be sufficient evidence to shoir that h* vas proficient in vihatever subject matter appealed to him at the tine* An extrmely flowery obituary account appeared in the European Magaaine in 1812, stating; He did not confine his pencil to portraits, landscapes, battles, still life, or sea pieces, but excelled in each, so as to dispute the palm with those artists who have been deservedly eminent in either particular line. In all those pursuits he followed nature alone, who in return for the homage he paid to her, croimed him with her choicest graces.** This account suggests that his ability encompassed every possible type of subject matter. His excellence, according to most of the accounts, was in the field of landscape painting, **in which his scenery is fascinating. "5 it was in this field that he gained prominence in England. He was also extremely "various" in his selecticm of subject matter for these landscapes and approached them from almost every point of view. He painted pastorals, sea-scapes, genre, and social satire, to name a few.^ His interpretation of these landscapes ^Jfaurice H. Grant, A Chronological History of Oj"*^ ^^fS Landscape Painters in Oil (London: Hudscm & Kearns, 19U1^, p. 108. '^"Anecdotes of ISe. de Loutherboux^," European Magazine (Mnrch, 1872), l8l. ^Hatthetr Pilkingtaa, A General Dictionary of Painters {London: 'Villiam Tegg & Co., 1852), p. 317. William H, GcKTdts, "Philip d« Loutherbourg," Antlgues, LXVin (November, 1955), I46I*.

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was arled* Tlw aKxite of his amauLI pastoral scenes was ooiqpletely different trtm that of hit stornqr and seRd-decoratlve landeeapea.^ It is apparent, then, that he developed two separate manners or styles. For his roDoantlc and stomor pieces, he used a broad, dashing, and brilliant style. In his n»re intimate or top<^aphical scenery, his style was finer and more truly British.^ Many of his smaller landscapes had elflojents of true rusticity. Part of tills was a heritage from the seventeenth centiucy Dutch landscape painters who had influenced both the French and English artists. These Dutch painters found beauty in the soft carpet of turf. In clover and vegetable fields, or splendid meadows with fat oxen, sheep, and cattle as "white as though they had just been washed."^ These landsci^pes contained a colouring peculiar to the Dutch landscape painters, who were more interested in beauty of tone than beauty of colour. Some of Loutherbourg's very early landscapes were based on the imitation of this kind of pastoral landscape with figures and cattle represented in the charming style of Nicolas Berchan.H His name was 7Frederick P. S^uier, Dictionary of the v>'orld of Painters (London: Longmans, 1870), p. 116. ^Colonel Maurice Harold Grant, A Dictionary of British Landscape Painters from the Sixteenth Century to the Twentieth Century (England* F. Lewis Bub., Uraited, 1952 j, p. 55. ^Richard Mather, The History of Painting: From the Fourth to the Early Nineteaith Centuiy (London: 0. P. Putnam's Son, 190? j, II, p. 633. V ^ Qlbld. , p. 63k*' lljttohael Bryan, Dictionary of Painters and Engravers (Not ed.j London: Bell St Sons, 1?19;, III, p. 252.

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-T .'^m^-ii. ^ ^--^ ' : ^ ; ;; 77 first publicly connected irith Berchen' s at the French Salon of 1763, whTO Denis Diderot, the critic, was said to have rhapsodised over Loutherbourg's painting of a "forest scene," Diderot extolled "the breadth, the harmony, the excellent animal-painting of this youthful prodigy, lAio, at a bound, had raised hinself to the level of Nicolas Berchem»"12 At this tiattf Loutherbourg's work was not only reminiscent of Berchem, but It also reflected that of the Dutch painter Philips Wouwennann. The graceful and elegant Philips Wouwermann was another painter of animals, but in his case, it was the horse iriiich received the fullest treatment. His canvases contained scenes of "soldiers having their horses shodj gypsies, and peasants going to market) ladies and gentlemen riding to a deer or falcon hunt; distinguished companies of hunters at breakfast, or cavaliers in a riding-school. '•13 His wcecution was clever and distinguished, and not infrequently, he placed his favorite animal, a lihtte horse, in the foregroxind for his center of interest.^ Loutherbouz^»s early landscapes were filled with cattle. In many of his "caravan" subjects the figures and skillfully depicted animals stand in a confused space of "grassy hillocks and small boulders." His landscapes also revealed a taste for panoramic vistas, an eleamnt ^Austin Dobson, At Prior Bark (Londoni Chatto & Wiada«, 1912), p. 97. ^Mkither, op. cit. , pp, 633-634. %bid. . p. 63lt.

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78 developed to masterful poroportioxui in his later work.-^ ' Ris studies irith his first teacher after his father had an even iiK>re iiqpoxi;ant influence on his landscapes. This vras the elder Tischbein irtio, in 175l» had been made court painter to Willian VIII of Hesse. Tischbein iras a history and portrait painter irtio was greatly influenced by the Rococo styles of Boucher and Watteau.^ The daintiness and elegance of Tischbein and the French Rococo painters was evident in Loutherbourg's pastoral landscapes. The busy figures in these canvases were well olad^ that is^ they were often "dressy" ladies and gentlenen. Shepherdesses traveling by i&ule-4>aek« silhouetted against a wild and stormy sky, and passing between high rocky crags y are dressed in a fadiionahle costume and bonnet and, in spite of their mode of travel, remain dainty shepherdesses, their skirts iinsoiled* This elegance was also typical of the decoz«tive pieces F^ragoniard produced for Marie Antoinette. Ihile Loutherbourg was a student in Paris, this elegance became a dconinant element in painting. ^7 Fragcnard is remembered for his Rococo style of "hocq;>»skirt8j^ silkm trimmings, fine canibric chemises gliding from rosy shocQders, of cupids kisses and love-play," but he was also a painter of delicate landscapes in which one might find countr^mten at yroxk, or laundresses spreading out linen on the rocks •-'-^ It was this pastoral element l^Gerdts, op. cit. , p» h6h* , '* ' ' ^John D. Champlin, ed. Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings (Nmt York: Charles Scrlbner's Sons, 191k) t IV, p« 250. 3-7 ibid. , , ISttither, op. eit. , p» 711.

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79 that I . After Loutherboxirg went to Qfigland in ITTl^ the pastoral elements of his landscapes tended to disappear in the solemnity of the Bzltiah country viMi* The confused assortment of farm animals also tended to diminish in his British scenes* His interest in the British scene paralleled the romantic enthusiasm for the return to nat\ire, for the turning aside of the established artificial ideal beauty and the acceptance of the true in nature* This was a form of realism which attempted to imitate scenic views and localities with aom degree of topographical and architectural exactness. ' ^ ; • f 1,. ; : i .With this interest in mind, caie of the things Loutherbourg demonstrated to the English people was the beauty of their countryside. He opposed the prejudice, then rife anong professional and amateur alike, that the English countryside afforded no subjects for the higher display of the painter's art. Loutherbourg, i^ had studied midst the rooantic legions of the I^nees, the Alps, and his own native mountains in Alsace, maintained that "no Qiglish landscape painter need foreign travel to collect grand prototypes for hi* ^Ibid. . p. 678. ^%erdts, op* cit. j p* l|61i*

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80 study. "21 He found the Lake district of Cvnnberland, the rugged scenery of North ?i'&les» and the iBouotainous grandeur of parts of Scotland filled with ineathaustible subjects for painters.^^ As a result of his belief in the beauty of the English countryside, there are many small canvases, eighteen by twenty-four inches or seventeen by twenty-one inches, "depicting in the neatest, sweetest, quietest way imag i nable, no
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m Dcfvedale which was located in Derbyshire, as well as Matlock'^igh--Tcrr which is near Uatloek Bath, Derbysdilre. This s^ne exhibition held his canvases of Brother Bridge , located between Vfestmoreland and CmnberXuidf and two views of Cumberland, Skiddow , and Gowbarrogr Park , which is in Ulanrat«r» In the ejdhibition of 1785, he e?diibited views of Keswick Lake's Lowdore Waterfall , A Slate Quarry near I^ell 7/ater, and ft painting of Brick KilnB at the entrance of Keswick with a distant view of Skiddow and Basselthwaite. These are but a few of th^ many YiecTs of the English countryside which he s^ to the exhibitions each year.25 There is little doubt that toutherbourg set a fashi{»i in the •tyle of rural landscape which was to "bear brilliant £ruit*" To say that he "invented it is prolbably to say tod nfoch," for as
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n of the a»re outstanding characteristics of romantic paintii^» " Many of Louthexi}ourg's pictuiresque paintings have been idsnti> fied with the mnner of Salvator Rosa, the Italian landscape painter.^ louthez^turg was equally skillful in the representation of bold, grand^ and stupendous scenery; it has be«i said that he was <*pez4iaps the greatest painter i»ho can be set down as jActxawsque.''^^ His landscapes represented all the qualities which were identified with th« picturesque. Sir Uiredale Price clarified swne of these when he said QotMc architectUM "is generally considered as jnore picturesque, though less beautiful, than Grecian, aiKi upon the same principle that a ruin is more so than a new edifice. "29 The two opposing qualities of z>ou£^e8s and sudden variatitxi, along with that of irregularity, IntFt, in his definition, the most important reason for calling a tI«w picturesque. He said, "symmetry and regularity are particularly adverse to the pictxire8<|ae«" This explains the iiqpcrtanoe attached to Gothic •rfchiteettnre by worshippers of the picturesque. All water of i^ich the surface is broken and the motion abrupt and irregular, as xiniversally accords with our idea of the picturesquej and uriienever the y/ord is mentioned, rapid and stony torrents and waterfalls, and waves dashing against rocks, are among the first objects that present themselves to our imagination. 30 27Eliaabeth ?f. I&nwaring, Italian Landscapes in Eighteenth Centtiry England, A Study Chiefly oT the Influence of Claude Lorrain and Salvator Roaa on Knglish Taste ^ 1700-1800 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1925), p. 73« no ''"Christopher Hussey. The Picturesque, Studies in a Point of View (London I Putnam's, 1927), p. 259. 29sir Uvedale Price, On the Picturesque (Edenburgh, 18U2), p. 3 0lbid. , p. 81i.

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As far as trees trere conccjmed. Price considered that it was not the "smooth young birch nor the fresh and t«ader a*, but the rugged old oak or knotty . . • elm" that are, in his terms, picturesque, "It ie sufficient," he said, "if they are rough, mossy, with a character of age, and -vrlth sudden variation of their forms. "31 He also conaidered that wild and savage animals have generally marked and piotur•aque characteristics. ' • < : ' ~ ' -'' -'i , •' ; • . I ; : J . It is true, that in all animals rihere great strength and destructive fierceness are imited, there is a mixture of grandeur but the principles on which a greater or lesser d^ree of picturesqueness is found may clearly be distinguished; the lion, for instance, with his shaggy mane, is much more picturesque than the lioness, though she is equally an object . r. ; of terror.32 ; i,:.-, * . . v i : These are only sens of the things found in the picturesque, but they stiggest its essential characteristics. ?/ith these in mind, it is easy to understand how much of Loutherbourg's work was picturesque. A Landscape with Ruins and Cattle (1777), shows the huge mass of the rocky crag and an old bent tree against an agitated sky. Land scape with a Cascade (1780), and A Shipwreck (1792), both create a mood of violence with their turbulent waters and troubled sWLes, while in A View in the Appenine Mountains (1801), he paints a "stormy evening, with banditti" in which bold masses of mountains and wild skies completely overwhelm the small figures. 33 Through the popularity of canvases such as these, he was able to influence the 3 ^Ibid. , p. 86. 3 2ibld. , p. 88. 33GravQ3, op. cit. , p. 300.

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eighteenth centtury Interpretation of the picturesque in ronantio landscapes. The Industzlal Revolution, fostered by the romantic interest in the fireedon of the individual, brought about a neir relationship betneen man and nature. Places like Colebrookdale held an attracticm for the artist for a period of years because it combined the period's most up-to-date and impressive industrial enterprises with an exceptionally romantic landscape setting. In the romantic consideration of these neir developments, the emphasis shifted from discovery to contaoplation and the poetic recording of the artist's motions while viewing the scene. The dramatic appeal of the new industries had a special fascination for Loutherbourg. His published industrial subjects include A View of Blacklead in Cumberland (1787), The Slate Mine ' (1800), and Colkfarook Dale , often described as "the middle steam engine in the dale, with the surrounding scenery. "^^ Altho\xgh dated 1805, nhen Loutherbourg was sixty«-five years old, the Colebrookdale prints belong to a series of views frm all parts of Britain. These wex^ published by R. Bowyer' s, Historical Gallery, Pall Uall, between 1805 ai^ 1806; hence, the sketches on which these prints were based were probably produced over a long period, before the turn of the centiiry.^^ Loutherbourg ' s early drawing of the York Gate fVater Works , 3J*Francis D. Klingender, Art and the Industrial Revolution (London: Noel Carrington, 19U7), p* 81. 3 ^Ibid. , p. 79. ^Ibid.

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lAlch probably dates trm the mo*s or early 1780' s, exemplifies his delightfully serene style, an luiarranged and uncluttered scene, which was based on direct observation frcm a single viewpoint and reminiscent of the painter Paul Sandly.37 Besides these industrial subjects, Loutherbourg was interested in human activity and he oftoi represented people in the comoon pursuits of life* Some of these were situations indicative of a strong sense of humour. One of his better early English works is a skating scene in St. James' Peoic. In this scene gnarled trees echo the absurd gesticulations of the skaters and the well-bundled, shivering people around a small fire suggest the cold, windy day.^^ In these landscapes the mood of the Triiole is generally determined by some form of human activity and, because of that, they might well be called gmre scenes with landscape backgrounds. The interest in nationalism, which encouraged artists to put the new industries on canvas, also developed into an interest in the realistic interpretation of battles on large-«cale canvases. Loutherbourg got his start in this realm of subject matter while a student with the well known battle-painter Francois Casanova, the clever, but indolent and erratic, younger brother of the notoxlous Jacques Casanova de Seingalt. Fjrom a remark of Diderot, y&io apparently knew him personally, it appears Loutherbourg remained with Casanova several 37 ibid. , p. 71. 38Gerdts, op. cit. , p» i|66*

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m years and must have been still working at Casanova's atelier in 1758, w even 1759."^^ At the Frertch Salon in 1763, it was trhispered that Loutherbourg had surpassed his preceptor, Casanova, in his own field, for one of Louthertourg's spirited battle-pieces, hung craftily between two restful landscapes, had the name Loutherbourg signed in large letters on its frame} "as if," Diderot wrote, "the artist had said to all the world: 'Gentlemen, recall those efforts of Casanova irhLeh so madi astonished you two years ago; look closely at this, and decide to ithcm belongs the credit of the others.'"^ One of Loutherbourg 's earliest assignments, at the re«5uest of La Czarine, was to paint the Russian Army's crossing the Danube. In order to be able to do the detail for this canvas, Loutherbourg requested that the armor and battle equipment used by the different nations be sent to him. He received all the necessary military equipment and thus started his unusual and unmatched collection of armor Loutherboxirg developed a passion for the study and discovery of ancient armor and as a result of hie care and work, his collection actually became a magnificent one. After his death, it became the foundation of many famous nineteenth century collections, the most notable of 3 %ouvelles Archives de L'art Franqaia (3 ser.j Paris s Charavey Preres, 1S88), IV, p. 20U. ^%enis Diderot, Oeuyres Completes de Diderot, Revues sur les Editions Originales (Paris: Gamier Freres, 1076;, X, p. S(iO. ^Biographie Universelle (Paris » ittchaud, 1820), XXV, p. 271*

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n which were the Meyrick, Brocas, and Bemal collections .^^ Loutherbourg's armory was sold by P. Coxe, the auctioneer, in 1612, and nany valuable articles were added to other collections, although there is a record that some of the pieces were subsequently on vieir in the exhibition at the Oplotheea in I8l6, first at the Gothic Hall, Pall Mall, later at 20 Lower Brook Street, and finally, at the Hayaarket* Vtliat was left of Loutherbourg's collection by iBUl was sold at Oxehham's. Since then, catalogues of important armor collections, private and public, list many interesting collectors items as being LouthexHbourg's early acquisitions*^ This collection of armor was of great value to Loutherbourg in working out exact details for his many battle scenes. He was fond of depleting bivouacs and camp-scenes, or struggling lines of soldiers on the march. His figures were always full of spirit and mov«nent. In 1783, he eaMbited a jxlcture called A Battle in VMch the Turks were Surprised and Driven Away from Their Lines and Defeated near Bender, by a Detachment of the Russian Araqr, Under the Coamaixi of Gen . Ptomkin . In 1799, he exhibited a picture called A Distant Hail Storm Coming On and the March of Soldiers with Their Baggage . Then, in his first shewing at the Royal Academy (1772), there was a showing of one ^Grant, A Chronological History , op. cit. , p, IO8. ^F. H. Cripp Day, "Meyrick Collection of Armour," Country Life (London: January Hi, 1922), p. 59. H. S. John, Bartotozzi, Zoffany & Kauffinan, with Other Foreign Members of the Royal Acadway, 176a-1792 ("British Artist" i London: Fhilip Allan Sz Co., 192Ii), p. 131.

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called The Dressing of a 7'ounded General * In 1783, there was one simply ILstad as A Landscape; the F«i«T'a Compassion to the Distrestwd Soldiw .^ Most of his battle-scenes, particularly the one of 1783, appealed to the senses. The h«ro of Loutherbouirg ' s plctiu'es was painted as realistically as possible in oontonporaxTcostume. His, canvases were filled with colour, action, and ^notion. As subjectmatter, they satisfied the rc»nantic-realistic desir« to view contes^K)* rary sltuati<»i8 which were remote and yet actual* •• ; In his battle-scenes, Loutherbo\irg was very careful that the details of his work were accurat* and historically correct, as is indicated by the numerous dranrtngs on record.^ There Is a note upon a drawing of the sinking Fl-ench ship Veaaguer "to ask if the French colours should only be struck as a mark of surrender or if beside it the English colours should be above as it was not taken possession of but sunk.'''*^ There is, however, another iirteresting account in Joseph Farington 's Diary which states that in the painted hall of Greenwich there is a picture of Loutherbourg's which wrongly shows the Queen Charlotte on the Montagne's lee bow in a battle scene. Bowen« the ship's Mntttr, is reported to hxvs said on seeing the picture t "If we could hare got the old ship into that position we must have taken the French Admiral. V -> ^Grave, op. clt. , p. 301. Baron Roger Portalls, Les Dissinateurs D' Illustrations au Dix-Hultlen» Siecle ( Paris t Camascene liorgand et Charles Fataut, 1877), p. 362. hTjckn, op« clt. , p. 130. w..:-. i*8josepii Farington, The Farington Diary , 3rd. ed. (London j Hutchinson & Co., 1922), I, p. 63.

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Hie two major English military subjects represented a revitur and maneuvers at vrarley Camp in 1778. These were on exhibit as A Landscapej in V!h±ch are Represented the ?janoeuveres of an Attache Berformed BefOTe Their Majesties in Little Warley Common, Under the Comnand of Gen, Pierson on the 10th of October « 1778 (1779). His Battle of the Nile « painted in 1789, is familiar in James Fetter's •ograTings.'^ The tragedy of Louia XVI and France's declarati
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m his usual rapidity^ for in ibrch of the next year both plctux^s were exhibited at the Historical Gallery in Pall Mall.^ After Hoire's engagement came Duncan's great battle with De • Winter off Can5)erdown vrtiich provided a fi^sh subject fra* another of Loutherbourg's military paintings. The plate was originally published in iSOlf but a reprint of it was issued in 1865.^^ An interesting flr8t-4iand account of these works is found In Holcroft's diary. On July 25th, he wrote that: . . v . Went with Geiseveiller to see the picture of the siege of Valenciennes, by Loutherbourg. He went to the scene of action accompanied by Gilleray, a Scotchman, famous among the lovers of caricature; a man of talents, however, and uncanmonly apt at sketching a hasty likeness. One of the merits of the picture is the portraits it contains, English and Austrian. The Duke of York is the principal figure as the supposed conqueror J and the Austrian General, who actually directed the siege, is placed in a group, where, far from attracting attention, he is but just seen. The picture has great merit,— the difference of costume, English and Austrian, Htaan, etc., is picturesque. The horse drawing a cart in the fore-ground has that faulty affected energy of the French school, which too often disgraces the works of Loutherbourg* Another picture of the same artist, as a companion to this, is the victoiy of Lord How© on the 1st of June: both were painted at the expense of Mechel, print seller at Basle, and of V. and R. Green, purposely for prints to be engraved from them. For the pictures they paid 500 each, beside the expenses of Gilleray' s joiirneys to Valenciennes, Portsmouth, etc .53 The most admirable of Loutherbourg 's pictvires, in contemporary eyes, was his Spanish Armada . This work, new at Greeiwich Hospital, SlDobswa, ep» cit. , p. 123« ^^Grundy, op. cit« , p. 76. ^^Thoaas Holcroft, The Life of Thomas Holcroft (London: Constable & Co., 1925), II, p. 160. r-

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91 has been described as "one of the finest sea-fights ever realized cm canvas. "^^ This picture was engraved at least twice. Loutherfeourg also interpreted two military events which took place in March, I8OI. These were the Decisive Battle of Alexandria, foiight on 2l3t March , 1801, when unfortunately Sir H. Abercrcanby was Mortally 'Vounded , and the Landing of the British Troops in the Bay of Aboukir in the Face of an Ebqaecting and Pfepared Enemy, on the 8th of March, 1801 .^^ It has been said of his battle-pieces that the "various incidents are well received, painted with fix>e and animation, azid havtt semblance of truth. His subjects are noble and grandly treated, and he deserved the reputation he enjoyed. Most of Loutherbourg ' s subject natter was within the realm of romanticism, but there was one specific treatment of this subject matter which needs to be mentioned. This stemm^ fk*om the Influence Of William Hogarth and the satirical aspects of some of his interpretations. The IflLdsucmer Afternoon with a Methodist Preacher often has been considered Loutherbourg 's masterpiece; in this picture the "buffooning piousness of the hypocritical scalawags and gentry surrounding the preacher contrasts with the passive animals, and wlt^ the luooncemed youi^sters in the foreground, portrayed with Morillolike sentimfflit."^ (See Plate I) The composition produces an ^^bson, op. clt. , p. 12U« ^^raves, op. clt. , p. 300. 56sanmel Redgrave, A Dictionair of Artists of the aigllsh School (London: George Bell & Sons, lofd), p* 123* ^^Gerdts, op. clt» , p. U66.

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% ' n S 3 c3 s I : r.

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93

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9k excellent sense of movement and the eye is comfortably and riiythmicaUy led from one group of figures or anlnals to another. Ttie two tall trees at the side canvas produce an interesting asytmetric effect against the vast expanse of sky* A similar painting is his genre painting. Gig Upsetting cm Derby Day . This is filled with people in movement and "on the surface it is a lively presentation of a mishap of some spectators attending the races." The subtle satire of this canvas denounces the indifferent crutlty to animals. This statonent is made through the many small details of the painting. It is ftmnd in the expression on the faces of the evil-looking Jockeys as th^ cut their frightened race horses with sharp spurs. It is also found in the action of the rearing animals as, alarmed and confused by the large figures ahead of them, they upset the gig. Even the signboard in fJront of the first tent shows the merciless whiRxLng of a horse.^^ Loutherbourg's wide range of subject matter took him into scrae incidental forma. Occasionally, he even did portraits. One more or less portrait-type was of Itovid Oarrick as Richard III (177U).^^ (See Plate II). A study of this canvas shows the effective use of large masses as side accents. The background, with its coobinatico of buildings and trees, becOTies unusually heavy, yet the center is cleared for the figure of the actor. The work is so composed that, in spite of the large masses, the focus of attention is on the figure of Garrick. ^ Qlbid. ^%obson, op. cit. , p. 123.

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t

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96

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98 had to make their am dry colours by obtaining ingredients from the druggist and the herbalists.^ Itatil 1781, when the Messrs. Rmvwi first began to prepare artists' colours in cakes, prepared paints were only obtainable in liquid form* Even so, for a long time these colours were very limited in quantity* The more brilliant tints and hues were unknown in water-colours at the time and it was hard to avoid a cold effect.^^ At that time, watercolour was no wotb than a pen-drawing reinforced with a light wash of ink or s^a, over i^ch was floated a coat of thin, transpar«:it colour. Thus, the process of watercolour entailed two distinct steps. Pare watercolour, in i^ch the colour is applied dix^ctly without a preliminazy monochrcane ground, only came into vogue at the b^inning of the nineteenth century.^ It was an additional development stenming from the romantic artist's use of colour as form* Most of the delicate sketches of the draughtsmen in the last half of the eighteenth century, however, were made with pigments ground in wat«r, that is to say^ with transparent colours and without the addition of wfdte or body colour. In the earliest times, they were in monochrome, and, as such, were sometimes named "chiaroscuro 6hs, T. Prideux, Aquatint Engraving, A Chapter in the History of Book Illustration (London: Duckwcaiih & Co., 1^9), p. 10k* ^^Andrew Shirley, "Painting and Engraving," Johnson's England , An Account of the Life and Manners of his Age , ed. A. S. Turberville ^Oxfordt Clarendon Rress, 1933), p. 63. ^^Franqois Fosca, The Eighteenth Century—Watteau to Tlepolo , "The Great Centuries of Painting," (Geneva: Skira, 1952), p. 116.

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99 drawings. Louth«rboitrg produced a great many of these '^chiaroscuro" dnadngSj includii^ sane sketches for stage designs. Washes of grey or brown were added to the outline made with pencil or with a reed pen and ink. This produced the forms in light or dark, but in one medium only, most often in India ink* In the search for new forms « a sense of aerial perspectirre was obtained by using two colours , brown and grey, and treating the near objects with t^e warmer and the distant with the cooler tint. After this, a few local colours were tentatively added to the neutral ground* This method was used for a considerable time and includes the most attractive of the "stained" or "tinted" drawings.^ /:/ •, . The experiments of the "oolounwm" were responsible for the greater variety of pigments available during the last quarter of the century. It was a common practice to experiment in the trtaking of paints. Loutherbourg, while a student at the College of Strassbourg in 1755> was reix>rted to have used his new-found interest in chemistry to invent for himself **a method of preparing and blending his colours, unknown to other artists^ by irtiich they were rendeired more vivid and durable, as one component part did not destroy the effect of the other. Since Loutherbourg left the College to study art in ftrie when he was fifteen years old, it would indicate that he was Interested ^7prideux, op. cit. , p* 79* " ' ^^Ibid., p. 80. 69n Anecdote of Mr. de Loutherboiirg," op. clt* , p. I8l.

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XQQ in methods of making paints at a very young age. Sy the time that Loutherboiirg became a loaicac paintw in England, large quantities of colours ->rere sold, either in jars or "tied up in bits of bladder of about the size of a walnut; and the bladders continufid in uae until the middLe of the nineteenth century." Louth«j*oai^ was not only seriously concerned with his own methods of applying aiKi mixing colours, but he was also informed on the methods of other painters, as Fazdngton testified. I dined at Loutherbourg' s at four. Loutherbourg talked with me abt. process in painting. — ^He said that though Claudt repeated the colouring of his skies, going over then more than once yet it was in the lightest parts only that he put on HMch body of coloior. — In His water it was evident that all ms thin but the lighter parts. He said all the Flemish masters & Dutch jainteo's on white grounds, except Vanderraeer who 'jainted on a gw^ ground. Upon their white grounds those BBsters when they had an evening or warm subject to paint would glaze a warm tint irtiich operated through the colours ! afterwards laid on agreeably.— He said their grounds were painted with oil and were not absorbing grounds . — He said painters of the present day made use of more kinds of vehicles than those masters did. They, in his opinion, painted with simple materials,— oils without mixture,— no macgilps— he uses poppy,— nut and linseed oil,— and drying oil only for dark colours bxit never in skies and delicate parts. He wishes to do as much without it as he can. He uses turpen, tine occasionally, but not the Ethereal spirits which becomes sticky in the pencil,— he gets his from Middleton,— he prefers Le gges White to Middletons saying it is whiter and purer.— He deSghts in Okers,— The Flemings painted a trtiite gsTOund and then pummiced it smooth.— His grounds are laid by L^l^ with very little size. 71 This account was written near the end of Loutheirfcourg's life when he was an established and inqportant paint«r« This is not the Shirley, op. cit. , p. 61i. Farington, op. cit. , II, p. 236.

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KXL only record of his ejqperimentatiQn iflth pigments. A feir yian later, OT April 10th, 1809, Faringtcm again noted that "Loutherbourg paints skies with l^ssian Bhie and v
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102 scrawla, done as if wito the reed-pen, with open centers." His fareground invariably contained some "brilliant metallic green flashes." '^^ ?!hether the fact the "colourmen" were Just coining into their own and pigaeota were not yet stable, or that his saethpd of apj^Lylng paint was axeeptionally vigoroos, or that Loutherbooz^ locdeed at Ufa and saw bsdUiant, vivid colours , it is hard to say. One is moz^ inclined to believe that, as a rctnanticist, Iw dMired to express tha imaginative response to nature, and turned to a freer method of colour expe^saian. His contemporaries were not ready for his methods, however, and took him to task on this paxiiieular point* In his report on the paintings at the esdiibition of the Rrencb Salon of 1771, Diderot wrote "There is one of these pictures of Loutherbouirg where the sun is so fervid, so hot on the horiaon, l^t it is more like a conflagration than a sunsat, and one is tempted to ory to its sitting shepherdess* 'Run, if you don't want to be burned. '"^6 Horace Walpole attended the same showing and recorded in his Beuris Journal , under the date of August 2U, 1771, that he went "with Madame de Grave, her son and Mile. Sanadon to the Abbe Lambert at the Louvra. He carried us to the exposition of pictures, some good Vemets and Loutherbourgs but both too hard and red."^^ V/alpole was still ocninuiting about Loutherbourg's indulgence in strong colours, irtien, years later, he wrote in a letter to a fkdend that "Loutherbourg . * * "^^rmt, Chronological History , op. cit., p. 109. 7^iderot, op. cit. , XI, p. 502. 7%orace ITalpole, Horace Walpole 's Correspondence (Tale ed., lalat 1939), VII, p. 339.

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would paint landscape and cattle excellently if he did not in evexy picture indulge some one colour inoixlinataly*"'^^ Paul Sandly, a fellow neniber of the R<^ral AeadenQr in London and something of an experimenter in colours himself « wrote that, as a painter, Loutherbourg possessed gz*eat dexterity of handy but sosststiioes displayed the foibles of a mannerist^ and a meretricious gaudiness of colouring^ destroying the teoipered harmony of effect so obsenrable in netwre."^ The art critic of The London Times , in reviewing the Exhibiticm at Somenet House, reported that Louthezijourg's painting of Conway Castle was "bojrond comparison the best of his performances, both in the accurate survey of the place, and animated fancy in the execution. The figures display great ease, but their faces have too raida of the firey tinge."^ Not one in a hundred of the landscape painters who exhibited in 1793 were "familiar to the honest issues of nature," declared Jdhn Williams, a critic who wrote under the pen name of Antony Pasquin* He oritLciaed moat of the oontributco's on this point, but sir^led out the work of Louthertoux^ as a particularly bad example, stating: To particularize Mr. Loutherbourg on this point might be deemed invidious, as the majority of his brethren are equally falliblej but until brick dust fore-grounds, red fields, brass ^^John, op. cit., p. 127. 7%illiam Sandly, The History of the Royal Academy of Arts (London t Longman, Green, 1B62;, I, p, 192. ^Angelo, op. cit., I, p. 388»

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30k I trees, and a copper horizon, are constant with the association of palable objects, I shall persist in believing that our inodem landscape painters, like our modem dramatists, are moxv indebted to the presentment of a distracted brain, than angr «xisting objects that ever were, are, or ever will be.°^ Paringtcn qttotw anotilier contemporary, a wine merchant by now of C. Offleys, oa the matter of Loutherbourg's colouring. (It diould b« iwted that he gave no indication of ttie wlxw narohant's authority on art.) After seeing the Royal AcadaoQr esMbitlon of l80lj, Farington recalled this conversation with the wine merchant: "He said Loutherbousrg shewed great ii%enuity} but his colouring was too slaty and purple,— yet he thinks them nearer nattire than Turners, who appears to OA b« fftrivizig to do eoBWthing above nature."^* ^Bxfiaps the sererest criticism of his use of colour came tvm Dr. Wolcott viio has been described as a "loose, Jovial quick-fritted olargyman without a cux^, and physioian without patients^ who had rettimed tram unsueeessful fart\]ne-4itDitlng In •faiudea to his native Cx"Ojarell."®^ Angelo refexred to him as a "mercenary sensualist" and one who "died a horay reprobate. "^^ Wolcott, writing vmA&r the pen name of Peter Pindar, startled the British art circles with his "Ijrrio Odes to the Royal Academicians for 1782." In the section in which he satirized the landscape painters, he had this to dedicate to Loutherbou]?gt . 8ljohn William, An Authentic Histoary of the Rrofessors of Painting, Sculpture, and'Architectiire (London; Synonds, 1796} j P« 366* Q^Farington, op. cit. , II, p, 239. S^charlea Robert Leslie, life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds (London: John Murray, 18^5) * p. 3^6. Q^tAngelo, op. cit. , I, p. 388.

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105 And loutherbourg, "when Heaven so T»ills, ' To make brass skies and golden hill«, . With marble biillocks in glass pasttires grazing) Tl^ repvttation too will rise^ And people gaping with surprise. Cry "Ifonsieur Loutherbourg is most amazing I But thou must wait for that event; . . Perhaps the change is never meant: " ' * ' Till then, with me, thy pencil vdll not shine j Till then, old red-nose v;ilson's art Will hold its empore o'er my heart, ^ By Britain left in poverty to pine.°5 In axioth«r ode« he derided the artist's pictures as "teaboards," 'hraxtilshed waiters,'* and vowed that his rocks were "pasteboard," while his trees resembled "brass wigs," and his fleecy flocks "mops."^ There is also a little poem written in I878 called "On a Scene in France by De Loutherbourg," ^irtiich goes as follows t Artist, I own tl^ genius; but the touch Ifay be too restless, and the glare too mucht And sure none ever saw a landscape shine, Basking in beams of such a sun as thine, But felt a fevid dew upon his ;Mz, And panting, cried, 0 Lord, how hot it is I This little rhyne was luisigned. It takes something of a good painter to rise above such critical remarks. ^7 ' ^ A more 8«rlous approach to this subject was made by T. TlWght in 1821;, when he wrote on "Faculty of Dlstingtiishing Colours." Wright made it clear that he did not intend the least disrespect to the memory or reputation of any artist as deservedly admired as Loutherbourg, ^^LesHe, op. clt. , p. 368, ^^ook, op. clt. , p. 208. ^^ Gentleman's Magazine (February, I878).

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106 irtio, "in execution, was scarcely ever surpassed," buti I never could reconcile myself to the very glaring and often times unharmonious tints "which his pictures displayedj the very bright yelloirs and reds, opposed frequently to the most powerful purples and blues, besides many other gaudy, crude, and violent oppositions, always struck me as very extraordinary and uiwiccovintable in an artist of so much i practice and experience, and ti^o, in many respects, was certainly a delightful painter. Just as Williams had stated before, Wright did not believe that Loutherbourg was alone in this fault. He cited a current exhibition of painting in iriiich, in his o];xLnion, there were canvases from the "most eminent artist" that were also glaring and unharmonious in their use of tint. Since Wright was writing on the "Faculty of Distinguishing Colours" it is not swprising that he should conclude his remarks on Loutherbourg with the folloningt To what possible cause are we to attribute this seeming incongruity . . . not surely to any defect in the sense of vision, but rather, I conceive, to a deficienee in the mental powers} and to the want of that peculiar faculty of mind by which colours are distinguished, or, to speak more technically Wrist's statement regarding "any defect in the sense of vision" njsQr possibly have been a reference to a note found in Farington which suggested that Loutherbourg was near-sighted. Farington wrote t Bourgeois looking at a fine picture by Ruysdale said "It was manifest that Ruysdale like Loutherbotirg was near-sighted, otherwise, could he have seen the general effect of his pictures he could not have allowed such forms to remain as Wright, Some Account of the Life of Richard Wilson, Esq . B. A. (London: Longman, 1821;;, p. 152. still, to the absence Q^Ibid., p. 153.

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107 mre in some parts of it*'* ZxRithsrbourg does not see the effect of his colours. 90 On another occasion Farington recorded Sir Francie Boiirgeois' comments on the sane subject: Bourgeois said he vas with Desenfans when only 10 years old. He for a T*hile studied under Loutherbourg.—V.lio he said laboured under a radical defect, his vision being such that he never could but a small part of his picture and not the whole together. This accounted for his crude colouring for his bringing hot and cold colours together so as ^o/ produce a discordant effect. 91 In fairness to Loutherbourgi it should be pointed out that not all contemporary critics found his colours too brilliant. Tilxen Loutherfeourg exhibited for the first tine at the London Royal Academy in 1772, Horace Walpole irrote that a painting number 139 called A Large Landscape and Figures , was by "a very good Swedish Painter, much esteemed in Paris. He began in the manner of Berchon, he was apt to break his cattle and skies with red spot3. No. 139, the best I have seen of his works, is soft and has none of his faults. His drorings are excellent. "92 There were others Tiho considered that his vigorously applied plgnteots gave a richness to his textures. 93 They found that the flesh tints in many of his paintings were "clean and fresh, the modeling fina and convincing, and carried to a considerable degree of 90payingtan, op. cit. . VI, p. 8U. • ^Ibid. , V, p. 151. ^Walpole, op. cit« , vn, p. 3U0. ^^Hussy, op« cit. t p. 259. *

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108 realism. "^^ His ability to suggest the texture^ tone, and colour of flesh can be illustrated by the canvas called The Last Man , a painting at South Kensington. In this picture the "glovring fleshtones of the distracted man irith his wife and infant, and the warm greens and yellows of the rocks and foam at their feet," are given greater intensity by the "slatey blue sky and the sea against which they are vignetted "^^ Regarding Loutherbourg as a landscape painter, T. Faulkner, the historian, noted he looked at life with a "warm imagination.'* He said that Loutherbourg ' s excellence in this form of painting ''deserved the highest panegyric" and if he "sometimes gave a glow and richness to the scenery irtiich he presented," it only appeared gaudy and extravagant "in the eyes of a cold critic." "Where he contented himself with a close and exact representation," claimed Faulkner, "nothing could be more faithful, more animated, or more beautiful, than the productions ' of his pencil."^ In a critical report on the painter, Edward Days told fellow meidbers of the Royal Academy that he believed the finest work by Loutherbourg was in his "grey effects" and that his "morning scenes painted with cool colours were most agreeable."^ It cannot be denied that Loutherbourg was fond of strong 9^ohn, op. clt« , p. 126. . ., 95ibid. ' . ' ^. Faulkner, An Historical and Topographical Account of Fulhamt Including the Hamlet of Hamme rsmith (London; J. Tilling. 1815), p. 37J*. \ , ^Days, op. cit. . p. 327.

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W9 contrasts of cold and warm tints and these may have been used to achieve the dramatic effect that he desired in his paintings. As has been pointed out, many of his paintings show the use of strong and vivid greens in the foliage. These canvases were contrasted with russets and ochres in the foareground. The belief that his "tints wer« often harsh and unpleasant," may have been fostered by the fact that many of his canvases show an ImiQedlate relationship of warm and cold hues without any intemediate halftones.^ This tendency to use the warm and cold hues adjacent to each other is seen in the painting of the Iron Works, Colbrook Dale , from his publication of Romantic and Picturesque Scenery in Ekigland and V/ales , In these, the blaze of the hot furnace is right next to the dull green of the tree-clad hills and the cold blue of the sky is intensified even more by the unrelieved white orb of the moon.^ Another illustration of Loutherbourg ' s colour relationship can be found in a picture with cranpletely different subject matter, that of Landscape with Figures and Cattle . In this canvas, the sharp contrast of colours is found in the strong burnt sienna and the yellowishwhite of the cattle. These, in tinm, are dramatically placed against the uncoraproralsing green of the trees. The colouring of a small painting. Lake Scene in Cumberland , said to "anticipate the nineteenth century in its empliasis on local colour," received the same kind of criticism in regard to its startling colour contrasts* 98 John, op, cit. , p. 127. 99ibid.

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110 The gjreens are unrelenting, and the bright turquoise of the lake is intensified by the scarlet-clad trooper, and the red cloak worn by the woman at his side. The cold mass ' of rocky motuitains is silhouetted sharply against the glcnring skyj the dark foliage on the left is broken by cattle. The clever composition is characteristic of the painter, but the want of subtlety in the colouring betrays that lack of refinement v/hich scmetimes mars the artist's work.^^ Investigating Loutherbourg's work today, one is "consequently struck by the splendor," or the built-up masses of colour aiki the feeling of texture which resxilts from the vigorous tints found in his pictures ••'•^^ Colonel Maurice Grant, the twentieth century British art critic, even goes so far as to differ with the harsh rhymes of Peter Pindar. He writes that after all "Heaven does frequently will to make skies of brass, etc., as arg^one may witness who looks out over an unshaded co\intryside at blazing noon."-^^ It has been suggested that Loutherbourg's use of strong and decided colours was by no means a "negligible factor in forming that taste for vivid colouring" irtiich became such a marked characteristic of British art in the nineteenth century. Had he come along twenty years later, in all probability, his 3POBMmtio freedom of colour wqxresslon would have placed him with the later great English landscape paint ers.^^^ Colonel Grant wrote that he could not "perceive that de Loutherbourg's colouring for which he has been so blamed, is in anyway more forced and unreal than must lO Oibid. , p. 129, ^°^Hussy, op. cit. , p. 159. 102Grant. op. cit. , p. 109. 103 John, op. cit. , p. 132,

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97 Loutherbourg also did the designs for MackUn's gz^at seven folio volume Bible to he pablirtisd In seventy parts. Besides many head and tail-pieces, Loutherix)urg painted two pictures! the Angel Destroying the Assyrtan Host and the Universal Delxi^e * The latter illustration was considered his best work in that field. °" He was also employed as an illustrator for Bonyer's History of Shgland, Bell's British Theatre , and other publications. He did some figures for Fessard's editions of Fables de la Fontaine and a print of L'Ecole des Faanes In 1806, he did a few Illustrations for an edition of Works of Shakespeare .^^ v . .>_ , ... Edward Days, a conteraporaiy artist, has suggested that Loutherbourg was made a histozical painter by the print sellers, rather than by amy "sufficiency of his oim genius." Days' opinion was that "for the higher jsnrpose of art, his composition was too defective, his drairing not masterly enou^, and his execution too small and delicate.** To the romanticist, colour was the life and soul of painting. By free use of pigments, he believed that he could build up any form OP mass without using the old contour~lines. This interest in colour as a means of expression was partly responsible for the rise of the "oolourmen" of the eighteenth oentuxy. Many of the major artists of this period were hampe!?ed hy a severe limitation of palette. Artists ^^^Bryan, op, cit. , p. 252# ^^Portalis, op. cit. , p. 362. ^ ^Ibid. ^^ays, op. cit. , p. 337.

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Ill be employed by a^jrone who seeks to transcribe the more sensational, not the most pleasing, but for all that perfectly genuine and q\iite fX^quent appearance of nature. "^^^ It is evident that Loutherbourg; did not apply his colours with the bland uniformity of the academic painters. His free use of intense colours and vivid temes was a technique eharaeteirlstic of romanticism* An artist whose chief aim is to express his emotions never subjects himself to the directives of any other artist* His art is far too personal for that, and, as a result, he sets up his own forms. This freedom of expression, typdfied by Loutherbourg ' s use of colour, was also an intricate part of his method of composition. Loutherbourg 's draughtmanship has been called sensational, his handling fluent, and his cooposition irreproaohable.^^ His contemporaries agreed, without exception, that his work was "stamped by great vigour and by excellent management in regard to composition."^^ As a thoroughgoing rcananticist, his method of composition shewed a sense of movement, effective dramatic grouping, and eraotic«nal atmosphere. His techniques for using movement, grouping, and atmosphere, held true for his stage-sets as well as for his easelpalnting.^°7 The sense of movement in Loutherbourg ' s ccanpositions was made lOkirant, op. cit. , p, 109* lO ^Ibid. , p. 258. 1067;iiiiam Sandly, The History of the Royal Academy of Arts (London: Longman, Gre«i, 1862), I, p. 192. lOTKlingender, op. cit. , p. 77*

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112 effective by the asymmetrical balance of masses and foras. The eye moves about his canvases with a circular rhythm, thus acquiring a pleasing sensation of corapletwiess. Cne of his most popular industrial prints. Iron .Vorks at Coalbrook Dale , shows this circular jrtiythm. His interpretatiOTi of Coalbrook wao cne in irtiich everything was in movement: the running water, the straining horse, and the driver, and the billowing amok** la short, thjooB pictozdal elosents w«re "caught vp In the spiral pattern of his composition. "^^S ^he circular movesnent goes along the winding road, gracefully across the bank of the river, and th«i back again via the billowing smoke. The iron works in the far center, set against the fiery smoke from the furnaces, contrasts with the realistic quality of the figures in the foreground and the earthy quality of the dirt road. The methods by irtiich he built up ttie masses in this pictux^ are such that it could have been a design for a stage-set. Loutherbourg was fond of depicting large masses irtiich he treated with depth and fullness. The Falls of the Rhine (see Plate III), an oil painting, illvustrated a tr«aendous wat«rfall which, surjolsingly enough, backs up a circular arch of rock in the foregroxmd. The •SjiJBMjLry of the waterfall fills the left of the canvas and assists in the creation of nwvem«xt, not only with the great falls and the swirling foam, but by the shapes of the rocks as well. Even the movemart of the dead limbs of ttie trees reaching out across the scene lO Slbid. , p. 81.

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PLATE m ^ FALLS ON THE RHINE Victoria and Albert Museun

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Uii

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1X5 echoes the rhythm. The Cataract on the Ilugwy Near Conwacr (see Plate lY) ahomi his use of dramatic groupii«. In this painting, the rosy glow of the sl
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I I 1-4 < CO O 5!

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117

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118 In Loutherboiirg's landscapes > the sky^ trees, and foliage are almost as much alive as the figures. In Landscape with Travellers (see ELate V), the irregularity of his balance fills half the canvas with trees. The trees follow out the rhythm which he has set up, just as do the figures of the cattle* the carriage, the horseman, and the little rounded donkeys. There is a delicate preciseness in the foliage, in contrast to the vastness of the sky. These elements are even more iraporessive in his painting of Cataracts on the Rhine (see Plate VI). The tremendous falls are backed by trees, vast sky, hills rolling away into the distance, all of which produce an impressive scene, one which catches and holds the eye. The activity of the various groups of figures is realistic and, at the same tins, characteristically done. Like the structures of the building, these are delicately portrayed. The figures and the buildings are in 6harp contrast to the violence seen in the falls. The peaceful rolling landscape In the distance contrasts with the atmospheric perspective of the mist from the falls and the dramatic effect of the tranendous rocks that seem about to tiimble into the water. The sweeping ccmiposition of Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wright (see Plate VII) causes an observer's eye to travel diagonally back and forth across the picture. In the middle ground, an interesting, irregular arch serves to direct the eye to the typical ruin of a Gothic castle. The mass is irregularly placed on one side, with the delicately protrayed castle in the distance. The grouping of the figures repeats the lines of the arch and the castle door. The

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I o _ •H I

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122

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125 vanishing point must have been established correctly as the lines are pleasing. The posture of the figures suggests activity, while the detailed drawing of their htmdsle appearance aid simple laboiir contrasts impi^ssively with the vague and soft lines of the massive ruins of the castle. :.;-C;; n, '!. r. . . ' ' , ; : . ,, Another example of Loutherbourg ' s use of the emotional atmosphere and the typically rcanantic appeal to the senses can be illustrated by a Westminister Magazine report on the paintings in the Exhibition of 1776. The reporter admired Lootherbourg's works for the "grandeur of his designs" and for the "vigour of execution." Moreover, he considered that, of all the paintings, it was in his work that the "eye is first powerfully seized, and afterwards as powerfully charmed." ) He then selected Rocky Landscape with a Cataract for review. He re; garded this a "capital picture," and noted that the "i^ole conqposition places the artist in the first form of Painting." He described the theaw of the painting and added that "there is a strength of expression in the eoontenanee of the Mstn who has trod upon a snake, which almost fills one with that horror which he must have felt himself, upon the alarming occasion. "^1-^ The artist definitely made use of contrast as a means of developing emotional effects. He did this with colour as well as with textures and lines. The contrast of blue with red and orange in his Destruction of the Armade by Fire is one example of this among his H ^estminister Magazine , (1776), 237

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126 ; battle-scenes. In his painting of the Great Fire of London j he used much the same technique and achieved an emotional effect with sharp contrasts. H2 jt is also evident In a small plctvire called David Garrick, aa "Don John" in the Chance (see ELate VIII) nhieh vu Loutherbourg's interpretation of David Garrick playing in Garrick's adaptation of a play by Beamooot and FletdMr. In the background is a view intended to be a representation of Naples. The cloudy, moonlight background contrasts with the dark mass of buildings at the side. The light from the door strikes the figure of Qairick, bringing it out in full detail. , . ; , • .. , . . Loutherbourg's feeling for dramatic effects in composition is foimd in his battle-scenes, famous fires, landscapes, and the like. One has only to look at his Horse Under a Tree in a Storm to see how he carefully placed his massM in his rustic laadattapeo. He did this using large stony crags, trees with writhing and bending branches, and skies filled with billcwing cumulus clouds. In terms of foim, L(»therbourg was content to give his clouds a general bulk and outlin* with broad, flat rolls of a "thinly charged brush. "113 He used many studied Bky effects such as sunshine after a storm, moonlight on the water, or storm on the sea.H^ . < , . ,. ,. Dramatic compositional effects also extended to his drawings of the human figure and his genre paintings. Aa has been pointed out, ^^John, op. cit. , p. 126. * 113Grant, Chronolc^ical History , op. cit. , p. 109. ll%equir, op, cit. , p. 116,

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128

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U9 most of his landscapes should be classified as genre subjects since they were scenes of human activity irith landscape backgrounds, such aa an early work called Caravan * In this, a family with every possible kind of domestic animal, is moving over a rocky mountain. The men walking along beside the donkeys loaded doim with household goods, th« wcaaan and the baby on the horse, all tend to fill the canvas with their activity* Uls Winter scene ahowa the activities of a group of people skating on the ice or standing around the fire, while A Midsummer Afternoon with A Methodist Preacher (see Plate I), which has already been considered for its satirical qualities, shows a great variety of human figures. The mood of these compositions, and others like them, is generally determined by some form of human activity. ^ It is obvious that this genre quality resiilted from the fact that his compositions were well-populated. In his English landscapes, the people he painted were mostly rural folk, but he was interested in all classes, from "farm boya to country tipplers at an Inn and the English squire and his lady.^l^^ The human figures are usually small and individually unimportant, yet they are always well painted and appear full of spirit. These compositions illustrate the artist's excellent "grasp of anatcnjy, and his skill in depicting the human form. His interest in the human being in these genre paintings is more for their general attitude and llS>Klingender, op. cit. , p. 79. l^JAlerdts, op. cit. , p. [|65» ^Tjcton, op. cit. , p. 127.

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330 type than for the featxires and the character of each individual. It should be noted^ here* that other paintera of thla period^ Ibbetson for one, were greatly influenced by Loutherboorg's method of "building his views around groups of figures foUowing same characteristic occupation."^^ Loutherbourg made many studies of figures and, almost always, these figures were in movement* Not only was this true of the human figure, but also of all the domestic animals which were included in these groupings. In fact, many pages of the textboellishment of Landscape" were baaed on Loutherbourg 's Peasants and Soldiers. Examples of his water colour studies of seamen are still in existence. In some of these drawings, only the heads are elaborated and the bodies merely sketched in. These studies are "admirably constructed, delicately yet firmly modeled, and cleanly and strongly painted." The delicate molding and careful study of these sketches indicate that Loutherbourg had a sympathetic insight into characters and that, had he gone in for it more, he might have taken "a hl^ place as a portraitist. "^20 These sketches of seamen, animals, and human figures were not the
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131 detail. Ifention has been made of the amor collection he used as ' models In his work. There is no better evidence than the fact that in the Print Room of the British Museum there is a miiltitude of Loutherbourg ' s minutely finished studies and sketches, sketches of naval and military accoutrements « costumes and weapons ^ plans of battles, men-of-war and their riggings, and flags. In addition, ther« is an album containing many detailed plans of actioo and vieirs of localities. These would certainly indicate that his representations of contemporary battle scenes were not only effective and spirited, but extremely accurate. . ' These studies are available for examination, having been carefully catalogued by Lawrence Binyon. The catalogue lists: "#20, Album containing studies of military and naval costumes, shipping, . ^ . . chiefly for the artist's picture of 'The Siege of Valenciwuies' :(over 100 different sketches)"; »» Packet containing 32 studies of ships and boats for the artist's picture of 'Howe's Victory'" j and "sheet of studies of uniforms." This certainly indicates horr little Loutherboiarg relied only on his imagination and meanory for his marine and battlepieces. 122 : The direct effect of this concern for detail can be seen in the conposition of his battle-scenes. Perhaps the most famous, and •^kjrundy, op. cit. , p. 76* TOO •^'Lawrence Binyon, Catalogue of Drawings by British Artists and Artists of Foreign Origin Worlang in Great Britain (London; British lAiseum, 1902}, III, p. 67. "

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132 deservedly so. Is Lord Howre's Vietoiy of Ushant^ Battle, 179h » whldi Loutherbourg did as a royal commission. This painting is a very larg* canvas J and in point of ccmiposition and dramatic effect* it is a good example of his best and most characteristic qualities. The strong chiaroscuro and the plasticity of the shadcnrs give risf to a certain heaviness in so large a canvas. However, the excellent balance of the different masses, the effective use of counte3>-change of light and dark| the sense of movement and excitement created by the clash of battle, trindlashed sea, stomy sky, and fire make the picture one of the best sea-scapes of the time.-^^ Not only is the general effect of the composition good in Lotrd Hoire's Victory , but the details bear close scrutiny and give evideiwe of his careful study. The boatload of sailcHrs on the left, silhouetted against the greenish trhite of a foaming wave, shoirs his excellent use of detail Tihile the spray suggests the veritable tang of the sea. The use of irreckage or figures clinging to spars to break up the darks of the foreground is worth analysis and, if the canvas is over-full of detail, one must not forget the necessity of avoiding the feeling of emptiness fostered by a large unrelieved mass* Indeed, "there is far more sense of over-crowding in a small reproduction than in the original painting. "12$ 123 John, op, cit. , p, 125» •^^Richard and Samuel Redgrave, A Century of British Rednting (New ed.j Londont fhaidon Bress, 19h7), p. 79* "^^Jcim, op. cit. , p. 126.

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133 That sttch a picture should have influenced J. M. W. Turner in his early works is not surprising. His Calais Pier , as well as his Death of Kelson and Battle of Trafalgar , are said to have been painted in direct rivalry with Loutherbourg . In these canvases, the effective disposition of the masses of light and dark, the suggestion of the briny sting of the waves, the too solid sky, and especially the emphasis on the drama of the scene, resemble the work of Loutherbourg.-'^^ Loutherbourg 's strong rcanantic tendencies toward freedom of expressicm, the boldness and strength of his effects, his rolling clouds and tossing waters, his sudden relationships of light and shade, his bright and transparent syston of coloiirs, all served to attract the attention of Turner. ^7 Considering that to the romantic painter the life and soul of art could be expressed by colour and symmetry, while regularity waa not essential to his ccmposition, the basic principle of the supremacy of the individual beccnaes apparent. This insulted in a creative impulse which the imagination freed and replaced observation with intuition. Each work of art had a personal quality as a result of being sifted through the iaiagination of distinctive individuals. This romantic approach to art was not always acceptable to those who expected a naturalistic view in landscape painting. A nat\iralistic view was one without any arrangement of "props," a scene painted Just as it 126ft-, L. l^jrllie, J. M. W. Turner (London: George Bell & Sons, 1905), p. 15. ~ '^^cook, op. cit. , p, 227.

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m waa 8e«n "by a certain artist at a given moront. This meant that the aiiiist was expected to take paint and canvas out under the noonday sun and any artist irtio did not was severely criticised* There are some artists, said John Constable in his lectures at Hainpstead, 'hwho have lost sight of nature, and have strayed into the vacant fields of idealism. In Constable's opinion, the talented Loutherbourg had strayed. Although Constable's comments are no longer regarded as the final criticism in art, there were several interesting accounts T^iich discussed Loutherbourg's inclination to do most of his work in his studio. The feeling was that, because he worked on his canvases in "vacant fields" instead of in the out-of-doors, he had "lost sight of nature." One of the sharpest protests on this subject came from a fellow artist, Edward Days, who declared that he "never condescends to draw from nature; all he does, is to make a few crude lines, where he thinks he may not be able to recollect the scene, an a card, and then he corrects it at night | but he often works entirely from memory."129 , . i Diderot's criticism of Loutherbourg's later works at the French Salon was, in effect, that although he regarded the artist as a young genius, too much of his work was ccanposed in his studio. Diderot also remarked that, exceptional as his talent was, the nature he was interpreting was not "chez elle»j it was a type of nature which he had 128charles Robert Leslie, Memoirs of the Life of Joh n Constable (London: J. M, Dent, 1911), p. 266. " ^^Days, op. cit. , p. 336.

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135 encountered in the canvases of Berchem, Wouvermann, and Vemet.-'^® Vfhen he reviewed some of Loutherboiirg ' s landscapes at the Salon in 1771» he again stated his opinion regarding the need for out-door study, ending his praise for Loutheztiouz
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136 Indeed, I am not certain but by his too great reliance on such uncommon powers that they operate to his disadvantage, by feeding hira with vsiin inclination to despise those aids which arise from a repeated contemplation of objects, and without which no man can desiCT with precision, however eminently he may be endowed. 13i* The same critic also wrote a critical review of Loutherbourg's exhibition painting for the Royal Academy shovdng of 1797 ^ No, 27 was Bandetti Attacking and Robbing Travellers in a Forest in Germany and the reporter felt that in this painting the artist "outraged nature too much to be held up to any sort of a pattern," that this "spirited artist embodies in imagination yih&t was never seen even in the multifarious presentments of nature." Then, warming to his subject, he considered the landscapes of Claude, Wynants, and Ruysdale, saying that, although these painters had done their work in their studios, they still had copied their objects from the fields and deserved highest praire because they gave varied views of nature. Getting back to Loutherbourg, he added that he "is little better than a pictorial baud, who seduces many to admire what is destructive in enjoyment. It should be stated, here, that this contemporary reporter was the same V-illiams who found the artist's coloiurs too glaring and from thla very reference the idea has been perpetuated. Another fact to be eonsidtred is that if Loutherbourg 's canvases were begun, continued, and completed in his studio, as was reported, it was much the general method of his time. "Painters produced their representations of land ^J^illiams, op. cit. , p. 78. ^^Ibid. .

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137 and eea after close toil by their firesides. "^^^ In his day it was not oust canary to take one's canvas into the open air. In spite of this, the fact that he worked and composed in this manner might accoimt for his being instrumental in destroying England's caiventional style of landscape composition. Rules had been laid down restricting the artist to an extent that threatened to oust nature from painting altoget;h«r. It had been ruled that In every landscape there should appear a first, second, and third light, and at least one brown tree; there seems to be no explanation for a bromi tree. Departure from such a principle was, according to Sir George Beaumont and others, flat heresy. It is obvious from Loutherbourg ' s landscapes that he had "avowed himself a heretic . "'^7 Being a thoroughgoing romanticist, he objected to the old-established classically composed landscape. An interesting contrast can be fo\aad between the compositional forms in Loutherbourg ' s landscapes and those found in scenes coiirposed in the classical manner. A view in the classically ccanposed picture . represented no particular countryi a tonple or old ruin was alwa78 on the right where it balanced a trio of towering trees on the left. In the middle distance another tanple was raised, this one being in a or* tenable state of repair. The airtist could vaiy this by a Roman aqueduct, a broken marble column, a temple, or fragments of a statue. If a river was used, it was crossed by a broken bridge, the ragged arches of irtiich strongly reflected in the water. Pale lavender 136cook, op. cit. , p. 227. 137ibid.

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138 _ . • « . , . . . . mountains usually filled the back, luhile on the center of the horizontal line the sun wa« rising or setting— it was never quite certain which. Little, poorly drawn, ndJixite figures straggled about in the foregroiuKl and furnished names for the picture: Aeneas and Dido , Venus and Adonis , or Apollo and Daphne . From the previous discussion of Loutherbourg's landscapes, one can readily understand yrhy it was possible for him to turn the attention of the British landscape school from this stiff interpretation of natwe. His "dashing seaviews and stormy landscapes, although they might savour a little of the lamp and the theatre," did service in hindering the further production of classical compositions in the eighteenth century. It has beon pointed out that the renewed interest in the individual culminated in a new middle class in England. In theatre, it resulted in a new kind of audience for drama. It was also noted that the patronage of the king was no longer claimed by actors and playwrights* It can also be shown that these factors were operative in art. Patronage of art no longer lay solely with the monarchy and interest spread among the wealthy and educated. Not only was the mere acquisition of pictures and statuary becoming more valuable as a source of social prestige, but it was considered desirable to possess, if not expert knowledge, an articulate enthusiasm for the objects acquired. Some, impelled by a curiosity originally no more than modish, discovered the new pleasures of sensibility. Thus, art was no longer 138lLfuther, op« cit» , p. 61|0. •^^Cook, op. cit. , p. 227.

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139 paroduced mainly for a snadl, intelllgait group of the aristocratsi Instaad, it was for a larg«r and more Inprasaioaahle bourgeoisie. Finesse, subtlety, and an InteUeetual grasp of eonplex forms could no longer be anticipated by the artist. He now had to esdiort, astcsiish, Chans, and astound* In this way, he was able to satisfy the demand for emotionalism. These factors resulted in a great detnand for works of art, for reproducticms of paintings, and for the type of pictux^ irtiich Loutherbourg could do so well* The populazlty of hia work caused many of his picttires to be reproduced by aquatint and r^lar engraving. The eighteenth centiary was not blessed rriMi photc^aphy, or evai the lithograph, and aquatint was one of the iwjst popular means of reproducing pictures. In aqixatint engraving, the differ«at colours were applied to the section of the plate by dabbers and forced into the stink«i part. The plate itself w»s, strictly speaking, coloured and the success of the method depended upon the (toftness with irtiich it was done and the care with which the subject was subsequently printed. A considerable part of the credit for obtaining the ri^t colour harmony was due the printer. The early engravers were generally their own printers, since it «u alnost m art in itself. Each reproduction was actually an individual ttork and seldom did two come out alike.^^ Since so many of Lonthwbotirg^s paintings were reproduced in this manner, it was fortunate that he was able to find engravers who Ind been trained in the continental traditicm, as he had bwn, and l^flrideux, op. cit. , p. 22.

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lliO could thus faithfully translate his intentions into the coloured aquatint technique.-'^ One of these engravers waa ISaceiA Catharina Pfestel, the wife and pupil of Johann Amadeus Prestel, an accanplished engraver of Nuremberg. In 1786, she left her husband and settled in London where she produced seventy-three large engravings prior to her death in 179U. These engravings included landscapes after Gainsborough, Hobbeaa, Wouwermann, Casanova, and six of James Webber's views of the South Seas, painted during Captain Cook's last journey, and used by Loutherbourg to design the sets for the spectacular production of Omai . Ibm. Prestel also did Loutherbourg 's Lead Mine , which came out in 1789*^ Another German emigre who reproduced Loutherbourg 's pictures, including the Slate Mine , waa Joseph Constantin Stadler (active frgland and Wales for a volume of views of the Lake District. Other engravers who reproduced Loutherbourg' s pictures were V. Picot, P. Laurent, C. de Ittchel, W. Thomas, W. Richardson, and J. Young. Hia series of military and naval engagements was engraved by James Fittler and W. Bromley, both engravers to the king.^^ Several of Loutherbourg 's compositions for a publication of Tom Jones w«re engraved by the artist Bartolozzi, who was famous for his prints. The following ^Klingender, op. cit. , p. 79. , , ^^ Ibid. , p. 87. ^Blographie Universelle . op. cit. , p. 271.

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instance reveals that Loutherbourg was not always happy with the work of this fellcnr artist. At one time he made some designs f
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Ili2 presented a pictia* called A T^lnter Morning ^Vlth a Skating Party yihltsh was a conpanlcn picture to one shown in 1775, Landscape with a Stage Coach * A surprising number of each of these lectures Is kaawn to exist in public and in private eoUections. It is evidortt that many copies were made by the Polygraiii process which had been in vogue fat SOM years folloiilng 1781i, the year when the Poly^aphlc society held its first eshibition,^7 Little has appeared in print about this process although, in all probability, it consisted of tracing the outline of figures and objects upc»i a silk screen stretched over the original picture. This screen was later placed upcai a clean canvas aid oil paint corresponding to the colginal colours was pressed through it»^^ Louth«rboia^'s early popwlarity is indicated by the fact that, during the brief period of the existence of the Polygraph process, two inqxjrtant works of his were selected for reproductltm. Copies of Loutherbourg 's Funmo: and '/inter were on sale at l6s. 6d. each.^^ One cannot help wondering how many polygraphs of other pictures are masquerading as originals in private and public collections. A rather alarming thoxight, but not an unnatural one, considering the number irtilch must have been produced and purchased during the heyday of the Polygraphlc Society. Loutherbourg 's popularity and effect as a romantic artist rested partly on his ability and partly on the fact that his paintings were ^^R. C. B. Gardner, "De Loutherbourg and the Polygraph Process," Country Ufe (Lcaidon), CIV (October 22, 19U8), 821*. l^%rant, op. clt. , p. 110, ^^ardner, op. clt. , p. 825.

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Iii3 acceptable to the tastes of the tines* The variety of his subject natter satisfied not wily the prevalent sensibility, biit the nationalistic terxiencies as irell. His genre pictiires with their many characteristic f igiires and wealth of human activity suited the individual's new relationship with nature. His industrial pictures proclaimed the developmental wonders of industry, science, and ccwnnerce. His tendencies were toward the acceptance of the realities of the revolutionary times, on the one hand, and various imaginative escapes from reality^ on the oth«r* In subject matter alone he tyjiified the romantic spirit. As a painter, he was a magnificent technician and his canvases were superbly painted.^^ His innovations followed the noticeablt tendency toward the development of colour both for its own sake and for its capacity to convey symbolic meaning. More than line or composition, colour was the factor on which his intensity of expression depended. His canvases were dramatically composed, using asyiranetry, circular rhythms, atmospheric perspective, and violent contrasts of light and shade to express the drama of the scenes. A twentieth century critic believes that "his fine free brushwork, his glowing invention and superb drawings proclaim him a Master if ever there was one."^^ These artistic techniques and romantic characteristics were the invaluable components which Loutherbourg transferred to the field of scenic design. l^OHussey, op. cit. , p. 2^9. l^lQrant, Chronological History , op. cit. , p. 109,

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• CHAETEB ni raiMCB OF SCENE DBSIGliEBS • The Romantic elements in the £>3gli8h theatre vere reinforced by the arrival of Hxilippe Jacques de Loutherbourg as scenic director for David Garrick at the Dniry Lane Theatre, He was the first notable scene designer to wca-k at that London playhouse since Inigo Jones and John Webb had made their innovations in staging.^ The qualities which made Loutherbourg an effective artist carried over into his scene design. Not only was this true, but his varied technical training and knowledge of aesthetic theories made it possible for him to break with the neo~classical stage setting and turn the tz*end toward the realistic stage decor of the nineteenth century. More important, his background as a romantic landscape painter caused him to turn from the formal architectural settings to the illusioniam which created the painter's stage. . . A Designer of the Drtury Lane; Garrick and Loutherbourg became acquainted at a dinner party at Henry Angelo's home on Carlisle Street j\ist after the young artist airived in London from France in 1771. According to the reminiscences of Henry Angelo, the son of an Italian riding master and fencixig J. Lawrence, "Stage Scenery in the Eighteenth Century*" itgazine of Art , XVIII (1895), 386.

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instructor, his father had kncfwn the young Loutherbourg in Paris. It was at the elder Angelo's invitation that these two men met over "Wine and Walnuts" and Garrick became interested in the young Alsatian painter. After dinner, the conversation turned to "the affairs of th« stage, a common theme with the enterprising manager, though then far . advanced in his popular career."^ For some time^ Garrick had been contenplating a complete reform in the decoration of his theatre and had been discussing the matter with Merlin, who was a machinist and superintendent at Cox's lAiseum. Merlin had informed Garrick that, if he were employed, he would discard everything that was there and start over with a new arrangement. This was too sweeping a proposal for QaiTick, who had a reputation for being very close in money matters, and Merlin was not engaged.^ On the evening in question, Garrick probably disousaad these and other probloas of staging with Loutherbourg, who showed a "suirprislng knowledge of stage science."^ The question of Loutherbourg • s technical training in scene design is a rather puzzling one. There are several accoxmts which state that, while in Pajds, he had studied "stage illusion and ^Henry Angelo, Reminiscences of Henry Angelo, vrith Memoirs of His Late Father and Friends (London; Henry Calbum & Richard Bentley, 1830;, I, p. 15. ^Charles Dibdin, The Professional Life of Ife'.Dibdin Written by Himself (London: Published by the Author, 1503), II, p. 101. hi, J, Lawrence, "The Pioneors of Ifodem English Stag«Bfeuntingsj Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg, R. A.," Uagazine of Art , mil (January, 1886), 17h*

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1146 mechanics.*^ Others say he was "drawn insensibly towards the theatre dxiring his novitiate in Paris" and "he entered upon a parofound study of stage illusion and mechanics, subsequently extending his knowledge very considerably during a visit to Italy. Another historian reports that, "over and above bis artistic gifts, he had considerable mechaiical aptitudej and alrea
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Hi? to the way in iihich you will receive him, I may mention that he is not an intimate friend of mine, but I think you will • like him, and if you can afford it I strongly advise you to let him paint three small pictures for youj one a seapiece, another a landscape in the manner of Berchem, and the third a battle scene. In all three styles he is delightfia.° A receipt, dated November 18, 1772, and signed by "De Loutherbourg," indicates that Garrick purchased one of the paintings which Monnet had wcoiranended. According to that receipt, the artist received sixty guineas from David Garrick for a recently completed landscape with cattle. ^ ' * The letter from Monnet was concerned with Loutherbotirg as an artist and there was no suggestion that his talents might have been used in a theatre. If he had had ai^ previous efiqperience in staging, and if this were known to Jfonnet, he would have mentioned this fact in the letter. It seems impossible that Loutherboiurg would have proved himself so well informed in this special field of art ii he had not been interested in what had been done in Paris by Francois Boucher and his followers. Boucher was actively engaged in designing scenery for the Parisian theatres from 17U to 1768, a time when Loutherboxirg was a student there. Loutherbourg might well have been exposed to the gorgeous scenes "encrusted with crystals and precious ^Frank A. Hedgcock^ A Cosmopolitan Actor David Garrick and His French Friends (London: Stanley Paul & Co., l^ll), p. 3^j. William T. Ihitley, Artist and Their Friends in England . 1700-1799 (London I The Medici Society, 1928), II, p. 3^6. 10 Jonathan Mayne, "Philip James de Loutherbourg, R, A. Landscape Painter and Stage-Designer," Antiques Review (London), (December, 1951), 16.

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Ili8 stones" that were frequently seen at the Opera uhere Louis Rene Boquet, the French designer, was earning renovn by the "exploitation • . . *. i. f ' , I ,1,. of some clever cloud-effects in mythological pieces, uxxier cover of Twhich quick changes of scenes occurred without the lowering of the curtain."-'^ It is obvious, from some of Loutherbourg's designs, ttiat he was very familiar with this stage practice. Boquet designed for entertainments held at the Courts of Versailles or Fontainebleau as did Francois Casanova, at whose studio Loutherbourg worked, Bit fact that Casanova was officially "deputed to paint the scenes for the jnagnificent theatre erected by Louis the fifteenth at Versailles,"^ may have served as a definite influence on young Loutherbourg for, according to Diderot, he was qualified to render substantial aid to Casanova finishing up his pictures. He performed this task so well that when his pupilage came to an end, about 1762, the absence of his handiwork from Casanova's canvases was unmistakable. 13 it may well have been that during this assocation the young artist worked on the scenes painted for Versailles. . In the previous discussion, it has been shown that English stage decoration was in a rudimentary stage of development prior to 1771, while, at the same time, the Paris Opera had been presenting spectacles with elaborate and gorgeous effects. There is a possibility llLawrence, op. cit. , p. 172. •*^"The Rise and Progress of vScene Painting," Library of Fine Arts (May, I83I), I, 325. ^ .... • ' . I. " ^Dobson, op. cit. , p. 97.

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that Loutherbourg attended some of these spectacles and that his Inventive mind had grasped the principles behind them. This may account for the fact that the program of proposed reforms ishich he placed before Garrick was a highly practical and detailed dociunent^ haixlly the work of an amateur.!^ Garrick must have asked the yacmg artist to put into writing precisely what he expected to accomplish at the Drury Lane Theatre because ^ in answer to that request, Loutherbourg sent the following undated letter to the manager; Sir» • You desire to know clearly my idea concerning the project of the decorations which I have proposed to make for your theatre. Here follows what I think t I have never vdshed to make you anything ordinary, either what has been done before or in other places j but, indeed, something which could bring honor to me and draw a profit both to you and to myself also. It is necessary then for this purpose that I invent the decorations with the effects to make a new sensation upon the public j and for that I am obliged to change the method of lighting the theatre in order to aid the effects of the painting, that I change the method of withdrawing a decoration at one instant, as well as the machines necessary to all which ray small, genius is able to inspire in me. Certainly being Jealous of a reputation vhlch has cost me eighteen years to acquire, I do not wish to use them for a thing of which I should not believe the success assured, as much as a man can be of all his projects. It is necessary that I should make a small model of the decorations and of all that will be necessary, and small paintings, finished in a way to facilitate the workmen, painters, and machinists and others, to enable them to proceed immediately by copying • , faithfully ray models; if I judge it necessaiy to retouch something in the large for its betterment, it is essential that I vmdertake It. I must design all the costumes for the actors and the dancers, I must haraonize my work with the composer of the music and the ballet masterj and you will see that I will spare nothing for the success of a thing in which my own reputation is very ihuch involved. If you are willing to give me full power over all your workmen, I will use it as lliMayne, op. cit. , p, 16«

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ISO an honest man should and I will consider your interest as my very own. You will look after all necessary expenses of this piece and you pay this young painter that I have recomnended to you only as you are accustomed to pay yo\ir other painters for decorations. I am responsible to yon for his conduct and for his being both industrious and assiduous, vMch is of consequence for youj besides you will be giving him a trial. For that irtiich concerns me, in consideration of the three months time and all that I am obliged to do, I believe you will not find it too much if I ask you 300 pounds sterling. If the machines are not mounted, it will be a great advance for all the other decorations to be done subsequently} besides there are seven decorations to be painted in miniature. Here, dear sir, is what I propose; if you wish to indicate a time, I will explain better what would be too long to describe. V.Tiat is certain, sir, I dare satisfy you that you will be surprised at the effect and the quantity of the work I shall achieve. I have the honor to be, iriiile begging you to assure Ume. Garrick of my respects. Sir, V Your servant and ftriend, De Loutherbourgl5 This letter aheds considerable light upon the beginning of Loutherbourg' s services at the Drury Lane. A second letter, even more detailed, was apparently written after he had shown Garzdck irtiat he could achieve in the realm of stage designs. The list of propositions contained in this letter makes clear what the artist had in mind. Propositions of M. Fhilipe Jacques de LoirthejTbourg Painter to the King of France and member of his Royal Acadany of painting and sculpttire, to Messrs Garrick and L /ac£/, proprietors of spectacles of Drury Lane at London. It is only after having given you a small sample of 15mS Garrick Correspondence, Forster Collection, Victoria and Albert Ifuseum, London* Translated from the PVench by Russell Thomas.

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151 that irtiich I am capable of executing in the theatre, that I take the liberty to make you my propositions. You can at present judge for yourselves. Sirs, that all which I desire to do, as well as that which I have already done, will be something beyond the ordinary routine j it is impossible that in following the road of novelty and grand effects, it should not attract the attention of the public and consequently money, the principal thing, into your purses. It is therefore proper that the one who prociires this should have for himself an interest urtiich can, besides the glory impel him to follow this enteiTirise. . . • I believe then. Sirs, that in giving me what was foimerly given at the Opera to M. Servandoni for much less trouble and solely for the winter season, you will only command yourselves for your arrangement with me. Monsieur Servandoni had six hundred guineas and he merely ordered the decorations of the opera for the season. I should like this sura to be divided into monthly payments, and I will engage to fill, perhaps beyowi your eaqjectations, ray propositions, in the hope that when you are better and more tangibly persuaded of the profit, you will on your account increase my part. I desire that a written agreement to this effect should pass between us, not because of mistrust but in case of death or accident impossible to be foreseen by man. Then, Sirs, I can devote myself fl-eely to that which I desire to execute for ray fame and your satisfaction, having to the present been held back by the uncertainty of your attitude toward the future. . . . I therefore have the honor of proposing to you, Sirs, 1. I will take care of all that which concerns the decorations and the machines dependent upon them, the manner of lighting them and their manipulation. 2. of inventing than and preparing for execution by your painters, and in this execution taking your interests as i^y very own, if you decide to charge me vdth this part. 3. to give you every winter a beautiful piece with grand new effects, conceming which we will agree between ourselves upon the rough draft, or if you ja-efer something smaller that shall be to your choice. U» to give you when it is necessary ideas, designs, and costumes for both the dancers and the actors. to devote the entire year to matten concerning all these parts, by preparing during the suianer for the winter

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152 season so that you will not be behind at the time for opening. 16 ^ . It is not certain how soon Garrick put Loutherbourg en his payroll^ but it seema likely that he bt^an designing scenes scHnetine in the winter or spring of 1773, probably after giving caisiderable time to the revision of the stage machinery* The first reference to the artist's association with the Ihrury Lane appears in the Receipts of Performances at Drvury Lane Theatre for the season of 1772-1773 This record shows disbursements in monthly installments each year, from the opening of the season of 1773-177ii, through the season of 177 9-17 80, The total amount of these annual payments to Loutherbourg varies from slightly under four hundred pounds per year to four hundred and fifty. '^ While this may not have measured up to Loutherbovirg's expectations, it is interesting to note no other airbist had ever received that much. The first reference was made on March 20, 1773, and reads: "Luthenburg on acc. n6/lB/9*" On April 22, he was paid 20 pounds and, at the end of the season, an entry states; "Lutenburg in full at 300 poimds, 70 pouixls."^^ Loutherbourg' 8 reference to the six hundred gtiineas paid Giovanni Niccolo Sei^andoni probably refers to his salary at the Paris Operas since there is no record of his work at the London Opera. J^bid. •^^IB British Miseum, Add, 29709. ^ Qlbid. Loutherbourg »s name was continually misspelled both in private records and in the periodicals even after his reputation was widespread.

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153 * Loutherbourg ' s kncnrledge of Servandoni ' s salary seems to indicate that he was familiar with the work of the French designer. As a young art student in Paris « he might well have attended Servandoni' s la glaerie des machines de Tuileries *^^ Servandoni was a Florentine artist who had gone to Paris about 1726. He was elected a member of the various academies and knighted on his appointment as architect painter to Louis XV; in time, he became one of the chief promoters of the theatrical ballet and made many important improvements in French mise en scene * It was at the Paris Opera that Loutherbourg might have observed his work. At any rate, he certainly saw the designs for the Covent Garden which Servaodooi painted in nU9 and which were carefully preserved and used for thirty years affc«pwards.20 The letters Loutherbourg wrote to the managers of the Drury Lane describe his intention of effecting a new and superior spectacle. However, since Loutherbourg left no personal record of his activities in the theatre, there is no way of determining whether everything woriced out as he proposed. Kncfwledge of the effects that he achieved and the Influence he exerted comes from other sources. Mechanically, Loutherbourg was considered the most ingenious designer of his age.^l Working at a time when there was an eager ^^Genevieve Lavellet-Haug, Trois Slecles d'art Alsacien , l6U8-19lt8 (Paris, I8ii8), p. 119. ' 2%. J. Lawrence, "Art in the Theatre: Some Famous ScenePainters," The Magazine of Art , XII (June, 1888), U2. '^Ellis K. -Yaterhouse, "English Painting and Fl-ance in the Eighteenth Century," London University, Journal of the .Varburg and Courtland Institute . XV (1952), 3h» ~~

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search for anything that was different, novel, or new, it is not surprising that in little more than a decade he virtually revoltit ionized scene painting and stage effects in England. Because of the general chorus of approval, it may be reasonably assumed that his scene paintings had great artistic merit. Furthermore, his easel paintings had many qualities irtiich, though sometimes bordering on the melodramatic, would have been very effective if applied to scenery. Among the qualities which may have carried over into his theatrical work were his good draftsmanship, his effective use of mass, his refined contrasts of light and shade, and his power of composition. Craftsmanship It is a real tribute to Loutherbourg that, in the many accounts of his stagecraft, there is no hint of careless craftsmanship on his part. One reporter noted, "There reigna a harmony in all the movements which conpletes the deception, and there is no harsh, irregular or hasty transition— the progressions are uniform, and have the slowness and constancy of the operations ?(hich they imitate."^ The London Times reported that his machinery seemed "to have worked with the nicest exactness"^^ and James Boaden recalled that "his machinery' ^^George C. D. Odell, Shakespeare Frran Betterton to Irving (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1920 J, II, p. Ukh» 23samuel Redgrave, A Dictionary of Artists of the English School (London: George Bell & Sons, IHIQ), p. 123. ^ ^Ibid. 2 $Suropean Magazine , (March, 1782). 2 6The Times (London), December 26, 178$.

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2SS was well served. There is a story to the effect that he sometimes made a mystery of the different artifices he employed. It is true that Loutherbourg did not leave a revealing paper or design at the theatre and he even declined to give any of his assistants advance information regarding the nature of the illusions he intended to produce. As his assistants carried out his instructions, he consulted small cards in his hands. ^® If this was the case, it is not surprising that there are no records of the devices that he used. Nevertheless, it seems almost impossible to believe that he did not inform anyone of the illusions he had worked out, especially since many of them were so complicated that their successful manipulation required much practice. Models In his letters to Garrick, Loutherbourg agreed to bxiild models for the others to go by. This he evidently did, since Joseph Farington reported having seen Loutherbourg at work on a little model he used to test the effects of his designs. ^9 Judging from other accounts, this was not an unusual procedure for Lputherbovirg as he was known to execute many designs for each production, all of which were carefully 27 James Boaden, Memoirs of the Life of John Philip Kemble , Esq. Including a History of the Stage (Philadelphia; Robert H. Small. 1B25;, p. 176, ^^tton Cook, Art in England, Notes and Studies (London: Sampson Low, 1869), p. 207. 29j osei*i Farington, The Farington Diary (London: Hutchingson & Co., 1922), I, p. 261.

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156 tested on his models before being considered for the stage of the Drury Lane. This distinguished painter was enthusiastically devoted to this department of his art; hence, for every scene he wrought an elaborate piv^totype fitted by scale to a small model of the stage of Drury Lane Theatre, from inrtiich the other painters on the establishment executed the larger scenes, under his superintendence; and he usually added to th«n such improvements as his rich imagination and spirited hand considered necessary to render them effective. 30 Designer of Scenery Loutherbourg was frequently listed as a scene painter, but, strictly speaking, he was more than that at the Drury Lane. It would be more accurate to call him "a designer of scenery and stage mechanism."-'^ This does not necessarily imply that he never did any painting himself, although there is more than a little difference of opinion on this subject. Henry Angelo has stated that "it was conditioned that De Loutherboui^ should do nothing more than design the scenes, which were painted from his small coloured sketches under his superintendence by the scene painters already on the theatrical establishment."^^ From this statement, made nearly sixty years after the event, by one who had little regard for scientific accuracy, it has been concluded that Loutherbourg never caice put brush to a pair of flats, although he had informed Garrick that he would personally 3®"The Rise of Scene-Painting," op. cit. , p. 382 • 31™Ltley, op. cit. , p. 193. 32^jjgglQ^ op, cit. , I, p» 16.

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157 do Trtiat retouching was necessary. Hoirever, this kind of "abstention hardly seeos to tally with the artist's r'ed-iiot enthusiasm on the subject? the conclusioi thus arrived at is at variance irith the fact that all the scenory spoke of as Loutherbourg ' s invariably bore marks of his strong individuality." It is, of course, quite possible that o^er workers mastered his style nith the aid of his dranrLngs and small models, but "it Is scarcely credible that the magazine and newspaper critics of the time would confound the nere maker of mwfttea ulth the executive scenic artist. "^^ 7fliile he is often listed as the designer, and others mentioned as the actual painters, it seems only fair to cite some of the refermces crediting Loutherbourg with the execution of his scenery. Thomas Faulkner records that "he mriched the drama of the Christmas Tale with scenery painted by himself ."^^ In reporting on The Spleen , tl» toiversal Magazine called attenti
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158 the scenery of The Christmas Tale , and introduced so niuch novelty and effect as formed a new era in scene painting. It is difficult to reconcile these comments with the belief that his work went only as far as the drawing board, Ccmtroversial as this point appears, it is cmly of minor consequence when the total effectiveness of Loutherbourg ' s designs is estimated. There is no doubt that he was solely responsible for the designs, and it was in this department of theatrical presentation that he exerted his most lasting influence. As a result of Loutherbourg 's desire to bring all of the production units together under one scenic director, the mise en scene received more attention than it had before. Upon taking the post of designer>in
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159 Scene Designs Th«re ms no major spectacle produced at the Dnuy Lane diiring the season of 1772-1773* ^*ltth the possible exception of a pantomime, Plgiiy Revels , produced December 26, 1772, nothing is likely to have required the services of the new scenic director. The pantomime in question Included fifteen scenes, among ishich were: St, George's Hanover Square, The V;est Front of St, Paul, Exterior and Interior of the Mews Stables, the Exterior of Drury Lane theatre in Bridges Street, the Interior of the same with characters seated in the boxes, Covent Garden Church & Market, V-indsor Castle, St* Paul's Churchyard, Blackfriars Bridge, and lastly, "a superb gardei sc&ae • • • , ivlth a cascade. The in^jortant thing to notice in this list of scenes is the fact that, although a neircoser to England, Loutherbourg was already designing scenes of local colour. Later, this interest reached matxirity in his great spectacles. The first production with which Loutherboiirg was identified as a designer appeared as the result of the wave of nationalism vihich Bwept Eiigland during the last of the eighteenth century. In June, 1773, Ge
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* 160 announced on the playbill that It would "conclude with a grand occasional scene," a representation of the review at Portsmouth.^ The masque further appealed to nationalism by including the singing of "Rule Brittania" and the "Hermit's prophetic envisioning of Britain as mistress of the seas* • The first public notice of Loutherbourg ' s association with Garrick appeared in the reviews of this revival which opened October 9, 1773 • Lloyd's Evening Post reported that the "scene was designed by Mr, Loutherbourg."^ These same designs made the London Chronicle rapturously declare that "this singiilar exhibition is an incontestible proof of the rapid progress of the British arts. The general viwr is so critically exact that one can hardly give human invention credit for the execution. As a spectacle, Alfred waa a major success, and, it was generally recognized that its success was due to Loutherbourg 's designs for the military scene. TlShen the play failed to draw a good crowd after only eight performances, the same scene was added toa nm alteration of Charles Shadwell's The Fair Quaker of Deal . This script was written by Edward Thompson and called the Fair Quaker, or The Hvmours of the Navy . Apparently, it was easier to move the Fair Quaker to Portsmouth than to transfer the l^^ugald MacMLllan (ed.) Drury Lane Calendar, 17U7»1776 (Oxford: Clarendcai ft-ess, 1938), p. 6ii5, l*^Russell Thomas, "Spectacle in the Theatre of London from 1767 to 1802," (Itapublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of English, Itaiversity of Chicago, 19U2), p. 19. ^Uoyd's Evening Post . October 8-11, 1773, ^London Chronicle . October 8-12, 1773.

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161 naval revieur to Deal. It opened on ffovenb«* 9. 1773 » and had fourteen performances during the seasm.^ Hopkins' record of the production states t "this play is altered by Captain ThcKiipscm, and a new character is introduced, — and concludes with The Graad Naval Review, the same as was introduced in the Masque of Alfred~The Play was received with very great applavise."^ The setting v^idi Loutherbourg designed for the Naval Review vas a complete novelty and became a forerunner of the pageants and tableaux which became popular in the next two decades. It should be observed that in the Bcai;smouth Review and Thames Regatta oae finds examples of the serious tableaux which developed into a form of panto~ talm devoid of the old Harlequin, a character popular on the London stage from 1726 to 1770. These new scenes were based car historical or contemporary eveits, which held a great deal of national interest. Within a few years of the success of Loutherbourg * s militaiy scenes, almost every Naval or Military victory was celebrat«d in a serious pantcxnime on a Lcmdon stage. As a designer, Loutherbourg kept his fingers on the public pulse and was prepared to satisfy the people's desire to see ingjortant events. In the early fall of 1778, Richard B« Sheridan wrote a musical piece called The Caiap . The Vestminster Magazine reported that in ^MacMlllan, op. cit. t p. 2hh* Diaries of the Drury Lane Theatre, Monday, Deceiver 27, 1773. ^•^horoas, op. cit. , p. 32. .

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X62 this "the Writer and the Courser are so totally eclipsed by the Painter, that the Ehtertainment of The Camp will always be attributed to the talents of Ifr. Loutherbourg.''^^ 1 number of military aicampments had been established throughotrt England during the summer of 1777 because of the growing political tension between England and France* The newspapers were full of InformaticH) about these camps, the most isQ^ortant of which was locet^l at Coxheath.^ Lotitherbourg made a trip to this camp, at the expense of the theatre, for the purpose of making first hand drawings and ketches of the parade grounds and the general camp site. As the Gazetteer reported, "this very capital artist never had a happier subject for his creative g«iius."^ The camp was something of a nine^ay wonder and aroused widespread interest. The critics considered that the camp was "in itself far from a pleasing object** because "a crowd of saall tents and earthen hovels make fco* less picturesque appearance than the booths of A country race or fair."^ Loutherbourg's designs for The Camp , mads excellent use of perspective and achieved a grand view, evm in the relative small space provided by the theatz>e stage. All reports indicate that thla type of mualcal entertains^nt was devised primarily to dlspli^ the scenic and mechanical novelties favored ty eighte«ith century audiences. ^ ^Westminster ifeigagine , October, 1778, ^ Qoazetteer , October 16, 1778. 5<>rhonias, op. cit. , p« 32,

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163 In matters of stage design, it was said that Loutherbourg "wasted his talents on trifling pantomimes and 'dramatic entertainments' only rarely entering the field of the legitimate drama. "^^ Be that as it may, this was what Loutherbourg had set out to do. The form of the pantcndmes and comedies of the period was such that it lent itself to what he. wanted to do, namely, "make a new sensation upon the public," by "following the road of novelty and grand effects," lh«n Loutherboiirg did design scenery for a modem tragedy, he usually gave it a grand and lavish treatment ccanparable to that found in his other productions. The production that brought Loutherbourg before the London public was the Christmas Tale , schediaed for presentation during the winter season of 1773. Early in the fall of that year, Charles Dibdin, the Drury Lane composer, complained that the production of his new play, the Deserter , suffered because Loutherbourg "was preparing the scenes for the Christmas Tale t and, therefore, I could not expect much justice would be done as to the scenery in my piece, "^^ composer for the house, Dibdin was not pleased with the Chrlgtmas Tale , in spite of the fact that he was responsible for the music. The Christmas Tale was described in the playbills as a Dramatic Entertainment. It was obviously a substitute for the regular holiday harlequinade. Garrick himself contributed the script which can best ^^A. M. Nag4r, Sources of Theatrical History (New York: Theatre Annual, Inc., 1^52), p. J^P, ^^Dibdin, op. cit. . p. 107.

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be described as a serious plot built around spectacular effects. The critics had nothing but scorn for the plot, but they wex^ united in their praise of the staging. Historically, the play was iiaportant because of its contribution to the art of scene-setting.^^ Not oily did it represent a pioneer-effort in the field of illusionistic staging, but the spsotacular effect of its changing lights, mechanical deriees, and rapid seem changes served as a model for theatrical designers of the time. For tliis reason, and because it was Loutherbourg's first major production, it deserves extensive treatmwit. There can be no doubt that the Christmas Tale , vrtiich opened December 27, 1773, and ran for eighteen performances the first season, was a "sensation" and became the talk of all London. One reporter said that "those who delight in a representation teeming with Instances of the sublime, the beautiful, and the surprising, in scenery and machinery will be highly entertained,"^^ Horace Walpole, who affected to despise mere soimd and show, wrote the Countess of Upper Ossoryt Garrick has brought out iriiat he calls a Christmas Tale , adorned with the most beautiful scenes, next to those of the opera in Paradise /sic , "Paris^, designed by Loutherbourg . They have much ado to save the piece from being sent to the devil. It is believed to be Garrick 's ami, and is a new proof that it is possible to be the best actor and the worst author in the ^^Alfred lacuzzi, The European Vogue of Fayart? The Diffusion of the Opera Comigue (New Yorkj Institute of French Studies, Inc., 1932), p. 66. ^%illard A. Kinne, Revivals and Importstiona of French Comedies in England, 17U9-1800 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1939), P« 135. ^ ^Moming Chronicle , October 19, 177U.

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165 irorld as Shakespeare was just the contrary. The lord chancellor. Sir Charles Pratt, First Earl of Caoden, was also interested in the play and sent word frcm Camden Place that he was arranging for "a front row in the front boxes as soon as he could come to town to see the Christmas Gambol. The recently retired actress of the Drury Lane, Kitty Olive, hearing of the tremendous success of the play, wrote to Garrick on January 23, mhi "I heard your 'Christmas Tale' is the finest thing that ever was seen."^^ It was, however, Loutherbourg ' s work not Garrick' s that was applauded. Even the music of the piece, which was composed by Dlbdin, was i>oor. Hopkins, in his entry for the first performance, recorded: This Piece, was written by Mr. Garrick, which he wrote in a hurry, and to show some fine Scenes by Monsr. de Loutherbourg, particularly a burning Palace, irtiich is extremely fine indeed, — It was very well received — Mr. Weston played finely—The Musick by Dibdin,--not very happy in the composition. 59 A brief suggestion of the plot, which abounds in magicians and enchantresses, will show how far Loutherbourg had to go in order to save the piece. Floridor, the hero, and son of a magician, is in love with the enohantresa^ Camilla, who in turn is loved by a wicked magician, Nlgronant. After five acts of spells, enchantments, and ^^orace Walpole, op. cit. , p. 392. ^'^David Garrick, The Private Correspondence of David Garrick with the Most Celebrated Persons of His Time (London: Henry Colbum and Richard Bent ley, 1831), I, p. 590. ^ Qlbid. , p. 611. ^^iSS Diaries of the Tixvry Lane Theatre, Monday, December 27, 1773.

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166 wandwavlng, in which the audience is treated to one spectacular setting after another, the lovers are united and the play concludes "With the usual tableaiix and dance. The Monthly Revieif reported this «8 "A New Dramatic Qitertainxnent," and said: I , ; Those who have seen this piece performed, have in general, agreed in their Judgment of its merit; irtiich is of the sort , that is calculated, chiefly, to find favour in the eyes of the audience J although the ear also comes in for a considerable share in the entertainment. Barely to peruse this Christmas tdasque , is not the way to be prejudiced in favour of a work composed by the highest extravagancies of knight errantry and necromancyj with all their train of evil spirits, enchanted castles, and maisters. The monsters, however, make as good a figure on the stage, as any monster can, in reason, ,, be expected to make; and it is confessed that monsters, music, scenery—all together, have combined to furnish out a very agreeable upper-gallery eadiibitionj Wi.ich seems to have been the utmost of the author's aim.^ One has only to read Garrick's stage directions in order to get an idea of the elaborateness and ingenuity of Loutherbourg • s designs for this producticm. The following scenic effects are noted in the text: the scene changes into Camilla's magnificent garden} the objects in the garden vary their colours; it thimders^ the rocks split and discover the castle of Nigromant) it thunders and grows dazic, flames of fire are seen thro' the Seraglio windows; the flames and ruins of the castle vanish away, and discover a fine moonlight scene.^^ Loutherbourg ' s designs for the Christmas Tale brought the spectacular into its own and froB then on there was no stopping the 6 0Monthly Review , January, 177li. ^^David Garrick, A New Dramatic Entertainment Called A Christmas Tale, in Five Parts, as it is Performed at The Theatre Royal in Drury Lane (London; T. Becket, 177It}.

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167 trend. Yet, because this was also an age of the actor, part of the popularity of the Christmas Tale must have been due to the acting of W«Bton, the inimitable Scrub of the Beaux Stratagem . Aa the Squire of the good magician, Vt'eston played one of his best low comedy character8| uhlch may have served to heighten the audience's appreciation of the play. ^2 (See Plates IX, X, and XI). The Christmas Tale was altered and became a very popular afterpiece in 1776. Although it was greatly shortened, it remained a poor play, but even in its shortened form, it must have contained many of Loutherbourg ' s original designs. It was said that the "genius and ability of Mr. Loutherbourg were misemployed" in this kind of entertainment, but with the production of the Christmas Tale Loutherbourg did more than design a new kind of holiday harlequinade; he showed that a scenic director could bring about a mise en scene which was not only pleasing, but capable of imifying the whole production. 63 It may have been after this production that Loutherbourg wrote his second letter to Garrickj if so, by this time his tremendous success could serve as proof of his ability. His next spectacle for Garrick was General John Burgoyne's musical entertainment. The t.teld of the Oaks (177U)» Once more, according to popular report, the Drury Lane surpassed all former efforts with a magnificent display of scenery. Like its predecessors, the text was generally condemned as inconsequential and was only "preserved from damnation" by "the very ^^Dobson, op. cit. , p. 103, ^ Westminister Magazine , October, 1776.

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• . ' . , " i

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169

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171

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V i -

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17U excellent scenery of the ingenious W, Loutherbourg."^^ In November, 177U, Walpole connnented, "It is as fine aa scenes can make it, and as dull as the author could not help making it."^^ Hannah More, the essayist, was a little kinder. "The scenery," she wrote," is beautiful—the masquerade scene as good as at the Pantheon. The piece is only intended as a vehicle for the sceneryj yet there is seme vdt and spirit in it, being written by General Rurgoyne."^ The production of The Maid of the Oaks capitalized on the popular Interest in Lady Betty Haiailton's aarriage to Lord Derby, a widely publicized event of the preceding sunmer. A fete champetre , in honor of the bridal couple, had attracted considerable publicity. On this occasion, Robert Adam, the architect, designed a spectacular pavilion which was erected on the grounds of the estate. The ceremonial structure, later reproduced on the stage of the Drury Lane, contained a ball-roan, a supper-room, and two small tea-rooms. The grand climax of Burgoyne's play was a stage reproduction of the marriage fete, with scenes designed by Loutherbourg. In the early edition of The Maid of the Oaks (LoaAon, 1777), footnotes state that the scene of the Illuminated Garden "is taken from a portico in the Gardens of Lord Stanley, aa illuminated by his entertainment last suiraner," and that the scene of the salon is "a representation of the ^ ^Yestminister K'lagazine , November, 1777. 65 'ibid. Dobson, op. clt. , p. 107. 66-, ^"^ Arthur T. Bolton, The Architecture of Robert & James Adams (London: George Neunes, 1922), II, p. 72-.79»

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175 temporary salon as designed by Mr. Adam and erected at Lord Stanley's." A direct reference to Loutherbourg's share In designing the scenes can be found In the text of the play. One of the play's characters, a painter named O'Daub, boastfully declares that had he been given more privileges In painting the scene, he "would have put out Mr. Lanternbug's stars with one dash of J^b/ pencil, by making them five times more bright. "^^ Thla px'oduction convinced the public that neither labour nor expense was being spared in the efforts to make dramatic entertainments increasingly more pleasurable. The fact that scenery costing E 1500 was designed and painted especially for the production arcmsed comment from the press. This seemed like a prodigious sum of money to some, however, it did not appear extravagant to anyone who had an opportunity to see the show and observe how the money was spent. The Italian-like landscapes which Loutherbourg designed for the production were considered equal to the paintings of the best of the Italian landscape painters. 'One reporter believed that "if nothing beyond the bare merit of the paintings were held forth to attract the town," that wottld be reason enough for the audience to attend. ^0 Even Hopkins was pleased, for he wrote, "This Piece is got up in the roost superb manner—The Scenery is beyond Description fine, and the whole Performance, the* the most ccanplicated of any upon the stage, went off with ^Jchn Burgoyne, The Maid of Ihe Oaks (London, 1777), p. 12. ^ ^Ibid. , p. Hi. 7 ^London Magazine , Novenber, 177ij.

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176 71 vuicommon Applause." When Loutherbourg's influence as a designer is cansidered, his most important contribution was that of making landscape painting mare important in stage design than the conventional architeettiral form. Loutherbourg was a landscape painter not an architect, as many of the designers of stage scenery before him had been, so it was understandable that the intrinsic qualities found in landscape painting became the basic elements of his stage designs. 72 Some of his most successful designs were based on scenic landscape views; for example, in 1779, he made a trip to DCT-byshire in order to make sketches for a new pantOTiime, The Wonders of Derbyshire * Moreover, he made the trip at the expense of the Drury Lane as evidenced by the following entry which appears in the receipt book on November 15, 1779? "Louther. to June 2k last 125 pounds, Exp. to Derbyshire and Coxheath 25 pounds. "73 Derbyshire was one of England's moat highly publicized natural marvels. In selecting views for a pantomime ftom this scenic spot, Loutherbourg not only appealed to the public interest, but discovered an excellent opportunity to paint the grand in natxire. Henry Angelo said that the Derby^ire scenes had given the artist "full scope for his pencil," and "never were such romantic and picturesque paintings exhibited in that theatre before. "^^ The scenes based on the Derbyshire sketches became so important that the pantomime was "written Diaries of the Drury Lane Theatre, November 5* 177li. 72Laver, op. cit. , p. 19ii. 73ms. British Museum, Add. 29709. 7^Angelo, op. cit. , II, p. 326.

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177 round" them. Evidence of the fact is found in the reports on the theatre of the tistts* "Harlequin does leas than we ever remonber to have seen hln," was one eonment* "Vleired as a spectacle , a mere exhibition of scenery. The Vionders of Derbyshire is, in the truest sense of the word, a wonderful work| and superior to anything the stage has before presented to the public eye. Considered as a pantomljne, it is a contemptible performance. "The sublime style of the paintings seems to have aired the genius of buffoonery and low humour; a succession of the most elegant scenery was displayed in irtiich few attempts were made to move the muscles of the audience, or to interrupt the admiration excited by the eadiibition."^^ One critic considered that the two first scenes v/ere executed with infinite taste and ability. He noted that two of the scenes were designed with a "grandeur and fancy" that would have done "honour to Claude Lorraine, and executed in a manner v^iich none but the above mentioned artist himself would equal." He also found great merit in the view of Ghatsworth, the seat of the Duke of Devinshire, the Cascade, and the Tanple of the Genie. A brief sketch of the plot will show how necessary it was to have effective scenery. Harlequin has been driven to thoughts of suicide over the loss of his Colunflsine, but he is dissuaded by a fairy who gives him a talisman and the jpower of fulfilling all his wishes. 7 ^Morning Chronicle , January 9, 1779. » 7 6Gagetteer , January 9$ 1779* ^^ uhiversal Magazine , January, 1779«

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178 Disguised as a Frenchman, H&rlequin goes to see Coltunbine ' s father* The setting used for this meeting represented a landscape view of Chatsworth House and gardais, one of the reputed wonders of Derbyshire. Harlequin is soon discovered, but he is able to make good his escape and take Columbine along with him. The following scenes represent the pursuit through Derbyshire and, in the course of this chase, a "succession of beautiful, correct, and masterly scenes are exhibited." The last scene is that of a palace where the lovers are united. The setting for the production was "judiciously chosen for the display of Ifr. Loutherbourg ' 8 abilities. "78 The stage model believed to be that of Peaks Hole in Derbyshire (see Plate XII } is on exhibition in the Victoria and Albert ^seum; it is one of the earliest ctxnplete (or nearly complete) scene models in English stage history. The cave axKi rocks represent sotjo of his most skillful painting in that they show his careful arrangonent of masses and his illusionistic use of light and dark. Not only is this study of the topography of Derbyshire a good example of his stage painting, but it also illustrates his use of built-up practical pieces which made it possible for the actors to play on several levels. It has been suggested that, "among this fascinating variation of plane and edge-shape, the players of the eighteenth century must have moved with a picturesqueness that we of the twentieth century would accept as equal to anything we can achieve today. "^^ This model, even to the hut near the cave's mouth, corresponds closely to V.llliam Gilpin's 78 London Magazine , January, 1779. 79Richard Southern, Scenery ("A History of the English ' Theatre"} London: Common Ground Ltd., 19k6), p. 16.

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181 description of a scene in Derbyshire called The Devil's Cave.^ Variety aiKl effectiveness characterized Loutherbourg's scene designs throughout the years he worked at the Drury Lane. ?ioreover, this was tnie, not only for pantomimes, spectacles and afterpieces, but far other productions as well. In October of 177li, he designed the decor for a new tragedy, Electra , one of the serious dramas which received Loutherbourg's attention. The reviews indicate, however, that the decor for KLectra was spectacular in nattire. In this production, the designs which attracted attention were "City of Argos viewed from a distance," "The Palace of Aegisthus," and the "Tomb of Agamemnon." The reviews described the mise en scene as "elegant and characteristic . "^'^ The editor's advertisement for Sethona , a tragedy published in the same year, states that when the author. Colonel Dow, sailed for India, he left the playscript in the hands of Mr. Garrick. It was said that this was the best thing Dow could have done with his script since only the Drury Lane could provide a type of decor that would induce the public to come to the play, '".lien finally produced there, with designs by Loutherbourg, the general comment was "we do not remember any play so striking and interesting in the represent aticn, and yet, so unaffecting in the perusal, as the present tragedy. "^^ Observations on Several Parts of England, Particularly the Mountains and Lakes of Cumberland and '.estmoreland (London; 1808), 11, p. 210-li. — • ^ S^dell, op. cit. , I, p. ij36. ^ ^/estminister Idagazine , February, 177U»

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182 It was also called "the most tragical tragedy we ever remeutoer to have seen tragedized."^^ Loutherboiirg ' s designs saved the play. One source noted that much was "attributed to the play vrtiat is rather due to the scenes."®^ Loutherbourg ' 8 designs for sceneryj decorations, and dresses were considered much superior to those of any other modem tragedy. "The scene of the Temple of Osiris, and the view of the Egyptian Cataccmbs, in particular, did great credit to ISr, Loutherbourg."^^ Louthei^bourg ' s sets and Mrs. Abington's acting of Roxelana contributed the most to the short initial run of Beckerstaf f e ' s The Sultan, or, A Peep into the Seraglio .^ This inferior two act farce, taken from f avart ' s successful comic opera Solima Second, ou les Trois Sultanes , was first performed at the Drury Lane Theatre in Deceiriber of 177^.^ Shortly aftw:, Loutherbourg was at work on George Coleman's The Spleen, or, Islington Spa , a two-act farce presented at Drury Lane on March 7, 1776.^^ Colanan's play was not original) sane of its plot was borrowed fl-ora Moliere's ?feilade Imaginaire , and scane from Dr. Johnson's Idler .^^ Despite the fact 83ibid. Q ^Monthly Review . February, 177ii, p. 202. ^ ^Westminister tiagazine , op. cit. ^^lacuzzi, op. cit« , p. 93. ^^Kinne, op. cit. , p. 129. ^^Dobson, op. cit. , p. 108. 89 "^Eugene R. Page, George Colman The Elder Essayist. Dramatist. and Theatrical 'totf;er. 1732~l?9ii Ct^ew York: Columbia University fVeaH. 1935;, p. 233.

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183 that "a very beautiful scene of Loutherbourg ' s painting, representing the Spa Fields, with the Pantheon and the Adjoining buildings," ma introduced into the second act, the farce was not very successful. ^0 Old City Manners was performed on November 11, 1776, with the old pantomiine of Queen Nab as an afterpiece. This was the pantomime which caused Hopkins to comment: "Queen Nab with additions, particularly a Grand New Scene with a Representation of the Regatta very well executed,-— but it has too much of Affinity with the Naval Review. "^^ It is interesting to notice how the managers of the Drury Lane continually tried to make use of a good thing, the ccsranent from the stage manager, Hopkins, would indicate that he ccaisidered that the R^atta scene bore too close a resemblance to the scene devised for the Naval Review . However, the Regatta on the Thames was an important summer event and one which the managers must have considered would appeal to the public. In 1776, David Garrick retired from his managership of the Drury Lane, The now manager, Richard B« Sheridan, continued to employ Loutherbourg as the head of the scenic department. There is no indication that Loutherbourg ' s position was changed since he was to receive the same salary he had received under Garrick. The new manager must have put him right to work on some elaborate designs since it is evident that Sheridan spent a great deal of money on decor dxiring his first season. One of the lavish productions was, ^ Quniversal Magazine , March, 1776, ^MS Diaries of the Drury Lane Theatre, Novenber 11, 1776,

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1814 Sellma & Azor, A Persian Tale , December 5> 1776, an Imitation of the French Zemire and Aaor , from Mormontel's popular comedie-ballet arrangement of "Beauty and the Beast." Although Sellma & Aaor was declared to be one of the most wretched dramatic entertainments ever attempted, it ran for fourteen performances that moath.^ This was ctMisidered a good run for any play at the time. One reason for this popularity can be discovered in reports on the production which declared that "the scenes and decorations are truly enchanting. "^^ It laist be remembered, however, that, in addition to Loutherbourg's designs, the production contained interesting music and a measure of excellent acting by Mrs. Baddeley.^^ Loutherbourg's designs for Sheridan's Critic , in 1779, astonished the town with his lifelike reproduction of the battle with the Spanish Armada. There were many favorable ccanments on his design for tdie "engaging of the ships and the destruction occasioned by th« fireship."^ In 1781, Sheridan adapted Robinson Crusoe as a harlequinade, calling it Robinson Crusoe, or. Harlequin IFYiday . T^alpole's remark that it was so vmlike the pantomimes of Rich, which were full of wit, cdierent, and had something to say, suggests that it was a ^ London Magazine , iDeceanber, 1776. ^ 3;./e5tmlnister frlagazine , December ^, 1776. 9^nne, op. eit. , p. II4J4. ^^ancis D. Elingender, Art and the Industrial Revolution (London: Noel Carrington, 1947), p. 77.

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185 weak pantomime.^ The backgrounds selected to illustrate Crusoe 'a life on a tropical island did, hoireverf allow Louthez^ourg to iq'ty realism and imagination.^ ' ' This pantomime was Loutherbourg ' s last production as head of the Drury Lane scene department. Sheridan proposed to reduce his salary by half} Loutherbourg became indignant and left the scone loft. There were several other important events that may have contributed to his leaving* He iras made an associate of the Royal Academy in 1780 and an Academician in the following year. He was also getting ready to surprise London with the £idophusikon , his model spectacle, and that may well have been absorbing much of his time and interest. ^8 Loutherbourg may have been responsible for some designs for the Drury Lane after this date, since there were one or two scattered references to this fact, but these could have been his old designs being employed long after he left. As late as 17 99* , his name was mentioned in connection with a production of Piaarro . Since this production had a strong cast, including John and Charles Kemble and Ib>s« Siddons, it is doubtful that the managers would have settled on old designs* However, it was reported that the scenery "which is of the most magnificent kind, is chiefly from the pencil of Loutherbourg. J. Broadbent, A History of Pantoaime (London: Sin^jkin, Marshall, Hamilton, 1901), p, lliS. 97^i ialley Oulton, History of the Theatres of London: Containing an Annual Register . . . from the Years 1771-1795 (London t Martin and Bain, 1790), 1, p. 97* ^^John '«'llliam8, An Authwitic History of the Professors of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture. . . . (London; Symonds, 1796;, p. 79*

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186 The wooden bridge, over the tremendous chasm of two moixntains, is one of the most picturesque and striking views that axxy stage has exhibited."^ * It has been pointed out in Chapter I that the cult of the Noble Savage was an important element in the romantic tradition. The musical pantomime produced at the Covent Gardens in 1785-1786 was not only the most perfect example of this element in the theatre, but it brought Loutherbourg back to the theatre and enabled him to design his greatest gTOgraphical spectacle. ' For the CJhristmas Pantomime of 1785, Loutherbourg, along with Jdm O'Keeffe, the playwright and actor, staged an elaborate pantomime at the Theatre Royal in the CQvent Garden* This was Cmai, orj A Trip Round The V/orld , a piece destined to becon» a landmark in theatrical decor . The hero of the production was based on a real character, Omai, a noble savage from the South Seas, who had visited inland in 177U-1776. He had been brought frcan the islands by Captain Fumeaux, Captain James Cook's second in command on the " Advent uz>e" during the voyage of 1772-1775. The fact that he was the inspiration for one of the most successful stage shows presented in England during the eighteenth century indicates the extent to which the idea talker's Hipemian Magazdne , July, 1799. ^^Albert Baugh, (ed.) A Literary History of England (New Torkt Applet on-Century-Crofts, 19h^), p. 1036. . _ ' ^^^'homas Blake Clark, Onai. First Polynesian Ambassador to laliiiiid (Londcmi The Colt Press, 19U1), p. 71. ~~~~

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187 of the noble savage had captured the popular imagimtion.^^ Although the "Resolution" and the "Discovery," two of Captain James Cook's ships, had rctiirned to England as early as 1780 with the news of the captain's death in the Sandirich Islands, it was not until four years later that the admiralty published a full accoiurt of hia expedition. The extent of the rranantic interest in Cook, his discoveries, and voyages can be seen in the widespread demand for the published accounts of his adventures. Not only was this true of this voyage, but also of those made earlier* Six editions of the two voyages were issued in I78I4-I785, the year of the great pantomiae.103 With this keen public interest in Cook's voyages, it was only natural that the production should be known as "the stage version of Captain Cook's voyages to Otaheite, Kamtschalka, and the Friendly Islands. "^^^ The first performance of the pantomime in London, December 20, 1785, was a sensation. Daring the s^iason of 1785-1786, Omai was played forty times, once by rc^al command} in the fall of 1786, it was given an additional eight times j in the spring of 1788, it was revived for another eight performances. The printed Account of the New Pantomime Called Omai sold into a third edition during the run of the shoir.O'Keeffe stated that "Loutherbourg had 100 £ for his designs, and I IQ ^Ibid. , p. 72. ^^^illiam Huse, "A Noble Savage on the Stage," Modem Riilology , mill (February, 1935), 306. ^Q ^Moming Chronicle » December 21, 1785. op» cit. , p. 305»

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m another 100 E for the canposltlon of the piece, beside the sale of my songs, iihich brought me another hO £."^06 -phis would indicate that the popoduction was a financial success for all those concerned* Although the nnisical spectacle was wrttten by O'Keeffe, who was a very successful comedy writer, it was generally known as "Ht* de Loutherbourg's New Pantomime. "•'•^ In order to use all of his startling scenic effects and to exploit the popular interest in the South Seas, Loutherbourg made this spectacle seem as authentic as possible* John Webber, a fellcw artist and member of the Royal Academy, helped him with this task. This was a natural alliance since ?tebber had accompanied Cook on his last voyage and had made many drawings and sketches of the different native scenes and dresses. Loutherbourg's designs were so many and so grand that, in addition to v^ebber, he employed four stage artists of the highest rank in England. The Covent Garden Playbill read: "The Whole of the Scenezy, Ifochinery, Dresses . . . Designed and Invented by Ur. LOUTHERBOURG and Bxeeuted under his Superintendance and Direction by Messrs. RICHARDS, CARVER, and HODGINSS, Mr. CATTON, Jun, Mr. TURNER, assisted by Two Other Celebrated Artists . "108 The playwright made an obvious effort to be authentic, to reproduce an impression of the South Seas by accurate scenery and 106 John O'Keeffe, Recollections of the Life of John 0*Keeffe , Tfritten by Himself (London; Henry Colbum, 1826J, II, p. IIU. lO Txhe Times (London), December 8, 1785. lO Qibid. , December 3, 1785.

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189 occasional Polynesian words. The characterization of Omai, himself, merely reiterated the ciirrently sentimental idealization of the noble savage. The songs about the South Seas were suited to the romantic theme aiKi showed a "state of nature a la Rousseau , generous and sweet, AH Byron later pictures it as background for Don Juan and his island Girl Haide."109 j^g production was characterized by a sprinkling of real and invented Polynesian words* The most popular song was the one in praise of the dauntless Captain Cook, who came, saw, and conquered the islands , in order to teach them a better life. This song was addressed to a group of actors dressed as South Sea warriors, from whose midst burst the popular actor, V/eitzer. He went into a grand extempore declaration which, although high-sounding, was a completely meaningless jumble of words which harmonized with the existing concept of the island language. This "harange-pranposo" was received with enormous applause diiring the first season's forty nights and a sham English translation of the speech-song was later printed in a book of songs from the shcwr.^^ Omai was not only Loutherbourg • s last official work as a designer, but his most ambitious and successful. The general report was "the irfiole, in point of subject, arrangement, scenery, and anisic, is much superior to any entertainment of the kind on the English lO^Clark, op. clt. » p. 73. . llOcook, op. cit. , p. 206. m^/^tley, op. cit. , H, p. 353.

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1^ stage. ••112 Sir Joshua Reyudds' seat in the orchestra gave him a perfect view of the scenery on the opening night and, acccwrding to 'While the pantomime was extren«ly popular, the general opinion regarding the plot of the play •eras that it was "not of stifficient interest lay in securing local colour of the first order and Cook's adveotxires conveniently supplied hiia with a full set of authentic character names and places. The managers made the most of the situation and advertisements for the Covent Garden continually rraninded the public that there be a procession "exactly representing the dresses, weapons and mamners of the inhabitants of Otaheite, New Zealand, Tanna, Marquesas, the BUendly, Sandwich, and Easter Islandsj Twchulzki, Siberia, Kamtschalka, I^ince William's Sound, and other countries visited by Captain Cook."'^^ This would seem to be enough to arouse ^ popular curiosity. The importanoe attached to this procession is indicated by an account in the press. These characters exhibit the dresses and manners of the different countries wherein the scenes and incidents of the piece are laid, and gratify the eye and understanding, v.-ith objects of delight and contemplation, .^e highly approve of the procession of the last scene, as it shows in a regular and stz^ngth. tillit The truth was, apparently, that John O'Keeffe's chief J^ New London Magazine , January, 1786, ^^ The Times (London), December 2h, 1785. l^Ibid. ^ ^Ibid. , December 3, 1785.

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m successive view, whereby the mind of the spectator has an opporttinity of comparing at one view, the different nations with each other. Ii6 The authenticity of Webber's work provided additional drawing power and his connection with the production was exploited in the press* . ' i-"^ t ' ; . • i • " , •^ 16*. Webber, who was with Cap*. Cook in his last voyage, gave the information how to dress the characters in the new pantomime of Omaij and it was from that centlejnan's drawings, done on the spot, that many of the scenes are taken. The moon-light one parti cularlly, which was much admired, we are informed, was wholly painted by Mr, v;ebber.ll7 Many of the scenes for Omai wwro evidently exact, or nearly exact, copies of the prints made from Webber's drawings. In the course of the voyage, Webber probably made more sketches than he finally used as illustrations in the published journals and it is highly probable that O'Keeffe and Loutherbourg were gtiided by these. Oddly enough, there is relatively little in the pantonime that cannot be accounted for in the engraved plates of the 1777 and 1781; voyages. •'^^ The interviev.s with niebber do not, of course, constitute the only sources to Trtiich O'Keeffe and Loutherbourg could turn. Cook, and after him Captain King, irtio continued the journal of the third voyage, scrupulously set down their observations.^-^ The variety of the scenes in the production not only serves to identify it as a ceographical sp>ectacle, but reveals L«itherbotirg ' s ll 6ibid. , December 2h, 1785. ^7 ibid., December 23, 1755. • ^^Huse, op. cit. , p. 311. "• ^Ibid. , p. 31ii.

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2S2 and O'Keeffe's fidelity to their sources. The principal scenes of the production were: ^ Part I ' '. • A Moria, or burying place in Otaheite, by moon-light, in a dismal woody place with the Repository of a dead king and other tombs. Inside the Royal Repository, lighted by a sepulchural lamp. Inside of a Morai of the ancient /ifee-de-hy's ancestors of Omai. . ' ' ^ A view of Plymouth Sound, with part of Mount Sdgecumb. A view of Kensington Gardens. , A view of Margate from behind the Pier. The ships under sail. Part II Showy Rocks of Kanitschatka (On the Eastern Coast of Asia). A small Plre with a kettle on, fish hanging to dry, their beds, &c. idols, hooks and caricature fish, musical instruments. Vim of Balogans. Inside of a Jourt. A dreary Ice Island. A Village in Tongatoboo, the most beautiful and considerable of the Friendly Islands. A consecrated Place in the Sandwich Islands. Another part of the Sandwich Islands. A Moon-light scene in a sequestered part of Otaheite. Cberea's Dwelling (full of magical instruments, etc) Oberea prepares to wreck her vengeance on Omai, but is counteracted by Toirtia. A view of the Great Bay of Otaheite at sun-set on one side of a magical palace— the Day filled with ships and boats, bringing

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193 the deputies from the different quarters of the globe that have been visited by Capt. Cook. 120 In view of this list of unusual scenes, it is not surprising that eighteenth century audiences were astonished by the production. It also suggests that Loutherbourg vfas able to conclude his career as a scene designer by accomplishing the sensation he had set out to create. , ^ . In the Print Room of the Victoria and Albert Museum, there are three painted maquettes believed to be frcan Loutherboxirg ' s production of Omai . These are small painted wings and back-cloths, in watercolour and oil, designed to be fitted together in a model stage, after the manner of the aaqacttes which stage designers miake today. The designs illustrated in these maquettes could have been easily transferred to a series of canvas side-pieces and drops. The five piece Kensington Garden print does not have the far backdrop which, according to some authorities, might have been a perspective view of buildings. (See Plate XIII). The Cliff and Beach Scene, composed of ten pieces (See Plate XIV), and a scene of a Native Fishing Hut, vhlch contains five pieces (See Plate XV), illustrate some of the productions designs. These show a free and imaginative treatment and provide some idea of the effectiveness with which the separate planes might have been blended by a skillful artist. The methods used for the construction of these designs will be discussed later. 12 0rhe Times (London), January 26, 1786. ^2lThcHnas, op. cit. , p. 7U»

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196 PIATE XIV CLIFF AND BEACH SCENE (10 PIECES) Victoria and Albert Masevan

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197

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19B Staging the Eidophusikon It has been suggested that one of the reasons for Loutherbourg departure from the Drury Lane was that he was getting ready to delight the London entertainment world with his model spectacle theatre. This miniature scenic eachibition was presented on a stage six feet wide and eight feet deepj in this ventixre, the artist realized a cherished dream of his youth. In a published prospectus concerning his show, he wrote that the model stage production was the result of twenty years of meditation. •'^^ Moreover, it was an example of the continual development of Loutherbourg ' a theatrical effects and his never ending search for perfection. This cherished dream of the artist was a series of moving pictures which ccsnbined the skills of the machinist and the painter and gave "natural action to perfect resemblance. "•'23 This was accomplished by means of a moving panorama and changing lights which, in combination, suggested changing atmospheric effects. Some of these changes were sudden and violent, ithile others were almost imperceptible and as gradual as they would appear in nature. The scenes which Loutherbourg designed lor the ELdophuslkcaa were excellent illustrations of the period's picturesque subject matter. In an advertisement for the show, Loutherbourg explained that "by using progressive motion to accurate resemblance" he hoped to produce a series of incidents "irtiich would display in a most lively 122iViiiiain T. Vhitley, Artists and Their Friends in Englan d, 1700-1799 (London: The ^todici Society, 1^28), II, p. 3^2. 123natthew Pilkington, A General Dictionary of Painters (London: V.illiam Tegg & Co., 1852 p. 216. ~

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199 manner those cultivating scenes ^Thlch inexhaustible Nature presents to our view at different periods and in diffei^t parts of the globe* Hh» Eidophusikon« or A Represgitatiwi of Natiare^ or Various Imitations of Natural Fhencaaena Reparesented by ?A)ving Pictxures , opened Felaruary 26, 1781, in a large house in Idsle Street, flronting Leicester Street, Leicester Square. xhis little theatre contained no gallery, or other provision for cheap seats, and a charge of five shillings for admission was common to all pazivs of the house. The theatre in Lisle Street became an immediate smsation and vas crowded night after night. The fame of its inventor and the merit of the invention brought it a measure of attention far esmeeding that of other mechanical novelties on exhibition in the city.^^ Sons of Its popularity was due, no doubt, to the theatre's appointanents iriiich set a turn standard of comfort and luxury. Louthearbourg's little theatre vas very strictJy managed and was about toe only theatrical establishment which unescorted ladies could visit with safety at that time.j'^^ A writer who was present gave an interesting dewcription of the first presentation of the Eidophusikon , noting that, on the ground floor, there was a room "furnished in the genteelest style, omamsnted with a variety of paintings by Mr. De Loutherbourg; among iriiich is an 12li^^itl
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200 exceeding fine landscape with cattle, and a battle-piece between the Turks and the Russians." Those were both very lax^e canvases, but there were also many smaller and no less excellwit pictures about the roOTi. This apartoOTt was a sort of lobby where the audience could gather while waiting for the performance to start or for their carriages to be brought to the door after the show. At exactly 7»30 P.M., the audience entered the theatre by a flight of stairs. The Min room was described as v«:y lovely with panels painted in festoww of flowers, inusical instruments, and designs. The use of gold gave an impression of elegance. This forerunner of the art theatres was small} the auditorium seated only one hundred and thirty persons. Th« Mats in the regular theatres were only hard wooden benches, but here they were covered with a soft, dark crimson material, and at the upper end of the rocn was a "seat of state between two pillars of the Ionic Order." Evidently, it was for any royalty who might attend.^28 It is important to note that the program of the model theatre was arranged so that Loutherbourg's major designs appeared to the best advantage. For one thing, he used anisic to entertain his audience during the seme 8hlfts.l29 The music, both vocal and instnanental, was often composed to give the ri^ mood and atmosphere. One of his composers. Dr. Ame's swi, Michael, frequartly played the harpsicord betweai scenes. In one of the productions, he played a Schubert sonata between scenes 2 and 3. Critics noted that, even in this part of his 128whitley, op. cit. , p. 35ii. ^^Redgrave, op. cit. , p. 122,

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201 productions, Loutherbourg took great care to see that the musical selections did not destroy the unity of the whole eadiibition. LSisic for one scene was called "a beautiful practical description of the aoming, ndiich had a very beautiful happy effect in embellishing the painting and was composed with every grace of harmony by Mr, Ame.''130 The importance which this part of his program assumed ia illustrated by the fact that certain magistrates maintained Loutherbourg was giving musical entertainment without a license. Proceedings were brought against him at Westminster Guildhall. Other magistrates, nAio "scorned to use the power an almost obsolete statute had given them over what was never foreseen lihen the law was made," refused to make the "commission of the peace, a declaration of war against the fine arts." They did not convict himj instead, they granted him a license. ^1 Loutherbourg 's use of music between the acts at his small theatre reflects one of the important trends in eighteenth century theatrical programs. Some form of entertainment, mostly of a musical nature, appeared between the acts of most production and, during the early development of the melodrama, music became prominent within the drama itself. Loutherboia-g used still another form of entertainment between the acts. During the changes, and along with the musical portion of the show, "transparencies" were shown. These were another rwraiant of W'*hitley, op. cit. , II, p. 353. 13 lEuropean Magazine . January, I8l2.

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202 the eighteenth century habit of regarding things as picttires. In effect, the "transparencies" were the precursors of the magic lantern. Ihey consisted of continuous designs on thin paper which was passed in front of a lamp, revealing a procession of figures in an appropriate landscape. -^32 •^^^q designs for these transparencies were integrated with those of his major scenes so that there was no extraneous or foreign material to detract £rom the general effect. ' ' ^' After fifty-nine evenings, the successful first season came to an end in May. iVhen the EidoiAusikon opened again on December 10th for the spring seascm, Mr. Buruey provided entirely new music m the harpsicord. The vocalist, on this occasion, was Mrs. Sophia Baddeley, a favourite singer at Vauxhall and Renelagh.133 oj, December 21, the show closed for the holidays, with promises of fresh attractions, especially a "conclusive scene" from Miltw. On Janiiary 21, the second season got under way with the addition of the new scenes. 13li The crowds that flocked to this new form of entertainment included many artists who se«ned especially delighted with it. Sir Joshua Reynolds, a frequent visitor, praised Loutherbourg • s ingenuity and even recommended the spectacle to the patronage of the most eminent men of his extensive circle. In addition, he counselled all art students to attend the exhibition as "a school of the wonderful ^^Hussy, op. cit. , p. 2Jil. ^^Dobson, op. cit. j p. 279, ^^Ibid., p. 280,

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203 effect of nature *'*^^ Gainsborough was also delighted with it and "attended the exhibition night after night and could talk of nothing else* He became so captivated by Loutherbourg*8 showing that he devised a toy Eidophusikon or, as he called it, "peep-show" box for himself. This was shown at the Grosvenor Gallery as late as 1885.^^ The EidofAiusikon was extraordinarily popular and soon (as Bight be expected) a rival exhibition with a similar title appeared in London. Loutherbourg published a protest against it, declaring it to be "at once an imposition and an impudent invasion of his property. In spite of his objections, the "New Eidoj^usikcm,'' as the imitation was called, was shown until the spring of 178it, when it was advertised for sale as a spectacle "that has received the plaudits of many numerous and brilliant companies. "-^38 Loutherbourg advertised his show in all the important newspapers, so that the public was constantly informed of any addition of new scenes or change of location. For the season of 1786, he ran the following advertisement: 135cook, op. cit. , p. 213. 136a. E. Fletcher, Thomas Gainsborough, R. A . (London: The Walter Scott Publishing Co., 190\x), p. 135. 13 7sCTiBnerset House Gazette , l82lt, II, p. 8. 138v.Mtley, op. cit. , p. 353.

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20h EXHIBITION RDOje OVER EXETER »CHAN3E, . STRAND Thia present V/EDNESDAY evening, the 27th Instant, will be presented Ifr. LOUTHERBOURG'S EIDOPHUSIKON. : , . i Cwisisting of the following Ktoving Pictures: I. AURORA, or the Effects of the Dawn, a View from Greenrrich Park. II. A SUN-SET, and Italian Sea Port. in . A STORM AND SHIR.REGK, conveying a very striking Idea of the late dreadful Catastroi^e of the HALSVVELL EAST INDIAJMANj in the Representation of which, : . particular Attention is paid to the Affecting , Narrative published under the Direction of the chief surviving Officer, a Jfr. Lane's, Leadenhall-street. IV. A MOONLIGHT, a View in the Mediterranean » . V. GRAND CONCLUSIVE SCENE. Satan arraying his Troops on the Banks of the Fiery Lake, with the rising of the Palace of Pandemonium, £rom Milton, with suitable AcccMnpaniment. t% The Pauses necessary to change the Scenery, will be supplied with ENGIISH PLEADINGS AND RECITALS, " BY MR. CRESSIVICK FIRST SEATS 38 SECOND SEATS 28 The Doors to open at Half past SEVEN, to begin Precisely at EIGHT Ladies and Gentlemen desirous of taking Places, are requested to send their Servants early to keep them, otherwise, it will be impracticable to ascertain them. Attendance is givaa at the Office adjoining the Rooms, every Day from Ten 'till Five. The Evening's of Exhibiting the EIDOFHUSIKON V/ill be raDJJDAIS, WEDNESDAYS, and FRIDAYS Books of the Shipirreck to be had at the Rooms. ^39 13 9The Times (London), March 1, 1786.

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m The new home of the Eldophnglkon was the Patagonlan Theatre, located in Old Exeter 'Change, Strand, where the body of John Gay had once lain in state. This theatre had originally been constructed for a puppet-show uriiich had belonged to Charles Dibdin, the fonner composer at Druzy Lane. Since the Patagonian Theatre was small and convenient it was well suited to house the Eidophusikon . This new convenient location and the addition of new scenes to the program resulted in another successful season. In time, the Eido|jiusikon ceased to attract attention and the amoimt received at the door was hardly sufficient to defray the «xp«i8es of the lighting. Loutherbourg sold the little stage and all its propeHies to his assistant, a man identified only as a Mr* Chapman. After showing it in the city for a while. Chapman took it on a tour of the country, along with side shows which included Borowlaski, the Polish dwarf, and a famous performing dog. finally, after several years, it was brought back to London with its scenes sadly faded and dilapidated. It was still shovm, but the general comment was that those who had not seen it under Loutherbourg ' s "iiranediate conduct can have but an in5>erfect idea of its amazing excellence. In 1799, Chapman's New Eidof^usikon was shewn at Panton Street, Haymarket. The exhibition ended tragically ^vhen, in March, l^OCook, op. cit. , p. 211i. l^dlliams, op. cit., p. 78,

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206 iSOOj a fire in a James Street brothel spread to Panton Street and entirely consumed the New EldoiAmsikon *-*^ The histoiy of Loutherbourg's model spectacle, from its great popularity to decline and fall, was almost typical of the process Tihich novelties and like aitertaininent of the time went through. This decline was no reflection on Loutherbourg ' s work as a designer and Innovator, rather, it illustrated the fact that the eighteenth centiiry bourgeois audience became satiated with novelties and turned to new foams of entertainment* In Loutherixwrg's case, the continuous need for the tneltision of new scenes shoiws how, in those days, amusement vendors had to constantly change the attraction. As a matter of fact, the sight-seeing public in London was a very limited group and one which was caily slightly enlarged by visitors from the provinces or travellers from the continent. Long runs of plays were almost unknowni it was to the credit of the Eidofhusikon and its inventor that it ran as long as it did. . , . , The fact that the Eidophuaikon satisfied the romantic taste for the novel only partly accotmts for its great success. More important, was the fact that the Eidophusikon was completely within the realm of the picturesque. Loutherbourg advertised captivating scenes and selected vierrs that represented nature as grand, or wild, or both. In order to imderstand Just how he accomplished this, it is necessary to investigate some of the scenes which he devised for his theatre. l ^Monthly Mirror , March, 1800.

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207 Designs for the Eldo?jiusikon x..• The scenes that Loutherbourg designed for the opening of the EidoF^ausikon on February 26, 1781, were: ; . . r ' !• Aurora or the effects of the dawn, with a view of Eondon from Greenwich Park. 2. Noon , the Port of Tangier in Africa with the distant ^' view of the Rock of Gibraltar and Europa Point. 3» Sunset , a view over Nipples. ; U* Moonlight , a view in the Mediterranean. • i . 5. A Storm and Shipwreck.^ ' .. It is obvious that Loutherbouirg selected nature in its laost captivating monentsi yet, there are other factors irtiich merit consideration. AURORA represented an early morning view from the summit of One Tree Hill in Qreeonioh Park. This selection was an inspired one since the London public was prepared to be pleased yrhen shown something with i^ich they were acquainted. In this case, the audience could recognize Flanstead House on one side and, below, a collection of buildings, including Greenwich Hospital with its many cupolas. The foregroimd was made up of a view of the port of London, crowded with shipping. Behind this could be seen the hills of Hamstead, Highgate, and Harrow. 3^ The total view was called "the most beautiful representations of nature that were ever effected by laechanism and paintizig."-^ This grand rcsnantic and realistic view was made mcxre appealing by the . ^ Morning Herald , February 26, 1781. l^'i^illiam H, f^rne, VJlne and walnuts: or. After Dinner Chit Chat (London: Longman, 1823), II, p. 28U. ^Morning Herald , March 1, 1781.

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208 Addition of atmospheric effects* An extfellent idea of the Moonlight scene can be obtained from this description: "In the foreground of the scene a group of peasants appear sitting round a fire, the reflectior of -Bhich produces the most beautiful contrast to the reflection of the moon, Tfhich, rising, shed her silvered tints over the landscape. ""^^ The designs for the entertainment betweon the scenes iras in keei^g with the vieirs mentioned abovej for Instance, the transparencies nhich Lou-Uierbourg used the first season nere In the same romantic and melodramatic idiom, namely, (l) An Incantation, (2) A Sea Port, a conversation of sailors of different naticais, (3) A view of the Alps, a woodcutter attacked by wolves, and (U) A summer evening, with cattle and figures. As noted earlier, Loutherbourg was always r^ady to capitalize on the public's interest in important events. While interest was high, he would design a scene and make it his major attraction. Uaual^^r, this would also appeal to some special trend or enthusiasm. For example, in an effort to appeal to nationalism, he chained his Moon to a more topical scene called The Bringing of French and Dutch Pirizes into the Port of Plymouth, vdth a view of Mount Edgecumbe . His design for this special scene excited public Interest Tdth its realistic portrayal of the event. Although the subjects were changed somewhat during the second l^ %hithall Evening Post . March 1, 1781, ^^Dobson, op. cit. , p. 277.

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209 season of the EldoFhualkon , they remained in the same picturesque and rranaitic vein. The presentation reached a climax in the "ccajclusiv* scene" from MLlton. The second season consisted oft 1. The Sun rising in the Fog, and Italian Seaport. 2. The Cataract of Niagara, in North America. 3. The Setting of the Sun, after a Rainy Day, with view of the Castle, Town and Cliffs of Dover. U« The Rising of the Ivfoon, with a Water Spout, exhibiting the effect of three different lights, with a view of Rocky Shore on the Coast of Japan. The Conclusive Scene 5. Satan arraying his troops on the Banks of the Fixey Lake, with the Rising of Pandemonixan, from Milton.lliQ The influence of seventeenth century Italian landscape painters such as Claude and Poussln was evident in the first scene. Following the cranpoaitional methods of the Italian, Loutherbourg used the seaport and the shipping vessels to create massive side accents. This left the center distance tree for a blending of sea and sky that served as proof of his mastery of aireal perspective. The clouds in the background, as well as the distant mountains « were all realistically done. In the foreground, was a lofty, picturesque lighthouse on a rcMuantic prcMncmtoxy of broken rocks which Jutted far out into the sea.-'^ The composition of the whole scene was one that would have been a credit to the Italian masters. The effect of the lighting lliSpyne, op. cit. , p. 300. ^European Magazine , Uarch, 1782.

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210 was very gradual} for instance, it opened as a night scene, then, as the daim appeared, the rays of the sim caae into vieir from a point on the horison. The inereaair^ li^t showed faintly throng a thick morning fog. The scene conclxided with full svinlight as the ndst and fog evaporated* The second scene, a rieir of the great cataract of Niagara in North i^merica, was also very interesting. This was a more violent representation of nature and contained many elements of the picturesque. In the upper picture plane, the perspective of the river provided an inconceivable sense of distance; the cataract, itself, tumbled ovM* s«v«ral obstmictions to a foaqy and noisy untm with a torrent on the right. The third moving picture reflected the revived interest in Gothic architecture and consisted of a representation of the Castle of Dover in the low lands. In this, the setting sun shown through the hasse to cast a glow on the old walls of the castle and border the lower parts of the clouds with red. As the sm descended, the colours changed and the clouds, formerly white, were edged with a brilliant purple. The fourth aceae represented a ni^t view of the Japenes* coast with a light from a Hothouse beacon casting its reflections on the rolling waves and rodgr cowt. The sound of the wind and of the waives dashing against the rocks was realistically imitated. This scene vaa advertised as one which radiibited the effect of three different li^ts. The first of these was the lighthouse beacon? l^Ibid

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211 th« second was the moon irhich appeared and loade its way across the scene j as It imyved behind a cloudy a water spoilt shot up in the fcregroxind, creating a bright blue reflection. V/hen the moon came out from behind th« clouds, it completed the trio of contrasting lighting effects: the water spout, the lighthouse beacon, and the moonlight. The climax of the program represented a view of the Mltonic Hell J in this, Loutherbourg really gave free rein to his imagination. His views of "The Firey Lake" and "Burning Hills" astonished the senses of the audiencej these scenes were, in short, unqualified sensationalism in visual form. The imaginative scene of Milton's Hell was so realistically treated that it fill«l the audience with horror. It was, however, the kind of horror that eight eaith century theatre audiences enjoyed} it offered them an opportunity for immediate emotional response, which they regarded as intensely pleasurable. In this scene, the audience watched Beelzebub and Moloch rise from the horrid lakej behind than all, pandemonium appeared to rise* Loutherbourg not only used all the grandeur of Milton's splendid descrlpticm, but added a few items of his own, such as serpents twining az?ound the Doric pillars and the visual effect of fire changing metal from an intense red to transparent irtilte. One eye-witness reported: A vista, stretching an immeasurable length between mountains ignited from their bases to their lofty summits, with many coloured flames, a chaotic mass rose in dark majesty, which gradually assumed form until it stood, the interior of a vast temple of gorgeous ai^hitecture, bright as molten brass, seemingly cranposed of unconsuming and unquenchable fire.l^l ^^I^e, op. cit. , p. 303,

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212 To further thrill and horrify the audience, Loutherbourg constructed a mechanical device that enabled him to make thousands of Demons materialize. The appearance of the Demons was made even more effective by the use of special lightning which eidiibited all the varied and vivid flashes of the natural phenomena and thunder which included every vibration of air and "shock of element which so often in its prototype strikes terror and admiration" in the mind.^^^ Loutherbourg took his description from the first book of Paradise Lost which reads: ^ Anon out of the earth a fabrick huge •Rose like an exhalation i with the sound Of dulcet symphonies and voices sweet— y. Built like a temple, v^ere pilasters round V;ere set, and Doric pillars overlaid With golden architrave; nor did there want Cornice or frieze, with bossy sculptures graven | The roof was fretted gold.l^ I Loutherbourg next designed a scene for a sensational cxirrent event, the wreck of the "Halswell East Indlanman," off Punbeck, in 1786. Loutherbourg translated that sensation of the day into stage terms and presented it in his small model theatre during his last season. He gave an "exact, awful and tremendous representation of that lamentable event." His illusionism was so perfect that seamen declared it amounted to reality. This last scene climaxed all previous achievements in movement, l52 ^^opean Magazine , op. cit» , p. 180. 153 John Milton, Paradise Lost, and Selected Poetry and Prose (New York: Kinehardt & Co., I9$l), Bk. 1, lines nO-18. [ ^^^Pyne, op. ctt. , p. 300.

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213 illusion of natural effects, and imitation of so\ind and light. Although there were many novelties and curious acts in London, the imaginative concerts behind the Eidophusikon show that Loutherbourg was interested in more than mechanical movement. Then, too, artists of the period would not have been interested in his theatre if animation of miniature models was all there was to see, Loutherbourg had selected nature in her most picturesque moments and, not content with the beautiful or sublime, depicted scenes evidencing change rather than repose, scenes in irtiich there was "strangeness added to beauty." Perspective As far as the history of staging is concerned, Loutherbourg • s methods and techniques are even more interesting than the actual subjects of his designs. O'Keeffe reviewed Loutherbourg • s theatrical achievements shortly after the artist had designed the staging for his C>mai and wrote that Loutherbourg was the first to break "the scene into several pieces by the law of perspective, showing miles and miles of distance, "^^^ None of Loutherbourg 's achievanents in staging brought forth more comment than this use of perspective. He developed it to a degree of perfection never before seen on the Lond<»i stage. In a review of Mrs. Cowley's The Runaway , produced in 1776, the statement was made by "a just disposition of light and shade, and a critical preservation of perspective, the eye of the spectator might be so l^^'Keeffe, op. cit. , p. rU. .

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2lk effectually deceived In the playhouse, as to be induced to mistake the product of art for pure nature. "^^^ Of his scenes for The Battle of Hastings J in 1778, it was said that the perspective used in the moonlight scene made the view approach reality. ^^7 The major reas
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2X5 and his successors copied his style. Before this, architectural perspective, which was reminiscait of Vitruvlus' stage vistas, had dominated the stage. In contrast to this, Loutherbourg • s designs had depth, with space between parts, with elements of relief, all achieved chiefly through the use of canvas and paint. In addition, he cleverly blended practicable units with this painted perspective. The success of all the major spectacles of this period was due largely to the fact that scene designing, thanks to Loutherbourg, included a mastery of perspective. One can get scane idea of Loutherbourg ' s methods of perspective by examining the model of the Peaks Hole setting for The caaders of Derbyshire . (See Plate XII) . In contrast to the singular visual axis of the earlier settings, it maintained an illusion of distance nd naturalness from practically every seat in the house. This was achieved by a combination of the ccaiventional wing-and-border stage, which lost its aridity in Loutherbourg ' s designs, and the use of practicable set pieces on various levels. Lighting Although there are no diagrams or details of Loutherbourg • s lighting methods, his innovaticms in lighting anticipated sooie modem inventions, especially his device for changing colours. Loutherbourg produced the fleeting effect of various colours by means of silk screens T?hich revolved or pivoted in front of the light soxxrce* X59Thoma3, op. cit. , p, 100,

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Scane of the first technical work he did at the Dmry Lane included improvements in the lighting system.l^O has been noted, the lighting was by candle loops hung well to the front of the stage. Loutherbourg altered this by introducing head and border lights. Nearly all theatre historians have conmented upon his lighting innovations when discussing eighteenth century stage design. Their recognition takes into account the fact that Loutherbourg ' s methods increased illumination and his methods for producing effective colours in lights helped to create the real picture stage. -^^2 The introduction of head lights or border battens in a series behind the proscenium, with the consequent flood of illumination on the stage, brought the actor into the stage picture and increased the relative importance of the scenery. Loutherbourg obtained some of hia atmospheric effects by the clever manipulation of light from the side of the stage. This light was transmitted through a series of multi-coloured silk screens to a painted drop of extra fine transparent silk which was suspended between the back-drop and the spectator .•'•^^ To bring the desired effects into view, several lamps were placed at various points behind the transparent curtain. When these lamps were lighted, they brought the scene into bold relief .^^^ The effect of l^Lawrence, op. cit. , p. 17l|, ' l6ljoseph Harker, Studio and Stage (Loudon i Nesbit & Co.. 192U), p. 151. ' l62Laver, op. cit. , p. 193, l63Lawrence, op. cit. , p. 173. l61*Ellzabeth P. Stein, David Garrlck, Dramatist (New York: Modem Language Association, 1930^ » p. 150.

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217 irunnlng water was achieved by varying the illuminatiOTi on a sheet of metal over Trhich moved a gauze curtain overlaid with silver threads. •'•^^ Another innovation which developed out of Loutherbourg ' s lighting methods was the very popular stage "fog." In fact, he has been credited with being the first in England to make use of this effect* It represented a successful combination of gauze curtain« suspended between scenery and spectator, and the effective placement of lights. By varying the placement of the light source and the amount of illumination used, different values could be obtained. With this device, he was able to produce many of his illusions of atmosi^iere and distance. On reviewing the history of "gauze effects," one historion said that one should "take into consideration some of the uses to irtiich that material has been put in the theatre since De Loutherbourg discovered its value as a stage adjunct*"^^^ Although many of his lifting effects were mere spectacular tricks intended to surprise and amaze his audience, Loutherbourg was also conceimed vlth the problem of general stage lighting. In this, Loutherbourg cairied out some very necessary reforms which did not go unnoticed. There were comments from the press praising him for increasing the amount of light on the sets. These writers considered the use of more light important on a "stage irtiere his talents were l65Harker, op. cit. , p. 1$1. ^°°Percy Fitzgerald, The Life of David Garrick (London: Tinsley Bros., 1868), II, p. W. ^^^w, J, Laivrence, "Some Stage Effects; Their Growth and History," The Gentleman's Magazine , GXLV (March, 1888), >3.

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218 exerted," and where the scenery was the essential part of the illusion. ^68 There was also a comment in the text of Bui^oyne's The Maid of the Oaks concerning the great number of lamps now needed for a scene, Itoreover, Loutherbourg's reforms were appreciated beyond the confines of LondOTj the French designer, J. G. Noverre, was impressed and wrote that on the Drury Lane stage, LouthOTbourg had made many improvements in the distribution and ccxitrol of light. It is evident that during the last quarter of the eighteenth century the problan of colour and lighting for the stage was more seriously studied and investigated than it had been previously. ' . -,:•'•^:;v^:.ii'^!i;''^::' '•: Costumes • It is not known exactly ithat part Loutherbourg had in the designing of the costumes for the productions at the Drury Lane during the years he was in charge. In the reviews of his productions, however, there is more than ample evidence that he attempted to incorporate, along vdth his stage designs, all of the other visual elements. Certainly, the costumes would not have been mentioned in the^ reviews if tUey had not represented some improvement over the usual method of eostuming. His own statements make it apparent that he was conscious of the need to establish a harmony of costiane and setting. ..hile there are no costume plates to indicate whether he carried this out ^ ^Morning Chrtaiicle , January 6, 1782 • Jean Etinne Francois JJarignie, Vie de David Garrick , Suivie de Deux Letters de M. Noverre a Voltaire sur ce Celebre Acteur (Paris; Ivicne et Michel, 1801 ji p. 150.

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219 conpletely. In general, his work reflected a distinct interest in accurate and effective costuming, ^^0 apparently realized the '•relati<»i of costume and scenery, and the necessity for making both accurately reprodiuse the environment of the characters of the play."^ Shortly before he retired, Garrick decided to improve the wardrobe at the arury Lane. This was done at the suggestion of Sir Joshua Reynolds and Benjamin West, and Loutherboui^ was assigned the task of carrying it out. At that time, an attempt was made to end the glaring anachronisms in costume, but little was accomplished.^72 ^ The elaborate spectacle of Omai advertised the fact that the costumes were designed frcra original drawings, ^73 xhis experiment affected all subsequent costume design and its importance cannot be overestimated. As far as the records reveal, this was the first performance on the Qiglish stage in irtiich there was an attempt to secure absolute acciaracy by having foreign eosttines designed from studies made on the spot. The elaborate procession in the final soenOf in which the actors all wore different costumes, was the triumph of the production, Loutherbourg • s contribution to realistic stage costume resulted from his scientific interest in accuracy and his desire to produce a semblance of real life on the stage. That he considered the designs for costumes as an important part of the mise ^70Qajnpbell, op. cit. , p. 210. ^7 1ibid. , p. 211. ^72«Rige of Scene-painting," op. cit. , p. 327. ^7 3The Times (London), December 22, 1785,

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220 en scene was evident in his productions and his success encouraged other designers of the period to do the same. •'7^ ' .' ' , , ' ' I I ' ' : ; i , . , . . -» » Scenery In order to make his scenic designs effective, Loutherbourg had to adapt, develop, and improve many of the existing methods of scenery construction and techniques of staging* Before Loutherbourg ' s tiioe, stage scenery had been pretty much standardized} "the back was cne broad flat, the whole breadth and height of the stage. "^^^ Loutherbourg has been given credit for various scenic reforms j it was said that he was the first to use set-scenes and what was technically known as raking-pieces* In discussing Loutherbourg 's innovations, a contemporary said that "by introducing bits as cottages and broken stiles before the flats, he gave the urtiole a stronger resemblance of nature. "-^^^ This stat«nent substantiates the remark of O'Keeffe, nho stated that Loutherbourg was the first artist to "break the scene into several pieces." This point needs clarification since the sources which credit Loutherbourg with the "setscenes and raking pieces," do not describe his innovations. There are some sparce and inconclusive references, however, which indicate the type of construction upon irtiieh Louth0z4>ourg may have based his ^7liCampbell, op. cit. , 'p. 211. 175o»Keeffe, op. cit. , p. Ill*, . . _ 176nri]2iaras, op. cit., p. 78.

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innovations. Arron Hill, the actor, stated that before 17U9 the]^ used elaborate sets which he described as "occasionally lateral." He also noted that in some instances "traverse flats" were employed. •'•'''7 The stage-directions for Dryden's Albion and Albanius , in which Thomas Betterton appeared, mention that "elaborate set-pieces, roir behind row, were used in these productions, "^78 After studying the problem of these pLws of scenery, Richard Southern gives the following definition of the set-scene and the flat which identifies some of the pieces which Loutherbourg used. If a flat scene is me that can be shifted and placed in position completely, before the audience's eyes, then a set scene is essentially one that can, because of the nature of its elements, only be placed in position previous to its being disclosed to the audience's eyesj or shifted away piecemeal after it has been concealed by a curtain or has had a flat scene drawn over in front of it. A set scene is a preset scene. 17 9 If this be the case, then it could be said that the set scenes were the same as Inigo Jones' "scone of relieve" and the flat the same as his "shutter scene. "-^^ Moreover, W. J, Lawrence states in his manuscript notes that, since O'Keeffe states that Loutherbotirg was responsible for obtaining distance in this manner, it is possible that "Loutherbourg used light behind his set pieces the better to give distance to his back cloth. "^^^ Lajrrence wrote: 177odell, op. cit. , I, p. 397. 178Richard Southern, Changeable Scenery? Its Origin and Develop ment in the British Theatre (London: Faber and Faber, Limited, 1952), p. 270. 17 9lbid. , p. 271-272. ' . . ' iQ Olbid. , p. 272. 18%, J. Lawrence Manuscript Notebook No. U» p. 1057.

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I have interpreted O'Keeffe's vague enccmilTim an the painter to waan that distance was given to the conventional back cloth by means of a series of low set pieces probably asking lights. I am justified in this surmise by the fact that De Loutherbourg is also credited with the introduction of raking pieces. But the principle of the oblique setting is so much in keeping with O'Keeffe's allusion to the extra distance shown by the innovation (whatever it might have been) that I see no reason to doubt it was in some meastire pressed into service by De Loutherbourg in his scheme of mise en scene . 182 From this and evidence found in Loutherbourg ' s own scene designs and models « it is possible to conclude that he used set scoies and that "he developed the already existing relieve scene, or its successor. "^^^ The models (See Plates XIII, XIV, and XV) illustrate Loutherbourg 's expert use of cut-out set pieces. In the model of « Fishing Hut, the designs for the wings are of considerable Interest and the ingenuity with which the irregularities of the objects are brought into line with the profile deserve special consideration. The ground-rows are designed and painted so that the separate planes are made to blend with the side areas and the background. A detailed study of the elaborate cut-out wood scene called Kensington GardOTs reveals his ability to design separate opaque canvasses in such a way that the leaves, branches and trunks of trees would blaid into a wood that vanished in the distance* Tiransparencles Almost all modem stage historians state that Loutherbourg was ^S glMd. , p. 1097. . l83southem, op. cit« , p. 271.

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223 responsible for the invention of stage transparencies. This stage device was not, however, the same as the small transparent scenes which Loutherbourg used to entertain liis audiences between the scenes of the Eldophusikon . Although based on the same techniques and methods, they appear to be of a different natiare. Since Loutherbourg has generally been credited with this stage device, it is important to point out some of the reasons for giving him credit. O'Keeffe has stated clearly that the designer of the Druxy Lane theatre "Invented transparent scenery — ^moonshine, sunshine, fire volcanoes, etc."^^^ This Is supported by the following account from Henry Angeloi He astonished the audience, not merely by the beautiful colouring and designs, far superior to what they had been accustwned to, but by a sudden transition in a forest scene, where the foliage varies from green to blood colour. This ccaitrivance v^as entirely new, and the effect was produced by placing diiferent coloured silks in the flies, or side-scenes, which turned on a pivot, and, with lights behind, which so illumined the stage, as to give the effect of enchantment. 185 This would seem to indicate that Loutherbourg was offering something new to the public. Another supporting statement can be found in the ?Jusical Memoirs of w. T. Parke. ISy studies of the day were succeeded by evening attendance at Drury Lane Theatre, & the first piece I assisted in was a new one written by the performer, "The Cairistmaa Tale," .... The scenes were designed by the celebrated painter, J, P. de Loutherbourg, and in it were first introduced his newly invented transparent shades, which 181k) 'Keeffe, op. cit. , p. llU. l85,^elo, op. cit., II, p, 328.

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22k by shedding on th&a a vast body 4; brillance of colour, ' •. pa-oduced an almost enchanting effect.^"" ' Additional erwidence is found in an accoimt of Loutherbourg ' s production of Selima & Azor j in this, the reporter says that "Mrs. Scott and MLss Collet were so little essaitial to the Piece, except in that exquisite Trio, b^iind the Transparence (the effect of nhioh was as astonishing as neir) nor has the Qenitte of tootherbourg ever better displayed, "^^^ There is no suggestion as to what these transparent shades ndght have been, although their general effect has been described. The method of conatructicm and the general character of Loutherbourg ' s transparency presait a rather intriguing njystery. Research has shonn that the term transparencies was used in connection with earlier designers. Inigo Jones, for example, had a transparait scene made of oiled silk or taff ata in his designs for the Masque of Oberon.^®^ The "Warrents f or Wbrk
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225 • Loutherboui^'s time, the term transparency was only applied to cutout or pierced decorative cuts, and to the effect of silhouette agsdnst the background* ^ The transparencies developed by Loutherbourg must have been unusual and it is possible he was given credit for something new simply because of the strong iii5>act they made on London audiences. Act-Dro|) Loutherbourg was the first to use an "act-drop," a form of curtain irtiich replaced the traditional baiae cne. It was designed in such a way as to put the audience in a frame of mind appropriate to the play. In teras of this innovation, he was ahead of the I'rench who were still using the old green baize curtain. Loutherbourg 's original act-drop v;as a romantic landscape painting done for « performance of The Wonders of Derbyshire at the Drury Lane. It was said that "previous to the curtain being drawn up on the first ni^t of its performance, the drop (as it is called), alluding to the country (Derbyshire), gave you an idea of the mountains and waterfalls, most beautifiaiy executed, exhibiting a terrific appearance. "•'•^ This same act-drop was used in the theatre for soraB yean afterwards. There is no evidence as to whether this special drop was also used between the acts. This was not the house ctnrtain, since yy, that dates to the opening of the theatre (1660) and was used at the 19lLaver, op. clt. , p. 19k* ^^Angelo, op. cit. , 11, p. 326.

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226 beginning and end of the show. Records show that, in about 1690, the drop scene begen to be used to add variety to the flat scenesj about 1750, the curtains began to fall at act-intervals, as well as at the close of the show; and in 1770, something analogous to the painted act-drop was used.^^ ^^,4" ' ^ ' ' ' ' *• r J ' ' ' > '''i 'y ' ' . • f,\ ' '• Colour Loutherbourg's technique reflected the romantic tendency to use brilliant colours. His free use of bright pigments represented a major improvement over the old drab settings, especially since the Increase in light made the decor stand out. The general public welcomed his free and vigorous colour technique and flocked to the theatre to see the dazzling romantic designs and sensational views ha produced with it.^^ Loutherbourg's moatt effective use of colour can be found in his panoramic sets, particularly in his views of romantic and oartial scenes. In these he not only used filters over SOTJB of the colotired li^ts, but by placing than behind transparent scenery or setting them in motion, he was able to create contrasts, instill a sense of movement, and refine the perspective. In general, the theatre audience approved hid use of strong colours. In the discussions of his EidoFhusikon , th^e was no advise criticism concerning his use of colour on the model stage. He appeared to have blended his colours so that they were extr«nely effective. 193southem, Changeable Scenery , op. cit. , p. 170. ^9^L«ver, op. cit. , p. 2Sk»

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227 Gainsborough was cme individual who was 'noved to prortest the radical changes in lighting and colours on the Drury Lane stage. In 1772, he wrote to his friend Qarrick coicemlng the subject: 'k[ '"'' Sunday litomlng (1772) ; Uy DEAR SIR, when the streets are paved with brilliants and the skies made of rainbows I suppose you will be content and satisfied with red, blue, and yellow. It appears to me that fashion, let it consist of false or true taste, will have Its rvn, like a runaway horse; for when eyes and ears are thoroughly debauched by glare ajid noise, and return to . modest truth will seen veiy gloomy for a time; and I know you are ctirsedly puzzled; how to make the retreat without putting out your lights and losing the advantage of all otir new discoveries of transparent paints, etc., etc., how to ;. satisfy the mild evoninc gleam and quiet middle term. I'll tell you, my sprightly genius, how all this is to be done. • • Maintain all yo\xr lights, but spare the poor abused colours until the eye rests and recovers. Keeping up the music by supplying the place of noise by more sound, more harmony, and more tune, and split that cxirsed Pife and Drum. V.'hatever so great a Genius as Mr, Garrick may say or do to support our false taste, he must feel the truth of idiat I'm ) sajdng, that neither o\ir Flays, Paints, nor Masic are any longer real works of invention, but the abuse of Nature's lights and yth&t has already been invented in former times. Adieu, my dear Friend. Any commands to Bath,— T. Loutherbourg's interest in, and his experiments with, colours is not only evident In his designs, but in his stage lifting as well. Much of the audience's surprise and delight can be traced to Louth^"bourg's ability to produce degrees of colour by placing tinted silkscreens at various positions before the lanps. Evidence of this use of colour and light and the effect they produced can be found in a 195john Forster, The Life and Times of Oliver Goldsmlldi (6th ed.j London I Beckers & Son, 1077;, p. 315. ~

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228 pcroject he did at Fonthill Abbey, the structure of Gothic Revival fame.-'^ This girevr out of the most fabulous Christinas party to be recoiled during the latter years of the eighteenth century. It was given by Vi'illiam Beckford in his Gothic edifice, in 1781, and consisted of a series of Oriental entertainnwnts for a very special collection of guests. Noted musicians provided the lausic and Loutherbourg did the deooraticns and lighting affects*^ The result vsaat have been something out of the ordinary, even irfLthottt Beckford 's recollection that the Tihole place " pervaded a soft pure radiance.^ ^• • •. • . • • . . . • The "genial artificial li^t Loutherbourg had created" made of the place a "necromantic region" where the king's daughters were held In thrall by a powerful magician. In putting his correspcMidence into publishable shape some fifty years later, Beckfoird made public an invitation to « special friend which etatedt ^ let jne conjure you— lea:ve no schwne untried, no art unpractised to gain permission for coming to Fonthill, where every preparation is going forwards that our much admired and admiring Loutherbourg (for he doats upon us both) in all the ^fildness of his fervid imagination can suggest or contrive — ^to give our favourite apartments the strangeness and novelty of a fairy world. This very morning he sets forth with his attendant genii, and swears by one of his • principal imps (who bears, by the bye, a most fearful cabalistic name) Athrelpho that in less than three weeks . frcan time present a mysterious something — something that eye has not yet seen or heart of man conceived, shall E, Oppe, Alexander aiKi John Robert Cozeams , (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1952), p, 25. 197 ibid. Chapoan, Beckford (New lorki Charles Scribner's Sons, 1937), p. lOh.

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229 , be created (his own tmhallcwed Trords) purposely for our special delight and recitation. 199 This "mysterious seething" mentioned in this account may have been an early expexdment with Loutherbourg ' s Eidophusikon irtilch opened the following spring. 200 The effects which Loutherbourg and his attending "imps" and "genii'* v«re able to produce have been described by a guest, Julian Charles Toung. In his accoiuit, Young notes the visitors were not at all prepared for the coming event and chatted gaily as they drove or rode down the grand avenue. Th«i, at a particular twm in the road, every carriage stopped and one "long, loud, ringing shout of amazement and delight burst from every throat." The enormous body of visitors found themselves transported, as if by magle, to a fairy scene. Through the "far-stretching woods of pine glittered myriads on myriads of variegated lan^w," These formed vast vistas of light and defined the distant perspective as clearly as if it had been bathed in sunshine. A profusion of flambeaux were carried about by bearers, adding to the splendor of the scene. In the darkness, scsne of the many-coloured lamps appeared to be in motion while others seemed stationary. As In the EidopAiusikon , the many tints were produced by placing coloured glass in front of the lamps. These were so arranged as to "shed rainbow hues on every surrounding object" j to make the spectacle more effective, all this was set to the music of unseen musicians. This ^Ibid. , p, 99. 200ibid.

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230 nuaic changed with the colofurs and "riveted to the spot the lovers of striking contrast s."201 The fact that Loutherboxirg could spread "rainbow hues" and create a fairyland effect at a party lends credence to the belief that his stage colours had a draraatic effect on his theatre audience. Mechanical Innox'-atlona * Loutherbourg's mechanical innovations were not isolated fro« his work as a theatrical designer. His effects became grander as his work progressed and as he continually tried to satisfy the interest of the public. Although Loutherbourg's devices were successful, he was not always satisfied} he continued to in^nrove and ingjrovise on his effects until he had esdiausted all possibilities. This was especially true of his laechanical novelties which, in time, developed to a point where they became the dominant element in the performance. The growth of the occasional scene, such as the Naval Review at Portsmouth idiich Garilck added to the masque Alfred , indicates how these novelties developed. Loutherbourg must have been adept at building the small models referred to earlier in this chapter. He may have gotten his start as a result of his association with the machinists^ Merlin aod Jacque D'Rosa, during his first few years in London. Merlin, the 201 Julian Charles Young, A ?.femoir of Charles Mayn e, Tragedian (Londoni liscanillan, I87I), p. 28^. 202Angelo, op. dt. , II, p, 328.

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231 superintendent of Cox's nruseum, was well known for his mechanical e^diibitlon near Haiujver-Square. Both men were Xrleods of Loutherbouz^ and it is entirely possible that he learned sose of his tricks from them. He worked to Improve cai the mechanical review until, in the pantCBiiime of Queen Nab , produced a couple of years later, he had developed a very complicated mechanism for reproducing the Thames Regatta. It is evident from reviews of Qaem Nab that Loutherbourg had come a long way with his innovations. In that production, he was experimenting with mechanically operated puppet figures. These puppets were considered the "ccaapletest pieces of mechanism seen in a theatre for several years" and "the figures moving so critically exact to the music, must naturally excite admiration. "^^^ The following account provides additional evidence that Loutherbourg had be«i doing some extra work an. his mechanical puppets. ' Every barge appeared to be rowed to the time of the band of music which is supposed to be upon the water, and every man and oar keeps a regular stroke j the sky flat behind, was finely designed and executed for the general relief, and the ' disposition of the man and boats nearer the shore, in the foreground, was beautiful, and did the painter great credit. 201* Loutherboiu-g continued to work with his mechanical figures until, in The Camp (1778), his puppets performed to perfection. The last scene of this play consisted entirely of troop maneuvers and concluded with a song and chorus. The maneuvers, which were the climax of six scenes depicting various parts of the camp, were actually ^ ^azetteer , November 13, 1775* , ^Q %estninster Xla^azine . November, 1775.

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• 232 .... 1 ^ " indapeadent of the plot. The ioportant point » here, as far as Louther-> botirg*8 n»ohanleal Innovations are concemed, Tras the fact that the complicated maneuvers were dcaie by mechanical puppeta. Sheridan wrote the play in order to exploit this novelty as well as to satisfy the public's interest in the camp.^^ ^'Loutherbourg has gone beyond himself," was the report, considering that he gave the little figures a "magic peculiar to himself" which enabled the different battalions to march out "in excellent order, into the firont of their lines, to the astonishment of every spectator. Loutherbourg must have drilled his little puppet troop weH, for the report wu that "the Lilliputian Corps gave infinite satisfaction in their maneuver s."^^ By 1779, Loutherbourg had begun to introduce movement into the scenes themselvesj he used this innovation successfully in the Armada battle scene in Sheridan's The Critic . In this, the mechanical scenes changed from "Tilbury Fort, with a view of the river Thames and the town of Gravesend," to the scene of the camp, and then to a view of the "battle with the Arraada."^^^ Loutherbourg developed many other mechanical devices i^ch helped to make his productions the sensaticoi that they were. For the Christmas Tale , he designed scenery and stage machinery described as 20$Gazetteer, October 16, 1778. ^Q ^^lorning Post , October 16, 1778. 2e 7ibid. ^ ^Universal Ifagazine , November, 1779 »

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ii "exceeding axiythlng we have seen before. "^^^ The seisational effects were of a sort "rarely seen in this country."^^^ A correspondent, Trho claimed to have been a constant attendant at the theatre for thirty-five years, praised all the artists of the Hxvry Lane (French, Carver and Loutherbourg), but concluded that "too nwch cannot be said in praise of Ue, De Lavertherbourgh /a±c/, who has shoim hinself th« first of painters, a good machinist, and a great mechanic. "^•'^ With all this praise heaped on one production, one wonders -whst Loutherbouirg had done to deserve it. In the Christmas. Tale the most exciting element was probably the use of coloured lighting. At one point, it was employed to suggest a burning castle, one of the most exciting scaies of the evening. The text of the play reads: "It thunders, and grows dark: flames of fire are seen thro' the Seraglio windows . . . flames and the ruins of the cajstle vanish away and discover a fine moon-light scene. "212 ^his effect may have been achieved by means of lights or through the use of coloured screens and silk gauze hangings. There is also a possibility that much of it was achieved by special mechanical devices. Percy Fitzgerald reports on one such mechanical device saying, that a stage setting which Qarrick brought from Piaris represaited a palace and was constructed of "painted stones . . . with handles at the back." The ^Q ^London ffagazine , December, 1773. 21 0lbid. ^l ^ming ChrCTiicle . January 11, 1771;. 2^ The Christmas Tale , op. cit.

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23U various raiilti-coloured lights were played upon this palace and made it appear as if it were enveloped in a mass of flames. The painted stones were then "dratim airay from the bottoraj thus the irhole came down in 213 ruins." There is no way of knowing if this was used in the Christinas Tale , but according to "Uie description of the scene, the effect must have been something very much like it. The devices which called forth so much praise in this production indicate that the spectacles were beginning to depend, not only on skillful handling of lighting, but also on novel mechanical effects. Loutherbourg continued to work on these until they approximated reality. The Trmch designer of the Paris ballet, J. G. Noverre, who usually had no high opinion of Qiglish pantomimes, was extremely impressed by Loutherbourg* s work. After watching some of the devices operate, Noverre said they were so striking that he could not figure out the methods of their opei«tion,23Jl The transition scene became one of the most ingwrtant mechanical devices employed by Loutherbourg. Just how this was operated is not known, but there are many comments on it in reviews of his productions. In The Maid of the Oaks , the "portico in an imitation of the temporaiy building at the celebrated fete champete " and the scene of the salon in the Nobleman's grand apartment changed to "One of the most beautiful scenes ever exhibited, representing celestial garden, termi213pitzgerald, Ufe of Garrick . op. cit. , II, p. 28. ^llij, Noverre, The Works of Monsieur Noverre (Paris, I883), I, 135.

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9^ noted by a prospect of the temple of Love, in irtiich the statue of the Cyprian Goddess appears in the attitude of Venus. There were many references to this type of transition. The "tVonders of Derbyshire , T«hich contained scenery said to have "sujrpassed anything" seen in the theatre before, also made use of it.^^^ It was reported that most members of the audience did not "remember ever having seen any other exhibition of the kind, either so great a variety, or so great a magnificence of raachinery."^^^ Ticlr.vell's Carnival of Venice , a ccraic opera produced at Drury Lane (1781), dazzled the audience with a number of Vraetian scenes. In this production a scene depicting St. Hark' 8 Square changed to a canal with gondolas. ^-^^ Records indicate Loutherbovirg created many unusvial airf startling trick effects for his scenes. One of these was used in a supper scene for Selima St Azor , in which a table rose up and chairs whirled about the stage. 219 He was also responsible for the screenscene In Sheridan's famous canedy. School for Scandal . 220 The devices used in Loutherboxirg » s last stage venture, Omai , were a grand climax to all that had gone before. If the reports on the production are correct, he used every device that he had develops! over the years, as well as some new onea. Its scenery was considered Zl Suniversal Magazine , November, 177U. 2l 6,vestmin3ter Lianazlne , January 8, 1779. 217 Universal Ivlafiazine . January, 1779. 2l8ThOTias, op. cit. , p, 21. 21 9st. James' Chrcaiicle . December 1778. • 22QQuiton, op. cit. , I, p. 52.

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« "infinitely beyond any designs or paintings the stage had ever displayed" and its machinery was "declared to have worked with the nicest exactness," irtiile the "artificial shades introduced by LOUTHERBOURGH, had their full force, producing the most beautiful effect." There were many interesting accounts concerning the crimson hue thixwn over the stage in the "astonishing" scene at the bounlng cave*^^^ Loutherbouz^ introduced many ctaitinental novelties In his jawductlons. In Omai , he had the assistance of a French expert Kvho appeared to have arrived late for toe opening night* The celebrated I-fonsieur Bourverie, principal machinist to his Majesty of France, was, it seems, engaged to prepare several humorous tricks and deceptions for the new pantomime, but not being able to accongjlish his contract against the first night's representation, the manager, in obedience to his premise to the public, brought forward the piece vdhout them. These machines, however, are at last arrived, and as there was no play on Sunday, the cajrpenters have had sufficient tixae to arrange them for the stage, and we understand they will be ejdiibited this evening. *22 ' This famous eighteenth century spectacle encouraged some critics to comment in poetic vein« On one occasion, a scene in which a mechanical device made spirits appear as if in liquid and blazing fire gave rise to the following extempore lines : As irtien enrob'd in lightnings, the serene . • • . Destroying angel to rebuke the pride Of stern Sen2«acherit, walk'd dreadful forth ;^ On midnight fires, and wide aroimd spread A* .v .. The smoking carnage of Assyria's camp. While ruin like an angry deamon, rides. The roaring winds, and ghostlier in the glare .> Of lightning, roilied o'er the gloomy globe Rolls the wide war of Heaven. 22 lThe Times (London), December 2it, 178^. 223ibid. . r " . ' •

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O'Keeffe, the author of the play, desired to express hig appreciation to the technicians and composed some equally bad verses addressed "To Carver, Loutherbourg, and Richards, Sceie-Painters to the Theatre-Royal, COTent-Garden," A Loutherbourg' bold genius took full range Through Cook's South Islands, savage, wild & strange j In pieces cut, broad scenes that seem'd so high. Thus spreading miles of distance to the eye} Opaque he made transparent on occasion, ' Volcano, sunset, or a conflagration; And my Omai fumish'd him with scope To give a full effect to ardent hope. 221* ft-ess accounts and personal remembrances suggest the impressions Loutherbourg was able to produce, but, in gmeral, there are no precise records of the techniques and methods of ccxistructlcn which he Tised. Fortunately, there are some very specific descripticais en how he worked out certain innovations and inventions m his model scenic stage. These are of value in suggesting what he might have done on the stage of the Orury Lane. Mechanics of the Eidophusikon Shortly after the opening of the first season of the Eidophusikon , it yna reported, "Mr. de Lotxtherbourg's superior genius in the scenic line of his profession has led h'ira to invent . • • several of the laoat beautiful representations of nature that were ever effected by me<*anisffl and painting. His different views are all formed by detaching pieces, fi*om which he is enabled to manage his 22l
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m keeping light and shade, etc., with the utoost exactness. "225 it must be recalled that his elaborate model theatre had a stage six feet wide and eight feet deep. The scenes vj-ere not painted on flat canvas, as was the theatrical convention, but were built up of many rows of flat, cut«-out pasteboard. In the opening scene for the first season^ the foreground was actually built up from tiny pieces of cork and lichen and the trees of the park were separate units. The biiildings were made of pasteboard and painted vdth architectural correctness. In the foreground were the model ships in the river, beyond than, the likeness of the done of St. Paul's, the city spires, and the hills of Highgate and Harastead. From this description, it is possible to see how he was able to achieve his perspective on such a small stage* Moreover, he was able to put his knowledge of perspective to such good use that "the effect of distance was said to have been uncanny. "^^'^ Each mass was cttt-out In pasteboard and diminished in siee as a result of its perspective treatment. In one scene, "the healthy appearance of the foreground was ccsnstmcted of cork, broken into the znigged and picturesque fonns of a sand-pit, covered with minute mosses and lichen, producing a captivating effect, amounting indeed to reality. "228 One of the most interesting mechanical devices for his * Etldophuslkon was the cloud effect. He painted this in semi-trans22 5v.'hitehall Evening Post . March 1, 1781. 22^QQj^g speaight. The History of the English Puppet Theatre (New York: John de Graff, 1952), p. 127. 22 7ibid, 228]=yne, op. cit. , p. 28U*

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23^ parent colours so that it would receive light from the front as irell aa from the rear. The cloud effect was achieved by stretching linen over a frame twenty times the size of the stage. This fi-ame was operated by a single winding machine and, since there was a series of cloud effects painted csn the frame, cloud movements coxad be directed by regulating the action of the windlass. In short, he could cause them to rise slowly from the horizcai and sail obliquely across the heavens, or drive swiftly along according to their supposed density and the fwrce of the wind. 229 The construction of the mechanical waves used in the differwrt scenes represented a very finished piece of work and put to use one of Loutherbourg's most interesting technical devices. The waves on this small stage were made of soft wood and carved from clay models. Once constructed, they were coloured and coated vdth a high varnish so that they woidd reflect the flashes of lightning. Each wave turned on its own axis and threw up foam in the process* Some moved "in a contrary direction, throwing up the foam, now at one spot, now at another and diminishing in altitude as they receded in the distance, and were subdued by corresponding tints. "230 jj, ^^^^ possible to make the violwjce of the water appear to cover a large area. It has been noted that his Storm at Sea with the Loss of the • Halswell, East Indiaman was regarded as the height of mechanical achievement. In this case, the ship was a perfect model, correctly 22 9ibid, , p. 285. 23 0ibid. , p. 287.

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2li0 rigged, but canrylng only audi Balls as the situation demanded. In fact, all his vessels were built in this manner aiKi were made to sail over the waves with a seemingly natural movement, those near the front of the stage making their "courses with proportionate rate to their bulk, and those farther off moving with slower pace,"^^-'One simple naehine controlled the movaitent of all the ships and the notion wiis regiilated according to the kind of storm Loutherbourg had in mind. Combining this device ^vith effects of aerial perspective, contrasts in colours, and shades of lighting, he completed an iUusicm so perfect that, Trtien accompanied by sound, the audience was frequently heard to esqilain, "Hark! the signal of distress came f^cm that vessel labouring out there — and now from that,"232 The appearance of Loutherbourg ' s Eidophusikon indicated a great advance in lifting. The lamps on the stage were above the proscenium and hidden from the audience, instead of being placed as they were on the regular stages, so that the faces of the performers were illuminated "like Michael Angelo's Satan, from the regions below, thus throwing cm their countenances a preternatural character. "^"^^ The overhead argand lamps, which were oil lamps with circizlar wicks, made it possible for Loutherbourg to be one of the first to abolish footlights. It was easy for him to pioneer in this realm sinee this was only a scenic representation and he had no actors whose faces 231ibid. ^3 2ibid. , p. 298. 233ibid., p. 287.

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needed to be well lit.^^^ Loutherbourg placed his lamps at the back of his experimental stage, as well as the frcait, so that their light could shine thirough the translucent clouds and lend them luminosity. In front of each lamp, he had stained glass slides which he could change just as he could rary the strength of the flames, with this arrangement, Loutherbourg was able to run through the whole range of Nature's changes in lighting with little trouble. All this is accepted as confflKjnplace today, but it was an exciting discovery in the eighteenth century. , . His technique in the use of these coloured lights on the Eidophusikon stage was described as follows: Before the line of brilliant lamps, on the stage of the Eidophusikon, were slips of stained glass? yellow, red, green, purple, and blue; by the shifting of which, the painter could throw a tint upon the scenery, compatible with the time of day, which he represented, and by a single slip, or their conbinations, could reproduce a magical effect; thus giving a general hue of cheerfulness, sublimity, or awfulness, subservient to the phenomena of his scene* 235 The inventor used many special lighting techniques on his Eidophusikon stage. For instance, the moon was made by a circular aperture, one inch in diameter, cut in a tin box. He placed a powerful argand lamp in this box so that when he moved it various distances behind the scene, he was able to impaii; a brilliant or a subdued splendour to the passing clouds, or without any other aid, give it the effect of, "the prismatic circle . . • irtiich is pectiliar to an Wlispeaight, op. clt. , p. 127. 235i5yne, op. clt. , p, 289.

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m Italian sky.»236 In order to achieve the illusion of reality, tlie clouda on the Eidophusikcm stage were also lighted in a special manner. As they rolled across the stage the moon would obscure them or tinge their edges* Loutherbourg achieved this illusion by loading the colour pigments on portions of the cloud screen to opaqueness eo that the light could not get through. In these places, the clouds would receive illunriLnation from the front lamps irtiich were subdued by a bluish grey glass. mogt interesting lighting effect of the Eidophusikon was presented in the inevitable storm aovxe, in which shafts of light shot throu^ transparent placm in the painted sky.^38 A clearer idea of his lighting techniques for the Eidophusikon oan be obtained from this description. . ' This scene, on the rising of the curtain, was enveloped in that mysterious light which is the precursor of daybreak, so true to nature, that the imagination of the spectators sniffed the sweet breath of morn. A front light appeared along the horizon j the scene assumed a vaporish tint of greyj presently a gleam of saffron, changing to the pure varieties that tinge the fleecy clouds that pass away in nwming mist) the picture brightened by degrees j the sun appeared, gilding the top of the trees and projections of the lofty buildings, and burnishing the wanes on the cupolas; urtxen the irtiole scene bTirst upon the eye in the gorgeous splendor of a beautious day.239 An even more vivid description of his Mlltonie scene ^ows '^'^"Stage Storms," All The Year Round , VHI (August 10, 1872), 308. ^yfpyne, op. eit. , p. 201. 238«stage Storms," op. cit. , 207. 239pyne, op. cit. , p. 286.

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m Loutherboiirg's faculty for lurid effects and illustrates nhy he was able to produce the sensations of horror and awe in his audience* In the foreground of a vista, stretching an inmieasurablt length betweoi mountains, ignited frran their bases to their lofty sxunmits, with many coloTired flames, a chaotic mass rose in dark majesty, triiich gradually assumed form until it stood, the interior of a vast temple of gorgeous architecture, bright as molten brass, seemingly composed of unconsuming and unquenchable fire* In this tremendous scene, the effect of . . . coloured glasses before the lamps was fully displayed; which, ; being hidden from the audience, threw their urtxole influence !i : , ;Bpon the scene, as it rapidly changed, now to a sulphurous :; blue, then to a lurid red, and then again to a pale vivid if « light, ahd ultimately to a mysterious combination of the ; glasses, such as bright furnace eadiibits, in fusing various j4!;'«etals.21j0 1} ..^ . ^.f. Loutherboux^ • s faculty for imitating the sounds of nature was BO highly developed that he was able to astonish the ear just as he charmed the sight. As a result of his innovatiwis, he introduced into his Sidophusikpn a "new art— the picturesque of sound. The eighteenth caitury certainly had the required amount of sound effects, but Louthej^bourg devised some interesting techniques for producing new sounds and improving the old ones. For example, thunder was produced by a huge sheet of thin copper which he hung from a chain. By shaking the piece from one of the lower corners, "he brought about a distant rumbling, seemingly below the horizon. The ifflportant point is that the sound of thunder was synchronized with the lighting changes. As the clouds rolled nearer, the thunder's peal was heightened, until within a second of the appearance of the sudden Jagged flash of 2J*Qlbid. . ^ ^Ibid. , p. 296. ^Ibid. , p. 297.

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lightnjjig, the roar reached a deafening pitch and broke into a crash iimnediately ovex^iead, sending terror into many of those in the audience. 2ii3 One would probably have had to hear the sound in order to appreciate the effect. The sounds irhich Loxxtherbovtrg devised for the rain and hail in the productions of the SLdophusikon were equally in^jressive to his audience. For each of these, he used a long fouTHsided tube filled with seeds. The effect of rain was produced by letting the small seeds roll from the top to the bottom of the tube. For a slow shower, the tube remained almost at the horizontal j while for a heavy dashing downfall, it was tilted towards the perpendicular. The hail called for a similar, though larger, tuba wiUi pasteboard shelves that projected on Inclined planes. This tiibe was filled with little beads that could slide from shelf to shelf, either slowly or rapidly, depending on the inclination of the tube.^^ The rushing, washing sound of waves for scenes in the ^ ' Eidophusikon were siniulated by revolving an octagcmal pasteboard box, fitted with Selves, and containing small shells « peas, and shot* These were heaped together with every turn that the machine made. Along with this sound, cane the whine of the gusty wind. For this, he used a circular ftraiM over which were stretched pieces of silk. 'Mnea one surface was rubbed past the other, the effect was a holloir 2li3lbid. ^ ^Ibid. , p. 298.

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216 Trtiistling sound that served as a good iraitation of a loud and fitful gnat of wliui. vfhile one aids of the frai&e was znibbed against the ottier in quick motion to Iwdld the effect, Loxitherbourg passed large silken balls over the distress-signal tambourine. This firing of a signal of distress in a storm at sea was one of the most spectacular sound effects. Reports were that he had tried many schemes to effect this sound, but nothing worked to his satisfacticaa until "he hit up<« the notion of using a large skin • • * dressed into parchment. "^liS This parchment was then stretched over a circular frame and held fast by screws so that it would be tight, with a light spcmge on the e«i of a •whalebone sprii^ h« could strike the tamboinrine with gentleness to convey the impression of a far-off gim or with violence to effect a nearly explosion." The reverberations of the blow served to "produce a sound exactly like a receding echo bounding li^tly against a long and endless tier of low-hanging clouds. "21*6 Events connected with Edmund Kean's revival of King Lear , in 1820, serve as an illustration of the devastating effect of Loutherbourg's tremendous scenes. In this presentation Kean produced "A Land Storm, •» after the manner of Loutherbourg • s Eidophusikon . In this storm scene, trees bent to the tempest, boughs creaked and swayed, leaves rustled and moaned* greet billows reared, rolled and crashed} stage thunder, lightning, hall, and rain, resulted in Lear (Kean) being seen sometimes in a blue glare, sometimes in a green one, and ^ ^Ibid. , p. 296 2li6ibid.

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scsnetines In a purple hue; Lear's lines were not heard. On one occasion, ythen Loutherbourg used the Eldophuslkon to depict a storiB at sea off the coast of Naples, a real thunderstorm broke over London. The superstitious among the audience ran to the lobby in terror, protesting against the presumption of the inventor for indtating the inysterles of nature. Loutherbourg and Gainsborough were reported to have been on the roof of the theatre, where th^ could view the storm and, at the same time, witness the mimic representation on the stage. Gainsborough watched and listened intmtly for a few moments, then, turning to his friend, said, "De Loutherbourg, our thunder is the best."^^^ The realism achieved by the ooabination of sound and action ejojited comment from repOTters. The Niagara Falls scene was described as one in which "the artificial roar of the water created ideas perfectly corresponding with those the appearance of the torrents calls forth, Many of the old methods for producing sound effects were still present, but Loutherbourg can be credited with a new and skillful approach. The memorable point about Loutherboxirg and these sound effects was not that he worked out devices so complex and revoluticmary as to be impracticable on any stage other than this miniature one, but, rather, that by the use of some simple materials and the application of an excell^t ear for sounds he produced a very 2l47w, J. iSacqueen-Pope, Theatre Royal Drury La ne (Lwidoot W. H. Allen, 19U$), p. 252. ^h^Pyne, op. cit. , p, 297. ^ ^ornlng Herald . February 1, 1782.

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21*7 remarkable imitation of reality. Survey of Innovations and Inventiona Loutherboiirg ' s spectacular productions v/ere so successful they replaced the playwright and the playj with Loutherbourg, a satisf^ylng decor was the ultimate goal. From all accounts > his approach to ml8«| en scene was not ccmcemed with dramatic theories or the playwright's product. However, the trends in the theatre were toward the production of entertainment for the sake of an emotional appeal rather than an intellectual one. As a designer, Loutherbourg pleased his audience for a decade and, being a thorou^-^oing roioanticist, ha integrated the rcMnantic trends of the time into stage productions. ,< Some of these trends were unmistakable. One was toward a decor that was both realistic and romantic. The realistic expressed itself in an accurate representation of nature. An illustration of this is found in the sketches made by Loutherbourg for the camp scene °^ Richaard ni . (See Plate XVI). In this production he not only offered a realistic view of an army encampment and its tents, but in one 8cene« he reproduced a landscape strewn with the debris of battle. All of the play's settings are marked by a similar richness of realistic detail. The romantic traid fostered representaticais of the remote parts of the earth: the Orient, the Americas, and the distent islands. It tended toward the picturesque and the sublime, toward idealised 2B*h:«Bruit, op. cit. , p. 117 »

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PIAXE XVI SKETCHES FOR RICHARD lU.

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2h9

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250 representations of nature which the stage was pre-«ninently fitted to produce. The drawing called "ifountain Scenery** is believed to be the only available design which Loutherbourg made for his Eidophusikon (see Plate XVII). In this drawing the distant view of mountains, the great rock formations, the waterfall, the suggestion of great depth over the cliff and the broken fence all serve as testimony of his interest in the picturesque. • • > The exploitation of these romantic tendencies on stage required the solution of several technical problems: a new managem^t of "flats" and "set-pieces," a system of lighting iriiich would put the actor into the stage picture, and the improvement of perspective. These technical probl«ns were ones which Loutherbourg solved by means of new developments, in^irovanents, or innovations. * • V *> In a system of staging which consisted principally of a back or flat and three or more pairs of side scenes, or possibly borders, it was very difficult to create effective perspective. Even under the best of conditions, a simple interior setting would produce a correct perspective only if sem frcwi one point of view. In order to get an effective illusion, each separate wing and flat had to be painted with an eye to the distance separating them, as well as to their particular angle of disposition. Loutherbourg did this. One of his stage designs, entitled the "Prison Scene," illustrates the effect h(i was able to achieve by blending one canvas into another; it also suggests that his work must have been effective regardless of the spectator's location in the house. (See Plate XVIII). The utilization of built-up scenery, even when it was combined

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252

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3 a S

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151 with the older conventional forms, necessitated a complete revision of century-old theatrical methods. Loutherbourg made changes in the old methods of staging in order to make his designs effective* The ag« in trtiich LoTitherbotirg worked and the results of his efforts mark the beginning of a fresh approach by scene designers »^^-^ They were no longer concerned with the construction of architectural designs of tremendous proportions, but Lpcame more and more concerned with the representation of the picturesque and of the remote in space and time. The scene designer's objective was to secure an illusion of nature* Moreover, Loutherbourg • s innovations and inventions can be said to have been a major factor in bringing an end to the architectural setting and in turning the trend toward the staging of panoramic vieirs* After Loutherbourg • s arrival on the theatrical scene, there was considerable evidence of an increasing swisitivity to the possibilities of a better coordinated mise en scene . Progress was slow, but it is possible to trace the stages by irtiich the newer romantic concepts grew into the familiar naturalistic forms used in the nineteenth century. Gradually, with the addition of Loutherbourg • s fresh scenic developments, the theatre moved in the direction of presentday conditions and techniques. Loutherbourg won the praise of his contemporaries, not merely because of his sense of artistic proportion, but also because of his skill as a draughtsman and the fact that he proved hinaelf a genius in his own sphere. He was ahead of his times in many respects and brought 25lAllardyce Nicoll, The Developnient of the Theatre (New Tork: Harcout, Brace & Co., 19U6), p. 17U» ,

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2^ about an increased awareness of the importance of the stage carpenter and the scene painter. He also can be said to have heralded the beginning of an age of superior decoration of dramatic exhibitions. He exerted a lasting influence on Ehglish stage decor , giving it a greater variety and a new picturesqueness, all of which earned for him the title of Prince of Scene Designers.

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CHAPTER 17 •: . . . ,-.« J.*' "*. I . . A KftH OF MANY PARTS Philippe Jacques de Louthearbourg possessed a vivid personality, lively imagination, and an aiabitious spirit. The years in which he lived, 17U0>l8l2, placed him within the scope of many ramifications of the romantic movemeilt} at no other time would he have been able to exeH the influence that he did* He was not an isolated spirit by MXiy manner of means; indeed, because of his nature, background, and training, he was able to bring to a fuller development the factors which made romanticism the dosiinant force in late eighteenth century Ihglish life. li^^"^^ Loutherbourg arrived in Digland in 1771 as a young artist with success, fame, and experience already to his credit. Cne of the first records of Loutherbourg ' s activities in London was set down by Henry Angelo in his Heminiscence . Angelo recalled that, among the important foreigners who were guests at his heme from time to time, thei^ was no one more "generally esteemed than Mcaisieur de Loutherboui^ . Angelo described the artist as a "handsome man of polished manner s."^ He also said that the artist wad an amateur magician and that many an ^enry Angelo, Rmniniscence of Henry Angelo » with Meiaoirs of His Late father and Friends (London; Henry Colbum & Richard Bentl^, 1030), I, p. 16. ^ Ibid. , p. 265. ' ' .••4. • m

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258 evening the guests at his home were entertained by Loutherbourg's seemingly inexhaustible supply of fun and tricks. Loutherbourg knew the power of magical illusion and was aware that it could hold an audience I whether at a private dinner party or on the stage of the . , ) Drury Lane Theatre. Actually, very little is known ccmceming Loutherbourg's personal life outside of a few incidents and comments. Because of his early success as an artist in France, it was said that he became the "idol of Parisian society. "3 in England, he became a popiilar favorite at court and received the patronage of King George III. One comment made by Loutherbourg himself was that he "had a hot head and a strong mind" and disliked mixing with company.^ It was during the later years of his life that he told FaringtMi some interesting facts concerning his daily habits, facts that substantiate his statement that he led a quiet life, in spite of his social standing* He said that he usually h^ eight hours sleep, drank port wine every day, since he considered it important in the English climate, and admitted that he sometimes spent as much as a month or six weeks in the house without going out.^ Loutherbourg was almost seventy years old when he made this statement and, since he was still turning out many canvases from his studio, much of his tine must have been spent with ' 3josepii Karker, Studio and Stage (London: Nisbet & Co., Ltd., 192U, p. 160. ^o8ei±i Farington, The Farington Diary (London: Hutchingson & Co., 1922), VI, p. 183. 5lbid. , II, p. 18$,

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brush and palette in hand. It also indicates that he did most of his i" • . • . painting in his studio rather than out-of-doors.' ' ' ' In general, the reports were that he was a pleasant and popular person, even though a little hot headed. The following incident shoirs that he was very sensitive about his work as an artist. On one occasion, the famous surgeon, John Hunter, who knew Loutherbourg well and often came to his studio to watch him paint, dared to criticise the artist's use of tint, stating that it was too green. Loutherbourg growled that it was not green enough and applied an even stronger green to the canvas.^ Hunter observed that Loutherbourg did not receive remarks on his work graciously. He was a kind-hearted man, but one irritated at trifles and "exceedingly particular in preserving order in the arrangement of all the areas of his art."^ During his lifetime, Loutherbourg, whose name was spelled many different ways, acqviired a few nicknames. One of the most interesting given to him by his students because of his personal carriage and manner had the militaristic tone of some of his paintings j they called him "Field Marshal Leatherbags.** Some estimate of his character can also be discovered from the interpretation of him in portraits of the time. His pleasant, rather strcsig, manly face was twice limned by his admirer Gainsborough. A rainiattire of him painted by J. Jackson, 6lbld. , I, p. 165. 7 lbid. , p. 255. ^The Era Almanack , I87I, p. 35*

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260 R. A., was engraved by H. Ifyers in 1813 alter Loutherbourg ' s death. (See Plate XIX). There is also a miniature portrait by Richard Cosway, R. A., -who had the highest reputation of any of the English ndJiiaturists. In painting Loutherbourg, these artists emphasized qualities similar to those found in the verbal descriptions made by his contenporariesj they represented him as a large, strong-joired, dignified persOT.^ It is easy to lose sight of the fact that he was a foreigner on th» Ehglish scene because he remained in England so long that he seemed like a native. At the time of his death the press referred to him as a British artist, said that he was "held in great est eon by the best characters for the uniform propriety of his conduct, as well as for his extraordinary abilities as an artist," and maintained that the British did not have another artist who could match Loutherbourg in representing the great events and the peaceful country side on canvas. ^•^ This fact v/as particularly noticeable in his painting of human figures which were, in countenance as well as manners, completely Ehglish. This was especially true of the British heroes in his large battle-scene canvases. The exact location of Philippe Jacques dc Loutherbourg ' s birthplace is rather uncertain, althotigh Fulda, in Hesse-Nassu, is ^icaurice Harold Grant, A Chronological History of the Old English Landscape Painters In Oil (London: Hudson & Keams, n.d.), p. 111. ^ ^Universal Magazine , fferch, I8l2. ^European Magazine , fJlarch, I8l2,

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261 PIATE XIX FHILIPPE JACQUES DE LOUTHERBOURG FjTom an engraving after the miniature of J. Jackson

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262 agreed upon by most biograjiiers. The claims of that town, over those of Strasbourg, which was formerly believed to have been his birthplace, rest up<»i statements made by his biographer Auguste Jal. Jal states that when Loutherbourg was unable to produce a birth-certificate in Paris, his father explained the circumstances by stating that the town of his birth, Fulda, a village belonging to Hassel-Cassel, had been completely destroyed, along with the official records, in the late Seven Years war.^^ Loutherbourg was reported to have said that his family came from Lithuania and that, for several centuries, they had settled in the S7d.ss Cantcm of Berne. He also claimed to have boen bom at Basle. 13 Upon the artist's tomb at Chiswick, the place of his birth is given as Strasbourg. It should be noted, however, that the piece of stone bearing this name has been inserted in pliwje of another which has beai removed.-'-^ The biographers of the artist also disagree as to the precise year of his birth. They acknowledge that it was on October 12, but five differotit writers have assigned five different years: 1728, 1730, 173U, 17U0, and 17Ul. One explanation for this diversity has been that Loutherbourg 's fondness for astrological studies, typical of the romantic interest in symbolic meaning and the unkown, may have induced 12 Auguste Jal, Dictionnalre Critique de Biographie et d'Historie (2nd. ed.j Paris: Henri Plon, 1^72;, p. S08. " ~ ~ ~" 13Farington, op. cit, , n, p. 22. H. P. John, Bartolozzi, Zoffany & Kauffman; with Other Foreign Members of the Royal Acadeny, 1768-1782 ("British Artists." tondon: Philip Allen & Co., 192U), p. 115.

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263 him to vary the date of his birth. This variance would have supplied him with a plurality of horoscopes and improved the chances of their predictions being justified by the actual issue of events.^ Loutherbourg's personality, receptive to the times in which he lived, received ingjressions from a rather unusual background and training* His h«ritage accounts for the reasOT his name is often listed as Ccnmt or Baron. His family was originally from Poland, where his ancestors had been ennobled by King Sigismund. Their letters of nobility were dated > arsaw, 156U: but when the Protestant Reformation began to spread in that kingdom, about the year 1537, one branch of the family left the church of Rome and moved to Switzerland to_ avoid impending persecuticwi. The rest of the family remained there until Loutherbourg ' s father, being appointed principal painter to the Prince of Darnsteadty moved to Strasbourg t-^^ Loutherbora^ came by his intcrrest in art naturally, for his grandfather and father were painters. His early training not only included a childhood surrounded by art, but an unusual mixture of science and religicm as well. These might well have been important factors in establishing his romantic tendencies. At that time, ntm scientific kntwrledge opened up many, possibilities in the arts. This enlightened spirit of free scientific inquiry was so violently anticlerical that it almost developed into a substitute religion* The experimental methods of science became the liturgy of this pseudo^A'* J. Lawrence, Manuscript Notebook, No* 1, p, 28* l6n Anecdote of Ifr. de Loutherbourg," European ffegazine (March, 1812), l8l* ^

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26U religi(»i. Accompanied by a growing skepticism and a widespread divergence frcai the old mores, the ultimate good was sought in nature or In H^ticism. Loutherbourg's schooling was such that these trends could easily have influenced his early life. His father, Fhilippe Jacques I, intofided his son to be an engineer in the army, while his mother, Catherine Barbe Heitz, wished him to become a minister of the Lutheran church. They comprOTiised. Loutherbourg was sent to the Collage of Strasbourg where he studied mathematics to qualify him for an engineer, and jdiilosoiAiy, language, and theology to enable him to take
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16$ progressive Romantic, who, because of a sensitive temperament, was forced to affirm his lack of faith in mere logic and reason. ' ' Farington relates that Loutherbourg told him that, as a boy of fifteen, he set out for Paris after his father's death. This" could not possibly be accurate, since there are p»i^lic records irtiich prove that the father took his son to Paris in 1756 where they r«nained until the father's death in 1768, more than a dozen years later After Loutherbourg left the College of Strasbourg, he began to study art seriously. Here, again, it is possible to find reasons for his amazing versatility} each of the artist's with whom he worked , specialized in a different style and technique, as well as in different subject matter. Loutherbourg took the best from each of his teachers without becoming an imitator of any of then. After his father had given him 3om instruction, Loutherbourg was placed with the elder Tischbein from whan he learned the dainty Rococo Style. Next, he became a pupil of Carlo Vanloo, -nho was then manager of the Ecole Royale des Beaux-arts , with a studio in the Apollo Gallery of 90 the Louvre.* Vanloo was noted for his large-scale decorative paintings and grand canvases containir^ many figures and much visual movement. Loutherbourg remained with Vanloo only a brief time, but long enough for him to understand Vanloo 's decorative style and beccane acquainted with his spectacular effects. A short time later, ^E* Benezit, Dictionnaire Critique et Documentaire Des Pylntres, Sculptures, ^ssinaterirs et Graveurs (ifew ed.; Paris; Ubrarie Grund, 1952}, XXV, p. 61i5. H. Stranahan, A History of French Painting (New York: Oiarles Scribner'a, 1888), p. 101.

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266 he was reported as being at the studio of the celebrated battlepainter, Francois Casanova, rrtiere he stayed for several years. Iftider Casanova, Loutherbourg mastered the technique of painting battle-scenes with force and vigouTt , " As a result of his native ability and his diverse training, he became a distinguished figure in Parisian society and Bocn firmly established hinuself as an artist. On June 22, 1763, he was made agree at the L'Academie Royale by a unanimous vote. At the time of his election, Jean Georg ?/ille, the engraver, wrote in his Journal that the artist's technique in landscape was astonishingly effective for a young man of only twenty-two years. "I got up from my seat," recalled Wille, "in order to entorace him and to introduce him to the assembly. Since he was only twenty-two years old, he lacked eight years of being the minimum age prescribed for admission to L'Academie Royale . ^3 The fact that the adamantine regulations of the French academy were relaxed in his favour serves as concrete evidence of his artistic ability. Firm 176^ to 1779, he participated In all the eadilbitlons with great success. On August 22, 1767, he became a full member of L'Academie Royale de Peintxg-e et de Sculpture . His diplocaa-work was called Cooabat Sur Terre . About this time, Loutherbourg became Interested in a young 2 lNouvelles Archives de L'Art F^ancais (3d. Series j Paris; Charavey Freres, Ibaa;, IV, p. 201;. 22jean George Wille, Memoires et Journal de J. -G rille , Graveur du Roi (Paris: Ve Jules Fenouard, 1857^, I, p. 226. 23jal, op. cit. , p. 808. 2liLudovic Vitet, L'Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (Paris: LJLchel Levy Freres, 1861), p. 373.

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267 irldow, Barbe Burlat. His father opposed their marriage since he ccnsldered that the young vidoir «u nothing aaee than a "coquette. ** Plnallyy he relented and a petition for marriage was presented to the archives of Paris. The archbishop permitted the priest of St. Eustace to marry the young couple January 10, 176ii.^ The Loutherboiargs' first child was baptized on September 17, 176U, and named after his father. After the birth of their second son, the artist signed the parish register with a de before his name. The reason behind such an addition is not known, but it is possible that he considered his new circumstances as a recognized artist demanded the more decorative name. According to the church register, there were six children in all. His life with the widow seems to have been a ston^y aae and there ia good reason to question the pat«mity of the last two children listed under the Loutherboiarg name in the parish church register. It has been suggested that the admonition to travel and study nature, made by the critic Diderot at the Salon of 1769, was responsible for Loutherbourg's departure from France sometime in 1771. There may have been other in?)ortant reasons. He may have wanted to escape from his troublesome married life. A more pertinent reason may have been the fact that in England he san an opportunity to develop the kind of work in which he was interested. It is doubtful he would have gone to all the trouble to get the letter of introduction to Garrick if he had not planned to use it vhea he z'eached England. Moreover, the 25jal, op. cit. j p. 809.

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268 . , Romantic tfovement was very much in evidence in Eiigland in 1771 and this may have influenced the young painter to leave Paris. Regardless of the reason, Loutherbourg left his family never to return to them. His wife, Barbe Burlat, sued him for non-support, but her case was not given much credit when her illicit relationship with Godefroy-Charles-Henri de la Tour D'Auvergne, prince of Turenne, was brought out.''° There are no records, however, that Loutherbourg ever divorced his French wife. After leaving Paris, Loutherbourg travelled for some months in Germany, Switzerland, and Italy before he arrived in London in November, 1771. With the exception of some months spent in Switzerland seventeen years later, he remained in Sigland the rest of his life. 27 In 1772, at the invitation of Sir Joshua Reynolds, the artist sent several contributions to the exhibition of the Royal Academy in London. The invitation was made possible as a result of council action in 1771, when they passed a special resolution which established the principle that foreign artists should have admittance to the Drawing Academy and the lectures without probation or fee. Loutherbourg was the first foreign artist to take advantage of this new rule. That first year he sent two landscapes in oil and five drawings. From that year until his death, he was an energetic contributor.^^ 2 6ibid. 27sandy, op. cit. . I, p. 192. no Charles Robert Leslie, Ufe and Times of Si r Joshua Reynolds (London: John ?.toray, 1865), I, pTW^. ^ ^^^"""^"^

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269 * •' Loutherbourg ' s talent was soon recognized by English art circles. At the general meeting of the Royal Academy, on November 6, 1780, G. Stubbs and Loutherbourg were elected associates. At this time, Loutherbourg was a far more popular landscape painter than either Gainsborough or ITilson. The following year, on December 10, the anniversary of the institution of the Royal Academy, a General Assembly of the academicians was held at the Royal Academy, Somersetplace, and "P. J. De Loutherbourg was admitted an academician, and received his diploma signed by his majesty. "^^ Loutherbourg ' s diploma-work was a landscape. Diploma works v.-ere examples of painting, sculpture, engraving and architectural drawings deposited by newly elected Academicians and form the main collection of works in the Diplojna Gallery. ^° Loutherbourg was not in London long before he fell in love with the remarkably fair Lucy Smith. It appears, however, Loutherbourg had a bit of trouble persuading the lady to marry him. If anything classifies him as a romantic spirit, his solution to this problem .certainly does. He is said to have decided on a rouse de guerre , sending her "his chemise stained with blood." As a result, she married him soon after .31 There must have been sc»ne legal arrangements made concerning his first wife since Lucy Smith was of exemplary character ^ ^Annual Register , XXIV, p. 200. 3^Aalter Lamb, The Royal Academy, A Short History of its Foundation and DeveloF»nent (London; (i. Bell & Sons. 1951 J. p. 17. ^^Angelo, op. clt. , II, 329.

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270 and there are no indications that her relationship with Loutherbourg was anything but proper. Furthermore, the second Ifrs. Loutherbourg certainly knew of her husband's family in fiance since the two oldest BcsxBf who became painters > visited their father in London, and the oldest daughter was married there to an Englishman. Loutherbotirg ' s success as a scene designer at the Drury Lane made him one of London's prominent figures. Evidence of his financial success is seen in the fact that, in 1783, the artist was able to move to his well known address Nos. 7 and 8 Hammersmith Terrace, Chiswick, where he resided until his death in 1812. Hammersmith Terrace was then a fashionable riverside resort on the left bank of the Thames. 33 Loutherbourg ' s presence at Hammersmith attracted another distinguished resident to the area. Several biographers note that J. M, W. Turner went to live there in order to be near him. Turner and Loutherbourg had become associated through their companion battle-pieces for Greenwich Hospital j the younger man greatly admired the highly theatrical artist. 3^ In 1789, Loutherbourg did not contribute to the exhibition because of a curious and rather unexpected episode in his career, one probably resulting both from his sensitive temperament and his studies in science and religion. His restless energy involved him in that 32jal, op. cit. , p. 809* 33«tsurvey of London: Artistic Hammersmithi" The Connoisseur (London), XLV (May, 1916), 95. . , ""^ 3^Bemard Falk, Turner the Painter, His Hidden Life (London*. Hutchinson & Co., 1938), p, 66.

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271 cloud of occultism which brooded heavily over revolutionary Europe in the last quarter of the eighteenth century when a sort of "carnival of empiricism prevailed. "^^ Charlatanism was traceable in politics, science, and religion; the whole world seemed to delight in cheating or being cheated. Loutherbourg sought to find the supernatural within the nattcral, to achieve an emotional fusion of the real and the unreal. Considering that artists have the general reputation of being excitable, receptive, impressible, and ready prey for those who deal in illusion and trickery, it is not surprising to find Loutherbourg 'a name in the list of those fascinated by the mysteries of the occult. In this part of his life, romanticism certainly marked him for her own. He was far from alone in this, however, as other painters of this period were also dreaming dreams and seeing strange visions .36 This event wae characteristic of the artistic conceptions which developed more fully in the nineteenth century and caused the symbolists to revel in sense data and the artists to put religious visions on canvas. The visionary Loutherbourg went in search of the philosopher's stone and, for some time, he pursued this fascinating activity assiduously.37 Then, he became interested in Mesmer's "animal magnetism" and became a pupil of Dr. De Mainauduc. The main • 35Austin Dobscn, At Prior Park (London: Chatto & Windus, 1912), p. 118. 36Dutton Cook, Art in England, Notes and Studies (London: Sau^json Low, 1869), p. 217. 37 John V/illiams, An Authentic History ol the Professors of Painting, Sculpture, and Architectvire (London; Symonds, 1796), p. 80.

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272 influence behind all this activity was probably Count Alexander de Cagliostro* Cagliostro had been expelled from France after nine months durance in the Bastille for supposed ccmplicity in a diamond necklace fraud that shook the political powers of France. He took refuge in Ehgland during 1786-178? and Loutherbourg and his vdfe got to know the imposter well«38 The artist and his second wife became faith-healers and, it is said, when people came to them they "looked upon them with an eye of benignity, and cured them." In one sense of the word, they could not have been considered imposters, for they actually believed they had the power to cure and charged nothing for their services .39 An account of the Loutherbourgs ' miraculous cures was published by a zealous admirer in 17 8?. It was reported in the panqphlet that between Christmas, 1788, and July, 1789, the Loutoerbourgs cured two thousand people. This curious, fanatical, nine-page quarto pamphlet, published 'by Mary Rratt, was entitled, A List of Cures Performed by ltr» and Mrs . De Loutherbourg, of Hammersmith Terrace, without Medicine; by a Lover of the Lamb of God , and was dedicated to the Archbishop of Canterbury in elaborate terms. ^ I4ary Pratt described Loutherbourg as "a gentleman of superior abilities, well known in scientific and polite assemblies for his 38cook, op. clt. , p. 2l6, 3 9ibid. • ^^hcfflias Faulkner, The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Hammersmith (London: Nicholas & Son, 1^3?;, p. 31i6. — — — —

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273 brilliance of talents as a philosopher and painter, who, with his idfe, had been made proper recipients of "devine manuductions** and gifted with the power "to diffuse healing to the afflicted} whether deaf, dunib, lane, halt, or blind." In the preface, Mrs* Pratt stated that her pamphlet had been published without the consent of Loutherbourg.^ The cures enumerated in Mrs. Pratt's list would be marvellous indeed, if the slightest credit could be attached to the lady' s statements. Loutherbourg's treatment of the patients who flocked to him were undoubtedly founded on the practice of Mesmer, thotigh Horace Walpole attempted to draw a distinction between the curative methods of the two doctors. In a letter to the Countess of Osswry, dated July, 1789, V.alpole wrote, "Loutherbourg the painter is turned an inspired physician, and has three thousand patients. His sovereign panacea is barley water. I believe it is as efficacious as mesmerism." The activity of the Loutherbourg s attracted extraordinary attention. A popular clergyman advertised a meeting to debate the question; "Is it consistait with reason or religion to believe that Mr. De Loutherbou3rg has performed and cured by a divine power, without any medical applicaticms?"^ Crowds surroimded the painter's house at Hannersmith Terrace at all hours and it was difficult for the ^Ibid. , p. 287. ^Horace Valpole, Horace Walpole ' s Correspondence (New Haven i Yale University, 1939), XVI, p. 227. ^3samuel Redgrave, A Dictionary of Artists of The English School (London: George Bell & Sons, lb78;, p. 122.

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27h painter and his wife to eater or leave the premises. He vas even forced to issue a prospectus which gave the tines when he was ftree for cOTisultation.^ These were called "healing-days" and a portion of the house was set aside as "healing-rooms." Patients were admitted to the presence of the artist-iiiysician by ticket and it has been said that at times as many as three thousand people were seen waiting for these prized bits of pasteboard. Hary Pratt recounts "with horror and detestation" the wickedness of certain spectators in the cz*owd» who, having procured tickets » gratis » unscrupulously sold them at a profit.^ Evwi at the time Mary Rratt's little paini*ilet was published, the tide was turning. His patients turned against himj those that had been duped grew desperate and the house in Hanrmersmith Terrace was attacked by an angry mob. Stones were thrown and most of the windows were smashed. Fortunately, not much other damage was reported. The demonstration was sufficient, however, to cause Loutherbourg and his wife to vacate their residence and leave the kingdom. It was during this time that Loutherbourg and his wife, acccMnpanied by Madame Cagliostro, made a trip to Syritzerland. It was believed that Loutherbourg and Cagliostro and their respective wives had intended to settle in Switzerland in 1787, but before their plans ^^Dobson, op. cit. f p. 119. ^^Charles MacKay, Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions , and the Madness of Crowds (London; George Routledge & Son, 1869), I, p. 288. ^^obson, op. cit., p. 119» •• •

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27^ want into effect, they became involved in a series of violent quarrels mhich culminated in lawsuits and a duel, Loutherboui^ won the final lawsuit and Cagliostro defaulted on the duel. The artist and his wife returned to Laadfxaf but not without first wandering over the coimtry side so the artist coTild make sketches irtiich he had beai commissioned to do, and also to paint the Rhine waterfalls, near Schaffhovise.^^ On resuming his career as painter, he y/as given the same encouragement as before and was, by all accounts, "highly respected by all who knew him."'*^ After Louth erbourg ' s retxxm to Hammersmith Terrace, there was no further "wonder-working," although it is not unlikely that he continued to dabble in medicine. This is supported by a letter, dated later in I803, which comnents upon his preoccupation with dietdrinks.^ liOutherbourg probably had many aspiring young artists at his studios over the years, but he had no really important pupils. The rather unimportant Francis Bouregeois studied with him for two years and later became an imitator of his teacher. Insofar as Loutherbotirg ' s effect on his caitemporaries was concerned, many of their works are almost indistinguishable from his. One of these conten^raries was Geox^e Morland, who having had the same cosmopolitan training, later ^7 Andre Girodie, Notes Biographiquea sur les Peintures Loutherbourg (Archives /asaciannes D'Historie de L'Art, 1935), p. 250. ^%'hrowbridge, op. elt, , p, 282, ^obson, op, cit. , p, 120*

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276 became a better known painter than Loutherbourg and developed a style nearly as international as his. Morland was considered the greatest of all the ruralistsj however, he often painted in a style which was little more than an exceptional indtaticm of Loutherbourg. This similarity not only appeared in design but in feeling and in actual colour.^ This is also true of another painter, Julius Ibbetscn, whose landscapes are deceptive in that they are often confused with those of Loutherbourg. The small Shakespearean scenes which Ibbetson painted for Boydell's gallery would pass very well as the work of Loutherbourg.^^ Ibbetson* s work can be distinguished from Loutherbourg 's, however, by virtue of his technique at cloud painting* Ibbetson, a delicate sky-painter, was a master at retrocession, building up his clouds in layers to give them immeasurable depth and breadth. Loutherbourg, on the other hand, was concerned with general bulk and outline, t'urtherraore, Loutherbourg ' s figures, though more colourful than the melancholy figures of Ibbetson, were slightly less finished. There were other very minor landscape painters who produced pictures which could be mistaken for his. One of these was Edward Gran, who was at one time Loutherbourg 's assistant and, always, his admirer. Oram's work had the breadth of Loutherbourg s lai^e canvases but it contained a measure of artifice that kept it frcan being a serious challenge to his master's product. Another admirer ^%rant, op. cit. , p. HO. ' ^^Ellis V<'aterhouse, Painting in Britain, 1530-1790 ( London t Penguin Books, 1953)* p. 236.

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277 vas P. le Cave, T»ho possessed a style of his own, b\rt irtio was fond of following the Alsatian artist, not in the simpler manner of his best work, but in the "glass pasture and marble bullock" phase which prompted the doggerel of Peter Pindar.^ Loutherbourg was in poor health for several years before his death. In the spring of 1308^ one of his acquaintances said that he appeared to be a man "whose constitution was breaking up ," In th« summer of 1810, Turner noted Loutherboiirg's "appearance was altered and that he seemed broken."^^ Loutherbourg died March 11, 1812, and was placed to rest next to Hogarth in Chiswick Churchyajrd. At the northnrest end of the chxirch yard, on a handsane monument secured by iron rails, is the following inscripticm : This monument is dedicated to the memory of Ffiilip James De Loutherbouz^, Esq. R. A. T/ho was bom at Strasboiirgh, in Alsace, Nov. 17liO, and departed this life at Hammersmith Terrace, !&rch 11, 1812, Age 72 years with talents brilliant, and supereminent as an artist, he united the still more envied endowment of a cultivated, enlarged and elegant mind, adding to both the supreme qualities of the heart, which entitled him as a man and a Christian to the cordial respect of the wise and good. In his science was associated with faith, piety with liberality, virtue with suavity of manners. And the rational use of this world with the ennobling hope of a world to come. A deathless fame will record his professional excellence. But to the hand of friendship belong the office of strewing on his TOTib those miral flowers which display themselves in his life, and which rendered him estimable as a social being. ^^Grant, op. cit. , p. 187. ^^Faringtcm, op. cit. , VI, p. 105.

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278 This monument was erected from a design by Sir John Soane, and the epitaph was written by the Rev* Dr* Christopher Lake Moody^ whose initials were placed under it: Here, Loutherbourgh! repose thy laurel 'd head; While art is cherish' d thow canst na're be dead. Salvator, Poussin, Claude, thy skill combines. And beauteous nature lives in thy designs, C* L« U« Loutherboui^'s many-sided personality left a great impression on his contemporaries. Even the catalogue of Loutherbourg's sale, in 1812, reveals his varied interests. The catalogue listed: an extensive library including numerous rare books; a large collecti(»i of costumes of all periods and countries; elaborate models of men-of-war and other vessels, catalogued as "of 16* * De Loutharbourg's o«n const ruction"; a eollecticn of small, expertly painted models of stage scenery; and the entire equipnient of his art studio. It is possible to obtain some idea of Loutherbourg's romantic spirit, receptive and exeuberant as it was, from these brief episodes of his personal life. The fact that he did participate in so many different activities and used such a varied number of techniques indicates how completely he belonged to the times. This identification with his age can be easily traced from his early education, through his artistic training, to his interest in theatrical innovaticms and matters of the occult. His life was one of success and ^^^Thonas Faulkner, The History and Antiquities of Brentford , Ealing, and ChisTrick (LcxidMi: SimjMn, Marshall & Co., 181i5}, p. 33tt»

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279 accanplishment with few periods of discouragement or despair. He was continually before the public in one way or another and he always showed an unflagging zeal for his various forms of artistic production. He was held in high esteem by his English contemporaries and respected for his artistic achieveraaits which made it possible for him to exert a signal influsice on the artistic developments of the age.

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CHAPTER T (JONCLOSIOH Loutherbourg imderstood the trends of the times so well that he was able to offer the ajglish public the artistic elements they were seeking in both easel painting and stage decmr . It could be said that in many wa^s he anticipated these trends and, because of his foresight, was able to carry certain of them further than nd^t othenrLse have been the case. The English rranantic tradition of the late eighteenth century was made up of a variety of elsnents, many of which were exemplified by facets of Loutherbourg' s personality and creative work. Although he spent the first years of his life in Europe, in time, he came to exemplify the romantic spirit in England. He had a self assurance and firm belief in his own ability that made it possible for him to break with the artistic conventlois of the past. He had the vision to see new and different forms, plus the vigour and imagination to put those new farms into effect. Loutherbourg ' s early recognition by the public and his ccaitinued success as an artist indicate that he was able to create ^at the public desired. Loutherbourg, a dreamer, became fascinated by the possibilities of the Tinknown and the supernatural. Proof of this can be found in his search for the philosopher's stcne, his concern with the occult, 280

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281 and his attesapfcs at "faith healing." He was ambitious and industrious » '/orking siisultaneously at two artistic careers — scene designing and easel painting— he produced and succeeded at both. He arrived in England with an overwhelming desire to see idiat he coitLd accomplish with his ambitious plans at the Drury Lane. The fact that he carried th«o out precisely, with success for himself and the management « shows how much effort he put into his work and how accurately he estimated conditions. Loutherbourg was industrious. Except for his brief "faith healing" period, at no point in his long career did he go into retirem^t or exclude himself from some form of creative activity. He never neglected his drawing and painting. WTxile In Rrance, he exhibited a dozen or more paintings at the French Royal Acadsny each year. IMs mn true even after his departure and, as late as 1779, there were new paintings by him appearing at the salon. From the time he was extended an invitatics) to e:diibit at the London Royal Academy to the very year of his death, he continxied to exhibit new drawings and paintings. These alone would have been enoiigh to absorb all the tiat of an average artist, yet, at the same time, Loutherbourg was able to produce successfully in several other artistic fields. He was a methodical craftsman. It would take a man of lailindted patience to develop the canplicated mechanism of the Eido~ phusiktai to the point ishere its sound and motion could replace all other aspects of theatrical production* The oany detailed drawings that he made fw his great battle-pieces also serve as evidence of his

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282 coQcecrn for ninttt© details* These qualities made it possible for him to play a major role in laringing the romantic traditicai to SngUsh art. It must be renenjbered; hovrevery that a painter must have more than a changed method or technique in order to break with artistic tradition. Loutherbourg made the break yibsn he rejected the ccnv^itional bx*oiin tones and placed contrasting coloiurs side by side. This use of bzHliant gree^s^ oranges, and reds gave an exciting effect to his caimiaes. IVlor to his entry on the artistic seme, academic painters had definite pictorial centers that served to focus attention. Loutherbourg ' 8 compositions did not; th^ were rhytlimical and the vi0irar*8 attention moved from one point of interest an the canvas to another. Loutherbourg was able to achieve this by an asymmetric arrangement of masses and the contrast of light and shade. This method of composition became a significant characteristic of later romantic art. Not only were his coloi}r8 and methods of composition in opposition to classical serenity in painting, but he assisted the new g^eration of artists to achieve a more onotional form of landscape painting called the "picturesque." This form of landscape encouraged the literary enthusiasm for untamed nature aad iJi;)arted new overtones to the world of visual expexdoice. , After ccHi sideling the astooishlng series of his grander English woiics, arepresentations of battles by land and sea, heroes of every profession, dramas and novels, storms and frowning coast, it is

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283 difficxilt to realize that they came from the hand of a foreigner and a cosmopolitan* Even more impressive rrere his cormtless versions of rural spots and occupations, the pleasant vales and velvet uplands of A strkty of Loutherbourg*s canvases reveals that, utiile he excelled in the qualities that make for good scene painting, namely, strong light and shade, inpressive design, vigorous colours, and finely balanced compositions, he also showed a mastery of dramatic presentation. This was a very significant factor since it had a definite relationship to his stage design* His canvases night well be called dramatic art in painting* A close consider ti<»i of this dramatic quality reveals that he used the human form not for its own Mdctt, bot siaply to get enough verisimilitude so that one mi^t feel the emotional effects of movement and activity* There was a direct connection betw»«n Loutherbourg's style of easel painting and his stage d^cor . His technique of presenting picturesque artificiality and arranging "props" with a degree of naturalins in his easel paintings assisted him in developltig perspective
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281i The various facets of Loutherbourg ' s personality fitted him well for a career as a scene designer* His vivid imagination i forceful technique, and mechanical skill produced innovations and stag« inventions that broxight effective illusions to the theatre. During the years that he was England's foremost stage designer, he fostered a new concept of the possibilities of stage design, stage limiting, and mechanical novelty. In his contriving of these stage devices and effects, Loutherbourg proved to be the greatest technical genius of the period. These forms of theatricality were well suited to the elaborate and romantic settings used by the dramatists of the time. As a result of Loutherbourg 's influence, scenery became lavish and grand. Scenic designs were so elaborate that they dwarfed the action and converted the playscript into a scenario around irtiich the fantastic, grand, and magnificent settings were displayed. The ultimate result is seen in the Eidophusikon , where Loutherbourg united stage hand and artist, and banished author and actor. He enabled the scene designer to stand alone, in all his glory* This lack of emphasis on the playscript discouraged the writing of good dramatic literature. The theatre thrived, but the drama declined. -Vith the London stages filled with lavish productions irtiich thrilled and awed the audioice, there was little demand on the part of the theatre-goer for anything more than "sound and show." The audience was too busy seeing and feeling to think. It was Loutherbourg* 8 tremendous designs and artistic ability i^ich seized the imagination and captivated the public* Loutherbourg* 8 genius cabled him to stage spectacles with a

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285 kind of naturalism previously unknoim in London. His ttotIc marked the beginning of that conplicated realism favored by scene designa-s of the next generation. Succeeding or failing, Loutherbourg aimed at the productiai of certain pictorial tours de force which other designers of his time would never have attempted. Loutherbourg ' s aim in stage decor was to pre««nt the grand in nature as realistically as possible; he fits nicely ijnto the classifioation of the romantic realist. He helped to bring about the realistic picture stage and paved the way for realism in detail and local colour. His masterful eighteenth century geographical spectacles brought a new degree of splendour and pictorial effect to the stage, ^ese served as instructive examples of the successful c(»ttbinaticxi of sev^al elements of popular interest and showed that pantomime had an Important part in the development of raalistic costumes aj»l scenery. ) In these astonishing v^tures Loutherbourg successfully demonstrated the possibilities of realism, set up machinery for the productiwi of realistic si^ts and sounds, and furnished a motive for its continued use. , • • Loutherbourg 's Eidojp^iusikcn foreshadowed certain theatrical developments of the next omtury. It was not cmly a form of novelty entertainment for the late eighteenth century audiences, but also the most interesting experiment in stagecraft at the time. The Eidophusikon , a rainiatinre scoiic spectacle completely in the picturesque style, was a nearly perfect representation of the realistic-romantic idea of stage decor, a goal that the scene painters of the legitimate

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theatre were striving to attain. Ifafortunately, the lairge stages of the public theatres were not equipped to handle the reaarkabGLe sceoic effects iritLch Loutherbourg achieved on his m fkll stag«. The Eidoji^usikon also Influenced the artists of the time. Sir Joshua Reynolds was charmed by its picturesque and rcmantic scraies; J. H. W, Turner was influenced by its magical li^tingi and Gainsborough was indebted to it for naich of his so-called "gaspardesque" manner. Loutherboxa?g's striving for realian not only illustrates his ingenuity, but also ^ows his lack of concern for aesthetic distance. His exacting sotuid effects and naturalistic movement evaitually becaise essential properties of melodrama where the snpathy of the audience was saczlficed in favor of sensational realism* Some of Loutherboxurg's devices were so effective that his audioice lost si^ of the fact that they were experiencing an artistic imitatioi of nature. Instead, they believed themselves involved with nature herself. Loutherbourg was a thorough-going romanticist who was ^le to correctly evaluate the trends of the time and to grasp opportunity irtien it came his way. He capitalised on public events, inqxartant social occasicsis, and disasters. Loutherbourg never disappointed his audience. Loutherbourg helped to revolutionise scene design in Ehgland and to bring about a unity of mise en scene . Traaendous power, inwentivenesa, phenomenal speed of execution, vivid imagination and foreeftil techniques, all combined to make him the greatest scene

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287 painter of his time. As a pivotal figure in the roaontic period and « transitional figitre between neo-«lassic and modem stage decor , Loutherbourg looms large*

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295 KUngender, Yrancia B, Art and "foe Indnstrlal P.evolutic«i » London: Noel Carrington, 1^7. '' ' .? •. *. . ^ Konody, Raul G., et al . Painting . Snr York* Gard«n City, 1929> htab. Sir Walter. The Rqyal Acadenyi A Short History of Its Focndation and Developtaentl L<«idan: G, Bell & rc«a, 19^1. La:v«r, Jcmes. Drama: It8 Co3t^mte and Decor * London: Stiidio Publications, 1951. iMSlaac, Charles, saamel de L'Aaateor d'astampes. 2 vols. Fttrist anile Boulton, 1356. Leslie, Charles Rdbeirt. Life teyi Tiaea of Sir Jo^ua Reynolds * 2 vols. London: John x^urray, 1Q65* , Memoirs of the lAfe of John Constable . London: J, tU Dent, Levallet-flaug, liae. Qeneivieve. Trois Slecles d'art Alsaciene, I6?j8~ 19U8 . Rarls, 191*8. Leiris, 7/ilnarth Sheldon. Three Tours Throo^ London in the Years 17U8~1776-1797 . fteir Havens Yale University, 19U1. Loutherbourg, Philippe Jacques de. The Romantic and Ficttiresque ScCTery of SnglegKi ai>d "Tales, Fron Drairings . London: R. B<^rer, 1805. Loee, R6b«rt ^. A Bibliographical Account of Ei^lish Theatrical Literature . Hsir York: «7* BoutoQ« 155{5* loeas, £• Louise (ooi^.). Ttw ^^trrort list of BUxflcs en Art . SaMt Harvard Itaiversity I^ess, 1952. Zoeas, Frank XloireRce. The Decline and Fall of the Ronantle Ideal. New York: The University Press, 1936. lynch, James J. Box -it and Gallery, f.tage and Society in Johnson's London . Berkley: Ifeiiversity of California i'ress, 1953. Uacgoiran, Kenneth, and Uelnitz, V/illiaoi. The Living Stag ; e . 1km Yox^t Prantico-Hall, Inc., 1955. Mrdoy, Charles. Iteoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions > and the Madness of Crowds l London: George Routledge, 1869. iMWillan, Dougald (ed.). Druiy Lane CaletKiar, 17li7«-1776 . Oxford: Clarendon Bress, 1930.

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296 Ihcqueeai-Pope, ^. J. Theatre Royal Dnxry Lane . London; H, AlleD» iShS. tSantiscripbs of the Duke of Somerset, The I-iarquis of AilGsbnry» and the Rev. Sir* T. H. Q« Pulsston . Londcn: Ilistorical Manuscript ConBsLsslcsRy 1898» " M a n w ar lng, EliaabeUi .Vhcelar. Italian Landscape in Et^tewith Cenbtay Iki^landa A StiKiy Chiefly of the Influence of Claude Lorrain and Salvator Rosa m aiglish Taste, 1700-1^ . New Yoric: Oxford Ifiniversity Press, 1925. Iferiette, P» J. Abecedario> Sur Les Arts et lea Artistes . 6 vols* Paris! J-B. Dumoulin, 1056. Iferigni^, Jean Ztiojne FranQais. Vie dc David Garrlck^ Suivie de deux Lettres de M. Noverre a Voltaire sur ce Cclebre Acteur . Paris : Riche et Michel, 1801, Mather, Frank Jewell. A History of Italian Painting . New York* H«py Holt, 1923. MMkin, Annette M* B. Hannah I&nre, A Biographical Study . London: John Ifurray, 1919* Minrille, Lewis. The Life and Letters of V/illiam Beckford of Fonthall . H«r York: Duf field and Co., 1910. mdwl, Andre. Histoire de L'Art, Depuis les Preaiers Tenps Chratlena Jusgu'a Nos Jour's . 10 vols* Paris: Librairie Armand Colin, 1924. , . Michel, anile. Great 2!aster5 of Landscape Painting . Londcnt Helnemann, 1916* , MLltcai, John. Paradise ^^^j and Selected Poetry and Prose . Ikm York: Rioeiiardt S: Co., 1951* Mlreur, H. Dictionnaire des V^tes D'Art Faitea en Firance et a L'Ecranger Pendant Les XVIII and XIX Sidcles . Paris: ?Sison D'Oouvres Artistiques, 1911. Melloy, Fitzgerald. Sir Joshua and Hia Circle . 2 vols. ?few Yoric: Oodd, Mead, n«d« Skaak, Saaaoel H. The Sublime; A Study of Critical Theories in XTHI Century England. New York: Modem Language Association, 1935.

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299 Bttaa, Locds. Hlstolre de la Pglnttare Francalae an XVIII Sleele . 2 vols. Paris: G. Van Oest, 1926. Redgrave, Richard, and Redgrave, Sanuel. A Centtxry of Painters of the English School, V.lth a Critical Ilotice of Their ork and an Accoant of the Progress of Art in England . London: Sniith, . Elder & Co., 1«66. • A Century of British Painters, A 1km Edition with a Bibliographical Index and One Hundred Illustrations . London: Hiaidon ^ss, Ltd., 19ii7. " Eedgrave, Saiauel, A Dictionary of Artists of the Ehglirti School t Painters, Sculptors, Architects, Ehgravers, and Omaiaentiats . Londwis George Bell a Sons, IB78. ReTnolds, Frederick. The life and Times of F^dertck Reynolds . 2 vols. London: K«nry Golbiim, lt526. Reynolds, Graham. English Portrait Lliniatures . London: Adan and Charles Black, 1952. Reynolds, Sir Joshua. The Discourses of Sir Joshua Reynolds . Lc»idc«: Hairy Frowde, 179111 Robb, David, and Garrison, J, J» Art in the Western Torld . New Torki Harper, 1935. Sandby, ?tilliain. The History of the Royal Academy of Arts. 2 vols. Londai: Longiaan, Green, 1862. Seguier, Frederick Peter. Dictionary of the Vcoiics of Painters . Londai: Longman, 1870» Sellers, Charles Coleman. Charles illson Peale . 2 vols. Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, 19li7. Shwidan, Richard Brinsley. The Plays of Sheridan . London: Macraillan, 1920. Sichel, Walter. Sheridan, From New and Original ^terial, IncliMing a Manuscript Diary by Georgiana Duchess of Devonshire . 2 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1909. Siret, Adolphe. Dictionnaire llistorique et Raisonne des Feintres de Toutes les Ecoles . 2 vols. 3rd ed. Berlin: Josef Altmann, mr.

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300 Smith, Dane Famaworth. The Critics in the Audtaice of the Lotion Theatres froa Bucklnghan to Sheiddan, A Study of NeoclasslcTsm In the Playhouse, 1671"1779 « University of New f=fexico Publications in Lenguage and Literature, No. 12. Alburguerque, 1953Solth, S. C. Crone; V*ith a liote on the Korwlch School . "British Artist." Laidon: Hiilip Allan S: Co., 1923. Scagg, Thomas. Hecollectioos of Qccurreoces . Londont Dvopsaore Press, 19^11 "~~* Smthem, Richard. Chargeable bcenery: Its Origin and Developni«it In the British Theatr^ . London: Faber and Faber, 19^2. « The QeorglaBi Playhouse . London: Pleiades Books Liiadted, Sceneiy , " A History of the Shgllsh Theatre." London: Common Ground Ltd., 19it6. Speaight, George. The History of the English Puppet Theatre . Hm York: John de Gralf , 1951i. Spooner, S. A Biographical History of the Fine Arts, or, Plemoirs of the Lines' and Works of iJndnent Painters, Sagravers, Sculptors, ' and Architects . 2 vols. New York: J. V. Bouton, 18It5» Stein, Elizabeth P. David Garrlck, Dramatist . New Yorks The iiodem Language Association, 1938* Stoddard, Richard Hairy (ed.). ChOTley, Planche, and Yoimg, Pei'sanal B.eminiscence3 « Ktor York; S'crlbner, 1^76, Stranaham, C, H. A History of French Painting . New York: Charles Scribner's, Taylor, John. Records of ^ Life , lim York: J. & J. Harper, 1833» Thaler, AlicLn. Shakespeare to Sheridan, A Book About the Theatre of Yesterday and Today . Camfarlclge: Harvard University Press, Thicaw, Ulrich, and Beckw, Felix. Allgenieines LexlkOTi der Bildenden Kunstler Vcti der Antike bis zur Gegenwart J 15 vols. Leipzig: Verlag Von E, A, Sienvann, 1929. Thoradike, A.shley H, English Comedy . New York: The co., 1929. tr««brldge, w. R. H. Cagliostro . New York: Brentano's, 1926.

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301 TurberTille, A. S. (ed.). Johnson's Snglaidt An Account of the Life and Manners of His Age l Londcai: Clarendon Press, 1933 • Viardoty Louis. A Brief History of the Painters of all Schools . LondcHi I Sanson Itm, lcJ77* Victoria and Albert 'ftisetun. Catalogue of ' .ater Colour ^yintlngs Iqr British Artists and Foreigners workiric In Great Britain , kevlsed London: Board of iiiducation, 1929. Vltety Ludovic. L'Academie Royale de Peintxire et de Sculpture . Paris t IflLchel Levy Freres, 1861. Walpole, Horace. Horace Walpole's Correspondfflace . 19 vols. Yale ed. Nflir Haven I Yale University Pl-ess, 1939. Valpole, Horace. The Letters of Horace Walpole . it vols. FhilaJelphia; Lea and Blanchard^ 18242. Waterhouse, Ellis. Painting in Britain j 1530-1790 . Lcndcai: Penguin Books, 1953. Watson, Ernest Pradlee. Sheridan to Robertswi^ A Study of the Nineteenth Century London Stage . Cacabrldge: Harvard University Ft^ss, 1926. ^tl^, llUam Thomas. Art In Qigland, 1800->1820 . New Ywkt liacnillan Co., 1928. . Artists and Their Friends in England, 1700-1799 . 2 vols. LcmdonT The Medici Society, 1928. Thomas Gainsborough . London: Snith, Eldor k Co., 1915. WUenskl, R. H. English Painting . Boston: Hale, Cushraan & Flint, 1933. Wllle, Jean Georg. Mwaotrga et Journal de J.«
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302 Wright T. Scaae Account of the Life of Richard vVllson, I^q. R» A . LondoHl Longman, Hurst, Rees, Wyllie, W. L. J. M. W. Turner . Lwidon: George Bell and Sons, 190$. Wyndham, Hairy Saxe. The Annals of Covent Garden Theatre Frcm 1732 to 1897 . 2 volsl London: Chatto a "indus, 1906. loung, Julian Charles. A MMooir of Charles Mayne Young, Tragedian . London : Macmillan, 1871. Articles and Periodicals "Anecdotes of Mr. De Loutherboux^," European Magaaine , I (March, 1872), 181-182. Annual Register , XXIV, 1781, 200. "Account of the New Pantomime Called Oraai," Uhiversal i!agazine , LXXVII (teG«A>er, 178S), 322-33li. Baskerville, CSiarles R. "PLay-List and Afterpieces of the lUdEighteaith Century," Modem Philology , XXIII (May, 1926), Ui5li6U. "Beaux-ilrts, Revue d»Infon!Wticn Artistique," Muaee de Strasboui^ , I? iitay, 1926), 9. BirgBann, Frederick L. "David Garrick and The Clandestine Marriage ," PMLA, XLVII {March, 1952), Ili8-162. Campbell, Lily B. "A Histoiy of Costtming on the English Stage Between 1600-1823," Ihiversity of jvisconsln Studies in Language and Uterature, No. 2, 1918, 187-223. . "The Rise of a Theoxy of Stage ftresentation In aigland During th« Eighteenth Century," BSU, XXXII (July, 1917), 163200. Day, F. H. Cripps. "Meyrick Collection of ArEJOur," Country Life (London), LI (January Hi, 1922), 58-59. Dobson, Austin. "Loutherbc«irg, R. A., » The National Review , LVIII (January, 1912), 71*0-755. Dornier, Alan S. "Natiure to Advantage Dressed: Eighteenth Century Acting," PJ4LA, LVIII (December, I9h3), 1002-1037.

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303 aikes, Ashley. "French Drama and Ehgliah Stage," Theatre_Art3 Monthly , XXI (March, 1937), 681-685* "Eidophusikon, An Eighteenth-Century Cinema," The Tiiaes (LoiKion), January 31, 193li. "Sidophusikoo, Panton Street," The Mcaithly Mirror , IX (Majpch, 1800), 176. • European Magaaine and Laidon Reviey , 1782-1812. Gardner, R. C B. "De Loutherboui^ and the Polygraph Process," Country Life (London), CIV (October 22, 19U3), 821-32$. Gazetteer , 1773-1780. Gcmtlanan's Magazine, and Historical Chronicle , 1773-1812. • Oerdts, William H., Jr. "Ftiilip de Loutherbourg," Antiques , XLVIII (November, 1955), hdh-hSl, Girodie, Andre. "Notes Biographiques Sur les Peintres Loutherbourg," Archives Alsaciennes D'Historie de L'Art , (1935), 219-255 * Gombrich, E. H. "Imagery and Art in the Rcanantic Period," Burlington jfegazine , XCI (Jime, I9h9), 15>158. Grundy, C. Reginald. "British Militaiy and Naval Prints," The Connoisseur (Lcaidm), XL (October, 191ii), 76-80. Rang, Hans* "La Renaissance de I'Art Francais et des Industries de Luxe," L' Alsace et L'Art du XVnie Siecle , IX (July, 1926), 398. Rase, IVilliam. "A Noble Savage on the Stage," Skxiem Philology , XXXin (February, 1935), 303-316. Irving, H. B, "The aiglish Stage in the Sixteenth Century," Fortnightly Revietr , LXXIX (May, 1906), 895-1079. Le Bruit. "Notes on Early Progress in ^e Picturesque of ^o^^^d ," Ajwrican Notes and Queries , VII (Noveafcer, 19a7), 115-119. Lancaster, Harry. "Stage Scenery, Decoration, Urfiolstery, Furniture, and Effects," Furniture Gazette , IV (1875), 7, 27, 68, 101, 11*8, 3li5, 362. Lsirrence, "i. J. "Art in the Theatre^ Seme Famous ScenePainters," Magazine of Art , XII (January, 1889), la-li5. • "Early Qaglish Stage and Theatre-Lighting 1500-1800," S^e Year Book (1927), 21.

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3Qb Lmrenc9, ^. J. "The Pioneers of Modern Saglish Stage-?tounting: Fhillipe Jacqiies de Loutherbotirg, R» A.," Magaaine of Art , Xmi (January, 1386), 172-177. , "Scenery and Scenic Artists," Gentleman's ^lagazine , C^LXVI (June, 1889), 609-6lli. . "Some Stage Effects! Their Growth and History," Gentle"Ssn's Magaaine , CCLXV (March, 1888), 83-95. , "Stage Scenery in the Eighteenth Century," Magazine of XVIII (April, 1895), 385-388, Uoyd's Svwdng Post , 1773-1782. London Chronicle , 1773-1800. . L(»don Magaatne , 177li-1790. . . • Magacin Ibcyclopedique , IV (1809), 390-391. Matthews, Brander. "The LVolution of Scene-Painting," Scribner's Ifcgazine , LVIII (July, 1915), 82-9U. Mijfne, Jcaiathan. "Philip James de Loutherbourg, R. A., Landscape Painter and Stage-Designer," Antiques Review (Londcm) (February, 1952), l5-l8. • ' * ifenthly ISirror , 1771-1780. amthly Review, or. Literary Journal , 1771-1812. "Musee de La Ville de Strasbourg," Gompte Rendu , 1927. Ifacmillan, Dougald. "David Qarrick as Ciritic," Studies in Ffallology , XXXI (193U), 69-83. , "David Gaarrick, Manager: Notes on The Theatre as a Cultural Institution in England in the aghte«ith Century," Studies in xMlology , XLIV (October, 191^8), 630-6146. romin^ Merald , 1771-1800. "New Eidophusikon, Pantoi-street, Haynarket," Mc»ithly Mirror, VII (April, 1799), 2lt6. "Theatrical Intelligence," New London ?iagaztne , LVI (Deceanber, 1785), 380.

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J0$ "A Painter-Quack," Once a Week , XV (October 27, 1866), U57-4j59. Pedicord, Harry Villiaa. "Mr. and Mrs. Garrick: Some Itapublished Correspondence," FMLA, LX (September, 19h$), 775-783. "Rise and Ft'ogress of Scene-Fainting in Siagland," Library of Fine Arts, (May, I831), 321-329. Rochwlave, S. "Les Artistes d'Alsace a Paris au XVIIIe Siecle," Archives Alsaciemes D'Histoire de L'Art , I (1922), 300. St. James' Chronicle , 1776-1778. "Scene-Painting in England," The Art Journal , (January, 1873), 27. Southern, FJLchard. "Lediard and Early Eighteenth Cwitury Scene Design," Theatre Notebook , II (January, 19U8), U8-5ij. "Stage Storms," All the Year Round , VIH (August 10, 1872), 30l»-308. Survey of London: Artistic HanBnersrnith," The Connoisseur (London), XLV (July, 1916), 9U-101. IDiomas, Russell. "Contemporary Taste in the Stage Decorations of London Theatres, 1770-1300," I^odem Philology a XLII (itovKjflber, 19hk), 65-78. The Times (London), 1785-1800. Universal Magazine , 1773-1782. "A View of the iidojiiusikon," European Magazine , I (March, 1782), 180181. ?;aterhouse, E. K. "English Painting and France in the Eighteenth Century," London University. Joui-nal of the .arbtarg and Courtauld Institute , XV (July, 1952), 122-135. . "The Exhibition : The ilxst Hundred Years of the Royal Academyl" Burlington Magazine , XCIV (February, 1952), 51. T/estminster Magazine , 1771-1800. . . Tarltoall Byening Post , 1773-1782. Wind, Edgar. "The Revoluticai of History Painting," London University . Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institute , II (July, 1938), 116-127.

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J06 Lorrtnce, T,» J. Manuscript ItotebookSji 12 vols* MS. Garrick Carrespoadmce, Torstw Colleeticn, Victoria and Albwt Musetun, London. KS. Diaries of the Drury Lane Theatre, Folgwr Library,
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BICGRAFHICAL ITE16 Lillian Elvira Preston ms beam in Battle Creek, lotra. She graduated front Crlando Senior High School , Orlando, Florida and then attended the Orlando Vocational School. She graduated Tdth the A. B« degree in Speech frcei Stetson University, De Land, Florida. She also received the BI. A* in Ehglish Literature from Stetson Iftiiversity. She did graduate stvuiy at Columbia IMversity^ H«r Jork litaivearsity and Florida State l^iversity. She has served on the faculty of Stetson IWLversity where she was technical director of the Stover Theatre, West Oeoz^a College, lihiversity of Tampa, and Adriffii Collie. She began her studies at the University of Florida in 1950 for the doctorate degree in speech. At the present tinie she is serving on the faculty of Adrian College in Adrian, ItLchlgan.

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This dissertation was prepared under the directi(» of the chairman of the candidate's supervisory ecomittee and has been approved by all members of the committee. It was suteiitted to the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate Council and was approved as partial fulfillment of the requireiMnts for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. January 26, 1957 Dean, College of Arts and Sciences Dean, Graduate School SUPERVISORY COSailTTEEi Chairman