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The water beetles of Florida : a taxonomic and ecological study

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Title:
The water beetles of Florida : a taxonomic and ecological study
Creator:
Young, Frank N
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
volume 1 and volume 2 : ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Beetles ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
Creeks ( jstor )
Ditches ( jstor )
Highlands ( jstor )
Larvae ( jstor )
Ponds ( jstor )
Rivers ( jstor )
Species ( jstor )
Streams ( jstor )
Beetles ( fast )
Florida ( fast )
City of Gainesville ( local )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 633-663).
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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This item is presumed in the public domain according to the terms of the Retrospective Dissertation Scanning (RDS) policy, which may be viewed at http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00007596/00001. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact the RDS coordinator (ufdissertations@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
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18218832 ( OCLC )
ocm18218832
21792429 ( Aleph number )

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THE WATER BEETLES OF FLORIDA:
A TAXONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL STUDY






PART I






By
FRANK NELSON YOUNG, JR.


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
May, 1942















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The wth iVt 1eAaLlaiiT Ftwes...2S

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The Wst 3'largia 0! 4lalbicoualasOs.... 30


The West nlo,a 461mw........... ....o..... 46


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owe* 195
















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The ate'- beetles of Prwnf we a -o pn w of leeo twp atbams fea tftl SM to Saft sebwee ot the Osleepte Use prum7 nwdiutlfetie fw stodyie tho os a swU"Afte Vmd tilow. e a~apatin to an qamtu s etef, U re ly honw# tNIr s.


a, eaegift ema The oft of eseupe t he M s qa'i auaslatO risnee e of tho ft- ISo This t1ef fE f t e simwo bV ifem.
p-~of ftheb Uoss""Mtro~bes. Lke otbi'etw.onttltuf remarneo rsutti to teo priuinry vthepoe eabia&*n
The water bo eelerprt a n-natua lo" v*elwsftIne enee usta&sat Snd a part of ee e van s of the present st* UIs 1e tho vy fw5t ftoepravUA.&a*dvnta e of, tbeng the 'm ese*" ot te tkw US p Wt1 "p HO 1 e"t fe ise IV* a3Ap ies as a e athe t a n L areeton to ter w"apeotLv Opymlmatis affe


a"ne of 0OSRneUene innoeo~gen tudy, ad "snt a V"l WOrit evimfms a gOuping otaftsug these bauie frn oe woers mum
*01eallsti "ROM attbues1 bieb I"e of prim"r 'Wotue 9*o
UMUt~iI3I Shir O~q an fo h piet of a knowledge or
their tmwaWm #ad *eal to muck poe'o As ths ft fish "ltrj
mesquie oet"m the eOoloaitul tA.,pi the thoe**etl OsPeWU of ftplgeuy may not oly bo =*%oea -but indee a Whdaftma to pr"op's
I have attotod to:*"&n together a1 tOat has proviUwly been* witten on the Vlswifa water b*leO* and to enelato -is with tereut










of aq own studies n the twaua of the sate. voh that 5.A Included here has lead e publshea in seat edand ftwsemeatvz to=$ mh Still remn to be said, on the dbjesse t the pesat paper serV as a adA* tor tt work, if through otea #AA oe ,peaftat advanse In ourw 3A ~se1deIs =Wk% it wll, In mW SpinWie hove aellsbi t prpoSo*, 'How el It will see t ,re only tin eamn tell. I hope that iS erit aieed its f lts, and e ie Vatmy vWk hs rWslsed certain pitftals to be avoided and rumloved .me of the taxenmie,, nam oatosial, and prebeduwal ebtruotoes to: furwhe prres In the ft.

Tim is ,,fortuaely not l ile so for the In ,vS.ml, 11th ,ove time at ,m dinoul th e a',to study culd have bee made Afr awe carn pshenSvO and eeaplete, When me begim to work on say roup of anli sl ounrtes side-pats ae revered at every tu To follow all of theme is as iipesolble as It ts uttefty s inore all .the fascmaatin by sys %blob offe such alUring poecpWes of Rew Vint"Sbyod At first sight the present pobln sm coWAp osnese, an dof tely lutod But do the wate, beetles of Florlt ease to WA siew we reoss tbO ta Ib boundary between the state and these to the north &an wet In ?ely th lo in. ta is only. a SAiy sepient of the vast soso tinuwn +ta exist. in the Antilleanwarbbosm Region# and ta of the, vastew faua of the world. There In no real sting plaee, nor in remi" My4 waet to Lied one bt n do n1104 and tiOs ftta, .n
The present Study weu begun sams sixONI ea9 111114 hl MW ustll an0 undergradate at thes niverity of nlor I4 Idw t is a direst result of Iq

earlier~ ieet nisc s n oenral &nd the Coleoptosan pw fiulaWO











Dun UUS perI I have e1166d. An may parts f the state not pr VIMAslY Y15Od IV, 49104016. WAn hare suoooede U i ng md~aw 9if 10eee.e tle original hIt of Ume and atohor (1918)0 Ve,,. the aOtstu o f the Speeise invesd Z baVe oamisf An OStsaed 4OOOO spemos in qW owa oelee and In thoe of the Ue= -t Cayara tl Zoology Wft(; On*ege* the Ameueha wems et o o"tua BIutest, t 1msivd rsity of meiahu lfutsm .ot Zogoly a"4 the ati.ted ttes f tional usem. Of the 174 peei1e reeoed ftm Flori in this paper, I have ben ablo to eumine amuheutIe euples, JA any ase. the 0 tpes, of all aeept a very few, a&" hare peo ll8 9eta4 nearly al. of the speese.

istarsal Review

The oome f Flori have- otwaeem the aten"on at. maw able soleste A SUSee at the lilt of Florida spee will revel su h nines as tihese at Wn ne, HMO, and hes "Se in ee, eotion with sa uwadin auber of fams, ike the es't f its taums ad flwa the beeloe pv-oent the most asaw divetty d the most uaswoting probo u. o mw, Florwd is still the tasoiatin bwrderli" hetwe the Americn tropics wad the tn orate reons. ZtS faum a 44. spiso to the North Aisim lilt and neatly every student mho has threat a pin through aL beete han ma we time orianother ovete Its treasure.
Ans thteirst AmerAn ~u ent of Ooleepea to viost a3 study in Florida m Them s mq, Ao visited But nrowida in the ealy 190h t twY. ose on the bail of B4Vtrm SqW eam, uaw and prOperly 400 tunwdd Following hf, have eam e*hs, all apparetly lured by the Ir-










VesUUWAb2 taaotnaEoh of am hWrizovW*3 A. "elml ~muma 4 threu F,ida Si, es n, iA e 34 46tg"le,. boo 3 so 'at 0ses,, 1"14t Muv, 3lksuis o4e Fl.roda st4, idu p ~ is h~eis, le serie of ,, estm,,,o L e W," o' Leo ato mn. an resvetd ,tot a o tho ate w.a Of those two oteo mt in upowat isLa :W ,t mmV olasolea works on 'the Nor$% Amw~*sn Cl.Ptoa 14 1AWe YOaU*# H* Cs Fall a4 W. 3*.SA~u Biatbls ep m ieato In sta"to& su44" 'to thoer a 'wi 4lit T12mw otfto12 ftv 1w E.oodSa5.ly Vro AmOI~ CO oltrlatop wonut** IMer gRxaote "Wsq ad Ifll all mie"$ Cue have bee Itoen Ite4 wit &h helped to desob amd sluavs4" wealth of Florid" beeotle.. In the vr%"tn of the four mm ohe buls Of the lUsei.fioation olo rda wat bOOtes was vestb~lshed. frequent reeoenes to their nmw of speolal arps and uenuivo peperas on the seneal tam* i be foumd In the tollowim &1sourions,
Ano o papers dealg directly or Undiieeoto wit the Wa
beetle faw*m of Floridal, thoe of Uem and Notchifer (191$) md UlatOhlq
(29 .) weOututmAndin T"e first is essestAlv a spatnfote
woerk of othersm b i e 'raeay vyuable to the being student The second Is la.r.se a supplemeat and reviUlon of Leng and WtehW's work %wed on B1a2s.# ue stve knowlftoe o. of t ,e oup Thase are the ftly e.oemrens:tve atm.tms of ths wat beet'm of Foida as a umit.

the rest of the literture on lrv.da water beetles is sattearod through a est sereie of woks on spoesal XgrOeV or on other re*40. AV objaoeve has prL~v'iy boea to bring as ash of this mteerba as










pvW0ble tosether In a 8GI4e ooaWlshepo *t'atmt. Uwk, of Oaysate ltOsm i the reolatve tmcaoesatlm ty of ae gIea refer 00e ooleott hr wesw the lab ounes of this tas A staft of the bi b;hieu Re enAh ems 44 speSies In the fel lwusvt papa w la ndate $me of he d*if u3 8 t were e tesetW The blbUtopOh 'ah thwd&u i ot om 4pub ami ftu as I hv boe ablo to mke the with the resoures at hand They vA at east sw as a uide to the vo2balno ture of the utbjet and indiats hero to look. for further oermAo
Methods nd 8euroes of Uestartl

Unt of the uateri4 tudi has ether been oleoted by mself or prowesdod by friend who were wrking an other aquati group of orimula celeontica har boes rOde iln neqevey Flor da county mnd a number of tose if 0oifteUn (JeergLa. ) of Whes* OoUes hve be worked wad rwrkodf but othus wore, mrely touched, and ad tftom2 te watk M be expected to rv"s le prese of oher opetes an4 to extend the known rans" and habUts of =mW fow.
Few t n0s par$# water be ele afe eut u o fvies-of 3,, ts to oolee"t "AtOaLd the only equipmu necessary Is sme sort of d p ae, a pair of ferepftwo A a tw viels of aloahol, A3*O any pond or strewn w yJ evpeedines whs con bo drned ito ao" and mounted vhe t Is o e v prmm o w star In sloahol, If It J not too weak or tsto g, wl 1l not dame th* bee tle fw taoneamis study The 0y petamftt"m a wh I have eare wer in spe,mas *Ae hA boe kept for a long tum eeseey peeked in LbAt alcdhl










in t te I col Is rae a he speelmem pwtiW douposed. Uen properly b=l hw #, no ehaum are Apparent Oven after semul Yes of pVermttuon A* a3ehoil
7he sSM010% nt that I have tuw d for eleotUS is an
erdinv 2OsIf t stre Coffe sat ner, Use olf thisf .ou"* usually nee mtiatos or a ow tt In te VAoo 61 bU the reft p vdueed re baw *tter hm vth iairw noet used: frm a distauce Smuil es. of vemnsOLon uan b sWept ift-fthe strainer eevwI tines WAn lasoet 0*ledsed UOa a Imw~or nt oul UPans "WO, A toma suev With sMW meshes Is lse usef l in straili debris ad sdiseats 011 oUS the shore in seasrh ot such tiny specese ms those of ,en ka msind othw. Such derwes s the Neshem s=w net and the Needhm uprn nomt Olftough usedul in eertwad situatens, we as a rule speuantA a In the ftld aUd de nt rea s the collector for e trouble of transporting them
For more intense odeetiemg espeeal&ly of the smaller fewawm the riese. Amnel is surpriany effotive, Quan .tIe of getation9 de brist im v sand9 ste., brwot in fto m %ins of streAs or pouds and pUseed on he screen over the f=oel., wil usuly Aeld lar Wum bo's of bot omm msnd rarer species, It s an espeaimy Pod sothed for aptwMn tA sm a.Iae for o iich frequetl u pass throuh a si with some ms he and thiswtat io supecie Iioh we hard to find in the fI3A, are obtained in numbers a, they gradual rolease their held. Ad faell Into the aleeohol Jar. The mteal to be worked cn be brought in fm fthe feld in alo jars or ordiwy Vukets and seopsm ed aaost at *es leisut. Xn transporting the material, hewve eare met be










tAken t, rerve surpluswater so that the beetes wt no drown var this purpose a SaLlon ar vith a square of eYZ7 ft Vw-mesh solde"Ned into the a4 s Idean I erreri it to the labWatory th Jar en be turned upslde dom and the eoos. WeW. dwali off

Feor Mmu7 purposesshewm sjM3o 4rmnot soclletag is *uA* satieatory If "are $L tak with tho sasiler species net awe thm Oor so of those present in a s atuation shouid'mape enOV tt y I think tat Mueess in collecting beetles depends as nuoh upon eaprienoe an on 'the mother used* Some species are so inconspicuous that thoy so cape evm% the most o0aborato eo~leetiYn equipenm, unless oe is oaoefully Watching for them.
Foran ecologial and dUributioaSl study a few specimens Vdh

adequate dat on hatat$ phical onuitieazs amd uatyv 4re Of greta or Yalne than a large number of specimes wiftout adequate f iad noes,* I have e at It the fonowing data an &ln a+is of sw ow ol10otim oat"ou, ,unbar, dato, exaCt locaret (Oftnty, xas rOm neast towno eta.), type of, hbitatsvegetation pre igt anid codtion of the water (tuwbi, stapnnt swiftl floiftg *Uo)g and ecliector. On se I have In addition the pH* of the water#, weather QodKtLQoa saw. roundI to and vegetato SIl type IS Ich te habLtkat oeWs, UiUM habitat collected In, e404 Much of this data has been Incorporated in the habitat discussions and the treatments. of the individual species* It is the wows* of the short discus of habilat preferences Inoe ded under each forino
The methods of study used have been largely the elassiea mehods











rt .q. peias lo "ested l" meSu l in t o a be
* lm in mal wn s o lbale sti l o in l kokl, or in amap in states 4nIM amt mounted on pins or points tar, stud4 All eAU U1n20 have bee e vth a baseaw wm, opa Oquippai 11th So?* 293# #0 4b Objeetfw an iM outla The a d'-atmnsa of *e biftoulaw evOr am arda n es 3 m we o.o isposineb en b o mmingIM in the pettisa;,tot :lesMe pWiei., arn aMW features wietlb It In $0s~iet observe with s ,iple 'muses an melly U seno In wetwy matorl, In a hol th gat dicamue from the dWiftfiew of olatift tho Speom aso that varlw aspeets en be ea, b4a for routine tler natio h hin wafound is, be umnoseesasa* In oaes at doubt the peo nam won removed ft aleahl a". mounted on pins e thaU aspaest oea3A be obewvhie

nbaunition at gonltait e pealay these of the aissN bem revealid nsant taolmmie eha4a rs In several pop ve ho adyat of WIN lamge eoie.n abole in aspesiap, appaWat hose beeum the gefiftUL an be etaectL t e npt un, aleohelfo sp"eama without the neases city af rwdgavns md wiftho the, oroat danger of breakfg aeeateed dLed mterial. Mnit ia mno n form an bo nounted on a ardboiad point pimed en the pin dlUtly benea t the po mos, but in amo eaes muntug in ba)sa on ime micesope alis mw ownd to be p eableo
htmasti ug the talWU oft ove the smalest "poInens is not as
diffleult as it6 might at first sefs. Woh .B Leash sMWgested tie Mothod ubdh I nOW use nimat ex ollvely on smalpesam uas auc as the specle ot ixld s. ate. Thi i sq Wm ap hme Iue betweem










te r 'M the twug leaving the tip of the abdme plet gst anl t puU oOt'ho U~ulla th a ae tb, pe4 se ea n$ be tmktas houww, net to thwut the ftde boethe as.est so I0 efle Y that the peis we omoW bash lxte the b0o 1 o upleto out of ro"b. 3nstid eo Wst vwk a2bma e the Oa shea =an the aeed3 is be neath the bose o the aeodm and pawmeres, and thmnv by pusht to the de and W lng up s AItaneeuly, the ,,ee t t w ll vamn y oVw oA beteen the teeSmie ent twA rito of tto last ventra segam#t. -*Am the s oturo ffe Is tee lage to pas te betwme the ptUto aempleo rmwal f athe last .ewmaat is indicted. Te olealtees 03 .then bo mme on the poInt o. s1do along with the genta nd tAher stw Ma even heb In the sepation of spoolst It ts perw unsess y to say that oxkwtim of the seitaUla shou not be atte ed with died spesams untl tO b ae bow- eolAdey relawed with alsehel, ybol, w aim*m I hae av oted ater or steen re aimn because of the dam of d4mo, bt ti danu is probably net so great in xest other parts of the Theted states as t is in lorifto
tn many lntas Lm series ot speiams Wi had been preerved in aleraol W net muted iMdvidua), were rm hrouth severa ohas of 100% bol into xybol and placed In smil dmu aeveowe aftet "Ity og ProUeted IAn a mal tolded pleo of oeLbo seton w ordinawy absorbed eOtton, speemwas ean be kept in this mnnme dstite and the dite tioultims of stmore Ore greatly "*dnot*. pRe otatl druevoops Wre preferred to tode paper triwg or the ordinary folded boet enveopesp beause the, en be arenged in igar bes or eoher eontaier nero 0oonmlo ewt, nd An pri r eveope am eamswy be 1oa0ted by nean of a






loll




see o emu taws se$ betn the SwVOloes lor prmant MnoMS steel ineoO pan and oardbear points have bon used. Po eto w eout with a raeor blade trom heavy edbeft In prefernee to punebiu the% msnee the eds.e and poato are mueh smoother ulhoudh the isoe aro em as unmelton. AAome no elm oud be found tVat out a polnt amm, emouh to hold the amM e speesm withmot cooesml pert of their vmtes. The beetle uee ftaxtened to the poMts with Dupont'. mpxho ,1 Ommt% btu Ws e eund to be uuatista ory befwo ot thse ,reative re w ei1ht of the bele nA their Very mooth smuta4s66 to IhSih the sm tk does not eadi 2 adhero. lhte mhobedus ial' lu WI4 a d prod Mato Iy SAtis Tt 9., altouh the bottles oawat be adjusted am ulasly as wif the, qu$00d.ng aostate oemmtl. Othur methods ot movuting ,daeh bave bem need In nq wW' we, these In eein-mm usoby otlesolosit And ore, outlined An every bwAsi tomtkoboek.
ReaideO thiao merl in m awn oolsotion I have mulined wo m pewSmem belonging to other id l and med in Ivams parts ot the 4oun e o O.Wawtive Sa ooo at Harv OOUol ue visited during the smaw of l14Q, wAd a lrge part ot, six weeks we spent in 011m the te tie peolmO of NW 0te specees d4oibe4 by LeOono too Gretek, 7alt a0d othes, amd In uuinb* the rift Wst mndia MAn Sout Am ism Uoletons vith the 14ea of lmg note of the relatonshp s of the floria spesles.
Th ULd $4ates Nat0onal 5asaun The Aerian M0uaomO of Ntural Wit4ry, the JmamaW m Xnvmewity *0e04 MAnd the eU PauiNtm of SW PauO Ii.r l, huav l enod numbers of spsolmm At the Antilmemao





11~


QOaUbeaei Region for sndk The ftivwsiy of NIiaMo Ras Ot 5uoso24 kindly levied ae .21 sf thei* undotenatod. llewla wato booets m.u studY of thi eelObie, has added M )usmWi' e to ts dbletvf bp*, "m of uevera of the spesIft
I hI "e alo eAsulnd tn 4llations of th state plunt Boards ts
F.orida spr'.ea Statiens and the -Dper baA of htemla at G evlloe and r ftromtham i l be fomwd sOettwed ftwMoout the lsts of Sp


I Wn addition any A indbtvu have levied us speoiuae for owniua
tan and stuild moet neoay H*g Be Lees* of Ternouswitish ol.ua5s mW. ii Po LWS. of Mobiles A~abman~ d W'. 6 A* Yrost offt IDW





To aok mUfeo adequatel all t the of iaudmsom ad A t I ha reseved fom m" peaplo Ax ahe *urse of q study at the VUnvegsiy moud be Impesl..o U&Wny X would UMk to mwpess or sinew* appreola-w tion of U help and coopmUm of my f .le students amd the mbwrs ot the sunf o the of BIo3ay or ho University of ~forda, To aoh and Orewy owe of thea I en some dobt ot gUiudo for spoenmums tzaa ation en ofe g arps friendly advise and Wl sorts, t ofter aid. To me thm s peftey would am tat I mit arrange thoix mo in soen orderand to do m wuld Vean th 2 mast evuat th MW t11 wieh Ithe hve doe to make zu vork at the University the pea, e periodo at .aleme Is to then tha I eWe qW seoitf att1in






121.


ftuga MAa Philaeor of IV% and X do not owes to .veimto the 00bAloS btias of 480 at VWhe ipaei of otharso

1 V04h~ ho"Vev ssp*s$ll to thash br. 3. Bps"6 ROSu's and Pto
T, No kbboU, uhe hv mde, 1t possib. tew as to attind the 16vewsty am dirt ed m wso,
Other aves ot th VnLverity sutff and members ot other e412a' Iatlaw havo slo holped ae greoay Inr work O r W. A* ,rSl et the StatO eaU BOMrdp, A. I. ?Sst and Js R#ft. I M of the oid wl em.wt Stau1, mmd sn* Homer M" and J. T* Creighte of the ofarts of t teoq hae al helped by fthe lon of books


Avart fm those tt With 09e hdivermity of UlUer I Wish espeIRUY to thank Dr. iLeoms Barbow ad Or, P. J. Darli em0 Jr. of the m s OeuSt oCmmerati ZoeeOU as made it possibo ter me to
*Amdio tho spesms In the soeotlm Of tho MOON"
Aro. 3 A Chapisn at the Untetd Stats tini aleMo, Ir. 0. P Cutran of Uhe Amwlm Mita of Xatmvl Mstaw, o )Ate D. W, S. )IunIert4 of the Univosity Of Nonsa* Pr. fredwue me ol Ote mRos rFatats Dr. Xrvirg 4 t fnatU and Miss Ads *lse ot the m.v* erecty ot Ue1110 Ustn at Ow have aide et no In tAIn lens of spoesmas from thelp respeotive =some,
1 Wish wgpelaly to thank Mr* ) has Ue oft Vernon, srtish
0ol.mbia fer his 1terest In q vek, tor hi. grsious lan of oks and speolamsaand for his help in veitn auat =W ofthe perpezi t Nis Probem *ms have arise from time tea tme











I on.. 00 W Mo *0-taw to wpms tos' -the d. .ta .f .p*

.um aud th 5L of uewin maid ,e ppusmu pateulaw s.'th. Lev. 00 tMe. F, Ro. -I,* YOU 4, VVU, i % MSSMw*PW. mo) 144, o*W W.S lkvt F, Nishamds pr. David Dumav"a ot 0also con"00 WC* A* FrMoi *. No P. Lodw or#, K. F. m ot fhe sm To*v twe eI! Dr. P.-3. Dwli-gtem, Jr.; o. Hu,, Lwh mud Ws. IM. nGo lfbtt

us$ sf Abubre 0"iu

3W No A. S3 riabfton V T o bb A M A F. aars.s 3w, e" 3baq of .Camat 1,v. Zos,,om
*m n Cherle at esom Pre s R 1.. ftes 30 u C. anemn, Jr. J. Speed Rlowu MD a P, 3. Ms~ga 314. T~ m5? TomwA a Jaom flAt **%I. WAS 0 UiiT0 lty of. 3ohigmua ry'e 0. 1. ry., JV Ikmum o Sooleg' FN~ e uxik Nl, Tospg, JTr.

m nort~m N. I obbs~ r










i1.= wm,,Oa IS'fUE5ION or. ToR nRGIA



on ofthe fet us ss o oao e ttei*tlo ~e2 "al Station of vter beeots 1M. In te fat tihat theyj, ernet bo oneidered' as -p*mwi4 "noti orfss t w* tha adeauto wan to, a large *Amet the lamoie spend tho proster Part at their' *Avt. aes In wtxw, but $he pupa stes, of all kAm forM of tUe a*"-- is puse on, land at at least oueatse the W.et. Th.w theters 1614h act upon she toreevl alms of am am also atfet the wter beoo 3lex to a lesser OXM*t ald these teeters ene einre nA tet eli sorrelatio of the osewmemae of: the beetles with the pseollaritiU o e1 90 OWb*# haobitSt tth. a
Znt aot0e" 8e13% e 0-, arger aspeots o1f t he oeiw, euanmt have a

till moro profound ItUmmoo on the bestlam# through their tul teae upon the squatic sitatios. The major hbitatsI iv btio water beetles ae fou d, we not wuip amses of water flowing or standing on stta
*urtcapse but rather! are in a eostual posso .f adjua t.to ,the sawe ouplx eO oottin, on ish ,prAodVOes h eols an other sur0 fee.a tureo of the liThese aquatt habitfts possess I Oeta in. orgamie 4ymlsm. *k:l the sesess aettvSty of orawism further io* reases and maintalw.ft ht In tse s UeA eh1aes theMe 1l rgl#ar, ity a"d ilfero and despiteL the epheMera %%a" of the s, vda situou, thes typ of "VSR*s~ *W OWUtMa throto geoloduismal


7Ae aetna) sMtiatIeNS, IS *4th WOte beetles UV** the USto habitatsi






11.


n~y be *05m ros u a utie wauude ef umjoc habitat beeme a anven aore elese~y aedjwstot edqhe soaditios, The bete awe eefisen to taye aUor a of the laagew bodies em w' by svtersw, a!e Is tat lU of the f ownImg ad4ts awe ltW by Ih Reed ef ro plAlsba the si L thit t'w, hee. syla a aM waas be abl t woturs
toth uras t elro itra s ot adu and larve awe afoeted by ftho a foo a*d the pM" of preate., boa ot idih vu with eaI seonilonse Tho. factors woo in a as"S ra t L thoui "aito to the .ss of the tawvials volwed and
for amcalo, ean and do seewy almst my part a pead Or lake a thoy my ehesee, but te tia "toie ot 5gjj~u
g, eteq hardv ever ere *Ma a tew i"ohe fves ssr.s Thus, ms opesoe fra an a* avlt we owid to a ,mrrm ohereoise Otr## and the popultion is a fumotious mt fte w02s0 of Watet, but of the eAtent of the sutabloe mine hbitats. is 0terest. lsfin this rmad, to ot. tat beetles aro lest smems in th Lao Roqin of a* dpte the s many lakes and ponde sd Old aiundant ite' 7atob, where tow shalow a, Ujtatoaetheked post and GtreS seeuro ApareaW y in o latte eltuastio the optbm be ansoe ot aL the aetift taeot is ftsdo au despite the ruo imposed by see esa dtIoMS o the Awodso the beeeo are there best able to surd"v amdpopst thMOm oe
QO ofte ps rinoipel pweb2* Vhat ousfrate us# in osou. e. 0 is
-to fhNd osa ,me oe p pU the t arintiaea of te aehorei e some
With m ostau $Ai~l it 0 Is thep tl$e t0 alassif the habitat ean the boass ofterp~~a adoote auo n erera elq






A&A


USe 1A1e.m ir adll tt is MWu~ watweous aet s a..ww. a"e Mi~ftt to be*h -4f ftoos 0et of teters and, tbeiw 1 1S In laws por be sewoo2atstd Wilk the vistimti ot setis ona oft the featuro of tesewuys we" Mas 'ith o of U t perly wo Isgital feature. -otft hl "Ivrmwt au i ti* owq we fft.
Un remr4 to a*e onrrvltift of top 'lpS" v" I

ffttee Of the tr~mla I qawe t$e fOllowin &M a Ut b tm DO *not" Uet. Of tusekfle 7aim 1 i qisaltS wfth MEnsovaisqutte]hbtaftpla AldAnia ad uW In wethizg up: ts. eaerla I fiat tat"h .hle "W t~ea *oft t 3. An "KUMmap fathe t In fthe Itimla et "Misax twut~ or fte Miter. 1 uup. tas -*Ws* on" a o ewso u well keow to. as" wmlgnt, t meqete werkes seem Wtil to Spend not Of their tiwe wstuf o1 ven OW40 tue "osuito to teould be sw etby sayin that In seem to have no taft flamemeA the, 0ltiuto S Maquit leevee" Bt low"s part t Is

tiroty plablto ahtitibto wate beetlet W *oww% there a,* -notble emeqtIMes Suet as the Owes of th 00 l~a ft Afsltie wi ll e.1 4l40% 434 the S&AbutM aws, at
*me Syrinift b"t asi a*~ the squallo bowtle tea be sold to ohm. distinet toodomu"n twr a eewlatloa of Iblhitt pwetetemuok wIt t
badfeatume of Use lssmdsespd

'L~ folowngelasS~~atsaof tehbttgop tt ae

beetle of 72wda IB lagey based em thlu oso$t o at baph An lndies~r vp '.iaaseape I "Ma all 09 -us Sur""t features of tbo






l?2.a


tombu. whih my Uo lm~ateOf ..1.ol odto iffeetine fth iw edOet mdw am of tho region definod my t fmemd Uo be nenbe but I an awn thVat In ...w ammee thero Is an ItmWae ozs l,4,osf the tamna with thee o uuao, ffatutW and tt dieuteti' vsets of esodfttons e Indictedo Yi have t bet souvjt, nor In mmy emasom they be ezpeotd ft b aree nOtrmIdT vaglo IeOUs end any o t4s of habitat, baed as A the promtt one, "arZey upon she wweaoo o the Udut, =at -be oly a rouOh &qso.aatom.

h fol dtlloussi of huabtat end maic" AW am fo). notes havoc boomI I~~e t by =Atewf dl dea fran tUm tn Swis 0 pap,' b y ToIA Harper on Us veg toat Wort',k Culav and sath.. en f ,arft "o arop. vdgetal -al divisions ha ben "0 of my .efW Aomu In dealimg with- tUse regions ifth whI"h I =ant pesseu ally Us*aed 001a.i dat has beft 52000"i frm w al sowume, pwn al ".Th~ Sane ofI td% by 4,' R. )Imdwmun., and th alas.if"a of th .Iiu oft United Stats In the Us 1. et ritou.twue Yearbook for 1938. Oher "MreO of i" ev, epeel. tal3. maetionee Uher, the topics Ivra ,
Two 'ajor oastoriUs, h lads~ ed te Uplands, -and sveal
uvUdisim ot emoh are, rsnio n the baes of fth poalaitie. sf the =Otr bealto fauna and te osirelated poularitles -of soUIs, Ope. anpby, and vegetation. FbyU%gp'phi &reaw In whichb no distinctive feinml ome have bow n* mee ra, lIped wit theme of Aleeeu affinity. Special smbasts 1A &Iven to fte Fiatwo& ~S it U e. s to posses thst t$st 41U eUV WA'te beetle AWuato aT y of Use 4jvisa






t,*


lave arin An rit 1 -' &Osralode by A~t Pgqy o

ly Andu4t"oils, wM the mtii6; seflat PUIMsA~ vook

tatoia1.1tuQWS wih ars.. u~prelw~fs. These areaw* *1*h I biw

eall4the eslas, 1.sowist t the bettw -duwlaud wqgimaS owrod

witAh "Ullm viseani~. ....e mebihaS*Imk Ishow 0 vest tea vt mia.
tie fomplsotoplw~i and losel somdtieas faepid o rk",

alies-. a th northern part* of the pealasu an" In Vest Flarift tab oonts'st otweem Use latwuci. &Ai the Uplad Is 1es7 sharp, <hwu tae tvo are inretyitroku vith amo anoter (smm tm s g


Sa the *i", ar" lowsa* mrfsIl and the gwp iAutiuve ties baM. iwsad 1WlAM6 Us lest




th miele m lates MA ad thVUOa qWr, f h el t


tas theml arma in Tay 4... to *a lwao a" ft*e oestis ofitim of ths Rla ot aAth avlde nd *a Floidi X"w wlW ft this leUxt plm" Ad r thous onlyslA y ftiffratro &M e of" 'thUs verladets fte 5Iwu~towA**pS 4sesu ft IthelimWwef slumw 13 4iU.r'ititaom vgfame, bt not oin*%* to Jitiu pru torn Likewis ft* hWOfti

ester"ft siitfm gthe owss -a" distisow," %At OW bmr hems

""mie ttle in hi pavmu at Flo"&d that T imoude thm with us southen nwoid amowld "n asaol






148


me t Fhatw oed f o mwrhm. Nnau mnd wmt nmi&
UWSWSIy have he olMt and beos dowvoped water boeti. foma. of e af the llrifa &re. A la, o oe. f v

weo found here an WA O e.ue~ 1 s- poe1e b&V Ur.= 82
ohaao; In relaio. to 0h atiiosO the flatwoods* Fr ths resent, the diseusolon of the Flaftwode has bern amptled aM se ud in smiparison to th ethr areas disun

The Souter Florida LWSIAs

The IeZMos* Rim of the Everaladems The Florida Keys and sai e mino habitat Inpes om&~ as th. brackish umter sation. are arwaped uoter this headisS. Rao of these divisions shem -e pe.ulari,,,t but not sufflienmt dffrmoew to justify -seporating ftem. Z a somme, the Ri of Us Everglades or lRt Comst Rit** tie 2vrame MKyS and th Flwd KM rpresamt a sort of mien g pao 4dr but as has aweudy bowi usistd the U wqai iutosae 1ay@ 4ereispe In the loer plasm end parake Of e Ie ul SSUWX r of the iVeV1ades

tuuft nA.* oopesIal the coastal are@* Is, trely umpux

T"e 1'. and terera fAllna l.we ilt A arx~f U to that or us. ret of FUria. Wt it large lost BIW and South Aeuem .olmert is also preseat As a vle$, region Is Y Su* md the BseoS Ad ganoral t 1~spi are w OVO"oed,. Lage Parts of the scut* tup of the Peninsul awe barely above sea level, or even elt3ly belo, and n" of the eouthera ad sOuthwes .east is bor-deed by donse mgrmvo 8smpo The Rim of Us ZEve Uad and Us, f Ida Ks probably repront Use mmusts of moseft isands *idh ware iopeed beore the rest












out orf t =wet stikin bt~g~s1fatwm s te proswmsaw grees tmwwa.y ft Cm tme odU (wAm alr *tm ) ab


8~usea(1M) heWM. tVat t9e dLv~vlbmttn at thoe balmt"fA OeAmI, Ix An toilottom of Us ba~ lo itory ot the rgsba. mo ushe aM 4~vr~t *toof aos s t at Ct Rfts th. BMWarg"a n9y, a" fo t Ja Zp a1inawea am-amu raw ego foomr athem ori to

ftes iW tim &I" "w.t ft"i ytm.





su he Evaoa4ma t" re.. o ~wnu umr. *omaw moral 41t. "4Irrie ftww 1,, I G2&Mo Raft, *rw t Ns.lash, Iai, A", awrokea D~e mai WoMs ofwUsoee t p am" "oua" te ""w"e Mwsh wuetuto Ia rei Wj a not prairi t~~s tuAw" on wtth v lO I.bem or %e*1 WhIXmu guru"s, I"d oftwe tree Me "~PsI~ of tan wbbera Mitoo At
-a the Snwd is reehy M"d mreiA7Ie highe on( km f t e U"a Ivaidwftav ey. q"* So~eM mh~aath=%*A M-1- WOtestg est
a Otsl w ste i fsey =m" wvr fte Th xwb uustaft PON$ at tUse~ie1iaida the trm prto UNW0410 a mwzw vtrip 4 alsa theaf eso$& 4 of We a"d hrwdo and, wos.1 of le 002u "ty toolmher wit as aemu s 421 sos"thi "*.a"; Jtmia7 **=isi, IA the usg alpwa 8ut~woer the %*:ae Iwp)4






21.


"pw .trees are te dominat v-,tatioe m om a grestw dl-' eity' a solU sad v.etlatm typws thm rom4f the, ot w ra& snat the ieiadae, Man -uprtwaatsdalow u tho 11.t at- llra umt beetlesm~ uq mbe AM -iiit it caulotay agqaorad.
over =wt of the nrw resisthe u s mabs u the Primss


fesu *14* pSobebf' eUwro ft oftftew4 puiS and dooper =wbe bow' tewo t"e uumtSun atof tewtfls hb"Wtats. U vottle bus bows 4 os a*e w'sio an a lkol.,o 200W4Y boom"s of t"e InsNsuilky o at ot it.
A Wprmptgh aquK s boot3e, of th o e a ratder

Impalbo *GDIMof te atMM ot the trpiiel *ww'thuw patwos.
Tetvpio"tal pis V IalaWUNMRM M And JJ we @amVloto lwkiaq. b MUNU



aw"Awnm Ad limmama AVO Aams aMnM, k~,1UlsU9W





-o
and **eA ubiSAf aresn in tM safthem ntaom are*bw aan m atete.Im of the~mm -es "" fun a*teZwga w* 02004Y AllSa to It set Uo~ftsl* with U lsAlmn apesim. Am
III& .r


and *thors*


Mwe Rim ofth Us es md t"e lveglaf We


use t out Rift* or a" at use Zvgam as sh o""











Ru~Kqp bw4 e. tsr eqata i# hetebmi fte ot "~q~
00oolwtod of the South llr1ia are" but lbe fewa is rlatuvel "oW In npesLes 0~4 not etirewRy Lwvwn&f tartriUl tom andi nlofiou the Ofthu haA, We &B"~nay&3 .ubtepJo4 USe vptatIa ix
-dat Wk taliam amdSmath Awqsin afttlnWt -and the u1

*lamtt imke ps~thl th easn 09 mw tmu2r tqvap ='"ia


-v U OesUA *k eb is xn~& tw rm~ NeAt Ik~m. e


the ~ ~ m im~w v~~e n ft"~ 14Wimt theAUIM P2"$wa petis

& W~hyPIn (jj~or Z*e

is ~ ~ ~ ~~~~M iel yee fvmass, PaLmetes, sLiww~pps PC'.

oni se, mv otrshusaMetsif eru arMo sw 41ff. U lan~ds~, lavt4y mf~rine orIgin For, the vet ji


th us otlt *U* IM woot Place $4 is a o eut ered ft"






w"" Upawlds f1u~l't bmwks UWn to tIW13 u bms ftmisb kittee o frequeftly destroed-by firs tun~dM
thrghthe *row "Ad bwraim twe sodam~ to b"u stAM and reek

no *"t".etatin r at the preemt "m lasay ifn*
fth osl realy naral bamitet Winsg 'wpst-hles' in Use Umn ree and VMOUl ixal a* pe aled Obaa hslm%# Vh Sr* Meetly






23.


lare, potholes wiich are partly fWlled ith sand or arlo These emil pools are not vwr per ,nentl and the vtw beetles whiah do reaoh them ar Usul the common species of Uh nerW Rverulaes. he artificial habitats onusist of theonmy drainage canal, whlch in reoet year have beooae fMled with water hy%*inhs, and the iway pools in the botom oe bwrm its. left after the remetal of road uetal theso *rookpire we vwiely distriuWtd over tes uhol, region from around Fort Lauderdale southward and are he only reay good colle plae, for equate izueets* Their fauna is, howver, so co q aratively recent that it shom little distinction from hat. of ths rest of South norlaw

The Ever es Fe Kes e an tension of the uet Coast Ridge vUt has been disstead so that ar of 9h ZverUdav- n epate It into a masber of islands0 bh wer% before the drainage awal were dugg surroa d by shalle wate. Draimnaeo hus, however lowered the water table so ta Only very shallow warshes new separate the lkqe, and oe these are dry for par of the yeare.

Paradise Ke#, an vhi the Royal Palm 8,ate Park lodge is situatU is the beet knom ofthe group. It I 4y covered with a virain

humockof Ital hardwodet hd Me. a tow beautiful reoal pa.

There are, howovor# no truly aq=U bitAte en tho k tself, bt fte narrw mlu sain it from the pinelnds to tho east In rather =*oellw for oollooting purposes and there wre a tew artificial pools and pond.. Leng Pine Key, nor othwest Oa ise Ke, on ifoh the HL" Piaslant Is wU devoped has a greater variety of aquati. habitats suitable for water beoetls. 'fib L ef d dItOb ss aal, marsh"s' 5 aU and extensive potholes we abundant over most of it. t other fvr--












&Is" xw are aner larger biy the Bv'"'wwmgI a hav tam a"aUto a.itmUattms *tk eAu& a be e1e 'their fu

Uh W~ boeet ot US Rim of t v and the mdverla. Ko re Iay simi to, thme of fth mowrsuad prope bt the re a f4w fam ubiei nom to be prwUy wth t bwU

situtio I&* thlUere pimnUda. Amam fthe

nm=atm d a IlUMh *hme of u
arvtwWu Did #AatbaW abwlt =A ahar7hs vwUA &e show vaw AUVAh affiniftms In tbdir mtrW bootl tammawith us .l 2s*u ba t e mtr' b due to *a is,,enf of t ther s ai"soh re =4 comn 03.4t th Sost baftmo of the tls of mtable habetaits ,i,,, from oeew Par*is &Co* Mau" s eeIn near stamnt "an %bules othm- parts of Fftt i t is chava tm%"U tie =Wpbtomed srwof the *Usnft. ther woeolee vMf ae mae ow lacking mn the RU of te




ad
MWe Iookpit p"U. er~ Miu tea with VWOs MpOsMsas








and *Wems net of wi-o are however viel~y distrituted










--lout l api noc-a hazilton seem to be- moot con in

1orida in this region, and Hydrophilus inj is, laoohra Elus qsu and Trptstermus tUadristriatus, which probably occur in brackish water situations along the coast, are taken at light and in some freshwater aquatic situations.



The Florida Keys


The Florida Keys, despite the many peculiarities of their

terrestial fauna and flora, oan be considered little more than an extension of the Rim of the Everglades and of the Everglades themselves as far as the water beetles are caneezne4. Most of the Keys are dry sandy or rocky Islands vered with littoral ov" hamooX vegetation and offering little n the vay of aquatic situations. On most of them rain water or brackish pools ae the only places in whioh water beetles could be expected. On somie however, rather extensive semi-fresh swamps OOur, and these may prove to be richer in species than is waspectedo


Big Pine, Little Pine, and No Name Ky near the upper end of the Iwer Keys have considerable pineland similar to that of the East Coast Ridge or Rim of the .earglades. Potholes and pools in lhese pinelands a"e rather temporary, but support a fow species of booleis mostly similar to those of the Rim of the Everglades. On Big Pine Key, I collected 2!;wopaqh !4 E b Oessonotus, ]__ i _s Tropisteors 3aMeM S TZ quq striatus Dineutes oarolinus Copelatus chevrolati, Themneott bsilaris Berosue infuseatus










La 0yiwi nawwus OhthebiueS atri Enoobrus, cieu nebuos and Peol .= Obsourus graoilipes from roekpit pools, potholes, and shallow buttonwood swamps. Most of these species a"r commonly encountered In the Lverglades farther north. On Stock Island hear Key West I collected Oftelatus chevrola~t Biledssonotus kg.nst VroisteEnus lAteralis Leonw obcup &q~~e and a few others in rainwater pools. Blatohley (1919) also reports gopelatus debilis from beneath cover on the beach at Key West. Of these speeies Bidessonotus kayensi8 seems to be confined to. the Xoser Keys, and the faua as a whole show a mixing of the Evergladus species with the brackish water forms omon along the ooast.

The brackish watr faufn of the Coastal Areas of Florida exhibits a number of peouliarities and might be treated as a separate division. However, it has been so little investigated that such a treatment does not seem justified. The entire West Ooast of Florlsa has not been explored frm this standpoint, and the records from brackish vterholes along the Atlantio Coast are very scattered. On the Florida Keys, the braeklsh water forms are naturally conspicuous because of the general rarity of freshwater situations.
Lover Matecumbe Key at the southern end of the Upper Keys bad #4n extqnsive series of bwaoki-sh ponds in the swampy area between the beach and the higher hammoiC la~nd aogFlorida, Baey side. These pools have a number of Interesting forms of be tles, the most notable being Troplaternus Muadristriatus which has hitherto been reported only from the Seacoast of Now ersey and by Fall from Marion, Massachusetts in brackish ponds near the ooast. On Lower Mteaiumbe






2741


It Is CM In odit O with. iuZ6a fljfl, snochrast M


SC.I boom SU aSD IINL 4 aS and othee.

Sam at the spees are probably typloal of tralah atr oll slong the Atlantis Seaboard, l~i weriuf tesribed by Xtent.o from steflal. coflectod by Sobers on the lagoon bash a Haulonr, woida, and probably cOasra in braskih iAer t")rogh out -i+$ ran," ikewise9 ". BarnbW a jS dg (feund en Rarras zcq In ico.* Couty) are anl typleal of treekish sitatona. A single specimn of

Mk~ge"MkdItS was collnted by W..* A. F. Owr In the ope ate- of lArAa Day at LoeT Icoy.



The t u U odanj or 'flat plneme Is applied t the widely distributed f2at oas of lad, rwurlly emend With pine tersets whih or in tfh So Coastal Plat region. Th" flat lanodoms n eviot of the tarpeonne ivutry of the Southe ot, nd are eet slud.astm Georgia, souterm Alaha, and M sAtsppl their iprtute as a some of lumber and nl strees s wt only to that Of the yOflo pine foroet Mith pro deWmnte in the Altmaham Grit *out of Georgia and ti-s ato extenson,4 the West Florida Piu. Rifle, Typoa flatieods extend far north an Savammh, and inland they ergs Ito the hig he, telIu pinelaas abet 50 to 100 miles ti the oast. The









maps show the approximate distribution of the vegetation type in Florida and the associated soils. Haeper (1919) has dealt extensively with the various Mlridt. diVisionsof this aseon ation. loristloally it Is one of the outstanding features of the Southeastern United States.


The most characteristic element of the native vegetation is. the

extensive stands of longleaf and slash pine, which "a the principal trees worked for naval stores and lumber. The smaller vegetntion, id chiefly sa pi~metto, wire-gras.es, broom-sages, runner-cok8, and gall berry, with cypress, gums, red maples, titls, cabbage pnim5, and hollies predominating In the so-called "bays". The herb flora is exceedingly rich in speocies when compared with most other vegetational types of the reglon. Most of the aharaeteristic plants are extremely hardy, and are adapted to stand the alternate floodIng nd drying to which the Platwoods are subjected because of the nature of the solls on hich they arow.


The uniformity and peculiarities of the vegetation are Intimately associated with the special characteristics *f the soils on which n3atwoods oour. These soils have been developed under conditions of poor drainage from marine sands resting unconfomably on clay or rock. In Florida the principal Flutwoods soils are the Leon-St. ohns sands, which are ground-witer podzols. Due to the poor and fluotuating drai-age the rembern of this series develop at A A7pth of Ti6k OtW to three feet below the surface, an impervious layer of organic matter consolidated with Iron oxides. This "hard-










pan* still father bpodes the wovevient of water in the soil, so that heavy rains cause extensive flooding and in dry periods subsurface water is prevented frou moving up. Thus despite their usual stmpy appearance the ?latwoods ea almost amally subjected to sever. 8ouhts, and nine* the roots of few if any of the smaler plants penetrate below the hardpan, this probably hauicaps mazy perennials even mor. than the periodical floodingo.


Another important group of f-latwoods soils are the Bladen sends "nd leans. Uheo these a"e on Of land" they usually support typical Wiatwoods vegetation, but in some places, especially along the East Ooastthey are grown up in peculiar hamocks with cabbage palms, eta., forming conspicuous elements of the Vegetation. The heavy clay substratum, hich is usually close to the surface, probably functions much as does the hardpan in the Leon-St. Tohns sands.


The peculiarities of the soil together with the extremely level topography of the region in which they devolop, accounts got only. 02!Ahe distinctive -dLoriritiP features of the Pletwoodso but also for their oharaotewstie aquatic situations* Surfaoe dr aina is usually inadequate to carry off all the water during rainy seasons; much of it collects and stands until it evaporates, because there is no place for it to run. The hardpan is so renistant to erosion that even in regions where neighboring cu# is lviow end run-off is posible, lleyas are few and not well developed.

are
Streoaww, taeoe they occur in the latwoods Pusually sluggish,

capparatively shallow, muoky bottomed)hlighly colored with the produets of organic decay. The grade Is seldom sufficient to allow










thaw to out maeh below the surface of the surrounding Country; and they are eomIonly so choked with vegetation that what little flow Auld otherwise be possible Is stifled. Somties they are, sandbottoued for short distances, but seldom over their entire course, and the sand overlies =wky or peaty sands at a depth of a few inches.e


he amrginal vegetation of the s'tresam: is one of the oroplouous features of the latwoods areas. The borderingsolls are Usually Bayboro or Portsmouth sands or peaty muck, and support luxriante growths of hardwood trees and shrubs, the dark green folage of which contrasts sharply with the prevailingly lighter colors of the pinelands. These border heamrnocke are known locally as Wbays* or "bayhoade o

one of the principal submerged plants of many Platwoods streams

in BL !ona In places it fairly chokes the flow of water, and silt and mud collect on its leaves. REloohIris is sometime found In the .trems,-bu s caonei the roadside ditches. Various species of JTtque ereloria and Pontederia are omon emergents. In the larger streams, panhaea and water hyacinths are COMon-the latter especially so along the East Coast.



Flatwoods ponds, like the streams, usually have bottoms of peat

or peaty muck vhich var es from a few inches to several feet in depth. Portsuouth and Bayboro sands are usually the underlying soils. Cypress trees and various gums are frequently grouped together in shallow ponds,










and together wi1th the marginal thiekets these are called "bays* or *fypress heads*. The marginal vegetation ia similar to that of the streams--gs, red maples,. vax4yrtles, and hollies predmdunting. As in the streams. munfs renne is again sometimes the prinoipal submergont, but often In the dense Shade of the larger trees leaves the water entirely free of small plants, Sphagm moss Is sometimes associated with the oypress ponds and other situations and fones4rather distinctive habitat


Open ponds and lakes ae unaemon in the more northern Flatwoods, but are fairly numerous In restricted areas,


ixtensive mshes aae also Infrequent in the northern Flatwoods areas except along the coast, ver they are usually brackish and probably have a brackish water fauna. In the south, however, zrshes a"e more numerous and the 4kmthern Florida Lowlands are predominantly marshy an In the true Ee*llqJes. The marshes are one of the richest collecting places as has already been Indicated.


Ditches and canals oreated by man introduce a great many aquatio habitats of a more or loss permanent nature. Nearly every road through the Flatwoods is lined with ditches which collect and hold water at least part of the year. 7he canals are a more or less fMtile gesture at adaptlng the land to agriculture. In wet weather they fill to overflowing and probably carry off very little surplus vater, but in dry seasons they serve to lower the vtertablo In -ke. surrounding country and Increase the severity of droughts. 7he











Mie ditches aeo emottima very productive, but the deep osnals do not often afford suitable habitats for most aquatic beetles.


In general, It uay be sald that the Jiatwoods reprosent the resalts of a peculiar sot of oliwatlo conditions whiah have been active for a long period of tS. This aotion is r fleeted not only in the soils and voptatim, but also in the povalirities of the fana. It is probable that EFlatwods conditions were present in Floida before the present tram of the Peninsula was established; and It ae almost certain that several endemic Visteo beetles as well as other aninals mer developed In association with these oonditlos on the Pleistocene Islands*


Part of the West Coast portion of vhat is included here with the Penitsular Flatwoods Is separated by Rarper as the OWl Hemrok Region, The principal apparent ditfeeno between this area wnd the typical nlatwoods lies In the oaleareous nature of the soil. Te tholxe & probably represents a dograed western extension of the Peninsular Um 3ink Region vhioh has here been almost reduced to sea level. In most of the Gulf Hemook ROegion calcaro s haa ocks ae extensively develope4, Intewgrading with Elatwoods, The water beetle fauna may show a response to these conditions, but so little collecting has been done there that I can draw no generalizations.


In the southern Elatwoods, %hiah xorge into the Evergladoe,

Leon and Ports uth sands of a so-called Prairie Phase are rather










extoneively dseVeopod. Tho faunm of" thim region is simloar in part to that of the xvergtadeag, ad in part Is an. extension of the noWtho Flatwoods fauna*.


Besidesi the ub u5itmis species lhaeh are Vo be found in almost au freshwater situations the Flatwoods harbor a distinctive group of auiatlo beetles which are almost confined to typical Platuo0ds strewms, ponds, and similar situations, The members of this group show an Interesting Conmersenoe of adult characters, for nearly all tho forms ar amallw and darker than related ones which 0our in the adjoining tplan". In swe specios these features are associated with other morpholojical changes, such an flattening of the dorum, different smupture, eto.,, but In many oases it seems evident that the changes are merely e,ologioal adaptations of the indiviudel and not genetic phenomenon. In sae fore, however, the changes have gone so for that phenotypio plasticity seems insufilent to account tor the differences. the fact that sam-zlr obanses have oemurred in Flatwoods forms belonging to different genera and even to different femilies supports the eoologioal Interpretation; espocilly in those eases mhere only such ohtiwaters are affected, such as s ze and color, hloh are known to be influenoed by the direct action of temperature and *antdity aeting upon the pupae.

7he peculiarities of the Flatwoods forms are especially e"hasisad when the typical phase of the species (that is the moro widely




s,


distributed forn) or a lose relative occurs in the adjolning Uplands. The distributional relations of thes~a4red form8 ar, often very ornfeing until we begin to discover the habitat correletLions. There are" it is truet cases in which the differenoes in a specles from moe type of habitat to another are not obvious; and others in whioh'spoalog mike the transition without any apparent morphological change. On the other hand, the relationship of the species of the Flatwoods with the rest of the water bwtle fauna of the states, is smetmsquite intrioate, a point bet illustrated by a few of the more graphic e xmplos. It muast be kept In mind that these illustrations are highly selective, and any give a false picture of the nlatwoods fauna in general.


The frost exeqplt"o fFlatwo*ds form conisting with an Upland form ms brought to my attention when I eoxmined a small series of CoptotRMs collsdese' Mak1ula County by Di. Horton H. Hobbs* Jt, These specimens were mueh lighter in ground color, more distinctly marked with white, anl larger than any othor specimens of op o tom s ku.tgabs b L which I had seen* ror a timo, I thought ,hoo were intergredoe between typical iuterroptus and obscurus and tried diligently to find the limits of the area of intergradations As more and more specimens were colleoted in the region, the probleun became Increasingly confusing,


The original specimens cano from Oentral ftkulla Countyg In the

Wakulla Hamnock 0ountry; east and west of there I found typical dark obscurus, yet still farther west I got the light niatermediateu" agaia.




34.


.ert, I was greatly surprised to fikA a laro 2440A frm In oem.' toal Alaohua County# that proved almost Idistle fom the supposed Oin~tradesO frm Wakla County* TWO ezplanations 08cured to Now"WOht they xi6$ be different physiologifl or marphologioli races @1 the me spooiost or two species having differ t oologel requ e. As more and more mteriia has acoumm et04# x haye booome amost conitoeod that (I) the light form represents a physiological r%60 of 'gog aM~a bsMuM, and that (2) due to some differences in ecological requirements the light form is eonfine to the clear, almest neutral ponds and lakes of the Uplabds while the dark femi lop *gs will be found only where 7atwoods ooum, The sepazation of the habitats is$ of course, not entirely perfect; +here is same overpping, but, for the most poot the transitions are aaingly stbnipto

The case of J~eea g Qgrg presents a soteuka different problems is not so partial to latwooos situations as l damms but ootasinmlly occurs in other types of habitats. The torm is widely diwbributed h roughout the Fatwoods into the Everglades, but to the vest it grdually gives way to Udgggn MIUJ s R and I have quite typical extamles of the latter speies from Upland ponds In SaWa Rosa# Walton, and Qalosa counties, In the Apanoahic3a flatwoods west of the Apalachicola River there is evidene that the two forms integrade or hybridise, To the south# a slightly lighter form of aelding occupies the Rim of the Mverglades extend ing from around Moi to Long Pine Key in the Southern Everglades,











In Bidessus UllUj floridanus both ecological end geog ahie feetors my have been operating. Hero we have a form which may have been Isolated from the western population on the Pleistooeno Is1and of Florida, and there developed in to a distinct spooes. If this be so, when the land connections were again elevated, this speoles, florldamns., spread in all directions. In the north it was stopped by alilatic conditions, in the south It has begun to adapt Itself to a different envirouent, while to the west It is again ooring into contact with the western population and weagIng with It. Typical Pulius extends westward and southwird Into Mexico, whore there a" several related forms which show varying degrees of differenee.


&4ro h b a and oimijodes probably represent another example of ecological adapatation. Mbes Is definitely a latwoods fam mhile qicoldeq occupies Upland situations. These two species are, however morphologically very distinct. There is no indication of Intergrcdation between them, and they have probably been separpte4 a)
for a long time if, indeed, they hadAcomnon origin. The morphologlOal characters which they share are of such a nature tht they might be the-product of covergenoe and not an Indication- olose.. relationship*


In the instanee of I oats blatohloy we again seem to have a Flatwoods form which developed under conditions of isolation, and hloh I snmller and darker than the northern foa, .t ovatus ovatus, )latohley is widely distributed in the Flatwoods of Florida





34


amd southern asmsfal typtsl = in go from Wnarle sam Qwbo swgthmrd in the COsel Plaim anid inland to PomayLvwnin amid fltmolA Otw parent kmlete of the diatriletIon of the t" fo doe net Indimte that thAve n met (O=mPt pOsiblY is AlSbum, W MOM probably extends fartbe south theM the re"ordw ludisato

It wl be -oUeled that thee e mplee r*Wosent *lm doe. of Iselat"* the unat guluf is*t probably in e o Wa tt with tut of typial atus aU point.

MWES 9011M 0ntmets Its, narest, ally's MaA W only in the vestern part of Ift rat, mod the rW4P*e Of JkM

and *A"U AM" we Nost oemplwtely oetmti

There are omy ether emaples of %wht seem to be similar pairings of Flatwood. ad Upland upebe, but umt of theso ars lowss trikiag. Even the bqutusso son indieations o 4eWeMspiuga 8m0R dszk FlAtw s fe.tio Aie the Hydrophilidme the ph menf is ies apparent# u areyL
-%E a Fat"d and eoasgal f raz oeoem to be In slWIsr relatIn
to~oww E.MIDuM aWs ern mt so l... ~ tw amd acme species
maeso=m to habve swltly different Flatwoods and Upland fors.M

The most oha otewitb, rlatweode -t be"tme are
MMs. (dark phe),




*1 ethe W pmrft of the state), d'rm -






3.70


,in the narther part of the staft.


aMM an



bs etent and imifrty of ths ret m ftr ul. wide distrtbuton of way of t. typtca water beetle. Theo re-* howw'., at least two n0ogtlsable btLvicm each wiedthlm aSmmfltiflW.

.the Psiusul Floridasltc


he last a"d *4dlo riwtda ratwds, tother with th. ae e th' era flatwods* -s dofflud and 44*d 'by Harpe (21l4) bant a rathe Unifelt fume* sad sea be grouped t thron this bawss AU the divisns are ontint" with -e anther at swal pSO.., tat

interauag O SA eesIs readily poessibi.. TAere a n owe faunitie differed betweom the Moat Coast andHiddi. Florida, betsj but It is hard to St y t h Smifioant, these distinctions or* an basis of thp entdata. t very patchy :ir.r; of at etiun In son, areas fthU.er simlats the prOUls ofteuminlaw te fatistio relations. and spoae. apparony record froom Nerfh2k sard 0-e.o my aotime rel be frm habUtats amoiated with vwry local patoe or flt pinelat. ibis further fiel se watm olectig a been dewoN., it my be possible to salvt the PenisUr Flatusdh fkrm th wt* point of te stor betUa.











Besides the characteristic Ifltoode speoies already listed the iollouing seem to be charaterintic of the Peninsular Flatwoods: Laagph.lue aRen1t tp Di lus floridanus. SU hielu unatitcollie. HYdropopus efemtnatus, Copelatus glyhicus (in the sorthern part), Bidessonotus longovlls. end possibly BE nu Hydrovatus compremus. and others. It will be noted that this list is very simlar to that given for ,the Evergladesi In general the Peninsular Flatwoods whow a mixing of the northern and southern faunas, and is not nearly so distinct as the 'est Florida Flatwoods.


The West Florida or Apalachicola Flatwoods


Many of the typical Flatwoods species are found in the pitcherplant pinelands of West Florida, whtoh Harper (1914) has called the Apalaohiool. Flatwoode. This region, however, shows certain startling evidence of a reliot water beetle fauna, which is particularly interesting when we consider its proximity to the Apalachicola Ravines, where many Tertiary relicts In/groups have survived. The nuckber of water beetles confined to this area is exceptionally large, and a little inoomprehausible when wn consider the great vagility of most aquatic forms.


As characterized by Rarper (1914) the Apalachicola Flatwoods comprise the flat pinelands between the akulla and Choetawahatchee rivers in West Florida. At first glance they seem to be merely an





ir5g


extension of the Peninsular Flatwooda, but on Closer study It Is found that except for a nrrow coastal strip vhe:e #it-mrsh cond4tions prevail they are out off by a high ridge in central akulla and southern Leon counties. this rldge, about ton miles wide at its arrowst point, has been divided by HEarper into the Bal3(r Sand Region, the Wakulla Hno& Country, and the Panacea CUntZy. These hiher lands, together with th Pine Hills of the Altamaha Grit country in the north and west, seen to for eofoctive barriers to many animals, and to restrict many of the less vaglo forms to She tiny region oomprising the ApalaOhiola Flatwoods.



The flora of the region is not extremely distinotive, but ther are sae minor features which separate the area from other partp of Florida. Nearly four-fifths of the trees and shrubs are evergreen (Harper, 1914 p. P46), a proportion exoeedvd elsewhere in the4.state only in the Bnt Coast region and the subtropical areas of Routh Florid.. As in ti Flatwoods, the herbaceous spelies e, nuMrous, 'legusne constitute only a small proportion of the total flora, en tho ri caoe torn a high percentage of the shrubs. xeept for Sa ee .nr most of the species of pitahet plants found in Floid ar confined to this "elono and various forms form a oonspicuous element of the flora, especially In the Plumer soils around ponds and *bays*.


Mor are the aquatic situations especially remarkable. 3 nous v

1 does seem to choke more of the streamse and the ditohes are frequently filled with l o s but as a whole the aquatic habitats




40*


available for water beetles are similar to those of the Peninsular region. Around Wi~ma In Liberty Ooun.yg, one unique minor habitat wa notioed. This van the base of eliumps of an emergenb red-stemmed w which eours in Many of the StreWsm and Vhich offered protection for a surprising mber of beetles, Abus I N WN~ gn hWw ~MLj Mwere found most abundantly in this situation*

One of the striking faunistic peoullaritieo of the region, i. the ocourrence there of a peculiar group of orayflhas the begut3e MREB complex* These erayfish show morphological characteristics not shared with other species from the state, and all of the known forms are confined in the Apaladeolela latwoods area. Their oloscat allies are Flatwoods speoies of southern Georgia and eastern Florida, Dr, Horton H. H, bbsp Jreq of the University of Florida is publishing an e hiawtie atudy on this group, which ohoms beautifully ear-eut examples o incipient speciation and t e effects of geo mphical isolation. Several other groups of crayfish present in the region she affinities with the southern Georgia faunak

My particular interest in the water beetle fauna of the region wa first aroused when in June 19389, Dr. HobbOO Joel M3ftin, Lewis Berner, and I discovered a new species of Uftag in the Flatwoods near Blountstown. This species# &*. ri Young, was to my amaxzement first taken in the flooded burrows of L L icersi It has since been found to be extensively distributed in the












Apalahloola Flatwoods, occurring In swap streams, ponds, and occasionally in roadside ditohes.


Several other collecting trips through the area were moderately

productive, but it remained for a trip made during early May of 1941 to reveal the truly rema rkable endemic forms. On this trip, made in company with Dr. and Mrs, Hobbs, and Mr. Lewis Ikrohand, our main purpose was to determine more exatly the ranges of the various subspecies of Mubaxus oM .. In consequenos, we stopped at 5 tO 10 mile intervals along mazy of the roads of the area, especially between Hosford and Sumatra In Liberty County. This particular area is part of the Apaleohloola National Forest and has beon preserved in almost Its natural state, Our collecting produced unexpected recults. We discovered among other Interesting wY+q beetles a now speoes Mhtus relietus, two new species of aulious and s veral other species which had not previously been taken from the region. The water beetle fauna, as a whole i not especially noteworthy, butAthe known ranges of some of the species are considerably extended by further work, the percentage of endemic speoies Is exceptionally high.


7he occurrence in this reion of crayfish and the water beetle,

y&ooM aulieus, characteristic of the fauna of the region -armmA ,,ic 'Weefenokee Swmp, suggest an Interesting possibility as to the origin of the fauna of the West Florida Flatwoods. During the Ponlico submergence of the Pleistocene, Platwoods may perhaps have extended completely across the base of the Peninsula and oonneoted the





442


two regions, *h10h are now seperated by wide areas of sandy uplands. Howver, this is highly oonjeatural, and there is no necessity to suppose that most of the present fauna has not reached the area by means now existing,


Mhe occurrenoe of a distinct species of a a reliot genus restriated to Eaetern Niorh Amerioa and showing affinities only with a single genus of Australian Insetes, is a peculiarity for which I can offer no explanation. Unless Matus e 1us is found in other regions of the Southeast, it would seem to indicate a longer period of Isolation for the Aplaohioola Fntwoods than the gecical evidence allOws. The whole assemblage of water beetles, together with the peouliar crayfish speoles, suggest that either the region has existed in isolation for a long period or that It has become a sort of "bay of refuge', for many foms vhich cannot survive in the surrounding country.




TIM ELORIDA UPLAN


The phytogeographia areas which I hwe included under the heading nlorida Uplands, ae uplands only in comparison with the adjoining lowlands, especially the Flatwoods. They differ from the so-called Lowlands mainly in being developed on more rolling topography and on well drained soils. S*e regions are decidedly hilly, rising to elsvations of over 200 feet, and in part of the Peninsula a maximum o:C 320 feet is reached. For the most part, however, the Uplands are merely rolling higher ground, rising but little above the avarage, elevation of the surounding territory, An elevation of a few feet










zwy, hovmr, make the dtferenoe betwom, poorly dr, ned ground wte. pWodl and well 4dr 4 sanely soils, and the corroelte4 vgetational ohan"e. ewe stzrikcin


n western. Florida the Uplants are predominant, only a small aea aroun the mouth of the Apalaohtoola River and a oosstal strip being ploal 'latvwds, In the Peninoula, however, the Fletwoods and Uplands are ubout equal in total rea (oanitting the southern florida Lowlends) and ure so olowely and intrioately Inte4,itated that it is inipossible to delineate them as definite areas on a =V4 1e aaftapamy" ing vegetation and soil maps taken fro R Hen person's, e Soils of IMori4a". will show the app woximate distribution of the LoWlan4. and Upland types, In any areas it is Impossible to sm, without actually deOing hs *Orin, Aethew rlatwods or UPlanl' ae zWepresented. la ,.eimrsl, however, nwy areas of Leon-Sto *ohnn sands will be definitely FYitwoods,% and on the other hand, an areas of vowfn, huston, oranseburg, llowship, Gainesvi le, Herwndo, fstie, St. Luci, or other sanda will be uplands.


The great diversity of soils, elevation, and general dainge in the Uplnd areas produce a great vorlation in the types of aquntle situations. The weter beetle faune Isin oomsequenoo or ooncomitently.,not as unitom nor a s haraterlstio as that of the typical -at woods. The Intewtigliaton of upleads and LUmlens als oamploates the problem by araating in looalizd arteae oonditions vhich are vay nearly intermedate between the two. It is largelyy ths conpliation which X believe i ree onoibll tor the seemingly Vret overlapping of











the faun i41 the Peninsular ribSOn. A careful study of every habitat would probably reveal a complete ,udiaut from one exe to the other and a related faunal gradient. H owever the extreiuss seem dietinot enough to jnstfy thei re oni tIon.


7hi% Uplando, In goneval, seem to be In process of degradation, and It is not improbable'that eventually ?latwooft and mrsh conditions will cover all florIda. On the other hand, elevation of a fo foe would oonvert manyof the Flatwoods areas into Uplands.


Ponds, lakes, and mahes are unoomnon except In restricted ares,but where they ocrcur they are more vare4 and less fluctuating than those of the Flatwoods. In the West florid. Lake RsevLon tn northern Say County and southern Washington County, there are numerous small and medium-sized lakes in circular basins on the flattish uplands, The West Flrida Cypress Pond Region, as the name implies, has many oyproess ponds and "bays", and Its water beetle fauna shows some atfinities with that of typioal flntwoods.


Due to 0the soarcity of lonitio situations the typical water bee*tles of the whole region are those of the swift streams, and most of the speolol are of wide distribution in the Coastal Plain., Some of the foma have already boon discussed in contrast to those of the Flatwoods, but the charaoteristiO 1 pids and dytincids arO entirely leeking from that environment. mo'* ef tis aofpt rsoord d from the stete are found in these Uplands, but none are endeMic, nost




46


of .th beb% Mteara SP05* b.b% the Omt+hs

.



.T "p.t:++i .,,.ei ~~a* the ....o~ r au + wzZ



~~I~4Oaxi bt L are~it@ w.Z- ZO W a~apted, to swift stroanp' s




4~y'so4 arwalao saapW to svl.th streama#Snd Are sar4 the zuost. intersting ter bestlre of the rag" Amang te Fe o s

__________ 4 l"I n.p A# S6 a nd Bl~aa ltz=
6re outanwdinv 0004010=11Y even SauA $pol*# as woPM44ltr

roau.4eota Uihb PhA") "id IA2ji-. taciatus &ae 'found in. to~iy evift stroam althao4 they amo more nomlly .3UniitorQma*

SMY of te spos fention"d abilw seour also in tho tres of the pufos UplanMso but Sbtaa.ls opyveUla# soat8.tDWO 61l1iMe eMs. am t.solrx apparently eorntixo to the wostin Uplands In Flo.ida. The mot rematlable watat boklo of te mgulo is 1C nut# wib+ah is apparmtly touM In the So .ahato. United Sta only in this part of ploi 4


Tbe-lenitio 01tuat-Ion of the, roion am. Poorly developed aMi ohme aw #yen gmeter overlapping with the taa of the donular plne











_West Florida Yls


havyeUnder the heading West Florida Uplands, IAincluded several of the phytogeographic divisions charaoterzied by Harper (1914). These mprise most of the non-flatwoods areas of West Florida. Certain peculiarities of their faunas seem to Justify special treatment for the Marianna Red Lands and the Apalachicola Ravines, Cooke (1939) defines as the Western Highlands, nearly the same region discussed here, but I have included in this district the West Florida Limesink Region, which he Voupe4 with the Marianna Red Lands under the ne Mriann Lowlands'. The Bellair pand Hills, Wakulla Hamnoch Country, and the Panacea Country--should probably be included also. It wll, be noted that here we are dealing with a topographic unit in contrast to a phytogeographic unit such as the Florida Flatwoods. Other phytogeographic units included are the Knox Hill Country, Holmes Valley, West Florida Pine Hills (am extension of the Altemsha Grit Country of Georgia), and the West Florida Lake Region.


The soils are naturally very diverse from pace to place, but as a whole represent the Red-Yellow troup of lateritic Coastal Plain soils. The Norfolk, Ruston, Orangeburg, Greenville, Red, Bay, Marlboro, Tifton, Faceville, Magnolia, Cuthbert, Gilead, and Susquehanna sandy looms, and the Norfolk, Ruston, and Orangeburg sands, together with local areas of more poorly drained soils, are represented in the area. The Norfolk, Ruston, and Orangeburg, sands are probably most ecmon and of widest


distribution.












7he West Florida Pine ills ee eeonloam lly very important, They were *nos covered with vast stands of magfioent longleaf pines (Pne austraIs), but extensive cutting has someuhatl eduoed their importance as a source of lumber. 7here is still, however, a thriving business In second growth timber, and some virgin forests remains In inaaesaible areas. 2he Hols Vale and Knox Hill County are rich agricultural lands, but unfortunately of small extent. The other soils of the re lon ae usually poor and, as a hole, the region Is sparsely inhabited and laely untouched by the destructive forces of civilization.


As might be suspected from the rolling topography and Greator variety of soils, the aquatic situations of the Westerna Uplands are more varied than those of the latwoods, but the uter bootleeis comparatively poor. Most of the rogionjohm aterized by emy mall, clear streams which show dondritlo branching and deflnite erosion valleys, In some areas peculiar stream fed streams with truncated headvatersreplaoe the normal stream types, The marginal semps of the streams are not so well developed nor as* uniform as In the Flatwooda, and do not offer very good habitats for aqutlo beetles. The lager streams, of course, h,-ve flood plain swamps of considekable extent, but due to the seasonal flooding lenitic situation a in them a"o temporary. The smaller stream are, in general, of two types; those with sand bottoms and those with clay or mud bottoms. TA nearly all cases, however,












they ae quite olearo rather Owift, and anost free of onergont or or subeierg5 v960a1ion. The water in contrast to the nlatmo4a steoams 4-6, frequently loaded with suspeALons of OUt and eOlwhich uasi to a degre mit their fauna,


The ApalaohIOO3A RaVines


The Apalachicola Ravines in northwestern Liberty County, although Surrounded by the Western Uplands, ae unique in a nimb*r of respoes. 7hey a" noted as the only knoun habitat, outside of caltivation, of the stinking cedar (MO taxfoli), and for the os. cuirnoe Oj the Florida Yew (Txus f~ol'id and Other'.plants with northern affinities. Several interesting northern water beotlo are, found In Florida only in this region and nearby. Appezently the 41.p ravines have maintained oonditions suitable for many forma which were exteInated in other parts of Florida at, the Gles, or the ltst Le



Us most outstanding water beetle of the ravinos, is stonelis

,_onaa which ranges fr ma Quebso through Connecticut, Wryland, and Virginia inland to Kansas, The population in the Apalaahicola Ravines region seems to be completely Isolated from the normal range,


ftr us she2MWni is another waterbeetle which seos to find

the ravines the only suitable habitat in Florida, It hae been taken




...






only frm the win~ at the )ia4 of, Jttl *ttvCwkus a'mw . .. -, 4tUMw.4 r ). .ui i.= A h. ....81a ,



the .av.1 nm * .


ra* Sld aattiw AV Mar, arhOIL


Oth~ spoi~ ooQ~t4 J~th~ro~~i ~a'th siazdeu tasrde
Ot er spia ec. ..ete in the -rgo e4 'U' .













ad 2! .






-The. region .nr-t o arlamp rolled the Mamra Red41uss, to rather 10teiidVely fk.*itds and uoft.,af the ft-ICnMI humAok ha.s been **.t"Woyo The Um apy Is gently rOllin and In the re-, Cioq In wIfth sollwting hate been doe the roling hils -.em vro ad w1O ~a rather sas seem growth of -Pip=s taga and F AVUIPAS1 sit%a am.rather arae4 -but oateitibgl in 11 pad about .four .ilc* pothfst of Mamna produod xwxt surprising resuite. It is not uz11k*1y th4t the faura -of th uhole reoni chlaur.. terisd by heavy redwo.y soils is paou* aud tathet similar pond e.onitid"z Oftqnd into the Relsas d i1lls and parts or the Hamnaci Belt who"e cay. *oila romzt











The sm ul pOnd nrth Ot Varanna has been called w'Aolotl POuW beoause ofthe soourrenee there of a neotonie salemander of uneo tain taxonomie position. The highly turold water and enormous inseet population strongly suggest similer ponds on the Mexican plateau where axolotls also ooour, Such ponds are nearly aluays tenporary, very turbid, and support countless oofixids hioh apperently serve as food of the alamandors, whloh finding conditions unsuitable for their complete nteamorphosis remain as more or less permanent larvae.


The water beetle fauna, as a whole, Is not strikingly different from that of other temporary ponds in the Western Uplands, but the occurrence of two forms is especially noteworthy. Beto-siatim which although & aost coamopolitan In distribution, has not previouly been reported from the Southeastern United States, and Is charaoteristically a Western for .asmq shra s e'sa represents a distinctly Western group of the genus, and has not previously been reported frm east of the Mississippi.


Yhrther Work in the NIrianna Redlands is greatly desired.' It in possible that the observation of conditions there will throw considerable light on the problemsof neral ecology and the physiology of

4 1i organisns. The possibility that the rigorous conditions inposed by the ephemeral nature of the eovirqment, combined with high turbidity and limited space, produce faual smlarities even under very diverse climatia conditionS, is well worth Investigation.












the Peninsular Uplands


2he Peniular Uplands eomp~ries sevmral phyto.-Kgographio regioms. it is nearly the sum as the Oentral Highlands of Oooke(ln99), and ispresents the better drained and higher areas of the Central Peniasula. The principal phyto-geographis divisions as deflned by .harper (1914) ae the Middle Florlda lNook Belts the Peninsular Lime Sink Region, and the Oentwal Florida Lake Regton. None of these areas shows any great aorelation of the water beetle fauna with the floristic dhazaoteristios, but there seems to be a general untforsmity of the fauna ovewr the entire region similar to that *hiah wo hawe already noted i& the eat Florida Uplands.


The peouliarities of the awtic en orcaents and oonsequently of the water beetle fauna of this reglow seem largely to reflect the nature of the soils. In the Peninsuler Uplandas in general, surfaio bodies of Vater seem to be always clear, nearly always neatral or basio, wA defiolent in mineral and organic natter. The assooiated soils have a low *lay fraction, are neutral or basic In optionn, and Inpoverlshed of man minerals, low nuoh such ftetors aotua.ly influence Ue hab. tat preferenees of beetles is probleatical, and the Mager data, at hand do not help much In solving the problem


The soils of the region under discussion ftll into three main

gops, each roughly corresponding to one of the thres phyto-geopra4e divisions mentioned above. %he Middle Florida Ramook Belt in




am,


lafeoly dvel po4 u onhe theINwehipt Hoermm"* and. Gaixeville son" am sandy 1 Thse ars the eharaetorstie hammek sUs and e e a tong he w mature soils of Peninsular. llridw. A pheshalie .er ImeOY Oubs"I :i frequently assoolated withA he e .. s ge, In the Peninsular Lim SiWk ion#ea rtalk and lanton saude are out mnply predomimm*t 'In the Penisuar lake Region sands of.he NoMrfm Xsis$ Lakew*o St# UwA s and other series are praetloe y the, only: soils of am great area extent, The Jekewood and Ste JAie sands ore amens the poorest agriultur l sails in the 8.heo"O

As a heloo the soils of the Peninsula Uplands have very ittle
mineral mtter to Imt to the ur oee water, "xe eaeim and phespheruso This way in part limit the phyt- and aoo-planton and ineonsequence greatly reduce the prduetivity of most situations.

Another factor whieh may have contributed to the present tatou. ot the aquatic fauna of the Peninsular Upladso the geolegical history of the region. Just how mush this has been setive I ommot say* b*% the region was the first to be Oleted ater the las PlIes euew submereome, If indeed It was ever entirely submerged dring tat perid, and l oUly should have received the Most migranat fronthe marrowd. eig country* There is soue evi- eee that certain species of water boeot le are rele st fors whose presenat dUtibution is dpendmit an the various mdittatons of the form of the Peainsula. For oemple,

mmlmllQ12Ja MG&W and S0M m dugd oo to be such form* and further work may reveal that others now nearly confined to the .Peninsular Uplands were foer ly neo ext*ensveY dig






0S





tribute. d tO, were unable to establish thmwelves throuomt their famr ranes after the Plieptoeosn" oscillations.


Sa evId6-e seemed to indicate a relationehip betee the jmt0* ular, Uplands, the Rio of the vergladee, and the I'lwl4a Xes. Whether this is siIrpl due to the similarity of aquatic situatew of has s.e historical signfieanwe,l cannot may. Several peesa which oear In the Peninsulaer UpIands, on the Rim of %b* Mverglades, and the Iverglade Keys show slight indloatias of deyeioping local races In the latter situations. ThIis Is especially noticeable in DISachaoria. xqb~r *ad GiuflatIuf)


The aquaktic situation, of the Peninmlar Uplands are quite varled, In keeping with the varied landscape and topography# Much of the region Is oharacterized by the oacucrenoe of numerous lakes and ponds. In the LIm Sink Region, however, surfee water Is practically lackingw and the sinkholes and eaves in haeh the subt'ranean water Is exposed are widely scattered and almost sterileas ftar as aquatic beetles are Sonoemaed. The Hwamoek Belt has a peat variety of habitats which range from sluggish to swift stroeas, and from tomporay woods ponds to extensive marshes end large lakes.


In the region around 0inesville (Alachua County) the principal oharaeteristtes are dependent on the wall developed IArst topography. )sn of the larger bodies of water of this areu are the relgult





54





of_ the eoalesenoe of sinks. Oixtotanding e-Mples of mkrstiwn axe Paynete Prairie or Alohun Lake whioh has b'n forid. by the coeleeoenoe of sinks and the colapse of Cayes, dropping the overlying mft to a level deterstined by the water table, and the Devil's Mill-Hopper near Mainosville, vhioh is one of the la rgest solution sinks in th sorld, Rioh of this region and the adjoining area my eventually be reduced by Wkusting* to the state which has alreally been note4 in the Gulf Ramznook portion of the-Flatwoods.


Stream are eos, on in the Hamock Belt, but in other parts of the region they ae mostly subterranfntn, or lacking where the topography is suoh that nmirous lakes and ponds exist. In the Ramnook Belt, however,, street of :sevral types ocur and support a typieal water beetle fPuna. of these flow direotly into the adjoining' Flatwoods; others entar the subterranean drainage a" disappear. The exergno. of under wound streams produoos man of the large springs for which Jlorld has long been tVuous.


The wter beetles of the Peninsular Uplands aee not as mmerous nor as oheracteriatlo an those of the Flatwooda, but the number of speoes Is considerably larger. The most oharaoteristie form xs Noacr:In Cujm nLa~tue & .&Wilmths damlator.Al Mwoti colale DOIMoachwi Mujchlerif BL0muss eaffrim RA ""f. 6Mohb exigonke Hydronorue carolinue Q~d~fbl R NOGU (forn) as Orahofeteliru as. s b Didessaus lopyls COpeltus oal e is U agniole









-xdm dumba Ano o gumb Mm
zui'C Z*m JM& 40, j A"11 aus l b ams"o ..





















PLA=J I

GaereMAt o SOU p of rlotifa

(From J. R* iHmdruon MWe MU11 RE ELwi in saara the Uplands is 4ofind Ina this papa oor spond to fte Rn-Y*L w soilsv, te North norifa Lainaaft or Fatwoods to tb* Ground-watsr ?.daol and Half-De s ols, e, Th* South Florifa Lowlands correspond roughly ,to the Dog soil, Dry Sands, L14tholso and lt.oeleous Land Typ as reproed on this ap.






























I "1













PIdTS fl
Geeloied Vion lhp o or


MAi ap illetnaso the fsm earrespodaimo of the vegetton to' the sonl type. Ml West Fur"&a UpldUs oorespoad too he CUay Pne Lad and pet of th* Roll G ay Pine laUd the Peulmular Up., lands t part of th Roln Sad Pine Iand, the Phephatte and aom am"ak J And# the sdy amek md., an the Sorgb Let4 te tot nlid Loans or latwoods to the isat Pi"e TAds an an the outrher pe4 lto the Sndy Paire lad, and ths Seuh nerda Low"and to the &rI prle, HMs Pne *At an" pat of the Fhwteor Marsh9 Tida arh ad Smq. The Otrinn Redlmas and W asee Clay ill ouespond tko to Ret Clay hmaek et. The Gf Hmoek portio of the lUt t].oorreepos to ,tel l, Hmno Led,~ and ths &paaoh.nl Raines are im~taed In the Sandy RolPli faw MtIn noer LIberty Co-s wow*.
























dij










14 44.., -., 4 1 A 4i I + I Ii I I I .. :~ ~ ,,44 1 14 i. .l l ..Ii ,

,,.,.,.+,I I.. Im++ . .. A ~f -.
NI1W I4


*1 Ii

I


i


3a







W
I 1I-!!

I








TANA I,. ,.IONAL D1SRBm7ZOF Fl5MIUW BUETL (Io'.t)









0ol" - .0 a7 r ri__ I D D I68. _cbm (yarzA 170. 8c'clou 171. Idotri172. ~h~nronvcmus abaua





6L.




*wrMU LUT'AM MB TO MU WATXR -XM OP F14=~

xv7 to the W1,12i

l oe divided by the se marala of the hee4! middle And hind l4ep
modified tow mdimd ; antenna e- ith tbh:third -sqont mnread
ear*-like, the follwiM soents broad wiA more or les closely uni ted forming a aPtadle-shaPed apdge o.. .Griae(p#37.7) It Eyes siuplep at nos slightly sarginstod, by the sides of the head,
niot

2(1')o A suture visible betwon the pronatun and the pleural first
abdominal ste'nito divided lnto thre parts by the ce*# the

iddle section sometime minute or
2', No suture ,betvmn the pronotum and pleuwra first veta esument
entim.,. 0.,..0 *00*6000 00*000*060.so*.0,00*.0*** 0*60 0000000900(4)


3(2) Hind les markedly modifed for swiming lengthened, flattened,
and with larSe spure and small clwsI hind cwAe large but not
forming plates conealing part of the femorao..Dytisef p. 6) 3'. Lgs not flattened or broadened but frequently with swinmin
halrs hind come forming large plates thieh conceal the bases of



4(2'), Hind leg usually modified ftr sialng (or if notl, and the
*laws are lane the ventral seomeets I to 3 are movblo not united; antennae olavate, the labial papi frequently longer I* ....d r %vA*Y (19300

























PLmT inl

xtamdl "hrVoi

Dnma and Ywnttl Vim of

W*M=M Mums swp








































PLNM IV

IM~ wing of a dyTlsCIA bes&Uo* S, ang a p, SbOWLg the ypotlwUoma win venation oharterintl.e of the fWAly. Mw ploamt flowo a" a oratistU tture of the dytiIA win&,





620


than the antennep and usually mistaken for them at first


4'* ind legs not at all modified for swimming# the tarsal lau on
all logo Sremtly nlarged and modified for grasping; vptral

seuents I to 3 united* 1=iovable separately# antennae usually siilo, filifou but sometimes modified and super Ioally lke

those of the Gyrinidael labial and iWkillaky palpi short and"



rAMY MI$CnMA

The family Dytis idae Is opposed of adephagous Colooptera which

are adapted- to an aquatic life as adults and larvae. May of the larva. are truly aquatic respirng by moans of tracheal sills, but others are not provided with true gills and nt return to the surfao for air as do the adults, The adults are heracterized by the smUplo, .lwe.v-mnuted antennaso undivided eyes, and the expansion of the hind coxae; the latter are intimately soldered to the metasternum and form a Conoplcuous part of the emoskelston between the middle and hind less, a3myn reaching at the sides to the edges of the folded elytra. The hid les are usually highly modified for swimmingg and the insects are very clumsy on land. The very convex form Is aleo distinctive& From the Gyrinidaos the dytisoids ny be distinguished by the undivided eyes and sIple antennae$ from the Haliplidae by the differft structure of the hind come# and from the Hydrophilidae and Dryopidae by the dWvided first abdominal sternte and by the suture between the pronotum and pleurae











The family can be divided Into two aeries the R

and the R g g9aML o*n the structure of the eplsternw of the metathonze. In the fomear this does not penetrate far enoush toward the middle of the body to reach the middle ema, cavityp but in separated from the cavity by a process of the mooothoraic epimeron whieh articulates with the side wing of the metastermm. In the latter division the epiaternum of the metathorax reaches the middle eoaL cavity, and so trunates the mesothoracio epimeron, The cant co prise the subfamiliesoterine and Lacoophilinme, the other subfamilie ralins into the RXI" OW "

The Dytinidac are the most perfectly adapted to an aquatic life ot any of the wter besties# excepting the Gyrinidae which have become spoeiUlized for a life on the surface of the vite-. The great similarity of the members of the family is probably the result of convergeneeg md not always a. indication of close relatonship. The beetles rae In size from the tiny x m which measures just over I i. to U of South America uhich measures nearly 5 am. in length9


Key to the Subtilies of Dytisoidae OccarrinI n Florida

l. Scubeflw fully covered, or rarely a sall tip visible (in 22JU&

entirely visible, but in that case the proaternal process is strongly bent dwad)...*....... o0.....0.............(2)

1' scutellum entirely free; prostornal proess not defleated..,,,,,,(4)


1. 94dFIod ar Bradley 1(1930)s after zimmermnn (U917)0











2(1)o Bue of prooternu in tho suma plano as its proceed; tore and
middle tarot distinctly five-semmtedp the fourth sesment upproximtely so long as the thrd...........................(3)
2'0 Base of the prostaerm not on a plane vith it process Mhie
Is stro, y bent downwards; anterior nd adidle tamol ua pseud.-ottram u5 (j1 b the fourth seomeat minue and oea.

Cealed between the lobes of the third) exept in
in ihich Uh antorlor and middle tarot are distinctly fsveoe



342)* ind tot vith two slender -urved aaws of equal lejon ; pose.
terir margins of the tarS. ulfom..............ternse (p. (034)
3., Hind tari with a singe thick straight claw; hnd mrgn of

the *pical tarsal segment. produeed Ino



4(1')* Eyes esurginto above the bases of the antennae; tSt three
sements of male tarS widened, but not forming a round or

oval ehsn~ disk..,..*,.* ....,.* ...ol ti. (p,,68)

4 Bes not emrgimntol first three segments of the tarsi of the

mle forming a round or oval adhes.on.disk,,,,,,Dytisinaem (p*30) DSBPAMfl.Y NOKMIM

Di R s Ovtellum copletely Concealed by the bases of th ely. tra; Internal lamina of hind ooze exceptt In v differentiated from the otra lwmInm4a the two being soparated by a nearly le.titudium,








On= *T* S'ppW o. *utqv t.nMddSWep VR s*tam V q oq p


andrw Jmrpm So tuoufto son ko uma .Wpauq sm %woo
,qO uoapq g$u" "I oaq 10s0% lov SGeood "mS"asiod So pedy "(6f

(is) iu *&m*V*r4W~l=O. 50q;AVO yin.. W tSU.O@4d .xuCuW ,qaq ThrnrSp uw: qoue uo ku;AuoT %Oih .qq, qw uou~ms 4Ue'

ovmk dep vm pu q v tqa eumo puq so ewo o *io eqetc 0 C(/Ld) U!UT a ,~mnqdo.'s..- .oe-o.-emd NTAU [Wc

WT'q Imp" voopo p jo. U@ uomo Rom u OVwA"
uw qqla ze qu q1uqn. UKe pu~q ,p .d .uq qiurpwg -(,)

uRiu q*TANf 1 wous 0=0u q S o m,4usu uq g"dpvuszM

(s WAPA fas )f nlm om
(*eee,,e* O.e.0eosuao VgMq p *$owo s.mov TwqTd hOUTT~t

,,,, *,.,.*..o19.,U 1tdwoon; pm nv" a s ~JTVq;4oo fogTMT

4a~puu u~ia wauj uq pu~ip popoi tsea~i piumVOQu *(,t)g (, *d) 5~ 4uwpag-.....*e......I -e( Swpooc

m.. ATmJommi t tm A otle lonqq $?W p e qgq a salft tM *,*AM* "AM* sonotduoo $"It to *ur Iuaq ou'"q q quoj o 4j 9t

t ~ VM VAIN" ume pu ,eqM q o as A


64gMAqI.v 0% la mdo pumaf jo N.q IN ftv .W.e of* j evjOq. .U"mT..quu Iuswv a uo KPPW A twe oqq p q FuI'( osl~qn oq .pqpIw qwq ueu u q~pW.


It"










usuIXY less thsA 3a in n p/ ) 40. AO Of p-omtuma. press Very bread, at leat 2 ia to 3 time
its breadth beween the seae last segme t of usilar palus
twunfate at apeag Prot= with lateral mmil lines the enre
legt of the iilgs and 4o*Mns the frot =argig sis@ lawigr,
usouy over 4 m. In enO.....,.......... (p. 77)



1882 Sharp# 51. Tramn. Royal Dublin Soco. 2, (2), p. 260# 834. 1882 5hbUpgr s D"lo" C01traI Americam, 1, (2), p. 3. 1883, Le0VAO and HoWs 0l0919i4 Coleopto of N. A.* p. 63. 1917 Zi p Aeh. t. Nturgeih, 83, (1919)# A. 12, p. .....

minutes etesrrl e.4Ixzg l. in Iowa#h
anterior tibtae leoing the opur chareterictio of the other u!torifael antenae uiqble; posterior tarsi elonato sly e oobly adapted for swimls and Io .e tha the tibe., Dama otion between and eomIa plates omVplety obliterated, Suwfa o above and bAen h highly polished and alost devoid of visible punetation or pubesoeme.

'd A am subfmily, distinot.fm the NoterinaeI
might beo roted for Mn =and LW M(represented in Austra.. lia, the IndoMa ym region, and hidasear) an the bases of the nmodified anterior loeps end the obliteration of the mtastoml.opoexl plate sutue.
our Onily species of ,OON n l (LeConte), I1J refered
Zime~mn(ColeePt. CataloGII, pars 71,0 1920) to 04z Ib~~i)





67 #


Howes couparlson of MWM vith several uudoubted South Ane*espeees of a hen convinced me that it Is really a amabui of this gemas
Tho American species of W ozgM are oetamely s l to co
anoth. fhere Is an unnamed species from Porto Ri o, very osslar to, Maua In the arloa Mom of Watur. Histr*.

MlbtjgsL* The gu. us nm defined comprises several South Amo1riam aw sme Australian apeciesp but there in sme, Oubt of the gnerie Identity of the latter. The single North American speees oesw in Louisiana and no.rlda


1863 Adgang" LeCaskt 182 1 1Mkt LeCont,,
Tran. RoyMl Duabin Bdee, 2g 1883 010 Wt (Laenet),
of Ns.Aa, p. 63,


Nat, is*., 38, (3), pO 75. 11919 iamuoa mmalu (Le4nOt),


1920 fP5IW M (Leote)$
Tit p. M2


Mdths. ULs46C. oui 6, (3.7), p. 22, (no seeWI d.esp t), Sharp, ss01
(2), p. 784.
LeConte MAd Hos, (asif Co3Loopt. Lorn mod MutOlerd, Bul. Amer. Ma. B l eoyp ll. Amer. *As Hato ztiwmum#ns Coleopt* Catalos Paon


The' V "ery smill ai and highlt po l shd dorsm wil sepo awate this miut imeeot fro may other North Amelrisa dytisoeids. The





68.


contrast of the light brownish-yellew pronotum with tho dark reddishbrown elytra is also distinctive* The form is more elonate than in SU1 igligg or C2Wub3*qdr Length 1.2 to lep3to., width about 0.65 to 04un.

ZTxg" Iga' It is unfortunate that, I was unable to c ompare Florida specimens of this species with LoCorte's type from Louisiana in the M* 0. Ze, because from distributional date I suspect that the Florida examples may represent an isolated, and perhaps distinct group* With one exception all the records at hand are from regions of the state in which Pleistocene Islands were left usubmerged, and it is possible that e are dealing with a race ich we cannot diagnose by current criteria. The record for Royal Palm State Park in Dade County further indicates a general resemblance of the fauna of that region with north central Florida. All of the species of tedlrs are very similar; a critical study of their ecology and metamorphosis might do much toward clarifying their taxonomic relaUtionships.

WiLMn The species in Florida seei to be very constant* Its small size makes examination difficultv, however# and variations may ocur which have escaped detection. Color and alse vary slightly in large series, but not significantly.

Bons Louisiana and Florida* In Florida it is common only in the central part of the Peninsula* The range may be wider, and the species commoner than we suspect, because the minute size of the inseats makes it very difficult to collect them





'9


WLU1Mgv All of my ow reoords for jmqj are from Alachua County# where I have used a simple Beele. funnel extensively. The species seems to prefer rather permanent bodies of water where it can find shelter among roots and submerged debris along the shore line* Like most small utter beetles* it probably never wanders far from shore$ and may be strongly thigotactioe In working aquatic vegetatio and debris with the Berlese funnel, anulus is among the last of the water beetles to begin dropping tnto the collecting jar. Sherman (1913, p. 52) states that the species is one of running waters found by Mro Schwars on the undeotide of logo swept against a bridge over the Poll River at Bartow, Florida* I have taken it occasionally in streams, but I suspect that Its ocourence there is fortuitous*

Blatohley (.ajg. says that he has seldom taken the species in the collecting net# but has usually found it on submerged sticks and other debris around the margins of ponds. I have never seen ganula in the field, although I have spent many hours inspecting pieces of wood,

submerged roots, and other submerged objects in the hope of finding it. The arme material, placed in the Berlese funnel, sometimes produces numbers of the tiny insects,

1amoMohoglj8 T& accompanying illustration (P14 t ) was drawn from one of two larvae taken October 13, 1941, trom Berlese material collected at Green Sink on the University of Florida Ocampus, The peculiar form rules out most of the related Noterinae which have been found in the same habitat, and I think that it may belong to Banicue Mg hieh is nearly always abundant there* If it is really the larva of this little insect a unique position is indicated for ,do g1:Mg* None of the other dytiscids known to me have larvae





70.
with such remrkable antennae.

The drawing is, unfortunately, not entirely accurate. The larva, measuring only about 0.95w could not be adequately exmined hwith the binocular mieroseopeg s0 that it was neeossary to cler it In Xylol and mount in blssea The consequent transparency of the mount made drawing difficult, and the pressure of the oover glass tended
somewhat to tiaten the spemen Superficially the outstanding charaoterisuti, other them the peculiar antennae, is the large head and thorax, which tapers Into the narrower abdomen, In the mounted specimens the rotundity of the abdomen is partially destroyed, so that the discrepancy in width between it and the thorax is hardly apparent. The antennae seem to be more modified and composed of more segments than those of most dytisaid larme,

pub g fhldjg, Long and lutchler (1.a,)s Crescent City and

Bartow (SBharz); Dunedin (Blatohley)v Bartow (Roberts Con), Blatchley (l.e.) given only Dunedin* Sherman (1913) gives Poll River# at Beartow Florida, E* A, Sohwarz


Uggime EMI LOUISIAiMe LeConte' type in the M. Co Zp labelled "Loulsiana, Dr* Sohau FOl,,Dks Alachus County 140, Green Sink, Gainesville, September 259, 19391 5#, Green Sink, Qotober 13, 1941l 34, Newnans Lake, 5 mi. Zo of Gainesville, September 27$ 19391 6, Hatchet Creek, September 26, 1939; 20, Divins Arm, October 129 19391 (all collected by F. N, Young); 1, from sphagnm moss, February, 1942, Ho K, Walla** Uj ighlan County: 1, Brighton, June 16p 1929, P. J. Darlirton, Jr.; Polk Countyi 1 Batov (Sehuars) in Fall Collection;






































PU~T& V

Supposed laa of oinea (Le.) (Drawn with gNM lu from spec i taken in aeucciat:6in with the *Atult*,)





1"


Pinellas Countys 3v Dunedin, April 29 1920, April 6, 1922, and April 2, 1925, St Blatehloyq in Fall Collectiong Dade Countys I Royal Palm State Park (Paradise Key), April 2, 1925, Wo S. B., in Fall Collection,

Genus Q LeConte

1861 Leonte, smiths. Mise Conl., 3. pe 40# 1863 LeConte, Smiths. Viso. CI0.11. 6, (167), p. 22. 1873 Crotch* Trans. Amer, Et. Boo., 4, p. 397. 1878 Regibartf, Ann Soo. Ight France* (5), 8, p# 455, 465. 1882 Sharps SoU. Trans. Royal Dublin Soo., 2, (2), p. 267, 837. 1883 LeConts and Horn, Classifo Coleoptera of N. A.1 p. 63. 1917 Zi.hmmerma Arch. f. Naturgesch., 83# (1919), A. 12p p. 112,

Dia=Mjj s Anterior face of prosernum vertical* forming almost a right angle with the inferior facoi which is concave and strongly marginedl epipleurae abruptly inflexed, horisontal throughout their entire lengths In contrast,, the closely allied genus A pUM has the prosternum bent in a gradual curve in front of the anterior coxa. and not forming a prominent angle. The single species, o9uj igLagjj is an almost hemisphrical, opaque black, little insect with red markings on the elytral it can hardly be mistaken for anything else in the Florida fauna.


X2konoaIg NdM The tribe Suphusini, comprising oluS_ and .qM &# is associated with the Noterinae by the structure of the anterior legs, but shows peculiar departures from the general structure of the subfamily in the form of the prosternal process and hind legs, which are abmot umodified for svisming. In this last respect the group represents the lowest level of the Dytisoidaeg but the remark-





120


ably modified anterior legs link them with the highest Noterines.

FAgIsU% is' S2IUM Is confined to the Southern United States* The related senus, Zuh, occurs in the West Indies and South America.


'00do~i Le~ont,

1863 2gbgg ,iga" Leconte, Smiths. Vise. Ooll*, 6, (167), p. 22. 1873 golgI! W LeConte, Crotch, Trans. Amer* Ent* Sc, 4#

P. 397#
1882 ,Wl j j~ jUs LeConte, Sharp, Sol. Trans. Royal Dublin Soee.

2, (2), p. 267, p1 .9, fig. 112.

1918 pJM Inflat LeConte, Long and Mutohlert Bull* Amer* Mas.

Nato Histo 38, (3), p- 76.

1919 o!Ud !fiau LWcnte, Blatehloey Bull. Amer* Vus. Nat. Mist*#

41, (4), p. 306.

M&aWnost ggogugg a is a wmallp opaque, black insect$ roghly seeI-hsmispherical, a little pointed behind0 with the elytra usually variegated with irregular reddish markings, but frequently entirely black. Thus characteristics together with the generic diagnosis make the determination of the species comparatively easy. Length

3 to 3.4ma, width about 2,%ma.


i mt'pinia r tIion in ge j~W seos to be confined to the color and elytral sculptures, in other characters being remarkably constants It seems$ in fact, to be a relict form which is so constant because it has completely stopped evolving Generically and specifically it has se~ingly attained a stability similar





73.


to 1 hat of such vertebrate relicts as the gopher tortoiseo (Ug g Rol bMe ) and the Florida burrowing lizard fl Del its reetention of primitive characters it is uniquely interesting.

DAM S Southern United Statesp from Louisiana to Florida, It is abundant in the Peninsular Ulands of Florida and occurs as far routh as Paradise Key in the Everglades.


JIabUMLuM U e In the Peninsular Uplands, ,giua MiZ&Lu&M is abundant in sinkhole ponds, and in open marshes, It also oeturo along the swampy margins of lakes, in swamp streams, and Flatwoods ovamps. It seams, however, to reach its mximum abundance in the ecoaparatively neutral Upland ponds and marshes* Blatchley (1. 1.) mentions taking more than 75 specimens from the margins of a lake a mile east of Dunedin, and over a dozen from a shallow woodland pond at La Bello. I have colleated the species in some numbers from Pond 0 and Bivinls Arm of Paynes 12airies near Gainesville* It probably ooours in the West er Uplands and Apalachicola Flatwoods regions, buat I have not yet found it there* The occurrenee of this species at Paradise Key (Royal Paln State Park) in Dade County is rather surprising.

Published Beeoftt Sohua',- (1878) gives Tampa and St, Augustine. Long and Mutehler (-a.) adds Jacksonville and Taylor County (Genumg in Long Coll.); Enterpriso (Brownell in Loeg ool,)j Dunedin, KUssiimee and Lake Okeechobee (Blatohley); and Jacksonville (Roberts Collection). Blatohley (jo.g) gives Dunedin and Ia Belle, Florida, The type locality is Louisiana* Crotch (1873) gives the range as Louisiana$ Florida, and Now York, but the latter ts probably erroneous.






2po5.iein ra e ip~l ORIDA1 Alcaoh Couhtyl 10 Pond co, near Gainesville, May 18, 1933# ', Sadler; 5, Pond Ca, Feb. 26, 1935, M7aY; 4, Lake Loehloosa Jan* 31, 1937, FY; 1, Bivin's Am of Payne's Prairle, near Gainesville, Feb. 17, 1937, FHYj It Bivin's Arm# Feb. 24, 1937# FNY; 52, Pond C., Mare It 1937, FKYj 6, Alachua Sink, near Gainesvilleo Mar. 14, 1937t FNY1 A1s Lake Alice* near Gainesville# Mar. 17, 1937, FNY I$, Bivin's Arm# Apr. 50 1937, FNY# 1, Freeer's Pond near Wansvile, Apr. 12, 1937, VNYI 2, Lake Alte* Sep%. i$5 1937, FM! Is Lake Wauberg, Apr. 30g 1938, TNY; 2, Rooky Point$ Payne's Prairie$ Jan. 6, 1939v Preer, It Bivia'. Am,, Apr. 20* 1939, FNY; 1, lake Newname about
5 ml, E. of Gainesville, Sept. 27, 1939, FNY; 1, Freezer's Pond* Sepat 30, 1939t F"N 3, Lake Alice# Jano 6, 1940, VHY; I Lake Alie., Feb. 14, 1940, L Bene; 1, "Willeow Pond"'near Waehooteot Jan* 31s 1942, JSR9 JCDq and FN!; Calhoun Countys 1, 6.9 mni N w, of Blountstown, June 9# 1938, PMY; Dade Countyt 1, Mmi, une 16, 1936, wl i, miamiI July 13, 1937, MY; 3, Canal near Paradise Key* Rloyal Palm State Park July 18, 1938, WHYj 1,, Canal near Paradise Key, Royal Palm State Park$ July 20, 1938, MIY; Highlands Countys. 2, Canal near Brighton, June 16p 1929, PJ (in rall CoL); Lake CoWtyS 3, Near t1atilla, Ot* 2, 1938, FNY; Jefferson Comty, 2, South of Laont, Mar* 18, 1939, FHY; Okeechobee Co ty: Swmp strem $ mi. S. of County line CA Fla. Hgw. 29, July 23, 1940, FNY, Ao; Palm Beach Countyl 1, DUh near Lake vorth9 Mar, 28, 1941,. L, G,vannolli Pinellas Countyt 2, Dunedin, Mare 11, 1919, Apr. 2, 1923o Wo So M1atchleyo (in Fall Coll.); Putma Countys 12, i07 ml. N. of Palatka, 00o, 2, 1937# FY; Is 1*7 nie No n. of Satswua July 30, 1938t THH and JJF (in UMIW); St. Johns County: Anastasia Islands St. AuWstine, Mar. 22, 1924, THI.





Too


Gnus D Sharp

1882 Sharp, Sci. Trns. Royal Dublin So*. 2, (2), p. 263, 835. 1917 zim-rm ,, Arah. f, Natwseoh., 83, (1919), A* 12, p, 114#


RLaMj.e! EMMIM is readily distinuished from the other North American genera of Noterine by the rounded proster ral process# weak pro-tibial spurs, end the enlarged intermediate segments of the antennae The side margins of the pronotum are entire as in ca not incomplete as in Suphisellus.


~n=gcl & pI Sharp (,&") erected this genus for PnetiyeiMis, which he Oeecribed fron brazill later he established the genus f t forV0 Me ,ooggls. which he described from Guatemala (Biol Cent. Amer., 1, (2), p* 4)o As I interpret the desoriptionaz these two genera are very feebly distigushed from one another, and T believe it possible that they will be found to merge with one another# I have selected the older name, oegd s to apply to two peculiar North American insects vhich have previously been placed in 2W &M (~hj-gjUj

If the species treated here are really congenerie with the South American LqnetLUennbs the range of the genus is from the United States to Brazil# tioluding the West Indies (M2Md2Ews obggur:L~ennig Fletiaux, Guadeloupe)*

Prrend mi89MU"I W (LeConte)

1878 Xgh i =e+&jg LeContel, Proe. Amer. ""hiloes Seeoo 17t p. 5950 1882 gwdM jdW Wemnue~ LeConte (referred to gjzdhiWW)# Se Trans*

Roy l -ublin, 5000' 2, (2), p. 825.




Full Text
652.
Mufcehler, Andrew J* (see also Leng, C. W. and Mutchler)
1931 Genotype designations of the genera Hydrophilus and
Hydroohara, Amer* Mus. Novitates, (507), pp* 1-3.
Needham, J* G* and Williamson, Helen V#
1907 Observations on the natural history of diving beetles,
American Naturalist, 41, (488), pp. 477-494, figs.
letolitsty,
1911 Die Parameren und das System dor Adephaga, Deutsche
Eat, Zeltsohr*, 1911, pp 271-283, 2 pis.
Oehs, Georg
1925 Uber Afrlkanische Gyriniden, Exit. Blatt,, 21, pp, 172-186,
1926 Die Dineutini 2. Tribus der Unterfam. Enhydrinae,
Fara* Gyrinidae, (Col,) A. Allgemeiner fell*, Erxb,
Zeit., Frankfort a. Main, 40, pp* 61-74$ 112-126$
129-140$ 190-197.
Oner-Cooper, J* (Mrs.)
1931 Heport on Dytiscidae, Proo* Zool. Soc* London, 1931,
pp. 751-801, 9 pis*, 4 figs*
D*QrehyBiont, A*
1913 Contribution a l1 etude des larves Bydrophilides, Ann.
Biol* lacustre, Bruxelles, 6, pp. 173-214, pis* 1-13*
1916 Notes pur la classification et la phylogenie des Falpi*
cornes, Ann. Soc* Enfc. France, 85, pp* 91-106*
1919 Contribution a 1*etude des sous-families des Sphaeridinae
et des Ifydrophilinae, Ann# Soc* Enfc* France, 88, pp, 105-
168*


PLATS 33OT
^siU&sesm steMstm (LeG*)
niuBira-fcise the progressive
deplgraeatation of the dorsiua
in Florida specimens, The
right Land figures are most
representative of Floridian
samples as a whole.


126*
"Willow Pond," Jan, 31, 1942, JSB, JCD, and m* Broward County*
14, Sockpit near Davie, July 27, 1939 POT* Calhoun County; 1, Bead
aide ditch near Bio^tstowa, May 3, 1941, Pfflfj Citrus County1 X, Pond
about 1*5 1. 3. of Floral City, Apr, 2, 1939 FUI; Columbia County*
1, Cyprest-Supelo gum swamp 18 i. S. of lake City, May 12, 1937 FBI;
Bade County* 1, Homestead in Fall Coll ; 15, Bitch near Berth Miami,
July 5, 1937, POT; 20, Bitch near Horth Miami, July 13, 1937. *BT|
1, Miami, August 11, 1937, FBI; 1, Miami, Aug, 26, 1937, m* 1, tem
porary rainwater pools near Miami, July 12, 1939 *OT* 1, Miami, Aug,
25, 1939, POT* 5* South Prong of Miami Biver at Miami, Sept, 9 1939.
fflb 5 South Prong of Miami Kiver at Miami, Sept. 11, 1939, POT;
Duval County; 1, Jacksonville In Pall Coll* j Hillsborough County;
1, Tampa, Mar, 21, 1937* Stanley Saylor; lake County; 3* Swamp
stream about 4 mi. S. of Dmatllla, Oct, 2, 1933 ATO and fST; Orange
County; 1, lake about 9*3 mi* B, of Apopka, Apr, 2, 1939* POT; Os*
ceola County; 2, Swamp stream 6.5 mi. W, of County line on Fla. Hgw.
192, Apr. 1, 1939 POT; Palm Beach County; 1, Paddle in Pinewbods
near lake Worth, Mar, 26, 1941, X* Giovannoli; Pinellas County; 1,
Dunedin and 1, St, Petersburg in Pall Coll. ; Polk County; 1, Bo ad-
aide ditch Just S, County line on Pla. Hgw. 2, May 13, 1939 POT;
Taylor County; 3, Bear '¡Beonf ina Hi ver on Pla. %w. 66, Mar. 18, 1939,
PHI; Walton County; X, Pools in intermittent Swamp stream, 3,3 ml.
W. County line on Pla, %w, 10, Oct. 17, 1941, Mj AUBAHM Baldwin
County; 1, Mar, 30, 19X9, H. P, Loding} Mobile County; 2, Mobile,
Jan. 15, 1924, H. P, Loding,


Taxonomic lotea; Copalatus. Agabetes. Aglyabus. and Lacconsctua
making up the tribe Gopelatini are among the moat remarkable of the
Colymbetinae, They do not seem to be closely related among themselves*
but rather represent several convergent lines of descent. Copelatus
is composed of many diverse elements* which have* however* defied at
tempts to separate the from one another.
Distribution* Widely distributed in the tropical regions. Five
species occur in the United States* four of them reaching Florida.
Life History* Unfortunately, the life history of none of the
species of Copelatus seems to have been described* The larvae are
probably similar to those of other Colymbetinae.
Key to the Florida Species
1. S&ch elytron with a submarginal and 10 other distinct striae...(2)
1*. Each elytron with a submarginal and 8 or less distinct
striae. (3)
2 (l). Fronotum of both sexes with numerous fine* short
scratches; elytra of female usually densely covered
with short scratches between the more deeply Impressed
striae; dorsum predominantly rufous or light fuscous;
sice rarely exceeding 4,5 am. caelatlpeaals (p.i#
2*. Prenotan and elytra without sexoal sculpture in either male
or female, finely punctate; dorsum predominantly fuscous or
piceous; length, $ to 6 mm... fifcyphlcus (p,7ft
5 (2*). Each elytron with a submarginal said five other striae,.*
debills (p.l^L


PLATE XXX
Fig la* Prenotua of Oefathobias
attrltra (after Horn, X8f0)*
Fig* lb. Proaotm of
Magote, (aftw Hora* 1890)
Fis. 2*
.tVi'*
aaaa Bg^atoallia Kies.


254*
perhaps m indication of intergradation between the two forme, However,
there seems to he no tendency toward mixta In any of my Florida mater
ial, hut, as I hare already noted under lvaceus. some females, especial*
ly a few from the Saetera Hatwoods, approach that species, and could
scarcely he distinguished except for the sinuate anterior angles of the
pronotum,
fiance t Commonest on the Atlantic coast from Canada to Florida, and
extending inland to Illinois and Kansas.
Hahltet Preferences! The habitat preferences of this species in
Herida are moat Interesting and provocative. It is typically a species
of the numerous small sand-bottomed streams of the Uplands, but along
the St, Johns Hiver in St, Johns County, t have taken it frequently in
the little streams running through seai-flatwoods to the river, Appar
ently it Is not so closely confined by the general conditions as some
other species, but is very partial to running water.
The apparent partiality to running water makes its occurrence in
the deep einks, end open caverns of the Peninsular him sink Region of
the Fenlneular Uplands quite unexpected. The abundance of species in
some of the cave-like sinks is possibly due to individuals being carried
Into the underground drainage by surface streams, and left stranded
where these streams are exposed to the surface. A similar condition
is seen in certain species of Botroula. which are typically swift stream
fish. A form of the common surface species, chalybasus. which is now
confined to the oaves wad sink s of western Alachua and Gilchrist


i
285
1917 Siramersann, Arch. f. Naturgesch., 83, (1919) A. 12, p, 205.
1922 Fall* Review N. A* Species Agabus. John B. Sherman, Mt, Ver-
non, 1. Y,, p. 1
Diagnosis The group of clllae arranged in a row on the inner
half of the inner apical angle of the hind femur is sufficient for
the separation of this genus from others occurring in Florida. The
character is shared with a number of exotic and northern genera,
but Ilyblus is the only other which might occur in Florida.
Distribution The northern portions of both hemispheres is the
normal range of this genua, and few of the species extend very far
south. Only three reach Florida,
Life History The larvae are typical of the Colymbetinaej few
if any of the North American species have been completely investiga
ted.
Key to the Florida Species-*-
1. Prosternal process rather broad, and only moderately convex,
never with dilated side margins, its tip sharply acuminate;
elytral reticulation well impressed; hind tibiae with a raw of
punctures along inner margin; inner apical spur of hind tibiae
not longer than the basal segment of the tarsus; dark black
with a narrow submarginal testaceous stripe....Johann!s (p.227)
1'. Proaternal process narrow, evenly acuminate and convex; ely-
1. Modified after Fall, 1922


ner and fSTj $4, Birins Arm, Man. 12, 1341, JGB and SR* Patna*
County 11, WelakaFish atchery Pond, Man. 25 1941, PET;
mYQmt 5, Staten Island, Sep*. 4, 1900, J. B. Sherman, Jr,|
1, 8lev Yoric? LsConte* type in the MCE KIBHESG2A4 Dakota.
County 4* dune 1, 1936, & E. Sodge*
Bldegsae hobbsi ap. nor.
Plagosla She very distinctive form of this little insect will
readily distinguish it fro* any of the other florida species of the
genus. It superficially resembles Sternoprlacus of the Australian
fauna. There is a general resemblance in shape between the present
species and flavicollig. hat in the latter the outline is not so
strongly constricted at the bases of the elytra and prone turn, and the
elytra are not constricted .just before the apex. Also, flavicollig
usually has the elytra marked with a basal and poseedlas pole
fascia, and irregular spots at the sides suggesting an apical fascia,
The genitalia of hobbsi are distinctive (see-figure ) in baring the
point of the aednague abruptly reflexed, a condition only vaguely
suggested In granarlos. romeral, and flavicollla. Length around 1.4
Variation Neither of the two specimens before me have any in
dication of elytral markings. However, I hare seen specimens of
flavicoilis in which & similar condition exists although normally the
markings aro Very distinct. The punctation in both specimens is
rather coarse and scattered.


38
Besides the characteristic Flatwoods species already listed the
bellowing seem to be characteristic of the Peninsular Flatwoodsj
Laccophllus gentilia. Suphiaellus floridanus. Suphisellus punotl-
collie. Hydroporus affeminatus. Copelatus glyph!cus {in the north
ern part), Bldeasonotua longeva!ia. and possibly Brachyvatus aeml-
nulnw?. Hydrovatus oompressus. and others* It will be noted that
this list is very similar to that given for rthe Everglades* In
general the Peninsular Flatwoods show a mixing of the northern and
southern faunas, and Is not nearly so distinct as the Jest Florida
Flatwoods*
Ihe West Florida or Apalachicola Flatwoods
Many of the typical Flatwoods species are found in the pitcher-
plant pinelands of West Florida, which Harper (1914) has called the
Apalachicola Flatwoods, This region, however, shows certain start
ling evidence of a relict water beetle fauna, which is particularly
interesting when we consider its proximity to the Apalachicola
severa
Ravines, here many Tertiary relicts ln/|groups have survived. The
number of water beetles confined to this area is exceptionally large,
and a little incomprehensible when wo consider the great vagility of
most aquatic forms.
As characterized by Harper (1914) the Apalachicola Flatwoods com
prise the flat pinwlands between the Wakulla and Ghoetnwahatehee
rivers in West Florida. At first glance they seem to be merely an


snails in florida Roberts (l*o*) gives only Texas for analis and cays that
he has seen sorrulatas only from Florida He remark further that Reg-
imbart compares a^Lis with ad W*£%mm (M2MS>
though it seams to him (Roberts) closer to serrulstus. liy own opinion,
derived largely from a comparison of Robertas description and figures
of the two species, is that analis must be very similar to Carolinas A
comparison of the types of these three species, analist serrulatu3,and
carolinue* ought to settle the point definitely* ieng and Mutehler*s
Florida records (*c#) are based on specimens cited os "Sloeson Coll**
Whether these were examined critically cr the determination labels taken
at face valu, X cannot say, but Biscay Bay and Atlantic Beach (near
Jacksonville, the localities given, seas to me to be ideal localities
for carolinus. which from the rest of Leng and Mutchler* records was
apparently not recognized in the Sloason material Blatehley (.c.)
does not record analfe from the state, but gives sorrulatus as common
Variation For themoat part the large series of specimens before
me shows only minor variations The variation that does occur is largely
a matter of slight differences in length and width and does not seem to
be significant* A few specimens from West Florida have the dorsum very
rough, almost granulate, and spotted with reddish-brown. The irregular
ity of the markings makes me suspect that they are the result of some
accidental injury to the pupae or tenoral adults, either the action of
strong chemicals such as eresote or mechanical injury X have observed
similar spotting of the elytra in Bnochroe ocmsora from West Florida, and
in those the spots are rather definitely the result of pupal burns*#


52*
largely developed on the Fellowship, Hernando, and Gainesville sands
and sandy loams* These are the characteristic hammock soils and are
among the few mature soils of Peninsular Florida* A phosphatic or
limey subsoil is frequently associated with the members of this group*
In the Peninsular Mae Sink Region, Norfolk and Blanton sands are com
monly predominant* In the Peninsular hake Region sands of the Norfolk,
Euaiis, Lakewood, St* Lucio, and other series are practically the only
soils of any great areal extent* The Lakewood and St* Lucie sands are
among the poorest agricultural soils in the Southeast*
As a whole, the soils of the Peninsular Uplands have very little
mineral matter to impart to the surface waiter, except calcium and phos
phorus* This may in part limit the phyto- and aoo-plancton and in con
sequence greatly reduce the productivity of most situations*
Another factor which my have contributed to the present status of
the aquatic fauna of the Peninsular Uplands is the geological history
of the region* Just how much this has been active, I cannot say, but
the region was the first to be elevated after the last Pleistocene sub
mergence, if indeed it was ever entirely submerged during that period,
and logically should have received the first migrants from the surround*
Ing country* There is some evidence that certain species of water beet*
les are relict forms, whose present distribution is dependent on the
various modifications of the form of the Peninsula* For example,
Mateas sm&m* SsMm a&aSaa wsM&&
to bo such forms, and further work may roveal that others now nearly
confined to the Peninsular Uplands were formerly more extensively die*


363.
All of the Florida Bpecieg of Haliplus belong to the submenus Paralla
phlus. Llaphius and Halloing s, otr. are also represented In the
North American fauna.
Distribution; Cosmopolitan, hut apparently richest in species In
the more boreal regions of North America and Europe.
Metamorphosis; Here again we hare Dr. S. Hickman to thank for
most of our knowledge of the metamorphosis and habits of the North
American species* He has described rather completely the life hlstor*
les of Haliplus inmncullcolllg. H, erlbrarlus. and H. triopsls (Papers
Mich. Acad. Sel..,., 11, 1929 C193Q})* &ad discussed the habits of
various species of Haliplus ((rana. Amer. Ent. Soc, 24, 1 1931
pp. 132, 133.)
She eggs of Haliplus immaculicollls In contrast to those of Pel
todytea, are laid in holes cut in th stems of Oeratophyllum. Mathe*
son (l.c.) records the eggs of the same specie as being laid In the
dead, hollow cells of Bltella. There are three larval stages, and
pupation takes place on shore in cavities dug out by the larvae, as
in Peltodytes.
As pointed out under Peltodytes. the larvae of Haliplus differ
from that genus In lacking the segmented appendages and having instead
numerous, setlgerous tubercles on the segments.
Key to the Adults of Florida Species1
1. Length 1.75 bo 3 Florida species lightly punctate, and with
1. Modified after Wallis, 1933, PP. 5-11.


312
1882 Sharp, Biologa Central! American, 1, (2), p. 46
1883 LeConte and. Born, Classif* Coleopt., p. 6?
I9IT Zimmenaann, Apeh, f, Haturgesch., 83, (1919). p. 224.
Diagnosis: Byes very large in relation to width of head} pro-
notum margined; prosternal process;pointed; elytra coarsely, but shal
lowly punctate* more finely so on the disk; side margins of elytra
on posterior half with fine serrate spines; upper surface of hind
tarsi punctate, a pair of flat ciliae arising from each puncture;
hind coxae very large, the metasternum reduced forming a curved wing
around the anterior margin of the coxae. The integuments are quite
thin, much more so than in any of the other Florida species of the
family, and the peculiar color pattern of the elytra consisting
in our only species of three series of small black spots along a
finely impressed stria, three large submarginal spots, and numerous
very small black spots marking the shallow punctures. The elytra
are also peculiarly pointed at their tips.
Distribution; The genus consists of two recognized species, one
of which Is confined to Australia, the other distribxited throughout
most of the tropical regions of the world.
Life History; Boving and Craighead (1931) place the genus with
the Thermonectlnl on the basis of larval characters, but the adults
are so peculiar, and apparently disjunct from the other dytiseids
that it seems probable that the adult specialization has gone on
without involving the larvae as Richmond (1930) has noted among cer-


color? length 4.2 to 4.5 a*., width about 1.8 mb. .. .ullatel (p.at)
2*. Antennae similar in the eox$ form more regularly ovate, not
markedly acuminate behind? elytra! markings consisting of four
sub-entire falo vtttae and a fifth represented by several indis
tinct spots (in soma specimens these vtttae are vary Indistinct
or even lacking, the elytra being almost uniformly fuscous)?
elytra without transverse striae? length 2*6 to 2.85 a*, width
1*3 1 1*4 ebb..vlttatlnennls (t>.73o)
Hydropog^a diatjaaus Stell will also key to this point. It has
not yet been found in Florida, but may occur in the Western
Uplands.
3(2). Prosternan with a distinct protuberance, the anterior de
clivity of which shows more or less distinct rugae.. (4)
3, Prostemal protuberance reduced., and the anterior file very
feeble? form bread? elytra! markings very bright and well de
fined, of tin* fascists type? length 4 to 4,4 mm., width 2,2 to
2,35 mm.,..,, dllatatus (p.^)
4(3). Clypeal margin truncate, and with acute free edge, its anter
ior margin recessed above the labran? side margins of elytra
strongly ascending at the base? sides of pro thorax narrowly
marginad.... hybfldua (p*J6o)
4, Glypeal margin rounded, not recessed above the labran? side
narglns of elytra, feebly or moderately ascending at the baee,
the angle formed with the sides of the prono turn very obtuse?
prono tun more strongly margined on the sides, the margin usual-


6(5*)# Anterior elme o the ale net distinctly toothed, although
with a basal angulation? ¡auxiliary palpi testaeeouss basal
. i I i r
line at prenota indistinct? sise medium, 5 to Tees**,,
(p# 5t>7 )
6*# Anterior slaws of the malo diartinetly toothed? maxillary
palpi pieeeuef basal line ot prenotan distinct? sise larger,
7 to '£g]gg£g¡S (pWS'd^)
7(2* )* Anterior slaws of male not toothed? subdepressed, with sides
of elytra obliquely aaoonding,,,..oerplexus (p,t/p )
7** At least one slaw of male anterior tarsus toothed*,,.*#*(8)
8(7*)* Color fuecous, head sore or less pieeous and prenoto with a
large discal pieeous spot? olee larger, to 6&m**#######,
**.**.#** *, (P* ^1
8% Head and entire upper surface testaceous? site smaller, 3
to,dta&,, Mt*.roflexipenBis (p* 5"/^)
Enochrus nebulosas (Say)
1824 Hvdrophilua nebulosa Say, Keating* Sxped, under Major Long,
2, p* 277*
1837 Hrdrofrlua melanocephalug Kirby [not of Olivier, etc*], in
Hiehardson*s Shuna Bor*Ainer#, 4, p* 120#
1855 Phllhvdima nebuloeua (Say), Leconte, Proe, Acad. Nat, Sol* Phila*,
It P* 370#
1859 Pjhilhvdraa mculifyoiy Hotsohulsky, Bull# Soo* Hop# Nat# Moscou,
32, (3), P. 179.


Variations Aside from slight differences lit color pattern, which
is more plainly evident in Cuban specimens, Cuban and Floridian mater
ial which I have examined Is almost indistinguishable* Unfortunately
I could not dissect the unique type of pataleo* and the only ether
Florida specimen I have seen lacks the terminal segments of the ab
domen, so that no comparison of the male genitalia can be mde*
Hi Jamaican and Haitian specimens before me are very doubtfully
oonspecific with numilio* Their color pattern is quite distinct,
consisting of a basal fascia of confluent spots, and two sub-apical
spots which are confluent with the light margin but which do not
cfuita reach the suturo* Hie ground color of the elytra ie variable,
being in seme specimens fuscous, in others dark testaceous* 1 cannot,
however, distinguish the male aedeagus of the Jamaican and Haitian
specimens from that of the Cuban form*
fiances Until further work Is dose on the t?eat Indian species,
the range of numilio should aprisa only Cuba and Florida* la Florida
single specimens have booh taken at Enterprise (Volusia County) and
Brighton (Highlands County)% both probably came from Flatwoodo*
Habitat Preforaaoegi Apparently a lenitio species like most
other members of the group Darlington describes the habits of a re
lated species from Trinidad os being similar to those of laccoohilua*
The specimens which he dredged out of a swamp near Cumuto hopped about
in the net by flexing their hind legs, very much as do the larger
baooophlluB species* The specimens which he collected at Britten
was taken from a canal, but was dead when found, and had probably been


63d.
Darlington (oon*t)
1936 A list of the West Indian Dryopidae (Coleptera)* with
a new genus and eight new species* including one from
Columbia* Psyche, 43, (2&3), 1936* pp. 65-83.
Pimmock, George W.
1884 Coleptera in Standard Natural History, 2, pp. 297-402*
Dozier, H*L*
1920 An ecological study of hammock and piney woods insects
in Florida, Ann. Enfc. Soc. Amer*, 13, pp. 325-380, figs.
1-22.
Dufour, Leon
1835 Reoherohes anat antiques et considerations sur les insectos colept
eros des'genres Maoronique et Bkais, Ann. de Sel. Hat*, Pt.
Zool.* (2), 3, pp* 151-174, pls, 6 and 7* flgs* 1-28.
Duges, Eugene
1884 Metamorphoses du Tropisternus lateralis Fb, Ann*
Soo. Ent* Belg., 28, pp. 7-12, pl. 1, part 2.
Eriohson, Wilhelm F.
1832 Genera Dytieeorum, Berlin, 1832*
1837 Die Klfer der Mark Bradenburg, Berlin, Part I* 1837} Part
II, 1839.
1847 Conspeotus Insect Coleopterorum Perwana, Arch, f* Hatur-
gesoh., 1847, pp* 60-116.
Fabricius, Johann G,
1787 Mantissa Inseota, 1, Hafniae, 1787, 2 vols.


384*
gWESteaSM see£a8 remarkably true to fora wher
ever it occurs, the variation in sise is somewhat Xese than in oarolinua.
Range Atlantic Coast and inland as far as Indiana* The exact range
is hard to determine, because of the probable confusion of the species
with Carolinas. % collecting seems to indicate that in Florida it is
probably commonest in the Peninsular Uplands, and particularly abundant
in the Peninsular lake Region*
Habitat Preferences Emarginatas seems to be largely a lake fora,
occurring frequently in the emergent vegetation along more or less wave-
swept shores or near the mouths of streams entering lakes, while Carolinas
is almost entirely a pond fora* I have examined large series of specimens
from Lake Wauberg (Alachua County), hake Harris (hake County), a stream
and lake near Interlachen (Putnam County), and from a large slow stream
in Okeechobee County* In Florida, at least, emarginatus seems to repre
sent a transition between the truly lenitic and truly lotic species of
the genus*
Published Records The doubtful record of heng and Mutchler is
the only published Florida record for the species which I can find* Rob
erts (1095) Save only North and Middle Atlantic States; Virginia*1*
heGonte (1868) says, Abundant in the middle and northern States***
Specimens Examined FLORIDA* Alachua County 3, Gainesville,
Sept. 11, 1923, THH [in UMMZ]j 5, Gainesville, Jfar. 23 to May 1, 1924,
C. A. Scarborough, jgt aj,. [in UMMZ]j 25, lake Wauberg, Feb. 23, 1933*
JSR; 3, Lake Wauberg, Mar. 25, 1934, HTT; 1, Gainesville, Apr* 30* 1938,


482.
Length about ? to 7,5iaa.
Variation Florida specimens show some variation In sise, but aro
fairly constant in other characters.
Sanaa8 Canada to Florida and westward to Illinois.
ffla SsaSamm* 3* typically a speoios of tho
fairly swift. sand-bottomed streams, shore it oceurs in leaf drift in
oddios and backwaters, and clinging to the underside of submerged logs.
It is characteristic of tho streams of the Peninsular Uplands and Western
Uplands.
Metamorphosis* Tho larvae of this anecies are frequently taken in
company with tho adults in the leaf drift along sand-bottomed streams,
Richmond states that the larva closely resembles that of Hvdrobtua
gkfeaaaa C* synonym of a, aakSOML G*3 Richmond &.£*) and
Winters (&,&*) both state that F* A. Sebeara collected a larva from among
leaves caught in the roots of a tree near the margin cf a swiftly flowing
stream.
Published Records Long and ifatchler &.e) give Contravine (lote
arte Con, and Schwarz Mi Hete*) Winters (*c.) gives Bladeneburg,
Maryland} Satontoen, H, J.i and Westwood, N. that the species is said "to occur from Canada to Illinois and southward",
but is rare. It was described from Pennsylvania.
Saaatam MW&S* WOMMt Alachua County* 12, West Branch of


Distribution! Eastern half of Horth America, from Canada to
Michigan south to Texas and florida, loth of the species occurring
In florida are, so far as known, found only in the Hatwoods of
florida and Southern Georgia.
life History! Unknown* hut the species show a definite seas-
onal abundance.
Key to Species and Subspecies1
1, form elongate oval, attenuate behind* metaeoxal plates polished,
not mieroreticulate by sparsely punctate. General distribution
along a line drawn from Massachusetts to Texas, not reaching
Florida, bicarinatus (Say)
1*. form more evenly ovate, usually not attenuate behind, or if
so, sides subparallel} metaeoxal plates aicroreticulate (very
hard to see in some specimens especially those that are tener
al), and punctate. General distribution from hitarlo to
florida and west to Xllinois,...,..... .,.*(2)
2(1*). fora comparatively very short and broad, not attenuate be
hind} discal striae of elytra distinct, but irregular and
not impressed} head finely, almost imperceptibly punctate
color dark reddish brown} length around 6 mm
rellctus sp. nov,
2*. form more elongate, sometimes slightly attenuate behind with
sides parallel} dlscal stria distinct, usually regular, and
Modified after" lechj 19^1.


These latter specimens, however, may not he Identical with the others,
and may represent one of the West Indian species.
Published Records} Gonflueatus was described from Taylor County,
florida (W. S. Genung), and Roberts also gives Sanford and Jacksonville
(W. S, Geaung), and Tampa, Florida (U* S. National Museum), Wallis
(l.£.) adds Beaufort, S. C. Leng and Mutchler (X.u.) list no locali
ties not given by Roberts. Blatchley (1919) records the species from
Dunedin, Florida*
Specimens Examined! PROHIBA, s Alachua County 1, Bake Alice,
Sept. 15, 1937* 33*7* Dade County! I, Canal near Paradise Key, Royal
Palm State Park, July 17, I93S, PHY; 1, Miami, June 26, 1939, PHY;
Marion Cotmty! 2, Silver Springs, May 7 1934, R. R. Sheppard; Mon
roe County! 10, Brackish Pools on Lover Matecuabe Key, Aug. 12,
1941 and Sept. 12, 1941, FRY; Palm Beach County! 27, Bitch near
Lake Worth, Mar. 28, 1941, L (Jlovannoli,
Hallplus annuls tus Robert s
1913 Haliplua annuls.tus Roberts, Jour, St. Y. Ent. Soc., 21, p. 107-
108,
1918 Hall plus amula tus Robert, Leng and Mutchler, Bull. Amor. Mus.
Hat. Hist,, 4l, (4), p. 315.
1924 Hallplus annulatus Roberts, Zimmermann, Entoa. Blatter, 20,
Heft 4, p. 193.
1933 Hallplus annulatus Roberts, Wallis, Trans. Royal Can. Inst.,
19, (1), p, 29-30 fie. 19.


428#
3** Six or serai chitinous sternltes, without a transverse swelling!
antennae of 8 or 9 segments $ species small, rarely exceeding 1*5
mm* in lngth******##*.*##***#*******##*#***#HYEIbiU£HINAE (p*V^s)
SUBFAMILY HYDRABH1HAE
Diagnosis a This is a rather natural group roughly characterised
by the elongate terminal segment of the tarsus* six er seven ehitlnlsed
abdominal segments, 8 or $ antennal segments* and by the primitive type
of larva#
saving end Craighead (1931) group
& Qohthebius, and Idmne
bjus together in a family, the Liranebiidae, on the basis of larval char
acters* The family* part of their Leptlnid aseoeiation of the Staphy-
linoidea, is characterised by the retention of many primitive larval
characters such as the lacinia mobilia of the mandiblca, the ampodei-
form type of body* retention of vestiges of the maxiHulae at the sides
of the hypopharynx, ten abdominal segments, e to* According to these
authors the larvae of the Limneblidae are distinguished from other mem
bers of idie aseoeiation by the mandibles having a large asperate or tub-
erculate part, and the tenth abdominal segment bearing a pair of hooks#
Although the association of Ochthabius and
ieqa with the Staphy-
linoidea is somewhat revolutionary, it is in many ways justifiable# The
imaginal oharaoters on which we group these genera with the Hydrophilidae
may be the results of convergence rfi$J#F titea evidence of common origin*
I have retained the classical placement here largely for convenience,
and because the evidence from the etudy of larvae is still very meager,
not entirely excluding the possibility that further work may entirely


(*V*f) H%048 *j£Wfpat|a &ma ** *wua **** mvH


Range? I have taken the species only in the northern and central
por tie of the Peninsula, where it is fairly coo son in the Uplands.
The species is far less coman and widely distributed than gubsericeus.
Sabi tat Preferences; In Alachua County, lon^ovall a is typical of
sinkhole ponds, rather permanent roadside ditches, and the slower
streams where it occurs in the backwaters and adjacent pools. It seems
to be commonest in the Uplands, although also occurring in flatvoods
situations.
Published Records? Blatehley (l.e.) describes the species from
Dunedin, la Belle, and Kissimmee. Shay of the older Florida records
for nulicarlua probably include this species as well as subsericeus.
Specimens Sxaained: FLORIDA: Alachua County? 2, B-Y Pond, Feb.
26, 1937* FRY; 1, Green Sink, Apr. 2, 1938, J. H. Martin; 2, Ditch near
Tiger Bay, Sept. 20, 193. FHY; Hewnaa, Sept. 27, 1939, FRY;
13, Hatchet Creek, Sept. 2?, 1939, FNY; 9, Freezers Pond, Sept. 30,
1939, FRY; 110, acahooteePony Puddle, Oct* 12, 1939. FRY; 5, Waca-
hooteeRoadside ditch, Oct. 12, 1939# FRY; 5, Bivins Ara, Get, 12,
1939, FRY* 1, Green Sink, Oct. 1|. 1939# FBI; 7, Frairl# Creek, Oct.
18, 1959, FHY; 4, lake Alice, Jan. 6, 1940, JCB and FRY; 1, Willow
Pond* near Waeahootee, Mar. 24, 1941, JCD and FSY; 2, Sphagnum pond
near Ascott, Mar. 24, 1941, JCD and FRY; 1, Roadside ditch about 3 i.
S. of Gainesville, Jan. 25, 1942, FRY; 2, Willow Pond* near Waeahootee,
Jan. 31, 1942, JSS, JCD, and FRY; levy County: 4, Otter Creek, Oct.
26, 1940, FRY; Madison County? 1, Roadside ditch 1.4 mi. S. of la-
rnont, Feb. 5, 1938, FRY; 1, Aucilla River opposite laaont, May 4,


Published Be cord si Blatchley (l.e.) gises es the type locality
a deep pool on the site of an abondoned sawmill two miles northeast
of Dunedin. I can find no subsequent records of the species.
Specimens Examined* J$BXtik Alachua Countyi 1* Wacakoetee
Fony Puddly Oct, 21, 1536, J| 1, Green Sink, Mar. 8, 1937,
3, Sinkhole near Alachua Sink, Mar. l4, 193?# PBYj 1 Willow Fond*
near Viacahootee, Mar. 24, 1941, JOB and 8} % Temporary Pond near
Wacahootee, Sow. 12, 1941, HHH, JCD, and iBIj 6, Willow Bond*, Jan.
31, 19^2, JSB, JCB, and FHT; Broward County* 1, Canal mess Ssvie,
Bee. 29* 193# Bade County: 1, Canal near Miami, Aug. 2, 193?#
IHTj Hernando County: 1, Brooksville, dune 1929, PJD in Pall Coll. *
levy County* 3, Bool in (t) Hatwoods just B, E. of Codar Keys, Apr.
9# 1937* ysw# Pinellas County* 2 Baratypes, Dunedin, Mar. 22, 1919#
W. S. Blatchley In All Coll. .
Deamopachria dispersa (Crotch)
1873 Hydronoraa dispersas Crotch. Trans. Anar. Bnt. Sec., 4, p, 35
l2 Hydroporus dispersas Crotch, Sharp, Sci. Trans. Boyal Dublin
Sec., 2, (2), p. 343.
diagnosis* The characters given in the key are adequate for tte
separation of this species. It is somewhat doubtful that specimens
from florida are nonspecific with Crotchs species, but I cannot at
present find characters for separating them.
Range: If the florida specimen refereed to dispersa really be
longs here the range of the species is extended a considerable die


583.
Variation* MsM$S3t arpeara to be considerably aere variable than
infuscadme* Essentially the variation la in the depth of the striation
of the elytra ad puneialon* Uio total length averages less than in
i*jfu¡gqatas* but there is considerable variation in piTsporiiona* although
strlaiue is generally broader* Florida specimens apparently average
larger and are more strongly punctate than oxessplm before sse fres* Efessa-
ehusetts* but I have sean too few specimens to reeks any definite general
ioations
The male genitalia in ay Florida specimens have three general forree*
all quite distinct from that of infuacatus (aee figo# )* 1 believe
that those different form of the &&imags- and parereeres are in part
due te the type of preservation and the age of the Bpeeiaen* but they
my also indicate a species ceslas#
Ranas* tfeaaeehuaetts to Indiana, south to Florida* In Florida
the species is eons*an only 1 the northern part of the state*
MSMS* frequently occur
together* striatusr however, mmm to be cofcssonesi in the Upland
situations*
£§£§££&&& (see under
Published Records; Bchmrz (l8f8)s Fort Capiron and 3SaBg>£* rare*
Long and Mutchler (I*#*) ndd* St* Augustine (Schwars MMietea)?
Florida (Biatehley} t Jacksonville (Luts* Davis* and Long}* Blatehley
(19193 gives* Ormond9 Moore Haven* and Dunedin* Soy's apecimns war


5 88.
Beresua (Bnm>hxrw) ouanax LeConte
I863 Berosus pugna LeCoate, Smiths# gjs# Coli(l67K o# 2 4*
1873 Baroaus sagnax LeOonts, Horn, Pros m&r Fhiloe* Sec., 13, p. 120*
1310 Berosua ouanax Leconte, BlatchXsy, Coleapt# Indiana, p* 258
1918 Beroeus puaaax LeGont% Long sad iJutchlar, Boll* Aiaer, Uus# Mat*
H 1st, 38, (3) P- 104*
1919 Beroeus pugna Lamenta, Blatehley, Bull* Anar* lies# Mat# Hist#,
41, (4), p. 320.
Diagnosis* The sainos elytral tips, and satire hind asargin of th
fifth abdominal oternite ill readily Identify this species# Length
5 to about sas, rather slender in oou^arlson to the other Herida ope
eios of similar length#
Taxonomic Motee fhe subgenus Enonlurus is best developed in the
014 Morid, but several species occur in the Western Waited States and
Mexico# Puanax does not seen to be particularly closely related to any
of these, however, but is probably an isolated species*
Variation She specimens before m vary considerably in color, ..
but as a whole are quite constant in other characters# Florida specimens
colare sil with the type, which is apparently a tenoral male and vary
brightly marked#
Ranges Illinois and Indiana to Louisiana and Florida# In Florida
It occurs sparingly in the Peninsular Uplands, but is usually rather abun
dant in the situations in which it is found#


Oree Sink, Sept. 25, 1939* PT 12, Hatchet Creek, Sept, 27, 1939, FRY*
27, Freesers Pond, Sept. £0, 1939* PH* 5* Waeahoo teeRoadside ditch,
Oct, 12, 1939* MTj 30, WacahooteePony Puddle, Oct, 12, 1939, FRY* 2,
Roadside ditch near Daya vi lie, Oct, 17, 1939, FRY; 2, Prairie Creek*
Oct. IS, 1939* PSTi 12, Hatchet Creek, Oct. 28, 1939, mj 2, Alto-Santa
ye Canal, Hot. 10, 1939* J8R and FRY; Bay County* 1, Drainage ditch
S.9 mi. W, of Junction of Fla. 52 and 83 on Ha. Hgw. $3, Oct. l6, 1941,
FRY* 13, Cypress swamp 4.8 ml. H. of South Port, Oct. i6, 1941, FNYj
2, Pool i horro pit 9.S ml. W. of County line on Fla. Rgw, 52 Oct.
l6, 1941, Wflff Broward County: 5, Canal near Davie, Doc. 29, 1938, Mj
Calhoun County 1, Swamp stream near Durham, June 9* 193 FRY* 7*
Roadside ditch 6 ml, S. of Blountstown, Oct. 15, 1941, FRY* 21, Roadside
ditch near Blountatown, May 3, 1941, FiTYj Dade County: 5, Rckptt at
Miami, Aug. 9, 1937, WYJ 2, Boefcplt at Miami, Aug. 11, 1937, FRY* 5,
Rockpit at Miami, July 12, 193# PH*I 1# South Prong of Miami River at
Miami, Sept, 11, 1939. PRY* 2, Paradise Key, Apr. 1 and 2, 1925 in
Pall Coll, 1 Flagler County 3, Swamp stream 3,6 mi. 8. of County line
on Ha. Hgw. 28, Apr. 1, 1939* FRY* Gulf County* 7# Swamp stream 7 i.
W. of Woewahltchka, Oct. l6, 1941, FRY* 1, Pool in Borrow pit, 2,6 ml.
S, County line on Pla. Hgw. 6, Oct. 16, 1941, FRY* Hillsborough County*
2, Little Manatee River at U. S. Hgw. 4l, at light, Aug. 14, 1938, fHH
and JJF la UMMZ ; Jefferson County: 7* Roadside ditch 5.8 ml. 8. of
Capps, Feh. % 1938* FRY* Levy County: 13, Otter Creek, Oct. 2f, 1940,
H. K. Wallace and JEY* 1, Cedar Keys in LeConte Coll, t Liberty County*
I, Swamp stream 2.6 ml. 3. of Hosford, May 1, 1941, PRY* Madison County*


Plagosla; Tffe large Sise,,toothed anterior male claw, and distinct feen-
talia of this species are highly diagnostic characters* The meaoeternaX la
mina has the inferior edge almost parallel with the longitudinal axis of the
body and the anterior angle only feebly produced in contrast to blotchley!.
which lSo has the anterior male claw toothed, from clnctua, congers dif
fers in its larger sise, toothed sole claw, genitalia, distinct basal line
of the pronotun, and in haring the maxillary palpi picaous instead of tes
taceous, Length ? to tea.
Taxonomic Notes; Despite the rather wide range, and commoness of this
species very little seems to be known of its habits or life history! My
own observations hare added little except to the known distribution of the
form*
Variation: Apparently a constant species in most respects. Although it
is widely distributed, and apprently not rare, I have never obtained large
series from any one locality.
Range; Eastern Waited States fro New Jersey to Florida and west to
Louisiana.
Habitat Preferences: Partial to lenitie situations, usually of a per
manent nature. Consera can be expected in standing water where algae and
emergent plants give protection. I have never found it abundant.
Published Records; Schwarz (1878); Fort Capron, Tampa, and Palatka.
Leng end Mutshier (l.c.): St. Augustine, Lake Worth, Oresant City, Jack-


6*
in these the color is ruined and the specimens partially decomposed*
When properly handled* however* no changes ore apparent even after set*
eral years of preservation in alcohol*
The simplest net that I hare found for general collecting is an
ordinary 10-oent store coffee strainer* Use of this,of course, usually
necessitates wading* or a least gett lag the feet wet* but the results
produced are far better than with larger nets used from a distance*
Snail Bosses of vegetation con be swept with the strainer several times
and insects dislodged that a larger net would pass ever* A tea sieve
with smaller meshes is also useful in straining debris and sedimente al
ong the shore in search of sueh tiny species as those of Hvdraena. Och-
thabiua, Bldessns. Deomonachrla. and others* Such devices as the Head-
ham semper net and the Needham apron net* although useful in certain
situations* are as a rule mere impedimenta in the field and do net re
pay the collector for the trouble ef transporting them*
For more intensive collecting* especially of the smaller forms* the
Brlese funnel is surprisingly effective* Quantities of vegetation* de
bris, mud* sand, etc*, brought in from the margins of streams or ponds
and placed on the screen over the funnel, will usually yield large num
bers cf both common and rarer species* It is on especially good method
for capturing the smaller forms* which frequently pass through a eleve
with coarse meshes j and thlgmotaetto species, which are hard to find in
the field* are obtained in numbers as they gradually reloas a their holds
and fall into the alcohol jar* The material to be worked can be brought
in from the field in gallen jars or ordinary buckets end separated almost
at ones leisure* In transporting the material* however, care roust be


2*2.
Published Recordsi There are no published Florida records for
this species, fell } gires: Nantucket, Massachusetts to Geor
gia; Staten Island, New York, and Anglesia, New Jersey. According
to him Hamiltons record of the species from Western Pennsylvania,
and Wickhams for Iowa both probably refer to aeruginosas.
Specimens Examined: FLORIDA: Alachua County: 69, "Billow
Pond," a serai-penaanent pond about 5 i. 3. W. of Gainesville,
March 34, 1941, JCD and PHY; 2, Pony Puddle, a small semi-permanent
woods pond, about 6 miles 3. W. of Gainesville, March 24, 1941,
JCD and PHY.
Genus fetus Aube
1036 Aube, Icon. Coleopt., 5 P* 189
1038 Aube, Species General des Coleopt., 6, p. 39.
1854 Lacordaire, Genera Coleopt., 1, p. 422, p, 13, fig. 3.
1873 Grotch, Trans. Amer. Knt. Soc., 4, p, 412.
1878 Regimbart, Ann. Goc. Ent. France, (5), 3, p. 453, 46l.
1002 Sharp, Sci. Trans. Royal Dublin Soc., 2, (2), p. 599. 895.
1803 LeCont and Bom, Classif. Coleopt., p. 66,
1804 Dimxaock, in 'The Standard Natural History, 2, p. 392, fig.
469.
1895 Wickham, Can. Ent., 27, p. 117*
1917 Zimmerman, Arch. f. Naturgeech., S3, (1919), A. 12, p. 215.
1941 Leech, Can. Int., 73 P 77.
Diagnosis: Seutellum visible; eyes emarginate above the bases


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1ms#* Boyal Dublin Sc., 2, (2), p. 367.
1895 Bideagaa fnacatua (Crotch), Wickham .Can. Sat., 37* p* 73*
1910 Bidcasus fusca tue (Crotch), Slatehley, Coleptera Indiana, p.
213*
1918 Bldeseus fuscatu3 (Crotch), long ad Macchler, Ball* Ataer. Has.
2fet. Hist., 3S, (3), p, SO,
1919 Bldgggus faac&tus (Crotch), Blathhloy, Boll. Amir. Has. Hat.
Hist., hi, (4), p. 309.
Bifcfguoslsi %e short, subparallel font, coarse dorsal punctation,
aad short elytra! plicae will distinguish this species fro others in
florida. But elytra are usually variegated with testaceous, Irregular
spots on the fuscous ground color Quite unlike any of the other Bastera
United States species, fhe center is normally considerably infscate,
and the punctation of the hind coxal plates is very coarse, length
1.6 to 2 sm (fide Blatchley, 1910).
Variation* Besides the usual variation in sise, and color, the
length of the elytrl plicae vary from almost equal to the prono tal
plicae to so short that they are barely perceptible* fhe punctation
of the dorsum also varies, hat it is always such coarser than in any of
the florida specie* of Bldesaua. almost being comparable to the paneta
tion of Anodpchllus exiguas, fhe lustre of the surface varies from
shining to dull, usually being dullest in the females. Coloration,
punctation, and else are usually quite constant in specimens from a
single locality, hut vary considerably fro place to place.


PLATE XXI
Fig. 1. Genitalia of &&SfoEHg H2Ma§I
from Pahokee, Florida! a. ventral
to* dorsal view*
Fig. 2.
Genitalia of
aa astoflasag
from Lover Ifatocuobe Key, Florida!
a. ventral, fe, dorsal vim*
Fig, 3. Genitalia of fitai&ffla
dorsal view.
Fig, 4, Genitalia of gRftfito. MS&2I&SS&*
dorsal view.


Apparently a apeles of the saa-hottoaed


427#
The Florida species represent four of the subfamilies recognized
by older authorities, and the fausta, as a whole, Is rather rich in specie,
comparing favorably with most other states of the Union* Moat of our
species are, however, widely distributed in other parts of the United
States, and there are only a few endemic or West Indian fora represented*
The most notable species confined to the state are, Enoohrus blatchlevi*
Mraito ¡ateUam ad ooMfofems, a&te&Safi
1
Kay to the Subfamilies Occurring in Florida
1* First segment of middle and hind tarsus elongate, longer than the
aecondf prothorax not narrowed behindj species living in dung or
moist earthHot aquatic* *.*** ***.*#*SPHAERIDHNAE
1*. First segment of middle and hind tarsus very short, shorter than the
second and often barely visible*********(2)
2(1*). Second segment of hind tarsus elongate, longer than the third?
prothorax as broad behind as the base of the elytra; last tar
sal augment shorter than the preceding segments united**********
* ***** HYDROPHILIHAE (p,
2* Second segment of hind tarsus short, about equal to the third,
last segment of the tarsus as long as or longer than the preced
ing segments united, or that of the hind tarsus nay be shorter#(3)
3(2)* Five chitinous stemites, 2 to 5 wild a transverse swelling! an
tennae of 7 segments} species usually moderately large*****..**,
* ..HTOROCHINAE (p. ^
1* Modified from Bradley coroiled from Handlirsoh (924), d* Or-'
ohyoont (191&),and Schaufuss (I9I0)*


PUTS II
Generalised Vegetation lap of Florid
(ftw Tbl wap muetretos the general correspondence of
the vegetation to the sail types* fls# Want Florida
Uplands correspond to the Clay Fine lead and part
of the Rolling Sandy Pino the Rwl neniar tip**
Xaaiti t§ art of the Rollins sandy Fine Land tho
Phoiph&tio and Calcareous Hwsneeh iesii| the Sandy
Bammk land as the Scrub banda the north Florida
Leateid or Flatveods to the Flat Pim bando and in
the eouthern part to the Sandy prairie
the South Florida Poland to tito lari Frairle*
Mimri Fino ¡oda and n&rt of the Freshwater ife*^Bha
SUol larohy and Saxap The Marianna Radiando
and Tallahassee Clay Hille correspond to the Rod
Clay Uannook band* The Gulf Hwmmk portion of
the Flatwoods corresponds to the Lew lari Roosle
band* and the palaehieola Ravines are included in
tito Sandy Rolling Fine band in northern Liberty Co*


cribad by Say does not seem to be definitely established, There are
m specimens f the species in the Melsheiaer Collection in the K,C,
Z*, and it is very Improbable that any of 8ay*e original series still
exists. Since the original description various writers have treated
the species in different we* be Coate (1855) considered it the same
as Ottllcarlus (Aube), which would seas to Indicate that he did net
have Say's species before hist or that nearly all later workers have
misinterpreted callearlos. Suignot (1539) sedees lacuatrla the geno
type of the subgenus ffmrua of the gems Aaarodytes, If Guignofc
really had In taind the insect which has been more or less convention
alised ae the lacastria of Say, (Sharp, 1882, BJatehley, 1910, Batch,
1928, etc,), theh his submenus tJvarua ia, in ¡ay opinion, misplaced,
and should fall In Bideasus (s. str), since the genotype possesses
a transverse cervical stria and has a vague, but characteristic sa
tura! stria, However, the probability Is that Suignot did not have
the lacastris of Sharp, Blafcchley, Batch and others in wind, tn less
troubled times this point could easily be settled by correspondence
with Br Ouignot, but 1 have beau unable to contact him, 'Wot the
present,, then, I leave %dror>oru8 laeuatrls Say in the gams Bldessns
where it was placed by Sharp*
Lacustria. as I conceive the species, is realily distinguished
from other species occurring in Herida by the vague, but nearly
always perceptible sutural stria, the very fine pusetation of the
dorsum, and title elytra! plicae or grooves which are distinctly long
er than the thoracic plicae, The ventral surface is sometimes almost
entirely dark fuscous or plceous-blaek, shining and finely punctate.


104*
Key to the Floridian Species
1. Blytral plicae distinctly longer than those of the prono turn; else
large 2.1 to 2.4 an.; sale aedeagus with enter margin of boot-like
tip obliquely truncate from the bottom, the upper angle rounded
not prolonged (see pi. X fig. 1L )...........longoralls (p. )
1*. Elytral plicae barely longer than the prono tal or shorter ; size
smaller rarely over 2.1 ass.................... ,.........(2)
2(1*). Sise larger, around 2.0 mm.; male aedeagus with the outer
margin obliquely truncate from the top, the lower angle not
produced (see pi. X fig. / ); tooth on posterior margin
of elytra of female weak. .pullcarius (p./^7)
2*. Size smaller, rarely reaching 2.0 mm.; females especially
small and broad; tooth of elytra! margin of female usually
strong.. ... ..(3)
3(2*). Average size around 1.8 am.; male aedeagus with the outer
edge of the boot-like tip irregularly lobed (see pi.XT fig. / )
female and male frequently with iridescent purplish cast
to the dorsum................................subserlceus (p*V7<9)
3*. Average size around 1.9 mm.; male asdegus with the outer mar
gin of the boot-llke tip obliquely truncate from the top, and
with the lower angle produced (see pi .XI fig. 2- )...keyensis (p./^>
Bidessonotus longovalia (Blatchley)
1919 Bide 3 sus longovalia Blatchley. Boll. Aaer. Mas. Bat. Hist., 41,
(4), p. 510.
192S Bides sus longo vail s Blatchley. Hatch, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc.,


202U
dor into the chaos that was the American species of gydroporas.
Of the poetes groups defined by Fall for the thilted States, only
two are represented In Florida. She following key, Modified frost Fall's
revision, will aid In their separation.
1. Posterior coxal procesaos conjointly truncate at apon or very near
ly so, the tips at nest only slightly nore advanced at ths middle
than at the sides; body above and beneath predominantly blackish or
brown; metasternum not sulcate at summit; prenatal border usually
narrow, hardly widened anteriorly.........Higer-Beasbrosus Prono
1*. Posterior coxal processes conjointly mors or less angularly pro
duced medially; metastermm mora or less sulcate cr concave along
the median line; body above, at least in part, reddish or yellow*
ish-testaceous; elytra nearly always variegated, though in some
very obscurely so; body beneath reddish or yellowish, but mors or
infscate in some species .Paloher-tJadolatua grows
Distribution; She genus Hydronorus is widely distributed in the
temperate regions of both hemispheres. She giaer-Senebroaus Group is
largely developed in the Saetera part of Sorth America. Florida lies on
ths southern periphery of the range of the genus, and the species occur
ring here are largely the impoverished extension of the rich fauna of
the Appalachian Begion,
life History; Many life-histories have been described in this ge
nus, but In most oases the work has not been comparative, nothing seems
to have been published on the Florida species. She larvae of the sub-


which is conical and longer than the preceding segment, and by
the large posterior coxae which conced all except the last ab
dominal sternite.
Taxonomic lote? The genus Peltodytes is the genus called
CnemldotuB Irichson (183?) ^y older writers. Illiger (1807)
unfortunately used the latter name in such a way that it be
comes a direct synonym of Halllas and thus cannot be used
for the present group. The bibliography is rather involved;
I have omitted references to Cnemldotus. but this name will be
found In many older works, notably LeConte and Horn (1883)
Sharp (1882, Biologa Centr, Amer.), and even Blatchley (1910).
Boberts (1913 P 111) says, 8It is with a strong feeling of
rebellion in my heart that I adopt the generic name Peltodytes
of Begimbart for that of the well-known and long-established
Cnemldotus of Srichson, However, Illiger having undoubtedly
made this name a synonym of the Hallplus of Xatreille it could
could not be used, under the accepted rules, and we lose one
more name long familiar to all students and collectors of
aquatic Coleptera*8
senua is widely distributed, but ap
parently lacking in South America. About 18 species are
known from North America, including Mexico.
life History; Complete life histories of several North Am-


FAMILY GYRINIDAE
The Gyrinidae aro the familiar "whirligig beetles or "mellow
bags which are commonly seen swimming in their peculiar circling
fashion over the surface of standing or running water* Besides their
typical habits which are unique among the Coleptera, they are dis
tinguished from nearly all other beetles by their divided eyes which
are so arranged that the insects can watch for enemies or prey both
below in the wa ter and above in the air* The middle and hind legs
are modified for swimming, and the fore legs are adapted for grasping,
in contrast to the typical diving beetles, the Dytiseidae, in which only
the hind legs are strongly modified for swiasaing and the fore legs are
simple* The antennae are also distinctive, being largely organs for the
reception of vibrations in the water* Recent experiments^ indicate
that the antennae are of great importanca to the beetles in finding
their food which is largely small insects which have fallen into the
water, and that the typical circling manner of swimming is a device to
increase the area in which prospective prey can be sensed by the vibra
tions produced*
The peculiar habits of the Gyrinidae have attracted many able ob
servers, and their taxonomy has been extensively and intensively studied*
However, the concept of spocies is still not throughly established
throughout the group, largely because the high degree of modification to
1. C* E. Abbott, Ent. New, 52, 1941, pp* 27-29Q.


Rangel Long (1920) gives the distribution as Pennsylvania, Mew
York, Mew Jersey, and District of Columbia* Hatch (a*£> ) adds Quebec,
Connecticut, Michigan, and lorn* Thus the range is probably Eastern
United States from Canada to Florida and west to Michigan and Iona*
Habitat Preferences All of ray specimens have been taken cling
ing to logs in fairly swift, sand-bottomed streams of the Uplands*
It is common around Gainesville, and in the little streams flowing
into Choctawhatchee Bay in Walton and Okaloosa Counties, but I have
not taken it abundantly elsewhere in Florida*
Published Records There are apparently no published Florida
records* The northern records which I have found are for the most
part rather generalized, merely referring to state or region* It is
apparently not a common species in collections*
Specimens Examined FLORIDA Alachua County 227, West Branch
of Hogtown Creek, Feb* 15, Mar* 31* Apr* 21, Apr* 24, Apr* 27, Apr* 28,
May 10, and Sept* 25, 1937, FEY, jgJ,} Bay County* 2, Stream 16*8 mi*
N* of Panas. City, June 8, 1938, FHYj Jackson County 12, Stream 14*2
mi# S* E* of Marianna, June 10 1938# FNYf Jefferson County* 3, Stream
near Tfcnti cello, Apr# 1, 1938, HHHj Liberty County 13, Big Sweet
water Creek near Torreya State Park, June 10, 1938, FMYj Okaloosa
County 1, Stream near Crostview, Doc* 12, 1937 FNYj 5* Stream near
Villa Tasso, June 7* 1938, FNYf Walton County* 12, Stream near Nice-
ville, Mar. 2, 1938, HHHj 23, Stream 13*8 mi* W. of Freeport, June 7,
1938, FNYj Washington County* 1, Holmes Creek on U* S* Hgw* 90,
Mar* 2, 1938, HHHj SOUTH CAROLINA* 1, Long Creek, Sept* 27, 1931,
0* L* Cartwright*


Nov* I5# 1937, FNY; St Freezers Pond, Sept, 30, 1939, FRY;
1, WaeahootaeRoadside ditch, Oot, 12, 1939, FRY; 3, Hat
chet Greek, Oct, 23, 1939, FRY; 1, Roadside ditch near Daye-
ville, Oct, 17, 1939, MY; 1, Cypress pond near Lake Newman,
Nov. 10, 1939, FNY; 1, "billow Pond* near Wacahootee, Jan.
31, 1942, JSR, JCD? and FRY; Bay County; 12, Pool in borrow
pit 9,8 mi. W. of County line on Fla, Hgw 52, OCt. 16, 1941,
MY; 1, Drainage ditch 8.9 mi. W. of Junction of Fla. 52 and
83 on Fla. Hgw. Oct. 16, 1941, FRY* Clay County: 1, North
Folk of Black Creak near Kingsley Lake, Oot. 15, 1938, FNY;
1, Swamp stream 3 mi. S. of Green Cove Springs, Oct. 15, 1938,
FNY; Flagler County: 2, Swamp stream 3.5 mi. E. of County
Line on Fla, Hgw. 28, Apr. 1, 1939, FNY; Franklin County; 1,
Roadside ditch about 10 mi. S. E. of Sumatra, May 2, 1941, FRY;
Gulf County; 2, Pool in borrow pit 2.6 mi. S. of County Line
on Fla. Hgw. 6, Get. 16, 1941, FRY; 13, Swamp stream 5.8 mi. W.
of Weewahitchka, Oct. 16, 1941, FNY: Jefferson County; 1,
Roadside ditch 0.3 mi. E. of Capps, Feb. 5, 1938, FRY; Lafay
ette County; 2, Roadside ditch 0.3 mi. 1. of County Line on
Fla. Hgw. 5a, Oot. 15, 1941, FRY; Madison County; 1, Roadside
ditch 5 mi E. of Lamont, Feb. 5, 1938,, FRY; Marion County: 1,
Swim PondOcala National Forest, Feb. 26, 1938, FRY; Putnam
County: 3, Roadside ditch 7.3 mi. W. of Palatka on Fla. Hgw.
14, Oct. 15, 1938, FNY; 1, Swamp stream 0 mi. S. E. of Palatka,
Mr. 31, 1939, FRY; St. Johns County: 1, Trout Creek, Apr. 23,


pyiTS x
yig* i* m&3S8B8S&& m2ss£m (A~>
a. Dorsal ilerar of b* Boreal vies of 9 (22£UQ$a&)
c* Aodsagus of dm Iddla leg of Tigm 2* Bldoseono-taB jmSSSSgja (Blatchley)
a#
Dorsal vier? of (2*2xl.l?cia)
b.
Boreal view of $
Ci.?6a*0.?EK*}
e*
Aedeagas of #
d.
Middle log of c?


family arm characterised by having the head anteriorly prolonged, with
the upturned mandibles fitting into a distal notch in the prolongation}
maxillary palpi three-segmented. I have numerous larvae of rarloue ope*
oles of this gems* hut they can ho determined only by association, the
figures accompanying iy&roporua fall! (pi* ) will issustrato the gen
eral characteristics of the larvae of the genus*
Klger-fenabrosug Group
this is the largest and among the most difficult of the lorth Amer
ican groups cf the genua. She species are variable in else* character
ised by the conjointly truncate hind coxal processes, non-sulcata meta-
sternum, and general funereal appearance. Only a very few species have
the dorsum relieved by any brighter colors than brown or blackish* The
prono turn is distinctly margined, but the margin is seldom if ever wider
anteriorly than posteriorly* 'The male pro tarsi and protarsal claws are
sometimes distinctly modified, but In many species the females and males
can hardly be distinguished on the basis of these structures. There is
also sometimos a difference in the surface lustre of the males id faseles,
the latter being dull, but this characteristic is also variable, even
within species*
As a rule, the species are quite distinct from the other members
of the genus, and show a dose affinity among themselves. However, some
of the apparently basic differences between this aggregate and the Pul-
eher-Undulatug Group are variable, and as Shll (op. eit.) points out, *a
nice discrimination is sometimes necessary to da terrains the group to


506*
sonville (Schwara Mes. notes)? Biscay Bay (Slosson Coll*); lake
City (FleridaAgric. Step* Sta). Blatchley (£*£*) ays* *A scarce
apeles about Dunedin* December to April0* Winters (X£s.) adds
Fable Beach, Ha* (Badge COll.), and Paradise Key (Barber and Scholars)
besides Lakehurrt, N. d#* and Wriiesyille, H* C*
Specimens Baasaainedt FLORIDAS Alachua County* 1* Freeaers Fond*
Mar* 4* 1937* FtCf? 1* Blues Creek near Devils Kill Hopper, Apr. 22,
1937* FNYj 1* Blues Crook* Oct. 10* 1937, .FKFf 1* Glen Spring**
OTtmaing pool*. Sept# 30* 193* |1| Hatchet Creek* Sept* 26* 1939
FN7f 1* Freeaers Fond* Sept# 20* 1939* FKTf 1# Menteoeha Creek* 0t*
28* 1939* FKT? 2* Hatchet Creek* Oct. 28, 1939* FIJI; 1,Willow Fond
near Waoaheotee* Mar# 24* 1941, JCD and F$8f j 6, Sphagna pond near
Aacott, Iter* 24* 1941, JOB and FHT? 4, Swamp pools in San Felasco
Hammock* May 23, 1941* CD and FRY? Bay County* 2* Roadside pool
4*3 mi# W* of Beaeen Hill, May 3* 1941, m? 2, Cypress \mm 4*8
ai# H. of South Port, Kay 3, 1941, FHY; Clay County* 1, Swamp stream
1*5 mi# w. of Oreo Cove Springs, Apr* 23, 1938# FHY| Oulf County
4, Swamp stream 5*8 mi* V?# of Yfcswahitchka, Cot* 16, 1941* FHYj 1,
Swamp stream 7 mi* W# of Weewahitohka* Oct* 16* 1941* FHY? Lafayette
County 3 Roadside ditch 0*3 ml 1# of County line on Fla# Hgw* 5a*
Oct. 15* 1941* Wj Leon County 1* Stomp stream 13*9 ml. W* of
Ihllahassee on Fla* Hgw* 19* June 5 1938* FHT? Levy County 4,
Cypress swamp near Bronson* Apr* 9, 1937* FKY? Liberty County


43$#
Spec imana Examineds FLORIDA* Honro* County* 4ft Lower Matocua-
be Key Aug* 12 1941 Harold Rowland FOT ,g$ aJ,j 1 Lower ifeteoumbe
Key Sept* 12 1941 FHij 16 Big Pino Key Pool in borrow pit along 0* 8
H8w, 1 at Big Pine Inn Sept, 10 1941 POT.
SUBFAMILY HYDROCHIMB
Diagnosis* Small to moderately large hydrophilids with eeven-seg
mented antenna# short labial palpi# and five chitinous abdominal Btomites.
The beetles aro elongate vary rough looking creatures with the pronotum
deeply and coarsely punctate and feveate rather than sulcata as in Helo
phorua. a related genus common in more northern regions* The genus
Hydrochus is composed of many closely allied species which live in lenitie
situations slinging to vegetation and debris with their large tarsal
claws*
This is one of the disjunct groups of the Coleptera* It has been
interpreted in many different ways by various authorities! BBving and
Craighead (1931) goint to the extreme in treating it as a distinct family
the Hydrochidae on the basis of larval characters. The many species
are undoubtedly unique among the booties in their habitus sculpture,
retention of primitive characters# and the peculiar larvae* However,
their relation to such genera as Heloohorus is not thoroughly understood
and the evidence from the metamorphosis le still very slight, so that
X believe it inadvisable to separate them completely from the Hydrophilid
assemblage* The larvae are considerably more advanced than these of
the Hydraeninae*


1923 grAyosoraii vittatlpennis Gaamlnaer and Harold, Hall, Bevision
of Hydroporus. .p. 14.
Dlagnoslsi 5h small ais, elongate oval form, and vitt&te elytra
will distinguish this species from any of its close allies, gydroposrua
dlxlanue. which may he expected to occur in northwestern Herida, |s
broader, somewhat larger, with the elytxal vittae less evident# end
the elytral punctation tending to he connected by wavy strlgoslties.
Taxonomic lotes i the original name, lineolatus. given hy X*&hte
to our American insect is preoccupied hy Hydroporus lineolatus Bohewan,
a South African species of Bldeagu,*.
Variation* Vittatlpennis shows a tendency toward the formation of
geographie races. In Eastern Herida, and Southern Georgia there is a
dark variety which seems to have almost lost the light vittae of north*
era and western representatives. Part of this reduetion of eolor pattern
la due I believe to the same factors influencing Coptotoaua interroga tus
obscuras and other Slatwoode forms in Florida. The lighter forms are
from Upland situations while the darker ones are from the Hatwoodt. s
Specimens from East Florida (Flagler County) are especially dark and
show some slight differences in form and punctation from West florida
specimens, fall <1953) notes that Georgian examples of vittatlpennis
are darker and somewhat different from western specimens, hut does not
believe that they represent a distinct species.
Bango linelatua was described from "Illinois.14 She range, as


56 V*
2* BcsaygiaatloE of fifth stomite with two acute lobos or tooth in
the middle********* ***-* ****** (5>
3(2)* Tips of the elytra, strongly produced or prolonged, especially in
the fosales? elytra sometimos with a small tubercle near the apex
Just before the prolongation? length under 4naaaculeatus (p,5£f)
3* ^ipa of elytra net produced or prolonged? never with tubercles or
protuberancesj length tse or less**.*.#********** **(4)
4(3*)* Sise small 4 tened interocular tubercles.* sarinus 4** Sise very rali 2.5 Kdu in length or less; elytra and pre
notas not conspicuously maculate; vertex without interooular
liberles
(p* 5-7/)
5(2*). Elytra and pronotuas of female and pronsima of male distinctly
aicr~retiouXate (alntaceous), not strongly shining; lytral
striae not vary deeply Impressed on the disk; male genitalia
as in figs* pi. ; length 4 to 6ea...*infuseatue i$*57
5* Elytra and pronotua of male and elytra of female without micro-
reticulation, very smooth and shining between the coarser punc
tures; striae rather deeply impressed* especially on the disk of
the elytra; male genitalia m in figs* pi* $ length 4 to
about 5.5 mmu**o.j.o.*.**.****.*.******striatus (p*ry)


Specimene of the typical form and of australis from Texas (Boling;
Collection) are very similar, hut all that I have seen are much
lighter in color, I cannot, however, see any significant differences
between typical chevrolatl and the form australis, except the absence
of the apical subsutural striae in the latter.
Ranges California, Texas, and Arizona to Michigan, Kansas and
Florida. In Florida it occurs throughout the state, even on the
lower Florida Keys*
Published Florida Records? Schwarz (1878)? Fort Capron and
Tampa, rare* Leng and Mutchler (l.c.)s Taylor County and Hastings
(Coming in Sherman Coll*); Enterprise (Leng Coll.); Dunedin (Blateh-
ley)j Jacksonville and Taylor County (Roberts Coll,). Ho specific
locality is given in the original description.
Specimens Examined? Besides the specimens of typical ohevrolatl
listed below I have examined the following examples of the variety
australis? TEXAS; 12, Terns, Boling in MCE; FLORIDA? 1, Hills
borough County, Little Manatee River at tt. S. Hgw, 4l, August l4,
1938, at light, THH and JJF in TIMMS ; ARIZONA; 1, 30 mi. S. of Tuc
son, Bfer. 1935* J* A* Griswold, Jr,
Typical chevrolatl1 FLORIDA; Alachua County? 6, Gainesville,
Jan. 6, 1923* W. Walker In UMKZ ; 1, Flatwooda pond near lake
Lochloosa, Feb. 3, 1937 FOT? 1 Freezers Rond, Mar. 3, 1937, FRY;
3, Pools near Hogtown Creek, Oct. 24, 1937* FNY; 1, Lake Newnam, Feb.
8, 1938. FH*| 4, Hatchet Creek, Sept. 26, 1939. FEY? 5. Freezers Pond,


Xa Ball and Moore Haven.
Specimens Bsaalao&* fXOBIMt Alachua County: 1. Battlesnake
Branch neaf Gainesville, Sept. 10, 1934, 2. 2. Boardcaan; 1, Hat-
woods pond nearXake Lochlooaa, Feb. 3 1537* C. J. Gola and FBI;
3. B-Y Pond* Mar. 9, 1937, TO 1* Sugarfcot Prairie* Mar. 6, 1937,
PHY; 1, Poddlsa near Hogtovn Creek, Mar, 10, 1937* TO"; 1* £*7 Pend,
Mar. 17, 1937, FBYj 3, Eoadcide ditch about 2 el. K. B. of Gaines
ville, Mar. 22, 1937 TOf; 6 Beadeide ditch near Tiger Bay, Oet. 4,
1937* PHY; 5* Woods pond In San felaseo Hammock, Oct, 30, 1937* TO|
1, Palisade Slide, Apr. 15, 193#, PHY; 33* Bitch near 21ger Bay, Sopt,
20, 193, TO 2* Oe^ac Sink, Apr. 21, 1939, HcLane and TO; 2, lake
Hewaan, Sept. 27* 1939. TO 1, Hatchet Creek, Sept. 26, 1939, TO;
l4, Breeders Pond, Sept. 30, 1939* PHY; 1, acehooteeRoadside ditch,
Oct. 12, 1939, FHY; 53, ^&cahootePony Puddle, Oct. 12, 1939, PHY;
1, Bivins Ana, Oet. 12, 1939* TO 14, Prairie Creek, Oet. 18, 1939.
TO 1, Woods Pend near Pony Paddle, Mar. 24, 1941, JOB and FBYj
1, Sphagnum pond near Ascott, Mar. 24, 1941, JCB and FNY; 1, Swamp
pools in Seal Felaseo Haraaocfc, May 23, 1941, JCB and Mj 6, Hatwoods
pond about 3 ad* Bant of Gainesville, Jan. 25* 1942, FSYj Bay County*
1, Roadside pool 4*3 ai. W. of Beacon mil, Kay 3, 1941 FSY; 1, Cy
press swamp 4.8 mi. H. of South Port, May 3, 1941, TO; 2, Cypress
Swamp 4.8 mi. of South Port, Oet. 16, 1941, TO; 1, Drainage
ditch 8.9 mi. V. of Junction of Fla. 52 with Fla. 83 on Fla. %v. 83,
Oct. l6, 1941, PHY; Broward County* 2, Bockplt near Savia, July 27,
1939# FBY; lade County* 1, Paradise Key, Apr. 4, 1925 in Pall Coll. }


the specimens before m really represent m distinct form* I think that
EimrmsmfB name, fontlater* is the hast available* The Florida
and Georgia form differs from northern specimens (as recorded In the
literature) 1 being variable 1 color and nearly always darker, and in
the smaller average clze The desire to draw pon the analogy of Sfattia
ovatt^ and Matas bicartaataa is very great* However, the problem must
await farther attention*
Variatlom 1Khe Florida specimen before me are for the meet
part shining, iridescent black above, and deep brosnisb-blaek beneath*
Superficially they closely resemble tesenue in this respect, but pon
careful semination it is obvious that two species are represented 1
my eerie** Tosers averages smaller, is proportionately broader across
the humeri, and has tm small tubercles m the metnsiernura of the male*
The prenota! process of the female £e almost ispunetate in both of
these species, but Is punctate in oblongas Farther, specimens which
X at first mistook for typical "irlcylpr* are connected by intermediates
with the black form* Of four specimens from lake County (October 2
193# FOT), one has the elytra Iridescent black, and the prenoto
reddish-brown} and to are entirely iridescent black above* A aeries
from Alachua County (March 20, 1925, T* H* Hubbell) in the Museum of
Zoology, University of Michigan, shows a similar Variation, but the
specimens nearest firiooler aro much darker than the typical northern
fora, being almost uniformly reddish-brown with the pronotum only
slightly lighter than the elytra* Scattered specimens from other Flor
ida localities are typically *lrioolorw in olor (Madison Co*, Sept* 4,
1932, &# K* Gleydj Okrlooea Ce*9 Oct* 1?, 1941, FNTj Walton Go*,
Oct* 16, 1941, FOT)* Too specimens from Southern Georgia (without


662*
Zaitsev, Hi* A*
1908 Catalogue des Colepteras aquatiquee families des Hydro ,
philidae, Horae Soo* Snt* Eos., 38 pp 324-418*
1910 Dryopidae, Georyssidae, Heteroceridae, Junk Coleopterorua
Catalogue* Pare 1?, W* Junk, Berlin, 1910, pp*
Ziegler, Daniel
1844 Descriptions of new Horfch African Coleptera, Proo*
Aoad* Hat* Soi* Phila*, 2, 1844, pp. 43-47j 266-272*
Ziraaemaim, Alois
1917 Der derzeitige Bestand der Gyrinidensanimlung des
De uta chen l*nt orno lo gi s chen Museums in Serlin-Dahlem
und die wi s sens ehaftl i chen Ergebniss ihrer Buroh-
arbeitung, Extbm* Mitteilungen, 6, 917, pp 135*170,
1 pl. 2 figs*
1917 Ele SehwismkSfer des Eeutschen Entomologischen Museums
in Berlin-Bahle, Arch* ffir %turgeach*, 83, A* 12,
(1919), pp. 28-249, 3 pis* 2 figs#
1920 Goleopterorum Catalogue, Pars* 71. Dytiscidae, Haliplidae,
Hygrobiidae and Aaphizoidae, W* Junk, Berlin, 1920, pp*
1-326*
1920 Bemerkenswerte Beuerwerbungen des Zoologischen Museums
in Hamburg* Eat* Blfittern* 16, pp* 224-234, figs* 1-3* ;
1921 Beitr&ge zur Kenntnis der s&dameri kanl sohen EchwiimkSfer-
fauna nebst 41 Neubeschreibungen, Arch* fr Katurgesoh*,
87, A* 3, PP* 181206*


306*
Ji* p, 27 *
1859 Dyttgcus taeniolla Say, LeConte, Coopt. Writ. Say, 2, p. 508,
1863 Bhantua callous (F&brlcius), LeConte, Proc. Acad. Bat. Sel,
Phila., (1863), p. 5^3.
1866 Bhaatus calidas (Shbrieius), Le Coa to, Proc. Acad, Sat, Sel
Phila., (1866), p, 333
I863 Shantus calldus (Gabrielas), Chevrolat, Aon. Soc. Bnt. France,
00, 3 P- 200.
1873 Mantua calidue (ffabrlciua?. fr&ns. Amer. Sat. Soc,, 4, p, 410.
1883 ffytiacus oalldua Pabrlclus (under genus Bhantue), Sharp, Sol,
Srans. Boyal Bablia Soc., 2, (2), p. 6l6.
1883 Bhantua calidue (Fabrloius), ¡Sharp, Biol, Coat. Americana, 1,
(2), pp, 42-43.
1889 Bhantua labaal Ke&inbart, Ann. Soc, Fnt. France, (6), 9, p,
387.
1901 Bhaataa calldus (Fabricius), Meiaert, Mem. Aca, Scl. Bane.,
(6), 9, p, 386, pi. 3, figs, 82, 83 (biology),
1918 Rhantua calldus (Fabricius), Long and Mutchler, Bull, Amer*
Hua, m. Hist,, 38, (3), P. 89.
1919 Bhantua calldus (Fabricius), Bl&tchley, Boll, Amer. Mus, Hat,
Hist., 4l, (4), p, 314.
1938 Bhantua calidue (Rabriclua). Hatch, Ball, Brooklyn Sat. Soc,,
23. (5)* P. 224.
She generic characters together with the following will distin
guish calldus from other Worth American specie si
Diagnosis? Clawa 0f fore and middle tarsi of male equal? dor-


illa River opposite Xaraont, June 4, 1938, FBtj 1, Aueilla Biver opposite
lament, Oct. 19, 1941, M{ Okaloosa Gotxaty 1, Backwater of SIafcwate*
River on Ha* Hgw, 62, Oct. 17* 1941, 2Wf Osceola County* 1, &wnap
stress 6,5 mi, K County line on Fla, Hgw, 192, Apr. 1, 1939, WCCf St,
Jokos County! 14, Stream about 2 mi. H. of Oraagedalo, Apr, 33, 1938, fSTt
1, Stream about 1.5 miles 8, I, of Orangedale, Apr, 23, 1938, Wj 2,
Stream about 1,2 mi* 1. S. of Orangedale, Apr, 23* 1938* FHTj Santa Sosa
County 3* MeCaskill Mill Creek near Jay, Oct, 18, 1941, VSJ\ l, Spring
run to MeCaskill Mill Crook, Oct, 18* 1941* FBTj 9* Moores Creek near
Chuanckla Springs, Oct, 18, 1941* FRY} OSORQIA Brooks County! 3*
stream 3,9 mi. S. B. of quitoan, Oet. 30, 1938* ^8 ^ HAHPSHIRS 1,
Connecticut River at Pittsburg, July 16* 1925* 8, F. Chamberl&iaj FSSlStl-
mm* 2, Saaton, JMy 21, 1934, J. W. Creen.
V i : '
gydrouorua mixtas leCoatO
Although this species has not yet been collected in the state its
presence in Southern Oeggia strongly suggests that it may occur in West
Florida, '
It may bo distinguished from clyeealis. with which it Is associated
by the short anterior claw of the male protarsus, by the more regularly
ovate form, mfo-testaceous cast of the dorsum, and nonslnuate anterior
angles of the prono turn of the female, She anterior protareal claw of the
male Is about 2/3 the length of the posterior instead of only 1/2 as la
olypealla, She prono turn in both sexes is very rarely infscate on disk,
but in elmaalia there is frequently an infscate area which is expanded


m*
actere, and mkm their exaot relationship with the rest of the
Dytiseida difficult to determine so long as only adults are con*
sidsred* Laccodvtea is represented by several rather dissimilar
American species, and t refer our Laeconhilas nurailio to it with
nbm doubt*
BSving and Craighead (1931) group Laceonhilua with the Celytsfeetinae
on the basis of larval characters*
Key to the Genera Found in Florida
1* Siae larger (2*5 id 5*5*)i spines of middle tibia notched or
bifid at the tipi basal abdominal stemits sculptured with longi
tudinal scratches $ prostemal process only moderately wide at the
middle, lanceolate In shape*** *** LflOOOphiluB| (p# /o3)
1* Sics small {1*9 to 2lasn*)t spines of middle tibia simple; ab
dominal aiernitae almost smooth J proeternal process dilated med
ially, x4th an acute tic***.*** **laceodvtes (p* HZ )
Genus Laoecmhilus Leach
1817 Leach, The Zoological Miscellany, London, 3* P
1882 Sharp, So 'Fans# Royal Bublln See*, 2, (2), p# 841-843*
1802 Sharp, Biologa Contrail Americana, 1, {2), p* 9*
1883 LoConte and Horn, Glassif* of the Coleopt* of N* A*, p# 63*
1910 BXatehlsy, Coleopt. indiana, p* 209*
Magnesia The genus Laeeophllug la characterised by the uni-
opinose extremity of the prostemal process, the apically margnate
spurs of the hind tibiae, the extremely short head, and the continuous
outline of the head, pronotua, add elytra* The males of most of the


63?
appearance) $ with the punctation of the meaos terns! carina
sparser, more irregular, and unequal..........blatchlevi (p*5^o)
4* Dorsal punctation coarser and more distinct) feet largely
black) femora below the knees and the tibiae on the external
side spotted with red) posterior and middle femora coarsely
punctate) average else larger than the female of blatchlevia
sexual dimorphism not very apparent* portion of sternal carina less excavated, more sparsely,
and less evenly punctate than in the fme of blatchlevit
$ with the raesostarnal portion of the carina much as in the
... ...... .............glaber (p^3)
Tronlstemus (Cvohostathua) lateralieCFabricius)
1775 Hvdronhilus lateralis Fabricius, Sysi. Eat*, p. 228
1737 HvdronhiluB ^fTft?iila Fabricius, Hast* Ins., 1, p* 188*
1792 Hvdroohilus lateralis Fabricius, Eat. Syst,, 1, p. 183.
1801 HvdronhiluB lateralis Fabricius, Syst* Sleuth., 1, p. 251.
1823 Hydrophllus s&y* Joum, Acad* Hat* Sci. Phila., 3,
p* 203*
I836 Hvdronhilua dorsalis Brulle, in Voy* d*9rbig*, 6, (2), p* 57
I838 Hvdroohilus llmhatus Brulle, *&*f (see d'Orohymont, 1922, p* 33*)
1840 Trooisternus sellatus Castlenau, Hist* Mat* Ins., 2, p. 54*
1855 Hvdronhllua lateralis Fabricius, LeConto, Proc. Acad. Mat. Sol
Phila,, 7* P* 367.
1855


146.
1919 Ooelambus. Fall, H, A, Species of Ooelambus, John D, Sherman, Jr,,
Mi, Vernon, H. T, p. 1,
1940 Balfour-Brown, the Generic Messes at Brit. Xas., 7, p. 198, 204,
Diagnosisi Be&aily distinguished from other Hydroporlnae by the
narrow prosternal process, and the oblique carina which crosses the epip-
loaron is excavate just in front of this carina and received the middle
knee When at rest, Bachydrus which superficially resembles Hrcrotus is
easily separated by its broadly rounded prosterna! process and the hind
cornel processes which arf on a level with the ventral segments and leave
the bases of the trochanters entirely free,
Taxonomic latest BalfousVBrowne*s reeurection of Stephen*s name
Eygrotus for this aggregate, will probably meet with considerable oppos
ition. Coelambas Thomson has been established by many years of usage by
many authors, Bfrgrotus. however, has obvious priority by many years and
should be substituted.
Distributiont Moat of the species of %grotus are found in the
temperate regions of the world} only a few reaching the tropics, A sin
gle species represented by two forms occurs in Florida.
Ufe Ustory X can find no references to any descriptions of the
metamorphosis of any Berth American species, but the larvae are probably
timllar to those of tfodrooorus.


m*
o the antennae; metatarsal claws of unequal length; prosternum and
Its process on a plane, almost flat, and with a longitudinal median
sulcus; color brownish-red to plceous; length 7 to 9,5 mm, (Leech,
!£*)
taxonomic Botes s Until very recently this genus has been rep
resented hy only one species, Matus bicarinatus (Say). Leech*s re
cent revision, however, has revealed that the widely distributed
and rare blearinatusw is in reality two quite distinct species,
which are remarkably dissimilar when they are placed together and
compared. The long period during which the second species, Matus
ovatus Leech, remained undifferentiated, was probably due to the
comparative rarity of the insects in collections, and to undue re
liance on the superficial characters which so beautifully demark
all the species from the rest of the Rytiscidae.
Besides the new species ovatus. Leech described a new subspe
cies, Matus ovatus blatchleyj. I believe that it is more likely
that blatchleyj really represents a distinct species, although it
is undoubtedly close to typical northern ovatus. As already noted
in the introduction, bl&tchleyl has all the earmarks of a species
developed on the Pleistocene Islands of Florida in an environment
similar to the present day Platwoods, and there is no definite ex
isting connection between it and the northern population of ovatus.
The morphological distinctions are, however, of such a minor na
ture based, mostly on color and sise that it is perhaps beet
to leave it as placed by Leech until more complete data are ob
tained



PAGE 1

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