The Florida NOW Archive

Material Information

The Florida NOW Archive Non-Thesis Overview
Kavaklian-D'Annecy, Tim
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Master's ( M.A.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Women's Studies
Committee Chair:
Travis, Patricia A.
Committee Members:
Taylor, Laurie N.


Subjects / Keywords:
Boxes ( jstor )
Employment discrimination ( jstor )
Gender discrimination ( jstor )
Liberal arts education ( jstor )
Narratives ( jstor )
Research methods ( jstor )
Websites ( jstor )
Wikis ( jstor )
Women ( jstor )
Womens studies ( jstor )
Digital Humanities
Women's Studies -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
City of Gainesville ( local )
theses ( local )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation


The “Florida NOW” digital history research project resulted in a collaborative website created to educate the public about the rich history of Florida’s National Organization for Women (NOW).
General Note:
A Non-Thesis Project Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts.
General Note:
Women's Studies Terminal Project
Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2015.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Tim Kavaklian-D'Annecy. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
1022120757 ( OCLC )


This item is only available as the following downloads:

Full Text
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Page 2 of 46 During my first semester in graduate school, I came across several boxes full of papers i n an office in which I was studying. Among these papers were receipts, scrawled notes, and meeting minutes from meetings of the Gainesville chapter of the National Organization for Women. I began reading through them and I realized that there were a substa ntial number of documents from the 19 7 0 s through the early 2000s that talked about abortion, ERA ratification , and other feminist issues . intended to research feminist activist groups and to write a thesis about the history of an organization and the impact of their accomplishments. With that approach in mind, I began researching and reading through the boxes, trying to make sense of what I had found . I met with my advisor to talk about my discovery and she directed me towards


Page 3 of 46 a collection of Florida NOW documents held in Special Collections. It was here, she explained, that a curated collection would have similar material, but using the collection instead of the office boxes would allow me to research more effectively with the help of an organ ized and curated Finding Aid. I continued to research the Gainesville chapter through the documents in the collection. I had planned to look at women who were active in local politics and connect their experiences to others in the second wave m ovement on the national level . When reading and taking notes on a few of the documents, I began to see th at I would not be able to represent the history of the movement fully with a traditional linear narrative . T he collection of 29 boxes was muc h larger than the few boxes that were being stored in the office. The complete collection spans almost 50 years and includes almost every chapter in Florida.


Page 4 of 46 As you can imagine, the number of documents increased exponentially over the years as chapters across the state organized, held meetings, filed paperwork, and communicated with each other . It seemed as though I would need years to wade through this information. I realized that I needed to find a better way to tell this story of activism . I also began to understand that the history of the organization and these experiences of women involved in their local chapters were inaccessible to most people; my access to the papers was privileged. I realized that approaching my research traditionally throug h a thesis might continue this hegemony of inaccessibility . W hat was the best way that I could organize th is information ? I was having difficulty making sense of the huge pile of information held in the collection. The sheer numbers overwhelmed me and I k ept wondering if there was a better way to work with these documents . How do I display my findings? Once I figured out a narrative and was able to explain what


Page 5 of 46 happened , I need ed to make sure that others wer e able to understand it as well. I appreciate d th e traditional thes i s format, but I also wanted to use something to enhance the way I convey this information. What should I do about these chapters or women that are only mentioned a few times in the documents? These people and chapters were and are important to the movement, but a re they relevant to my thesis ? S hould I cut them out of my writing ? I was afraid that I might miss crucial information in my attempt to narrow my scope. In addition , I was not comfortable drawing that line at early stage s of my research. Can I call this work will never be able to see the documents I am talking about? I wanted something that would allow everyone to access this information, regardless of location, schedule, ability, or academic status. I also needed a way to show others the original document materials so that they could work through the collection and make their own conclusions, regardless of their situation. T hese research questions continued to shape my work from the onset and I grappled with the issue of how I could best represent the history of the movement. Thinking through these questions led me to make changes in my research. My plan to write a thesis changed into a plan to create a digital project. The result of this work is the Florida NOW Archive, a website a nd digital finding aid f o r the collection of Florida NOW documents in the library. Over the past two years, I have scanned over 1,000 documents, each of which range from one to eight page sheets averaging three pages per document , including newsletters, photos, letters, and other correspondence from NOW chapters in North Florida from 1973 to the early 2000s. To link these documents together and to explain their significance , I created over 4,300 pages on the wik i 1 1,700 of those pages 1 This page count includes metadata pages, redirect pages, navigation templates, and other pages that are necessary to use the site.


Page 6 of 46 are biographical or descriptive and include internal references to other documents in the collection or to external sources. To write these content pages, I have transcribed about 400 documents so that the text is searchable and I have added tags to names of individuals and chapters within this text . This series of tag s dynamically links pages together so users can make connections between these biographical pages when researching . This website type of website e built for collaborative editing and peer review. Alone, I have made over 7,500 edits to the site during this project and have accessed pages over 65,000 times . It is my hope that future work on the site will be collaborative and others can research this collection with each other .


Page 7 of 46 Project Overview I began using wiki software so that I could create a web of knowledge about the documents in the collection . It allowed me to take notes in a non linear fashion and it allowed me to quickly search through the entirety of the documents that I had scanned . If organized correctly, this system can provide insightful connections and keep a detailed record of changes made to each page. Wikis are not usually thought of when talking about Digital Humanities projects, let alone traditional Humanities projects. I found the system useful and entirely appropriate for my research. As a platform, Mediawiki has the potential t o give researchers powerful tools for connecting topics and showing relationships between pages. By using this technology, I was able to research the collection and display my findings in a way that could not be possible using traditional research methods. To explain this process of change , I will provide an overview of my project and then discuss how this project can be an example for future research. Then, I will discuss the objectives, scope, and pro cess of working with documents and the importance of th e digital tools defined my work throughout the process. I will then address how I incorporated Digital Humanities practices with feminist theory and conclude by theorizing how thinking critically about how digital tools can benefit both areas of study . Cha llenges to Research After my advisor directed me to the library , I ran into a few challenges when researching Florida NOW in the Special Collections Reading Room. The creation of the Digital NOW Archive project was a way to reckon with the challenges of ac cess, scale, and permissions. When I began, I found that i t was not easy working in a confined space for a limited amount of time a day. As a working student, I had to balance working, school, and other responsibilities. The Reading Room was only open during business hours, Monday through Friday. Finding time to come in t o the


Page 8 of 46 library when it was open was difficult and I was not able to look at the documents as often as I wanted. I ran out of time between parking, walking to the library, requesting a box from storage, and beginning to work. I found that I needed to leave t he Reading Room and do something else before I could sink my teeth into t he material. Since there were so many documents in the collection, I realized that I would need to be in the library every weekday for long periods , but my schedule only allowed a win dow of a few hours, a few days a week. I found myself dreaming about taking documents home with me so I could work on them on my own time. Understandably, Special Collections does not allow students or faculty to remove items from the Reading Room. To get around this issue and so that I could work on the documents at home, I began scanning and saving documents onto my computer. This process took some time, but it allowed me to read newsletters and notes whenever I wanted. By scanning what I needed, I was no t always at the mercy of the Reading Room hours. From that point on, I used my time in the reading room for scanning and I wrote my notes at home on my time scanning had solved my issues of access. This worked for a while, but after a few weeks , I found that the collection was too large for me to take useful notes. I was filling paper notebooks with names and dates, only to get lost when that I had scanned , taking detailed notes connecting women , issues, and the chapters in which they worked . When I began writing, I found that I had duplicate notes for the same women . There were differing chapter names and dates and conflicting information that I could not reconcile; I could not make heads or tails of the information I was working with. This overload of information blocked me from being able to understand the situation and explain what I had learned. The scope and the complexity of the collection called for a non linear system and some tools robust enough


Page 9 of 46 to help me make sense of the information. Taking my notes in a Word document would not work either, I reasoned, because I would still have to deal with the issue of duplicate entries and the note taking pile of pages would be equivalent to notes on paper. To meet these issues and to cut down on the piles of paper , I set up a personal wiki on my computer. As anyone who has used Wikipedia knows, Wikis are platforms that designed to allow collaborative knowledg e production. Their simple interface makes it easy to create and edit content and t here are many different open source applications designed for individual note taking . 2 I chose Tomboy, an offline note taking application that is easy to edit and to link pages together . With my personal wiki in place, I was able to continue scanning and making notes on what I found in the documents using a more flexible system. I had solved my issues of scale by using this wiki and I was still on the thesis path . I continu ed taking notes on my personal wiki program until I realized that my notes were only accessible on my laptop. I found that this was inconvenient and I was a fraid that I would lose information if my laptop was damaged or stolen . I found that the best way to do this is to move the wiki to a server, or a dedicated computer at an offsite location, and continue working with the documents over the internet. I began researching ways that I could migrate my wiki to a server so that I could access it from any comput er. When used as a personal website on the internet , wikis have the ability to manage documents and facilitate collaborative document editing. Novice computer users can create r obust websites and can create space s for teams to work together. My setup was s mall compared to other wikis, as I was the only user connecting to the site. When I wanted to migrate my site from my computer to the internet , I found that my personal wiki on 2 Personal wiki applications include DocuWiki, Tiddl yWiki, and WikidPad.


Page 10 of 46 Tomboy was easily portable to Mediawiki, a more advanced wiki platform with add itional features and improved performance . I installed the wiki onto a server and moved some pages from Tomboy to Mediawiki. I found maintenance and auditing tools made it much easier to clean up links and typos . After working through a fe w bugs during the migration process, I began scanning and taking notes directly on to my website. I was able to access the documents anytime I needed , the wiki was available from any computer , and this type of note taking was much more dynamic than a Word document or paper notes . Everything was working well . I was reading through the collection and on my way to a draft of a thesis. After taking notes on my online site, I realized that these notes intended for a thesis could actually become a space for discu ssion and research about the collection. If I continued to edit the site alone , no one would have access to the scanned documents and the notes I took would never help anyone else. I began to see that m y individual effort to organize my research notes had the potential to help to researchers, volunteers, and members of NOW who wanted to learn more from these documents. If other students wanted to learn about the organization, they would not have to take a trip on campus and could use the site instead. At th is point, I had been making notes to myself about what each document contained . I realized that this could be used as an addition to Others could see a description of the docu ment and view the scanned file, or they could visit the collection in person and view the original. With this in mind , I made the site accessible to the public. I tweaked a few settings in the Mediawiki software and allowed any user to view all pages. If u sers wanted to edit and make changes to the site , they would only need to create an account and log in. I welcomed edits and suggestions and I began seeing research on the collection as a collaborative endeavor. It


Page 11 of 46 was at this point in my work that I had s hifted from a traditional thesis to viewing my wiki as a project. Shortly a fter I made the site public, Dr. Taylor 3 expressed concern about general interest to make these documents publicly available on the internet. Her primary concern was whether the individuals who wrote or spoke, especially regarding cassette tape recordings of Florida NOW officer phone conferences during the mid 2000s, knew that their words woul d one day become public. When these documents were in my possession on my computer, these scans were harmless. Dr. Taylor brought it to my attention and I became concerned over the issue of if it was ethical to make documents and tapes public when the indi viduals had no knowledge that they would one day be on the internet for everyone to see. In the mid 2000s, the Florida NOW Board of Directors donated a large cache of documents to the university library system in good faith with the intent that they might be used for research and scholarship. The physical collection of boxes is available for access by the public in the reading room , however , neither t documents address whether unfettered public release of these documents to the internet was acceptable . While the organization may have specified their desire to allow these documents to be accessible to anyone wishing to visit Special Collections, they wou ld not have anticipated worldwide access through the internet and indexing by search engines. Putting these documents online where search engines can index them , however, brings up issues of research ethics about personal privacy. If a document 3 Dr. Laurie N. Taylor is the Digital Scholarship Librarian at the Smathers Library at the University of Florida. Dr. Taylor supervised my independent study during Fall Semester 2014.


Page 12 of 46 reveals sen sitive personal information or contains candid remarks about another person or organizations, the women who wrote or said these things could be in danger of retaliation or harm. While my justification for digitization was that internet distribution was an extension of the publicness of the physical collection, this reasoning did not take into account the intent of the WikiLeaks document available for public access, I could re lease personal or protected information to the internet. I could possibly bring harm to those in the collection by simply trying to increase access to the documents. Whether the women knew that their words would be preserved forever and distributed to ever yone became a new research question that would shape my work. Historical Background Much of the content in the collection discusses things going on in the state, but some of the documents indicate connections to larger national issues and activis t efforts . Women who participated in these movements founded local chapters of NOW, which were themselves influenced by both local situations and the decisions of the national organization . The ways in which Florida NOW members pursued their aims within the contexts of local and national agendas is what had originally drawn my interest, and it remains one of the most compelling aspects of the collection. The decade following the end of WWII was a period of immense social change in the US. The social and political mo vements during this era drastically changed many small towns . The Civil Rights Movement, an important precursor to the second wave feminist movement, challenged deep seated institutionalized racism in many communities particularly in the South. The Civil Rights Act, implemented in 1964, included one of the most consequential provisions: Title VII, a clause expanding protections for employment discrimination to include race, color,


Page 13 of 46 religion, sex, and national origin. To enforce the provisions under the act , President Kennedy created the President's Co mmittee on Equal Opportunity a precursor to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) established in 1965. Once established, the EEOC was charged with the task to investigate complaints of discrimination from workers and levy punitive charges to ensure compliance. If an employer has been found to discriminate in hiring, promotion, firing, or paid leave, the worker may be entitled to monetary compensation (About the EEOC: Overview) . For many Black Americans, Jews, and other individuals who faced injustice, the Civil Rights Act and the protection of the EEOC was a promising change they hoped to be a positive effect on their lives. As Cynth ia Harrison argues in her book On Account of Sex (1988) , f o r women, this was not the case. In theory, the EEOC was the strong arm of the government to promote equality and to enforce protections from discrimination by penalizing infringers. In practice, wo men found that institutional sexism was rampant within the Commission and the EEOC itsel f operated as a microcosm by ignoring complaints for sexual discrimination. A fter the Commission was founded, four of the five members serving on the commission viewed the protection for sex discrimination under Title VII was illegitimate and did not take up most complaints during this time. Media outlets and the members consistently brought up theoretical and nonsensical situations in which the EEOC would be required to find sex discrimination: men denied positions as Playboy Bunnies and sorority housemothers . Representative Martha Griffiths, a Democratic politician from Michigan and one of the most ardent supporters of the clause prohibiting sex discrimination in Title VII with negative attitude and argued that the members were negligent in their duty to protect w omen


Page 14 of 46 against sex discrimination. 4 Other women in the US were angered b refused to take political action against the organization , such as the League of Women Voters who viewed the issue as partisan (Harrison, 1988, pp. 190 191) . In 1966, Betty Friedan, feminist activist and author of The Feminine Mystique ( 1963 ) , met with Catherine Conroy, Mary Eastwood, Dorothy Haener, other women to begin planning to found an organization to fight sex discrimination. There were calls from the group of women to hold a national press conference and for Friedan to form an rganization for Women (NOW) was founded from this group of women who wanted to fight back against sexism in the workplace and to put political pressure on members of the EEOC to force them to act on complaints filed for sex discrimination (Barakso, 2004, p. 22) . Founding members and early planning by volunteers of the organization took influence from other civil rights organizations that were active during the time the National Association for the Advancement of Colored P eople (NAACP), Student Nonviolent/National Coordinating Committee (SNCC), 5 Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). The tactics and organization strategies proved helpful in forming events of their own, but the experience gained by women involved in New Yo rk Radical Women, 4 The history of the EEOC is complex and is not fully summarized here. For attention to gender and EEOC claims, see (Baker, 2007; Turk, 2010; Hartmann, 2013; Wandersee, 1988) . 5 In 1966, SNCC shifted from a platform of nonviolence to more radical and violent tactics in the name of Black Power. The organization changed their name in 1969, replacing "Nonviolent" with "National" to become the Student National Coordinating Committee. The organization dissolved shortly after due to other factors and internal conflict.


Page 15 of 46 organizations proved extremely beneficial for early success (pp. 21 25) . Gainesville, Flori da was not immune from national political trends in the postwar period. most notable political event during the post war period of 1955 1965 was the Charley ns state employees suspected of being associated with the communist party or homosexuals both groups whose actions were considered illegal. Many of the testim onies during the investigations were forged or obtained under coercion. The committee also employed private investigators to befriend suspects or serve as decoys , bugged hotel rooms and private residences, and seized medical records and human resource docu ments to charge individuals and have them fired (Howard, 1997, pp. 133 136) . At the University of Florida, about 15 professors and 50 students left the university when investigated by the Committee . In a national cont ext, this committee was not out of the ordinary; m and to remove them from their jobs as public employees (Florida State Library and Archives) . Florida r ac e relations were as conservative as attitudes towards gender and sexuality . S egregation was contentious in Gainesville during the early 1960s and despite the presence of strong NAACP chapters in neighboring Jacksonville and Tallahassee, many local business es, churches, and the Alachua General Hospital refused to admit Black Americans until 1970. Notable Gainesville . Women for Equal Rights (GWER), a bi racial organization founded in 1963, worked to fight racism in the city and to push business es to desegregate . Most notably, GWER worked with the NAACP to desegregate in the city and often


Page 16 of 46 worked with on campus groups to protest racial discrimination in employment and education (Benson, 2004) . 6 Women involved in GWER would later be founding members of Gainesville NOW and their experience in local political activism would prove beneficial to movement (Adams) . Discussions about starting a state NOW chapter in Florida began in 1973 during the National NOW Conference in DC . Karen Coolman , Betty Armistead, Jeanette Blevins, and a group of other feminists fr om the state made plans to return to Florida and meet at two gatherings in Tampa and Orlando that same year . This group appointed women to Nominating and By Laws Committees so that work could begin in the state and National NOW would grant the chapter a ch arter . The Nominating Committee began appoint ing women to convene new chapters in their area under provisional charters . After applying to the national office , meeting membership and activity goals, and going through an admissions process, these chapters c ould begin organizing activities under charter . By the end of the first year, there were over 26 local chapters in Florida (9 in North Florida) with more on the way 7 (Florida National Organization for Women) . 6 Links Women _for_Equal_Rights 7 The chapters who received national ch arters in 1973 were Broward, Dade, Gainesville, Jacksonville, Orlando, Pensacola, Polk, South Dade, South Palm Beach County, Tallahassee, and Tampa. Later that year, the Indian River, Naples, North Palm Beach County, and St. Petersburg chapters had applied for national charters. Other chapters, including Key West, South Broward, North Broward, St. Lucie County, South Brevard County, Daytona Ormond, Naples, Clearwater, Perry, Ocala, and West Palm Beach, had begun organizing new members and preparing for the charter process .


Page 17 of 46 Over the next 25 years, local chapters would fight back against sexism on campuses, 8 take legal action against race based housing discrimination, 9 t each self defense classes, train rape crisis hotline counselors, 10 run victim advocate programs , 11 build coali tions and work with other organizations on civil rights issues, work tirelessly for ERA ratification, 12 protest local and regional companies for sexist p olicies and advertisements, 13 found and fund the Florida Feminist Credit Union, 14 convey information about local, state, and national politics, 15 block bans on 16 file EEOC complaints for discrimination against school districts, 17 hold Consciousness Raising meetings for men 18 and women , 19 raise money and awareness about rape in the community , 20 and so much more. Digital Humanities and Feminist Research It is at the intersection between new technology and feminist research that I found myself. When I began looking to answer my research questions of access, sca le, and representation , I found that there was a distinct field that combines Humanities research such as mine with technology: 8 Box 28 Folder 8 Document 7, Gainesville NOW, 2000; Box 21 Folder 5 Document 1, Gainesville NOW, 1973 9 Box 21 Folder 5 Document 5, Gainesville NOW, 1973 10 Box 20 Folder 3 Document 23 , West Brevard County NOW, 1974 11 Box 21 Folder 5 Docu ment 14, Gainesville NOW/UF Campus NOW, 1974 12 Box 20 Folder 3 Document 23 , West Brevard County NOW, 1974 13 Box 21 Folder 5 Document 3, Gainesville NOW/UF Campus NOW, 1973; Box 21 Folder 5 Document 19, Gainesville NOW, 1975 14 Box 21 Folder 3 Document 15 p . 3, Fort Myers NOW, 1976; Box 21 Folder 5 Document 24 p. 2, Gainesville NOW, 1975 15 Box 28 Folder 9 Document 10, Judy Levy NOW, 2001. 16 Box 21 Folder 12 Document 6 p. 1 3 , Jacksonville NOW, 1979 17 Box 21 Folder 13 Document 3 p. 1 2, 12 13 , Jacksonville NOW, 1979 18 Box 21 Folder 5 Document 30, Gainesville NOW/UF Campus NOW, 1978 19 Box 28 Folder 8 Document 12, Gainesville NOW/UF Campus NOW, 2002 20 Box 28 Folder 10 Document 7, UF Campus NOW, 2000


Page 18 of 46 Digital Humanities . 21 New projects in traditionally print based fields have the trend of creating more digital works and publishi ng research to online open access platforms. Many researchers working in the Digital Humanities field believe that the move in academic work from physical to digital is inevitable. They point to the hard sciences, where this paradigm shift is in full force and conjecture that Digital Humanities projects will surpass traditional print work through an academic revolution . 22 T he field of Humanities is rapidly changing and most new projects employ some sort of technology to better explain or evaluate their resea rch . Before discussing the Digital Humanities , I must first explain the discipline of the Humanities itself. Explained most succinctly, Humanities (Panofsky, 1940, p. 186) and academic humanists work to provide historical or social context to explain the interconnectedness of these documents. Typical modes of Humanities scholarship involve looking at different forms of documents (monographs, biography, archival collections, musical scores, art works, etc.) and analyzing the ir meanings . The shift to employing digital tools for working with th ese documents is intended to enhance and in some cases replace existing analytical modes is termed Digital Humanities . chang Humanities ] had emerged from the low prestige status of a support service into a genuinely intellectual endeavor with its own professional practices, rigorous standards, and exciting theoretical explor (Hayles, 2012, p. 187) ; in the past few years, technology in Humanities has grown 21 For more on this discussion, see (Gold, 2012) . 22 media practices and forms of knowledge (The Digital Humanities Manifesto 2.0, 2009, p. 39) and is not the disciplinary standard.


Page 19 of 46 up. While some academics add technology to aid in their traditional research, Digital Humanities scholarship mea ns much more than just using digital tools. John Unsworth, professor of English at Brandeis University, Vice Provost of the field of Digital Humanities , explains the difference between tools and meaning; th e tools to display data should be reconceptualized so that we can challenge the assumptions we make of those tools (Unsworth, 2002) . The separation between the Humanities Digital Humanities will force researchers to shift methods of future work. By employing technical tools to improve upon the way we display knowledge , the production of knowledge and the connection between reader and document changes. A new paradig m with new connotative meanings comes from this interaction. Currently, Digital Humanities scholars reject any one definition of what their field encompasses and many question whether striving for a definition is appropriate . 23 The gray areas where hard lines have not been set ar e important to the work and usefulness of the field. In fact, it is a fundamental part of the methodology of the field to use a set of guidelines, Best Practices, or (Unsworth, 2002) that aim to improv e research processes and outcomes . Among these ethics includes openness (the exchange and access to knowledge), or inclusivity of the field to all, particular ly new scholars), diversity (the inclusion of other voices (Spiro, 2012, pp. 25 30) . 23 For more on this discussion, see (Gold, 2012) .


Page 20 of 46 Feminist research , like Digital Humanities, has a multiplicity of definitions . T here are many different opinions as (Minnich, 1982; Saarinen, 1988, pp. 36 37; Harding, 1988, pp. 3 5) . Feminist scholarship may attempt to ? (Buker, 2003, p. 80) but i n most cases, feminist research is not simply an analysis of women , but instead an inclusionary effort to bring women into the position to make analysis (Doucet & Mauthner, 2006, p. 40) and to challenge societal power structures. Academic feminism and studies about gender in an institutional context bega n out of the organizations formed during the second wave movement. Feminist epistemology stems from a critique of overarching and salient oppression. discovery of new material. It asks new questions as well as comin g up with new answers. Its central concern is with the social distinction between men and women, with the fact of this distinction, (Mitchell & Oakley, 1976, p. 14) . I n the early stages , feminist epistemological critique began by looking at knowledge creation that stemm ed from ideas conceptualized during the Scientific Revolution. These writers found that the scientific method is often patriarchal and t raditional approa ches to research, particularly in the sciences or other empirical studies, rely on the concept of the scientific method to create a god trick (Appleby, Hunt, & Jacob, 1995, pp. 15 18) . R esearcher s and scientific author s that employ a heroic view of science write from a place of feigned neutrality . W hile this methodology was once is now seen as a hegemonic discourse created by and for white men , oppress ing anyone not like them (Fee, 1981, pp. 379 380; Tong, 2013, p. 273) . Feminist academics analyze this heroic science narrative through a variety of


Page 21 of 46 methodologies, the most recent being the use of stand point and intersectionality 24 and work continues to find new areas of oppression. In particular, t h is practice of gendered critique is fundamental to the construction of feminist epistemology and contributes t o new questions in the sciences and other fields . Feminist critiques of Digital Humanities projects have thus far taken two main forms . The first is the observation that many projects focus on man dominated narratives or place importance on periods where women are not seen (Enoch & Bessette, 2013, p. 637) . Digital projects about these narratives (e.g. presidents, generals) often marginalize people, namely women, who might not be on the forefront of history. This practice perpetuates a skewed view of history and can alter the way we think about the past. In this case, it is evident that the goals of the Digital Humanities are important to the researchers , but it seems as though current trends in the Humanities reveal systemic issues th at must be addressed . F eminist archival research is a critical practice beginning in the 1970s that works to uncover narratives of women who have been silenced or written out of history. In many historical narratives found through critical during the secon d wave period of feminism, patriarchy is the 24 Standpoint feminist re search is a facet of Black feminist thought. Patricia Hill Collins, one of the earliest writers to use and define feminist intersectionality, explains that there are two crucial components of a standpoint. The first component observes that the socio politi cal location of Black women creates an experience that is lived in ways that other groups could not understand , particularly white people . The second, Collins explains, is an acknowledgement of (Collins, 2000, pp. 747 748) . This consciousness and the individual experiences are much more genuine than a god trick and more accurate in their findings. Feminist research has incorporated this approach of standpoint and int ersectionality to better analyze the intersections of oppression and look to where marginalization occurs. Many feminist scholars see that the best way to understand a situation is through the lens of individual oppressions and collective marginalized iden tities.


Page 22 of 46 cause of this oppression . Dig ital Humanities could build on this tradition established in traditional knowledge prod uction modes like books, journal articles, museum exhibits, etc., but it has not yet done so in a substantial way . This pattern is a failure of the field Digital Humanities to take into account issues relating to gender, sex, sexuality, race, etc. and to see that they themselves perpetuate this oppression (Enoch & Bessette, 2013, pp. 637 638) . Since the field is so new, these trends may be a continuation of traditional approaches to subjects and issues found in Humanities and change may come to critical historical studies. The second critique of the Digital Humanities is the move to creation and management of Researchers collect or generate information and then store it in databases housed on university servers or in the cloud. Humanities scholars take stabs at finding correlations in the datasets with the intent of improving their research. This shift away from the fundamental humanities methodologies working with textual i nformation (e.g. semiotic analyses) is critique of the field finds that although there is knowledge that can be gained from these methods, it an aberrant trend from which future research may suffer , particular ly regarding women . While current discourses about how to handle big data are no doubt important to the field and merit their own research, a trend has emerged in the field where recent works rely on this statistical or computer generated information in pl ace of traditional Humanities reliance on contextual or semiotic analyses . Consolidation and Collaboration Feminist s working in the field of Digital Humanities must grapple with the same questions that non feminist digital humanists ask themselves. The me thods of both Digital Humanities and feminist research are intended to analyze the construction of knowledge. Both can be considered


Page 23 of 46 political because of their revolutionary approach to the overarching narrative of their initial fields. Sc holars in these fields show where hegemony and old fashioned practices slow down progress. For feminist researchers, gender is the issue. For digital humanists, the focus is on exclusion and academic hierarchy. As a result of these political aims , i n some ways, the ethics of Digital Humanities are similar to feminist ethics. F eminist researchers must question whether source material is , whether the methods used when working with the ma terial are feminist, or if the technology itself is feminist (Wernimont, 2013) . These fundamental questions are of importance to the entire field of feminist research. In practice, this introspection is project and situation specific and must be addressed by the researcher or author based on a variety of factors relevant to the work. In my project, I found that I needed to turn to the methods in which I was using to di splay the collection. Although the source documents were about feminist activism, I needed to ensure that my project did not perpetuate silence by denying It is at this location that femi nist researchers employing Digital Humanities practices must be self reflexive and look at both methods and material. The discourses and critiques of Digital Humanities run the gamut and can show how, in some situations, feminist research excels. Some trad itional scholars reject new mediums outright baked (Cohen, 2012, p. 322) and others view the move to technology as a fad (Ibid.). The most persuasive critique of the Digital Humanities is that projects often take sexist approaches to scholarship (Enoch & Bessette, 2013) . The primary concerns within the field of Digital Humanities remain on the process technology . The Digital Humanities has much to do to catch up with the discussion of meta issues


Page 24 of 46 found in the traditional Hum anities , but in its present form, the Digital Humanities is evolving, reflexive, and self aware. To improve the field, this critique must be embraced and address the fact that the body of work and scholarship is markedly gendered . The la ck of women in the Digital Humanities and in the tech arena cr eates fundamental issues to current and future work and can intimidate other women who wish to enter (Nowviskie, 2012) . Consolidation between fields will begin when Digital Humanities scholars acknowledge the feminist epistemological critiques that , despite its democratic promise, Digital Humanities is a mode of knowledge production where marginalizing practices and discourses often pe rpetuate the and expand access to those who were not able to read the material, the subject matter and the assumptions within this research often perpetuate trad itional gender norms and sexism. To continue the Humanities Digital Humanities has brought to academic disciplines, it is necessary to embrace this feminist critique and work out how t o be more sensitive to salient hegemonies (Wernimont, 2013, p. 11) . A part of this issue is to acknowledge that feminist Digital Humanities research is limited by low numbers of women in technology . Th e tech environment is often hostile towards women who wish to enter, participate, work, or analyze because of gender disparity. Campaigns to introduce women to the Digital Humanities and spark interest in the field will only be effective if the existing community becomes self aware and provides a welcome and inviting platform inclusive of women (Nowviskie) (Scheinfeldt) . To call upon an ethic of the field, diversity and coll egiality are paramount issues and should be addressed to move the Digital Humanities forward. As digital researchers and feminist scholars confront the challenges each of their modes of knowledge production offers to the other, the y must focus on this inte rstitial location between


Page 25 of 46 feminist research and technology. The impact one field has upon the other can be profound and has the ability to reshape the way scholars do research. Differences between these two fields can be consolidated and the interdisciplin ary nature of both does not imply inherent exclusion. Simple changes in methodologies can allow commingling and produce productive and intellectually rewarding work for the Humanities . Making Women Visible through Technology With these theoretical issues i n mind, a s I worked my way through the paper archive of Florida NOW, I knew I wanted to use digital tools for my project without silencing the women in the collection, one of the fundamental feminist research goals . To achieve this, I created a wiki so that the academic and feminist community can come together and learn more about women activists in Florida. By using digital tools, I found that I was able to increase visibility of women who might not have been written about in the narrative of a n ana logue work. For example, if a woman was only referenced in a few short blurbs over the span of 5 years, a traditional research er would not see this pattern without meticulous note taking. While critique of Digital Humanities points correctly out that current projects do not focus on women and instead focus on narratives found in traditional work, I found that when I used digital tools with feminist fundamentals in mind, I was more able to specifically focus on women. Similarly, the digital archive makes it easier to demonstrate links among individuals, organizations, and so on. If a name or chapter is accurately tagged during the transcription phase , the wiki system will handle the connections between names and issues on the page correctly. traditional research, a researcher might have to spend weeks categorizing names and issues to connect the dots. Static notes wou ld not be workable and database software or Excel would not be


Page 26 of 46 dynamic enough to reflect the connections. Once set up correctly, Mediawiki is a platform primed for organizing digital collaborative research. I found that for exploring a collection, these to ols allowed me to understand what I was working with. I would not have been able to do it without them. An important aspect of my project is that it is accountable with the community in which I was working. I will hand over control of the site to Florida NOW after graduating so that the work can continue and the site can expand through volunteer contribution s. Florida NOW will have control over the site management and others can begin scanning documents from the collection and begin working with them. While I hope that other researchers and interested students can access the site and learn something new, I al so hope that women in the community who took part in the movement would want to take up the task and learn from Special C ollections. Recent interviews, meeting minutes, and important documents others would call minutia might not pass the institutional criteria to be included in the official collection. Accession requirements of donated materials by any institutional reposito ry are understandably restrictive; the university cannot hold every scrap in the desk drawers of Florida NOW members. Usually, curators must make determinations as to what is important for ingesting into the repository. The site, on the other hand, is able to expand infinitely to take in materials that the community deems important. If desired, materials can be preserved forever. Digital Tools and Technical Process Importing documents into the site is a lengthy process . I begin the ingestion process by visi ting the Special Collections Reading Room in Smathers East and requesting boxes from stora ge. I then scan the documents using university computers and scanners, s aving them as


Page 27 of 46 images, and name them according to box and folder. After I finish scanning , I process the documents with Adobe Acrobat rotating all pages to the correct orientation and initiating OCR (Optical Character Recognition). The OCR processing step takes over an hour per hour , depending on how many documents have been scanned. While this pr ocess is running, I use Photoshop to generate thumbnail images from the first page of the scanned documents. Once the OCR process completes, I make a copy of the documents and begin to redact, or blackout, phone numbers and addresses from each page. Redact ion is very time consuming and requires me to comb through each page. After redaction, I re save the documents as reduced size PDF s optimized for the internet. After saving, I upload them in bulk to my server and prepare them to be ingested into the site . Once they are on the server, Mediawiki identifies the files and creates applicable file information pages for them. Then, I create content pages for each document. I use generic templates for each


Page 28 of 46 box, folder, and document to make the process easier, but I still have to manually specify metadata about document dates, number of pages, and the corresponding local chapter for each document. it in to a category for future editing. After that process is complete, I create box and folder pages to link to the document pages. This concludes the ingestion process, but it is just the beginning of getting the documents to link together. For proper linking , the transcription of the document needs to be accurate. T ranscription involves typing out the text of the scanned document manually and saving it to wiki page. In theory, the OCR of the PDF file should allow me to copy and paste the generated


Page 29 of 46 text over into the transcript, but si nce the document pages are old and may be faded, this is not the case. Most of the time, the text is not d correctly and cannot be used as a n understandable transcript without heavy editing. In almost every situation, I find that it is much easier to t ype it out than to try to go back and fix typos in the broken OCR text generated at the processing stage . document. Instead of typing a static, text only trans cription, I can link to other pages by enveloping a name or chapter with double brackets. Mediawiki allows users to visit pages titled with the corresponding text after the link is set wiki also allows users to create that page and i nput new information if it has no t already been created. In the background, Mediawiki records this link and allows users to later see


Page 30 of 46 If I need to add in a pre defined block of text while transcribing, I use double braces to insert words from information from transcripts. Usually, these redactions are to prote ct personal phone numbers and addresses from showing up on the internet. Although I have blacked out the text out on the scanned PDF, the transcription text needs to indicate that text has also been redacted. I use braces around the word {{ redacted }} to te ll Mediawiki to show an indication label to a user and to also place the page in a category with other redacted documents. If I edit a template, the changes are then reflected on every page that holds the template. For example, I created a navigation templ ate that I inserted onto every page so that users could easily browse the site. If I add a folder entry to the navigation, all other pages are updated to be able to link to that new folder. If I make a change to the template, the user might not realize, bu t it appears that the navigation has been changed on every page at once .


Page 31 of 46 One of the fundamental advantages that the Mediawiki software gives researchers is the Users can click on this link to fin d which pages link to the current page. For example, a page about Jane Smith may have a headnote and links to external and internal documents as references, but researching does not have to stop at the external of where Jane Smith has been linked to within the wiki. Mediawiki automatically generates these pages and they can be very useful when looking for someone or something specific . As long as every name is linked pro perly from the transcription , the system can point users in a direction that they might not have thought of and hel p them discover other documents related to their interests.


Page 32 of 46 Mediawiki also ha s the ability to redirect navigation dynamically when a user c licks on an incorrect page link. For instance, if a transcription links to Ja m e Smith instead of Ja n e Smith, clicking the link might lead users to a nonexistent or blank page. That page can instead be edited to include a redirect link so that user s will automatically be sent to the intended page. This tool can help avoid typos and make navigating the site easier , but I found a secondary use of the redirect system: when a person or chapter uses a nickname or may have changed names. By redirecting the time edit ing multiple pages and users will always be directed to the correct page. Mediawiki also has a tool to automatically identify which pages have incorrec t links and makes it e asy to avoid dead ends .


Page 33 of 46 I found two issues while writing content pages about organizations or people on my site: Web pages change and websites shut down. I encountered the first issue when reading through news websites and finding t hat many of the articles had been lost when the organization changed website layouts. It is frustrating to want to find corroborating article and not being able to locate the cited material; it feels as though the document I am looking for is close enough to touch, but it is hiding behind a website's new layout. I ran into the second issue when researching organizations active in the late 1990s and early 2000s and had an organization website. These sites have important information about the chapter and coul d contain other important media (videos, pictures, etc.) which may not have fit into the organization's newsletter. While something may have existed when referred or linked to, it has since been lost. In a way, losing a chapter web page is similar to losin g an entire folder of information about a chapter. This volatility makes it difficult to write and


Page 34 of 46 publish using online materials and include references to these resources to be accessed in the future. Peer review would be lost if primary source websites a re taken offline or pages changed to be inaccessible. This volatility creates issues in academic research, particularly in the Humanities. If a document or other media that is only available on a website has been deleted from that website, it ceases to exi by a member of the chapter on a computer and was most likely never printed o n paper or other physical medium. At one point in my research, I was working on the description page for Floridians Representing Equality and Equity, or FREE. I was not finding anything substantial about the organization on my wiki that I had ingested from the physical collection. The information that I was able to find was only chapter newsletters and these were just short blurbs advertising an upcoming meeting or event. The organization's activities, membership, and platform were not talked about often an d I was coming up empty handed. I realized this was most likely because I had not ingested enough material into the site, but in the meantime, I knew that I had to look for information elsewhere. I found a few articles published in Florida newspapers refer encing FREE, but I was not able to access them. Either the newspaper staff had taken them offline or the articles were made unavailable from the newspaper website. For one article, the only copy I could find was located at the Collier Public Library in dow ntown Naples in microfilm far from Gainesville. Even if I were able to travel to visit the library, I still would need to put work into converting the microfilm page into something useful for the site. I called and talked to a reference librarian who is able to find the film, print the article, scan the page, and email me the document.


Page 35 of 46 When I was looking for information, I found it frustrating to have to track down a single article in the microfiche bowels of a library in another state. By looking to add background information about the organization, I realized this was an avoidable issue if only someone had digitized the article. I wanted to include this information, but because the newspaper's website changed formats, deleted the site, or moved it to phy sical storage, the article is gone from the internet forever. The Internet Archive's WayBack Machine and other similar tools are projects designed to address the issue of digital ephemera. The WayBack Machine automatically takes snapshots of pages on the i nternet and stores them exactly as they are rendered. Users of the site can view the pages as they appeared on a specific date. For example, if I wanted to talk about the Google t of the page and readers will be able to see the site and content as it was. Readers can link directly to the page when you cited the material and they will be able to follow your research to learn more. The WayBack Machine addresses issues of losing info rmation and can contribute to the integrity of our analysis or learning by adding permanence. For all of my external links on my wiki, I used the WayBack machine to preserve the links and to add permanence to the citations. Another issue of born digital do cuments is the retention of revisions or drafts of a document. When writing a blog post, publishing online digital paper, or making new editions of an online book, changes made to the original document are not usually saved. Mediawiki takes an open source approach to pages and allows everyone to view the different edit over time. While print media are silent about changes and are under no obligation to explain or display these changes, Mediawiki is adamant that viewing differences in pages is fundamental to the editing and researching process. When viewing internal timestamps, Mediawiki uses diff , a powerful open


Page 36 of 46 source tool that manages revisions and highlights for the user which changes are made to a page. Designed to be a multi user platform, Mediawiki is able to account for the changes that many users make to pages and can automatically organize them so they can be reverted or changed, if needed. From large changes like adding text or moving complete pages, to minor changes like fixing links or typos, M ediawiki gives a brief summary of what has changed and allows editors to manage these changes. The page that site visitors see by default always reflects the most recent changes. ink on to verify what changes were made to the document since creation. When malicious users make unhelpful edits or spam the site with irrelevant content, the new content may break site functionality or remove existing content. Site editors have the abili ty to roll back these changes without losing the original text a feature only available because Mediawiki saves all revisions made by users.


Page 37 of 46 Mediawiki also allows users and editors to comment on almost everything on the site. When submitting a change t o a page (adding information, fixing a typo, etc.), users are encouraged to explain what they did in that edit. This makes it easier in the future for editors to check revision ry page. Users tool fosters community on a wiki and relies on peer review during the editing and research process. Wikipedia often has lengthy Talk pages in whi ch editors get into heated debates about phrasing or whether a source is authoritative on the issue. Although these pages are often intimidating, the Wikipedia community encourages participation and friendliness between members of the site. In my situation , however, my Talk pages were simply notes to myself. It allowed me to get a timestamp on what I was working on and make notes on specific revisions or To that I was running into the issue of Word documents that I had no reference to point to and Talk pages fit my needs. If other users begin to edit the site, these Talk pages could be a place for personal reflection or foster a discussion about issues as they are presented. If I have made a typo or factual mistake, readers are encouraged to ed it the page or make a note on the Talk page to bring


Page 38 of 46 flexibility. I was able to display and link information quickly and point readers in the right direction w ithout sacrificing detail. Conclusion While reading some documents, I found a blurb in a newsletter from 1975 about a woman who was positively impacted by the decisions made by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. In an editorial, Jean Wonser explained she was only given an interview for a position with the Division of Corrections in St. Lucie County, Florida "as a result of ... charges filed" by another woman who applied for that position in the previous year. Wonser could be hired through the actions of the woman who came before her and attributes her employment to that woman's lawsuit and the enforcement by the EEOC. 25 Her editorial is a reminder that the social and political changes these women fought for affected them on a personal level. These women viewed NOW 25 Found at Box 21 Folder 1 Document 3 in the collection.


Page 39 of 46 and the feminist movement as a struggle that directly changed the conditions of women in their communities. For Wonser, the personal was political. Many of the newsletters and other published editorials found in th e collection express frustration about the status of women and the movement particularl y when discussing ERA activism. is a moment of happ iness and encouragement for women readi ng the newsletter and shows that their struggle was worth fighting for and that they were making progress . narrative and others like hers are important for our unde rstanding of the experiences women involved in the feminist movement. Trad itional research methods would no t have been able to ha ndle this na rrative as the letter to the editor is only a few lines long and is never referenced again . Unless researchers were specifically looking for the editorial, most would pass over the entry. As a researcher , it is easy to be swept up in statistics and large t rends about employment discrimination . If I approached my research traditionally, story could be considered inconsequential or irrelevant , b ut t he dynamic structure of a wiki gives Jean Wonser her own space in the collection. As feminist researche rs, we can use technology to uncover stories like this one and give these women a space to share their experiences. If a researcher wanted to find items relating to the EEOC or employment discrimination, they would be able to link backwards through the wik We can create n ew knowledge with this dynamic system and I found through this experience that these tools allow me to write more th o rough descriptions than what would be possible in a general f inding aid . Making feminist knowledge available to women who needed it through print forms such as books, broadsides, and leaflets was a central goal of the New Left and the s econd w ave f eminist movement s from which NOW emerged . The Combahee River Collective, a black feminist


Page 40 of 46 organization founded in Boston in 1974, was only one group to articulate the importance of shared knowledge through publication: We had always shared our reading with each other, and some of us had written p apers on Black feminism for group discussion We began functioning as a study group and also began discussing the possibility of startin Currently we are planning to gather together a collection of Black feminist writing [bec ause] w e feel that it is absolutely essential to demonstrate the reality of our politics to other Black women and believe that we can do this through writing and distributing our work. The fact that individual Black feminists are living in isolation all ov er the country, that our own numbers are small, and that we have some skills in writing, printing, and publishing makes us want to carry out these kinds of projects as a means of organizing Black feminists as we continue to do political work in coalition w ith other groups. (A Black Feminist Statement, 1977, p. Section 3) Times have changed, but the importance of creating community through the publicizing and sharing of feminist experience and knowledge has no t. Roberta Salper , a feminist researcher who studies and an associate professor at SUNY in 1971, explained that the distinction that feminists categorized one a nother as activists or academic s and a was not an entirely accurate differentiation most feminist fit into all fo u [and] they should have regarded their sisters as having different emphases, but u sed the (Messer Davidow, 2002, p. 99) . The wiki based Florida NOW archive is a space where researchers can collaborate with volunteers and is a tool for activists to interact with and learn from women who came before them. In some ways, this wiki uses a non hierarchal structure for both editing and reading, has numerous areas for feedback and discussion, and guided and detailed descriptions to assist users in their research all tools to foster collaboration and to break down academic hegemony. This project provide s the best representation of documents in the collection because it can best represent the wom en involved in those documents. T his interdisciplinary proje ct combines


Page 41 of 46 the history of feminist activism and social movement research with the concepts and practices of Digital Humanities . through the actions of the EEOC and the woman who came before her is only one of many stories in the collection that represent how feminist activism influenced By taking the documents out of a secluded collection and making them available to anyone, many will be able to research this collection and learn from the movement. By putting them into a platform designed for collaborative work, we can build knowledge from the history of the movement and begin to think about how a research itself is a feminist endeavor. The digital tools I used in this project allo w me to add more to the collection than I would have been able to show with a thesis and has the ability to expand upon what individual , linear narratives offer. The ways in which students, researchers, and activists interact with this collection are cruci al ; t he knowledge we gain depends on our ability to see it.


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Page 43 of 46 Cohen, D. J. (2012). Introducing Digital Humanities Now. In M. K. Gold (Ed.), Debates in the Digital Hu manities (pp. 322 323). Collins, P. H. (2000). Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Psychology Press. Combahee River Collective. (1977). A Black Feminist Statement. Boston. Doucet, A., & Mauthner, N. (2006). Fe minist Methodologies and Epistemology. Handbook of 21st Century Sociology, 2 , 36 43. Enoch, J., & Bessette, J. (2013, June 1). Meaningful Engagements: Feminist Historiography and the Digital Humanities. College Composition and Communication, 64 (4), 634 660 . Retrieved January 23, 2015, from Fee, E. (1981). Is Feminism a Threat to Scientific Objectivity? International Journal of Womens Studies, 4 (4), 378 392. Florida National Organization for Women. (n.d.). Florida NOW History . Retrieved January 10, 2015, from Florida National Organization for Women: Florida State Library and Archives. (n.d.). Reports of Investigators on Meetings of the Southern Christi an Leadership Conference and the Ku Klux Klan. Retrieved January 20, 2015, from Florida Memory: oridahighlights/investigation/ Gold, M. K. (Ed.). (2012). Debates in the Digi tal Humanities. University of Minnesota Press.


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Page 45 of 46 htm Saarinen. (1988). Feminist Research: In Search of a New Paradigm ? Acta Sociologica, 31 (1), 35 51. Scheinfeldt, T. (2012). Why Digital Humanities is "Nice". In M. K. Gold (Ed.), Debates in the Digital Humanities (pp. 59 60). University of Minnesota Press. Spiro, L. (2012). This is Why We Fight. In M. K. Gold (Ed.), Debates in the Digital Humanities (pp. 16 35). University of Minnesota Press. The Digital Humanities Manifesto 2.0. (2009, May 29). Retrieved from A Digital Humanities Manifesto: Tong, R. P. (2013). Feminist Thought: A More Compreh ensive Introduction (4th ed.). Westview Press. Turk, K. (2010). Out of the Revolution, into the Mainstream: Employment Activism in the now Sears Campaign and the Growing Pains of Liberal Feminism. The Journal of American History, 97 (2), 399 423. Unsworth, J. (2002, November 8). What is Humanities Computing and What is Not? Retrieved from University of Munich: Wandersee, W. D. (1988). On the Move: American Women in the 1970s (American Women in the Twentieth Century). Twayne Pub.


Page 46 of 46 Wernimont, J. (2013). Whence Feminism? Assessing Feminist Interventions in Digital Literary Archives. Digital Humanities Quarterly, 7 (1). Retrieved from http://www.digitalhumanities. org/dhq/vol/7/1/000156/000156.html

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