xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID ENAYR2PXB_7ILCEJ INGEST_TIME 2016-04-19T22:28:42Z PACKAGE AA00034615_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EJ05AJOP8_73ADZO INGEST_TIME 2016-04-21T20:35:27Z PACKAGE AA00034615_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
URBAN REDEVELO PMENT AS A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION FOR GROWING CITIES: A LOO K AT AMSTERDAM EASTERN DOCKLANDS By JAVIER E. PUEYO IRIZARRY A N MRP PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE R EQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2015
! 2 Â© Javier E. Pueyo Irizarry
! 3 To my family, friends and colleagues
! 4 ACKN OWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost I would like to express my deepest appreciation and gratitude to my family. Their support throughout this process has been unconditional and a motivational force of the work. Next , I genuinely thank my committee members, Donna Cohen and Dr. Nawari, for their guidance and assistance during the development of the MRP. Additionally, I thank Dr. Ruth Steiner for her encouragement and suggestions that aided the work during its initial stages. Lastly, I take the opportunity to thank the College of De si gn, Construction and Planning; I am extremely grateful of having been part of the 2014 2015 program.
! 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNO WLEDGEMENTS !! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ...4 LIST OF FIGURES !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!! ...7 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .8 ABSTRACT !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... .11 2 LITERATURE REVIEW !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .14 Historical Overview !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .16 Relevan ce !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 18 Situations in Urban Cores and their Possible Alternatives ! . ! .. ! .. .. .. ! 19 Problems with Gaps and Sprawl !!!!!!!!!!!!!! .. 19 Metropolis !!!!!!!!! !!!!!!! .. !!!!! .. !! 21 Safety Issues !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... ! 24 Natur al Envi ronment.. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 26 Growing Populations !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... .. !! 31 Western European Attitudes !!!!!!!!! .. !!!!!!!! .. ! 33 Dutch Views !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .33 English Views !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! . ! .36 Culture !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! . .38 Opportunities !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... ! 40 Chall enge s !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... ! 43
! 6 3 METHODOLOGY !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .. ! .48 4 LONDON DOCKLANDS WATERFRONT DISCUSSION !! .. !!!! ..50 5 CASE STUDY Ã AMSTERDAM EASTERN DOCKLANDS !!!!!! 52 Resident Views !!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .. ! .73 6 CONCLUSION !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... ! .74 LIST OF REFERENCES !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... ! .. 80
! 7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 5 1 Borneo Sporenburg docklands before redevelopment !!!!!!! ... !! 5 3 5 2 Case study l ocation !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 55 5 3 Master plan des ign !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... ! ..57 5 4 Master plan model !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! ..5 7 5 5 Front gardens !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!! . ! .58 5 6 Front gard ens !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .. ! 59 5 7 Green areas diagram !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! . ! 61 5 8 Individual lot houses !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! . ! .63 5 9 Architect narrow uni t designs !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .. ! . 63 5 10 Architect Frits van Dongen's Ã”The Whale' residential complex !!! .. ! .65 5 1 1 Architect Frits van Dongen's Ã”The Whale' residential complex !! . !! ..65 5 12 Architect Frits van Dongen's Ã”The Whale' r esidential complex ! . !!! ..66 5 13 Architect Frits va n Dongen's Ã”The Whale' i nterior green courtyar d !! ! 67 5 14 Transportation diagram !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .68 5 15 Art brid ge !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .69 5 16 Docklands red eveloped !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .72 5 17 Docklands redeveloped !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! . .. ! . .72
! 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CTC Communities that Care EDRP Eastern Docklands Redevelopment Project LDDC London Docklands Development Corporation
! 9 Abstract of MRP Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Pa rtial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies URBAN REDEVELO PMENT AS A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION FOR GROWING CITIES: A LOOK AT AMSTERDAM EASTERN DOCKLANDS By Javier E. Pueyo Irizarry July 2015 Chair: Donn a Cohen Major: Master's in Sustainable Design Effici ent use of land is a major topic in the sustainable agenda as it establishes conditions and impacts our way of life . Population scenarios, which consequently have repercussions on how the land is admin istered is one of the major factors environmentalists and urban planners have to look into for sustainability. Author John Randolph of Ã” Environmental Land Use Planning and Management ' states, " The use of land has significant impacts on the natural and hu man environment. The conversion of natural and productive lands to human use, sprawling patterns and inappropriate location of development, road and building construction, and land use practices following development Ã have broad impacts on human environm ental health and the natural environment" (Randolph, J., Environmental Land Use Planning and Management ., 2012, pp. 64 65). Growing populations and uncontrolled use of land al ter urbanization scenarios and contribute to the mentioned statement. With ex pected escalations in world population s , particularly in urban settings, countries aroun d the globe must plan adequate sustainable communities and reconfigure their city landscapes in order to house future residents without maltreating open green
! 10 spaces wh ich are essential for our existence . This MRP discusses urban redevelopment strategies, focusing on Amsterdam's Eastern Docklands projects as sustainable construction alternatives to conserve and protect natural environments , establish vivacious compact c ommunities that in turn reduce harmful gas emissions from private transport, and that meet the demands of future inhabitants.
! 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Our planet has limited resources and natural con ditions, so we must not take for granted what is available and assume irresponsible positions, especi ally with construction approaches that alter the character of cities and participate in the destruction of lands and natural habitats. Authors Braungart and McDonough of Ã” Cradl e to Cradle ' mention , "Y ou must face a world of limits. There is only so much the Earth can take. We see a world of abundance, not limits" and, "w hat if humans designed products and systems that celebrate an abundance of human creativity, culture, and p roductivity?" (Braungart, M. & McDonough, W., Cradle to Cradle., 2002 , p p . 7, 15 respectively ). What are the sustainable solutions countries are engaging in so its citizens have a better quality of life, maintain denser and lively cities and at the same time respect and protect the natural landscapes in them? One of the alternatives to this situation is urban redevelopment in city centers , particularly in their waterfronts . "It must make sense to plan for mixed developments and accommodate as much as p ossible of the projected growth within the existing urban framework, rather than create new settlements. This does not mean urban cramming, or high density estates without the fundamental blend of support facilities; rather it means good urban design, wit h attractive public open spaces, good amenities, and making the best use of redundant buildings, and derelict and vacant sites. The presumption must be in favor of urban regeneration rather than out of town dev elopment" (Edgar, B. & Taylor, J. , Urban Rege neration: A Handbook., 1997 , p.161 ). There are many examples of what has been done in cities around the world regarding environmental and population concerns, making it relevant for our planning decision s of the future. T his MRP discusses the creative u rban design strate gies T he Netherlands has implemented in regards to the demands
! 12 and needs of its growing population through the practice of urban redevelopment, specifically in t he city's waterfronts . The case study the author presents is a good example of how Dutch city planners and architects wer e able to work together and combine their ideas for the creation of mix use developments in the city's docklands, which prior to interv ention no longer served their purpose as port system s for modern ships , havi ng shallow waters , and unsuitable bert hing conditions . The planning decision for new neighborhoods in the waterfront, allowed the docklands to be integrated once more to the community providing housing for all social sectors, commerce, connectivity, walk ability, public green spaces, links to transportation, and environment protection. These will be discussed in further detail in Chapter 2 Literature Review, which will also includ e important factors such as historical facts , importance of the practice, pr ob l ems and solutions , people's views and attitudes towards the issue, culture, and the benefits and opportunities the process provide s . Chapter 3 presents the work's methodology, which consists of data, case studies, surveys and studies o n European views on the subject, Chapter 4 explores a dockland redevelopment example in London to expand on Western Europe redevelopment practices , C hapter 5 includes the MRP case study of Amste rdam's Eastern Docklands Borneo Sporenburg area, and Chapter 6 the MRP conclusi on. It is important that we continue to learn from what others have accomplished and exposed in order for the practice to improve, evolv e, and move forward. The MRP is a tool to explain and explore the concept, provide
! 13 pertinent information, and inform pr actitioners of th is sustainable design method as well as sensitizing the importance of the topic for future generations . T his motivated the author to present how urban redevelopment in waterfronts is a sustainable solution for growing cities. "The most successful places for living and working are those which are compact, bringing together homes and work, making good use of infrastructure, and with the ability to adapt to changing fortunes without complete redevelopment" (Roberts, P., Urban Regeneration: A Handbook., 2000, p.160).
! 14 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Some s paces in urban areas become redundant, derelict and Ã” lost ' spaces. These have the potential to be transformed a nd re created into useful areas that meet the dema nds of growing populations in cities and world changing conditions. Aside from being extremely valuable for the evolution, character, and survival of major cities, they are also essential for the protection of natural environments and landsc apes in the pe ripheral of urban centers as well as establishing denser settlements. The following sta tements regarding the concept provide an overview of its significance. " Urban areas have always performed a wide range of functions. Shelter, security, social interac tion, and the sale and purchase of goods and services are among the traditional roles of a town or city. The relative importance of each of these functions has changed over time, and such changes have created new demands for land, some traditional urban a reas, either in their enti rety or in particular districts of a town, may discover that a previous function or sectoral specialisation is no longer required and that the facilities associated with this function are now redundant " (Roberts, P. , 2000 , p. 10 ). Also, " Cities are more than buildings and places where people simply survive. They are cradles of social and economic activity, where the very diversity of interactions creates new initiatives, new ideas and new energy. Cities have to be re created as attractive places where those people with choice will want to live and work and where they will enjoy leisure and cultural pursuits " ( Edgar, B. & Taylor, J. , 1997 , p.158 ). Because urban areas and cities ha ve been and will continue to play important role s in determin ing how we live, it is vital to take advantage of e very possible opportunity these might provide for future housing, recreation and commercial activities . As Edgar and Taylor mention, these places are very much needed for the preservation of d iversity, economy, and social activities; it can the be argued that the process of urban redevelopment goes beyond land and environment protection, it entails a more complex system of figures that make up
! 15 city environments . Since towns and cities present many prospects for sustainability and for people in general, every space in them must be utilized and brought to their full potential. As Robert Trancik recalls , " Lost spaces, underused and deteriorating, provide exceptional opportunities to reshape an ur ban center, so that it attracts people back downtown and counteracts s prawl and suburbanization " (Tranc ik, R. , Finding Lost Space., 1986 , pp. 2 3 ). There are many spaces in cities th at have the capacity to change and revitalize neighborhoods for more sust ainable construction practices including abandoned properties, lots, warehouses a nd industrial zones. The work will focus on waterfront spaces such as docklands and port systems that were left in run down conditions after changes in maritime transport and ship constructions in the 20 th century altered their functions. There are several elements to consider when dealing with urban redevelopment in city spaces that influence the practice, particularly in the European context whe re our case study is conducted such as : historical overview , relevance of the pr actice , problems and possible solutions , growing populations , views, culture, opportuniti es , and challenges . T hese figures must not be underestimated since they encompass current trends and conditions that are necessary for understanding ur ban redevelopment procedures as well as providing valuable guidelines for practitioners and planners.
! 16 I. Historical O verview Waterfronts can be defined as "a space where water meets with urbanized land, creating a un ique spatial interface" (Davidson, M. , Urban Geography: Waterfront Development., n.d., p.1 ). One of the earliest forms of waterfronts was Londinium on the Thames River established in 50 A.D. by the Romans, but gained prominence in the 18 th , 19 th , and earl y 20 th centuries propelled by maritime advancements and the Industrial Revolution. Major cities in Europe , such as Amsterdam for example, develop ed these port complexes for the transportation of goods and manufacturing services. "As the capital of the f irst imperial trading nation, Amsterdam in the Netherlands developed from a fishing village founded in the 12th century to a city of 200,000 people in 1700" (Davidson, M ., n.d., p.1 ). Over time the shipping industry evolved changin g the transportation of goods. Container shipping substituted traditional forms of transportation therefore alterin g waterfront spaces in cities. This method , along with new technologies in management and operations, simplified and reduced significantly the operation costs in w aterfronts making waterfront industries unprof itable , redundant, and a thing of the past. "Continued technological advances, ever larger ships, growing land requirements, and the migration of the port downstream culminated in the abandonment of the urban waterfront and the complete separation of the port from the city" (Hendee, P., America's Waterfront Revival: Port Authorities and Urban Redevelopment., 2009, p.15). Eventually many industries left these spaces in search of new accommodations causing th eir disrepair and neglect. Over time however , people soon realized that these spaces could develop into something completely
! 17 different and sustain new forms of use in cities . Since the 1960's and 1970's pronounced waterfront revitalization movements have been taking place in areas in the United States such as Bosto n, Baltimore, and San Francisco, as well as in Europe. " Since the end of the 1970s many cities have intensified activities directed towards the functional revitalization of waterfront areas, t he rehabilitation of waterfront physical structure and the creation of new architectural and urban values on the border between water and land" (Merckx, F., Notteboom, T., & Winkelman, W., The Tension Between City and Port Revisited., n.d., p.2). In the case of Amsterdam, Richard Marshall , author of Ã” Waterfronts in Post Industrial C ities ' states that Amsterdam has been dealing with its waterfronts for over thirty years now and that the central aim of redevelopment has been to re establish a connection be twe en the river and the city. Since water is an abundant natural element in the country, the notion to incorporate it alo ng with outmoded spaces near it is a smart alternative to mitigate city populati ons and out of town development.
! 18 II. Relevan ce Urban redevelopment has and always will be an important determinant for maintaining denser towns, which in turn reduces the need to expand outwar ds and alter negatively the peripheral landscapes of major cities . " Rather than being designed around and cultural landscape, most modern urban areas simply grow, as has often been said, like a cancer, spreading more and more of themselves, eradicating the living environment in the process" (Braungart, M. & McDonough, W., 2002 , p. 33 ). Therefore we must ta ke full advantage of the possibilities in all types of undervalued components inside urban cores that are no longer serving their intended purpose o r that are not intensely attached to the nearby urban programs. " Vacant land remains a key competitive asset for implementing a number of economic development strategies: creating jobs, increasing tax revenue, improving transportation, infrastructure, an d attracting residents " (Bowman , A. & Pagano, M. , Center on Urban & Metropolitan Policy., 2000 , p. 1 ). To ign ore its significance and abundant positive contributions is to g o backwards and obliterate the path for upcoming populations as w ell as the natural environment. Sustainable methods of construction planning such as t his one are extremely vital for the prep aration and organization of future events and must be taken seriously.
! 19 III. Si tuations in Urban Cores and their Possible Alternatives A. Problems with G aps and S prawl One of the major problems derelict spaces have on urban landscapes, besides prov iding unpleasant views for tourists and residents , is that they affect the physical form of cities, creating gaps and uncomfortable links between zones that disrupt the spatial circulation experience. Ã” Future Forms and Design for Sustainable Cities ' autho rs argue, " Cities have been scarred by major road networks, which occupy large areas of land, fragment and blight neighborhoods destroying local social interchange and disconnecting travellers from their surroundings" ( as cited in Appleyard, 1981) . In many developed countries the expansion away from city areas has led to highway and car dependence and sprawl issues, which in turn creates a negative effect on metropolises and the natural environment . "The layout of utilities and infrastructure has sign ifi cant impacts on sustainability. Insidiously, sprawl increases pollution, promotes obesity and diabetes, and reduces time available for family and friends and other activities that increase the quality of life" (Williams, D., Sustainable Design: Ecology , Architecture, and Planning ., 2007, p. 24). Also," long commuting distances increase vehicle miles traveled, congestion, and air pollution. Sprawl consumes agricultural land at a rapid rate, converting them to subdivisions, shopping centers, and roads" (Randolph, J., Environmental Land Use Planning and Management., 2012, p. 59). With decent urban planning strategies, these undesirable and life impacting scenarios can be reduced. A solution to urban gaps in major cities worldwide is to design and plan a ccordingly so that these gaps become part of the master plan of the area. If the spaces are too far apart, a series of linkage systems could be integrated forming unique spaces such as Olympic Sculpture Park in Seattle where there are a series of elements tying together three
! 20 separate zones and making them into one interesting triptych space , establishing a link to the urban core that is not only interesting in design but functional as well . Also, elevated gardens or walkways such as New York's Highline s tructure can unite zones if there are linkage systems with the potential to be revitalized , or w ith the creation of new raised systems as well . Thi s stimulates revitalization, fuels citizen engagement in city life , and makes walking accessible and enjoyab le. Cities with similar condi tions can use the mentioned example s as model s to improve their pedestrian ci rculation areas and establish creative physical mechanisms to increase public inter est in the particular urban sector . In the case of Amsterdam , its urban gaps included the city's eastern dockland regions. For the revitalization of the docks to be popular and prosperous, good mix use desi gns and location were not going to be sufficient for density and connective purposes . How was the area going to in teract with its surroundings and what position would it play in Amsterdam's urban landscape? How were people going to be motivated to select that section of the city as their new home? Water, transportation services, architecture designs, sale of empty l ots, affordable housing, and incentives were looked into. These will be discussed in further detail in the case study chapter.
! 21 B. M etropolis In terms of the metropolis the diversity, culture, economic opportunities , and housing are key factors are at stake. Cultural programs are extremely valuable in maintaining the famous Ã”sense of place' and identity of a city. Without it people would not necessarily fee l the community embracement; there fore they are needed to retain its residents as well as th e attraction of futures ones. Architecture can be a cultural instrument as well; it was used as part of the redevelopment of the case study to not only create unique living spaces and maintain the culture of Dutch spatial building context through design r einterpretations of Dutch city planning over the centuries, but for public interest to the project. Buildings such as Ã”The Wha le', exceptional works of art with bridges, and water incorporation in Borneo Sporenburg were some of the areas of design that sp arked population attention. The case study chapter and culture section discusses this further. E c onomic opportunities are vital for the evolution and progress of these areas. As previously mentioned cities are needed for the purchase of goods and service s that help determine and support economic trends. Developers and planners have to take into consideration spaces for business and economic opportunities when redeveloping an urban area because it is a necessary strategy for developing denser communities. Some firms opt to relocate outside of city areas because of barriers in operational co sts, space, and rent issues, so there must be options supplied by urban planning officials. " There is often a space constraint on the location of economic activities in the in ner areas of many cities" and "i ncreasing competition for jobs, together with the
! 22 influence exerted by the new residential preferences of employees , has resulted in the provision of alternative locations that are often better served by modern infras tructure and which offer lower rents or land values" (Roberts, P. , 2000 , p. 27 ). The work's case study's initial master plan designs included spaces for commercial activities. Dutch co mmercial urban context mainly concentrates on first floors of buildi ngs for business, markets, restaurants, and other type of commercial possibilities, where as the upper floors are designated mainly as residential and private spaces . Chief a rchitect of the docklands Adrian Geuze specified higher ceiling heights for some of the first floors in order for the spaces to house different types of business ventures. " Most of the street faÂade of Amsterdam, the first story, is (designated for) commercial functions. A lot of micro economy occurs from these kinds of initiatives. In the concept of the plan there was a requirement for having all the street faÂade 3 " meter high (higher) so in the future it allows new functions within the residential program" ( Geuze, A., PBS Design Adaptive Reuse in the Netherlands ., 2007 ). In ter ms of housing, a ttractive and reasonably priced units also have to be attac hed to any redevelopment plan; of course it depends on the kind of residential project established (high end, middle income, etc.) but if it is for city containment this is best . T his help s secure new tenants and provide s essentially everyone th e chance to own their own homes. Likewise, housing availability with attractive designs and prices refrains people from selecting other types of housing outside of the immediate inner city a reas, which is one of the problems in modern constructions. "The majority of those leaving older urban areas have done so through their decision to move to new areas of private housing. The reasons for such moves are many and complex but, in summary, they include the availability of cheaper and more attractive housing, the search for an improved quality of life
! 23 and the desire to gain access to a better range of services. In addition, this adjustment in residential preferences also reflects the changin g location of employment opportunities" (Roberts, P. , 2000 , p.26 ). So it is not only creating residential units to make denser zones but it entails planning, without cramming, places for present a nd future economic development as well. Although as in dicated by one of the main designers of the project, Tom Schaap in PBS 's documentary Ã” Design Adaptive Reuse in the Netherlands ' , initially the docklands project in Amsterdam was programmed for social housing exclusively, developers saw the immense possibil ities so t he city took careful measures to insure that the dockland redevelopment included affordable homes for essentially all social sectors and provided unique designs and housing variety for people' s different tastes and qualit y of life improvement for all, not just some.
! 24 C. Safety I ssues "Design of the built environment of cities and towns as well as creating places is the basic contents of urban design. Quality of public safety of space environment is the basic goal of and the major fact or deciding the success of urban design" ( Cai, K. & Wang, J. , Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China., 2009 , p. 220 ). This area is a major red flag for most people living in or who are considerin g moving to these urban centers. I t is a deal breaker especially for families wi th children and older relatives; parents want to raise their children in secure areas and make sure they are safe while outside , as for older people, in most cases they are easy targets for burglaries and assaults. It is natural that if people do not feel secure in a particular area, they will n ot want to reside or visit it , thus creating a boomerang effect on the practice and consequently on sustainability. If an area is deemed undesirable because of its unfavorab le reputation or image because of crime related issues , the situation has to be tackled immediately through local government and c ommunity programs such as neighborhood watches and community involvement strategies so as to better not only the image of the area , but for it to become a respectable and desirable place to live. "What is clear is that achieving urban regeneration requires far more than traditional land use planning; it has to encompass a broader strategy of urban management which relates inves tment, physical intervention, social action and strategic planning" (Roberts, P. , 2000 , p. 28 ). Social action is a solution to tackle this problem because people's no tions and concepts present innovative tools for change though integrative discussions. One of those community involvement programs is the Communities That Care (CTC) , which is basically a prevention program . The CTC concept was first
! 25 established in the United States and is used in many countries around the world, includ ing t he Netherlands s ince 1999 . The CTC program hypothesizes that "s trong bonds to school, family and community serve as protective factors against behavior that violates socially accepted behavioral standards" (European Journal on Crimi nal Policy and Research, 1999). Resear ch has demonstrated that th e program has had positive feedbacks and outcomes in schools and youth centers , particularly in Amsterdam . T his is a tool that must be fu sed with government institutions such as the police and welfare agencies to keep delinquent youths away from crime related activities .
! 26 D. Natural Environment The natural environment' s scenario is also alarming . The majority of earth's anim al and plant life reside in forests and natural landscapes , so the way we take lands for ou r needs and wants , leaves a footprint on how they live and interact . F or instance , some animals can't adapt to new habitats and therefore perish . These damaging footprints result in unsuitable conditions which include fragmentation, loss of habitats and ecosystems , soil erosion , and climate change; the latter being among the most controversial and significant factor s that we have been dealing with for the last couple of decades. "Increasing global temperatures result in global climate change and shifts of existing climates. Most models predict more severe weather: hotter hots, cooler colds, and more intense storms, as global thermal contrasts grow more extreme" (Braungart, M. & McDonough, W., 2002 , p. 31 ). Among the key figures in this environmenta l situation are trees and natural environments. Trees hel p mitigate the problem with green house gases by a bsorbing them and maintaining a comfortable balance needed for life on earth , therefore reducing high temperatures and global warming . According to an article published in the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organizat ion titled Ã” World deforestation decreases, but rem ains alarming in many countries' , globally around 13 million hectares of forest land were lost between the years 2000 to 2010, which was an improvement on prev ious decades , but it is still distressing and cannot be understated. W ithout trees and vegetation , those harmful gases head up to the atmosphere creating thick layered barriers impe ding gas to escape and triggering changes in te mperatures , warming the globe, and negatively impacting the way we live. Besides moderating gases, forests and
! 27 natural landscapes provide shade for the soil which keeps it healthy and fertile (much needed for agricultural practices) , offer breezes, cooler temperatures, and are instrumental in water capture and retention, which are extremely critical for flood and landslide control. An excellent chapter titled Eco Effectiveness , from the book Ã” Cradl e to Cradle ' regarding human ingenuity towards the future , can be tied to this se ction of the environment. Because of advances in technology, we are setting our sights on higher challenges in terms of space travel and possible settlements ou tside of earth. The believe that human ingenuity could potentially ge t us to other places launches a series of possibilities for our future but we can not deeply invest in them without first solving rooted complications and become lax towards environmental issues on earth. "We are curious, exploring creatures. The idea of t aming a new frontier has a compelling, even romantic, pull, like that of the moon itself. But the idea also provides rationalization for destruction, an expression of our hope that we'll find a way to save ourselves if we trash our planet" (Braungart, M. & McDonough, W., 2002 , pp. 86 87 ). Even though it is important to promote scientific discoveries and technological advancements, the solutions for better environment quality should be given attention and no t rely entirely on the possibility of outer sp ace colonization . As mentioned in Ã” Cradle to Cradle ' , we can't make a mess here and go somewhere less hospitab le even if we figure out how, l et's use our ingenuity to stay here; to become, onc e again, native to this planet (Braungart, M. & McDonough, W., 2002 , p. 87 ).
! 28 Urban redevelopment in urban centers that are no longer serving their intended purpose , and ultimately are left unused and forgotten , are good sustainable solutions to mitigate the harmful impact to natural environments. The earth has limi ted lands so uncontrolled development and sprawl are not viable alternative s to construction planning since it affects habitats, ecosystems and our quality of life. Compactness in cities significantly reduces carbon emissions from private vehicles because of the accessibility to places, so b y wisely including these lost spaces in cities for mixed used pedestrian friendly developments, it will create positive chain reaction s in terms of environmental quality and population settlements. " Urban redevelopmen t is not just for profit, or personal aggrandizement, but for the benefit of humanity and the planet as well" (Marshall, R., Waterfronts in Post Industrial Cities., 2001, p. 4). The Dutch have strong values for land protection and views against unnecessary use of land outside of immediate metropolitan zones. In fact, planners resisted sprawl , which gained momentum particularly after the end of World War II amongst many neighboring European cities as reconstruction methods usually lead to starting over in t he outskirts. " The landscape around Amsterdam is beautiful and precious and is even painted by Rembrandt and Mondrian; these guys were there painting every day. They painted the windmills two miles from the ci ty center, and they still exist; so in Amste rdam there is a conscious about the beauty of the landscape" ( Geuze, A., PBS Design Adaptive Reuse in the Netherlands , 2007 ). Aside from the issues with natural terrains, ecological resources such as water are also significant factors in terms of natural protection. Water has determined the topography and consequently how and where to build in the
! 29 Netherlands. Its relationship with the country is complicated, as large portions of the Netherlands are below sea level; so it's an interesting dynamic to say the least. Even though the Dutch have had to defend themselves against it with dikes , water pumping, and terps, there are useful uses for it. For example, there is a floating culture in the country; many people live in boats and use the water as a means of transport and recreation . It is also instrumental in maintain ing local marine ecosystems. Additionally, during the summer season people enjoy swimming in areas such as the case study of Borneo Sporenburg, therefore being a recreational element for fam ilies . Because of this it is then important to keep in mind that this natural resource must a lso be respected and properly maintained. According to the Government of the Netherlands report on w ater management , the quality of water in rivers, streams, lak es, and sea has improved significantly in recent years due in part by improving the treatment of wastewater, phosphate free detergents, far reaching discharges , and monitoring of constructio n practices in close proximity to water sectors of the city. This last point on construction in waterfronts must be stressed so developers, planners, and contractors establish a responsible plan to develop the area and at the same time protect coastal ecology. Ultimately, respect and deep appreciation towards the natura l environment and cultural support dominates the majority of the planning decisions in the country, establishing unique ways in which to generate demand for housing and work, such as revitalization of unused spaces as in redundant waterfronts. These docks were reimagined to fit with Amsterdam's context through different
! 30 types of strategies. Among them was the need to provide proper access to the city center through bike and pedestrian friendly linkages. This keeps people interested, attracts them to the area, and contribute s to sustainability through vehicle gas emissions reductions . " In Amsterdam, 77 percent of the population owns one or more bicycles, a rate of 1.27 bicycles per person, and 28 percent of trips are made by bicycle, more than most of it s European neighbors. One third of residents go to work by bike" ( Gilderbloom, J., Hanka, M., & Lasley, C., Center for Sustainable Urban Neighborhoods School of Urban and Public Affairs., 2008, p. 22). Continued implementations of bicycle linkages in the country and mix use opportunities will continue to produce excellent results and contribute to a sustainable lifestyle that is desperately needed as we head in the future.
! 31 E. Growing Populations This is a distressing concern in terms of su stainability because the planet is not infinite and neither are its resources. Essentially growing populations define how countries have to prepare themselves for housing future inhabitants , and this is where urban redevelopment comes into action. Accordi ng to the United Nations, the world urban urbanization is expected to increase by 84 per cent by the year 2050, with projections by the United Nations indicating that 2.5 billion people will be living in urban areas. " As of this moment, 54 per cent of the world's population already lives in urban areas but this is expected to increase to a figure of 66 per cent by 2050 " (United Nations, 2009). "T he world is growing more urban . More than half of the world's population now lives in cities, and th e number may reach 80% by 2050. Among the challenges is the sheer number of people to be accommodated in cities, especially in developing countries where more than 50 million people will be added to urban populations each year through 2025" (Randolph, J., 2012, p p . 17 , 55 ). In the case of The Netherlands, the population is expected to increase to 17.5 million people in 2038, therefore receiving an additional million people in roughly 20 years. According to Ã” Statistics Netherlands ' and the Ã” Environment Assessment Agency ' , studies indicate that urban cores will continue to grow with Amsterdam , for instance , expecting a rise of 875,000 thousand in 2025 but a decline in rural zones. " Due to a rising population and the demand for smaller and more spacious dwellings t here is a housing shortage in the Netherlands. It is estimated that between 2010 and 2020 an additional 800,000 new dwellings will have to be built to meet demand" (Cousins, M., Design Quality in New Housing: Learning from the Netherlands., 2009 , p. 9 ).
! 32 To meet with demands for housing and population accommodations, t he city of Amsterdam , following thorough investigations and pertinent planning decisions, wisely utilized the redundant waterfront spaces including the areas of Bor neo Sporenburg, which is t he waterfront example of this study . Composed of approximately 61 acres, these two dock islands were transformed into useful vibrant spaces for city containment and housing needs. Roughly 6,000 people call this place home and the reviews have been extrem ely positive. A major part of revitalization that proved successful for the expected population in the area was a strong recognition of mass transport systems, which without would have been difficult to attract people and maintain a sustainable course. T herefore, the project took into consideration the location and proximity of the nearest bus stops, pedestrian walking/biking lanes, bridges, and trams to the city center. This has the potential to be emulated in other parts of the world for natural prote ction and growing citizen projections. That being said, the focus of this study is relevant and imperative for future construction practices in Ã”lost' areas that have the carrying capacity and potential to accommodate this new group of people.
! 33 IV. Western European Attitudes Dutch Views " Density has always been an issue because we are such a small country and we have to be dense and we have to build in a dense way" ( de Vletter, M., Chief Curator Netherlands Architecture Institute , PBS Design Adaptiv e Reuse in the Netherlands., 2007 ). The master planner architect of the MRP case study mentions, " Amsterdam in the early nineties did not follow what all the other Dutch cities did in building suburbs. They (planners and population) were afraid of it du e to the idea that all the landscape around Amsterdam is beautiful and precious. So in Amsterdam there is a real conscious about the beauty of this landscape and it should not be killed by suburbia" ( Geuze, A., PBS Design Adaptive Reuse in the Netherlands ., 2007 ). The Dutch are recognized worldwide for their pride of their natural surroundings and opt to protect as much land as possible not only for their enjoyment as a nation but for the conservation and preservation of these open landscapes , therefore m aking concentration of urbanization the preferred method of planning and construction . Under the basic principles of the National Policy Document on Spatial Planning of 1960, "Urban development should take place in or around existing towns and cities. I n this way, it is hoped to preserve open countryside and agricultural land, to keep towns and cities viable and able to sustain high quality transport, and to reduce mobility" ( Needham, B., Dutch Land Use Planning: The Principles and the Practice., 2014, p . 32). Because of its relatively small size compared to other European countries, compactness has always been part of the building formula, especially in Amsterdam , keeping the tradition of medieval city and sustainable planning in check . Aside from its size , compactness is strongly stimulated in terrains that can withstand settlements since 24 per cent of the country is below sea level and prone to flooding , so the Dutch have concrete notions, understanding s , and planning capacity for t he organization o f the country. In Dr. Needham's book,
! 34 Ã” Dutch Land Use Planning: The Principles and the Practice ' , a study conducted by Historie bodemgebruik vanaf titled Ã”How land is used in the Netherlands, 2000' which evaluated land use from 1970 to 2000, reveals that only 5 per cent of the proportio n of all land in the country is used for housing, 2 per cent for industry, and 56 per cent for agricultural use. Dr. Needham also mentions that following the Fourth National Policy Document on Spatial Planning, when looking for new development outside of Amsterdam, it must be as near as possible to existing towns and cities as well as to public transportation, employment , and recreational facilities. " Of all the new housing which should be built between 1995 and 2005, no l ess than 50 per cent would be within seven urban regions, and a further 25 per cent within another 19 regions. This was complemented by a strong policy for protecting the open countryside" (Needham, B., 2014, p. 40). The seven urban regions mentioned i ncluded the major urban cities in the Netherlands such as Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and The Hague. The respect for natural and ag ricultural space, as well as compact design is evident. This c o mpact design , in return, has created a diverse mix in terms of ho using and social sectors. The idea is that establishing different housing alternatives under the redeveloped area stimulates bonding between people , keeps them in the city, and grows affection s for the area. The people seem to be keen to the process and social acceptance is viewed as something positive, although as one of the planners involved argues it is something that relates specifically to the Netherlands; contextual issues were at play during the phases of redevelopment.
! 35 " (Social mix) Very Amsterd am, y ou cannot understand this somewhere else. T hese mixes could be functioning in the real estate terms or in social terms" ( Geuze, A., 2007, PBS Design Adaptive Reuse in the Netherlands). Amsterdam's Senior Urban Designer Ton Schaap also states in rega rds to Borneo Sporenburg and social mix that " there has been a main point on the Amsterdam agenda to mix the different groups, I think that is (social mix) a kind of combination that goes for successful cities. The beginning of the agenda there was only s ocial housing and then gradually it changed into also keeping the middle income people into the city, and at the end o f the whole operation it was 70 per cent houses for the middle income groups, a little bit for the higher in come groups, and still 30 per cent soc ial housing" (Schaap, T., PBS Design Adaptive Reuse in the Netherlands ., 2007 ).
! 36 English Views Although reusing urban vacant lands is generally a favorable pl anning strategy for the future, as with most situations there are differe nt opinions a nd attitudes towards the practice . Age, social structure s, and culture are among the influential components that determine how, where and why things work in the redevelopment of a place. Since the MRP presents a case study example of another Western European country to analyze its waterfront redevelopment, in this case Engla nd, British views will be evaluated as well . A housing survey carried out for the government in England in the mid 1990's demonstrated that 76 per cent of the population l iving in dense areas were pleased living in them, stating , and generally agreeing that benefits from these zones included: better transportation services, shopping facilities, and urban appeal from revitalization. The study took into consideration social status conditions and age in order to fully understand the differences between the population groups. The survey showed that people from higher social sectors tended to have concerns with the process since it might alter the urban quality, essence and resi dential character of the area and that they have more to lose from such intensification changes. In regards to age , g eneral ly speaking intensification was well received especially among younger generations and most people who reside in them that feel optim istic about dense communities . The survey concluded that p eople in mixed use, central urban areas appear to be tolerant of change. In these
! 37 locations the increased activity and vitality achieved through intensification is generally positively received . It can be argued that since cities provide a wide range of services and recreational opportunities, younger generations will accept compact construction for urban redevelopment faster than other generations. "Cities also re emerged as attractive places f or urban living, notably for large numbers of young, highly educated persons. Their penchant for more individualized and, arguably, more reflexive lifestyles kept them in the cities where they graduated or they moved to other cities where they could find the jobs and the amenities to support and develop a certain lifestyle" (Kloosterman, R., New Urbanism: Life, Work, and Space in the New Downtown., 2012, p. 62). " However, older people, especially those who have lived locally for many years, are likely to be most negative about the changes resulting from intensification" ( Jenks, M., Achieving Sustainable Urban Form., 2000 , p p . 244 ). Results from age factors indicated that although it is a favorable practice among the general population, older folks have more reservations towards the issue and might view this practice as altering the essence a nd characteristics of an area; that could refer to tranquility , physical form ( which could modify property values ) , and culture. But culture could be just what can p ersuade them to stay and help with intensification issues.
! 38 V. Culture Cultural programs are too l s that can be helpful in achieving social cohesion and identity , especially in small dense areas. Ã” Sense of place ' is recognized as well as responsibl e for contributing in unifying people and est ablishing unique characteristics to a country or region . " Notions of solidarity, pride and identity tend to bind people together. Consequently the most viable and ultimately successful communities are those that engender a sense of belonging and partnership between people" (Roberts, P., 2000 , p. 110 ). In Italy during the 1970's and 1980's for example, "The organization of art festivals and other forms of cultural animation helped consolidate opportunities fo r participation in public life for people of all ages, social classes, genders, lifestyles and ethnic origins " and " t hey often served to revitalize not only Ã”dead' time but also Ã”dead' space, such as industrial buildings made redundant by economic change" (Bianchini, F. & Parkinson, M., Cultural Policy and Urban Regeneration The West European Experience., 1993 , pp. 10 11 ). If done correctly, culture programs can not only integrate new people to an area and keep existing residents, but also stimulate the local economy and better the image of a place, which are necessary components for urban redevelopment strategies. Author Robert Kloosterman argues that c ulture is now seen as the magic substitute for all the lost factories and warehouses, and as a device that will create a new urban image, making the city more attractive to mobile capital a nd mobile professional workers . In the ca se of t he Netherlands one of its cities, Rotterdam , had a reputation of a dull industrial port town and was desperately in need of a fresh start to attract resident s and tourism . T hrough cultural programs such as the creation of the Museum of Architecture , jazz sector, and film festivals, its image improved dramatically and has increased its financial capacity . Another similar
! 39 ca se is Oosterdokseiland. Developed in the 1990's, this area of Ams terdam lacked things to offer before its redevelopment and was rarely visited by the public , but with the insertion of the City Library, Music Hall and Amsterdam Conservatory it transformed into a vibrant cultural center and a tourist destination spot. Regarding the case study area, a s previously mentioned, Amsterdam' s Borneo and Sporenburg Eastern Docklands architectural features that related to the architectural history and heritage of th e city were beneficial for city culture. "The design of the housing on Java and Sporenburg has attracted much attention from the architectural field. The housing in combination with spectacular vie ws of low Dutch skies and the I J River now frequently fo rm the backdrop of television series. This outspoken architectural identity, moreover, has made living there very popular and these neighborhoods, are very well able to compete with the older, more central parts of the city" (Kloosterman, R., 2009, p. 68) . It can be argued through these examples that culture can be a solution for city containment and providing alternatives to people in their particular stages of life. It all comes down to how culture strategies are planned and executed . In terms of pe ople with higher acquisition power, higher social classes and people who might feel that redevelopment in an area could potentially affect property values, it is then extremely important to incorporate good designs so as to enhance and sho wcase the area fo r the upgrading of its physical form, social, and cultural values.
! 40 V I . Opportunities Urban redevelopment in waterfronts and other spaces with potential to change, present several advantages to city landscapes . Direct opportunities from the revitaliza tion of Amsterdam's docklands include : protection of lands in the peripheral of cities, transportation and connectivity improvements, strong entity and identification to a place, significant gas reductions from private vehicles, better health conditions fo r citizens , revitalization and enhancements to the physical form of areas, tourism increase, business /employment opportunities, attractive housing /revitalization, high marketability for real estate , and citizen participation . Protection of lands is somethi ng th at the Dutch are very defensive off as previously stated; they opt to remain a dense nation and safeguard immediate land bordering zones. Transportation services in the majority of cases take a positive turn, and through the renewal of streets and li nkages, provide excellent transportation alternatives for residents. Trams and effe ctive light rail systems , for example, are common elements in places that emphasize pedestrian friendly neighborhoods. These were part of the docks redevelopment plan and will be discussed in detail in the case study portion of the work. As previously discussed, culture as well as community involvement, can create strong bond s between people and places. " Real community involvement has led to a feeling of ownership which sh ould ensure its sustainability" (Roberts, P., 2000 , p. 96 ). So it can be argued that cultural programs are beneficial not
! 41 only to maintain ing the history and heritage , but also as instruments for densification and establishing emotional ties that create a sense of pride and sense of place to people to a particular region . Because of the compactness factor , fewer automobiles are needed therefore reducing t he attachment and dependency of them. This in turns improves people's health by making them walk and b ike to w ork, shopping and other activities. I n terms of revitalization, physical forms alterations, business opportunities, housing , and tourism provide new opportunities and the positives outweigh the negatives in most cases. As author Mike Jenks mention s, "Many of the potential benefits of intensification (improved facilities, public transport, upgrading, increased prosperity) occur more frequently in these areas (urban). Housing development in commercial areas can increase perceptions of safety, as ca n intensification involving promotion of the 24 hour city concept. Intensification, which increases the number of visitors to an area, has the potential to increase local prosperit y and support local businesses" (Jenks, M., 2000 , p. 248 ). According to Amsterdam Housing Studio Report by Anhalt University , waterfront developments with good physical changes, increase the value of surrounding co mmercial property by 10 per cent and residential value by 30 per cent as well as being attractive places for deve lopers and prospective buyers because of their proximity to the water . Lastly, this process also foments citizen participation. The Dutch government supports people's ideas particularly when it e ntails neighborhood changes. " The concept of an integrated framework is also seen in a regulated planning process in which the public often plays a role in the development and quality of
! 42 the built environment. The citizen has a voice and can make a direct contribution to the quality of their environm ent" (Cousin s, M., 2009, p. 11) .
! 43 VII. Challenges Although there are numerous benefits to this particular redevelopment strategy as previously discussed , planners and city officials in charge of urban revitalization projec ts should take into account the trials of the practice so they comprehend what the whole process embodies and what they might be up against in order t have a successful development . Author Peter Hendee Brown of Ã”America's Waterfront Revival: Port Authorit ies and Urban Redevelopment' mention s that i nfrastructure, maintenance, transference of property, time, financing, and concerns with views, are some of the major areas of concern towards waterfronts . In terms of infrastructure, its difficulties include la ck of modern facilities in most cases such as sewer systems, streets, electrical power, and natural green areas (a lthough these can be incorporated to the project s uch as was done in the case study ). In other words, developers would have to engage in subs tantial work and capital to ensure revitalization is up to standards and city codes. Maintenance fees can be high mainly because of piers, pilings, bulkheads, and sea walls upkeep. The later being an important element in waterfront areas because of sea l evel rise issues . There can also be complications with property ownership because there are several entities involved in the complex process such as government agencies and privat e investors and/or developers. This can complicate matters and not necessar ily attract development. "The existence of many property owners, including a distressed port authority, multiple city agencies, private individuals and companies, and the federal
! 44 government in the case of naval shipyards and other military installations, m akes for a patchwork of interests on the waterfront" (Hendee P., 2009, p.15). Timing for the redevelopment can be very challenging. Waterfronts take a while to develop; from city permits , codes, financing, to population studies, projects can take a whi le to kick start. For instance, the revitalization of the London dockland region took approximately seventeen years for its full completion, so this will not be the ideal project for impatient developers and planners. People diving into these kinds of pr ojects are warned that they are not instant fixes. Financing waterfronts is another area that affects investors and developers as well. Typically u p front costs are very expensive and take years for the debts to be repaid. Furthermore, a strict timefram e for pr ojects must be followed for project management as well as for financial purposes; extended projects usually result in going over initial established budgets. Views and how the area is going to be redeveloped are some citizen worries , justifiably so . High rise buildings or other type of large structures that might block views of the city's water feature might not be well received among the neighboring residents who will probably be most affected by the project. It is then critical to carefully de sign the area to avoid any complaints and unfavorable attitudes. As mentioned in the attitudes section of the work, some people might have reservations towards revitalization practices because it might alter the urban quality, essence and residential char acter of an area; adequate design and planning must be taken into consideration to prevent this . F or example, Borneo
! 45 Sporenburg, specifically designed low rise configurations because of citizen opinions towards the matter and to maintain the water views . Besides the points mentioned, there can also be issues with or ganization and overall planning, though extensive research and good preparations can be instrumental for the program. Before the success of several waterfronts in Spain, such as Bilbao, redeve lopments did not run smoothly at first. " By the mid 1980s, considerable debate on the Ã”crisis of the plan' was already underway on the grounds of poor results, lack of flexibility of the planning system, lengthy plans elaboration processes and weaknesses in implementation." However, " By the end of that decade, the new Master Plan of Bilbao established the basis for transformation, identifying a series of key locations (Ã”opportunity sites') left out by deindustrialization and decline that could be redeve loped to lead the process of urban revitalization " (Guenaga, G., Martinez, E., & Rodriguez, A., 2001, p.168). Spain's example is one of several in Western Europe and the facts presented are basically what happens in many cases, but this can vary consider ably from country to country as each region is different in terms of: culture, legalities, establishing priorities, governments, and diverse methods of general planning. The success of waterfronts will be heavily weighed by the contextual issues of the pl ace , and not by extracting a model f rom another place and developing it without the necessary alterations. The natural panorama is also an issue. In terms of the ch allenges associated with natural environment s such as climate change , and consequently sea level r ise, urban planners must prepare coastal zones in cities for upcoming water growths since it presents a dangerous situation for waterfronts because of their vulnerable location ; this can cause developer un interest, damaging physical alterations du e to flooding , and impact overall quality and future city
! 46 condition s if not properly acknowledging what needs to be done . According to the Environmental Protection Agency during the 20 th century the sea rose approximately seven inches and the figure is ex pected to reach two feet by 2100, therefore presenting a risk for any type of coastal development. This can cause problems such as coastal flooding, changes in marine ecosystems, terrain problems, erosion, building foundation failure, damage to sewer syst ems, lost agricultural lands, and overall city discomfort. Because of these trials, which are inevitable and we can't avoid, urban regions with proximity to water openings have to engage in strategies that can minimize or eliminate completely issues with water rises due to the changes in climate. The Netherlands vast experience with water management throughout its history , ( from water pumping, canals, dikes , to terp construction ) gives them an advantage in planning; they basically have been keeping water out for hundreds of years for protection and safety purposes . E ven though it is a precarious circumstance there are various ways to control it; countries not necessarily familiar with the Netherlands water experience can assi milate useful water strategies . Towns with waterfronts should take into consideration this information and build edifices higher than would normally be done to establish a comfortable space between the physical components and the expected water; th e author witnessed a reasonable heigh t distance in the case study area. Sea walls, dunes, engulfing vegetated parks, breakwater structures, and the introduction of large rocks and terrains around or near these coastal regions can also help manage the rises and wave control. Additionally, ar tificial wetlands and small islands filled with vegetation could
! 47 potentially reduce issues associated with water augmentations and offer habitats , as has been proposed by the Dry Line Concept in New York . Based on the findings concerning challenges, it c an be argued that these spaces, although contribute tremendously to the historic character and urban fabr ic of the city as well as helping environmental conditions through the reduction of outside sprawl, can be overwhelming and complex projects. These ty pes of constructions take time to develop and require substantial financing to start; this doesn't necessary appeal to developers. The Netherlands is financially stable , so there were no major concerns with government incentives and financing projects , ho wever, other nations might not be so fortunate and might not be able to take on projects (even if they want to) because of lack of fiscal resources and planning requirements ; those trying reasons might be indicators of why it may not be so easy to do in ot her areas.
! 48 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter focuses on the data collected for the overall qualitative structure of the work. The intent and nature of investigation, through pertinent descriptive data, is to explain the importance of the practice and explore the concept in detail so it serves as a tool to understand what the urban redevelopment in waterfronts practice entails as well as divulging and spreading the concept in order to keep shedding light on the matter, doing so will co ntribute to the reduction of unworthy construction ways that have affected the urban and natural spectrums as well as preparing urban cores for future population increases. The research methodology for the MRP is mainly secondary data that includes inform ation on the history of the case study area, attitude surveys regarding intensification in cities, particularly in Western Europe, which were mentioned in the Literature Review, waterfront analysis, and material on Dutch land use, views, and policies. Des criptions of additional elements that encompass the practice such as relevance, problems, growing populations, and opportunities are also part of the data collection. The history of the case study area, as well as history of urban redevelopment in general includes redevelopment information of the process, from initial phase to current status. Aside the history of the immediate ca se study site explanation, another European waterfront example (London's Docklands) is included as part of the data research to a nal yze Western European dockland redevelopment actions . During the project's initial phases, the author was
! 49 interested in presenting a case study that dealt with maximization of land uses in urban cores, which produced excellent results to the urban commu nity. After examining and getting acclimated to the Dutch culture and their respect for the natural landscapes in their country, the author decided to select their redevelopment efforts in Amsterdam's waterfronts as a component of the MRP. Data collectio n for this part was gathered from books, journals, and documentary about the area. Surveys from Europe were taken into consideration, in particular those that expressed population feelings and attitudes towards compactness issues since part of the urban r edevelopment concept is to build as densely as possible; so understanding this aspect is key for the survival of the practice. Survey data was gathered from books on the subject. Dutch land uses, views, and policies shed light into the specific context o f the country, which is necessary for the development of the work and explains how and why certain measures are taken as part of their land use policies. Data for this section was obtai ned from books specializing in t he Netherlands land management.
! 50 CHAPTER 4 LONDON DOCKLANDS WATERFRONT DISCUSSION Neglected waterfronts have been incorporated as urban revitalization strategies for a number of years in different parts of the world, London's vast dockland area among them. During the late eighteenth c entury, London was one of the most power ful nations, home to one of the busiest ports in the world . Since its shipping and trading economy was booming , docklands were built and expanded in the Thames River to accommodate the demand for ship berths along w ith warehouses and other facilities for commerce , therefore encouraging and maintaining economic trends . West India Dock was constructed in 1800, London Dock in 1802, Surrey Dock in 1804 , and East India Dock as well as St. Katherine's in 1828 . By the 196 0's, c hanges in marine transport, shipping containers, air cargo, and issues between the government and trade unio ns resulted in the zone' s doom. In 1979 th e area was completely deserted with its future uncertain , but filled wit h potential as London commu nity enabler Dr. Michael Barraclough recalls, " In a sense it was the greatest gift of history to this city. Five and a half thousand acres filled with these wonderful big docks. London had been the greatest port in the world. And I could see that you c ould here a water city rather like V enice , which would be the most amazing living environment , actually in London " (Barraclough, M., 1997, LDDC ).
! 51 In 1981, control of the area was given to the London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) , which was run and funded by the English Government 's Department of the Environment to regenerate the waterfront through urban redevelopment strategies. The LDDC was not permitted to fund directly projects for housing and commerce; this task was left to private investo rs and developers. According to national archives from the Department for Communities and Local Governments of the United Kingdom, the main goals of the project were to " to bring land and buildings into effective use, to encourage the development of exist ing and new industry and commerce, to create a more attractive environment and to ensure that housing and social facilities were available to encourage people to live and work in the area" . Urban redevelopment on the area too k place for seventeen years, tr ansforming it into a world renowned business and financial district known as Canary W harf, with approximately 24,000 housing units, social housing, and commercial industries. The project was a tre mendous success for the L DDC as an employee mentions, " I t hink what gives us a great deal of satisfaction, myself and all my colleagues in the London Docklands Development Corporation, is the sense of having been given the remit of 8 " square miles of London, very close to the center that was derelict, going nowh ere, with no future. And leaving it as a place that has improved considerably, particularly physically, and which now has a f uture and has hope" ( Barraclough, M., 1997, LDDC).
! 52 CHAPTER 5 CASE STUDY , AMSTERDAM EASTERN DOCKLANDS BORNEO SPORENBURG The country of the case study, the Netherlands, is located in Western Europe, bordering Belgium , Germany and the North Sea . It has a population of approximately 17 million people mainly dispersed in its major cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and The Hague. As mentioned, European docklands provided powerful injections to city's economies and supporte d many families that worked in these areas . From the 1890's to the 1930's Amsterdam's docklands were instrumental in shipping and train cargo transportation of the goods and services industry . The four dock islands that make up the Eastern Harbor were man made and built between 1874 to 1927 for the accommodation of ships operating to diffe rent parts of the globe during Amsterdam's powerful days as a trading nation. However, d uring the 1970's and 80's the city of Amsterdam , as well as other European cities, faced economic uncertainty following deindustrialization as a result of many businesses leaving ports and factories. Additionally, many people left the city in search of job opportunities elsewhere and these large spaces of former commercial and business capacity in the city's u rban core were left deserted , which in turn changed the character of the area and it's nearby surroundings. " These derelict spaces were located close to the city center and in some cases became home to a more or less marginal urban population of artists, squatters and homeless living in old warehouses, caravans, tents, and huts as happened to the Eastern Docklands" ( Kloosterman, R., 2012, p. 61).
! 53 Figure 5 1. Borneo Sporenburg docklands before redevelopment . ( Source: Nadal Barcala, N. (n.d.). Borneo Sporenburg, Amsterdam. Case Studies Studio IBA Basel Waterfront. Edited by Prof. Kerstin Hoger. Retrieved from: http://www. kerstinhoeger.com/NTNU/STUDIO IBA BASEL/1_CASE STUDIES_Draft.pdf ) By the late 1980's however, the economy slowly got back on track due in part to changes in banking and more ef fective globalization processes and deindustrialization proved to be somewhat o f a motivation force. " Deindustrialization prepares the ground for a restructuring of geography and the production of new sets of spatial relations more or less commensurate with new economic relations" ( Graafland, A., Amsterdam Housing ., 2012 ). This created an urban renaissance in the Netherlands as citizens reclaimed urban cores along with employment prospects and improvements of city services. Deep respect for the country's open space created a challenge for urban planners to accommodate increasing population s; strong attention was
! 54 placed on inner areas tha t had the potential to withstand housing and business sectors for urba n redevelopment, particularly in the city's derelict docks. "Many new homes in the Netherlands have been constructed on larg e brownfield sites. These include the former military airport at Ypenburg, the former docks at the Eastern Harbour District, or on reclaimed land such as the artificial islands of Ijburg" ( Cousins, M., 2009, p. 9). One of the architects in charge of th e waterfront redevelopment project and that produced designs for the narrow units in the docks , Liesbeth van der Pol states , " Every city in this global world has the same problem of how to deal with wish for everyone to have a home of their own, a house o f their own, and at the same time saving your green areas by putting all these houses together in the city. So we have to pile up in the cities , and we have to, we are forced to invent these new types o f housing" (van de Pol, L., PBS Design Adaptive Reuse in the Netherlands ., 2007 ) . This is something that not only pertains to the Netherlands as van der Pol comments, but to basically every major city in the globe that is dealing with intensification and land protection issues, therefore accentuating the im portance of the practice and of this work. New forms of housing must be integrated in towns to properly deal with the future organizations of expected populations around the world. In 1988 the city c ouncil of Amsterdam decided to transform the Eastern D oc klands as part of city neighborhoods for the densification of the city; the master plan redevelopment of the a rea was created that same year with plans for 17,000 units . In the early 1990's five developer firms were granted permission to build in the dock land region and the architectural firm West 8 Urban Design and Landscape w as assigned the task of designing the redevelop ment of one of the
! 55 Eastern Dockland s area known as Borneo Sporenburg under the direct supervision of Architect Adriaan Geuze . The proj ect 's initial pre design phase started in 1993 and the construction phase took place between 1996 and 2000. Located to the East of Amsterdam, Borneo Sporenburg is a dock region comprised of two dock peninsulas of approximately 61 acres , which are considera bly close to Am sterdam Station and subsequently to the city center , accessible by trams and pedestrian linkages (about a 15 minute bicycle ride or 30 minutes walk as experienced by the author ) . Figure 5 2. Case study location . (Source: Nada l Barcala, N. (n.d.). Borneo Sporenburg, Amsterdam. Case Studies Studio IBA Basel Waterfront. Edited by Prof. Kerstin Hoger. Retrieved from: http://www.kerstinhoeger.com/NTNU/STUDIO IBA BASEL/1_CASE STUDIES_Draft.pdf) Initial designs for the ar ea commence d in 1993 that specified for 2,500 dwellings . W hen it came down to figure out what type of housing would be evaluated and taken into consideration for development, Dutch views were extremely influential in the process and a strong determinant . From the
! 56 b eginning it was clear that high rise b uildings would not be main features into the design plan since the Dutch have accustomed themselves to reside in low rise building structures for centuries . Additionally, Java, the first dock peninsula that was redeve loped under the Eastern Docklands waterfront renovation , built a series of high rise buildings that proved to be a real estate failure. " For some reason the Dutch people don't like high rise areas to li ve in. They like to look at it; they like to go to New York, but they don't want to live in it. So high rise here is not really an option, but they (Dutch citizens ) like dense areas" (de Vletter, M., Chief Curator Netherlands Architecture Institute , PBS Adaptive Reuse in the Netherlands ., 2007 ). Follow ing the slow housing high rise market in Java, developers and planners expressed their concerns to the Mayor of Amsterdam of not being able to get return of their investments and were hence able to obtain building permits for low rise residential buildings under the condition that the area be dense and residential in its majority . The task was to accommodate and design 100 residential structures per hectare as low rise but at the same time comply with density policy specifications from the government witho ut the area losing its charm appeal and feeling overcrowded. Chief a rchitect of the project, Adriaan Geuze, proposed to involve other architect s to participate in the process as an integrated approach in order to create a unique environment t o live in . Each architect brought different ideas and considerations as to what could work in the space provided, resulting in a interesting reinterpretation of Dutch canal houses with varied mix of housing styles, designs, and planning that was crucial to draw peopl e to the area.
! 57 Figure 5 3. Master plan design. Figure 5 4. Master plan model. ( Figure 5 3, 5 4 s ource s : Nadal Barcala, N. (n.d.). Borneo Sporenburg, Amsterdam. Case Studies Studio IBA Basel Waterfront. Edited by Prof. Kerstin Hoger. Retrieved fro m: http://www.kerstinhoeger.com/NTNU/STUDIO IBA BASEL/1_CASE STUDIES_Draft.pdf)
! 58 This Ã”mix' produced three story narrow row houses, which were to be constructed back to back, to utilize as much space as possible , wi th rooftop gardens and terraces . Spaces in front of the unit entrances , although public in their entirety, could also be used as gardens if properly kept by the resident s . During the author's visit to the area many units assimilated this entrance space and placed large pots and garden boxes , c reating small gardens for their personal enjoyment . As the author toured the area, many families were using these spaces wi th their children and neighbors, so it can be argued that the spaces are important for social activities and neighbor connections. T he gardens , both rooftops and entrance level ones, are favorable for sustainability matters and are esthetically pleasing . Figure 5 5. Front gardens. (Source: O'Rourke , J. (2015). DIY Urbanism: Build Your Own Community. Rudi Net. Retrieved fro m: http://www.rudi.net/node/19650)
! 59 Figure 5 6. Front gardens. (Sour ce: Borneo Sporenburg. March 8, 2015. Photo: Pueyo, J. ) Since the row houses would be co nstructed in a narrow way, back to back , and windowless on the sides, bringing natu ral light was a major area of concern for the designers. After carefully considering the options, the answer was to form a courtyard in the middle of the units to maximize sun exposure and reduce electric energy consumption in the homes . Resident Derk va n der Vegte mentions , " It's very sunny in the house because the sun is shinning in the front of the house . E ven though the backside has no windows, its very light in the house, especially when you go to the bedroom in the morning you can sit in the sun o n the deck te rrace" (van der Vegte, D., PBS Design Adaptive Reuse in the Netherlands ., 2007 ). Another reside nt, Henk Duijzer also recalls " for the light
! 60 and the view, the big windows and partly glass ceiling mean we never need to put the lights on in the daytime, even in the win ter" (Szita, J., In Old Amsterdam's Newest Neighborhood, It's Modern Architecture's Golden Age., 2002, p. 68). Approximately 30 to 50 per cent of th e dwelling units, which include the rooftop gardens, terraces and courtyard, are open space; this helps bring natural light inside and establishes comfortable levels to the occupants so they don't feel confined . Furthermore, there are various open public open green spaces in the neighborhood for relaxation as well as play areas for ch ildren. Because the direction of the project was mainly to provide dense residential housing for approximately 6,000 people, the planners had to make creative design decision s in order to includ e green areas in the remaining spaces . For example, a large and narrow space wedged in between the middle of two blocks of narrow housing units, was cleverly utilized as a green zone that has an outdoor recreational gym and playgrounds for the residents children. It can also be argued that t he surroun ding water i s another source of open space. "When we made the master plan in 1988, we said, Ã”blue is green'. We had to defend our scheme to the higher authorities. So we divided the whole need for green into needs. The need for space, and the need for view, and l ight, and air, and the need to play" ( Schaap, T., PBS Design Adaptive Reuse in the Netherlands ., 2007 ).
! 61 Figure 5 7. Green areas diagram. (Source: Nadal Barcala, N. (n.d.). Borneo Sporenburg, Amsterdam. Case Studies Studio IBA Basel Wat erfront. Edited by Prof. Kerstin Hoger. Retrieved from: http://www.kerstinhoeger.com/NTNU/STUDIO IBA BASEL/1_CASE STUDIES_Draft.pdf)
! 62 As part of the strategy of attracting people to the area and creating a distinguishing place, the designers left a piece of land with sixty plots untouched as a blank canvas so people that were interested in designing and building their own homes , as to their cer tain requirements , could do so. The price tag for each individual plot was approximately $50,000 US Dolla rs in 1996 (around $80,000 in today's terms ), so it was an attractive deal. Henk Duijzer, resident of the area mentions " when you're an architect, you always dream of building your own house Ã but this seemed an impossible dream in Amsterdam. When we hea rd about the plot sale, we had to go for it Ã it was a bit scary, but now we have a house that's perfect for us" (Szita, J., 2002, p. 68). Sixty row houses were then built in the parcel of land following height and width specifications, diversifying the a rea. The homes could be no taller than thirty six feet, must have flat roofs, and space for personal vehicles.
! 63 Figure 5 8. Individual lot houses. Figure 5 9. Architect narrow unit designs. ( Figure 5 8, 5 9 s ource s : West 8. (n .d.). Borneo Sporenburg 1993 1996, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Retrieved from: http://www.west8.nl/projects/all/borneo_ sporenburg/) Aside from narrow housing, three large apartment building structures were built in order to offer affordable housing , maint ain diverse options for buyers, and u phold density regulations. Even though architects and city planners were skeptical about includi ng them in the design following what occurred in Java, they
! 64 realized that they could make the best of the situation by des igning distinctive buildings that could reinterpret Dutch spatial planning of the past. Old Dutch towns are characterized with having low rise structures engulfing a larger edifice, such as cathedrals and churches, so the designers maintained their planni ng culture in the area with modern twists. One of these buildings, known as Ã”The Whale' designed by architect Frits va n Dongen , accomplished this notion and represents the cathedral element while the smaller narrow low rises epitomize the village homes. T he building's unique whale shape presents different living conditions in its 214 units and lured many pe ople to the area . Reasonably priced units, particularly for middle income families, and social housing , are located in the building's interior , while e xclusive millionaire housing are available in the corners, which provide excellent views of the harbor and offer privacy. " Amsterdam pays a lot of attention to mixing and heterogeneity, mixing types of houses, mixing rent versus owner occupied houses and mixing socio economic group of inhabitants" and "the idea is to combine all of these different kinds of units, for example smaller and bigger ones all together in one block where the difference between them cannot be distinguished from outside" ( Graafland , A., Amsterdam Housing ., 2012 ). That is preci sely the case with Ã”The Whale'. Its marveling architecture not only creates charm to the area but it is a key element for housing strategies with social interest . " New spatial engineering is giving place t o new housing developments which programs are focused on mixing income groups and mixed use eg: Whale Residential Complex in Sporenburg providing 150 social housing units, 1100 m2 business accommodation, and 179 parking spaces" ( Graafland, A., Amsterdam Ho using ., 2012 ).
! 65 Fi gure 5 10. Architect Frits van Dongen's Ã”The Whale' r esidential complex. Figure 5 11. Architect Frits van Dongen's Ã”The Whale' residential complex.
! 66 Figure 5 12. Architect Frits van Dongen's Ã”The Whal e' residential complex. (Figure 5 10,11,12 sources: McManus, D. (2015). The Whale Amsterdam: Urban Housing Holland. E Architect. Retrieved from: http://www.e architect.co.uk/amsterdam/whale building)
! 67 As with the daylight issue in the low rise ho uses, the building 's orientation was carefully selected so all units could receive natural light as well. A large vegetated interior courtyard in the interior also helps bring in natural lighting and provides open recreational space for residents . Figure 5 13. Architect Frits van Dongen's Ã”The Whale' interior green courtyard. (Source: McManus, D. (2015). The Whale Amsterdam: Urban Housing Holland. E Architect. Retrieved from: http://www.e architect.co.uk/amsterdam/whale building) Being a w ater nation, docking incentives w ere offered to people as well. " Since these docks are so huge, some of them are a mile long, we (planners) said please o rganize amnesty for every boat. So an invasion, an armada of Amsterdam anarchistic boat and floating culture occupied these islands. So on day one, even when half the buildings were not realized, there was this society of people living on boats. And that makes it sort of a cooler look which I think is very much part of a sort of sustain able project" (Ge uze, A., PBS Design Adaptive Reuse in the Netherlands ., 2007 ).
! 68 Proximity and connections to the inner city also was a major advantage to attract people. As previously mentioned, the city is accessible through pedestrian systems that incorpor ate biking lan es , tram , and bus stations that are located inside the site as well as on its perimeter, so there are transportation alternatives which makes it easier for residents to get around. The author experienced walking to the site through shared bicycle/pedestri an lanes from the inner city, taking approximately 30 minutes to get there. Figure 5 14 . Transportation diagram. (Source: Nadal Barcala, N. (n.d.). Borneo Sporenburg, Amsterdam. Case Studies Studio IBA Basel Waterfront. Edited by Prof. Ker stin Hoger. Retrieved from: http://www.kerstinhoeger.com/NTNU/STUDIO IBA BASEL/1_CASE STUDIES_Draft.pdf)
! 69 There are also two main bridges that link both islands. The circulation experience of one of the bridges is particularly interesting since it is cla ssified as a work of art and not a typical pedestrian bridge; this is due to the steep and height nature of it to allow large boats to pass through. City regulations did not pe rmit such bridge to function as pedestrian crossings because of legal matters, so the planner s had to classify it as a sculpture type so it could be placed in the docks. This is also part of the uniqueness factor the architects wanted to achieve for appeal. "One of the keys to the overall success of the development were the three bridges that connect the different areas and provide a unifying architectural feature. This outspoken architectural identity, moreover, has made living there very popular and these neighborhoods, are very well able to compete with the older, more central parts of the city" (Kloosterman, R., 2012, p. 77). Figure 5 15 . Art bridge. (Source: West 8. (n.d.). Borneo Sporenburg 1993 1996, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Retrieved from: http://www.west8.nl/p rojects/all/borneo_sporenburg/)
! 70 Apart from h aving reachable access to the mentioned transportation services to town, if people do not want to make the journey to the inner city, there are various amenities including shops, restaurants, and markets in the perimeter of the dockland zone by walking dis tance . Although the neighborhoods were mainly intended as residential neighborhoods, recent data gathered to const ruct the Amsterdam Regiomonitor , which is a program map that help s demonstrate different districts spatial concentration in the city and thei r relationship with factors such as unemployment, population, housing, etc ., reveals that the fairly completed Eastern Docklands are teeming with economic activities . " In 2008, no less than 10.1 firms for every 100 inhabitants in this predominantly reside ntial area" (Klooesterman, R., 2012, p. 77). Inside the area there are offices and an elementary school, so these facilities greatly reduce the need for residents to use their private vehicles. Resident Apma of the docklands recalls, " I love the restful atmosphere of Borneo Ã there are hardly any cars, and no problems with the neighbors. When I first moved here in 1999, it was very low key, but the islands are improving all the time, with new bars and rest aurants opening" ( Szita, J., 200 2, p. 63). In the case of vehicles, roads inside the site are strictly for residents t o get in and out of the area but there are parking spaces available along the streets for visitors as well. In terms of project area, since the amount of space in the project consists of roughly 61 acres, it can be argued that these acres were spared in the outskirts of the city; therefore resulting in land/space recycling as a sustainable dense/ housing approach . In a 2005 study, the two peninsulas housed 5,138 residents; 2,480 in the peninsula of Sporenburg and 2,658 in Borneo as
! 71 demonstrated in Eastern Docklands population studies mentioned in Robert Kloosterman's Ã” New Urbanism: Life, Work, and Space in the New Downtown ' book. Moreover, the neighboring dock sections of Java and KNSM housed 5,667 residents; Java with 3,149 and KNSM with 2,518. In total, the Eastern Docklands as a whole houses 10,805 of people, proving to be a successful sustainable project for the country. "Its unique environment, has become a sought after part of the city for those hoping to find some peace and quiet, space and security, without taking themselves t oo far out of the urban area" (Szita, J., 2002, p. 63). And as architecture critic and founder of A10, Hans Ibelings puts it , "it took a while for peo ple of Amsterdam to realize how nice this neighborhood was, but as soon as it started to develop they fell in love with this whole area. If you look at the increase of the prices of the houses, it's clear reflection that it is extremely popular" ( Ibelings , H., PBS Design Adaptive Reuse in the Netherlands ., 2007 ). The project's aim towards revitalization not only improved the area and complied with density regulations , but established a community were planning princ iples such as walkability, connectivity , mix use, transportatio n, and sense of place are fundamentally part of an efficient sustainable process.
! 72 Figure 5 16. Docklands redeveloped. (Source: Nadal Barcala, N. (n.d.). Borneo Sporenburg, Amsterdam. Case Studies Studio IBA Base l Waterfront. Edited by Prof. Kerstin Hoger. Retrieved from: http://www.kerstinhoeger.com/NTNU/STUDIO IBA BASEL/1_CASE STUDIES_Draft.pdf) Figure 5 17. Docklands redeveloped. ( Source: Krubs, R. (2009). KNSM Eiland Development. Retrieved from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/rolandkrebs/4173927690)
! 73 Resident views: Resident : Rob van Houten, Ã” The Whale ' " What I like about this house is the space; it has a lot of space. The heights are fantastic; it's given me a lot of breathing space to live in. I like the fact that it is very close to the city, that in fifteen minutes bicycling I can be anywhere I want and at the same time is very quiet. I can be here and have my rest without being bothered by a lot of noise or a lot of people. And, I like the v iew . You cannot sometimes put your finger on it but you sense the fact that something has had the attention of people and (they) put an effort on it to make it work and that's what you see here. It works, people like to live here " (van Houten, R., 2007, PBS Design Adaptive Reuse in the Netherlands). Resident : Hans Apma , Borneo " It's a bit of a long way from the center, but that's relative; the distance would be nothing in London Ã after all, it's just a 15 minute cycle ride to Cent ral Station from here" (Szita , J., 2002, p. 63). Resident : Niek van Slobbe " The light is my favorite thing about the house Ã sunlight or moonlight, reflected from the water, has an almost spiritual quality" (Szita, J., 2002, p. 64). Residents : Gerrita van der Veen and William Bertrand " This house has a wonderful feeling of transparency. Although you have different rooms with specific functions, you still have the feeling of being in one single space because of the glass partitions and sliding doors" (Szita, J., 2002, p. 67). Resident : Lidewejde de Smit " I love the fact that I know all my neighbors . The center of Amsterdam can be so anonymous. But I think we all get on because we have the shared experience of working hard to realize our dream homes" (Szita, J., 2002, p. 69).
! 74 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION T he se spaces are clever alternative construction vehicles for city planners, engineers, arc hitects, and community members for sustainability . Constru ction methods , such as sprawl that lead to highway dependency , are not viab le options for the future of the planet and for sustainability. Using what is already accessible in cities will ensure protection of lands from uncontrolled sprawl and construction impacts to the environment as well as keeping people in denser city commun ities. As previously mentioned, the world is a place of limits, so we must use what we have available particularly in urban cores and not spoil natural landscapes, to provide demand for the expected increase in population projections so, "the reuse of ob solete industrial space along the waterfront is a major challenge and an opportunity for cities around the world" (Marshall, R., 2001, p. 74). It is important to mention that context must be taken into account during initial phases of redeve lopment in ord er to get a full grasp of an area's particular needs to understand not only its history but also what elements can be incorpo rated in the planning process. What works in one place may n ot necessarily work in another. "The socioeconomic political manifes tation of community sustainability includes a vibrant green economy and job creation, a social support system, and a collaborative and inclusive process. That process and the solutions it develops should be place based: emerging from the history, natural setting, culture, and values of the community" ( Randolph, J., 2012, p. 17). In the case of the Netherlands, the waterfront redevelopments were done under meticulous planning decisions and strategies that best Ã”fit' with the area's
! 75 context and characteri stics; restoring the city and saving terrains that could otherwise might have been lost to house all those people in the docklands. These specific decisions included several components such as: Dutch views, integrated approaches in planning, reinterpretat ion of Dutch spatial design, unique architecture and design, water features, green spaces, affordable units, incentives for boats, and links to mass transit options. As mentioned, Dutch people do not appreciate high rise structures, so their views on the matter ultimately determined the type of buildings the area would have and the overall design composition of the docklands; low rise structures were the main focus of the project as it is the preferred housing choice in the country. The chief architect of the redevelopment believed that in order to create a space that drew people, there would have to be strong designs. Different architects produced a series of designs that resulted in fascinating low rise narrow units that are in general 30 to 50 per cent open spaces that bring in natural light and ventilation, and a spatial experience that unifies the dockland zone. This also resulted in a reinterpretation of Dutch spatial planning of the past where smaller edifices would surround a large structure; the case study area introduced three large configurations, which represent the large cathedrals, and low rise units surrounding the three larger buildings as was done in the past much to the enjoyment of citizens. To lure people into the bigger structures, un ique designs such as the captivating bridges and whale reinterpretation building concept were established. Since the beginning of the planning process the area's surrounding water was astutely attached to the project with their Ã”blue is green' approach as it
! 76 is used for recreational activities as well as housing a number of families in their private boats. Every space in the redevelopment was maximized; green spaces such as parks, small gardens, playgrounds and exercise areas were introduced for appealing views and aesthetics, environmental purposes, recreation, and socialization opportunities. Lastly, affordable units, incentives for boating, and close links to the inner city made it possible for people to see the potential of the region and settle in th ese dock islands. Besides contextual issues, forming public ties to waterfront projects i s fundamental for success. In order for people to embrace and understand all of the aspects that encompass waterfront revitalization such as opportunities and ben efits (economic, environmental , quality of life, etc.) governments, through their urban planning or related city planning departments must invest in communication programs through advertising or other forms of promotion strategies that reach the entire pop ulation. Some citizens might not be well informed and may not necessarily understand how the redevel opment of these places moderate environmental scenarios such as deforestation, greenhouse gases, conservation of habitats, and climate change. Moreover, t hey also might not be aware of the multiple advantages urban waterfronts encompass to overall quality of life. Therefore it can be argued that well organized and resourceful urban planning advertising approaches not only have the poten tial in instructing the population, as well as developers, in environmental matters and generating conscientious atmospheres , but also in broadening their housing expectations and community alternatives; focusing on community sense of place, character,
! 77 accessibility, transpor tation, and unique urban living factor can divert property renters and buyers from the suburbs and out of town settlements and draw them to the city. Of course , cities around the world would have to desi gn and implement the promotional strategies accordin g to their individual context situations, but overall tactics developers and city planners could include for the masses are educational segments in morning/evening news , movie theater commercials, articles in local newspapers and environmental magazines, p amphlets, radio programs wher e citizen doubts or concerns may be addressed and that foster pertinent thought exchanges , information on official city website s , and seminars/conferences ; t hese plans could increase the chances for city population containment and promote citizen participation and awareness. As we are experiencing troublesome time s in regards to climatic conditions, particularly with sea level rises due to high tempera tures , it is vital for urban designer s to look for ways in which to allevia te this unfortunate consequence , thus we need to adapt to new surroundings. As previously mentioned, in order for waterf ronts to smoothly transition to these climatic contexts, sufficient changes in the urban fabric must be made . The Netherlands has been doing it for years and cities around the world are developing interesting concepts to their urban composition that if done right will form tremendous advancements in urban plannin g. New York, for instance, has been developing strategies to protect its wa terfront spaces that include artificial wetlands, vegetated islands, water parks around Ma nhattan, and breakwater systems. Innovation and unique proposals, along with a clear understanding of scientific
! 78 data involving climate change , need to be encouraged to enhance waterfront redevelopment, which offer numerous benefits to cities. In retrospect, u rban designers must make good use of spa ces that no longer work as their initial purpose but that have the capacity and potential to be redeveloped into somethi ng else that is useful and that provides multiple benefits for city revitalization. T his MRP has presented and highlighted, central aspects of urban redevelopment practice s , specifically in dockland territories that offer a different perspective in urban planning ventures ; these are important for other students in the field and planners to be aware off in terms of continued education and knowledge of the subject as well as for a general preparation to instruct themselves and others who might not be conscio us about the significance of the practice. This will also keep the momentum going and alleviate environmental complications . Central a spects mentioned in the work include: historical value and relevance of the practice, urban cores and their situations, views on the matter , opportunities , and challenges; these will serve as a guideline s and reference points. The MRP's r esearch and findings indicate that this compelling construction technique is advantageous in dealing with a plethora of environmental, p opulation, and housing issues that not only affect the case study region but in places around the world. As discussed in the chapters and case study, waterfront redevelopment has been proven to reduce negative figures attached to the environment su ch as g as emissions, habitat loss, deforestation , and overall quality of life . Furthermore, it determines a sense of organization and
! 79 better sustainable city planning through establishing sufficient population and environmental studies , which are both main parts of sustainability. Overall findings demonstrate that: the re birth of these spaces attracts new residents, provides space for rising city populations, maintains the character of the city, enhances physical components, transportation services see improve ments, gas emissions from private vehicles are reduced, encourages people to walk and bike therefore bettering their health, environment and nearby lands are protected which in turn help maintain cooler temperatures and habitat defense, local economies are reinforced, tourism increases, and strong attachments are developed from densification and resident community involvement. In conclusion, p lanners were able to see past a dilapidated Ã”lost' space in the city of Amsterdam and produce a vibrant mix used com munity were resid ents feel pleased to call home and this is why the project is extremely successful; redevelopment was executed in a way that made sense, it was not building for the sake of building. Around 61 acres were included back to the community set ting in the Borneo Sporenburg dock islands and n early 165 acres in the entire Eastern Docklands redevelopment project, which could have otherwise been taken from bordering lands. The success of the Eastern Docklands Redevelopme nt Project (EDRP) can be emu lated or integrated in other parts of the world, taking into consideration each countries particular condition , where there are spaces that have the carrying capacity and possibility of redevelopment.
! 80 References: A , The National Archives. Department of Communities and Local Government. (2015). Regenerating London Docklands. Retrieved from: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.communities.gov.uk/index .asp?id=1128647 Bianchini, F. & Parkinson, M. (1993). Remaking European cities: The Role of Cultural Policies. Cultural Policy and Urban Regeneration The West European Experience, (pp. 1 21). Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=N327AAAAIAAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP14 &dq=urban+regeneration&ots=HEawvPN_i6&sig=nPdGfiAuyXmHlemLjG rbjAVA SdI#v=onepage&q=urban%20regeneration&f=false Bowman, A. & Pagano, M. (2000). Vacant Land in Cities: An Urban Resource. Center on Urban & Metropolitan Policy, The Brookings Institution Washington, DC, (1 9). Retrieved from: http://scholar.google.com/ scholar?hl=en&q=vacant+lands+in+cities%3A+an+urb an+resource&btnG=&as_sdt=1%2C10&as_sdtp= Braungart, M. & McDonough W. (2002). Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things. New York, United States. North Point Press. Cai, K. & Wang, J. (2009). Urban Design Based On Public Safety Ã Discussion On Safety Based Urban Design. Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China, Volume 3 (Issue 2), p. 220. Retrieved from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11709 009 0023 4 Cassel, C. (Writer), & (Director). (2005). Rome (Television series episode). In Cassel, C. (Producer), Rome: Engineering an Empire. United States of America: History Channel Kraylevich Productions Inc. Cousins, M. (2009). Design Quality in the Netherlands. Design Quality in N ew Housing: Learning from the Netherlands, (p. 9). USA. Taylor & Francis, Inc. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=9Mx5AgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP 1&dq=borneo+sporenburg+construction+process&ots=JOFBbDNSsF&sig=QUmi IVoZxo6u3 RDncyBY2RtHjA#v =onepage&q=borneo%20sporenburg%20construction%20pro cess&f=false Davidson, M. (n.d.). Urban Geography: Waterfront Development. University of Western Sydney, Australia. Retrieved from: http://wordpress.clarku.edu/mdavidson/files/2012/03/Waterfront.pdf
! 81 De Architekten. (2009). Case Study 4, The Whale. Mass Context, Issue 4. Retrieved from: http://www.mascontext.com/issues/4 living winter 09/case study 4 the whale/ Dempsey, N. & Jenks, M. (2005). Future Forms and Design for Sustainable Cities. Great Britain. Architectural Press. Edgar, B. & Taylor, J. (2000). Housing. Urban Regeneration: A Handbook, (pp.153 173). Great Britain. Cromwell Press Limited, Trowbridge, Wiltshire. Edwards, B. (1992). London Docklands: Urban Design in an Age of Deregulation. (p. 3, England. Thomson Litho, East Kilbride. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=HNZsBQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP 1&dq=london+docklands+urban+redevelopment&ots=kAw_OObsNG&sig=w9_yn TXkcjpZjdzxCQ9TcEJJb2Y#v=onepage&q=london%20docklands%20urban%20r edevelopment&f=false Editorial. (1999). Communities and Crime. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, Volume 7 (Number 4). Retrieved from: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=European+Journal+on+Criminal+Policy+an d+Research,+communities+and+cr ime&hl=en&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart& sa=X&ei=GfddVbPCAcmZyASstoHADg&ved=0CBwQgQMwAA Giddings, B., Hopwood, B., & Mellor, M. (2005). Back to the City: A Route to Urban Sustainability. Future Forms and Design for Sustainable Cities, (pp. 17 18). Great Br itain. Architectural Press. Retrieved from: http://issuu.com/atnta/docs/future_forms_and_design_for_sustainable_cities Gilderbloom, J., Hanka, M., & Lasley, C. (2008). Amsterdam: Planning and Policy for the Ideal City? Center for Sustainable Urban Neighbo rhoods School of Urban and Public Affairs. University of Lousville. Retrieved from: http://sun.louisville.edu/pdfs/Amsterdam_Article.pdf Government of the Netherlands. (n.d.). Water Management. Retrieved from: http://www.government.nl/issues/water managem ent/water quality/towards better water quality Graafland, A. (2012). Amsterdam Housing, Studio Report. Anhalt University Department 3. DIA Series. Retrieved from: http://www.ariegraafland.eu/wp content/downloads/Amsterdam Housing.pdf Guenaga, G., Martinez , E., & Rodriguez, A. (2001). The Changing Context of Urban P olic y in B ilbao . Uneven Redevelopment New Urban Policies and Socio Spatial Fragmentation in Metropolitan Bilbao , (p. 168). Spain. Retrieved from: http://scholars on bilbao.info/fichas/5ARodrigue zetaltEURS2001.pdf
! 82 Hendee Brown, P. (2009). Port Authorities and Urban Redevelopment. America's Waterfront Revival: Port Authorities and Urban Redevelopment, (p. 15). United States. University of Pennsylvania Press. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com /books?id=psp4_mnEKw4C&pg=PA15&lpg=PA15&dq= waterfront+difficulties&source=bl&ots=Vz4ItCFCEW&sig=zIlvFjy3MbwM5YtTMdk nKpDjv I&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CFAQ6AEwCWoVChMIjNf6g4zqxgIVVhCSCh1GrgYs#v=o nepage&q=waterfront%20difficulties&f=false Jenks, M. (2000). The Accept ability of Urban Intensification. Achieving Sustainable Urban Form, (pp. 17 29). Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=cO_BWyZx8P4C&oi=fnd&pg=PA2 42&dq=land+redevelopment&ots=mTjpLwBgA7&sig=xFCpRMzVdAzNc64LUHS kklGQUw#v=onepage&q=land%2 0redevelopment&f=false Kloosterman, R. (2009). New Urbanity In the Old City: Lessons from Amsterdam (p.68). Retrieved from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/241883718_New_urbanity_in_the_old_ci ty_lessons_from_Amsterdam Kloosterman, R. (2012). Plan ning for Creativity: The Transformation of the Amsterdam Eastern Docklands. In Dirksmeier, P. & Helbrecht, I. (Eds.), New Urbanism: Life, Work, and Space in the New Downtown (pp. 61, 62). England: Ashgate Publishing Limited. Retrieved from: https://books.g oogle.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=_Lkkg42Lb7AC&oi=fnd&pg=PA61 &dq=effects+of+borneo+sporenburg+area&ots=5ZnkRIhE0F&sig=FVKiIR7yKc6 -zifd2dMlUtB l8#v=onepage&q&f=false Krubs, R. (2009). KNSM Eiland Development. Retrieved from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/rolan dkrebs/4173927690 London Docklands Development Corporation Documentary. (1997). Royal Dockside London. Retrieved from: http://royaldockside.net/london docklands 1 lddc/ Marshall, R. (2001). Waterfronts in Post Industr ial Cities. Introduction (pp.4,5,12 ). London, England: Spon Press. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com/books?id=aTt5AgAAQBAJ&pg=PA13&lpg=PA13&dq= waterfronts+in+post+industrial+cities&sourc e=bl&ots=41xykoc539&sig=n_JJ6CE SAk8XWciccsTBhEoZf0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ni5nVenRCYbVsAXFqIKgDA&ved=0C FgQ6AE wCQ#v=onepage&q=waterfronts%20in%20post%20industrial%20cities& f=false McManus, D. (2015). The Whale Amsterdam: Urban Housing Holland. E Architect. Retrieved from: http://www.e architect.co.uk/amsterdam/whale building
! 83 Merckx, F., Notteboom, J., & Winklema n, W. (n.d.). Spatial Models of Waterfront Redevelopment: The Tension Between City and Port Revisited. University of Antwerp, (p.2). Belgium. Nabielek, K., Kronberger Nabielek, P., & Hamers, D. (2013). The rural urban fringe in the Netherlands: recent de velopments and future challenges. Spool. (p. 103). Retrieved from: http://ojs lib.tudelft.nl/index.php/spool/article/view/624 Nadal Barcala, N. (n.d.). Borneo Sporenburg, Amsterdam. Case Studies Studio IBA Basel Waterfront. Edited by Prof. Kerstin Hoger. Re trieved from: http://www.kerstinhoeger.com/NTNU/STUDIO IBA BASEL/1_CASE STUDIES_Draft.pdf Needham, B. (2014). How the Dutch Want Their Land to be Used: The Content of Dutch Spatial Planning Policy. Dutch Land Use Planning: The Principles and the Practice, (pp. 6, 32, 39). England: Ashgate Publishing Limited. Retrieved from: file:///Users/javierpueyo/Desktop/Dutch%20Land use%20Planning:%20The%20Principles%20and%20the%20Practice%20 %20Prof%20Dr%20Barrie%20Needham%20 %20Google%20Books.webarchive O'Rourke, J. (2015). DIY Urbanism: Build Your Own Community. Rudi Net. Retrieved from: http://www.rudi.net/node/19650 Randolph, J. (2012). Environmental Management for Sustainability. Environmental Land Use Planning and Management, (pp. 17, 55, 59, 64, 65). Washingt on, DC, United States: Island Press. Roberts, P. & Sykes, H. (2000). Urban Regeneration: A Handbook. Great Britain. Cromwell Press Limited, Trowbridge, Wiltshire. Szita, J. (2002). Straat of Dreams: On Borneo Island's Scheepstimmermanstraat, In Old Amste rdam's Newest Neighborhood, It's Modern Architecture's Golden Age, (p. 63). Retrieved from: https://books.google.com/books?id=A8YDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA63&hl=en#v=onep age&q&f=false Trancik, R. (1986). What is Lost Space? Finding Lost Space. (pp.2 3). United State s of America. John Wiley & Son's. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=UcdJxonfeGMC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9& dq=reusing+city+lost+space&ots=QPUE3qLP_b&sig=sB3LeyPhqBbkBGcjmQFe nWpAAsY#v=onepage&q=reusing%20city%20lost%20space&f=false United Nati ons Food and Agriculture Organization. (2010). Deforestation in decline but rate remains alarming, UN agency says. UN News Centre. Retrieved from:
! 84 http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=34195#.VV34r0IiqrI United Nations World Urbanization Prospects. (2014). World Urbanization Prospects The 2014 Revision. Retrieved from: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Highlights/WUP2014 Highlights.pdf West 8. (n.d.). Borneo Sporenburg 1993 1996, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Retrieved from: http://www.west8.nl/projects/al l/borneo_sporenburg/ Williams, D. (2007). Regional Design, Think Globally, Live Locally, Act Regionally. Sustainable Design: Ecology, Architecture, and Planning, (p. 24). United States: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Woodruffe, L. (Editor), & Fetting, T. (Direc tor). (2007). Adaptive reuse in the Netherlands [Television series episode]. In Willoughby, M. (Producer), PBS e2 Design II. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Kontent Real Productions. Retrieved from: http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xrmelg_pbs design adaptive reuse in the netherlands_lifestyle http://www.pbs.org/e2/episodes/211_adaptive_reuse_netherlands_trailer.html