Citation
A Study of Sustainable Features and Practices in the Commercial Interior Environment

Material Information

Title:
A Study of Sustainable Features and Practices in the Commercial Interior Environment
Creator:
Du, Yang
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Publisher:
College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Science in Architectural Studies)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Cohen, Donna L.
Committee Co-Chair:
Tilson, William L.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Air quality ( jstor )
Architectural design ( jstor )
Commercial buildings ( jstor )
Commercial energy ( jstor )
Construction materials ( jstor )
Energy efficiency ( jstor )
Interior design ( jstor )
Interior spaces ( jstor )
Recycling ( jstor )
Ventilation systems ( jstor )
City of Orlando ( local )

Notes

Abstract:
As the economy booms and commercial business prospers in a higher frequency in most development countries or prosperous districts in developing countries, commercial building are increasingly demanded. However, generally commercial buildings can be 40 percent more energy consuming than other types of buildings, which in turn increase environmental pollution, air contamination and resource wasting problems. ( ,,, )
Abstract:
A sustainable commercial interior environment can contribute hugely to healthy environment as well as to social, economic, and cultural development. Hence, the exploration of sustainable features in commercial interiors is of high importance. Under such circumstances, commercial interior design has made a great progress towards sustainable in many aspects in these last two decades.
Abstract:
Since commercial interior design has great improvement nowadays, the significance of figuring out the features that make it sustainable is increasingly highlighted. Such research could give interior designers a guideline and remind commercial interior managers of how to manage their properties. This essay examines the features in commercial interior design that are sustainable in order to explore methodologies for achieving a sustainable commercial interior environment.
Abstract:
Practices differ based on specific restrictions, confines, conditions and considerations. Through interviews and secondary research, this essay synthesizes and outlines the factors that account for the differences between the theory and applications of sustainable design. Designers, researchers and even the general public will benefit from this paper either on the sustainable commercial interior design features, strategies and restrictions or on the strengthened sustainable mind.
General Note:
sustainable design terminal project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Yang Du. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
1022120836 ( OCLC )

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1 A STUDY OF SUSTAINABLE FEATURES AND PRACTICES IN THE COMMERCIAL INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT BY YANG DU A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2015

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2 2015 Yang Du

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3 To my parents, friends and colleagues

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Firstly, I would like to thank my parents for their encouragement and support. Secondly, I would like to thank my committee members, Professor Donna L. Cohen and Professor William Tilson for their supervision, helpful advices, encouragement and tireles s effo rts during the process of completing this thesis Additionally, I am more than appreciative for Ms. Fownes Joyce, the Principal of Perkins + Will Interior Design Office in Atlanta and Ms. Blumenfeld Joan, the Interior Design Director of the New York Office and Mr. Zhang Bo, a famous interior designer in China They provide me a huge amount of information through the interview s Meanwhile I would like to thank my friends and classmates for their inspiration and support during the research La stly, I would like to thank all of the excellent faculties in Univ ersity of Florida and College of Design, C onstruction and Planning for their technical support and professional teaching

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ .......................... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 9 LIST OF ABBREV IATIONS ................................ ................................ ...................... 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 11 CHAPTERS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 13 1. INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 13 Commercial interior environment ................................ ............................... 13 Concept ................................ ................................ .............................. 13 Features ................................ ................................ .............................. 13 Energy Consumption Problems in Commercial Environment ..................... 14 Sustainable Scope in Commercial Interior Environment ............................ 16 2. LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ........................ 18 Environm ental Problems ................................ ................................ ............ 18 Sustainability ................................ ................................ .............................. 19 History and development of Sustainability ................................ .......... 19 Sustainable minds, conferences and laws ................................ .......... 20 Sustainability V.S. Green ................................ ................................ .... 22 Rating systems ................................ ................................ ................... 23 Comparison bet ween LEED CI and Three Star Rating System .......... 25 Sustainable Commercial Interiors ................................ .............................. 26 Sustainability as a Concept of Commercial Interior Design ................ 26 ................................ ................................ ........ 27 Techniques and innovations ................................ ................................ 30 Current Situation of Sustainable Commercial Interiors ....................... 31 Various sustainable interior Features ................................ ......................... 33 Space design and sustainability ................................ .......................... 33 Energy and atmosphere ................................ ................................ ...... 34 Wate r conservation ................................ ................................ ............. 41 Sustainable material ................................ ................................ ........... 42

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6 Interior greenery ................................ ................................ ................. 47 Indoor env ironment and air quality ................................ ...................... 48 Humanization and comfort ................................ ................................ .. 51 Safety and security ................................ ................................ ............. 52 3. METHO DOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ 53 Research purpose ................................ ................................ ...................... 53 Research overview ................................ ................................ .................... 53 Case study in Orlando and Shenzhen ................................ ....................... 54 Interview ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 55 4. CASE STUDY AND INTERVIEW ................................ ................................ ......... 57 ................. 57 Introduction and background ................................ .............................. 57 Sustainable features ................................ ................................ ........... 58 Space ................................ ................................ .......................... 58 Energy ................................ ................................ ......................... 59 Interior water ................................ ................................ ................ 60 Material ................................ ................................ ........................ 61 Waste reduction ................................ ................................ ........... 62 Air quality ................................ ................................ ..................... 62 Social and workp lace features ................................ ..................... 63 Safety ................................ ................................ .......................... 64 Innovation ................................ ................................ .................... 64 Interview ................................ ................................ ............................. 65 Vanke Center, Shenzhen, China ................................ ................................ 69 Introduction and background ................................ .............................. 69 Sustainable features ................................ ................................ ........... 70 Space ................................ ................................ .......................... 70 Energy ................................ ................................ ......................... 71 Interior water ................................ ................................ ................ 72 Material ................................ ................................ ........................ 73 Waste reduction ................................ ................................ ........... 73 Air quality ................................ ................................ ..................... 74 Interior greenery ................................ ................................ .......... 74

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7 Safety ................................ ................................ .......................... 75 Innovations and techno logies ................................ ...................... 75 Interview ................................ ................................ ............................. 76 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ 79 5. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS ................................ ................................ ............. 81 Case Study Comparison ................................ ................................ ............ 81 Interv iew Comparison ................................ ................................ ................ 84 6. APPLICATION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 88 Labrador commercial interior project ................................ .......................... 88 Introduction ................................ ................................ ......................... 88 Design purpose ................................ ................................ ................... 88 Site analysis ................................ ................................ ........................ 88 Design analysis ................................ ................................ ................... 89 7. CONCLUSIO N ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 99 Sustainable features and variety in practice ................................ ............... 99 APPENDIX ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 105 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ........................ 109 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ..................... 113

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8 LIST OF TABLES Tables Page Table 2 1 Green V.S. Sustainability Table 2 2 Criteria for green building design label rating evaluation for commercial Buildings Table 2 3 Lamp characteristics by types Table 2 4 International Lamp Coding System (ILC OS) short form coding system for some lamp types Table 5 1 Comparison of case stu Table 5

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Figure 2 weight factor 26 Figure 2 2 Pebble layer ventilation principles in winter and summer 49 Figure 2 3 Oxygen e 49 Figure 2 4 Components of Horizontal Flow Forced Air Systems 50 Figure 2 5 Sealed Mechanical Room Design 50 Figure 3 1 Figur e 55 Figure 4 1 interior environment 58 Figure 4 2 62 Figure 4 3 Space design, energy, water and materials in Vanke Center interior E nvironment 70 Figure 4 4 Interior greenery in Vanke Center 75

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10 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS HVAC Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning ILCOS International Lamp Coding System LEED Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design USGBC The United States Green Building Council UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization EPA Environmental Protection Agency NRDC Natural Resources Defense Council ASHRAE The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers GBEL The voluntary Green Building Evaluation and Labeling GBD L Green Building Design Label GBL Green Building Label ICPA International Conference on Public Administration LED Light Emitting Diode LCA L ife C ycle A ssessment IEQ I ndoor E nvironmental Q uality NC New Constructio n CI Commercial Interior VOC Violate Organic Compound FSC Forest Stewardship Council

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies A STUDY OF SUSTAINABLE FEATURES AND PRACTICES IN THE COMMERCIAL INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT By Yang Du July 2015 Chair: Donna L. Cohen Co chair: William Tilson Major: Architecture As the economy booms and commercial business prospers in a higher frequency in most developed countries or prosperous districts in developing countries, commercial building s are increasingly demanded. However, generally commercial buildings can be 40 percent mor e energy consuming than other types of buildings, which in turn increases environmental pollution, air contamination and resource wasting problems. A sustainable commercial interior environment can contribute hugel y to healthy environment as well as to so cial economic and cultural development. Hence, the exploration of sustainable feature s in commercial interiors is of high importance. Under such circumstances, commercial interior design has made a great progress towards sustainability in many aspects in these last two decades. Since commercial interior design has great improvement nowadays, the significance of figuring out the feature s that make it sustainable is increasingly

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12 highlighted. Such research could give interior designers a guideline and remind commercial interior managers of how to manage their properties. This essay examines the features in commercial interior design that are sustainable in order to explore method o logies for achieving a sustainable commercial interior environment Pract ice s differ based on specific restriction s confine s condition s and consideration s Through interviews and secondary research, this essay synthesizes and outlines the factors that account for the differences between the theory and applications of sustaina ble design. Designers, researchers and even the general public will benefit from this paper either on the sustainable commercial interior design feature s, strategies and restrictions or on the strengthened sustainable mind.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Commercial interior environment Concept Commercial interior environment is the indoor space which possess es commerce related characteristics such as sale, wholesale, finance, security and other features. In a broader sense, it refers to the internal environment of the tertiary industry architectures. In the chivalrous terms of commercial indoor environment it refers to the indoor places for the provision of commodity exchange and commo dity circulation such as shopping mall s department store s restaurant s, and hotel s Commercial interior environment relates to the interaction among people, objects and the e nviron ment, including the corresponding physical and spiritual feelings in the e nvironment. Commercial interior design is the process of creating and overseeing the construction or renovation of a commercial space. Involving much more than simply decorating the interior of the space, commercial design will address issues such as the choice of building materials, the layout and placement of interior walls, plumbing and power systems, and even coordinating communications with construction professionals, owners, and service providers ( Tatum, 2014). Features Commercial building s and interior spaces have become irreplaceable portions of

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14 city construction with variation, vibrancy and positive social function which have been important symbols of domestic and regional economic developed level. (Han, 2002) Commercial interior space is an important place for people to be on intimate terms with public events, making the city vibran t. Another energy related feature for commercial building and its interior is that the daily population flow rate is much higher and the area is much bigger than any other category of buildings, meaning that the total amount of required energy is much higher due to the population involved and area overwhelmed. Commercial space is one of the most dynamic space s. Competition between commodities motivates economic development. There is increasing emphasis on shaping the environmental design to create a comfortable and pleasant place for the public. Energy Consumption Problems in Commercial Environment It seems like a paradox that commercial interior e nvironment s including large market s, restaurant s, hotel s, or even entertainment venue s are sustainable due to large energy consumption in these commercial interior spaces in the past and nowadays. Excluding the possibility of building managers using the most energy efficient technology, most commercial places are designed to be colorful and glittery in order to attract the attention of consumers; this require s a lot of lighting As a result the energy consumed is severely hig h Restaurants use about 5 to 7 times more energy

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15 per square foot than other commercial buildings, including office buildings and retail stores. High volume quick service restaurants (QSRs) may even use up to 10 times more energy per square foot than othe r commercial buildings (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1, 2012). Meanwhile, a poorly designed space slows down air cycling as well as squanders space. In Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) 2009 for commercial interiors ratin g system (USGBC Member, 2008), a requirement about minimum indoor quality performance has been put up with. Also using an air conditioning system, taking advantage of air cycling from natur al resource is more energy efficient. Next, some problems on fu rniture, greenery and materials also cause environmental problems. Using local materials is a sustainable way but many commercial interior managers choose to use artificially synthesized materials. Because of this many greenhouse gases including carbon di oxide are generat ed. annual needs. Each year, for a four person, middle class household, industry extracts, process, refines, manufacturers, burn and pumps and wastes fo ur million pounds of this vast flow of stuff, only 7% gets into products at all, only 1% into durable products, and only 0.02% into durable products that later get recycled remanufactured, or According to Chinese energy service network, the following data can be gathered. The total energy consumption in the table of the office and hotel is

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16 ap proximately 2.86GJ/m2, where air conditioning, lighting and office equipment account for 30%. While in shopping malls, restaurants and other public recreation spaces, restaurant air conditioning energy consumption is 0.496GJ/2 on average. A ir conditioning contains 22.33% 79.41 % in total energy consumption. In Hong Kong and Taiwan, air conditioning and lighting energy consumption account for 85% (Luo, 2014). Thus, indoor energy consumption that occupies the largest proportion of total consumpti on is lighting energy consumption and air conditioning energy consumption. In addition, office equipment, elevators, and escalators occupy a little portion of the energy consumption. Sustainable Scope in Commercial Interior Environment In the past, c ompanies have avoided the green movement for many reasons lack of education, denial, and the belief of an associated hefty cost being among these reasons (Julie Holst, 2010). Nevertheless where there is insight, there is a way. Benefits of achieving sustai nability are becoming more apparent, including the coupling of environmental responsibility and profit maximization. This has enhanced the green movement among organizations as well as individuals (Julie, 2010). From 1980s some European countries put f orward the concept of sustainable interior desi gn (Chen, 2010 1980s by some developed countries in Europe out of the European mid term time. UNESCO in 1993 with the International Building Designers Asso ciation had co its

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17 is concept has been gradually integrated into modern interior d esign as well as commercial interior design. Alisa Templeton (2011) claims that health concerns, planet, personal responsibility, client goals, and educational exposure to sustainability a nd other feature s motivate sustainable thoughts towards interior design. Due to analysis above, the situation of consumption in commercial interior is alleviated to a large extent by some sustainable means.

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18 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Environmental Problems Upon the completion of the second industrial revolution in 1940s and 1950s, the scientific and technological innovation s have advanced significantly. The growth of technology and economy led to unprecedented social development, yet the environmental issues bec a me a growing international problem. Industrial progress was at the expense of env ironmental quality. Meanwhile, the mishandling subject of industrial waste and toxic gases was hazardous to natural enviro nment and human planet. As the results, sustainable development issues have gradually attracted people's attention. Nowadays, we are still battling a large number of environmental issues that need to be resolved. For example, air pollution, climate ch ange, drinking water contamination, environmental effects and toxicology, loss of biodiversity, filamentous bacteria, legionella, ozone toxicology and so on. (Anup, 2015) Out of many key factors affecting the sustainable development of the environment, the construction quality of the built environment has decisive significance. What covers most area of the urban land is architecture. Building and building energy consumption and exceeded pollution including air contaminations and indoor air pollution are threatening the environment and consuming the resources of the earth rapidly affecting next generations living conditions. In the various types of buildings, there is a class of building designed for commodity

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19 exchange and commodity circulation, which d etermines more energy demand needed to be consumed to support the commercial operation than residential uses. That is the commercial building. So we should spare no effort to make a progress in act on our living environment. Sustainability History and development of Sustainability The original meaning of the word, sustain from the Latin word sustinere (Bonda, 2007) Paola Sassi (2006) defined life affecting everything an individual does. Knowing the kind of relationship we want to have with the global and local environment is the first considerati on ; this is also our top priority to achieve this relationship To move from theory into practice, it is necessary to understand the impacts associated with our work and life related (Paola, 2006) In 1970, the first Earth Day was proposed, providing ordinary citizens with their responsibilities to formally fight against environmentally degradation. The year experienced 20 million Americans demonstrate in the streets, parks and auditoriums. I n 1990 Earth Day went global, inspiring 200 million people in 141 countries protecting the environment. In the year of 1993, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) were established.

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20 (Bonda, 2007) From the international standpoint since 1970s, the inter national community has set a n environmental consciousness awakening program Driven by this trend, the world's designers began to incorporate their design works with the environmental concepts, which were embraced by nature and return ing to green design. T he so called green design concept was proposed in the 1980s, which was fitting to the concept of environmentalism promote d by international communit ies. It also emphasiz ed on the relationship between human beings and the living environment and strengthened The famous American theorists Victor Papanek once wrote a book named Design for the Real World a book emphasized that the need for designers to use limited resources on the e arth and preserve the environment. Victor also put forward that the designers have to protect the environment and resources, which is the "limited resources theory. (Yang, 2014) Sustainable minds, conferences and laws In the year of 1972, the United Nati ons (UN) Conference on the Human Environment Program (UNEP) paid special attention to the relationship between economic development and environmental degradation. In 1983 the UN established the World Commission on Environment and Development. Both of confe rences placed good influences on commercial interior design. (Bonda, 2007) As LEED standard was made for sustainability, commercial interior has its own indicator as well. A well designed commercial interior design project typically

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21 incorporates many sustainable design features w hile LEED standards also motivate commercial interior design to be more sustainable. The LEED Green Building Rating System is a voluntary and consensus based program for high performance and sustainable buildings development Based on well founded scientific standards, LEED emphasizes the state of art strategies for sustainable site development, water and energy conservation a s well as a guide for selecting construction materials that are eas ily renew ed and manufactured to promote indoor environmental quality. In particular, the USGBC LEED for commercial Interior (LEED CI) is the most remarkable measurement for sustainable commercial interior project. (Deepa, 2009) Base on the result from LEE D CI certification, certificated commercial interiors should reach 21 26 credits. Silver commercial interiors should attain 27 31 credits. Gold commercial interiors should get 32 41 credits and eventually platinum commercial interiors should be 42 credits and above. (Helen, 2005) Those detailed contents are examples of sustainable minds in the green movements nowadays. Additionally, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and the U.S. Green Building Council (U SGBC) have been developing and documenting the best practice standards and balanced approach for sustainable green buildings. Comprehensive design standards for developing new and retrofitting existing buildings were also developed by USGBC. (Ann, 2005) In 1998, USGBC launched first pilot, which is LEED version 1.0 in August followed by another issue in 2000 that USGBC launched LEED Green Building Rating System

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22 LEED Automation P rogram and in 2012, its commercial expansion targeted industry, w arehouses, and distribution centers, which made a great progress in sustainability. In legal and regulatory aspects, in October 28, 2007 Chinese government promulgated the Energy Conservati on Law for People's Republic of China coming into effect from April 1, 2008. After one year in July 23, 2008 Building Energy Conservation Regulations was published Subsequently Chinese government officially promulgated the Energy Efficiency Regulations for the Public Institution laying a foundation for building energy efficiency in l aws and regulations aspects In addition, the year 2005 witnessed Kyoto Protocol came into effect that reinforced world countries focusing on environmental problems. (Luo, 2014) Sustainability V.S. Green From R honda S. H reen design incorporates efficient mechanical systems and high performance technologies but still functions primarily through the use of fossil fuels. Sustainable design integrates the principles of green design and goes further to become a passive and active structure that is designed to R honda, 2013, P. 28) design does not mention the future development as well as benefits of the next generations or its impact on economy and society. Green design highlights the concept of environmentally friendly, carbon reduction and resource retrenchment whi ch is largely covered by sustainability.

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23 Green is remarkably associat low that is available in sufficient supply in a country where waste remains a scandal in many realms of commerce and industry and where profligacy continues to be a proud and thoughtless feature of consumer lifestyle. In contrast, sustainability is tied to whole systems, of which individual consumer products and other com mercial materials are a part. 2009, P. 296) Yanarella (2009) compares the differences between green and sustainability in Table 2 1. Table 2 1 : Green V.S. Sustainability Source: Yanarella, Levine & Lancaster, Green versus Sustainability, 10, 2009 Rating systems Facing to the increased concentration on environment and resource s, the social

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24 communities, especially the construction industry, have had profound reflection and act s accordingly. In the 1970s and 1980s sustainable development has been widely recognize d by the interna tional communities. T he United States, Britain and other developed countries have had actions for energy conservation, environmental pollution reduction resource consumption rate reduction proposing series of sustainability related r ecommendations. Till 1990s, the voice in the sustainable construction sector has grown much louder followed by the green architecture flourish In 1990, the British R esearch E stablishment started BREEAM and was soon introduced to the world; in 1993, the United States establis hed LEED Green Building Rating System based on BREEAM; in 1996, Canada began the Green Globe Then in 21 st century, the concept of sustainable development was also introduced to more countries such as Ger many, Japan, France, Australia and they set up their own green building rating system s one after another (Krishnan, 2004) Designers began to think about the relationship between architecture and the environment, architecture and interior design and among various parts of the building. They also realized th at the old output mode of arc hitecture and interior design no longer existed. A holistically use of renewable resources and ecological concept is more acceptable and popular. Environmental sustainability is of great significance in order to stimulate economic sustainability and social harmony

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25 C omparison between LEED CI and Three Star Rating System In China, t he voluntary Green Building Evaluation and Labeling (GBEL) program consists of a Green Building Design Label (GBDL) and the operational Green Building Label (GBL). Both labels possess the Three Star R atin g System, with three stars representing the highest rated green buildings and one star standing for th e lowest rated gr een buildings. (Khanna, Romankiewicz, Feng & Zhou, 2014) The green building design evaluation system is composed of three types of criteria for each of the six categories including land efficiency, energy efficiency, water efficiency, resource and material efficiency, indoor environment quality and operational management. However, LEED is slightly different from Three Star evaluation standards for commercial buildings and the c Star Building Rating System and LEED Rating System. Table 2 2: Criteria for green building design label rating evaluation for commercial buildings Source: Nina Khanna, John Romankiewicz, Wei Feng and Nan Zhou, Comparative Policy Study for Green Building in U.S. and China, 8, 2014

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26 Figure 2 Source: Nina Khanna, John Romankiewicz, Wei Feng and Nan Zhou, Comparative Policy Study for Green Building in U.S. and China, 8, 2014 Sustainable Commercial Interiors Sustainability as a Concept of Commercial Interior Design T he sustainable design movement arguably had a great influence on the design community. It has reminded architectural design ers of their impact on both humanity and environment. They are gradually learning that there is a better way to commercial design making a transfer with integrated sustainable commercial interior design approaches. (Bonda, 2007) Project managers and commercial interior designers learn to change the old procedures and know what the principal driven factor is. As commercial interiors support than any other categories of b critical needs more than any other time before.

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27 The United States recently has witnessed an overwhelming trend of using LEED y. There is no doubt that such action has great benefit on environment and economy by saving energy and money in the long run. In China, sustainable development as a clangorous catchword has already been spread abroad. China promulgated the first in 2006. The standard is a multi leveled green building evaluation system instead of a single leveled acceleration. This criterion includes site, energy, materials, operation, management water and other aspects of construc ting a comprehensive building, which is characterized by emphasizing on the design process and energy consumption control. These have made an important contribution to China's sustainable design concept in new architecture and interior design including com mercial interior design. conferences is a good first step to activate sustainable concept and promoting LEED acceleration is also an excellent way to get your stuff up to spe ed. These are two principals to achieve sustainable commercial interior design as well as green building design in the United States. recycle, which has al ready been adopted in many developed countries. However, this

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28 principle does not comprehensively conclude the whole procedure of environment protection and resource allocation. Put forward by Zhou (2010) in his book named
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29 materials. (Meng, 2011) Actually, r euse principle refers to reuse all available old equipment used materials and utilized furniture instead of the new ones in a n indoor environment Redesign, for the indoor environment, means shortening its life cycle, wasting material resources, consuming more energy and so on. On the cont rary, recycling is the best solution to this problem. In fact, there are many materials that can be processed Such as floor s, tiles, doors, windows and furniture S ome old er products such as utilized steel also can be used for new construction As long as designers are willing to discover these old material s and sufficiently applied them in the new indoor environment, it is possible to achieve sustainable development. (Zhou, 2010) Recycle : Recycle is a refining and reusing process that is a little different from refers to recycling a variety of scarce or even abundant resources to enlarge their availability as much as possible. Sewage generated in the commercial indoor environment after appro priate treatment can be applied again such as plant watering, toilet flushing and so on from which n ot only ease s the tension of living water, but also enormously reduces the amount of po r table water Recycling is a useful way of protecti ng of resources. nature : It refers to fitting natural rules and regulations when doing activities including design activities. Nature protection is the top priority when processing built environment due to its high importance. Without considering contaminati ng the nature, human behaviors have already caused environmental

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30 : People are the subjects in the built envir onment and the designed buildings. No doubt, under the principle of fitting for the nature, p eople oriented design also plays an irreplaceable role. Declared by Jian Wang and Hu Qingming (2011) in the 7 th international Conference on Public Administration ( ICPA) common pursuit of human society an inacceptable way to achieve social sustainability. : Twenty first century has its own characteristics with high tech innovation, retrofit, rapid development and fierce competition on technology. With n ew age exposures a numerous future demands for the commercial interior environment and in many other fields, commercial interior designers should pay more attention t Techniques and innovations The technical development and innovations encouraged brainstorming and new attempts in sustainable commercial interior design to resolve existing environmental issues and identify potential solutions for the future. Computer technolo gy, automatic control technique electronic information technology a s the representative s of modern high tech applicat ions in interior design, have a far reaching impact on p hysical lighting, v entilation, temperature, humidity, indoor environment greening Undeniably, i t will eventually lead to a revolution in commercial interior design. The

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31 characteristics of combining i nterior design with modern high tech nology mainly lay in e nergy saving tech nology in the indoor spaces, comprehensive green technology and intelligent sensor technology (Gao, 2000) The following t echnological innovation s contribute to sustainability: solar technology, vertical greenery and green wall systems, Heating, Ventilatin g and Air Conditioning (HVAC), insulation technology and etc. Using insulation as an example, there are many innovation of insulating materials and price ranges. Fiberglass batts, cellulose, fiberglass loose fill insulation, cotton batt and loose fill insu lation, spray foam insulation and rigid foam insulation materials are the latest inventions that help achieving commercial interior sustainability. (Nielson & Wolfe 2009) Current Situation of Sustainable Commercial Interiors Positive Impact : design is not just about cost. Good sustainable design reduces water consumption construction material u sage and emissions to air. Sustainable commercial interiors use material s with lower embodied ecological and environmental burdens. They also utilize minimal amount of materials through efficient design, and recycl ed materials. Additionally, sustainable commercial interiors effectively reduce air pollution by lowering energy c onsumption. The reduction in use of fossil fuels results in lower greenhouse gas emission. Sustainable commercial interiors reduce liability, increase productivity and property value, enhance comfort, and require lower energy, etc. (White Paper, 2006)

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32 Sus tainable commercial interiors provide superior value to by extending building life cycle and have positive impact performance, save a lot of energy and resource. Problems: Although the concept of sustainability in commercial interior design seems like a flawless point, there are still challenges in commercial interior environment due to the gap between theory and practice. One of the most profound challenges is indoor air qu ality. Studies have shown there is an obvious correlation between the asthma disease and indoor air pollution. In the last 20 years, 70% of children asthma has been verified as a result of the indoor air pollution. (Toole, 2015) There are some other probl ems for sustainable commercial interior design statement: more likely with new mate rials compar ed to proven materials found in traditional buildings. sent. What (or prepare for) the unknowns in cost and schedule impacts that a green building might present.

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33 materials, which may change the dew point location in walls, resulting in damagin g con densation and a reduced drying potential for wall assemblies. Lower risk buildings emphasize the drying potential of the envelope over in creased insulation. Various sustainable interior Feature s Space design and sustainability Human spend 90 percent of their time indoors, in which air pollution is 2 to 5 times more serious than what it is outdoor So architects and designers have a vital influence on occupant health by designing space to ensure a healthy indoor environment. Why is space de sign important to sustainability? Bradley (2010) said, two dimensional design or three dimensi onal design. D r. space, different energy levels appear from time to time. Their activity brings about the appearance of swirls, which cause changes of time and space. The appeara nce of energetic activity causes the appearance of space, which causes the appearance of time. The disappearance of energy also means the disappearance of space and time. to Since every space has energy and energy consumption is closely related to space design o pen space or coherent space is the best choice. Open and coherent

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34 space makes the most of natural resources like lighting and moving air, which facilitates the energy using less manual lighting system while promot ing natural ventilation. Well designed interior space also takes advantage of physical principles including reflection and scatterin g to sunlight and wind from outdoors. Designers should take the first step by grasping the space design when processing interior design. Energy and atmosphere Daylighting : Daylighting is one way to bring natural light into the interior space with renewable energy to indoor environment. The U.S. Department of Energy (2012) claimed that there are two basic means to introduce natural light: top lighting and side lighting. To implement top lighting, a space should have roof access. The simplest form of top lighting is the use of skylights followed by a more complex way concluding the utility of roof monitors with vertical glazing. Side lighting refers to introducing daylight into the interior spaces through vertical fenestration such as windows. Sunligh t through the vertical fenestration can be reflected on floor, ceiling, wall and furniture. As a result, the condition of window decides the quality of side lighting. are some strategies for taking advantage of daylight: partitions, glazed doors and transoms.

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35 character. riate, to allow more daylight into the interiors. interiors. With highly complicated buildings, a daylighting consultant can help with orientation, geometry, glazing locations, size, specification and shading devices. (Bonda, 2007) Additionally, Bonda (2007) mentions that all great daylighting design starts with the following procedures : performance glazing. illumination while minimize heat gain. nce values for surfaces.

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36 Skylight : Sixty two percent of commercial environment is under the roof and is p ossible of top lighting through skylights. (Bonda, 2007) The Daylighting skylight plays a key role in introducing daylight into interior spaces without the help from windows. There are some types of skylights. One of them is unventilated glass skylight that is the most technologically sophisticated horizontal lighting type. It is widely u sed in commercial buildings including large hotels, shopping malls, and office buildings. Because unventilated glass skylight is not subject to the ventilation mode and its corresponding structur al constraints, there is more freedom on the span and the cor responding spatial form while the cost is relatively lower However, the unventilated glass skylight can cause interior overheating because of unventilated feature. In summer, the users often set up simple shading device under the skylights in order to reduce the impact of sunlight on the indoor environment. (Li, 2004) Airy glass skylight can meet the lighting requirements while is also available on both "ventil ation", "pull the wind up" and other Indoor environmental quality adjustment functions, yet it owns more complex structure. Due to its high ceiling space for hardly manual control, it requires corresponding mechanical and electrical control equipment, and thus demands greater cost s than other skylight glasses The third type of daylighting by skylight is using a dome or other protruding glass skylight roofs. I t can increase additional lighting space volume under the cover.

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37 Lastly, horizontal lightin g is a special mode of glass skylight roof. In this mode, the construction of the wall and roof are melt as a whole. Typical examples are "glass pyramid" or "glass hemisphere." (Li, 2004) Windows : Windows, as a side lighting strategy, bring 7000 to 10000 foot candles of light on bright days into the interiors It is the most common practice of saving energy and reduces greenhouse gases by using sunlight instead of electricity. Clear glass windows may allow excessive amount of light in causing discomfort a nd overheating in eyes A suggested solution is to substitute the clear glass with the low emissivity glass or apply films on the interior window surface known as window tinting (Bonda, ss will reject 23% 28% of the ultraviolet light from the sun. Insulated glass is slightly better, rejecting 36% 41%. Window films installed on glass reject 95% Another method is to utilize window coverings to reflect sunshine. Roller shades, Roman shades, horizontal blind and vertical blind are some perfect choice when buying window coverings. Light shelves : Light shelves reflect the sunlight onto the ceiling and bounce it down on the floor, lighting the interior space in a more comfortable and less heating. They can avoid the problem of glare and exploit daylighting through windows like diffusers facilitating 2.0 times higher than what it was before.

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38 Light shelves also offer the facilitation of shifting the sunlight from the window in an overhead direction, improving the quality of illumination. (Wulfinghoff, 1999) Ex terior light shelves or the combination of interior and exterior light shelves are more efficient solutions than just interior light shelves. Nevertheless without the architectural conditions, constructing interior light shelves in a commercial interior p roject setting is still the best option. Lamps and lighting : I n 1970s, Philips Company in Dutch developed the first generation of tombarthite energy saving lamps. In the early 1980s electronically commutated fluorescent lamps (energy saving lamps) was fi rst created. Then in the early 1990s, the United States first proposed the "Green Lighting" program. The environment and implying to effective measures to sustainable developm ent. In energy saving research, and vigorously promoted the use of energy saving lamps, which is a strong impetus to the usage of energy saving products. (Wang, 2003) In fact, not all of the lighting is effective, but partly is absorbed by the reflective improve the utilization of electric light. Thus, rationally use of lampshades is qui te important to efficient lighting. The reflectance of light efficiency is greatly decided by lampshade material. Different lampshade materials have a corresponding reflective efficiency rate varying from 50% to 92%. New nano lampshade products can

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39 decreas e the oxidation, chemical corrosion and other problems on the lampshade reflecting surface, improving lighting reflection rate up to 90% and above. by giving priority to efficient nano lampshade can reduce more than half of the energy consumption. (Zhao, 2014) Incandescent lamps have low initial cost, focusing on the beam and pleasing color. Yet they generate a tremendous amount of heat and their utility life is relatively short. A similar lamp type to the Incandescent lamp is Halogen lamp. It offers bright lights yet it also heats up quickly The technology of Fluorescent lights has significantly improved in the last decade with extended usage as well as ener gy efficient LED (light directional, so light can be focused on where it is necessary. They have long lasti ng life yet do not generate much heat because of their small sizes T hey are not designed for general illumination and ambient lighting. Table 2 3 : Lamp characteristics by types Source: Environmental Building News, 6, 2002

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40 Table 2 4 : International La mp Coding System (ILCOS) short form coding system for some lamp types Source: Forster, Type of Lamps and Lighting, 2011 Controls : Interior lighting controls regulate the electric lighting in interior spaces, could offer comfort while achieving energy conumpstion. According to U.S. Department of Energy (2012), daylighting controls are div ided into two types: automatic daylight controls and manual daylight controls. Automatic daylight controls can be either continuous or stepped dimming. C ontinuous dimming controls typically offer a better control over lighting output and bring a smoother o utput level transfer. On the other

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41 hand, stepped dimming controls are less expensive, and do not provide a smooth and continuous dimming system They generally save less energy compared to continuous dimming. The manual control provides a wall switch that allows the general lighting to be turned on and off. The installation of m anual control is not suggested around places such as stairwells, corridors and other spaces where turning the lights on and off would be inconvenient. Instead, lighting is better to be controlled separately by automatic controls There are four main types of occupancy sensor technologies, which are passive infrared (PIR), Ultrasonic (US), Audible and Hybrids. PIR detect s body heat with many advantages over other technologies such as inexpensive, resistant to false on and can be mounted on ceilings. US detects high frequency sound wave signals as motion. Audible detects noise while the Hybrids combin e two or more technologies such as PIR and US, or PIR and Audible together. (Bonda, 2007) Water conservation Interior water consumption can be divided into two categories: flushing water and flowing water. Generally water consumption in interior space is based on three areas: indoor water like flushing and flowing water, irrigation water and process water such as water in heating and cooling systems, dishwasher, and icemaker. T here are several strategies when conserving interior water : applying water saving appliance, monitoring water use, recycling water, stormewater management and collecting water by plants. Using water efficient appliance and

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42 fixtures are the efficient way to achieve water conservation Declared by Green Building (2014), now WaterSense and EnergyStar have identified fixtures, water systems, high performance an d water efficient appliances and accessories that can reduce water consumption. In commercial interior spaces, the following water saving strategies contribute to sustainability: (Bahar, 2015) Install and maintain sensors or meter control fixtures and shower Install dual flush toilet and low flow urinal rain, gray, reclaimed water potable water Sustainable material The selection of sustainable materials should be considered in three phases: pre building, building and post building phase s According to Jong Jin Kim and pollution prevention measures in manufacturing, waste reduction measures in manufacturing, recycled content, embodied energy reductio n, use of natural materials,

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43 reduction of construction waste, local materials, energy efficiency, water treatment and conservation, use of non toxic or less toxic materials, renewable energy systems, longer life, reusability, recyclability, biodegradabilit y and so on. In the procedure of processing raw materials, the energy is used to some extent, embodied energy. For example, natural materials such as stone and timber have l ess embodied energy. Concrete, plastics and steel have higher embodied energy amount in the various construction materials. (Ayalp, 2012) In the pre building phase, waste reduction and pollution prevention should be seen as the highest priority I nteri or designers should attempt to opt recycled contents and natural materials with embodied energy reduction. During the building phase, reduction in construction waste is what the construction team can achieve. Also using materials, they should also focus on energy efficiency, using non toxic materials and materials that have longer life. In post building phase, materials reusability, on material side. (Kim & Brenda, 199 8) Building m aterial has a major contribution to sustainable building during the stage of construction period. In many sustainable characteristics of the material, life and recycling capacity. The Sustainable Material Management Coalition (2014) claims: when we consider interior environmental effects, we often narrowly focus on

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44 offer us much understanding of the general variation of influence that the production, use, and management of products can entail. However, we can better understand the product and material b life cycle assessment (LCA) for differen t audiences. The Athena Guide to Whole Building LCA in Green Building Programs is intended to help designers understand LCA provisions across various rating systems and codes. The other one Guidance on Life Cycle Thinking and Its Role in Environmental De cision Making explains life cycle thinking and provides examples of how LCAs can be used properly and how poorly chosen boundaries for this type of assessment can lead to misleading results. to the envi ronmental impact those material, products, or whole buildings may have, they also remind readers that LCA should be viewed as a limited estimating tool. Textiles and carpet : more environmentally friendly and the textiles are designed to completely eliminate waste and toxins. Inste ad, they are environmental ly optimized. One kind of textiles named Climatex textile is made out of biological nutrient, which can be decompose d into soil at the end of its life without toxins. Another example of environmental friendly

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45 textile is the Interf which made of one hundred percent recycled contents or compostable materials. They meet or even exceed the industr ial standards and still are considered as recyclable material Commercial interior textures have various types a nd standards. Designers should pay attention to their Lastly, it is essential to choose the most appropriate textiles for the commercial interiors. A carpet is a category of textile floor covering m ade of pile attached in the back It is usually made of wool or some other man made materials such as nylon, acrylic, polyester and polypropylene. C arpet is often discarded before the product met its end life. T here is a worldwide environmental group calle d fibers and carpet manufacturers who develop efficient ways to recycle these contents. Worldwide associations and carpet manufacturing companies have gradually been focused on improving the quality and sustainability of the carpet by producing reusable an d recyclable carpets Stone w ood and b amboo : In the process of commercial interior renovation, it is preferred to use stone as building material Stone is a durable, low carbon, high grade decoration materials, guiding fashion trend and beautifying the environment. In particular, it does not require kiln firing. Instead, only the harmless re fine of the original stone is needed. Stone is recognized as low carbon material in solving environmental pollution problems. Wood, a harvested material that requires a minimum amount of energy oriented processing, possess a low level of embodied energy comparing to other materials

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46 such as plastic, concrete, steel or aluminum. W ood also does not release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere unless it is burned down Furthermore, wood as a renewable resource, can easily to be found in nature and could be recycled after construct ion Wood products such as plywood, p aper, and particleboard are used extensively throughout the interior environment. (Kim et al., 1998) Bamboo as a building and interior material, not only connecting and nature together, yet it also improves the relationship between nature an d human by build ing a low stiffness is the most balanced out of all material Bamboo is known for its high durability and preservation with another feature bending. As a result, it can be bended into other shapes besides its original still shape. (Janssen, 2000) Due to its strength and stiffness characteristic, bamboo has a fabulous quality of anti seismic. From evidence in April 1991 shows that an approximately 7.5 Magnitude earthquake can even not de stroy 20 bamboo houses. Also, as a fast growing material, bamboo has recycling capability. Such characteristics above make bamboo sustainable. Plastic decorative panel : Decorative panel is a light weighted, strong, sound insulated transmitting fire ins ulation, flexible and easily installed material. The promotion of plastic decorative panel not only replace s the traditional consumption of disposable resources of interior materials yet it also creates harmony in the environment when meet ing the modern de coration. In general, plastic decorative plate is widely used in modern architectural and interior decoration. Its sustainability

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47 embodies three aspects. First it can substitute for those raw materials that are energy consuming or scarce. Second it is safe and clean. Lasltly due to its characteristics such as lightweight and easy to furnish, using plastic decorative panel saves money on transportation and installment. (He, 2013) Interior greenery There is no doubt that interior greenery is one of the sustainable feature s in indoor environment as it cleans and improves air quality. Indoor plants can alleviate many problems of indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and hence facilitate good health of interior occupants. Also by providing a more appreciat e indoor environment, greenery creates a more relaxed and comfortable interior space for the building occupants. By its own ecological characteristics, green ery can regulate the indoor climate, purifying the interior environment. It can also help to adjust the indoor temperature and humidity with cost saving on electrical billing Furthermore, plant can absorb or mitigate pollution. Almost all the plants can absorb a certain amount of toxic gases. By absorbing the toxins, it reduces the densit y of indoor air toxic gases and decreases the harmful degree. By adsorbing particles inhaled in the air, greenery ultimately can motivate interiors achieve goals of clean air. When indoor plants are decorated besides the window or the doors, they act as an effective barrier to prevent voice transmission, block sunlight and absorb radiation of the sun. If the interior greenery is put around the electrical furniture, it can absorb

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48 electromagnetic radiation produced by household appliances so as to reduce radiation damage to human bodies. Indoor environment and air quality Passive natural ventilation : Ventilation is another kind of indoor air purifying method, eliminating indoor h eat. It is one of the most economical and effective dehumidifying means. Ventilation means is divided into two kinds : natural ventilat ion and air conditioning based ventilation. Under the guidance of green and sustainable design, designers should choose natural ventilation as long as biggest advantage is that when indoor air quality is improved, the dependence on air conditioning systems is also reduce d. Meanwhile, it reduce s energy consumption and improve s indoor ai r quality. Effective natural ventilation devices generally are as follows: First, the windows direction and the wind direction is consistent, making the maximum use of natural wind. Second, increas e the openness of the interior space; as such space design is in favor of light ing and air permeability. Lastly ventilate through aperture s in the wall s at the corne r which can increase the indoor air circulation to some extent. Passive ventilation design forms relaxed and comfortable commercial interior env ironment. It acquires natural wind instead of mechanical equipment. (Zhang, Wu, Jiang, Liu & Zhou, 2010) During this ventilation period, not only the energy consumption of the interior is decreased but a better thermal controlled environment While tradit ional interior ventilation by windows and doors has some disadvantages

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49 such as letting in polluted air, noise and dusts to interior building. There is a new method of passive natural ventilation by equipping a ventilation device. Ventilation device is comp osed of one two layer pipe buried in soil. One side is installed with an exhaust outlet pipe and the other side is a fresh air inlet pipe. The ventilation device is painted dark to motivate absor bing solar energy and increasing pressure and contributes to ventilation. (Zhang, et al., 2010) Figure 2 2 : Pebble layer ventilation principles in winter and summer Figure 2 3 : Oxygen enriched air conditioning system Source: Zhang, et al., Ventilation System, Inverted Roof and Green Interior Design Principle for Green Building and Sustainable Development, 2010 Heating, cooling, i nsulation and HVAC system : Heating and cooling is significant to commercial interiors due to its adjustable capability of indoor temperature. Insulation stops hot air penetrating thr ough the wall and keeps constant temperature in the interior Surrounding temperature can impact the comfort of building occupants. In order to design a better heating, cooling and insulation environment designers should consider the use of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. HVAC is particularly important in medium to large commercial, industrial and office

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50 buildings with regulating temperature and humidity Figure 2 4 : Components of Horizontal Flow Forced Air Systems Source: University of Kentucky, Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) Figure 2 5 : Sealed Mechanical Room Design Source: University of Kentucky, Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC)

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51 Health and toxins: Air quality has directly impacts designers are highly responsible for environmental and social sustainability, living safely as well as reducing toxins in interior environment. Biological, chemical and physical toxins constitute the indoor toxins. Biological toxins mainly are f ungi, bacteria, viruses and bioorganic ingredients As r espiratory infection bodies they hide in conditioner pipes and many other dusty corners, also causing skin diseases. Chemical toxins are over 500 kinds of harmful compounds such as formaldehyde benzene, ammonia, radon, vinyl chloride and heavy metals, causing indoor health risks. In addition, toxic gases can be relieved from some furniture greatly impacting human health. Other typical physical toxins are n oise pollution, light poll ution electromagnetic pollution and radioactive substances (Sun, 2013) Humanization and comfort Humanization and comfort mainly refer to d esign ing for human feeling c omfort able in listening and in visualization. Commercial interior design can be viewed as a piece of artwork. The concept of "humane" is the key to succeeding the interior design With the emergence of new business models, commercial interior design has evolved with change and requirements in design concept, content, functional ity, form and features. B usiness model typically is the driver to the content, ideas and other aspects of commercial interior design. Emphasizing the design of humanity is based on the study of consumer psychology and corporate culture. In

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52 order to achieve social sustainability, designers should enhance the humanization and coordination content, truly giving people physical and psychological care and comfort (Liu, 2005) Furthermore, humanization also refers to as living environment of minimal voice p ollution and light pollution. This is a part of social sustainability. Safety and security years as human privilege and personal safety has become part of design re quirement. As for barrier free design in U.S., designers emphasize more than designers in overseas. However, an overwhelming idea of barrier free design for disabled people propagates in most regions in overseas. Accessible design purpose is to meet the re quirements of mobility of the elderly disabled and other mobility suffocate d people. S imultaneously it ensure s the mobility of children, and pregnant women without security risks Throughout the design process, the sense of innovation and humanism love is sufficiently incarnate d, which is exactly social sustainability. Fire control and safe exits are equally important to sustainability. (Jian, Hui, Zhao & Lifeng, 2011)

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53 CHAPTER 3 M E THODOLOGY Research purpose The purpose of this research is to determine what feature s contribute to sustainability in the commercial interior environment. Additionally this research also finds out the differences between the sustainable practice s and sustainable theor ies and r easons behind the variation T he research explores the common and different sustainable features as well as some common and different practice reasons, in order to give readers a better sense of sustainable commercial interior environment and to motivate interior designers to design in a sustainable way. Research overview Two case studies are selected in Shenzhen China and Orlando, Florida, USA The research is conducted by using collected information from the case studies. The two cases in China an d USA are c ommercial interior projects respectively designed by Steven Holl Architect and Perkins + Will T he following methodologies including feature s observed in two case stud ies interview s of the designers and observation of LEED on the percentage of the sustainable components analyze t hese commercial interior spaces The following projects in China and USA have been selected :

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54 1 RSC, Orlando, USA Commercial interior office 2. Vanke Center Shenzhen China Commercial interior office C ase stud y in Orlando and Shenzhen Two case studies of which one is in Shenzhen and the other is in Orlando are chosen due to their similar attributes two of the top 100 prosperous cities in the world. The projects a re RSC in Orlando and Vanke Center in Shenzhen The case studies are to analysis energy ef ficiency feature s, sustainable materials, ventilation and strategies of using natural energy instead of electricity. In addition they are compared to each other and I conclude their common character istic s. From the data gathered by case studies, we can find out that sustainable features can save the specific energy consumption, as well as the similarities and difference s among sustainable c ommercial interiors Analysis procedure is below as figure 3 1 shows Together with the information filtrated from three methodologies, a conclusion on sustainable feature s can be drawn after analysis.

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55 Figure 3 1 Figure of research methodology Intervi ew Interviewing the designers and experts of the chosen case studies is important because the professional persons know about the energy consumption, technological innovations and lighting information about the interior s as well as their cost, restrictions of construction, and many other practical information For these interviews, information can be gathered about the sustainable commercial interior feature s strategies design teams have tried to contribute to sustainability and the reasons wh y practices vary of these projects

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56 I interviewed the RSC, Joyce Fownes, the Principal of interior department of Perkins + Will in Atlanta. discipline leader and the Corporate + Commercial + Civic marke t sector leader for the Atlanta office, Ms. Fownes has been instrumental in creating an organizational model that effectively incorporates interior design as an integral part of all architectural and interior projects. She has been responsible for building on this concept to broaden market focus and, through her unflagging commitment to the team approach, has facilitated the growth of the interiors discipline that supports all market sectors within Dur ing the interview, Ms. Fownes g a ve the best answers of 7 fundamental questions about sustainable interior feature side of the project. Ms. Fownes shared her insight on the sustainable interior design and on the appl ications of chosen commercial interior spaces for case study. The second interview was processed from July 8 th to July 10 th in the year of 2015. In the interview, Mr. Zhang Bo an interior designer research ed Vanke Center before and knew Vanke Center project well was interviewed. His answers gave readers a differed from the others.

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57 CHAP TER 4 CASE STUDY AND INTERVIEW RSC ) Orlando, the U.S. Case study Introduction and background This case study explores RSC (Restaurant Service Center), which is a 469,000 square foot building located on a 57 acre, park like site at the southwestern point in Orlando, Florida The corporate headquarters combine over 1300 employees and 6 distinct restaurant brands into a single 3 story building. Perkins + Will, the global sustainable desig n company that manages Darden RSC, claims that are By developing the concept of sustainable design, saving energy and protect ing the natural environment has been awarded the "People's Choice" award in the first Lifecycle Building Challenge national competition. It was also awarded the Gold certification for l eadership in the Leadership of Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) for New Construction (NC) by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC). As a result, Darden has proved to be one of the top LEED Gold NC building s in Florida. ( Perkins + Will, 2009) Darden aims to offer a big space for sustainable living and working that cultivates activities, and provides connectivity between the built environment the natural environment and the interactions among

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58 occupants. Sustainable feature s Space Space design in Darden Restaurant RSC is excellent making the most of sunshine reflection and wind t o light the interior and ventilate the indoor space A large and continuous space not only provides occupants with a broad horizon but it also takes advantage of natural resources to save energy In the center of the building the hollow three story hall is thoroughly lit by sunlight through a large skylight. Such an open design enables air to circulate more effectively throughout the entire space On the upper two levels, the o ffice space is primarily accessed by enclosed stair s that offer favorable views and natural light ing to encourage employee use Each office contains a chassis based central core arrangement that allow s for an open office environment that has easy access to natural daylight and favorable views. Thus, the excellent space design o f Darden decreases energy consumption. Figure 4 interior environment Source: http://www.disdyn.com/2012/12/darden restaurants/

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59 Energy Another sustainable factor that is worth mention ing is the energy feature Building orientation, high performance glazing and lighting controls work together to reduce load on the cooling side. Efficient centrifugal chillers and energy recovery units were utilized to precondition outdoor air and cool the bu ilding and the adjacent data c enter, which decreases energy consumption by n atural means. Another vital way to sustain the interior environment is the high efficiency HVAC system with energy recovery units, efficient ambient task lighting, high performance glazing and a high albedo ro of, all of which are incorporated to reduce overall energy consumption. a chiller plant that includes chillers, cooling towers, pumps ancillary equipment, all air hand l ing units, terminal boxes, kitchen hoods, air to air energy recovery equipment, exhaust fans, controlling sequences Indoor Hot Water system and equipment a s well as Lighting Control System are two fundamental ways to ensure th e right utilization of energy. Additionally it offers an Emergency Power System with fuel powered backup generators and automatic transfer switches. To manage refrigeration for Darden RSC, the design team at Perkins + Will provides three highly eff icient chillers to support the cooling system of the corporate headquarters. Their refrigerant do es not contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and this minimize s their influence on global warming and climate change. In order to optimize energy performance in D arden, designers use an energy efficient interior lighting

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60 system for an overall 16% reduction in energy usage The energy efficient lighting system contains electronic ballasts, high performance lamps, occupancy sensors and natural daylighting Aside fro m i ncreased equipment, duct and pipe insulation statements on the concept of sustainable design, the main buildin g has the following cutting edge energy efficient features : First, Darden has a building orientation and U shaped floor plan that limits western exposures to reduce the absorption of heat from the afternoon sun. Second, Darden has a floor to ceiling glass e xterior that maximizes natural light to save energy on lighting a nd this also keeps em ployees conn ected to nature Third h igh performance windows let in more daylight and less heat Fourth, Darden implements high efficiency heating and cooling system s which includ e a chilled water plant, energy recovery units, variabl e speed motors, and a computerized building management system that monitors and controls the mechanical and electrical equipment Additionally, a highly reflective and insulated roof reduce s heat absorption and cooling costs Motion sensors that turn off l ights save a lot of energy when rooms are unoccupied Finally a daylight harvesting system that mo nitors natural light levels automatically dims artificial lighting to appropriate levels in order to reduce energy consumption Interior w ater also sustainable Darden uses reclaimed

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61 water to flush all urinals and toilets. A ll restroom sinks are equipped with auto matic sensors that can control the amount of water used for flushing each time. Rainwater is a principal freshwater resource, so the abil ity to take advantage of it becomes an important aspect in sustainable management of water usage Darden uses a storm drain system to make use of bio swales and pre filter the runoff water on site. This runoff water as well as the reclaimed water is gathered in a storage tank, and piped to flush and flow fixtures by a four pipe water transport system. Also the system filter s out contaminants and recharges the groundwater. Using these methods, the estim ated annual potable water consumption can be reduced by as much as 1.8M gallons. Material s More importantly 20% of these new materials can be reused and recycled once they are disassembled. For example, wood, glazing, steel and some textiles are recyclable contents. Office furniture contains 100% recycled particleboard, up to 25% recycled aluminum and up to 30% recycled steel. By interviewing Ms. Fownes, the p rincipal of t he interior department of Perkins + Will in Atlanta, I was informed that carpet, a major component of the projects office space, is a kind of recycling component. At the time, there was not as much available in other building products as there are now. Dar den implement s a recycling program at building occupancy to achieve environmental sustainability through material strategies.

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62 Waste reduction Darden separate s and recycle s construction debris, diverting more than 90% of the construction debris ( equal to 2060 tons ) away from the landfill and divert ing almost 12 tons of garbage away from the landfill through a single stream recycling system. In addition, RSC composts food waste from the cafeteria and advocates use of double sided printers and copiers to r educe paper consumption. T eamwork, supervision 75% threshold for both points attributable to this credit. Over 88% waste and debris were diverted away from the landfill. Figure 4 2 Materials interior environment Source: http://perkinswill.com/work/darden restaurants%2C inc..html Air q uality Since air quality is a vital factor for the health of the building occupants it is emphasized in the interior design proce ss. Darden also paid close attention to air quality adjustment. When choosing interior mater ials for decoration, low violate

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63 organi c compound (VOC) carpet, paintings, furniture, sealants, moveable walls and many other interior materials are not opted for because they have a negative impact on environment al sustainability indoor s a large e xtent. Darden is equipped with an air circulation system that circulates fresh exterior air to the interior space every hour. High efficiency particular air (HEPA) filters in the air pipes and air ducts minimize allergens and airborne viruses. As a result, the HVAC system supplies sufficient thermal comfort for the bui lding occupants and reduced VOC products provide a healthy wor kplace for the visitors and occupants. N atural day light covers 75% of the work environment, which not only provides a brighter natural workspace but also cut s down on energy consumption in the daytime. Social and workplace features Darden was designed to benefit employee health and well being, promoting collaboration and effective teamwork. Introduced in Sustainability at Darden (2010), sustainability: An on site wellness center d by Florida Hospital personnel provide social support for the employees. 000 square foot fitness center with locker and shower facilities available to RSC employees for $10 per month is operate d by Guckenheimer who is the industry leader in

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64 corporate food service with a good mix of indulgent and healthy options, including an outstanding salad bar story building and numerous break room areas promote interaction among employees Safety In order to guarantee the mobility of disabled persons barrier free designs such as F ire extinguishers have been equipped at each floor in Darden. Low emitti ng materials, low or non violate organi c compound (VOC) carpet, paintings, furniture, sealants, moveable walls and many other interior materials have been rejected for ensuring the health of building occupant s. Darden is equipped with an air circulation system that circulates fresh exterior ai r to the interior space every hour, which provides the interior environment with better air quality and ensures the wellness of the occupants Innovation As Ms. Fownes mentions in the interview, the innovation points that are around health and wellness are the most important feature in this sustainable design project from the interior perspective. Darden project was started in 2008 and the concepts around health and wellness were implemented then. This was not something that the design community was talking about seven years ago. It is a major current topic. To make this innovation come true, the design team constructed a quarter mile walking

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65 trail around the building. They also built promine nt and open staircases to encourage walking instead of taking elevators, increas ing the rate of walking and promoting a healthier lifestyle In addition, a three story building design and numerous break room areas promote interactions among employees. All these innovations satisfy the natural, social, economical and scientific attributes of sustainable design. Interview In this interview, Ms. Joyce Fownes, who is one of the principal designers of pal of the interior department in Perkins + Will, Atlanta. This interview was processed during June 8 th to June 18 th in the year of 2015. Her answers give a sense of the direction in which commercial interior design differs from the others. Q: It is highlighted that 20% of building materials are recycled components. What are those materials if in interior space? A: Typically carpet, which is a major component of the projects office space. At the time, there was not as much available in other building products like there are now. Q: What do you think is the most important feature in this sustainable design project from interior perspective?

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66 A: The innovation points that are around h ealth and wellness. This project was started in 2008 and the concepts around health an d wellness were imbedded then. This was not something that the design community was talking about at the time (this is a major current topic). This was seven years ago. to comparable projects? other firms/clients may not consider because the perception is that it will be too expensive. This is not the case. If we design smart starting at the site and the building orientation, all follows from there (or should) Q: What are the decisive factors that make you and your team design in that way? (Economic consider A: Really it is part of our DNA and the foundation of who Perkins + Will is. We design for the broader goals of society which means that we want to help RESTORE, our environment as well as protect it. Our challenge is to be carbon neutral with our buildings by 2030. We measure ourselves every year on moving forward with this accomplishment. We really research all of the best approaches to site, building orientation, systems and materials through the design proc ess. Technologies change, so PVs may be more cost effective now but also require a lot of surface area. LED lighting is

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67 another feature that we WOULD have used if it had been effective and cost effective at the time. So, the long and short of it is, we run everything to ground and weigh out the cost benefit analysis for all clients as we move through the design process. Before answering these questions, Ms. Fownes offered some other materials information is attached in this paper. The attached materials answer the interview questions below: Q 1. What interior feature interior space? a. Lighting b. Material c. Air (Ventilation, Filtration, HVAC systems, Heating and cooling, air quality) d. Interior greenery e. Water (Water conservation: flow restrictor, dual flush toilet and low flow urinal) (Water reuse, rainwater, gray water, reclaimed water) f. Humidity and climate comfort testin g tools g. Other innovations Q3. Can you introduce Darden strategies?

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68 Q4. What sustainable materials do you use when designing Darden RSC? Q5. What sustainable strategies do you use on saving water? Q6. W hat sustainable strategies do you use on air quality? Q7. What sustainable strategies do you use on heating and cooling? are closely related to the design practices and applications that differ from sustainable commercial interior feat ure s. Meanwhile, the answers expose some ra tional reasons as to why these practices vary from sustainable theories. In conclusion, sustainable commercial interior feature s can be gathered through energy, water, material, safety and innovation As for the practical reasons project s is mainly because of the following aspects: on points that are around health and wellness. other firms/clients may not consider because the perception is that it will be too expensive. sign DNA. materials through the design process.

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69 Weigh out the cost benefit analysis for all clients. Vanke Center, Shenzhen China Case study Introduction and background Located in Yantian District, Shenzhen the Vanke Center has a total construction area of 80200 square meters A s an independent and complex mixture, the building itself includ es the Vanke headquarter s apartments, hotel s SOHO apartments, condominiums, an international conference center and many other relative functions Vanke Center was designed by Steven Holl Architects, and was a winner of the Institute Honor Award for Architecture in 2011. It is also called skyscrap b ecause the architects connect ed sever al multi function buildings together in a horizontal manner; columns support the whole building As a result, the Vanke Center retains the natural exterior environment. Because of the project's unique architectural and structural designs the column s support 4 5 layers in the building, which hous e built on a cable concept. The Vanke Center has courtyard s water landscape green spaces and natural hills maximizing the open space and providing a n excellent environment for the employees and visitors. Under the standards of sustainabl e design concept, the Vanke Center headquarter s benefit from a raised base by incorporating daylight ing skylights and

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70 many other sus tainable design components. Without a doubt Vanke Center has become the first LEED Platinum certified building in southern China. Sustainable feature s Figure 4 3 Space design, energy, water and materials in Vanke Center interior environment Source: http://www.viewpictures.co.uk/Details.aspx?ID=152913&TypeID=1 http://en.urban.pkusz.edu.cn/index.php?m=c ontent&c=index&a=show&catid=1219&id=114 https://www.flickr.com/photos/aianational/5343397870 Space Interior design in the Vanke Center project is worth appreciating due to its combination of art and sustainable design concept s Homogeneously interspersed sections such and continuous. In this long and narrow space, almost all of the walls are angled toward to the floor. And from the top to the very bottom, the width of the interior spaces and the brightness of the indoor environment vary considerably As for the light ing design, this kind of narrow and long space is more conducive to reflecting natural light as well as promoting indoor ventilation L ike a natural vent, a lon g and narrow space generates more natural wind suction because of the difference s between indoor and outdoor air pressure s when the wind passes through Designers

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71 hope that the natural lighting could be mixed with direct and indirect lighting t o form natur al and comfortable lighting effects Such interior design not only meets the requirements of natural light ing but also greatly increases the natural ventilation allowing the building to fully meet the LEED platinum certification requirements of at least 75% daylighting. Energy The a ir conditioning system has a more developed ice storage system. Ice is made at night when electricity usage is at its lowest point in the day. However when electricity usage is at its peak in the daytime, the ice is used to coo l the interior environment. This method takes advantage of the price difference s between using electricity at night and using electricity in the daytime The interior and exterior shading system uses glass curtain walls, horizontal ly fixed shad ing panels and electric sunshades, which allows for sufficient indoor lighting and a comfortable interior temperature without using much electricity Electric sunshades can aut omatically adjust the visor angle depending on and this ensures that the indoor light ing and indoor temperature is kept at an optimal level In the summer, when the visors are closed, the Vanke Center can meet the lighting needs for 90 % of the interior space s without the use of artificial lighting. (Li, 2015) W hen it comes to solar energy, the Vanke Center utilizes the most efficient photovoltaic technology. The total area of the s olar photovoltaic panels mounted on

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72 the roof is approximately 4000 square meters The i nterior lighting system is also designed to sa ve energy. The electrical system at Vanke Center is always yielding to the use of natural lighting. However, when using light bulbs, indoor lighting is controlled: motion sensors can detect a movement throughout the building When people leave th e sensors turn the lights off automatically, and vice versa. In the o ffice s and meeting room s, energy efficient lighting equipment is used, including T 5 fluorescent lamps and LED lights Additionally, t he use of intelligent lighting control system s which integrate dimmers motion sensors timers, and other features, contribute s to the conversation of energy in the interior space and promotes environmental sustainability Interior water In order to improve the conservation of water resources, the Vanke Ce nter rec ycle s all otherwise wasted water Through biodegradation treatment that uses artificial wetlands Vanke then uses this treated water for local irrigation and other purposes such as cleaning, flushing and flowing. The d aily water treatment capacity can reach 100 tons per day. In the interior building environment, Vanke utilizes advanced water sav ing appliances and conservation methods ; a few examples include using low flow toilets and waterless urinals to flush and util izing autom atic ally controlled low flow faucets, efficient shower heads etc.. Sewage and rainwater can be harvested on the roof

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73 using a water collection system Material In interior spaces, designers mostly use bamboo instead of wood. Bamboo is a fast growing plant that has a better ability to sequestra te carbon than wood, and is plentiful in most regions in China especially along the Yangtze River Also the office furniture, doors and tables are also made of bamboo. As is know n to the public excellent bamboo derived products can last for 15 years and most of them are very cheap. The Vanke Center is constructed with numerous renewable materials as well as wooden materials certified by the international Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) Mean while, Vanke make s good use of local materials within a radius of 500 miles, greatly reducing energy consumption and transportation costs Furthermore, t he 200mm aerated concrete wall, the 150mm overhead reinforced concrete floor adjustable aluminum alloy visors and hollow double layers glass all provide the Vanke Center with better insulation. Waste reduction According to the standards given by LEED certification, the Vanke Center has satisfied the requirement s of construction waste management, which requires that 75% of waste be diverted from disposal. Meanwhile, Vanke has 10% recycled content as well as rapidly renewable materials such as bamboo and wooden furniture. Carpets are recycl able material s that can b e reused and therefore they generate no waste in

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74 their lifecycles. Air quality structure and interior space is well designed for ventilation. Long and narrow spaces mitigate the barriers in between, p roviding a natural ventilation passageway, and to a large extent this increases indoor air quality. Also, Vanke headquarter s in Shenzhen are equipped with an outdoor air delivery monitor which is an increased ventilating method that enhances interior air circulation. Moreover, low emitting materials in paints, coatings, and composite wood and agrifiber products make the interior air fresher and safer. The a ir conditioning system contains an ice storage system. The benefits of this ice storag e system are that a lot of energy can be saved and the air quality, interior temperature and humidity can be controlled to a provide a more comfortable environment Interior greenery The design team pays close attention to refreshing the indoor air by planting trees and interi or greenery. In office areas, large number s of plants are placed beside the office tables. In addition, some negative spaces such as building corners or leaning walls can benefit from bamboo plants The following two pictur es set good examples of the V

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75 Figure 4 4 : Interior greenery in Vanke Center Resource: Jianping Zhu, A Grand Green Construction: Shenzhen Vanke Center Safety Low emitting materials in paints, coatings, and composite wood and agrifiber product s make the interior air fresher, safer and greatly benefit the health and wellness of the building occupants Indoor chemical and pollutant source control has the same effect as the low emitting materials. T he barrier free design enables disabled occupants to have full mobility around the building, and the fire control system guarantees the safety of the occupants and social sustainability. Innovations and technologies The Vanke Center's technological breakthrough s and innovation s are showcased in the building design itself emphasis on eco building concept is not a command or requirement. In contrast, it environmental design process, technology an d innovation play an extremely

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76 important role. There is a keen innovation in the use of shading. In order to allow the shade s to filter out heat from the sunshine while simultaneously letting in sunlight and wind, the famous German company named T ran s s olar designs them based on the concept of dendritic orientations (Zhu, 2011) Trans s olar pays close attention to the elevation angle of the sun throughout the year, and they combin e this with shading strategies including the vertical fix the horizontal fix and electrically adjustable handle s W hen the sun shine is introduced into the room through the blinds, some lively and mottled pattern s are left on the walls and floor creating beautiful interior scenery Also the air conditioning equipment that utilizes an ice storage system is another innovation in Vanke design. Last but not least, the use of fast growing plants such as bamboo is very unique in constructing a natural and comfortable living/ working environment for the occupants. Interview In the interview, Mr. Zhang Bo an interior designer, researched Vanke Center before and knew Vanke Center project well was interviewed. This interview was processed from July 8 th to July 10 th in the year of 2015. His answers ga ve readers a sense of Va nke Ce and it differed from the others. Q: What do you think is the most important feature in this sustainable design

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77 project from interior perspective? A: The most impressive spot is the water recycling system and the use of fast growing material. Firstly, t here is a fundamental aspect of the water cycling system. Interior water recycle system is combined with the whole building and ment to improve the overall water cycling process. Simultaneously designers fully take the geographical advantages of Shenzhen into account because there is abundant rainfall in the city of Shenzhen. This water strategy has considerable implications for t he ecological and sustainable development for Vanke Center in the future. Secondly, the utility of fast growing materials is another specialty. Just like Chinese architect Wang Shu always advocates, renewable materials should be more used in applications. In Vanke Center headquarter, t he use of bamboo instead of wood and timber is an upscale interior design breakthroughs and innovation. Q: What is Vanke Center comparable projects? A: The interior shad ing system. The interior shading system is divided into glass walls and blinds. Blinds are meticulously designed with the consideration of the integrated sun elevation angle in Shenzhen provid ing the most comfortable lighting condition for the interior environment The curtain wall. Because air circulation, sunshine and many other exterior components should interact with the interior contents through the curtain walls, and

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78 walls also decide insulation, energy storage and l oss. Vanke has a relatively high integrated curtain wall system. V anke center is designed in an international perspective, being around the cultural brand of Vanke center It has its own original and unique features either in interior design and building design. Additionally, based on its location, climate condition and landscape feature, Vanke Center not only shows the international vision, but also reflects the Chinese characteristics and regional advantages Q: What are the decisive factors that make the designers design in that way? A: A comprehensive consideration of economy, building space, function and aesthetic understanding the cu economic, social, cultural and environmental conditions. In addition to the basic design concept of environmental protection, Vanke Center sufficiently refers to the traditional Chinese thought of So in addition to the ecological design concept the needs of the customer s and the development of culture are taken into account M r answers reveal ed design practices and the reasons why these practices varied from the sustainable theories which is analyzed blow In conclusion, from the case study and the related interview of Vanke Center,

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79 sustainable commercial interior feature s for this project can be concluded as the following ones : space, energy, water, m aterial, waste reduction, air quality, interior greenery safety technologies and innovation s As for the practical reasons why design application is unique compared to other project is mainly because of the following aspects: national perspective and function esthetic requirement conomic consideration ocial consideration ultural consideration nvironmental conditions Conclusion After researching two commercial interior case studies: Darden Restaurant Service Center and Shenzhen Vanke Center, their sustainable features and practices

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80 followed by the emphasis of reasons why these sustainable practices differ. In the following chapter, comparison between these two study cases and interviews is processed to analysis the research results related to sustainable feature s and applications.

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81 CHAPTER 5 DIS CUSSION AND ANALYSIS Case Study Comparison Table 5 1 shows some differences between the sustainable design and sustainable features of Darden RSC and Vanke Center mainly based on case study This comparison is also relative to the interview questions (Q1 Q7) shown in Appendix A and B Table 5 1 Comparison of case study Sustainable commercial interior features As is seen from the table, first of all, the general information and site conditions of the top 100 economic advanced cities in the world. S imilar in the world rating but different in location, Shenzhen, which is in the southern China, offer s a great site to

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82 Vanke Center. As one of the top 100 advanced cities in the most potential advancing country, Shenzhen has different site and climate conditions from Orlando that cause s pr actice diversities to some extent. These diversities are analyzed in the intervie w comparison table design company: Perkins + Will. The building is with 3 floors and 469,000 square feet area and was compl eted in the year of 2009. Serving as an office building with restaurant in the Gold in LEED by USGBC It deserves to be an excellent sustainable building in the United States. De signed by Steven Holl Architect and was RSC, Vanke Center has approximate 3 time certification, being a notable sustainable building in China. Second, as for the various sustainable commercial features of these two commercial interiors, the common components are listed: space, energy, interior water, material, waste reduction, air quality, safety and innovations. Broad and continuous space not only provides occupants a broad horizon but also takes good advantage of natural resource saving quantities of energy b oth in Energy strategies such as building orientation, high performance glazing, efficient centrifugal chillers and lighting controls make energy more e fficient. For interior water usage utilizing reclaimed water to flush ur inals and toilets and equipping restroom sinks with auto sensors that control the amount of flushing water for each time, are beneficial to wat er conservation. Rainwater is a significant freshwater resource, so Darden and Vanke take advantage

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83 of this re sou rce to save water and increase the water efficiency Additionally they both utilize renewable materials as well as wooden materials certified by the international Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and renewable furniture including carpets. B y applying re newable materials and resources, Darden and Vanke have both reduced 75% building waste or even more. Moreover, low emitting materials in paints, coatings, and composite wood and agrifiber products make the interior air fresher and safer. Combined with high level ventilation system, air quality in these two projects reach a high standard The humanized features in the both of Darden and Vanke are embodied in air safety, barrier free design for the disabled and fire control for the building. Above all, i t is the innovation supported by technology that makes the entire design concept come true. F eatures synthesized above are common features to these two sustainable design projects. Nevertheless, there still are differences Seen from Table 5 1, Darden is specia lized in social and workplace features while Vanke has its unique feature of interior greenery. Darden benefit s employee health and well being, promoting collaboration and effective teamwork. It has an onsite wellness center and social supports for the employees. It also has an onsite 5000 square foot fitness center, a dining facility, a three story building and numerous break room areas promoting interaction among employees. In contrast, Vanke r greenery. A large number of plants are introduced in office areas at some spaces such as corners of the building.

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84 Interview Comparison Table 5 2 shows some differences in the sustainable practices and the reasons of the practice variation of Darden RSC and Vanke Center mainly based on the interview This comparison is also relat ed t o the interview questions (Q8 Q11 ) shown in Appendix A and B Table 5 2 Comparison of interview Sustainable commercial interior practices The most important features that the designers pay attention to are different, making the project applications and practices differ. What can be found in the case of Darden and water, material and energy of was a breakthrough in 7

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85 Fownes said in This project was started in 2008 and the concepts around health and wellness were imbedded then. This was not something that the design community was talking about at the time. The feature of HW makes a big pr ogress on social sustainability. Simultaneously, encourage energy saving, interior interaction and environmental sustainability. is more concerned about water mate rial and energy. In order to be more sustainable the design team innovates interior and exterior water cycling system including a wetland filtration system. In addition, fast growing materials including bamboo are used in the interior space T he cur tain wall, which is designed as leaves, contributes extremely to the F wellness is a new finding. LEED focus more on environmental sustainability inste ad of social benefit. In contrast, another rating system named Well Building Standard, highlighting elements of air, water, nourishment, light, fitness, comfort and mind, is W a sustainable feature th at ensures the human privilege, is a breakthrough in interior design. Practical reasons Digging into the reasons why these two projects differ from each other, some reasons can be found.

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86 sustainable/environmental consideration, technical capacity. Darden contributes the most to customer Ms. Fownes regards it as one of the most notable features o also concerned in Vanke Center project. By offering strategies for occupants such as providing a hospital, a Economic consideration and cost benefit are signif icant to a project because even though technologies are available or design ideas are impressive, without the support of money, they cannot be realized. Also s ocial consideration and e nvironmental consideration have been taken into account. Darden is designed to benefit employee health and well being, promoting collaboration and effective teamwork. Vanke Center has the barrier free design for the disabled or who has difficulties in mobility and the interior fire control system are quite certificated sustainable projects. Technical capacity is fundament al as money and economic support. In these two projects, high performance windows, high efficient heating and cooling system, chilled water plant, energy recovery units, variable speed motors, highly reflective and insulated roof, motion sensors, daylight harvesting system and other methods that improve building efficiency are based on technologies. After analyzing the common reasons, the following paragraphs synthesize the

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87 De sign DNA, research results, international design perspective, location, climate condition, regional advantages, building space and function, aesthetic requirement, and cultural consideration. Design DNA varies depending on the design team of a project The design motivates them to develop a project in their own ways. It is successful commercial interior design of Darden. In addition, r esearch process before design decides h ow many aspects will be paid attention to in a project due to the problems figured out in the researching process. Location, climate condition, regional advantages and cultural consideration are general site factors are not mentioned, they are involved in the whole project. These refer to: 1. Under what circumstances can buildings and interior spaces be constructed? 2. What are the inborn advantages of th e site of the project? International design perspective and aesthetic requirement are higher aims of the design team of Vanke Center designers connect multiple building bodies together, being lifted by columns. V anke ernational scope of architectural design. Its curtain wall s and window system generate mottled shades in the interior environment not only reaching the standard of international level but also fulfilling the aesthetic requirement.

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88 CHAPTER 6 APPLICATION Labrador commercial interior project Introduction Labrador project is an urban planning and landscape design project. Commercial area as one of the site plans has been developed specifically. The Labrador commercial interior project site is located in the east of the Labrador site. The designed commercial building is with mix use of offi ces, stores, and a coffee bar and t he sustainable interior space is a store selling art works and providing green open spaces to the public. Design purpose It is designed to explore the secrets hiding behin d indoor environment, buildings, and outdoor environment, and to find out the connections among them, which create a livable and vib rant community It also aims to building ecological linkage s and circulation s including water management, green infrastructure, green transportation and bicycle lane s Above all, researching the sustainable commercial interior s commercial area is the most significant purpose. Site analysis Labrador site is located near the Labrador Park in the southern Singapore and has good transportation conditions with 2 MRT stations. Singapore has a high density

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89 of population of 7,713 people/Km2 (World Bank, 2015). Also commercial centers near the site are prosperous. There are 2 commercial centers in the east and the west of the site. Design analysis The project aims to create a livable community as well as livable and sustainab le commercial interior proj ect has been developed as the pictures show in the following pages. The blue region is the commercial area, which is also the site of the commerci al interior project. There is a commercial building with mix use of offices, stores, and a coffee bar and the sustainable concept is involved in a store selling art works and providing green open spaces to the public. After taking several practice concerns environmental conditions and technical capacity into account, the interior project is designed under the concept of flowing space in the green v ein There is a skylight and an open three story hall that maximize interior daylighting as well as indoor ventilation. It is equipped with motion al sensors, human body sense detectors, a high efficiency heating and cooling system and high performance windows that let in daylight but not he at. R eclaimed water is used instead of po r table water. Also i nterior water system is combined with a stormwater system through gree n roofs and the water columns. C oncerning the utilization of the material s low or non violate organic compound materials and recycled materials such as wood and

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90 bamboo are the best choices for this store The interior environment diverts more than 75% of construction debris away from the landfill via reuse or recycling. As for indoor air quality, natural ventilation is the best strategy. An opened skylight on the roof can absorb natural wind into the interior spaces and th e 3 story floors that are central opened are good for ventilation. Also low emitting materials make the interior air fresher and safer. Additionally v ertical green walls on each floor can absorb carbon dioxide and an open space on the top floor with a green roof refreshes indoor air. In order to supply better social benefit s to the building occupants, Labrador commercial interio r design project has an on site resti ng space, an on site coffee bar, and a dining facility for resting and interaction among the occupants. Furthermore, there is no step in the interior spaces, which is a barrier free design for the disabled using wheels. Last but the least, the project has 3 innovations including an open space on the top floor with a green roof, an on site coffee bar with chatting areas and resting areas for the building occupants and an open three story hall with a skylight maximize interior daylighting as well as indoor ventilation In conclusion, Labrador commercial interior project is proved to be a sustainable interior project with considering practical restriction and factors.

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91 Site analysis Design c oncept

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92 Design analysis

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98 The most notable interior feature health and wellness In terior design in a green building mostly has some common sustainable features such as energy saving, water efficiency, green materials and etc. However, a concept of health and wellness is strengthened in Labrador commercial interior design project which is also combined with other sustai nable strategies including space, energy, water, material, greenery, safety and innovation. The design strategies such as an on site resting space, an on site coffee bar, and a dining facility for occupants to rest and interact, and the entire use of low emitting materials for strategies protection and environmental sustainability, the concept of h ealth and wellness concentrate s on human benefit s which is the most notable feature in this project.

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99 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION Sustainable features and variety in practice Environmental problems caused by economy booming and commercial business can no longer be taken for granted. The issue is that generally commercial buildings consume 40 percent more energy than the other types of buildings and nowadays this should no longer be the case Under the guidance of environmental laws, regulations and legislation s these problems have been mitigated to a large extent. One such case is the Un ited Nations Human Environment Program (UNH EP) monitoring the relationship between economic development and environmental degradation as well as establishing the World Commission on Environment and Development to control air contamination, environmental pollution, and resource waste. A sustainable commercial interior environment can contribute significantly to a healthy environment and social and economic development. It can be more energy efficient, more water efficient and less wasteful with resources Therefore, t he results of exploration of sustainable features in commercial interiors are of high importance. Based on literature review, case study, interview and application of Labrador commercial interior project the sustainable features that benefit environmental health and social and economic sustainability have been figured out. Simultaneously, practice variation r easons have been revealed through case study and interview.

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100 The s ustainable features: Space Energy Interior water Material Waste reduction Air quality Interior greenery Safety Innovations Technology Social and workplace features Practice variation reas ons: Economic consideration/cost Social consideration Sustainable/environmental consideration Technical capacity Design DNA Research results

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101 International perspective Location Climate condition Regional advantages Building space and function Aesthetic requirement Cultural consideration The sustainable feature of health and wellness is worth highlight ing. Using non polluting/lesser polluting materials instead of high polluting materials can avoid indoor air pollution. Utilizing wood, cork plywood and decorative panels can reduce indoor formaldehyde emissions. In addition choosing proper paint and furniture including water based paint instead of oil based paint can reduce the volatile o r ganic compounds in the interior space. E xisting air pollution should be filtered out of the indoor environment. Meanwhile, we should take some measures to prevent the pollutants disseminating into the indoor environment. For instance, new particleboard an d hardwood plywood can distribute large amounts of formaldehyde. To solve this problem, formaldehyde absorber can be used to cover the surface Usage of interior greenery and recycled materials also contributes to the health and wellbeing of the occupa nts Promoting the use of harmless materials as well as environmentally friendly, safe and green building materials in the interior space can create a healthy atmosphere.

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102 gree n quality. Energy can be saved by taking advantage of daylighting through skylights, and by using efficient lightbulbs, lamps, light shelves, windows and lighting control. Interior water is an important resource and it can be efficiently conserved throu gh water saving appliance s monitoring wa ter use, recycling water, storm water management, and water collection by plants. Material is another vital feature. Sustainable materials have many features: pollution prevention measures in manufacturing, waste red uction measures in manufacturing, recycled content, embodied energy reduction, use of natural materials, reduction of construction waste, use of local materials, energy efficiency, water treatment and conservation, use of non toxic/ less toxic materials, re newable energy systems, longer life, reusability, recyclability, biodegradability etc. Similar to sustainable materials, w aste reduction is closely related to building materials. Some wooden materials and furniture as recycled contents reduce waste and environmental pollution. Air quality i nterior greenery and s afety have connections to each other. Interior greenery is beneficial to int erior air quality. Moreover, good air quality contributes to safety When designing an interior space, such three elements can be regarded as a whole. I nnovation always refers to some energy, water, air circulation or social connected design strategies that differ from the traditional resource saving and

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103 environmental protected strategies Technology is the foundation of any design breakthroughs when processing a building design. Without the new technology of the c urtain wall s in Vanke Center project it could never have such amazing energy efficiency All of the sustainable features presented above are the contents of the sustainable theory. However, in the hundreds of thousands of sustainable interior and green building projects, eac h project is diverse in various situations. This paper has figured out some of the reasons why Customer s may restrain the design. is related to the cost of the building The economic consideration of the clie nt and the designer plays a principal role in commercial interior design because money is the fundamental support for technology improvement. Also the design DNA of sustainability dictates including location, climate condition, regional advantages, cultural characteristics and environmental conditions also outline the interior features. High volume rainwater regions have better cli mate condit ions than those low volume rain water regions. With abundant rainwater harvesting, the interior water recyclin g system can be combined with the outdoor rainwater harvesting system. International perspective and aesthetic requirement are two prac tical reasons that motivate designers to build a more acceptable interior space, one that satisfies customer and provide s the public with visual comfort greatly increasing the positive effect on human behaviors.

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104 Lastly, commercial interior space as a part of the b uilding space is always under the restriction of the building space. Better building structure s such as a huge ha ll or continuous interior space, facilitate natural ventilation and daylighting. In conclusion, a sustainable commercial int erior environment can contribute significantly to healthy environment as well as to social and economic development. It should be energy efficient, resource conservative, and environmentally friendly. On the one hand, the sustainable features can inspire i nterior designer s to do better design works. On the other hand, practice varies based on different situations making the sustainable theory ivory towered. Designers need to be concerned about the factors driving the practice avoiding problems and designing more amazing interiors under the inspiration of sustainable theory. Therefore, sustainability is of high importance in the future of design with the application of combining sustainable theory and practice.

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105 APPENDIX A PROFESSIONAL INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Conducted Interview Questions Interviewee: Interview Date: Please answer the following questions to the best of your ability. Q1. What interior features do you think contribute to sustainability? interior space? a. Lighting b. Material c. Air (Ventilation, Filtration, HVAC systems, Heating and cooling, air quality) d. Interior greene ry e. Water (Water conservation: flow restrictor, dual flush toilet and low flow urinal) (Water reuse, rainwater, gray water, reclaimed water) f. Humidity and climate comfort testing tools g. Other innovations Q3. Can you introduce strategies? Q4. What sustainable materials do you use when designing Darden RSC?

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106 Q5. What sustainable strategies do you use on saving water? Q6. What sustainable strategies do you use on air quality? Q 7. What sustainable strategies do you use on heating and cooling? Q 8 : It is highlighted that 20% of building materials are recycled components. What are those materials if in interior space? Q 9 : What do you think is the most important feature in this sust ainable design project from interior perspective? Q 10 mpared to comparable projects? Q 11 : What are the decisive factors that make you and your team design in that way?

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107 APPENDIX B PROFESSIONAL INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR VANKE CENTER Conducted Interview Questions Interviewee: Interview Date: Please answer the following questions to the best of your ability. Q1. What interior features do you think contribute to Vanke Center Q2. What kind of techniques and innov ations do you use when designing Vanke Center a. Lighting b. Material c. Air (Ventilation, Filtration, HVAC systems, Heating and cooling, air quality) d. Interior greenery e. Water (Water conservation: flow restricto r, dual flush toilet and low flow urinal) (Water reuse, rainwater, gray water, reclaimed water) f. Humidity and climate comfort testing tools g. Other innovations Q3. Can you introduce s lighting system and its energy conservatio n strategies? Q4. What sustainable materials do you use when designing Vanke Center ?

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108 Q5. What sustainable strategies do you use on saving water? Q6. What sustainable strategies do you use on air quality? Q7. What sustainable strategies do you use on heating and cooling? Q 8 : What do you think is the most important feature in this sustainable design project from interior perspective? Q 9 mpared to comparable projects? Q 10 : What are the decisive factors that make you and your team design in that way?

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109 LIST OF REFERENCES United States Environmental Protection Agency, Energy Star Guide for Restaurants: Putting En ergy into Profit, 1, 2012. Julie Holst, Sustainable Commercial Interior Design, 2010 USGBC Member, Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) 2009 for commercial interiors rating system, 2008 Ziquan Luo, Sustainable Design in Public interior s Take BCA Collage and National Library for Example. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1002 2236.2014.01.014 Alisa Templeton, 2011, Perception of Practicing Interior Designers: Motivations That Encourage Their Su stainable Design Practices Encyclopedia, 2014, retrieved from: http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=zh CN&u=http://baike.baidu.com/vie w/5011.htm&prev=search Malcolm Tatum, 12, 2014. What is Commercial Interior Design? Retrieved from: http://www .wisegeek.com/what is commercial interior design.htm Han Fang, Design and Planning of Commercial Interior Environment, 12, 2002 Anup Shah, Environmental Issues, 02, 2015, retrieved from: http://www.globalissues.org/issue/168/environmental issues Yali Ya ng, Green Design Research in Interior Design, 2014 Paola Sassi, Strategies for Sustainable Architecture. New York, 2006 Ann Arbor, Building Green for the Future, 6, 2005 Helen J. Kessler, Commercial Interiors: New Opportunities for Sustainable Design, 6,

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110 2005 Deepa Sathiaram, Green Commercial Interiors, 10, 2009 Krishnan Gowri, Green Building Rating Systems: An Overview, 12, 2004 E rnest J. Yanarella, Richard S. Levine, Robert W. Lancaster, Green versus Sustainability, 10, 2009, DOI: 10.1089/SUS.2009.9838 Fanyong Meng, Study on the Development Mode of Eco Industrial Park in Beijing of Engineering and Business Management, 2011 Nina Khanna, John Ro mankiewicz, Wei Feng and Nan Zhou, Comparative Policy Study for Green Building in U.S. and China, 8, 2014 Margaret Burchett, Fraser Torpy & Jane Tarran, Interior Plants for Sustainable Facility Ecology and Workplace Productivity. Wang Chen, Viability in Commercial Interior Design, 2010 Penny Bonda Katie Sosnowchik, Sustainable Commercial Interiors, 12, 2006, Haoming Zhou, Research of Sustainable Interior Environment Design Theory, 2010 Jingsuo Gao, Development of Sustainable Interior Design in China, 6, 2000 Craig Nielson, Connie Baker Wolfe, Green Building Guide Design Techniques, Construction Practices & Material for Affordable Housing, 2009 Kevin Kampschroer, Benefits of Green Buildings on Costs, the Environment and Jobs, 7, 2009, ret rieved from: http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/103662

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111 White Paper, Sustainable Solutions: The Impact of the Green Building Movement, 12, 2006 Michelle Toole, What Are the Disadvantages of Green Building, 5, 2015, retrieved from: http://www.healthy holis tic living.com/disadvantages of green building.html J. David Odom, Richard Scott, George. H. DuBose, the Hidden Risk of Green Building, 8, 2009 retrieved from: http://www.rci online.org/interface/2009 08 odom scott dubose.pdf Steven Bradley, How to Use Space in Design, 21, 6, 2010, retrieved from: http://www.vanseodesign.com/web design/design space/ Chaim H. Tejman, Wave Theory and Time; Space and Energy, Grand Unified Theory, 2001, retrieved from: http://www.grandunifiedtheo ry.org.il/book/time01.htm Rehabilitation & Illustrated Guidelines on Sustainability for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings, 2011 The U.S. Department of Energy, Lighting Dev elopment, Adoption and Compliance Guide, 9, 2012 Baofeng Li, The Research on Climatic active Design strategy of Building Skin in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone, 4, 2004 D. R. Wulfinghoff, Control and Use of Sunlight, Energy Efficiency Manual, 1999 Jianhua Wang, The Capacity and Efficiency Analysis of Energy Saving Lamp and Illuminance, Renewable Resources, 5, 2003 Nur Ayalp, Environmental Sustainability in Interior Design Feature s, Recent

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112 Researches in Environmental and Geological Sciences, 2012 J ian He, Analysis on Domestic Low Carbon Interior Design, 2013 Jong Jin Kim, Brenda Rigdon, Sustainable Architecture Module: Qualities, Use, and Examples of Sustainable Building Materials, 12,1998 Jules J.A. Janssen, Designing and Building with Bamboo, 20 00 Jianmin Zhang, Qingfeng Wu, Xiaomei Jiang, Chenhua Liu, Bin Zhou, Ventilation System, Inverted Roof and Green Interior Design Principle for Green Building and Sustainable Development, 2010 University of Kentucky, Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) retrieved from: http://www.uky.edu/bae/sites/www.uky.edu.bae/files/Chapter%207%20Heating%20V entilation%20Air%20Conditioning.pdf Shuxia Sun, Research on Green Interior Design of Reducing Toxic Components, 05, 2013 Shuting Liu, Discussing the Humanization of Commercial Inside Environment Design, Case Study, 2005, P.119 Jian Li, Hui Li, Yanjun Zhao, Lifeng Li, Barrier free Interior Design for the Disabled People, 2011 Bu ilding Where Sloan Products Installed as a 2011 Award Winner for Architecture, 09, 2015, DOI: 10. 13939 / j. cnki. zgsc. 2015. 09. 146 Jianping Zhu, A Grand Green Constructio n: Shenzhen Vanke Center, 2011

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113 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Yang Du graduated with honors from Nanjing Normal University ( NNU ) Nanjing, China, in the year of 2013 with a Bachelor degree in exhibition design. In those four years, she researched des ign principles including t ing the need s of people In the same year, she was enrolled in Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, China for her Master degree. She studied in the College of Architecture a nd Urban Planning in HUST majoring in environmental design. With her interest in sustainable design, Yang Du s tarted her second Master degree at University of Florida (UF) in the year of 2014. The excellent professors and advanced facilities in the College of Design, Construction and Planning at UF gave her opportunities to gain better knowledge of sustainability. With determinat ion, dedication and diligence, Yang Du has confidence to study better and combine the sustainable theories with the practices.


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