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Personality variables and efl proficiency among Korean elementary school students

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Personality variables and efl proficiency among Korean elementary school students
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Kim, Jee In
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English
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ix, 91 leaves : ; 29 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Child psychology ( jstor )
Extroversion ( jstor )
Foreign language learning ( jstor )
Language ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Listening comprehension tests ( jstor )
Nonnative languages ( jstor )
Personality psychology ( jstor )
Second language learning ( jstor )
Standard deviation ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Instruction and Curriculum -- UF ( lcsh )
Instruction and Curriculum thesis, Ph. D ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1996.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 84-90).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jee In Kim.

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PERSONALITY VARIABLES AND EFL PROFICIENCY AMONG KOREAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS




















By

Jee In Kim


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


































This dissertation is dedicated to my parents.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to Dr. Hallman for his warm encouragement and patient guidance

throughout my doctoral study. I am also very much thankful to Dr. Miller and Dr. Crocker for their statistical assistance and to my other committee members, Dr. Bengston, Dr. Harper,

Dr. Todd, and Dr. Webb for their time and discussion. Special thanks go to Dr. Hae Sook Sim, regarding the use of the Korean version of the MMTIC for this research.

My heartful thanks go to my husband Hyunchul for his prayers and to my children Tahyo and Eunhyo for their cheerups when things were tough. Finally, to my father and mother go my deepest thanks for their enormous support and sacrifice, which enabled me to complete this study.



By the grace of God I am what I am:
and his grace which was bestowed upon me was not in vain....


iii
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . LIST OF TABLES. . . . . . . . .


. . . . . i

. . . . vi


viii


ABSTRACT CHAPTERS


1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . .

EFL Education in Korea . .
Statement of the Problem .
Purpose of the Study . . .
Significance of the Study
Research Questions . . . .
Limitations . . . . . . . Definitions of Terms . . . Methods of the Study . . . Organization of the Study

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE . . .


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personality Variables in Language Learning . .
Temperament and First Language Development
in Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personality and Second/Foreign Language
Learning by Adults . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personality and Second Language Learning by
Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Psychological Type Theory . . . . . . . . . .
Jung's Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Myers-Briggs Theory . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Personality in Children . . . . . . . . Personality Variables in the MBTI Studies . .
Personality in Academic Performance . . . .
Personality in Second/Foreign Language
Language Performance . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1


1
2
3
3
4
4
6
9 10


. . 11

. . 11
. . 11

12

13

18
. . 22
23 23
. . 24
25 25

27 31


iv


. . . .
. . . .









3 METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Independent Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Dependent Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Measurement Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children . . 34
The Level Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Language Assessment Scales . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Collection of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Procedure and Scoring in the KMMTIC . . . . . . . 39
Procedure and Scoring in the Level Test . . . . 40
Procedure and Scoring in the LAS . . . . . . . . 41
Pilot Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Reliability of the Level Test . . . . . . . . . 42
Results of the KMMTIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Analysis of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Discussion and Related Findings . . . . . . . . . 61

5 CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. . . 66

Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Recommendations for Further Research . . . . . . . 69

APPENDICES

A LETTER TO THE PRINCIPAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

B THE KOREAN VERSION OF MMTIC. . . . . . . . . . . 72

C THE LEVEL TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

REFERENCE LIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91


V















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 The Reliabilities of the MMTIC and the KMMTIC for the Four Dimensions and Overall Tests . . . . . . . . 36

2 Means and Standard Deviations of Scores for the Four Dimensions of the MMTIC and the KMMTIC . . . . . . 37

3 Means and Standard Deviations of the Level Test Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

4 Means and Standard Deviations of Items of the
Listening Comprehension Subtest . . . . . . . . . 46

5 Means and Standard Deviations of the Items of the
Minimal Sound Pairs Subtest . . . . . . . . . . . 47

6 Means and Standard Deviations of Items of the
Listening Comprehension Subtest Using 17 Subjects 49

7 Statistics of the Scores for the Level Test, the
Subtests of the Listening Comprehension and the
Minimal Sound Pairs Using 51 Subjects, Sum of These Two Subtests, and the Listening Comprehension Using
17 Subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

8 Type Distribution for Total Sample (N=247) . . . . 52

9 Type Distribution for the Sample without U-Band
(N=128) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

10 Percentages of Types in Kim & Sim (1993) and in
This Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

11 The Means and Standard Deviations of the Variables
for Total Sample Subjects (N = 247) and 128
Subjects Who Do Not Have U Band . . . . . . . . . 58

12 Significance of the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 59


vi









13 Significance of Each Effect in the Model . . . . 60 14 The Grade x EI Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . 62


vii








Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

PERSONALITY VARIABLES AND EFL PROFICIENCY
AMONG KOREAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN By

Jee In Kim

December 1996


Chairperson: Dr. Clemens L. Hallman Major Department: Instruction and Curriculum

The purpose of this study was to investigate the

relationship between personality variables measured in the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (MMTIC) and

English as a foreign language (EFL) proficiency of Korean elementary school children measured in the Level Test with a

consideration of other independent variables, such as grade and gender.

The subjects were 247 students, from four classes of 4th

grade and four classes of 6th grade in 2 private schools, randomly selected from the elementary schools in Seoul, Korea. The instrument used for personality measurement was the Korean version of the MMTIC. To determine EFL proficiency, the Level Test was used. This test was developed in 1995 for the purpose of diagnosing the EFL proficiency level of Korean children. The reliability and validity of the Level Test was

tested using the Language Assessment Scales prior to the present study.


viii








Analysis of variance was used with the Level Test score as a dependent variable and the four personalty variables in the MMTIC scales: Extraversion/Introversion,

Sensing/Intuition, Thinking/Feeling and Judging/Perceiving, grade and gender as independent variables. Only the data of

students' type which did not have the U-band were used for the analyses.

Contrary to the prior research with adult foreign

language learners using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) measure, the results of this study did not show any significant main effect of personality variables. Yet the interaction between Extroversion /Introversion and the grade

of the students was significant at the 0.10 significance level. The findings reveal the need for the consideration of the disadvantaged students due to their personality differences. Implications and recommendations for future EFL

education for Korean elementary school children are discussed.


ix














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


EFL Education in Korea


English has been taught as a foreign language in

secondary school in Korea since the Education Law in 1949. On November 1, 1995, the 6th elementary curricular reform became effective. The reform mandates English as a Foreign Language

(EFL) for elementary school students beginning in the 1997 school year. According to the revised curriculum, a minimum

of 68 hours of EFL education per year, 2 hours per week on the average, plus 0-34 hours of extracurricular EFL will be

required for elementary school students, beginning with the 3rd grade. Compared with the objective of EFL education in

secondary school, which aims to balance all four skills of English, the objective of EFL education in elementary school will focus primarily on oral language as the base for communicative competence.

In Korea, children's foreign language learning has

captured considerable attention since the curriculum reform proposal announced in 1991. Yet there have been few studies on children's foreign language learning in Korea. Thus, a knowledge of the personality variables related to


1








2

foreign language learning by children could prove useful for the future of EFL education in Korea.


Statement of the Problem


There have been several studies on the effect of personality variables, in particular relation to second/foreign language learning. Yet the preceding studies

have often produced contradictory research results and overall have failed to recognize the role of personality variables in second/foreign language learning. It has suggested that the inconsistent results are partly due to the lack of reliable and verifiable measures derived from well-established personality theory. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), which grew out of Jung's personality type theory, has a rich history of use in the educational field and has been acknowledged for its contribution toward explaining discrepancies in research on individual differences.

Recently, researchers (Moody, 1988; Ehrman, 1993, 1994; Carrell & Monroe, 1993; Ehrman & Oxford, 1988, 1995) used the MBTI in studies on the relationship between personality variables and second/foreign language learning. The consistency of the research findings regarding the

relationship between the variables has been encouraging to those who use systematic individual differences in language education. Yet no studies have been done on the relationship

between personality variables and foreign language learning by









3

children using the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (MMTIC). Further, most studies on this topic have

been done in Western countries. Therefore, study on the

relationship between personality variables and foreign

language learning by children, particularly in the Korean educational setting, could prove to be useful.


Purpose of the Study


The purpose of this study was to investigate the

relationship between personality variables as measured by the MMTIC and EFL proficiency by Korean elementary school children with a consideration of other independent variables such as grade and gender.


Significance of the Study


The present study attempted to find the relationship between personality variables and foreign language learning by children using the MMTIC measure, which has been implied from the MBTI studies with adult subjects. This study was the first work that utilized the MMTIC in the study on the relationship between personality variables and children's

foreign language learning in a Korean educational setting. The present study was intended to render implications for future EFL education in Korean elementary schools and also to provide cross-cultural evidence. The understanding of the relationship between the variables could be useful for Korean








4

educators in making educational decisions to facilitate foreign language learning by Korean children.


Research Questions


The following research questions were addressed:

1. Does a relationship exist between any of the four

personality variable dimensions in the MMTIC

(Extroversion/Introversion, Sensing/Intuition,

Thinking/Feeling, Judging/Perceiving) and the English

proficiency of Korean elementary school children?

Specifically, is there an EFL proficiency difference

between students with preferences toward two opposite

poles of a dimension? In other words, is there an

indication of an advantage of certain preference

element (Extroversion or Introversion, for example)

in learning a foreign language?

2. Is there any gender and/or grade related effect or

interaction with personality variables on EFL

proficiency of Korean elementary school children?


Limitations


The present study has the following limitations:

1. The findings are limited to the Korean sample. Any

attempts to make generalizations from these study

findings should be done with caution.








5


2. The present study did not use continuous scores for

personality measures. Furthermore, it did not use

the data obtained containing Undetermined categories

(U-band) in the analysis. Consequently, there was

some loss of collected data.

3. The present study is restricted to the investigation

of the personality effect on foreign language

proficiency, not the investigation of the reverse. 4. The incidence of English speaking parents is rare

in Korea, thus it is not considered as an external

variable related to English language learning.

Since the opportunities English language experience for Korean children is also rare because of the EFL

environment, it is not included as a variable in

the present study.

5. The present study used the MMTIC, Jungian-based

personality inventory. Although the inventory has

been widely accepted and used in many educational

fields for its merit of practical implications, the

pros and cons over the measure in the field of

psychology needs to be considered in the discussion

of the research.

6. The target population for the MMTIC is grade 2

through 8, so the measurement of the children's

personalities in these populations should be

appropriate. According to the MMTIC manual








6


(Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987) allowance has been made the MMTIC for the developmental nature of type by providing an Undetermined category (U-band), since

most children in the elementary school years exhibit some behaviors that reflect a type, while in other

cases a preference may not be readily apparent.

7. The Level Test was recently developed for Korean

children and is not known for its reliability and

validity. A pilot test comparing the Level Test to

a standardized EFL proficiency test, the LAS,

preceded the research. The pilot study resulted in a moderately high correlation between the two tests

when the sample subjects who scored zero in the

Listening Comprehension sub-test were eliminated.



Definitions of Terms


English as a Foreign language (EFL) refers to English taught as a school subject or at the adult level solely for

the purpose of giving the student foreign language competence which he may use in one of several ways--read literature, to

read technical works, to listen to the radio, to understand dialogue in movies, and to use the language for communication with transient English speakers.

English as a Second Language (ESL) refers to English used in a situation where it becomes a language of instruction in








7

the schools, or a lingua franca between speakers of widely diverse languages as in India (Robinett, 1972, p 198).

Ehrman & Oxford (1988) define personality as "patterns of behavior that characterize a person's response to the environment". Personality consists of the "characteristic ways in which people respond to the world and the ways they prefer to learn. Much of one's personality is considered to

be genetically determined. While habits may change, the fundamentals of personality do not" (Moody, 1988, p 389).

Jung's type theory refers to a theory developed by Carl Jung to explain human personality. The observed patterns in human behavior--the preferred way to perceive and make

judgements- -are called "psychological types" (Lawrence, 1982).

Psychological type in children refers to how children absorb information about their environment and how they then order and make decisions about that information (Meisgeier &

Murphy, 1987) .

Murphy-Meisgeier TvDe Indicator for Children (MMTIC)

refers to the children's version of the MBTI, developed to provide type information about children that is built on the same foundation and developed within the same conceptual framework as the MBTI.

U-Band refers to undetermined preference. It does not necessarily mean that a child's type is undifferentiated, it

simply indicates that a preference is not currently clear enough to be measured at a satisfactory level of precision.








8


Extroversion (E) is one trait measured in the MBTI. Extroverted individuals are stimulated by the people, things, and activities in their environment. They are sociable and

enjoy active participation in tasks (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987).

Introversion (I) is one trait measured in the MBTI. Introverted individuals are oriented toward the inner world and focus on ideas, and impressions. They enjoy privacy and

work well alone or with just a few others (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987).

Sensing is a trait measured in the MBTI. Sensing

individuals receive information directly through the five senses. Practical and realistic, they focus on what is going on around them in the present (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987).

Intuition (N) is a trait measured in the MBTI. Intuitive individuals receive information through a "sixth sense". They enjoy imagining, creating, and conceiving possibilities. They attend to meanings, relationships, and symbols, and their focus is usually on the future (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987).

Thinking (T) is one trait measured in the MBTI. Thinking individuals make decisions based on logical, objective

analysis. Those who adopt Thinking as a decision making style are analytical and concerned with objective truth and justice (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987).

Feeling (F) is one trait measured in the MBTI. Feeling

individuals make decisions based on a person-centered value








9

system. They consider the impact of decisions on others and

are sensitive to the values of others (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987).

Judging (J) is one trait measured in the MBTI. Judging individuals prefer an ordered, planned and structured

lifestyle. Individuals with a preference for judging tend to be organized and like to bring closure to projects, learning

things which are decided and settled (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987).

Perception (P) is one trait measured in the MBTI. Perceiving individuals prefer a spontaneous, flexible life style. They are adaptable and curious and like to keep options open. They aim to miss nothing (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987).


Methods of the Study


The subjects were 300 EFL students. Two schools were selected randomly from elementary schools which had been providing EFL instruction in Seoul, Korea. The instrument used for personality variable measure was the Korean version

of the MMTIC, which was developed in 1987. For the EFL

proficiency measure, the Level Test was used. The test was

developed in 1995 by the Korean Business Efficiency Evaluation Institute, a division of national foreign language proficiency evaluation administration, for the specific purpose of

diagnosing EFL proficiency levels of Korean elementary school








10

children, and was approved by the Ministry of Education in Korea. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used with EFL

proficiency as a dependent variable and the four dimensions of the MBTI (E/I, S/N, T/F and J/P), grade, and gender as independent variables.


Organization of the Study


The remainder of the study is organized into five chapters. Chapter 2 is a review of related literature. The methodology used in the study is described in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4 the results are reported and analyzed. The

conclusions, implications, and recommendations for further research are presented in Chapter 5.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE


Introduction


This chapter contains three main sections. The first section is concerned with research findings on personality variables related to language learning, which were divided into three sub-areas: a) first language development in children, b) second/foreign language learning by adults, and c) second language learning by children. The second section

is related to the psychological type theory, which is the theoretical base of the MBTI measure. The third section is specifically addressed to the MBTI study findings on

personality variables in the following two sub-categories: a) academic performance and b) second/foreign language performance. Lastly, a summary concludes the chapter.


Personality Variables in Language Learning


Brown (1973) mentioned the necessity to examine human personality to answer the perplexing problems in language learning. Several studies are found in the literature on the relationship between personality variables and language

learning. The hypothesis that has received the most attention is that relating extroversion or outgoingness to language 11








12

learning proficiency. Sociability may be the next most

frequently discussed, yet the results of research in this area have been contradictory in that the same personality might correlate positively or negatively with second/foreign language learning. In the following sections, studies on the above mentioned personality traits related to language learning are discussed.


Temperament and First Language Development in Children


In spite of the common belief that children invariably

will learn their first language, some researchers believed that children's temperament, extroverted and sociable

personality traits in specific, are possible learner variables in first language development. Wells (1986) suggested that

extroversion contributes to individual differences in first language development and that extroverted children are more

likely to engage in interactions with their parents; this increased experience with language might contribute to their advanced language development.

Recently, Slomkowski & Nelson (1992) conducted a

longitudinal study on the relationship between children's temperament and their first language development at ages 2, 3, and 7. The results of the study revealed that there was a significant correlation between an early temperamental

dimension of extroversion and first language development in children. The researchers further discovered that extroverted








13

toddlers were not simply talking more but they were

demonstrating stronger advances in listening skills than their less extroverted agemates. Based on these findings, the researchers concluded that extroversion might have a positive effect on both expressive and receptive dimensions of first language development in children.

Regarding sociability, Bates, Bretherton, and Snyder

(1988) found consistent evidence for a relationship between temperament and first language learning processes in young children. The researchers state that the differences in children's temperament with regard to sociability could enhance or facilitate reliance on the dimension of rote/imitative language learning processes. Personality and Second/Foreign Language Learning by Adults


Since the difference between adult and child

second/foreign language learning has long been discussed, and is assumed to correlate with several factors such as critical

period for language learning, cognitive maturity, affective variables, input, and prior experience, the review of the studies has been done separately for adults and children in the following two sections. In each section, study findings

on extroversion and sociability were included as they have been found to be dominantly investigated in this area of research.









14

Extroversion/Introversion. In the discussion of personality characteristics of successful second/foreign language learners, Rossier (1975) and Rubin (1975) suggested that a good second language learner might have an extroverted

personality, that is, a desire to communicate and interact. Stern (1975) also discussed that a willingness to practice the target language, a strategy of experimentation, and outgoing approach to the target language characterized the successful second language learners.

Rossier (1975), in a study investigating the relationship between extroversion and ESL proficiency as measured by a battery of standardized tests, found a significant correlation between extroversion and oral fluency. The researcher

suggested that an extroverted personality influenced the ESL

learner's ability to be exposed to authentic English language, and therefore enhanced his/her progress in learning a second language.

Chastain (1975) conducted a study to test whether the personality of outgoing/reserved was related to foreign

language learning, and found that students with extroverted personality achieved higher final grades in the beginning foreign language courses. The researcher concluded that having an outgoing personality was positively related to foreign language proficiency.

Seliger (1977) examined the High Input Generators,

learners who initiated language interactions, in comparison









15

with the Low Input Generators, and found that the High Input

Generators scored significantly higher than the Low Input Generators on the second-language final exam. Based on the findings of this study, the researcher reached the conclusion that active learners who utilized all the opportunities developed their second language at a faster rate than those

who did not. It was further suggested that extroverted people might have an advantage over introverted people in learning a second language since they create more opportunities to

practice the language, obtain input, and experience success in communicating.

However, more than half of the studies in this area revealed that extroversion was not significantly related to second/foreign language learning success. Naiman, Frohlich, and Stern (1975) studied 35 Canadian French-as-a-secondlanguage learners to determine out learner characteristics related to second language learning success. After the

content analysis of the interviews with language learners and statistical correlations between variables and language achievement, extroversion was not found to be characteristic of the successful learners. The researchers concluded that extroversion was only related when oral skill was most stressed.

Costas (1987) investigated the effects of personality and cognitive style on language reading ability in English as a second language and Spanish cloze tests but found that








16

extroverted students did not do better than the introverted

students on either test. Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that the personality characteristic of extroversion was not related to second language learning nor to first language learning.

Busch's research (1982) with Japanese EFL students has been frequently cited in the literature. In this study, the

researcher tested the hypothesis of whether or not extroverted students would attain higher proficiency in an EFL situation based on the assumption that they might have the advantage of opportunities to receive input and practice the language with native speakers. Although there was an exception in junior college males, overall analysis results revealed that

extroversion was not significantly related to foreign language proficiency. The findings further indicated that there was a

negative relationship between extroverted personality and a subcomponent of oral proficiency, pronunciation, and that introverts tended to have higher scores on the reading and grammar components of a standardized EFL test. Similarly, in

Bartz's study (1974) on the learner factors related to foreign language communicative ability, introverted students scored higher on the oral component of communicative competence.

In a recent study, Samimy and Tabuse (1992) investigated

the relationship between affective variables of attitudes, motivation, and classroom personality, and students'

linguistic performance in a beginning Japanese class of a








17

university. The researchers found no significant relationship between extroverted personality and foreign language learning.

In a study with Japanese female students, Berry (1994)

investigated the impact of extroversion/introversion on second language learning, specifically the relationship between the

degree of extroversion and the performance on a group oral test. The findings of this study revealed that there was no significant difference between the oral test results by extroverted and introverted second language learners.


Sociability. The personality characteristic of

sociability also has been studied in relation to second language learning. Ely (1986) conducted a study to investigate the personality characteristics of language class sociability, and found the impact of sociability on students' participation, which in turn predicted oral correctness. In a subsequent study, Ely (1988) investigated the impact of the

personality characteristic on different classroom activities. The researcher found that sociability had a positive impact on sharing activities in second language classrooms but a negative impact on highly-structured grammar practice.

In contrast, sociability was found not to be significant in a study by Wesche (1975). In this study, the relationship between second language learning behavior and personal characteristics of students was investigated. The overall results showed no significant correlation between personality variables and success in the French-as-a-second-language








18

intensive course. Specifically, it was noticed that

sociability was not correlated either with success in language learning nor with any behaviors of outstanding students.


Personality and Second Language Learning by Children


Compared with the studies involving adult second/foreign language learners, not only fewer studies on the relationship

between personality variables and second language learning by children are found in the literature, but also the effect of

personality variables has been more controversial regarding this population. In referring to personality characteristics in children related to success in learning a second/foreign language, the willingness to take certain kinds of risks, good pattern recognition skills, tolerance for ambiguity and an outgoing social nature have been found (Reilly, 1988). Yet, as in the case of adults, extroverted, or outgoing, and

sociable personality characteristics have been most frequently investigated regarding the second language learning among children.


Extroversion/Introversion. A couple of qualitative studies have been found in regard to the correlation between the personality of extroversion and second language learning among children. Seda and Abramson (1990) investigated the

relationship between personality and second language learning by children. In this study, the researchers conducted three

case studies with kindergarten Limited English Proficient








19


(LEP) children, particularly to examine their English writing development. The results of this study indicated that

outgoing and confident children made substantial gains in ESL writing and also in oral acquisition in a relatively short time.

Powell (1989) also found significant correlations between personality variables and children's second language learning. The study was designed to examine second language learning behavior exhibited by seven Indochinese children while they

were participating in a regular English-speaking kindergarten classroom. The results indicated that the personality variable along with other variables affected the amount and function of the language used by children, which in turn made differences in their second language learning.

However, Strong (1982) examined the relationship between personality relevant to interaction behaviors and second

language achievement by kindergarten children and found no significant correlation between extroversion and natural communicative language achievement. It was further noticed that faster learners did not show any inclination to seek out contact with members of the target language group.

Two other quantitative studies have resulted in no significant correlation between extroversion and second language attainment in children. Wilson (1990) investigated the interrelationship between cognitive measures, second

language attainment, extroversion vs introversion, neuroticism









20

and psychoticism, and attitude towards learning a second language by children. The findings of this study showed that personality variables were not strongly related to the second language attainment nor to other variables studied. In a

study done by Wilson and Lynn (1990), personality variables were again found not to be strongly related to ESL attainment. Further, no interaction between age and extroversion was

found, which was contrary to the prior research result by Anthony (1963) who found that there was a shift from a

positive relationship between extroversion and second language attainment in younger children to a negative relationship.

A similar finding was also reported in Eysenck and Cookson (1969), that MacNitt (1930) found no interaction

between extroversion and grade in regard to the average school marks in foreign language. While all other subjects such as Math, English, and Social Science turned out to have interaction with the personality of extroversion and grade of the subject, introversion remained negatively related to foreign language school marks across the grade.


Sociability. Sociability in children also has been

another concern among researchers in this field. According to Ruiz (1988), personality effects children's individual strategies in second-language acquisition, and socially outgoing children progress faster in learning English since they use various strategies of seeking means to initiate and continue conversations.








21

Related to individual differences in second language learning by children, Wong-Fillmore (1976) found that social factors played an important role in the second language

acquisition processes of children. Through a qualitative study observing five children's second language learning processes, the researcher found that success in second language learning depended upon having the social skills, to enable them to participate in the situations in which the new

language was used. Wong-Fillmore (1985) also found that children who acquired English easily in an American school were those who sought out and became friendly with native speakers of English and took advantage of every opportunity to socialize with them and to practice their English skills.

According to Swain and Burnaby (1976), however, sociability was not a significant variable related to second language learning by children. The researchers conducted a

study to investigate the relationship between personality characteristics and second language learning by kindergarten

children enrolled in French Immersion and in a French as a second language (FSL) program. The findings of the study revealed no significant relationship between sociability and second language achievement. It was further indicated that sociability was negatively related to the development of the ability to understand a second language, that is, listening ability among the children enrolled in the FSL program. According to the researchers, although sociability and








22

talkativeness were believed to be important personality

characteristics in learning a second language through parents, they might not be valued in an educational setting since sociable and talkative children might disrupt teaching, disturb silent periods, and generally be considered as discipline problems.

Similarly, Hamayan, Genesee and Tucker (1977) suggested that sociability might not be important in a second language learning situation, specifically in which a natural language learning situation was absent, where the only second language model children could socialize with was the teacher. Sociability further turned out to be an undesirable personality characteristic since the children might distract

one another from the target language while their socialization was limited to themselves. Genesee and Hamayan (1980) further found that among older second language learners, affective variables including personality characteristics were either not significantly correlated with language achievement or were opposite to the case in younger children. The researchers thus concluded that achievement in different aspects of a second language might be associated with different factors.


Psychological Type Theory


Since the present study used the MBTI instrument based on Jung's psychological type theory, the theory and its related

discussion have been included in the following three sections.








23


Jung's Theory


Early in the 20th century, the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung developed a theory to explain human personality. Jung observed that apparently random human behaviors in fact could be grouped into patterns. According to Jung, everyone is capable of using all patterns, yet an individual is born

with an inner preference for a particular pattern. Jung first identified bipolar attitudes inherent in human nature and called them "extroversion" and "introversion". Later, Jung classified all conscious mental activities into four functions: two perceptive functions (sensing and intuition) and two judgement functions (thinking and feeling).

Jung also observed that every individual possesses a habitual preference for one over the other function by inborn disposition and prefers more of the activities of that

particular function, which becomes the "dominant" function. The inferior function, the less frequently used one, tends to be underdeveloped and relatively unconscious. Myers-Briggs Theory


Jung's theory was subsequently extended by Isabel Myers

who elaborated the fourth dimension as Judging and Perceiving: the preferred attitude for using one's favored judgement or perceptive functions in dealing with the outer world. She also elaborated the next most favored function as "auxiliary" compared with the dominant function. These Myers'









24

interpretations of the JP dimension and the dominant vs auxiliary have been controversial since they were not

explicitly developed in Jung's psychology (Murray, 1990). Although there has been criticism regarding whether typology reflects real personality difference (Mendelsjohn, Weiss, & Feimer, 1982), the type theory has been acknowledged for its contribution to the understanding of individual behavior (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987).


Personality in Children


Jung believed that type has a developmental nature, that is, type development continues throughout one's life. Later, Myers & Myers (1980) extended the discussion that type

development begins in childhood, that predisposed preferences for each dimension were evident early on that it is instead a process of the child discovering his or her natural predispositions and developing the preferred functions. The child will develop and strengthen his or her type through the use of preferred functions and attitudes while the dominant

type is assumed to emerge between the ages of 6-14 years (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987). The concern regarding this

developmental nature of personality has resulted in the

positing U-band category, which is an attempt to allow for the nature of this development by casting out unclear preferences in the middle of the dimension.








25


Personality Variables in the MBTI Studies


The MBTI personality inventory has a very rich history of use in educational settings. Before discussing the MBTI studies specifically addressed to on foreign language performance, an overview of the MBTI study findings on academic performance has been included, since they have shown

a consistent pattern of the relationship between the variables concerned.


Personality in Academic Performance


In a most extensive review of research involving the MBTI, Lawrence (1984) showed that the findings have given sufficient empirical support to the theory thus offering

justification for the theory to be used more extensively as an organizing construct for experiments in teaching and learning. The consistent indication has been that the Sensing/Intuition scales are related to academic performance. In the Compendium of research Involving the MBTI (Carskadon, McCarley, & McCaulley, 1987), Intuition has been consistently found to be

related to higher academic performance among adult subjects from the research by Anchors (1989), Bourg (1979), Conary (1965), Fish (1984), Harman (1982), Kalsbeek (1987), McCaulley (1973), McCaulley and Natter (1974), Nichols and Holland (1963), Provost (1985), Schurr and Ruble (1986), and Webb (1967) . There were two exceptions by Hargett (1981), in which Sensing turned out to be related to higher academic









26

performance, and by Sweet (1981) in which a clear preference for Sensing or Intuition is rather a predictor variable for academic success. To a lesser extent, Judging (Bourg, 1979;

Conary 1965; Hargett, 1981; McCaulley 1973; Mossman, 1980; Nichols & Holland, 1963; Popovics, 1980; Webb, 1967) and Introversion (Bourg, 1981; Conary, 1965; Fish, 1984;

McCaulley, 1973) also have been found to be associated with better educational performance.

Pretty much consistent with the case of adult subjects,

Charlton (1981), Damico and Dalsheimer (1974), Dekock (1973), Fourqurean, Meisgeier, and Swank (1988), Grosenbach (1977) and May (1971) found the Intuition/Sensing dimension to be related to academic performance among young adolescent subjects and children with Intuition at an advantage (Carskadon, McCarley,

and McCaulley, 1987). However, contrary to the case of adult samples, the studies with children have shown that those with Perceiving were found to score better academically. (Fourqurean, et al., 1988; Lathey, 1991).

Meanwhile, in the process of investigating the relationship between personality variables and school performance by children, it was found that there might be an

interaction between grade/age and the personality variable of Extroversion/Introversion, that is extroversion might be positively related to academic performance in primary school

years after which introverted students seemed to do better; it









27

is suggested that this change occurs around grade four and five (Fourqurean, et al., 1988).


Personality in Second/Foreign Language Performance


Compared to the abundance of the MBTI studies on academic performance, only a few MBTI studies have been done in relation to second/foreign language learning success. These studies have consistently revealed that Intuition was associated with better second/foreign language proficiency.

However, no studies are known on the relationship between personality variables and foreign language learning by children using the MMTIC measure.

With a large number of college samples, Moody (1988) studied the relationship between preference in personality and foreign language learning. The MBTI was administered to college freshmen to identify specific foreign language

learning approaches associated with the preference dimensions of the MBTI. The preferences of foreign language students were analyzed in comparison with the college samples from other majors. The study findings indicated that the foreign language major students differed from other major students in that their preferences in personality were more toward Intuition than Sensing, and more Thinking than Feeling. It was also indicated that there were, though minor, more

preferences in personality for Introversion than Extroversion and more Perceiving than Judging among foreign language major








28

students. The researcher suggested Intuition and Thinking as predictive variables of foreign language learning among adults.

Ehrman and Oxford (1995) investigated the interrelationship among cognitive aptitude factors, affective, motivational, personality, and demographic factors to explain the individual differences in foreign language learning. In this study, Intuition was associated with higher proficiency ratings. The researchers suggested that it was consistent with type theory, since SN was the dimension that directly addressed how people like to take in information, that is to learn. Intuition was found not only to be associated with a

direct measure of foreign language proficiency, but also found to be indirectly associated with other language aptitude

measures and to the overall teacher rating as a "good student" compared to all other Foreign Service Institute (FSI) students the teacher had known.

EI, however, appeared to have almost no relationship to foreign language learning in this study, except for a slight advantage of Introversion with visual preference over Extroversion with auditory preference in reading proficiency

score. TF also showed no significant correlations with end-of training proficiency. JP had no direct relation with

proficiency, yet Perceiving turned out to be associated with language aptitude measure. The researchers concluded that

foreign language learning success appeared to be associated








29

with Intuition preference in personality. The researchers further discussed that Intuition shaped the response of

students to the language learning situation; opportunities and frustrations thus played a major role in choice of language learning strategies.

Ehrman (1994) examined individual differences on

students' foreign language performance with FSI trainees, specifically differences of language learning aptitude, demographics, preferred learning strategies, motivation, and

anxiety. The results were that the weakest students tended to take in information, that is, to learn through Sensing. In contrary, the strongest students reported themselves to have

a preference for Intuition and Perceiving rather than Judging.

In the study by Ehrman (1993) with the finer scaled instrument of the MBTI, Type Differentiation Indicator (TDI),

learner characteristics were examined. Among the learner characteristics, the MBTI differentiated weak and strong learners in the SN dimension. Intuition was an advantage in foreign language learning success, end-of-training measure of speaking including interactive listening and reading. Further, Sensing turned out to be a negative contributor to foreign language learning success. It was also found that Thinking had an advantage over Feeling in reading, which had not been found with the MBTI main scale. There was not a direct link between JP and foreign language learning success, but it was found that preference in personality toward








30

Perceiving provided the kind of flexibility needed to cope with the unstructured or ambiguous input common in FSI language classes. Introversion was found to be associated with success in reading and Extroversion with interpersonal

openness, yet neither was related to foreign language learning success.

Ehrman and Oxford (1988), in their study with foreign language learning professionals at the FSI, found that Intuition, Perceiving and Introversion were the characteristics of these subjects and discussed that the findings implied the relationship between the preferences in personality and foreign language learning success.

Partially related to the present topic, Carrell and Monroe (1993) investigated the relationship between preferences in personality measured by the MBTI and the performance on composition scores of college freshman including non-native ESL students. Sets of significant

correlations were found between preferences in personality measured in the MBTI, Intuition, Thinking and Judging, and the various composition measure of ESL students. Particularly, it was revealed that Thinking was correlated with higher composition scores among the sample, which has been found to be correlated with reading proficiency in the research.








31


Summary


Personality variables related to second/foreign language learning have gathered a reasonable amount of attention from researchers in this area. Yet, the findings from these

studies have been inconsistent, and have overall failed to recognize personality as a significant learner variable that might make a difference in second/foreign language learning.

The MBTI, which was developed based on Jung's psychology, has been used widely in many educational studies. Recently,

the MBTI has also been utilized in second/foreign language learning research and these studies have produced a consistent pattern of the relationship between personality variables and second/foreign language learning success, which could be considered in many instructional decisions.

However, the discussion of the relationship, and its implication for second/foreign language learning remains

speculative for children as foreign language learners far more for those in cross cultural settings, because of the lack of studies with children as subjects.














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY


The methodology and procedures of the study are

presented in this chapter. It is divided into the following five sections: (a) participants; (b) variables; (c) measurement instruments; (d) collection of data; and (e) the pilot study.

Participants


The study was conducted with 300 students who had been learning EFL at school. Two schools which provide EFL as a

regular curriculum were selected randomly from the elementary schools in Seoul, Korea. The classes were randomly selected from the fourth and the sixth grade classes of the two schools. 247 students from the two elementary schools participated in this study.


Variables


The relationship between EFL proficiency by Korean

elementary school students and the personality of the subjects was investigated. Grade and gender also were used as independent variables.


32








33


Independent Variables


Four personality variables, grade, and gender of the student were used as independent variables.

Personality variables. The four dimensions of the MMTIC-Extroversion/Introversion, Sensing/Intuition,

Thinking/Feeling and Judging/Perceiving--were used as independent variables.

Grade. The grade of the students was used as an independent variable. The two levels of the grade variable, grade four and grade six, were used in this study.

Gender. The gender of the student was used as an independent variable.


Dependent Variable


English Proficiency score as measured in the Level Test was used as a dependent variable.


Measurement Instruments


The Korean version of the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (KMMTIC) was selected to measure the personality of the subjects. The Level Test was used to assess students' EFL proficiency. Both the KMMTIC instrument and the Level Test were administered to all subjects under the conditions

specified in the test manuals. The Language Assessment Scales (LAS) were used to check the reliability of the Level Test.








34


Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (MMTIC)


Jung's personality type theory was first operationalized in the MBTI by Isabel Myers, which purported to measure the

type in adolescents and adults. Until 1987, no adequate measure of the Jungian personality type has been available for children. The Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (MMTIC) was developed by Meisgeier and Murphy to elicit

information about basic individual preferences in children through the identification of type. The MMTIC will provide an interpretation of type as it relates to how children best perceive and process information and how they prefer to interact socially and behaviorally with others.

The MMTIC measure preferences on the following four scales: (a)Extroversion/Introversion (EI); (b)Sensing /Intuition (SN); (c) Thinking/Feeling (TF); and (d) Judging/Perceiving (JP) . Sixteen types result when the four bipolar preference scales are combined in all possible ways.

Preference scores are computed using item weights that are plotted on four continuous scales with E, S, T or J on the left side and I, N, F or P on the right. The scores indicate direction of preferences for E, S, T, or J, while high scores indicate preferences for I, N, F or P. In the middle of the scale is the U-band, which indicates an undetermined preference.

The MMTIC is a self-report inventory in which children are asked to choose their preferred response from two choices,








35

neither of which is right or wrong. The published version of the MMTIC, Form D, contains 70 items designed to measure four

scales, 18 items each for the SN, TF, and JP scales and 16 items for the EI scale.

The MMTIC was translated into Korean by Dr. Sim, Hae Sook and Dr. Kim, Jung Taek in 1993, and has been validated for its reliability and validity for use with Korean children. The Korean version of the MMTIC (KMMTIC) is available from the Korean Psychological Testing Institute (KPTI) . The reliability of the KMMTIC and its four dimensions using the test-retest method were studied and reported by Kim and Sim (1993). The validation study has shown that the KMMTIC has higher reliabilities than MMTIC for EI and TF, while the MMTIC has higher reliabilities than KMMTIC for SN and JP. The overall reliability for the two versions are shown to be very close.

The means for the four scales were almost the same for the MMTIC and the KMMTIC, but the KMMTIC had larger standard deviations than the MMTIC. The reliabilities for the MMTIC and the KMMTIC and its four scales are cited in Table 1 from

Kim and Sim (1993). The means and the standard deviations of the four scales for the MMTIC and the KMMTIC are cited in Table 2.


The Level Test


The Level Test was developed in 1995 by the Korea Business Efficiency Evaluation Institute (KBEEI), division of









36


Table 1
The Reliabilities of the MMTIC and the KMMTIC for the Four Dimensions and Overall Tests



MMTIC KMMTIC



EI 0.69 0.76
SN 0.73 0.65
TF 0.58 0.63
JP 0.70 0.63
Test 0.68 0.67









37


Table 2
Means and Standard Deviations of Scores for the Four Dimensions of the MMTIC and the KMMTIC


MMTIC KMMTIC

Mean SD Mean SD



EI 47.1 3.7 47.7 7.5
SN 65.1 4.0 67.9 7.8
TF 69.2 3.9 69.6 6.5
JP 68.9 4.0 71.1 6.8








38

foreign language proficiency evaluation administration, with

a specific purpose to assess the English proficiency of Korean children and was approved by the Ministry of Education. The

Level Test consists of three levels, with level three the highest. The level descriptions of English proficiency for the levels are provided from the KBEEI. The level one test

consists of 35 listening comprehension items and level two and three of 30 items. The test is given simultaneously to an entire class via a pre-recorded tape. Answer choices to the

questions are given as pictures, which are selected by the students according to the instructions on the tape. The test is the one and only English language proficiency test developed for children in Korea and has been used as a

diagnosing test for the entry and exit level of EFL programs. The Language Assessment Scales (LAS)


The LAS was developed to measure the language skills of

minority students necessary for functioning in monolingual classrooms. Two versions of the test are available, English and Spanish. The LAS-O is part of a battery of tests

available for assessing oral and written language proficiency (It can be also used in conjunction with LAS-Reading/Writing) and it is designed to measure both language production and comprehension abilities. Two forms are available, the Short Form and Long form. Both Forms have an Oral Language

component, Vocabulary, Listening Comprehension, and Story








39

Retelling subtests only the Long Form includes a Pronunciation component, Minimal Sound Pairs and the Phonemes subtests. There are two levels of the test, Level one for grade one through six, Level two for two through twelve. Either hand or computer scoring can be used. The test yields the following

indices: scores for each subtest, a total score, a normal curve equivalency score, a language proficiency level (level

range from one through five) and a language proficiency category (fluent, limited, or non-English speaker).


Collection of Data


Procedures and scoring of the KMMTIC, the Level Test and LAS are included in this section. Procedure and Scoring in the KMMTIC


Procedure. The KMMTIC was administered by the subjects' classroom teachers in class. Directions fo r t he

administration from the test booklets were explained to the

teachers. Because of the targeted age group, the instructions were read aloud and ample time was given to insure that all children understood how to complete the answer sheets. The child was asked to make a simple "A" or "B" choice and to record his or her responses on an answer sheet. During the

administration of the KMMTIC, the subjects were not allowed to consult each other, but there was no time limit for completing








40

the test. The KMMTIC took approximately 30 minutes to administer.

Scoring. Answer sheets were hand scored using the templates available from the KPTI. There were hand-scoring templates for each of the four scales. Each template was placed over the answer sheet, and the responses showing through were counted and weighted. Further directions and weights for each item were found on the templates. The scores were then plotted on the report form on the appropriate scale. The results and the interpretation were returned to the students. The profile of the students as well as some

features of their general approach to the type were made available both to classroom teachers and to English teachers. Procedure and Scoring in the Level Test


Procedure. The Level Test was administered by the English teachers of each school. The test booklet and the pre-recorded test tape were provided to the English teachers with instructions on how to administer the test. The step by step instructions were pre-recorded in the tape. Children were asked to mark the answer on the provided test booklet, which were then collected for scoring. The test time took approximately 25 minutes.

Scoring. The tests were hand-scored according to the scoring guidelines available from the Korea Business Efficiency Evaluation Institute. The Level Test yielded two








41

indices, raw scores and the Level of EFL Proficiency level. However, because the level was not a concern of the present study, only the raw scores were used for the analysis. Yet, both the level and the raw score were made available to the students and to the English teachers. Procedure and Scoring in the LAS


Procedure. The LAS-O Long Form was administered by the school's English teachers. The answer booklet, cassette for the Listening Comprehension and the Minimal Sound Pairs

subtests, and Cue Picture Booklet were provided to the English teachers with specific directions on how to use the materials. Since the tests are not timed, a reasonable amount of time for the students to respond to each item was given.

For the Listening Comprehension subtest, a pre-recorded cassette and the cue Picture Booklet were used. The dialogue on the cassette was preceded by a short practice conversation and a yes-no question. Students were shown the Cue picture

and asked to listen to the dialogue and to answer "yes" or "no" to the questions. Teachers were asked to pause the tape between items or replay them if there was obvious difficulty. If the student could not answer the first five questions on the dialogue, the administration of this part of the test was stopped and No Response circled on the Answer Booklet.

For the Minimal Sound Pairs subtest, the pre-recorded tape was also used. Students were asked to listen to the








42

paired words on the tape and to answer if they sounded the same or different. The teacher was also asked to stop the tape or replay an item if the student did not hear it or did not have time to respond to a question.

Scoring. Raw scores (numbers correct) of the sub-tests

were computed after the administration by the researcher, although scoring and administration could have been done simultaneously. Only the raw score of the test was used in the analyses.


Pilot Study


The reliabilities of the Level Test and the LAS were calculated by KR20 using 51 sample subjects. The correlations of the two test scores were calculated using 247 total sample subjects and 128 subjects who do not have a U-band in their

personality variables as measured by KMMTIC. Results of

KMMTIC were compared with the previous studies using Korean children subjects.


Reliability of the Level Test


The Level Test is a newly developed EFL proficiency test

for Korean children. Since the reliability of the test is not known, the LAS was administered together with the Level Test

to 51 subjects, and Kuder Richardson 20s (KR 20s) using 51 subjects for both measures, computed separately to check if the Level Test had as high internal consistency as the LAS.








43

Then, the correlation between the scores of the measures was

calculated to check how highly the scores were correlated. Since the Level Test consists of listening comprehension test items, only the two listening skill subtests from the LAS-O, the Listening Comprehension and the Minimal Sound Pairs subtests, were used in the analysis.


Reliabilities of the Level Test and the LAS using KR20.

If an examinees performance is consistent across subsets of

items within a test, the examiner can have some confidence that the performance would generalize to other possible items in the content domain. Procedures designed to estimate

reliability in this circumstance are called internal consistency methods. KR20, derived by Kuder Richardson (1937), was used for this research. The formula for KR20 is


K [1 S
(K-1) S2




where K is the number of items in the test, SX2 is the variance of total test score, and 52 is the variance of item i.

KR20 of the Level Test was 0.908 by


r~el 30 56.617 =0.908
Level 29 461.305








44


Mean and standard deviation of each item of the Level test is reported in Table 3. KR20 of the Listening Comprehension subtest of LAS-O was 0.904 by


rL - 10 _ 1.389 ] = 0.904,
9 7.453



and KR 20 of the Minimal Sound Pairs subtest of LAS-O was

0.725 by


rMSP =35 _ 7.624 ]=0.725.
MSP 34 26.775



The mean and standard deviation of each item of the Listening Comprehension subtest is reported in Table 4. The mean and

standard deviation of each item of the Minimal Sound Pairs subtest is reported in Table 5.

According to the LAS Technical Report, the reliabilities of the subtests of the Listening Comprehension and the Minimal Sound Pairs using Cronbach's alpha are 0.485 and 0.868,

respectively. The main reason for the big discrepancy for the reliability of the Listening Comprehension subtest is that two thirds of the 51 subjects were given 0 scores in this reliability study. That has led to a larger variance of the scores and consequently larger reliability for the Listening Comprehension subtest. The reliability of the Listening Comprehension subtest using the scores of the 17 subjects who

could finish the subtest was 0.621. One probable explanation











Table 3 Means and


Standard Deviations of the Level Test


Variable N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum


2.5882353 2.8823529 2.1176471 1.6470588 2.6470588
2.4117647 1.9411765 2.9411765 2.2941176 2.0588235 2.8823529 2.5294118 2.9411765
2.0000000 2.5294118 2.6470588 2.9411765 2.5294118 2.9411765 2.9411765 1.5294118 2.1176471 2.0588235 2.2941176 2.2941176 3.9215686 4.3137255
2.3529412 3.4313725 2.6470588


1.0426211 0.5881176 1.3805370 1.5076277 0.9761871 1.2029376
1.4479194 0.4200840 1.2852100 1.4058700 0.5881176 1.1018701
0.4200840 1.4282857 1.1018701 0.9761871
0.4200840 1.1018701
0.4200840 0.4200840 1.5146345 1.3805370 1.4058700 1.2852100 1.2852100 2.0769510 1.7377019
2.5205042 2.3431167
2.5205042


3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 3.0000000 5.0000000 5.0000000 5.0000000 5.0000000 5.0000000


45


Items


Ii
12 13 14 i5
16 17 18 19 I10 Ill
112 113 114 I15
116 117 118 119
120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130


51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51









46


Table 4
Means and Standard Deviations of Items of the Listening Comprehension Subtest



Item N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum



Li 51 0.2156863 0.4153902 0 1.0000000
L2 51 0.3333333 0.4760952 0 1.0000000
L3 51 0.1764706 0.3850134 0 1.0000000
L4 51 0.1372549 0.3475404 0 1.0000000
L5 51 0.1764706 0.3850134 0 1.0000000
L6 51 0.0980392 0.3003266 0 1.0000000
L7 51 0.1568627 0.3672900 0 1.0000000
L8 51 0.1372549 0.3475404 0 1.0000000
L9 51 0.1176471 0.3253957 0 1.0000000
L10 51 0.1372549 0.3475404 0 1.0000000









47


Table 5
Means and Standard Deviations of the Items of the Minimal Sound Pairs Subtest



Item N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum


L11 L12 L13
L14 L15 L16 L17 L18
L19
L20 L21 L22
L23
L24 L25
L26 L27 L28 L29
L30 L31
L32 L33
L34 L35 L36 L37 L38 L39
L40 L41 L42 L43 L44
L45


51 51 51 51
51 51
51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51
51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51


0.6078431 0.8627451
0.8039216 0.7450980 0.5686275 0.7647059
0.4901961 0.2745098 0.4705882 0.7254902 0.7450980 0.5882353 0.3921569 0.5294118 0.6666667 0.6470588
0.3529412 0.5098039 0.5686275 0.7647059 0.8235294 0.3333333 0.4705882 0.5490196 0.7058824 0.7450980 0.5294118
0.4901961 0.7450980 0.6666667 0.4313725 0.8039216
0.3529412 0.6078431 0.1568627


0.4930895
0.3475404 0.4009792
0.4401426
0.5001960
0.4284033 0.5048782 0.4507075
0.5041008 0.4507075
0.4401426 0.4970501 0.4930895
0.5041008 0.4760952 0.4826398 0.4826398 0.5048782 0.5001960
0.4284033 0.3850134 0.4760952
0.5041008 0.5025426 0.4601790
0.4401426 0.5041008 0.5048782
0.4401426 0.4760952 0.5001960 0.4009792 0.4826398 0.4930895 0.3672900


1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.0000000









48

as to children seemed to have difficulties in this

subtestcould be that the contents of the test were culturallybiased, particularly unfamiliarity with a school cafeteria including the food vocabularies. The mean and standard

deviation of each item of the Listening Comprehension subtest using 17 subjects is reported in Table 6. Means and standard

deviations of the scores of the Level test, the Listening Comprehension and Minimal Sound Pairs subtests using 51

subjects, the sum of these two subtest scores, and the Listening Comprehension subtest using 17 subjects are reported in Table 7.


The correlations between the Level Test and two subtests of LAS. The test developer can estimate the test reliability coefficient by using alternate forms of a test and administering both forms to the same group of examinees. The

correlation coefficient between the two sets of scores is then computed, usually with the Pearson product moment formula. The formulas for the Pearson Product moment correlation is sxx/





where S., is the covariance of two test scores, and Sx and Sx, are standard deviations of the test scores, respectively. The correlation is called the coefficient of equivalence. The higher the coefficient of equivalence, the more confident test









49


Table 6
Means and Standard Deviations of Items of the Listening Comprehension Subtest Using 17 Subjects



Item N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum



Li 17 0.6470588 0.4925922 0 1.0000000
L2 17 1.0000000 0 1.0000000 1.0000000
L3 17 0.5294118 0.5144958 0 1.0000000
L4 17 0.4117647 0.5072997 0 1.0000000
L5 17 0.5294118 0.5144958 0 1.0000000
L6 17 0.2941176 0.4696682 0 1.0000000
L7 17 0.4705882 0.5144958 0 1.0000000
L8 17 0.4117647 0.5072997 0 1.0000000
L9 17 0.3529412 0.4925922 0 1.0000000
L10 17 0.4117647 0.5072997 0 1.0000000








50


Table 7
Statistics of the Scores for the Level Test, the Subtests of the Listening Comprehension and the Minimal Sound Pairs Using
51 Subjects, Sum of These Two Subtests, and the Listening Comprehension Using 17 Subjects



Test N Mean Std Dev Sum Minimum Maximum



LEVEL 51 77.37255 21.47832 3946 21.00000 100.00000 LC51 51 1.68627 2.73123 86 0 9.00000
MSP 51 20.49020 5.17445 1045 10.00000 33.00000
LAS 51 22.17647 6.87810 1131 12.00000 39.00000
LC17 17 5.05882 2.27680 86 1.0 9.00000


Note. LC51 indicates the subtest of Listening Comprehension,
MSP indicates Minimal Sound Pairs using 51 subjects, LAS indicates the sum of the two subtests, and LC17 indicates the subtest of Listening Comprehension using 17 subjects.









51

users can be that scores from the different test forms may be used interchangeably. Although there are no hard, fast

rulesfor what constitutes a minimally acceptable value for alternate form reliability estimates, many standardized

achievement test manuals report coefficients ranging in the .80s and .90s for this type of reliability.

The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient between the two measures using 51 subjects was 0.620. The reason for the low correlation was primarily because only 17

of 51 subjects could score in the Listening Comprehension subtest. The correlation using 17 subjects who scored in the Minimal Sound Pairs was 0.827. This correlation seems high enough to justify the use of the Level Test for this study.


Results of the KMMTIC


The results of the KMMTIC for the 247 subjects who participated in this study are shown in Table 8. Of that

number, 128 subjects were identified as having data without Ubands on all variables. The frequencies and percentages of

the various personality types of 128 subjects are displayed in Table 9. The table is used to show the distribution of the subjects by type, showing the frequencies and percentages of the individual types represented in the group.

Table 9 shows a preponderance of Perceiving type over Judging type and Feeling type over Thinking type, Extroversion type over introversion type. The table shows ENFP type to be









52


Table 8
Type Distribution for Total Sample (N=247)


Male Female Total

n - n 0 n %


E 82 67.8 93 73.8 175 70.9
I 21 17.4 16 12.7 37 15.0
U 18 14.9 17 13.5 35 14.2



S 24 19.8 25 19.8 49 19.8
N 65 53.7 68 54.0 133 53.8
U 32 26.4 33 26.2 65 26.3



T 11 9.1 6 4.8 17 6.9
F 86 71.1 108 85.7 194 78.5
U 24 19.8 12 9.5 36 14.6



J 10 8.3 2 1.6 12 4.9
P 97 80.2 113 89.7 210 85.0
U 14 11.6 11 8.7 25 10.1


Note. U represents the U-band or those undetermined.









53


Table 9
Type Distribution for the Sample Without U-Band (N=128)



ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ
n=O n=1 n=O n=O
%=0 %-=.78%=%=



ISTP ISFP INFP INTP
n=1 n=4 n=15 n=1
%=.78 %=3.13 %=11.72 %=.78



ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP
n=4 n=16 n=79 n=4
%=3.13 %=12.50 %=61.72 %=3.13



ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ
n=O n=O n=3 n=O
%=O %1=0 %=2.34 %=o


Note. n = number of subjects in % = % of subjects in the cell to sample N=128.


the cell; the total








54

61.72% of the total sample (N = 247) . ESFP had the second highest concentration by type (12.50%) . The Perceiving

(P)type had the highest concentration (96.88%), and the Feeling (F) type had the next highest concentration (92.19%) . Thus, the heaviest concentration fell in the Feeling and Perceiving (FP) type group with 89.07% in this study. Six types were not represented among all subjects: ISTJ, INFJ, INTJ, ESTJ, ESFJ, and ENTJ.

In Kim and Sim's study (1993) with 2592 total subjects from elementary school second graders to middle school sophomores and 1058 subjects without U-bands, 82% were reported as Judging type and 88% as Feeling type. The study shows more Es than Is, more Ns than Ss, more Fs than Ts, more Ps than Js. The result is consistent with the present study findings, but the present study subjects were more

concentrated in the cells of the majority. Kim and Sim

mentioned that the percentages of the types for the Korean children and Korean adults were very different. Since the distribution of the subjects' age in this study does not match the distribution of their study and this study has only 128

subjects, the difference in the percentage does not seem totally strange. The results are compared in Table 10. The data for the 128 subjects who do not have U-bands were used for the analysis of variance in the present study.









55


Table 10
Percentages of Types in Kim and Sim (1993) and in This Study



Kim and Sim This Study



EI E 67.3 82.81
I 32.7 17.19

SN S 46.6 20.31
N 53.4 79.69

TF T 13.5 7.82
F 86.5 92.18

JP J 18.0 3.13
P 82.0 96.87














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


In this chapter, the relationship between one dependent variable, EFL proficiency score, and six independent variables, EI, SN, TF, JP, grade, gender, and their two way

interactions were analyzed using 128 subjects who did not have a U-band. The statistical analysis results are reported in the first section. The interaction between Grade and EI on

the EFL proficiency test was interpreted since it had a significant p-value at 0.10 significance level. The

significance level is arbitrary and 0.05 or 0.10 is frequently used. The significance level has a trade-off relationship with the Type II error rate. A low significance level leads

to a low risk for Type I error, but results in a high risk for Type II error, consequently low power for the research. Since low p-values are rare in the results of educational research, 0.10 significance level was chosen in this study. The

discussion of the results in relation to prior study findings is included in the second section.


Analysis of Data


Descriptive statistics of the variables were obtained through the (SAS) statistical package for the total sample


56








57

subjects (N = 247) and a subset of the total sample subjects who did not have a U-band (N = 128). It shows that the two sets are very close in the means and standard deviations. The means and standard deviations of the variables for two sets of subjects are shown in Table 11.

The SAS General Linear Model Procedure (PROC GLM) for the subset with N = 128 then was used to conduct analysis of variance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine

how well the independent variables explain subject performance on the EFL proficiency test. The dependent variable for the

statistical model was the score of the Level Test and the independent variables were grade, gender, EI, SN, FT, PJ, and their two-way interactions. The results show that the model

is significant, that is, the set of independent variables explain the dependent variable well (F-value = 2.67, and pvalue = 0.0017), however, no individual effect was significant at 0.05 significance level. The interaction between grade and EI was significant at 0.10 significance level with p-value = 0.0656. The effect with the next smallest p-value was the EI main effect with a p-value of 0.1158. The results of the SAS General Linear Model Procedure are reported in Table 12 and Table 13.

The interaction between grade and EI was significant at 0.10 significance level with p-value = 0.0656. The Extroversion subjects scored better in the fourth grade, but in the sixth grade, the Introversion subjects scored better.









58


Table 11
The Means and Standard Deviations of the Variables for Total Sample Subjects (N = 247) and 128 Subjects Who Do Not Have U band



N247 M247 S247 N128 M128 S128



Level Test 284 78.99 15.97 128 80.85 15.43

EI E 175 80.11 15.19 106 80.50 15.09
I 37 82.00 16.90 22 82.55 17.25
U 35 70.20 16.29 - -

SN S 49 77.59 13.88 26 80.73 10.93
N 133 80.26 16.02 102 80.88 16.43
U 65 77.46 17.29 - -

FT F 194 78.66 15.93 118 80.97 15.56
T 17 77.82 18.09 10 79.50 14.45
U 36 81.33 15.38 - -

JP J 12 79.42 13.42 4 83.25 10.72
P 210 79.64 15.92 124 80.77 15.58
U 25 73.36 16.92 - -

Gender 1 121 78.06 16.58 60 78.88 15.95
2 126 79.89 15.36 68 82.59 14.86

Grade 1 119 71.44 15.59 52 72.60 15.28
2 128 86.02 12.84 76 86.50 12.84


Note. N247 = number of subjects for total sample subjects (N = 247); M247 = mean for total sample subjects (N = 247); S247 = standard Deviation for total sample subjects (N = 247); N128 = number of subjects for 128 who do not have U band; M128 = mean for 128 subjects; S128 = standard deviation for 128 subjects; Gender 1 = male subjects; Gender 2 = female subjects; Grade 1 = 4th grade; and Grade 2 = 6th grade.









59


Table 12
Significance of the Model


Source DF SS MS F Value Pr > F



Model 15 7968.10 531.21 2.67 0.0017
Error 112 22272.08 198.86
Corrected Total 127 30240.18

R-Square C.V. Root MSE SCORE Mean
0.263494 17.44146 14.10169572 80.85156250











Table 13 Significance of


Each Effect in the Model


Source DF Type III SS Mean Square F Value Pr > F



GRADE 1 275.36331235 275.36331235 1.38 0.2418
GENDER 1 15.43888580 15.43888580 0.08 0.7810
EI 1 499.55224912 499.55224912 2.51 0.1158
SN 1 64.68862690 64.68862690 0.33 0.5696
TF 1 56.28206252 56.28206252 0.28 0.5958
PJ 1 1.87601851 1.87601851 0.01 0.9228
GRADE*GENDER 1 109.59712070 109.59712070 0.55 0.4594
GRADE*EI 1 687.33735954 687.33735954 3.46 0.0656*
GRADE*SN 1 0.19401359 0.19401359 0.00 0.9751
GRADE*TF 1 122.06394695 122.06394695 0.61 0.4350
GRADE*PJ 1 5.38980639 5.38980639 0.03 0.8695
GENDER*EI 1 56.19893463 56.19893463 0.28 0.5960 GENDER*SN 1 56.87550698 56.87550698 0.29 0.5938 GENDER*TF 1 6.84916708 6.84916708 0.03 0.8531 GENDER*PJ 1 30.36015247 30.36015247 0.15 0.6967


Note. *: statistically significant effect at 0.10 significance level.


60


Sianificance of Each Effect in the Model








61

The average Level Test scores of the Extroversion subjects and the Introversion subjects for the fourth grade were 73.61 and 67.78, and the average scores of the Extroversion subjects and the Introversion subjects for the sixth grades were 85.21 and 92.77. The results are shown in Table 14.


Discussion and Related Findings


Unlike the prior MBTI research with adult foreign

language learners by Ehrman (1993, 1994), and Ehrman and Oxford (1988, 1995), and Moody (1988), the present study failed to show a significant correlation between SN variables and foreign language learning proficiency in children. That

is, EFL proficiency test performance between the Intuition and the Sensing subjects overall turned out to have no difference. The finding is not consistent with the prior MBTI/MMTIC

research results on academic performance that SN has been shown to be related with verbal fluency (McCaulley, 1981). Still, the results of the present study show that Intuition subjects scored better than the Sensing students both in the fourth and the sixth grade. The main reason for the

cancellation of the SN variable effect is due to the much higher proportion of Ns over Ss in the fourth grade and also to the disadvantage from the lower proficiency score mean of

the fourth graders compared to that of the sixth grade. Thus, there is a very good chance of finding a SN variable effect with one level of the grade variable. This change in the









62


Table 14
The Grade x EI Interaction


GRADE EI N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum



1 E 43 73.6046512 15.0730594 45.0000 100.0000
I 9 67.7777778 16.2309718 42.0000 95.0000

2 E 63 85.2063492 13.2800587 41.0000 100.0000
I 13 92.7692308 8.2578634 72.0000 100.0000


Note. Grade 1 = 4th grade; and Grade 2 = 6th grade.









63

proportion of Intuition subjects across the grade or age, in specific, a shift away from Intuition as the children move up

into the upper grades has been found in prior MMTIC data analysis (Kim & Sim, 1993; Lathey, 1991).

The results of the present study show the interaction between Extroversion/Introversion and grade/age. The p-value for this interaction was 0.06556. Extroversion subjects

tended to have higher scores on the EFL proficiency test than introversion in the 4th grade, but introverts did better than extroverts in the 6th grade. The present study finding

supports the conclusion of Fourqurean, et al. (1988), who implied the interaction between age and

Extroversion/Introversion in their research with children in grades 4 and 5. The present study result is also consistent with the finding of Anthony (1977), and Eysenck (1965), who found that the correlation between extroversion and Intelligence turned from positive to negative over time. Yet

the finding is not consistent with the result of the study done by Wilson and Lynn (1990), who failed to find age interaction with extroversion regarding foreign language proficiency in a follow-up study by Anthony (1977).

According to Eysenck and Cookson (1969), the differences in academic ability and school achievement between extroversion and introversion and their relation to age,

reflect the differences in response to social motivation. Social motivation may be stronger in the primary school to








64

give way gradually to intrinsic scholastic motivation.

English education has long been facilitated by scholastic motivation in Korea as a characteristic of EFL, which implies that children with introversion are likely to have an

advantage even in a foreign language classroom compared to extroverted ones, this concern needs to be considered as the children move to upper grades.

Regarding the transition point, the present study results support the speculation by Fourqurean, et al. (1988) that the transition of the relationship might occur around grade four

and five. The present study results, then, can be interpreted that Introversion subjects tended to do better in the sixth grade since the subjects have already gone through the transition period by that time. However, whether or not a transition occurs at this period, in regard to second/foreign

language learning, should be discussed with caution since researchers have disagreed over this issue. For example, Eysenck and Cookson (1969) suggested inversion points to be

around 12 and 13, and Landsberger, Kingsley, and Pratto (1976) suggested it to be in the first grade.

No significant effect for the JP variable was found in

this research, which is consistent with the prior MBTI studies by Ehrman (1994) and Ehrman and Oxford (1995) who found no direct, significant correlation between the variables although they suggested an indirect relationship through the SN dimension.








65

The present study found no significant TF effect like the results of prior research by Ehrman (1994) and Ehrman and Oxford (1995). However, it is not consistent with the findings of the study using TDI, a finer scaled instrument of the MBTI, by Ehrman (1993), who found the TF variable related

to foreign language proficiency in reading by adult foreign language learners. The disproportion between Thinking and Feeling subjects and Judging and Perceiving subjects in the sample of the present study makes the result inconclusive.

Although age has long been discussed in relation to second/foreign language learning success, the present study finding is consistent with the prior MBTI study findings by

Ehrman (1994), and Ehrman and Oxford (1995) who found no significant correlation between age and foreign language proficiency. Age alone was not a significant variable;

instead the nexus of age and personality of EI explained foreign language proficiency for the present sample.

The present study results showed no significant

difference of foreign language performance between male and female, which is consistent with the prior MBTI research by Oxford and Ehrman (1995) using adult samples that no significant relationship between gender and foreign language

proficiency was found. Yet it was implied that females tended to do better because of their use of learning strategies.















CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS
AND RECOMMENDATIONS


The purpose of this study was to investigate the

relationship between personality variables as measured in the Korean version of the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (KMMTIC) and foreign language proficiency by Korean elementary school children with a consideration of other

independent variables such as gender and grade. Conclusions, implications for instruction, and recommendations for further research are presented in this chapter.


Conclusions


Based on the results of the present study, the following conclusions were drawn:

1. The difference in proficiency test score means between the Intuition subjects and the Sensing subjects was not significantly different. It is concluded that the

Sensing/Intuition variable is not associated with foreign language proficiency among Korean elementary school children.

2. The results showed that the Extroversion subjects performed better in the 4th grade, but the Introversion subjects did a little bit better in the 6th grade. It is

concluded that there is an interaction between the 66








67

Extroversion/Introversion and grade. It is further concluded from the results of this study that a transition in the relationship between the variables may occur in early adolescence age, probably around grade 5.

3. There were no significant differences in the performance of the EFL proficiency test between the Thinking subjects and the Feeling subjects. It is concluded that the Thinking/Feeling variable is not associated with foreign

language proficiency among Korean elementary school children.

4. There was no significant difference in the EFL

proficiency scores between Judging subjects and Perceiving subjects. It is concluded that the Judging/Perceiving variable is not correlated with foreign language proficiency among Korean elementary school children.

5. The difference in the EFL proficiency scores by female subjects and male subjects was not significant. It is concluded that there is no significant gender related effect on EFL proficiency in Korean elementary school children.


Implications


The Extroversion/Introversion personality variable as related to second/foreign language learning has been most frequently discussed in the literature, yet the relationship between the variables has not been clearly established. The

present study found that interaction between EI and grade/age is significant among children, thus there is an implication








68

for the need to make instructional provisions and to adopt some instructional approaches and interventions to accommodate the results due to the interaction. Given that extroverted subjects become disadvantaged as they move to the upper grades, various target teaching interventions to be more responsive to extroverted students are needed such as multisensory instructional approaches, varied language

lessons, in-class activities, assignments which appeal to students with extroverted personalities and opportunities for disadvantaged learners to perform at their best.

Similarly, the results could be reflected in the decision making regarding the future EFL programs in Korea.

Personality can be used to make foreign language instructional provisions that suit the personal characteristics of children and also can be used as a basis for the selection criteria in future extracurricular EFL programs to implement the regular programs, like the successful case in Canada (Wesche et al., 1982) in which individual differences were applied in

assigning students to classes with different instructional methodologies.

Since the present study provides cross-cultural evidence of EI interaction with grade, the results of the study may contribute to forming Asian children's personality profiles

and to be referred to the discussion of personality variables in relation to foreign language learning. The revealed EI

interaction from prior research might be incomplete if it does








69

not take into account cross-cultural differences. These kinds of learner profiles may lead to a better understanding of the factors that cause children from different cultural

backgrounds to succeed or to fail in a foreign language classroom.


Recommendations for Further Research


Based on the results of the present study, the following areas are suggested for further study:

1. What will be the effects of personality variables that were found insignificant in this study with a larger sample size? Considering that Thinking subjects in TF variable and

Judging subjects for JP variable turned out to be small in the present study the results with a larger sample size could be different regarding the effects of these variables.

2. What will be the results of the model including first language variable in this line of research? Are there any first language effects and/or interactions with personality variables related to second language proficiency among children?

3. What could be the directionality of the relationship between personality variables and foreign language learning

among children? Are there any causal effects of language learning success to the changes of personality, particularly in English as a foreign language environment?









70

4. What could be the results of using other instruments

for personality and foreign language instruments? Considering the limitations of the instruments used in the present study, there is a need for future research using different

instruments and there is also a need for further investigation involving children from other cultural backgrounds in order to generalize the present study results.

5. Lastly, what other conclusions could be reached using U-bands instead of dichotomous data in the analysis? What other results could be found using continuous scores for personality measures instead of discontinuous data in the analysis?
















APPENDIX A
LETTER TO THE PRINCIPAL
















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71














APPENDIX B
THE KOREAN VERSION OF THE MMTIC



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1) 4 AN lIm9ol ot itl. 50. oi = U-1 fu-1}49A?
7 )dal A o] od0i+O


51. L+'t?
7 ) d U 16 4-y- AA 01 v 4
)I}-9 -Al 7191 M 7Aol s 4

52. 14R 444&e 4 012 mla f- ul f61}4A?
7 5) MT=4 ;aol 42= -53. ol1 1 A 1 f-}-1

7 ) 0 ^ d M
I) fe OJOIloli MASif44 2 54. L+?
7 ) ~ee a- 111 #A- ul odOd V- 44)~ ~~- fae _} f--171 ]^J 7Ajl t *da A 4 t2 4.

55. fl7} A Oj- 'a rAl.?
7 )1 orl&l ;a ll A 4-&t IL4.


56. Al 4= 11- hi4 -Y-5-!PL al oj&711 tjL1k

L) 11 :i oL= 1 AJ L+Oll/1 l E 7]U+ U. 57. ol l c fo}44A? '-) 47 Vl= oteeod

58. Oil- mi ef Wo}4 u?
7 lil7}sKL# %"4V Od- !eal@7t
)~~ ^i-- 4% L+7 Od l97eo









59. Ye l?


6 ). 1W Ul CAd 4 }4 A. )61.4 -I14 4. 4A


62. oL+ =t? l44 1
7 )_ 71 (JtieI 4 e W e )- Alx Ve ALm goe 0il t od,1A I +



64. 01 f llot-44A? o}4A



62. ASZI4v?
) 01 l As, -a Aj oll oe31% 24 % 'Y^l JA _wA jlk 71 0iled


7 )+ Ot7 l 01A fl -Ojtt 7I 4 67. AS ? Od5*ul-2 ? u ' 7 } -j 4# -A Als l Aigo odt

7 )A -qMoe l 0 71}_-] 11 tiL 0 -a A]l 3-}U + .
) ~ T 17 jolt4 7of oe 47 ose eTtn



68. 611 ol 1 -: T ol A
7 ) "1171 A B ol0 P,-Ar OA .








79
69. Oi --j'- qe 1 01-4}4A?
M ) Z- M od 1e4 Oi^}t &}
) *24010]:71

70. ole ol Oil }t71}^ oj 10 l 1= alt 0J
7 ) OIL+.
-) ol9 ! liqfor 10-04.















APPENDIX C
THE LEVEL TEST


1.
(1)

2.
(1)

3.
(1)

4.
(1)

5.
(1)

6.
(1)

7.
(1)

8.
(1)


(2) 4


(2) MiW



(2) 44


(2) c,4


(2) qof]


(2)


All 229 ' g] olJ4 W3 } ig a, a io




(3) At r+ 1


(3) "A



(3) ^1A]


(3) 41


(3) i l 4z)


(3)


9. on the street


e*7}ol1 A] 9)= ad' 710iAM 4-}94-M _2 9n


80


a ladder


a balloon an on an onion
*0:4


a duck 9- kl a kite


three rabbits four knees a cat U94aM


(1)
(2)
(3)


Kal1161' 10618, A], 4 A}1 i - }7r 'l4


(2) 707. e4 (3) 7JOIA


(2) a ,,o 1e (3) 19 -Oji









81
10. on the bridge
(1) 4$al ,*6l1M 76-2-8 qMV+--12 91- -7
(2) 4-k4}-o1 5a}=-llJA Ai oej
(3) 71}7} Eail A147t- 9e -9

MAl 11"NE1 15 V}-1, 4 A 4r+ a Q Aj u - ol (1) (2)- 1-L 3m4





(1) Let's play succor.
(2) Let's play basketball. 12. *-]Ajoij aol 912 -1

(1) Sit down please.
(2) Read your book please. 13. 11- ?h- T -19

(1) Give me your book.
(2) Give me your dog. 14. -V - - 42 a e V a q

(1) Clean the floor.
(2) Swim in the swimming pool. 15. 4M- -e f2 v.H 1=

(1) Look at the sun.
(2) Look at the stars.

*,I% 16V-t'i+ 20 1VIxi, jgA11P$ g o 21 r 1lge ga5l A d ' 4
'] 4 -19d 4a at q! q}4 ql }7)@ M .

16. What's that?
It's a blackboard.


(1) IN (2) ^ 3d (3) Al l










17. What do you like?
I like ice cream.

(1) o ~o1 31@ (2) - (3) 7}A

18. What are you doing now?
I'm studying.

(1) 4ae 4 5a= a
(2) 4MA1-1 4 a 91J ui(3) 4ai8} 91= aq

19. What time is it now?
It's two o'clock.

(1) A17} 12A1I 7}E- '9a 91- -1L
(2) A117} 1AV-l 71-A71 91 -V
(3) A177} 2^+- 7}A71 91- all

20. How many chairs are there?
Five chairs.

(1) p147} 5711 91=- uii
(2) 9147t 471 9a= a
(3) !41}371 9 a

-AP 21ei"E1 25 }lqA7, ai?4-8 A _ %^-1 n}tt Vl %u '4 rl- (1) (2). 0 i T
O 4 4liE q R] V8}E 711 ;lVj U+.

All '991 014401l7}4 ol ioto Vat I Mrql mg, oj:!aV, -vf, -dp 7}o Va 2, j
o}W e o~x in}AE AM } 5717}f1 aiO

21. Do you see any bird?
(1) Yes. (2) No.

22. How many pears are there in the picture?
(1) Four (2) Five

23. Where is the water melon?
(1) On the table. (2) Under the table.










24. Where are the dogs?
(1) Near the candies. (2) Besides the bread. 25. How many girls do you see?
(1) One (2) Three



MA 26A"r-E 301,7/}11, -V- A]"1}4 -V,1442 q*1 AkISSB= 3
:2 xl~i4e 4ol] 44 ^@2]t-t. 26. Color the train black. 27. Color the trees green. 28. Color the river blue. 29. Color the bridge red. 30. Color the boat yellow.















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Jee In Kim was born and educated in Seoul, Korea. She entered Ewha Woman's University in 1985, and received a B.A.

in English language and literature. After graduating, she was admitted to the TESOL program of Teachers College, Columbia University, and worked as a student teacher for the Community English Program directed by the University. In spring 1990, she transferred to the University of Florida and received her master's degree in ESOL, and continued her doctoral study with specialization in foreign language education. After her qualifying exam, she returned to Korea and taught extracurricular English at Wonchon Elementary school. She also worked as a researcher at Sogang University and developed children's EFL material. In summer 1996, she returned to the University of Florida and to complete her doctoral study.


91




Full Text

PAGE 1

PERSONALITY VARIABLES AND EFL PROFICIENCY AMONG KOREAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS By Jee In Kim A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL ' THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

PAGE 2

This dissertation is dedicated to my parents.

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to Dr. Hallman for his warm encouragement and patient guidance throughout my doctoral study. I am also very much thankful to Dr. Miller and Dr. Crocker for their statistical assistance and to my other committee members, Dr. Bengston, Dr. Harper, Dr. Todd, and Dr. Webb for their time and discussion. Special thanks go to Dr. Hae Sook Sim, regarding the use of the Korean version of the MMTIC for this research. My heartful thanks go to my husband Hyunchul for his prayers and to my children Tahyo and Eunhyo for their cheerups when things were tough. Finally, to my father and mother go my deepest thanks for their enormous support and sacrifice, which enabled me to complete this study. By the grace of God I am what I am: and his grace which was bestowed upon me was not in vain. . . .

PAGE 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii LIST OF TABLES vi ABSTRACT viii CHAPTERS 1 INTRODUCTION 1 EFL Education in Korea 1 Statement of the Problem 2 Purpose of the Study 3 Significance of the Study 3 Research Questions 4 Limitations 4 Definitions of Terms 6 Methods of the Study 9 Organization of the Study 10 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 11 Introduction 11 Personality Variables in Language Learning .... 11 Temperament and First Language Development in Children 12 Personality and Second/Foreign Language Learning by Adults 13 Personality and Second Language Learning by Children 18 Psychological Type Theory 22 Jung's Theory 23 Myers-Briggs Theory 23 The Personality in Children 24 Personality Variables in the MBTI Studies .... 25 Personality in Academic Performance 25 Personality in Second/Foreign Language Language Performance 2 7 Summary 31 iv

PAGE 5

3 METHODOLOGY 32 Participants 32 Variables 32 Independent Variables 33 Dependent Variable 33 Measurement Instruments 33 Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children . . 34 The Level Test 35 Language Assessment Scales 38 Collection of Data 3 9 Procedure and Scoring in the KMMTIC 3 9 Procedure and Scoring in the Level Test .... 40 Procedure and Scoring in the LAS 41 Pilot Study 42 Reliability of the Level Test 42 Results of the KMMTIC 51 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 56 Analysis of Data 56 Discussion and Related Findings 61 5 CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. . . 66 Conclusions 66 Implications 67 Recommendations for Further Research 69 APPENDICES A LETTER TO THE PRINCIPAL 71 B THE KOREAN VERSION OF MMTIC 72 C THE LEVEL TEST 8 0 REFERENCE LIST 84 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 91 v

PAGE 6

LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 The Reliabilities of the MMTIC and the KMMTIC for the Four Dimensions and Overall Tests 36 2 Means and Standard Deviations of Scores for the Four Dimensions of the MMTIC and the KMMTIC 37 3 Means and Standard Deviations of the Level Test Items 45 4 Means and Standard Deviations of Items of the Listening Comprehension Subtest 46 5 Means and Standard Deviations of the Items of the Minimal Sound Pairs Subtest 47 6 Means and Standard Deviations of Items of the Listening Comprehension Subtest Using 17 Subjects 4 9 7 Statistics of the Scores for the Level Test, the Subtests of the Listening Comprehension and the Minimal Sound Pairs Using 51 Subjects, Sum of These Two Subtests, and the Listening Comprehension Using 17 Subjects 50 8 Type Distribution for Total Sample (N=247) .... 52 9 Type Distribution for the Sample without U-Band (N=128) 53 10 Percentages of Types in Kim & Sim (1993) and in This Study 55 11 The Means and Standard Deviations of the Variables for Total Sample Subjects (N = 247) and 128 Subjects Who Do Not Have U Band 58 12 Significance of the Model 59 vi

PAGE 7

Significance of Each Effect in the Model The Grade x EI Interaction vii

PAGE 8

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy PERSONALITY VARIABLES AND EFL PROFICIENCY AMONG KOREAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN By Jee In Kim December 1996 Chairperson: Dr. Clemens L. Hallman Major Department: Instruction and Curriculum The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality variables measured in the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (MMTIC) and English as a foreign language (EFL) proficiency of Korean elementary school children measured in the Level Test with a consideration of other independent variables, such as grade and gender. The subjects were 247 students, from four classes of 4th grade and four classes of 6th grade in 2 private schools, randomly selected from the elementary schools in Seoul, Korea. The instrument used for personality measurement was the Korean version of the MMTIC. To determine EFL proficiency, the Level Test was used. This test was developed in 1995 for the purpose of diagnosing the EFL proficiency level of Korean children. The reliability and validity of the Level Test was tested using the Language Assessment Scales prior to the present study. viii

PAGE 9

Analysis of variance was used with the Level Test score as a dependent variable and the four personalty variables in the MMTIC scales: Ex t r ave r s i on/ I n t r ove r s i on , Sensing/Intuition, Thinking/Feeling and Judging/Perceiving, grade and gender as independent variables . Only the data of students' type which did not have the U-band were used for the analyses . Contrary to the prior research with adult foreign language learners using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) measure, the results of this study did not show any significant main effect of personality variables. Yet the interaction between Extroversion /Introversion and the grade of the students was significant at the 0.10 significance level. The findings reveal the need for the consideration of the disadvantaged students due to their personality differences. Implications and recommendations for future EFL education for Korean elementary school children are discussed. ix

PAGE 10

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION EFL Education in Korea English has been taught as a foreign language in secondary school in Korea since the Education Law in 1949. On November 1, 1995, the 6th elementary curricular reform became effective. The reform mandates English as a Foreign Language (EFL) for elementary school students beginning in the 1997 school year. According to the revised curriculum, a minimum of 68 hours of EFL education per year, 2 hours per week on the average, plus 0-34 hours of extracurricular EFL will be required for elementary school students, beginning with the 3rd grade. Compared with the objective of EFL education in secondary school, which aims to balance all four skills of English, the objective of EFL education in elementary school will focus primarily on oral language as the base for communicative competence. In Korea, children's foreign language learning has captured considerable attention since the curriculum reform proposal announced in 1991. Yet there have been few studies on children's foreign language learning in Korea. Thus, a knowledge of the personality variables related to 1

PAGE 11

2 foreign language learning by children could prove useful for the future of EFL education in Korea. Statement of the Problem There have been several studies on the effect of personality variables, in particular relation to second/foreign language learning. Yet the preceding studies have often produced contradictory research results and overall have failed to recognize the role of personality variables in second/f oreign language learning. It has suggested that the inconsistent results are partly due to the lack of reliable and verifiable measures derived from well-established personality theory. The Myers -Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) , which grew out of Jung's personality type theory, has a rich history of use in the educational field and has been acknowledged for its contribution toward explaining discrepancies in research on individual differences. Recently, researchers (Moody, 1988; Ehrman, 1993, 1994; Carrell & Monroe, 1993; Ehrman & Oxford, 1988, 1995) used the MBTI in studies on the relationship between personality variables and second/foreign language learning. The consistency of the research findings regarding the relationship between the variables has been encouraging to those who use systematic individual differences in language education. Yet no studies have been done on the relationship between personality variables and foreign language learning by

PAGE 12

3 children using the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (MMTIC) . Further, most studies on this topic have been done in Western countries. Therefore, study on the relationship between personality variables and foreign language learning by children, particularly in the Korean educational setting, could prove to be useful. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality variables as measured by the MMTIC and EFL proficiency by Korean elementary school children with a consideration of other independent variables such as grade and gender. Significance of the Study The present study attempted to find the relationship between personality variables and foreign language learning by children using the MMTIC measure, which has been implied from the MBTI studies with adult subjects. This study was the first work that utilized the MMTIC in the study on the relationship between personality variables and children's foreign language learning in a Korean educational setting. The present study was intended to render implications for future EFL education in Korean elementary schools and also to provide cross-cultural evidence. The understanding of the relationship between the variables could be useful for Korean

PAGE 13

4 educators in making educational decisions to facilitate foreign language learning by Korean children. Research Questions The following research questions were addressed: 1. Does a relationship exist between any of the four personality variable dimensions in the MMTIC (Extroversion/ Introversion, Sensing/ Intuit ion, Thinking/Feeling, Judging/Perceiving) and the English proficiency of Korean elementary school children? Specifically, is there an EFL proficiency difference between students with preferences toward two opposite poles of a dimension? In other words, is there an indication of an advantage of certain preference element (Extroversion or Introversion, for example) in learning a foreign language? 2 . Is there any gender and/or grade related effect or interaction with personality variables on EFL proficiency of Korean elementary school children? Limitations The present study has the following limitations: 1. The findings are limited to the Korean sample. Any attempts to make generalizations from these study findings should be done with caution.

PAGE 14

The present study did not use continuous scores for personality measures. Furthermore, it did not use the data obtained containing Undetermined categories (U-band) in the analysis. Consequently, there was some loss of collected data. The present study is restricted to the investigation of the personality effect on foreign language proficiency, not the investigation of the reverse. The incidence of English speaking parents is rare in Korea, thus it is not considered as an external variable related to English language learning. Since the opportunities English language experience for Korean children is also rare because of the EFL environment, it is not included as a variable in the present study. The present study used the MMTIC, Jungian-based personality inventory. Although the inventory has been widely accepted and used in many educational fields for its merit of practical implications, the pros and cons over the measure in the field of psychology needs to be considered in the discussion of the research. The target population for the MMTIC is grade 2 through 8, so the measurement of the children's personalities in these populations should be appropriate. According to the MMTIC manual

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6 (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987) allowance has been made the MMTIC for the developmental nature of type by providing an Undetermined category (U-band) , since most children in the elementary school years exhibit some behaviors that reflect a type, while in other cases a preference may not be readily apparent . 7 . The Level Test was recently developed for Korean children and is not known for its reliability and validity. A pilot test comparing the Level Test to a standardized EFL proficiency test, the LAS, preceded the research. The pilot study resulted in a moderately high correlation between the two tests when the sample subjects who scored zero in the Listening Comprehension subtest were eliminated. Definitions of Terms English as a Foreign language (EFL) refers to English taught as a school subject or at the adult level solely for the purpose of giving the student foreign language competence which he may use in one of several ways --read literature, to read technical works, to listen to the radio, to understand dialogue in movies, and to use the language for communication with transient English speakers. English as a Second Language (ESL) refers to English used in a situation where it becomes a language of instruction in

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7 the schools, or a lingua franca between speakers of widelydiverse languages as in India (Robinett, 1972, p 198) . Ehrman & Oxford (1988) define personality as "patterns of behavior that characterize a person's response to the environment". Personality consists of the "characteristic ways in which people respond to the world and the ways they prefer to learn. Much of one's personality is considered to be genetically determined. While habits may change, the fundamentals of personality do not" (Moody, 19 88, p 3 89) . Jung's type theory refers to a theory developed by Carl Jung to explain human personality. The observed patterns in human behavior-the preferred way to perceive and make judgements-are called "psychological types" (Lawrence, 1982) . Psychological type in children refers to how children absorb information about their environment and how they then order and make decisions about that information (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987) . Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (MMTIC) refers to the children's version of the MBTI, developed to provide type information about children that is built on the same foundation and developed within the same conceptual framework as the MBTI. U-Band refers to undetermined preference. It does not necessarily mean that a child's type is undifferentiated, it simply indicates that a preference is not currently clear enough to be measured at a satisfactory level of precision.

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8 Extroversion (E) is one trait measured in the MBTI . Extroverted individuals are stimulated by the people, things, and activities in their environment. They are sociable and enjoy active participation in tasks (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987) . Introversion (I) is one trait measured in the MBTI . Introverted individuals are oriented toward the inner world and focus on ideas, and impressions. They enjoy privacy and work well alone or with just a few others (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987) . Sensing is a trait measured in the MBTI. Sensing individuals receive information directly through the five senses. Practical and realistic, they focus on what is going on around them in the present (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987) . Intuition (N) is a trait measured in the MBTI. Intuitive individuals receive information through a "sixth sense". They enjoy imagining, creating, and conceiving possibilities . They attend to meanings, relationships, and symbols, and their focus is usually on the future (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987) . Thinking (T) is one trait measured in the MBTI . Thinking individuals make decisions based on logical, objective analysis. Those who adopt Thinking as a decision making style are analytical and concerned with objective truth and justice (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987) . Feeling (F) is one trait measured in the MBTI . Feeling individuals make decisions based on a person-centered value

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9 system. They consider the impact of decisions on others and are sensitive to the values of others (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987) . Judging (J) is one trait measured in the MBTI . Judging individuals prefer an ordered, planned and structured lifestyle. Individuals with a preference for judging tend to be organized and like to bring closure to projects, learning things which are decided and settled (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987) . Perception (P) is one trait measured in the MBTI . Perceiving individuals prefer a spontaneous, flexible life style. They are adaptable and curious and like to keep options open. They aim to miss nothing (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987) . Methods of the Study The subjects were 3 00 EFL students. Two schools were selected randomly from elementary schools which had been providing EFL instruction in Seoul, Korea. The instrument used for personality variable measure was the Korean version of the MMTIC, which was developed in 1987. For the EFL proficiency measure, the Level Test was used. The test was developed in 1995 by the Korean Business Efficiency Evaluation Institute, a division of national foreign language proficiency evaluation administration, for the specific purpose of diagnosing EFL proficiency levels of Korean elementary school

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10 children, and was approved by the Ministry of Education in Korea. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used with EFL proficiency as a dependent variable and the four dimensions of the MBTI (E/I, S/N, T/F and J/P) , grade, and gender as independent variables . Organization of the Study The remainder of the study is organized into five chapters. Chapter 2 is a review of related literature. The methodology used in the study is described in Chapter 3 . In Chapter 4 the results are reported and analyzed. The conclusions, implications, and recommendations for further research are presented in Chapter 5 .

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Introduction This chapter contains three main sections. The first section is concerned with research findings on personality variables related to language learning, which were divided into three sub-areas: a) first language development in children, b) second/foreign language learning by adults, and c) second language learning by children. The second section is related to the psychological type theory, which is the theoretical base of the MBTI measure. The third section is specifically addressed to the MBTI study findings on personality variables in the following two sub-categories: a) academic performance and b) second/foreign language performance. Lastly, a summary concludes the chapter. Personality Variables in Language Learning Brown (1973) mentioned the necessity to examine human personality to answer the perplexing problems in language learning. Several studies are found in the literature on the relationship between personality variables and language learning. The hypothesis that has received the most attention is that relating extroversion or outgoingness to language 11

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12 learning proficiency. Sociability may be the next most frequently discussed, yet the results of research in this area have been contradictory in that the same personality might correlate positively or negatively with second/foreign language learning. In the following sections, studies on the above mentioned personality traits related to language learning are discussed. Temperament and First Language Development in Children In spite of the common belief that children invariably will learn their first language, some researchers believed that children's temperament, extroverted and sociable personality traits in specific, are possible learner variables in first language development. Wells (1986) suggested that extroversion contributes to individual differences in first language development and that extroverted children are more likely to engage in interactions with their parents; this increased experience with language might contribute to their advanced language development . Recently, Slomkowski & Nelson (1992) conducted a longitudinal study on the relationship between children's temperament and their first language development at ages 2, 3, and 7 . The results of the study revealed that there was a significant correlation between an early temperamental dimension of extroversion and first language development in children. The researchers further discovered that extroverted

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13 toddlers were not simply talking more but they were demonstrating stronger advances in listening skills than their less extroverted agemates. Based on these findings, the researchers concluded that extroversion might have a positive effect on both expressive and receptive dimensions of first language development in children. Regarding sociability, Bates, Bretherton, and Snyder (1988) found consistent evidence for a relationship between temperament and first language learning processes in young children. The researchers state that the differences in children's temperament with regard to sociability could enhance or facilitate reliance on the dimension of rote/imitative language learning processes. Personality and Second/Foreign Language Learning by Adults Since the difference between adult and child second/foreign language learning has long been discussed, and is assumed to correlate with several factors such as critical period for language learning, cognitive maturity, affective variables, input, and prior experience, the review of the studies has been done separately for adults and children in the following two sections. In each section, study findings on extroversion and sociability were included as they have been found to be dominantly investigated in this area of research .

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14 Ext rovers i on / 1 n t r o ve r s ion . In the discussion of personality characteristics of successful second/foreign language learners, Rossier (1975) and Rubin (1975) suggested that a good second language learner might have an extroverted personality, that is, a desire to communicate and interact. Stern (1975) also discussed that a willingness to practice the target language, a strategy of experimentation, and outgoing approach to the target language characterized the successful second language learners . Rossier (1975) , in a study investigating the relationship between extroversion and ESL proficiency as measured by a battery of standardized tests, found a significant correlation between extroversion and oral fluency. The researcher suggested that an extroverted personality influenced the ESL learner's ability to be exposed to authentic English language, and therefore enhanced his/her progress in learning a second language . Chastain (1975) conducted a study to test whether the personality of outgoing/reserved was related to foreign language learning, and found that students with extroverted personality achieved higher final grades in the beginning foreign language courses. The researcher concluded that having an outgoing personality was positively related to foreign language proficiency. Seliger (1977) examined the High Input Generators, learners who initiated language interactions, in comparison

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15 with the Low Input Generators, and found that the High Input Generators scored significantly higher than the Low Input Generators on the secondlanguage final exam. Based on the findings of this study, the researcher reached the conclusion that active learners who utilized all the opportunities developed their second language at a faster rate than those who did not. It was further suggested that extroverted people might have an advantage over introverted people in learning a second language since they create more opportunities to practice the language, obtain input, and experience success in communicating. However, more than half of the studies in this area revealed that extroversion was not significantly related to second/f oreign language learning success. Naiman, Frohlich, and Stern (1975) studied 35 Canadian French-as-a-secondlanguage learners to determine out learner characteristics related to second language learning success. After the content analysis of the interviews with language learners and statistical correlations between variables and language achievement, extroversion was not found to be characteristic of the successful learners. The researchers concluded that extroversion was only related when oral skill was most stressed . Costas (1987) investigated the effects of personality and cognitive style on language reading ability in English as a second language and Spanish cloze tests but found that

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16 extroverted students did not do better than the introverted students on either test. Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that the personality characteristic of extroversion was not related to second language learning nor to first language learning. Busch's research (1982) with Japanese EFL students has been frequently cited in the literature. In this study, the researcher tested the hypothesis of whether or not extroverted students would attain higher proficiency in an EFL situation based on the assumption that they might have the advantage of opportunities to receive input and practice the language with native speakers. Although there was an exception in junior college males, overall analysis results revealed that extroversion was not significantly related to foreign language proficiency. The findings further indicated that there was a negative relationship between extroverted personality and a subcomponent of oral proficiency, pronunciation, and that introverts tended to have higher scores on the reading and grammar components of a standardized EFL test. Similarly, in Bartz's study (1974) on the learner factors related to foreign language communicative ability, introverted students scored higher on the oral component of communicative competence. In a recent study, Samimy and Tabuse (1992) investigated the relationship between affective variables of attitudes, motivation, and classroom personality, and students' linguistic performance in a beginning Japanese class of a

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17 university. The researchers found no significant relationship between extroverted personality and foreign language learning. In a study with Japanese female students, Berry (1994) investigated the impact of extroversion/introversion on second language learning, specifically the relationship between the degree of extroversion and the performance on a group oral test. The findings of this study revealed that there was no significant difference between the oral test results by extroverted and introverted second language learners . Sociability . The personality characteristic of sociability also has been studied in relation to second language learning. Ely (1986) conducted a study to investigate the personality characteristics of language class sociability, and found the impact of sociability on students' participation, which in turn predicted oral correctness. In a subsequent study, Ely (1988) investigated the impact of the personality characteristic on different classroom activities. The researcher found that sociability had a positive impact on sharing activities in second language classrooms but a negative impact on highlystructured grammar practice. In contrast, sociability was found not to be significant in a study by Wesche (1975) . In this study, the relationship between second language learning behavior and personal characteristics of students was investigated. The overall results showed no significant correlation between personality variables and success in the French-as-a-second-language

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18 intensive course. Specifically, it was noticed that sociability was not correlated either with success in language learning nor with any behaviors of outstanding students. Personality and Second Language Learning by Children Compared with the studies involving adult second/foreign language learners, not only fewer studies on the relationship between personality variables and second language learning by children are found in the literature, but also the effect of personality variables has been more controversial regarding this population. In referring to personality characteristics in children related to success in learning a second/f oreign language, the willingness to take certain kinds of risks, good pattern recognition skills, tolerance for ambiguity and an outgoing social nature have been found (Reilly, 1988) . Yet, as in the case of adults, extroverted, or outgoing, and sociable personality characteristics have been most frequently investigated regarding the second language learning among children. Extroversion/Introversion . A couple of qualitative studies have been found in regard to the correlation between the personality of extroversion and second language learning among children. Seda and Abramson (1990) investigated the relationship between personality and second language learning by children. In this study, the researchers conducted three case studies with kindergarten Limited English Proficient

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19 (LEP) children, particularly to examine their English writing development. The results of this study indicated that outgoing and confident children made substantial gains in ESL writing and also in oral acquisition in a relatively short time . Powell (1989) also found significant correlations between personality variables and children's second language learning. The study was designed to examine second language learning behavior exhibited by seven Indochinese children while they were participating in a regular English-speaking kindergarten classroom. The results indicated that the personality variable along with other variables affected the amount and function of the language used by children, which in turn made differences in their second language learning. However, Strong (1982) examined the relationship between personality relevant to interaction behaviors and second language achievement by kindergarten children and found no significant correlation between extroversion and natural communicative language achievement. It was further noticed that faster learners did not show any inclination to seek out contact with members of the target language group. Two other quantitative studies have resulted in no significant correlation between extroversion and second language attainment in children. Wilson (1990) investigated the interrelationship between cognitive measures, second language attainment, extroversion vs introversion, neuroticism

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20 and psychoticism, and attitude towards learning a second language by children. The findings of this study showed that personality variables were not strongly related to the second language attainment nor to other variables studied. In a study done by Wilson and Lynn (1990) , personality variables were again found not to be strongly related to ESL attainment . Further, no interaction between age and extroversion was found, which was contrary to the prior research result by Anthony (1963) who found that there was a shift from a positive relationship between extroversion and second language attainment in younger children to a negative relationship. A similar finding was also reported in Eysenck and Cookson (1969) , that MacNitt (1930) found no interaction between extroversion and grade in regard to the average school marks in foreign language. While all other subjects such as Math, English, and Social Science turned out to have interaction with the personality of extroversion and grade of the subject, introversion remained negatively related to foreign language school marks across the grade. Sociability . Sociability in children also has been another concern among researchers in this field. According to Ruiz (1988), personality effects children's individual strategies in secondlanguage acquisition, and socially outgoing children progress faster in learning English since they use various strategies of seeking means to initiate and continue conversations.

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21 Related to individual differences in second language learning by children, Wong-Fillmore (1976) found that social factors played an important role in the second language acquisition processes of children. Through a qualitative study observing five children's second language learning processes, the researcher found that success in second language learning depended upon having the social skills, to enable them to participate in the situations in which the new language was used. Wong-Fillmore (1985) also found that children who acquired English easily in an American school were those who sought out and became friendly with native speakers of English and took advantage of every opportunity to socialize with them and to practice their English skills. According to Swain and Burnaby (1976) , however, sociability was not a significant variable related to second language learning by children. The researchers conducted a study to investigate the relationship between personality characteristics and second language learning by kindergarten children enrolled in French Immersion and in a French as a second language (FSL) program. The findings of the study revealed no significant relationship between sociability and second language achievement. It was further indicated that sociability was negatively related to the development of the ability to understand a second language, that is, listening ability among the children enrolled in the FSL program. According to the researchers, although sociability and

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22 talkativeness were believed to be important personalitycharacteristics in learning a second language through parents, they might not be valued in an educational setting since sociable and talkative children might disrupt teaching, disturb silent periods, and generally be considered as discipline problems. Similarly, Hamayan, Genesee and Tucker (1977) suggested that sociability might not be important in a second language learning situation, specifically in which a natural language learning situation was absent, where the only second language model children could socialize with was the teacher. Sociability further turned out to be an undesirable personality characteristic since the children might distract one another from the target language while their socialization was limited to themselves. Genesee and Hamayan (198 0) further found that among older second language learners, affective variables including personality characteristics were either not significantly correlated with language achievement or were opposite to the case in younger children. The researchers thus concluded that achievement in different aspects of a second language might be associated with different factors. Psychological Type Theory Since the present study used the MBTI instrument based on Jung's psychological type theory, the theory and its related discussion have been included in the following three sections.

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23 Jung's Theory Early in the 20th century, the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung developed a theory to explain human personality. Jung observed that apparently random human behaviors in fact could be grouped into patterns. According to Jung, everyone is capable of using all patterns, yet an individual is born with an inner preference for a particular pattern. Jung first identified bipolar attitudes inherent in human nature and called them "extroversion" and "introversion". Later, Jung classified all conscious mental activities into four functions: two perceptive functions (sensing and intuition) and two judgement functions (thinking and feeling) . Jung also observed that every individual possesses a habitual preference for one over the other function by inborn disposition and prefers more of the activities of that particular function, which becomes the "dominant" function. The inferior function, the less frequently used one, tends to be underdeveloped and relatively unconscious. Myers -Briggs Theory Jung's theory was subsequently extended by Isabel Myers who elaborated the fourth dimension as Judging and Perceiving: the preferred attitude for using one's favored judgement or perceptive functions in dealing with the outer world. She also elaborated the next most favored function as "auxiliary" compared with the dominant function. These Myers'

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24 interpretations of the JP dimension and the dominant vs auxiliary have been controversial since they were not explicitly developed in Jung's psychology (Murray, 1990). Although there has been criticism regarding whether typology reflects real personality difference (Mendelsjohn, Weiss, & Feimer, 1982) , the type theory has been acknowledged for its contribution to the understanding of individual behavior (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987) . Personality in Children Jung believed that type has a developmental nature, that is, type development continues throughout one's life. Later, Myers & Myers (1980) extended the discussion that type development begins in childhood, that predisposed preferences for each dimension were evident early on that it is instead a process of the child discovering his or her natural predispositions and developing the preferred functions. The child will develop and strengthen his or her type through the use of preferred functions and attitudes while the dominant type is assumed to emerge between the ages of 6-14 years (Meisgeier & Murphy, 1987) . The concern regarding this developmental nature of personality has resulted in the positing U-band category, which is an attempt to allow for the nature of this development by casting out unclear preferences in the middle of the dimension.

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25 Personality Variables in the MBTI Studies The MBTI personality inventory has a very rich history of use in educational settings. Before discussing the MBTI studies specifically addressed to on foreign language performance, an overview of the MBTI study findings on academic performance has been included, since they have shown a consistent pattern of the relationship between the variables concerned . Personality in Academic Performance In a most extensive review of research involving the MBTI, Lawrence (1984) showed that the findings have given sufficient empirical support to the theory thus offering justification for the theory to be used more extensively as an organizing construct for experiments in teaching and learning. The consistent indication has been that the Sensing/Intuition scales are related to academic performance. In the Compendium of research Involving the MBTI (Carskadon, McCarley, & McCaulley, 1987) , Intuition has been consistently found to be related to higher academic performance among adult subjects from the research by Anchors (1989) , Bourg (1979) , Conary (1965), Fish (1984), Harman (1982), Kalsbeek (1987), McCaulley (1973), McCaulley and Natter (1974), Nichols and Holland (1963), Provost (1985), Schurr and Ruble (1986), and Webb (1967) . There were two exceptions by Hargett (1981) , in which Sensing turned out to be related to higher academic

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26 performance, and by Sweet (1981) in which a clear preference for Sensing or Intuition is rather a predictor variable for academic success. To a lesser extent, Judging (Bourg, 1979; Conary 1965; Hargett, 1981; McCaulley 1973; Mossman, 1980; Nichols & Holland, 1963; Popovics, 1980; Webb, 1967) and Introversion (Bourg, 1981; Conary, 1965; Fish, 1984; McCaulley, 1973) also have been found to be associated with better educational performance. Pretty much consistent with the case of adult subjects, Charlton (1981), Damico and Dalsheimer (1974), Dekock (1973), Fourqurean, Meisgeier, and Swank (1988) , Grosenbach (1977) and May (1971) found the Intuition/Sensing dimension to be related to academic performance among young adolescent subjects and children with Intuition at an advantage (Carskadon, McCarley, and McCaulley, 1987) . However, contrary to the case of adult samples, the studies with children have shown that those with Perceiving were found to score better academically. (Fourqurean, et al . , 1988; Lathey, 1991). Meanwhile, in the process of investigating the relationship between personality variables and school performance by children, it was found that there might be an interaction between grade/age and the personality variable of Extroversion/Introversion, that is extroversion might be positively related to academic performance in primary school years after which introverted students seemed to do better; it

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27 is suggested that this change occurs around grade four and five (Fourqurean, et al . , 1988). Personality in Second/Foreign Language Performance Compared to the abundance of the MBTI studies on academic performance, only a few MBTI studies have been done in relation to second/foreign language learning success. These studies have consistently revealed that Intuition was associated with better second/foreign language proficiency. However, no studies are known on the relationship between personality variables and foreign language learning by children using the MMTIC measure. With a large number of college samples, Moody (1988) studied the relationship between preference in personality and foreign language learning. The MBTI was administered to college freshmen to identify specific foreign language learning approaches associated with the preference dimensions of the MBTI . The preferences of foreign language students were analyzed in comparison with the college samples from other majors. The study findings indicated that the foreign language major students differed from other major students in that their preferences in personality were more toward Intuition than Sensing, and more Thinking than Feeling. It was also indicated that there were, though minor, more preferences in personality for Introversion than Extroversion and more Perceiving than Judging among foreign language major

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28 students. The researcher suggested Intuition and Thinking as predictive variables of foreign language learning among adults . Ehrman and Oxford (1995) investigated the interrelationship among cognitive aptitude factors, affective, motivational, personality, and demographic factors to explain the individual differences in foreign language learning. In this study, Intuition was associated with higher proficiency ratings. The researchers suggested that it was consistent with type theory, since SN was the dimension that directly addressed how people like to take in information, that is to learn. Intuition was found not only to be associated with a direct measure of foreign language proficiency, but also found to be indirectly associated with other language aptitude measures and to the overall teacher rating as a "good student" compared to all other Foreign Service Institute (FSI) students the teacher had known. EI, however, appeared to have almost no relationship to foreign language learning in this study, except for a slight advantage of Introversion with visual preference over Extroversion with auditory preference in reading proficiency score. TF also showed no significant correlations with end-of training proficiency. JP had no direct relation with proficiency, yet Perceiving turned out to be associated with language aptitude measure. The researchers concluded that foreign language learning success appeared to be associated

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with Intuition preference in personality. The researchers further discussed that Intuition shaped the response of students to the language learning situation; opportunities and frustrations thus played a major role in choice of language learning strategies. Ehrman (1994) examined individual differences on students' foreign language performance with FSI trainees, specifically differences of language learning aptitude, demographics, preferred learning strategies, motivation, and anxiety. The results were that the weakest students tended to take in information, that is, to learn through Sensing. In contrary, the strongest students reported themselves to have a preference for Intuition and Perceiving rather than Judging. In the study by Ehrman (1993) with the finer scaled instrument of the MBTI, Type Differentiation Indicator (TDI) , learner characteristics were examined. Among the learner characteristics, the MBTI differentiated weak and strong learners in the SN dimension. Intuition was an advantage in foreign language learning success, end-of -training measure of speaking including interactive listening and reading. Further, Sensing turned out to be a negative contributor to foreign language learning success. It was also found that Thinking had an advantage over Feeling in reading, which had not been found with the MBTI main scale. There was not a direct link between JP and foreign language learning success, but it was found that preference in personality toward

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30 Perceiving provided the kind of flexibility needed to cope with the unstructured or ambiguous input common in FSI language classes. Introversion was found to be associated with success in reading and Extroversion with interpersonal openness, yet neither was related to foreign language learning success . Ehrman and Oxford (1988) , in their study with foreign language learning professionals at the FSI, found that Intuition, Perceiving and Introversion were the characteristics of these subjects and discussed that the findings implied the relationship between the preferences in personality and foreign language learning success. Partially related to the present topic, Carrell and Monroe (1993) investigated the relationship between preferences in personality measured by the MBTI and the performance on composition scores of college freshman including non-native ESL students. Sets of significant correlations were found between preferences in personality measured in the MBTI, Intuition, Thinking and Judging, and the various composition measure of ESL students. Particularly, it was revealed that Thinking was correlated with higher composition scores among the sample, which has been found to be correlated with reading proficiency in the research.

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31 Summary Personality variables related to second/f oreign language learning have gathered a reasonable amount of attention from researchers in this area. Yet, the findings from these studies have been inconsistent, and have overall failed to recognize personality as a significant learner variable that might make a difference in second/f oreign language learning. The MBTI, which was developed based on Jung's psychology, has been used widely in many educational studies. Recently, the MBTI has also been utilized in second/f oreign language learning research and these studies have produced a consistent pattern of the relationship between personality variables and second/f oreign language learning success, which could be considered in many instructional decisions. However, the discussion of the relationship, and its implication for second/f oreign language learning remains speculative for children as foreign language learners far more for those in cross cultural settings, because of the lack of studies with children as subjects.

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The methodology and procedures of the study are presented in this chapter. It is divided into the following five sections: (a) participants; (b) variables; (c) measurement instruments; (d) collection of data; and (e) the pilot study. Participants The study was conducted with 3 00 students who had been learning EFL at school. Two schools which provide EFL as a regular curriculum were selected randomly from the elementary schools in Seoul, Korea. The classes were randomly selected from the fourth and the sixth grade classes of the two schools. 247 students from the two elementary schools participated in this study. Variables The relationship between EFL proficiency by Korean elementary school students and the personality of the subjects was investigated. Grade and gender also were used as independent variables. 32

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33 Independent Variables Four personality variables, grade, and gender of the student were used as independent variables. Personality variables . The four dimensions of the MMTIC-Extroversion/Introversion, Sensing/Intuition, Thinking/Feeling and Judging/Perceiving-were used as independent variables . Grade . The grade of the students was used as an independent variable. The two levels of the grade variable, grade four and grade six, were used in this study. Gender. The gender of the student was used as an independent variable . Dependent Variable English Proficiency score as measured in the Level Test was used as a dependent variable. Measurement Instruments The Korean version of the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (KMMTIC) was selected to measure the personality of the subjects. The Level Test was used to assess students' EFL proficiency. Both the KMMTIC instrument and the Level Test were administered to all subjects under the conditions specified in the test manuals. The Language Assessment Scales (LAS) were used to check the reliability of the Level Test.

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34 Murphy-Meisqeier Type Indicator for Children (MMTIC) Jung's personality type theory was first operationalized in the MBTI by Isabel Myers, which purported to measure the type in adolescents and adults. Until 1987, no adequate measure of the Jungian personality type has been available for children. The Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (MMTIC) was developed by Meisgeier and Murphy to elicit information about basic individual preferences in children through the identification of type. The MMTIC will provide an interpretation of type as it relates to how children best perceive and process information and how they prefer to interact socially and behaviorally with others. The MMTIC measure preferences on the following four scales: (a) Extroversion/Introversion (EI); (b)Sensing /Intuition (SN) ; (c) Thinking/Feeling (TF) ; and (d) Judging/Perceiving (JP) . Sixteen types result when the four bipolar preference scales are combined in all possible ways. Preference scores are computed using item weights that are plotted on four continuous scales with E, S, T or J on the left side and I, N, F or P on the right. The scores indicate direction of preferences for E, S, T, or J, while high scores indicate preferences for I, N, F or P. In the middle of the scale is the U-band, which indicates an undetermined preference . The MMTIC is a self-report inventory in which children are asked to choose their preferred response from two choices,

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35 neither of which is right or wrong. The published version of the MMTIC, Form D, contains 70 items designed to measure four scales, 18 items each for the SN, TF, and JP scales and 16 items for the EI scale. The MMTIC was translated into Korean by Dr. Sim, Hae Sook and Dr. Kim, Jung Taek in 1993, and has been validated for its reliability and validity for use with Korean children. The Korean version of the MMTIC (KMMTIC) is available from the Korean Psychological Testing Institute (KPTI) . The reliability of the KMMTIC and its four dimensions using the test-retest method were studied and reported by Kim and Sim (1993) . The validation study has shown that the KMMTIC has higher reliabilities than MMTIC for EI and TF, while the MMTIC has higher reliabilities than KMMTIC for SN and JP. The overall reliability for the two versions are shown to be very close. The means for the four scales were almost the same for the MMTIC and the KMMTIC, but the KMMTIC had larger standard deviations than the MMTIC. The reliabilities for the MMTIC and the KMMTIC and its four scales are cited in Table 1 from Kim and Sim (1993) . The means and the standard deviations of the four scales for the MMTIC and the KMMTIC are cited in Table 2 . The Level Test The Level Test was developed in 1995 by the Korea Business Efficiency Evaluation Institute (KBEEI) , division of

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Table 1 The Reliabilities of the MMTIC and the KMMTIC for the Four Dimensions and Overall Tests MMTIC KMMTIC EI 0 .69 0 . 76 SN 0 . 73 0 . 65 TF 0 . 58 0 . 63 JP 0 . 70 0 . 63 Test 0 . 68 0.67

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Table 2 Means and Standard Deviations of Scores for the Four Dimensions of the MMTIC and the KMMTIC MMTIC KMMTIC Mean SD Mean SD EI SN TF JP 47.1 65 . 1 69.2 68 . 9 3 . 7 4 . 0 3 . 9 4 . 0 47.7 67 . 9 69 . 6 71 . 1 7.5 7 . 8 6 . 5 6.8

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38 foreign language proficiency evaluation administration, with a specific purpose to assess the English proficiency of Korean children and was approved by the Ministry of Education. The Level Test consists of three levels, with level three the highest. The level descriptions of English proficiency for the levels are provided from the KBEEI . The level one test consists of 3 5 listening comprehension items and level two and three of 30 items. The test is given simultaneously to an entire class via a pre-recorded tape. Answer choices to the questions are given as pictures, which are selected by the students according to the instructions on the tape. The test is the one and only English language proficiency test developed for children in Korea and has been used as a diagnosing test for the entry and exit level of EFL programs. The Language Assessment Scales (LAS) The LAS was developed to measure the language skills of minority students necessary for functioning in monolingual classrooms. Two versions of the test are available, English and Spanish. The LAS-0 is part of a battery of tests available for assessing oral and written language proficiency (It can be also used in conjunction with LAS-Reading/Writing) and it is designed to measure both language production and comprehension abilities. Two forms are available, the Short Form and Long form. Both Forms have an Oral Language component, Vocabulary, Listening Comprehension, and Story

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39 Retelling subtests only the Long Form includes a Pronunciation component, Minimal Sound Pairs and the Phonemes subtests. There are two levels of the test, Level one for grade one through six, Level two for two through twelve. Either hand or computer scoring can be used. The test yields the following indices: scores for each subtest, a total score, a normal curve equivalency score, a language proficiency level (level range from one through five) and a language proficiency category (fluent, limited, or non-English speaker) . Collection of Data Procedures and scoring of the KMMTIC, the Level Test and LAS are included in this section. Procedure and Scoring in the KMMTIC Procedure . The KMMTIC was administered by the subjects' classroom teachers in class. Directions for the administration from the test booklets were explained to the teachers. Because of the targeted age group, the instructions were read aloud and ample time was given to insure that all children understood how to complete the answer sheets. The child was asked to make a simple "A" or "B" choice and to record his or her responses on an answer sheet . During the administration of the KMMTIC, the subjects were not allowed to consult each other, but there was no time limit for completing

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40 the test. The KMMTIC took approximately 3 0 minutes to administer . Scoring . Answer sheets were hand scored using the templates available from the KPTI . There were hand-scoring templates for each of the four scales. Each template was placed over the answer sheet, and the responses showing through were counted and weighted. Further directions and weights for each item were found on the templates. The scores were then plotted on the report form on the appropriate scale. The results and the interpretation were returned to the students. The profile of the students as well as some features of their general approach to the type were made available both to classroom teachers and to English teachers. Procedure and Scoring in the Level Test Procedure . The Level Test was administered by the English teachers of each school. The test booklet and the pre-recorded test tape were provided to the English teachers with instructions on how to administer the test. The step by step instructions were pre-recorded in the tape. Children were asked to mark the answer on the provided test booklet, which were then collected for scoring. The test time took approximately 25 minutes. Scoring. The tests were hand-scored according to the scoring guidelines available from the Korea Business Efficiency Evaluation Institute. The Level Test yielded two

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41 indices, raw scores and the Level of EFL Proficiency level. However, because the level was not a concern of the present study, only the raw scores were used for the analysis. Yet, both the level and the raw score were made available to the students and to the English teachers. Procedure and Scoring in the LAS Procedure . The LAS-0 Long Form was administered by the school's English teachers. The answer booklet, cassette for the Listening Comprehension and the Minimal Sound Pairs subtests, and Cue Picture Booklet were provided to the English teachers with specific directions on how to use the materials. Since the tests are not timed, a reasonable amount of time for the students to respond to each item was given. For the Listening Comprehension subtest, a pre-recorded cassette and the cue Picture Booklet were used. The dialogue on the cassette was preceded by a short practice conversation and a yes -no question. Students were shown the Cue picture and asked to listen to the dialogue and to answer "yes" or "no" to the questions. Teachers were asked to pause the tape between items or replay them if there was obvious difficulty. If the student could not answer the first five questions on the dialogue, the administration of this part of the test was stopped and No Response circled on the Answer Booklet . For the Minimal Sound Pairs subtest, the pre-recorded tape was also used. Students were asked to listen to the

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42 paired words on the tape and to answer if they sounded the same or different. The teacher was also asked to stop the tape or replay an item if the student did not hear it or did not have time to respond to a question. Scoring . Raw scores (numbers correct) of the sub-tests were computed after the administration by the researcher, although scoring and administration could have been done simultaneously. Only the raw score of the test was used in the analyses . Pilot Study The reliabilities of the Level Test and the LAS were calculated by KR20 using 51 sample subjects. The correlations of the two test scores were calculated using 247 total sample subjects and 128 subjects who do not have a U-band in their personality variables as measured by KMMTIC. Results of KMMTIC were compared with the previous studies using Korean children subjects. Reliability of the Level Test The Level Test is a newly developed EFL proficiency test for Korean children. Since the reliability of the test is not known, the LAS was administered together with the Level Test to 51 subjects, and Kuder Richardson 20s (KR 20s) using 51 subjects for both measures, computed separately to check if the Level Test had as high internal consistency as the LAS.

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43 Then, the correlation between the scores of the measures was calculated to check how highly the scores were correlated. Since the Level Test consists of listening comprehension test items, only the two listening skill subtests from the LAS-O, the Listening Comprehension and the Minimal Sound Pairs subtests, were used in the analysis. Reliabilities of the Level Test and the LAS using KR20 . If an examinees performance is consistent across subsets of items within a test, the examiner can have some confidence that the performance would generalize to other possible items in the content domain. Procedures designed to estimate reliability in this circumstance are called internal consistency methods. KR2 0, derived by Kuder Richardson (1937) , was used for this research. The formula for KR20 is r _i[1-.ESL] (jc-1) 11 Sj[2 J ' where K is the number of items in the test, S x 2 is the variance of total test score, and Si 2 is the variance of item i. KR20 of the Level Test was 0.908 by r Level = 56 ' 617 ] = 0.908. Level 29 461 . 305

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44 Mean and standard deviation of each item of the Level test is reported in Table 3. KR20 of the Listening Comprehension subtest of LAS-0 was 0.904 by LC M[i-l-389 ] = 0> 9 7 .453 and KR 20 of the Minimal Sound Pairs subtest of LAS-0 was 0.725 by : Msp = 15 { 7.624 j MSP 34 26.77 5 The mean and standard deviation of each item of the Listening Comprehension subtest is reported in Table 4. The mean and standard deviation of each item of the Minimal Sound Pairs subtest is reported in Table 5. According to the LAS Technical Report, the reliabilities of the subtests of the Listening Comprehension and the Minimal Sound Pairs using Cronbach's alpha are 0.4 85 and 0.868, respectively. The main reason for the big discrepancy for the reliability of the Listening Comprehension subtest is that two thirds of the 51 subjects were given 0 scores in this reliability study. That has led to a larger variance of the scores and consequently larger reliability for the Listening Comprehension subtest. The reliability of the Listening Comprehension subtest using the scores of the 17 subjects who could finish the subtest was 0.621. One probable explanation

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45 Table 3 Means and Standard Deviations of the Level Test Items Variable N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum 11 51 2 . 588235 3 l . 0426211 0 3 .0000000 12 51 2 . 8823529 0 . 5881176 0 3 .0000000 13 51 2 . 1176471 1 . 3805370 0 3 . 0000000 14 51 1 . 6470588 1 . 5076277 0 3 . 0000000 15 51 2 .6470588 0 . 9761871 0 3 .0000000 16 51 2 .4117647 1 . 2029376 0 3 . 0000000 17 51 1 . 9411765 1 .4479194 0 3 . 0000000 18 51 2 . 9411765 0 .4200840 0 3 . 0000000 19 51 2 .2941176 1 .2852100 0 3 . 0000000 110 51 2 . 0588235 1 .4058700 0 3 . 0000000 111 51 2 . 8823529 0 . 5881176 0 3 . 0000000 112 51 2 . 5294118 1 . 1018701 0 3 . 0000000 113 51 2 . 9411765 0 . 4200840 0 3 . 0000000 114 51 2 . 0000000 1 .4282857 0 3 . 0000000 115 51 2 .5294118 1 .1018701 0 3 . 0000000 116 51 2 . 6470588 0 . 9761871 0 3 . 0000000 117 51 2 . 9411765 0 .4200840 0 3 . 0000000 118 51 2 .5294118 1 1 01 R7D1 0 3 . 0000000 119 51 2 . 9411765 0 .4200840 0 3 .0000000 120 51 2 . 9411765 0 .4200840 0 3 . 0000000 121 51 1 .5294118 1 .5146345 0 3 . 0000000 122 51 2 . 1176471 1 .3805370 0 3 . 0000000 123 51 2 . 0588235 1 .4058700 0 3 . 0000000 124 51 2 .2941176 1 .2852100 0 3 . 0000000 125 51 2 .2941176 1 .2852100 0 3 . 0000000 126 51 3 . 9215686 2 . 0769510 0 5 .0000000 127 51 4 .3137255 1 . 7377019 0 5 . 0000000 128 51 2 .3529412 2 .5205042 0 5 . 0000000 129 51 3 .4313725 2 .3431167 0 5 . 0000000 130 51 2 6470588 2 . 5205042 0 5 . 0000000

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46 Table 4 Means and Standard Deviations of Items of the Listening Comprehension Subtest Item N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum LI 51 0 .2156863 0 .4153902 0 1 . 0000000 L2 51 0 .3333333 0 .4760952 0 1 . 0000000 L3 51 0 . 1764706 0 . 3850134 0 1 . 0000000 L4 51 0 . 1372549 0 . 3475404 0 1 . 0000000 L5 51 0 . 1764706 0 . 3850134 0 1 . 0000000 L6 51 0 . 0980392 0 .3003266 0 1 . 0000000 L7 51 0 . 1568627 0.3672900 0 1 . 0000000 L8 51 0 .1372549 0 .3475404 0 1 . 0000000 L9 51 0 . 1176471 0.3253957 0 1 . 0000000 L10 51 0 . 1372549 0 . 3475404 0 1 . 0000000

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47 Table 5 Means and Standard Deviations of the Items of the Minimal Sound XT Ct _L X o Subtest Item N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum Lll 51 0 . 6078431 0 .4930895 0 1 r\ r\ r\ r\ r\ r\ r\ .0000000 L12 51 0 .8627451 0 . 3475404 0 1 .0000000 L13 51 0 .803 9216 0 .4009792 0 1 .0000000 L14 51 0 .7450980 0 . 4401426 0 1 .0000000 L15 51 0 .5686275 0 .5001960 0 1 r\ r\ r\ r\ r\ r\ r\ . 0000000 Lie 51 0 . 7647059 0 .4284033 0 1 r\ r\ r\ r\ r\ r\ r\ . 0000000 L17 51 0 .4901961 0 . 5048782 0 1 .0000000 L18 51 0 .2745098 0 . 4507075 0 1 .0000000 L19 51 0 .4705882 0 .5041008 0 1 .0000000 L20 51 0 . 7254902 0 .4507075 0 1 .0000000 L21 51 0 .7450980 0 . 4401426 0 1 .0000000 L22 51 0 .5882353 0 .4970501 0 1 .0000000 L23 51 0 . 3921569 0 .4930895 0 1 .0000000 L24 51 0 .5294118 0 .5041008 0 1 .0000000 L25 51 0 .6666667 0 . 4760952 0 1 .0000000 L26 51 0 . 6470588 0 .4826398 0 1 .0000000 L27 51 0 .3529412 0 .4826398 0 1 . 0000000 L28 51 0 . 5098039 0 . 5048782 0 1 . 0000000 L2 9 51 0 . 5686275 0 .5001960 0 1 . 0000000 L3 0 51 0 . 7647059 0 .4284033 0 1 . 0000000 L31 51 0 . 8235294 0 .3850134 0 1 . 0000000 L32 51 0 .3333333 0 .4760952 0 1 . 0000000 L33 51 0 .4705882 0 . 5041008 0 1 . 0000000 L34 51 0 .5490196 0 . 5025426 0 1 . 0000000 L35 51 0 .7058824 0 .4601790 0 1 . 0000000 L3 6 51 0 .7450980 0 .4401426 0 1 . 0000000 L3 7 51 0 .5294118 0 .5041008 0 1 . 0000000 L3 8 51 0 .4901961 0 . 5048782 0 1 . 0000000 L3 9 51 0 . 7450980 0 .4401426 0 1 . 0000000 L4 0 51 0 . 6666667 0 .4760952 0 1 . 0000000 L41 51 0 .4313725 0 . 5001960 0 1 . 0000000 L42 51 0 . 8039216 0 .4009792 0 1 . 0000000 L43 51 0 .3529412 0 .4826398 0 1 . 0000000 T A A 51 0 .6078431 0 .4930895 0 1 . 0000000 L4 5 51 0 . 1568627 0 .3672900 0 1 . 0000000

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48 as to children seemed to have difficulties in this subtestcould be that the contents of the test were culturallybiased, particularly unf amiliarity with a school cafeteria including the food vocabularies . The mean and standard deviation of each item of the Listening Comprehension subtest using 17 subjects is reported in Table 6. Means and standard deviations of the scores of the Level test, the Listening Comprehension and Minimal Sound Pairs subtests using 51 subjects, the sum of these two subtest scores, and the Listening Comprehension subtest using 17 subjects are reported in Table 7 . The correlations between the Level Test and two subtests of LAS . The test developer can estimate the test reliability coefficient by using alternate forms of a test and administering both forms to the same group of examinees . The correlation coefficient between the two sets of scores is then computed, usually with the Pearson product moment formula. The formulas for the Pearson Product moment correlation is _ _ s xx* L xx' a a ' s x s x' where S^, is the covariance of two test scores, and S x and S x , are standard deviations of the test scores, respectively. The correlation is called the coefficient of equivalence. The higher the coefficient of equivalence, the more confident test

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49 Table 6 Means and Standard Deviations of Items of the Listening Comprehension Subtest Using 17 Subjects Item N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum LI 17 0 . 6470588 0 4925922 0 1 . 0000000 L2 17 1 .0000000 0 1 . 0000000 1 . 0000000 L3 17 0 .5294118 0 5144958 0 1 . 0000000 L4 17 0 .4117647 0 5072997 0 1. 0000000 L5 17 0 .5294118 0 5144958 0 1. 0000000 L6 17 0 .2941176 0 4696682 0 1 . 0000000 L7 17 0 .4705882 0 5144958 0 1 . 0000000 L8 17 0 .4117647 0 5072997 0 1. 0000000 L9 17 0 .3529412 0 4925922 0 1 . 0000000 L10 17 0 .4117647 0 5072997 0 1. 0000000

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50 Table 7 Statistics of the Scores for the Level Test, the Subtests of the Listening Comprehension and the Minimal Sound Pairs Using 51 Subjects, Sum of These Two Subtests, and the Listening Comprehension Using 17 Subjects Test N Mean Std Dev Sum Minimum Maximum LEVEL 51 77 , .37255 21 .47832 3946 21. . 00000 100 . 00000 LC51 51 1 , . 68627 2 . 73123 86 0 9 .00000 MSP 51 20 , .49020 5 . 17445 1045 10 , . 00000 33 . 00000 LAS 51 22 , . 17647 6 . 87810 1131 12 , . 00000 39 . 00000 LC17 17 5 , . 05882 2 .27680 86 1 , . 0 9 . 00000 Note . LC51 indicates the subtest of Listening Comprehension, MSP indicates Minimal Sound Pairs using 51 subjects, LAS indicates the sum of the two subtests, and LC17 indicates the subtest of Listening Comprehension using 17 subjects.

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51 users can be that scores from the different test forms may be used interchangeably. Although there are no hard, fast rulesfor what constitutes a minimally acceptable value for alternate form reliability estimates, many standardized achievement test manuals report coefficients ranging in the .80s and .90s for this type of reliability. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient between the two measures using 51 subjects was 0.620. The reason for the low correlation was primarily because only 17 of 51 subjects could score in the Listening Comprehension subtest. The correlation using 17 subjects who scored in the Minimal Sound Pairs was 0.827. This correlation seems high enough to justify the use of the Level Test for this study. Results of the KMMTIC The results of the KMMTIC for the 247 subjects who participated in this study are shown in Table 8 . Of that number, 128 subjects were identified as having data without Ubands on all variables. The frequencies and percentages of the various personality types of 128 subjects are displayed in Table 9. The table is used to show the distribution of the subjects by type, showing the frequencies and percentages of the individual types represented in the group. Table 9 shows a preponderance of Perceiving type over Judging type and Feeling type over Thinking type, Extroversion type over introversion type. The table shows ENFP type to be

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Table 8 Type Distribution for Total Sample (N=247) Male Female Total n % n % n % E 82 67 . 8 93 73 8 175 70 . 9 I 21 17 .4 16 12 7 37 15 . 0 U 18 14 . 9 17 13 5 35 14 . 2 s 9 A a £i -J 1 9 « 1 9 s O N 65 53 .7 68 54 0 133 53 . 8 U 32 26 .4 33 26 2 65 26 . 3 T 11 9 . 1 6 4 8 17 6 . 9 F 86 71 . 1 108 85 7 194 78 . 5 U 24 19 . 8 12 9 5 36 14 . 6 J 10 8 .3 2 1 6 12 4 . 9 P 97 80 .2 113 89 7 210 85. 0 U 14 11 . 6 11 8 7 25 10 . 1 Note . U represents the U-band or those undetermined.

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Table 9 Type Distribution for the Sample Without U-Band (N=128) ISTJ ISFJ INFJ I NT J n=0 n=l n=0 n=0 % = 0 %=.78 % = 0 % = 0 ISTP ISFP INFP INTP n=l n=4 n=15 n=l %= . 78 %=3 . 13 %=11 . 72 %=.78 ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP n=4 n=16 n=79 n=4 % = 3 . 13 %=12 . 50 %=61 . 72 %=3 . 13 ESTJ . ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ n=0 n=0 n=3 n=0 % = 0 % = 0 %=2 . 34 %=0 Note . n = number of subjects in the cell; % = % of subjects in the cell to the total sample N=128.

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54 61.72% of the total sample (N = 247) . ESFP had the second highest concentration by type (12.50%). The Perceiving (P)type had the highest concentration (96.88%), and the Feeling (F) type had the next highest concentration (92.19%). Thus, the heaviest concentration fell in the Feeling and Perceiving (FP) type group with 89.07% in this study. Six types were not represented among all subjects: ISTJ, INF J, INT J, EST J, ESFJ, and ENTJ. In Kim and Sim's study (1993) with 2592 total subjects from elementary school second graders to middle school sophomores and 1058 subjects without U-bands, 82% were reported as Judging type and 88% as Feeling type. The study shows more Es than Is, more Ns than Ss, more Fs than Ts, more Ps than Js . The result is consistent with the present study findings, but the present study subjects were more concentrated in the cells of the majority. Kim and Sim mentioned that the percentages of the types for the Korean children and Korean adults were very different. Since the distribution of the subjects' age in this study does not match the distribution of their study and this study has only 12 8 subjects, the difference in the percentage does not seem totally strange. The results are compared in Table 10. The data for the 128 subjects who do not have U-bands were used for the analysis of variance in the present study.

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Table 10 Percentages of Types in Kim and Sim (1993) and in This Study Kim and Sim This StudyEl E 67.3 82.81 I 32.7 17.19 SNS 46.6 20.31 N 53.4 79.69 TF T 13.5 7.82 F 86.5 92.18 JP J 18.0 3.13 P 82.0 96.87

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In this chapter, the relationship between one dependent variable, EFL proficiency score, and six independent variables, EI, SN, TF, JP, grade, gender, and their two wayinteractions were analyzed using 12 8 subjects who did not have a U-band. The statistical analysis results are reported in the first section. The interaction between Grade and EI on the EFL proficiency test was interpreted since it had a significant p-value at 0.10 significance level. The significance level is arbitrary and 0.05 or 0.10 is frequently used. The significance level has a trade-off relationship with the Type II error rate. A low significance level leads to a low risk for Type I error, but results in a high risk for Type II error, consequently low power for the research. Since low p-values are rare in the results of educational research, 0.10 significance level was chosen in this study. The discussion of the results in relation to prior study findings is included in the second section. Analysis of Data Descriptive statistics of the variables were obtained through the (SAS) statistical package for the total sample 56

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57 subjects (N = 247) and a subset of the total sample subjects who did not have a U-band (N = 128) . It shows that the two sets are very close in the means and standard deviations. The means and standard deviations of the variables for two sets of subjects are shown in Table 11. The SAS General Linear Model Procedure (PROC GLM) for the subset with N = 12 8 then was used to conduct analysis of variance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine how well the independent variables explain subject performance on the EFL proficiency test. The dependent variable for the statistical model was the score of the Level Test and the independent variables were grade, gender, EI, SN, FT, PJ, and their two-way interactions. The results show that the model is significant, that is, the set of independent variables explain the dependent variable well (F-value = 2.67, and pvalue = 0.0017), however, no individual effect was significant at 0.05 significance level. The interaction between grade and EI was significant at 0.10 significance level with p-value = 0.0656. The effect with the next smallest p-value was the EI main effect with a p-value of 0.1158. The results of the SAS General Linear Model Procedure are reported in Table 12 and Table 13 . The interaction between grade and EI was significant at 0.10 significance level with p-value = 0.0656. The Extroversion subjects scored better in the fourth grade, but in the sixth grade, the Introversion subjects scored better.

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58 Table 11 The Means and Standard Deviations of the Variables for Total Sample Subiects (N = 247) and 12 8 Subi ects Who Do Not Have U band N247 M247 S247 N128 M128 S128 Level Test 284 78.99 15 . 97 128 80.85 15 .43 EI E 175 80 . 11 15 . 19 106 80 .50 15 . 09 I 37 82 . 00 16 . 90 22 82 . 55 17 . 25 U 35 70 .20 16.29 SN s 49 77 . 59 13 . 88 26 80 . 73 10 . 93 N 133 80 .26 16.02 102 80.88 16 .43 U 65 77 .46 17 .29 FT F 194 78.66 15.93 118 80.97 15 .56 T 17 77.82 18 .09 10 79.50 14 .45 U 36 81.33 15 .38 JP J 12 79 .42 13 .42 4 83 .25 10 . 72 P 210 79.64 15 . 92 124 80 . 77 15.58 U 25 73 .36 16.92 Gender 1 121 78 .06 16.58 60 78.88 15.95 2 126 79 .89 15 .36 68 82 .59 14.86 Grade 1 119 71.44 15.59 52 72 . 60 15 .28 2 128 86.02 12 .84 76 86.50 12 . 84 Note . N247 = number of subjects for total sample subjects (N = 247) ; M247 = mean for total sample subjects (N = 247) ; S247 = standard Deviation for total sample subjects (N = 247) ; N12 8 = number of subjects for 128 who do not have U band; M12 8 = mean for 128 subjects; S128 = standard deviation for 128 subjects; Gender 1 = male subjects; Gender 2 = female subjects; Grade 1 = 4th grade; and Grade 2 = 6th grade.

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59 Table 12 Significance of the Model Source DF SS MS F Value Pr > F Model 15 7968.10 531.21 Error 112 22272.08 198.86 Corrected Total 127 30240.18 2 .67 0.0017 RSquare C.V. Root MSE SCORE Mean 0.263494 17.44146 14.10169572 80.85156250

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Table 13 Significance of Each Effect in the Model Source DF Type III SS Mean Square F Value Pr > F GRADE 1 275 .36331235 275 .36331235 1 .38 0 2418 GENDER 1 15 .43888580 15 .43888580 0 .08 0 7810 EI 1 499 .55224912 499 .55224912 2 .51 0 1158 SN 1 64 . 68862690 64 .68862690 0 .33 0 5696 TF 1 56 .28206252 56 .28206252 0 .28 0 5958 PJ 1 1 . 87601851 1 . 87601851 0 .01 0 9228 GRADE*GENDER 1 109 .59712070 109 .59712070 0 .55 0 4594 GRADE* EI 1 687 .33735954 687 .33735954 3 .46 0 0656* GRADE*SN 1 0 . 19401359 0 .19401359 0 . 00 0 9751 GRADE*TF 1 122 .06394695 122 .06394695 0 .61 0 4350 GRADE* P J 1 5 .38980639 5 .38980639 0 .03 0 8695 GENDER*EI 1 56 .19893463 56 . 19893463 0 .28 0 5960 GENDER* SN 1 56 .87550698 56 . 87550698 0 .29 0 5938 GENDER*TF 1 6 . 84916708 6 . 84916708 0 .03 0 8531 GENDER* P J 1 30 .36015247 30 .36015247 0 .15 0 6967 Note . *: statistically significant effect at 0.10 significance level.

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61 The average Level Test scores of the Extroversion subjects and the Introversion subjects for the fourth grade were 73.61 and 67.78, and the average scores of the Extroversion subjects and the Introversion subjects for the sixth grades were 85.21 and 92.77. The results are shown in Table 14. Discussion and Related Findings Unlike the prior MBTI research with adult foreign language learners by Ehrman (1993, 1994), and Ehrman and Oxford (1988, 1995), and Moody (1988), the present study failed to show a significant correlation between SN variables and foreign language learning proficiency in children. That is, EFL proficiency test performance between the Intuition and the Sensing subjects overall turned out to have no difference. The finding is not consistent with the prior MBTI/MMTIC research results on academic performance that SN has been shown to be related with verbal fluency (McCaulley, 1981) . Still, the results of the present study show that Intuition subjects scored better than the Sensing students both in the fourth and the sixth grade. The main reason for the cancellation of the SN variable effect is due to the much higher proportion of Ns over Ss in the fourth grade and also to the disadvantage from the lower proficiency score mean of the fourth graders compared to that of the sixth grade. Thus, there is a very good chance of finding a SN variable effect with one level of the grade variable. This change in the

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62 Table 14 The Grade x EI Interaction GRADE EI N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum E 43 73.6046512 15.0730594 45.0000 100.0000 I 9 67.7777778 16.2309718 42.0000 95.0000 E 63 85.2063492 13.2800587 41.0000 100.0000 I 13 92.7692308 8.2578634 72.0000 100.0000 Note . Grade 1 = 4th grade,and Grade 2 = 6 th grade.

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proportion of Intuition subjects across the grade or age, in specific, a shift away from Intuition as the children move up into the upper grades has been found in prior MMTIC data analysis (Kim & Sim, 1993; Lathey, 1991). The results of the present study show the interaction between Extroversion/Introversion and grade/age. The p-value for this interaction was 0.06556. Extroversion subjects tended to have higher scores on the EFL proficiency test than introversion in the 4th grade, but introverts did better than extroverts in the 6th grade. The present study finding supports the conclusion of Fourgurean, et al . (1988), who implied the interaction between age and Extroversion/Introversion in their research with children in grades 4 and 5. The present study result is also consistent with the finding of Anthony (1977) , and Eysenck (1965) , who found that the correlation between extroversion and Intelligence turned from positive to negative over time. Yet the finding is not consistent with the result of the study done by Wilson and Lynn (1990) , who failed to find age interaction with extroversion regarding foreign language proficiency in a follow-up study by Anthony (1977) . According to Eysenck and Cookson (1969) , the differences in academic ability and school achievement between extroversion and introversion and their relation to age, reflect the differences in response to social motivation. Social motivation may be stronger in the primary school to

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give way gradually to intrinsic scholastic motivation. English education has long been facilitated by scholastic motivation in Korea as a characteristic of EFL, which implies that children with introversion are likely to have an advantage even in a foreign language classroom compared to extroverted ones, this concern needs to be considered as the children move to upper grades. Regarding the transition point, the present study results support the speculation by Fourqurean, et al . (1988) that the transition of the relationship might occur around grade four and five. The present study results, then, can be interpreted that Introversion subjects tended to do better in the sixth grade since the subjects have already gone through the transition period by that time. However, whether or not a transition occurs at this period, in regard to second/foreign language learning, should be discussed with caution since researchers have disagreed over this issue. For example, Eysenck and Cookson (1969) suggested inversion points to be around 12 and 13, and Landsberger, Kingsley, and Pratto (1976) suggested it to be in the first grade. No significant effect for the JP variable was found in this research, which is consistent with the prior MBTI studies by Ehrman (1994) and Ehrman and Oxford (1995) who found no direct, significant correlation between the variables although they suggested an indirect relationship through the SN dimension .

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65 The present study found no significant TF effect like the results of prior research by Ehrman (1994) and Ehrman and Oxford (1995) . However, it is not consistent with the findings of the study using TDI, a finer scaled instrument of the MBTI, by Ehrman (1993), who found the TF variable related to foreign language proficiency in reading by adult foreign language learners . The disproportion between Thinking and Feeling subjects and Judging and Perceiving subjects in the sample of the present study makes the result inconclusive. Although age has long been discussed in relation to second/f oreign language learning success, the present study finding is consistent with the prior MBTI study findings by Ehrman (1994) , and Ehrman and Oxford (1995) who found no significant correlation between age and foreign language proficiency. Age alone was not a significant variable; instead the nexus of age and personality of EI explained foreign language proficiency for the present sample. The present study results showed no significant difference of foreign language performance between male and female, which is consistent with the prior MBTI research by Oxford and Ehrman (1995) using adult samples that no significant relationship between gender and foreign language proficiency was found. Yet it was implied that females tended to do better because of their use of learning strategies.

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CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality variables as measured in the Korean version of the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (KMMTIC) and foreign language proficiency by Korean elementary school children with a consideration of other independent variables such as gender and grade. Conclusions, implications for instruction, and recommendations for further research are presented in this chapter. Conclusions Based on the results of the present study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. The difference in proficiency test score means between the Intuition subjects and the Sensing subjects was not significantly different. It is concluded that the Sensing/Intuition variable is not associated with foreign language proficiency among Korean elementary school children. 2. The results showed that the Extroversion subjects performed better in the 4th grade, but the Introversion subjects did a little bit better in the 6th grade. It is concluded that there is an interaction between the 66

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67 Extroversion/Introversion and grade. It is further concluded from the results of this study that a transition in the relationship between the variables may occur in early adolescence age, probably around grade 5. 3 . There were no significant differences in the performance of the EFL proficiency test between the Thinking subjects and the Feeling subjects. It is concluded that the Thinking/Feeling variable is not associated with foreign language proficiency among Korean elementary school children. 4. There was no significant difference in the EFL proficiency scores between Judging subjects and Perceiving subjects. It is concluded that the Judging/Perceiving variable is not correlated with foreign language proficiency among Korean elementary school children. 5. The difference in the EFL proficiency scores by female subjects and male subjects was not significant. It is concluded that there is no significant gender related effect on EFL proficiency in Korean elementary school children. Implications The Extroversion/Introversion personality variable as related to second/f oreign language learning has been most frequently discussed in the literature, yet the relationship between the variables has not been clearly established. The present study found that interaction between EI and grade/age is significant among children, thus there is an implication

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68 for the need to make instructional provisions and to adopt some instructional approaches and interventions to accommodate the results due to the interaction. Given that extroverted subjects become disadvantaged as they move to the upper grades, various target teaching interventions to be more responsive to extroverted students are needed such as multisensory instructional approaches, varied language lessons, in-class activities, assignments which appeal to students with extroverted personalities and opportunities for disadvantaged learners to perform at their best . Similarly, the results could be reflected in the decision making regarding the future EFL programs in Korea . Personality can be used to make foreign language instructional provisions that suit the personal characteristics of children and also can be used as a basis for the selection criteria in future extracurricular EFL programs to implement the regular programs, like the successful case in Canada (Wesche et al . , 1982) in which individual differences were applied in assigning students to classes with different instructional methodologies . Since the present study provides cross-cultural evidence of EI interaction with grade, the results of the study may contribute to forming Asian children's personality profiles and to be referred to the discussion of personality variables in relation to foreign language learning. The revealed EI interaction from prior research might be incomplete if it does

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not take into account cross-cultural differences. These kinds of learner profiles may lead to a better understanding of the factors that cause children from different cultural backgrounds to succeed or to fail in a foreign language classroom. Recommendations for Further Research Based on the results of the present study, the following areas are suggested for further study: 1. What will be the effects of personality variables that were found insignificant in this study with a larger sample size? Considering that Thinking subjects in TF variable and Judging subjects for JP variable turned out to be small in the present study the results with a larger sample size could be different regarding the effects of these variables. 2 . What will be the results of the model including first language variable in this line of research? Are there any first language effects and/or interactions with personality variables related to second language proficiency among children? 3 . What could be the directionality of the relationship between personality variables and foreign language learning among children? Are there any causal effects of language learning success to the changes of personality, particularly in English as a foreign language environment?

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70 4 . What could be the results of using other instruments for personality and foreign language instruments? Considering the limitations of the instruments used in the present study, there is a need for future research using different instruments and there is also a need for further investigation involving children from other cultural backgrounds in order to generalize the present study results. 5. Lastly, what other conclusions could be reached using U-bands instead of dichotomous data in the analysis? What other results could be found using continuous scores for personality measures instead of discontinuous data in the analysis?

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APPENDIX A LETTER TO THE PRINCIPAL 1996. 6. 15. 3 #3 71

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APPENDIX B THE KOREAN VERSION OF THE MMTIC *H 1 : #°>*H=^ ^haIIA. 1. 4fe 3 oH *fl^-£ ^tH* AHflfe 7 ) *M5U4. ^ ) o^t}. 3. °]S= cj f^J-q-iL? 7 )^7> JiaL £*laL #-§: ?H1 tf|*| #6]W. 7 )#\}#, 3^4., ^ nV^o] ^-^1 SO]^ o^o}^ 5. tffe ^^#^71? 7 )ifl7> 33 in gs£ ?H1 «H«g ofl7l*>^ #o>^. 7. 4*hd°1 3°H «LH a>flXM"A, M-fe? 7 )•^?Nlfe Vfl7> ft* 8. «-Rr? 72

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73 9. i-Wl *\ *1M5lHr MM«Rr ?H4. 10. ^<>1 3 q-ati-jT ^4^i4j8.? 11. <>1fe 3 fWi H4*MA? 7 )^fl7> f-Elxl ^Jl ! Ui i-)vfl7> ^1-717lOT7fl 3D # nfl 12. <4fc? 13. «4rr? 7 )lfl7l# Ofi. £0)* iife t-)*|S& SH# 2tfe ?H #4. 14. t*fc Tfl^fl^ * 15. o|^7ll aflo]: %t\-jL <$z}^»+A? 16. 7 <>|^7fl ajo> 3^*1 § 0^=. Jgolt}. 17. Ci #<>1*N-A? 7 «H «Xl ^-<>l-0|: ^4^-4

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39. -fel^o] q o]*7\} *|.i4£? 40. 13£ojofl tfe? 7 ) «1£ £ 42. M-fe? 43. ^-gE| ^o>*m.fl? 7 ) ZL$$ n^ofl ^^*>7l u) olo>7l *le*>e a m 3 ^-^4. V) -L^S; <^7l*]7llt- v+fe <^ol nfl o^^Tfl Sj.q-.fi.? 7 ) 4* A^E-oflTll ofl 7 1^4 U ) Lfl 71 «-|n}-g^ofl Ti^^-Cf. 46. 4| S£ ?>l4fe 3£r? 7 ) 47. ~) 4i^£ HpFtr «a 48. 4^#^r? 7 ) ^^ofl nj-eiCf.

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PAGE 87

78 59. nfl? u ) sj-ig ci £ ^cf. 60. ^ Ci ^5>u}A? 61. «!-§fh «flM^ 3 fo^i? »~) ^^lXi^l oms^t4fe? 7 ) ^£t-£r 3*1 ^^Ji 4)4^4. «-) «*| ^oL, n 1i-§sflo^rKn. ^z^cf. 63. "fl, ^o] €-8-5>Cf^? 64. <>1^ ^-t#o>s|.ul-i? 65. ^-^-1^4^3? 7 ) ^^^Ka ^Mfl ii?14. 66. M-fe? u) c}^ ofol#ol ^o]^ ^ol^ £ ^71f-o^Hr #o]-^-cf. 67. 1nfl 68. ^°fl %^°] 7 ) o]|7l§ A}#o] ^0}X\ ^Cf. V) ^•g-'a #°-4 # SUA'S ulesil^cf.

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79 69. ^ 3 7 ) 3£ ^Ol^.

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APPENDIX C THE LEVEL TEST 1. a ladder (1) 7\$ (2) ^ (3) We) 2. a balloon (1) (2) (3) "J 3. an onion (1) °M (2) A>4 (3) a^*] 4. a duck (1) £2) (2) 7fl^el (3) #o r *l 5. a kite (1) * «3 (2) g (3) 3 6. three rabbits (1) E*| (2) 2] 7. four knees (1) (2) (3) £ 8. a cat (1) 4^31 (2) JL°
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10. on the bridge (1) 43 41«M #«"§^$^£3safe (2) ^v^r^i m* r s<>M ^ safe ^ 0) 7i^>7> safe 81 11^3 15^4*1, £-*lK4 3^^^s r fe 33 (3)

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82 17. What do you like? I like ice cream. (1) oH^h^ (2) * (3) 7}^ 18. What are you doing now? I'm studying. (1) safe ^ (2) ^2 5Ufe ^3 (3) SJ-aL safe 19. What time is it now? It's two o'clock. (1) *\AA 12A117}2)?}JL SUfe (2) Al^7> 1A|15Ufe (3) AA7\ 2*117>s)7U safe ^ 20. How many chairs are there? Five chairs. (1) s\A7\ 5711 5Ufe ^3 (2) $\A7\ 47fl safe n3 (3) $)z}7\ 37fl 5Ufe ^1 2l#^ 25 #4*1, iL'JH -g-*Mtr ^^5. #fe rfl^(1) (2)«l-JL ^ ^}o\o) 7 } ^ gofl ojo). ^ Aj^oflo\o}+3.%, Hfl7l^ 5aJL, $ °l-£flfe *M*1 ^ o>S]<4 A\^r 57fl 7 > Safe 21. Do you see any bird? (1) Yes. (2) No. 22. How many pears are there in the picture? (1) Four (2) Five 23. Where is the water melon? (1) On the table. (2) Under the table.

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83 24. Where are the dogs? (1) Near the candies. (2) Besides the bread. 25. How many girls do you see? (1) One (2) Three 26^3 30#*H, 3.%^ &&*\ ^n>Cf ^*Hr lfl-8-6}l4 ifl-g~£ £ 26. Color the train black. 27. Color the trees green. 28. Color the river blue. 29. Color the bridge red. 30. Color the boat yellow.

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REFERENCE LIST Anthony, W. S. (1977) . The development of extroversion and ability: an analysis of Rushton's longitudinal data. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 47, 193-196. Bartz, W. H. (1974) . A Study of the Relationship of Certain Learner Factors with the Ability to Communicate in a Second Language (German) for the Development of Measures of Communicative Competence. (Doctoral Dissertation, Ohio State University) . Dissertation Abstract International , 35-08, 4852A. Bates, E., Bretherton, I, & Snyder, L. (1988). From First Words to Grammar. New York: Cambridge University Press. Berry, V. (1994) . The Assessment of Spoken Language Under Varying Interactional Conditions . (ED 386 065) Bialystok, E., and Frohlich, M. (1978). Variables of classroom achievement in second language learning. Modern Language Journal, 62, 3 27-3 6. Brewster, E. S. (1971) . Personality Factors Relevant to Intensive Audiolingual Foreign Language Learning. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin) . Dissertation Abstract International, 33-01, 0068A. Brown, H. D. (1973) . Affective variables in second language learning. Language Learning, 23, 231-244. Brownfield, K. M. (1993) . The Relationship Between the Myers-Briggs Personality Types and Learning Styles. (ED 381 577) Busch, D. (1982) . Introversion-extraversion and the EFL proficiency of Japanese students. Language Learning, 32, 109132 . Carskadon, T. G., & McCarley, N. G. (1987). Compendium of Research Involving the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Center for Application for Psychological Type. 84

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85 Carrell, P., & Monroe, L. (1993). Learning styles and composition. The Modern Language Journal, 77, 148-162. Chastain, K. (1975) . Affective and ability factors in second language acquisition. Language Learning, 25, 153-161. Costas, L. F. (1987) . Personality, Cognitive Style and Reading Ability of Students of Spanish in Relation to Performance on Cloze Tasks in English & Spanish. (Doctoral Dissertation, Hofstra University) . Dissertation Abstract International, 48-11, 2840A. Crocker, L., & Algina, J. J. (986) . Introduction to Classical and Modern Test Theory, New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. DeAvila, E., & Duncan, S. E. (1987a). Language Assessment Scales Administration Manual, Macmillan, McGrawHill. DeAvila, E., & Duncan, S. E. (1987b). Language Assessment Oral Scoring & Interpretation Manual, Macmillan, McGraw-Hill . DeAvila, E., & Duncan, S. E. (1987c). Language Assessment Scales Oral Technical Report, Macmillan, McGraw-Hill. Devito, A. J. (1985) . Review of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. The Ninth Mental Measurement Yearbook, Highland Park, NJ: Gryphon Press. 1030-1031. Ehrman, M. E. (1990) . Owls and doves: Cognition, personality, and learning success. In J. E. Alatis (Eds.), Linguistics , Language Teaching and Language Acquisition: The Interdependence of Theory, Practice and Research. (pp. 413437). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Ehrman, M. E. (1993) . The Type Differentiation Indicator and Foreign Language Learning. Preceedings, Tenth Biennial International Conference of the Association for Psychological Type, Newport Beach, CA. Ehrman, M. E. (1994) . Weakest and strongest learners in intensive language training: A study of extremes. In C. Klee (Ed.), Faces in a Crowd: Individual Learners in Multisection Programs. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle. Ehrman, M. E. (1995) . Personality, Language Learning Aptitude, and Program Structure. In J, Alatis (Ed.), Proceedings of the Georgetown University Roundtable on Languages and Linguistics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

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86 Ehrman, M. E., & Oxford, R. (1988). Effects of sex differences, career choice and psychological type on adult language learning strategies. The Modern Language Journal, 72, 253-265. Ehrman, M. E., & Oxford, R. (1995). Cognition plus: Correlates of language learning success. Modern Language Journal, 79, 67-89. Elementary Curriculum, English. (1995) . The Ministry of Education, Korea. Ely, C. (1986) . /An analysis of discomfort, risktaking, sociability, and motivation in the L2 classroom. Language Learning, 36, 1-25. Ely, C. (1988) . Personality: Its impact on attitudes toward classroom activities. Foreign Language Annals, 21, 2532 . Eysenck, S. B. G. (1965) . Manual of the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory. London: Univ. of London Press. Eysenck, H. , & Cookson, D. (1969). Personality in primary school children: 1. --ability and achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 39, 109-122. Fourqurean, J., Meisgeier, C, & Swank, P. (1988). The Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children: Exploring the Link Between Psychological Type Preferences of Children and Academic Achievement. Journal of Psychological Type, 16, 4246 . Fourqurean, J., Meisgeier, C, Swank, P., & Murphy, E. (1988) . Investigating the relationship between academic ability and type preference in children. Journal of Psychological Type, 16, 38-41. Gardner, R. C, & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language Learning. Rowley, Mass: Newberry House . Gayle, G. (1981) . Another look at personality motivation and second language learning in a bilingual context. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 27, 145-53. Genesee, F., & Hamayan, E. (1980). Individual differences in second language learning. Applied Psycholinguistics , 1, 95-110. Griffiths, R. (1991) . Personality and SecondLanguage Learning: Theory, Research and Practice. (ED 367 167)

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87 Hamayan, E., Genesee, F., & Tucker, G. R. (1977). Affective factors and language exposure in second language learning. Language Learning, 27, 225-241. Hodge, V. D. (1978) . Personality and second language learning. Language in Education: Theory and Practice , Center for Applied Linguistics. Kim, J. T., & Sim, H. S. (1993). Introduction to the Murphy -Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children. Korea Psychological Testing Institute. Kim, J. T., & Sim, H. S. (1995). Review of Research Involving the MBTI . Korea Psychological Testing Institute. Landsberger, B., Kingsley, D., & Pratto, D. (1976). Classroom Behavior and Achievement Test Performance at the Kindergarten and First Grade Level. (ED 198 922) Lawrence, G. (1984) . A synthesis of learning style research involving the MBTI. Journal of Psychological Type, 8, 2-15. Lawrence, G. (1982) . People Types and Tiger Stripes, Center for Applications of Psychological Type, Inc. Lathey, H. (1991) . Temperament style as a predictor of academic achievement in early adolescence. Journal of Psychological Type, 22, 52-58. McCaulley, M. H. (1981). Jung's theory of psychological types and the Myers -Briggs Type Indicator. In P. McReynolds (Ed.), Advances in Personality Assessment, 5. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass . McCaulley, M. H. (1977) . Introduction to the MBTI for Researchers , Center for Application for Psychological Type, Inc . MacNitt, R. D. (1930) . Introversion and Extroversion in the High School. Boston; R. G. Badger, The Gorham Press. Meisgeier, C, & Murphy, E. (1987). Manual: MurphyMeisgeier Type Indicator for Children, Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc. Palo Alto, CA. Meisgeier, C. , Murphy, E., & Meisgeier, C. (1987). A Teacher's Guide to Type: A New Perspective on Individual Differences in the Classroom, Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc. Palo Alto, CA.

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88 Mendelsohn, G. , Weiss, D., & Feimer, N. (1982). Conceptual and empirical analysis of the typological implications of patterns of socialization and femininity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 1157-1170. Moody, R. (1988) . Personality preference and foreign language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 72, 389-401. Murray, J. (1990) . Review of research on the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 70, 11871202 . Myers, I., & McCaulley, M. (1985). Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers -Briggs Type Indicator, Palo Alto, CA, Consulting Psychologists Press. Myers, I., & Myers, P. (1980). Gifts Differing, Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Naiman, N. , Frohlich, M . , & Stern, H. (1975). The Good Second Language Learner, Toronto: The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. (ED 158 574) Oxford, R. , & Ehrman, M. (1988) . Psychological type and adult language learning strategies: a pilot study. Journal of Psychological Type, 16, 22-32. Powell, C. L. (1989) . Learning English as a Second Language in a Regular English-Speaking Kindergarten Classroom. (Doctoral Dissertation, Georgia State University) . Dissertation Abstract International, 51-02, 0408A. Reilly, T. (1988) . Maintaining Foreign Language Skills. (ED 296 573) Robinett, B. W. (1972) The domains of TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 6(3), 197-207. Rossier, R. E. (1975) . ExtroversionIntroversion as a Significant Variable in the Learning of English as a Second Language. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern California) . Dissertation Abstract International , 36-11, 7308A. Rubin, J. (1975) . What the *good language learner' can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9, 41-51. Ruiz, N. (1988) . Crosscultural Special Education: The Nature of Bilingual ism. (ED 300 978)

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89 Samimy, K. , & Tabuse, M. (1992) . Affective variables and a less commonly taught language : a study in beginning Japanese classes. Language Learning, 42, 3 77-398. Seda, I., & Abramson, S. (1990). English writing development of young linguistically different learners. EarlyChildhood Research Quarterly, 5, 370-391. Seliger, H. W. (1977). What the 'good language learner' can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9, 41-51. Sharp, D. (1987) . Personality Types: Jung's Model of Typology. Inner City Books. Slomkowski, C, & Nelson, K. (1992). Temperament and language: relations from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Developmental Psychology, 28, 1090-1095. Spoto, A. (1989) . Jung's Typology in Perspective . Singo Press. Boston. Stephanos, R. (1993). Personality, Learning style, and Typology. In WISC-III Perceptions : How to Work Creatively with Individual Learning Styles. (ED 368 143) Stern, H. (1975) . What can we learn from the good language learner? Canadian Modern Language Review, 31, 3 04318 . Strong, M. A. (1982) . Social Styles and the Second Language Acquisition of Spanish-Speaking Kindergartners , Doctoral Dissertation. (University of California, Berkeley) . Dissertation Abstract International, 43-09, 2913A. Swain, M. , & Burnaby, B. (1976). Personality Characteristics and Second Language Learning in Young Children: A Pilot Study. (ED 129 078) Tucker, G. R. , Hamayan, E. , & Genesee, F. (1976). Affective cognitive and social factors in second language acquisition. Canadian Modern Language Review, 23, 214-226. Wells, C. G. (1986) . The Meaning Makers: Children Learning Language and Using Language to Learn, London: Hodder & Stoughton. Wesche, M. B. (1975) . The Good Adult Language Learner: A Study of Learning Strategies and Personality Factors in an Intensive Course. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Toronto) . Dissertation Abstract International , 5371A

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90 Wesche, M. , Edwards, H., & Wells, W. (1982). Foreign Language Aptitude and Intelligence. Applied Psycholinguistics, 3, 127-140. Wilson, R. G. (1990) . Gender Differences in Intelligence Personality and Primary Mental Abilities Among Irish Children. (Doctoral Dissertation. University of Ulster) . Dissertation Abstract International, 53-01, 0585B. Wilson, R. G., & Lynn, R. (1990). Personality, Intelligence Components and Foreign Language Attainment. Educational Psychology, 10, 1, 57-71. Wong -Fillmore, L. (1976) . The Second Time Around: Cognitive and Social Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. (Doctoral Dissertation, Stanford University) . Dissertation Abstract International, 54-10, 3732A. Wong -Fillmore, L. (1979) . Individual differences in second language acquisition. In Individual Differences in Language Ability and Language Behavior. New York: Academic Press . Wong -Fillmore, L. (1985) . Second language learning in children: a proposed model. Issues in English Development. (ED 273 149)

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jee In Kim was born and educated in Seoul, Korea. She entered Ewha Woman's University in 1985, and received a B.A. in English language and literature. After graduating, she was admitted to the TESOL program of Teachers College, Columbia University, and worked as a student teacher for the Community English Program directed by the University. In spring 1990, she transferred to the University of Florida and received her master's degree in ESOL, and continued her doctoral study with specialization in foreign language education. After her qualifying exam, she returned to Korea and taught extracurricular English at Wonchon Elementary school. She also worked as a researcher at Sogang University and developed children's EFL material. In summer 1996, she returned to the University of Florida and to complete her doctoral study.

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the deqree of Doctor of Philosophy. (^i^^-^^y^^^^— — Clemens Hallman, Chair Professor of Instruction and Curriculum I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the deqree of Doctor of Philosophy. Eugene Todd Professor of Instruction and Curriculum I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the deqree of Doctor of Philosophy. Jo/in Benqston Associate Professor of Foundations of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the deqree of Doctor of Philosoi David Miller Professor of Foundations of Education This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Colleqe of Education and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the deqree of Doctor of Philosophy. December, 1996 Dean, Graduate School