Citation
Guidelines for Recycling Waste Construction Materials in Community Park Design

Material Information

Title:
Guidelines for Recycling Waste Construction Materials in Community Park Design
Creator:
Qain, Yuzhu
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Publisher:
Department of Landscape Architecture, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Landscape Architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Acomb,Glenn A.
Committee Members:
Gurucharri, Maria Christina

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Concretes ( jstor )
Construction materials ( jstor )
Durability ( jstor )
Parks ( jstor )
Recyclable materials ( jstor )
Recycling ( jstor )
Soils ( jstor )
Stormwater ( jstor )
Surface runoff ( jstor )
Waste materials ( jstor )

Notes

Abstract:
Waste construction materials cause many environmental problems. Transportation and deposited waste release carbon dioxide into the air, which also contribute to global warming. Some construction materials contain lead and mercury, which cause water and soil pollution. Most waste construction materials can be treated sustainably and reused in the landscape design. Although reuse and recycle has already been applied in landscape sites such as community parks, designers and researches seldom consider how to integrate waste materials or provide methods of selecting waste materials in these areas. ( ,, )
Abstract:
The purpose of this Graduate Terminal Project (GTP) was to identify suitable construction waste materials and determine ways to reuse them in a Community Park design in Gainesville, Florida. This was achieved through a literature review on issues related to recycling and reuse and case studies of community park developments with recycled materials. These two research methods aim to identify waste materials and find sustainable principles to evaluate waste materials. Seven principles were used for analyzing and selecting materials: proposed use for material, initial cost, durability, safety, embodied energy, locally sourced, and reusability. Through this research process, two methodologies—the exclusion method and weighted sum method—are developed for guiding landscape architects and clients in selecting suitable waste materials in different design contexts as well as different requirements in developing community parks.
Abstract:
The results of this research guide designers and clients to upcycle waste materials and help them to make sustainable decisions in selecting waste materials to reuse. Furthermore, the list of waste materials can be reused in other green and open space projects, and the methodology can be applied in other types of material selection such as trees and new materials.
General Note:
Landscape Architecture terminal project

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Yazhu Qian. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Guidelines for Recycling Waste Construction Materials in Community Park Design By: Yuzhu Qian Committee Chair: Glenn Acomb Member: Tina Gurucharri Spring 2015 University of Florida College of Design, Construction and Planning A Thesis Project Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Landscape Architecture

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! " ! © 2015 Yuzhu Qian

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I want to sincerely thank my family for all the support and tolerance. I would also thank my thesis committee Glenn Acomb and Tina Gurucharr i for their patience, understanding and invaluable contributions to this thesis project. Finally , I would like to thank all the Graduate classmates, who accompanied me during my student life at the University of Florida.

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! ## ! TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. i List of Figures and Tables ................................ ................................ ................................ ii Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... iv Chapter 1: Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ . 1 1.1 Overview the Issues ................................ ................................ ............................... 2 1.2 Research Question and Purpose ................................ ................................ .......... 3 1.3 Definition of Construction and Demolition Materials ................................ .............. 4 1.4 Definition of Park ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 4 1.5 Summary of the Chapter ................................ ................................ ....................... 4 Chapter 2: Literature Review ................................ ................................ ....................... 5 2.1 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 5 2.2 Recycling and Reusing Waste Materials ................................ ............................... 5 2.3 Principle of Selecting Waste Materials ................................ ................................ .. 6 2.4 Application of Waste Materials in Site Design ................................ ....................... 9 2.5 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 12 Chapter 3: Case Study ................................ ................................ ................................ 13 3.1Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 13 3.2 Case Study 1: Willow Park ................................ ................................ .................. 14 3.3 Case Study 2: Doyle Hollis Park ................................ ................................ ......... 19 3.4 Case Study 3: Pete V. Domenici U.S. Courthouse ................................ ............. 25 3.5 Case Study 4: Ballast Point Park ................................ ................................ ........ 31 3.6 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 35 Chapter 4: Principles of Selecting Materials for Community Parks ....................... 37 4.1 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 37 4.2 Park Types and Function ................................ ................................ .................... 37 4.3 Principles of Selecting Materials for Parks ................................ .......................... 39 4.4 Materials Choice for Community Park ................................ ................................ . 44 Chapter 5: Recommended Process of Sel ecting Materials ................................ .... 75 5.1 Community Park Examples: Kanapaha Park ................................ ...................... 75 5.2 Selecting Recycled Materials for Path ................................ ................................ . 77 5.3 Selecting Recycled Materials for Benches ................................ .......................... 84 5.4 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 87 Chapter 6: Conclusions ................................ ................................ .............................. 88 References ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 92

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! ### ! LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2 1 Downcycle ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 5 Figure 2 2 Closed Loop Cycle ................................ ................................ ......................... 5 Figure 2 3 Upcycle ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 6 Figure 3 1 Willow Park ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 14 Figure 3 2 Site plan ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 15 Figure 3 3 Playground and picnic area ................................ ................................ ......... 16 Figure 3 4 Recycled materials ................................ ................................ ...................... 17 Figure 3 5 Salvaged paver ................................ ................................ ............................ 17 Figure 3 6 Salvaged tile ................................ ................................ ................................ . 18 Figu re 3 7 Indicator stone ................................ ................................ ............................. 18 Figure 3 8 Doyle Hollis Park ................................ ................................ ......................... 19 Figure 3 9 Site plan ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 20 Figure 3 10 Multi function lawn ................................ ................................ ..................... 21 Figure 3 11 Playground ................................ ................................ ................................ 22 Figure 3 12 Play structure ................................ ................................ ............................. 23 Figure 3 13 Recycled concrete wall ................................ ................................ .............. 24 Figure 3 14 Fencing in the playground ................................ ................................ ......... 25 Figure 3 15 Plaza ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 26 Figure 3 16 Site plan ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 27 Figure 3 17 Water management ................................ ................................ ................... 27 Figure 3 18 Rain garden ................................ ................................ ............................... 28 Figure 3 19 Monument ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 29 Figure 3 20 Seat wall ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 30 Figure 3 21 Ballast Point Park ................................ ................................ ...................... 31 Figure 3 22 Site plan ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 31 Figure 3 23 Lawn and wetland ................................ ................................ ....................... 32 Figure 3 24 Trellis ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 33 Figure 3 25 Wind infrastructure ................................ ................................ .................... 34 Figure 4 1 Local distances ................................ ................................ ............................. 42 Figure 5 1 Kanapaha Park master plan ................................ ................................ ......... 75 Figure 5 2 Path plan ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 77 Figure 5 3 Benches in picnic are ................................ ................................ ................... 84 Figure 5 3 Benches in picnic are ................................ ................................ ................... 86

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! #$ ! LIST OF TABLES Table 4 1 Materials with dangerous chemicals ................................ ............................. 41 Table 4 2 Embodied energy ................................ ................................ ........................... 43 Table #1 Path and Patio ................................ ................................ ................................ 45 Table #2 Bike Trail ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 50 Table #3 Resilient Track ................................ ................................ ................................ 51 Table #4 Drive Lane ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 52 Table #5 Deck ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 54 Table #6 Mulch ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 55 Table #7 Playground ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 57 Table #8 Basketball or Tennis Court ................................ ................................ .............. 59 Table #9 Seatwall ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 60 Table #10 Fence and Trellis ................................ ................................ .......................... 63 Table #11 Bench ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 65 Table #12 Table ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 65 Table #13 Trash Can ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 70 Table #14 Playground ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 71 Table 5 1 Materials for Kanapaha Park ................................ ................................ ......... 41 Table 5 2 Initial cost for materials ................................ ................................ .................. 43 Table 5 3 Durability for materials ................................ ................................ .................. 79 Table 5 4 Reusability and locally sourced ................................ ................................ ..... 80 Table 5 5 Embodied energy for materials ................................ ................................ ...... 80 Table 5 6 Initial cost for materials ................................ ................................ .................. 82 Table 5 7 Weighted sum for path ................................ ................................ ................... 82 Table 5 8 Weighted sum for benches in picnic area ................................ ...................... 85 Table 5 8 Weighted sum for benches in sport area ................................ ....................... 87

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! $ ! Abstract Waste construction materials cause many environmental problems. Transportation and deposited waste release carbon dioxide into the air, which also contribute to global warming. Some construction mat erials contain lead and mercury , which cause water and soil pollution. Most waste construction materials can be treated sustainably and reused in the landscape design. Although reuse and recycle has already been app lied in landscape sites such as community parks, designers and researches seldom consider how to integrate waste materials or provide methods of selecting waste materials in these areas. The purpose of this Graduate Terminal Project (GTP) was t o identify suitable construction waste materials and determine ways to reuse them in a Community Park design in Gainesville, Florida. This was achieved through a literature review on issues related to recycling and reuse and case studies of community park developments with recycled materials. These two research methods aim to identify waste materials and find sustainable principles to evaluate waste materials. Seven principles were used for analyzing and selecting materials: proposed use for material, initi al cost, durability, safety, embodied energy, locally sourced, and reusability. Through this research process, two methodologies Ñ the exclusion method and weighted sum method Ñ are developed for guiding landscape architects and clients in selecting suitable w aste materials in different design contexts as well as different requirements in developing community parks. The results of this research guide designers and clients to upcycle waste materials and help them to make sustainable decisions in selec ting waste materials to reuse. Furthermore, the list of waste materials can be reused in other green and open space projects, and the methodology can be applied in other types of material selection such as trees and new materials.

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! % ! Cha pter 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview With rapid urban development construction waste is increasing . Based on data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2014), people in the United State create about 170 million tons of building an d construction waste every year with only 40 percent of these waste material "recycled, reused, or sent to waste to energy facilities, while the remaining 60 percent of the materials is sent to landfills." These waste materials cause more problems than we mi ght think, s ince most of the problems are not visible. First, waste construction materials contain v ast amounts of embodied energy. Based on the definition in Recycled Content and Salvaged Materials (2015), embodied energy is " the amount of energy it takes to grow, mine or harvest the raw materials to make the product, plus the energy used to manufacture, transport, and eventually dispose of it." When wastes are transport ed into landfills and burned, additional energy is require d. Second, waste materials that are easily solvent or contain toxi c chemical s such as heavy metal s or treated wood can result in soi l and water pollution ( Horvath , 2004 ) . Third, according to the website Architecture 2030 (2011 ), "waste construction materials account for 5.5 percent of global gree nhouse gas emissions . In addition, while exact numbers aren't available, trucks and cranes transporting and installing materials at construction sites produce considerable amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. " These greenhouse gases also contribute to the global warming and cause other environment problem s . Calkins (2009) mentions these issue s above in her book Materials in Sustainable Site s , "Site construction waste materials respond to an entirely different set of forces Ñ global climate change, air pollution, rising fuel costs, ecological destruction, and loss of biodiversity. These forces are shaping the site and building construction industry through the rapidly growing sustainable d evelopment mov ement." S ustainable development movement s include reducing waste in site design construction, recycling and reclaiming waste materials (Odum, 1989) . Among these movements, one common method in landscape design is to recycle and reuse these waste construction materials in the community park design ( Jeong, 2005 ) . Many landscape architects use recycled

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! " ! waste materials in community park s for pavement, walls and furniture . For example, i n the Willow C ommunity P ark , California ( Willow Park , 2010 ), designers used recycled brick s for pavement , recycled tiles for sea t walls and recycled concrete for benches. In Ballast Point Park, Australia ( McGregor Coxall , 2009 ), designers used steel s as seatwall and recycled aggregate s as retaining wall. In a nother example , Hollis Community Parks , California ( "Gate Associates , " 2009 ), designers used recycled concr ete for seat wall , recycled steel s for fences and recycled stone s for benches. In these three examples, designers reused three different types of recycled m aterials : concrete, tile and steel for the same seat wall . However, o ther designers who reused recycled materials in their community park may not have known which material was suitable for their seat wall. W ith hundreds of kinds of waste construction materials in landfills, how to select suitable waste materials and apply them to different parts of a community park need s to be researched . Although designers have already test ed the recycling concept in their community park design, there are no specific guidelines to teach people which construction waste should be recycled and how it can be applied in community parks. 1.2 Research Question and Purpose The purpose of this p roject was to identify suitable construction waste materials and determine ways to reuse them in c ommunity p ark s in Florida. The research question is: How can waste materials be applied in a c ommunity p ark 's design and construction? In order to answer this research question, these following issues were addressed : 1. What waste materials could be reused in the region of Florida? 2. What criteria should be applied when selecting waste materials? 3. How can waste materials be used in active parks and passive park design? The research results will include a set of guidelines for reusable materials for park design. The design concept will address both active and passive parks in Florida to create a template for existing parks for reusing waste construction materials in the development of park facilities. Thi s concept will enable r esidents who visit the park to have a healthy and joyful experience while learning about recycled and reused materials.

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! & ! 1.3 Definition of Construction and Demolition Waste Materials According to the Florida Department of Environment Protection (2015), in the process of construction, renovation or demolition of residential or non residential building site s such as road s , park s , and street s , the unused materials are called Co nstruction and Demolition Debris Waste. (C&D debris) C&D debris is usually classified as four types ( U.S. Environment Protection Agency [ U.S. EPA ] , 1998): " building related waste and construction, demolition, and renovation debris; roadway related waste; b ridge related waste; land clearing and inert debris waste. " These materials must not be hazardous and soluble in nature. According to U.S. Environment al Protection Agency (1998), concrete, brick, asphalt, glass, plastic, and wood metal are common types of Construction and Demolition Waste. Trees, soils, rocks, and vegetative matter can also be included as waste. If C&D debris materials are made of other types of waste such as solid waste, the se materials can not be classified as C&D debris. 1.4 Definition of the Community Parks According to the w ebsite Park and Recreation ( 2014) , the size of community p a rks is between 5 to 40 acres. Community parks serve bot h passive and active functions. In order to provide a secure environment, the park should be readily visible from adjoining streets. Active recreation facilities include: creative play attractions, large play structures, game courts, ball fields, volleybal l courts, tennis courts, basketball court s , horseshoe areas , disc golf areas , swimming pools , etc. Passive facilities in community park s include: picnic areas, sitting areas, extensive internal trails, a nature study place , public are as , history area s , fac ilities for plays or concerts, ornamental gardens, etc. 1.5 Summary of the Chapter The research and evidence stated in this chapter show us that waste construction materials threaten the health of nature and humans . To help ad dress this problem, community parks could use recycled construction materials. First, less waste construction materials transported and burned in landfills will reduc e air pollution and

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! ' ! greenhouse emission s while recycling materials such as concrete, wood, steel and glass. The book Recycled Content and Salvaged Materials (2015) provides this evidence, "every ton of plastic that is recycled, half a ton of green house gas emissions are prevented." Second, reusing waste materials in park design can reduce the cost spent for the manufacture and transportation of new materials. Third, recycled materials usually cost less than new materials. For example, base on the website Angie L ist ( 2015 ) , recycled asphalt is usu ally $ 2 4 per square f oo t while new as phalt cost s $6 per square f oo t . T he other example is the Willow C ommunity Park in California ( Willow Park , 2010) , which used recy cled materials such as concrete , asphalts, tiles, bricks, mulches and rubber s for hardscape and furniture. The project saved 30% of its bu dget by using the recycled materials. Reusing waste materials will not only reduce waste in landfill s , but also reduce new materials' greenhouse emission s , conserve re source s and reduce cost s in landscape design . Yet, some questions remain, how do we choose waste materials that are not hazardous to the environment and humans? How do we integrate these waste materials in to the park design? The following chapter will explore some of the trends, theories, and methods that encompass reusing waste construction materials in park design.

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! ( ! Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 Introduction Many s cholars hav e undertaken research to know how to reuse waste materials. This chapter will explore the reuse of waste materials, why there is a need for them, how to choose the materials and how to apply reused materials in community park development. While this is an overview of all the information synth esized for this project, the following is intended to give a basic understanding of reusing materials and the design language that will be used for this project. 2.2 Recycling and Reusing Waste M aterials The concept of recycling and reusing waste is common in human society. Early efforts at recycling focused on how to reduce the mountain s of waste in landfill s . People took a high grade mate rial and turn ed it into a low grade material ( McDonough and Braungart, 2002 ) . For example (Figure 2 1) , a recycled plastic bottle has been made into a plastic bag. Although this kind of recycling temporarily reduces the waste in the landfill, the plastic bag will ev entually go there . Additional studie s address the problem of the excessive use of limited resources and advocate for a shift in construction material, production, design, and specification strategies that can move the industry toward a closed loop design (Calkins 2009) . Kibert, Sendzimir an d Guy (2002) introduce a closed loop system, which " advocate [s] the elimination of waste by not producing it or by using it as "food" for new products and processes " . For example , a chair (Figure 2 2 ) is produced and sent to the users. After the end of the chair's life, it is sent to the manufacture r to be used for new materials for new chair s an d other process es . Figure 2 1 Downcycle Figure 2 2 Closed Loop Cycle

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! ) ! W ith the development of a sustainable landscape, designers will find more values in the waste and discover sustainable strategie s to recycle and reuse the waste materials. Calkins (2009) mentioned one of the value s of recycling waste : r eused materials not only conserve materials, but they also save energy and reduce pollution while producing new materials. For instance, " a Swedish study of two buildings, one with a large proportion of recycled materials and the other with all new materials, found that the environmental impacts of the building with recycled materials were only about 55% of the one with new materials and that 12% Ð 40% of energy was saved in material production " (Thormark, 2000). Impacts of the production of a relatively high embodied energy material such as the aluminum can be offset substantially by its reuse in whole form. Even when it is recycled several times into n ew aluminum products, the initial energy and emissions will be reduced, as recycled aluminum products use only 5% of the energy and produce 5% of the emissions of aluminum made from virgin resources (International Aluminum Institute, 2007). Designers shoul d view each design decision as an opportunity to reduce consumption, eliminate waste, cultivate healthy ecosystems, and connect p eople with nature. With more value put into wast e materials, designers start thinking about how to recycle low gra de materials into high grade materials (Calkin s , 2009) . F or examp le, glass bottles (Figure 2 3) might be throw n into a landfill after use . Designer s have taken advantage of the high durability , dark green color and well designed bottles and turn ed them int o beautiful vase s . The recycled bottle now has new value and function. This kind of recycl ing should also be applied in the community park design. 2.3 Principle of Selecting Waste M aterials: In the book Materials for Sustainable Sites , Calkins (2009) suggested how to select materials for sustainable site design. Four principles in this book are used in selecting materials: Figure 2 3 Upcycle

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! * ! 1. Choose materials and products that use resources efficiently. Reduce , reuse , and recycle durable materials in order to reduce resource consumption and habitat destruction and ecosystem disruption that result from extracting and harvesting the resources. (p. V) 2. Choose materials and products that minimize embodied energy and embodied carbon. Use local, low em bodied energy materials and materials that are manufactured with no fossil fuel Ð based renewable energy sources. (p. V) 3. Avoid materials and products that can harm human or environmental health at any phase of their life cycle. Materials or by products from materials that hold potential to emit toxins, pollutants, and heavy metals to air, water, or soil where they can impact ecological and human health should be avoided. (p. V) 4.Choose materials that assist with sustainable site design strategies. Some materials may not be "green" themselves, but if they are used to construct a sustainable site design feature. ( p. V ) Calkins also separately introduces principles such as energy use, air emission, water use and discharge, transportation, durability in choosing basic materials such as earthen materials, brick masonry, concrete, asphalt, wood and wood product s , aggrega tes and stone. In Koch's book Landscape Materials (2007 ), Koch mentions 6 principles when selecting materials for sustainable site de sign: 1. Health and Safety: Designers should use low toxic materials for both installation and maintenance. Materials sele ction should reduce the risk of slips

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! + ! and other accidents. (p. 2) 2.Durability: Selecting materials that can stand up to use over time. (p. 2) 3. Reduced Maintenance: Using materials or products result in less work over time. The Materials should be easy to clean and maintain without chemicals or toxic finishes. (p. 2) 4.Functionalty: The materials should be suit ed to their intended purpose and the necessary qualities for the job. Materials that could be reused and multi functions would be p referred. (p. 2) 5. Accessibility: Using materials help orient the user, mark transitions and boundaries, and facilitate the safe, easy passage of wheelchairs or other mobility assisting devices. (p. 2) 6. Ecological Benefit: Using materials that enhance a nd protect the natural environment. Using mate rials absorb or retain storm wa ter, protect water quality and help conserve water. Using materials that free of toxins and can leach into the soil water or air. (p. 2) These criteria could partly be u sed for selecting w aste materials for this project. Chapter F our and Chapter Five will show the analysis and the application of these criteria. 2.4 Application of Waste Materials in Site D esign Using recycled materials as a substitute for virgin ones can have economic, environmental and even aesthetic advantages. Several researchers mention the implementation of recycled materials in landscape constructions.

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! , ! 2.4.1 Recycled Concrete Calkins (2009) mention s that using rec ycled c oncrete to construct a wall not only reduce s resource use , but it can also reduce the environmental impact once they are sent to the landfill. Khalaf and De Venny (2004) suggest that using recycled materials such as reclaimed concrete, blast furnace slag and glass for aggregate in the community park's path could be less expensive than natural aggregate, which has been widely applied in path construction. These recycled aggregates can easily meet the standards of water absorption, specific gravity, and compressive strength but can vary widely and will affect the concrete mix requirements (Khalaf and DeVenny, 2004). In addition, c rushed or broken d emolition c oncr ete can be reused in new concrete. This practice help s reduce the waste in landfill s and save s on trans portation fees (King and Bruce, 2005) . 2.4.2 Recycled Brick Bricks are extremely durable and can be reclaimed and reused multiple times. An e xample are the street bricks made during the l ate nineteenth century that are found all over the eastern half of the United States. The brick s are durable and can be repeatedly reused in new pedestrian paving applications. Calkins (2009) suggests ways to keep bricks reusable since the ability to technically separate mortar from bricks is the determining factor in the reuse of bricks. She found that cement mortar is hard to separate from bricks but that "lime mortar, used in brick structur es prior to the mid twentieth century, is softer and much easier to remove from bricks. Where removal of cement mortar is not feasible, reclaimed bricks with mortar fragments can be crushed for reuse as base or fill material." Calkins also suggests avoidi ng the use of mortar in brick connection. In paving applications, broken bricks with cracked mortar joints or the settling of mortared brick pavements often results in removal of the entire application, as repair of small areas is difficult. 2.4.3 Recycle d Asphalt Many researchers state that using recycled asphalt can save cost s directly and

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! %! indirectly. These materials directly save the cost of transport and indirectly save on landfill fees. There are several methods of using reclaimed asphalt w ith varying environmental, economic, and performance issues. Calkins (2009) mentions that recycled tires, roofing shingles, glass, slag and concrete can be reused as aggregate s , mineral filler, and granular base in the new asphalt constructions . Recycled aggregates have strength , and inputting other materials in the asphalt may increase the new pavement's strength and durability as well . Another benefit of mixing asphalt with other recycled materials is that it has good permeability and help s ret ain storm water. (Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association, 2001). Furthermore, the most widespread and abundant material that can be recycled into new asphalt paving applications is reclaimed asphalt pavement (Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Associati on, 2001) . The Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association ( 2001 ) estimates that 80% of waste asphalt are recycled and reused into new asphalt paving and basement . 2.4.4 Recycled Tires Tires are an abundant waste product in the United States. About 300 million tires are discarded each year. Burning tires ha s a harmful impact on human health and the environment from air to groundwater pollution (Addis, 2006) . While tire waste ha s been available across the United States for years, tire chipping f acilities have only recently be come widespread. These tires can be recycled into rubberized asphalt concrete (RAC). In paving, RAC is the most common application being used for asphalt surface courses and chip and slurry seals. Chipped tires are also used in asphalt base course applications and as asphalt modifiers (Thormark, 2007). Because of this technology, tires become safer, more economical, lasting longer and most importantly, becoming more environment friendly. 2.4.5 Recycled Plastics Each year 1,050,000 tons of plastics mater ials are recycled in the United States (American Chemistry Council, 2007) . Calkins (2009) notes that post consumer recycled plastics can be used as aggregate s or an asphalt cement additive in asphalt pav ement. Both technologies are relatively new and are proprietary, yet offer a good reuse

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! %% ! opportunity for these waste materials . Maher (2005) stated, "recycled plastic is also used as an asphalt cement polymer modifier. Proprietary products use recycled low density polyethylene resin obtained from trash bags and sandwich bags in asphalt cement. The recycled plastic is made palletized and added to asphalt cement at percentages of 4% Ð 7% by weight of binder. It performs in much the same way as other polymer modi fied binders". 2.4.6 Recycled Stone Use of recycled stone in landscape structures such as dry stack walls, gabion structures, gravel pavements, porous aggregate pavements, or gravel trench foundations can minimize some environment impacts. They can be durable, reusable, permeable, and less resource and energy intensive alternatives to concrete, asphalt, and concrete block s in appropriate applications. Calkins (2009) also suggests that when designing low impact structures from stone, aggregates, or recycled materials, consideration should be given to appropriateness of intended use, durability of both the structure and the material used, use of local sources, and the reusability or recyclability of the materials after the useful life of the struc ture. 2.4.7 Recycled U ntreated L umber According to C alkins ( 2009) , most used lumber disposed of in landfills often commingled with other demolition debris and was crushed beyond potential reuse. Wood can biodegrade without treatment and return carbon to the soil when it decomposes, but this is not a best method for waste woods. Re cycling and reusing is a better strategy. It can extend wood life and turn it into a new project. Recycling can also reduce landfill and new material costs. These waste wood materials can be recycled into other wood products such as composite lumber or mulch in the landscape design. 2.4.8 Crushed Recycled Glass Crushed recycled glass, also called cullet, can be reused as either fine or coarse aggregate in concrete. Other common recycled method is to substitute glass to concrete. I t is increasingly used in larger sizes to impart color and aesthetic properties to concrete

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! %" ! and concrete products (Calkins, 2009) . 2.5 Conclu sion The research above provides a basic background of waste materials and their application in landscape construction. Recycled and reclaimed materials can be used to create lower impact site structures than those resulting from the more commonl y used asphalt, concrete, and concrete block s . These materials can also reduce environmental pollution and harmful impact s on humans. Most of the research results are applied in the construction of paving, walls and trails. However, what is missing from cu rrent research is how to apply waste materials to other components such as furniture, trellis es and fences in a landscape site. In fact, with the materials described above, waste shells are commonly used in Florida as pavement for path s . In addition, t he Doyle Hollis Park in Californi a used recycled steel as a fence to separate the playground and picnic area s . Other waste materials need to be researched and applied to other function s of the community park. This project seeks to provide creative and sustain able design approaches to reuse waste materials in community parks and to address these questions.

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! %& ! Chapter 3 Case Study 3.1 Introduction As Francis (1999 ) concluded in his research " A Case Study Method f or Landscape Architecture , " " Landscape cases provide the primary form of education, innovation, and testing for the profession. They also serve as the collective record of the advancement and development of knowledge in landscape architecture." Case studies were applied in this thesis to support the overall design of the decision making process. Lessons learned from each case study were applied to the overall park design with recycled materials. In order to support the sustainable goal of reusing recycled materials in park design and construction, four particular cases were selected. Each case provides a different recycling idea for the overall design of the site. The first case is Willow Park , Un ion City, C A. It is an excellent residential project, which applies multiple recycling methods to minimize waste and environmental impacts. The second case is Doyle Hollis Park, Emeryville, CA. The public neighborhood park is a good example of repurposing an existing site and reusing local waste materials. The design also offers the high density neighborhood a bea utiful outdoor green space for relaxation and play . The third case is Pete V. Domenici U.S. Courthouse in Albuq uerque, New Mexico, which is a projec t transforming a n unused public plaza into a sustainable urban design. Moreo ver, the project combines reuse methods with water management. The last project is Ballast Point Park, Sydney, Australia , which is inspired by the history and environment of the si te. Used recycled materials are applied wherever possible. The project is also a good example of selecting proper waste materials for an inspi red design . Research for the four cases was conducted through literature reviews, interview videos, and posters.

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! %' ! 3.2 Case Study 1: Willow Park Sustainable Strategies: c onserve w ater, r euse recycled materials, conserve energy Recycled Materials: c oncrete masonry, plastic, poured concrete with fly ash, plastic composite lumber, rubber, salvaged brick, mosaic of broken tiles Location: Union City, California Total Project Cost: $307,000 Landscape Area Size: 0.31 Acre Landscape Type: p ublic n eighborhood p ark ( b oth a passive and an active park) Date: October 2008 Landscape Architect: Robert Mowat Associates 3.2.1 Project Overview Willow Park is a half acre public park in the center of the residential neighborhood of Union City, California. With a limit ed budget, the central goal of this project is to provide a recreational place for the neighborhood as well as to educate the p ublic on eco friendly design and practices. The park is designed for both active and passive recreation with trees, lawns, barbecue grills , play structures, picnic areas, Figure 3 1 Willow Park Source: Rmalandscape.com

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! %( ! benches and tables. Divers e eco friendly landscape features were applied throughout t his park project such as minimizing waste, using recycled materials, onsite composting, selecting native plants, conserving water, and conserving energy ( Willow Park , 2010) . 3.2.2 Site Analysis and Functions The park serves many different functions for different users. The community amenities include barbecue grills, picnic are a and sitting area, playground , and many different habitats for birds and beneficial insects. The major part of the park is the grilling and p icnic area. A willow tr ee surrounded by recycled benches is in the middle of the picnic area. There are rings of trees and lawns circl ing the picnic area for both passive and active recreation. A play area for young children is also located in the small park. The project gives l ocal children a place to play. At the same time , adults can enjoy walking and sitting in the beautiful landscape scenery ( Willow Park , 2010). 3.2.3 Sustainable Practice s The design project not only provides its neighborhood with a multi function living space , but also a sustainable landscape development. 3.2.3.1 Reduce Waste and Recycle Figure 3 2 Site Plan Source: Rmalandscape.com

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! %) ! In Alameda County, nearly 11 percent of wastes in landfill s are c onstruction and demolition waste s . Designers of Willow Park provided a variety of methods for reducing landfill deposits, which resulted in benefits such as improving plant health and saving money ( "Robert Mowat Association , " 2010 ) . First, when constructing the Willow Park project, designers u se d nearly 100 percent of the C&D waste materials from landfills. For example, an old concrete wall was sent to a recycling center for processing , after which it was reused as new road aggregates in the par k ("Robert Mowat Association," 2010 ). Designers also reused waste plastic as plant containers in the site, which were recycled from nurseries. Sin ce the materials from the landfill are cheaper than new product s , reusing materials from the site reduced cost s and transportation fees . Second, Robert Mowat Associates Design team not only used recycled materials in the park's construction, but also bought products made with recycled content. The company also recycled urban plant waste as mulch and compost. In addition, the poured concrete walkway and t he concrete picnic benches and tables conta in a high Figure 3 3 Playground and Picnic Area Source: Rmalandscape.com

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! %* ! volume of fly ash, which can be recycled as a byproduct when coal is burned to generate electricity. Moreover, designers used recycled rubber as playground pavement to provide children a safe and resilient surface on which to play . Sixty two perc ent of traditional lumbers were replaced by plastic composite lumber ( Willow Park , 2010) , which is made form a mix of recycled plastic and reclaimed wood. Other r ecycled m aterials included the barbecue grill, play structure, curb and water fountain . Finally, Willow Park makes good use of salvaged materials. T he pavers in the circular picnic area were salvaged from repaved crosswalks in Union City. Since the number of available salvaged pavers wa s limited, Mowat reused pavers mixed with recycled content concrete. In addition, " inspired by Antoni Gaudi's mosaics in Barcelona's Park GŸell " , Mowat purchased second hand broken tiles and to use in the benches in the picnic area. ("Robert Mowat Association," 2010) . Figure 3 4 Recycled Brick Pavement, Recycled Concrete Benches, Recycled Tile Seatwall Source: Rmalandscape.com Figure 3 5 Salvaged paver Source: Rmalandscape.com

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! %+ ! 3.2.3.2 Conserving W ater Reducing the use of irrigation water is another goal of the sustainable practice s in Willow Park. Recycled materials also can help designers to achieve this goal. To increase the soil's water retention, Mo wat applied recycled nature compost to the soil to improve its ability to retain moisture. Moreover, in order to further reduce water loss in the planted areas, 3 inch layers of recycled mulch covers the soil . This strategy not only slows down the rainwate r to increase groundwater retention , but it also m akes good use of waste materials and protects the environment. The design group also set indicator stones on the lawn to educate the public. ("Robert Mowat Association," 2010). 3.2.4 Lesson Learned Mowat's design provides residents with a multifunction al and sustainable environment. After completing the project, Mowat said , "Recycled and salvaged materials can take extra effort, but it is time well spent. The initial R&D of the design is time intensive, but you take that knowledge with you into the next project." As Mowat said, Willow Park provides many creative recycling and reusing design methods that can be applied in other design project s . I n s electi ng recycled materials , issues such as market supply , the function of the site, durability of materials, and sustainable issues should be taken into consideration . Most of the recycled materials such as brick s and tiles that came from the landfill are durable and colorful. The organic mulches and compost are beneficial for growing plants and conserving water . The concrete benches made of recy cled content can be used for many years. C ombin ing the recycled materials with function and design goals will help with material selection application. Figure 3 6 Salvaged tile Source: Rmalandscape.com Figure 3 7 Indicator Stone Source: Rmalandscape.com

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! %, ! 3.3 Case Study 2: Doyle Hollis Park Sustainable Strategies: native plantings , reducing landfill waste , reusing recycled materials, conserving energy, conserving water, creating a wildlife habitat, and protecting water and air quality Recycled Materials: c oncrete slab, plastic, wire, poured concrete with fly ash, plastic composite lumber, rubber, salvaged brick, mosaic of bro ken tiles Location: Emeryville, California Total Project Cost: $1.2 million Parcel Size: 1.5 acres Completion Date: September 2009 Landscape Type: p ublic p ark Landscape Architect: Gates & Associates 3.3.1 Project Overview Figure 3 8 Doyle Hollis Park Source: Dgates.com

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! "! Emeryville is a small city between Oakland and Berkeley in the San Francisco East Bay area, extending to the shores of San Francisco Bay. As an old industrial city, Emeryville had no parks during its early history. In recent years, a number of small parks have been added throughout the city. Doyle Hollis Park is one of the small public recreational areas in Emeryville. The 1 .5 acre park was complete d in 2009. The park is built between commer cial buildin gs and high density residential lofts, which offer s a recreational space to nearby residents. A warehouse previously occupied the site . With the vision of "community friendly and environment friendly , " Gates & Associates Design Company converte d a former warehouse and asphalt parking lot into a beautiful neighborhood park for play, relaxation and exercise. The sustainable approaches used in Doyle Hollis Park include using native plants , r educing landfill waste, reusing recycled materials, conserving energy, protecting water and air quality, conserving water, and creating a wildlife habitat. All these feature bring the park an "urban eco chic" aesthetic. ( Doyle Hollis Park , 2010) 3.3.2 Site Analysis As the park is located in a high density residential and commercial area, it is important for residents to participate in the design decision making. Residents helped Multi-Use Lawn Basketball Court with Seatwall Street T rees in Cut outs Picnic Area Advanced Play Restroom Picnic Area R ain Garden Seating Area Seat P ads Bollards Flagstone P aving Fountain To be redesigned after fountain concept is selected Flowering T rees Boulders Basketball Court R edwood T rees Overhead T russ Entry Existing T rees Specimen T ree in decomposed granite Seatwalls Seatwall at toe of berm 61ST STREET 62ND STREET D O YLE STREET HOLLIS STREET D O YLE HOLLIS P ARK CITY OF EMERYVILLE, CALIFORNIA PREFERRED PLAN June 2007 Figure 3 9 Site Plan Source: Dgates.com

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! "% ! identity priorities land use for the site such as multifunction lawn, playground, and on street parking. The final design provides much needed passive and active recreation opportunities for this high density, mixed us e neighborhood. The entire park was designed to emphasize park security. A socc er field is located in the ce nter of the site plan. Kids can play soccer after school and adults can play on it on weekends. The lawn is also used by residents to hold birthday parties. Besides the multifunction lawn, the design team designed basketball co urt, public art fountain and picnic area to satisfied residents of different ages and genders ( "Gates Associates ," 2010 ). Figure 3 10 Multi function l awn for community activities Source: Dgates.com Figure 3 11 Playground Source: Dgates.com

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! "" ! 3.3.3 Recycling and R eusing The c ity of Emeryville needed to remove a large warehouse before construction of Doyle Hollis Park. A bout 22 tons of plant debris were left on the site . According to the description of Gates Association w ebsite (2010 ), " By recycling that material instead of taking it to the landfill, the equivalent of 4.4 metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions were avoided. " In order to reduce the waste in the Emeryville landfill and decrease the carbon footprint of the site, Gates & Associates Desig n Company recycled and reused construction and demolition debris of the proposed site ( "Gates Associates ," 2010 ). A 1.5 acres of concrete slab of the former site was recycled and reused in the pavers and walls. All the stone sculptures are natural and recycled. The facilities for children in the playground are made of the safe recycled plastics and wires from the previous site. These plastic play facilities in the photos can be pushed around. Si nce they are slightly tilted, they also teach children about gravity, weight and momentum ("Gates Associates ," 2010). Figure 3 12 Facilities in Playground Source: Dgates.com

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! "& ! Materials with recycled content are also used in this project. All the new concrete used in the park contain recycled fly ash ( Doyle Hollis Park , 2010) . As described in the first case, fly ash can be recycled after burning coal to generate electricity. Based on the research of Shop Waste (2013) : "In the conc rete mix used for Doyle Hollis P ark, the fly ash displaced 50 percent of the Portland cement typically used in concrete." Other furniture such as bench es, tables and trellises are made from a composite plastic lumber. This site furniture is attractive and easy to maintain. The floor of playground contains recycled rubber. The m ulch and compost are made in organic materials, which are re cycled from urban plant debris. The construct debris produced in the site was recycled by other project, which saving 2.2 metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions. ("Stop Waste , " 2015) With these recycling and reusing approaches mentioned above, Doyle Hollis Park created a more sustainable living environment for its nearby residents. 3.3 .4 Lesson learned Doyle Hollis Park is a wonderful example of repurposing and reusing waste materials both on site and off. The project also sho ws that good sustainable design Figure 3 13 Recycled Concrete wall Source: Dgates.com

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! "' ! should not only protect the environment , but also satisfy the community's daily needs . Reusing waste materials in p ark design is not only a strategy for reducing the amount of the landfill, but also a method to crea te functional and com fortable living space s . This case supports the assumption tha t reusing waste materials can provide healthier and more sustainable proje cts for the community. The creative reuse methods will be used in the design part of the thesis. 3.4 Case Study 3: Pete V. Domenici U.S. Courthouse Sustainable strategies: improving water management, increasing urban habitat, and reducing waste materials and energy use Recycled Materials : concrete Location: Albuquerque, New Mexico Total Project Cost: $2,837,131 Landscape Size: 4.4 acres Landscape Type: Urban Plaza Former Land Use: Grey field Figure 3 14 Fencing in the playground Source: Dgates.com

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! "( ! Terrestrial Biome: d esert Completion Date: September 2009 Owner/Developer: City of Albuquerque, New Mexic o Landscape Architect: Rios Clementi Hale Studios 3.4.1 Project Overview Pete V. Domenici U.S. Courthouse is located in downtown Albuquerque, New Mexico. Albuquerque is a high desert transitional region between low relief tablelands and semi arid grassl and located in the Albuquerque Basin. The site is hot during the day and cold at night. R ain occurs most in summer and averages 8 10 inches. More than 300 days of sunshine provide many solar resources in this are a ( " Rios Clementi Hale Studios , " 2009 ) . Figure 3 15 Plaza Source: rchstudios.com The design team Rio Cleme n ti Hale Studios used creative s ustainable design strategies to reconnect the site to its place. The g oal of the project is to connect the site to the regional and site histo ry through efficien t and sustainable landscape approaches. These approaches include improving water management, increasing the urban habitat, and reducing materials waste and energy use. As the budget for the project is limited, recycling and reusing is the key sustainable strategy to achieving this goal. The historic and sustainable project successfully re connects the place to the local community, which

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! ") ! improves the efficiency and ec onomic viability of the site (" Rio s Clementi Hale Studios ," 2009). Figure 3 16 Site Plan Source: rchstudios.com 3.4. 2 Site Analysis The size of Pete V. Domenici U.S. Courthouse plaza is about 4.4 acres. The d esigners transformed the unused public plaza into a histor ical and sustainable urban design space . Rios Clementi Hale Studios maintained the cultural features of the site and reused the onsite materials. They also increased the overall site permeability and amount of planting ("Sustainable Site," 2009) . Figure 3 17 Water Management Source: rchstudios.com

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! "* ! According to Rios Clementi Hale Studios website (2015), "designers removed water intensive lawns and replaced them with plants that have survived for millennia in the Rio Grande Basin's unique climate and hydro logy." These plants cover most of the site. An ancient irrigation system named "acequias" was applied throughout the site. The irrigation system is made of Pueblo dr ainage canals. These canal s are along the edges of the site and lawn and collect rainwater and irrigate the plants onsite ("Sustainable Site," 2009). The site was once cover ed by lawn ; people were forbid den to enter. According to the records of Rios Clementi Hale Studios website (2015), they recycled 21,000 square feet of permeable concrete, cut ting it into 8" x 16" blocks , and reused them as pavement for sidewalks. The sidewalks and the lawns are separate d by concrete seatwalls. People now can sit near the lawns, which were once closed to the public. Visitors can also walk on the f ull acces sible pathways shaded by trees and participate in the green space . ("Sustainable Site," 2009) Figure 3 18 Rain Garden Source: rchstudios.com The plaza used to be McClellan Park, which was the only public green space in downtown Albuquerque. ( "Sustainable Site," 2009 ) The design group created a single square of lawn to remind the public of the desert xeriscaping parks in recent history . The lawn is also a place for another historical artifact: " the 1928 Madonna of the Trail,

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! "+ ! one of 12 statues erected along the old Santa Fe Trail in celebration of the hardiness of pioneer women " (" Rios Clementi Hale Studios ," 2009) . Designers protect lawns and build sculpture s with re cycled stone to preserve the hi story of this place . Figure 3 19 Monument Source: rchstudios.com This c reative project integrated water management , solar power panels, efficient sidewalk and seat walls , and cultural landscape features to create an eff icient and beautiful space for users and built a local sense of place. 3.4.3 Re use: Reusing recycled materials is one of the main sustainable strategies in this project. " Designers recycled more than 63% of the site's materials, which reduced the cost and environment al impacts of the site. In addition, m ore than 21,000 square feet of concrete demolished from the site was reused as new materials for sidewalks " ("Sustainable Site," 2009). In order to incr ease the permeability of the road surface, the design group selected c oncrete 3 4 inches thick and cut them 8 inches wide by 16 inch es long for sidewalks. The rest of the concrete was used in the walls, terraces and curbs. These walls provide seating as we ll as lead storm water into a rain gardens. This kind of recycling materials method redu ced the need for new materials as well as th e irrigation water requirements ("Sustainable Site," 2009).

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! ", ! Figure 3 20 Seat wall Source: rchstudios.com 3.4.5 Project Successes Based on the research on the website Sust ainable Site Initiative (2009 ) , " the quality and beauty of recycled blocks immediately attract the public, which not only provides a unique design feature, but also needs the contractor to receive multiple inquiries from the public as to where the concrete blocks were Ôpurchased'." The recycled materials n ot only effectively reduce the expense s for new construction materials but also successful ly educat e local resident s to reuse waste materials to create their own beauty and quality design space. 3.4.6 Lesson Learned The Pete V. Domenici U.S. Courthouse plaza design produced by R ios Clementi Hale Studios used sust ainable landscape methods to address water and energy issues, to improve th e sense of place and culture, and to reduce whole budget of the project by reusi ng demolished materials. This case supports the assumption of this thesis that using recycled materials can save project funds while protect ing the enviro nment. The methods for calculating the optimal number and size of recycled concrete block s, and the combination of reused means with other sustainable methods such as water management , are valuable design approaches that should be followed in future designs.

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! &! 3.5 Case Study 4 : Ballast Point Park Location: Sydney, Australia Completion Date: 2009 Total Project Cost: $8,500,000 Landscape Size: 6.17 acres Landscape Type: Urban Park Landscape Architect: McGregor Coxall Materials: r ecycled s teel, recycled aggregate, recycled stone, and re cycled wood. Figure 3 21 Ballast Point Park Source: Mcgregorcoxall.com 3.5 .1 Project Overview Figure 3 22 Site Plan Source: mcgregorcoxall.com Ballast Point Park is a restored green space located on a prominent headland overlooking Sydney Harbor, w hich has played a important place in the history of Sydney. The site has a rich indigenous, colonial and industrial heritage, and there are fe atures through out the park that tell these stories. Based on the website McGregor and Coxall (2009 ), " Between 1788 and 1800, the point was used as a fishing and hunting ground

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! &% ! for European settlers and as a source of ballast for ships returning unlade to E urope, hence the name Ballast Point. " With the onset of the I ndustrial R evolution, the site acted as an industrial facility used for storing lubricants and oil. T he goal of the design project was to t ransform a degraded, polluted site into an informative, public asset. Adrian McGregor , the designer of the park, took inspiration from the history of the space and industrial nature and used recycled materials wherever possible to build new infrastructure. McGregor 's design of the grounds sought to restore the area back to nature, while also reminding visitors of all the changes and activities that occurred at the point, including fishing, hunting, mining, manufacturing, and storage. The park now provides bike lane s , walking paths and green picnic spots . People can sit on the site and view the city and Harbor Bridge. It is a charming place where families can go to enjoy picnics and play overlooking the water. (Meinhold, 2012 ) 3.5 .2 Sustainable Design Methods: 3.5 .2.1 Water reuse In order to address decontamination of the old industrial facilities, McGregor designed some new wetland s to filter the si te's stormwater before it entered the harbor . All site stormwater and rainfall runoff is captured onsite and directed into underground storage tanks. Sinc e the majority of plants are endemic plants , normal irrigation requirements are reduced after the establishment phase. The project also uses high rated water saving WC's, taps, and urinals. These strategies saved water and reduce d the environment al impacts of the park . (Meinhold, 2012) Figure 3 23 Lawn and wetland Source: mcgregor coxall.com 3.5 .2.2 Recycled Materials

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! &" ! Cradle to cradle is the other basic design method applied in Ballast Po int Park Design. Cradle to cradle minimize s the use of new materials and reuse s the waste onsite as food for new product s . McGregor made use of demolition a nd recycled materials to build new infrastructure. He salvaged a large amount of aggregate for a gabion wall, and a portion of a partially demolished tank to place wind turbines on. The salvaged steel in the park is reused as stair s, pavers and fencing. (Meinhold, 2012) Figure 3 24 Trellis Source: mcgregorcoxall.com Moreover, new materials applied in Ballast Point Park all have recycled content. The concrete used onsite has the maximum commercially available recycled content. The walkways and benches are made of 100% of recycled wood and Jarrah hardwood , which is a nature heavy wood in Australia and a good choice for recycling as benches and trellis es . The design team also designed a number of modern, industri al shade structures around the park for visitors ' use. One of the wind energy structures is made of recycled steel. Renewable wind turbines supply most of the energy used to maintain the park ' s operations, helping to reduce peak energy demand on the energy grid.

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! && ! R ecycled materials are also used in the trellis. These steel structures feature bright yellow recycled seat belt webbing that is woven to create a shade covering. Based on the record of website McGregor and Coxall (2009) , o ver 25,000 cubic meters of materials was saved through reuse and recycle efforts. Using high quality recycled materials prevented 77 ton s of CO! . The design group also planted over 1 , 000 native trees and 30,000 native shrubs and grasses. All plants have been grown fr om locally collected seed. 350 t on s of CO ! was sequestered as a result of the plantings. The project not only provides multifunction al uses to visitors , but also provide s a sustainable and green site that connects with nature. Figure 3 25 Wind Infrastructure Source: mcgregorcoxall .com 3.5 .3 Lesson learned Ballast Point is a rich and diverse landscape of layers and stories. The parkland's design weaves an interesting and engaging tapestry of landscape design, artwork and historic interpretation to provide a valuable recreational resource for the community of Sydney. This case shows that waste materials can not only be designed to replace new product s , but also can have historic al value in the landscape design. The materials

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! &' ! reused in this site , such as the steel trellis and aggregate walls, all have histor ica l meanings . The steel is a product of I ndustr ial R evolution. The concrete aggregate record s the activities and event s that happened in the park. This project is a good case study for teach ing designer s how to select proper waste materials and create design . 3.6 Conclusion : Applying recycled or salvaged materials is one of the basic sustainable design strategies in park design. This means making ensuring the sustainability of the materials' source and management as well as their efficiency throughout their life cycle. Reusing waste materials is a way of reducing consumption of production as well as negative impacts on the environment and also a way of dealing with end of life materials. There are many ways to reuse materials reso urces. The following are common findings to be considered after analysis of the four projects: 1. Think reuse from the start Establish sustainable strategies at the beginning of design. Material reuse as a part of comprehensive sustainable solutions need s to be discussed in the early stages. The four projects above all consider reusing waste materials from the beginning. T hey also combine recycling methods with other strategies such as water and energy conservation. 2. Use of o nsite materials Tak e a look at the landscape amenities such as infrastructure, hardscape, and structures to see if they can be reused before making decisions to purchase new materials. Material consumption can be reduced. This not only prevents the generation of waste , but a lso reduces the demand of new materials and is considered a favorite method of management of materials. 3. Build good relationship with recycling contractors Some project s such as Willow Park and Doyle Hollis Park are good example s of "shopping the site" or onsite deconstruction. They reused the waste materials

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! &( ! from the site and other deconstruction places such as schools, nurseries, landfill s and recycling center s . Setting up good relationship s with source s such as landfill s , secon dhand shops and other contractors will helps designers become more familiar with the range of materials available and make supplier s better acquainted with contractors' needs. Creativity, cost effectiveness, and efficiency of materials reusing process can be raised by better knowledge about the market. 4. Be creative in select ing recycled materials Let recycled or salvaged materials inspire creative inventions. They sometimes provide colors, textures or sizes that new materials don't. Also think about using w aste materials differently than in their o riginal way, such as waste aggregate s used as a wall. 5. Test ideas to address their application Although some materials did not c o me from factor ies , they can still be considered as useful materials for community pa rk design. During the design process, getting samples to test ideas may lead to surprising outcomes . For example, the designers in Doyle Hollis Park reused wires and plastic to ma k e play instrument s for the playground. 6. Share the story Unlike new materials, waste materials usually have histor ical value. With the application of these waste materials in community park s , they can help designers to narrat e and preserve the local culture and history . Projects such as the Ballast Point Park and Pete V. D omenici U.S. Courthouse show how reclaimed materials can be highlighted through design to share that history with other s .

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! &) ! Chapter 4 Principles of Selecting Materials 4.1 Introduction: Recycled materials that can be reused in c ommunity p ark s for both active and passive purpose s are diverse. Recycled materials run from salvaged lumber and broken slabs of concrete to used brick and metal work. Recycled content materials include composite lumber, mulch, glass and aggregate. According to McDonough and Braungart (2002) , most of the recycling today is downcycled (taking a high grade material and turning it into a low grade material). In order to upcycle (taking a low grade material and turning it into a high grade material) waste material, designers should consider the general landscape design, function of the park and sustainable application of the materials. Depending on the project's type, sizes and requirements, a thorough assessment should be made using these recycled materials " in a va riety of ways to create attractive landscapes, conserve resources, lower costs, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and send less materials to the landfills." ( Koch, 2007 ) 4.2. Park Types and Function: 4.2.1 Passive Park Definition Passive Recrea tion Area Law and Legal D efinition (2015) defines passive recreation areas as "generally an undeveloped space or environmentally sensitive area that requires minimal development. Entities such as a parks department may maintain passive recreation areas for the health and well being of the public and for the preservation of wildlife and the environment. The quality of the environment and Ônaturalness' of an area is the focus of the recreational experience in a passive recreation area." 4.2.1.1 Facilities and Features

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! &* ! Mirsch (2015) listed the following passive facilities in the Park Definitions and Development Standards: • Bench es and small picnic facilities (p. IV 10) • Highlight features (i.e. comm unity flower b ed, mature tree (p. IV 10) • Historic and cultural sites (p. IV 10) • Internal trails, connection to greenway trails or c ity sidewalks (p. IV 10) • Public art (p. IV 10) • Historic and cultural sites (p. IV 10) • Parking lots (p. IV 10) • Se curity and facilities lighting (p. IV 10) • Provision of recreational opportu nities not otherwise available (p. IV 10) 4.2.2 Active Park De finition: An a ctive park is a place for outdoor recreation activities, such as playground activities, organized sports and the use of motorize d vehicles, that require extensive facilities or development or that have a considerable environmental impact on the recreational site. Active recreation areas provides recreational and exercise opportunities, help children and adults mainta in a healthy weight and reduce the risk for obesity and its related health consequences. (Mirsch, 2015)) 4.2.2.1 Facilities and Features: Mirsch (2015) listed the following active facilities in the Park Definitions and Development Standards : • Large play structures (p. IV 10)

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! &+ ! • Game Courts ( p. IV 10)) • Informal ball fields for youth play (p. IV 10) • Low Impact recreation options(i.e. bocce ball, h orseshoes, outdoor chess tables (p. IV 10) • Disc golf area, climbing wall, skate park, and other similar popular activities • Jogging trails (p. IV 10) • Parking lots (p. IV 10) • Security and facilities lighting (p. IV 10) • Provision of recreational opport unities not otherwise available (p. IV 10) 4.3 Principles of S electing M aterials for Parks 4.3.1 Costs and Durability 4.3.1.1 Selecting Materials with Low Total Cost: The total cost of materials contains initial cost s and life cycle cost s . Initial cost gives client s a limited view of a material's true cost. Since materials in community park s are exposed to extreme conditions such as rain and freezing temperatures, the maintenance of materials is necessary. Sometimes a material with a higher purchase price may have better quality and a low er total cost . For instance , the first bench is ma de of recycled stone. The initial cost of the bench is $800 and it can last 50 years. The second bench is made of recycled plastic. The initial cost is $ 300 , but it can only last 10 years. When compar ing the price of the two benches, designers should thi nk about the use years, the initial cost and the life cycle cost. If the benches are needed for just 10 years , plastic benches can be selected . When a more durable product is desired, however , the total cost of the stone bench is actually lower than the plastic bench. W hen considering the cost of recycled materials, designers should take into account materials ' durability and price for maintenance and not just initial price.

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! &, ! 4.3.1.2 Using durable and low maintenance materials: Durable materials like brick will last the life of the site and beyond . Th e s e kind s of material s are durable in outdoor settings with little maintenance. Reusing durable materials may reduce virgin resource use and extend the life of structures. For inst ance, brick is one of the durable materials that is easily repaired, replaced, or re leveled. After the end of their life, durable materials can be re cycled and reused in other place s . Extremely durable materials : concrete, brick, stone, and metal Durable materials : asphalt, aggregate, fiber cement, and composite wood Less durable: ceramic tile , wood, glass, rubber, plastic, and mulch 4.3.2 Avoid using toxic waste materials Materials that contain toxic chemicals or metal should be carefully reused. Based on the Calkins ' (2009) research , " Many adhesives, sealers, finishes, and coatings contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other harmful chemical ingredients that can of f gas while in use, leading to air pollution, or leach into the soil and groundwater. Materials manufactured with polyvinylchloride (PVC) such as rigid pipe, plastic fencing and railings, drip irrigation tubing and garden hoses should be avoided. " These ch emicals endanger the health of human s and the environment. Special consideration should be made when reusing and recycling m aterials containing toxi c chemicals . Based on the statistics of Flori da Department of Environmental P rotection, the following common chemicals are da ngerous in recycled C &D Debris : waste materials such as treated woods, toxi c rubbers and plastics . These materials (Table 4 1) contain chemicals that are harmful to the environment and human s and should not be considered a nd applied in the community park design .

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! '! Dangerous Chemical s to Avoid Recycled Materials to Consider Asbestos C an lodge in the lungs and cause serious problems Older types of floor tile, insulation Chromated Copper Arsenate Heavy me t al s are toxic to people and environment Lumber, decks , posts, or tiles , and utility pole posts Methylene Toxicity and volatility to human Waste paints, solvents, varnish, sealers, resins, roofing cement, thinners, lubricants, adhesives, machinery, and caulk Mercury Mercury damages the brain, kidneys, liver and heart Light bulbs/lamps Polyvinylchloride Releases dioxin Rigid pipe, railings, drip irrigation, plastic fencing tubing, and garden hoses VOC: formaldehyde, benzenes, toluene, styrene, xylenes Irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract, causes dizziness, damage to the nervous system, and cancer Rubber, paints, sealers, stains, and other finishes, paint strippers, caulks, adhesives, and pesticides 4.3.3 Materials or product that minimize environment impacts 4.3.3.1 Using local materials: Pollution can also be caused during the transport of bulky a nd heavy materials such as those used in construction. In addition, a huge amount of energy is consumed during removals. Using local reclaimed materials can help reduce the environmental impact by shorten ing the length of transport. Moreover, reusing local materials can reduce the costs of the transportation, which also reduce s the overall cost of the community parks. According to Calkins (2009), "heavy materials such as aggregate, concrete, and brick should be procured within 100 miles, medium weight materials within 500 miles and lightweight materials within 1000 miles of the project site " Heavy Materials: stone, aggregate, conc rete, brick, and metal Table 4 1 M aterials with Dangerous Chemicals, Resourced from Florida Dep artment of Environmental Protection

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! '% ! Medium Weight materials: asphalt, glass, wood, and tiles Lightweight materials: mulch, plastics, and rubber 4.3.3.2 Specify low embodied energy materials Embodied energy is the total energy required i n a material's life cycle , from mining, production , and transport ation to install ation and demolish ment . " Evaluating the embodied energy of a material can be a useful baseline of comparison of different materials. " (Calkins, 2009) Calkins (2009) mention s the following stand ards of embodied energy: Products that are minimally processed, such as stone and wood, usually have lower embodied energy than highly processed materials such as plastics and metals. (p. 6) Evaluating the embodied energy of materials can be a useful baseline for Figure 4 1 Local Distances

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! '" ! comparing two different materials; however, this type of analysis does not take into account other factors of production such as pollutants and toxins released, resources used, or hab itats disturbed. (p. 6) If a product is complex (made from more than one material, such as a steel and wood bench), the embodied energy of the bench would include the energy inputs from both the wood and steel components plus the energy inputs to assemble and finish them. (p. 6) Calkins (2009) also mentions that , typically, embodied energy is measured as " a quantity of non renewable energy per unit of building material, component or system." The following table shows the general embodied energy of mate rials: Material Embodied Energy (MJ/ Mega Joule) Material Embodied Energy (MJ/ Mega Joule) Asphalt pavement 8,890 Aluminum 167,500 Portland cement, 25% Ð 30% fly ash 3,450 Copper 47,500 Portland cement 5,232 Steel 35,800 Concrete 990 Stainless steel 51,500 Clay brick, general 4,584 Zinc 61,900 Tile 9,000 PVC, general 77,200 Stone/gravel chippings 300 General polyethylene 83,200 Local granite 5,900 Parallel strand lumber 17,956 Limestone 240 Softwood lumber 1,971 Sand 100 Glass 37,550 Aggregate 150 Rubber 9,300 Table 4 2 Embodied Energy

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! '& ! 4.4 Common Materials in Community Park Based on the function of facilities, the following tables show suitable materials for each p art of a community park. Synthesizing by the principles above, these materials will be measured by the following factors: initial cost, durability, reusability, local ly source d , embod ied energy, and other benefits or drawbacks. In each category, materials are ranked by their fea tures. These features come from the literature review, case studies , materials makers and sales website s . T he higher the score of the factor , the better sustainability the material is. The next chapter will demonstrate how to use these tables as a tool to select the re cycled materials. 4.4.1 Pavement Table # 1 Patio, walkway, path: A safe and attractive walkway is necessary in the community park. Designers should consider the function of the path before selecting materials. For example, even surface materials such as concrete are good for fully accessible path. It is necessary to consider both surface materials and below structure materials in community park design. When designers try to perorate rain to the soil below, some pervious paver such as aggregate and sand may be good choice. (Koch, 2007) .

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! '' ! Table #1 Path & Patio Poured Concrete with Fly Ash Broken Concrete Recycled Concrete Clay Brick Initial Cost 1 18 1 High 18 Low 18 $0.5/ ft 2 15 $2 $5/ ft 2 14 $2 $5/ ft 2 3 $5 $15 / ft 2 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 10 9 10 10 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 1 10 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 18 1 High 18 Low 7 3,450 (MJ) 11 790 (MJ) 10 990 (MJ) 5 4,584 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Good for wheelchair Using 50% of fly ash Impervious surface s Increases storm water runoff Allow s water to filter into soil and reduce runoff Difficult for wheelchair travel Allow s water to filter into soil and reduce runoff Limitless shapes and colors Can be stamped or textured Air pollution Allow s water to filter into soil Difficult for wheelchair travel MATERIALDESCRIPTION/TIPSBENEFITSDRAWBACKS Poured Concrete with Fly Ash extremely durable even surface good for wheelchair and mobility-impaired accessibility extremely energyintensive to produce (for every ton of cement produced, approximately one ton of carbon dioxide is released!) impervious surface; increases storm water runoff impossible to reconfigure once poured Concrete is a mix of Portland cement, sand, and aggregate (gravel). Portland cement is created in an energy-intensive process, in which clay and limestone are mixed and heated to nearly 2700 degrees Fahrenheit, releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) along with toxic substances such as mercury, lead, and arsenic. Cement, activated by water, binds the concrete mix together, creating a longlasting surface. Reduce the negative environmental impact of this landscaping material by using fly ash (a byproduct of coal-fired energy production) for up to 50% of the cement used in the concrete mix. Tips:Consider poured-in-place concrete only in applications where you're certain it will satisfy long-term functional and aesthetic needs. Pavers and other moveable materials make a better bet for an adaptable landscape design. Using fly ash can increase concrete cure times; consult with a concrete supplier. Concrete mixes can also incorporate recycled products, such as crushed concrete, replacing a portion of the conventional aggregate. Use reusable concrete forms. Broken Concrete extremely durable reusable; can be reconfigured can allow water to filter into soil, reducing runoff uneven surface can be difficult for wheelchair travel Broken concrete from demolition projects is commonly available yearround, usually free if you can haul it yourself, or delivered for a fee. Broken concrete can be laid similar to stone or other pavers, to create a flagstone-like path. Tips:Look for broken concrete from sidewalk and pathway demolition projects so pieces are both light enough to move with relative ease and of roughly the same depth; this helps with laying the pieces. 7 green home remodel | landscape materials Permeable or Salvaged Concrete Pavers reusable; can be reconfigured extremely durable can allow water to filter into soil, reducing runoff permeable pavers make a difficult doit-yourself project; most manufacturers require professional installation Concrete paving creates impervious surfaces that increase stormwater runoff. Look for interlocking concrete pavers in permeable designs that allow rain to seep between the pavers. Also consider installing conventional salvaged pavers to allow for rain infiltration. Tips:Salvaged concrete pavers are sometimes available at used building materials retailers or the Household Online Materials Exchange (see Resources on page 20). Manufacturers of permeable concrete paving systems recommend professional installation for proper functioning. patio, walkway & path choices Recycled Glass Pavers durable up to 100% recycled content energy-efficient manufacturing reusable; can be reconfigured uneven surface can be difficult for wheelchair travel Recycled glass is re-melted into forms, creating hefty, translucent pavers; can be laid similar to concrete pavers, or interspersed as accent pieces with traditional stone or concrete products. Due to their recycled content, glass pavers require roughly half the energy necessary to create new, similarly performing concrete pavers. Tips:Look for locally produced glass pavers to support the market for recycled glass products.

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! '( ! Table #1 Path & Patio Stone Crushed Quarry Rock Aggregate Asphalt Initial Cost 1 18 1 High 18 Low 1 $10 $30 / ft 2 7 $11 $15/ ft 2 9 $11 $15/ ft 2 16 $2.5 $4 / ft 2 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 10 5 5 5 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 1 1 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 1 10 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 18 1 High 18 Low 10 300 (MJ) 16 250 (MJ) 17 150 (MJ) 4 8,890 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Reduce s water runoff Difficult for wheelchair travel Weed barrier needed Absorbs stormwater Reduce s water runoff Allow s water to filter into soil and reduce s runoff Difficult for wheelchair travel Environmental damage caused by gravel erosion Initial smooth surface s Edges crack with vegetation Impervious surface s Increases storm water runoff

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! ') ! Table #1 Path & Patio Recycled Glass Tumbled Recycled Glass Composite Lumber Wood Initial Cost 1 18 1 High 18 Low 8 $6 / ft 2 4 $12/ ft 2 6 $7 $12/ ft 2 10 $1.5 $4 / ft 2 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 3 5 5 3 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 10 Recyclable if untreated Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 18 1 High 18 Low 2 17,550 (MJ) 11 4,584 (MJ) 10 17,956 (MJ) 5 1,271 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Up to 100% recycled content Difficult for wheelchair travel Allow s water to filter into soil and reduce s runoff Broken pieces cut bare feet Recycled content Require s additional materials for joist Good for wheelchair May a ttract pests such as carpenter ants Require s periodic painting or refinishing Treate d with highly toxic compounds chromated copper arsenate (CAA)

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! '* ! Table #1 Path & Patio Bamboo Wood Chips Nutshells Shells Initial Cost 1 18 1 High 18 Low 5 $15 $20/ ft 2 11 $11/ ft 2 12 $10/ ft 2 13 $9 / ft 2 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 2 1 Degrades over time; must be replenished 2 Degrades over time; must be replenished 2 Degrades over time; must be replenished Reusability 10 Yes, 1 No 10 10 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes , 1 No 1 10 5 Only available in processing season 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 18 1 High 18 Low 8 1,580 (MJ) 12 789 (MJ) 13 550 (MJ) 14 360 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Light weight May attract insects and lead rot ting Reduce s water runoff May a ttract pests such as carpenter ants Resilient surface s can reduce risk of injury in falls Control s weeds effectively Allow s water to filter into soil and reduce s runoff Hard on bare feet Recycled content Control s weeds effectively Allow s water to filter into soil and reduce s runoff Hard on bare feet

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! '+ ! Table #2 Bike Trails Bike trails have different slopes and curve radii. People can travel at different speeds on bike trails. In most cases, the native material such as soil and gravel found during trail construction will be satisfactory for surfacing the trail. The Accessible Surface Standards are applied only when a trail segment is designed to be fully accessible (Trail Design Guidelines, 2009). Table #1 Path & Patio Ceramic Tile Limestone Initial Cost 1 18 1 High 18 Low 2 $12 $15/ ft 2 17 $2/ ft 2 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 3 9 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 18 1 High 18 Low 3 9,000 (MJ) 15 240 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Recycled content May c ontain less toxic chemicals Impervious surface s ; increases storm water runoff Allow s water to filter into soil and reduce s runoff Good for wheelchair

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! ', ! Table 2# Bike T rail Poured Concrete with Fly Ash Plastic cement Asphalt Recycling Aggregate Initial Cost 1 4 1 High 4 Low 3 $0.5/ ft 2 1 20 /ft 2 4 $2.5 $ /ft 2 2 $11 $15/ ft 2 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 10 3 5 5 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 1 10 10 1 Locally Sourced 10 Yes 1 No 10 1 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 4 1 High 4 Low 3 3,450 (MJ) 1 77,200 (MJ) 2 8,890 (MJ) 4 150 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Good for wheelchair Using 50% of fly ash Impervious surface s Increases storm water runoff May contain harmful chemicals May leach toxic chemicals into surrounding soils Even surface s are safe for touching, bike and wheelchair Initial smooth surface Edges crack with vegetation Impervious surface Increases storm water runoff Reduce s water runoff Difficult for wheelchair travel Environmental damage caused by gravel erosion MATERIALDESCRIPTION/TIPSBENEFITSDRAWBACKS Poured Concrete with Fly Ash extremely durable even surface good for wheelchair and mobility-impaired accessibility extremely energyintensive to produce (for every ton of cement produced, approximately one ton of carbon dioxide is released!) impervious surface; increases storm water runoff impossible to reconfigure once poured Concrete is a mix of Portland cement, sand, and aggregate (gravel). Portland cement is created in an energy-intensive process, in which clay and limestone are mixed and heated to nearly 2700 degrees Fahrenheit, releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) along with toxic substances such as mercury, lead, and arsenic. Cement, activated by water, binds the concrete mix together, creating a longlasting surface. Reduce the negative environmental impact of this landscaping material by using fly ash (a byproduct of coal-fired energy production) for up to 50% of the cement used in the concrete mix. Tips:Consider poured-in-place concrete only in applications where you're certain it will satisfy long-term functional and aesthetic needs. Pavers and other moveable materials make a better bet for an adaptable landscape design. Using fly ash can increase concrete cure times; consult with a concrete supplier. Concrete mixes can also incorporate recycled products, such as crushed concrete, replacing a portion of the conventional aggregate. Use reusable concrete forms. Broken Concrete extremely durable reusable; can be reconfigured can allow water to filter into soil, reducing runoff uneven surface can be difficult for wheelchair travel Broken concrete from demolition projects is commonly available yearround, usually free if you can haul it yourself, or delivered for a fee. Broken concrete can be laid similar to stone or other pavers, to create a flagstone-like path. Tips:Look for broken concrete from sidewalk and pathway demolition projects so pieces are both light enough to move with relative ease and of roughly the same depth; this helps with laying the pieces. 7 green home remodel | landscape materials Permeable or Salvaged Concrete Pavers reusable; can be reconfigured extremely durable can allow water to filter into soil, reducing runoff permeable pavers make a difficult doit-yourself project; most manufacturers require professional installation Concrete paving creates impervious surfaces that increase stormwater runoff. Look for interlocking concrete pavers in permeable designs that allow rain to seep between the pavers. Also consider installing conventional salvaged pavers to allow for rain infiltration. Tips:Salvaged concrete pavers are sometimes available at used building materials retailers or the Household Online Materials Exchange (see Resources on page 20). Manufacturers of permeable concrete paving systems recommend professional installation for proper functioning. patio, walkway & path choices Recycled Glass Pavers durable up to 100% recycled content energy-efficient manufacturing reusable; can be reconfigured uneven surface can be difficult for wheelchair travel Recycled glass is re-melted into forms, creating hefty, translucent pavers; can be laid similar to concrete pavers, or interspersed as accent pieces with traditional stone or concrete products. Due to their recycled content, glass pavers require roughly half the energy necessary to create new, similarly performing concrete pavers. Tips:Look for locally produced glass pavers to support the market for recycled glass products.

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! (! Table #3 Resilient Track Tracks are surfaces with resilience developed for the purpose of running and training. They also can be used for walking and jogging. Tracks are designed to be precisely flat with enough slopes to lead surface water from rainfall flow away (Trail Desig n Guidelines, 2009). Table #3 Resilient Track Rubber Plastic Cement Asphalt Initial Cost 1 3 1 High 3 Low 2 $3.4 $6/ ft 2 1 $5 $10// ft 2 3 $2.5 $4/ ft 2 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 1 10 5 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 1 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 3 1 High 3 Low 2 9,300 (MJ) 1 77,200 (MJ) 3 8,890 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Pose s a risk of toxins into the groun dwater when placed in wet soils Toxins in rubber product are harmful to human health Rubber's elasticity is increasing May contain harmful chemicals May leach toxic chemicals into surrounding soils Even surface s are safe for touching, bike and wheelchair Initial smooth surface s Edges crack with vegetation Impervious surf ace s Increases storm water runoff

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! (% ! Table # 4 Drive Lane and Parking lot Driving lane surfaces and structural sections are typically built form native materials that must accommodate different types and weights of vehicles. In addition, the road surface will not rut and will provide adequate traction for vehicles such as trucks. Table #4 Drive Lane Stone Clay Brick Asphalt Concrete Initial Cost 1 6 1 High 6 Low 1 $10 $30 / ft 2 2 $5 $15 / ft 2 6 $2.5 $4/ ft 2 5 $2 $5/ ft 2 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 10 10 5 10 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 8 Quarried and fabricated around the world 10 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 6 1 High 6 Low 4 300 (MJ) 2 4,584 (MJ) 1 8,890 (MJ) 3 990 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Reduce s water runoff Safe for wheelchair Air pollution Reduce s water runoff Difficult for wheelchair travel Initial smooth surface Edges crack with vegetation Impervious surface Increases storm water runoff Reduce s water runoff Limitless shapes and colors Can be stamped or textured

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! (" ! Table #4 Drive Lane Crushed Quarry Rock Recycling Aggregate Initial Cost 1 6 1 High 6 Low 3 $11 $15/ ft 2 4 $11 $15/ ft 2 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 5 5 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 1 1 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 6 1 High 6 Low 5 250 (MJ) 6 150 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Weed barrier needed Absorbs stormwater Reduce s water runoff Allow s water to filter into soil and reduce s runoff Difficult for wheelchair travel Environmental damage caused by gravel erosion

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! (& ! Table #5 Decks : Decks need high maintenance. Considering durable material such as concrete and stone when the deck is closed to the ground. Table # 5 Deck Recycled Composite Lumber Wood Recycled Concrete Stone Initial Cost 1 4 1 High 4 Low 2 $7 $12/ ft 2 3 $1 $5/ ft 2 4 $2 $5/ ft 2 1 $10 $30 / ft 2 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 5 3 7 10 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 8 6 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 5 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 4 1 High 4 Low 1 17,956 (MJ) 2 1,271 (MJ) 3 990 (MJ) 4 300 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Recycled content Require s additional materials for joist Good for wheelchair May attract pests such as carpenter ants Require s periodic painting or refinishing Treated with highly toxic compounds chromated copper arsenate (CAA) Allow s water to filter into soil and reduce s runoff Limitless shapes and colors Can be stamped or textured Allow s water to filter into soil and reduces runoff Good for wheelchair

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! (' ! Table #6 Mulch Materials Based on the description of Landscape Materials (2007): "Mulches are a layer of organic material placed around plants to inhibit weed growth, minimize soil erosion and runoff, reduce watering needs by keeping soils moist, insulate plant roots f rom cold and define areas." Table #6 Mulch Nutshells Wood Chips Yard Waste Leaves Initial Cost 1 8 1 High 8 Low 4 $10/ ft 2 3 $11/ ft 2 7 $2/ ft 2 8 $1/ft 2 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 3 Degrades over time; must be replenished 3 Degrades over time; must be replenished 5 1 Evergreen leaves take longer to decompose Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 8 10 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 8 1 High 8 Low 4 550 (MJ) 3 789 (MJ) 7 230 (MJ) 8 220 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Control s weeds effectively Allow s water to filter into soil and reduce s runoff Hard on bare feet Reduce s water runoff May attract pests such as carpenter ants Resilient surface s can reduce risk of injury in falls Feed s and enhance s plants and soil quality and life Weeds germinate more readily than other mulch " Improve soil quality and reduce winter soil erosion " " Insulate plant roots from cold " Decompose s quickly

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! (( ! Table #6 Mulch Shells Tumbled Recycled Crushed Quarry Rock Rubber Initial Cost 1 8 1 High 8 Low 5 $9 /ft 2 1 $12/ ft 2 2 $10/ ft 2 6 $6 / ft 2 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 3 Degrades over time; must be replenished 7 10 5 Rubber's elasticity is increasing Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 1 1 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 8 1 High 8 Low 5 360 (MJ) 1 4,584 (MJ) 6 250 (MJ) 2 1208 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Recycled content Control s weeds effectively Reduce s water runoff Hard on bare feet Reduce s water runoff Broken pieces cut bare feet Reduce s water runoff Weed barrier Broken pieces cut bare feet Pose s a risk of toxins into the ground water when placed in wet soils Toxins in rubber product are harmful to human health Rubber's elasticity is increasing

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! () ! Table #7 Playground The materials for a playground surface can be divided into two basic categories: unitary and loose fill. Accor ding to the website Pa ysite plus Surface (2015) , "Unitary includes poured in place rubber, bonded rubber mulch and artificial turf. Loose fill includes engineered wood fiber, and san d and pea stone". P layground surface should be soft and safe for children playing. An even and r esilient surface offers protection to children's limbs and absorbs impact (Public Playground safety handbook, 2008). Table #7 Playground Rubber Bonded Rubber Wood Chips Pea gravel Initial Cost 1 6 1 High 6 Low 2 $5/ ft 2 3 $6/ ft 2 4 $11/ ft 2 5 $19.5 / ft 2 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 5 3 Degrades over time; must be replenished 2 Degrades over time; must be replenished 10 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 1 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 6 1 High , 6 Low 2 9,300 (MJ) 3 4,500(MJ) 4 780 (MJ) 5 250 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Pose s a risk of toxins into the groun dwater when placed in wet soils Toxins in rubber product are harmful to human health Rubber's elasticity is increasing Pose s a risk of toxins into the groundwater when placed in wet soils Toxins in rubber product are harmful to human health Rubber's elasticity is increasing R educe s water runoff May attract pests such as carpenter ants Resilient surface s can reduce risk of injury in falls Allow s water to filter into soil and reduce runoff Weed s barrier Broken pieces may cut bare feet

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! (* ! Table # 7 Playground Resistant plastic Recycled Sand Initial Cost 1 6 1 High 6 Low 6 $20 40/ ft 2 1 $4/ ft 2 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 8 5 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 1 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 6 1 High 6 Low 6 7,7200 (MJ) 1 320 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks May contain harmful chemicals May leach toxic chemicals into surrounding soils Safe surface s for touching Feed s and enhance s plants and soil quality and life Soft Surface s for touching and falling

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! (+ ! Table #8 Basketball and tennis court Basketball and tennis court s need smooth and non cracked surface. Based on the Design for Recreational Use (2015 ) , "in order to drain properly, the finished court surfaces should have a minimum slope of 1 inch per 10 feet on a true plane from side to side, end to end, or corner to corner. " Table #8 Basketball or Tennis Court Rubber Asphalt Plastic Concrete Initial Cost 1 4 1 High 4 Low 2 $5/ ft 2 3 $2.5 $4/ ft 2 4 $6/ ft 2 1 $2 $5/ ft 2 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 3 5 7 10 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 4 1 High 4 Low 2 9,300 (MJ) 3 8,890 (MJ) 1 77,2200 (MJ) 5 4,584 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Pose s a risk of toxins into the ground water when placed in wet soils Toxins in rubber product are harmful to human health Rubber's elasticity is increasing Initial smooth surface s Edges crack with vegetation Impervious surface s Increases storm water runoff May contain harmful chemicals May leach toxic chemicals into surrounding soils Safe surface s for contact and running Less elasticity than rubber Allow s water to filter into soil and reduce s runoff Limitless shapes and colors Can be stamped or textured

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! (, ! Table #9 Seat wall, retaining wall, and freestanding wall A seatwall is built generally at a height of 18" to ensure people are comfortable while sitting. Some seatwalls are also built as a retaining wall, which only needs one finished side. "The capstone of the seatwalls should be de level, substantial and secure" (Landscape A dvisor, 2013). Table #9 Seatwall Clay Brick Stone Ceramic Tile Wood Timbers Initial Cost 1 10 1 High 10 Low 3 $50/ ft 2 1 $50 $90/ ft 2 4 $30 $40/ ft 2 7 $20 $25 / ft 2 . Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 9 9 6 4 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 8 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 10 1 High 10 Low 5 4,5844 (MJ) 11 300 (MJ) 3 9,000 (MJ) 7 1,971 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Air pollution Should have a bluestone or limestone cap Can provide much need respite from windy conditions No cement or it s accompanying pollution and CO! emissions Create s more flat or terraced surface s area Contain s less toxic chemicals Easy clean and low maintenance May leach toxic chemicals into surrounding soils May attract pests such as carpenter ants Require s periodic painting or refinishing

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! )! Table #9 Seatwall Concrete Composite Lumber Recycled Plastic Metal Initial Cost 1 10 1 High 10 Low 8 $16 20/ ft 2 6 $20 $25/ ft 2 10 $2 $5 / ft 2 2 $60/ / ft 2 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 9 5 3 8 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 7 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 10 1 High 10 Low 9 990 (MJ) 2 17,956 (MJ) 6 2000 (MJ) 1 35,800(MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Provide s flat surfaces at different slopes Poor insulating properties Do es not contain many of the harsh chemicals Recycled content Require s additional materials for joist May contain harmful chemicals May l each toxic chemicals into surrounding soils. Even surface s are safe for touching Heavy metal s such as lead is toxic to soil Rust or corrosion may occur Users may be cut by sharp edges

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! )% ! Table #9 Seatwall Fiber Cement Bamboo Initial Cost 1 10 1 High 10 Low 5 $30 40/ ft 2 9 $12 $15/ ft 2 . Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 7 9 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 1 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 10 1 High 10 Low 4 5,232 (MJ) 8 971 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks May be easily broken Not recyclable Low maintenance Light weight May attract insects and lead rotting

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! )" ! Table #10 Fences, Trellises, Arbors Table #10 Fences and Trellises Wood Timbers Composite Lumber Recycled Metal Fiber Cement Initial Cost 1 7 1 High 7 Low 4 5 1 7 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 4 8 10 5 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 8 7 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 7 1 High 7 Low 6 1,971 (MJ) 4 17,956 (MJ) 2 35,800 (MJ) 5 5,232 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks May leach toxic chemicals into surrounding soils May attract pests such as carpenter ants Easy decomposes Require s periodic painting or refinishing Recycled content Require s additional materials for joist Heavy metal s such as lead is toxic to soil Rust or corrosion may occur Users may be cut by sharp edges May be e asily broken Not recyclable Low maintenance

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! )& ! Table #10 Fences and Trellises Bamboo Glass Plastic Initial Cost 1 7 1 High 7 Low 3 2 6 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 7 6 3 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 1 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 7 1 High 7 Low 7 971 (MJ) 3 790 (MJ) 1 77,200 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Light weight May attract insects and lead rotting Up to 100% recycled content Does not offer much shade May be e asily broken May contain harmful chemicals May leach toxic chemicals into surrounding soils Even surfaces are safe for touching Low maintenance

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! )' ! Table #11 Benches: Table #11 Benches Wood Timbers Composite Lumber Recycled Metal Stone Initial Cost 1 7 1 High 7 Low 4 6 2 1 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 5 7 8 10 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 7 8 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 7 1 High 7 Low 2 1,971 (MJ) 4 17,956 (MJ) 6 35,800 (MJ) 1 300 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks May l each toxic chemicals into surrounding soils May attract pests such as carpenter ants Easy decomposes Require s periodic painting or refinishing Very low maintenance Recycled content Require s additional materials for joist Heavy metal such as lead is toxic to soil Rust or corrosion may occur Users may be cut by sharp edges Do es not need to be protected from the weather Heavy to transport Stone warms up pleasantly during the summer days

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! )( ! Table #11 Benches Bamboo Glass Plastic Initial Cost 1 7 1 High 7 Low 5 3 7 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 4 5 2 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 1 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 7 1 High 7 Low 3 1590 (MJ) 5 17,550 (MJ) 7 77,200 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Light weight May attract insects and lead rotting Up to 100% recycled content May be easily broken May contain harmful chemicals May leach toxic chemicals into surrounding soils Even surfaces are safe for touching Low maintenance

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! )) ! Table #12 Desk Table #12 Tables Wood Timbers Composite Lumber Recycled Metal Stone Initial Cost 1 7 1 High 7 Low 4 6 2 1 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 5 7 8 10 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 7 8 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 7 1 High 7 Low 2 1,971 (MJ) 4 17,956 (MJ) 6 35,800 (MJ) 1 300 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks May leach toxic chemicals into surrounding soils May attract pests such as carpenter ants Easy decomposes Require s periodic painting or refinishing Very low maintenance Recycled content Require s additional materials for joist Heavy metal such as lead is toxic to soil Rust or corrosion may occur Users may be cut by sharp edges Do es not need to be protected from the weather elements Heavy to transport Stone warms up plea santly during the summer days

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! )* ! Table #12 Tables Bamboo Glass Plastic Initial Cost 1 7 1 High 7 Low 5 3 7 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 4 5 2 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 1 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 7 1 High 7 Low 3 1590 (MJ) 5 17,550 (MJ) 7 77,200 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Light weight May attract insects and lead rotting Up to 100% recycled content May be easily broken May contain harmful chemicals May leach toxic chemicals into surrounding soils Even surfaces are safe for touching Low maintenance

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! )+ ! Table #13 Trash Cans Table #13 Trash Cans Wood Timbers Metal Stone Paper Initial Cost 1 6 1 High 6 Low 4 2 1 6 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 5 8 10 1 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 8 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 6 1 High 6 Low 3 1971 (MJ) 1 35,800 (MJ) 6 300 (MJ) 5 400 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks May leach toxic chemicals into surrounding soils May attract pests such as carpenter ants Easy decomposes Require s periodic painting or refinishing Heavy metal such as lead is toxic to soil Rust or corrosion may occur Users may be cut by sharp edge Do es not need to be protected from the weather elements Heavy to transport Stone warms up pleasantly during the summer days Light weight

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! ), ! Table #13 Trash Cans Ceramic Tile Plastic Initial Cost 1 6 1 High 6 Low 4 5 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 6 3 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 6 1 High 6 Low 2 9000 (MJ) 4 `590 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Contain less toxic chemicals C lean easily Low maintenance May contain harmful chemicals May leach toxic chemicals into surrounding soils Even surfaces are safe for touching Low maintenance

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! *! Table #14 Playground equipment: Table #14 Playground Equipment Wood Timbers Metal Plastic Initial Cost 1 5 1 High 5 Low 2 4 1 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 6 9 1 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 5 1 High 5 Low 4 1970 (MJ) 2 51,500 (MJ) 1 77,200 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks May l each toxic chemicals into surrounding soils May attract pests such as carpenter ants Easy decomposes Require s periodic painting or refinishing Heavy metal such as lead is toxic to soil Rust or corrosion may occur Users may be cut by sharp edg es May contain harmful chemicals May l each toxic c hemicals into surrounding soils Even surface s are safe for touching Low maintenance

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! *% ! Table #14 Playground Equipment Stone Rubber Initial Cost 1 5 1 High 5 Low 5 3 Durability 1 10 10=Extremely Durable 10 3 Reusability 10 Yes 1 No 10 10 Locally Sourced 1 10 10 Yes 1 No 8 10 Embodied Energy ( Mega Joule) 1 5 1 High 5 Low 5 300 (MJ) 3 9,300 (MJ) Benefits/ Drawbacks Do es not need to be protected from the weather elements Heavy to transport Stone warms up pleasantly during the summer days Toxins in rubber product are harmful to human health Rubber's elasticity is increasing

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! *" ! Chapter 5 Recommended Process of Selecting Materials Before selecti ng a material, consideration should be given to what factors are desired in the park. Is being eco friendly a priority ? Is choosing the mos t affordable option? Is a slip resistant surface for safety needed? What look is desired ? Once one has answered these questions , important factors for materials can be valued and a suitable decision can be made for the site . 5.1 Community Park Examples Kanapaha Park Kanaphaha Park is a hypothetical community park , which is used as an example Figure 5 1 Kanapaha Proposed Master Plan

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! *& ! to help explain how to use the table s and the principles in C hapter F our to select materials in community parks. The park is 34 acres and is located in Gainesville, Florida. The primary purpose of the park is to offer recreational sports fields and a natural space for surrounding residents. The park is developed as a combination of passive an d active recreational function s. The active recreati on al area is mainly o n the east of the site, which contains soccer field s , baseball field s , tennis court s , a bike lane, a swimming pool, and a playground. The se areas are connected by a 6 f oo t wide path. The west side is passive space contain ing a picnic area, patio, sto r mwater, natural trail s and ornamental gardens. With a limited budget and a goal of develop ing a sustainable site, the Alachua C ounty government want ed to recycled waste construction materials in the site construction. The parking lot and the sto r mwater are existi ng components in the site. Other components of the parks are proposed. Recycled materials will cover paving for t r ail s , deck s , playground s , tennis court s , and basketball court s; hardscape such as fences , seat walls , and trellis ; and furniture such as benches and tables. The materials selection is based on the hardscape context and client ' s requirement s . The tables and principles in C hapter F our provide basic reference for selection. The table 5 1 shows the proposed recycled mater ials for Kanapaha Park. The next sections will introduce the two materials selection methods with the assist ance of the tables and principles in Active Passive Furniture/ Hardscape Recycled Materials Furniture/ Hardscape Recycled Materials Path Concrete Seat wall Brick Basketball Court Pavement Concrete Trellis Composite wood Tennis Court pavement Rubber Path Concrete Playground pavement Wood chips Benches Stone Fencing Steel Decks Concrete Bike Lane Asphalt Tables Stone Benches Wood Mulch Shell Playground equipment Plastic and wood Trash Can Plastic Table 5 1 Materials for Kanapaha Park !

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! *' ! Chapter Four. 5.2 Selecting Recycled Materials for Path Context: The fully accessible nature trails are designed to address the passive recreational needs of pedestrians. Requirement s of Client: • Materials should be under $15 per square foot • Materials should have strong durability • Materials should be local and could be reusable • Materials should have low embodied energy • 5.2.1 Recycled materials selection methods: 5.2.1 .1 Method One: Elimination Method The Elimination Method is use d based on the client's requirement as a tool to determine the most appropriate material. In material selection for the path in Kanapaha Community Park, t he client has four requirements. The material that meets all four requirements will be selected. 1. Materials should be under $15 per square foot 2. Materials should have strong durability 3. Materials should be local and could be reusable 4. Materials should have low embodied energy First, as the image board shows , eighteen materials could be used as pavement f or path. Step 1: Based on T able #1 provided, the recycled materials suitable for the path are: Poured Concrete Broken Concrete Recycled Clay Brick Stone Crushed Quarry Rock with Fly Ash Concrete MATERIALDESCRIPTION/TIPSBENEFITSDRAWBACKS Poured Concrete with Fly Ash extremely durable even surface good for wheelchair and mobility-impaired accessibility extremely energyintensive to produce (for every ton of cement produced, approximately one ton of carbon dioxide is released!) impervious surface; increases storm water runoff impossible to reconfigure once poured Concrete is a mix of Portland cement, sand, and aggregate (gravel). Portland cement is created in an energy-intensive process, in which clay and limestone are mixed and heated to nearly 2700 degrees Fahrenheit, releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) along with toxic substances such as mercury, lead, and arsenic. Cement, activated by water, binds the concrete mix together, creating a longlasting surface. Reduce the negative environmental impact of this landscaping material by using fly ash (a byproduct of coal-fired energy production) for up to 50% of the cement used in the concrete mix. Tips:Consider poured-in-place concrete only in applications where you're certain it will satisfy long-term functional and aesthetic needs. Pavers and other moveable materials make a better bet for an adaptable landscape design. Using fly ash can increase concrete cure times; consult with a concrete supplier. Concrete mixes can also incorporate recycled products, such as crushed concrete, replacing a portion of the conventional aggregate. Use reusable concrete forms. Broken Concrete extremely durable reusable; can be reconfigured can allow water to filter into soil, reducing runoff uneven surface can be difficult for wheelchair travel Broken concrete from demolition projects is commonly available yearround, usually free if you can haul it yourself, or delivered for a fee. Broken concrete can be laid similar to stone or other pavers, to create a flagstone-like path. Tips:Look for broken concrete from sidewalk and pathway demolition projects so pieces are both light enough to move with relative ease and of roughly the same depth; this helps with laying the pieces. 7 green home remodel | landscape materials Permeable or Salvaged Concrete Pavers reusable; can be reconfigured extremely durable can allow water to filter into soil, reducing runoff permeable pavers make a difficult doit-yourself project; most manufacturers require professional installation Concrete paving creates impervious surfaces that increase stormwater runoff. Look for interlocking concrete pavers in permeable designs that allow rain to seep between the pavers. Also consider installing conventional salvaged pavers to allow for rain infiltration. Tips:Salvaged concrete pavers are sometimes available at used building materials retailers or the Household Online Materials Exchange (see Resources on page 20). Manufacturers of permeable concrete paving systems recommend professional installation for proper functioning. patio, walkway & path choices Recycled Glass Pavers durable up to 100% recycled content energy-efficient manufacturing reusable; can be reconfigured uneven surface can be difficult for wheelchair travel Recycled glass is re-melted into forms, creating hefty, translucent pavers; can be laid similar to concrete pavers, or interspersed as accent pieces with traditional stone or concrete products. Due to their recycled content, glass pavers require roughly half the energy necessary to create new, similarly performing concrete pavers. Tips:Look for locally produced glass pavers to support the market for recycled glass products. ./01!2% ! Figure 5 2 Paths

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! *( ! Recycling Asphalt Recycled Glass Tumbled Recycled Composite Wood Aggregate Glass Recycled Lumber Bamboo Wood Chips Nutshells Shells Ceramic Tile Limestone Step 2: The client's first requirement is to purchase materials under $15 per square foot. Based on the Initial Cost of the table, the following materials are under $15 per square foot. Selections: Asphalt Poured Concrete Recycled Concrete Broken Concrete Shells Nutshells with Fly Ash Wood Chips Wood Recycled Recycled Glass Crushed Quarry Composite Aggregate Rock Lumber Second, the client's next requirement is to have durable materials. Comparing the MATERIALDESCRIPTION/TIPSBENEFITSDRAWBACKS Poured Concrete with Fly Ash extremely durable even surface good for wheelchair and mobility-impaired accessibility extremely energyintensive to produce (for every ton of cement produced, approximately one ton of carbon dioxide is released!) impervious surface; increases storm water runoff impossible to reconfigure once poured Concrete is a mix of Portland cement, sand, and aggregate (gravel). Portland cement is created in an energy-intensive process, in which clay and limestone are mixed and heated to nearly 2700 degrees Fahrenheit, releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) along with toxic substances such as mercury, lead, and arsenic. Cement, activated by water, binds the concrete mix together, creating a longlasting surface. Reduce the negative environmental impact of this landscaping material by using fly ash (a byproduct of coal-fired energy production) for up to 50% of the cement used in the concrete mix. Tips:Consider poured-in-place concrete only in applications where you're certain it will satisfy long-term functional and aesthetic needs. Pavers and other moveable materials make a better bet for an adaptable landscape design. Using fly ash can increase concrete cure times; consult with a concrete supplier. Concrete mixes can also incorporate recycled products, such as crushed concrete, replacing a portion of the conventional aggregate. Use reusable concrete forms. Broken Concrete extremely durable reusable; can be reconfigured can allow water to filter into soil, reducing runoff uneven surface can be difficult for wheelchair travel Broken concrete from demolition projects is commonly available yearround, usually free if you can haul it yourself, or delivered for a fee. Broken concrete can be laid similar to stone or other pavers, to create a flagstone-like path. Tips:Look for broken concrete from sidewalk and pathway demolition projects so pieces are both light enough to move with relative ease and of roughly the same depth; this helps with laying the pieces. 7 green home remodel | landscape materials Permeable or Salvaged Concrete Pavers reusable; can be reconfigured extremely durable can allow water to filter into soil, reducing runoff permeable pavers make a difficult doit-yourself project; most manufacturers require professional installation Concrete paving creates impervious surfaces that increase stormwater runoff. Look for interlocking concrete pavers in permeable designs that allow rain to seep between the pavers. Also consider installing conventional salvaged pavers to allow for rain infiltration. Tips:Salvaged concrete pavers are sometimes available at used building materials retailers or the Household Online Materials Exchange (see Resources on page 20). Manufacturers of permeable concrete paving systems recommend professional installation for proper functioning. patio, walkway & path choices Recycled Glass Pavers durable up to 100% recycled content energy-efficient manufacturing reusable; can be reconfigured uneven surface can be difficult for wheelchair travel Recycled glass is re-melted into forms, creating hefty, translucent pavers; can be laid similar to concrete pavers, or interspersed as accent pieces with traditional stone or concrete products. Due to their recycled content, glass pavers require roughly half the energy necessary to create new, similarly performing concrete pavers. Tips:Look for locally produced glass pavers to support the market for recycled glass products. Materials Initial Cost Poured Concrete with Fly Ash $0.5/ ft 2 Broken Concrete $2 $5/ ft 2 Recycled Concrete $2 $5/ ft 2 Crushed Quarry Rock $11 $15/ ft 2 Recycling Aggregate $11 $15/ ft 2 Asphalt $2.5 4 / ft 2 Recycled Glass $6 ft 2 Recycled Composite Lumber $7 12 ft 2 Wood $1.50 4 ft 2 Wood Chips $11 15 ft 2 Nutshells $8ft 2 Shells $9ft 2 Table 5 2 Initial Cost for Material (Costs of recycled materials are based on a purchase from the recycler)

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! *) ! scores in column Durability , one will find that six material s with a score higher th a n 5. Exclude the six materials with lower durability (5<) and proceed to the next requirement. (Step 3) Step 3: Select Material with higher durability: (>5) Selections Poured Concrete Recycled Concrete Broken Concrete Asphalt Rec ycled Aggregate Crushed Quarry with Fly Ash Rock Third, the client needs local and reusable materials. Based on the columns Locally sourced and Reusability in T able #1, select the materials whose local and reusable score both equal ten . Now, three materials are left: b roken concrete, recycled concrete and asphalt. (Step 4) Step 4: Select local materials could be reused . Reusable =10, Local =10 Selections: MATERIALDESCRIPTION/TIPSBENEFITSDRAWBACKS Poured Concrete with Fly Ash extremely durable even surface good for wheelchair and mobility-impaired accessibility extremely energyintensive to produce (for every ton of cement produced, approximately one ton of carbon dioxide is released!) impervious surface; increases storm water runoff impossible to reconfigure once poured Concrete is a mix of Portland cement, sand, and aggregate (gravel). Portland cement is created in an energy-intensive process, in which clay and limestone are mixed and heated to nearly 2700 degrees Fahrenheit, releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) along with toxic substances such as mercury, lead, and arsenic. Cement, activated by water, binds the concrete mix together, creating a longlasting surface. Reduce the negative environmental impact of this landscaping material by using fly ash (a byproduct of coal-fired energy production) for up to 50% of the cement used in the concrete mix. Tips:Consider poured-in-place concrete only in applications where you're certain it will satisfy long-term functional and aesthetic needs. Pavers and other moveable materials make a better bet for an adaptable landscape design. Using fly ash can increase concrete cure times; consult with a concrete supplier. Concrete mixes can also incorporate recycled products, such as crushed concrete, replacing a portion of the conventional aggregate. Use reusable concrete forms. Broken Concrete extremely durable reusable; can be reconfigured can allow water to filter into soil, reducing runoff uneven surface can be difficult for wheelchair travel Broken concrete from demolition projects is commonly available yearround, usually free if you can haul it yourself, or delivered for a fee. Broken concrete can be laid similar to stone or other pavers, to create a flagstone-like path. Tips:Look for broken concrete from sidewalk and pathway demolition projects so pieces are both light enough to move with relative ease and of roughly the same depth; this helps with laying the pieces. 7 green home remodel | landscape materials Permeable or Salvaged Concrete Pavers reusable; can be reconfigured extremely durable can allow water to filter into soil, reducing runoff permeable pavers make a difficult doit-yourself project; most manufacturers require professional installation Concrete paving creates impervious surfaces that increase stormwater runoff. Look for interlocking concrete pavers in permeable designs that allow rain to seep between the pavers. Also consider installing conventional salvaged pavers to allow for rain infiltration. Tips:Salvaged concrete pavers are sometimes available at used building materials retailers or the Household Online Materials Exchange (see Resources on page 20). Manufacturers of permeable concrete paving systems recommend professional installation for proper functioning. patio, walkway & path choices Recycled Glass Pavers durable up to 100% recycled content energy-efficient manufacturing reusable; can be reconfigured uneven surface can be difficult for wheelchair travel Recycled glass is re-melted into forms, creating hefty, translucent pavers; can be laid similar to concrete pavers, or interspersed as accent pieces with traditional stone or concrete products. Due to their recycled content, glass pavers require roughly half the energy necessary to create new, similarly performing concrete pavers. Tips:Look for locally produced glass pavers to support the market for recycled glass products. Materials Durability Poured Concrete with Fly Ash 10 Broken Concrete 10 Recycled Concrete 10 Crushed Quarry Rock 8 Recycling Aggregate 8 Asphalt 7 Recycled Glass 5 Recycled Composite Lumber 5 Wood 4 Wood Chips 3 Shells 1 Nutshells 2 Materials Reusable Local ly Source d Poured Concrete with Fly Ash 1 10 Broken Concrete 10 10 Recycled Concrete 10 10 Crushed Quarry Rock 1 10 Recycling Aggregate 1 10 Asphalt 10 10 Table 5 4 Reusability and Locally Sourced Table 5 3 Durability for materials !

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! ** ! Recycled Concrete Broken Concrete Asphalt Fo u rth, the client's last requirement is to use a lower embodied energy. So among the three materials above, asphalt has the highest embodied energy, which should be deleted. (Step 5) Step 5. Select materials with low embodied energy: Materials Embodied Energy Asphalt 8890 MJ Broken Concrete 790 MJ Recycled Concrete 990 MJ Selections: Recycled Concrete Broken Concrete Step 6: Compare the Benefits and the Drawbacks in Table #1: Because Kanapaha Park is a fully accessible community park, the material needs to be an even surface. Based on the benefits and drawbacks of the two materials, broken concrete has an uneven surface, which is di fficult for wheelchair travel . With this in mind, recycled concrete is the most suitable material f or the path in Kanapha Park. Final Selection: Recycled Concrete Recycled Concrete Sometimes, there is no exact rationale to apply in the elimination method , such as when clients won't give an exact requirement for selecting materials. But they can decide the most important and least important quality of materials. M ethod two Table 5 5 Embodied Energy for Material

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! *+ ! described in the next section can help with the selection of suitable materials. 5.2.1 .2 Method Two Weighted Sum Method: The Weighted Sum Method weighs and combines the multiple qualities of the materials ( i nitial cost, durability , local source d , reusability and embodied energy) to create an integrated analysis. For this method, all qualities are ranked ac cording to the importance of the quality. Each of the five qualities will be give a percentage (based on its importance or value to the client, the sum of which will equal 1.) Initial Cost =x % Durability = y %, Embodied Energy = z %, Reusability = a % Local ly Sourced = b % By using the percentage value of each quality, you will calculate a score for each of the materials. Us e the following formula : Score (Materials) = Initial Cost * x%+ Durability * y%+ Embodied Energy * z%+ Reusability * a% + Local ly Sourced * b% Different clients will have different values for each quality. Here is the example used for the path of Kanapaha Park based on the client's requirement. Step 1: (The first two steps are the same as in the first methods) Based on T able #1 provided in Chapter Four, the recycled materials suitable for the path are: Poured Concrete Broken Concrete Recycled Clay Brick Stone Crushed Quarry Rock with Fly Ash Concrete Recycling Asphalt Recycled Glass Tumbled Recycled Composite Wood Aggreg ate Glass Recycled Lumber MATERIALDESCRIPTION/TIPSBENEFITSDRAWBACKS Poured Concrete with Fly Ash extremely durable even surface good for wheelchair and mobility-impaired accessibility extremely energyintensive to produce (for every ton of cement produced, approximately one ton of carbon dioxide is released!) impervious surface; increases storm water runoff impossible to reconfigure once poured Concrete is a mix of Portland cement, sand, and aggregate (gravel). Portland cement is created in an energy-intensive process, in which clay and limestone are mixed and heated to nearly 2700 degrees Fahrenheit, releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) along with toxic substances such as mercury, lead, and arsenic. Cement, activated by water, binds the concrete mix together, creating a longlasting surface. Reduce the negative environmental impact of this landscaping material by using fly ash (a byproduct of coal-fired energy production) for up to 50% of the cement used in the concrete mix. Tips:Consider poured-in-place concrete only in applications where you're certain it will satisfy long-term functional and aesthetic needs. Pavers and other moveable materials make a better bet for an adaptable landscape design. Using fly ash can increase concrete cure times; consult with a concrete supplier. Concrete mixes can also incorporate recycled products, such as crushed concrete, replacing a portion of the conventional aggregate. Use reusable concrete forms. Broken Concrete extremely durable reusable; can be reconfigured can allow water to filter into soil, reducing runoff uneven surface can be difficult for wheelchair travel Broken concrete from demolition projects is commonly available yearround, usually free if you can haul it yourself, or delivered for a fee. Broken concrete can be laid similar to stone or other pavers, to create a flagstone-like path. Tips:Look for broken concrete from sidewalk and pathway demolition projects so pieces are both light enough to move with relative ease and of roughly the same depth; this helps with laying the pieces. 7 green home remodel | landscape materials Permeable or Salvaged Concrete Pavers reusable; can be reconfigured extremely durable can allow water to filter into soil, reducing runoff permeable pavers make a difficult doit-yourself project; most manufacturers require professional installation Concrete paving creates impervious surfaces that increase stormwater runoff. Look for interlocking concrete pavers in permeable designs that allow rain to seep between the pavers. Also consider installing conventional salvaged pavers to allow for rain infiltration. Tips:Salvaged concrete pavers are sometimes available at used building materials retailers or the Household Online Materials Exchange (see Resources on page 20). Manufacturers of permeable concrete paving systems recommend professional installation for proper functioning. patio, walkway & path choices Recycled Glass Pavers durable up to 100% recycled content energy-efficient manufacturing reusable; can be reconfigured uneven surface can be difficult for wheelchair travel Recycled glass is re-melted into forms, creating hefty, translucent pavers; can be laid similar to concrete pavers, or interspersed as accent pieces with traditional stone or concrete products. Due to their recycled content, glass pavers require roughly half the energy necessary to create new, similarly performing concrete pavers. Tips:Look for locally produced glass pavers to support the market for recycled glass products.

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! *, ! Bamboo Wood Chips Nutshells Shells Ceramic Tile Limestone Step 2: Based on the Initial Cost column of the table, the following materials are under $15 square foot. Selections: Asphalt Poured Concrete Recycled Concrete Broken Concrete Shells Nutshells with Fly Ash Wood Chips Wood Recycled Recycled Glass Crushed Quarry Composite Aggregate Rock Lumber Step 3: Weigh the factors According to clients' requirements, the price of materials is the most important qualit y . The life cycle price is decided by initial cost and durability. As a result, these two qualities should have higher percentage s . The sustainable qualities of materials are embodied energy, reus ability and local ly sourced . The clients' requirement could rank and weigh as: Initial Cost =40% MATERIALDESCRIPTION/TIPSBENEFITSDRAWBACKS Poured Concrete with Fly Ash extremely durable even surface good for wheelchair and mobility-impaired accessibility extremely energyintensive to produce (for every ton of cement produced, approximately one ton of carbon dioxide is released!) impervious surface; increases storm water runoff impossible to reconfigure once poured Concrete is a mix of Portland cement, sand, and aggregate (gravel). Portland cement is created in an energy-intensive process, in which clay and limestone are mixed and heated to nearly 2700 degrees Fahrenheit, releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) along with toxic substances such as mercury, lead, and arsenic. Cement, activated by water, binds the concrete mix together, creating a longlasting surface. Reduce the negative environmental impact of this landscaping material by using fly ash (a byproduct of coal-fired energy production) for up to 50% of the cement used in the concrete mix. Tips:Consider poured-in-place concrete only in applications where you're certain it will satisfy long-term functional and aesthetic needs. Pavers and other moveable materials make a better bet for an adaptable landscape design. Using fly ash can increase concrete cure times; consult with a concrete supplier. Concrete mixes can also incorporate recycled products, such as crushed concrete, replacing a portion of the conventional aggregate. Use reusable concrete forms. Broken Concrete extremely durable reusable; can be reconfigured can allow water to filter into soil, reducing runoff uneven surface can be difficult for wheelchair travel Broken concrete from demolition projects is commonly available yearround, usually free if you can haul it yourself, or delivered for a fee. Broken concrete can be laid similar to stone or other pavers, to create a flagstone-like path. Tips:Look for broken concrete from sidewalk and pathway demolition projects so pieces are both light enough to move with relative ease and of roughly the same depth; this helps with laying the pieces. 7 green home remodel | landscape materials Permeable or Salvaged Concrete Pavers reusable; can be reconfigured extremely durable can allow water to filter into soil, reducing runoff permeable pavers make a difficult doit-yourself project; most manufacturers require professional installation Concrete paving creates impervious surfaces that increase stormwater runoff. Look for interlocking concrete pavers in permeable designs that allow rain to seep between the pavers. Also consider installing conventional salvaged pavers to allow for rain infiltration. Tips:Salvaged concrete pavers are sometimes available at used building materials retailers or the Household Online Materials Exchange (see Resources on page 20). Manufacturers of permeable concrete paving systems recommend professional installation for proper functioning. patio, walkway & path choices Recycled Glass Pavers durable up to 100% recycled content energy-efficient manufacturing reusable; can be reconfigured uneven surface can be difficult for wheelchair travel Recycled glass is re-melted into forms, creating hefty, translucent pavers; can be laid similar to concrete pavers, or interspersed as accent pieces with traditional stone or concrete products. Due to their recycled content, glass pavers require roughly half the energy necessary to create new, similarly performing concrete pavers. Tips:Look for locally produced glass pavers to support the market for recycled glass products. Materials Initial Cost Poured Concrete with Fly Ash $0.5/ ft 2 Broken Concrete $2 $5/ ft 2 Recycled Concrete $2 $5/ ft 2 Crushed Quarry Rock $11 $15/ ft 2 Recycling Aggregate $11 $15/ ft 2 Asphalt $2.5 4 / ft 2 Recycled Glass $6 ft 2 Recycled Composite Lumber $7 12 ft 2 Wood $1.50 4 ft 2 Wood Chips $11 15 ft 2 Nutshells $8ft 2 Shells $9ft 2 Table 5 6 Initial Costs for Material

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! +! Durability = 30% Embodied Energy = 20% Reusability = 5% Local ly Sourced = 5% The formula should be: Final Score = Initial Cost * 40% + Durability * 30%+ Embodied Energy * 20% + Reusability * 5% + Locally Sourced * 5% The higher the final score is, the better suitability the material is. The table shows the result s of the score: Materials Initial Cost Durability Embodied Energy Reusability Local ly Sourced Final Score Recycled Concrete 10 10 10 10 10 10 Broken Concrete 9 10 11 10 10 9.8 Poured Concrete 12 10 7 1 10 9.75 Shells 8 2 14 10 10 7.6 Asphalt 11 5 2 10 10 7.3 A ggregate 4 8 17 1 10 7.05 Wood C hip s 6 3 12 10 10 6.7 Nutshells 7 1 13 10 1 6.6 Crushed Rock 2 8 16 1 10 6.05 Wood 5 4 9 10 10 6 Recycled Glass 3 4 2 10 10 3.8 Composite L umber 1 5 1 10 10 3.1 Based on the calculations, recycled concrete will be the most suitable material for the path in Kanapaha Community Park. 5.3 Analysis: Both methods are help ful in find ing the most suitable materials. With specific constraint conditions such as initial cost under $15 / sq. ft., embodied energy below 3000 MJ, or materials being domestic, you can use the first method to find the most suitable Table 5 7 Weighted Sum for Path

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! +% ! materials. However, most of the time there are no specific constrains, so the second method would be a better choice. Be fore applying the second method , it is necessary to know which factors are mo st important. Do you want something eco friend ly? Are you looking for the most affordable option? If eco friendly is more important , sustainable factors (embodied energy, locally sourced and reusability ) can be weighted 60% and price (initial cost, durability ) weighted 40% . If you have a limited budge t, you can weight 70% for cost (initial cost, durability ) and 30% of sustainability (embodied energy, locally sourced and reusability ). If you don't have a preference, you can weight equally. As different clients or designers have different desire d factors , they can rank the factors and find their most suitable material. The s ame materials in different context s will have different weights. Here is another example for selecting recycled materials with method two: 5.4 Materials for Benches: 5.4.1 Site Context: Picnic area without shelter Step One: Based on T able #11 in C hapter T wo, the materials for benches are: Wood Composite Metal Stone Bamboo Glass Plastic Lumber Step two: Analysis: As the bench is in the picnic area without shelter, the materials should be durable . Durability will weight most. The owner also wants the benches with a proper price and sustainability the to environment. Based on the owner's requirements, the rank of factors for D urability, Initial Cost, Embodied, Reusable and Locally Sourced are : Initial Cost =30% 34561!2%% ! Figure 5 3 Benches in picnic

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! +" ! Durability = 40% Embodied Energy = 20% Reusability = 5% Locally Sourced = 5% Materials Initial Cost Durability Embodied Energy Reusability Locally Sourced Final Score Stone 1 10 7 10 8 6.6 Metal 3 9 2 8 10 5.8 Wood Timbers 5 5 6 10 10 5.7 Composite Lumbers 4 6 4 8 10 5.3 Bamboo 6 4 5 10 1 4.9 Plastic 7 1 1 10 10 3.7 Glass 2 3 3 10 10 3.4 With the highest score, the stone is the most suitable material in the picnic are a of Kanawha Community Park. 5.4.2 Site Context: Soccer field with shelter Step One: Based on T able #11, the materials for benches are: Wood Composite Metal Stone Bamboo Glass Plastic Lumber Step Two: Analysis: As the bench is located in the soccer field with shelter, the durability is not as Table 5 8 Weighted Sum for Benches in Picnic Area Figure 5 4 Benches in sport area 34561!2%% !

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! +& ! important as in the first case . Since the client wants to have an affordable price and sustainable materials, the weight for the materials could be: Initial Cost =30% Durability = 20% Embodied = Energy 30% Reusability = 10% Locally Sourced = 10% Materials Initial Cost Durability Embodie d Energy Reusability Locally Sourced Final Score Wood Timbers 5 5 6 10 10 6.3 Stone 1 10 7 10 8 6.2 Composite Lumbers 4 6 4 8 10 5.4 Bamboo 6 4 5 10 1 5.2 Metal 3 9 2 8 10 5.1 Plastic 7 1 1 10 10 4.6 Glass 2 3 3 10 10 4.1 As the table shows, wood timbers would be the most suitable bench material in the soccer field. 5.4 Conclusion: This chapter discusses two methodologies with the use of tables described in Chapter Four to select suitable recycled materials in c ommunity p ark s . A s method two take s all factors into consideration, in most design situations, method two will be more accurate and efficient than method one to get the most suitable res ults. When selecting any recycled material for c ommunity p ark s , it is important to take into account the context of the site , the budget , and the sustainability goals. After the most and the least important qualities are found , the most suitable materials can be selected . Table 5 9 Weighted Sum for Benches in Sport Field

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! +' ! Chapter 6 : Conclusion s : 6.1 Summary Reusing waste materials is a complex topic that requires a multi dimensional understanding of the principles of recycled materials ' use and the design context. The goal of this project is to identify sustainable recycled materials and appropriately select then for Community Park s. By researching the definitions, concepts and development s of recycle d and reuse d materials, this graduate thesis explored the importance, necessity and value of reusing waste materials in community park development. With research of successful community park design project s, this paper summari z es the application of the waste materials in community park design s and provide s a bas ic founda tion for exploring principles for selecting materials. Based on the research above, a matrix table was created that summarized the waste materials that could be recycled and reused for different facilities with different functions in a community p ark. B asic factors such as initial cost, d urability, maintenance, reusability and embodied energy were used to compare waste materials . With examples exploring the most suitable materials in Kanapaha Community P arks, two methodologies were cre ated that can guide designers and users to select the most suitable recycled and waste materials for different sites. 6.2 Benefit s The exploration, research and finding of recycled materials for a community p ark in Florida elevate d many positi ve issues. First, u tilizing reused and recycled products throughout a community park will encourage sustainability in park design. Second, using local and recycled materials will reduce the waste and support local business and Florida 's economy. Th is thesi s not only strength ens the importance of recycl ing materials , but it also provide s principles and methods to upcycle the waste. In addition, since the principles developed in this paper such as initial cost, durability , and embodied energy are also essential principles when selecting sustainable new construction materials, the research method of exploring measurement principles and the methods of

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! +( ! selecting materials such as elimination and weighted sum can also be inspir ing for developing new materials and trees. When using the materials selection methods in new construction materials, except cost, durability , locally sourced , and embodied energy, sustainable principles such as using certified wood, using sustainable harv est or mines materials and usin g low water polluting materials need s to be considered. When using the materials selection methods in trees, except cost, durability, and locally sourced, principles such as shapes, heights and colors need to be taken into co nsideration. Moreover, since pavement and the benches are common hardscape s and furniture in landscape space, the recycling concepts and methodologies are avai lable for other types of parks, plaza s , streets and green space. Selecting materials for those types of projects must consider the input context and function. Finally, this paper a lso provided idea and educate people which materials can be reused and recycled in their own neighborhoods. 6.3 Drawback With limit ed research time, some issues need to be considered and improved. First, this research paper mainly focused on recycling construction materials and suggested using low embodied energy when selecting materials. However, when reclaim ing the waste constructio n materials directly in the park construction , high embodied energy materials should also be take n into consideration since these materials in the landfill will release energy in to the environment and cause air pollution. In add ition, based on research from the Stop Waste website (2015), reclaiming waste construction materials to new site design will reduce the 95% of embodied energy for transportation and reproducing. When designers reusing waste construction consider materials ' embodied energy, they sh ould identify the reuse method and select proper embodied energy materials. Second, the cost of the materials also contained the installations and maintenance fee. Although the calculation of the durability of materials partly contains the main tenance, the exact maintenance fee should researched before selecting materials. In addition, as the installation techni que s of materials are differen t, the fees of

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! +) ! installing materials should also be researched and compa red before selecting. Moreover, the initial cost of the materials is investigate d from website s . The prices give the reader a gen eral vision of which materials are expensive and which materials are cheap. The exact price can be found by contacting local contractors. T hird, as se lecting materials is a complex topic, this paper mainly focused on the six qualities of materials: initial cost, durability, locally resourced, embodied energy, and reusability. Among these qualities, initial cost and embodied energy can be measured with numbers. Durability, locally resourced and reusability are difficult to measure and compare. The method this paper used to measure need s to be adjusted in some situations. For example, bamboo is not being grow n in the United S tate s, so in the column of the "L ocally R esourced " it scored 1. But w hat if people reused the waste bamboo in U.S. landfill s make new product s ? This kind of bamboo should be considered a local material. Furthermore, t he measure qualities and methods need further research and im provemen t. Designers can adjust the measure methods based on the real resource context. 6.4 Questions for Future Exploration This thesis project guides designers and other users applying waste materials in community park design and provide s a basic methodology for selecting recycled materials. The discoveries made during this project raise many questions and open up areas for future exploration. First, the project mainly considers the construction and demolition (C&D) materials, rubbers, and plastics . Other wastes such as solid waste could be further developed . Second, the principles such as low price, low embodied energy, and durable materials can be the basic factors for select ing affordable and sustainable materials. Other principles such as aesthe tics and historic value need to be considered in the further design proce ss and context. Third, this research thesis mainly consider s the recycling methods to reuse waste materials ; other reuse methods such as reclaimed methods could be further explor ed . Finally, the project provides a basic framework for using waste materials i n community park development . The next logical step in the process would be research how to install and construct the recycled

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! +* ! materials and how to integrate recycled materials in o ther sustainable design process es such as water conservation and soil protection.

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! ++ ! Reference s : Addis, W. (2006). Building with R ec laimed Components and M aterials . London: Earthscan. Americanchemistry.com,. (2015). AmericanChemistry.com . Retrieved 6 April 2015, from http://www.americanchemistry.com Angieslist,. (2015). Pros and Cons of Concrete vs. Asphalt Driveway . Retrieved 6 April 2015, from http://www.angieslist.com/articles/pros and cons concrete vs asphalt driveway.htm Bayfriendlycoalition.org,. (2015). Welcome to the Bay Friendly Coalition . Retrieved 6 April 2015, from https://www.bayfriendlycoalition.org Calkins, M. (2009). Mat erials for Sustainable S ites . Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. Dep.state.fl.us,. (2015). Construction and Demolition Debris Recycl ing and Disposal Main Page | Permitting & Compliance Assistance | Waste Mgmt | Florida DEP . Retrieved 6 April 2015, from http://www.dep.state.fl.us/waste/categories/recycling/cd/canddmain.htm Doyle Hollis Park . (2010) (1st ed.). Alamenda. Retrieved from ht tp://www.stopwaste.org/docs/doyle_hollis_park_final.pdf Francis, M. (1999). A Case Study Method For Landscape Arhcitecture (1st ed.). Washington,D.C. Retrieved from https://lafoundation.org/myos/my uploads/2010/08/19/casestudymethod.pdf GarcÂ’a, R., & White, A. (2015). Healthy Parks, Schools, and Communities: (1st ed.). Los Angeles. Retrieved from http://www.cityprojectca.org/publications/documents/Healthy_Parks_Schools_Co mmunities_textonly.pdf Hicks, M. E. (2007). Reduce, Reuse, Recycle & R ethink: As sessing the sustainable and creative development of park furnishings for the mill creek greenway trail, cincinnati, ohio (Order No. 1449304). Available from ProQuest Dissertations &

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! ,! Meinhold, B. (2012). Ballast Point Park is an Old Industrial Facility Restored Using Recycled Materials in Sydney . Inhabitat.com . Retrieved 6 April 2015, f rom McDonough, W., & Braungart, M. (2002). Cradle to C radle . New York: North Point Press. Odum, E. (1989). Input Management of Production Systems. Science , 243 (4888), 177 182. doi:10.1126/science.243.4888.177 Public Playground Safety Handbook . (2008) (1st ed.). Retrieved from http://www.cpsc.gov/PageFiles/122149/325.pdf Playsitesplus.com,. (2015). Playground Safety Surfaces | Playsites + S urfaces . Retrieved 31 March 2015, from http://www.playsitesplus.com/playground safety surfaces.htm Rio Clement Hale Studios ,. (2015). Pete V. Domenici Courthouse |Rios Clementi Hale Stud ios . Retrieved 16 January 2015, from http://www.rchstudios.com/gsa domenici courthouse/ Rmalandscape.com,. (2015). Willow Park . Retrieved 16 January 2015, from http://www.rmalandscape.com/willowpark.html Stlartworks.org,. (2015). Retrieved 16 January 2015, from http://www.stlartworks.org/Enterprises/BoomerRacks Sustainablesites.org,. (2013 ). Pete V. Domenici U.S. Courthouse Sustainable Landscape Renovation / Sustainable Sites Initiative . Retrieved 16 January 2015, from http://www.sustainablesites.org/certified sites/petedomenici Thormark, C. (2000). Environmental Analysis of a Building with Reused Building M aterials (1st ed.). Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, Department of Building Science. Retrieved from https://l up.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=927646&fileOId =1671772

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