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Reading interests of Florida secondary school pupils as determined by their book choices in their school libraries. A study of a selected group

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Title:
Reading interests of Florida secondary school pupils as determined by their book choices in their school libraries. A study of a selected group
Creator:
McCarty, Pearl Sands, 1896-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
160 leaves. : ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Animal tales ( jstor )
Books ( jstor )
Document titles ( jstor )
High schools ( jstor )
Librarians ( jstor )
Libraries ( jstor )
School libraries ( jstor )
Seas ( jstor )
Tin ( jstor )
War ( jstor )
Books and reading ( fast )
Reading ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 152-159).
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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|University of Florida
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This item is presumed in the public domain according to the terms of the Retrospective Dissertation Scanning (RDS) policy, which may be viewed at http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00007596/00001. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact the RDS coordinator (ufdissertations@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
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14336026 ( OCLC )
ocm14336026
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Reading Interests of Florida Secondary School Pupils

As Determined by Their Book Choices

In Their School Libraries

A STUDY OF A SELECTED GROUP









By
PEARL SANDS McCARTY


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMFJ'T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION











UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
June, 1949














AMOflWhOUIAWT


I am deply gnatzU2l to Lr. A. 1* Uasd, Uter ibAe

supewiuion this stady as aea4, for his cociana, contrwotMw 4ritist an" say 6WOUMMIM. I Wigh to Oekpnd my apjrooiation also to ir Jams W. No , r. EZrst H. Cwi, and 1r. water e4nX f4t their critical raig of the Mscript ad their valuatle sugvstons for Its t pmvema. To thI primnALs, UbrArtawa, afd il obwe of tW pWtrdipAt1A schools, toMW cOOP on "do this etudy possible, I expiest

yx sicmwe grmttaw,
Finally, to my ibad, MarUn i. VcCarty, I gzstafUlly aokaosladse my apprMiatim for aIp ta tabaUtioU thi data Of We Investigation and for instant fltIb aod Or egawft t throU&Mat the Obwdy-


a

















Ackw0MarUNSt . w . . . . a .. LI5T O TABLES. * . . . * * . a a a us? oW ThWSTBATIOS . * . .* . .. = Uw%8


* . a . * . . . . . a . .a
. at .. .ac .awea.

.f. . . .C. tS. . .


1a iknhOIUGra h Onsh. . ..L, , ,,. . ..,.e. .

XU. ilin(\V sflflth t %lob.Af. .'' a . a a . . . a U . %11 PWA OF 3VIVY AWL Pmom4 E .A6 ...... IV. PAfZICIPATING $C H-9, THUR LIfMu$, A-r (EeMAL #A)I$R OF RLDI11. a . . . * * * * * . * * . * * . . a

V. INSET3A IfOaThV ItTflOF fl t .. . . .. . M PATA Of TYP V Of MiADI OGUA f A Sl . .....
VU*. WMMRESS AS xajICATL sB 9of lOMT MU RE.V . . CRMcaTION OF N rM rva AMMC r .. . . * .


1. 1MLCATI($FOL AftSN ... . .....

JItmooaA'UGT. . * . * a . a . . a . . . . a . . . * * .
tPEMEfl a * a . . . . . . . .* . . . . . . . . . .
l3O0iAPi$IAL V&7& . a . a . a a . . . a a . a a a a . * a .


IV
a

1





)1
30

37 58,
74 96
122
in 236
w
143


160











L I'l TAZ


1. fawo w4 sw Listrltuaft ot aCo hked total
HAmbW of BootA 1md, SWaqg. Avnngss and AVflJ*O
Mn the D"s of 100 # . . . . -. * # * . . * . * . * # 38
2. Slat of Ltbwflos Peroastage of itetmon to otwl
VOaN~sa, &4d Perenog of fIttAoa to Total heading
in flb.
34 Pw Cent of fiatn and notion Read by rad

4-* mtp at iu adiwa nowwo, Towa Awiunt at Rwduwg4
sW Aveage Rumbwr of Bea lead In PAoh Schoo .. .& . er of booke Ro or Nh Typet Afla aa
Girls am the we tare of faph to the Ormd total.. 6
6 Porantge of Types of Reaing to total Reding of
Mobh sex. . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . * . * . . . ho
'7. akofr pes oroks Mad la Mh Orad by .. . 75
8. PWre *,* of Ah Typ by Ora f r D . . . .... 77
9. R&*k of Typeo of ook Read in Ruch Grade by 0101s. . 80
10. oasUS0 of abh Type by t*de r Grl. .. . ... 81
U. BWq' Av .nage ftne by Yp.Y IWI%* to a Baais
latlwo I....................... 9 * *
3*. (Uric' Ate RfaXd1 by Types IeWuoWA to a bals
of 1000 . w . * * 0, ., . * . . * . . . . . . * a . * 92
13. kftlMu* bms Most Often Ultn by AU VupUs In the
stwdy . . . . . . . . * . . . . . . 0 . 0 . . . . 4 * . 97
16 SoeW List (Partp-Nlft) ct Books West Often aSW by
All Prqdl. . . . . * . . .0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . * IMe
1. nifty noU . Moot Often S by All Dfl In the Stud. . t 246 nffy Books Most Often ad by All Glta in the Study * 105






v


UST OF TAMS (Contiiad)

tablo Page
17. Books Aost Otun laod by Biys in radn Som, LIght
ad fltt. . . . * . * a * a * . 0 * a . * . . a l fl 18. Book Most Often fal by tops in Grades Tan, aeve, 1$. Books Moot Orten Rat by MAs in lm asovan, 4tht,
Ad gifto ......... 112
20. Books fst Often 14,W by GCrWs in Crade Ten, ElmeV,
afn ?sel.1 ... . a . .e ..... u. li
21 BOnOM ROOiunt estey edsAfl . ..... * . 12oo
22* "XtImated try CiroiUltIon in Parttetatin Vsoa4
of 1oob Amrdedt W JobabezvhMala. . . .t 3 o30
23. School psrtIofiatz* in the StWuy w th Grade Ho
preontad in aah. * . . . . * . .. * * . * *. 1 0 2. Ebxolmet by Oral. and Sea in kartloLpastng Scaoos. * 162 2$. fMMe nooks Most Often ROd in Schol. 4 and C. * 164 26. flftemn Doal tft Often lemd In SeOis ,4 L aw F. . 165 27. flfbna Books Mot Ofta ad ol $bops U Watd 1. . 166 200 limenm Bosm lnot Often Reed in Lsotas 4 1i Aid L. . 167 W9. Fifteen Basis VWes attes that in SchbIf, V1 4Ma 0. * 168 30. Typs of Roo WR by Cratnd e t la loa. A.. 169
31. Types of Books Bad by Ore and SM In Schn B3.. . . 170 32. Tys of Books Red by d &W S In Sla w . ... 171
33 Types of BOOMs Rea by OMdW and S3f In Seveb . .. . 17 36. Types of lks Rad by Grad* am Sm in Sodmol 4. .. 173
3!. type of Boeak Saud by Crude ad Sea in Sol V. .. . 174






vi


LuT OF ?ASL (ctuae)


PAe by Mefl4 and Sa hoed by rden at SIs Ha by Orfl and sWt Bead by Oa.e and Sma Read by Graft and Sm Rd by Grad. aW SaM ft"d tir M44e sod Smx rMad by Cluft ad Sat gad by raft and SOX


In Cto . 0.
in sec. . .. In SahoL 1, . In SchooL 4.. In ShbooL .. . In SbooL L. . . in SchooL 5. . 4 In S1a U. .. In School 0.. .


?abl* 36. 37*
38. 'p. 14 ha. 13,


of Etocks of Jooks of Boos of Books of Bas of TWOk


Tp..
Typos typos

typos

typos
T"" UyP"s



TO"es


Pap 175 176 177
178 179
10



182











MST OF fLUDSTBATIOM


1. "ap or PlIKa ausinf iastributoc of Schools Partiipaung in the Study. . . . . . . . . * . . .

2, Avnras Na r of BooMs Read by t'ws and Girls in
4a1 Graft* . . . . 0 . . . . . . # * * . * . .


3) 1A


3. 2erop0tW of
U~br=r4s .


$. Pweritegon of




5. radomta or 6. ?floontaae of
Hangn . . .

Reeling . . .S 8. Cmparsenof


9. PtoatsGeS by Grad"
In GMnwaI. FMota .

20* Pwouthaas by GNAWas
of AtAWA Stories . .

U*. PWV*O%sOe by Grad"s
In Advvntume . . . 0
2# PvrofntagmW by Cradoo
in Dupvesby . 4 4 .
13* ProMtWs by Orades
of watery suoritoo. *
16 ierowtagse by Qsdoo
in U1h0 AveU . . . A .


Iton VOmun to Total Volums in fotiw to natFcon by %*do and

faob Type Do R Reed to GratA total... typ.. of Be"* R3adiq' to Total r40' Types of Girls' Radi* to Tot2l Girls' Types of RoA ftw for AU bors and Girls


for 9"qs for P4"




for Boat w* #etcA

for Bwpaw'
. .5..


and Girls' Rftdb* and GirlAs ReadiaW and MOIl aeaing4 .0d 'r9 * Ra a * ant Girls' MStudg



ami Girl.' Reading .a*#..t.* a .ac.e.


70

71 72

85 86 87 as

89 90


wit













CRAfMl I


It has bZn a gonwflny ampted tSAUM at rewdms

baa Ime hMld first Piaoe in the rmw'nfawt9 autvita of bot tfdwn at sdato. With th ra*i growth in tids entry of atdocr wrtst, alhof a.s sd ng Aw individt psrtcipamion, the VKicnspet"W warts sud as 1#04aW, basobfl, and basketba, 0 th devlopmnt at the u"Ift plot.=** the adiO, and tb. aWtasbia, rnacm 4 oo4 afl have be=c *dpst4d to drep into a dedAy wubftimte pU" an tt rsweadcna a"

the growtA of thme rivals to reaulmgj hom, bee been parsli 1010 by am uupm*Wmted grath of laisurs tiasati-s in *4th em may pArIp4ate in al.aie aUittn and yet ieane tM aj*r part of on's rwareapnona pZram tar naiue. vie rise of tawepapehe bSnkreds or UKaO

sns of bo*s publiahod, &a m Of pUbIt
brwaies aw w a .b$l" wltah aske thom books aallabe to raotcoafy evergoe except those who iuve in remte setims are major fteeers iu keeping rmtdixn as a fnoratlnf sativil constantly before the pUlo.
A stUd made at Owt UIn )arybWA In the decade of the tirties othAes tat rmdln4 lifl hean the list of rero-


I





a


I
at~aal ttwaritea Sino it was true in that stv4y of smeral thu md young pape, the aUhor itmes i is true Smr&llh.
The vnt pcbliatifl of this cmtury havn ialuded
mob that ist of it Uterary beauty and merit, a tremendous amont of banpane but warthl s Antrerl, and a great deal of ta SalaUiowe ant wi0os visty Mat appeals to the 0Iast saW bmse46 of humm In aot" The publisaa of Va lat, named type have no thought of the wellabeig of their readers but wnetide oly the e*fliog qualitiss of their publisatm e. That Saab publicatims have a dsfixtte appeal to large numbers of the eitaaw*y of America is no to the teaboets of
Aseoa. Dat In defuse of the tma, It may be said that tew have the children =waer their wupevisi ch a short
time and with auch lated fuilites for te dwO1 of
rnadUi interest that taw are not altorther to bLM far the V04dinig teste or Wv Amoriaw PeOW&.
Zhre has boa mch aglta n saong *alntcrs, social
vorkwa#a and soms pu s onwarvng the deestaw offects ou children of so mob poor rOSIN. partalarly of the mo-efl oceto book. cc ussastze. tb er the effects re as evil as mmmi peroas brand thme is a soot* qwUe . It enat be gainaid, however, that the coans are being reas not by ehildve alots, but by awy **It&.


V. f # tIuasr Refl, UThar LZLA Washngtaw, D. as Anarlxa coWSW Mn M-can, XM-










IU IU dX=IAUraa ti16WreS n1e40d hns 30, 198, for the fifty la"dim 1-1, - Wasve Ot the Afty am SOMIM =aqsa1 with a anCbind paid ofroulato of 36,14936 a'
344 er amt of the total eiraat mn of an tiy mpstow in addition to he co was the oirmlat&c of five ~tis quntimtle ag mines whose traalaUn w 7,%39,69 a 6.8
pa' omit of the total. Tis givos a ambined patmmtage at possibly qIU.amaa r.tdiug of 39.2 pw' *Omt. The otha' aWlists! re usally classed fran wlnent to &aOptAbie. The cramawd alrsation of te enm VVW IS
*4637,047* sive ten =e minres of tbhwr msgsi then
thMsud in tds 11% it surely caat be denlad th4 tbn
Amrioa ptIUe at be re ng a peat d4as or at lest bq'w ie readtn materials1 be tey &ood, bet1 or inditfrent.
wim the ;rq vSx6 a a that rning is a aNOr
resreatet aScUvity geraAly ac804tWd by waatwes, It beom"n tmmIvs that ain obiectve in te tathig of literature be the diretion and th elation of Interests and taste. in ratog, In a'r6 tA to Individual Wo sat ask his reAag salsotions frm the USD5 ft
plated material & be able to diawmnts amng the goo4 the wrthles, and the detrissntal, aiig his detia so WsetJC6an fIvA1, MIteM Zwfatmama Psm Alfabaa, Ne tya. 1wawr ttrwWas and










y that his interests it the vartUmble may be perpetuated. The Utio0l *ocVty for the StMdy of ducatica In it TrtrSatt tent"%* 3 as in effect that t chief IObjtV of the teachU4 of 1iterawe is to drelOp tin indiwichafl pepas aste for ood literature ad his critical etaudyrds to the extent that, ten he mants to res, he will naturally select the best in any field of interest.
In hi. school librwy hold be found onlj approved
books. This patiatly restricts his chotees to gO materials tr that seurce h , If tbse books are chosm with hi.
interests in mind, and if he reWTeO& sate re of int.Uisect guidaxcs, he wl very likely read vara a y of the. Zu this rening he wiil wnosciey culatist an epprsiattIs
of the varthile, wdil ecr to the point of being ale to dise ticautim betsie m OPW ad tho mrtwh .. If ho is at' jeoted to the gomI onLy a ring bin tUscl tou and is ly dimaW towards rating materials that fill his oeed, he will be able, in Al jrobabiLtty, to select his leading materials with 4itcrimirAtim wbA ht 19WOO Oab3A.

There are signs recently that parents We becoming conoeftmd over thb choices children are asking from tand and bookstore. RsUznG interests at their children are being de'.


3tLa S*es . for the Of 'cduation, T irtySixth Yeabook, Part Is The Ten. Eooaington, Hmn us c SoJ.i sa r: Gampany, z9 .










aused by piarte in pftm t r vmxp am In s" pmmul
aseotigs. A raflot sOWimnt tat hbd it* etart It buck, NW Javsy seem to be pming PAints who aet here put th* qAmsn
tin otirrlf Up to pUbisht to print good book tat abildrat
tfl rea and like. thy are askit hat the boot be made attMAtire with good print, that tba be eds atireative With good jiluatesaua, and that tfl be teok In chiAd iubwesti Th vdtoriAl quotes* *it has bee a eWOSOMM blits Sg&Int tal Iftwotare; ad pWats and tachers an gstified to kne that the mrwnet =w be itnringsmantum In its way ver the nation.' As an IwMdnate result of Me VAm itY aftor, book str sW DOWSS reported hat iin week more than two thoudnd bays and girl
ca in ea7 aused 9a good books. ay oalWd the bewt ty could find, and rejeeto d the tat,' If poata aad teodr O A Q
qpera% In hoping tin 4*13A LnI good and lntensIg ateriels, pea" g the reading of poor and bast ul books and tNO iA m ftnid doeams es I I *ly
Tie Prmt study as UrAko to fIAd ifU In a aIs0t4 atd6r of Florida swandery OOsOay change of intawets in WASe grades from the swat touh the twlfth,
Is 41VA"eIbla in tbo *Welae of booft by papiln SA their *ft4n lIbrorts, lamdiately, it must be detWbmnd iftt the ten-s


. L. g o upablisbero Stag a Oltw l? tprtl to i twain flatber Better Jan1l. Books Wll Pay Their Mayq, (Utttoral) The Vlarid suday, arch 33, Via, p. 12.





6


intret aid hoiemean. o e the pupil's Chou*s elwas inicate A interest, or is it merely the beAt in his opinion, at what is available? Selntioan twoM a school library shouId mean, as a rule that *Ay the good is atMted 1br choices. Unt%tUately, the ay wtA always be tra, nut gnnting tat it Is tra, do" te school library have epugh variety to atisty the reading interests of all It$ pupils, or sant the Papil alse s ChoiMe ann~ that aPproadas his intoreat but does nwt wo
pltely atisfyit? la it potrhble for te sobool library to stock the books imitA will spply the thvilhig action ad tbn SAntimental rowV* which toys and girla at certain age San to crave, and not sorifics literary mrit? or ItaaU literary Marit be te crmajr witerin sr te $400tion o Schoh LeM7
oos? The inbeMSU of a bay or girl rise from se wt fUll defiaw -wr-satLhflod huig= pr*=* by biological, pq ol14asl, a ,t v XaOtal forms wiOh 4Is readi4 choice try to alleviate as do his choices of oter activities. If rating is to be rAnedas one of the vital wAd allaring s*tvitise of his reOr*atonat lift, he =at find satisfaction in it. One of the bWest problems, it sese, of 3ibrariona, and of all teacbrs (not just the tnobers of literature , is to Preant to the jnpl 1GtftVetng axtabeW in every f1eld on a Isvt with his tU tt to absorb it in amob a waner that he ill set awe rather than torn in disgust fram every tAmmad book. ibmA imaf
&Wv tabhers stnuld demand Ibr their libraries an adequate supply





7


of books to saisfy ery interest ai leA of ebI4ty am night estpw to find in a etao& It the sohoo library cam contribute a tUll aesse tasrw satisfying the interest de*as of the pupis with tok*s of really exollat literary =wit, it riai"n to be dstmW itd It the p pl will still

give as such of his tins to the reaing of ooin and otbor nsm worthy litrt*UW. One of the ritciaw lewvis at juoalle books is ttat the book wnioh the child sos to find at interntin lacks literary merit and the one that is OAst
y wittei la.ks WAJ lUaterst. surely, ltwmy

ocrit at child interest can be combined by sam of te really good vmiter, of children's books.
As a chid atures, his interests should Natin alao.

Ihat are tm intterhsthat attract pup&U in the varievs grades a4temlAW by their o*t-les of sctoL library books? This is owi of the maor qcnttoa tich wran in this study. Sm8 others which this etnuc hopes to ngmr in so for as its data 4" 0OI14WDKO U.

1. Are tangos in the choices graial or sudden with
either saC

2. Lo choie oa with the Uses? For nwtAnme,

Ywv thern bomt sellwe for tldm as for abAdte?

Are pupUs resdifg the me bnks today that thed psweisU nod pmay their grandpavnus retd ia less thee boO we C reiW bed? tvoLd favorites






6


ra tAvartset

3. Are there seasonal choice? Will Ohiltnn rnad
w stories lofg ater the war is ~m?
t. Are thee slntfionmt gm dSer in Interests,
in qsaUty or qattty of reading?

S. io literary tste IaWre tit matartty?
6. ihich boks are mat often read by Al ChildrVO
7. ihat soms to be pu$1 remtea to the Jdaha Wey
Medal Aamrd boos?

It we emopthe that Ubrwins and tethber
sbouki etnmlate reading, we shnald ask by tast *ea they -e doing it, and they think their .florte are ticassala.
If fletten PtodQMitQ8 in tO pupil's redintg, that it tbn Pr portion of books of flatten to th. total nmbr of wiun2s in the lmrafl? wf htb s l*eUns tar the 1 nbrary A" thi
pupil. ever consalted thncemlag te type of boda selected for
their libraries?

m ame so=e of te gaosti wnttt naosm dring the
course of tta Study, and to wAd4 it is hopS), on a*sw mw be found frm an anaksl of the data lawoved.












CvATIt II


RESM OF RELATE STUDtfS

ZMNy studies of reading interests of cgzflrmn han bon macd in the past fifty YeWSo tUt Sch a4r&* n2W of theM have beon so fragwv y that few final condlustma havn bem dramt. Tis chapter gives a bri' riew of saw studies of a nature similar to thO present 00.
In h ouatteding sudy in 192 Jordan IneVaed the literature of reediw interest studios free the first reasl wctt~lsb am in 17 up to 1920. Nearly &U thee pioneer studies me based c qunticns such as "ktat boats have yes radP and "hib 414 yo like beft?" or ma inventory list.I f the child to Obeck. A se ttee of his rflss shows that
=e flation is tsd azzt is better t1ad then asy other tMw at rAing. The boys prefer fiction of advctun the girls nfow
fiton of sertawn4 W watts, 3d they particularly vo tottwosted in stcris of people lil themselves. Boyw lila blogrehy ad bstWy oe the d girls. It girl* rwd bigpWW at al thay se to prefer that of nsin. IntereA girls in advantMe, trawl, and snoais is elanza slgiblt. As esrl


Artur U. Jorda, Cilrents Interest in Resi , C tr$ tion to 4ucantto, UO. Wm, HOW TM ~Y iibse ~ CGadis University, 1921.


9





10



as the fath gnde boys wo 1und to Like hIstmry. a. ahildrmn athey 1110 adult faten ratbw tou that of the jm.UU4e typ*. Ptvfgrsa fOr poetry also Iames as children not=$*. J008408e OM study CarrabOMWte thos fludiwo ft
*ond that the tint papua writers for boys "appeal vat otft to We insatints of mastery, fihtng, ime of *nowy life fr its own 04%4 wI aI attt&cc, atA approwa and s iftl bebaflw/7.. * . Tiat the ItAerent in bIograpft and history is confined to thoe atknWs to an write it in the fm of an Sting story." Rmn-fiotia intoret was ely in **at.*
andmhowe-oUs books.'
3
ankin's study 9Wnx4*W tho fines of etutes puro tant to the reading of older ohllden fret I20 to ammisWtely IWta$. ft ludiWated the flctadgs (1) tat
the aeoat of resang deAlmnes rapily during tho Senctr high stool yewnp (2) that the rpr pvpwtm of raung is fietin, but that fer b*os are popular with sucModting . .. . ..
(3) tat *lmx aid )rid*t chiAren have axxt the an interestA but tA brig t oes road i tnes internt at a younger agMl
(4) that interstate of thn seoe ivter widely but both Inacuds aQrature and * Opsgrd rmda by smoosvp $) tbat the oldr


2Td rupp. 1Zi* a.11

M arie b Interests i n M
FitCatrihatiors to ~a oatioa, No c. $NX, Now .Tcr': Weachers
SColhmla Unverty 191&.





11


eObld 0 e00 aO 0lntv. in his rehlna (6) that fam studies of the )4NW7 Uedal jris. books hae ben made zoepWt ten
teir rnallnj is resoribtdj ad (7) tat tw studies Lave bee mSA *a how &tLdrien sleet book to reaw lialkles amn sttdf dad her to nanlusia ansomhat diffant ftin tese of earlier studis, $he finds ta 1ntes of the girls betuc intarW in books on bes and eaol life, twy are ae interosd in Uh W rlotiCoa Of thO day. She attrIbUts this intereA to tt dhagi states or vat m and .. -- t0s0 adults Wo are om.corned with children renAit to kmW Aoreast C the times as thqW dupng society and onamimlly# and not dapand an autW viading Interest Modigpof another genBO CO Her oaaelusion OMOning toy* is that thwe ige eaas=t without aerP tO steinU of AWS&O&V OtrW" Wd* * &e also f*Md

that the $bsila makeup of a bogt had very ltttl, if anything at a&, to do Wit a ohfl*A salectAe. Sh gaSe a proof of that Otdomab t that the books most popular *re met at all abtneUvsg btn, anad frequently miflustrated. The stay oned to be the
Cbf faster in slea.
pakSain #0r400 agr a n0 vtam h tU st that read

Ing Is a ajm ativtty of pOP4l during theIr lure hnn. rVA is a Mwatmng flm i In tie Zfn of alU te Oer etiVf.ifter *A Syatho a of ftessawch an the 1ia o meat of 2tatdin L seootn arrchoo). Z4tmatnj, lbs
islit* JrYm (94A Stowal Aien), uU (uoember, 191ZTW " --.






12


tieS Contnd04Z bw tn chid's itotreat today. "he frmd (1) that task* cih.ge and matwe with agog (2) That pupils road such that is hav and Wartlns st al o " A ver goal
Utsratwg (3) that fimdalg Ocamm Ofwr ftn in's book is
the eiuf reas for Ulng (4) tint t library is th ChI
sanrc. of tmeir radlng& (5) that amt reading is Litia and tmat modern books an w ferndg (6) that MS of aotinm 8dvantwo mrstw, and t* series books are ireorred; (7) the g1ri reed more than btol and (8) tbat girls red bwro* books tat boys do not r*a EfrlU' books. Mem"Ift tie Last On'v
*lats,= t4t is emm:l tbwmd in studvose Rae n asks queatt" that may bo partlaurly r4aVtwt "Is it indiastive of a larger toucan" or JuAs good S 44 girl readers attn pret* their
brothma*' boolm th e MOne OWdO 49PO"17~ fWr tbwwsvlvs 1 they tnt that the nUthMA , spits their 1D aiMM r,
their osteasite interest in exp14t" wbr its OW ssA, an
realty Up4aUU z =4 4Vodmm* . * " ia scow to WAY
tat s4eana lrls* books we PrObatly inane, g dM- W boks
tnt t in ttligant girl would dilata.
Fridma an ask in thir survey of rdigintonatea


halter ea3ne, "Ghildren'e ZLCraW.-P.. I :d Pj flwp495 Efuatiozt ?osw.a UT (llq, 1939), 385-39t, p. 392.
6
Fioaie C. redman ad fla do L. Nak, of nanq UAO Reading IIIerest stUes" Eduoatin. LVII ((Ow., lfl6)5
6 6










studw said thy woen nm t wawromW imth the sbjmavity at to. facto sP"Nqd in vtia statement is the m tat
oontiras a dran In nwt *Udl," aigt be v=#Uy diaemb if t&e d4a wre objotiwvly obtained. BQMVp , m as frm
UA ZndLAP 1 (1) that bIqWSprpY# -Alatory* r elIgI&I* amd tesama bare an 4ppwa1 for oYS an Girla nnW to tAirtea ye*w of us.; (2) Qhat Saoe older 1Adrmz am (3) tat
girls hawe a cnaar rang. of lnterent Umn boys.
The ftndie as give in these for Stuiies n, with a few vtstiae, the audings of mt f the ptlat tadtss It say be moU to MCUtOR "m idIv1dUl fIAirga fater thn othr aurveys.
loAry got hr data by keopim a noerd of books ra In We swwnat ad e,$4tb grades fow four *w*, and by umtng a
.a ma fud that 93.6 pr ent of a reading dan
was fietla 2.7 per cent was btowrf, 2*6 per awt a siane, evd 1.1 pr OWt Vas tt*A'I poEtry, an the fiu arts. Of VW U40rtphy ri, only four titn aore mentioned five times or mare. They wave " ffalo :i44, n &oserz of
and ", Three of Usw are defiuzttly mdventtwe stoles to te tskta And not merely lives of re"i perWae * to Jst a hingonpw~jalphase of ao of the pwattse atnntawnv that coul4


Remd,0 WMaM











postbly happwf to an Amicrn boy. This finding aarrobamts Jordants onaotusion givmn earUor in this carter that btogww phy to b* read uaSt he writta in the frM of an Snitina story. Cleary concludes tat 'Otwo of Ae most s0gnhficant festr.s in* flmniAI children'st iratsr4Rts mr aS n odUlty of atial and ltatligent supervision and guidargo Our Sob then is to provide, a. ftr s possible, both Mese faster for il


The faster of samsdbility was strnn also in the

tIte Home NIferenne report on reading. The amiUse ad that children will ra that which they e get ail. That them is plenty of poor materii mar. readily eosibla than good is the imp nation of the report* That there is plenty of matnwia1-%jod# bad, ad indiftweu-ia definite, since9 ea te report9 in 148 on*-sov h of &U1 te pubtited books ma JiniX . It Sowd parnlel Itareta In bqs' and girls' reed" ing uaaIl **Iescl es when twy divwrgd, the bfxv leabV too

*wad to solentifa and uww nand the girls leaning toward

semet P ad mawa The aosaittee on reading beLieves *that the Proam or pmting saw reading amng Amefan hfldr1 n is

sow ~rtbinj else, a problem of makInt good ending matter aaaalsbloo.s

'onp. aV.

PAlto R;Ase Conferenc. on Child HaM Ad c ll
'GUI , V""Is ,.Own Yorks 1s. AppstwoCentury Campny, 1932,
R;,'. 7-u +.






15


In a attiy that levolved high school sItAV in recrgia ad minAis, Pae found that both boo ad girls wofnred doing their rsbding at hams in the oscng rather tan in school or public U rari4. A rather uaswul fUz of his was that
mor rating was done in as" Which had radios, a fwat thih Is aplained by ogitlug tint the homes that ocald affwd radius would sore likeLy have acre books ad tasaks.
?ormm ad Ua Utout lAts of books rad by bo" and girlS 80 per Cnt mtUallY asMitetS. Bors had no interest in girls' books but girls read nows of the bqys' bodsm. This oaluazon om to be camau to mast studies. Thay fond als, that boys rwad m nomflation thus girls, espe~ly in the aeld of AM *e. rAt be ad girls like 4ml, aWtny, and adtatre stwie, wit advuatura heading the List for bqw ia the JAniar hkzS lcho1. Thav give Trhqa oamzte whIch we always desired by aflldrm in tlsir boos: *The fivt is seting the second is hman interest, and the fird is imasrative ppeal.'

In a st1ay in & girWU f*-a his eStl, Elder ad


3larld-a. FUnks, *TD Home and Adalesoent Resdiag Intersteg' ScholR w XLV (actobur, 3937), 63Z.Gao

A a4. U. Texm aW Mavgiet IM, ude'3 * jdi.
aw York* D. Appltomn-ctury Oampy, 19125.

12., p.16






16


capenar23 foand utery te first choice in the nint gra%4 but it drop to thir place in the tuasth ge. love taco ulgm of Sandary Interest in *aft oavemt the 0iwuah, ee they ranksa first These iestsars thit te ares dfitdy inflamn gIrUt nadnC eoiaol. M4 fANaItes
wan mm populAr in the ninth and tenth randk tbm later. The physical m of th bok mw of little ipota in akitg

a saloctimo. Tha agree $ith Akmntns 00a0tm an thsa so* qrpsln cited earlier in this duvtw*.

Cain "rt Vrft foad tat abat hO pm ent of the
Wobs reed by tenth and twelft graders in a h4igahoowl in NCw Jersey hat no wit, but wwn hersas. Thq conclude that


awd auldlg Into *artIle abuisea the hew readif lutwooU of hldra, 15The Ataly does not um*e clear tat the otr 60 pr oet is wartbhileg but If w are to inrw that it U, ths socols not be doing a Utaly good picas of ark. It iwald be utt.r4 ywpossita to ho aU a iflAtde reaAng in the wortha oatmiry una a the wartess books ae nwrad


Vera j3Jur and Haea 4. onrp'awin luteabe
of 1Ih St;ool Children,' i JS Of zcati4na cs r, UZ
(Agra# 1929)# 276-82.



'5N tUM jnu ow nsotlo 4. O *AP tntat~cn of the Oeutede ffsadlng IReSt& *X & Ch"Mp Of FAMIQ- ej.W ch0 A44ls,0 Jo=nAl of 1mu4uno4a oiolojV ( :,wa, 932), 442.





17


tn hMS ra*b.
Thea aetos to be a dJfferenm of opinoc as to the nmabar of boaks read by children ai a 4nvn tin. Adoms 1 e d Uiat Junior hih school poAls rewd an avrerae of 1352 books a inostrl CIOery's8 study ebatd the av gu to be thdirtes pwr ~ ~ 18
"Seste With almasa a*Uwi Matixw bigh) aud Torman ad 14=6 ftona gas s na e ht avferlaU are books pa wth awl
the ninth a4 tent grades 245 boots pr aath.
The Umv lark City stfY9 w4th va mAde by m Asoolar tunm Of Te*4bmr at kagII& irk %YAMIa Oende high scOaos of e aity drew its conci .ss from D an Oakriof b4()000 n usizg reorda. Soventyw-fiv* pwr Caut of ths radazg ans dAceo. frnrl ad adentze ses zAt populA in amy grade of hIg school wn'n ead in poWpuarity fro the first to tin
seventh tm. &isoS Vas least pOpular in e niath radw Ad
Imn4 poPular in the olanth grade. There emd to be a shift trm tho owd 44"1"i to cOntmpawny litftvmure but in Spito of this The gCil of tte 1 d4 aTm so hem &A the liet og

16 Ma " lat of 1*rafl dnt In tin
JAnir j3A 516n1 04 ool Levc. ALI (vIy, 1933), 375-378*

11flaoenO D. (afl7, "Iw O"tm Recdine In the AMnie
B1'h s54o,* WeMIo*a L4hoole xVi (Msy, $35) 32P-33

18?mnsnxad IAs, SrS&,
vWW TdOk city ABSo*CLtion of Theee" of EAISSh,
vegofLasur n idn, .-*dsh of mmr ywkm
NOWt Torts Mahe amd UOIS, V0










Moot popular books. Throta the mzdita of this rrvey, the New York tetohers runid a lack of books which they toead a "boOk famUlt" in the school librerwsa. If swah a condition had nt born wlient bsfmo, this conclusIon alme was wort the tM and traMble in atig the survey.
In rqpnrtlng certain *aso o. this saae study# Center and Prh amought that the teawher definitely WaM iSW an IaRfw
eais on the revAing of the pWpfl. They baSW their ocOlinstoc 00 th dutnant types of rnadin frand in imttvidual classroom.) The 1vvA of hook reading was mund to be hichw tat that of the VAgasint and nwp w reading. The-furths of te renAing was fictia, auth of which was very light. Of the rstvatEm me, four, cay the authrs, there was little to develop Judgmato dlsaraination, and the ritlml faculties, There was litUe 4tmttoa -t 'ostry. *Is tha a lack of apyreeiation of spirit Vhingr"Lo.e ur. G *er
In a study of 1,S32 pupflo in setul Glhieago high sobools, rink found that, sWAr$ reAd best Will s ep t ftere cisiiAs wee ied. le tbud also tat UWy ra ore n etfltI
thau froshow* Theme was increased intsrest in zvmtn book*s at


Stella ; enter and 2a*Iys Awson, L*eiSure -eading of ke York City fllgzA - al swUdrnts,* The irjliab JoUrVg U? (OM"Ober# 1930), 726.

$UlIs f', rink, Npms4ejg Intents of Hieh S*obd PtvPns, Sqhqa . .Mn (Otaber, lfl9>, a63.w0





19


tn*r'e biogrqPy, aud adult bos.
IomnW and UCa4l 2used for their study a grop of 306 deveth grade boys taking the coflege propntsory currioutalm
*his reup rated prferenos in reading as foflwnat to*s amp sport# pages him mastmn s atnifie magazines, sports beomfl
the funnes, rwis dlgsst suach as ZM sea stores, ixwt mmewsins Eqtry stares ments m jg1aims mis,1 asua*in a id Svsfture stories. They dielikaz the standard English oars materal.. Th authors thir* tewh te outd preasit the oisuisw with
pweat day appeal in so fat as posetite ad eapitalisa an h)* taanvr a traoe of it is foimd. They Con*dI S *. .. the .tafy of litratAun. N .has not outaivated the orittozal %ad esthet1c taste of thaw boys to the extent that tey peferred materials taught Is the ItgZish *one of study to these of vWulgar publiQtn This qotatin from the atds 4e rise to the speaWatioo that perhpa amp *taeatas and taab" are striving to dOMV, Wuatial testes-in bc*m prtioula29Y. Are not interste In spart.., nsn, advsntare, gri woutmr normal ad to be expected ad sxootwasjrt It ses mee a matter of directing these intesto to the reagling of ced sparta, good mr, good advwstur @d ve'. tery ntAer than to han We pupil tU to satisfy thae lat


John g. M. ROcnqM aid fbart La 1fVWZM INodIsg Prefer. gSS of the, M& Schgd O The A Jaoo (higth chl
witi), Zxyll (Ctaaro, 19 ), *W

4jgg, p. 6%5.





20


with wrtb~ns,hoddy, and *tten dotumel racing sstwIA**
0 zoluart2atOudy or try*ng to detrg w fateaf of i0trest In otildreas rattzG only two were tfnd to be s1gnifloat. They twe satio and humwe. The ttfcr factor a that of fvmy low oideat not fl subtle satrn that Apea to sam adUlts. Ian had a favOrnae Influem e both msams ntsio, however, attracted bwe butt somat-Uns untworably nf onsnW SIrt* ah1r o tie returSswn tisle study was tUAt core book havIng the faster of fCuWy tuadtt be selooted ror aohiran's reading that bw.r' books should have also nh nta and that girls' books be reltively free of the action factor. ZAller fatd ai that :n*awndWd book iiUt farably inflnwusd athldrm's choIesa. The est sate oanlutai ditfte frin the asiuupte of soe Othe that ohidren ae genersUl diebvat of ooakme-nsd A.
ThormaiMo tried a difftnwt attack *aa te usual c do toraftans reading iatenete . He ge a check liA t e htywodht fi ttous, smoAted Utle to Ip r-s-%*tftve th*W&W Chim diMs of bri$4s, average, and dull .Utlets. 'May were eaked to chek te tUes they thtaght thew woal4 like to rea. Frm the re4% Aa* E er, ac of Diteret in wain-t
ContraiA n to euaLm, UkL, Nov Yorka Teacters tO
Co 0toia Uninrtyl 4L4L.

w tavw 1. ad , Bacsoparatvc 'S __50 140S
Redig ntre flBaend on a inde Anoae3io j Cl&Xa iC
pe ok -sbr dOlt-0e, C lIbi :;wtsrtst 'roe,





a


esits, he oonOa3Ad that oa $A te n" Important deteriins s of
interests and tt itWia the &me an brigt ebildrn we me

ke $le. Ohi3dren two or tree yeaws oldor.
La Branet xtmlted the ftllofin; principles conosrning reediXV as derivau Irf the Oeataonai of tW University
26
ihool of the ; lege of Eudatiom at Ohio State traivosity
1) The Otiture of the modern urId include read10 as an importat factor for ycath nd adults; it is
at intrinAsic factor in ouw present way of living.
2) IndiduaLs vary greatly in nedas and intenta ,
nid bance are best aned by a diversity of boobs and
readi materialsj tey also vary cretsy in abilities aW bm proceed at trying rat and tith wytg deareas of WrWXrtAdg*
3) It beowsa the fraction of the school to provide
for cpeienon in reading as a fwator in an expanding =ndsr4&Wndi of societ. JAst as the teacher is row
responsible for Geudanm into cWa and gwutitatve undfrotandlugep a* he Is r wana o guudan"e in
SXPEVInOMD WesOUg book. Thi0 coam is Almons b*Aw
on the groug nedas =x int esU of the tild awd aoo *K fetly cannot depend %M & formal nrreng of

HAr evawam at tb ree reading program set up in that
school in acovdAe with abow quoted teincibem qau made twAs
tne&-year record of the rmeiag of fiftrrin pUpsl
in the tmutb, aowson ,and t*WtJ grades fo book lit s wt s s upe
plind mt pupils, no wi.tan sports m m;l tbim pupis ket


26 imlRserhBle~n 7 o ,(iterary 32,
1936), 36ms-5"tl i - ct--Dknir t ieau , The (Wuk State
Oniwursity.

Lou. La Brnt, An :naluation of tr rm j Red
d TQTAVe :raduate Sc;ool u rte N o. Cam buS 0- e j u n S a iflrsty treet, 1936.










16+3&IT**(R6 $18 T9ft) ux TIToiomiXBW.*etty- cr'17, $c4UZ enqtP p
Z+8m V j* % t*dV) al Arhomw a spoot rowfltl ToowS q'Pm .0wsr o jt 2tZITU es.z4 'tZmu I wPgT

buspm seq avje sawij put0ot mThd 'W41 puwmI e AS wn

trtum twit z ewvapu wp



am tav P" m oa *SmxAr 3A0 mCI4t4W #i SpEw 12$ wn v; ipm avpat sin as t*ea JCwvlh *Amynoy tm eafae 3




-*9gn pm 4 aswo n om 4o *Mrn*T OVttmw #=t 'tpqf
-a owf trjO0 qw put g* .2$4 wM* ipeoAfml tv W41 puontaq sensv esAb eqg aeAxq iv ive swan 414 tfleZ etay sn, *A'tsod pit Arxup uy Aq ajvw wqtaw s in aS*d qwtean in fl pt a j0 n S $ tW ad qttr *M4sq Pua @4flfl ov1Z 4Qs pus 'anne 41JW0A *V05nI eaT wau %394p *me 'tqds




ltftr^W t anS eedt' Pt ~ SSS 1 VOP0UOOW5T 0IMM"

-ewM'n ttw fe tw n own 0 p ogin mrs ar Awq
*smmr000 UaT ry qvp owotnwp tawetaa UtriSp mA UtN 'pemaa asesau sti4n4 mu *arues tn 'rww aio IEtWnOW amflfr 5fl9s 4t 054 V @40*omaci asen eaos m






23


as introduad Uiaa when roatin ms prosoribsi He tund marked crews in the madiag of aOv dy nd tnml. nlal, muh
of a decitedy interior qualitr had creased. H.o howwe* the importance in a #4ft fram t4&xr--tb2 ma to paOtlchosem ateslals and ftam readlng for knedledgo * an wnomU~ to remAdng for pleasure & an wrim . soe of his nimiags aw bae ialttatal a lack of &y44mnce in the reading program#
Therhart'a evaluation included the-seventh throuw the

twelfth grades* Ii. stAy unas nle frrm the camdutiv reaOrds of 112 pay11 raninc from ne to st years of reading. le caset-fied him rictsn into sixteen Oateagcwls ad U14 hiasim lato V
teen categories. a* tunA mare reading donm in tae emem grade thman in any other. The *a"or 1i& school reading iuile nt as T*Wduam as the reading in the jute' h1' ateSa grain, was "aademraua mme nature and m prqprtt= or moozfituf re"d 0a tow utms as -*M&

*ifir sad Jshatsz~ji' study of junir aw mentor high
O**01S in PrefAln 4a;nty, a, adsiasive of Cclrbus* Awmad at

ts type of stbool, -4l2uge or cetraliat rdval, had little ig.


ilfrut tberhart, 4Ewaluatng the Lait re Ending of igh Sohaul. FupsS Rchool evM, XLVU (Apra, I939), 257460

A. P. ;o3eir az4 . J. Ashbaugh, 'Wat to Jwkor and Senior Htih Setooi Ppils lt.M1 Edacatioral 10s9arch BUluti III (SePt1mb?&N , 196, 2 a3o20,8* C-uMw ,-04s n i it ate UriAaw~te,.











naSe on am t of reinq dom. The books mst ofte reel tp* headed sae of the best qaslity but MI=Wy owo-Wbr4 of Uve
we'. q4estioiti*. nex and grade differ ey Wj found early
4.fined.
A amber of studies have been #*do on the stimUttaon of
"Iding arnl UM doflopowt of tastes in the parpl. Ma.he listed some method t stimulaton ted by tocbens leadi t us
in forty vsriaseoo, br savoug eor.ws, special slv% oomteronem,
bulota boards, aAd plop. $cme teachers ued a few books as "bait" tiuth stht Sada* te pupl to go on to sMeklMng btter aX$X3 thO Sm. UMne of interest. ?artial railtong as aStIMU dchUIn was AOC"S- with sOOM ps. -U, ci-tana also kM
brmAMing coaz (am. to stisalat. teober intwat as *01 as paPa interest), anid bIlty groWIng of books on eilv to stimlata
WO*Wr reader The display eta few bOOkS mar the hOargiuC do*
was LanS to be fftive. tasahe soyp, tAv * that *the affesVtM W or the a* dam by both teachere ad l.r is s grest17 nwutrtised by wavirmamel foram *Ai* t@M to tow dam itat tee. untioul e attswng to SoestrUfl.'0 no t4Scs
that the work an be darn better when adStnt r -ft te Vaed
for better resoes and =me trakad personal.

In On Offrt to estimate rating lateests of his pAUs,

meanF. asce, idemde uplgeato s:tims1ato IntereatS In iu"41va School Rev~is, UWUr (AprU, I929)* 303.










awoc*k triat two peos each week of Otn in the auditommia aW havtr ialN eating lectures On VariAS types of reading, ampp910AW by WatuA readWX Vtmn petLods a** week of the types at literature dIM0do. 48 tbou~gbt the atod brought vwlable rw taas In both a0tinv reading ani dreleping a epproadttna.
litexia=3 fauzX that h'zhly motivated eouforenoe periods In Ilbhry reasir vwore of anal value In the CtfltiUr of
tatereot and APwrvc UaUi.
In a fnofftn crtrrzlW rU&ent inl ' O x r
siv, vwrms intend ve readiA promra me carried e by iMms WAOseM M sa ms that ex~emsivo nadIvg mtbods wwoe far mr effective in aehisvInC the alas of lustraa in llatuwe tha lnniV e methods. The etonsive reading tends =we to dwelup apprecadblaw*
.e *M ti to fadingg MnY be derived from thle radio An

aWsI by the draktie interpetation of books, avowdIg to Parke Ua 1?. Thqe thank vmiety at fvtbilMLt ore very dealrabl



bray Lperinsut in icaAzng' ho4l &* uvt: XLVI (Novedwo V38)s


Morene4. It nea,"Ito MtivaSion Lbr:ry Uedn
* 6h Conferense Pwtlodsoa Iuczio: ~OwSC 4 SZin x (Ftnm cry, 1939), 71-"4 S iAw .Aaohn


4a1pt I. tflla, "fateneiwe keadng mesaa Lnaning, a Y=11 x i (ma n lfl9), 666.678.
Pate aa fraw J. Thyn, STAtea fter," Bwdw
wo2&4vnsa XX (wter 1939), 162-468.





26


in the hids reang m as tn tastes of ahldwi ae likely to differ as au as tWme of adults.
itty and COaner 3Wk a Study of the readingat of owls books In the h1Lh ftioi. In a grrnp of five huadved p11ds ft gSmas n 14) ttcaut twelve tiq found that thM readU of d ad oastltated one-forth of an the uoaasUne reaWing of Ue p;L3 . Sduooatws and tachas enrYibue av aoncanwd abmt te quAtty and qulity of the aotct books ith whIch the pubI school aiit is so egra * Sare dflate tudio anot be mue before techera ad parents can temhad tr cmploate atolitux or ade to Uiils that for What tAy m be worth. That tiny we a very pVpOw amw of r*aatiz for oat chUdroa (and any a talU) a
bavdl g be uastionod. That Is disornie by ob Uatte.

ngold reparwd is a newwpar rwing study of Mgt
uaboL pupils that "the readg abits of Atqm bWS and glrUs of hk4h sdeal aes Ar81 en the t 0ote, 0*24 * and indicate the heoly state of ski) of Aerican ymoh they are sot over e a MS . . # amitber ae thoy fIU t and srt:38A m"Nsianl ath Stateamt amog ** amw of discouraging conaulawon htlps tc teao to feel that her efforts hae wit oltogeter bon


Aitty sd Anz3e ;ooW, "Readic the Costa In Grads Wla), 344-=ZY

30
4 3 stava A. rsin ol, (Aper 9v394) of 318- f had Pupils,' Schoi ax4 tiooitty. tn (April 29, 19144, 318.










In vaiu, even noougb xh is Ati to be desired.
In Writig oMf duostoal resrob in rnwding, Gates ade & ntmit tiat is applicable to the denlpmsu of readin Iw trets. * 10 "a need of broadenlM the perspeaUvo In
witch reading is vimed, of &hIEviuj cooeSrattas with other speialIsts, of tMaking of xeadi% not - an isolated saool subJet tat as a pasttq2s aw of nw pattens of learning estitfles and of sesxzn, rewdi; In relaUtion to the aotal deade likely to appear In the future' Intaresetx material m vadjo=w ability wsvas we appearing in paottoely omury f1*4 nd am sobjet clatter tfchers ae xmtng eftaO to arouse the iuterewt of their pupis in ext r$Icg.

In nowros of - Muoatcal 40 te
statemnt is ae that up to 1910 are tb to nded otudiss cit vwrimsi p- of readg interests had basn mads, bet that MW of
them wre so ftmeutery ad subjnte as to be ngligib3 In draweIng can3m law.* To the avwweg Uahg iinfreatia on the wabjoat mnwV of the conclnsioas dramm are so c UWitw7 a to be OatASIng hater thMan bla. A IS concl*5ifA, homIer, W 114 tae becu aOxwad by mmW SWuwg DOM to be reascumlb iaabls

by ftIorl (1) tie momnt of redtng de m 8WmdU$ in the


Arthur I. ostes, mrat*rs in Ne"aotal itIearch in
Jamnal of kEdoat~nal h, X4 (ausy, 1947),


tw, nEw XEuotuw muslma umLpym w .











bigh shnl ft= te nintb cr-te; (2) fiftioo is Ovab62inay ygeradoml (ickh is a ver; obvious arW to be eete4 conmluason);

(3) adv nn lais in popmlarity with bora in the junrw high school grades; (4) irls like stories of giris lie tamhem with the inwitable tUraa of ;mej (5) both tay, and girls like ail
tarie; ad (6) maturity of tatnS in reading inartases with physial matwit*
That there are still many phone of read*iU interest to be staid fe defiAte conclusow aw be dram Is evidst. Some large swa1e studies, such as tse Nw Yrk Citg an cited o%lie in tts thaptw, or a OWL" of studies ooverin6 all types of enmir0awtal physical, ad satal coalition could be wall mwtehile it - in a svaIntific, qpunsmInde, nnmblamW anaW. Ahfllr auch a study mde by a large nmkew of iw eatSgato oCuUa be done in a coupLAly unlaammr is qpw to queam.

Witt, Coinr, snd Waft= sugmt studtia in schools as & part of the routine work# frp tbm scy, * * , sotomt awvoy4 4 * lp nt only in Isttinu the SUC oM litwy *Ar reading Progamm bat also will afford wAthw iportat 9rs tros whih to select books of gaualn and lasting appa to bqe atA grla


ft .itty, a. Coomr aad MU*4a oean, "Mildrmts ChOises of S anrtt. ~bokm A Study ConkOW In T40 aMentry
SO s JuU MO EdAUMMOM f, xxmi (vw, i9l6), 266"278.









42
Arwt Who ITvea annaul sa RA S orfrwl6 oaong rarh In all its giias # s9 i4 refly &at tw muLn in reoing intenrt Studios swsc (OW rtIn but tMt auch etlfl mau" be donei VuUAoularly to .levate standard of tase.
14 a fast-corvmaiv faet-ehaugiwg VW2l, the Vnal tesehe set be constantly on te alert to keep pon With her puplUs' han$JAV Interexte in rndinr ad to keep the aatteaoton of those Intents on as hip. a level as ponible,


*43
4 1Wi1 &. {Wrs *Smwry of Rallng invnutwo tin, July 1, 1942 to ano 30, 1943 0 Am=r4_ of festional Roser X"VII (obrary, 1944), ",A-Z










WAIfM LU


The aijor part of the etudiee rtumd in to pscdig
chapter Ueed the er the iwenty list as the mtttd
far rttio the data from tich *07 d2W O0fllUtAO). An40 M*tlieh WrriabaI casittese have lng mauted the keeping ot cuuNatvO rating recards for the pupme of 4reoUng and guiding the OUpl a his routing, it We thot that amougb reords coulC be fotad in Florida VeboAs to make nab renmds the medin :or 002140t "h daua to d"MeMInM reading lubwweeb*
At @26% it is evidt that tie rafine re.4ar viicx ccctam. books tra a e school Library elan. asy not c r me child' rams, InUOSU that hi re t his sch ol library OW be &
between actmul taberete sad that ltch is availa
rmi which to oboose. To a certain desv, hoswwr, it is bellnd that his tdas fra tnt school libmry win ins"* hi resung U*Wmto. ie records, with ase *dwe So erWr, do iUMa
hat he ties reed. The errr in the s*ards sholAd not bo as SrA as that in a questanmie or itaty list, nsias in the a ho Is am*Qd to what bhe has resa old the other sW not lis

may books Tne pepil again may not rafiWintmWyW we to
&i V4e titles of boms he s ra tiianU not an the lint.
- list of school repreotat.ve or tme *tats jo raphw


30





31


POaitionc, An0a (a?.t SjUarA Was compiled ami maitted to te Bur of aiaaal Gege of !aoatm, to"ss dinetr to fAe4 r wiM NOy prams of ed attn It tie fats.* re tis list a amp at schOOLs was soleotal tich u3A be s*t likely to hove t. roor -.. it is possible that swo other aehoae vhidc ke, recors mtrt not an t.a meOted list. The vindpat of Ue selected ssewo s written, being asked if they kept naainM e MOW A if the rnai tod- be aVaiLable for awlysis. lepLUs wer rewlwed from fLtr-oer of the sixtr n pductpels to what l"tterw* van t nvttwe.M sobcou =swe#d that tty kvt wtch wood be &avaab to a 1w#

v*&twgat,* The stids as plauned ortalaly wsa to has, taeh %be reocrde from the fourt thr=tg *e twlfth grad.., but sm fw schools InllatS that they ha records bola* the swmooth g that the crigi=s plan was $aheedad $eM of the Sars In*abed clearly that their rtends of testeadj% tA sownca ntbiw
tMe te titles of Actual reaig dmnpa so thee school mO t*" aatWd A-M tht study gTwt twttve, schools were left Mhs WhIZ it we hWod entis aould be pwrW' pt WO MaWe to vtsit th schools. In the cOurse of Moe visttusi , ten abhor mdtoo w te bs* y had no renads of a
type tat Oon'Od be used in tis atady. With to neptIso at thEeM actocas, there wee no ae Ative records of ore tme two ynws. UWsqvt for recpind rntdtng. It wee decade t we the records for the year 3p74f0 It sa be said at Ws pent, rooeir, that =WE










of thi prIVAtpals and ,i I of th sobo*U whiab bW no ro oants we tntwnetad in the type bWag kept by otar *"oeol, Kd asd fo lsaawtic on h w such roonb aStt be kept A@ eat pVntl*a We Oxa be Wade of them* Thq ldtsated that uy 'cue keep aw um smah rnwt In the SasW. The fiftAe saboole left for of data Ussot the t, geam
a * a man by tm a" a Flo I gW . mm"
In sie t"t nrolmnta of fl7 to 2,414 at wets dietributS to -"Ids from the Jwtc-amor hit scho a to tjwnatWfSenio hih achnls. t me ta&a also St




aM otarl was. It ses that in pSarwa vwro so a *wt&l
eUsmwt of tourist Oto in almost wy scovho a no r vm
san. Lea of tho e&AS ressatM14 S a w had $me toesA
Pup11. wast $nr.

Api" rGr4 se" kpt in the finty in t ai pt two
a &oole, The *ard me kept up by the Iruivta4 pa, the lbra 't#% or thi 'orarlant stmt (ao in all bat tbre sm* v" a
p"Pfl)o lb. ecrds wOn kept, n a role, am-as
MWd la Alphabotteat cd. has a pq41 tog* a boo, the ttsU


I'm r amic Advwamenot Conuo staustioal Abstract
i LEdted by the k'lAid stu&te amIjn board,
;at . Stat. Cutw of Conre,
































29









28



















20 G

Showi

Scho




25



88


Figure 1


- 1 0





































Map of Florida

ng Distribution of ols Participating in the Study




_____4___________________


26


2M


87 86


858


3',


------- 27










Is writtea 0n his sar. If he rtarrd the bok witheat reatong it the tiUaU n hi. GOrd was wad or a line dram thmow It to indicate "at it baw not bee read. It is quite Luly Mat a pupil McssiOtUay failed to Laitoate on Ia Card that a book had not bitt real, but librarians seemed to tu4 4t dVat of wror was small.
Three Scools had the folder type of nwmd ith list. of ttes row awd a grapbioa1 chrt by weich at a glans pupil's rnwmlg interests w rveled. This type at record go of
mft ME practical vain in the diro*Un and uidaaes of pil taUng j an the tbreelby.ve library board, and Wa am unthtat1004y r**O=*Uand Wo WM ho a=kVd fOr JnforMatjOn onreornjng turn. for recOrds. It rqdne wodsd a y wre spwe* for filing,

Wt its additional VaiUs should 0om fo r that.
To record the rowdiog of every pupl in the fifteW study uvols was a task .tirsay too large for a trwjU wrkorg so in rder Uot the rooord be as ropvsentative of the tate as pssibla, inmy third pupil reord "a selected frm each =ba ft fa ysi.
Tbn cards or older were first by g %do thon by sag
thee eaef grep n&S sbufated before the selection as ma . IM this y, tmre "a as =uh OhMM of * pupil's cart being se
lectod a anctbc's, the grades and sm sUll being kept separt. Titles of btoks were rordWd n flv y-ett w do j tn the reeas were e litted by grade and sea a 7 or l7in asovelt SweM boy or girl. A new list Of titles as wade for each alof












to faecitate eue In baldt.
Oter tfwmwton that nms esastal for the etdy ate

obtaind frm the ti minn Ard t**OhWS# th a Of s ad
jacuewantl r R omm puls. te ll-saeri =9 asdt far the total nuobr oC vaum in the lmtnry, te nm of wln ot
Sa t e the snthe of salocmti of books ad that asfe ohe used to stiamlt readite. Tadher of radng W" a90am

tajomi thn possible. ftt"Y, VA IMnmftto oo'44 be given
by the lt1brwmn. The by gea. nd an wee btamad
A& the school offio. In a fSn oas es emum by sm gas
WUM*44dby te rinolpl. The rfmrdisg of voluntary reum** oade by PVIV Overbwd W In *i" the witer,
canmaaIM baks ad readIM# mo *"Umid ftrtb*UU*
roe atmNspheo of tme Itury, whwetr hosalike, agoaal, or teOA, ean the senstag utte of r-nort betWOM te M 440 aM pupqU wmre thwast to be Vmt-. he lett two item of 4t are compUstrty s jVcctivL as A tOCIA $ C ZCfl.
An .atisqt of the cirulatis of the Jcktn ie*bw7 RS$4
Awwed books mes also maeby che&Uiag dat"s *An wunawC Ume ank Of witbramma n~as on the book cardt, as was dn by ata In



'0a"io, hdrents Intenst s in t tr Books of dotta% Pp. 2647











her study of ctildre totioca reading. Librarians mrs asc acked for their opinions aammin pepalarij of tt pis
bodes.
?rom Us data gathmed tbm a then various proa&Un
el t@alItato!s dra from the data, it i possible tt Mae toamobrs and libnra a sw my rnt.ve sow a in te 40140
fea of books, UestheoataaofrnA, adt e of
tasts and appreciaueos,














?afllolfl?1WG 80tt0oI4 ?fl~a LIhRAflS,
&a OnatAL wAMz OF RW AtN

The aboolm tish PMV94patoc in t-is atid repreetud
* total enrolwamt of 24#324 PupUls U as *am UW*Wb twelve* The eardlmmt flgurn are rar the eurrat yearp ar a abas in Tab. 24 in te Appeaduo A t4 ot 4A4 rmag e*cds tor the year 194748, 33.6 per seat at Vt cumrrt e relinmt, wmre otsmkWd* Umne rsolt-sihetatoao 44,18 rslln ter Sfl pspile.
Table I WhMwthe aiWW- of reaWs checked te total
r of booal m4h aul the *verago rumbw of book* ruad
sub graW e and for eah ". The verge nmbw ot bok. read by all ptiubs in the stut was 687 for th bop at 104 for tin garls. Cowutng the aohcaa yar s nine amth. (in two sooA it was ton mnmn), tas a meant aiybety "sn than ne
book each seth for the boys &aW a little oe that wce book nob sont for the gIrU. This avtrne is such hb*Ar than ta fIuOA by Masms w ah 1#52 book* a ,amter, bt a pvat 4*4 loe than laryo fling, Wht was tirtem books a a*-S fWs md, is los tb hau that foad U# Tm a Ld iUS


1 ;tor n$ pwg* 174


3?









Tun I
OWEA Ann, sE ETrhIlnTIo0 OF UBOMIZ$ G$OU), TOTAL UMUE W BOOKp prnn $IWP!Z A- AfMl,
AhE AVITAUS* fOt TO BAS 0? 200


QrdOs Re AV~ duo to
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
.1 O i0,a I lom 0 00 N W 0 - A , 0 i ,


2
a
Tota


a


306
320
ka
79,


tons
622 ~S


a-


6215 41S 4,283





1$,981


a


20.8

5.6
66
3.6 O


23#9 23*0


6.0 5.7


8.4


Girls


7



30
S11
1* ?tfl


325
336


W


an


fI


5,1*87 51A


4360
.1#436


a-fl


16.7 164


8.6 6.9 104


13.8 235
10.9 7.1 5.7
Ll


thw4 Total 4a8i4 leblB 9.6 200.O


iWaimmoo-ow . i INWROMAIMMO. I I -


1 powsm"PWAMON"





39


a
stafl, uWith shoed 2,5 and throe books each ma far tM dIflrOZ* p@UP#. With the ma ttum of am ivb4oolo hoSWr, the recards abolced included aly than bosin *4ch bat be bwrr - from the SdUb4 Uibr g UmwrefonV the ft4Wn Gonc be caldwod as givjrg a true piture of the total reading crns by all pUpil, sines aWu at teC probably read books fre

*Uwr apaw w 7ia pwsnt, *tUmV comprisaw dMer reading km the on scores, their retpee oo libmrios.
- Beamms of the varying anumba of pupils in each swade, the Ample avwogs or books read in each grade and by .eat su were rftee to a basis of 20O as eba In Caltn 5 ot Table U This was done to show the rattn or : @ty at
bocms read by each vrsd. alsur an the assuqpta-n "t tW had
be** capposed of oquial vuabe* TU oomn is MterpreWd a. f*Uamess Of evuT IM0 boow (Ana og &Ul W

read by the pupils to tiAs tdy, a psm sm boy will hes
read fl4 ot thm an e.i&tb grade boy v13. have ead 10. of tbe, and so da me This lasA thw T ts am m at of &U the
reading dae in aie stad mare boda wore rea by Me seat,
*0t, and ninth g de g4r-s; -ltbtaoh there is a notastl drop in the ninth e* -Wd by Um smith ad eigtia *Ad boay, thn by the boy. and sr1e i the e t A T la Am
oat bas wano red by the ta*lt aSew boys and OnaW In


ept.r U, Pag 1.





ho


.aO gade the giria es*Os d the bWe in qautty of ratdjn.+ TWO Is a ea Uin the O a ? te aastO r MAhl
eama grdes. Goum 5 at abu I i s repaw ee 43wats


A sOtber lifl at the ttle at 4 books real by pSU in tis study we oaqpzd4 With th inber at boys md r in wash grde who ha rea aoh boctr. ThIs lUst ylasd 4%76 diftes" itle.. Of tO e l*2,tlh benks, or 31 per oust at Ow 3Uts, we. read by sAy -e papflj 5 botos, or Ik per omit wee AtV by sA two .this iastatztis St per wnA at the dwta*e littA. a re Ie half the entre ItA
wdah "e read by m er two peos stdy. The x*a dwwUnoa timn of those books *smd tat th tell ifto y te
saw ratios by type of boc as ums ente IA di", mit te
oft eanel floflse4 at the d grp.
There Wer very hen of the frest and aldwrbly are of Qt lattr r*p. A good many of the ml p reee'emOted te MO. oerano 11401nW s by 0t eleventh ad JWaLt ple pops. raw hmasd Virte % books, or 6" pr out
*r ts total lit of 4s t tiule, ware ved b WeSt or MM' plUs. A gjacd NW at tMa tite. will be Vtee liXed Jn the tale of books sat often red# stch tablem wM mne in alatwr dhAww


types of books -o given i Meobtw V.












BoyS GIRL


7


AVERAGE


8


9
GRADE


10


NUMBER OF BOOKS READ


11


By BOY5
oN' 100


FIG. 2


12


GIRLS IN E-ACH GRADE ' BASED


N 100






42


in tt atbool the 11bar"M were aawd for the total awbw of VolsAeS, ac the total muabw of volan of Statics in thJir rvspeu fle Thus. a Siw 1n re mgiv in Table
2 wit " ptntw of volumes of fSai to the total auwm
of volumes, ad the per*Agw of papla' readlim of ficatim to their total rndig in so naboaL This last figure was foiad by add1*f the six eatqories of fltioan)0 a wa notic, avmntere, anmA, mystery, spcrto, and awnw fnatten ad fnadint what pw amt teir su Va of the total rntdt. the V44diva In the varioaw aategovwem by ochaala is give $A a se is of tablQe In te Appendix. The PW"44&O* In USUM 5, table 2# ae criva bme te U* w sham in thee taw*#s.
It Owi ready be own that the pamentfte of fleti riding far OuA-ne the pwaaats of fiction namfs to total vwaa in the Uibmwl",s rM perVOMt" I-A the two 11brarilo whoa. ficton eaprio tueirds of their total values wa*' arrsw at ftM firs etiatd by thtr rnsetve librntmos. The other fMiang pertet to the Ubrnes are =wt case taleU Mee the IAtet librry reperto by th. liTratmas. Thre is peiby an wisest of eOrsr in a esUtat f u
t it ttt M at may of the Viuies in school
libraries are ofa nfeWoS iAtu*,* WAh an V t dsf IA floastons aawsgamerA* ar. made, or natuaw aurti


vor








TAuS a
SIZE OF LIWPARUS, ?= 4CBIAOE OF fICTION t tZtAL WLUMES,
Ad ?'ERCU4WA3 ZF FICTr TI TOTAL REMAiWU1

NmbgW of Slmmar of ofwt44* P=Muta of
School Boa in Books of of Fioticlo FIcOo Batd by
Uabrimt ma7 fIItiOQ to Total iupVll to Total
Voum. Root=14
(1) (2) (3) (6) (5)


A 2,60 B1.ow 0 1,530 D 14360



o 734 a 700 1 696 1 516
S 1*90 2. 376 N* 282 o* 10


14525 9,1127 1,236


8,38* 3)M 3,107
1.389



2A4 6W
2,650


$421. b*796 1,780


1,895 3*C" 530
1,118 ,1


879
4195

M0*


304
30.2
iZ.5




3.6.9

17.0 26.0 66.6 25.5
32.5 a65
4.8
66.7


56.0 80.0
86.o W.1
79.5 76.0 75.8
76.4 77.2
80.0 76.6 no*3
800.P
812


*O*Qint Otad by Ubrta.


"Llbrwy o=tals book. lbrl a1.mta y grae &s.










niWt is bi* oanstta. fat tbeae evidetly anou r W t~ good books, neither refa'onoe nor I t141, Whdol arn not bing usal in may of te t 1brarios. 1L riter teobares nor Ubrew ims *an lntareat pup1e in redntg aore in the s, in sacal tuadies, in ti#s, in biStery, and In other anwetta
fled, would it be am to the potit to pder fer of thes typ.e end lativa awe fticnt? o, we nufioiat efforts being made to Intwnt pupils in rma&du typs oter than iow timn? It Is btoad the mope ct this study to anowr tie qe'Ues, but =ne may be pasieW. in uture etdies.
The bar craph in pve 3 shm the paom
age of fctIon vdmix in s"h Ubrary s give in Co n It, Tle 2.
The porentg or fiction and noc-ftet reading fl
grads ad am fe the entre group I the study wre mn aa
ad are Shafa in ThU . Then to c *ontnt and Iaws.. In te reading of no-tim in aih watmool ade ILr bth ease. The ht&Wt point is rushed by the tw4th grade boys* who outrank tin telfth d grgb irIs in reitia reedirg by sIf pwr ceot. In osy gra from the
seamth tkroqih the todLfth, the be*s lowi It ths roawifg of nwitiMi by thvn to OsU per oMit. This prtab2 ta-di* that tAe bian reading is ofs el4ktly Wn eeSPriOS aatwe the the girls' reading. The figure in this tabLe are a good starting point ftva whtu teoahrsend lbnrias aignh attapo th sumo-











Ivu


95E 858075 70

656055 50-

454035



25 20

1510

5

0
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 0
- LIBRARIES



PERCENTAGE oF FICTION \VOLUMES To ToTAL


VOLUMES


IN LIBRARIES


FIG. 3











T&3I 3
P1S ojr- ACTION AM noni BY
OMtES AWi Sf


Pteto attfotloc rotta )Iocatietl

7 80.3 29.7 86.6 1.4
8 #9.* 204 85. 14.6
p 78. U.6 83. 16.6
10 73.4 26*4 77.0 23.0
U 67.0 33.0 70.6 294
12 61.0 39.0 66.7 334










aUtm of 1awfer intest in the reodInG of nadiac an in the
partim r field that sem emplaul attractive to te Ladivfulal pUpfl.
This table is also Mtun p'phioully in Fl&ure 4* uziAh lowe the proportions of Aion and mesflcul distmoofy for each grade and for each swi. A manh better picture can be seas of the actal readirc done thman en be conceived by the tabl slow. For Ustanoe, in mewe 4, it am be so= eay tat the UMsIM pmade boys reWdapesntl to"Wx" as Oah amnfiction as theq do fictin; and the twelfth grade girls reAd ap pnstntely half as nAb nonfitios as they do fiction. The aewmth grade bmys read mpprembatelr o-faut an aft now* fiActin as ficon and the seenth grad. girl* read rowslzth as ath nanefctan as flate. This igure probably Was Mrs readily than a other an* ncl in the stfl the ma" trina of Intent. of both wes in succesoive grades, if the
is acoapted that te rening at non-fltian is Wamp tin of are mture interests. It is quite po btbie, hewer, tat the rims in na*fictla re*Aing in aaoawsinv grades ct4ld burn born cased by required reading sam the regard aheckd recorded bU the free sid the required reading.
The ema Umber of bok read by the p qils in qea
school is shmn in TaWs 4, ( n 6. school , tiob average Us higSt mOber of boats per pupil is the Isbaratory S3ti of te University f Florida. The very typ of sahoal prtaby


47
















FICTION NON - FICTION4


0
10090



80--



70 60 50



40 30



20





10


1


F--


BoYs GIRLS BoYs GIRLS Boy5 GIRLS BOYS GIRLS BOYS GIRLS BOYS GIRLS
7 8 5 10 11 12
GRADE

PROPORTION OF FICTION TO NON-FICTION

By GRADE AND SEX FIG. 4


H


i


-











M oR awiwo Wthflt4 RE TOWc, n orM O tFnro, A2 AV4AME IWIIRd OF 'WONE U&t IN AG SCHOOL


1a) Ty"2 Numbyer Total Avfrago BOdW Ft* In
(1) (2) (3) (4)) (6)


Sr. .S.
r.-r. H.S.


sr. i..


Jr. ..
Sr. Pies.


* lit. a4t.
K *r.sat. l.$.
I. Sr. fl..
U Jrr.-r I*.5.
* Jrrer. i.S.
o Jr. u.S.


79w 536' so
59




364 244 232
228
172




90
714 10


30enth, ligt, and fma the tent grade e la+ve


ninth grade e werehooked rewards in schooL Do.


A
a



a*
1)


I


ft


'0M
3,561
8,233 1499


5,9w6
2#356

3*
3,5614 1,322


4505
1054) 2632 24?34


1486


4.9
6.6 16.02 3.3
6.4


6.5 "66 5.7


8.7 9.6 12.6
30.64 25.0 14.4


2h 10
3
16 12 14


6
33
5
9
8
7




15










accowita for its greatest redng avntwy. Its tsecbers and its librawian particularlyy the libnrian) we eonstsntly wgahaUing hme portance of ramling. it is alao the a* school OMNt Tad rnwAx, recwds frm oter soues than its an library.
schooll N, a Swall school with a limited lirar7, located in an arilaltwal aawwty, is parUttp*tirn in a natiasrwde educsttonal study of three sr's duratin. Thethor th4s has anstfinc to do with its higher averae is ope to queseio. Its teahern, tosover, since the begIwtig of the svtey, ae giving =wh =wre tim to the davmopawt of madlt intereato* In thsx

sohu4, a;l the fIfte"n books test aften read aue Wv s7 #tories.5 It nay be that 5oboel N caters to the interests of its pupils in di a nay that the quiatity of trading, at least, Is inaesed*

School C, rifth rnks third in the averMg amber of
books read, has a seventh grade teacher who is highly Intoread Inn readog aith is *nmlftic spowor of rnaing in the begibrt& O the sewod .7 schm42, pwils wq be so tamlatsd that the iftsst prsista loader th&. in Otmer a os.

The chairai of the .nzLiah department of Stool 1. sAd that all itt p3il readIags wre not listtA on the pupil records tat ere available 'r stadyi vowwp all te large seadm


tIsts are &ivon in the A~puiuz of the fiftemn books =at often retu in eah partalpating dhaL6











hit seala, aspt a, had I2, ave fges. FrtM school i, the

reading records for three hundred fifteen *sennt elght, and rdrth pads pupils we taken taich had been recorded at wne * the two junw hi schools In that otty me avera e of the jinlor higt gmde records was nearly tued tat of the sale hiGh Oro**
The two lamest rankiai schools are the two largest smior h14 School.. Tle mrely follow the flintage of may othn studies that less readig is done in the upper rades of the mmndary school than in the earle grades. Cte of te lowranking school as an of Me large Jwmflrtscir high fauols. Its library was nfl-stfted and bad fine ..ipmsnt, but there sew to be a taneznio in the htmospume tah =W rt hme been conducive to sich readiu. It is postble that it e try' iag to be too efficiaL in m ial routimo at te *xpema of good puplliAbrariaan latlaipe.

The tar.. scbools tiich, in Vie write's avinim, had Me beet pupl-mlibrwis pr w iedami fourth fifth, d Aeth
pgao. in the avenge nuchw of books read. lt scboo uhIbI
tanked fourth is in an iedtsUIaatier. It is a sailor high school 4dth fbur lades. Thers a mom of a 'fally -- qA a in tiots lrery then is eneg I In sone talims The tow

library rule we those of ne 4a'ty found in ay Iibrey. At no tin was any puoil head to take adantage of the litbre











Inm's or the absorptim or her attwintio( in soe problwa. This library as left open and unattedai at the lunch hourn but te librarian sala that the library seldom lost a book. She Waid that the pupils GMd to feL that te library as theirs, and that they had devvioped a responbility for, and a pride in, keeping ttngp In order.
The school ranidng 91M bad a new librarian, a ma, the only man librarian in aty of the participattng saocos. In the short tin he had been in the library, he had developed very desirable relationships tit his pupils. He could not# hower, bave bmn in &Vy wWy responaihU for the amount cf reading reoorde4 alm they were last year's records. Perhaps the groMdwork for his ween, suns had been laid by his prkdoomm. This school wa a Junir-enior hiij school.

The school rankS sixth was a junior h1ih school. Its lwarumn was entmaatio abaut her work an was surrounded by evidtme that she was trying to enoowaej pupiU to read. zhe use never too bWy to give individual attention to a pupil's qTaet&ona. In tas school, alo, a weImelaunn reading progrw tfr ap eiation mn being canted on I the ihtb grade with a specially trained teher Ln charge. Puile slow f aiom, and those iho just did not like to read were being epw encouraged and guided in their reWiing. The teachers and ibrarian felt mat tmWr were makl progss despite te fact tiat











tmeir is a tourist otty and their pupils bh u auch anouragm to othir re ational activities tbzn reading.
In on. school te social studies tatr was x*Un an attegtp a- seM ed to be uooesdig rather *nfl to interest her pupils in books that would contribute a great dul to their fuat of Inte IsatI eod at the *am time give pleasure in the reading. fhe had book lists in order of the, and by eowdriets for her pupils; she bad book talks by pupils who had found son book mspecajy iawvvetItkgs azd abe read- wecanad dhap er in cls to arouse interest. 5%* was a 4yneio peran and Vhrough we persomity sa d to be leading her ppils into
W. ofitablo aspxrl m troug their reading. This school ranked ninth in aveme pupil readta
fesidueInStBOW of etmalating reading luteses already atined, litrerians sz ested the use of poster =af by

pupils, ifluetratinc titLes or inaidente in booian the petag of bo*k jasimfts of nmw t. *of or the dioplayg of avfeeted ja on ea PU a tjt cr coeNsicNg the pasting at
variaUz types of book lists; the wnWing of special asles; the abawrvI of special oconsios the display of e boaks in varloas the giving of assdtly program of book ln#
tweet.; aud other devicss One litnxy club presmntAed for boot Wet a p@aW that had be=s write and s directed by a pwhl. Sh had aba book characters come to life at the strain of aid*











ntgU t dramatize their pariUmlmr advanties It waw wall duam ani the ppil auierno dcmtntrated its pItva. it is possible that Me play sauad s& pupils to r*W book that they othervis aigt not have rent.

Itot of the brlAr were fairly attrativn; 9sa d"
finitely so. Te moat erouded and aet unmattmtvs me will be haned aWtv eir in a new, mdmn blding with up-to-date *pipment. respite its inadeqoaieas wnd %1lsvaw hunm*r, thi school raikad sew th In the avrats inter of books red pm pupil. There voomd to be an sir o! ceradely fe.13a between the Ubwian and her pupils as mch as to say$ "We kbiw we haven't =meh, tat e are g4i'G to as* ow Uttlz to bomt advantag*
flo&ks are lead for sohowA librwrU in varios uauj.
In tis study, they ranged from librariate choices anlj, to tioe made by an libr,;' .bVary *o0=ttee. In two schools, pupil

aacgestiom .wo sw mI td as wil as teacher saggstims, and they were haced if they CUd not =un counter to approved lifts. te Ubrarinws as a rule, use the state appronG lUnvry list, dIem's staicd Ca! fw and the 4bisfm'a

a Otbr soums od by se libnrias for pprwed
books twe h te khbr E Aw- ?4lnx' T~bmy IbileUn- th Junior hevie * 'atalop te Satirday siel of lite ttw the T2" m ok and te lists issued by the

tstimfl Oowtl of os lflgfl*.











It is AUctioaly tposi4ble for tsahers Au4 librarians to keep u? tvi books AUUtablc for pwils except as these teabpo cra and libnrians use approW list. Through their us and good jIdvant In selection in regard to papil interest, en *ccl.St library mW be xanined. Jud&ing from the list of

6,76b diferont tims this study found as rea, the ehoS e11w brarie In tWis study have sow very good selections. Thq have the olaseics of earlir canturs at mny of the a#jPppas @0wtompray books nam as "beat leRs* goot of the libswnian Semed to fal, however, that they rnned ay Woe interesting
boofs of ftUMn. PNpUs frecAqatly ask for specific boosvod book"-tbat t)e library is una4.e to utzish for the. As Menttmd earlier in this dapter, there awe many books in each library CJinh are raw very f wpmtly* MV subj) Mmr
teach&" ask for books to be mXoend for their prticular fields, and any such books are Sam rff the skalns. It is prdAku that t"e puptU Seas nothing of tim.
Eah lbrary has a book &xpproprItimt, thit librarians fedt, in most *ases, was quite InW)4Kjute, the are adequate inoe the prie of books has risen so high in recant years and the tipropr atIons have not kept paoc wi the prio.
A fow libraries had book that had been donated by wells neaniig citisens but we entirely unsuited for a high school 3$. btary. In aem Instances, these had to be played at the shelves











because the donor as too iflunmatI to be tfcMadec6

In a number of Ukzries, tuo librarimn sead to be lost in a ase of roatine duties which ozuld not be delegated to a student A4tper. She really h&w littl time to devote to ppil g&uiae In readc4 or to tm stiinatiai of reading Intrests. (uly tto libraries in the etj seewd to be sat laintJy staffed with train M'ers.

hnn the data in tais obapter the IAlni4 cailusigs may be drins
1. A avwage nunmr of booka reat per pupil is les

than ttat found in asw studies,

. it very snal pI cowt of the diffont books reed in
t"a. atudy was read by the najoctt of te pupils.

Thie ea ivi4cate thAt saw tooks in the aObo4 lie
brwies have little to appeal to pApl interest,

or it may mom" that pa4.la are not being mfficiete

ly gublad in the dem1lp at Of readios intereta.
3. The prop*tion of fiction reading in all the etzocas
In tWis atady to ac greater than th prorioe

of fiotisa vealm, in the libraries.

Much of the material avon in this chapter is of a sm*a Jotive nature and is wct bWiad used in drwing aW anmbzsims about the rnin4g of pupils. Only te object data as oza wlU be usod 1br that purpose. However, these ft bouatis ane






57




auds become Me were tbnxmxt to hao. etne relatic-4wt fay be lItta*4o thu 4MOWi of rading dune in semaeonva Sac*s. kam ts a definite stwty of such roUtioudp as amtribUC caune to rea.ina, or luck of 14 uLaht be Ot Pt%0 IerebY saf tentatbn oorwansioos, at laAt mWight be dran.














IBT~aSTh At tICAfl. BY TYPIiS OF 130US


"l first Op in tabulatixg the data ocllnted frm so0h arhool was to olasuity te vartao title. by types. ime the books read by te first two schoas ten tbAd reoards wee taWen wem obhekep, the titlim seemed to falU naturally Into the fofloming types (1) geerl floct&0, (2) adva=tm (3) aMwWry aki dflt"tv stwies, (4) wlaflte. (5) ear tattm,
(6) tobbe arA apaint S aes, (7) bogrqphy and auttb

(a) sciwhe** (9) fairy tUle, fAlki. ad qithaegy, (10) the artat (U1) history wnd wwwhrf (U2) w ad damens Aadrea
(13) humw, (24-) oocupattone ad (1$) A --- wa The first sIX grope we fitaa, with genert flousts onatna an these titles hat could aot be paaed In the otbeW fisMti categofef. The general ntC cantata cnilany of light anme delig with a retwe thae, serious noes presmntsg m ltA
ParbIASO1 or COeM u001an0 PrtOMS, ad thOe book an2 27 nam as sir.e boots ilh tal of fatly nw edhoa ife. It include lasses of the 054 CdI**CFqf
wt.k of flotat tbnja Se bet allers of iAs doeasdo The
arU gro p ocantals all the drma, bot WA anW nodes# the poaty, olaso pros, and wn boeks an pat*Jz, a=4ur, ad =ate











Th war wnd defame stores poq as included beause of the nIer of twi, boh fact and ficMin, tbich ds1sa*id fte te rant =w2id enalio and are still being teat. A good del of the fiction in tia Snrp was bames an flats and us la*sifted $A this grup raMter tAn in gSwra. fiction bM of its definte war thme. wtsber ach steie an bo 40mlad as maanml o'teher tey Umfl be read aftt a few yeas of

poee ramaius to be seon. Te group in cocaptias as inladed beauem florida ha ba trflag recently to istroec% vo aja guidane into its Saba& prosrim. The bureau ot itUng a*search of tie univ tI4 Se forida is epIaly eresd in knmaaN if =W reading is beine, dor*s in this aeid by 990WAWY a" a

All tites that did not fall naturally into aw etWr grap w e p2eced is te grap. AIX boWt. a so*11 eatca, Or UtntS cSpt thMos. f biteN? a W gOCO L0re pleala Ia theand tooLf pads, a good say book. on soaioloaW# pmyvhdi # yhasaftp
sad r ian Ueg reed, bt not in mffaenwt qu ttw time to warnat engWr a pm astiction for tmq o
Vee. aM ware placed in %b* e 4atvgw7* IL a*
Shlot the nAmber of books an rlgn listed an tho acerde us sufttoanty *ae* to -su" the witer to ianvd m 0 pMWA Mmion for it. It ws beOse the echol gave an eestn asa






6o


an omparative religiems In the twelft grade. The oourse wa quite popul-r and caused the considerable amount of reading mn that subject.
The miscellaneous group ranks sixth in the typem of readirg done by all the boyz ana Firls in the *tW"y, as is Slamn is Table 5. This table also shoa the remk of all the other typee, the mumber of books road in each oategery, and the porceutage of types, reed by each sex, of the total resaiin. Tae total of each type is shofn by sex and for the entire gzmup of pupilS. This table ows that the girls rm. mere theu two a1 one-half times the amount of general fiction that the boys read. This is just the reverse with tme adventure stories, with the bays rOadIng mre than twice as much as the girls in this oat*g*rY. (,enera fiction ranks first with the girls by a large percentage, with adventure rankin seaaad* .ith the boys, adventur outranks g* oral flton by a ere 1.1 per cent. Animal stories ra* third# and biography and autobiography rank fourth, with both bya aad girls. As to rea4.ly seen in Column 10 of the table, general fiction is the major rwaing field of the enUre group with 4Q*7 per cent of the total reading in this category. It maw be well to reuagber tat five other groups are fiction also, and when thevs are totaled, as they will be later in this chapter, fiction over*h6lalzigl lead. in typ of reading for the gronp. The reading In the other categories is pretty well sattared, with eampetions









TABiLE !
WO O FOD Zt>AD Of EAAWiTh f i ALL !YT A GItM
AM THE POW)TAM OF LkLZ TO TLUM GAih TOTAL


am, Girls
Back$ R rlcw t 7o0"a pargw*
(.21 t3 (1Oi (9) (61 M7)


Mtct~ag.
*Advmntwoe




44atary, an
Butn
*8dbog*
odryi


w,efcna


11a Arts Saa MstANY,

tenry ae

-Lsa


5036

!6%6
5,55W


a
I
3


30.8 .91
1.6


1,893 21"
2*D?


3


Tot4l Books
(6)


Z49 5.2 3.7


I9on 70
3,067


R (91


3


3.1 ,676 4 3.6 3.123 4


995
79m


7
8


%vit a
la.' 4


0325 376 30




17612 126 3 94 14


2 .7

.8
2.6 042 0.
04

o.6 0.4 0.3
0.2


260 318



661 3?.


371 us8


10


6
8
9p


12
3 1a
1


3.3 3.0 0.6 0.7 3.0
1.o 0.8


0.4 0.


439 2#=l


,07 low


8


9
10
a

t I3


297 u ag is


or TEPI
lial


4.7
17.4 8.3

4?7


3.4 3.3 3.2
24 1.7


0.7 04


TOtas 194981 w43. 26,07 06.9 16,148 100.0

*Al flet .


.


"Mae











at the bottom of tin 11*. The table Scfl that Of the tOtAl racing dons in this stwW %be girl, tahtd We boys by 33.8 pMw ent. (This is found by nbtranting the total of COtnu i ave the total ot oQbs 7 in Table 5.) This flatng is oamw to many tudies, soe a whiat wno rteI is Chapte . A gwwpw"alpicture is StMa iu Fuje 5 of the totat pesete4 of typos ra,9 aW the PiRd4tNO of ban' end girl' reig In


The I-Iati d S in tie ptCr CIU be conanta
to the data focy In able 6, u*ioh ate te petatgos f bop* ad girls* rding in th varitot types in propw m to the total re&sing af ao #. It dtes m able 5 ia tknt all peamteg.. in that ttb were divsd frem the total reading of both *=es. Sn" Table 5 shod that the girls inssMdo the bay* in qunant of rnmcizg it Is blseVd that Ttl. 6 ill 4iv
a battn tdatan of the distribution or the types of resag to the total relatdI of omb as. Tc 6 aws tat ams tbn tall thn total reading of te girls is iU tie fIA of gnert fiatia, and couy ne-fowt of the bpr total nsftlu is Ia IO If the pratge of tin stand , all of
ubitb we lAtnA are aded, the 6r have a total of 0.3 pet fte aW tiv, boys a total of 75.4 per cent in to Stten grasps.


22 OW&W Of Z1SUI rftdig reads esnaed the bqs' "*%,ord br 64 Swr *auto





63


X
45TOTAL, % OF TYPE Boys, % oF TYPE -~ 35 GIRL, /0 OF TYPE


30


25


20


15

I0 0 10












-t










PERCENTASE OF EACH TYPE BOOK READ

TO GRAND TOTAL.


Fic. 5





6).


UKXAaD 6
Pkilaa Ar 2M."O or Rukilam TO
TOTAI. AN OF NC Um =


Back* Ito" Pftcentae Bode s ad Poroontfto M M 5006 o54,5
*Admtuw 5,556 27.8 2,-m 9.1
2130 1,71765

r low: 7. 4618 6.3



mBtf sp.o X^ N 2*
Mstowt1a 9 k.O 1,5. 57





tA AV" 376 .9 ft 2
scu*2 2.1 30 1.

Geerphr 511.3 251 .

Famae ?46 0.6 197 0.7
91.ear a o.5 ia a.
3 94 0.5 1 00.

TOUUl 3,90M U000o &%,Wa U04


*AI ftlas.











i-dgilg frm these pasontgos, the boysI reaai n is a t awe dorwsted tMan tb girls' rwdine. By ti table it I* son ase at boys read are bLogrpW, n atenos and mcam
2
history ad ZqvaWiy the n girl& do. Jordwo sky am

sabke that boys read mwe biogrmpg, salt=e wad hetway thm girls do. is consutoc that btogrephy to be pqupAr out be a'ttta in the ftm of an nitig story camid probway be said to be tue In this preavt utaaf, ten at of the biqwpihiAs stad we of an aratwo. One papar biogwiqw as an .awttwg spurto stmy, as it rinesid to life of a prfeta* aimnl bosall play.
In this study, only r sSe the ita of

the fttemn boas mwt oftta road in eak ptitpAtiq o a.

a twliod fmea of the lift of KatheraIe
Ceao*U, made the list In a lage 3nr MA& adsoeSit and t
seo n t io lst Ofa large MAjudAWOOn&W hi t oM.

d rehtMare both e list o
other ramer large JMAww-wdor UL& sahoci. The cholvmc at the tagflUh ot ths stat mad that about thrin yaws

a U0 the UftaWr had doaSted that pertpe the pilS VWsit
do ame rn ag In a fre tban in s rptnd riodutg propa o


J2rdan Csilds ntorest In 1madntagn


'T.so tatU3*s are VW in the APPg SX.











tbew tw bdasnuin that oew papas asot be said I hams been rcuied In that s e*l.
From mabl. 6 It is tcmnd that girls are vy lit e intoreetad In htbtes ad V0m10 starles, yrd in war ad defeum stories. The rnamans probably a"n M"a0. hUkm in the* biological end UOaO l@ Am. Sports and w bar e ban the
dmense of amn and boys for many sturis. The part spasqd b vamps in the resent war me cbifly attl in the she at wam d not that fan. The bays did 6.4 par Wcent at 6.1 pa rust cr utr totA readug in apats s&W war starts and the girls' pnaemitwee in 2. se types we I per sm% and
1.2 per oaut nSpetisLty.
lbs girls reed a gusd * at f areer fiettn. This type vise higbhet wi the gurts in *4MU% stwdo i W eefat #bWdfl it tied tith ftaaai for sixth pIAn With 5.4 per
oat of tb gifla' total reading in ech t44 The bqs' rea6Iag in ie moer flatin group wa zrwumntnlr -sm igibtl, anly e*eseie *4 pr cenA of their tot readqlg Om,
ream icr this ms bave bai that thwen is wt as ob *wow ttism SmUata.e far bos as for irle. A Zw btk an oneem In and mcw a r e ew it the by but
Une 4wy little real, rM t tso. MSmwfl. I

4ft9aoa -" am"* 301*5 Of ..X






67


w red a totl of sewn Vaie. The amt popular Iawore ftsttMaSl fe girIs are =WsirC and januaas3s, as sta by the aue Barton and txe t&{e7 seriesA A few bo re&aio , vurs tbe lpr not, becauao they ure intereAed L., Peay or her Jciwrltstio cbr , tt beesase thq wwere Intero in mthe
stoa cnerrng the CiUpper. This at the ameur givwn by wom of the boys to an inqmiry mmW by the witA.
The girls roW a ga amy are books o mystery than the boys did, but neded thm in of total reading by
oay .8 per cat. ystery ranked WU with the girI and swnat With the bop in thi study. This Is a a different finding fom that in Andersoc'15 study, which lstad utary as hangd thw LAb fwr glrl, and in adw mad Carpate'* stuwy, W4hfa

2.It as frst choima unuti the Gwsva*. grale, thn It dropped to tbird place. It is uomeary to rsabw., hovom# that the pupils in this Prom t y e not ave hed as vow atery stAries aaila IA Setioo irerise as thea WtA InVO ha .lstben. Hamer, a good misy "pteay staries an an the wegroed Ust for sonUh .
The gils IwA in the number of bools red mn vcapst&aw,


L. Andrea, StUdy of UItSre TIM Hading of J&aIr nigh School SVUp1i19sM' M Saboal Joirta XLVni (Jusamy, 19l)* 23467o

6 w am Carpx*, Racrr Interests tof M&g S a mutvnm v .a (Apef, U lIf ,
2764fto.






68


altmvagh eapstmo raks le t of 4 tarpa ith tbn ad veked ut to uegt mSit tfe bo. Onl *war fitio&n fell liner with ts boyas. It is pose that owbW* &W U*SVins, perha# ce not yauetficifns tmiUa wit thae bOWO

4 10031Rtt0W or aeIs to tlent the aon that givn tamsotion ad alas rw* high in intet valneo. If the work in ,eatit sui4aef In flarida scesuds in renhinM aw tenbe inteerst, wie rO'ds for pupil read in tis field shom rise in the nut L0 years.
ReWing in th* aru is lantCv Io. nd nime.
twiws per amt of the Mas' total reading an4 2.5 per at of the 4rst total reading are in this d. In me seatr hta enbat. the arts almeAiinl"atn raetest tzd pine and in amount ens. It rated fifth ples. Thea bi$4 relis Me probtby oNsiWd by ur ments in the field, ad =w not rqprwset itternts awat as the choices sade by tho pupism ne the Inst of a1 ovts to tbn. ]i first sdb4,t mE ea tv s Stkuwf
pow%n Plas prmdientS an in the U e a o , Mop sr's pose, 'Ttw RUite iffs hat W it a*t beet for
the S"oW is tes" two stwl tis olas tim waulfl ban bee Wear In raek the it sstusa is.

The otter %es of rtirs a". Goset -Ia1163. with
both op ad trIs. tneO - listed hues nt to bodks of laar ala me thie of awmey and Leook *1r MeAtsm,# ad does not wmw the Iaas nidents found in seW, boW o ftstim.






0A


wntam7 tome in her stay that iam appeas to bys any O girl of higher That is prcttly trn of satin and ot
the -O Sube tam or huar. Zeal' tound hmm o the Wn. qW inSdma tgpe o* ar the two eiionfiant fattened ot child intent in reading atrials. ZtI ac~med that moms boom
soteaitag ha or thme y incident tips be talented tor

o&Ulrns reading.
Ftiry tale, i uvttmO , at fttme are Wt orton found in entmndery shoal reading, but it was included s a tWs bew onse te first to schoas toemd ahowed a rather ummasal an of it. An ocaaoal took wA listed Men by P-M it US


"e total percentages of eb tyw of reading far bo*y ae tmac pt pw awy in the ciri& sray in FYgre 6, and tr m s1Ls in Fsgure 7. 2f la portooo or ptreei fee
bot beys ad girl. me tam in the bar g* in FI v8.
Owcanalwais fat ms be dva fm the dala i this

- ten olos
1. In this stixij the gIrls read am* than too an ondhalt tims the sant of genalnt that tk

bags read. in AUl catogries of fntion te girls

7
uvnglne C. Maea, aRaig n e t JrAtarn R&s
School Tpi s," school Raview, XLV (march, 37) 17548 .

Zoler, factor c >tcroct ir tealn atriaLs.





70


ADVENTURE GENERAL FICTION

TRAVEL 25.2 /

278 %








og



0 -0
0 ' Ao > 2 Ficr. 0.4Z






PERCENTAHISTOR
> EOGRAPHY I3 HurOR -0.9 %




OCCUPATIONS

PERCENTAGE OF TYPE-50.
or Boy' READING TO TOTAL BOY5' READING

Fio 6






71

HuMoR 0.87%


FOLKLORE 0.7 OCCUPATIONS 0.5




GENERAL FICTION

52.2 %












00-~ 41 'sc11

0




A? )Q2 Oy C 0n.. isoy

(-
0~ u
rr)rnHi5T-ORY
-PGLOGRAPHY .

HoBBIE-.-


70 1


1
%f


SPORTS 1.0% WAR,
D EFE.N 5 L .


PERCENTAGE


OF T iPE s


OF SIRL5'


GIRL READING


Fio. 7


READING TO TOTAL


a
-





72


Boys GIRLs


~{0 0





COMPAR1,5ON OF TYPE5 OF RLADINO FOR


ALL BOY5 AND GIRLS


Fie. 8


In in in on











red sdy about five per cent more than te boy. 2# The boys rea *ore thn twim te number of adtiotore stares that the girls roa.

3. Bath boys and girls like Salse startS, but tUs
ned sore of Um. thAn the gIrls do.

. tcs4phy ad ratfed fowth In type
of retAttt with toth ba' and tirls, with the bs
Mnedig the gIAD dUGljty.
5. Grls we not tata*sted in sports and Wm styles
but they do like *eo stortew. iupsy the reverse
Is tan of the boys.

6. Bot boys and 4Am like Maotery and deteUwve satoes to abtAt UM sun degV .
7. The bAys rea are In ft 1ld of esteem and hIstc thm Ut. girls, bat the anuat e neggible
wit tnt amew.
8. ?be SLAW neding OMn e that of te boys by 13.8

por ant.












4A;Mr nI


DATA NY TTP 0F RF;IWO, OK* AM Sm

Mewil* a amatdta for 0a0 pads anWe sex aooongiag to the *eeI ioetons diwOMsesd in the d hapter, This
me dan to ra Answers to the questen

3. chat ae te interests Ia t varieM arutet?
2. Are thWere e diffrSen in IOU"As in suacssive

rades, or in quntty or quality of retilac?

3. Ar intest Obehae gradual or ewdf in any gra
or with siter am
The total rating for nab grade in 000b eategry is given for boya in Table . The Order of oaniote in the first OSmn is iven womolft to its rank in the total radag of the na. It i seen by tis table that etnnre strts rak

first Ar te stir. POW and hWA4 first place by grad from ts sntm tbxrga %be tenth, end the 4. to nasal place In the g*anmth am twelfth gades. this oer is emwly reversed S sefra i tMion. ThiA probably *ho merely a maturing of
intereWst in tA upe gades. The wea tb and twelfth -v4 listed see. titles o fi oo tha posed seal prablsns, and mmr I - enet ellers' or those of a few Years am.
Uash of te avenfte read by .4L pyils we of a $mslo type. It in possible that eadit aiVuature stins may not haro bee





1%


TAPI, 7
RAIN '); TYP, orf M LR 1A2I O1f A o ! ,501


FiGgo

putims. AmtiaS

-var"a Detene w





fte Art*


am aro U


OM" ad at*
Tye
- I - -


3


a 983. 3 594 5 272 6 23A 7 232 14 3318 8 133 9 87 M 32





1 1 7
$10


a
3

6 1.

7


8
9


10 33 12 33 .


020 30 95









30


2 027


3





6

7
8
9
3
u 10

132 32


338

333.

306








38


23a


12*2551 1 2358 I limB


2 93.

3 3

h a1 5 2M 6 195 a1


9 7j,








23 0


2


6

3








u

u
10 12



33


1 is


99

820




us
16 3A

18 41 60 207


lsl 34
3


a



4



7

5


3
8
a
6 10


1$ 12 U.


a6m





49 71


3&4 153

3


Totau k7j 171 o 3,27 . 1


15


25.036







7,296






12 176
9 ha




33106 13 U63
24 94 is ft






76


anuatle One tha PaSd, 9ob 4Aakp wo red by an *l24etb pads b. tman by bh ases in all the ter grades wnw
bind. This bk is probably read by hih ubaool pupiLs, as wll as by ast adultso fir its ser anilng adauwbre with a or little thotgbt for its gr att garsal e mg"a1
redntges or os*e4l.ia of boys' reading in
eash pad. wre given in table 8. Retenoe to Tables? and 8 will make oUster the asMsit O reading dens by each grade in Sab la. wfio*tiaw, ines te maS w ot pPtls in aoh grAde varies Iaide'ably. lx table 8, it Is sew tat gantegl fieties oqaariae. less then onewiurth of te total reading done in grades amen, ai^, ad nine it euaLs oneafourth of the ba' total reang in the teat pales and it Inresses to an than One-Wdsd of the total readiu in the elevemt at taelfth pmdss. Admetur. reaches its highest pcrotoAe In the eighth wade, In tich flaast onaw4Mrd of the totuA reading s In that te"gafy it is about eqmal i the seath, ninth1 and tooth snude it than take a suits drop in the Alesmt grado a* ftrther deosas" in the tWlt graft.
Anl stories retail rank Ores thrwg* the firt Pwr

*ades, althwgt they drop three per ent in the teeth gzadw and take a add drop iA the eleven aW teIth ades to

sas Asx and % ssps*voly, On. pwobabloe s for ths
i tha mtht ano"aul stares are rather JuMMntle Oat 2wet





n7


?A&X 8
?CE*AOL W% E&h un T r 2*AJE Fv. BOYs

Ormde
Ton"
T8 9 30 12 12 Tta
AdventaS 29. 32.5 29. 26. 20.8 16.6 27.8
FLlcm 230 20.1 24.0 25.4 34.1 3h.5 25.2
AMDilS 33.9 12. .6 9.5 4.7 2. .

AutobtopA'qtp 6. 6.0 7.9 7.6 9.0 7. 7.2 sntsbl, sparb 54 7.7 7.8 6.6 4.5 4.5 6. uatuatanm 5.0 6.0 7.2 6.0 5.4 7.3 64

rIttvso 8.1 6o2 4.2 3.7 2.5 2.1 5.0
U27lnw 2. 3.0 2.3 47 6.3 9.8 4.0
Saoom 2.0 242 1.6 *4 2.4 A 2I
The Art* 07 0.8 0. 2.3 4.5 74 19

0s0pqth 1.2 0.9 0.7 1.3 242 2.3 13
Ond A 0.7 0.9 009 2.0 0.9 o
Putry tes
*ibov 14a 0.7 0.4 a.A 0.5 04 0.6
O Al& o 0.3 0.1 0.9 07 14 045
Cawe s OAa a. 0.3 05 0.3 0. .6 0.

Total 100.0 200.0 300.0 300.0 100.0 10.0 100.0











and telath gnd. pApils my hM ra Um In earir grads. The Caf or the UM2 I the only anmal otey that rmanod a Ue ban$ lists of boos most oft= rea through sOh Grudb .

it is really gratitfyag to fiAn b-agrpy high a the iste as it to. t rake fourft w mte ettn group of boo (and toer botA boys and girl# in the c=Wletn stidq) uard wpe 9ueM tblrd piece I te eleenh grate to SItZ pAe in the iJAh grate. The per aeat ranss frm aa in th totaI rea6 Ig or the eleveamth ad to AsX in th eighAth pod. The New Tek sbdkt stated t At biogrqta onged is popuarity toa the ninth grate to the first *aesthe twelfth. The ElAin iSsn this present saLdy is salU for the bs examp that the to"h gest rutdit of tis I ghtly las2 thn
that of the nnt pade.
Hobbies and upets stories ae liked best by eighth and ntnth gate boys, as is reatlU men s o m the tSA4. The is wS snob abase in tiA Interest 1g , b I h Odb"I

years, it irsas lightly in sent'se Juar high Gabota wades, tha d nneM wdUnllU La the aonte high ascoul


wand 4.tao starles an read aUsghtly mm t Vs

*t4lt gate boy than 1w Otwa" although the ninth pate pmorek C: Ass atitn ortfaken of & Vr'ft of Leisurs ReIn ir spca ia sehoole of Rev York y.






79


sentagc alant *a%&s that of tie twelft grade. One reason tor the twelfM grade reading in this field may have been that this gnp was rzpidy approathimu the age of military sUfios. Anoter roam ay have been that the adventure in suc stories Is considerably ore autr than the jawncil adventre of eadir Yew$*
Iternt I mystery a4 detsatwe stories jradv&C do*l23=s frai 8.1 per cent of the eventh grade boys' total reading to 21 per eat of the twelfth r&W baM' total readg.g Ae ocrding to a ourrent survey oa adult reading wid movie lateetsse male by rtwn U.Saifte his Interest ast amesmate a"sin

after the student leaves bigh suo*L TM survey foed apsj* the leading interest of ma vith 29 per oant of emn pla g
this type of reading ad movies.

The eleventh and twelfth grade boys read a great deal more thn the her grates in tM group of missllaq. A gad =W books of h Ph3. , paytholotw Sodaaog, snod e, and

political 1e3=y 'm' In this group* AU the hW catgofies
we very 1a. Som of these 4i1 be amUen d later In a empeniSes of the boys' asid ;:l reading
table 9 sad 10 sn to swe infnmatcn *owwrng th girl realna that taUts 7 and 8 4 fo tbA boyst rvailng. As


Uao hoper "'The Fatatns Irvoyt the People's Tastes ln V0400 and Dse" nfl, mu (faroho ZPw)$ 3Mb.





60


Type
- .t .lf


Genel OwuM


AnloaSt Automas Ylaum The ArtO





miT Defenas




$arte,


Wtbd


1a 6sC
6 581 5 am S3 V.! 6 28 7 IT, 10 34


23 1 U 3.:



16 l p 9


:L
a
3

6

S







13
7
12



11

9 1)



30


2,9A







51 hl 39.'




2







3


6 321



234 13 ,




22
9 6 u 4 u 4 15 N


6

4

7

5
3
8
10

9

11 12 23

15


314







23
11







6



2


3


Ilo,


8 5 2 30 10 * 6 9 3 2
622 96


2
, I



7 6 u 4

1


1#25
7
4

3

3

3


20



3

2 1 9


13*03
2,616 1717

1678




1#0 ka 369 33A

2a



19

249


1otal S , 5 5, 3, 2 26,37


TAxlE 9
2 ~ ~ ~~GME BY05 fu nn nms M-


awl, 01 IMPLL









TA= 10
F"4! -ITAGO EA4CIE TliS Wi OR&ADK 6 2 GIRLA


arm0&
Typ 1 0 11 22 MoA1


oena~ FUtim* AdvetUrf AUUta atotpslt. Antoniaft W-L0r7 14*OGU1W career iObNies


rbe AbS


War

Hobbloo
Sports Feory V


r.iwy Talep Oone pea


47.0 12.0 0.68


50.8
9.7 9.1


5.3 5 2

11.0 7.2


5.2 3*3 0.7
1.2


7.7 3.3
0.7
2.1


3.0 10.6 6.2


8.0

44


58.0 6.3 1.6


6.8 6.7 8.8 6.0


5.9 3.5 1.o


6.5

6.3 0.8 1.0


54. 6.8
2.7 1.6


2.8 7.2
6.14 1*.


0.6 Q.9 13 2.0 1.2 047 1.1 1.2 1.4 0.5


0.7 0.5
0.9 0.1


0.6
004. 1.0 0.2


0.8 0.8 0-3
0.5


1.1
0.* 0.5

047


2.0 1.3 0.3
o.8


TOt s 100.0 100.0 100.0 00.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


57.2 3.5
1.9


52.5 9.1
6.5

6.3


1.A

1.7 2*4.
9.2 0.7


1.2 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7
0.5


1.1 0.8 1.2 0.7 0.7











tbe data frea the. tables swe di i, owaroq onA wll be
ad with th. boys' reading in Ue sam fld8 of intrst. The two tables will be ud together in the disoassion.
General flotioa hoIdA irSt rank in each grade with tho girls, ranging fre albwst hair the total readic, 47 per cena, in the seventh Mrado to m=re tan half, or 58 per cent, in the eleventh grade. Toe taothI gnds is lass tmn am per at blem the iedeath grade in the reing of fictiono this one e asSAnoam annats for te balk of the girls' reading. The major anter of books in the gai flotimn classiietIM is wry iu&t novels of ha nd school lif. ad general

le strme Acrdig to the t *rv$3 Ut interest
in gewel fiction is retained in adult yews. it fint wfeen's otief interests entered in le teses ad 'OCidelA" stories. The other categories rive catered and seant attuition fram thm girls.
Advnawe ranks secn from the smtbt tbragh te tenth

asd", tn falls to fifth plae In the elsuth and taIth Grad. rTere is a gmwdUal dneese in latnet in each fscastve grado =*opt that the eighth d nint grades Ore Weverued, an adveitww beng read in the eight than in the ninth grade. U boy@ read a* tan tree time the amowit ot adwontire that girls do.
3Thdo*






83


AaU4e storms rank nwt with the girl*, with atcablo decrea Ins ingradez to te elwrent, vkdah Wo te lowet Puwntf* Ttm 4r read at-eaistaty tmw s as
much as the boys in tie fltd or interest.
The hit point in the nattng of aiytwy stories, w4
-ow detective stwiesp is anuft in the seventh rade. IAs io tre of the boys also. thi girls read a pod may are m*tory stories UAn tae boys do JA the first thre gmnes then tie station is rwes4 wift the asalr hI& shool bwo reeling a littl mmw th e tb i secor bijacal girls. The ttal par anae of meri Interest wit eah s are silar.
Blagrapky is read by awe e#antbh grede girlA Uan
othos, thale per ent beiag a fl t w more the te aoct highast, 4wah is tte inta grads. the pr nsaw f the girls folIs the se. venks per grads that tq do tAw thae tay, ad that tact gives the fofloudag raths anusa. arders elsmt, nian, tent, twelft#, sath, and oUhtk gde.w This myne hem owntW by rIquiromms In eartaic gradn or scholls, stimulation of inbtAnats in bgraPqh pCWORlIty of tewawa or other reans, neam of vflih caw be doteW.,md by this etul. Uoys mooed the girls in the reading of bingrqpq in eabh grsdo, as is sham by the tIgahy bihar es listed Is to bogs.
Oane fictoa ties wit fOr sixth plae in
the girls' rawang. The peroatages are the as (to then











plae) but the naber of books in tea t es ed by elve the w=09W in mianfLacy. Ganer flatain reaches its )dj4eat point in t"e cihW grade tdtA a wnsistmt deaUne in saucsseiv Vgrd" tksreafter. Book* that fall into theRJWWI category are real in the tWotth grade we thman in eWy omth, with 2.t4 per cunt of their total resino in this troup. Xisosilany ranks sond of all types of reading for the tUwta gad girls. A good ma books an am, the durwl ent at personaity, and general .tiquette -ee read by the twe.M grade girls. Faer of these books mareed by the jirls in Ue pasedixg grad*.
In the fields of sawance and of bistcW and ge e#od,

thee is little diffwrewo in the percentage of reading in eab grade. Tb. eleventh gre girls rte a UtR. higher in bhtey and getgrhpkW tan the girls in the otber galdes, end the eighth grade girls oae l the others in the reading of science. The is vwj7 Uttle differase between te ses in these fAid, also, te bqs aseetng the girls by a sore .7 per omt in science and 4h pm sent in tAstwy and ge *og o The total PMN LAA for bqm adi Cirls in eazh oateoky are sha a bar aph in

flgvre &.

Figree 9 to 14 lndtwUnA , ShOw b.a ly s of the an definite dif es in grad and am interebe in the wa%ioms types of resding.














Boys GIRLS


60 55 50

45 40 35 50 25

20 1510

5

0


8


9


10 11


GRADE







PERCENTAGE-5 BY GRADE.5 FOR BOY5' AND

GIRL' READING IN GENERAL FICTION


7


,


Fi c-. 9


- - ---





86








Boys

GIRLS


9
GRADE.


10


1I


I I


5


0


7


8


PERCENTAGES BY GRADES FOR BoY5' AND GIRLS' READING OF ANIMAL STORIES


FIG. 10





87


35!


30


BoY5 GIRLS


25 2015 10


5



5'o ]


7


8


9


10


11


12


GRADE




PERCENTAGE BY GRADE FOR BOY AND


FiG. Ii


GIRLS' READING IN ADVENTURE






88


0
20 Boys GIRL,5

15





10-


7


8


9


11


12


GRADE.


PERCENTAGE BY
GIRL5' READING


GRADES FOR BOY5 AND IN BIOGRAPHY


FiG. 12












20i 15







t


9
GRADL


II


PERCENTAGES BY GIFRL5' READING


GRADE FOR BOY5' AND


OF MYSTERY STORE.


FG, 13


39








BoY5GiRL-s EIIZ








_ _ _ _ _ _


7


8














BoYS

GIRLS


20





15 10





5





0


.mil
9


10 11


GRADE




PERCENTAGES BY GRADES FOR BOYS' AND
GIRLS' READING IN THE ARTS


Fi G:. 14


4


90


IilL lL
7 8






#4 0%


a


Ilt I


I


;I C

.4


'8,


IA



a


9'


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Ma a 1 A4






fill:


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a

B


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0% 0%


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-11


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q
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80 5 4 4 4 5


5 5 A I


I 5










*~ 0



8uan



1111


Ad#

is a n- s a ta aa s
a s-aa


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I
I


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N A 2 3 2 A R A A N N A N A A






93


Teas U and 22 &w ts aeafe readirsE wuad to a
hes of 10O, In emit 144 by -mhdw and as. Thies ta s show the rise or deAline of reading by types In ani gde and MWn emih a. Prt of the decline in the uppe grads Is selpqy besazi. of the greatly relucod a nut of reading in &U flds. Fer iautanos, of 800 temIfth grae. records bedhd* the total of beet. read wS 3775; and of 82? nint gaW regards ooked, the tObLS of bots retd s 10,82, cc nearly three tien an e thn the twasu grade, for apwahaeteh te swe dwr of records.
those tabes aboi be read as roLUnMs at every 100 books of adventure, in the ratio th4n tbqr vre rnt In thil sbady9 a seysth vxete boy will read 27# an d4th grate br will ra 28, x s a os ts tamle The tatle for the krl. Is read In a l1k mmw. 'T2i: type of table a*n the v&U* of readIng by grade and - it the nmbwe of readre In eab grafe Is kqpt instant, and to Uta i hAefly to deteumtne tue rin wn tau of ipsitity of reading.
The rsing In aw fieMds resins at tho nsa ea t pad* and for both boys and grls, "s e o n s bietry wad goOpqpv and in bomr,
The arts grooW is the only we of the fifteen differmt easni teatie that ribs raply in the SaAer high scho grades. Te is a low figs. in the ath grade In the ear eatery tat this study Oanot empln Ac oi to tabl 11,




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91
TAELS XI
vsm*m mom warn oma wm Bt all
mm& t rm svm
Title
nafta? of Title
fisam
Head
linear of
Tissea
**&3y Atedf ilioka
*Lassie, Oorae ?oa
>Toa Bsatstst
The Call of the mid
*The Yearling
Seventeenth Saasaer
*uckleberry Fina
The ixbe
fiTreasure Island
Black Stallion
Chert 1 torles
MUjOQdttiMMd
Uttle ,oaea
Seventeen
iyre
Snaky, the Seahorse
Junios" mee
secret Cargo
¡rJtorrloane leather
Daniel Boone
Mysterious island
Last seaeater
I4,yy^a Marsh
Return of Silver Chief
sandy
Caddie uoodXaan
1$ Our Hearts mm Toung
1*3$ and Gay
lit ; Sue Barton* redor Burse
13 Sue ¡artos* Student Mures
11 The Jinx Ship
12 Tea* /ildoatsJ
12. I The Itusaa Goeaety
11 ¡ Lad a Jog
IX Ctrasberry Gi&
3a Fair Adventure
9 \ They i&ma to Laugh
9 AH African
9 > Ginger lee* ar Sumni
$? Lou Gehrig
9, i epsorod
3 1 To hose and To Hold
8 : #utfaeriag Height
8 The Miase and the Pauper
7p Thunderbolt Souse
7 > Going Go sixteen
7 i Toe*a Hark* (Tales)
7 3 Boggy aovare the ism
7 i fiama
7 Silver Chief
7 *A Tale of Two Cities.
7 l silver Chief to the
Rescue
71
71
70
68
68
67
67
66
6$
6k
66
6U
6k
6k
63
63
a
a
60
60
60
60
60
* EftCKxrschded for first purchase by The Standard Catalog
for Sigh school libraries*
Doubly recoaaended by the nazae catalog*


67
ms read a total of seven Uses, the sect popular careers fio
tlonisad for girls are nursing and oermXlas* as shorn by the
Sao Barbas, ami the Stefigy series* A £m boys road Peg&y covers
the clipper* not because they ore interested is Baggy or her
journalistia career but because they snare Interested is the
story coieernicg the Clipper. This me 'the answer given by mm
of the boys to an inquiry nade by the writer*
The girls read a good stray ssore books of ayotary than the
boys did, bet exceeded ttea in percentages of total reading by
only *8 per cant* Mystery ranked fifth with the girls ami seventh
with the boys in this study* This is a such different finding
frota that in Anderson's^ study, which listed ay&tery as heading
j
the Hot for girls, sad in Cider and carpenter's study, wr.ich
listed it as first cholos until the eleventh. grade, ahora it
dropped to third place* Xt is necessary to rerasher* however,
that the pupils in this present study ray not Imre hoi as many
wyatery stories amilabl In school libraries as they srfLght have
had elsewhere* losever* a good isany yotery stories are on the
approved list for saboaLs-
The girls load in the nuaber of books read on occupations*
% 1* Anderson* "Study of laimre Hi Heading of Junior
High school lepis*" gUasptaty School Journal, VHX (January*
Xi&Q), 253-267*
^Elder and carpenter, Heading Interests of High school
Cl-dldren, Journal of l5jcatLonal Ksearch, HI (April, 1929),
276-282*


89
1*2
tixWi k> give ammX mwwei&a ci reading research in
all its phases* said. rmm-lly that the silga i reading interest
studies sere encouraging imt that aueli still asst be done# parti-*
alaria to elevate standards of taste#
la a fast-Bmdi'ig, feat-changing world* the gemino teacher
mm% be oosistaatl/ on 'the alert to keep pose with her pupils*
changing interests la- rmding md to keep the satisfaction of
those interests m m high, a level as possible*
1<8
t Hites a* <3w^* of Eesding Investigations*
Julsr lt l£h2 to $mso 30 191*3** Journal of gdneetiensl Research*
fiUtm (Whraary XS1*U>* fe£li29*


Reading Interests of Florida Secondary School Pupils
As Determined by Their Book Choices
In Their School Libraries
A STUDY OF A SELECTED GROUP
By
PEARL SANDS McCARTY
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
June, 1949


b 9 i1 £ H t I X


s&ght w¡ dramtlse their particular adventures* It was wall
done and. the pupil audience demonstrated Its approval* It 1
possible that the play caused sms pagis to mi books that
they otherwise sight not have read*
Mast of the libraries were fairly attractive* apse- de~
finitely so* Tim mat crowded and ost unattractiv on# will be
housed mxk year in a new, ssodsro tw lidias with up-to-date quip-
sent* Respite its inadequacies and o&linass, bosom, this
school linked seventh in the average rasher of book reed per
pupil# ftaw sescssd to be an air of oossradely feeling between
the librarian and her pupils as arnefe as to say, ft$ Ickw we haven*t
mah, bat w are going to nee osar little to best advantage*
Bocios are selected for school liiawrieo in varios ways*
la this study, they ranged fro librarian* choices only, to those
ot by m interest*;:, library oomlttee* In two schools, pupil
suggestion were solicited as well as teacher suggestions, and
they were Iwaacred if they did not run oesmter to approved lists*
The libraries, as a rale, use the state approved library list,
Wilson# standard Catalog for l&gh Sahoola* and the Childrena
Catalog** Other sources used by sons librarian for approved
books war tit librar1/ Jmrml 11X000*9 library Pulletin* tits
htnior Bewlswara Catalog# the Saturday il&vtm of literature*
the Stew fork fiateg Book Bevies, md t& lists issued by the
National Council of Teachers of English*


123
popular asa that tie adults lio select the hooks ham selskxa
picked a book that is widely read by children* Sees of the roa-
sons gives by children in her study .for not liking the books
were (1) too hard to understand, (2) about foreign people they
wkre sot interested in, (3> too drippy* act! (k) no action or
adventure*
One of the complaints concerning & selection of the
prise books eas that they ore nearly all girls* books. However,
beginning vite tee l?h& oeleotiosa of ^anlel Boons five of tee
successive asars arc definitely boys* book*
Tii popularity of the Sleteery iedal books in tele study
was to be testcrrained fro the oosfcer of times each book had bom
read, according to the pupil records checked, m m estimate of
the yearly circulation of each book as found from m inspection
of the book card* To determine tee circulation tern tee bock
card, the first end last date mm noted, and the borrower*
nasos wore counted. had m its initial date, October 27, 19U7* It was choked about
the end of October, 19ii8j so its list of eight names vas con-
sidered as a year* circulation* Another book with a date of
February, 19h3$ had seven naneo* It ms approcdsatoly five and
ouo-half year when tee book was checked white gam a circulation
estiaate of 1*3 per year* Still another had four name in two
.with* (BtxSt card asm usually dsoardoa as they am- filled*)


for children of different ages and varying interest and abil
ities* the teacher and the librarian cannot hope to knew per
sonally all the children's books, feat if they bare ascos to
approves, list and keep Lni'tmsm through their profss&ional
mgaslnes, they can keep reasonably ell atorsast of the best
in children's literature in. ell field of interest
In a paper deliver*! before the iiafcional Council of
Teachers of &gLlsh m later published, Bcalth gives sot
points on the atioulaiion of interests and appreeiation through
reading* She give the definition* ** Appreciation is personal
2
acceptance of worth** She aakes the bald statsaent that teach
ers do not know books, the implication eos to be that tbs
child probably cold do as all selecting his own reading m-
terials as to folios teacher suggestions* She lists the follow
ing five standards In the fora of questions as guides fir* a read
ing program
1* bow our prograa lead froa narrowing of ea^eriencs
to breadth books of fun, of fact, of fancy? How
varied are the characters, the places, the centuries,
the types of books?
2* bow it lead frota shallowness or triviality of coc-
perleaco to depth and value?
3* .Do* It lead children frasa woeritical acceptance
of whatever the author preseat i to a desasad for
sincerity and truth to buena essperimes?
norm 1. £*aiih, 8tli*jXat4& Interests ana Appreciation
through isadim** H-aaeatary iipisXiah. Umdm, XVII {Ma&m Wh&i*
11%.


27
in to% mm though soteh in still to Si desired*
In writing of edaasftlaaal research in reading# Gates road
a stfttenent that is applicable to the developaonfc of reading in
terests. He mfrmtimad a need of broadening the perspective in
riich reading is visaed, of achieving cooperation aith otlmr
specialists, of thinking of reading not as an isolaied school sub
ject bat as a possible of near patterns of learning ac
tivities and of seeing reading in relation to tin social demands
likely to appear in the future*^ interesting mtorials on
various ability lewis are spearing in praotioally every field,
and son subject natter teambere are asking efforts to arouse the
interests of their pupils in such reading*
ho
M ifcmroe*& i-mmtlm&l of MucaUonal g&search the
statement is made that op to 191*0 mere than too hundred studio m
various -phases of reading interests had been nade, but that map of
the mire so- frmzm&mtg and subjective as to be negligle in trase
log conclusions* To the average teacher seating informtion on the
subject many of the ejoeclusioos dm** are so contradictory as to be
oafuaing rather than helpful* A fee cmdusiona, heswsver, which
have, been oooflnMd by M^r studies, #@3 to be mmaaa&&& reliable.*
JSgr foOloar* (1) the ascent of reeding decreases steadily ia the
39
Arthur 1* a&tes# frontiers in noaUonal Keeearch in
Journal of idamt&oaaf I search* XI (January, 1947)#
tor# Hew
of Educational
* S* cairos# Ml-


marks books. with am star that It rmamma as a .first parchase
am with two stars that it doubly reoossaisda#. & glauco at Tables
13 am Ik will show an abundance at stars, both doubl am sin
gle, wi-iich would sewn to indicate that the. Florida boys and
girls whose records were checked in this study ara reading
good books*
Of the fifty-one books scat often read 1 Table 13, elev
en are stories of animal s, four of which are about horses, else
about dogs, and one about a pot deer* It would be interesting
to know if The Tearling is road as such elsewhere as it is in
Florida* The foot that it has its setting in Florida may ham
been some inducement to its reading, in addition to the fact
that it has been made into a popular movie with florida as the
locale for the scenes* That it is. a charming story for children
everywhere, regardless of its setting or its having been made into
a movie, is a generally accepted fact*
$
Concerning animal stories, Pettlngill, in a letter to the
editor of the Wilson Library Bulletin* writes that dog stories are
the most popular of all animal stories, a fast which is borne out
by this Hot, and by those to follow* She makes a plea for more
dog stories* **X£ only more fine dog stories could be written for
the Junior and senior high school pupil f*
$
&da Pettisgill, The Books They Like,*5 Milam Library
Bulletin* XX? (loossaber, 1939), 338*


0*00*
9*6
?rp?*9*i
*n**r
8W passuo
$*0X
01*98
9t5te
m
t*0
0*5
HT
ZPi
If
*5
*9
9^C
W
IS
T*
9*8
09£te
£o£
ot
6*01
8*£t
w*s
sr?
8
C*9t
tm*$
9CC
0
8*Ct
*91
wfs
SfcC

rpTO
*9
tW
**"""*'9*1
*n
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C9C
St'
Q**t
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5o*?te
891-
It
9*5
8*9
is?/r
m
ot
t*
S*ot
08**?
m
6
8*0t
o*a
att**r
mt
8
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£3*1
90
4
(5) <*D (O te) (i)
ooi jo swm
psarop ttmmm ptmn pag jMooog pw
~m &smm $& m&m $ jsapt*g
mtosism mi m> mmm *m
Hsoviisat msis *av4H ssoca jd mmm w
anamo Geniosas t TOfX


17
froa Ms reach
there ocas to be a difference of opinion m to ti now*
16
feer o£ book read by children in a giv bisas* Mam found
that junior 3tigh c&odL papila read an averse of l#*>2 books a
17
stKsesterj Cleary1 study 18
segoste? with classic fisbioa rating M#hf and laa sod -Us
tam grades ssb*.v and eight reseating tero 'docto per aonth and
tee ninth asid tenth grades ££ books per mmiu
19
fm Mm tmk City study bleb ins aade by the saosla-
tioa of fate8 of iangJlah in typioal senior high chads of
the city drew its ocnelosiotts ta so analysis of 1*6,000 reading
records* Seweafcy^ve per sent of tee roadie ms fiction*
ITovaL end adreater were not popular in any grade of high
school. Bixjgrapfey iioreaa in popularity firm tee fiante to tee
aweate terns* ksieme nas least popular in tee ninth grad and
most pepiter In tee levente grade* fhere eeemd to be a shift
& tee old classics to eoatetaparaary literature, but in pit
of tei% liw Call of tee slid cod 10 aaegor 'headed tea list of
36
iilaood Adas, the .detent of library heading in tee
Junior High Steaol,* ahool Berios* 111 Csgr, 1931)# 375-378.
17
Flores** &* deary# "Bottea&Unal eadihg in tee Junior
fflgh School, Hatton Schools* WI (J*Oy, 1935), 31-33#
*
fea?anpaad lias, op* cite
lo^k City Association of Teachers of English,
rey grietear Beading In fgateal Si#, Schools, of Bear fork


137
act the IzidtvlaQsl reading record.
The schools which participated in this study range in
sise fresa m enroilsseat of 227 pupils in six grades to 2*1*00
pupils in three gradeaf they range in location fecej m agricul
tural town of epproadmtely 1*200 papalation to the largest
city i Florida with a population of approxtmtcOty 230*000.
The libraries of the schools range fea 1*950 volumes (not in
the malleat school) to 11,525 vetoaes* The raraga -asstier of
voluaes in libraries par pupil ranges fern apiroads&bely four
to thirteen. The two sanela whose libraries average the high
est mater of books per pupil also have the highest averages in
tho tmtomr of books read per pupil, answer, this fact does not
hold true m a pattern through the study*
The results of this study can be recapitulated In the
followtog coaclajsloiiSi
lm Florida secondary school pupils in this study ere
reading warn very good 'books* a is evidenced by the
CE.se hundred titles in the two lists of books aoet
often read. Sot scare then ten of these one hundred
books could have been recplred* and possibly they
wear not.
Atirantare stories lead in interest with boys in
graties seven* eight, nine, and ten* anti are second
in interest in gradea eleven anti twelve. General
fiction* with very light nevis is the najority* is
2*


132
attention of the pupils*
la oojnreraaiion with am& eighth grado pupils in one
librar/, it vas discovered that they baa never heard of a HeWfcwry
prise book, although several of tee had road msm of tee books*
Tiiis school had not had a librarian until this year* but it did
have a library* 2h pupils bee quit interested in the ais*-
cession, and on being tola that sms beys and girls did not like
sc of 'the books, they decided to taring up as a class project
the reading of all the basks their library had to see If they could
find out why coo of teca aera not popular* It is to be hipped that
tela class can arouse the interest of other pupils in the books*
Perhaps there is sauteing to Townes* r^estict^ teat part of t'
trouble lias with teachers and librarians for not publicising tee
books*
The data in fable 22 shear the four Keabery bodes which
li
Baade one of the two lists of books west often read, leading in
tee ettete circulation, which is to be expected# Gaddi soad-
lawn, which rates first in the estiaatea circulation, is second
to rmoky on tee list of fifty-cue books most often read* anoly
falls to third place in tee estimated circulation* This aay be
caused, partly, by the fact that see schools id lost or mt.
op* olfe*
^Tables 13 and Hi
^Tbs ranks refer only to the i-ieshery Award books m
the liste*


128
TABLE 23.
BOOKS ftSGJSm THE NmOBCt MEDAL ASASB
Year
of
Avi'arcl
Title
Author
1922
The Ltery of Rankled
iteadrlk van Lota
1923
The voyage of lap* Doolittle
jugh Lofting
1928
The Lark Frigate
Charles Boartimn Hawse
1925
Tales f:ros silver Lands
Charles Joseph flager
1926
Shea of the sea
Arthur Bowie Ghri^an
1927
Smoky, the Gosshorsi
sill Jmm
1928
Gay Seek
i'Mm Ocspal m&s&si
1929
Traapetaar of Krakow
Lria rhiliaroak Kelly
1930
Bitty, Bax* First mxm Years
Rachel Field -
1931
The Gat Gho uent to itemm
Elizabeth uoatsworth
1932
Waterless Momita!
Laura Ads yreway
1933
Young Fu of the Upper Yangtze
illaabota F JjowXs
193k
Invincible Louisa
Cornelia Meigs
1935
D8b*jr
loalea Shasas
1936
Saddle loadla
Carol ilyrio Brink
1937
Roller skates
Bath Sawyer
1938
The 'Shite Stag
Kate Seredy
1939
Thlshl Leaser
Ilisdbsth Enright
1980
raniel Boc
James Laagberty
3981
Call It Courage
Avnstrong Sperry
1982
The: J4tchlook Otm
Walter !>* Edwoads
1983
Adata of the Road
Elisabeth Janet Gray
1988
Johnny Tresalii
Lather Forbes
1985
liabbit Hill
Robert Lssataa
1986
Strawberry Girl
Lois Lenaki
198?
lisa- Hickory
Carolyn Sherwio Dailey
1988
Th Twenty-One Balloons
,>illissi Pne da Boie


ms of xtamB si mm m> s m u sstkx& o
Types
7
8
9 30
31 12
Total
Qraa
Total
B
a
B ,
0
BOBS
BOSS
B
Q
Fiction
21
98
17
m
38
m
2it7
Adveature
31
7
28
10
$9
17
76
Career Fiction
0
20
0
27
0
m
It?
iyste*7f otoot
&
16
It
9
12
25
37
Maturej Aais&la
17
?
6
1
23
8
31
Fair/ Tales
2
6
3
k
5
10
15
Diography
2
2
5
1
7
3
10
MlBoellaraau
2
k
2
2
it
6
10
raXensej Bar
3
0
1
2
it
2
6
iJobbiesj Sports
2
0
2
0
it
0
it
Seism
1
1
1
0
2
1
3
Art
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
History! Oeog#
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
&Mf
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Occupation
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total
69
161
69
16?
158
328
hd6
s


m
52*
53*
5U.
55*
56*
5?*
sa.
59.
60.
6U
62.
63.
6li#
65*
Ht&cboff, SWeaageltoe 0* ReatLo^ toterests of Junior HMai
Softool PooHa. Softool Review. aXU (Uaroti* 153?) I?5-
165.
McCulloch, C. M. "Jhat Is a Good Book to a liinth ihradr?H
The mulish Journal (high acocil octitioi) XVX {Ja"
asriOTrrgEgBy.
McKee, Pawl. iieadirig aria literature la the gjoaeotary Softool*
Boston* tSaapany, liteft. *"
National Council of Teachers of English*
Chicago* National Council of
Books ior Ion.
TlgK, 19^5*
Rational Council of ranchero of English. An. Esperienee Sur
ricultaa. Monograph, Mo. £t* Um "iorWi -.<
iotiy Coopaaty, 1535*
National Society for the Study of Education, Coiaaittee on the
langatage Arts* "Reading,w Review of Bdueatioaal he-
search, X (April, 19ij0}, ?910o.
or the Study of Education* The Teaching of
Second Report. Yhlr^SixthH^taok-, Pari
iloargta HHSoxs! Public School Publishing
Rational Society for
Heading* &
flf
company, 193?.
less fork City Asaosla ticc of Teachers of Hs^ULsh* A Survey of
Leisure beading in typical High Schools of lew itstfc city.
nm fork* ifoble amt§t8^ Company,
The Rwtoory Award Open Forts1* (editorial), Elcmmtarsr
EoaUah ftggiw, XVII (April, 19i¡0}, 160-33587'
Rorvall, Osare s>* BSa Results of a Twelve-Year Study of
Children *s Reading Interest," The En&Lib Journal,
XXXV (reocQber, 1?!6), 531-536.
Fainter, Rolen i. **A Synthesis of Research o the Placement
of Reading Material in Seoon&oryKSclioaii Literature,
Tiie ¡nsLlab Journal, MXI (fcfcwesaber, 19L2), 6li2-6Ii.
Parker, Beryl, and Thyng, Franc J* Tastes fiUTftr,* E-aaca
tional methods. XIX (unaabar, 1939), 162¡~168*
Peterson, Aram. Leisure Reading of High school .Pupils,*
aducatitm, LIV (Jamary, 193k) * 296-300.
Pettingill* Ada* Ih Books They Like,* lllsoa Library Bui**
latn XI? (gothAmt, 1939), 338.


ia
as the Smtih grade# boys ere fcwoi to like history* A Mb*
drea nature they 311 adult fiction rather than that of the jwe~
nile type# l¥fa*saees for poetry also lacrease as children
tature-* .Jordan* &m study eemibQrated these findings# Ha
found that the Hit popular writers for boy appeal moot often
to the instjctf of aao&ery, fighting# 2mm of sensory lift for
its mm sake* original attention# and approval m& scornful b-
Isndar /alc7 * that the interest in biography 4 history
is confined to thoee authors to can write it in tbs for of 4m
a
seoitisg story* on-ictioaa interest was chiefly in- What**
aacHaosHm-do books#
Ba*iaf# study ousswisod the findings of studies per
tinent to the reading of older children frees 1920 to approscir**
aately 19t¡3* Her smi? invested the fbHoningr (1) that
the mat of reading decline rapidly during the senior high
school year! (2) that the larger proportion of reading is fic
tion# but that fear books are popular with succeeding generutionsf
(3) that slew and bright children here about tbs mm interests
but the bright ones read for those interests at a younger age}
(4) that interests of the msm differ widely bat both include
adventure and endewror rewarded by success** f (5) that the alder
^Ibid** pp* 128-129*
Fiction*
^oHl&gm9
^Marl :.ankln.
Contributions
;% CdluaMa University#


are actually the best books of eucoesslve years for
Children. four of the books* Caddis hooding straw
berry /irl saciar ad call It courage are la the
lists of the one hundred bocha most often read 1m the
study. Johnny Tomn m &m of the aoa- also rank
fairly high* Those six books however, constitute
less than one-fourth of tbs total list of prize: eri*
mars.
?. The sesondary school pupils In this study are not
reeding as many books m papila in many other studies*
bat It should fee reiasabered that these record are of
the reading from one source only. If the pupils*
reading from all sources had been considered, it 1
quite likely that their reading sold h&m been suflh
greater in quantity, porssp nnt ac good 2 quality.
The following are sosa euggestlono for further studies of
reading choices and interests of Florida pupil* -
1# This ssase type of study could sell be saade in the
elementary grades using reading record as the medium
for gathering data, Snob a atajar, however, ill has
to emit tise keeping of such records by a sufficient
number of schools.
2. The- effect m reading of tcacher*pipH and librarian
pupil relationships would be a valuable study. Ob
jective data oa such a study sight be very difficult


h
If that his interests in the worbbaMle my be pwpebuated#
1b Maticml -mlstf for tbs Stody of Mooatioa is. its Thirty-
Sixth imtfbovk^ says in offset test lbs chief objective of the
teaming of literature is to tlesreiop the individual pupil's
test for good literature and his cxiiicjal standards to tbs
extent that* Am he aunts to read* he mil nationally select
ths best to any field of interest*
.to his school library should be found only approved
books* Tide nattersally restricts bis choice to good fiaterlals
*
£rm that source* Mosever, if these books ere chosen with Ms
interests in taina, m If he receives a measure of intelligent
guidance* he will very likely read voraciously of them* to
this reading fie ill unooasMon&iy cultivate m appreciation
of the vortlasiile-, 'dill m to the point of being able to dts-
ttoguish betathe good toe worthless* If he is sub-
Jested to the good only curing his stood tmnna m is sufficient
ly olree&ed towards reading meterais that fill his- needs* be
di be ble* to all probability, to select his reading mtcr&als
Mth disertotoatton tfcim tm leaves school*
There re signe recently that parents are becosag coa-
cerned over the choices children are aaktog flraa .newsstand and
bookstore* Heading interests of their children are being die-
%atiaaal Society tor the Study of Muoattoe* Thirty
Sixth Yearbook* Fart I, too Teaching of fseadlua a .second Hep,,,,
Bloontogton* miaolst




TASLE 33
TIFES OF BOOKS MS Bt GMiB AML £U IK SCHOOL D*
t?|>6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Total
(sraa
Total
, ,?
0
B
0

0
B
Cs
B
a
B
0
E
0
fiction
51
13*4
38
150
Ht
130
65
162
61*
166
W
117
299
859
1,158
Avsn*j Travel
151
3)4
127
50
125
39
61*
19
53
26
39
12
559
ISO
739
Siagrepbar
29
33
35
5U
28
59
33
30
25
ia
17
15
16?
232
399
K&txjrej knis&La
35
32
1*2
28
52
U3
18
12
5
9
2
It
XSk
128
282
Arts
10
2
3
1*
0
2
22
30
28
1*6
35
U5
98
129
227
Systcryj detect*
19
30
17
17
16
6
10
2
13
2
5
2
80
67
11*7
Defenses isar
S
6
11
It
29
It
17
7
13
9
8
5
86
35
121
KiacaLlaosoas
5
10
6
11
6
13
Hi
8
6
9
5
8
1)0
65
105
Bobbles) sports
17
it
3S
5
13
2
6
1
h
0
It
a
82
12
9lt
Career f ctico
0
1k
6
22
2
26
1
13
1
1
0
2
10
78
86
History) Oeag.
6
2
6
12
1
7
3
h
2
2
0
3
18
30
m
ISaswr
0
0
0
1
1
3
6
9
It
8
It
1*
15
25
ItQ
Occupations
0
3
0
It
0
8
2
5
0
2
1
0
3
22
25
Science
3
1
1
5
0
3
1
5
0
1
0
2
5
17
22
yelk lor
?
3
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
2
0
1
6
8
%
Totals
337
322
330
367
308
3U6
263
305
217
321*
367
220
1,622
1,887
3,509
Heoords for 7, , and 9 grades taken from IQ grade cards.


* P* 65$
of these h 4
f*
C
ft
es
es

tt
S3
>*

*


70
Fig 6


i8
Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls
78 9 10 11 IE
Grade *
Proportion of Fiction to Non "Fiction
By Grade, and Sex
Fig. 4-


utilise tlm lor oat t&ey m&y bo


m
TABUS 21* (CoritistiflKt)
11 22 Total Gram Total
B
G
B
G
B
G
UX9
b?8
303
39h
1,21b
1,286
2,1*00
96
131
78
108
76b
851
1.0-5
106
107
101
118
7bb
786
1,530
226
211
186
231
m
739
1.3O
m
bas
m
101
150
99
125
558
61*8
1,206
78
80
61
66
5b5
56b
1,109
353
381
73b
112
133
110
101
339
361
700
35
53
12
36
351
3b5
696
210*
m
516
3b
ItO
iiO
kk
21*3
21*7
1*90
30
1|2
32
33
182
191*
376
23
2b
2b
lit
139
11*8
28?
16
22
16
18
97
130
227
53
56
109
6,831 7,1*93 lb,32b
i,2?6 1,501 i,m i ,315


of a Jaare&il type* i&feich fact probably indicated the pmteeal-
13
nance of roadlog la the younger glides* iughe#*^ study of
high spools, la Madison, '.-iaeoaoia, in 122& showed only tb
boat seller* of the day as favorita# Mot one of the long
standing eld favorite* me listed*
Brink** u study give# the first ten books for the ninth
and tl* twelfth grades* the Pail of the lild la first on the
ninth grad* list ¡Ufe Tos gawgar third* Tim twelfth grao list
is chiefly best sailers of the tlsses s&eepb as pupil* bod to
read the prescribed classics* according to tbs author#
2*£
Jordan* study lists fas amj&st in adi age-group fraa
twelve through eighteen year of age* the call of the villd is
listed, only I the 17-18 age-groap* Bue^tebagry' Ftea ant Treas
ure Island are listed 1 the age-groups 12WMS* Toa Sasser is
the only boys* book listen 1 tlie girls* favorites nod that is
for age 12-13 only* His popular list fea girl# ineiodee UttaUfc
town only in the ¡ge-groap lh-16* wiwr it ranks ninth m the
list*. Xa this present study* Little ase ranks third for all
^Francea IS# lsgfess* BA Survey of the Besdlns Interest#
of tb# Pupil* of Madison* liseonein. H#fe scfeoo1# Mueatioa#
m? (March* 1921*)* iaT-to*
^*?tak* "Meadin interest &S High school Pupil**
school amlm* JUJ9XI (Octctosr, 193?)* 613-621*
IS
Jordan* Children*8 Interest in Reading.


TABLE 20
mm mm arm heap bi girls is oralm rm, mm, mb tsew*
10
11
IS
The Roba
Short Stories
tone fyre
Cevesfcaeath Hums*
Tb* Robe
The Robe
Seventeen
The scarlet Letter
uthering Heights
Junior Miss
Our Hearts ere Young and Gay
Magnificent Obsession
To Hove and to Hold
To Have and to Hold
A Tale of Two Cities
Lassie, Cor^e Hoaa
The Citadel
Pride and Prejudice
Poas Works (Tales)
Little Minister
Going on Sixteen
Rabeooa
Pride and Prejudice (Play)
Gone With the Wind
Gone With the wind
Random Harvest
tone Gyro
The Human Coredy
Black Hose
Linda Marsh
Jane lyre
Pride and Prejudice(Novel)
They Loved to Laugh
Janice Meredith
Orson Dolphin Street
the Green Years
Junior Miss
The Green Years
A Lantern in Iter Hand
Seventeenth Sumar
letters to Ctasaa
Last <; aster
Magnificent Obsession
Rebecca
Oliver Twist
lathering Heights
Tim oorlet Letter
Our Hearts Viere Toting and (toy
All This, and Heaven Too
Tim Gauntlet
Short stories
Captain from Castile
Keys of the Kin&m
Peggy Covers the Sobs
The Crisis
Les Disertles
Sandy
The house of seven Gables
Oliver Twist
Black Hose
Loma boons
scveotiwaath Sunrasr
SaMttt
So Barton, gaoler Bursa
Wutfaerlng Heights
The Yearling
Peggy Covers ashington
So Mg
Pride and Prejudice
Seventeen
So Well Reraesaibered


Map of florida
Showing Distribution of
Schools Participating
in the Study
UJ
\x>
Figure 1


126
the speculation m&ms rather the reception of the books by the
children for han they are intended*0
In m interesting article on the ear between the Uberssy
and the utilitarian in childruDa 'cooks, assises the foaio
lag statement concerning the Mesfoery books* 0£ these oistin*
guiase booto-an sm% a* then deserve that gsftlsO'-Kftly two*
van 100X1*8 the Story of llanklnd and Goroolift Uedgs* invliiolble
Louisa are ps^OEtJaantly informational, and parfeapa both of the
lift up the readers heart rather than fill up his edad* Two
others, Uachel Fields Hitter 3d Sath Sawyer* ttoiler Skates
carry a considerable load of knowledge, tut they carry It easily
jauntily, as they roll along a pleasant narrative road* The
other fiw&my books belong to literary art, though they map not
belong to the ages."
LdigB aokee the statement fro liar study that ssoat of
the Seebsry Prise books mm, on the shale* too literary for the
g
average child arid often also for the superior eM34*n
9
'Townes aakfied sixty-tao children feo had read the pise
book to fill out e questionnaire ooaoernieg then* She found
?
Barnes, Childrens Sit^atufe^pat and Present,
Maeatlondi fora* XII (Bay, 3939), 390.
kos zoligs, Children.*; Opinions of Bewbery Arfa
Book,0 KXeaactary aallah Revise* XVXX (October, 19iiQ>, 22.
9
'fowces, op* oit*


127
only one ehila who diaLikBd tfom* She suggests teat the per
sonal tastea of librarians arid teachers save snob to do with
the popularity or unpopularity of the bools# To support that
statoaeat she had found one librarla e particularly liked
The Cat ^feo seat to Beaver had kept sixvcopiea in eo&staab dar-
cuilattoa* That book is low In popularity in most places#
10
hsarenea, in m exa&lmtion of t&trty-elghi cmalativ
records over a seven year period, £om& The feyagea. o1 Tar* loo
little# Saoter the oosshorse* and toang Fa of the gpper ^angtse
the moat popular of the award books* Her date, she thinks, to-
dicatad that the books brought an enthusiastic response fro
IX
the children* adige* study showed the aseo book to be popu
lar that Lawrence fbund* llewwrar, she found that trery few of
the 150 children of superior reading ability in her study read
them at all and sayas "On the basis of u&t these children
read, tobar/ prise books would certainly not b best sellers. *
The largest scale study on the popularity of the prise
12
books that could be found was. nade by KankSn in. eight public
libraries* freest her data she found that Caddie fioodlam was the
only Heabory Medal book that could be considered to be highly
10
iswreaoe, op* git*
Coligo, op* pit*
tica
12
SmMii, CIiildroa*s interest in Library Book off lie-


3
o
la the- eLycalAtlflo figures released tat 30, l$W9 for
the fifty loading &sigm&m&j, tmvo of the fifty nr cmSm
mt&mimo with a cosMaed paid circulation of 36,11*1,936 or
J2!i per cent of the total tzmlatk* o all fifty mgmixmu
Itt addition to the candes ms the oircsflation of fire other
cpeeilmahle ssagaalnes whose circulation wee 7,539,609 or 6*8
per cent of the total# this gires & ooeshiMjd perewstage of
possibly questionable reading of 39*2 per cent# the other
sag&sjjies mami j y laassO fro tadHeM to aooept*
aK*ott fjjo iroyiotioo of the entire group is
111,1*37,01}.?* Sim there ere COCSTiiS of ¡gtXJr mogate * *.hn
those neat in this list, it rarely eaimot be desle that the
sericacs public met he reeding a great deal, or at least buy
lag reeding materials, be they good, bad, or indifferoat#
iith the foregoing asaeap&isa that reading is mjcr
recreational activity generally accepted, by a heaters, it be
<$* issperailve that a &in objective la the of
literature be the direction and tie eleeatica of interests
and tastes in reading, in order' that the indlvidaal who set
ussSk. h- jy reading selections fro the vdmsiswKie ray*** of
printed material say he able to discriminate aiaaog too good,
the worthless, and the detrimental, asking Me choices so wise-
2
dofca Moran, Editor, Informtiou Please Alaanac, Hear
fork* Farrar, Stems, aad bosp&ny, IbE^' p*B6.'


9k
throe-fourihs of the tools road in arts fey tbs girls will be road
fey the senior high school grates* Table 12 show 0 seen higher
number that would be read by senior hi# school bops* The sBher
of books aijosi doubles £mm the tenth to the eleventh grade and
is practically the sasae matter in the two highest grades*
The date la this chapter asm to indicate that both boys*
end girls* interest in general fiction increases in successive
grades throughout the secondary school years, moept with the
eighth grade boys, here there is a three per cent decrease fron
the seventh grade* Girls* interest, in adventure stories is far
less than that of the boys* The decline in interest in adventure
stories is evident 1th both sexes in successive grades except
the girls* ninth grade, here interest is greater than in the
eighth grade* mSmi stories are popular 1th the junior high
school boys tut show fast declining interest in the senior M#
school grades* The decrease in interest in aeiiisal stories is
shorn in each of the girls* grades, with the gre&tevt decreases
shown In the ninth and the eleventh grades* Biography nd auto*
biography how little change- by grades or sees although sore is
read in the senior high than in the Junior high grades, and
slightly atore by the boys then by -the girls in each grade* Has
interest in systery stories shews a rapid decline with toe girls
and a sore gradual decline In tie boys* reading* The girls read
acre of this type than the boys in the Junior hi# school grades
and 1em than they do in the senior hi# school grados* A good


87
%
Percentages by Grades for Boys and
Girls' Reading in Adventure
Fie. 11


86
/o
Gradl
PERCENTAGES BY GraDE-S FOR BoYS1 AND
Girls' Reading of Animal Stories
Fig. 10


63
%
Percentage, of Each Type. Book Read
to Grand Total
Fie. 5


al*
possibly happen to es Aserto boy* this finding corroborates
Jordon*s conclusion given earlior its this chapter tot blags?-
phy to && read. mm% be written in to icsm of an waiting story#
Cleary enacted# that *tws of to et significant totee te
flaenoing children* reading interests are accessibility of
mterial and intelligent sapervioioa ami guidance* Oar .Job then
is to provide, m far a possible, both these faster for all
chilcmi*1*^
fho footer of aoeeaadMlitf was stressed also In the
teiite Bsa@ donferacc report on reading* the oomaittee £oaa
that ohil<£rm will read that which toy sen get easily* Timt
tore in plenty of poor material era readily acosssiblo than
goc is to implication of tee report* that tore Is ¡ftsotgr of
sateitel-gcod, bad, ad definite, since, say
to report, is 1928 <^e-#reistli of all to published bodes were
jxmmites# It found parallel interests in boy* and girls* read
ing until mm ttmy diverged, to boys leaning to
ward to scientific atad tofenical and to girls leaning toward
scsittont aid remito* to ooaaibt on reading believes that
to probtea of premting ijaod reading noag tamtam children is
show wythSas else, a problem of mking good readir tter
9
mmmibl&m"
8Xbte., p. 126.
Q
'hit douse conference m Child ffcalth and Protection,
Children Heading, .new larks i* Appletj^Ccntary Coeapaisy, 1932,


60
on comparative religions in the twelfth grade* The coarse was
quite popular and caused the consider able amount of reading on
that subject.
The miscellaneous group ranks sixth in the types of reach
ing done by all the hoys and girls in the study* as is shown is
Table 5* This table also shows the rank of 11 the other types,
the number of books read is each category, and the percentage of
types, read by each sex, of the total reacting* The total of
each type is shown by sex and for the entire group of pupils.
This table shows that the girls read meare than two and one-half
times the amount of general fiction that the boys read* This is
just the reverse with the adventure stories, with the boys read
ing mere than twice as much as toe girls to this category* Gener
al fiction ranks first with the girls by a large percentage, with
adventure ranking second* with toe boys, adventure outranks gen
eral fiction by a mere 1.1 per cent. Animal stories rank third,
and biography and autobiography rank fourth, with both boys and
girls* As is readily seen to Calato 10 of the table, general fic
tion is the major reading field of toe entire group with l*0? per
coat of to total reading in this category. It say be well to
reaesaber that five other groups are fiction also, and when these
are totaled, as they will be later to this chapter, fiction over
whelmingly leads to type of reading for toe group. The reading
to the other categories is pretty well scattered, with occupations


157
66.
67*
6a*
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
?i*.
75*
76.
r/.
76.
Puntee, Ranald E# "The Bam m Adcftesoent mmtixig Itetarwfc*,*
School Review* XLV (Oetoher, 1937), 612*620
Rankin, Marie.
Mo. GooSr
Childress Xr&arest^ia lAfarayy^Hooks of^glc^
SiVSWH
#
feaSsera College, Columbia University, 19hk*
{aeche, William F* *lietfcod Fapleycd to Stimulate Interests la
Reading,* School Mm, mm (Jamary-Asril. 1929).
29-36 12b-33DC* 293-303.
Marti, 0* 1*, mm Bawls, Robert A* Reeding interest of
Teachers,* Educational Ackainistration and iMpervistm.
m (^bmiy7Wj;iaro' *
Roper, Elmo. *Tfee Fortune Survey* the Peopled Teats* in
Movies am Bootes, Fortune. XXXIX (March, 19h9), 39-Ui*
Roeenbaua, liar tena L Th Motivation of library Reading
Through Cosaf eresne Periods,*' Mneattenal Reae l-txiletla,
XX {February, 1939), TX-Vk* KaiS^oo, !eugam xsl£
era State Teachers College.
Rothney, John W* il. "Interest of Public Beoor4ary*6chocl
Baya. Journal of Educational Psychology, XXVIH imvm
Rothney, John a* 14., trh MoGaoL, Robert 1* Reading Prefer-
no of the Rich School Boys* The kogUab Journal
(high school edition), 22HX (OotS^7TOT7^S3B5o.
Royster, Sallfb&tle* "Reading Tastos of Tselfth-Orad Papila,"
laducatioa. Ufl (February, 1936), 369-371*
Schooner, Rath C "Be Case for Volcaino&s seeding," The
English Journal (high school edition)* JEHttX (February.
to; was:
slrnttlaworth, Frank K "A Critical Study of Two lints of Beet
Bootee for Children, (Ranatic Pagnbclegy Memomw)fee* SI
(April, 1932), 21*7^
Sfcitli, sera V* "Stlraalating Interest end Appreciation Through
Heading* ilaaaotary English Review* XVIX (say* 19h0),
171-175. ~
Standard Catalog
sr
SH
ilacn Soepeiiy, 19li7*
for High School libraries* A Selected Catalog
Esr^rnimi^-TmT&w WaBrsr**


osity is being atlsileu. Bat there are evidently aaay ether
good books* neither reference mat fiction* which are not being
used in mmy of the libraries* If neither teachers nor librar
ians can interest pupils in reading sere in the arte* in social
studies* Is oocapationa, In history* and in other non-fictiim
fields* would it be ore to the point to order fewer of those
type# and relatively acre fietiaal Or* are sufficient efforts
being ande to interest pupils in reading types other than no
tion? It is beyond the oops of this study to answer them quse-
ticos* but answers may be possible In futuro studies*
lbs bar graph in Figure 3 shows graphically the percent
age of fiction vetoes In each library an given ill Coloran U*
falle 2*
The percentages of fiction and non-fiction reading by
grades m ms for the entire group in the study ware calculated
and are shown in fable 3* Th&re Is a constant and considerable
torease in the reading of oenH&et&aci In each saeeeaelve graces
for both soases* the highest point is reached by the twelfth
.grade boys* who outrank tbs twelfth grade girls in non-fiction
reading by opgroadsBately six per cant* In every grads* iron tbs
seventh 'through tbs twelfth the boys load in the reeding of non
fiction by 'three to six. per cent* this probably Indicates that
the boys* reading is of a slightly mom serious ateare too the
girls* reading* The figures in this table are a good starting
point iron which teachers and librarians eight attempt the time-


samots pmiatmim vs tm stirr $vm
mm& tmsmmi- in e&os
Alocua High School, Alachua
7 8 9 1011 12
Daff County High rchool, Panama City
9 10 11 12
Bradenton Junior High school, Bractenton
7-8-9
iruaaand Park Hoetantary i hod,
Panana City
7-8
Fort anderclale £i# School,
Fort Lauderdale
7 8 9 lo 11 12
loa 1* Piafter Junior High School
Sliaai each
7-8-9
Lakeland Hi# School Lakeland
7-8 9 10-11 12
Manatee County Hi# i cnodL, Bradenioti
10 11 12
Plmai senior m# School, Mai
10 11 12
Orlando senior Hi# Loboal, -Criando
10-11-12
Pasco County High School, tm* City
9 10 1112
P. K Tongo laboratory fchod
Gainesville
7-6-9 10 -11-12
Putoan County Hi# school Pal&tfca
7-8-9 io B. 12
Seafcreeae Higii School,
Baytona Beach
7-8-9-10-11-12
winter Haven Hi# School Winter Haven
7-S 9 -30-11-12
Seventh, eighth, ana ninth gx
the tenth grade cards at this school*
*ad records were tatos JCToa


Judging tesa these percentages* the boys3 reading is sonsshat
saare diversified than the girls* reaping By this table it is
seen alee that boys read stare biography* aere science* and mm
a
history and geography than the girls de Jordan** study aim
showed that boys read sacre biography, science, and history then
girls do* His conclusion that biography to he popular mat be
witten in the fare of an sotting story could probably be said
to be true in tele present study* sinos ¡cost of the biographies
listed were of an adventurous nature* One popular biography was
an exciting sports story* as it rsweXes the life of & profes
sional baseball player*
In this study* only four biographiee wade the lists of
3
the fifteen books suet often read in each participating school*
Curtain Going Up. a novelised fora of the life of Katherine
Cornell* nade the list in a large Junior hi# school* and l?&rk
Twain ess on the list of a large junior-sooior hi# school*
jadas Curie and Trahan Mneeto ere both on the list of sir
other rather large Juaior-eenior hi# school* Tbs hairsaaa of
the IdgLieh deporbswat of this" school mM that about three yews
ago the English, teachers had decided Hint perhaps the pupils traaM
do ware reading in a free than in a required reading prograa| so
9
Jordan* (&ildraag interest in j&Mdfna
ihom) tables are given in the lipendis*


39* Joint OwnibtM or toe Aaeriean Wsamy Association, toe na
tional Education Association, and to S&ttonal Council
of Teachers o lOgXiab* Qtmm blot of Books Or C-falX*
dmu Chicago* Asm^can" library ^oSaHositV
hQ* Jordan, Arthur si* CUdJUireas I&tcresta io ieadiijg* Contri-
boticas to Mucatioa, nbrlo7' Le? Xor¥*r faobiMi
college, Qoluafcia University, 1921*
hi* Jordan, Arthur M* "Chiloren1 Interests in Eeacing, iii^h
School Journal XX? (liovcaber, oea&er, 19h2), 333*130.
h2* Jordan, Arthur M* Beading Interests," Proooedii^ of toe
Ltional Station AwociatK* mSTTCffiJnSSgK.
h3* Rieran, John, (editor}* Ittfqrmtiao Lease ajaanac* Rsnr fork*
Farrar, Straaae and KfflpSy,'" 1*
hU.
la Brant,
Too,
Loo L*
'Haven
Sdiisahus*
An Fvaluatioo
aria SE3E55T
of
toe ffree
iuaCe
University, 1936*
US* La Brant, Lon L, and Heller, Frieda M* An Evaluation of Free
Beading in Opadas Seven to Teelv* 'Xneids&v. 'l/rau-iatie'1
^lool soirleiir'io*"'"^ SoSSimss"'&¡s Univer
sity, 1939.
li* Lacy, Bessie Sibbfcy* r.svHoplng Love of Irisare Boasting,0
Rational Education Association Journal* MTJIXX (April#
ror;"2rasc^
k? iawpene, Arta F* Let toe Recoma Speak for to Kswbezy
1100408, SlesHaatary milito imm* XIX (October, 19h2),
&0i-205*
l$* Xatoe# Charles 11*, Jr. Ere Reading in Evansville," Matiegas
Schools. XXII (august, 1933), 21-22*
ii9* Lassar, Isay* Beading Interests of Children* CkmtributioBS to
HeSr'Torki Teachers College, Colua-
bia University, 1937.
§0* Leary, Bernice E* What Ices Bomarch say About Heading:?'*
Journal of Maeational Research* XXXIX (February, 191*5),
91* Leiotiko, L* II* Inventory of ahat Children folunfiarily Se
lect to BoacE** Slesamtary had Journal* XXXVXXZ (Seo-
teober, 1936), 1&%F. ^


7
of boato to satisfy every interest ate level of ability cm
teifeb expect to find ia a school* If tho school library can
contribute a full aeasure Urnm satisfying th interest do*
ranas of tee pupils site bodes of really excellent literary
writ, it ralas to te dstensiacd if. tee pqpU ill still
give a such of hi to tee reading of coates and other
loss wrtliy literaiore* Om of tee criticises levied at Jew
nil bode is teat tee bock etiiflfe tli child mm& to find most
interesting lacks literary swarit, am the one that is act
beautifully mivtm lacks Quite interest* Barely, literary
writ and. chile interest can be corabiute by sew of the really
good writers of children* ted*
As a child steres, hi interests should sature alte*
\
ihat are the intereets teat attract pupils in the various grade
\
m by their orcim of school library ted? This
is cm of the saajor jaeafciosss ahich arcs in tel study* Sow
*
others hid: this tody hopes to moer in so far as It data
or oomorm fettle*
1* Are changes in the choices gradad nr sudd with
either && v
a* bo choleas hang site the tiaca? For instan,
arc there best Her for children m ter adulta?
re pupils resoing tea am books today teat their
parents ate possibly their greteparent read, ua*
lacs tecs be# up prescribed? Tm old favorite


m
near experiences by co&btotog past orne with tsm mm enables too
pupil to "appreciate1 ant* met to enalto with further raasiing*
8e tlaas feceasjos m^ix&od with planee, past reata countries,
people* custom, music* art, crasa, and mm&mm lser fields
which are lose*.) to ti person who depende entirely upon first-
hand xpertonosa** The pupil mm .get each vicarious experiences
through, the organises study of literature or' to hie voluntary
reading* kogee saggesta that i&cdero aterais be used for the
toglib literature courses
thorn lays such stress on the personality of the teacher
to toe dwalopaent of appreciation of literature* It must be
freely admitted yet again tost toe alttoate oemtrolltog fore
to to tflttshtog of literature is the personality of the teacher*
A teacher too lacks force and magnetism esay follow the very
safest guides and principle md still fail; Ml a teacher of
ooMaaMing individuality say neglect tose vary sase guides and
principles and, by ti very power of hla genii** succeed with any
$
book that he selects and by any stood that im auopts, fin would
todicat tost adstoistratars should select teasers sito personality
as ell as certification requirement* a protolea totofc they can
not always solve to this day' of teaeter shortage# It should
j*
Charles Swain Tnmuw$ fttmakim of toglito to the
gocondary school* Boato* H.otg)itca-rr'l5l!f,iii ScSpany,"'X9&T,rp*
S1. --r-rtn-


ccrds tuero usad* Tim estimated circulation for Caddie aoodlawp
and strawberry Girl is appraslmtely three iis&s the atjabr of
readings as taken fit tie records, Sastey is less than felice the
atiabar w.doh ¡aay be plained by the reason given abovetii&t
sos copies liad besa lost. Call It Courage has elijhtly sore tban
twice the nashear taken fros the reading records. Per 'the other
books* there secas to be no definite pattern fres the reading re
cords ocuLuan to the estimated circulation colusai* in sons cases
the estimated circulation is far acre than three times the readily
records column and in other cases far less. There as no record,
of any pupil*o having read rdbgy last year. The record for (mini
Boons was ispoaalbie to find* 'ase libraries had several dif
ferent biographies of Boot and pupils listed then by title only,
in most cases. If the esblmtm circula tied is considered ti
more accurate figure for popularity* rich it probably is not*
not stare than the first three hooka ouid nave jaate Tablea 13 and
XU of the books most often reed in this study, to book was listed
on either of those tables that had bean ros by less than forty-
five pupils* which jsulttplied by three, to take are of all re
cords* mould have meant being road by 13$ pupils. Considering
the estimated circulation alone* it would aeoa that Johnny Tresaain.
Adas* of toe Hoad* and The abite Staff could 1 considered ia the
list of the more popular of 9 Keafoery Medal books.
The grade dassiiication of the Sewbery bocks as given is
the table were taken from the Children s .latalo^ ami £rm the list


The war and defense stories gjroap ism ineladed bmmm of the
ouabws of stories, both feet and iio&oa, Waiah deawlapad firm
tb& resent world conflict, and are still being read* A good
deal of the lotion in tMs group was basec on fbets and was clas
sified in this group raider then in general fiction because of
its definite war tbese* Shatter each stories can bo considered
as seasonal or bobber they will be read after a few years of
pesos regain to be seen* !ib group in occupations was isscludod
because ilortsia baa boas trying recently to introuae troeat&ttBal
guldanoe into its school progresa* The Bureon of Manates! Re-
leer ah of the Uniwwraity of fttar&tift is aapaolally latarirtwi in
tecadng if any reading is being done in this field by oeeajtsry
school papila*
- all titles that did not fall naturally into any other
group ware placed in the cdjoallaasou# ircq?* All books on so
cial atedias, for instance, axoept tase of Motory end geography
were- placed in the wieeellany in the eXwventh and taelffeh
grades, a' good any books on sociology, paysJw&ogy, philosophy,
soornados, and religion were read, but not in aaffietmt- ejaaati-
ties to warrant asking a separate daasification for tbeaf so
these atm mm panned in the eisedinnesas oatc^cwy* In odd
school, the tsnbr of books m religion listed on the records asan
sufficiently nusaeroue to cause the alter to inquire the possible
reason for it* It was b&smm tbs school gars an lectisw course


tlsetrs ia a tourist city and their pupils bm& anoto ncoarageseat
to otter recreaticmX stivitles than reading*
. In am school the social staples teacher a seeking m
attest# ami see&ead to be succeeding rather wsH, to intercat
ter pupils in books that wouM contribute a great deal to their
fund of information and at the mm tira gire picaste in the
reading* She had book lists in coder of thane* and toy countries,
for her pupils; she had book talks by pupils who had found sons
book especially interesting; and die reed occasional chapters
la class to arouse interest* 53 was a dynasaic person, as
through steer personality aimed to toe leading ter papila into
profitable spertmaes through their reading* this achoca ranted
ninth ia swaps pupil reeding*
Besides instances of Btitaiing reeding interests al
ready owntioned, librarians suggested tote %¡m of posters isads by
pupils, Illustrating titles or incitiesits in books; the posting
of book jacket of mm boato, or the displaying of ootUeeCed
jackets os eosse particular abject or occasion; the posting of
vario types of book listos the arranging of special shelves;
ti observing of special occasions; the display of new books in
various clasarooas; the giving of assembly programs of book in*
tweets; and otter device* Qm library dab presented for book
week a play that ted been written and as directed by a pupil*
She had storybook cfiaracters coa to life at the stroke of raid


umpus n
data fit rm or &m)xmp am% aw sm
Heading ma tabulated for each grade and se* aeeavultig
to the olaosifieaiiona discussed la the praowdjns chapter# ibis
os iof to fina aasacar# to the question!
1# ihat are the interests i the various grados*
2* re tajeare ex differences la interests in successive
grades, or la quantity or quality of racing?
3 Are interest changes gradual or sudden in any grade
or with either waff
the total reading for each grade in each category is
given for boye in table ? The order of classification in the
first column ia given according to its rank in the total reading
of the sex# It i seen by this table that adventure stories rank
first for the entire group and hole first placo by grados frota
the seventh through the tenth, and the fall to secoua place in
the eleventh anu twelfth grades# This order is exactly reversed
for general fiction# This probably adosa mrely a maturing of
interests in the upper prados# The eleventh am twelfth grades
listed store titles of fiction that posed social *rei&B# and
sore contosapcrary best seUere or those of a few years ago#
Muca of the adventure read by all pupil* mm of a juvenile type#
It is possible that adult adventure stories nay not have bom


be a challenge to prospective teachers to do all they cm to
develop their personalities while to training, as wall as to
develop their possers of stethoda of toaafttog*
7 6
^ the Caao&tte of Jmauage Art of th i&tiaaal Society
for the Study of Education giros a number of conclusiona dram
frese scientific studies to reading iatcrosta*
lm Beading ia ispartaat froa a sociological standpoint*
It contributes to good oitts&aahip$ to personal and
social adjustaent, to vocational success, sod other
social factors*
2* Beading tastes cm be directed* Children like con
temporary literature mid cones closely related to
thedr lives*
3# Interests can be cultivated by extensivo, not toter-
slvs reading* Pupil chosen mteriala from m aban
dance of wall selected good materials are important
to the developtsent of reading totereata*
h* ftm reading sttoalates thinking*
?
Grey gives a brief history of the growth of interest
and appreciation to reading, and says that the boys and girls of
...-a..-,...
National ;,.ociety for the Study of Mmctitm, fhe use*
mittee oa Language aria, "famdtog,* Revie# of Mucatioml 8e-
search* 1 {April, l?liO), 7SN106*
?
William t'i-ns C*3TS^Tjjf *. Of XS&S&tiiJJf
In Reading,* EXmita^..liiipLij8h X?XI (Af*t£* Wh&)9 139**
lii3*


m twelfth gvmm popile haw reas- then i earlier grades.
The Call of tea fild is ta only a?dal bar? that rsaalned ob
the bays* lists of books amt often rosa through each girase#
It is really gratifying to find biography as high on the
lists as it la* It ranks fourth for the entire group of boya
(and for both boys and gin i the co&plebe study) and ranges
fms third, place in the eleventh grade to sixth, place in the
eighth grade. Hi par ccxit ranges fresa nine in the total read
ing of the eleventh grade to six 1 the eighth grace, the Meat
fork study1 stated that biography increased in popularity from
the ninth, grade to the first sessasfeer of the twelfth, the
finding in this present study is slcrllar for the bey except
that the tenth grade readier of biography is slightly less than
that of the ninth grads.
Hobbles and sports stories are liked best by eighth and
ninth grade boys, m is readily seen freer* the talie* there is
not rnsfa chango in this Interest throughout the high school
.years. It increases slightly in suocestsive Junior M# school
grades then decreases gradually in- the senior high school
eradas
lar and defense stories ore road slightly ore by the
tsalith grade toys than ty others, although the Math grade per*
\ew fork City Association of Teachers of English,
ve./ of leisure aeadte in Typical High pchoolg o.f teu fork


carat *
otersbis Af mmi&m. by ?ms of books
first step in tabulating the data collected f*oa each
school as to classify the various titles fey types* when tas
books read by the first two schools fra which records were tale-
an were checked, the titles eeaaea to fall naturally loto tbs
following types* (1) general fiction, (a) adventure, (3) apiary
sou detective stories, (1) aalsaal stories, (§) career fiction,
(6> hobbies and sports stories, (?) biography and aatcfclcgrapiiy,
() science, (9) fairy talco, folklore sad nythcOogy, (ID) the
arte, (11) history and geography, (12) war and defense stories,
(13) honor, (lit) occupation, anti (15) aisoellacy* The first
six groups are fiction, 4th general ftotim containing all
those titles that could not bo placed in the other fiction cate
gories* Tfie general fiction consists chiefly- of light novele
dealing with a raaantlc thesae, serious novels presenting nodal,
payuhc&ogioel, or other serious freblsae, and tos books ooascnr
3y known as girls* boote which tell of £mSly and school life*
It includes' classics of the nineteenth century end %
works of notion theoagh the best sellers of this decade* The
arts grasp contains all the drama, both old and oodem, the. poetry,
classic prose, and any books on painting, sculpture, and mole#


mmm i
wmountm mu mmomm
Any study made an any phase of toe development of chil
dren should have soae meanings for aincatorathe adairsiatrabor*
toe teacher, toe librarian*
la a study such as this certain things stand oat as im
portant items* If a chile is to like reading as a leisure time
activity, an obvious necessity is that Si m&t be able to read*
this is a first requisite in to devetcpsent of reading interests.
His interest may be killed early in his ¡school life by an insist
ence that be read materials of too great vocabulary difficulty
for hi* or ¡mieriata in which too experience are too far removed
fro his mo* 0m school in tills tody has a distinct and de
finite program in toe teaching of reading and toe development of
reading interests and appreciatioeis through the use of easy a1*
tarials and. familiar experiences. the children arc being di
rected in their reading in such a way that reading is becoming
a delightful experience instead of a tiresome task imposed by
too teachers.
tensan and Lima* suggest, that toe task of developing
good reading habits requires a wide tewelodge of books suitable
anti Lima children*a s##*!*^*
113


/o
LIBRARIES
Percentage of Fiction Volumes to Total
Volumes in Libraries
Fig. 3


TAELS 38
TYPES OF B9QSS RIM) BT GMSE AHD SKX IK SCHOOL I
Types
7

9
10
11
12
Total
Grand
Total
-
G
B
, G
a
G
B
0
S
3
0
i
B
G
Fiction
1X6
100
110
m
107
18?
23
118
39
U3
12
18
Jhl2
811
1,223
Mvca#i Trawl
9U
ko
UtO
81*
117
38
20
16
Hi
8
10
3
390
189
08k
Hature
8k
32
66
02
70
20
16
2k
10
3
2
3
266
168
832
Miacc&Xaneoue
12
10
16
30
18
70
k
2k
6
U
3
6
61
101
212
Mystsryj Detect*
17
20
30
30
31
20
5
17
8
3
1
1
92
96
388
gjgfagWl
X?
18
3k
68
12
7
3
7
0
1
1
1
6?
102
169
Siograffcar
X6
U
hk
30
9
6
2
1
10
6
1
1
82
03
135
Career Fiction
X
16
1
3U
U
20
2
9
0
3
0
1
8
S3
91
History* Qecg*
u
3
k
0
7
1*
k
13
15
20
2
1
36
86
62
MCbbies* aporte
10
3
20
10
15
u
6
2
k
0
1
1
06
20
76
Arta
X
3
1
11
3
6
3
11
12
9
2
2*
22
y*
66
efenaei ar
10
1
10
0
8
1
2
2
3
1
1
0
38
10
kk
Susto?
3
6
3
2
1
2
1
1
0
1*
1
1
Ik
16
30
Folk Lore
6
1
1
1
1*
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
11
3
lit
Occupationa
h
1
1
X
0
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
6
?
n
Total
390
321
008
689
U06 388
92
2ii2
126
112
37
kl
1*068
1*793
3,307


m
this generation arc fortunate that so miry good books are writ
ten to appeal to their interests* He deplores the Mot that in
sorae schools children are restricted to a selected list of books
which often prevente a pipil fresa satisfying desirable curiosi
ties md interests ttiat arc. red and compelling.* 'He suggests
that teachers boome ^mntdm&as students of the characteristics*
interests* and needs of their pupils; that they become widely
familiar with children* literature** According to studies asado
he thinks appreciation md tastes of children remain at a dis
appointingly low level.'7
Thom tmpltmtims from other studios could wall have
OQBti^ f5p3 this one- aniisui. Otiusm by this ststy fallo*?*
the pupils in tisis study read enough biography to stake It
rank fourth place is th* fifteen different types of reading#
Further stlaeilation to the reading, of biography and autobiography
could be asado by the selection of interesting ea that tell a
good story and at the mm tia are InspimtionaX to children*
Such select!* could well be aane by the various abject matter
teachers of lives of persons faianim in their particular
fields*
Tm lour ranking place of the arts should be a challen#*
particularly to the Itaglish teachers* to try to stimulate interest
in the reading, of poetry* plays* and the classics* Pupils do not
set to like such reading as a rule* and the dislike mist be
caused by the method of i^rcscntatico* or the lack of judgment in


79
cental alaost goals that of it* twelfth grade* One reason for
ti^e twelfth gratis reading 1 tide field asay have beca that this
group as rapidly approaching the age of military service* An
other reason stay have been that the adventure la such aterios i&
considerably score saatore than the Juvenile adventare of earlier
years*
Interest in oyatery and detective stories gradually de
dlm fresa 8*1 per cent of t seventh erad boys* total reading
to 2*1 per eat of the twelfth pede boys* total reading# AS*
oordiog to a current survey of adult reading and aerie interests
2
nado by Fortune ^¡asiao* this interest ssjst accelerate again
after the student leaves high school* The survey found systery
the loading interest of sen, vdth 29 per omt of then preferring
this type of reading and 1.
the eleventh and twelfth grads boys reed a great deal
sore than the other grades In the group of ssiscellaay# A good
many boots of philosophy, psychology, sociology, sdenoeies, and
political theory wars in this group# All the other oans
are vary los* Boom of these will be aoatlfinad later in a cesa
parlaos of the boys* and girls* reading*
fables 9 and 10 mm the wmm itkforsatian coaosrniag the
girls* reading that fables ? and 8 did for the boys* reading# As
'Has hoper, Sao Fortes survey* the Peoples Taste in
Mies and Books, Fortes* mu (Harsh, 1989), 39-88#


muE 2$
rmm mas mz optrn mw m se os a, b, m. c
School A
School B
School Q
Best Short atoarlos
Tcm Lawyer
Inst ososstsr
A Tal of Two Cities
Lassie ue Horn
fbe Lob
Shakespeare1^ Complete Ork
foilyanna
seventeenth sussssr
0*eilla Nine Play*
isurrioan Treasure
rlack stallion
Beet Plays of 191+>4U
Seventeenth Earner
Black, stallion Returns
Ruthes* Heists
Junior Mies
spike of swift Liver
Oreen idphin Street
Sun Star mxl Pepper
Salute
The Scarlet tetter
Strawberry f-lrl
ti.rates of Icy Strait
tetters to Cusan
tittle osen
Shanghai Passage
Merchant of ?enic
Mies -Inerva and '.-lillas
-Silver
Green 'Mmime
Creen Hill
Stand fast anti Reply
Si Barton superintendent
Silver Cldef
They ¡ re Expendable
of Curses
iiuckleberry Vim
fea bilcate!
fiarte* wtorios of the )ld
Mark twain
Pair Adventure
: laab*s Hales fro Shakes
peare
Tees of the Urbervilles
TSie fearliag
Hie Bobbsey Twins
Thirty Fathesns : cep


Ill
tlcally all the hocte are good for their age level* Shi ie
probably osamm all these saiiMft&tMS were sett fre ached li
braries, which* as a rale* select only approved books far their
readers*
She books read most often Jy the sewsath* eighth* and
riat& grade girls are listed in Table 19* Ti twenty-six books
read by twelve or sor seventh grade girl Tall into the follow-
i% categories* t light fiotiesa books, five mdbaeH stories*
five oyat&rles* on story o' advwatare* three of career fiction,
and two biographies* f?y having two biographies in their list*
the seventh grade girl lift their sex from the reproach of hav
ing no biography listed in their most-often-read grade lists.
AH the boys' lists had one or more. Tom Sawyer is the only
boys' book that appears in the seventh grade list and it is not in
any of the other girls7 grade lists* Wmh&p this grade narks
the last of the general interest in boys* books* heeevsr* a few
tota-b'Cyish girls* book are read through the tmth grade*
The eighth grade list shows a rise in light sad carear
fiction -with a decrease in afcaol and. sgsteaey stories* Of the
tooaty-sv<5u books listad* read fey fourteen or sore girls* there
are fourteen of general fiction* only o of which could be con
sidered sesioaaf six of carear fietioaj three aniaol stariesj two
aystory stories} one advenfcuref end one Xegend. the last naaed
is classified coder foll&ore in the type listed* Ibis grad


23
slusiis said they were saoal hspreasod ife fe objectivity of
im fiaste presentad* la fcdLsh siafemat 1 fe iaplioa&m that.
amn&^em vem la aooi Mili sight lst vastly different if
fe data ww objmtlvely stained* gasseror, they aasaarla froa
fee ilndiags* (2) that biography* aistwy r eligios* and travel
iw sail appeal for fey afe girl ala# fe thirteen year of
ag (2) that olmo interest oidor children} afe O) feat
girl aove a mrrwm* rang of Interest than boya#
the finding m glvm in the-ae foor sbm&es are tfei a
fe variations, fe findings of aosi of fe pMlabod stmilea#
Xt my fe ail to moticei soca individual finding rafear fe#
afear tsrwya*
?
deary got bar data by keeping a record of look read
in the seventh and eighth grade for four weeks and by sing a
ipssbioemir# .fee found that 93*6 per sent of all reading dona
a Ustin a#T per eoat ms biograi&y* 2.S per cent m acianoe,
fe lux per eat aaa travel poetry* and fee fina via# Of fea
biography read* ey four title re aentioQed five Unes or
swire* They were Sisifalo BUI# lanaled. Boma# mwim of fttiXiitom*
and ja* 2!*& of these a definitely adventure atarle to fee
children end mt wrely live of reel prfee# je is Joat a
biographical phase of one of fee greatest advonfcare feat could




TABLE 18
books m>T asms %m> nx bos m grades mi$ mmm9 m- twelve
3Q
The Iron Puke
iistum of Silver Chief
The Gall of the Wild
AH siertoaa
Captains Courageous
Ufe With Father
Seven Who Cose Through
Silver Chief to the Rescue
The Adventures of herlock
frrltirri
loo Gehrig
White Fang
fea wildcatsJ
i&okle&arry Fina
fiurriaan leather
f he Jinx Ship
Lassie* Gone liens
Silver Chief
Saoky* the aowhoras
Tbuaderhead
Treasure island
tins Tcung Trailers
31
Short stories
The Call of the wild
A United States History
Moby h ick
The Doeralaywr
Hurric-ar.0 Weather
Ufe Kith Father
Lou Gehrig
12
k Tale of Two Cities
Pride and Prejudice
itorioan eathcr
Captain flood
Merchant of Venice
Oliver Twist
The Call of the ild
Lou Gehrig
The Robs
The Sea Mdf
Buccaneers and Pirates of Our
Coast
The Adventures of Sherlock
!o3am
Gheanault of the Flying Tigers
Her Is four


n
Tatiim IX aai 12 dim Urn average reading* reduced to a
basis of 100* in each field by grade and oesc* These tables show
ti rise or deoSLIas of reading by types In each grade and far
each sex* Bart of the deeXin is the upper gradee i siaply bo*
cause of the greatly reduced asaust of rearing in all fields*
Far instant* of 800 twelfth grade records checked, the total of
bodes real as 3,77$j end of 827 ninth grade records checked, toe
total of books read ma 10,627, or nearly three tiesos sore than
the twelfth grads, for apppeedasstely toe mem masher of records*
Those tables simia be read as follows* Of every 100
books of adventuro, in the ratio that they were road in this
study, a seventh grads toy will read 27, an eighth grade boy sill
road 26, and so across the tails The tails for toe girls is
\
road in a like asonar* This type of table dime the ratio of read
ing by grade and sea if too naabers of readers in sato grade is
kept constant, and is useful chiefly to deteraine toe rise or fall
of quantity of reading*
The reading in sme fields resaioa smd& toe mm in each-
grade and for both boys and iris, as is shown in history and go
ography* and in huaor*
The arts group is too only one of the fifteen different
clasaif icatioos that rises rapidly in the senior high school
grades* There is a low figure in toe ninth grade in toe arts
category that tola study cannot espala* According to Tabla 11,




GlAPm u
mi (msmmm
lids study as ptennad to determino readlog Interests
of secondary school boys and girls through tfca&r cholees o
books teosa their tiool librarle* tfe atedy sa snide 1 £iP*
tem schools scattered teroughoub the otate o terda asid
emprima gradea sm terou-jti twelve# Too saetissa for obtaining
tea date m individual reading records which mre kept by
librar Ians or .nglieh teacher and which recorded all books
borrowed ira tee school library ns |wawtely read*
Xearly 5,00*} rceos were mmrn, a saa^llng which re~
presentes a total enrolisaeni of approximately 15,000 papila* 1
33 l/3 per cent rancio sa&plifg o te* iwm Ir each school i
probably adequate te determine te reading pattern in the school*
Ha oussaatioa o tee resulte will give tee pattern for tee entire
group* It te quite likely that tee addition of further sampling
to tee results as found 1 tiste study would not change tee re*
alts significantly*
One of tee phases of tee study ms to detemin tee
\
popularity in school Iterarlos of Use Joto SNswbary Medal mwd
books# the date for this part- of tee study war obtained from
an eetisaation of their ctecolaiioa aosoraii^ to tee book oaarti,
is addition to the asstear of tinea each book *as reported read
136


esmm n
amm m- muam smus
Ussy studies o reaiag Interests of chilares* have bee
le ii b past fifty years# bat sach a large aosiber of th*s
have ham o frapamtary that few final ameMm haw been
drarai* Tfti darter give a brief review of osae studies of a
nature similar to the present one*
In Ms outstanding study In 1921, Jordan*1 reviewed tfee
literature of readir interest studies fte the first rosily
worthwhile on in 169? up to 1920* ftMH&y all those pioneer
studies were based on gestiona such as S&at books have yoa
read? and *S&tsb did you like best?1* or on iim&niory lists for
the child to teals* A mmmi.mU.rn of Ms review shows that
ore notion 1 reat as! is batter liked ttesa say otter typo of
romlag* the boys prefer- fiction of trentarej the girls prefer
fiction of tenlisaeast and emotion, and they particularly are in
terested is stories of people lite theaaelves. Beys lite biog
raphy aid history tere than do girls* If girls reed biography
at all# they &&m to prefer that of worsen# interest of girls
in adventure, travel, and science is aleost negligible* As early
^ArHaa? m* Jordan, Children* Interest lr. Retejan* Go
tribatloR to Eduestdcn, H0*i6?, Tca^* fac3er do¡u*e,
Goiuntda Gaireraity, 1921*
9


ciititvm fin
Gsmuxim of smssj neda
Itore has bam a good deal of eoott&ammf cmr the re
caption of the John ¥Mw*ry Modal &mt books by the children
for bees they are supposed to have been written* A eiudy of
their circulation in public school libraries ms m&rtakm in
connection with this investigation to try to deteara&n their
¡xjpolarity in oaeparison 1th. other books aost often road*
Muoh to th surprise of the writer, it wm discovered in
oonvcraaticsn with sow .prospective teachers of Ih&lists that they
had not known the existence of such an arci* Smm teachers in
the field and mxm librarians do not rcogais the tit1m of the
prise books without eheofeliig a list of tbeau It is possible
that in this fact alone Hoe one of the reasons for their sup
posed unpopularity.
A brief hbrtaty of the Sedal say be werthskile. At a
laeetlng of the msram Library i&eoelatlan in Maesaotosstte,
Frederick telohar, then editor of Itabllshera iieokly heard a dis
cussion about children's books. He mggesteci and provided a
mdsl to the writing of worthwhile bod for children*
It is awarded each year by the Saetten for library erk with
Children of th Aaariean library Association* lelchcr timed the
ml for Joto Hensbery, an eighteenth century pioneer in the pab-
12a


SI
M# sAocfi> eaecept ose, had 3m aroragea* Fro tcheca. b* the
reeling reseeds far ths** hundred fifteen. seventh, eighth, ami
ninth grad# papila ere takso hit had heee recorded at one of
the two junior M|h setsools la that city. The average of the
junior high grade records ms nearly twice that of the senior
high group.
The too lowest ranking schools -are the tm largest
ior hi#i schools, fids sandy follows the findings of aany other
studies* that less reading is done is the upper grades of the
secondary school than in the earlier grades. One of the Is*
ranking schools ms om of the- largar junior-^cmiar high schools.
Its library ms H-staifed and had fine equipment, but tburn
smmm to he a %mmmm in the atmosphere rich may hot haws
bm conducive to ssich reading* It is possible that it ms try
ing to be too fftoteht in tssiaal routine at the expense of
good pupil-librarian relationships.
the three school# hit* in this writer* opinion, had
the best pu^l-Hbrarieri rapport ranked fourth, fifth, and sixth
places in the average number of books read* The school ahit
ranked fourth Is in an industrial center* It is a senior high
school sit four grades* There as sor of a fatally atmosphere* 1
in this library than is ewte! in ease families* The fear
library rules ware- those of necessity focad Is say library* At
so Um as any pupil observed to take advantage of the librar-


52
m*B absence, r t absorption of her aitsntioo la soae prob
lem* lilis library as loft pea and unattended at the lunch
hour, but the librarian said that the library soldo lossi a
book* She said that the pupils seeded to fool that the library
me theirs, and that they had dev&Lopea a responsibility for,
arid a pride in, keeping things la order*
Hie school ranking fifth hod a new librarian, a issn, the
oily saaa librarian in any of the participating schools* In the
short time lie had been is tfee library, he had developed very de
sirable relationships with his pupils* lie could not, however,
have been in any my respossibls for the amount of reading re
corded, since they ere last years records* Perhaps the ground-
work for Ms easing success had been laid by his predecessor*
IMs school ms a juMer-sesior hi# school*
the school ranging sixth t@as a junior high school. It
librarian nm enthusiastic about her work &m was surrounded by
videne that she ms trying to encourage pupils to read* She
ms nema? too busy to give individual attention to a pupil*s
cjucsticB^* In triia school, also, a ell-plarin&j reading prograo
for appreciation ms being carried m la the eighth grade with a
specially trained teacher in charge* Pupils slow of ^aprehen
sin, and those sho just did net like to read ere being ao-
eouragea and guided in their reading* flic taaher# a:d librar
ian felt that they 'tare making progress despite the fact that


85
Boys
Grade
Percentages by Grades for Boys' and
Girls' Reading in General Fiction
Fig. 9


26.
156
Fierid& state r^sartsmst of Mueatlen* State Minted library
Books for florida sciools* r'uliet'IHlor*f/* " aX'l'aiiaasee,
sarasas~~
27* FriedMs, ftgppl* C., and Kesasek, Claude 1. "A Survey of Head
ing Interest Studies." ducation, L?XI (September, 1936).
51-#.
28. Gates, Arthur I* "frontiers in JMueatiaaal Resetocch in Head
ing," Journal of Educational Research, XL {Jamary.
mh m=m: -
29* Goldsmith, Sophie L* "Ten fears of the HaVbsry Sedal, Boote
aaa, iXUV (Xovesiber, 1931), 308-316.
30. Gray, slillas S* Heading, Levies? of Educational Research,
I (seeeober, 1931), 32>^|133=5557
31# Grey, SUUae s. Sumar y of Beading Xnvest^alions, July 1,
1939 to June 30, 1960," Journal of rdueationai Research,
XXXI? (February, 1961), ii^RIST-
32* Gray, Hlia ft "Growth of Interest and Appreciation in lead
ing," almentary impish Ievlev. XVII (April. I960).
132-163*:
33. Hancock, Arthur s* "Largo-Group Laatruotion-A Lecture-iilrary
Etoerlront in Beading* Lchool Keviev, XLVX (lletraafcer*
1938), 696-700.
in the Junior High School#"
36* Heller, Frieds M# "Fare sseasoog in aso uanacr uga re
Sdaostional Research Pullet-La, XIX (April 10, I960}]
-222, 263"266*^(Moltate University. :
35. Jtaber, Miriam Blanton* Inilaonee of Intelligsgiae apea -Ml-
^reo ii'0.3X2.' Lear irfc*''' feSsisars Cefilegta, Cc&asblA diver
sity, 1928.
36* Hughes, Frasees 1. A Survey of the Heading Interest of the
'Pupil of Madison, iaooosi, High schools# Education
XLI? (March, 1926), UM68.
37* Jennings, Joe. "Leisure Leading of Junior Hi# 5 chool Bey and
Girls," Peabody Journal of Ldueattco* VI (May, 1929),
333-36?*
Johnson, B* W "Children* leading lntr@@te as Related to Sk
sad Credo in SdSiodl*" School Bevicvr* M (April* 1932)*
257-272. *
38*


TADLE 1?
books host arrm usad b? hots in oo*sm smr, mm at, a> nn
7
To bower
Huckleberry .Finn
Robin Hood
Buffalo till s Life story
-Daniel Boo
Secret Cargo -
My Friend, Flicks
Sooty, the Cowhorse
Lassie, Ock Hone
It Yearling
Hystericus Island
wilderness ^tampion
The Jinx Ship-
- Paul Banyan
Tbandeffcaed
Topklck, Amy Horse
Hurrioane ¡Feather
Ben a? id II
113 Ship without a Grcw ^
Silver Caief
- Tea, wildcats I
Black stallion
The Call of the Wild
Shadow in the Pines -
sun, star, aid Pepper
Valiant, Deg of the North
8
iteoKLeberty Finn
Secret Cargo-
Black Stallion
Tim Urn Ship *=
Tm Ship Without a Craw
Tea* Sawyer
iaaieL Boane
the Call of the Wild
Hurricane weather
vPigskin arriera
lith hostal :oow3 on the
Caroliry Trail
The Yearling
-r All American
The Keystone Kids
Lassie, Cora liana
mysterious Island ~
StsdSy, th Cowhoree
spike of Swift Elver
tlea, iltcataI
Call It Courage
+ Lou Gehrig
My Friend, lioka
9
Treasure Ialand
The Call of the Wild
Tom Sawyer
lassie, Cose Ikon
iuckloberry Finn
Return of diver Chief
The Iron vke
My Friend, flick*
Thwxierhead
Black stallion
spike of swift Elves*-
( World carie
'till American
Black Beauty
Call It Courage
-Daniel Soane
Saoky, tii Gowharse
i-fIgsWUi imrisni
filth Daniel Boone on. the
Caroliny Trail
With the Indiana in the
Rookie
rlea, .ildoatej


n
read only boat five per ent mere than the bey*
2* the boya road ore than. twice the number of ftne
bare stories that the girls read*
3 Beth beys and girls lilt animal stories, bet boors
ret moar of the?a t!ian the girls do*
U* Biography and autobiography ranked fourth in types
of reading with both boys and girls, with the bog
esceoodlng the girls slightly*
5* Girls are not interested in sports and war stories
bat they do like career stories* &tstiy the reverse
is true of the leys*
6* Both boys and girls like oyster? and detective sto
ries to about the aseso degree*
7* The boys read ears in the Helds of solanos and his-
to*y then the girls, but the amount was negligible
with both asea*
8, The girls* reading erceeded that of the boys by 13*8
per sent*


Reading Interests of Florida Secondary School Pupils
As Determined by Their Book Choices
In Their School Libraries
A STUDY OF A SELECTED GROUP
By
PEARL SANDS McCARTY
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
June, 1949

375-.0Z
y/j/xA.
EDUCATION LIBRABT

mmmmmmam
1 m deeply to s¡r# 4* R* ad, under ftose
s¡Mi*visior£ this study ms md&a for hi continuous, oaaatruo-
Uve eritieia am kindly rniomr&gmmitm. I wish to eatproije
ay appreciation else to Ur* Janea tf* fkm¡mt Kr* 3r*t I* Cob*
aed Rat* Iter Baras for their critical reading of toe wr
script and their valuable mg&Mfclono for it iprovet* To
too parissciptls* librarla, m teachers of toe parUUpaUng
school, ehoae cooperation made this study possible, I express
ay insert; gratttoto#
Finally, to ay husband, Martin £* McCarty, 1 grotofally
ckoooledge ay apjareoiafcion for help In tabulating to data of
to iismotigation ansi, for constant faith and cnemaw^eaeat
throughout the study*
F* S# ycCe
11

Xk8&* Of Offl
mmmMmms u
usa or tables* * . iv
UST OF ZLUfTHATXORS V
Chapter
2* WWW INK .* X
12. tras of mam mema* ******** ?
m* ius of m aks pmQmm* ***** 30
xv* mtm&httm sspois time libraries, ald mu
MUSS OF SMSII8CI* .................. 37
v* mamm m immim by rm& of books 0
n, mtA by tms of rsisxnb m&, sm ****** ?U
TO* 3mum AS XKXGAfSS m BOOKS HOST Q*f| READ* %
rax* mamtsm or umbos asm a@am> books ....... 122
xa* wmmi am 136
x* xeplicatioks Fern mmckYMm ii£
BIBUOSSiAPHf* ..* *
APF8MBXX X60
BIOGiiAPiJXOAi. LATA .******* 181*
121
\

UtST Of MBim
Table Pag#
i orto m Bm itotrlfeaiios of tooord# Checked* Total
Ikarnwr of Bootes fi*tos staple Averages* and Average#
on toe Baeis of 160 *****.****#****** JS
2# &tB* of iibrariea* Poreeotog# of fiction to Total
;*s, and Pereeniag* of fftettan to Total fietoiag
in schools. * *,*****.. *.**., # U3
3* For Cant of Flotdon and tarnation Ml by QvadMl
d^a 1*6
h* tafoer of Heading toward#* Total ¡count of Sstoieg*
'and Average ttoafcar of Books M in tosh school i$
5 tafeep of Posto Read of Bach type by All Bey# and
Girls and tto Parooatoge of tooh to Use Grand Total l
6* Bercotsiage of Type# of Reading to Total Banding of
lato Bm* ....................... 6I4
" 7* Rank of types of Books toad in sacfe Grade by toy 1$
# Percentage of FtoR typo by Grade for Bey# ******* 77
9 took of type# of Books toad in l#eh Grad* by Girls* BO
10* toroaotege of ftob Typo by Srto for Girls* ...... 61
11* Baps* leverage Reading by types Redacto to a Basis
of 190. . 91
12* Girls* Average Rending by types Reduced to & Mis
of 109*........................ n
13* SlfigKta# Books lost Ofto. Reto by All Papila in to#
Study 97
Hi* Seeond list (forty-^iae) of Books tost Often nmi by
All Pupils* ********** 100
15. Fifty Bosk# tost Often toad by All Beys in toe study* 102
16* Fifty Book# Most Often Beto by All Girl# In toe Study 105
iv

j § § a n 3 s
* *
**#*** *
444&4AAAA

HiKV Of (CoaUmod)
fable
36#
Type
of
37
types
of
38*
typo
of
39#
type
of
bo.
types
of
ia.
types
of
h2#
types
of
III*
typos
of
im
types
of
Book Si by Grado and &m la ;' oboe! 0* *
Book Keail by Grade ml Seat in School 8# *
Booto Bead by Grade m 8m in School I*
Soete lead by Grado mi Sex In School 4* *
Books Bead by Grade m¡6 Bm in School. K* *
Books ttmd by Grade and Gx in school 1* *
Books Read by trade tad Base in I'ohool 1
Book lead by Grado m B@s In school H# .
Hook* Bead by trade and Seat in school 0*
175
176
177
178
* m
* 180
* 181
. 182
163

Lm of uLmfmxm
figsve* Page
1* lap of Florida awning, llatribotlaa of schools i^ar-
tiolptttliig In Urn study *#*#
2* Average Beaker of Books Head fey Boys and Girl I
Uaco Grad* ***#****##*#*-***#**
I* Jercoafcags of Fiction V&mm to fetal Votese in
d&raria # ****** ***>*
b Proportio'i of fiction to ¡Hx**PiatS.m by Grade and
SW # * * ***#*.#*#** ###.#
5* Pmrnmteigeef facia type Booig Bead to Grand total# .#
6* Percentage of type of Bay1 Beading to total Bey*
Heading **-**# ******** ******
7* Percentage of Typo of Girl* Beading to- Total Girls*
Ihfcsding **** * # ?1
8* ooBptodsmi of typo of Sadist for 131 Bey and Girl H
9* Percentages by Grad for Boys* and Girl* Heading
in General fietAOB* ******** Of?
10* Percentage by Grades tor Boy* and- Girl* Heading
of iiuliSdl r.i torio *********# 86
11* Perofitagps by Grades for Boys* and Siria* leading
in drontar#* *****#****# &f
12* Percentages by Grades fa* Boys* and Girls* Heading
In. liography* * * *. ******.-* * * 88
13* Prcenteles by Grades for Boys* and 8irla* Heading
of ¡Mystery Stories* * ************** Q¡}
2k* Percentages by Grades for Boy* and Girl* Heading
.in the Art # #*-*#** * * * * * * * 90
* 33
1
* h$
m
m 63
. 70
vil


St
atioml favorites* sime it mm true la that stood? of several
thousand young people, the anther assesses It is true gerierally#
12 vast pahllcatier of this emtmj have Imitated
msch that la of highest literary beauty -and merit* a toemmkxm
amount of hut worthless raterial ¡ml a great deal of
tobe salacious sad vicious variety that areals to the lowest
ami basest of hmm iastdncta. the publishers of the last
named type feawe as thought of the n&Mbelng: of their readers
hut consider only the sdHiag qualities of their publications-
'Shat suets publications have a definite appeal to large uuc&er
of the citiaeiapy of toerica is no ao^Mamnt to the teachers of
toarlos* Bat la stese of the teachers* it say be said that
they have the children uaier their supervisim such a short
time ami with sash limited facilities te the devefepmsat of
reading intereste that they .are 'not altogether to blase for the
reading tastes of the toarle people*
there has been ends agitatte smmg educators* social
risers* m& mom parents ocmerning Urn ddeturlcns effects on
children of so each poor reading* particularly of the so-called
oosio books or nageslnes* whether the effects ere m evil as
com. persona brand then is & moto epestien* ft cannot be gain-
said* toewer* that the conics are being road* not by children
alone* but by many adults*
^omtetd Um Bell* Tooth Tell Their Story latoSngfcoo*
B* G*s imriam Cornell

3
o
la the- eLycalAtlflo figures released tat 30, l$W9 for
the fifty loading &sigm&m&j, tmvo of the fifty nr cmSm
mt&mimo with a cosMaed paid circulation of 36,11*1,936 or
J2!i per cent of the total tzmlatk* o all fifty mgmixmu
Itt addition to the candes ms the oircsflation of fire other
cpeeilmahle ssagaalnes whose circulation wee 7,539,609 or 6*8
per cent of the total# this gires & ooeshiMjd perewstage of
possibly questionable reading of 39*2 per cent# the other
sag&sjjies mami j y laassO fro tadHeM to aooept*
aK*ott fjjo iroyiotioo of the entire group is
111,1*37,01}.?* Sim there ere COCSTiiS of ¡gtXJr mogate * *.hn
those neat in this list, it rarely eaimot be desle that the
sericacs public met he reeding a great deal, or at least buy
lag reeding materials, be they good, bad, or indifferoat#
iith the foregoing asaeap&isa that reading is mjcr
recreational activity generally accepted, by a heaters, it be
<$* issperailve that a &in objective la the of
literature be the direction and tie eleeatica of interests
and tastes in reading, in order' that the indlvidaal who set
ussSk. h- jy reading selections fro the vdmsiswKie ray*** of
printed material say he able to discriminate aiaaog too good,
the worthless, and the detrimental, asking Me choices so wise-
2
dofca Moran, Editor, Informtiou Please Alaanac, Hear
fork* Farrar, Stems, aad bosp&ny, IbE^' p*B6.'

h
If that his interests in the worbbaMle my be pwpebuated#
1b Maticml -mlstf for tbs Stody of Mooatioa is. its Thirty-
Sixth imtfbovk^ says in offset test lbs chief objective of the
teaming of literature is to tlesreiop the individual pupil's
test for good literature and his cxiiicjal standards to tbs
extent that* Am he aunts to read* he mil nationally select
ths best to any field of interest*
.to his school library should be found only approved
books* Tide nattersally restricts bis choice to good fiaterlals
*
£rm that source* Mosever, if these books ere chosen with Ms
interests in taina, m If he receives a measure of intelligent
guidance* he will very likely read voraciously of them* to
this reading fie ill unooasMon&iy cultivate m appreciation
of the vortlasiile-, 'dill m to the point of being able to dts-
ttoguish betathe good toe worthless* If he is sub-
Jested to the good only curing his stood tmnna m is sufficient
ly olree&ed towards reading meterais that fill his- needs* be
di be ble* to all probability, to select his reading mtcr&als
Mth disertotoatton tfcim tm leaves school*
There re signe recently that parents are becosag coa-
cerned over the choices children are aaktog flraa .newsstand and
bookstore* Heading interests of their children are being die-
%atiaaal Society tor the Study of Muoattoe* Thirty
Sixth Yearbook* Fart I, too Teaching of fseadlua a .second Hep,,,,
Bloontogton* miaolst

$
mmm by parent in pwvat-teacher groups md in special pumita*
meting* A recent mrmm% that had its tart la levarle Mr
Jersey, 88 to to grossing* Parents mho mt there put Usa ques
tion sparely up to pdfoMstera to print ood bostas that dhiMtm
MM read ad lite.. ftey re asking that the book be m afe-
tractive with good prist, that they be mde attractive with good
illustration, and that they be rich M child interest the edito
rial quotes* *Xb tea tee a successful blit against bad liter*-
taref and parents and teachers r# gratified to know that the mm@~
mm& say be ^tharlng aaoeataaa In it ay over the nation* -As an
teedi-ate result of the ec@assuid.ty effort, book store end amtestends
reported that sithis & week we than two thousand boys and girls
osee to end- ted far good books* they elected the best they could
fiad, ad r4td the trash*3** If pareaba md teachers ooild co
operate la helping the child Had good sad Interesting catarais
Perhaps Use reading of poor haw^fni tecte end wmXA
mrmm oonsidaray*
fhie present study was undertaken to find if, In a se
lected; ember of BlorMa ceoemdary school, any change of iir*
toreaba in successive grade £rm the seventh through the twelfth,
$4 ¡ftguffrfm^M f* in 'the of books by pTrfia in their ached
libraries* Imodiately, it mm% be determinad what the tersas
li
F* B* a*, "ftftllahsrc Stage folorful taqparlflKnt to ;.-
terain whether Better taroniXe Book Sill Pay ttetr ^ay,*1 (Fdi-
terial} The Florida Tiace-Urdoa, Sunday, itaroh 11, I$9, p* 12#

6
interest, aasi cholea mmu ima the pupil* choice always indi
ate Ms interest, or is it merely the best, in hie opinion, of
wtwt Is available? Selection from a school library should mean,
m a rale, that only the good is submitted far choices* Snfor-
tusately, this oay not always he true* Bat granting that it is
tree, does the school library hare encash variety 'to satisfy the
reading ii&erosbs of all its pupils, or must the pupil s&e his
choice something that approaches his interest bat does not cam*
pieteiar satisfy it? Is it pocwibls for the school library to
took the books da ids sill supply the thrilling action and the
enticmntl remansa which boya and siria at wMa ages sees to
crave, asad not aasrtftca literary merit? or should literary saer-
it be the major amltotai for the selection of school library
books The interests of a boy or girl rise fro sow not folly
defined, never-satisfied hanger produced by biological, psycho
logical, asi mwixvmmtt&l forces which Ms reading choices try
to alleviate, as do Ms choices of otter activities* If reading
is to be retained m one of the vital and sliming activities of
his recreational life, be at find satisfaction in it* One of
the biggest problems, it seas, of librarians, and of all teachers
(not Just, the teachers of llteratoro), is to -present to the pupil
interesting material in every field m a level with his ability
to absorb it in such, a manner that he will want acre rather than
turn in. disgust frees every be&chor-recometKted; bode* librariam
and teachers should qfoMMWM* ibr their libraries an -Htegri*.* supply

7
of boato to satisfy every interest ate level of ability cm
teifeb expect to find ia a school* If tho school library can
contribute a full aeasure Urnm satisfying th interest do*
ranas of tee pupils site bodes of really excellent literary
writ, it ralas to te dstensiacd if. tee pqpU ill still
give a such of hi to tee reading of coates and other
loss wrtliy literaiore* Om of tee criticises levied at Jew
nil bode is teat tee bock etiiflfe tli child mm& to find most
interesting lacks literary swarit, am the one that is act
beautifully mivtm lacks Quite interest* Barely, literary
writ and. chile interest can be corabiute by sew of the really
good writers of children* ted*
As a child steres, hi interests should sature alte*
\
ihat are the intereets teat attract pupils in the various grade
\
m by their orcim of school library ted? This
is cm of the saajor jaeafciosss ahich arcs in tel study* Sow
*
others hid: this tody hopes to moer in so far as It data
or oomorm fettle*
1* Are changes in the choices gradad nr sudd with
either && v
a* bo choleas hang site the tiaca? For instan,
arc there best Her for children m ter adulta?
re pupils resoing tea am books today teat their
parents ate possibly their greteparent read, ua*
lacs tecs be# up prescribed? Tm old favorite

8
rm¡Ln tmmiimt
3* re there seasonal choleen? Sill children read
war stories long after the ear is ow?
h* re there siptliicmt sea differences 1 interests,
in quality m quantity of reading?
5# I) Mterarjf tastes legrar *ttfo aatarity?
* hieh hooks are Ml often read by all children?
7 ihat sasaaa to be pipil reaction to the Mm Bsaftwry
Medal Award boote?
If we accept the ssauopticn that librarians and teachers
should stinalate reading, sc should ask by 'bat marts they are
doing It, sod bether they think their efforts era successful*
If fiction preciosdnatos in the pupil*a residing, Suit is the pro*
portion of books of fiction to the total masher of m'ismm in
the library? lie safes the &Leeticm for the library? ire the
pupils ever consulted eimcsralog the types of books selected for
their librarlo?
Ihaoe are same of the questions which rose during the
course of this study, and to which, it is hoped, some answer
cay be found fro m analysis of the data iomLve*

esmm n
amm m- muam smus
Ussy studies o reaiag Interests of chilares* have bee
le ii b past fifty years# bat sach a large aosiber of th*s
have ham o frapamtary that few final ameMm haw been
drarai* Tfti darter give a brief review of osae studies of a
nature similar to the present one*
In Ms outstanding study In 1921, Jordan*1 reviewed tfee
literature of readir interest studies fte the first rosily
worthwhile on in 169? up to 1920* ftMH&y all those pioneer
studies were based on gestiona such as S&at books have yoa
read? and *S&tsb did you like best?1* or on iim&niory lists for
the child to teals* A mmmi.mU.rn of Ms review shows that
ore notion 1 reat as! is batter liked ttesa say otter typo of
romlag* the boys prefer- fiction of trentarej the girls prefer
fiction of tenlisaeast and emotion, and they particularly are in
terested is stories of people lite theaaelves. Beys lite biog
raphy aid history tere than do girls* If girls reed biography
at all# they &&m to prefer that of worsen# interest of girls
in adventure, travel, and science is aleost negligible* As early
^ArHaa? m* Jordan, Children* Interest lr. Retejan* Go
tribatloR to Eduestdcn, H0*i6?, Tca^* fac3er do¡u*e,
Goiuntda Gaireraity, 1921*
9

ia
as the Smtih grade# boys ere fcwoi to like history* A Mb*
drea nature they 311 adult fiction rather than that of the jwe~
nile type# l¥fa*saees for poetry also lacrease as children
tature-* .Jordan* &m study eemibQrated these findings# Ha
found that the Hit popular writers for boy appeal moot often
to the instjctf of aao&ery, fighting# 2mm of sensory lift for
its mm sake* original attention# and approval m& scornful b-
Isndar /alc7 * that the interest in biography 4 history
is confined to thoee authors to can write it in tbs for of 4m
a
seoitisg story* on-ictioaa interest was chiefly in- What**
aacHaosHm-do books#
Ba*iaf# study ousswisod the findings of studies per
tinent to the reading of older children frees 1920 to approscir**
aately 19t¡3* Her smi? invested the fbHoningr (1) that
the mat of reading decline rapidly during the senior high
school year! (2) that the larger proportion of reading is fic
tion# but that fear books are popular with succeeding generutionsf
(3) that slew and bright children here about tbs mm interests
but the bright ones read for those interests at a younger age}
(4) that interests of the msm differ widely bat both include
adventure and endewror rewarded by success** f (5) that the alder
^Ibid** pp* 128-129*
Fiction*
^oHl&gm9
^Marl :.ankln.
Contributions
;% CdluaMa University#


or Just good sous that girl readers often prefer- their

23
slusiis said they were saoal hspreasod ife fe objectivity of
im fiaste presentad* la fcdLsh siafemat 1 fe iaplioa&m that.
amn&^em vem la aooi Mili sight lst vastly different if
fe data ww objmtlvely stained* gasseror, they aasaarla froa
fee ilndiags* (2) that biography* aistwy r eligios* and travel
iw sail appeal for fey afe girl ala# fe thirteen year of
ag (2) that olmo interest oidor children} afe O) feat
girl aove a mrrwm* rang of Interest than boya#
the finding m glvm in the-ae foor sbm&es are tfei a
fe variations, fe findings of aosi of fe pMlabod stmilea#
Xt my fe ail to moticei soca individual finding rafear fe#
afear tsrwya*
?
deary got bar data by keeping a record of look read
in the seventh and eighth grade for four weeks and by sing a
ipssbioemir# .fee found that 93*6 per sent of all reading dona
a Ustin a#T per eoat ms biograi&y* 2.S per cent m acianoe,
fe lux per eat aaa travel poetry* and fee fina via# Of fea
biography read* ey four title re aentioQed five Unes or
swire* They were Sisifalo BUI# lanaled. Boma# mwim of fttiXiitom*
and ja* 2!*& of these a definitely adventure atarle to fee
children end mt wrely live of reel prfee# je is Joat a
biographical phase of one of fee greatest advonfcare feat could

al*
possibly happen to es Aserto boy* this finding corroborates
Jordon*s conclusion given earlior its this chapter tot blags?-
phy to && read. mm% be written in to icsm of an waiting story#
Cleary enacted# that *tws of to et significant totee te
flaenoing children* reading interests are accessibility of
mterial and intelligent sapervioioa ami guidance* Oar .Job then
is to provide, m far a possible, both these faster for all
chilcmi*1*^
fho footer of aoeeaadMlitf was stressed also In the
teiite Bsa@ donferacc report on reading* the oomaittee £oaa
that ohil<£rm will read that which toy sen get easily* Timt
tore in plenty of poor material era readily acosssiblo than
goc is to implication of tee report* that tore Is ¡ftsotgr of
sateitel-gcod, bad, ad definite, since, say
to report, is 1928 <^e-#reistli of all to published bodes were
jxmmites# It found parallel interests in boy* and girls* read
ing until mm ttmy diverged, to boys leaning to
ward to scientific atad tofenical and to girls leaning toward
scsittont aid remito* to ooaaibt on reading believes that
to probtea of premting ijaod reading noag tamtam children is
show wythSas else, a problem of mking good readir tter
9
mmmibl&m"
8Xbte., p. 126.
Q
'hit douse conference m Child ffcalth and Protection,
Children Heading, .new larks i* Appletj^Ccntary Coeapaisy, 1932,

1$
1 & study t¡hat Involved high school ..supla in Georgia
10
and minad, 'cate found that both toy aad girls preferred
doing their reading at hose In the mm&tm rather than in sohoed
or public libraries* a ratter unusual finding of hie was that
aor reeding w don in toaam hieh had radios, a fact which ho
o^iainea by suggesting that the bos that aula afford radios
would or likely have ssore boohs and agaslne*.
H
Ttmm md him found lists of books read by boy and
girl 80 \me cent mta.ally eKC&usive* Bays lad no interest in
girls* book but girl reae ose of the beys* books* ttois con
elusion mas to to ecnaon to moat studies* They found also,
that toys read scans non-fiction than girls, especially In the
Held of soisaace* Both toys and girl lite mml$ systery# and
adventure stories, with adventure heading the list for boy in
the untar high shod* They give three tenant which are al
ways desired by cMMms in their book* "The first is etlsni
the second i toman interest, and the third is imaginative ap~
12
peal*8 '
X a study in a girls* ftor-year hi#i school, Elder and
***W terests," school ivies* m (October, 1937), &L2-62Q*
^SMdS M Teran and. tergarct Una, {Mldrea* Heading*
teas Torkt D* Ippletoa-Gcatery Sosapany, 1985*
Ibid*, p* 10*

13
Carpenter found mystery tb first bolo to tos ninth grad,
bat It dropped to third place to the tol£fctt grade* have tksmm
mm of moaos&z toterest to each grade except the eleventh,
toara they ranked first* these instigators think toe acrom
deftoitely itt&uencea girls* reading otw&asa* CEd favorite
were asare paular in to ninth and tonto grades toan later* the
physical -sake-op of to bosk ms of little toporfcans to caking
selection. this agrees sito isaaldba* ccsCtoslm-on this sms
14
question dtarci earlier to this Chapter*
Cato and rca found that about 4Q per sent of to
books read by tonto and twelfth graders to high school to nm
Svtmj hod m aerit, but mm harsalea* Shay conclude that
"Sh#ito course are not Itostlontog adequately in atisalaitog
and guiding tot wortoahiXe chao! toe free- reeding interests
li
of children*8 the tody docs- not asafee clear that too toar 60
per coat is wtMtUs* but if m arc- to infer toot it to, too-
schools trust be doing a fairly good piece of stork* It sold bo
utterly ispossi&Ut to hora all a child to reading to the surtir*
toil categcry unless the rthtoa books are csa^istsly restored
.a Uder ad Mel S* aarpeastor, "Soacitog interests
of Sigh Stood GMXtoso.* JcMiroal of Mueattoncl Paseareis* m
(hprll, 15?), 2?6-282.
page 11*
Pintos Cato ana Francis J* Brom, 8to tvalus&ea of too
utttide Tmlng interests of a Group of 5eoisr*4Si#*kfecMfc Pupils,
douraal £ Maoaitonal Codctogy*? (tturto 1932) 142.

17
froa Ms reach
there ocas to be a difference of opinion m to ti now*
16
feer o£ book read by children in a giv bisas* Mam found
that junior 3tigh c&odL papila read an averse of l#*>2 books a
17
stKsesterj Cleary1 study 18
segoste? with classic fisbioa rating M#hf and laa sod -Us
tam grades ssb*.v and eight reseating tero 'docto per aonth and
tee ninth asid tenth grades ££ books per mmiu
19
fm Mm tmk City study bleb ins aade by the saosla-
tioa of fate8 of iangJlah in typioal senior high chads of
the city drew its ocnelosiotts ta so analysis of 1*6,000 reading
records* Seweafcy^ve per sent of tee roadie ms fiction*
ITovaL end adreater were not popular in any grade of high
school. Bixjgrapfey iioreaa in popularity firm tee fiante to tee
aweate terns* ksieme nas least popular in tee ninth grad and
most pepiter In tee levente grade* fhere eeemd to be a shift
& tee old classics to eoatetaparaary literature, but in pit
of tei% liw Call of tee slid cod 10 aaegor 'headed tea list of
36
iilaood Adas, the .detent of library heading in tee
Junior High Steaol,* ahool Berios* 111 Csgr, 1931)# 375-378.
17
Flores** &* deary# "Bottea&Unal eadihg in tee Junior
fflgh School, Hatton Schools* WI (J*Oy, 1935), 31-33#
*
fea?anpaad lias, op* cite
lo^k City Association of Teachers of English,
rey grietear Beading In fgateal Si#, Schools, of Bear fork

18
aost postilar books* Through the iaediua of this survey, the Bee
fork teachers Sbowi a lac: of books which they turned a ttbook
fsesin* la the school libraries* If sash a condittan had not been
evident before,: this cotna&ea alone ms worth the tie and trata
ble in asking the
la ragwrtiag certain phases of this amce study, Center and
Itwi3om thought that the teacher definitely eoeerolsad m infla-
ce o the reading of the pupil* They baaed their coaelasloa on
i
the dtaaat types of reading found la individual classrcomW 15m
level of book rsac&ag as fbund to be higher than that of the sag-
asine arid newspaper reading* ^reo-fterths of the reading ms
ilctim, amch of which was very light* Of the regaining oeue-
fourth, aay the authors, there as little to deralop judgneat,
disorteiaation, anti the critical faculties* there as little at-
r
tentiosi to poetry* Is that a lack of appreciation of spiritual
tMrsgs?2^fcs hr. Center.
In a study of 1,532 pupilo in several Chicago high school,
21
Srink found that seniors read best seller exospt chore classics
ware preocrlbed* lie found also that they read sore mau-fictim
than fwfflhaea* There was Increases interest in recent bodes of
20
StaHa & Center and OXatiys flareac, leisure beading of
Itew Xaric City High dchoei student,** The English Journal, tXV
(Maveafcer, 1916), 726.
^Smiiao C* luirs, Heading Interests of High School B*
Pila, school Sevietr. HOT (October, 3£39>* 613-621.

* P* 65$
of these h 4
f*
C
ft
es
es

tt
S3
>*

*

20
sifi nortfcleos* atsaldy, and often entrente! mm&m aaterlais.
¡gk
In £lier*8 study of trying to detersiia* factor* of in
terest in children* reading oXy tea were Anmit to bo lipillMiA
Hwy ere aotien arai honor* U beanr tactor te toot of funny la*
cMeai* not toe subtle satire toot appeals to asm aduLts* 'map
had a favorable inuesm m -boto wee; action,. hoaeeer, attracted
boys but aosetime uol&vora&ly iaHuenoe girls* choices# t# re-
oomeadatiaG froa this study was toot sacre books fearing the factor
of Jtoonur Incident be looted for- ohlMren* reading,! that beers*
books ahoaJUi hare also- mxsh action aa tost girls* books be rela
tively free of toe action factor* iMXm ftoas also that reoaa-
mmdm4 book listo favorably iaHueasoed ehildra*s cholo**# j
last naneo e&at&wsim differs froa 'the soau^ptioo of sons others
that children ere generally distrustful of rosmsjed books* .
gc
IbaradUoe tried a different attack £vm tes usual m do-

iera&aiag reading interests* is gas# a check list of Ighby-eigfrt
fictitious, annotated titles to apjatsciufttely tore# thousand efcil*
iron of bright, average, and doll ilitlea* they ware asked to
chock II# titles they thought toor would life to read* Firm the ro-
%L
ale Zeller geetors of Interest in heading Uatorials,
Gm-tributlK# to lkwa&leaj""lo*
Golmshla university, I9h&*
m*

a
alts* te aomlMB teat am is the most iapcrtaat of
Interests and teat within the amm seat* bright csilmi sees aost
like aim children two or three years older*
la Brant outlined tee tollostog principies concarfitog read
ing as derived ta the eduo&btowal ¡Mloseptoy o fee University
26
School of toe College of Education at (Mo State SrAverolty
1} Tim culture of fee modem world indados read
teg as an i^Torfent factor for youth ad adults; it is
as- intrinsic factor in osar present way of living.
2) Indi viduals vary greatly in need and interests
and hence ere best served by a diversity of bootee and
reading emterlalsj they aim vary greatly in abilities
ate hence proceed at varying rates ate wife waning de
grees of antiaratendillg*
3) It besoms fee function of the school te provide
for estrameos in reading an a factor to an. emending
uteerstanding of society. dust m fee teacher is re
sponsible for guidance tote social ate- quantitative
adgrstatetog-s* so he to responsible for -guidance to
Kpriesao tomsgli books. Ibis guidance to always based
on fee growing needs ate interests of fee child ate con-
sequent!? eancot depend upon a formal gw-errangeaent of
mtertels*
I?
Her evaluatic -of fee free reading program set up to feat
sohool to accordance wife fee stove %iOtoa principles wan nade frota
a three-year continuous record of fee reading of fiftywitoe pupils
to fee- tente* tLeveiih,and tatfte grados, lo book liste were sup
plied tee pupils* no- written reports were made; tee pupils kept
26
saaaattooal Rwroh Sailetto XV lo# 2 (February 12*
193&), 36-kfc*" tjofcfcs* ,Tjblo*r''To3ilge of Education, the Ctdo State
idveraity.
2?
'Loa L. La Brant* to induction of t& Free Head
grades Ten. Eleven -and Xwlve. gesr&ea.
ba, Hloi ie (MoStete University reas 1936.
adiffi: ia
SSnwHJS
i. ZjT G<
colisa


23
ms introduced than wbse re#dte& ms prescribed* Iks bmS arked
mpmma i te rsa^teg, f btaipighsr 4 trawl. flatten, mufti
of s deeldaly tete&cr quality, had te&reaoei* 3 ssMkSixed#
bommr te tep>rtano i a shift from tmtstoa&i&mm to pipil
cto wte*l*i and frota retla fer knowledge ts4 iaforraatio to
reading for plaasur art eaperienee. Soso of tala finding ?say
have teteted a lack of guidaeoe 1 the reading' pmpaa
Sfeerhart's valuation include the erante through the
twelfth grades# He atoy w aae fr the ouauiattve records- of
112 pilis ranging f!rm ene to six year of reading. Se classified
his flatten lato sixteen sategortea aad his noa-ficiten into thir
teen ategories* M- femad sor- ml^ done in te sesete grado
tima i any other* The sealer Mgh sohodi rcaiEig, while- not as
wltsateouo as the reading te the alar M#¡¡ school grades, was
considerably acre satas and tee proportion of smo-ficWm read
mira $&s& as grefft*
Hmt and AshbongMa31 study of Simio* m senior hi#
schools in Franklin doaniy, cm# clastf of Golmbva, tend that
the type of school, Tillage or centralised rural# had little te
Wilfred mm$m% Evaluating tee UAmm Heading, of Hi#
School Pupils, school Review* mm (April, 1939)# 257-269.
31
A. B* Mr and I* Senior High school Pupils Head? aiuoMlonal Research Bulletin,
III (September 17# ?5&># 223-228, 'olus&us# $¡*£01 fch "iio Btete
Menltr*

en scant of reading done* ttm books, mat often read In
cluded m of the beat quality feat apprOidmiely one-third of then
ero qaeotlonable* Seat and grade differences they foam dearly
defined*
4 susber of bable ktam ~mm\ md m tfee atAaMtatica of
reading am the devela$acmt of tastos la the fnpil* Basabe listad
sosa Giethod# of ilaulftiion reported by fcaaheras reading lista
in forty variations, bram&m special shelves, conference
huiletln boards, m plays* Sosa teachers used a fee book as
bait blab slight induce tfee pupil to go on to something better
along the mm Mm of interests* Partial reading a & stimlus
device as suceaaafbl with so pupils* Librarians also luai
browsing oersere (aero to stlmlate teacher interest as 01 m pu
pil Interest), and ability grouping of books on Selves to otiaalato
eater reader tfea display f a fee bod, near ilia charging deals
was found to be effective* lambe ays, however, that "the offee-
tironeo of the- nmk- 4 mm by both teachers and librarians is great
ly neutralised by eaviromental force which tend to tear docto what
the educational vtsrtesrs me attesting to construet#"^2 Be thinks
that the work oan be dot better her. adalniotaeatora see the need
far better resour ces and trained percocnU
1 m effort to etimiai reading interests of Ms papila,
Sillia f* k'asafae, asethod mg&aym to sUanlai* Inter
ests M sealing, School Eerier, IHQX (April, W3$)$ 303*

25
33
Hancock tried two periods each week of meeting in the iKKiitoritas
aus having attanlattog lectures 05 various types of reading* up*
g&ewgted bf mtu&k rsedint three period mob m&k of the type# of
literature dammd+ lo tbought the seethed breast valuable re*
tara in both etiml&tim reading and developing wprmi&iiom*
%h
limmbm team that highly taotlwated emfermm j**rio
ia library reading were of oxcepfeiosml value in Vue cultivation of
interests and appreciation#
s
In a carefully controlled sperioent in Chicago* ass c*rtrr*
35
alvo vermis intensive reading pm^em me carried on by llIUawa
whose eoodluales wks that extensive reading jsa&thods 'ware far or
effective in aiehiavihg the ai of iasfcrsctian is literature than
iatenoiv saethoda* The esetenstve reading tends ore to develop
appreciations*
flew stiiasali to readiaii my he derived £rm the radio and
mwim by the dramatic ix&srpreb&bim of book* according to Barker
36
and Tiyng* They think variety as flexibility are very desirable
33
ArUaar S* Hancock* sJ^rgc*Group Instructis*^ Lecture Li*
tew i^oenfeaeot in ¡scaling** iohoal Beview. XL7X (Hr* 193$)
69ii*700# 1
3l*
lirteme L# EoscmteM* Tn Motivation. of Library Heading
through Oonfearene Periods** Mncatloraaii jews Bulletin# IX
ary* 1939)* 7X~7L* kalawasoo* dietiigasi^^Ssieisj siate"
College#
^.alph t* ¡iiHiaaa* "intensive Reading varaos Intensive**
Cohoal Urnim. XXjWXI (Mmmiber, 1929)* 666*6?1
^8ryl Parker mn Franc 1* Ibamg* fasten Differ*" Mao
Moral aeaod, XXX (Mteter 1939)* 162-168#

utilise tlm lor oat t&ey m&y bo

27
in to% mm though soteh in still to Si desired*
In writing of edaasftlaaal research in reading# Gates road
a stfttenent that is applicable to the developaonfc of reading in
terests. He mfrmtimad a need of broadening the perspective in
riich reading is visaed, of achieving cooperation aith otlmr
specialists, of thinking of reading not as an isolaied school sub
ject bat as a possible of near patterns of learning ac
tivities and of seeing reading in relation to tin social demands
likely to appear in the future*^ interesting mtorials on
various ability lewis are spearing in praotioally every field,
and son subject natter teambere are asking efforts to arouse the
interests of their pupils in such reading*
ho
M ifcmroe*& i-mmtlm&l of MucaUonal g&search the
statement is made that op to 191*0 mere than too hundred studio m
various -phases of reading interests had been nade, but that map of
the mire so- frmzm&mtg and subjective as to be negligle in trase
log conclusions* To the average teacher seating informtion on the
subject many of the ejoeclusioos dm** are so contradictory as to be
oafuaing rather than helpful* A fee cmdusiona, heswsver, which
have, been oooflnMd by M^r studies, #@3 to be mmaaa&&& reliable.*
JSgr foOloar* (1) the ascent of reeding decreases steadily ia the
39
Arthur 1* a&tes# frontiers in noaUonal Keeearch in
Journal of idamt&oaaf I search* XI (January, 1947)#
tor# Hew
of Educational
* S* cairos# Ml-

2
hi$t school tcw the alatli grado} (2) fiction is werafh^slogl^'
predominant (which is vwrj obvious m to b espeeted OOftdLuaLoa) j
/
O) ammiVam leads in popularity ith toys la Mo junior high school
grade*} (&} girls lite barias of girls Hice toesoelves with the Sar-
evitobl threads of rcBjaneej (S) both toys and girls Uto antoal
sioriesj and (6) mturity of tastos i reading r>c?mm& with phys
ical isafeurit/*
That there are still phases of reading Interests to
be efcaOied toft* definite conclusions oar. be draewa Is evident*
Sos large scale studies, such as the Sew York City m cited ear
lier la this chapter, or a series of studies coverii% all types of
enriresasaatal, physical, mu mental coaiitioas oouki be well tsaHr
while if in a ¡cpq&ie&BKt&t* no&*bt&9Gd san?*
aer* Esther such a study asuele by a large aua&sr of itoesMga&ore
coi be tons is ft mseso&T is to question*
ditty, Comer* and iscScan suggest atonies in schools m a
part of the routine work, fer* they say, ** * systematic surreys
will help not only in estloa&iag the success of library and reading
propasa tot also sill afford soother isaportant source- £m hid}
ia
to select books of genuine- and lasting appeal t bey sod girls**
la
Pw. Witty, to Comer and billa tocBean, Children's
Cholees of Favorite Book* A Study Conducted In fen aosesfcapy
Schools,11* journal of Fdossti end gagdhogiqar. xxmi (toy, 191*6),
wSMife*

89
1*2
tixWi k> give ammX mwwei&a ci reading research in
all its phases* said. rmm-lly that the silga i reading interest
studies sere encouraging imt that aueli still asst be done# parti-*
alaria to elevate standards of taste#
la a fast-Bmdi'ig, feat-changing world* the gemino teacher
mm% be oosistaatl/ on 'the alert to keep pose with her pupils*
changing interests la- rmding md to keep the satisfaction of
those interests m m high, a level as possible*
1<8
t Hites a* <3w^* of Eesding Investigations*
Julsr lt l£h2 to $mso 30 191*3** Journal of gdneetiensl Research*
fiUtm (Whraary XS1*U>* fe£li29*




Map of florida
Showing Distribution of
Schools Participating
in the Study
UJ
\x>
Figure 1

ms- ribim o. his cara If he returnee the bock without riding
it, the title on Me card a erased or a Ho drawn through it
to indicate that it had pot bee read* It Is quits likely that &
pupil occasionally failed to indicate m .his card that a book had
not hem read, bat librarians sewed to think the degree of error
mm sall*
three sciioois had the folder type of record with lists of
istias roa- and a graphical chart by which at a glance a pupil's
readism iRtcres'feo sere revealed* Ibis type of record seme of
sajad ocre practical value in the direction and guidance of pupil
Niacin,, tima fee threbyiivs library oar-:, and as cos unbcsltat-
ingly recMcaaeadaci to those abo asfce for infozmtiou oonoerolng
tmm for records* it rqpires considerably/ acre space for filing,
but its additional value should oo^eoaate for that*
t record, the reading of wary pupil in the fifteen study
schools as a task entirely too largo for a single worker! so in
order that the record be as representative of the state as possible,
every third pupil record was selected fro each school far analysis*
the cards or folders warn first separated by pads, then by sexj
then each group ms shuffled before the election was aade. In
this say, there was as aasefe tame o one pupil* card being m~
leeted as another* s, Us grades and seat still being kept separate* k
fiUm of book were recorded on ilve-fcy-el#it oardoi than the
reader were listed by grad and sox, as TB or 7G for a seventh
srade boy or girl* a new list of titles ma aade for each school
/


36
her study a£ cfeildaro* fietiois reading* Xibrarl&as were also
astea fear their opiraoa hooks*
-. " fb
fra Um date gathered thrsmh these variaos procedures
arai the ooBoluaitm drams frea the data, 1% is p&mSMm that me
toaehers aasd librarians Mgr. mmm&m eme sagsostimas ia the soloo-
Uoa of books, the stimulation of reading, sad the dirmbopaeat of
-tastes and apprceia&oss*

GW&TM n?
mmmmnm mmm, tmm ummzm,
m* mmma, of wmmo
Tm sohools bioh p^rt&aip&bte in HsUr atttdy *spwsanfce$
4 total smSUtMoatr of lipli pupil is SP* awww through
twelve* the cfstai £%r@e to far ths arrant year* at
ora .aftas i fata 1 the Ajjpaodix* & total of **@31 TOaaissg
TOoorla for tbs year UlSMtf^. 33*6 per e&b of ife oarrsafc o
reHamb ere shacked# Those records yteMt & total of
readings for ail pipila*
Tabla 1 ami the aaSbsr of records abeotet* the total
xua&er £ books ret* at the wag r.b of books ret, by
mush, grad wta for h seat* lb wag wbr of books road
by 11 pupils is the study as S? for Iba boys and 10*$ for the
girls* OoBOtiag the aahoal .year sm also- tbs (is to spools
it mm tea Maths)* this osorag* mn% lightly Mm than mm
book ash tttttt Tor the boys- at a lltfcl sere than one book
at sjofitl'i for the .girls* This swage i weh higher the that
inst by Mmm, hit mm 1*£2 book, a. tswelter* but a great
deal les than Oleary* iltlng, hit as thirteen bot a so*
ssesier* at. is lots than half that Tost is- tersan ot- lmM
sStwpter n* page 17*
37

0*00*
9*6
?rp?*9*i
*n**r
8W passuo
$*0X
01*98
9t5te
m
t*0
0*5
HT
ZPi
If
*5
*9
9^C
W
IS
T*
9*8
09£te
£o£
ot
6*01
8*£t
w*s
sr?
8
C*9t
tm*$
9CC
0
8*Ct
*91
wfs
SfcC

rpTO
*9
tW
**"""*'9*1
*n
"TH
C9C
St'
Q**t
*5
5o*?te
891-
It
9*5
8*9
is?/r
m
ot
t*
S*ot
08**?
m
6
8*0t
o*a
att**r
mt
8
5*TT
6*ct
£3*1
90
4
(5) <*D (O te) (i)
ooi jo swm
psarop ttmmm ptmn pag jMooog pw
~m &smm $& m&m $ jsapt*g
mtosism mi m> mmm *m
Hsoviisat msis *av4H ssoca jd mmm w
anamo Geniosas t TOfX

39
2
study* chica sfoom 2*5 and tore books each santo for two
different groups* With the oxo^fciori of on school, however,
the rtsocrs oheakod inoladod only those books which had boon
bsrows frees the sohoei library! therefore* the lprai cannot
b eonsMered m giving a teue picture of the total reading
done by pupils, sines s&any of thtaa probably read books JfcoB
other corees Shi* present tody eoaprioee their reading froo
the one source, their reepoetiv school libraries*
- Because of toe varying numbers of pupils in each grade,
the staple averages of books read in each irada and by each
sect ere reduced to a basis of 100 as sheen in Golosa $ of
fable 1* this was te to show the ratios or proportion of
books read by oacb grade aa sea on tbs aasaspiicsa that they had
bm composed of pal numbers* thin colum is interpreted m
felicsai Of every 100 books (inelndlng all classifications)
read, by the pupils in this stody, a erasto grade boy mill have
read j15 of Uim$ m eighth grade boy wHl have read 10*8 of
then, and so dam the cols* this eolia shm that of all the
reading done in this study mem bodes near read by the seventh,
eighth, and ninth grade girls, -although there is a noticeable
drop- in the ninth grade, and by the seventh and eighth grade
boys, than by to boys and girl in the other grades* the Jew*
st books ¡r real by tbs tstfto grade boy and girls# In
2.
Chapter IX, page 17.

each .grad tfe iris exceeded the boys in paotity of reading*
there is a gradual decline in the reading of Um ami? hi#
school grades. Goto 5 of fable 1 in rspradaeed gra^lileally
la F^pr 2*
A aiaaft^a Mat, of the title of ell books reed by pupil
in this study as assailed, with the tm£m? of boya and girl#
in eaoh grace who had. read each bode. this list yielded 6?6h
different titles* Of this msstssr 3¡#l!p6 boa&e, or 17 per cent of
the Hot#- are read by only on papil| W*5 bocks, er lb per cant,
were read by only two pupils* this constitutes 51 per cent of
the different books, or a little ore than half the entire list
which ere read by am or two persons only* The re-dtesslfloar*
ties of these books showed that they fall into practically the
asm ratios by tan# * twMlr as the stir Hat did, with' the
exceptions of the mimi stales and the iaeelXoneoee group*
There were very few of the .former and oomsickarSbly mapa of the
letter group* 4 good ¡any of the aisocllaneous group repre
sented the mere sorteos reting dosae by the eleventh and twelfth
grade pupils* Pour hundred thirty-eight books, or 6*5 per cent
of the total list of different titles, re read by twenty or
sor pupils* A good assay of these titles will be found listed
in tbs tables of bodes zm% often read, which tables dll appear
In a later chapter* w
^fypea of books are given in Chapter V*

bl
Boys MHB
Girls i ~i
7 v 8 9 10 11 12
Grade
Average Number of Books Read by Boys
Girls in Each Grade Based on 100
Fig. £


table 2
sxzs or usBuass, pv-AssfiOaoK of nomas n> m toluhes,
A PIIKJLSTAOE OF FIGTICJS TO mL BBftBB
School
l-iiTollsaaL
(X)
tm&m of
Books la
Xifersscy
(2)
Stabor of
Books of
Fiction
(3)
Fatoastag*
of Fiction
to Total
Trlunwii
(U)
Percentage of
Fiction scad by
.pils to Total
A 2bQ0
11,525
3sa
30*5
56.0
B 1,615
9,UZ1
2,00
30*2
60*0
0 1,530
11,236
l*,79t
l2.5
66.0
x*m
7,200
1*780
2fe.?
?1.U
B 1,206
6*361
3,023
36*0
79*5
f 1,109
5,133
MW
36.9
76*0
o m
3,592
Mm
ts6.9
75*6
n too
3*10?
530
1?*0
76*7
X 696
k,m
ifTta
26*0
77*2
a 5X6
1,950*
1,300*
66.6
60*0
& li90
5*173
1,323
25*5
76*6
h 376
2,6m
m
32.5
92*3
#* as?
6*W*
MW
21*5
60.9
m
,ltS>
1,050
1*2*6
ai*2
om m
2,ia !*&*
66*?
91.2
*Boote stiaafcad by libraran*
^LlLiary cabbalas books fbr all loaentary gyadoa also*

osity is being atlsileu. Bat there are evidently aaay ether
good books* neither reference mat fiction* which are not being
used in mmy of the libraries* If neither teachers nor librar
ians can interest pupils in reading sere in the arte* in social
studies* Is oocapationa, In history* and in other non-fictiim
fields* would it be ore to the point to order fewer of those
type# and relatively acre fietiaal Or* are sufficient efforts
being ande to interest pupils in reading types other than no
tion? It is beyond the oops of this study to answer them quse-
ticos* but answers may be possible In futuro studies*
lbs bar graph in Figure 3 shows graphically the percent
age of fiction vetoes In each library an given ill Coloran U*
falle 2*
The percentages of fiction and non-fiction reading by
grades m ms for the entire group in the study ware calculated
and are shown in fable 3* Th&re Is a constant and considerable
torease in the reading of oenH&et&aci In each saeeeaelve graces
for both soases* the highest point is reached by the twelfth
.grade boys* who outrank tbs twelfth grade girls in non-fiction
reading by opgroadsBately six per cant* In every grads* iron tbs
seventh 'through tbs twelfth the boys load in the reeding of non
fiction by 'three to six. per cent* this probably Indicates that
the boys* reading is of a slightly mom serious ateare too the
girls* reading* The figures in this table are a good starting
point iron which teachers and librarians eight attempt the time-

/o
LIBRARIES
Percentage of Fiction Volumes to Total
Volumes in Libraries
Fig. 3

66
nsm 3
FEE Of flCtlOB AMD KG*#XGRQi BX
mMSZBS AML ¡m
Orado
8apv
Girl
fiction
SaeHClafelMi
fiction
' 7
00.3
29*7
86.6
13*6
8
79.6
20.6
85*6
16*6
9
n*h
22.6
83.1*
16.6
ao
73*6
26.6
77.0
23.0
21
67.0
33*0
70*6
29.6
22
62.0
39.0
66.7
33*3

hi
3at4.cn of further interest in fee reading of m*£iLotion in the
iwrfclnular filas that mm especially attractive to mo in*
ditUlaal pupil*
This table is also shorn graphically in Figure h, which
shows the iarojKrtioas of fiction and. nonfiction clsfcinetly for
each grade and for each sex & much bettor picture con bo seen
of the actual reading done than can be conceived by the table
aloro, for instance, in Figure it, it can be mm eaeily that
the twelfth grade hoy read appmsimtcly to-tblrda a snob ace**
fiction as tbagr do fiction} and the twelfth grade girls read ap-
ptos&mb&ly half as ssoeb nonfiotioii as they do fiction* Tbs
memitfe grade boys read spprcedmtely enaHtosartfc as such non
fiction as fiction and. the seventh grade girls read apprcoeimtcsly
oro*al3cm as mefa oonHEletion as notion* This figure jauafeahly
aboa store readily than any other one used in the study the mr
taring of interests of both smm In successive grades. If the
assumption is accepted that the reading of noartfiction is indicar
tiv of acre sature interests* It is quite possible, hcaiowr,
that the rise in aerWiction reading in successive grades could
have besa caused by required reading since the records checked
recorded both the free and the required reading*
The msrap nasher of took road by the pupils in each
school is mown in fable h, Saimaa 6* School S, which averages
the highest amber of books per pupil, le the laboratory School
of me University of Florida* The very type of school probably

i8
Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls
78 9 10 11 IE
Grade *
Proportion of Fiction to Non "Fiction
By Grade, and Sex
Fig. 4-

tmM It
mmm of umim immm, jqtu, mmr of nm-mo,
aui: Avmtm mmm of booss mr- is men bcwca
School type
(1) £2)
Bfflriber of feU&
liecards Mm
(3) <4>
Average Hooke
per Pupil
(5)
Hank in
Average
(6)
A
sr* s.s.
m
3,902
6.9
18
B
Jr.-sr. M.S.
536
3,5a
6.6
10
G
508
0,233
16.2
3
3D
Sr* &S*
859
1,699
3.3
16
B#
325
2,010
6*8
12
I
Sr* 8*s.
603
5*986
18.6
8
F
Jr*5¡r* .S#
368
2,356
6.5
11
0
Jr* B*$*
266
3,566
18.6
6
1
Sr* 8*5*
232
1,322
5.7
13
I
JjV"Sr* H.O.
220
3,357
18.7
5
J
Jr* J3*£*
172
1,505
a.?
9
£
dr.cr* Bm$
161
1,563
9.6
3
L
Sr. SS*
la
1,532
3L2#6
7
H
Jr#>i"* !?* S
90
2,736
30.8
1
8
Jr.6r* !$.$
76
1,852
25.0
2
0
Jr. ii. s.
109
666
8*8
15
*3emmth$ eighth, and ninth grade records were checked
&*G2& the tenth grad oasaolative records in school D#

seseante for its greatest. reading average* Its teachers and it
librarian {particularly the librarian) are eansbaatXy apisaal-
lag fee Importance of reading* It is- Iso fee one school tha&
had reading records tern ofear asuraos fea it cm library*
School I, a small scisod ife a Hatted library, located
in m a^iaalteral eos^sstiy, is participating in & na£iiss*~4
miwu&iMMSL study of ter# year*# ifsM&Xm* Sjofeer this Is
anything to 4o adth its higher average is open to- question* Its
teachers, tmmre?, siso* fee beginning of the steady, ire giving
such sore Msie to fes 4sw&&gmmfc of .reading interests* In this
school, all fee fifteen boa&e most often read are ayrtagy ato
<
riss* it say be feat school s estes to fee interests off its
pupils in ssaefe a tsay that fee qsuaotity of reading, at least, is
increased*
School 0, hieh rooks third -in tbs average sofeer of
boote read, has a aseste .grado teacher feo is highly interested
in ruling* life this anteesiastie sponsor of reading ia fee be
ginning of fee seooadary school, papiig my be so gtteaalated feat
fee interest persists longer fern la some other school*
!& chairman of fee iasgilsfc fegarfeeot of School V said
feat all its pupil readings ware net Usted on fee pupil records
that mm available for study* Howeser, all fee large senior
litte# are given in fee Append!* of the fifteen books
amt often set in each participating school*

SI
M# sAocfi> eaecept ose, had 3m aroragea* Fro tcheca. b* the
reeling reseeds far ths** hundred fifteen. seventh, eighth, ami
ninth grad# papila ere takso hit had heee recorded at one of
the two junior M|h setsools la that city. The average of the
junior high grade records ms nearly twice that of the senior
high group.
The too lowest ranking schools -are the tm largest
ior hi#i schools, fids sandy follows the findings of aany other
studies* that less reading is done is the upper grades of the
secondary school than in the earlier grades. One of the Is*
ranking schools ms om of the- largar junior-^cmiar high schools.
Its library ms H-staifed and had fine equipment, but tburn
smmm to he a %mmmm in the atmosphere rich may hot haws
bm conducive to ssich reading* It is possible that it ms try
ing to be too fftoteht in tssiaal routine at the expense of
good pupil-librarian relationships.
the three school# hit* in this writer* opinion, had
the best pu^l-Hbrarieri rapport ranked fourth, fifth, and sixth
places in the average number of books read* The school ahit
ranked fourth Is in an industrial center* It is a senior high
school sit four grades* There as sor of a fatally atmosphere* 1
in this library than is ewte! in ease families* The fear
library rules ware- those of necessity focad Is say library* At
so Um as any pupil observed to take advantage of the librar-

52
m*B absence, r t absorption of her aitsntioo la soae prob
lem* lilis library as loft pea and unattended at the lunch
hour, but the librarian said that the library soldo lossi a
book* She said that the pupils seeded to fool that the library
me theirs, and that they had dev&Lopea a responsibility for,
arid a pride in, keeping things la order*
Hie school ranking fifth hod a new librarian, a issn, the
oily saaa librarian in any of the participating schools* In the
short time lie had been is tfee library, he had developed very de
sirable relationships with his pupils* lie could not, however,
have been in any my respossibls for the amount of reading re
corded, since they ere last years records* Perhaps the ground-
work for Ms easing success had been laid by his predecessor*
IMs school ms a juMer-sesior hi# school*
the school ranging sixth t@as a junior high school. It
librarian nm enthusiastic about her work &m was surrounded by
videne that she ms trying to encourage pupils to read* She
ms nema? too busy to give individual attention to a pupil*s
cjucsticB^* In triia school, also, a ell-plarin&j reading prograo
for appreciation ms being carried m la the eighth grade with a
specially trained teacher in charge* Pupils slow of ^aprehen
sin, and those sho just did net like to read ere being ao-
eouragea and guided in their reading* flic taaher# a:d librar
ian felt that they 'tare making progress despite the fact that

tlsetrs ia a tourist city and their pupils bm& anoto ncoarageseat
to otter recreaticmX stivitles than reading*
. In am school the social staples teacher a seeking m
attest# ami see&ead to be succeeding rather wsH, to intercat
ter pupils in books that wouM contribute a great deal to their
fund of information and at the mm tira gire picaste in the
reading* She had book lists in coder of thane* and toy countries,
for her pupils; she had book talks by pupils who had found sons
book especially interesting; and die reed occasional chapters
la class to arouse interest* 53 was a dynasaic person, as
through steer personality aimed to toe leading ter papila into
profitable spertmaes through their reading* this achoca ranted
ninth ia swaps pupil reeding*
Besides instances of Btitaiing reeding interests al
ready owntioned, librarians suggested tote %¡m of posters isads by
pupils, Illustrating titles or incitiesits in books; the posting
of book jacket of mm boato, or the displaying of ootUeeCed
jackets os eosse particular abject or occasion; the posting of
vario types of book listos the arranging of special shelves;
ti observing of special occasions; the display of new books in
various clasarooas; the giving of assembly programs of book in*
tweets; and otter device* Qm library dab presented for book
week a play that ted been written and as directed by a pupil*
She had storybook cfiaracters coa to life at the stroke of raid

s&ght w¡ dramtlse their particular adventures* It was wall
done and. the pupil audience demonstrated Its approval* It 1
possible that the play caused sms pagis to mi books that
they otherwise sight not have read*
Mast of the libraries were fairly attractive* apse- de~
finitely so* Tim mat crowded and ost unattractiv on# will be
housed mxk year in a new, ssodsro tw lidias with up-to-date quip-
sent* Respite its inadequacies and o&linass, bosom, this
school linked seventh in the average rasher of book reed per
pupil# ftaw sescssd to be an air of oossradely feeling between
the librarian and her pupils as arnefe as to say, ft$ Ickw we haven*t
mah, bat w are going to nee osar little to best advantage*
Bocios are selected for school liiawrieo in varios ways*
la this study, they ranged fro librarian* choices only, to those
ot by m interest*;:, library oomlttee* In two schools, pupil
suggestion were solicited as well as teacher suggestions, and
they were Iwaacred if they did not run oesmter to approved lists*
The libraries, as a rale, use the state approved library list,
Wilson# standard Catalog for l&gh Sahoola* and the Childrena
Catalog** Other sources used by sons librarian for approved
books war tit librar1/ Jmrml 11X000*9 library Pulletin* tits
htnior Bewlswara Catalog# the Saturday il&vtm of literature*
the Stew fork fiateg Book Bevies, md t& lists issued by the
National Council of Teachers of English*

It Is praotioallj Sspoaai&la for toaohers and librarian#
to keep with books outtte for pupil# &sept as these toad*
rs ami librarians use approved lists* Through their tas and
good josipttnfc is selection in regard to pupil interest, m se-
Heat library isay be ¡maintained* lodging JVes the list of
6,7&i different titles this study found as read, the school li
braries In this otad/ have some very good selection#* they haw
the classics of earlier centuries and any of the approve cm*
Umpanej books team as best oilers." Host of the librarians
sewed to feel, however, that the/ needed assay ^ore interesting
books of fiction. Pupils £ew|eaftly ask for specific basics--
good bookthat the Hhrar/ is sable to fass&ah for then# as
swmtioae earlier in this chapter, there are many books in each
library which sore read wry infwquenbly. iiaoy subj&ct-eaatter
teachers ask for books to be ordered, far their reticular fields,
and stony sudh hooks are new off the shelves. It la proble
that the pupil* know nothing of than.
Each library has a book appropriation, which librarian#
felt, in- most cases, as spit iimdoquate, the more inadequate
since the price of book has risen eo high in recast years and
the impropriations haw not kept pace with the prices*
A Sm libraries had books that had beef; debated by well-
meaning oiliaens but were entirely uasuited for a high school li
brary* In acme Instances, 'these Imi to bo placed on the shelves

%
because the k>SK>r isas too .lrefl.Mtaa.tAAl tO bis ofl'tiidfid#
lo a nutaber of libraries, tbs librarian mm to be
lost in a csaae of routine cutes which eoild not be delegated
to a stuo^t helper* She really had little ttae to desrote to pu
pil guidance Jai reading or to the sblsulation of reeding interests*
Only two libraries in the study eoesato to be sufficiently staffed
adth trained scrders.
Frac the data in this chapter the iblloaiag condLusions
say be dram*
1* The average nuaber of boobs read per* pupil is lea
than that found in sosae studies*
Z* ik very scull per cent of the different bodies read, in
this study ms read by the etajority of the pupils*
fhis say jryiiottto ttut jv^gfep in the li
braries have little to appeal to pipil interests,
or it aay sacan that pupils are not being sufficient
\
ly guided in the dtmlopraeni of reading intarMtau
1* The proportion of fiction reading in all the schools
In tole' study Is sxuch greater than the proportion
of fiction voissma In the libraries*
Much of the a¡& torial given in this chapter is" of a sub*
Jeettsre nature and is tot being used in dressing usoy eomlusiaae
about tie reading of pupils. Only toe objetivo data as found
ill be used for that purpose* However, these observations vare

m because fesy mate thoo^fet to hm mm relationit adjr be
littleto the agent of reading done In s>man&r? schools. Per-
bape a definite' ettufy of mofe rel&tions&ips ns oaafcidfeutlng
dseos to reedisg*, or lack of it, taigfet fee attempted, ^lerdby
aaae tentativo coaslosioae, at least, might be rmn*

carat *
otersbis Af mmi&m. by ?ms of books
first step in tabulating the data collected f*oa each
school as to classify the various titles fey types* when tas
books read by the first two schools fra which records were tale-
an were checked, the titles eeaaea to fall naturally loto tbs
following types* (1) general fiction, (a) adventure, (3) apiary
sou detective stories, (1) aalsaal stories, (§) career fiction,
(6> hobbies and sports stories, (?) biography and aatcfclcgrapiiy,
() science, (9) fairy talco, folklore sad nythcOogy, (ID) the
arte, (11) history and geography, (12) war and defense stories,
(13) honor, (lit) occupation, anti (15) aisoellacy* The first
six groups are fiction, 4th general ftotim containing all
those titles that could not bo placed in the other fiction cate
gories* Tfie general fiction consists chiefly- of light novele
dealing with a raaantlc thesae, serious novels presenting nodal,
payuhc&ogioel, or other serious freblsae, and tos books ooascnr
3y known as girls* boote which tell of £mSly and school life*
It includes' classics of the nineteenth century end %
works of notion theoagh the best sellers of this decade* The
arts grasp contains all the drama, both old and oodem, the. poetry,
classic prose, and any books on painting, sculpture, and mole#

The war and defense stories gjroap ism ineladed bmmm of the
ouabws of stories, both feet and iio&oa, Waiah deawlapad firm
tb& resent world conflict, and are still being read* A good
deal of the lotion in tMs group was basec on fbets and was clas
sified in this group raider then in general fiction because of
its definite war tbese* Shatter each stories can bo considered
as seasonal or bobber they will be read after a few years of
pesos regain to be seen* !ib group in occupations was isscludod
because ilortsia baa boas trying recently to introuae troeat&ttBal
guldanoe into its school progresa* The Bureon of Manates! Re-
leer ah of the Uniwwraity of fttar&tift is aapaolally latarirtwi in
tecadng if any reading is being done in this field by oeeajtsry
school papila*
- all titles that did not fall naturally into any other
group ware placed in the cdjoallaasou# ircq?* All books on so
cial atedias, for instance, axoept tase of Motory end geography
were- placed in the wieeellany in the eXwventh and taelffeh
grades, a' good any books on sociology, paysJw&ogy, philosophy,
soornados, and religion were read, but not in aaffietmt- ejaaati-
ties to warrant asking a separate daasification for tbeaf so
these atm mm panned in the eisedinnesas oatc^cwy* In odd
school, the tsnbr of books m religion listed on the records asan
sufficiently nusaeroue to cause the alter to inquire the possible
reason for it* It was b&smm tbs school gars an lectisw course

60
on comparative religions in the twelfth grade* The coarse was
quite popular and caused the consider able amount of reading on
that subject.
The miscellaneous group ranks sixth in the types of reach
ing done by all the hoys and girls in the study* as is shown is
Table 5* This table also shows the rank of 11 the other types,
the number of books read is each category, and the percentage of
types, read by each sex, of the total reacting* The total of
each type is shown by sex and for the entire group of pupils.
This table shows that the girls read meare than two and one-half
times the amount of general fiction that the boys read* This is
just the reverse with the adventure stories, with the boys read
ing mere than twice as much as toe girls to this category* Gener
al fiction ranks first with the girls by a large percentage, with
adventure ranking second* with toe boys, adventure outranks gen
eral fiction by a mere 1.1 per cent. Animal stories rank third,
and biography and autobiography rank fourth, with both boys and
girls* As is readily seen to Calato 10 of the table, general fic
tion is the major reading field of toe entire group with l*0? per
coat of to total reading in this category. It say be well to
reaesaber that five other groups are fiction also, and when these
are totaled, as they will be later to this chapter, fiction over
whelmingly leads to type of reading for toe group. The reading
to the other categories is pretty well scattered, with occupations

TABLE 5
BOBBER OF BOOKS BEAD OF £A0B TXPE BT ALL MS AM5 GIRLS
ARB THE Wifl0E OF EAG3 TO THE OR&Mi TOTAL
"I'niT-i"Tn-T'ir-irr- -, r 1 -mT.mnrfrrnm'i w. fo4l ST*
Tjpe vxm Siria Total ceiitag
m .
Books
^2)
8
(11
¡Percent Books E
ib)(5L 16)
FewwBfc
... m
Books
Bead
<8)
E
(?)
of Type
JXPJ
General
Fictdm
5,036
2
10.8
33,893
1
29.9
38,929
1
b07
fciwetor
5,556
1
11*9
2J0b
""II1 *
2
5.2
7,970
2
17*1
rlaal#
2,330
3
b.6
1,717
3
3*7
3,8b?
3
8.3
BlOg*
fcttekig*
lbb5
b
3*1
1,678
k
3*6
3,123
b
6.7
cte-otlv
995
7
2*2
X,5bb
5
3.3
2,539
5
5*5
lliscellaK^
m
8
1*7
l,b!7
7
3*0
a,m
6
b.7
Hobbit,
apart#
1,23b
5
2.8
260
31
0*6
l5bb
7
3*b
>ar, Leame 1,210
6
2*6
3X8
10
0*7
1,528
§
3.3
Carear
FicUoa
83 15
0.2
X,W58
6
3.0
1,811
9
3w2E
The Art#
376 10
0*8
661
8
lb
1,037
10
2*2
-Soteno
m
9
0*9
370
9
Q*%
795 XX
1*7
Hiatos,
Googw^sr
25111
0*6
251
12
o*6
502 12
1*2
tear
176 12
0*b
397
13
0*b
373 13
0*6
FaJUy Taleo,
%t&eLog5?
126 33
0*3
171
lb
o.b
m ib
0.7
teapattan
9b lb
0*2
na
15
0.3
212 15
0.5
Total 19,901
b3a
sajo?
56*9
b6,U8
300*0
#ll tiQt&m*

at the bottom of the list* The table shorn that of the total
r@ad.l2ig done in this study*, the girls m&med the boys by 13 .S
per cent*' (this is found by subtracting the total of Oolxmi h
fro the total of Colons 1 in Table 5*) this finding is ocsascn
to sany studios* sons of slob were noted in Chapter XX* A
graphical picture is ¡shorn in' Figure 5 of' the total percentage
of types read* and the pmsentag of boys m girls* reading in
mol type*
'Sxa regaining discussion in this chapter sill be confinad
\ ,
to the data IOu^e in table 6* skioh mem the percentages of
boyo* and girls* reading in the various types in proportion to
the total reading of each sea* Xt differs from table 5 in that
all percentages in that table ears derived fro& the total reading
of both scans* since Table $ shooed that the girls exceeded the
boys in quantity of reading* it is believed that Table 6 dll give
a better indication of the distribution of the types of reading
to the total reading of each sea* Table 6 bos that acre than
half the total reading of the girls is in t field of general
fiotion* and a&y one-fcs?th of t boys* total reading, is in
tide category* Xf the percentages of the starred .groups* dll of
which are fiction* are added, the girls have a total of $G*3 per
cant sod the beys a total of ?£*h per .sent is the fiction groups*
1
She ixonber of girls* reading records exceeded the boys*
records by li*6 par cent*

63
%
Percentage, of Each Type. Book Read
to Grand Total
Fie. 5

tme 6
m mm m Ea&Disa to
TOTA, !U8 OP EACH SEX
Bear
Girls
Type
stbar of
Books Head Percentage
mutoet or
Bocks Head Bereantage
General
Fiction
5*036
25*2
13,053
52*5
ACvvatwa
5.SS6
27*6
2,010
9a
*iaiNi
2*130
20.6
1,717
6*5
Biography,
Autetdsgraphy
1,005
7*2
1*670
6.3
kyetary,
detective
99$
5*0
1*500
5*8
BlsoallMy
m
0*0
1*017
5*2*
Globbioa* Sparta 1*280
64
260
1*0
ar, batana
1*210
6*1
318
i a
Carear Fiction 83
0*2
1,028
5*0
Tbe iarts
376
1*5
661
2*5
S niara
025
2*1
370
1.0
Mafcery*
Geography
2$l
1*3
251
0*9
Firacac*
176
0*5
157
0*8
Fair? idea*
Mythology
126
0*6
171
0*7
Qaoipatione
9k
0*5
130
Q*5
Totals
15*931
100*0
26,1*37
100*0
#All fiction*

Judging tesa these percentages* the boys3 reading is sonsshat
saare diversified than the girls* reaping By this table it is
seen alee that boys read stare biography* aere science* and mm
a
history and geography than the girls de Jordan** study aim
showed that boys read sacre biography, science, and history then
girls do* His conclusion that biography to he popular mat be
witten in the fare of an sotting story could probably be said
to be true in tele present study* sinos ¡cost of the biographies
listed were of an adventurous nature* One popular biography was
an exciting sports story* as it rsweXes the life of & profes
sional baseball player*
In this study* only four biographiee wade the lists of
3
the fifteen books suet often read in each participating school*
Curtain Going Up. a novelised fora of the life of Katherine
Cornell* nade the list in a large Junior hi# school* and l?&rk
Twain ess on the list of a large junior-sooior hi# school*
jadas Curie and Trahan Mneeto ere both on the list of sir
other rather large Juaior-eenior hi# school* Tbs hairsaaa of
the IdgLieh deporbswat of this" school mM that about three yews
ago the English, teachers had decided Hint perhaps the pupils traaM
do ware reading in a free than in a required reading prograa| so
9
Jordan* (&ildraag interest in j&Mdfna
ihom) tables are given in the lipendis*

these too- biographies that were popular eamot be said to have
been required la that school*
fnm fable 6 It is found that girls arc very lita la
tereatcd la beetles sad aporto stories ml in war and defense
stories* Tbs reasons probably are age-old hidden is their bio*
logical and sociological mfce-op# ports end war have been His
demsae of aw and iioys for sany centuries* ffee part played by
wcesa to to recant war was chiefly still in too sphere of mm
md not that of ocn* the boys did 6*6 per coat sad 6*1 per coat
of their total reading to sports mad war stories respectively,
and toe girls*' percentages to toe mam types were 1 por cent and
1*2 per cent respectively*
Tbs girls read a good deal of career fiction* this type
h
ranked highest with toe girls in Kanktoa study* to this pre
sent study It tied vito Iscellaay for Sixto place with per
cent of toe girls* total reading in each Hold* The boys* read
ing to toe career fiction group ms practically negligible
sorely reproseotto *6 por cent of tocto' total reading* On
reason for this my have been that there 3s sot as much career
tlotion available for boys as far girls* & few books on careens
to engineering and ougmUno were smXLaL& to toe boys but
ware very little read* For- tostones Stove Herein* Boi&agHy,,
StocdcSa Odlriiwttto.lafcwftat. .to J^^&Z^S^SSLSlLI^S^S^

67
ms read a total of seven Uses, the sect popular careers fio
tlonisad for girls are nursing and oermXlas* as shorn by the
Sao Barbas, ami the Stefigy series* A £m boys road Peg&y covers
the clipper* not because they ore interested is Baggy or her
journalistia career but because they snare Interested is the
story coieernicg the Clipper. This me 'the answer given by mm
of the boys to an inquiry nade by the writer*
The girls read a good stray ssore books of ayotary than the
boys did, bet exceeded ttea in percentages of total reading by
only *8 per cant* Mystery ranked fifth with the girls ami seventh
with the boys in this study* This is a such different finding
frota that in Anderson's^ study, which listed ay&tery as heading
j
the Hot for girls, sad in Cider and carpenter's study, wr.ich
listed it as first cholos until the eleventh. grade, ahora it
dropped to third place* Xt is necessary to rerasher* however,
that the pupils in this present study ray not Imre hoi as many
wyatery stories amilabl In school libraries as they srfLght have
had elsewhere* losever* a good isany yotery stories are on the
approved list for saboaLs-
The girls load in the nuaber of books read on occupations*
% 1* Anderson* "Study of laimre Hi Heading of Junior
High school lepis*" gUasptaty School Journal, VHX (January*
Xi&Q), 253-267*
^Elder and carpenter, Heading Interests of High school
Cl-dldren, Journal of l5jcatLonal Ksearch, HI (April, 1929),
276-282*

although vamgsktlmm racked Tuamat of all typos i&tb them sod
raskto asset to lowest mifcfc the boys. {My career fiction MU
lower with the toys* It 1 possible that teaolj&rs ad librar
ians, perhaps* re not yet sufficiently fa&s&iar with the books
oa occupations or careers to select the m that give isfcrsaa-
tlon m also rank Mgb la interest ritas If. the eorfe la vo
cational guidance la florida succeeds la reasbit^ administrator
and teacher interest the records for pupil reading la this
field should rise considerably in the next fee years*
- Heading in the arts is Xmaenta&y leer* One md uin-
tenths per seat of the beys* total reeding and 2*$ per sent of
the girls* total reeding are la this field* Xa one server high
school the arts classification ranked third placo and la another
ene. it ranked fifth place* These hi# ranks sears fre&ably
cansad by requirements in the field, and my not represent in
terests accept as the choices made by the pupils acre the least
of all evils to thoau 3h the first school* the various .'shakes*
peareen playa predcMnated, and in the second ens* filler *s pom,
?M Bhito Cliffs of levar* as predominant* l¡m it not beau for
the records in these tm schools* this classification wmM have
bmn nonsiderably loser to rank than it actually is*
fha other types of reading are almost negligible nth
both toy and girls* Humor' as listed tore refers to books of
humor such as- those of Benohley and Icacock* Mr instance* ami
does net mem the humorous insldsnis found In many books of fiction.

tfalahm? found In but study th&t >yarM¡* ^eals to boys iris
of higher intelligence. that is praba.ly trae of satire and of
B
- the acre subtle fern of humor. Zeller touad fcjamr of the fan
ny incident typo one of the t*o significant factors of child
interest in reeding Materials* She reemsaecded that acre books
containing buaar of the funny incident type be selected for
children* reading*
Fairy tales, aythalogy, and foUtLor are not often fount!
in secondary school reeding, but it as indtoded as a type be
cause the first too schools checked showed a rather nymyatai cr-yaytt
of it* An occasional book ess listed ve by pupils in the
twelfth &rade#
the total percentages of each type of reading for boys
are shorn proportionately in- the circle graph in Figure 6, and
for the girls in Figure ?* the comparisons of percentages for
both bays aad girls ore shewn in the bar graph in Figure 0
Conduelan that ear be drasm fro the data in this
chapter folian*
1* In this study the girls read more ttom too and on~
half Unes the msmt of general fiction that the
boys rood* X all catteries of fiction tee girls
7
SVangsliras 0# Malchov, REeadlng Interests of Junior High
School Pupils,* School Review XUT (l.jroh, 193?) 17T-18S#
^Zeller, factors of Interest

70
Fig 6

71
HutvioR 0. 8 %
Folklore 0.7 %-
Occupations 1
0.5 7.
General Fiction
52.2 %
War ,
DE.FEN5E. 1.2%
PERCENTAGE. OF TYPES
of Girls Reading to Total Girls Reading
Fie. 7

72
Comparison of Types of Reading for
All Boys and Girls
Fig. 8

n
read only boat five per ent mere than the bey*
2* the boya road ore than. twice the number of ftne
bare stories that the girls read*
3 Beth beys and girls lilt animal stories, bet boors
ret moar of the?a t!ian the girls do*
U* Biography and autobiography ranked fourth in types
of reading with both boys and girls, with the bog
esceoodlng the girls slightly*
5* Girls are not interested in sports and war stories
bat they do like career stories* &tstiy the reverse
is true of the leys*
6* Both boys and girls like oyster? and detective sto
ries to about the aseso degree*
7* The boys read ears in the Helds of solanos and his-
to*y then the girls, but the amount was negligible
with both asea*
8, The girls* reading erceeded that of the boys by 13*8
per sent*

umpus n
data fit rm or &m)xmp am% aw sm
Heading ma tabulated for each grade and se* aeeavultig
to the olaosifieaiiona discussed la the praowdjns chapter# ibis
os iof to fina aasacar# to the question!
1# ihat are the interests i the various grados*
2* re tajeare ex differences la interests in successive
grades, or la quantity or quality of racing?
3 Are interest changes gradual or sudden in any grade
or with either waff
the total reading for each grade in each category is
given for boye in table ? The order of classification in the
first column ia given according to its rank in the total reading
of the sex# It i seen by this table that adventure stories rank
first for the entire group and hole first placo by grados frota
the seventh through the tenth, and the fall to secoua place in
the eleventh anu twelfth grades# This order is exactly reversed
for general fiction# This probably adosa mrely a maturing of
interests in the upper prados# The eleventh am twelfth grades
listed store titles of fiction that posed social *rei&B# and
sore contosapcrary best seUere or those of a few years ago#
Muca of the adventure read by all pupil* mm of a juvenile type#
It is possible that adult adventure stories nay not have bom

76
asrailahle# Om that speared, aoby iislt# as read by mom ele?
oto grade boy than by boto sosos in ail the other grada s
bines* This book i probably read by high school papdis# m well
as by moot adult for Its stagy eas&ting adventores# lili eo car
little thought for its greet allegorical sigaliioaaoe*
I'ereentages of each classification of boys* reading in
e&oh grade are given is fable 8# Reference to Tables ? and 8
will sake clearer the mount of reading done by each grade in
each classification# since the somber of pupils in each grade
varies considerably. In Table 8# it is mm that general fic
tion comprises less than one-fourth of the total reading dors; In
grades seven# eight# and nine; it equals one-fourth of toe boys*
total reading in the tooth gradej and it increases to warn than
ooe-tfcrd of toe total rending in toe &l&vm%h and todito
grades* Adventure reaches its highest percentage in too eighth
grade# in shioh aL^ost ane-tbird of toe total reading Is in that
category} It is about equal in toe seventh# ninth# ami tenth
grodesf it toen takes a sudden drop in too eleventh grade# and
further decreases in toe twelfth grade*
Animal stories retain rank torso through the first four
grades# although they drop torso per cent in the tonto grads#
m& take a sudden drop in too eleventh ani twelfth grades to
rank six and nine# respectively# One probable oause for this
is that most arlad atarle aro rather juvenile# and jlsvesstii

75
TABUS 7
BAM OF ffm OF BOOKS JtE4I> IS EACH (BADE BT SO
Grade and Bank
t?p
R
7
B
8
B
9.
B
10
B
11
n
12
b total
Adventure
11,255
11*358
1 1,258
1
922
2
a99
2
26a
1 S.SS6
General
Fiction
2
981*
2
aao
2 1,027
2
m
1
820
1
5b8
2 5,036
Aoinal
3
59U
3
532
3
5liO
3
307
6
11 >¡
9
as
3 2,130
Biograjphy
Autobiog*
5
272
6
252
a
338
a
2aa
3
216
a
139
a i,aa5
bbSai
sports
6
23a
a
323
5
33a
5
21a
7
308
7
71
5 i^aa
War
i-ofeoee
7
212
7
250
6
308
6
195
5
128
5
116
6 1,209
mystery
lotective
a
3aa
5
253
7
179
8
123
9
61
n
3ti
7 996
8 a
113
e
12a
8
97
7
H
*
I#
3
155
8 79U
SdQQCMI
9
87
9
92
9
68
9
73
10
60
8
l
9 a2a
The Arta
12
32
11
32
13
19
10
75
a
307
6
233
10 378
iotory
Geography
10
52
10
36
n
32
a
aa
11
52
10
36
11 251
BMMP
ia
16
13
3C
10
39
12
3C
12
a?
13
Ik
12 176
Ffclry f *
%thc3U
u
a7
12
31
ia
17
ia
13
ia

15
3
13 126
Ocoupat*
15
10
ia
. 1*
*5
6
13
29
13
18
12
1?
ia 9a
Corear
lictiaa
13
15
15
13
12
a
35
a
15
K
ia
3£
15 82
total
a,27$
a,i?i
a,203
'
3,253
2^05
3
usos
19*931

n
xm& a
mimwtm. m mm tw& m mm f mts
Orad
Type
?
a
9
20
21
12
Total
Adventure
29J*
32.5
29.1
26.2
20.3
16.6
27.8
Fiction
23.0
20.1
2l.0
25*2
3.1
36.5
2S.2
garni.
13.9
12.7
12.6
9.5
. 7
2.7
20*6
Biography
utctoiograpt^r
6.0
7.9
7.6
9.0
7*1
7.2
aobhiea, Sport
5*5
7*7
. 7*8
6.6
6.5
km$
6*1
^ar~. ctense
5*0
6.0
7.2
6*0
5*3
7.3
6^
. ystcry
Letectiva
a.i
6.1
hmZ
3.7
2.5
2.2
5*0
Miscellany
2.7
3.0
2.3
2*7
6.3
9.8
6*0
Sole
2.0
2.2
1.6
2*2
2.5
2*3
2.1
Th Art
0.7
0.8
0.1
2.3
U$
7.1
1*9
History
Geography
1.2
0*9
0.7
1.3
2*2
2.3
1*3
Humor
0.1
0.7
0.9
0.9
2.0
0.9
0.9
Fairy 'Sale'
lithology
1.1
0.7
0.2
0.2
0*5
0.3
0.6
Occupations
0.2
0*3
0.1
0.9
0*7
1*1
0*5
Career Fiction
o.U
0.3
o*S
o*3
0*2
0.i
Totals 1CQ*0
230.0
200.0
200.0
100*0
200.0
100.0

m twelfth gvmm popile haw reas- then i earlier grades.
The Call of tea fild is ta only a?dal bar? that rsaalned ob
the bays* lists of books amt often rosa through each girase#
It is really gratifying to find biography as high on the
lists as it la* It ranks fourth for the entire group of boya
(and for both boys and gin i the co&plebe study) and ranges
fms third, place in the eleventh grade to sixth, place in the
eighth grade. Hi par ccxit ranges fresa nine in the total read
ing of the eleventh grade to six 1 the eighth grace, the Meat
fork study1 stated that biography increased in popularity from
the ninth, grade to the first sessasfeer of the twelfth, the
finding in this present study is slcrllar for the bey except
that the tenth grade readier of biography is slightly less than
that of the ninth grads.
Hobbles and sports stories are liked best by eighth and
ninth grade boys, m is readily seen freer* the talie* there is
not rnsfa chango in this Interest throughout the high school
.years. It increases slightly in suocestsive Junior M# school
grades then decreases gradually in- the senior high school
eradas
lar and defense stories ore road slightly ore by the
tsalith grade toys than ty others, although the Math grade per*
\ew fork City Association of Teachers of English,
ve./ of leisure aeadte in Typical High pchoolg o.f teu fork

79
cental alaost goals that of it* twelfth grade* One reason for
ti^e twelfth gratis reading 1 tide field asay have beca that this
group as rapidly approaching the age of military service* An
other reason stay have been that the adventure la such aterios i&
considerably score saatore than the Juvenile adventare of earlier
years*
Interest in oyatery and detective stories gradually de
dlm fresa 8*1 per cent of t seventh erad boys* total reading
to 2*1 per eat of the twelfth pede boys* total reading# AS*
oordiog to a current survey of adult reading and aerie interests
2
nado by Fortune ^¡asiao* this interest ssjst accelerate again
after the student leaves high school* The survey found systery
the loading interest of sen, vdth 29 per omt of then preferring
this type of reading and 1.
the eleventh and twelfth grads boys reed a great deal
sore than the other grades In the group of ssiscellaay# A good
many boots of philosophy, psychology, sociology, sdenoeies, and
political theory wars in this group# All the other oans
are vary los* Boom of these will be aoatlfinad later in a cesa
parlaos of the boys* and girls* reading*
fables 9 and 10 mm the wmm itkforsatian coaosrniag the
girls* reading that fables ? and 8 did for the boys* reading# As
'Has hoper, Sao Fortes survey* the Peoples Taste in
Mies and Books, Fortes* mu (Harsh, 1989), 39-88#

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6
i 9T
SC 8T
;c te
:c ct
(9 9
£ OT
5T
88 9
$65 C
392 5
195 n
359 2
nenooo
*1 A*t*a
JttCRf
4SJSoao
<£*nT8
SKJJKK?n
wwb
0ffiiD9jaa
*#
*RT9S
m¥ MX
TV>T
JMUN9
i anoew
Amis
sopmw
Xtapav
I OTy*KUp¥
rrcat
Twaoae
8t t
6 t
dfc
3?aeH pe $n&*s
laso is mm mm nt mm sum j ssax jo mns
6 rmu
08

at
TABLE 30
fmamus or saos ttm m fo sms
Orado
Typo
7
8
9
10
11
12
Total
General
Fiction
87.0
50.8
53*0
Shmh
58*0
57.2
52*5
Advaitos
12.0
9.7
10.6
8.0
6*3
3*5
9a
10.6
6.2
L*j|
1*6
1.9
6*5
Biography
Autobiog.
5.3
5t2
6.0
6.7
8*8
6*0
6.3
S^r-twy
i 11.0
i
7.2
5*9
3*5
1*1
1*2)
5*8
Career
Fiction
5.2
7.7
6.5
$h
2*8
1.7
S*h
iiiocelia*^
3*3
3.3
U.3
6.8
7.2
12.1)
Srnli
The Arto
0.7
0.7
0.8
2.7
6*1)
9*2
2*5
Colono
1.2
2a
1.0
1.6
1*2)
0*7
1*1)
war
Defense
0*6
o*9
1*3
2*0
1*2
1*5
1.2
Hdbbies
sport
0.7
1.1
1*2
1.2)
0.5
xa
1*0
History
Geography
0.7
0.6
0*8
1.1
2*0
0.8
0*9
Hutacr
0.5
0*li
0.8
0.8
1.3
1a
0*8
Fairy Tale
0.9
1*0
0.3
0.5
0.3
0.7
0.7
OeougfetAoMi
0.1
0*2
0.5
0.7
0*8
0.7
0.5
Total
100.0
100.0
100*0
100.0
300*0
300*0
100.0

82
the data from these tables are discuss-:,, comparisons @111 be
nace 1th the boys* reading la the areas fields of Interest*
The tao tables ill be used together in the dissuasion*
General fiction holds first rank in each greda site the
girls ranging iron almost half the total reading, U? per
cent in the seventh rede to nore then half- or £8 per cent
in the eleventh grade* The twelfth grade is less than cm per
cent below the eleventh grade in the readlag of fiction. This
one classification a&yzoots for the balk of the girls* reading*
The atajar resaber of books in the general fiction olaasifica
tins is very light novels of hoes arel school Ufo and general
3
love stories* According to the Portaos survey, this interest
in general fiction la retained in adult years* It finds wesa-
eo*s relief Interests centered in love theses and "aindcreHa
atarla* The other categories receive scattered and scant at
tention fvm the girls*
Adventure ranks second free the seventh through the tenth
grades, then falls to fifth place in the eleventh and twelfth
grades* There is a gradual decrease in interest in each sjc-
cessive grade ms&pt that the eighth and ninth grades are re
versed, less adventure feeing read in the eighth teas in the
ninth grade* Use boys read acre than three tines tee amrest of
adventure that girls do*
3Ibid.

&
off ayafccry iistaarest xiih each atsx are sisilar*

places) but 'the nsaber of books is careers exceeded by eleve,
tee nsasber ia uiec&ilaEy* Career fiction readies its bluest
point in tee eighth grade with a consistent decline in succes
sive grades thereafter* Cook teat fill into tee salscellaneous
category are read In the twelfth grade sore, than in any otlier,
with 12* h per cent of thedLr total reading in this group* Mis
cellany ranks second of all types of reading for tee fcarelfte
grade girls* A good sany bodes on chana* the dcrveXegaset of
personality* and general etiquette sore rood by tee twelfth
grade girls* Fw of these books war read by tee girls in tee
preceding grades*
In tee fields of sotenos md of history and geography*
there is little difference in tee percentages of reading in each
grade* The eleventh grade girls rate a little higher in history
and geography than tee girls in tee other grades* and tee eighth
grade girls excel teo others in the reading of satenes* There
is very little difference between tee sense in these Held** also*
tee boys exoeediag the girls by a sacre *7 per cant in sainaos and
is per cent in history and geography* The total percentages for
boys and girls in each category are teosa i a bar graph in
figure 8*
Figures 9 to lit* inclusive, tecs graphically sos of the
asara definite differences in grade and sex interests in tee var
ious types of reading*

85
Boys
Grade
Percentages by Grades for Boys' and
Girls' Reading in General Fiction
Fig. 9

86
/o
Gradl
PERCENTAGES BY GraDE-S FOR BoYS1 AND
Girls' Reading of Animal Stories
Fig. 10

87
%
Percentages by Grades for Boys and
Girls' Reading in Adventure
Fie. 11

88
%
20-
15.
Boys
Girls
10.
7 8 9 10 11 12
Grade.
Percentages by Grades for Boys' and
Girls' Reading in Biography
Fig. 12.

89
%
7 8 9 10 11 12
Grade.
Percentages by Grades for Boys' and
Girls' Reading of Mystery Stories
Fie. 13

90
%
20_
15.
10_:
Boys
Girls
J
0.
i_D
n
1
7
8
10
Grade
1 1
Percentages by Grades for Boys' and
Girls* Reading in The Arts
Fie. 14

91
t mL& ii
mts'mm* beadxss m w?m sexmo to
msm m 300
(trad
Total
tyj
*
T
3
9
30
11
12
Adwtoft
27
28
20
12
8
5
100
V
C'taieral
Fiction
2U
ID
19
13
15
11
100
32
29
22
30
5
2
100
Biography
Autobiography
23
20
a
Ut
13
9
100
Hobbit
Sport
22
29
23
33
7
6
100
litas*, ofenao
21
2h
23
13
9
10
100
Uywtomf
tectivi:
hO
28
15
9
5
3
100
jliaccflilasy
IB
19
21
15
1?
20
100
25
25
lit
13
12
11
100
tho Arto
10
10
5
17
26
32
100
History
Geography
25
17
12
33
IB
35
100
Huaor
11
20
22
13
2$
9
100
Fairy Ifcleo
Mythology
id
27
11
8
8
5
100
Ooaipati**
12
17
8
9$
17
a
100
Career
Fiction
27
IB
23
9
9
m
100

om& armase fifiADxao m tma ssoasm to
BASIS OF 100
typ#
Gradeo
=38*
tota
7
8
?
10
n
32
Geaeral
Fiotie
23
21
20
lit
n
6
100
Adraaton
32
26
88
a
6
3
100
lo
a
1?
8
2
2
100
Biograp&y
21
20
22
lit
15
ft
100
;iUwx}XO^A&>i}y
e
lystsry
letective
13
27
18
7
3
2
300
Career
riofcioD
2U
3U
23
13
5
1
300
HiocLlany
16
26
17
17
15
29
100
the Arto
8
8
7
16
30
31
300
soleaos
a
37
t
lit
21
3
300
ap-.ejfen
13
18
22
2U
12
21
300
Hobbies
Sports
17
27
23
19
6
8
100
History
Geography
18
18
18
26
23
7
100
Homar
17
16
28
12
19
12
300
Fairy tales
J4ytc&ogr
32
37
9
9
h
9
100
Ooaupafcions
8
12
2it
2h
20
12
IDO

n
Tatiim IX aai 12 dim Urn average reading* reduced to a
basis of 100* in each field by grade and oesc* These tables show
ti rise or deoSLIas of reading by types In each grade and far
each sex* Bart of the deeXin is the upper gradee i siaply bo*
cause of the greatly reduced asaust of rearing in all fields*
Far instant* of 800 twelfth grade records checked, the total of
bodes real as 3,77$j end of 827 ninth grade records checked, toe
total of books read ma 10,627, or nearly three tiesos sore than
the twelfth grads, for apppeedasstely toe mem masher of records*
Those tables simia be read as follows* Of every 100
books of adventuro, in the ratio that they were road in this
study, a seventh grads toy will read 27, an eighth grade boy sill
road 26, and so across the tails The tails for toe girls is
\
road in a like asonar* This type of table dime the ratio of read
ing by grade and sea if too naabers of readers in sato grade is
kept constant, and is useful chiefly to deteraine toe rise or fall
of quantity of reading*
The reading in sme fields resaioa smd& toe mm in each-
grade and for both boys and iris, as is shown in history and go
ography* and in huaor*
The arts group is too only one of the fifteen different
clasaif icatioos that rises rapidly in the senior high school
grades* There is a low figure in toe ninth grade in toe arts
category that tola study cannot espala* According to Tabla 11,

9k
throe-fourihs of the tools road in arts fey tbs girls will be road
fey the senior high school grates* Table 12 show 0 seen higher
number that would be read by senior hi# school bops* The sBher
of books aijosi doubles £mm the tenth to the eleventh grade and
is practically the sasae matter in the two highest grades*
The date la this chapter asm to indicate that both boys*
end girls* interest in general fiction increases in successive
grades throughout the secondary school years, moept with the
eighth grade boys, here there is a three per cent decrease fron
the seventh grade* Girls* interest, in adventure stories is far
less than that of the boys* The decline in interest in adventure
stories is evident 1th both sexes in successive grades except
the girls* ninth grade, here interest is greater than in the
eighth grade* mSmi stories are popular 1th the junior high
school boys tut show fast declining interest in the senior M#
school grades* The decrease in interest in aeiiisal stories is
shorn in each of the girls* grades, with the gre&tevt decreases
shown In the ninth and the eleventh grades* Biography nd auto*
biography how little change- by grades or sees although sore is
read in the senior high than in the Junior high grades, and
slightly atore by the boys then by -the girls in each grade* Has
interest in systery stories shews a rapid decline with toe girls
and a sore gradual decline In tie boys* reading* The girls read
acre of this type than the boys in the Junior hi# school grades
and 1em than they do in the senior hi# school grados* A good

deal of career fiction i road by the girls* reaching its Mgb
point in grade eight end declining thereafter* fb bay read
practically none of tisis type* the isiscollaneoai; and the art
groups shear a constant rise for both sexes* except far the ninth
grade boye* la each typo* the ninth pede boy fail bolear tase
seeenbh grad boys* there is so little difference in the other
fields of interest in this study that definite stsbraant m to
rise or fail of interest can hardly be ende

mmm m
wssmsxs as mmtsm m wms wm mm bead
ii&varal lists of the books most often read by all pupils
in. the study, by the various grades, and by scan are csosjpiied
froo the data on the master list Two lists comprising tbs one
hundred books most often road by all pupilm In the study arc giv
en in Tables 13 and 1U* The first list gives flfty-nsae titles
and tbe second one gives forty-nine titles They ware divided
in unequal groups because of tbs number of tines road* These
1
books ere cheofeoa with the standard Catalog for istifo schools
2
the Childrena catate the high school reading list of the
%
National Council of Teachers of SagUsfc, sod the State Adopted
V* jk
library Books for Herida school# bull tin* the Standard Catalog
^Standard' Ca
cauaoe ST
Goapsny, VMl*
mmmz
bate for SWi School libraries# A Selected
^Children s I
aitfa tedylic 4jtb£^irfar''f-^y ^oSse'iiat'L'cai
oatlng t&ooi Soris#"' ffiTfinWh
T Ha
i A dictionary catalog of I£00 Bocks
BaBaMttaimaT -
Coaaittee on Book lists for Junior and senior Sigh
schools. Books for loa Chicago# The national Council of Teachers
of bnglisSTTOT
^State Adopted
bo* 2?, fsSHmamSSt State ej:
Books for florida Lohoola. BuHetUa
BoFi^uoatioo, May, 1S?12*
96

91
TAELS XI
vsm*m mom warn oma wm Bt all
mm& t rm svm
Title
nafta? of Title
fisam
Head
linear of
Tissea
**&3y Atedf ilioka
*Lassie, Oorae ?oa
>Toa Bsatstst
The Call of the mid
*The Yearling
Seventeenth Saasaer
*uckleberry Fina
The ixbe
fiTreasure Island
Black Stallion
Chert 1 torles
MUjOQdttiMMd
Uttle ,oaea
Seventeen
iyre
Snaky, the Seahorse
Junios" mee
secret Cargo
¡rJtorrloane leather
Daniel Boone
Mysterious island
Last seaeater
I4,yy^a Marsh
Return of Silver Chief
sandy
Caddie uoodXaan
1$ Our Hearts mm Toung
1*3$ and Gay
lit ; Sue Barton* redor Burse
13 Sue ¡artos* Student Mures
11 The Jinx Ship
12 Tea* /ildoatsJ
12. I The Itusaa Goeaety
11 ¡ Lad a Jog
IX Ctrasberry Gi&
3a Fair Adventure
9 \ They i&ma to Laugh
9 AH African
9 > Ginger lee* ar Sumni
$? Lou Gehrig
9, i epsorod
3 1 To hose and To Hold
8 : #utfaeriag Height
8 The Miase and the Pauper
7p Thunderbolt Souse
7 > Going Go sixteen
7 i Toe*a Hark* (Tales)
7 3 Boggy aovare the ism
7 i fiama
7 Silver Chief
7 *A Tale of Two Cities.
7 l silver Chief to the
Rescue
71
71
70
68
68
67
67
66
6$
6k
66
6U
6k
6k
63
63
a
a
60
60
60
60
60
* EftCKxrschded for first purchase by The Standard Catalog
for Sigh school libraries*
Doubly recoaaended by the nazae catalog*

marks books. with am star that It rmamma as a .first parchase
am with two stars that it doubly reoossaisda#. & glauco at Tables
13 am Ik will show an abundance at stars, both doubl am sin
gle, wi-iich would sewn to indicate that the. Florida boys and
girls whose records were checked in this study ara reading
good books*
Of the fifty-one books scat often read 1 Table 13, elev
en are stories of animal s, four of which are about horses, else
about dogs, and one about a pot deer* It would be interesting
to know if The Tearling is road as such elsewhere as it is in
Florida* The foot that it has its setting in Florida may ham
been some inducement to its reading, in addition to the fact
that it has been made into a popular movie with florida as the
locale for the scenes* That it is. a charming story for children
everywhere, regardless of its setting or its having been made into
a movie, is a generally accepted fact*
$
Concerning animal stories, Pettlngill, in a letter to the
editor of the Wilson Library Bulletin* writes that dog stories are
the most popular of all animal stories, a fast which is borne out
by this Hot, and by those to follow* She makes a plea for more
dog stories* **X£ only more fine dog stories could be written for
the Junior and senior high school pupil f*
$
&da Pettisgill, The Books They Like,*5 Milam Library
Bulletin* XX? (loossaber, 1939), 338*

Of the other types in fable 13# sto are sdven&tir*
stories} twenty are general fiction# of fetoh slevon are rater
light and nine could he classed a serious fiction} two are
lory collections# which are also listed as fiction in the dif
ferent deificationsj tm are biographies* one of an adven-
tercos nature and the other- te life of a professional baseball
players tan are aystery stories) foar ar stories of girls1*
carorsj too are apart stories and mm is a fascinating travel
story Every on of these essept Glsyr Im^ ar jure and t£*s
short dories ms listed la am or cor of the fbor catalogs
nosed previously in this chapter* The abort stories ver Hated
on- the pupil record cards merely as Chart Stories* without giv
ing the mm of an editor or emptier j so it was impossible to
dcieroine their state by the catalogs*
la the eeood group of book amt often read# Table lit#
the icllostag seven books wear not listed, in any of the above
smnmS catalog or in their sappliamsnts that warn wmStoto10
Cpjko of gslft Elver* girl of te Liabedost* PeUyaaam Secret
of the -Closed Gate* Buff a adlie Tho Golden .Hystey* and
The Bengalee Mystery
In this table nine books'srs of aimXs, five dog stories
and four hearse etcri) nine are- adventure stories} nineteen are
general fiction# of which eight could be classed as light and
eleven of a sortea ate! one is biography} sis. are mystery
etorieaj sos is wear fiction {girls*}) two are of aport) and

100
TABLE Hi
m List (poaif-sisi) of books met
ama mm> m all popes
title
Huaber
of Tiaei
Hoad
Godo With the feind S !
*The Iron Luke $
The Ship Without a Oreo $i
Call It Courage $
Shadow in the Pines $!'
Spike of Swift liver $
*Md ad Prejudice 5 ¡
wA Lantern in Her Hand Si
>Ufe With Father % I
An CCUW'oahiened Girl $ !
Black Beauty $ .
Topkiok, Amy Horas 5
Buffalo &ill*a Ufo story 5
MOA S i
The Scarlet Letter £
Kith Daniel Boone on the
Ceroliny Trail S.
ftCaptains Gouragocm $ \
The Green fears $ :
Babin Hood B I
valiant, Log. of the Berth $ 1
Paul Banyan S
lainriran garvest 5 ,
**ftefclasaa Crusoe §,
wilderness Qtimoim $,
Girl of the Xlaberlost S *
Title
iftsaber
of Tinee
Head
White Fang
'^Goodbye, Sr. Chipe
The Middle Button
#Tb Virginian
The Iwag frailer
PeUyaana
Pigskin arriar
secret of the closed. Gate
Struggle Is Oar Broth
Susan, Be tasoofch
Buff, a Collie
*Gren Grass of uyoesiag
*Tbe Keyaton Kids
Last of the Mohicans
Magnificent Obsession
Bed Hear sc- Hill
Slack .ose
The (Holden Eagle Mystery
*8flbeee* of Sumyt-rook taa
The Adventures of Sherlock
Koines
the Bngalo' Tystery
Ikerid GQpperfldd
eeKidnapped
The Sea Golf
10
0
lid
JU8
US
t*
h8
li?
hi
hi
hi
hi
hi
16
IS
IS
15
k$
16
Iff
16
Reoassseoded for first purchase by The standard Catalog
for High School librarle.
* ** Inubly recoKsaended by the sarao catalog.

101
1m are In the alsceULaaeoua category* the girl*' interest pro-
bably dominate In both these lists since the girls oaWel the
boys In hundred titles with thirty-nine books; animal stories, tiltil
twenty books,rank second} and adventure, aith sixteen books,
ranks third
Those two lists o titles which represent 6,713 o the
Zi^l.8 reading recorded, account for ^csdumteay la$ per
cent or the total reading dona by the pupils In this survey,
which fact is an indication that more approved books ore being
read and evidently liked by papila* Whether this would be the
case if shelves of the £ans Gray books, the Hmtj books, the Toa
Swift series, the tanas series, and others of a like nature uva
available in the school libraries, is open to question* However,
some books of this nature sere listed by som pupils>Tagg swift,
for example, was road by seven pipila and one boy listed as hav
ing read "all the lied Randall series***
The fifty most popular beys* books in this study, as Snr
dioated by the number of times reported road, are listed in Table
15* Tom awyer, The Call of the lild, and Ijocu&eberry fina head
the list here* 'The first tm haws probably boro favoritas since
their publication in 1376 and 1912, respectively* lluckjefacrry
lion, w.iioh is generally considered as an iacooparid^y better
book than Toa sawyer* got off to a bad start by being banned by
a Boston library; so it was a longer tirso being accepted by

1Q2
TABLE 15
nm books mst orm bmd bi all
boys u m amr
Title
1tebar
Of TifiSMS
Head.
Hushes?
Title of
¡sad
Toa Sawyer
97
Captain Courageous
hz
The Call of the slid
96
The listone Elds
U2
ifuckisberry Finn
9U
Robin Hood
IsZ
Hurricane leather
68
Spike of Swift River
le
Secret cargo
66
The Young Trailers
h2
Treasure Island
66
Hohinsoo Crusoe.
11
Daniel Boone
63
Silver Chief
hX
Lassie Cons nos
62
Wilderness Champion
11
Uy friend* ilicka
61
World Series
11
netarn of Silver Chief
a
The Sea df
39
The Jinx Ship
58
Shade' in 'the Fines
38
Loo Gehrig
58
Short Stories
37
Cooky* the Joahoree
58
Topktefc* Away Horse
37
The Yearling
58
twenty Thousand Larues
Black Stallion
57
Under the Sea
37
Thundarhead
57
Hack Deauty
36
Yea .¡ildcatsJ
57
Seven Who 0me
36
All .American
57
Silver Chief to the Rescue
36
The Iron Duke
Mte Bang .
35
l.yaterioue Island
J0
Lad a log
3
The ship Without a Crew
S3
Last of the Cohicana
33
Buffalo Bill's Life
Stoary
i
Pad: Buayan
33
Plgskla ..strriors
fe
The Adventuress of uorlodr
Gall It courage
Ut
33
Hth Daniel .Doooe on the
Struggle Is Our Brother
33
Qaroiiny Trail
k3
Reliant Log of the scrth
33
Tim yirglsm
33

m
school libraries as a book of merit* fflamever, its popularity *1-
mo&t reaches that of its slightly earlier oontsapcraiy*
Of thio list of fifty books, twentTMsroe arc cm the list
6
of the fifty-one aoct often read Looks, twenty-four are m the
T
eecocd list of ftarty-nine osi often road, end tbrm are m
neither list# these three aret Twenty Thousand Leagues ffadar
the Sea, an improbable adventure at the tine of its publication
in 170, but a ccgi-aceialact: one, as far as the fact of the aub~
autrine is cocoraed, with boys of today* Seven Iho Caae Through,
dale iiiektfcaaker*s story of rescue at sea after a warplane
crashs and arid Serien a sports story* inch of these books is
listed in one or sore of the catalogs Mentioned at the beginning
of this ahapter
Aniaal stories lead in interest in the boya* list with
seventeen boot, ten of which are dog stories, six harm star ios,
and one a deer story. Adventure caaes next with fourteen books#
This differs frota the total reading of boys as given in Table ?,
which shows that adventure ornes first with the entire group,
and animal stories rank third# The remainder of the beys* list
is divided into Uve ports atarte} five sayetsry or detective
stories} three biographies} four books of fiction, three of which.
am be considered of a serious nature} oris story collections and
Vu 13,
Afable llj#

o& war story#
The girls* list of fifty books most often rood is given
in Table 16* ftiirty-fcw of these books are listed in the fifty
one books most often read by SIX pupils as shown in Table 13* and
fourteen are in Table Hi of the nest group of books moat often
reao* There are four books on the list which are not on either
of the above-oaritianecl tables* These ere Sue Barton, Suporinteo-
dent of Surges* H.&y Macintosh, Papuy Covera asblngtoa and
Understood Betsy* These four books are all found in one or more
of the approved lists* Because of the greater quantity of read
ing done by the ¡iris, their books predominate in the books most
often read by all pupils*
The titles listed in Table 16 show that general fiction
leads in interest with the girls* It represents thirty-ana of
the fifty books* eighteen of which are rather light nereis and
thirteen of which are serious* Career fiction ranks second* with
seven books in this category* Only five animal stories ore listed*
three of which are horse stories* one a dog story, and one the
ever-present deer story* Three adventure stories which re usa*
ally classed as boys* books are on the list* and one each of story
collection, travel* mystery, and miscellany* Biography is con
spicuous by its Absence frees the list*
Eight books, or 16 per emt of the fifty books read nost
A
often by boys* ere also read by the girls# Only thro of these
^Tables 15 and 16*

TABLE 16
fifty books mm mm mad m ail
0ZBL8 Bf THE SBXit
Title
Ifuefcer
of Tisses
Head
L'taaber
Title of Tises
Head
Seventeenth Simmr
122
Tm Hanes Qm&dy
&
Tim Sob
m
A Lantern in Her Band
5b
little ceaen
92
lathering height#
5b
Jane Tyre
90
Tm Sasyar
51
My FWnd, Flicks
90
Heidi
b9
Laasie Cose Hoes
90j
Gone With- the wind
b9
Seventeen
aa
Soasa De aootfe
1*8
80]
Girl of t Uaberloat
W
last Seeesfcar
7b
Treasure Island
b?
IT learllng
n
fiamos iiarvest
1*7
ijnSA gar eh
72
Black stallion
6
Sue Barton Seiiior liarse
71
Pride and Prejudice
b5
Our hearts ere Toung snu
Gay ?0¡
The Middle Button
bb
Sandy
69
The Green leasee-
bit
Sue Barton student Horse
68
The scarlet letter
lb
Caddie soodlasm
6k
Sue Barton aiperistoadenfe
Ginger Lee, car liarse
6k
of liarse
bb
Pair Mrmtare
63
Meggy iaclnfcosh
1(2
Going on Sixteen
61
efeecce of Suarytarook Fans
b2
Short stories
a
Peggy Covers Washington
bl
Peggy Covers the Bern
60
Penrod
hi
'¡lassaoo.
60
Magnificent Cto&emim
bo
Strawberry Girl
60
The Bangalm Mystery
39
They loved to Laugh
3
Tbancarhaad
39
To issem and to Maid
57
Understood Betsy
39

books could be de£iaitely refemd to as boys* book The boys
sorel/ cannot dala the animal stories as exclusively theirs, nor
the short story collection. Bo book classed specifically as a
girls* book is to be found on the boy* list* LlghtyHtaur par
cent of the lists of each sex are mutually exclusivo* Teman
and Lia found in their study that boys* and girls* lists were
60 per cent actually exclusive* In their study, girls read more
boys* books than they did in this present study*
Table 1? lists the titles of Looks most often read by
boys in the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades* lo book is listed
in this table that was read less -than twelve times* Of the teem*
ty-slx titles found under grade seven, only ten have been read
exclusively by the seventh grade* Ten other titles are found
also in the eighth and ninth grade lists* The seventh grade
list contains twelve animal stories? six stories of adventure)
four tsystery aterios; three biographies; and one sports story*
The eighth grade lists eight animal stories; six stories of ad*
venture; four sports stories; three aystery stories; and two bi
ographies, or a total of twenty-three books read twelve or mom
times by them* The ninth grade list has nine animal stories;
six stories of adventure; four sports stories; and one each of
biography sod general fiction* The fiction listed' here la a
story of college life end could well be listed, perhaps, as a
9
Teman and Lina, ;slldrea*g Heading*

TADLE 1?
books host arrm usad b? hots in oo*sm smr, mm at, a> nn
7
To bower
Huckleberry .Finn
Robin Hood
Buffalo till s Life story
-Daniel Boo
Secret Cargo -
My Friend, Flicks
Sooty, the Cowhorse
Lassie, Ock Hone
It Yearling
Hystericus Island
wilderness ^tampion
The Jinx Ship-
- Paul Banyan
Tbandeffcaed
Topklck, Amy Horse
Hurrioane ¡Feather
Ben a? id II
113 Ship without a Grcw ^
Silver Caief
- Tea, wildcats I
Black stallion
The Call of the Wild
Shadow in the Pines -
sun, star, aid Pepper
Valiant, Deg of the North
8
iteoKLeberty Finn
Secret Cargo-
Black Stallion
Tim Urn Ship *=
Tm Ship Without a Craw
Tea* Sawyer
iaaieL Boane
the Call of the Wild
Hurricane weather
vPigskin arriera
lith hostal :oow3 on the
Caroliry Trail
The Yearling
-r All American
The Keystone Kids
Lassie, Cora liana
mysterious Island ~
StsdSy, th Cowhoree
spike of Swift Elver
tlea, iltcataI
Call It Courage
+ Lou Gehrig
My Friend, lioka
9
Treasure Ialand
The Call of the Wild
Tom Sawyer
lassie, Cose Ikon
iuckloberry Finn
Return of diver Chief
The Iron vke
My Friend, flick*
Thwxierhead
Black stallion
spike of swift Elves*-
( World carie
'till American
Black Beauty
Call It Courage
-Daniel Soane
Saoky, tii Gowharse
i-fIgsWUi imrisni
filth Daniel Boone on. the
Caroliny Trail
With the Indiana in the
Rookie
rlea, .ildoatej

106
sports story* Stories of anisis predestinate in these stoat often
read lists, bat with decreasing interest in the eighth and ninth
trades* tea Salver and Huo&efeerry Fina head the liste in grades
sevesi and eight, respectively, and rank third and fifth, reapae*
tively, in the ninth grade list*
treasure Island whim heads the ninth grade list, took
the lead because of the nuaber of tines it was read in om school
la tide school, the class real a chapter fxm treasure lalaad
which had boon included in the Mterature textbook* It was so
skilfully presented by the teacher that practically all her pa*
pile read it* It as not required.
Adventure cams second, to anisis in interest with the
junior high school boys as indicated by these lists, but when
checked as m entire group, adventure ranks first as indicated
earlier in this chapter* Seventh grade boys choose nystery ato*
rios as their third interest) and eighth and ninth grade boys
team sports stories as their third choice*
So wuoh less reatiint was dom by the color high school
boys that it was- .necessary to include books read as few as six
tiaes in the twelfth grade* The reading In that grade with boys
was sure varied as to titles than in augr other grade, either toys
or irla* The books most often read in grades ten, eleven, md .
twelve are aiicTO in Table 16*
Twenty-one books are lia tea in the tenth grade that were
reaa ten or more bisaos* The categories 1*0 a little store varied

TABLE 18
books m>T asms %m> nx bos m grades mi$ mmm9 m- twelve
3Q
The Iron Puke
iistum of Silver Chief
The Gall of the Wild
AH siertoaa
Captains Courageous
Ufe With Father
Seven Who Cose Through
Silver Chief to the Rescue
The Adventures of herlock
frrltirri
loo Gehrig
White Fang
fea wildcatsJ
i&okle&arry Fina
fiurriaan leather
f he Jinx Ship
Lassie* Gone liens
Silver Chief
Saoky* the aowhoras
Tbuaderhead
Treasure island
tins Tcung Trailers
31
Short stories
The Call of the wild
A United States History
Moby h ick
The Doeralaywr
Hurric-ar.0 Weather
Ufe Kith Father
Lou Gehrig
12
k Tale of Two Cities
Pride and Prejudice
itorioan eathcr
Captain flood
Merchant of Venice
Oliver Twist
The Call of the ild
Lou Gehrig
The Robs
The Sea Mdf
Buccaneers and Pirates of Our
Coast
The Adventures of Sherlock
!o3am
Gheanault of the Flying Tigers
Her Is four

in this group* AnioaL stories still lead is interest eith eight
titles listed! turn adventure, 1th five books! two sports sto
ries! two mastery* asp detective stories! and ma each of general
fiction, Wj biography, atad miscellany* fees dasaysr does not
appear M this list, bnt Huai&ebegr;;/ rim, 'Sponwre Inland* and
The Call of the wild do*
The eleventh grade lists fourteen books read by seven or
saws boys* bith the exception of the gall of the fid* the aniaal
stories have disappeared* There are still three stories of ad
venture! three of serious fiction! tm biographies! and one each
of war, aystery, history, alwrt stories, and niscaUai^v This
is the first appearance in the boys* grade lists of serious fic
tion, although two of throe are of exciting adventure* The fact
that short stories and a history textbook stand high an this list
leads to the opinion that they eight possibly lave been required
in the eleventh grade*
Of the eight titles listed In the- twelfth rads, four may
haw been required volumes* Throe four are three nineteenth cen
tury novela and a Shakespearean play* The others are two etertro
of adwnture, a biography (sports), -and the esgdprcsent The call
of the wild* The last naced is the only book that has been re
presented 'in the lists of -all six grades*
Judging fres these fro most often read books, one can roc
a maturing of reading interests in the successive grades but not
necessarily an increase in literary discrimination, since prao-

Ill
tlcally all the hocte are good for their age level* Shi ie
probably osamm all these saiiMft&tMS were sett fre ached li
braries, which* as a rale* select only approved books far their
readers*
She books read most often Jy the sewsath* eighth* and
riat& grade girls are listed in Table 19* Ti twenty-six books
read by twelve or sor seventh grade girl Tall into the follow-
i% categories* t light fiotiesa books, five mdbaeH stories*
five oyat&rles* on story o' advwatare* three of career fiction,
and two biographies* f?y having two biographies in their list*
the seventh grade girl lift their sex from the reproach of hav
ing no biography listed in their most-often-read grade lists.
AH the boys' lists had one or more. Tom Sawyer is the only
boys' book that appears in the seventh grade list and it is not in
any of the other girls7 grade lists* Wmh&p this grade narks
the last of the general interest in boys* books* heeevsr* a few
tota-b'Cyish girls* book are read through the tmth grade*
The eighth grade list shows a rise in light sad carear
fiction -with a decrease in afcaol and. sgsteaey stories* Of the
tooaty-sv<5u books listad* read fey fourteen or sore girls* there
are fourteen of general fiction* only o of which could be con
sidered sesioaaf six of carear fietioaj three aniaol stariesj two
aystory stories} one advenfcuref end one Xegend. the last naaed
is classified coder foll&ore in the type listed* Ibis grad

TABLE 29
worn ms? 7
Little Cosen
Sty Frisad, iHoka
Caddie LcoLsan
Heidi
lassie, Gam Hem
Starasberry Girl
Secret of the dosed Cate
Toa Saasyer
feWMiy
An 0Xd~Faahlaried Girl
The Yearling
Ml^ntsa
Secret oi the CM Bous
a Barton, student floree
&m Barton, Senior Horse
Peggy Covers the flews i
Tfsuaderhsad
1he Birds* Christaaa Cared.
Girl or the Liaberlost
The Golden Eagle i.'ysteay
tm irng&w Mystery
colly Madison
Edward iiaoiowsll
T.ifirta Mfftyflh.
Shadssr o the Pine
0
Linda Jiarah
£r frisad, disks
Little .w
Lassie, Cose Hone
Seventeenth Stumer
They Laved to Laugh
Going in Sixteen -
The KLddlfi Dutton
Peggy Coears the Hews
Sandy
Ginger Lee, far Stars
Staraaberry Girl
Last someter
Vvhoa, ''atilda
Penrod
Sue, Barton, Senior fiarse
Understood Betsy
Blank stallion
See Barton, Student hoarse
Seveoteo
Binging urea
Gaddis Vioodlawn
The Good Master
- jystssrieaa Island -
Peggy Govern London
Kcsaane of Silver Springe
Secret of Shade Banoh
Seventeenth Sanaar
Junios* Mise
Treasure Island
Last Semester
fair Adverttur
dans lyre
Easton*
little fiasen
My f riend., Flick
Susan, Do Maooth
Sue Barton, senior Burse
Sue Barton, Student ,'iuree
The Yearling
A Lantern in Her land
Seventeen
Sue Barton, luna Hura
Behave Tourself
The Call of the ild
Jane Hope
Our Hearts lore loose and Gay
Ana of oreen Gafcls
Carol Plays Sumer stock
Baddy Lsas^Ugs
Heheoca of jSasxaytroak Fam
Haggy Macintosh
An Qld^Sahloaati Girl

313
arfes the hi# paint in the reading of cama* Ictico*
In toe ninth grades twenty-six hooks, ich asare read
by fifteen or acre girls, there are fifteen of general fiction,
two of which stay he classified as eerioassj four of carear fiction;
three of animal stories; two of aisetXa?yj and mo mot of trsv*
l and adventure* Books of travel were classified under geog
raphy* treasure island appears in this grade list probably for
tide ease reason it ranked first with the ninth grade l eysbe
cause nearly all the ninth grade pupils is one school read It*
the fiction titles appearing in the eighth and ninth grade lists
are predcedisB&ly those which are-usually referred to as girls
books* there are only three books asmen to each grade in the
miar high school girls* lists* They ore little coreen, a favor
ite for generations* according to the stadias cited later in tide
chaptsrj My friend* Flicks* and. hue Barton, Senior Shares*
the ninth grade list shows a very slight sign of maturity
ever the eighth grade* If Jane Eyre and rabona are reaoved fro
the ninth grade reading* the two lists are practically on a par*
The eighth and ninth grade girls were the two largest groups in
the study*
In the lists of the tenth* eleventh, and twelfth grade
girls, as shown in. fable 20, there Is a definite tread toward
acre nature interests* the tail shown also a decrease in the
amount of reading done in successive graces* Pooka are listed,
in the twelfth grads that were read as fear as seven times*

TABLE 20
mm mm arm heap bi girls is oralm rm, mm, mb tsew*
10
11
IS
The Roba
Short Stories
tone fyre
Cevesfcaeath Hums*
Tb* Robe
The Robe
Seventeen
The scarlet Letter
uthering Heights
Junior Miss
Our Hearts ere Young and Gay
Magnificent Obsession
To Hove and to Hold
To Have and to Hold
A Tale of Two Cities
Lassie, Cor^e Hoaa
The Citadel
Pride and Prejudice
Poas Works (Tales)
Little Minister
Going on Sixteen
Rabeooa
Pride and Prejudice (Play)
Gone With the Wind
Gone With the wind
Random Harvest
tone Gyro
The Human Coredy
Black Hose
Linda Marsh
Jane lyre
Pride and Prejudice(Novel)
They Loved to Laugh
Janice Meredith
Orson Dolphin Street
the Green Years
Junior Miss
The Green Years
A Lantern in Iter Hand
Seventeenth Sumar
letters to Ctasaa
Last <; aster
Magnificent Obsession
Rebecca
Oliver Twist
lathering Heights
Tim oorlet Letter
Our Hearts Viere Toting and (toy
All This, and Heaven Too
Tim Gauntlet
Short stories
Captain from Castile
Keys of the Kin&m
Peggy Covers the Sobs
The Crisis
Les Disertles
Sandy
The house of seven Gables
Oliver Twist
Black Hose
Loma boons
scveotiwaath Sunrasr
SaMttt
So Barton, gaoler Bursa
Wutfaerlng Heights
The Yearling
Peggy Covers ashington
So Mg
Pride and Prejudice
Seventeen
So Well Reraesaibered

115
The tweaty-oevea hoto rm tmim or more tbae is the
tenth grade cm be totetoKiawsei m folese* immtj general ft-
, tio, twelve of hito toy be ooastdered of a seriara a&topej
three career stories; two an leal stories; am me cash of travel
and star:/ collection* the rImI stories tore ato their lest
appearance is this list*
Iba eleventh grade also toe twenty book of ftobito, of
tito seventeen are of a ssor sricas type; two story eoXlee-
tioas; arad ose book of travel So far as the fifteen elassifl-*
cattoo asad is this study re concerned, the totsrosts tore
have narrowed eomitorably*
caottosuation of the aamsttog interests by types 1
eiiom is the twelfth grato list tot & broadening is atom here al
so by the laelusim of a play ad book discussing girls* pvabHem
lito includes a discussion of aarriogo# Twenty fiction titles
are listed, all but one of hito are of a serious nature* Twelve
of those are laotom novel ml i#t are irosa the nineteenth cerr*
tury. Ti* pLr listed i itoSall* atopbatioa fro tostn*
novel, frito and Prejudice* The twelfth grato gesar&lly showed
a goto deal sm -iatcaroot to the read!Eg of plays, both did and
mm, than all the otter grade*
Five titles in the girls senior hi# podes are comm to
oato* Stay are The Btoe* toronteetoh. turner* gride and. i^ejadtoe
(the novel), Jtoe Eyre* and iftrthMtiac Haight Sino tiara of
these five are considered classics, it is possible that they

ero required, at least Xa wxm schools*
Twelve of tile fifteen cl&asi icatiOS are represented
in the boot jaosb often read by the different grade* Hi e*~
eeptlons are science, humor, ami occupation*
Hourly all the studies that listed popular books, that
could be found by this writer, gave- Toa smmt and 'lb Call of
the tlld osar the top, or at the top of the list for beys la
both Junior and sealer high school atadles* Malchos10 fouad To
Sawyear heading the list in hi study of 1*38? Junior high school
U
boya and girls* Jesiiiag found it BmmUi m the list in Ms
study of Junior high school pupils* Be listed the BiM as
first choice am Toa Swift m second choice* Fils lists did not
include Tim Call of the fid* Johnson*12 study, w&lah ineduded
grades five tferoa^i eleven, listed The Sail of tho slid first,
then la order, Treasure Island* Tosa Swift* at Topa sagrar for
beys* Bis list aleo included rtacl&efaorry glim but ssasefe lower m
the seals of popularity* For the girls In bis atsdy, Little lessen
headed the list* Bis favorites for the girls ware all decidedly
ialehe, fading Interests of Junior High School a*
pilo,0 scaooi ¡%mm* MM (Boreh, 1?37), 173-185*
11
Joe Jennings, "Leisure iieadfag of Junior High School
Bays anti Oirle,' ftiaboeir. Journal of jdtmfe&aa* VI (May, 1929),
33>3li?*
to Bate and Grade in ehoci," aeboc& astlsp* lb (April, 1932),
257-272.

of a Jaare&il type* i&feich fact probably indicated the pmteeal-
13
nance of roadlog la the younger glides* iughe#*^ study of
high spools, la Madison, '.-iaeoaoia, in 122& showed only tb
boat seller* of the day as favorita# Mot one of the long
standing eld favorite* me listed*
Brink** u study give# the first ten books for the ninth
and tl* twelfth grades* the Pail of the lild la first on the
ninth grad* list ¡Ufe Tos gawgar third* Tim twelfth grao list
is chiefly best sailers of the tlsses s&eepb as pupil* bod to
read the prescribed classics* according to tbs author#
2*£
Jordan* study lists fas amj&st in adi age-group fraa
twelve through eighteen year of age* the call of the villd is
listed, only I the 17-18 age-groap* Bue^tebagry' Ftea ant Treas
ure Island are listed 1 the age-groups 12WMS* Toa Sasser is
the only boys* book listen 1 tlie girls* favorites nod that is
for age 12-13 only* His popular list fea girl# ineiodee UttaUfc
town only in the ¡ge-groap lh-16* wiwr it ranks ninth m the
list*. Xa this present study* Little ase ranks third for all
^Francea IS# lsgfess* BA Survey of the Besdlns Interest#
of tb# Pupil* of Madison* liseonein. H#fe scfeoo1# Mueatioa#
m? (March* 1921*)* iaT-to*
^*?tak* "Meadin interest &S High school Pupil**
school amlm* JUJ9XI (Octctosr, 193?)* 613-621*
IS
Jordan* Children*8 Interest in Reading.

118
&ris as shorn cm Tabla 16*
16
Center m Persons, who write of the Mm fork tudy
motioned several, fxima in trds paper, list tit moat popular
books as The Call of the Mild# Ten Sawyer Alice Mm&* David
Copyerfield id others* Smklqbarry in is seventh go the list*
Alice Adams mis read by thirty-five pupils in tb present study.
All the others timed sere on the two lists of the one hundred books,
aoot often read, in this present study*
1?
The majority of favorites listed by Jordan are the pop
ular books of that tina* That is true of the present study also*
18
Of the fifty bodes most often read by the boys in tils study#
nim were published In the nineteenth eentwry sod twenty-seven,
or store than $0 per omit o£ thm, were published since 1S3Q* Of
19
the girls* list of fifty books most often read# eleven were
published in the nineteenth century m& thirty-three of theta#
or 66 per cent, were published since 1930* In a series of studios
on boys* books each decade from 1907 to 1931 inclusive# sartor*
16
Center mi Persons# ^Leisure Reading of Mew fork. City
High School Students#* fias Mngjish Journal.* 111? (Bovesmr# 1936)#
717**72m
1?
Jordan, op. oit*
IS.
^Thblo 16.
*a* i* Charters# "Sixty-Four Popular Boys* Books#*
library Jtaurml, 1X111 (May IS# 1938)# 39^4*00*

found retained m favorites ia each decade for thirty years, am
Treasure- Island. and Hug^tfcerry Flan these three
books are evidently stimd as classics for tit ages* Charter*
193? 'Hat contained me Call of the v?124 there was nothing in
his article to indicate its popularity before that tiaa, al
though it had been published five years before his 191? study*
21
Jordan found slight changes in fandiuaental interests
in reading in studies fresa 191Q to 1932* ;-'avorit authors and
books regained about the same*
It would seem fra?* the various studies, including tills
one, that certain books are seasonal and emxtsBL? pass from the
picture, idle a fe, tried and true in the field of child in
terest, live on with undiEdniehed popularity* The tried and true
are found on the sacst often read lists of this study, m saany
that are found to be popular in earlier studies are not to be
found in this one at ail* It is qxLt& likely that other studies
saate a fe years henee ill fall to list as favorites sany that
appear in this study*
It cay be interesting to coeaptre frees certain stand:points,
22
aosj of the lists of books stoat often road in each school*
Arthur II* torda, Beading Interests, froceedlagg
of the Motional Education Association. aahinirbcn*Y>*
^ihesc
tables arc listed- in the pgmidts*

120
23
School I* Is predominantly rural and hm a snail library* Its
list of fifteen most often read books contains five of career
fiction, five aniaal stories, three of light fiction, and two
stories of adventure* It lists The Call of the Slid and foeklo
ben*j Film of the old favorite, but the others arc relatively
recent* Sdiool E is protkudnmtly industrial* It is a ¡mob
larger school and am a far better librar*/ than school L* 0d
its list are five general fiction books, four of hieh are
eerioosi three adventure starless three animal storiesj md cm
each of ear, careers, cystery, and allegory* This school lists,
of the aid favorites. The Cell o£ the-%ild and Tota sewer#
School L and School E are both senior high schools alth four
grades* School C is a rather large, Junior-senior high school
in a city precis: nantly tourist* Its list has five titles of
general fiction of which mLj me could be said to liare a seriaos
tlissses five animal etoricaj three stearics of dvtur| ead one
each of ear and sports* ids list contains not one of the old
favorites fear either boys or girls* Only one other school
failed to mm a long-tine .favorite* All the books m School C*s
list arc relatively cm The industrial city*s list mem to
contain the core mature books* In both the other lists, the
23
Authority for msmmie claeaificatien of cities and
toons is the itatlsUcal Abstract of Florida bounties* published
by the state SSSw"roF1,!i^SS^r,rn'''r''n nnr,mrn'n"':Trrih m

121
titles mm sere or less tminile# Far bahodL 0 this sight be
caused, and probably Is, by the fact that It has seventh mid
eighth grades* AH tiv books in each list arc la the approved
lists schools*
If interests am b dsieralnet by the t.ms or books
read noel often* the data Xfc this chapter ;;ouiu place general
fiction, adventure stories, and minal stearics as the leading
interests for the entire group of pupils in this study# Taken
separately by grade lista, the boys prefer aniaal, adventure, and
sports stories in that order, and the girls overahelsngly prefer
general fiction, career fiction, and aniaal stories* Interests
shm definite saturation in the senior high school grate*

ciititvm fin
Gsmuxim of smssj neda
Itore has bam a good deal of eoott&ammf cmr the re
caption of the John ¥Mw*ry Modal &mt books by the children
for bees they are supposed to have been written* A eiudy of
their circulation in public school libraries ms m&rtakm in
connection with this investigation to try to deteara&n their
¡xjpolarity in oaeparison 1th. other books aost often road*
Muoh to th surprise of the writer, it wm discovered in
oonvcraaticsn with sow .prospective teachers of Ih&lists that they
had not known the existence of such an arci* Smm teachers in
the field and mxm librarians do not rcogais the tit1m of the
prise books without eheofeliig a list of tbeau It is possible
that in this fact alone Hoe one of the reasons for their sup
posed unpopularity.
A brief hbrtaty of the Sedal say be werthskile. At a
laeetlng of the msram Library i&eoelatlan in Maesaotosstte,
Frederick telohar, then editor of Itabllshera iieokly heard a dis
cussion about children's books. He mggesteci and provided a
mdsl to the writing of worthwhile bod for children*
It is awarded each year by the Saetten for library erk with
Children of th Aaariean library Association* lelchcr timed the
ml for Joto Hensbery, an eighteenth century pioneer in the pab-
12a

liahSug o' children* books that me written with toe child1
interest ia sln ami mt fcr his raor&t edification, m t
ssajorifcy of children* books has been up to Ms ttso*
flm first mar mm aads in 1922, am hm been given
each year since, k list of. the prig books, their authors, and
the /ear of their award, is given in Table 21*
Ooldsaith gives as conditions of the award that it be
*aa original and creative piece of inrk9 the staet distinguished
contribution to faeries literatura for children, cardinal in
conception, fin in warJoaatis jip and artistically true,** le a
qualifying condition that the bock need cot be written edlly
for children.91 Ibis author ispiie that wme books which really
had not deserved It had received to award, and hopea that if a
suitable bock ore not found that the award would be withheld*
that it was not necessary to ante the award each year*
2
Toarses eoatonda that popularity cannot be considered as
a criterion for the xaost distinguished book?* of the year, for
if that were tara, according to her, foe Swift ¡sight get the
Sophie L* Goldsmith, Ten fears of toe Sfoabwy nodal,
Bookmen. XW (itoveafear, 1910), 308.
^ary &* Townes, T ¡Popularity of Sestear/ dal
Books,* The Litany Journal. U (HovcE&ar 1, 1935), 839-61)1.

128
TABLE 23.
BOOKS ftSGJSm THE NmOBCt MEDAL ASASB
Year
of
Avi'arcl
Title
Author
1922
The Ltery of Rankled
iteadrlk van Lota
1923
The voyage of lap* Doolittle
jugh Lofting
1928
The Lark Frigate
Charles Boartimn Hawse
1925
Tales f:ros silver Lands
Charles Joseph flager
1926
Shea of the sea
Arthur Bowie Ghri^an
1927
Smoky, the Gosshorsi
sill Jmm
1928
Gay Seek
i'Mm Ocspal m&s&si
1929
Traapetaar of Krakow
Lria rhiliaroak Kelly
1930
Bitty, Bax* First mxm Years
Rachel Field -
1931
The Gat Gho uent to itemm
Elizabeth uoatsworth
1932
Waterless Momita!
Laura Ads yreway
1933
Young Fu of the Upper Yangtze
illaabota F JjowXs
193k
Invincible Louisa
Cornelia Meigs
1935
D8b*jr
loalea Shasas
1936
Saddle loadla
Carol ilyrio Brink
1937
Roller skates
Bath Sawyer
1938
The 'Shite Stag
Kate Seredy
1939
Thlshl Leaser
Ilisdbsth Enright
1980
raniel Boc
James Laagberty
3981
Call It Courage
Avnstrong Sperry
1982
The: J4tchlook Otm
Walter !>* Edwoads
1983
Adata of the Road
Elisabeth Janet Gray
1988
Johnny Tresalii
Lather Forbes
1985
liabbit Hill
Robert Lssataa
1986
Strawberry Girl
Lois Lenaki
198?
lisa- Hickory
Carolyn Sherwio Dailey
1988
Th Twenty-One Balloons
,>illissi Pne da Boie

12$
Sr&&8r outlines the tedaniqaes for voting ea the award*
She says librarians evorynhere, both school sad public, my sab
ait ¡mirations for the award, but £m bother to do it* the
oomltte which actually selects th wlaniag book is composed of
toenty-thre nwsabere*
An editorial in the ilmmtarf Eag&iah BeviesJ* says that
school Mfcreriara are too busy to vote for the sward and that
they rosily are not qualified to do so bocease they do not keep
up with children *3 bodes*
Thomas'* praises the perfection of th books Hhibh hssm
received th award* Her iaplicatian asesas to be that many per
one are jest not capable of appreciating their literary beauty*
. 6
lammsts writes that the spoliation about the Sewbaty
bodes is not because of any absence of stalled wqrtaaapship
which lias gene Into their production by authors, Illustrators,
editors and publishers, nor because of a careful selection and
wim odpseat by the various comttbces who have sitemm Utm$
3
lara E* Breed, The .'wherry Mali a Plea for Vades*
standing," Tbs .Wilson library flulletto* m (May, 19L2), 722-
^fba leSbary Award* Open lbra, (Editorial} SJewaptaary
English ;:gglar. XVII (April, l?lo), l>62*
%a3ori Thcnas* Scoe in Velvet Gowns** Peabody Jour
nal of Sdtocattop, VII (Horaafeer, 1929), 139-11*6#
e
Arta F* Lawrence, Let the Records Speak for the Itwdbsry
Books, i-lmentar:/ iSagUsti Review, XIX {October* 191*2), 201-20$#

126
the speculation m&ms rather the reception of the books by the
children for han they are intended*0
In m interesting article on the ear between the Uberssy
and the utilitarian in childruDa 'cooks, assises the foaio
lag statement concerning the Mesfoery books* 0£ these oistin*
guiase booto-an sm% a* then deserve that gsftlsO'-Kftly two*
van 100X1*8 the Story of llanklnd and Goroolift Uedgs* invliiolble
Louisa are ps^OEtJaantly informational, and parfeapa both of the
lift up the readers heart rather than fill up his edad* Two
others, Uachel Fields Hitter 3d Sath Sawyer* ttoiler Skates
carry a considerable load of knowledge, tut they carry It easily
jauntily, as they roll along a pleasant narrative road* The
other fiw&my books belong to literary art, though they map not
belong to the ages."
LdigB aokee the statement fro liar study that ssoat of
the Seebsry Prise books mm, on the shale* too literary for the
g
average child arid often also for the superior eM34*n
9
'Townes aakfied sixty-tao children feo had read the pise
book to fill out e questionnaire ooaoernieg then* She found
?
Barnes, Childrens Sit^atufe^pat and Present,
Maeatlondi fora* XII (Bay, 3939), 390.
kos zoligs, Children.*; Opinions of Bewbery Arfa
Book,0 KXeaactary aallah Revise* XVXX (October, 19iiQ>, 22.
9
'fowces, op* oit*

127
only one ehila who diaLikBd tfom* She suggests teat the per
sonal tastea of librarians arid teachers save snob to do with
the popularity or unpopularity of the bools# To support that
statoaeat she had found one librarla e particularly liked
The Cat ^feo seat to Beaver had kept sixvcopiea in eo&staab dar-
cuilattoa* That book is low In popularity in most places#
10
hsarenea, in m exa&lmtion of t&trty-elghi cmalativ
records over a seven year period, £om& The feyagea. o1 Tar* loo
little# Saoter the oosshorse* and toang Fa of the gpper ^angtse
the moat popular of the award books* Her date, she thinks, to-
dicatad that the books brought an enthusiastic response fro
IX
the children* adige* study showed the aseo book to be popu
lar that Lawrence fbund* llewwrar, she found that trery few of
the 150 children of superior reading ability in her study read
them at all and sayas "On the basis of u&t these children
read, tobar/ prise books would certainly not b best sellers. *
The largest scale study on the popularity of the prise
12
books that could be found was. nade by KankSn in. eight public
libraries* freest her data she found that Caddie fioodlam was the
only Heabory Medal book that could be considered to be highly
10
iswreaoe, op* git*
Coligo, op* pit*
tica
12
SmMii, CIiildroa*s interest in Library Book off lie-

123
popular asa that tie adults lio select the hooks ham selskxa
picked a book that is widely read by children* Sees of the roa-
sons gives by children in her study .for not liking the books
were (1) too hard to understand, (2) about foreign people they
wkre sot interested in, (3> too drippy* act! (k) no action or
adventure*
One of the complaints concerning & selection of the
prise books eas that they ore nearly all girls* books. However,
beginning vite tee l?h& oeleotiosa of ^anlel Boons five of tee
successive asars arc definitely boys* book*
Tii popularity of the Sleteery iedal books in tele study
was to be testcrrained fro the oosfcer of times each book had bom
read, according to the pupil records checked, m m estimate of
the yearly circulation of each book as found from m inspection
of the book card* To determine tee circulation tern tee bock
card, the first end last date mm noted, and the borrower*
nasos wore counted. had m its initial date, October 27, 19U7* It was choked about
the end of October, 19ii8j so its list of eight names vas con-
sidered as a year* circulation* Another book with a date of
February, 19h3$ had seven naneo* It ms approcdsatoly five and
ouo-half year when tee book was checked white gam a circulation
estiaate of 1*3 per year* Still another had four name in two
.with* (BtxSt card asm usually dsoardoa as they am- filled*)

m
to esiiaate of twenty ttaes a year ms giv to this hook be*
cause the sebosa tersa, where this nm fooisd, is tm sooths* That
there is a definite Lessent of error la such estiisaticsi is can
ceded* All bool taken frost the librar/ are not read either, bet
taken as a n olo, this method does give one sean of estimating
circulation.
All data to in this stud/ are found in fable 22* The
list of the prise books is arranged in tbe order of their popu
larity as found in the eattaatea circalatio. the librarian in.
School & said that there were tee timber? books in the echad
library, both of Which were required reeding la social studies'
classes* These book were not checker mr ocns&cm in tbs
figures given in the table* A fear books could not be located by
scsMi librarians although the/ were listed in their card cataloga,
mid had been checked on ease reading records as having been read*
Several librarians did not know which were HeMbery tocto until a
list of the titles was given them*
on a re-visitation to cm library, it was found that the
librarian (not trained} she had had only tm course in librar/
science) had posted a list of the prise books, had explained
about the Award to the pupil, and had told them something coa-
eeralag each book* She read thee Iwsslf in creer to speak au-
thorltatival/ about bhaa* She eoiissa&ed that the circsalatim of
the books had at least tripled since the/ had been brought to the

130
Gandi --tooXgan
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KStmxa renos otnvn pairriciifirs &r? ms
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rm
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m;i£ 22
41 One copy of each* Boto required reading#
Hasfccrs i paruitoeses indicate notiber Of copies io each school

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132
attention of the pupils*
la oojnreraaiion with am& eighth grado pupils in one
librar/, it vas discovered that they baa never heard of a HeWfcwry
prise book, although several of tee had road msm of tee books*
Tiiis school had not had a librarian until this year* but it did
have a library* 2h pupils bee quit interested in the ais*-
cession, and on being tola that sms beys and girls did not like
sc of 'the books, they decided to taring up as a class project
the reading of all the basks their library had to see If they could
find out why coo of teca aera not popular* It is to be hipped that
tela class can arouse the interest of other pupils in the books*
Perhaps there is sauteing to Townes* r^estict^ teat part of t'
trouble lias with teachers and librarians for not publicising tee
books*
The data in fable 22 shear the four Keabery bodes which
li
Baade one of the two lists of books west often read, leading in
tee ettete circulation, which is to be expected# Gaddi soad-
lawn, which rates first in the estiaatea circulation, is second
to rmoky on tee list of fifty-cue books most often read* anoly
falls to third place in tee estimated circulation* This aay be
caused, partly, by the fact that see schools id lost or mt.
op* olfe*
^Tables 13 and Hi
^Tbs ranks refer only to the i-ieshery Award books m
the liste*

333
oat their copies o' sacky and bad act yet replaced tineas ti.
stisaatea circulation record for that book is not complete*
Strawberry Girl, which rates third on toe most often read list*
is second on the estimated clrcuXatioo record* this is quite
liktsly explained by to fact that Gtraaterry Girl is the l?ii
award anu is* schools aay not have had copies until this year*
The popularity' of this soak my also be attributed to the fact
that its setting is In Florida# Whether or not this is tru
i
could be dettrsineu only by its popularity outside the state*
Gall It Goura&e has the mm ras# here that it holds in the most
often read lists*
Gaddis .oodlawn and stemsbeaery Girl can definitely be
considered as girls* bocks, and Saefey and Gall XI Souraga almost
as definitely boys* boohs, although appradUsately one-half as
may girls as boys rear.; Saofey*
It can at least bo said that these four Kewbery book
rate in popularity with fifty-five of the bool most often read
in tiiie study, and judging fro their places cn fable 22, Manar
Tressain and ada;s of the Bead (both boys* books) arc not lagging
far behind* These %m last iwd books also rank in fifth and
sixth places by the number of tisum read as indicated by pupil
records* The nuEfcer of read inga for each riewbery book as take
free pupil records should be multiplied by three to indicate a
ftall year* circulation, since only one-third of the reading re-

ccrds tuero usad* Tim estimated circulation for Caddie aoodlawp
and strawberry Girl is appraslmtely three iis&s the atjabr of
readings as taken fit tie records, Sastey is less than felice the
atiabar w.doh ¡aay be plained by the reason given abovetii&t
sos copies liad besa lost. Call It Courage has elijhtly sore tban
twice the nashear taken fros the reading records. Per 'the other
books* there secas to be no definite pattern fres the reading re
cords ocuLuan to the estimated circulation colusai* in sons cases
the estimated circulation is far acre than three times the readily
records column and in other cases far less. There as no record,
of any pupil*o having read rdbgy last year. The record for (mini
Boons was ispoaalbie to find* 'ase libraries had several dif
ferent biographies of Boot and pupils listed then by title only,
in most cases. If the esblmtm circula tied is considered ti
more accurate figure for popularity* rich it probably is not*
not stare than the first three hooka ouid nave jaate Tablea 13 and
XU of the books most often reed in this study, to book was listed
on either of those tables that had bean ros by less than forty-
five pupils* which jsulttplied by three, to take are of all re
cords* mould have meant being road by 13$ pupils. Considering
the estimated circulation alone* it would aeoa that Johnny Tresaain.
Adas* of toe Hoad* and The abite Staff could 1 considered ia the
list of the more popular of 9 Keafoery Medal books.
The grade dassiiication of the Sewbery bocks as given is
the table were taken from the Children s .latalo^ ami £rm the list

135
of the Setfanel Gouacil of Teachers of liiiglish* Many of thm
which are classifiea for doBsenfcary grades are ret by junior
and sato high school pupila
Th& Cat- aha sat to Heaam coala not bo found in mj li
brary, although som lit had it, for It was recorded as read by
nine pupils, and was also listed in card catalogs* Hiss Hickory,
the l?ii? mar, ms found is only tm libraries* In the cm, it
had been read a total of twenty-eeven tiiaesj the other library
had had its copy only bao aanths with no record of its having
been read* It is possible that children did not yet kam of it*
The Tweatylne Balloons* the 191S mar, is too new to have bom
included in book orders* It will very likely appear next year in
ssany libraries*
It would b interesting for librarians md teacher# to
sake their cm survey on the popularity of these books after
they have at an effort to stlanlata .interest in the and given
tisse for that interest to have effect* Same librarians were quite
positive that the books were exceptionally popular saM others were
equally positive that the books scarcely saved at all* All they
need to do to dotarais the status of popularity la their am li-
brariea is to undertake a little research along that line* Of
course, saost librarians, with insufficient help, are so imereed
in necessary routine duties that they have no ilia# for any ad
ditional burden* Such research, however, a cal be very profit
able to both pupils and librarian*

GlAPm u
mi (msmmm
lids study as ptennad to determino readlog Interests
of secondary school boys and girls through tfca&r cholees o
books teosa their tiool librarle* tfe atedy sa snide 1 £iP*
tem schools scattered teroughoub the otate o terda asid
emprima gradea sm terou-jti twelve# Too saetissa for obtaining
tea date m individual reading records which mre kept by
librar Ians or .nglieh teacher and which recorded all books
borrowed ira tee school library ns |wawtely read*
Xearly 5,00*} rceos were mmrn, a saa^llng which re~
presentes a total enrolisaeni of approximately 15,000 papila* 1
33 l/3 per cent rancio sa&plifg o te* iwm Ir each school i
probably adequate te determine te reading pattern in the school*
Ha oussaatioa o tee resulte will give tee pattern for tee entire
group* It te quite likely that tee addition of further sampling
to tee results as found 1 tiste study would not change tee re*
alts significantly*
One of tee phases of tee study ms to detemin tee
\
popularity in school Iterarlos of Use Joto SNswbary Medal mwd
books# the date for this part- of tee study war obtained from
an eetisaation of their ctecolaiioa aosoraii^ to tee book oaarti,
is addition to the asstear of tinea each book *as reported read
136

137
act the IzidtvlaQsl reading record.
The schools which participated in this study range in
sise fresa m enroilsseat of 227 pupils in six grades to 2*1*00
pupils in three gradeaf they range in location fecej m agricul
tural town of epproadmtely 1*200 papalation to the largest
city i Florida with a population of approxtmtcOty 230*000.
The libraries of the schools range fea 1*950 volumes (not in
the malleat school) to 11,525 vetoaes* The raraga -asstier of
voluaes in libraries par pupil ranges fern apiroads&bely four
to thirteen. The two sanela whose libraries average the high
est mater of books per pupil also have the highest averages in
tho tmtomr of books read per pupil, answer, this fact does not
hold true m a pattern through the study*
The results of this study can be recapitulated In the
followtog coaclajsloiiSi
lm Florida secondary school pupils in this study ere
reading warn very good 'books* a is evidenced by the
CE.se hundred titles in the two lists of books aoet
often read. Sot scare then ten of these one hundred
books could have been recplred* and possibly they
wear not.
Atirantare stories lead in interest with boys in
graties seven* eight, nine, and ten* anti are second
in interest in gradea eleven anti twelve. General
fiction* with very light nevis is the najority* is
2*

138
aecoit la Interest far the hoys i the first four
gradea, and la first in interest for the levanth
md twelfth grads# the navels read in the upper
grade, however, are of a. store serious nature, may
of than presenting serious social, eeoaomie, or psy
chological problem* iutlaal stories rank third in
interest ibr the first four .gradea and fall to rank
six and nine 1 the eleventh and twelfth grades re
spectively* Biography and aabobicgraphy ire liked
by all pupils and range in rank iron third piaos in.
the eleventh grade to sixth place in the eighth
grade* oyster/ and selective stories are liked bet
ter bf the boys- In the seventh grade, ranking fourth
in Interest 1th them* That type sscw a fairly
rapid decline in interest in the assoeasive grades*
Miscellany, iadixEng ssasb mere serious reading, ranks
in third place with the twelfth grade beys* Interest
in all other types in all grades is sporadic* More
than, tec-thirds of all the boys* reading is done in
adventure, general fiction, and artiml torios*
Changes in interest, as a rule, are gradual rather
than
3* General fiction is the leading interest in all grades
with girls* light novels of bom m faa&y life pre
dominate in the Junior hi# school grade, and acre

x&
criase l ie tice, in the elevsnih and twelfth grades*
Ttm tenth grade &&m to be a period of transition
£rm the light to te uore serious type, ami is
divided alaos t equally between the t*to types*
rmtmm is second la interest with the girls
is the first four grades, bat ranks fifth place ia
the eleventh and twelfth grades* The eleventh grade
girls rank biography m autobiography as their sec
ond cholee and the twelfth grade girls, rank the Ms*
cellany, such of which serious reading, in second
place* toissat stories range in rank free third place
in the eighth grade to eighth place in the levesth
grade* Mystery tortas rank third with the seventh
grane girls but drop rapidly in interest in succes
sive higher grades* all the girls mm to lite career
stories* Interest in then ranges fresa fourth place
In the eighth and ninth grades to seventh place in the
twelfth .grade* Ha rank for biography rise at falla
in successive grades, m pattern being distinguish
able. For all the girls, It ranks fourth place in
interest* is with, the boye, the interest in all
other types is scattered*
General fiction sosoaa&s for asare than half of
all the girls* rsadlagj the m% highest percentage
is given to adventur taris, with 9*1 per cent*

titeare is a gradual eecreas is pr cent is all
other types read.
i, lecie of the old favorites that have appeared as
popular hooks is ts&ay otadlas still appear as popu
lar 1 this study, hat we than fifty per cwA of
the favorites have bees published sisee 1330. siacy
books that appeared as favorites la earlier studies
are a lasing fro this am* This mild lead to the
cotiduaion that mw books are he&ocararv favorites
arid eventually are re Jested as interesting reading.
A few see destined for permneooe as popular hooka
for children* Ibathar the stories that grew ait of
the reseat war ara temporary or set will have to be
decided In a later study. It is possible that* If
sacare emphasis is placed on the idea of world peace,
war stories will be relegated to the unwad shelve
of the libraries*
$ heading diioioos of both sexos mm approximately the
mm degroe of wfcarity la the Junior high school
grads. Mors definite evidences of mturisg intea
sets are observable in successive gradee of the
senior high school* Ihe boy in wary grade read
considerably acare non-fiction then the girls.
6* Pupil Interest in. the Icim Howfeery Medal surd books
is mt as great as it should be, if the books

are actually the best books of eucoesslve years for
Children. four of the books* Caddis hooding straw
berry /irl saciar ad call It courage are la the
lists of the one hundred bocha most often read 1m the
study. Johnny Tomn m &m of the aoa- also rank
fairly high* Those six books however, constitute
less than one-fourth of tbs total list of prize: eri*
mars.
?. The sesondary school pupils In this study are not
reeding as many books m papila in many other studies*
bat It should fee reiasabered that these record are of
the reading from one source only. If the pupils*
reading from all sources had been considered, it 1
quite likely that their reading sold h&m been suflh
greater in quantity, porssp nnt ac good 2 quality.
The following are sosa euggestlono for further studies of
reading choices and interests of Florida pupil* -
1# This ssase type of study could sell be saade in the
elementary grades using reading record as the medium
for gathering data, Snob a atajar, however, ill has
to emit tise keeping of such records by a sufficient
number of schools.
2. The- effect m reading of tcacher*pipH and librarian
pupil relationships would be a valuable study. Ob
jective data oa such a study sight be very difficult

to got, but a smflolmt quantity o subjecttm data
mala h& vary valuable if it vero interpreted by an
able, unbiased investigator*
3 A study of the weans of fleetiva devalpaat of
literary tastes and appreci&tlcwjs that old b
passed m to other heaoiiaar ould be of s^ept&oual
value. Teacher ar constantly told that they should
melap the tastes and appreciations of their pupils,
but they are eat told hm to do it. such a study
could probably be developed on a scientific, ¡all
controlled, xpai'isantai basis, providing Um mmm
am be obtained **ereby tastes and appreciations can
be dotersdiied w stiasurod*
h* A study of the effect m r&mtdg of. .social, aaonaaie,
aoa cuitara! background*, asde on a large scale, or
several saall scale studies bes results could be
integrated, cuiu be orto ahilo such a study,
valuable suggestions sight mm to help ¡aaoy hilaren

mmm i
wmountm mu mmomm
Any study made an any phase of toe development of chil
dren should have soae meanings for aincatorathe adairsiatrabor*
toe teacher, toe librarian*
la a study such as this certain things stand oat as im
portant items* If a chile is to like reading as a leisure time
activity, an obvious necessity is that Si m&t be able to read*
this is a first requisite in to devetcpsent of reading interests.
His interest may be killed early in his ¡school life by an insist
ence that be read materials of too great vocabulary difficulty
for hi* or ¡mieriata in which too experience are too far removed
fro his mo* 0m school in tills tody has a distinct and de
finite program in toe teaching of reading and toe development of
reading interests and appreciatioeis through the use of easy a1*
tarials and. familiar experiences. the children arc being di
rected in their reading in such a way that reading is becoming
a delightful experience instead of a tiresome task imposed by
too teachers.
tensan and Lima* suggest, that toe task of developing
good reading habits requires a wide tewelodge of books suitable
anti Lima children*a s##*!*^*
113

for children of different ages and varying interest and abil
ities* the teacher and the librarian cannot hope to knew per
sonally all the children's books, feat if they bare ascos to
approves, list and keep Lni'tmsm through their profss&ional
mgaslnes, they can keep reasonably ell atorsast of the best
in children's literature in. ell field of interest
In a paper deliver*! before the iiafcional Council of
Teachers of &gLlsh m later published, Bcalth gives sot
points on the atioulaiion of interests and appreeiation through
reading* She give the definition* ** Appreciation is personal
2
acceptance of worth** She aakes the bald statsaent that teach
ers do not know books, the implication eos to be that tbs
child probably cold do as all selecting his own reading m-
terials as to folios teacher suggestions* She lists the follow
ing five standards In the fora of questions as guides fir* a read
ing program
1* bow our prograa lead froa narrowing of ea^eriencs
to breadth books of fun, of fact, of fancy? How
varied are the characters, the places, the centuries,
the types of books?
2* bow it lead frota shallowness or triviality of coc-
perleaco to depth and value?
3* .Do* It lead children frasa woeritical acceptance
of whatever the author preseat i to a desasad for
sincerity and truth to buena essperimes?
norm 1. £*aiih, 8tli*jXat4& Interests ana Appreciation
through isadim** H-aaeatary iipisXiah. Umdm, XVII {Ma&m Wh&i*
11%.

1h$
t* loes it. lead children to a ex%s of tas organic
and artistic unity wi&ch differentiates a good bode
from a pom* one?
5* Does it lead children to a genuine sense f en-
oyacnt is better w¡ better books?
Sob ol these standards nay be difficult to detersadoe*
Values are frequently not so objective that they can be easily
ascertained* The following quotation is apro|3os at this
point* Those who guide children *s reading experiences mst
realisa that proof of developing interests and tastes o&m not
lie in any esternal nrl^enc that reading has been done* Growth
in appreciation amnt be atsaerioally recorded* The evidence of
developing interests and tastes is inherent In the satisfactions
arising within the individual when he finds in books that which
recalls, refines, reveals, or reaffirsss ideas or feelings that
3
mma to him to be valuable#* Much of the teacSwsrs tcforaailc
oooceitiing the growth of appreciation would hove to be determined
irm aonferenees, both individual and group, with her pupils*
If there is on abundan of good, interesting, reading
material available to the pupil, he needs guidance In learning
to select that which most nearly fills his needs and satisfies
k
Ms deairea for new osperienoea* HoKerj arr..j that ojcyijjg
3
national Society fear the Study of Mucatioo, The Tmdto*
%m of mLm* A Second Keparb* Thirty£ixth yearbook, i:;arET1T,
Bioceikigtoh,' 'Illinois lije FuStlc School Publishing Conpany, 1937*
^Paal
School* Boston* Houghton MMlin oapsaiy, ISjli**" J^*
iieading and literature In tb Elementary
.u'~mW.

m
near experiences by co&btotog past orne with tsm mm enables too
pupil to "appreciate1 ant* met to enalto with further raasiing*
8e tlaas feceasjos m^ix&od with planee, past reata countries,
people* custom, music* art, crasa, and mm&mm lser fields
which are lose*.) to ti person who depende entirely upon first-
hand xpertonosa** The pupil mm .get each vicarious experiences
through, the organises study of literature or' to hie voluntary
reading* kogee saggesta that i&cdero aterais be used for the
toglib literature courses
thorn lays such stress on the personality of the teacher
to toe dwalopaent of appreciation of literature* It must be
freely admitted yet again tost toe alttoate oemtrolltog fore
to to tflttshtog of literature is the personality of the teacher*
A teacher too lacks force and magnetism esay follow the very
safest guides and principle md still fail; Ml a teacher of
ooMaaMing individuality say neglect tose vary sase guides and
principles and, by ti very power of hla genii** succeed with any
$
book that he selects and by any stood that im auopts, fin would
todicat tost adstoistratars should select teasers sito personality
as ell as certification requirement* a protolea totofc they can
not always solve to this day' of teaeter shortage# It should
j*
Charles Swain Tnmuw$ fttmakim of toglito to the
gocondary school* Boato* H.otg)itca-rr'l5l!f,iii ScSpany,"'X9&T,rp*
S1. --r-rtn-

be a challenge to prospective teachers to do all they cm to
develop their personalities while to training, as wall as to
develop their possers of stethoda of toaafttog*
7 6
^ the Caao&tte of Jmauage Art of th i&tiaaal Society
for the Study of Education giros a number of conclusiona dram
frese scientific studies to reading iatcrosta*
lm Beading ia ispartaat froa a sociological standpoint*
It contributes to good oitts&aahip$ to personal and
social adjustaent, to vocational success, sod other
social factors*
2* Beading tastes cm be directed* Children like con
temporary literature mid cones closely related to
thedr lives*
3# Interests can be cultivated by extensivo, not toter-
slvs reading* Pupil chosen mteriala from m aban
dance of wall selected good materials are important
to the developtsent of reading totereata*
h* ftm reading sttoalates thinking*
?
Grey gives a brief history of the growth of interest
and appreciation to reading, and says that the boys and girls of
...-a..-,...
National ;,.ociety for the Study of Mmctitm, fhe use*
mittee oa Language aria, "famdtog,* Revie# of Mucatioml 8e-
search* 1 {April, l?liO), 7SN106*
?
William t'i-ns C*3TS^Tjjf *. Of XS&S&tiiJJf
In Reading,* EXmita^..liiipLij8h X?XI (Af*t£* Wh&)9 139**
lii3*

m
this generation arc fortunate that so miry good books are writ
ten to appeal to their interests* He deplores the Mot that in
sorae schools children are restricted to a selected list of books
which often prevente a pipil fresa satisfying desirable curiosi
ties md interests ttiat arc. red and compelling.* 'He suggests
that teachers boome ^mntdm&as students of the characteristics*
interests* and needs of their pupils; that they become widely
familiar with children* literature** According to studies asado
he thinks appreciation md tastes of children remain at a dis
appointingly low level.'7
Thom tmpltmtims from other studios could wall have
OQBti^ f5p3 this one- aniisui. Otiusm by this ststy fallo*?*
the pupils in tisis study read enough biography to stake It
rank fourth place is th* fifteen different types of reading#
Further stlaeilation to the reading, of biography and autobiography
could be asado by the selection of interesting ea that tell a
good story and at the mm tia are InspimtionaX to children*
Such select!* could well be aane by the various abject matter
teachers of lives of persons faianim in their particular
fields*
Tm lour ranking place of the arts should be a challen#*
particularly to the Itaglish teachers* to try to stimulate interest
in the reading, of poetry* plays* and the classics* Pupils do not
set to like such reading as a rule* and the dislike mist be
caused by the method of i^rcscntatico* or the lack of judgment in

election. IS Shgllah teachers coala only be trained to teach
poetry ami the great elasstos to ohiMrea 1 such a amor that
their interest weaaM be. picketed, ami groar in intensity* what a
Joy tit study would be rather than the dull, deadened, drudgery
It mum to be to so aary pupils^-aad teachers I
Tbs reading in occupations was excessively low lbs a-
tabliateiKit of a good guidance progress in all schools should be
an alia of all educators* m tmgmtmt phase of the guidance
pragma is that of vocational guidance# lb selections of suit
able backs in this Held mwM be the co-shiae-a effort of adminis
trators, tooobr% and librarais* Just books or parapblets on
certain Holds of asking a livelihood ore oob oocugh. They
should be infcmational enough to serve their purposes, and also
interesting enough that pipila will want to read thorn* such
books md pamphlets do slat* It is a mtt&e of selection* Fre
quently the pupil MU read many pasf&ots in preference to ttm
books, and tima get a ¡such greater variety of informtico com*
arcing vocations*
Som teachers and principals aakt in this study* Of
what practical uso is a cumulative record? iby should m take
the Use for saoh bookkeeping when we are already so omr-loaded
with work? Only a few of the schools in this study actually' bad
msul&wo records* The majority of record used wore kept on a
yearly basis, md usually wore destroyed because of lack of opaco

for filing# Porfcamtely* they had not yet been discarded 1
ell schools* Teachers seed, to use the eisa&atlve records to 4e-
tes-ssira* 'bather their reading progrsa Is successful* md if it
is act, they should try to fled out why sot Perhaps different
points of view seed to he stressed* or a change in chimada is
indicated* wiich they soy discover ism their eumXative records*
They gray be able to defeeraiae sty pupils read 1cm is the senior
high school. Is it caused by increased social activities* 'the
EMrgsose of resanes into their lives, or is It a lack of inter-*
eating materials or a lack of successful reading stisanli by teach-*
or and librarians? A teacher ho knees her pupils and who knows
bodes can probably find the rnmmm to these and mm? other ques
tions stch stay arise* if she has the records frees which to start
her investigations. The keeping of records can bo done by the
individual pupils. The very fact of keeping Ids- own record dll
frequently stisaula&c the pupil to osero a*d Mrs reading. He ill
discuss his record with other pupils wed learn of other bodas ho
has fist known which ho will want to read* The record far guid
ing. ami directing the pupil In his reading is m invaluable aid
to the teacher#
Teachers in psmm&vSa education or in-service teach
ers ho wmt to continue their education need either specifically
designed courses* or specifically designed phases in existing
courses* to help them In their respective teaching fields*

ft.9 study la concerned partiaxlarly with the
tac*jer & the liixwcim, but it concerns generally ll persons
ooamotm with the growth and education f children* A £rajsnt
complaint of teachers ia that their teachor trailing Institu
tions give general bat not specific training* and map teachers
aro not ffleletitly tm&mfws- nor able to apply the general
to the specif ic# They aro all taught pa^afiolo^ a it pertains
to education and teaching* the development of the child, and
&om broad methods of taawfcing* English teachers* paftlnularl^,
need to know children* literatia*^tot ^jefc m or m a half-
doten anthologies of oUldrea* poetry, but they need an over
all picture of the ahole field of children* literature* Swy
need to become axxin&inteu with the studies made in the inglieh
field* and to learn hear to apply the findings of those studies
£n their own teaching* In heean&og acquainted with such studies*
they would ^laa bt^feeee faBiiiiy with the professional
that can he of l&sattmfcle help to the teacher* they would also
strengthen their ewa disoxlsdLna&ary powers ixi weeding out Um
worthless studies fro the valuable nee* A de
signed course* or a section in m doting course, under the
direction of an able instructor* Intended to sake the teacher
familiar with the materials of her field and shew how to use
those materials to good advantage would be a valuable aid in
tecreaslne the tesafeing efficiency in mr public eohocla*

FxsuaBRtftar
1* Adasss, Hwood* The -attest of Library Heading la the Junior
Rich School, atoll Hartar, XLI {'m* 1933) 375-378*
2* Anderson, B* £ MA Study of Leisure tim Heading of Junior
High Schools, I&esamtary School Journal, MMXX
(January, 191*8) ,T£o^T* "imn"r ~
3* Sames, Salter* Children's Litcrat^jri-'aat id Present*
M&caUoaal Peru, III {'hay, 1939) 38 L* Baego Berenice* *bx>a ^rtromeot seieraine a Child's ftaadk
Ing? The School a-au ComurAffi, XIV (Janoaiy 1928),
X6-X8*
5* BeH# Howard M* loath Tell Their Story* £a#di*&tqn L* *#
American Goncir on ''k!cal^''lp3>
6* Blende, Jacob* Petar Farley to Beared* A Blblic^sryMcKal
i..oaGrii3tioa"bF "lb
"fqrfe:* A# u* Bosfer Goopacy, T30*~
7* Book li&rim Digest* Se* larks a 8* t* Uso Ccopary,
'"'i^nin^T'aai-iually*
8* Breed, Clara E# fho Kewhary edalj a HUa for lyderstanOing,
idleoa library Bulletin, XVI (lay, 19L2), ?2li-?25*
9* Brick, tiiUUUa 0* fteaaiag Interest of High school Pupils*
School Karts*. mil (October, 1939) 613-621*
r IH* lWillMmMMIlm-rtfr-trTMMMMM ,
ID* 3yraa* Hath, ad Homan, V* ju C* Raiding Interests of &#
'School seniors** The ftagiLBh Journal (hi# school edi
tion), XXV (January^
11* Gaia, 'Silliam ft*, and i^roro franela J* .An Braluafcton of the
Outside Beadiec Interests of a Group of Seaior*i;E#*
School Pupil,* Journal of Pdaeatioml oolology V
(lar#, 1932), UTOSET
Sector, Stella £*, id Perdone, Gladys L# Leisure Heading
of Mf fork City Hi# School Student,8 Tbs angiicfo
Journal, XXV (Kaveafrar, 1936), 717-726*
152
12*

23* Charters, l* if* Popular Boye* Boato, library
Jauro&u un ONr 15 2938), 399^*00.
14* Children* Oatalot.M & stationary Catalog ef 4200 Boofea* ith
ffi "(SjqpSg^ 1946*
15* CMldnea'a Catalog! 1947-48 Supplement to the sraoth Mitim*
i^r¥^feww"^c^^^^ 16* Cleary, Harona* 0* flvoratlQjml leading la Junior High
School* flatlop*o School, XVI (4kOy 1935) 31*33*
17* Clear?* Florence S# *#fc¡y Children E*s Wllaoc library
Bulletin, XI? (October# 2939), 129*126;;
IS* Cornell, Ethel U *Thtt Voluntary leading o High School
Pupils#* HarteM library Aeeociatioa Bulletin, XXX?
(S^
19* Bbertiart, tHftrecU n Evaluating the Leisure aeaiag I
School Pupils, Lebed Haeis, XLVJX (April, 1939)$
257-29*
20* *Mw&bimaX Philosophy of the laboratory School,* i^uc^tloaal
Research Bulletin* X? (2) (February 12* 1936)* 36-06* B3
Wsutrri^ity,
21* lder, ¥ra, ad Carpenter, {Men S* wBsdhL Interest of
Mgh school Children* Journal of gciueatiloeaX Ue&mrOh
m (April, 1929), 276-2SS:
22* Erickson, Marlon Birig* loading Tastes la Misino
literatura,* Hesaeatary 2aHlh Bedew, X?I (January,
Mkwmwmfwm
1939), 10-lU*
23* F* S* H* M&isbors ctsg colerfd a^perlaeat to Lateral*
shatter Better Juvenile Boto tUl Fa? Their la?,*
(editorial) The Florida TlaoaHfclm* Sunday, March 23,
1949, page if* "v ir""w
24* fltofigol Cuabas A# *23*mpaper Testes of High school Pupils,
acted and fioatstar* XIX (April, 1944), 32&319
25* Florida teonoaic Mvasoeaent Council, statistical Abstract of
florida Couatlcs* gdXte by The
ISrei," ^auffivlllei state cbasfcer of CowaBroo, 1944*

26.
156
Fierid& state r^sartsmst of Mueatlen* State Minted library
Books for florida sciools* r'uliet'IHlor*f/* " aX'l'aiiaasee,
sarasas~~
27* FriedMs, ftgppl* C., and Kesasek, Claude 1. "A Survey of Head
ing Interest Studies." ducation, L?XI (September, 1936).
51-#.
28. Gates, Arthur I* "frontiers in JMueatiaaal Resetocch in Head
ing," Journal of Educational Research, XL {Jamary.
mh m=m: -
29* Goldsmith, Sophie L* "Ten fears of the HaVbsry Sedal, Boote
aaa, iXUV (Xovesiber, 1931), 308-316.
30. Gray, slillas S* Heading, Levies? of Educational Research,
I (seeeober, 1931), 32>^|133=5557
31# Grey, SUUae s. Sumar y of Beading Xnvest^alions, July 1,
1939 to June 30, 1960," Journal of rdueationai Research,
XXXI? (February, 1961), ii^RIST-
32* Gray, Hlia ft "Growth of Interest and Appreciation in lead
ing," almentary impish Ievlev. XVII (April. I960).
132-163*:
33. Hancock, Arthur s* "Largo-Group Laatruotion-A Lecture-iilrary
Etoerlront in Beading* Lchool Keviev, XLVX (lletraafcer*
1938), 696-700.
in the Junior High School#"
36* Heller, Frieds M# "Fare sseasoog in aso uanacr uga re
Sdaostional Research Pullet-La, XIX (April 10, I960}]
-222, 263"266*^(Moltate University. :
35. Jtaber, Miriam Blanton* Inilaonee of Intelligsgiae apea -Ml-
^reo ii'0.3X2.' Lear irfc*''' feSsisars Cefilegta, Cc&asblA diver
sity, 1928.
36* Hughes, Frasees 1. A Survey of the Heading Interest of the
'Pupil of Madison, iaooosi, High schools# Education
XLI? (March, 1926), UM68.
37* Jennings, Joe. "Leisure Leading of Junior Hi# 5 chool Bey and
Girls," Peabody Journal of Ldueattco* VI (May, 1929),
333-36?*
Johnson, B* W "Children* leading lntr@@te as Related to Sk
sad Credo in SdSiodl*" School Bevicvr* M (April* 1932)*
257-272. *
38*

39* Joint OwnibtM or toe Aaeriean Wsamy Association, toe na
tional Education Association, and to S&ttonal Council
of Teachers o lOgXiab* Qtmm blot of Books Or C-falX*
dmu Chicago* Asm^can" library ^oSaHositV
hQ* Jordan, Arthur si* CUdJUireas I&tcresta io ieadiijg* Contri-
boticas to Mucatioa, nbrlo7' Le? Xor¥*r faobiMi
college, Qoluafcia University, 1921*
hi* Jordan, Arthur M* "Chiloren1 Interests in Eeacing, iii^h
School Journal XX? (liovcaber, oea&er, 19h2), 333*130.
h2* Jordan, Arthur M* Beading Interests," Proooedii^ of toe
Ltional Station AwociatK* mSTTCffiJnSSgK.
h3* Rieran, John, (editor}* Ittfqrmtiao Lease ajaanac* Rsnr fork*
Farrar, Straaae and KfflpSy,'" 1*
hU.
la Brant,
Too,
Loo L*
'Haven
Sdiisahus*
An Fvaluatioo
aria SE3E55T
of
toe ffree
iuaCe
University, 1936*
US* La Brant, Lon L, and Heller, Frieda M* An Evaluation of Free
Beading in Opadas Seven to Teelv* 'Xneids&v. 'l/rau-iatie'1
^lool soirleiir'io*"'"^ SoSSimss"'&¡s Univer
sity, 1939.
li* Lacy, Bessie Sibbfcy* r.svHoplng Love of Irisare Boasting,0
Rational Education Association Journal* MTJIXX (April#
ror;"2rasc^
k? iawpene, Arta F* Let toe Recoma Speak for to Kswbezy
1100408, SlesHaatary milito imm* XIX (October, 19h2),
&0i-205*
l$* Xatoe# Charles 11*, Jr. Ere Reading in Evansville," Matiegas
Schools. XXII (august, 1933), 21-22*
ii9* Lassar, Isay* Beading Interests of Children* CkmtributioBS to
HeSr'Torki Teachers College, Colua-
bia University, 1937.
§0* Leary, Bernice E* What Ices Bomarch say About Heading:?'*
Journal of Maeational Research* XXXIX (February, 191*5),
91* Leiotiko, L* II* Inventory of ahat Children folunfiarily Se
lect to BoacE** Slesamtary had Journal* XXXVXXZ (Seo-
teober, 1936), 1&%F. ^

m
52*
53*
5U.
55*
56*
5?*
sa.
59.
60.
6U
62.
63.
6li#
65*
Ht&cboff, SWeaageltoe 0* ReatLo^ toterests of Junior HMai
Softool PooHa. Softool Review. aXU (Uaroti* 153?) I?5-
165.
McCulloch, C. M. "Jhat Is a Good Book to a liinth ihradr?H
The mulish Journal (high acocil octitioi) XVX {Ja"
asriOTrrgEgBy.
McKee, Pawl. iieadirig aria literature la the gjoaeotary Softool*
Boston* tSaapany, liteft. *"
National Council of Teachers of English*
Chicago* National Council of
Books ior Ion.
TlgK, 19^5*
Rational Council of ranchero of English. An. Esperienee Sur
ricultaa. Monograph, Mo. £t* Um "iorWi -.<
iotiy Coopaaty, 1535*
National Society for the Study of Education, Coiaaittee on the
langatage Arts* "Reading,w Review of Bdueatioaal he-
search, X (April, 19ij0}, ?910o.
or the Study of Education* The Teaching of
Second Report. Yhlr^SixthH^taok-, Pari
iloargta HHSoxs! Public School Publishing
Rational Society for
Heading* &
flf
company, 193?.
less fork City Asaosla ticc of Teachers of Hs^ULsh* A Survey of
Leisure beading in typical High Schools of lew itstfc city.
nm fork* ifoble amt§t8^ Company,
The Rwtoory Award Open Forts1* (editorial), Elcmmtarsr
EoaUah ftggiw, XVII (April, 19i¡0}, 160-33587'
Rorvall, Osare s>* BSa Results of a Twelve-Year Study of
Children *s Reading Interest," The En&Lib Journal,
XXXV (reocQber, 1?!6), 531-536.
Fainter, Rolen i. **A Synthesis of Research o the Placement
of Reading Material in Seoon&oryKSclioaii Literature,
Tiie ¡nsLlab Journal, MXI (fcfcwesaber, 19L2), 6li2-6Ii.
Parker, Beryl, and Thyng, Franc J* Tastes fiUTftr,* E-aaca
tional methods. XIX (unaabar, 1939), 162¡~168*
Peterson, Aram. Leisure Reading of High school .Pupils,*
aducatitm, LIV (Jamary, 193k) * 296-300.
Pettingill* Ada* Ih Books They Like,* lllsoa Library Bui**
latn XI? (gothAmt, 1939), 338.

157
66.
67*
6a*
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
?i*.
75*
76.
r/.
76.
Puntee, Ranald E# "The Bam m Adcftesoent mmtixig Itetarwfc*,*
School Review* XLV (Oetoher, 1937), 612*620
Rankin, Marie.
Mo. GooSr
Childress Xr&arest^ia lAfarayy^Hooks of^glc^
SiVSWH
#
feaSsera College, Columbia University, 19hk*
{aeche, William F* *lietfcod Fapleycd to Stimulate Interests la
Reading,* School Mm, mm (Jamary-Asril. 1929).
29-36 12b-33DC* 293-303.
Marti, 0* 1*, mm Bawls, Robert A* Reeding interest of
Teachers,* Educational Ackainistration and iMpervistm.
m (^bmiy7Wj;iaro' *
Roper, Elmo. *Tfee Fortune Survey* the Peopled Teats* in
Movies am Bootes, Fortune. XXXIX (March, 19h9), 39-Ui*
Roeenbaua, liar tena L Th Motivation of library Reading
Through Cosaf eresne Periods,*' Mneattenal Reae l-txiletla,
XX {February, 1939), TX-Vk* KaiS^oo, !eugam xsl£
era State Teachers College.
Rothney, John W* il. "Interest of Public Beoor4ary*6chocl
Baya. Journal of Educational Psychology, XXVIH imvm
Rothney, John a* 14., trh MoGaoL, Robert 1* Reading Prefer-
no of the Rich School Boys* The kogUab Journal
(high school edition), 22HX (OotS^7TOT7^S3B5o.
Royster, Sallfb&tle* "Reading Tastos of Tselfth-Orad Papila,"
laducatioa. Ufl (February, 1936), 369-371*
Schooner, Rath C "Be Case for Volcaino&s seeding," The
English Journal (high school edition)* JEHttX (February.
to; was:
slrnttlaworth, Frank K "A Critical Study of Two lints of Beet
Bootee for Children, (Ranatic Pagnbclegy Memomw)fee* SI
(April, 1932), 21*7^
Sfcitli, sera V* "Stlraalating Interest end Appreciation Through
Heading* ilaaaotary English Review* XVIX (say* 19h0),
171-175. ~
Standard Catalog
sr
SH
ilacn Soepeiiy, 19li7*
for High School libraries* A Selected Catalog
Esr^rnimi^-TmT&w WaBrsr**


1
92* fitter, Paul, cd h*hmnt if* 0* tli 13fl*iig: as fc& Bmmg
laereats of Gifted GMldra.* Journal of i'mmtjs
Paswifalogy. %i# 2$3k)*
93* 11&, Eoee* Children^ Opinions of Seebepy Frisa Mi,"
gtosmtarj S&eliah fawlwr, X7II (October, 191*0), 2lS~
9ii* teller, Dale* Factors of Interest In Heading aterais
College, CcUMia n.versity, 19hX*
Cm*

b 9 i1 £ H t I X

samots pmiatmim vs tm stirr $vm
mm& tmsmmi- in e&os
Alocua High School, Alachua
7 8 9 1011 12
Daff County High rchool, Panama City
9 10 11 12
Bradenton Junior High school, Bractenton
7-8-9
iruaaand Park Hoetantary i hod,
Panana City
7-8
Fort anderclale £i# School,
Fort Lauderdale
7 8 9 lo 11 12
loa 1* Piafter Junior High School
Sliaai each
7-8-9
Lakeland Hi# School Lakeland
7-8 9 10-11 12
Manatee County Hi# i cnodL, Bradenioti
10 11 12
Plmai senior m# School, Mai
10 11 12
Orlando senior Hi# Loboal, -Criando
10-11-12
Pasco County High School, tm* City
9 10 1112
P. K Tongo laboratory fchod
Gainesville
7-6-9 10 -11-12
Putoan County Hi# school Pal&tfca
7-8-9 io B. 12
Seafcreeae Higii School,
Baytona Beach
7-8-9-10-11-12
winter Haven Hi# School Winter Haven
7-S 9 -30-11-12
Seventh, eighth, ana ninth gx
the tenth grade cards at this school*
*ad records were tatos JCToa

TABLlv 2b
WmUJMT ST OR&DE, SE, I?? AKTICIPA1TK1 SCMS
Softool
1
8
9
10
B
6
B
0
B
Q
B
G ^

392
bib
B
333
m
153
157
36$
170
139
136
C
150
153
132
33?
IbO
lb?
115
m
B
229
267
D*
138
150
15b
159
172
176
K
209
20?
lb9
166
F
103
116 ,
10b
107
1QGL
10b
98
91
a
89
90
123
338
lili
153
H
31?
127
I
70
7U
67
65
73
69
6k
m
J
, 81
82
83
9b
80
96
S
b8
1*6
1*6
ill
31
32
lib
kk
L
65
62
55
57
M
13
19
16
16
32
23
n
25
8
17
36
12
22
22
25
Ik
27
0
27
30
26
26
totals
869
925
926
962
1,231
1,26k
lbb7
1,526
* The avate enrollment of the Wo Junior hih schools in
the city as obtainea in the office of School L*

m
TABUS 21* (CoritistiflKt)
11 22 Total Gram Total
B
G
B
G
B
G
UX9
b?8
303
39h
1,21b
1,286
2,1*00
96
131
78
108
76b
851
1.0-5
106
107
101
118
7bb
786
1,530
226
211
186
231
m
739
1.3O
m
bas
m
101
150
99
125
558
61*8
1,206
78
80
61
66
5b5
56b
1,109
353
381
73b
112
133
110
101
339
361
700
35
53
12
36
351
3b5
696
210*
m
516
3b
ItO
iiO
kk
21*3
21*7
1*90
30
1|2
32
33
182
191*
376
23
2b
2b
lit
139
11*8
28?
16
22
16
18
97
130
227
53
56
109
6,831 7,1*93 lb,32b
i,2?6 1,501 i,m i ,315

muE 2$
rmm mas mz optrn mw m se os a, b, m. c
School A
School B
School Q
Best Short atoarlos
Tcm Lawyer
Inst ososstsr
A Tal of Two Cities
Lassie ue Horn
fbe Lob
Shakespeare1^ Complete Ork
foilyanna
seventeenth sussssr
0*eilla Nine Play*
isurrioan Treasure
rlack stallion
Beet Plays of 191+>4U
Seventeenth Earner
Black, stallion Returns
Ruthes* Heists
Junior Mies
spike of swift Liver
Oreen idphin Street
Sun Star mxl Pepper
Salute
The Scarlet tetter
Strawberry f-lrl
ti.rates of Icy Strait
tetters to Cusan
tittle osen
Shanghai Passage
Merchant of ?enic
Mies -Inerva and '.-lillas
-Silver
Green 'Mmime
Creen Hill
Stand fast anti Reply
Si Barton superintendent
Silver Cldef
They ¡ re Expendable
of Curses
iiuckleberry Vim
fea bilcate!
fiarte* wtorios of the )ld
Mark twain
Pair Adventure
: laab*s Hales fro Shakes
peare
Tees of the Urbervilles
TSie fearliag
Hie Bobbsey Twins
Thirty Fathesns : cep

TABLE 26
rmm-. mm> wm oftm real is scrools t> e, /jsl f
c,ahod3, C
School E
School F
Pride asid Predice
Oliver Tviet
Short Stories
(Kendall)
Junior Biss
The Robe
Black BUMm
Merianthsr Lewie
The Yearling
Life sitia Ffct&er
Pride and Pregadlos (Austen)
Black Beauty
Lassi@# Coa Kota
Toa sesyer
teals! Bocae
Car fiarte Ser Young and
Seven ¡S&o Case mraih
little {asn
Osy
Sue Barton* student £u?ee
Buffalo Bill
Hi Yearling
The hutch Shm ystery
Slack horn
Toss Sawyer
Izasele, Cose Uom
Oar Hearts ere Young and
Adrift o en loe Pan
PiXgrira,o Progrese
Gay
hiakleberry FSsn
ihe Kobe
totes Curie
Little uOfsm
The Sea olf
seventeen
Jane yr
Viuihering Heights
Abrahasa Lincoln
Last Seraester
Th Call of the Wild
captains Courageous
Paul fiuopm
My friend, ilie&a
Captain fins Castile
Short Stories
8y irisad* slick
iktekleberry l ion

TABLE 27
FIFTSw 500S MX? 0nm hUi IB lChOOLS 0, H, Al I
School G
School B
school I
All t*mrQm
seventeen
The Animal rook
Jm& £yr
Great Hors Stories
huckleberry fina
A Star for Glraxy
They Lows to Laugh
Prose and Poetry
Black Stallion
QoiaQ on Sixteen
lied Horse Hill
the Call of the Wild
The Oman Gotaedy
iloroess Ghatapioc
Yfeunclerhead
Pride and Prejudice
**rf
!
I
Curtain Ooifig Up
The Hob
&aoky the Coehors
Breas of ulory
jumper
Mysterious Island
Bal Buaayaa
White fang
Thunderhoad
len Are Like streetcars
Count of Mont Cristo
u, s* stary
BaokflaXd Coast
Iron Luke
Uy Friend Flieka
less
Marriage and Family Re-
Pinocehio
Behave Yourself
latais
Seventeenth summer
lafftr of ilavy Salvage
Return of ilver Chief
The Young Trailers
Lassie Coras Horn
The Call of the Wild
Enchanted April
The lmo for Baa

TABLE 28
riFtKH SOOXS GST OWI^ HMD BY SCHOOLS J, K* A' D L
BGhoOl J
Treasure Island
Green Grass of rfyoaiog
ioa Sawyer
Africa
Lassie* Omm Haas
Peggy Sewers London
¡Seventeen
Spike of Swift River
Ballet Shoes
The Sail of the ild
With Baniel Boas on the
Carolina Trail
Heidi
% frisad* I'lieka
Our Hearts were Young and
Gay
On the Bcttee
School S
The loll of the Wild
Moosier school blaster
Life with Father
&nm of arson 'ableo
Excuse It, Fleas
& Lantern in br Hand
The Yearling
omiy Longlegs
iron fake
You Can*t Take it with You
!3u ir l a oolH&
Girl of the Liaherlost
Best hart Stories
High Beatas
Jane Eyre
School L
Fanny Marsh
AbOL, K~9 Qfsmand
Sue Bertas* sailor nurse
Blueberry Mountain
The Call of the Slid
Carol Flays Faw Stock
My friend* Flick*
Hue Bertas* liural Burse
Boh*s Hill Ml
Buff* a COIlie
Junior Mies
Silver heneil
Bae Barton* Boteras
Burse
Flask stallion
Huckleberry Fim

TABUS 29
nrmm ?nom goer arar- ms. bt schools a, m, asd o
School M
School 8
School 0
Seventeenth Bemer
Hie Ghost of Melody lane
X Am an American
Oom with the Mind
The Secret at Shadow l&xeb.
Sm Barton, Senior Tiers
the lite
Hie Sigo of the 'Twisted
Sue Barton, student Mur
The Great Tide
Sandra Mitchell Stand S0T
To Have end. to Hold
Hie Mystery of the Ivory
Tradition
Black stallien
Charm
hose in I&ot
Iron Cuke
Money's Mysterious Letter
Candy
¡imam
The Ghost farad
Bread and Butter
Treasure Island
the Bungalow tystery
Th Golden Cagle mystery
The Clue in the -lory
Tiio iiauitea Attic
The Liiadow in the Pine
Silver saddles
The Clue of the Broken
Beverley Caray, sophomore
Thundterhcad
Locket
LI*ada Marsh
Career tor Jennifer
The Message is tee collm
Little ..osen
Lost uorisons
Oak
An Old-Fashioned Girl
My Dear Patsy
The Wild -.earning
The Vanishing Shadow
The Mystery at Lilac tm
Gulf Coast 'Teaser
The Invisible Chinns
Boggy Covers the Sows

TAEJXJE 30
TfPSS OF EX855 KS&D BJ CEBADE At SEX II SCHOOL A
Type ... 7
8 9 10
11
12
Total
Orand
Total
BOB
0 B 0 B
Q
B
0
B
0
8
0
Fietioo
100
327
18X
382
162
1*07
I&3
1,116
1,559
Fi soeillas0*i8
6$
87
92
123
108
150
265
360
Arts
30
38
Ii3
315
60
119
133
272
1*05
Blograpi^
3a
38
17
8?
35
63
Hit
188
302
Avn*0 Travel
62
1*0
73
28
52
15
187
S3
270
Hebbie*f apart
22
18
25
13
2?
10
Tfc
ill
135
Gareer Fiction
i
52
0
hZ
3
13
ii
107
131
Defease} ar
28
17
22
7
IS
17
68
ia
109
Science
20
3
27
10
33
7
80
20
100
Katoref Ansalo
13
1?
18
10
8
8
39
35
?h
History} Oesg#
5
a
18
12
12
8
35
22
57
i^ysteryf Leteofe*
35
17
7
5
5
7
27
29
56
Occupations
8
15
10
12
5
5
23
32
55
Bumr
8
7
7
7
0
5
15
29
3k
Folk Lcare
0
7
?
3
>
H
10
20
30
Total*
m
68$
577
856
531
BtiU
1,517
2,385
3,902

mm OF 1Q0&3 READ BT ORABfc AHD SEJL IS SCHOOL S
ype
1
8
?
10
11
12
Total
Grand
Total
B
0
, 9
Q
, J
0
B
G
B
0
B
Q
B
0
Fie-ticas
130
276
55
251
75
m
l*o
159
39
325
a
60
360
1,115
1,1*75
Â¥*uj Trwni
139
65
78
35
98
&
la
32
31
13
5
1
393
181*
577
l&vtttrjrf
6k
66
22
35
28
72
7
6

0
0
1
12f
20¡i
m
Biography
n
79
a
35
w
20
31
9
8
6
6
1
162
l$i
316
Naturaj Anisis
si
3U
1*7
ia
61
2s0
10
30
7
5
0
1
182
333
315
f/dsolianeos
15
11
6
16
10
11*
2
2
3
7
2
17
38
67
105
solano
12
2
5
0
15
1
ai*
18
13
10
0
0
59
31
90
Career ricUco
1
12
0
32
1
18
i
12
1
2
0
0
k
76
80
m&mo fflr
13
1
15
2
20
2
8
1
6
2
k
0
66
6
71*
HObbiesj sports
11
0
39
3
16
2
11
0
h
0
2
2
63
7
70
&saor
3
2
h
5
i*
h
3

2
1
0
1
16
19
35
Arts
13
6
1
2
1
1
1
1
0
2
2
2
18
U
32
Fairy Tale
10
5
1
5
2
2
0
1
0
0
0
1
33
1L
27
Historyi Caog*
3
U
0
2
6
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
11
6
17
Oocupa timo
2
0
1
0
-2-
JL
1
3
0
1
2
1
9
8
17
Total
51*1*
583
275
U78
385
U57
151
260
122
X7li
kk
88 1,5a
2,0b0
u I
11

TABU'S JZ
rzpm or boois mas m mum mt sa m mmau c
7
6
9
10
11
12
Total
Oread
total
B
0
B
a
*
1?
0
B
<3
B
f
g
Q
B
0
Fioiios
Hi
m
252
699
168
518
hS
193
lO
138
25
$0
873
2,375
3,288
Mmi*j i£&mH
b$0
m
k86
HI
176
112
95
a
m
a
29
k
578
1,862
Satursf Aaisaal
195
m
159
m
70
60
20
15
7
5
2
0
8iu
1*
913
i&t&eryj ngfeeffit*
90
126
?a
5?
m
30
12
16
6
6
3
3
231
238
h
io£ena*j y&r
#
3
108
0
108
2?
39
12
27
2
&
3
602
15
m
llofeblesj sports
mi)
15
39
6
72
18
36
5
9
0
h
1
27fe
15
319
Cares** FietAas
IS
e?
0
63
6
72
0
27
2
7
Q
1
18
257
275
Bigra|*iy
36
63
30
2ti
16
28
8
21
13
17
h
5
107
158
265
MlseellanecHi
au
33
30
m
12
22
8
23
9
10
7
5
90
liil
231
Fair? TalesjFolk
12
9
12
2h
S
8
2
0
0
0
0
0
3fc
37
71
Sde^S
12
3
6
12
2
6
8
3
X
1
1
0
26
23
U9
HaMQP
6
0
3
0
e
10
0
0
3
0
3
0
23
10
33
Arte
0
6
9
3
fc
k
0
0
1
5
0
0
18
18
32
Btetoryj 0eog*
0
0
6
0
0
6
1
0
1
0
1
0
9
6
15
Occupations
0
2
0
Q
0
G
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
k
&
Totals 1,362 296?? 32X6 1176
700
915
270
336
168
213
130
72
3,31*6
8,233

TASLE 33
TIFES OF BOOKS MS Bt GMiB AML £U IK SCHOOL D*
t?|>6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Total
(sraa
Total
, ,?
0
B
0

0
B
Cs
B
a
B
0
E
0
fiction
51
13*4
38
150
Ht
130
65
162
61*
166
W
117
299
859
1,158
Avsn*j Travel
151
3)4
127
50
125
39
61*
19
53
26
39
12
559
ISO
739
Siagrepbar
29
33
35
5U
28
59
33
30
25
ia
17
15
16?
232
399
K&txjrej knis&La
35
32
1*2
28
52
U3
18
12
5
9
2
It
XSk
128
282
Arts
10
2
3
1*
0
2
22
30
28
1*6
35
U5
98
129
227
Systcryj detect*
19
30
17
17
16
6
10
2
13
2
5
2
80
67
11*7
Defenses isar
S
6
11
It
29
It
17
7
13
9
8
5
86
35
121
KiacaLlaosoas
5
10
6
11
6
13
Hi
8
6
9
5
8
1)0
65
105
Bobbles) sports
17
it
3S
5
13
2
6
1
h
0
It
a
82
12
9lt
Career f ctico
0
1k
6
22
2
26
1
13
1
1
0
2
10
78
86
History) Oeag.
6
2
6
12
1
7
3
h
2
2
0
3
18
30
m
ISaswr
0
0
0
1
1
3
6
9
It
8
It
1*
15
25
ItQ
Occupations
0
3
0
It
0
8
2
5
0
2
1
0
3
22
25
Science
3
1
1
5
0
3
1
5
0
1
0
2
5
17
22
yelk lor
?
3
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
2
0
1
6
8
%
Totals
337
322
330
367
308
3U6
263
305
217
321*
367
220
1,622
1,887
3,509
Heoords for 7, , and 9 grades taken from IQ grade cards.

fiPES of books tmu bx am Am- mz is school %
173
a 3
3 *
o
H
%
a
a
a
'£>
3
H
f*
3
CM
a
CM
o
-d
o
a
S3
a
3
D
H
o
3
CM
v\
M
CM
o
vO
o
*&1
o
f
s
§5
CM
n
-o
8
so
3
O
CM
#&
-d
CM
ia
a
M
§
8
3
3
%

-sr
0\
CM
CO
-o
CM
CM

s
8
E
S
a
a
P

8
P
-d
-d
CM
CM
3

g
3
£
3
3
rH
S'
o
o
-d
CO
d
-d
e
i
-dr
a
3
8
a
IK
8
8
'O
to
CO
CM
O
Ov
SS5
t
&
Oi
S£
H
3
a
3
a
CM
53
*>
a
8
o
o
1039 1172 717 9hO 670 660 Jta IM 2,768 3,218 5,936

TABUS. 35
ttm of books nm bt sube abd sea m school f
7
8
9
W
11
12
Total
Gram
B
S
g
0
B
Q
B
0
B
0
B
0
B
0
Fiction
31
12?
35
112
31
57
33
158
35
158
36
68
2ta
690
091
Adtoeatore
73
32
85
8?
86
20
6?
5Q
37
32
19
7
32?
1S8
517
Biogragligr
39
17
17
2$
10
17
38
56
5
22
9
9
118
186
260
Faturej Auimla
*
88
25
81
35
a
8
15
25
8
6
6
2
ns
97
215
M^stes^i lefceet*
XL
28
17
15
0
3
12
10
1
1
3
X
88
58
98
tfeme* war
8
5
6
8
9
2
13
1?
6
a
5
2
83
38
81
iisoeillaiaous
Z
6
0
3
8
5
8
17
2
10
8
a
u
62
78
scleaea
z
2
5
2
1
0
1
15
6
13
1
0
16
32
88
Carear Hoaa
Q
12
i
IS
0
3
0
e
0
0
0
5
X
86
87
Art
0
0
2
1
1
2
2
7
8
5
8
7
13
22
35
EUtcryi Goog*
1
1
1
0
3
3
9
5
1
7
3
0
18
16
38
Hcbbi*#j Sport
6
1
7
3
1
2
0
0
1
0
2
0
17
6
23
itear
1
0
0
3
1
8
0
2
0
8
0
0
2
17
19
Falk Lara
2
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
£
6
a
Ocoupaticas
0
0
0
0
0
i
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
2
Totals
216
2 58
217
270
U5
123
192
368
102
266
93
180
935
1,821
2,356

TABUE 36
rms of books urn m tmm me sex in school q
Types
7
8
10
11 12 Total
Grand

8
G
S
0 B G
BOBO B
0
Total
Fiction
78
308
172
iiSl
85
2i*5
335
3*03*1
1*369
Adven*! Travel
88
32
198
65
90
32
376
129
505
Hcfcbie*! Sport
32
7
m
22
38
12
235
UL
276
Ficgrapfey
33
lo
62
68
23
m
118
lit8
266
Katurej Arilaals
03
S3
55
73
2Q
8
128
13ii
262
Eom&Lbmwqk
3a
60
ii3
b$
15
27
90
132
222
Career Fiction
a
27
3
97
0
a?
5
151
156
Defense! War
3a
3
itf
U
33
5
112
26
138
^yateryj rsteot*
so
23
30
33
7
20
57
76
133
Science
17
3
a?
12
5
2
¡S
17
66
Arte
a
8
13
IS
0
12
15
38
0
Humor
0
10
ia
5
7
7
25
22
1*7
Historyj Oeog.
10
0
7
8
3
5
20
13
33
Occupations
0
0
12
3
3
3
15
6
a
Fiiry Tales
2
3
~JL
0
2
L
10
17
Totals
hca
577
857
50
32?
M*7
1*587
1*977
3*56t*

TABUS 31
sms of ooss h¡¡M) m mmh mu. sbs. is £(m h
Tyr>*Mi
8
9 10
21
12
Total
Grand
Total
** r*
1? v
BOB
0
B
C
**
43
0
B
r*
V*
Fiction
m*
237
35
88
15
29
168
800
568
Adventure
163
8?
32
8
16
8
211
61
272
54i3CQllaEi 13
63
8
28
5
8
26
95
121
N&tr'arcj fcniiaata
1*6
28
6
1
1
2
S3
27
80
Biogragbgr
32
20
8
8
6
1
22
25
87
Career Fiction
0
36
0
5
1
1
1
82
83
Arts
8
5
7
21
8
3
15
19
38
Hobbles; sport
23
10
2
1
2
1
17
12
29
liyateryi Latest
13
10
1
1
0
2
18
13
27
release; W*r
6
9
7
1
2
1
IS
11
26
History; Geog.
8
6
8
6
3
2
11
18
25
Occupations
8
7
3
8
0
1
7
12
19
Science
6
2
3
2
2
1
11
5
16
Huaar
1
2
5
2
0
1
6
5
11
Folk Loro
1
3
0
2
0
2
1
7
8
Totals
800
533
117
156
57
59
578
788 1,322

TAELS 38
TYPES OF B9QSS RIM) BT GMSE AHD SKX IK SCHOOL I
Types
7

9
10
11
12
Total
Grand
Total
-
G
B
, G
a
G
B
0
S
3
0
i
B
G
Fiction
1X6
100
110
m
107
18?
23
118
39
U3
12
18
Jhl2
811
1,223
Mvca#i Trawl
9U
ko
UtO
81*
117
38
20
16
Hi
8
10
3
390
189
08k
Hature
8k
32
66
02
70
20
16
2k
10
3
2
3
266
168
832
Miacc&Xaneoue
12
10
16
30
18
70
k
2k
6
U
3
6
61
101
212
Mystsryj Detect*
17
20
30
30
31
20
5
17
8
3
1
1
92
96
388
gjgfagWl
X?
18
3k
68
12
7
3
7
0
1
1
1
6?
102
169
Siograffcar
X6
U
hk
30
9
6
2
1
10
6
1
1
82
03
135
Career Fiction
X
16
1
3U
U
20
2
9
0
3
0
1
8
S3
91
History* Qecg*
u
3
k
0
7
1*
k
13
15
20
2
1
36
86
62
MCbbies* aporte
10
3
20
10
15
u
6
2
k
0
1
1
06
20
76
Arta
X
3
1
11
3
6
3
11
12
9
2
2*
22
y*
66
efenaei ar
10
1
10
0
8
1
2
2
3
1
1
0
38
10
kk
Susto?
3
6
3
2
1
2
1
1
0
1*
1
1
Ik
16
30
Folk Lore
6
1
1
1
1*
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
11
3
lit
Occupationa
h
1
1
X
0
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
6
?
n
Total
390
321
008
689
U06 388
92
2ii2
126
112
37
kl
1*068
1*793
3,307

fiFs of boo mm st om& m- su a mmol #
178
o ft*
t
o
H
3
3
Ov
o

as
o
S.

£Q

*8:
a
ia

m
yy|898aa
-5t H H
m
S3
30'5<3^4JrtO
||9S'S8Sanol,H
IP
$
& % $ % 4
'MS
**
<**
o

'O
rt
ft
*n
o
o
§
<3\
a
H
Hi
H
o

r4
s
in
9
HI
e*
^S>
O
H
o
0
1
n
o
o
r4
v\
a
O
o
O
1
o
f-
SI
n

m
0
r4

1
a
o
SI
H
VS
<5*
01
3
o
o

s
1
S* S? W
til!
¡ I
* 4*
1
1 1
fct
I !
$
77? 1,S&5

li
tms of sooss bud m mm m> sm w school &
Type
7
a
9
10
11
12
Total
Oraad
total
Ha&im
Z$
95
a?
3U
6a
ida
36
30
23
125
13
26
136
m
673
Msrea*j Travel
30
1U
U2
15
66
1U
3?
10
11
13
12
U
200
70
270
Eatar& Asteis
9
au
ai
3>
3U
28
7
0
2
7
0
0
73
69
1U2
Uography
a
a
6
a
a
U
12
12
7
3$
9
11
33
so
83
kisaeXXsniitfUB
a
U
h
3
5
8
U
1
9
8
30
26
57
63
Busiest
3
?
1
z
0
0
5
a
3
11
U
21
16
33
W
£o£e&Mf nap
9
0
6.
0
u
0
10
i
2
3
6
1
3?
5
U2
Career Fictiai
i
10
0
10
0
13
2
i
0
0
0
1
3
35
38
.vCi-CiiiC
6
9
a
1
$
0
7
2
1
2
1
a
22
16
38
Arte
0
a
a
0
0
Q
h
3
2
10
0
3
3
23
31
Robbiosj Sport
IS
0
a
0
a
0
3
0
2
0
0
0
30
0
30
lyst^y) i ateet*
3
5
u
1
i
k
3
1
0
0
0
2
11
13
2U
Histor/l Oeog*
0
0
3
0
i
3
0
0
1
1
6
1
11
5
16
1
I
L 1
i
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
2
1
1
5
5
10
Oceusatiosa#
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
2
2
If
Totals
107
ITU
127
80
180
253
338
71
56
202
60
95
60S
875
1,5U3
§

TA3L& til
nm of books read by grade six m school t
7
5
w
u
22
fetal
Oraras
&yp&%i
total
Fictioa
51
205
57
207
55
222
13
77
276
5U
mi
Mver*j travel
8it
132
6
26
23
6
6
238
7U
328
feature; Asteis
51
59
kS
&
8
0
It
0
108
63
171
Career Fietisft
3
73
t
a
0
22
2
h
7
no
127
latest#
10
21
16
8
1
5
It
1
32
35
66
iiobtleaj Sport
35
3
15
1
2
0
3
8
55
6
a
siesraphy
3
7
27
2
It
2
0
3
2)t
lit
38
MiscelXaaemis
2
7
5
It
7
5
1
6
is
28
37
Deltens} lar
7
1
13
1
1
2
0
X
22
It
25
Arts
1
2
2
0
0
0
0
2
3
It
7
History; Geog*
1
0
3
0
0
2
0
0
h
2
5
Baser
0
1
2
0
0
1
0
0
1
8
3
clstw
0
a
0
1
0
a
2
0
1
2
2
Fails Lore
0
0
0
0
a
0
1
a
1
a
1
Oscuivatieo#
0
0
0
0
JL
0
0
0
0
0
q
Totals
21*3
US
308
155
9U
162
35
102
685
m
1,532
g

tabus ia
TXPBS OF B00K3 RUO BT GRABE AM> &M IS SCHOOL V
Type
7
3
. 9
10
11
12
Total
Grand
Total
3
a
B
3
HS
a
3
o *
S
a
n
o'
3
0
Fiction
1*3
l?
2h
%2k
36
250
30
178
2i*
132
0
37
165
967
1,132
Adve*j Travel
S3
61*
39
1*6
1*6
1*3
56
13
16
111
0
1
ao
166
396
*$rtryj Detect*
35
127
7
39
2
19
3
9
3
k
0
0
50
193
2!3
Hatcrej nlaala
15
09
Hi
20
22
27
15
16
5
h
0
0
n
16U
235
tetera! ifr
1*3
10
31
2*
21
11
10
0
2
3
0
0
107
36
113
Biocrapisy
13

11
9
£7
7
0
21
16
0
7
52
82
131
Caree? Fiction
0
35
0
23
0
£9
0
13
0
3
0
0
0
103
103
Kobbleej f porta
0
0
7
0
37
7
fitt
11
5
0
0
0
81
18
99
EsmEUmmss
2
3
U
2)
7
25
8
22
2
9
0
2
23
70
93
Science
0
5
3
1
>
2?
3
7
1
!i
0
0
16
b$
62
Arta
0
3
1
0
2
S
6
5
2
9
a
u
n
29
1*0
Hietcryi Geog*
h
1
0
2
1
3
0
0
2
5
i
0
8
n
39
Occupation
1
0
0
3
0
1
6
a
1
0
0
0
3
i*
12
Haaor
0
1
1
2
2
3
1
i
0
0
0
0
k
7
U
Folie Lcre
2
0
0
2
2
0
1
i
0
0
o
0
5
3
8
Totola
as
552
137
259
isa
1*87
1S3
292
8*
253
i
51
SU
1*923
2,731*

TABEE U3
fXHS OF BOQSS BEAD ST OftDE AM; SEX. IN SCHOOL H
type
?
a
9
10
11
12
Total
Grand
Total
B
0
8
0
8
0
S
0
8
0
B
0
B
0
Flctiao
70
92
1*6
2X2
22
103
U2
78
3U
18
uo
12
25U
520
77U
Mystery; Detect#
1*6
08
2U
XX8
10
98
W
U6
6
12
6
0
112
332
uuu
Adven#; Travel
22
k
16
12
3
8
1u
10
6
2
u
0
70
36
106
Matura; Anltaals
XU
10
16
20
2
U
8
U
2
a
u
2
1*6
U2
88
iAisoalXaiieous
0
12
6
10
2
6
6
10
2
6
6
2
30
50
80
Biography
3
12
6
12
0
U
6
6
U
2
U
u
30
UO
70
seiaae
6
16
2
16
U
2
2
2
2
0
u
2
20
38
58
Career Fiction
2
U
0
16
0
6
2
6
2
U
2
2
8
38
U6
Hobble*; sport
12
2
It
2
2
0
12
0
2
2
8
0
UO
6
U6
efeoaej star
2
a
2
2
2
2
8
2
U
2
8
2
26
1U
UO
History; Oeog#
2
2
6
6
0
0
6
U
U
U
2
0
22
16
38
Fairy Tales;folk L* 2
6
2
a
0
u
2
2
2
0
0
0
3
16
2U
Arts
6
8
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
10
16
Occupations
2
0
0
0
0
2
2
0
2
2
2
2
8
6
1U
Huaor
0
2
0
2
2
2
0
0
o
0
0
0
2
6
3
Total
202
232
13U
L3U
su
2U8
128
170
72
58
92
28
682
1,170
1,852

ms of xtamB si mm m> s m u sstkx& o
Types
7
8
9 30
31 12
Total
Qraa
Total
B
a
B ,
0
BOBS
BOSS
B
Q
Fiction
21
98
17
m
38
m
2it7
Adveature
31
7
28
10
$9
17
76
Career Fiction
0
20
0
27
0
m
It?
iyste*7f otoot
&
16
It
9
12
25
37
Maturej Aais&la
17
?
6
1
23
8
31
Fair/ Tales
2
6
3
k
5
10
15
Diography
2
2
5
1
7
3
10
MlBoellaraau
2
k
2
2
it
6
10
raXensej Bar
3
0
1
2
it
2
6
iJobbiesj Sports
2
0
2
0
it
0
it
Seism
1
1
1
0
2
1
3
Art
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
History! Oeog#
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
&Mf
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Occupation
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total
69
161
69
16?
158
328
hd6
s

wmmm& mm
Pearl hands Tartar was bora April U, Xm96, at Pim
0rove, ftes& Virginia* Her umergradu&ta nark as taka la English
and the fina arta at fairaoat State Colige Falmsoi, seat Vir
ginia, shear she received the decree of Bashedor of Arts in dune,
1930 Gradaste work ess take at 'Seat Virginia University In
education and English m the degree o£ faster of Arts ms awarded
in Juno, 1931* Farther graduate work was taken at test Virginia.
University and the University of Florida in education and. Isgliafe#
JSh taught four years in high school end four years in .
Faimoat State aotUege*
An article describi.: an mcp&rumnl she sad in reoadial
reading was published in the fchool Bevies Becesaber, 1931* She
is & caber of Kappa Delta Pi, an honorary educational fraternity.

jfftjs ciloserfcaticm vas prepared under the olrestioa of the
Chairas, of the cridaba *s Supervisory Ceasaitbe and hap been
approved by all aes&ere of the Sosssifcb. It ms aatsdttad to
ti Graduate Council sad m& approved a partial foXfilBeot of
the requirements for- the degree of Doctor of Sduoaticai*
tee 6 134$
stimnsoor cnro
nUt ¡M 7H\(L~Li~-
i



jfftjs ciloserfcaticm vas prepared under the olrestioa of the
Chairas, of the cridaba *s Supervisory Ceasaitbe and hap been
approved by all aes&ere of the Sosssifcb. It ms aatsdttad to
ti Graduate Council sad m& approved a partial foXfilBeot of
the requirements for- the degree of Doctor of Sduoaticai*
tee 6 134$
stimnsoor cnro
nUt ¡M 7H\(L~Li~-
i




fiFs of boo mm st om& m- su a mmol #
178
o ft*
t
o
H
3
3
Ov
o

as
o
S.

£Q

*8:
a
ia

m
yy|898aa
-5t H H
m
S3
30'5<3^4JrtO
||9S'S8Sanol,H
IP
$
& % $ % 4
'MS
**
<**
o

'O
rt
ft
*n
o
o
§
<3\
a
H
Hi
H
o

r4
s
in
9
HI
e*
^S>
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H
o
0
1
n
o
o
r4
v\
a
O
o
O
1
o
f-
SI
n

m
0
r4

1
a
o
SI
H
VS
<5*
01
3
o
o

s
1
S* S? W
til!
¡ I
* 4*
1
1 1
fct
I !
$
77? 1,S&5


tme 6
m mm m Ea&Disa to
TOTA, !U8 OP EACH SEX
Bear
Girls
Type
stbar of
Books Head Percentage
mutoet or
Bocks Head Bereantage
General
Fiction
5*036
25*2
13,053
52*5
ACvvatwa
5.SS6
27*6
2,010
9a
*iaiNi
2*130
20.6
1,717
6*5
Biography,
Autetdsgraphy
1,005
7*2
1*670
6.3
kyetary,
detective
99$
5*0
1*500
5*8
BlsoallMy
m
0*0
1*017
5*2*
Globbioa* Sparta 1*280
64
260
1*0
ar, batana
1*210
6*1
318
i a
Carear Fiction 83
0*2
1,028
5*0
Tbe iarts
376
1*5
661
2*5
S niara
025
2*1
370
1.0
Mafcery*
Geography
2$l
1*3
251
0*9
Firacac*
176
0*5
157
0*8
Fair? idea*
Mythology
126
0*6
171
0*7
Qaoipatione
9k
0*5
130
Q*5
Totals
15*931
100*0
26,1*37
100*0
#All fiction*


TABU'S JZ
rzpm or boois mas m mum mt sa m mmau c
7
6
9
10
11
12
Total
Oread
total
B
0
B
a
*
1?
0
B
<3
B
f
g
Q
B
0
Fioiios
Hi
m
252
699
168
518
hS
193
lO
138
25
$0
873
2,375
3,288
Mmi*j i£&mH
b$0
m
k86
HI
176
112
95
a
m
a
29
k
578
1,862
Satursf Aaisaal
195
m
159
m
70
60
20
15
7
5
2
0
8iu
1*
913
i&t&eryj ngfeeffit*
90
126
?a
5?
m
30
12
16
6
6
3
3
231
238
h
io£ena*j y&r
#
3
108
0
108
2?
39
12
27
2
&
3
602
15
m
llofeblesj sports
mi)
15
39
6
72
18
36
5
9
0
h
1
27fe
15
319
Cares** FietAas
IS
e?
0
63
6
72
0
27
2
7
Q
1
18
257
275
Bigra|*iy
36
63
30
2ti
16
28
8
21
13
17
h
5
107
158
265
MlseellanecHi
au
33
30
m
12
22
8
23
9
10
7
5
90
liil
231
Fair? TalesjFolk
12
9
12
2h
S
8
2
0
0
0
0
0
3fc
37
71
Sde^S
12
3
6
12
2
6
8
3
X
1
1
0
26
23
U9
HaMQP
6
0
3
0
e
10
0
0
3
0
3
0
23
10
33
Arte
0
6
9
3
fc
k
0
0
1
5
0
0
18
18
32
Btetoryj 0eog*
0
0
6
0
0
6
1
0
1
0
1
0
9
6
15
Occupations
0
2
0
Q
0
G
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
k
&
Totals 1,362 296?? 32X6 1176
700
915
270
336
168
213
130
72
3,31*6
8,233


m because fesy mate thoo^fet to hm mm relationit adjr be
littleto the agent of reading done In s>man&r? schools. Per-
bape a definite' ettufy of mofe rel&tions&ips ns oaafcidfeutlng
dseos to reedisg*, or lack of it, taigfet fee attempted, ^lerdby
aaae tentativo coaslosioae, at least, might be rmn*


HiKV Of (CoaUmod)
fable
36#
Type
of
37
types
of
38*
typo
of
39#
type
of
bo.
types
of
ia.
types
of
h2#
types
of
III*
typos
of
im
types
of
Book Si by Grado and &m la ;' oboe! 0* *
Book Keail by Grade ml Seat in School 8# *
Booto Bead by Grade m 8m in School I*
Soete lead by Grado mi Sex In School 4* *
Books Bead by Grade m¡6 Bm in School. K* *
Books ttmd by Grade and Gx in school 1* *
Books Read by trade tad Base in I'ohool 1
Book lead by Grado m B@s In school H# .
Hook* Bead by trade and Seat in school 0*
175
176
177
178
* m
* 180
* 181
. 182
163


118
&ris as shorn cm Tabla 16*
16
Center m Persons, who write of the Mm fork tudy
motioned several, fxima in trds paper, list tit moat popular
books as The Call of the Mild# Ten Sawyer Alice Mm&* David
Copyerfield id others* Smklqbarry in is seventh go the list*
Alice Adams mis read by thirty-five pupils in tb present study.
All the others timed sere on the two lists of the one hundred books,
aoot often read, in this present study*
1?
The majority of favorites listed by Jordan are the pop
ular books of that tina* That is true of the present study also*
18
Of the fifty bodes most often read by the boys in tils study#
nim were published In the nineteenth eentwry sod twenty-seven,
or store than $0 per omit o£ thm, were published since 1S3Q* Of
19
the girls* list of fifty books most often read# eleven were
published in the nineteenth century m& thirty-three of theta#
or 66 per cent, were published since 1930* In a series of studios
on boys* books each decade from 1907 to 1931 inclusive# sartor*
16
Center mi Persons# ^Leisure Reading of Mew fork. City
High School Students#* fias Mngjish Journal.* 111? (Bovesmr# 1936)#
717**72m
1?
Jordan, op. oit*
IS.
^Thblo 16.
*a* i* Charters# "Sixty-Four Popular Boys* Books#*
library Jtaurml, 1X111 (May IS# 1938)# 39^4*00*


m
to esiiaate of twenty ttaes a year ms giv to this hook be*
cause the sebosa tersa, where this nm fooisd, is tm sooths* That
there is a definite Lessent of error la such estiisaticsi is can
ceded* All bool taken frost the librar/ are not read either, bet
taken as a n olo, this method does give one sean of estimating
circulation.
All data to in this stud/ are found in fable 22* The
list of the prise books is arranged in tbe order of their popu
larity as found in the eattaatea circalatio. the librarian in.
School & said that there were tee timber? books in the echad
library, both of Which were required reeding la social studies'
classes* These book were not checker mr ocns&cm in tbs
figures given in the table* A fear books could not be located by
scsMi librarians although the/ were listed in their card cataloga,
mid had been checked on ease reading records as having been read*
Several librarians did not know which were HeMbery tocto until a
list of the titles was given them*
on a re-visitation to cm library, it was found that the
librarian (not trained} she had had only tm course in librar/
science) had posted a list of the prise books, had explained
about the Award to the pupil, and had told them something coa-
eeralag each book* She read thee Iwsslf in creer to speak au-
thorltatival/ about bhaa* She eoiissa&ed that the circsalatim of
the books had at least tripled since the/ had been brought to the


1
92* fitter, Paul, cd h*hmnt if* 0* tli 13fl*iig: as fc& Bmmg
laereats of Gifted GMldra.* Journal of i'mmtjs
Paswifalogy. %i# 2$3k)*
93* 11&, Eoee* Children^ Opinions of Seebepy Frisa Mi,"
gtosmtarj S&eliah fawlwr, X7II (October, 191*0), 2lS~
9ii* teller, Dale* Factors of Interest In Heading aterais
College, CcUMia n.versity, 19hX*
Cm*


82
the data from these tables are discuss-:,, comparisons @111 be
nace 1th the boys* reading la the areas fields of Interest*
The tao tables ill be used together in the dissuasion*
General fiction holds first rank in each greda site the
girls ranging iron almost half the total reading, U? per
cent in the seventh rede to nore then half- or £8 per cent
in the eleventh grade* The twelfth grade is less than cm per
cent below the eleventh grade in the readlag of fiction. This
one classification a&yzoots for the balk of the girls* reading*
The atajar resaber of books in the general fiction olaasifica
tins is very light novels of hoes arel school Ufo and general
3
love stories* According to the Portaos survey, this interest
in general fiction la retained in adult years* It finds wesa-
eo*s relief Interests centered in love theses and "aindcreHa
atarla* The other categories receive scattered and scant at
tention fvm the girls*
Adventure ranks second free the seventh through the tenth
grades, then falls to fifth place in the eleventh and twelfth
grades* There is a gradual decrease in interest in each sjc-
cessive grade ms&pt that the eighth and ninth grades are re
versed, less adventure feeing read in the eighth teas in the
ninth grade* Use boys read acre than three tines tee amrest of
adventure that girls do*
3Ibid.




100
TABLE Hi
m List (poaif-sisi) of books met
ama mm> m all popes
title
Huaber
of Tiaei
Hoad
Godo With the feind S !
*The Iron Luke $
The Ship Without a Oreo $i
Call It Courage $
Shadow in the Pines $!'
Spike of Swift liver $
*Md ad Prejudice 5 ¡
wA Lantern in Her Hand Si
>Ufe With Father % I
An CCUW'oahiened Girl $ !
Black Beauty $ .
Topkiok, Amy Horas 5
Buffalo &ill*a Ufo story 5
MOA S i
The Scarlet Letter £
Kith Daniel Boone on the
Ceroliny Trail S.
ftCaptains Gouragocm $ \
The Green fears $ :
Babin Hood B I
valiant, Log. of the Berth $ 1
Paul Banyan S
lainriran garvest 5 ,
**ftefclasaa Crusoe §,
wilderness Qtimoim $,
Girl of the Xlaberlost S *
Title
iftsaber
of Tinee
Head
White Fang
'^Goodbye, Sr. Chipe
The Middle Button
#Tb Virginian
The Iwag frailer
PeUyaana
Pigskin arriar
secret of the closed. Gate
Struggle Is Oar Broth
Susan, Be tasoofch
Buff, a Collie
*Gren Grass of uyoesiag
*Tbe Keyaton Kids
Last of the Mohicans
Magnificent Obsession
Bed Hear sc- Hill
Slack .ose
The (Holden Eagle Mystery
*8flbeee* of Sumyt-rook taa
The Adventures of Sherlock
Koines
the Bngalo' Tystery
Ikerid GQpperfldd
eeKidnapped
The Sea Golf
10
0
lid
JU8
US
t*
h8
li?
hi
hi
hi
hi
hi
16
IS
IS
15
k$
16
Iff
16
Reoassseoded for first purchase by The standard Catalog
for High School librarle.
* ** Inubly recoKsaended by the sarao catalog.


books could be de£iaitely refemd to as boys* book The boys
sorel/ cannot dala the animal stories as exclusively theirs, nor
the short story collection. Bo book classed specifically as a
girls* book is to be found on the boy* list* LlghtyHtaur par
cent of the lists of each sex are mutually exclusivo* Teman
and Lia found in their study that boys* and girls* lists were
60 per cent actually exclusive* In their study, girls read more
boys* books than they did in this present study*
Table 1? lists the titles of Looks most often read by
boys in the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades* lo book is listed
in this table that was read less -than twelve times* Of the teem*
ty-slx titles found under grade seven, only ten have been read
exclusively by the seventh grade* Ten other titles are found
also in the eighth and ninth grade lists* The seventh grade
list contains twelve animal stories? six stories of adventure)
four tsystery aterios; three biographies; and one sports story*
The eighth grade lists eight animal stories; six stories of ad*
venture; four sports stories; three aystery stories; and two bi
ographies, or a total of twenty-three books read twelve or mom
times by them* The ninth grade list has nine animal stories;
six stories of adventure; four sports stories; and one each of
biography sod general fiction* The fiction listed' here la a
story of college life end could well be listed, perhaps, as a
9
Teman and Lina, ;slldrea*g Heading*


101
1m are In the alsceULaaeoua category* the girl*' interest pro-
bably dominate In both these lists since the girls oaWel the
boys In hundred titles with thirty-nine books; animal stories, tiltil
twenty books,rank second} and adventure, aith sixteen books,
ranks third
Those two lists o titles which represent 6,713 o the
Zi^l.8 reading recorded, account for ^csdumteay la$ per
cent or the total reading dona by the pupils In this survey,
which fact is an indication that more approved books ore being
read and evidently liked by papila* Whether this would be the
case if shelves of the £ans Gray books, the Hmtj books, the Toa
Swift series, the tanas series, and others of a like nature uva
available in the school libraries, is open to question* However,
some books of this nature sere listed by som pupils>Tagg swift,
for example, was road by seven pipila and one boy listed as hav
ing read "all the lied Randall series***
The fifty most popular beys* books in this study, as Snr
dioated by the number of times reported road, are listed in Table
15* Tom awyer, The Call of the lild, and Ijocu&eberry fina head
the list here* 'The first tm haws probably boro favoritas since
their publication in 1376 and 1912, respectively* lluckjefacrry
lion, w.iioh is generally considered as an iacooparid^y better
book than Toa sawyer* got off to a bad start by being banned by
a Boston library; so it was a longer tirso being accepted by


seseante for its greatest. reading average* Its teachers and it
librarian {particularly the librarian) are eansbaatXy apisaal-
lag fee Importance of reading* It is- Iso fee one school tha&
had reading records tern ofear asuraos fea it cm library*
School I, a small scisod ife a Hatted library, located
in m a^iaalteral eos^sstiy, is participating in & na£iiss*~4
miwu&iMMSL study of ter# year*# ifsM&Xm* Sjofeer this Is
anything to 4o adth its higher average is open to- question* Its
teachers, tmmre?, siso* fee beginning of the steady, ire giving
such sore Msie to fes 4sw&&gmmfc of .reading interests* In this
school, all fee fifteen boa&e most often read are ayrtagy ato
<
riss* it say be feat school s estes to fee interests off its
pupils in ssaefe a tsay that fee qsuaotity of reading, at least, is
increased*
School 0, hieh rooks third -in tbs average sofeer of
boote read, has a aseste .grado teacher feo is highly interested
in ruling* life this anteesiastie sponsor of reading ia fee be
ginning of fee seooadary school, papiig my be so gtteaalated feat
fee interest persists longer fern la some other school*
!& chairman of fee iasgilsfc fegarfeeot of School V said
feat all its pupil readings ware net Usted on fee pupil records
that mm available for study* Howeser, all fee large senior
litte# are given in fee Append!* of the fifteen books
amt often set in each participating school*


TAEJXJE 30
TfPSS OF EX855 KS&D BJ CEBADE At SEX II SCHOOL A
Type ... 7
8 9 10
11
12
Total
Orand
Total
BOB
0 B 0 B
Q
B
0
B
0
8
0
Fietioo
100
327
18X
382
162
1*07
I&3
1,116
1,559
Fi soeillas0*i8
6$
87
92
123
108
150
265
360
Arts
30
38
Ii3
315
60
119
133
272
1*05
Blograpi^
3a
38
17
8?
35
63
Hit
188
302
Avn*0 Travel
62
1*0
73
28
52
15
187
S3
270
Hebbie*f apart
22
18
25
13
2?
10
Tfc
ill
135
Gareer Fiction
i
52
0
hZ
3
13
ii
107
131
Defease} ar
28
17
22
7
IS
17
68
ia
109
Science
20
3
27
10
33
7
80
20
100
Katoref Ansalo
13
1?
18
10
8
8
39
35
?h
History} Oesg#
5
a
18
12
12
8
35
22
57
i^ysteryf Leteofe*
35
17
7
5
5
7
27
29
56
Occupations
8
15
10
12
5
5
23
32
55
Bumr
8
7
7
7
0
5
15
29
3k
Folk Lcare
0
7
?
3
>
H
10
20
30
Total*
m
68$
577
856
531
BtiU
1,517
2,385
3,902


although vamgsktlmm racked Tuamat of all typos i&tb them sod
raskto asset to lowest mifcfc the boys. {My career fiction MU
lower with the toys* It 1 possible that teaolj&rs ad librar
ians, perhaps* re not yet sufficiently fa&s&iar with the books
oa occupations or careers to select the m that give isfcrsaa-
tlon m also rank Mgb la interest ritas If. the eorfe la vo
cational guidance la florida succeeds la reasbit^ administrator
and teacher interest the records for pupil reading la this
field should rise considerably in the next fee years*
- Heading in the arts is Xmaenta&y leer* One md uin-
tenths per seat of the beys* total reeding and 2*$ per sent of
the girls* total reeding are la this field* Xa one server high
school the arts classification ranked third placo and la another
ene. it ranked fifth place* These hi# ranks sears fre&ably
cansad by requirements in the field, and my not represent in
terests accept as the choices made by the pupils acre the least
of all evils to thoau 3h the first school* the various .'shakes*
peareen playa predcMnated, and in the second ens* filler *s pom,
?M Bhito Cliffs of levar* as predominant* l¡m it not beau for
the records in these tm schools* this classification wmM have
bmn nonsiderably loser to rank than it actually is*
fha other types of reading are almost negligible nth
both toy and girls* Humor' as listed tore refers to books of
humor such as- those of Benohley and Icacock* Mr instance* ami
does net mem the humorous insldsnis found In many books of fiction.


TABLE 27
FIFTSw 500S MX? 0nm hUi IB lChOOLS 0, H, Al I
School G
School B
school I
All t*mrQm
seventeen
The Animal rook
Jm& £yr
Great Hors Stories
huckleberry fina
A Star for Glraxy
They Lows to Laugh
Prose and Poetry
Black Stallion
QoiaQ on Sixteen
lied Horse Hill
the Call of the Wild
The Oman Gotaedy
iloroess Ghatapioc
Yfeunclerhead
Pride and Prejudice
**rf
!
I
Curtain Ooifig Up
The Hob
&aoky the Coehors
Breas of ulory
jumper
Mysterious Island
Bal Buaayaa
White fang
Thunderhoad
len Are Like streetcars
Count of Mont Cristo
u, s* stary
BaokflaXd Coast
Iron Luke
Uy Friend Flieka
less
Marriage and Family Re-
Pinocehio
Behave Yourself
latais
Seventeenth summer
lafftr of ilavy Salvage
Return of ilver Chief
The Young Trailers
Lassie Coras Horn
The Call of the Wild
Enchanted April
The lmo for Baa


2
hi$t school tcw the alatli grado} (2) fiction is werafh^slogl^'
predominant (which is vwrj obvious m to b espeeted OOftdLuaLoa) j
/
O) ammiVam leads in popularity ith toys la Mo junior high school
grade*} (&} girls lite barias of girls Hice toesoelves with the Sar-
evitobl threads of rcBjaneej (S) both toys and girls Uto antoal
sioriesj and (6) mturity of tastos i reading r>c?mm& with phys
ical isafeurit/*
That there are still phases of reading Interests to
be efcaOied toft* definite conclusions oar. be draewa Is evident*
Sos large scale studies, such as the Sew York City m cited ear
lier la this chapter, or a series of studies coverii% all types of
enriresasaatal, physical, mu mental coaiitioas oouki be well tsaHr
while if in a ¡cpq&ie&BKt&t* no&*bt&9Gd san?*
aer* Esther such a study asuele by a large aua&sr of itoesMga&ore
coi be tons is ft mseso&T is to question*
ditty, Comer* and iscScan suggest atonies in schools m a
part of the routine work, fer* they say, ** * systematic surreys
will help not only in estloa&iag the success of library and reading
propasa tot also sill afford soother isaportant source- £m hid}
ia
to select books of genuine- and lasting appeal t bey sod girls**
la
Pw. Witty, to Comer and billa tocBean, Children's
Cholees of Favorite Book* A Study Conducted In fen aosesfcapy
Schools,11* journal of Fdossti end gagdhogiqar. xxmi (toy, 191*6),
wSMife*


TABLlv 2b
WmUJMT ST OR&DE, SE, I?? AKTICIPA1TK1 SCMS
Softool
1
8
9
10
B
6
B
0
B
Q
B
G ^

392
bib
B
333
m
153
157
36$
170
139
136
C
150
153
132
33?
IbO
lb?
115
m
B
229
267
D*
138
150
15b
159
172
176
K
209
20?
lb9
166
F
103
116 ,
10b
107
1QGL
10b
98
91
a
89
90
123
338
lili
153
H
31?
127
I
70
7U
67
65
73
69
6k
m
J
, 81
82
83
9b
80
96
S
b8
1*6
1*6
ill
31
32
lib
kk
L
65
62
55
57
M
13
19
16
16
32
23
n
25
8
17
36
12
22
22
25
Ik
27
0
27
30
26
26
totals
869
925
926
962
1,231
1,26k
lbb7
1,526
* The avate enrollment of the Wo Junior hih schools in
the city as obtainea in the office of School L*


TABEE U3
fXHS OF BOQSS BEAD ST OftDE AM; SEX. IN SCHOOL H
type
?
a
9
10
11
12
Total
Grand
Total
B
0
8
0
8
0
S
0
8
0
B
0
B
0
Flctiao
70
92
1*6
2X2
22
103
U2
78
3U
18
uo
12
25U
520
77U
Mystery; Detect#
1*6
08
2U
XX8
10
98
W
U6
6
12
6
0
112
332
uuu
Adven#; Travel
22
k
16
12
3
8
1u
10
6
2
u
0
70
36
106
Matura; Anltaals
XU
10
16
20
2
U
8
U
2
a
u
2
1*6
U2
88
iAisoalXaiieous
0
12
6
10
2
6
6
10
2
6
6
2
30
50
80
Biography
3
12
6
12
0
U
6
6
U
2
U
u
30
UO
70
seiaae
6
16
2
16
U
2
2
2
2
0
u
2
20
38
58
Career Fiction
2
U
0
16
0
6
2
6
2
U
2
2
8
38
U6
Hobble*; sport
12
2
It
2
2
0
12
0
2
2
8
0
UO
6
U6
efeoaej star
2
a
2
2
2
2
8
2
U
2
8
2
26
1U
UO
History; Oeog#
2
2
6
6
0
0
6
U
U
U
2
0
22
16
38
Fairy Tales;folk L* 2
6
2
a
0
u
2
2
2
0
0
0
3
16
2U
Arts
6
8
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
10
16
Occupations
2
0
0
0
0
2
2
0
2
2
2
2
8
6
1U
Huaor
0
2
0
2
2
2
0
0
o
0
0
0
2
6
3
Total
202
232
13U
L3U
su
2U8
128
170
72
58
92
28
682
1,170
1,852


72
Comparison of Types of Reading for
All Boys and Girls
Fig. 8


120
23
School I* Is predominantly rural and hm a snail library* Its
list of fifteen most often read books contains five of career
fiction, five aniaal stories, three of light fiction, and two
stories of adventure* It lists The Call of the Slid and foeklo
ben*j Film of the old favorite, but the others arc relatively
recent* Sdiool E is protkudnmtly industrial* It is a ¡mob
larger school and am a far better librar*/ than school L* 0d
its list are five general fiction books, four of hieh are
eerioosi three adventure starless three animal storiesj md cm
each of ear, careers, cystery, and allegory* This school lists,
of the aid favorites. The Cell o£ the-%ild and Tota sewer#
School L and School E are both senior high schools alth four
grades* School C is a rather large, Junior-senior high school
in a city precis: nantly tourist* Its list has five titles of
general fiction of which mLj me could be said to liare a seriaos
tlissses five animal etoricaj three stearics of dvtur| ead one
each of ear and sports* ids list contains not one of the old
favorites fear either boys or girls* Only one other school
failed to mm a long-tine .favorite* All the books m School C*s
list arc relatively cm The industrial city*s list mem to
contain the core mature books* In both the other lists, the
23
Authority for msmmie claeaificatien of cities and
toons is the itatlsUcal Abstract of Florida bounties* published
by the state SSSw"roF1,!i^SS^r,rn'''r''n nnr,mrn'n"':Trrih m


table 2
sxzs or usBuass, pv-AssfiOaoK of nomas n> m toluhes,
A PIIKJLSTAOE OF FIGTICJS TO mL BBftBB
School
l-iiTollsaaL
(X)
tm&m of
Books la
Xifersscy
(2)
Stabor of
Books of
Fiction
(3)
Fatoastag*
of Fiction
to Total
Trlunwii
(U)
Percentage of
Fiction scad by
.pils to Total
A 2bQ0
11,525
3sa
30*5
56.0
B 1,615
9,UZ1
2,00
30*2
60*0
0 1,530
11,236
l*,79t
l2.5
66.0
x*m
7,200
1*780
2fe.?
?1.U
B 1,206
6*361
3,023
36*0
79*5
f 1,109
5,133
MW
36.9
76*0
o m
3,592
Mm
ts6.9
75*6
n too
3*10?
530
1?*0
76*7
X 696
k,m
ifTta
26*0
77*2
a 5X6
1,950*
1,300*
66.6
60*0
& li90
5*173
1,323
25*5
76*6
h 376
2,6m
m
32.5
92*3
#* as?
6*W*
MW
21*5
60.9
m
,ltS>
1,050
1*2*6
ai*2
om m
2,ia !*&*
66*?
91.2
*Boote stiaafcad by libraran*
^LlLiary cabbalas books fbr all loaentary gyadoa also*


en scant of reading done* ttm books, mat often read In
cluded m of the beat quality feat apprOidmiely one-third of then
ero qaeotlonable* Seat and grade differences they foam dearly
defined*
4 susber of bable ktam ~mm\ md m tfee atAaMtatica of
reading am the devela$acmt of tastos la the fnpil* Basabe listad
sosa Giethod# of ilaulftiion reported by fcaaheras reading lista
in forty variations, bram&m special shelves, conference
huiletln boards, m plays* Sosa teachers used a fee book as
bait blab slight induce tfee pupil to go on to something better
along the mm Mm of interests* Partial reading a & stimlus
device as suceaaafbl with so pupils* Librarians also luai
browsing oersere (aero to stlmlate teacher interest as 01 m pu
pil Interest), and ability grouping of books on Selves to otiaalato
eater reader tfea display f a fee bod, near ilia charging deals
was found to be effective* lambe ays, however, that "the offee-
tironeo of the- nmk- 4 mm by both teachers and librarians is great
ly neutralised by eaviromental force which tend to tear docto what
the educational vtsrtesrs me attesting to construet#"^2 Be thinks
that the work oan be dot better her. adalniotaeatora see the need
far better resour ces and trained percocnU
1 m effort to etimiai reading interests of Ms papila,
Sillia f* k'asafae, asethod mg&aym to sUanlai* Inter
ests M sealing, School Eerier, IHQX (April, W3$)$ 303*


121
titles mm sere or less tminile# Far bahodL 0 this sight be
caused, and probably Is, by the fact that It has seventh mid
eighth grades* AH tiv books in each list arc la the approved
lists schools*
If interests am b dsieralnet by the t.ms or books
read noel often* the data Xfc this chapter ;;ouiu place general
fiction, adventure stories, and minal stearics as the leading
interests for the entire group of pupils in this study# Taken
separately by grade lista, the boys prefer aniaal, adventure, and
sports stories in that order, and the girls overahelsngly prefer
general fiction, career fiction, and aniaal stories* Interests
shm definite saturation in the senior high school grate*


TABUS 31
sms of ooss h¡¡M) m mmh mu. sbs. is £(m h
Tyr>*Mi
8
9 10
21
12
Total
Grand
Total
** r*
1? v
BOB
0
B
C
**
43
0
B
r*
V*
Fiction
m*
237
35
88
15
29
168
800
568
Adventure
163
8?
32
8
16
8
211
61
272
54i3CQllaEi 13
63
8
28
5
8
26
95
121
N&tr'arcj fcniiaata
1*6
28
6
1
1
2
S3
27
80
Biogragbgr
32
20
8
8
6
1
22
25
87
Career Fiction
0
36
0
5
1
1
1
82
83
Arts
8
5
7
21
8
3
15
19
38
Hobbles; sport
23
10
2
1
2
1
17
12
29
liyateryi Latest
13
10
1
1
0
2
18
13
27
release; W*r
6
9
7
1
2
1
IS
11
26
History; Geog.
8
6
8
6
3
2
11
18
25
Occupations
8
7
3
8
0
1
7
12
19
Science
6
2
3
2
2
1
11
5
16
Huaar
1
2
5
2
0
1
6
5
11
Folk Loro
1
3
0
2
0
2
1
7
8
Totals
800
533
117
156
57
59
578
788 1,322


$
mmm by parent in pwvat-teacher groups md in special pumita*
meting* A recent mrmm% that had its tart la levarle Mr
Jersey, 88 to to grossing* Parents mho mt there put Usa ques
tion sparely up to pdfoMstera to print ood bostas that dhiMtm
MM read ad lite.. ftey re asking that the book be m afe-
tractive with good prist, that they be mde attractive with good
illustration, and that they be rich M child interest the edito
rial quotes* *Xb tea tee a successful blit against bad liter*-
taref and parents and teachers r# gratified to know that the mm@~
mm& say be ^tharlng aaoeataaa In it ay over the nation* -As an
teedi-ate result of the ec@assuid.ty effort, book store end amtestends
reported that sithis & week we than two thousand boys and girls
osee to end- ted far good books* they elected the best they could
fiad, ad r4td the trash*3** If pareaba md teachers ooild co
operate la helping the child Had good sad Interesting catarais
Perhaps Use reading of poor haw^fni tecte end wmXA
mrmm oonsidaray*
fhie present study was undertaken to find if, In a se
lected; ember of BlorMa ceoemdary school, any change of iir*
toreaba in successive grade £rm the seventh through the twelfth,
$4 ¡ftguffrfm^M f* in 'the of books by pTrfia in their ached
libraries* Imodiately, it mm% be determinad what the tersas
li
F* B* a*, "ftftllahsrc Stage folorful taqparlflKnt to ;.-
terain whether Better taroniXe Book Sill Pay ttetr ^ay,*1 (Fdi-
terial} The Florida Tiace-Urdoa, Sunday, itaroh 11, I$9, p* 12#


# (
£*1*98 5
<9C*q *&*$ .0*1*6 v¡*$
*moj
fftx 0T
m nt
6T Ct
202 21
u
st
58
*rr
CT
OI
2T
48 Ct
t 01
t TI

< C
W TE t TI r nt |9 tt te 6 |0
8TC OTC 0 f Zli6 6 1 0
*P£*T $ o9*i n ct i 'ct t ez *? ;c c
LXL*X C
C6*CT T
WSTT
9
0
:62*T t
iZ
($
nt
St
t
n
< 2
:t
¡t
rT iS
9C 6 *fT St
T99 tE C # $ fl
T*?*T 2
m*x 9 t C
*18
6
C
0
*12
10 9 J8t 9
T2 0 >ne z
66*X X l*Z X
FTfl
*ft
01
zt
XX
X
0
9C
OT
t
i
n
!9T
m
w 0
580 8
7J6*Z X
$t
OT
!0
z nx
T
6
XX
XX 9
tu n
!0

n
0
9
c
2
&*8 T 06*8 X
9 5
0T
6
i 9T
SC 8T
;c te
:c ct
(9 9
£ OT
5T
88 9
$65 C
392 5
195 n
359 2
nenooo
*1 A*t*a
JttCRf
4SJSoao
<£*nT8
SKJJKK?n
wwb
0ffiiD9jaa
*#
*RT9S
m¥ MX
TV>T
JMUN9
i anoew
Amis
sopmw
Xtapav
I OTy*KUp¥
rrcat
Twaoae
8t t
6 t
dfc
3?aeH pe $n&*s
laso is mm mm nt mm sum j ssax jo mns
6 rmu
08


115
The tweaty-oevea hoto rm tmim or more tbae is the
tenth grade cm be totetoKiawsei m folese* immtj general ft-
, tio, twelve of hito toy be ooastdered of a seriara a&topej
three career stories; two an leal stories; am me cash of travel
and star:/ collection* the rImI stories tore ato their lest
appearance is this list*
Iba eleventh grade also toe twenty book of ftobito, of
tito seventeen are of a ssor sricas type; two story eoXlee-
tioas; arad ose book of travel So far as the fifteen elassifl-*
cattoo asad is this study re concerned, the totsrosts tore
have narrowed eomitorably*
caottosuation of the aamsttog interests by types 1
eiiom is the twelfth grato list tot & broadening is atom here al
so by the laelusim of a play ad book discussing girls* pvabHem
lito includes a discussion of aarriogo# Twenty fiction titles
are listed, all but one of hito are of a serious nature* Twelve
of those are laotom novel ml i#t are irosa the nineteenth cerr*
tury. Ti* pLr listed i itoSall* atopbatioa fro tostn*
novel, frito and Prejudice* The twelfth grato gesar&lly showed
a goto deal sm -iatcaroot to the read!Eg of plays, both did and
mm, than all the otter grade*
Five titles in the girls senior hi# podes are comm to
oato* Stay are The Btoe* toronteetoh. turner* gride and. i^ejadtoe
(the novel), Jtoe Eyre* and iftrthMtiac Haight Sino tiara of
these five are considered classics, it is possible that they


or Just good sous that girl readers often prefer- their


ft.9 study la concerned partiaxlarly with the
tac*jer & the liixwcim, but it concerns generally ll persons
ooamotm with the growth and education f children* A £rajsnt
complaint of teachers ia that their teachor trailing Institu
tions give general bat not specific training* and map teachers
aro not ffleletitly tm&mfws- nor able to apply the general
to the specif ic# They aro all taught pa^afiolo^ a it pertains
to education and teaching* the development of the child, and
&om broad methods of taawfcing* English teachers* paftlnularl^,
need to know children* literatia*^tot ^jefc m or m a half-
doten anthologies of oUldrea* poetry, but they need an over
all picture of the ahole field of children* literature* Swy
need to become axxin&inteu with the studies made in the inglieh
field* and to learn hear to apply the findings of those studies
£n their own teaching* In heean&og acquainted with such studies*
they would ^laa bt^feeee faBiiiiy with the professional
that can he of l&sattmfcle help to the teacher* they would also
strengthen their ewa disoxlsdLna&ary powers ixi weeding out Um
worthless studies fro the valuable nee* A de
signed course* or a section in m doting course, under the
direction of an able instructor* Intended to sake the teacher
familiar with the materials of her field and shew how to use
those materials to good advantage would be a valuable aid in
tecreaslne the tesafeing efficiency in mr public eohocla*


88
%
20-
15.
Boys
Girls
10.
7 8 9 10 11 12
Grade.
Percentages by Grades for Boys' and
Girls' Reading in Biography
Fig. 12.


13
Carpenter found mystery tb first bolo to tos ninth grad,
bat It dropped to third place to the tol£fctt grade* have tksmm
mm of moaos&z toterest to each grade except the eleventh,
toara they ranked first* these instigators think toe acrom
deftoitely itt&uencea girls* reading otw&asa* CEd favorite
were asare paular in to ninth and tonto grades toan later* the
physical -sake-op of to bosk ms of little toporfcans to caking
selection. this agrees sito isaaldba* ccsCtoslm-on this sms
14
question dtarci earlier to this Chapter*
Cato and rca found that about 4Q per sent of to
books read by tonto and twelfth graders to high school to nm
Svtmj hod m aerit, but mm harsalea* Shay conclude that
"Sh#ito course are not Itostlontog adequately in atisalaitog
and guiding tot wortoahiXe chao! toe free- reeding interests
li
of children*8 the tody docs- not asafee clear that too toar 60
per coat is wtMtUs* but if m arc- to infer toot it to, too-
schools trust be doing a fairly good piece of stork* It sold bo
utterly ispossi&Ut to hora all a child to reading to the surtir*
toil categcry unless the rthtoa books are csa^istsly restored
.a Uder ad Mel S* aarpeastor, "Soacitog interests
of Sigh Stood GMXtoso.* JcMiroal of Mueattoncl Paseareis* m
(hprll, 15?), 2?6-282.
page 11*
Pintos Cato ana Francis J* Brom, 8to tvalus&ea of too
utttide Tmlng interests of a Group of 5eoisr*4Si#*kfecMfc Pupils,
douraal £ Maoaitonal Codctogy*? (tturto 1932) 142.


election. IS Shgllah teachers coala only be trained to teach
poetry ami the great elasstos to ohiMrea 1 such a amor that
their interest weaaM be. picketed, ami groar in intensity* what a
Joy tit study would be rather than the dull, deadened, drudgery
It mum to be to so aary pupils^-aad teachers I
Tbs reading in occupations was excessively low lbs a-
tabliateiKit of a good guidance progress in all schools should be
an alia of all educators* m tmgmtmt phase of the guidance
pragma is that of vocational guidance# lb selections of suit
able backs in this Held mwM be the co-shiae-a effort of adminis
trators, tooobr% and librarais* Just books or parapblets on
certain Holds of asking a livelihood ore oob oocugh. They
should be infcmational enough to serve their purposes, and also
interesting enough that pipila will want to read thorn* such
books md pamphlets do slat* It is a mtt&e of selection* Fre
quently the pupil MU read many pasf&ots in preference to ttm
books, and tima get a ¡such greater variety of informtico com*
arcing vocations*
Som teachers and principals aakt in this study* Of
what practical uso is a cumulative record? iby should m take
the Use for saoh bookkeeping when we are already so omr-loaded
with work? Only a few of the schools in this study actually' bad
msul&wo records* The majority of record used wore kept on a
yearly basis, md usually wore destroyed because of lack of opaco


25
33
Hancock tried two periods each week of meeting in the iKKiitoritas
aus having attanlattog lectures 05 various types of reading* up*
g&ewgted bf mtu&k rsedint three period mob m&k of the type# of
literature dammd+ lo tbought the seethed breast valuable re*
tara in both etiml&tim reading and developing wprmi&iiom*
%h
limmbm team that highly taotlwated emfermm j**rio
ia library reading were of oxcepfeiosml value in Vue cultivation of
interests and appreciation#
s
In a carefully controlled sperioent in Chicago* ass c*rtrr*
35
alvo vermis intensive reading pm^em me carried on by llIUawa
whose eoodluales wks that extensive reading jsa&thods 'ware far or
effective in aiehiavihg the ai of iasfcrsctian is literature than
iatenoiv saethoda* The esetenstve reading tends ore to develop
appreciations*
flew stiiasali to readiaii my he derived £rm the radio and
mwim by the dramatic ix&srpreb&bim of book* according to Barker
36
and Tiyng* They think variety as flexibility are very desirable
33
ArUaar S* Hancock* sJ^rgc*Group Instructis*^ Lecture Li*
tew i^oenfeaeot in ¡scaling** iohoal Beview. XL7X (Hr* 193$)
69ii*700# 1
3l*
lirteme L# EoscmteM* Tn Motivation. of Library Heading
through Oonfearene Periods** Mncatloraaii jews Bulletin# IX
ary* 1939)* 7X~7L* kalawasoo* dietiigasi^^Ssieisj siate"
College#
^.alph t* ¡iiHiaaa* "intensive Reading varaos Intensive**
Cohoal Urnim. XXjWXI (Mmmiber, 1929)* 666*6?1
^8ryl Parker mn Franc 1* Ibamg* fasten Differ*" Mao
Moral aeaod, XXX (Mteter 1939)* 162-168#


to got, but a smflolmt quantity o subjecttm data
mala h& vary valuable if it vero interpreted by an
able, unbiased investigator*
3 A study of the weans of fleetiva devalpaat of
literary tastes and appreci&tlcwjs that old b
passed m to other heaoiiaar ould be of s^ept&oual
value. Teacher ar constantly told that they should
melap the tastes and appreciations of their pupils,
but they are eat told hm to do it. such a study
could probably be developed on a scientific, ¡all
controlled, xpai'isantai basis, providing Um mmm
am be obtained **ereby tastes and appreciations can
be dotersdiied w stiasurod*
h* A study of the effect m r&mtdg of. .social, aaonaaie,
aoa cuitara! background*, asde on a large scale, or
several saall scale studies bes results could be
integrated, cuiu be orto ahilo such a study,
valuable suggestions sight mm to help ¡aaoy hilaren


TABUS 29
nrmm ?nom goer arar- ms. bt schools a, m, asd o
School M
School 8
School 0
Seventeenth Bemer
Hie Ghost of Melody lane
X Am an American
Oom with the Mind
The Secret at Shadow l&xeb.
Sm Barton, Senior Tiers
the lite
Hie Sigo of the 'Twisted
Sue Barton, student Mur
The Great Tide
Sandra Mitchell Stand S0T
To Have end. to Hold
Hie Mystery of the Ivory
Tradition
Black stallien
Charm
hose in I&ot
Iron Cuke
Money's Mysterious Letter
Candy
¡imam
The Ghost farad
Bread and Butter
Treasure Island
the Bungalow tystery
Th Golden Cagle mystery
The Clue in the -lory
Tiio iiauitea Attic
The Liiadow in the Pine
Silver saddles
The Clue of the Broken
Beverley Caray, sophomore
Thundterhcad
Locket
LI*ada Marsh
Career tor Jennifer
The Message is tee collm
Little ..osen
Lost uorisons
Oak
An Old-Fashioned Girl
My Dear Patsy
The Wild -.earning
The Vanishing Shadow
The Mystery at Lilac tm
Gulf Coast 'Teaser
The Invisible Chinns
Boggy Covers the Sows


It Is praotioallj Sspoaai&la for toaohers and librarian#
to keep with books outtte for pupil# &sept as these toad*
rs ami librarians use approved lists* Through their tas and
good josipttnfc is selection in regard to pupil interest, m se-
Heat library isay be ¡maintained* lodging JVes the list of
6,7&i different titles this study found as read, the school li
braries In this otad/ have some very good selection#* they haw
the classics of earlier centuries and any of the approve cm*
Umpanej books team as best oilers." Host of the librarians
sewed to feel, however, that the/ needed assay ^ore interesting
books of fiction. Pupils £ew|eaftly ask for specific basics--
good bookthat the Hhrar/ is sable to fass&ah for then# as
swmtioae earlier in this chapter, there are many books in each
library which sore read wry infwquenbly. iiaoy subj&ct-eaatter
teachers ask for books to be ordered, far their reticular fields,
and stony sudh hooks are new off the shelves. It la proble
that the pupil* know nothing of than.
Each library has a book appropriation, which librarian#
felt, in- most cases, as spit iimdoquate, the more inadequate
since the price of book has risen eo high in recast years and
the impropriations haw not kept pace with the prices*
A Sm libraries had books that had beef; debated by well-
meaning oiliaens but were entirely uasuited for a high school li
brary* In acme Instances, 'these Imi to bo placed on the shelves


333
oat their copies o' sacky and bad act yet replaced tineas ti.
stisaatea circulation record for that book is not complete*
Strawberry Girl, which rates third on toe most often read list*
is second on the estimated clrcuXatioo record* this is quite
liktsly explained by to fact that Gtraaterry Girl is the l?ii
award anu is* schools aay not have had copies until this year*
The popularity' of this soak my also be attributed to the fact
that its setting is In Florida# Whether or not this is tru
i
could be dettrsineu only by its popularity outside the state*
Gall It Goura&e has the mm ras# here that it holds in the most
often read lists*
Gaddis .oodlawn and stemsbeaery Girl can definitely be
considered as girls* bocks, and Saefey and Gall XI Souraga almost
as definitely boys* boohs, although appradUsately one-half as
may girls as boys rear.; Saofey*
It can at least bo said that these four Kewbery book
rate in popularity with fifty-five of the bool most often read
in tiiie study, and judging fro their places cn fable 22, Manar
Tressain and ada;s of the Bead (both boys* books) arc not lagging
far behind* These %m last iwd books also rank in fifth and
sixth places by the number of tisum read as indicated by pupil
records* The nuEfcer of read inga for each riewbery book as take
free pupil records should be multiplied by three to indicate a
ftall year* circulation, since only one-third of the reading re-


for filing# Porfcamtely* they had not yet been discarded 1
ell schools* Teachers seed, to use the eisa&atlve records to 4e-
tes-ssira* 'bather their reading progrsa Is successful* md if it
is act, they should try to fled out why sot Perhaps different
points of view seed to he stressed* or a change in chimada is
indicated* wiich they soy discover ism their eumXative records*
They gray be able to defeeraiae sty pupils read 1cm is the senior
high school. Is it caused by increased social activities* 'the
EMrgsose of resanes into their lives, or is It a lack of inter-*
eating materials or a lack of successful reading stisanli by teach-*
or and librarians? A teacher ho knees her pupils and who knows
bodes can probably find the rnmmm to these and mm? other ques
tions stch stay arise* if she has the records frees which to start
her investigations. The keeping of records can bo done by the
individual pupils. The very fact of keeping Ids- own record dll
frequently stisaula&c the pupil to osero a*d Mrs reading. He ill
discuss his record with other pupils wed learn of other bodas ho
has fist known which ho will want to read* The record far guid
ing. ami directing the pupil In his reading is m invaluable aid
to the teacher#
Teachers in psmm&vSa education or in-service teach
ers ho wmt to continue their education need either specifically
designed courses* or specifically designed phases in existing
courses* to help them In their respective teaching fields*


23
ms introduced than wbse re#dte& ms prescribed* Iks bmS arked
mpmma i te rsa^teg, f btaipighsr 4 trawl. flatten, mufti
of s deeldaly tete&cr quality, had te&reaoei* 3 ssMkSixed#
bommr te tep>rtano i a shift from tmtstoa&i&mm to pipil
cto wte*l*i and frota retla fer knowledge ts4 iaforraatio to
reading for plaasur art eaperienee. Soso of tala finding ?say
have teteted a lack of guidaeoe 1 the reading' pmpaa
Sfeerhart's valuation include the erante through the
twelfth grades# He atoy w aae fr the ouauiattve records- of
112 pilis ranging f!rm ene to six year of reading. Se classified
his flatten lato sixteen sategortea aad his noa-ficiten into thir
teen ategories* M- femad sor- ml^ done in te sesete grado
tima i any other* The sealer Mgh sohodi rcaiEig, while- not as
wltsateouo as the reading te the alar M#¡¡ school grades, was
considerably acre satas and tee proportion of smo-ficWm read
mira $&s& as grefft*
Hmt and AshbongMa31 study of Simio* m senior hi#
schools in Franklin doaniy, cm# clastf of Golmbva, tend that
the type of school, Tillage or centralised rural# had little te
Wilfred mm$m% Evaluating tee UAmm Heading, of Hi#
School Pupils, school Review* mm (April, 1939)# 257-269.
31
A. B* Mr and I* Senior High school Pupils Head? aiuoMlonal Research Bulletin,
III (September 17# ?5&># 223-228, 'olus&us# $¡*£01 fch "iio Btete
Menltr*


1$
1 & study t¡hat Involved high school ..supla in Georgia
10
and minad, 'cate found that both toy aad girls preferred
doing their reading at hose In the mm&tm rather than in sohoed
or public libraries* a ratter unusual finding of hie was that
aor reeding w don in toaam hieh had radios, a fact which ho
o^iainea by suggesting that the bos that aula afford radios
would or likely have ssore boohs and agaslne*.
H
Ttmm md him found lists of books read by boy and
girl 80 \me cent mta.ally eKC&usive* Bays lad no interest in
girls* book but girl reae ose of the beys* books* ttois con
elusion mas to to ecnaon to moat studies* They found also,
that toys read scans non-fiction than girls, especially In the
Held of soisaace* Both toys and girl lite mml$ systery# and
adventure stories, with adventure heading the list for boy in
the untar high shod* They give three tenant which are al
ways desired by cMMms in their book* "The first is etlsni
the second i toman interest, and the third is imaginative ap~
12
peal*8 '
X a study in a girls* ftor-year hi#i school, Elder and
***W terests," school ivies* m (October, 1937), &L2-62Q*
^SMdS M Teran and. tergarct Una, {Mldrea* Heading*
teas Torkt D* Ippletoa-Gcatery Sosapany, 1985*
Ibid*, p* 10*


ero required, at least Xa wxm schools*
Twelve of tile fifteen cl&asi icatiOS are represented
in the boot jaosb often read by the different grade* Hi e*~
eeptlons are science, humor, ami occupation*
Hourly all the studies that listed popular books, that
could be found by this writer, gave- Toa smmt and 'lb Call of
the tlld osar the top, or at the top of the list for beys la
both Junior and sealer high school atadles* Malchos10 fouad To
Sawyear heading the list in hi study of 1*38? Junior high school
U
boya and girls* Jesiiiag found it BmmUi m the list in Ms
study of Junior high school pupils* Be listed the BiM as
first choice am Toa Swift m second choice* Fils lists did not
include Tim Call of the fid* Johnson*12 study, w&lah ineduded
grades five tferoa^i eleven, listed The Sail of tho slid first,
then la order, Treasure Island* Tosa Swift* at Topa sagrar for
beys* Bis list aleo included rtacl&efaorry glim but ssasefe lower m
the seals of popularity* For the girls In bis atsdy, Little lessen
headed the list* Bis favorites for the girls ware all decidedly
ialehe, fading Interests of Junior High School a*
pilo,0 scaooi ¡%mm* MM (Boreh, 1?37), 173-185*
11
Joe Jennings, "Leisure iieadfag of Junior High School
Bays anti Oirle,' ftiaboeir. Journal of jdtmfe&aa* VI (May, 1929),
33>3li?*
to Bate and Grade in ehoci," aeboc& astlsp* lb (April, 1932),
257-272.


o& war story#
The girls* list of fifty books most often rood is given
in Table 16* ftiirty-fcw of these books are listed in the fifty
one books most often read by SIX pupils as shown in Table 13* and
fourteen are in Table Hi of the nest group of books moat often
reao* There are four books on the list which are not on either
of the above-oaritianecl tables* These ere Sue Barton, Suporinteo-
dent of Surges* H.&y Macintosh, Papuy Covera asblngtoa and
Understood Betsy* These four books are all found in one or more
of the approved lists* Because of the greater quantity of read
ing done by the ¡iris, their books predominate in the books most
often read by all pupils*
The titles listed in Table 16 show that general fiction
leads in interest with the girls* It represents thirty-ana of
the fifty books* eighteen of which are rather light nereis and
thirteen of which are serious* Career fiction ranks second* with
seven books in this category* Only five animal stories ore listed*
three of which are horse stories* one a dog story, and one the
ever-present deer story* Three adventure stories which re usa*
ally classed as boys* books are on the list* and one each of story
collection, travel* mystery, and miscellany* Biography is con
spicuous by its Absence frees the list*
Eight books, or 16 per emt of the fifty books read nost
A
often by boys* ere also read by the girls# Only thro of these
^Tables 15 and 16*


90
%
20_
15.
10_:
Boys
Girls
J
0.
i_D
n
1
7
8
10
Grade
1 1
Percentages by Grades for Boys' and
Girls* Reading in The Arts
Fie. 14


wmmm& mm
Pearl hands Tartar was bora April U, Xm96, at Pim
0rove, ftes& Virginia* Her umergradu&ta nark as taka la English
and the fina arta at fairaoat State Colige Falmsoi, seat Vir
ginia, shear she received the decree of Bashedor of Arts in dune,
1930 Gradaste work ess take at 'Seat Virginia University In
education and English m the degree o£ faster of Arts ms awarded
in Juno, 1931* Farther graduate work was taken at test Virginia.
University and the University of Florida in education and. Isgliafe#
JSh taught four years in high school end four years in .
Faimoat State aotUege*
An article describi.: an mcp&rumnl she sad in reoadial
reading was published in the fchool Bevies Becesaber, 1931* She
is & caber of Kappa Delta Pi, an honorary educational fraternity.


1Q2
TABLE 15
nm books mst orm bmd bi all
boys u m amr
Title
1tebar
Of TifiSMS
Head.
Hushes?
Title of
¡sad
Toa Sawyer
97
Captain Courageous
hz
The Call of the slid
96
The listone Elds
U2
ifuckisberry Finn
9U
Robin Hood
IsZ
Hurricane leather
68
Spike of Swift River
le
Secret cargo
66
The Young Trailers
h2
Treasure Island
66
Hohinsoo Crusoe.
11
Daniel Boone
63
Silver Chief
hX
Lassie Cons nos
62
Wilderness Champion
11
Uy friend* ilicka
61
World Series
11
netarn of Silver Chief
a
The Sea df
39
The Jinx Ship
58
Shade' in 'the Fines
38
Loo Gehrig
58
Short Stories
37
Cooky* the Joahoree
58
Topktefc* Away Horse
37
The Yearling
58
twenty Thousand Larues
Black Stallion
57
Under the Sea
37
Thundarhead
57
Hack Deauty
36
Yea .¡ildcatsJ
57
Seven Who 0me
36
All .American
57
Silver Chief to the Rescue
36
The Iron Duke
Mte Bang .
35
l.yaterioue Island
J0
Lad a log
3
The ship Without a Crew
S3
Last of the Cohicana
33
Buffalo Bill's Life
Stoary
i
Pad: Buayan
33
Plgskla ..strriors
fe
The Adventuress of uorlodr
Gall It courage
Ut
33
Hth Daniel .Doooe on the
Struggle Is Our Brother
33
Qaroiiny Trail
k3
Reliant Log of the scrth
33
Tim yirglsm
33


Lm of uLmfmxm
figsve* Page
1* lap of Florida awning, llatribotlaa of schools i^ar-
tiolptttliig In Urn study *#*#
2* Average Beaker of Books Head fey Boys and Girl I
Uaco Grad* ***#****##*#*-***#**
I* Jercoafcags of Fiction V&mm to fetal Votese in
d&raria # ****** ***>*
b Proportio'i of fiction to ¡Hx**PiatS.m by Grade and
SW # * * ***#*.#*#** ###.#
5* Pmrnmteigeef facia type Booig Bead to Grand total# .#
6* Percentage of type of Bay1 Beading to total Bey*
Heading **-**# ******** ******
7* Percentage of Typo of Girl* Beading to- Total Girls*
Ihfcsding **** * # ?1
8* ooBptodsmi of typo of Sadist for 131 Bey and Girl H
9* Percentages by Grad for Boys* and Girl* Heading
in General fietAOB* ******** Of?
10* Percentage by Grades tor Boy* and- Girl* Heading
of iiuliSdl r.i torio *********# 86
11* Perofitagps by Grades for Boys* and Siria* leading
in drontar#* *****#****# &f
12* Percentages by Grades fa* Boys* and Girls* Heading
In. liography* * * *. ******.-* * * 88
13* Prcenteles by Grades for Boys* and 8irla* Heading
of ¡Mystery Stories* * ************** Q¡}
2k* Percentages by Grades for Boy* and Girl* Heading
.in the Art # #*-*#** * * * * * * * 90
* 33
1
* h$
m
m 63
. 70
vil


TABLE 29
worn ms? 7
Little Cosen
Sty Frisad, iHoka
Caddie LcoLsan
Heidi
lassie, Gam Hem
Starasberry Girl
Secret of the dosed Cate
Toa Saasyer
feWMiy
An 0Xd~Faahlaried Girl
The Yearling
Ml^ntsa
Secret oi the CM Bous
a Barton, student floree
&m Barton, Senior Horse
Peggy Covers the flews i
Tfsuaderhsad
1he Birds* Christaaa Cared.
Girl or the Liaberlost
The Golden Eagle i.'ysteay
tm irng&w Mystery
colly Madison
Edward iiaoiowsll
T.ifirta Mfftyflh.
Shadssr o the Pine
0
Linda Jiarah
£r frisad, disks
Little .w
Lassie, Cose Hone
Seventeenth Stumer
They Laved to Laugh
Going in Sixteen -
The KLddlfi Dutton
Peggy Coears the Hews
Sandy
Ginger Lee, far Stars
Staraaberry Girl
Last someter
Vvhoa, ''atilda
Penrod
Sue, Barton, Senior fiarse
Understood Betsy
Blank stallion
See Barton, Student hoarse
Seveoteo
Binging urea
Gaddis Vioodlawn
The Good Master
- jystssrieaa Island -
Peggy Govern London
Kcsaane of Silver Springe
Secret of Shade Banoh
Seventeenth Sanaar
Junios* Mise
Treasure Island
Last Semester
fair Adverttur
dans lyre
Easton*
little fiasen
My f riend., Flick
Susan, Do Maooth
Sue Barton, senior Burse
Sue Barton, Student ,'iuree
The Yearling
A Lantern in Her land
Seventeen
Sue Barton, luna Hura
Behave Tourself
The Call of the ild
Jane Hope
Our Hearts lore loose and Gay
Ana of oreen Gafcls
Carol Plays Sumer stock
Baddy Lsas^Ugs
Heheoca of jSasxaytroak Fam
Haggy Macintosh
An Qld^Sahloaati Girl




mm OF 1Q0&3 READ BT ORABfc AHD SEJL IS SCHOOL S
ype
1
8
?
10
11
12
Total
Grand
Total
B
0
, 9
Q
, J
0
B
G
B
0
B
Q
B
0
Fie-ticas
130
276
55
251
75
m
l*o
159
39
325
a
60
360
1,115
1,1*75
Â¥*uj Trwni
139
65
78
35
98
&
la
32
31
13
5
1
393
181*
577
l&vtttrjrf
6k
66
22
35
28
72
7
6

0
0
1
12f
20¡i
m
Biography
n
79
a
35
w
20
31
9
8
6
6
1
162
l$i
316
Naturaj Anisis
si
3U
1*7
ia
61
2s0
10
30
7
5
0
1
182
333
315
f/dsolianeos
15
11
6
16
10
11*
2
2
3
7
2
17
38
67
105
solano
12
2
5
0
15
1
ai*
18
13
10
0
0
59
31
90
Career ricUco
1
12
0
32
1
18
i
12
1
2
0
0
k
76
80
m&mo fflr
13
1
15
2
20
2
8
1
6
2
k
0
66
6
71*
HObbiesj sports
11
0
39
3
16
2
11
0
h
0
2
2
63
7
70
&saor
3
2
h
5
i*
h
3

2
1
0
1
16
19
35
Arts
13
6
1
2
1
1
1
1
0
2
2
2
18
U
32
Fairy Tale
10
5
1
5
2
2
0
1
0
0
0
1
33
1L
27
Historyi Caog*
3
U
0
2
6
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
11
6
17
Oocupa timo
2
0
1
0
-2-
JL
1
3
0
1
2
1
9
8
17
Total
51*1*
583
275
U78
385
U57
151
260
122
X7li
kk
88 1,5a
2,0b0
u I
11


deal of career fiction i road by the girls* reaching its Mgb
point in grade eight end declining thereafter* fb bay read
practically none of tisis type* the isiscollaneoai; and the art
groups shear a constant rise for both sexes* except far the ninth
grade boye* la each typo* the ninth pede boy fail bolear tase
seeenbh grad boys* there is so little difference in the other
fields of interest in this study that definite stsbraant m to
rise or fail of interest can hardly be ende


313
arfes the hi# paint in the reading of cama* Ictico*
In toe ninth grades twenty-six hooks, ich asare read
by fifteen or acre girls, there are fifteen of general fiction,
two of which stay he classified as eerioassj four of carear fiction;
three of animal stories; two of aisetXa?yj and mo mot of trsv*
l and adventure* Books of travel were classified under geog
raphy* treasure island appears in this grade list probably for
tide ease reason it ranked first with the ninth grade l eysbe
cause nearly all the ninth grade pupils is one school read It*
the fiction titles appearing in the eighth and ninth grade lists
are predcedisB&ly those which are-usually referred to as girls
books* there are only three books asmen to each grade in the
miar high school girls* lists* They ore little coreen, a favor
ite for generations* according to the stadias cited later in tide
chaptsrj My friend* Flicks* and. hue Barton, Senior Shares*
the ninth grade list shows a very slight sign of maturity
ever the eighth grade* If Jane Eyre and rabona are reaoved fro
the ninth grade reading* the two lists are practically on a par*
The eighth and ninth grade girls were the two largest groups in
the study*
In the lists of the tenth* eleventh, and twelfth grade
girls, as shown in. fable 20, there Is a definite tread toward
acre nature interests* the tail shown also a decrease in the
amount of reading done in successive graces* Pooka are listed,
in the twelfth grads that were read as fear as seven times*


m
school libraries as a book of merit* fflamever, its popularity *1-
mo&t reaches that of its slightly earlier oontsapcraiy*
Of thio list of fifty books, twentTMsroe arc cm the list
6
of the fifty-one aoct often read Looks, twenty-four are m the
T
eecocd list of ftarty-nine osi often road, end tbrm are m
neither list# these three aret Twenty Thousand Leagues ffadar
the Sea, an improbable adventure at the tine of its publication
in 170, but a ccgi-aceialact: one, as far as the fact of the aub~
autrine is cocoraed, with boys of today* Seven Iho Caae Through,
dale iiiektfcaaker*s story of rescue at sea after a warplane
crashs and arid Serien a sports story* inch of these books is
listed in one or sore of the catalogs Mentioned at the beginning
of this ahapter
Aniaal stories lead in interest in the boya* list with
seventeen boot, ten of which are dog stories, six harm star ios,
and one a deer story. Adventure caaes next with fourteen books#
This differs frota the total reading of boys as given in Table ?,
which shows that adventure ornes first with the entire group,
and animal stories rank third# The remainder of the beys* list
is divided into Uve ports atarte} five sayetsry or detective
stories} three biographies} four books of fiction, three of which.
am be considered of a serious nature} oris story collections and
Vu 13,
Afable llj#


TABLE 28
riFtKH SOOXS GST OWI^ HMD BY SCHOOLS J, K* A' D L
BGhoOl J
Treasure Island
Green Grass of rfyoaiog
ioa Sawyer
Africa
Lassie* Omm Haas
Peggy Sewers London
¡Seventeen
Spike of Swift River
Ballet Shoes
The Sail of the ild
With Baniel Boas on the
Carolina Trail
Heidi
% frisad* I'lieka
Our Hearts were Young and
Gay
On the Bcttee
School S
The loll of the Wild
Moosier school blaster
Life with Father
&nm of arson 'ableo
Excuse It, Fleas
& Lantern in br Hand
The Yearling
omiy Longlegs
iron fake
You Can*t Take it with You
!3u ir l a oolH&
Girl of the Liaherlost
Best hart Stories
High Beatas
Jane Eyre
School L
Fanny Marsh
AbOL, K~9 Qfsmand
Sue Bertas* sailor nurse
Blueberry Mountain
The Call of the Slid
Carol Flays Faw Stock
My friend* Flick*
Hue Bertas* liural Burse
Boh*s Hill Ml
Buff* a COIlie
Junior Mies
Silver heneil
Bae Barton* Boteras
Burse
Flask stallion
Huckleberry Fim


mmmmmmam
1 m deeply to s¡r# 4* R* ad, under ftose
s¡Mi*visior£ this study ms md&a for hi continuous, oaaatruo-
Uve eritieia am kindly rniomr&gmmitm. I wish to eatproije
ay appreciation else to Ur* Janea tf* fkm¡mt Kr* 3r*t I* Cob*
aed Rat* Iter Baras for their critical reading of toe wr
script and their valuable mg&Mfclono for it iprovet* To
too parissciptls* librarla, m teachers of toe parUUpaUng
school, ehoae cooperation made this study possible, I express
ay insert; gratttoto#
Finally, to ay husband, Martin £* McCarty, 1 grotofally
ckoooledge ay apjareoiafcion for help In tabulating to data of
to iismotigation ansi, for constant faith and cnemaw^eaeat
throughout the study*
F* S# ycCe
11


Of the other types in fable 13# sto are sdven&tir*
stories} twenty are general fiction# of fetoh slevon are rater
light and nine could he classed a serious fiction} two are
lory collections# which are also listed as fiction in the dif
ferent deificationsj tm are biographies* one of an adven-
tercos nature and the other- te life of a professional baseball
players tan are aystery stories) foar ar stories of girls1*
carorsj too are apart stories and mm is a fascinating travel
story Every on of these essept Glsyr Im^ ar jure and t£*s
short dories ms listed la am or cor of the fbor catalogs
nosed previously in this chapter* The abort stories ver Hated
on- the pupil record cards merely as Chart Stories* without giv
ing the mm of an editor or emptier j so it was impossible to
dcieroine their state by the catalogs*
la the eeood group of book amt often read# Table lit#
the icllostag seven books wear not listed, in any of the above
smnmS catalog or in their sappliamsnts that warn wmStoto10
Cpjko of gslft Elver* girl of te Liabedost* PeUyaaam Secret
of the -Closed Gate* Buff a adlie Tho Golden .Hystey* and
The Bengalee Mystery
In this table nine books'srs of aimXs, five dog stories
and four hearse etcri) nine are- adventure stories} nineteen are
general fiction# of which eight could be classed as light and
eleven of a sortea ate! one is biography} sis. are mystery
etorieaj sos is wear fiction {girls*}) two are of aport) and


titeare is a gradual eecreas is pr cent is all
other types read.
i, lecie of the old favorites that have appeared as
popular hooks is ts&ay otadlas still appear as popu
lar 1 this study, hat we than fifty per cwA of
the favorites have bees published sisee 1330. siacy
books that appeared as favorites la earlier studies
are a lasing fro this am* This mild lead to the
cotiduaion that mw books are he&ocararv favorites
arid eventually are re Jested as interesting reading.
A few see destined for permneooe as popular hooka
for children* Ibathar the stories that grew ait of
the reseat war ara temporary or set will have to be
decided In a later study. It is possible that* If
sacare emphasis is placed on the idea of world peace,
war stories will be relegated to the unwad shelve
of the libraries*
$ heading diioioos of both sexos mm approximately the
mm degroe of wfcarity la the Junior high school
grads. Mors definite evidences of mturisg intea
sets are observable in successive gradee of the
senior high school* Ihe boy in wary grade read
considerably acare non-fiction then the girls.
6* Pupil Interest in. the Icim Howfeery Medal surd books
is mt as great as it should be, if the books


FxsuaBRtftar
1* Adasss, Hwood* The -attest of Library Heading la the Junior
Rich School, atoll Hartar, XLI {'m* 1933) 375-378*
2* Anderson, B* £ MA Study of Leisure tim Heading of Junior
High Schools, I&esamtary School Journal, MMXX
(January, 191*8) ,T£o^T* "imn"r ~
3* Sames, Salter* Children's Litcrat^jri-'aat id Present*
M&caUoaal Peru, III {'hay, 1939) 38 L* Baego Berenice* *bx>a ^rtromeot seieraine a Child's ftaadk
Ing? The School a-au ComurAffi, XIV (Janoaiy 1928),
X6-X8*
5* BeH# Howard M* loath Tell Their Story* £a#di*&tqn L* *#
American Goncir on ''k!cal^''lp3>
6* Blende, Jacob* Petar Farley to Beared* A Blblic^sryMcKal
i..oaGrii3tioa"bF "lb
"fqrfe:* A# u* Bosfer Goopacy, T30*~
7* Book li&rim Digest* Se* larks a 8* t* Uso Ccopary,
'"'i^nin^T'aai-iually*
8* Breed, Clara E# fho Kewhary edalj a HUa for lyderstanOing,
idleoa library Bulletin, XVI (lay, 19L2), ?2li-?25*
9* Brick, tiiUUUa 0* fteaaiag Interest of High school Pupils*
School Karts*. mil (October, 1939) 613-621*
r IH* lWillMmMMIlm-rtfr-trTMMMMM ,
ID* 3yraa* Hath, ad Homan, V* ju C* Raiding Interests of &#
'School seniors** The ftagiLBh Journal (hi# school edi
tion), XXV (January^
11* Gaia, 'Silliam ft*, and i^roro franela J* .An Braluafcton of the
Outside Beadiec Interests of a Group of Seaior*i;E#*
School Pupil,* Journal of Pdaeatioml oolology V
(lar#, 1932), UTOSET
Sector, Stella £*, id Perdone, Gladys L# Leisure Heading
of Mf fork City Hi# School Student,8 Tbs angiicfo
Journal, XXV (Kaveafrar, 1936), 717-726*
152
12*


6
interest, aasi cholea mmu ima the pupil* choice always indi
ate Ms interest, or is it merely the best, in hie opinion, of
wtwt Is available? Selection from a school library should mean,
m a rale, that only the good is submitted far choices* Snfor-
tusately, this oay not always he true* Bat granting that it is
tree, does the school library hare encash variety 'to satisfy the
reading ii&erosbs of all its pupils, or must the pupil s&e his
choice something that approaches his interest bat does not cam*
pieteiar satisfy it? Is it pocwibls for the school library to
took the books da ids sill supply the thrilling action and the
enticmntl remansa which boya and siria at wMa ages sees to
crave, asad not aasrtftca literary merit? or should literary saer-
it be the major amltotai for the selection of school library
books The interests of a boy or girl rise fro sow not folly
defined, never-satisfied hanger produced by biological, psycho
logical, asi mwixvmmtt&l forces which Ms reading choices try
to alleviate, as do Ms choices of otter activities* If reading
is to be retained m one of the vital and sliming activities of
his recreational life, be at find satisfaction in it* One of
the biggest problems, it seas, of librarians, and of all teachers
(not Just, the teachers of llteratoro), is to -present to the pupil
interesting material in every field m a level with his ability
to absorb it in such, a manner that he will want acre rather than
turn in. disgust frees every be&chor-recometKted; bode* librariam
and teachers should qfoMMWM* ibr their libraries an -Htegri*.* supply


in this group* AnioaL stories still lead is interest eith eight
titles listed! turn adventure, 1th five books! two sports sto
ries! two mastery* asp detective stories! and ma each of general
fiction, Wj biography, atad miscellany* fees dasaysr does not
appear M this list, bnt Huai&ebegr;;/ rim, 'Sponwre Inland* and
The Call of the wild do*
The eleventh grade lists fourteen books read by seven or
saws boys* bith the exception of the gall of the fid* the aniaal
stories have disappeared* There are still three stories of ad
venture! three of serious fiction! tm biographies! and one each
of war, aystery, history, alwrt stories, and niscaUai^v This
is the first appearance in the boys* grade lists of serious fic
tion, although two of throe are of exciting adventure* The fact
that short stories and a history textbook stand high an this list
leads to the opinion that they eight possibly lave been required
in the eleventh grade*
Of the eight titles listed In the- twelfth rads, four may
haw been required volumes* Throe four are three nineteenth cen
tury novela and a Shakespearean play* The others are two etertro
of adwnture, a biography (sports), -and the esgdprcsent The call
of the wild* The last naced is the only book that has been re
presented 'in the lists of -all six grades*
Judging fres these fro most often read books, one can roc
a maturing of reading interests in the successive grades but not
necessarily an increase in literary discrimination, since prao-


UtST Of MBim
Table Pag#
i orto m Bm itotrlfeaiios of tooord# Checked* Total
Ikarnwr of Bootes fi*tos staple Averages* and Average#
on toe Baeis of 160 *****.****#****** JS
2# &tB* of iibrariea* Poreeotog# of fiction to Total
;*s, and Pereeniag* of fftettan to Total fietoiag
in schools. * *,*****.. *.**., # U3
3* For Cant of Flotdon and tarnation Ml by QvadMl
d^a 1*6
h* tafoer of Heading toward#* Total ¡count of Sstoieg*
'and Average ttoafcar of Books M in tosh school i$
5 tafeep of Posto Read of Bach type by All Bey# and
Girls and tto Parooatoge of tooh to Use Grand Total l
6* Bercotsiage of Type# of Reading to Total Banding of
lato Bm* ....................... 6I4
" 7* Rank of types of Books toad in sacfe Grade by toy 1$
# Percentage of FtoR typo by Grade for Bey# ******* 77
9 took of type# of Books toad in l#eh Grad* by Girls* BO
10* toroaotege of ftob Typo by Srto for Girls* ...... 61
11* Baps* leverage Reading by types Redacto to a Basis
of 190. . 91
12* Girls* Average Rending by types Reduced to & Mis
of 109*........................ n
13* SlfigKta# Books lost Ofto. Reto by All Papila in to#
Study 97
Hi* Seeond list (forty-^iae) of Books tost Often nmi by
All Pupils* ********** 100
15. Fifty Bosk# tost Often toad by All Beys in toe study* 102
16* Fifty Book# Most Often Beto by All Girl# In toe Study 105
iv


1h$
t* loes it. lead children to a ex%s of tas organic
and artistic unity wi&ch differentiates a good bode
from a pom* one?
5* Does it lead children to a genuine sense f en-
oyacnt is better w¡ better books?
Sob ol these standards nay be difficult to detersadoe*
Values are frequently not so objective that they can be easily
ascertained* The following quotation is apro|3os at this
point* Those who guide children *s reading experiences mst
realisa that proof of developing interests and tastes o&m not
lie in any esternal nrl^enc that reading has been done* Growth
in appreciation amnt be atsaerioally recorded* The evidence of
developing interests and tastes is inherent In the satisfactions
arising within the individual when he finds in books that which
recalls, refines, reveals, or reaffirsss ideas or feelings that
3
mma to him to be valuable#* Much of the teacSwsrs tcforaailc
oooceitiing the growth of appreciation would hove to be determined
irm aonferenees, both individual and group, with her pupils*
If there is on abundan of good, interesting, reading
material available to the pupil, he needs guidance In learning
to select that which most nearly fills his needs and satisfies
k
Ms deairea for new osperienoea* HoKerj arr..j that ojcyijjg
3
national Society fear the Study of Mucatioo, The Tmdto*
%m of mLm* A Second Keparb* Thirty£ixth yearbook, i:;arET1T,
Bioceikigtoh,' 'Illinois lije FuStlc School Publishing Conpany, 1937*
^Paal
School* Boston* Houghton MMlin oapsaiy, ISjli**" J^*
iieading and literature In tb Elementary
.u'~mW.


&
off ayafccry iistaarest xiih each atsx are sisilar*


12$
Sr&&8r outlines the tedaniqaes for voting ea the award*
She says librarians evorynhere, both school sad public, my sab
ait ¡mirations for the award, but £m bother to do it* the
oomltte which actually selects th wlaniag book is composed of
toenty-thre nwsabere*
An editorial in the ilmmtarf Eag&iah BeviesJ* says that
school Mfcreriara are too busy to vote for the sward and that
they rosily are not qualified to do so bocease they do not keep
up with children *3 bodes*
Thomas'* praises the perfection of th books Hhibh hssm
received th award* Her iaplicatian asesas to be that many per
one are jest not capable of appreciating their literary beauty*
. 6
lammsts writes that the spoliation about the Sewbaty
bodes is not because of any absence of stalled wqrtaaapship
which lias gene Into their production by authors, Illustrators,
editors and publishers, nor because of a careful selection and
wim odpseat by the various comttbces who have sitemm Utm$
3
lara E* Breed, The .'wherry Mali a Plea for Vades*
standing," Tbs .Wilson library flulletto* m (May, 19L2), 722-
^fba leSbary Award* Open lbra, (Editorial} SJewaptaary
English ;:gglar. XVII (April, l?lo), l>62*
%a3ori Thcnas* Scoe in Velvet Gowns** Peabody Jour
nal of Sdtocattop, VII (Horaafeer, 1929), 139-11*6#
e
Arta F* Lawrence, Let the Records Speak for the Itwdbsry
Books, i-lmentar:/ iSagUsti Review, XIX {October* 191*2), 201-20$#


36
her study a£ cfeildaro* fietiois reading* Xibrarl&as were also
astea fear their opiraoa hooks*
-. " fb
fra Um date gathered thrsmh these variaos procedures
arai the ooBoluaitm drams frea the data, 1% is p&mSMm that me
toaehers aasd librarians Mgr. mmm&m eme sagsostimas ia the soloo-
Uoa of books, the stimulation of reading, sad the dirmbopaeat of
-tastes and apprceia&oss*




hi
3at4.cn of further interest in fee reading of m*£iLotion in the
iwrfclnular filas that mm especially attractive to mo in*
ditUlaal pupil*
This table is also shorn graphically in Figure h, which
shows the iarojKrtioas of fiction and. nonfiction clsfcinetly for
each grade and for each sex & much bettor picture con bo seen
of the actual reading done than can be conceived by the table
aloro, for instance, in Figure it, it can be mm eaeily that
the twelfth grade hoy read appmsimtcly to-tblrda a snob ace**
fiction as tbagr do fiction} and the twelfth grade girls read ap-
ptos&mb&ly half as ssoeb nonfiotioii as they do fiction* Tbs
memitfe grade boys read spprcedmtely enaHtosartfc as such non
fiction as fiction and. the seventh grade girls read apprcoeimtcsly
oro*al3cm as mefa oonHEletion as notion* This figure jauafeahly
aboa store readily than any other one used in the study the mr
taring of interests of both smm In successive grades. If the
assumption is accepted that the reading of noartfiction is indicar
tiv of acre sature interests* It is quite possible, hcaiowr,
that the rise in aerWiction reading in successive grades could
have besa caused by required reading since the records checked
recorded both the free and the required reading*
The msrap nasher of took road by the pupils in each
school is mown in fable h, Saimaa 6* School S, which averages
the highest amber of books per pupil, le the laboratory School
of me University of Florida* The very type of school probably


at
TABLE 30
fmamus or saos ttm m fo sms
Orado
Typo
7
8
9
10
11
12
Total
General
Fiction
87.0
50.8
53*0
Shmh
58*0
57.2
52*5
Advaitos
12.0
9.7
10.6
8.0
6*3
3*5
9a
10.6
6.2
L*j|
1*6
1.9
6*5
Biography
Autobiog.
5.3
5t2
6.0
6.7
8*8
6*0
6.3
S^r-twy
i 11.0
i
7.2
5*9
3*5
1*1
1*2)
5*8
Career
Fiction
5.2
7.7
6.5
$h
2*8
1.7
S*h
iiiocelia*^
3*3
3.3
U.3
6.8
7.2
12.1)
Srnli
The Arto
0.7
0.7
0.8
2.7
6*1)
9*2
2*5
Colono
1.2
2a
1.0
1.6
1*2)
0*7
1*1)
war
Defense
0*6
o*9
1*3
2*0
1*2
1*5
1.2
Hdbbies
sport
0.7
1.1
1*2
1.2)
0.5
xa
1*0
History
Geography
0.7
0.6
0*8
1.1
2*0
0.8
0*9
Hutacr
0.5
0*li
0.8
0.8
1.3
1a
0*8
Fairy Tale
0.9
1*0
0.3
0.5
0.3
0.7
0.7
OeougfetAoMi
0.1
0*2
0.5
0.7
0*8
0.7
0.5
Total
100.0
100.0
100*0
100.0
300*0
300*0
100.0


75
TABUS 7
BAM OF ffm OF BOOKS JtE4I> IS EACH (BADE BT SO
Grade and Bank
t?p
R
7
B
8
B
9.
B
10
B
11
n
12
b total
Adventure
11,255
11*358
1 1,258
1
922
2
a99
2
26a
1 S.SS6
General
Fiction
2
981*
2
aao
2 1,027
2
m
1
820
1
5b8
2 5,036
Aoinal
3
59U
3
532
3
5liO
3
307
6
11 >¡
9
as
3 2,130
Biograjphy
Autobiog*
5
272
6
252
a
338
a
2aa
3
216
a
139
a i,aa5
bbSai
sports
6
23a
a
323
5
33a
5
21a
7
308
7
71
5 i^aa
War
i-ofeoee
7
212
7
250
6
308
6
195
5
128
5
116
6 1,209
mystery
lotective
a
3aa
5
253
7
179
8
123
9
61
n
3ti
7 996
8 a
113
e
12a
8
97
7
H
*
I#
3
155
8 79U
SdQQCMI
9
87
9
92
9
68
9
73
10
60
8
l
9 a2a
The Arta
12
32
11
32
13
19
10
75
a
307
6
233
10 378
iotory
Geography
10
52
10
36
n
32
a
aa
11
52
10
36
11 251
BMMP
ia
16
13
3C
10
39
12
3C
12
a?
13
Ik
12 176
Ffclry f *
%thc3U
u
a7
12
31
ia
17
ia
13
ia

15
3
13 126
Ocoupat*
15
10
ia
. 1*
*5
6
13
29
13
18
12
1?
ia 9a
Corear
lictiaa
13
15
15
13
12
a
35
a
15
K
ia
3£
15 82
total
a,27$
a,i?i
a,203
'
3,253
2^05
3
usos
19*931


tfalahm? found In but study th&t >yarM¡* ^eals to boys iris
of higher intelligence. that is praba.ly trae of satire and of
B
- the acre subtle fern of humor. Zeller touad fcjamr of the fan
ny incident typo one of the t*o significant factors of child
interest in reeding Materials* She reemsaecded that acre books
containing buaar of the funny incident type be selected for
children* reading*
Fairy tales, aythalogy, and foUtLor are not often fount!
in secondary school reeding, but it as indtoded as a type be
cause the first too schools checked showed a rather nymyatai cr-yaytt
of it* An occasional book ess listed ve by pupils in the
twelfth &rade#
the total percentages of each type of reading for boys
are shorn proportionately in- the circle graph in Figure 6, and
for the girls in Figure ?* the comparisons of percentages for
both bays aad girls ore shewn in the bar graph in Figure 0
Conduelan that ear be drasm fro the data in this
chapter folian*
1* In this study the girls read more ttom too and on~
half Unes the msmt of general fiction that the
boys rood* X all catteries of fiction tee girls
7
SVangsliras 0# Malchov, REeadlng Interests of Junior High
School Pupils,* School Review XUT (l.jroh, 193?) 17T-18S#
^Zeller, factors of Interest


each .grad tfe iris exceeded the boys in paotity of reading*
there is a gradual decline in the reading of Um ami? hi#
school grades. Goto 5 of fable 1 in rspradaeed gra^lileally
la F^pr 2*
A aiaaft^a Mat, of the title of ell books reed by pupil
in this study as assailed, with the tm£m? of boya and girl#
in eaoh grace who had. read each bode. this list yielded 6?6h
different titles* Of this msstssr 3¡#l!p6 boa&e, or 17 per cent of
the Hot#- are read by only on papil| W*5 bocks, er lb per cant,
were read by only two pupils* this constitutes 51 per cent of
the different books, or a little ore than half the entire list
which ere read by am or two persons only* The re-dtesslfloar*
ties of these books showed that they fall into practically the
asm ratios by tan# * twMlr as the stir Hat did, with' the
exceptions of the mimi stales and the iaeelXoneoee group*
There were very few of the .former and oomsickarSbly mapa of the
letter group* 4 good ¡any of the aisocllaneous group repre
sented the mere sorteos reting dosae by the eleventh and twelfth
grade pupils* Pour hundred thirty-eight books, or 6*5 per cent
of the total list of different titles, re read by twenty or
sor pupils* A good assay of these titles will be found listed
in tbs tables of bodes zm% often read, which tables dll appear
In a later chapter* w
^fypea of books are given in Chapter V*


TABLE 16
fifty books mm mm mad m ail
0ZBL8 Bf THE SBXit
Title
Ifuefcer
of Tisses
Head
L'taaber
Title of Tises
Head
Seventeenth Simmr
122
Tm Hanes Qm&dy
&
Tim Sob
m
A Lantern in Her Band
5b
little ceaen
92
lathering height#
5b
Jane Tyre
90
Tm Sasyar
51
My FWnd, Flicks
90
Heidi
b9
Laasie Cose Hoes
90j
Gone With- the wind
b9
Seventeen
aa
Soasa De aootfe
1*8
80]
Girl of t Uaberloat
W
last Seeesfcar
7b
Treasure Island
b?
IT learllng
n
fiamos iiarvest
1*7
ijnSA gar eh
72
Black stallion
6
Sue Barton Seiiior liarse
71
Pride and Prejudice
b5
Our hearts ere Toung snu
Gay ?0¡
The Middle Button
bb
Sandy
69
The Green leasee-
bit
Sue Barton student Horse
68
The scarlet letter
lb
Caddie soodlasm
6k
Sue Barton aiperistoadenfe
Ginger Lee, car liarse
6k
of liarse
bb
Pair Mrmtare
63
Meggy iaclnfcosh
1(2
Going on Sixteen
61
efeecce of Suarytarook Fans
b2
Short stories
a
Peggy Covers Washington
bl
Peggy Covers the Bern
60
Penrod
hi
'¡lassaoo.
60
Magnificent Cto&emim
bo
Strawberry Girl
60
The Bangalm Mystery
39
They loved to Laugh
3
Tbancarhaad
39
To issem and to Maid
57
Understood Betsy
39


39
2
study* chica sfoom 2*5 and tore books each santo for two
different groups* With the oxo^fciori of on school, however,
the rtsocrs oheakod inoladod only those books which had boon
bsrows frees the sohoei library! therefore* the lprai cannot
b eonsMered m giving a teue picture of the total reading
done by pupils, sines s&any of thtaa probably read books JfcoB
other corees Shi* present tody eoaprioee their reading froo
the one source, their reepoetiv school libraries*
- Because of toe varying numbers of pupils in each grade,
the staple averages of books read in each irada and by each
sect ere reduced to a basis of 100 as sheen in Golosa $ of
fable 1* this was te to show the ratios or proportion of
books read by oacb grade aa sea on tbs aasaspiicsa that they had
bm composed of pal numbers* thin colum is interpreted m
felicsai Of every 100 books (inelndlng all classifications)
read, by the pupils in this stody, a erasto grade boy mill have
read j15 of Uim$ m eighth grade boy wHl have read 10*8 of
then, and so dam the cols* this eolia shm that of all the
reading done in this study mem bodes near read by the seventh,
eighth, and ninth grade girls, -although there is a noticeable
drop- in the ninth grade, and by the seventh and eighth grade
boys, than by to boys and girl in the other grades* the Jew*
st books ¡r real by tbs tstfto grade boy and girls# In
2.
Chapter IX, page 17.


TABUS. 35
ttm of books nm bt sube abd sea m school f
7
8
9
W
11
12
Total
Gram
B
S
g
0
B
Q
B
0
B
0
B
0
B
0
Fiction
31
12?
35
112
31
57
33
158
35
158
36
68
2ta
690
091
Adtoeatore
73
32
85
8?
86
20
6?
5Q
37
32
19
7
32?
1S8
517
Biogragligr
39
17
17
2$
10
17
38
56
5
22
9
9
118
186
260
Faturej Auimla
*
88
25
81
35
a
8
15
25
8
6
6
2
ns
97
215
M^stes^i lefceet*
XL
28
17
15
0
3
12
10
1
1
3
X
88
58
98
tfeme* war
8
5
6
8
9
2
13
1?
6
a
5
2
83
38
81
iisoeillaiaous
Z
6
0
3
8
5
8
17
2
10
8
a
u
62
78
scleaea
z
2
5
2
1
0
1
15
6
13
1
0
16
32
88
Carear Hoaa
Q
12
i
IS
0
3
0
e
0
0
0
5
X
86
87
Art
0
0
2
1
1
2
2
7
8
5
8
7
13
22
35
EUtcryi Goog*
1
1
1
0
3
3
9
5
1
7
3
0
18
16
38
Hcbbi*#j Sport
6
1
7
3
1
2
0
0
1
0
2
0
17
6
23
itear
1
0
0
3
1
8
0
2
0
8
0
0
2
17
19
Falk Lara
2
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
£
6
a
Ocoupaticas
0
0
0
0
0
i
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
2
Totals
216
2 58
217
270
U5
123
192
368
102
266
93
180
935
1,821
2,356


71
HutvioR 0. 8 %
Folklore 0.7 %-
Occupations 1
0.5 7.
General Fiction
52.2 %
War ,
DE.FEN5E. 1.2%
PERCENTAGE. OF TYPES
of Girls Reading to Total Girls Reading
Fie. 7


18
aost postilar books* Through the iaediua of this survey, the Bee
fork teachers Sbowi a lac: of books which they turned a ttbook
fsesin* la the school libraries* If sash a condittan had not been
evident before,: this cotna&ea alone ms worth the tie and trata
ble in asking the
la ragwrtiag certain phases of this amce study, Center and
Itwi3om thought that the teacher definitely eoeerolsad m infla-
ce o the reading of the pupil* They baaed their coaelasloa on
i
the dtaaat types of reading found la individual classrcomW 15m
level of book rsac&ag as fbund to be higher than that of the sag-
asine arid newspaper reading* ^reo-fterths of the reading ms
ilctim, amch of which was very light* Of the regaining oeue-
fourth, aay the authors, there as little to deralop judgneat,
disorteiaation, anti the critical faculties* there as little at-
r
tentiosi to poetry* Is that a lack of appreciation of spiritual
tMrsgs?2^fcs hr. Center.
In a study of 1,532 pupilo in several Chicago high school,
21
Srink found that seniors read best seller exospt chore classics
ware preocrlbed* lie found also that they read sore mau-fictim
than fwfflhaea* There was Increases interest in recent bodes of
20
StaHa & Center and OXatiys flareac, leisure beading of
Itew Xaric City High dchoei student,** The English Journal, tXV
(Maveafcer, 1916), 726.
^Smiiao C* luirs, Heading Interests of High School B*
Pila, school Sevietr. HOT (October, 3£39>* 613-621.


at the bottom of the list* The table shorn that of the total
r@ad.l2ig done in this study*, the girls m&med the boys by 13 .S
per cent*' (this is found by subtracting the total of Oolxmi h
fro the total of Colons 1 in Table 5*) this finding is ocsascn
to sany studios* sons of slob were noted in Chapter XX* A
graphical picture is ¡shorn in' Figure 5 of' the total percentage
of types read* and the pmsentag of boys m girls* reading in
mol type*
'Sxa regaining discussion in this chapter sill be confinad
\ ,
to the data IOu^e in table 6* skioh mem the percentages of
boyo* and girls* reading in the various types in proportion to
the total reading of each sea* Xt differs from table 5 in that
all percentages in that table ears derived fro& the total reading
of both scans* since Table $ shooed that the girls exceeded the
boys in quantity of reading* it is believed that Table 6 dll give
a better indication of the distribution of the types of reading
to the total reading of each sea* Table 6 bos that acre than
half the total reading of the girls is in t field of general
fiotion* and a&y one-fcs?th of t boys* total reading, is in
tide category* Xf the percentages of the starred .groups* dll of
which are fiction* are added, the girls have a total of $G*3 per
cant sod the beys a total of ?£*h per .sent is the fiction groups*
1
She ixonber of girls* reading records exceeded the boys*
records by li*6 par cent*


TABLE 5
BOBBER OF BOOKS BEAD OF £A0B TXPE BT ALL MS AM5 GIRLS
ARB THE Wifl0E OF EAG3 TO THE OR&Mi TOTAL
"I'niT-i"Tn-T'ir-irr- -, r 1 -mT.mnrfrrnm'i w. fo4l ST*
Tjpe vxm Siria Total ceiitag
m .
Books
^2)
8
(11
¡Percent Books E
ib)(5L 16)
FewwBfc
... m
Books
Bead
<8)
E
(?)
of Type
JXPJ
General
Fictdm
5,036
2
10.8
33,893
1
29.9
38,929
1
b07
fciwetor
5,556
1
11*9
2J0b
""II1 *
2
5.2
7,970
2
17*1
rlaal#
2,330
3
b.6
1,717
3
3*7
3,8b?
3
8.3
BlOg*
fcttekig*
lbb5
b
3*1
1,678
k
3*6
3,123
b
6.7
cte-otlv
995
7
2*2
X,5bb
5
3.3
2,539
5
5*5
lliscellaK^
m
8
1*7
l,b!7
7
3*0
a,m
6
b.7
Hobbit,
apart#
1,23b
5
2.8
260
31
0*6
l5bb
7
3*b
>ar, Leame 1,210
6
2*6
3X8
10
0*7
1,528
§
3.3
Carear
FicUoa
83 15
0.2
X,W58
6
3.0
1,811
9
3w2E
The Art#
376 10
0*8
661
8
lb
1,037
10
2*2
-Soteno
m
9
0*9
370
9
Q*%
795 XX
1*7
Hiatos,
Googw^sr
25111
0*6
251
12
o*6
502 12
1*2
tear
176 12
0*b
397
13
0*b
373 13
0*6
FaJUy Taleo,
%t&eLog5?
126 33
0*3
171
lb
o.b
m ib
0.7
teapattan
9b lb
0*2
na
15
0.3
212 15
0.5
Total 19,901
b3a
sajo?
56*9
b6,U8
300*0
#ll tiQt&m*


tmM It
mmm of umim immm, jqtu, mmr of nm-mo,
aui: Avmtm mmm of booss mr- is men bcwca
School type
(1) £2)
Bfflriber of feU&
liecards Mm
(3) <4>
Average Hooke
per Pupil
(5)
Hank in
Average
(6)
A
sr* s.s.
m
3,902
6.9
18
B
Jr.-sr. M.S.
536
3,5a
6.6
10
G
508
0,233
16.2
3
3D
Sr* &S*
859
1,699
3.3
16
B#
325
2,010
6*8
12
I
Sr* 8*s.
603
5*986
18.6
8
F
Jr*5¡r* .S#
368
2,356
6.5
11
0
Jr* B*$*
266
3,566
18.6
6
1
Sr* 8*5*
232
1,322
5.7
13
I
JjV"Sr* H.O.
220
3,357
18.7
5
J
Jr* J3*£*
172
1,505
a.?
9
£
dr.cr* Bm$
161
1,563
9.6
3
L
Sr. SS*
la
1,532
3L2#6
7
H
Jr#>i"* !?* S
90
2,736
30.8
1
8
Jr.6r* !$.$
76
1,852
25.0
2
0
Jr. ii. s.
109
666
8*8
15
*3emmth$ eighth, and ninth grade records were checked
&*G2& the tenth grad oasaolative records in school D#


TABUE 36
rms of books urn m tmm me sex in school q
Types
7
8
10
11 12 Total
Grand

8
G
S
0 B G
BOBO B
0
Total
Fiction
78
308
172
iiSl
85
2i*5
335
3*03*1
1*369
Adven*! Travel
88
32
198
65
90
32
376
129
505
Hcfcbie*! Sport
32
7
m
22
38
12
235
UL
276
Ficgrapfey
33
lo
62
68
23
m
118
lit8
266
Katurej Arilaals
03
S3
55
73
2Q
8
128
13ii
262
Eom&Lbmwqk
3a
60
ii3
b$
15
27
90
132
222
Career Fiction
a
27
3
97
0
a?
5
151
156
Defense! War
3a
3
itf
U
33
5
112
26
138
^yateryj rsteot*
so
23
30
33
7
20
57
76
133
Science
17
3
a?
12
5
2
¡S
17
66
Arte
a
8
13
IS
0
12
15
38
0
Humor
0
10
ia
5
7
7
25
22
1*7
Historyj Oeog.
10
0
7
8
3
5
20
13
33
Occupations
0
0
12
3
3
3
15
6
a
Fiiry Tales
2
3
~JL
0
2
L
10
17
Totals
hca
577
857
50
32?
M*7
1*587
1*977
3*56t*


76
asrailahle# Om that speared, aoby iislt# as read by mom ele?
oto grade boy than by boto sosos in ail the other grada s
bines* This book i probably read by high school papdis# m well
as by moot adult for Its stagy eas&ting adventores# lili eo car
little thought for its greet allegorical sigaliioaaoe*
I'ereentages of each classification of boys* reading in
e&oh grade are given is fable 8# Reference to Tables ? and 8
will sake clearer the mount of reading done by each grade in
each classification# since the somber of pupils in each grade
varies considerably. In Table 8# it is mm that general fic
tion comprises less than one-fourth of the total reading dors; In
grades seven# eight# and nine; it equals one-fourth of toe boys*
total reading in the tooth gradej and it increases to warn than
ooe-tfcrd of toe total rending in toe &l&vm%h and todito
grades* Adventure reaches its highest percentage in too eighth
grade# in shioh aL^ost ane-tbird of toe total reading Is in that
category} It is about equal in toe seventh# ninth# ami tenth
grodesf it toen takes a sudden drop in too eleventh grade# and
further decreases in toe twelfth grade*
Animal stories retain rank torso through the first four
grades# although they drop torso per cent in the tonto grads#
m& take a sudden drop in too eleventh ani twelfth grades to
rank six and nine# respectively# One probable oause for this
is that most arlad atarle aro rather juvenile# and jlsvesstii




these too- biographies that were popular eamot be said to have
been required la that school*
fnm fable 6 It is found that girls arc very lita la
tereatcd la beetles sad aporto stories ml in war and defense
stories* Tbs reasons probably are age-old hidden is their bio*
logical and sociological mfce-op# ports end war have been His
demsae of aw and iioys for sany centuries* ffee part played by
wcesa to to recant war was chiefly still in too sphere of mm
md not that of ocn* the boys did 6*6 per coat sad 6*1 per coat
of their total reading to sports mad war stories respectively,
and toe girls*' percentages to toe mam types were 1 por cent and
1*2 per cent respectively*
Tbs girls read a good deal of career fiction* this type
h
ranked highest with toe girls in Kanktoa study* to this pre
sent study It tied vito Iscellaay for Sixto place with per
cent of toe girls* total reading in each Hold* The boys* read
ing to toe career fiction group ms practically negligible
sorely reproseotto *6 por cent of tocto' total reading* On
reason for this my have been that there 3s sot as much career
tlotion available for boys as far girls* & few books on careens
to engineering and ougmUno were smXLaL& to toe boys but
ware very little read* For- tostones Stove Herein* Boi&agHy,,
StocdcSa Odlriiwttto.lafcwftat. .to J^^&Z^S^SSLSlLI^S^S^


St
atioml favorites* sime it mm true la that stood? of several
thousand young people, the anther assesses It is true gerierally#
12 vast pahllcatier of this emtmj have Imitated
msch that la of highest literary beauty -and merit* a toemmkxm
amount of hut worthless raterial ¡ml a great deal of
tobe salacious sad vicious variety that areals to the lowest
ami basest of hmm iastdncta. the publishers of the last
named type feawe as thought of the n&Mbelng: of their readers
hut consider only the sdHiag qualities of their publications-
'Shat suets publications have a definite appeal to large uuc&er
of the citiaeiapy of toerica is no ao^Mamnt to the teachers of
toarlos* Bat la stese of the teachers* it say be said that
they have the children uaier their supervisim such a short
time ami with sash limited facilities te the devefepmsat of
reading intereste that they .are 'not altogether to blase for the
reading tastes of the toarle people*
there has been ends agitatte smmg educators* social
risers* m& mom parents ocmerning Urn ddeturlcns effects on
children of so each poor reading* particularly of the so-called
oosio books or nageslnes* whether the effects ere m evil as
com. persona brand then is & moto epestien* ft cannot be gain-
said* toewer* that the conics are being road* not by children
alone* but by many adults*
^omtetd Um Bell* Tooth Tell Their Story latoSngfcoo*
B* G*s imriam Cornell


%
because the k>SK>r isas too .lrefl.Mtaa.tAAl tO bis ofl'tiidfid#
lo a nutaber of libraries, tbs librarian mm to be
lost in a csaae of routine cutes which eoild not be delegated
to a stuo^t helper* She really had little ttae to desrote to pu
pil guidance Jai reading or to the sblsulation of reeding interests*
Only two libraries in the study eoesato to be sufficiently staffed
adth trained scrders.
Frac the data in this chapter the iblloaiag condLusions
say be dram*
1* The average nuaber of boobs read per* pupil is lea
than that found in sosae studies*
Z* ik very scull per cent of the different bodies read, in
this study ms read by the etajority of the pupils*
fhis say jryiiottto ttut jv^gfep in the li
braries have little to appeal to pipil interests,
or it aay sacan that pupils are not being sufficient
\
ly guided in the dtmlopraeni of reading intarMtau
1* The proportion of fiction reading in all the schools
In tole' study Is sxuch greater than the proportion
of fiction voissma In the libraries*
Much of the a¡& torial given in this chapter is" of a sub*
Jeettsre nature and is tot being used in dressing usoy eomlusiaae
about tie reading of pupils. Only toe objetivo data as found
ill be used for that purpose* However, these observations vare


138
aecoit la Interest far the hoys i the first four
gradea, and la first in interest for the levanth
md twelfth grads# the navels read in the upper
grade, however, are of a. store serious nature, may
of than presenting serious social, eeoaomie, or psy
chological problem* iutlaal stories rank third in
interest ibr the first four .gradea and fall to rank
six and nine 1 the eleventh and twelfth grades re
spectively* Biography and aabobicgraphy ire liked
by all pupils and range in rank iron third piaos in.
the eleventh grade to sixth place in the eighth
grade* oyster/ and selective stories are liked bet
ter bf the boys- In the seventh grade, ranking fourth
in Interest 1th them* That type sscw a fairly
rapid decline in interest in the assoeasive grades*
Miscellany, iadixEng ssasb mere serious reading, ranks
in third place with the twelfth grade beys* Interest
in all other types in all grades is sporadic* More
than, tec-thirds of all the boys* reading is done in
adventure, general fiction, and artiml torios*
Changes in interest, as a rule, are gradual rather
than
3* General fiction is the leading interest in all grades
with girls* light novels of bom m faa&y life pre
dominate in the Junior hi# school grade, and acre


mmm m
wssmsxs as mmtsm m wms wm mm bead
ii&varal lists of the books most often read by all pupils
in. the study, by the various grades, and by scan are csosjpiied
froo the data on the master list Two lists comprising tbs one
hundred books most often road by all pupilm In the study arc giv
en in Tables 13 and 1U* The first list gives flfty-nsae titles
and tbe second one gives forty-nine titles They ware divided
in unequal groups because of tbs number of tines road* These
1
books ere cheofeoa with the standard Catalog for istifo schools
2
the Childrena catate the high school reading list of the
%
National Council of Teachers of SagUsfc, sod the State Adopted
V* jk
library Books for Herida school# bull tin* the Standard Catalog
^Standard' Ca
cauaoe ST
Goapsny, VMl*
mmmz
bate for SWi School libraries# A Selected
^Children s I
aitfa tedylic 4jtb£^irfar''f-^y ^oSse'iiat'L'cai
oatlng t&ooi Soris#"' ffiTfinWh
T Ha
i A dictionary catalog of I£00 Bocks
BaBaMttaimaT -
Coaaittee on Book lists for Junior and senior Sigh
schools. Books for loa Chicago# The national Council of Teachers
of bnglisSTTOT
^State Adopted
bo* 2?, fsSHmamSSt State ej:
Books for florida Lohoola. BuHetUa
BoFi^uoatioo, May, 1S?12*
96


tabus ia
TXPBS OF B00K3 RUO BT GRABE AM> &M IS SCHOOL V
Type
7
3
. 9
10
11
12
Total
Grand
Total
3
a
B
3
HS
a
3
o *
S
a
n
o'
3
0
Fiction
1*3
l?
2h
%2k
36
250
30
178
2i*
132
0
37
165
967
1,132
Adve*j Travel
S3
61*
39
1*6
1*6
1*3
56
13
16
111
0
1
ao
166
396
*$rtryj Detect*
35
127
7
39
2
19
3
9
3
k
0
0
50
193
2!3
Hatcrej nlaala
15
09
Hi
20
22
27
15
16
5
h
0
0
n
16U
235
tetera! ifr
1*3
10
31
2*
21
11
10
0
2
3
0
0
107
36
113
Biocrapisy
13

11
9
£7
7
0
21
16
0
7
52
82
131
Caree? Fiction
0
35
0
23
0
£9
0
13
0
3
0
0
0
103
103
Kobbleej f porta
0
0
7
0
37
7
fitt
11
5
0
0
0
81
18
99
EsmEUmmss
2
3
U
2)
7
25
8
22
2
9
0
2
23
70
93
Science
0
5
3
1
>
2?
3
7
1
!i
0
0
16
b$
62
Arta
0
3
1
0
2
S
6
5
2
9
a
u
n
29
1*0
Hietcryi Geog*
h
1
0
2
1
3
0
0
2
5
i
0
8
n
39
Occupation
1
0
0
3
0
1
6
a
1
0
0
0
3
i*
12
Haaor
0
1
1
2
2
3
1
i
0
0
0
0
k
7
U
Folie Lcre
2
0
0
2
2
0
1
i
0
0
o
0
5
3
8
Totola
as
552
137
259
isa
1*87
1S3
292
8*
253
i
51
SU
1*923
2,731*


ms- ribim o. his cara If he returnee the bock without riding
it, the title on Me card a erased or a Ho drawn through it
to indicate that it had pot bee read* It Is quits likely that &
pupil occasionally failed to indicate m .his card that a book had
not hem read, bat librarians sewed to think the degree of error
mm sall*
three sciioois had the folder type of record with lists of
istias roa- and a graphical chart by which at a glance a pupil's
readism iRtcres'feo sere revealed* Ibis type of record seme of
sajad ocre practical value in the direction and guidance of pupil
Niacin,, tima fee threbyiivs library oar-:, and as cos unbcsltat-
ingly recMcaaeadaci to those abo asfce for infozmtiou oonoerolng
tmm for records* it rqpires considerably/ acre space for filing,
but its additional value should oo^eoaate for that*
t record, the reading of wary pupil in the fifteen study
schools as a task entirely too largo for a single worker! so in
order that the record be as representative of the state as possible,
every third pupil record was selected fro each school far analysis*
the cards or folders warn first separated by pads, then by sexj
then each group ms shuffled before the election was aade. In
this say, there was as aasefe tame o one pupil* card being m~
leeted as another* s, Us grades and seat still being kept separate* k
fiUm of book were recorded on ilve-fcy-el#it oardoi than the
reader were listed by grad and sox, as TB or 7G for a seventh
srade boy or girl* a new list of titles ma aade for each school
/


om& armase fifiADxao m tma ssoasm to
BASIS OF 100
typ#
Gradeo
=38*
tota
7
8
?
10
n
32
Geaeral
Fiotie
23
21
20
lit
n
6
100
Adraaton
32
26
88
a
6
3
100
lo
a
1?
8
2
2
100
Biograp&y
21
20
22
lit
15
ft
100
;iUwx}XO^A&>i}y
e
lystsry
letective
13
27
18
7
3
2
300
Career
riofcioD
2U
3U
23
13
5
1
300
HiocLlany
16
26
17
17
15
29
100
the Arto
8
8
7
16
30
31
300
soleaos
a
37
t
lit
21
3
300
ap-.ejfen
13
18
22
2U
12
21
300
Hobbies
Sports
17
27
23
19
6
8
100
History
Geography
18
18
18
26
23
7
100
Homar
17
16
28
12
19
12
300
Fairy tales
J4ytc&ogr
32
37
9
9
h
9
100
Ooaupafcions
8
12
2it
2h
20
12
IDO


liahSug o' children* books that me written with toe child1
interest ia sln ami mt fcr his raor&t edification, m t
ssajorifcy of children* books has been up to Ms ttso*
flm first mar mm aads in 1922, am hm been given
each year since, k list of. the prig books, their authors, and
the /ear of their award, is given in Table 21*
Ooldsaith gives as conditions of the award that it be
*aa original and creative piece of inrk9 the staet distinguished
contribution to faeries literatura for children, cardinal in
conception, fin in warJoaatis jip and artistically true,** le a
qualifying condition that the bock need cot be written edlly
for children.91 Ibis author ispiie that wme books which really
had not deserved It had received to award, and hopea that if a
suitable bock ore not found that the award would be withheld*
that it was not necessary to ante the award each year*
2
Toarses eoatonda that popularity cannot be considered as
a criterion for the xaost distinguished book?* of the year, for
if that were tara, according to her, foe Swift ¡sight get the
Sophie L* Goldsmith, Ten fears of toe Sfoabwy nodal,
Bookmen. XW (itoveafear, 1910), 308.
^ary &* Townes, T ¡Popularity of Sestear/ dal
Books,* The Litany Journal. U (HovcE&ar 1, 1935), 839-61)1.


places) but 'the nsaber of books is careers exceeded by eleve,
tee nsasber ia uiec&ilaEy* Career fiction readies its bluest
point in tee eighth grade with a consistent decline in succes
sive grades thereafter* Cook teat fill into tee salscellaneous
category are read In the twelfth grade sore, than in any otlier,
with 12* h per cent of thedLr total reading in this group* Mis
cellany ranks second of all types of reading for tee fcarelfte
grade girls* A good sany bodes on chana* the dcrveXegaset of
personality* and general etiquette sore rood by tee twelfth
grade girls* Fw of these books war read by tee girls in tee
preceding grades*
In tee fields of sotenos md of history and geography*
there is little difference in tee percentages of reading in each
grade* The eleventh grade girls rate a little higher in history
and geography than tee girls in tee other grades* and tee eighth
grade girls excel teo others in the reading of satenes* There
is very little difference between tee sense in these Held** also*
tee boys exoeediag the girls by a sacre *7 per cant in sainaos and
is per cent in history and geography* The total percentages for
boys and girls in each category are teosa i a bar graph in
figure 8*
Figures 9 to lit* inclusive, tecs graphically sos of the
asara definite differences in grade and sex interests in tee var
ious types of reading*


fiPES of books tmu bx am Am- mz is school %
173
a 3
3 *
o
H
%
a
a
a
'£>
3
H
f*
3
CM
a
CM
o
-d
o
a
S3
a
3
D
H
o
3
CM
v\
M
CM
o
vO
o
*&1
o
f
s
§5
CM
n
-o
8
so
3
O
CM
#&
-d
CM
ia
a
M
§
8
3
3
%

-sr
0\
CM
CO
-o
CM
CM

s
8
E
S
a
a
P

8
P
-d
-d
CM
CM
3

g
3
£
3
3
rH
S'
o
o
-d
CO
d
-d
e
i
-dr
a
3
8
a
IK
8
8
'O
to
CO
CM
O
Ov
SS5
t
&
Oi
S£
H
3
a
3
a
CM
53
*>
a
8
o
o
1039 1172 717 9hO 670 660 Jta IM 2,768 3,218 5,936


135
of the Setfanel Gouacil of Teachers of liiiglish* Many of thm
which are classifiea for doBsenfcary grades are ret by junior
and sato high school pupila
Th& Cat- aha sat to Heaam coala not bo found in mj li
brary, although som lit had it, for It was recorded as read by
nine pupils, and was also listed in card catalogs* Hiss Hickory,
the l?ii? mar, ms found is only tm libraries* In the cm, it
had been read a total of twenty-eeven tiiaesj the other library
had had its copy only bao aanths with no record of its having
been read* It is possible that children did not yet kam of it*
The Tweatylne Balloons* the 191S mar, is too new to have bom
included in book orders* It will very likely appear next year in
ssany libraries*
It would b interesting for librarians md teacher# to
sake their cm survey on the popularity of these books after
they have at an effort to stlanlata .interest in the and given
tisse for that interest to have effect* Same librarians were quite
positive that the books were exceptionally popular saM others were
equally positive that the books scarcely saved at all* All they
need to do to dotarais the status of popularity la their am li-
brariea is to undertake a little research along that line* Of
course, saost librarians, with insufficient help, are so imereed
in necessary routine duties that they have no ilia# for any ad
ditional burden* Such research, however, a cal be very profit
able to both pupils and librarian*


Xk8&* Of Offl
mmmMmms u
usa or tables* * . iv
UST OF ZLUfTHATXORS V
Chapter
2* WWW INK .* X
12. tras of mam mema* ******** ?
m* ius of m aks pmQmm* ***** 30
xv* mtm&httm sspois time libraries, ald mu
MUSS OF SMSII8CI* .................. 37
v* mamm m immim by rm& of books 0
n, mtA by tms of rsisxnb m&, sm ****** ?U
TO* 3mum AS XKXGAfSS m BOOKS HOST Q*f| READ* %
rax* mamtsm or umbos asm a@am> books ....... 122
xa* wmmi am 136
x* xeplicatioks Fern mmckYMm ii£
BIBUOSSiAPHf* ..* *
APF8MBXX X60
BIOGiiAPiJXOAi. LATA .******* 181*
121
\


bl
Boys MHB
Girls i ~i
7 v 8 9 10 11 12
Grade
Average Number of Books Read by Boys
Girls in Each Grade Based on 100
Fig. £


li
tms of sooss bud m mm m> sm w school &
Type
7
a
9
10
11
12
Total
Oraad
total
Ha&im
Z$
95
a?
3U
6a
ida
36
30
23
125
13
26
136
m
673
Msrea*j Travel
30
1U
U2
15
66
1U
3?
10
11
13
12
U
200
70
270
Eatar& Asteis
9
au
ai
3>
3U
28
7
0
2
7
0
0
73
69
1U2
Uography
a
a
6
a
a
U
12
12
7
3$
9
11
33
so
83
kisaeXXsniitfUB
a
U
h
3
5
8
U
1
9
8
30
26
57
63
Busiest
3
?
1
z
0
0
5
a
3
11
U
21
16
33
W
£o£e&Mf nap
9
0
6.
0
u
0
10
i
2
3
6
1
3?
5
U2
Career Fictiai
i
10
0
10
0
13
2
i
0
0
0
1
3
35
38
.vCi-CiiiC
6
9
a
1
$
0
7
2
1
2
1
a
22
16
38
Arte
0
a
a
0
0
Q
h
3
2
10
0
3
3
23
31
Robbiosj Sport
IS
0
a
0
a
0
3
0
2
0
0
0
30
0
30
lyst^y) i ateet*
3
5
u
1
i
k
3
1
0
0
0
2
11
13
2U
Histor/l Oeog*
0
0
3
0
i
3
0
0
1
1
6
1
11
5
16
1
I
L 1
i
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
2
1
1
5
5
10
Oceusatiosa#
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
2
2
If
Totals
107
ITU
127
80
180
253
338
71
56
202
60
95
60S
875
1,5U3
§


375-.0Z
y/j/xA.
EDUCATION LIBRABT


j § § a n 3 s
* *
**#*** *
444&4AAAA


n
xm& a
mimwtm. m mm tw& m mm f mts
Orad
Type
?
a
9
20
21
12
Total
Adventure
29J*
32.5
29.1
26.2
20.3
16.6
27.8
Fiction
23.0
20.1
2l.0
25*2
3.1
36.5
2S.2
garni.
13.9
12.7
12.6
9.5
. 7
2.7
20*6
Biography
utctoiograpt^r
6.0
7.9
7.6
9.0
7*1
7.2
aobhiea, Sport
5*5
7*7
. 7*8
6.6
6.5
km$
6*1
^ar~. ctense
5*0
6.0
7.2
6*0
5*3
7.3
6^
. ystcry
Letectiva
a.i
6.1
hmZ
3.7
2.5
2.2
5*0
Miscellany
2.7
3.0
2.3
2*7
6.3
9.8
6*0
Sole
2.0
2.2
1.6
2*2
2.5
2*3
2.1
Th Art
0.7
0.8
0.1
2.3
U$
7.1
1*9
History
Geography
1.2
0*9
0.7
1.3
2*2
2.3
1*3
Humor
0.1
0.7
0.9
0.9
2.0
0.9
0.9
Fairy 'Sale'
lithology
1.1
0.7
0.2
0.2
0*5
0.3
0.6
Occupations
0.2
0*3
0.1
0.9
0*7
1*1
0*5
Career Fiction
o.U
0.3
o*S
o*3
0*2
0.i
Totals 1CQ*0
230.0
200.0
200.0
100*0
200.0
100.0


91
t mL& ii
mts'mm* beadxss m w?m sexmo to
msm m 300
(trad
Total
tyj
*
T
3
9
30
11
12
Adwtoft
27
28
20
12
8
5
100
V
C'taieral
Fiction
2U
ID
19
13
15
11
100
32
29
22
30
5
2
100
Biography
Autobiography
23
20
a
Ut
13
9
100
Hobbit
Sport
22
29
23
33
7
6
100
litas*, ofenao
21
2h
23
13
9
10
100
Uywtomf
tectivi:
hO
28
15
9
5
3
100
jliaccflilasy
IB
19
21
15
1?
20
100
25
25
lit
13
12
11
100
tho Arto
10
10
5
17
26
32
100
History
Geography
25
17
12
33
IB
35
100
Huaor
11
20
22
13
2$
9
100
Fairy Ifcleo
Mythology
id
27
11
8
8
5
100
Ooaipati**
12
17
8
9$
17
a
100
Career
Fiction
27
IB
23
9
9
m
100




20
sifi nortfcleos* atsaldy, and often entrente! mm&m aaterlais.
¡gk
In £lier*8 study of trying to detersiia* factor* of in
terest in children* reading oXy tea were Anmit to bo lipillMiA
Hwy ere aotien arai honor* U beanr tactor te toot of funny la*
cMeai* not toe subtle satire toot appeals to asm aduLts* 'map
had a favorable inuesm m -boto wee; action,. hoaeeer, attracted
boys but aosetime uol&vora&ly iaHuenoe girls* choices# t# re-
oomeadatiaG froa this study was toot sacre books fearing the factor
of Jtoonur Incident be looted for- ohlMren* reading,! that beers*
books ahoaJUi hare also- mxsh action aa tost girls* books be rela
tively free of toe action factor* iMXm ftoas also that reoaa-
mmdm4 book listo favorably iaHueasoed ehildra*s cholo**# j
last naneo e&at&wsim differs froa 'the soau^ptioo of sons others
that children ere generally distrustful of rosmsjed books* .
gc
IbaradUoe tried a different attack £vm tes usual m do-

iera&aiag reading interests* is gas# a check list of Ighby-eigfrt
fictitious, annotated titles to apjatsciufttely tore# thousand efcil*
iron of bright, average, and doll ilitlea* they ware asked to
chock II# titles they thought toor would life to read* Firm the ro-
%L
ale Zeller geetors of Interest in heading Uatorials,
Gm-tributlK# to lkwa&leaj""lo*
Golmshla university, I9h&*
m*


8
rm¡Ln tmmiimt
3* re there seasonal choleen? Sill children read
war stories long after the ear is ow?
h* re there siptliicmt sea differences 1 interests,
in quality m quantity of reading?
5# I) Mterarjf tastes legrar *ttfo aatarity?
* hieh hooks are Ml often read by all children?
7 ihat sasaaa to be pipil reaction to the Mm Bsaftwry
Medal Award boote?
If we accept the ssauopticn that librarians and teachers
should stinalate reading, sc should ask by 'bat marts they are
doing It, sod bether they think their efforts era successful*
If fiction preciosdnatos in the pupil*a residing, Suit is the pro*
portion of books of fiction to the total masher of m'ismm in
the library? lie safes the &Leeticm for the library? ire the
pupils ever consulted eimcsralog the types of books selected for
their librarlo?
Ihaoe are same of the questions which rose during the
course of this study, and to which, it is hoped, some answer
cay be found fro m analysis of the data iomLve*


89
%
7 8 9 10 11 12
Grade.
Percentages by Grades for Boys' and
Girls' Reading of Mystery Stories
Fie. 13


TA3L& til
nm of books read by grade six m school t
7
5
w
u
22
fetal
Oraras
&yp&%i
total
Fictioa
51
205
57
207
55
222
13
77
276
5U
mi
Mver*j travel
8it
132
6
26
23
6
6
238
7U
328
feature; Asteis
51
59
kS
&
8
0
It
0
108
63
171
Career Fietisft
3
73
t
a
0
22
2
h
7
no
127
latest#
10
21
16
8
1
5
It
1
32
35
66
iiobtleaj Sport
35
3
15
1
2
0
3
8
55
6
a
siesraphy
3
7
27
2
It
2
0
3
2)t
lit
38
MiscelXaaemis
2
7
5
It
7
5
1
6
is
28
37
Deltens} lar
7
1
13
1
1
2
0
X
22
It
25
Arts
1
2
2
0
0
0
0
2
3
It
7
History; Geog*
1
0
3
0
0
2
0
0
h
2
5
Baser
0
1
2
0
0
1
0
0
1
8
3
clstw
0
a
0
1
0
a
2
0
1
2
2
Fails Lore
0
0
0
0
a
0
1
a
1
a
1
Oscuivatieo#
0
0
0
0
JL
0
0
0
0
0
q
Totals
21*3
US
308
155
9U
162
35
102
685
m
1,532
g


found retained m favorites ia each decade for thirty years, am
Treasure- Island. and Hug^tfcerry Flan these three
books are evidently stimd as classics for tit ages* Charter*
193? 'Hat contained me Call of the v?124 there was nothing in
his article to indicate its popularity before that tiaa, al
though it had been published five years before his 191? study*
21
Jordan found slight changes in fandiuaental interests
in reading in studies fresa 191Q to 1932* ;-'avorit authors and
books regained about the same*
It would seem fra?* the various studies, including tills
one, that certain books are seasonal and emxtsBL? pass from the
picture, idle a fe, tried and true in the field of child in
terest, live on with undiEdniehed popularity* The tried and true
are found on the sacst often read lists of this study, m saany
that are found to be popular in earlier studies are not to be
found in this one at ail* It is qxLt& likely that other studies
saate a fe years henee ill fall to list as favorites sany that
appear in this study*
It cay be interesting to coeaptre frees certain stand:points,
22
aosj of the lists of books stoat often road in each school*
Arthur II* torda, Beading Interests, froceedlagg
of the Motional Education Association. aahinirbcn*Y>*
^ihesc
tables arc listed- in the pgmidts*


130
Gandi --tooXgan
WXjiS&t &' 'Jo-ls:
t5S*|c r*"
pf BKttr.
ET^eaFto
KStmxa renos otnvn pairriciifirs &r? ms
r>f- Tms v*\ o\m i ;*..r -nr y-m
rm
OMMV
m;i£ 22
41 One copy of each* Boto required reading#
Hasfccrs i paruitoeses indicate notiber Of copies io each school


66
nsm 3
FEE Of flCtlOB AMD KG*#XGRQi BX
mMSZBS AML ¡m
Orado
8apv
Girl
fiction
SaeHClafelMi
fiction
' 7
00.3
29*7
86.6
13*6
8
79.6
20.6
85*6
16*6
9
n*h
22.6
83.1*
16.6
ao
73*6
26.6
77.0
23.0
21
67.0
33*0
70*6
29.6
22
62.0
39.0
66.7
33*3


x&
criase l ie tice, in the elevsnih and twelfth grades*
Ttm tenth grade &&m to be a period of transition
£rm the light to te uore serious type, ami is
divided alaos t equally between the t*to types*
rmtmm is second la interest with the girls
is the first four grades, bat ranks fifth place ia
the eleventh and twelfth grades* The eleventh grade
girls rank biography m autobiography as their sec
ond cholee and the twelfth grade girls, rank the Ms*
cellany, such of which serious reading, in second
place* toissat stories range in rank free third place
in the eighth grade to eighth place in the levesth
grade* Mystery tortas rank third with the seventh
grane girls but drop rapidly in interest in succes
sive higher grades* all the girls mm to lite career
stories* Interest in then ranges fresa fourth place
In the eighth and ninth grades to seventh place in the
twelfth .grade* Ha rank for biography rise at falla
in successive grades, m pattern being distinguish
able. For all the girls, It ranks fourth place in
interest* is with, the boye, the interest in all
other types is scattered*
General fiction sosoaa&s for asare than half of
all the girls* rsadlagj the m% highest percentage
is given to adventur taris, with 9*1 per cent*


23* Charters, l* if* Popular Boye* Boato, library
Jauro&u un ONr 15 2938), 399^*00.
14* Children* Oatalot.M & stationary Catalog ef 4200 Boofea* ith
ffi "(SjqpSg^ 1946*
15* CMldnea'a Catalog! 1947-48 Supplement to the sraoth Mitim*
i^r¥^feww"^c^^^^ 16* Cleary, Harona* 0* flvoratlQjml leading la Junior High
School* flatlop*o School, XVI (4kOy 1935) 31*33*
17* Clear?* Florence S# *#fc¡y Children E*s Wllaoc library
Bulletin, XI? (October# 2939), 129*126;;
IS* Cornell, Ethel U *Thtt Voluntary leading o High School
Pupils#* HarteM library Aeeociatioa Bulletin, XXX?
(S^
19* Bbertiart, tHftrecU n Evaluating the Leisure aeaiag I
School Pupils, Lebed Haeis, XLVJX (April, 1939)$
257-29*
20* *Mw&bimaX Philosophy of the laboratory School,* i^uc^tloaal
Research Bulletin* X? (2) (February 12* 1936)* 36-06* B3
Wsutrri^ity,
21* lder, ¥ra, ad Carpenter, {Men S* wBsdhL Interest of
Mgh school Children* Journal of gciueatiloeaX Ue&mrOh
m (April, 1929), 276-2SS:
22* Erickson, Marlon Birig* loading Tastes la Misino
literatura,* Hesaeatary 2aHlh Bedew, X?I (January,
Mkwmwmfwm
1939), 10-lU*
23* F* S* H* M&isbors ctsg colerfd a^perlaeat to Lateral*
shatter Better Juvenile Boto tUl Fa? Their la?,*
(editorial) The Florida TlaoaHfclm* Sunday, March 23,
1949, page if* "v ir""w
24* fltofigol Cuabas A# *23*mpaper Testes of High school Pupils,
acted and fioatstar* XIX (April, 1944), 32&319
25* Florida teonoaic Mvasoeaent Council, statistical Abstract of
florida Couatlcs* gdXte by The
ISrei," ^auffivlllei state cbasfcer of CowaBroo, 1944*


TABLE 26
rmm-. mm> wm oftm real is scrools t> e, /jsl f
c,ahod3, C
School E
School F
Pride asid Predice
Oliver Tviet
Short Stories
(Kendall)
Junior Biss
The Robe
Black BUMm
Merianthsr Lewie
The Yearling
Life sitia Ffct&er
Pride and Pregadlos (Austen)
Black Beauty
Lassi@# Coa Kota
Toa sesyer
teals! Bocae
Car fiarte Ser Young and
Seven ¡S&o Case mraih
little {asn
Osy
Sue Barton* student £u?ee
Buffalo Bill
Hi Yearling
The hutch Shm ystery
Slack horn
Toss Sawyer
Izasele, Cose Uom
Oar Hearts ere Young and
Adrift o en loe Pan
PiXgrira,o Progrese
Gay
hiakleberry FSsn
ihe Kobe
totes Curie
Little uOfsm
The Sea olf
seventeen
Jane yr
Viuihering Heights
Abrahasa Lincoln
Last Seraester
Th Call of the Wild
captains Courageous
Paul fiuopm
My friend, ilie&a
Captain fins Castile
Short Stories
8y irisad* slick
iktekleberry l ion


106
sports story* Stories of anisis predestinate in these stoat often
read lists, bat with decreasing interest in the eighth and ninth
trades* tea Salver and Huo&efeerry Fina head the liste in grades
sevesi and eight, respectively, and rank third and fifth, reapae*
tively, in the ninth grade list*
treasure Island whim heads the ninth grade list, took
the lead because of the nuaber of tines it was read in om school
la tide school, the class real a chapter fxm treasure lalaad
which had boon included in the Mterature textbook* It was so
skilfully presented by the teacher that practically all her pa*
pile read it* It as not required.
Adventure cams second, to anisis in interest with the
junior high school boys as indicated by these lists, but when
checked as m entire group, adventure ranks first as indicated
earlier in this chapter* Seventh grade boys choose nystery ato*
rios as their third interest) and eighth and ninth grade boys
team sports stories as their third choice*
So wuoh less reatiint was dom by the color high school
boys that it was- .necessary to include books read as few as six
tiaes in the twelfth grade* The reading In that grade with boys
was sure varied as to titles than in augr other grade, either toys
or irla* The books most often read in grades ten, eleven, md .
twelve are aiicTO in Table 16*
Twenty-one books are lia tea in the tenth grade that were
reaa ten or more bisaos* The categories 1*0 a little store varied


GW&TM n?
mmmmnm mmm, tmm ummzm,
m* mmma, of wmmo
Tm sohools bioh p^rt&aip&bte in HsUr atttdy *spwsanfce$
4 total smSUtMoatr of lipli pupil is SP* awww through
twelve* the cfstai £%r@e to far ths arrant year* at
ora .aftas i fata 1 the Ajjpaodix* & total of **@31 TOaaissg
TOoorla for tbs year UlSMtf^. 33*6 per e&b of ife oarrsafc o
reHamb ere shacked# Those records yteMt & total of
readings for ail pipila*
Tabla 1 ami the aaSbsr of records abeotet* the total
xua&er £ books ret* at the wag r.b of books ret, by
mush, grad wta for h seat* lb wag wbr of books road
by 11 pupils is the study as S? for Iba boys and 10*$ for the
girls* OoBOtiag the aahoal .year sm also- tbs (is to spools
it mm tea Maths)* this osorag* mn% lightly Mm than mm
book ash tttttt Tor the boys- at a lltfcl sere than one book
at sjofitl'i for the .girls* This swage i weh higher the that
inst by Mmm, hit mm 1*£2 book, a. tswelter* but a great
deal les than Oleary* iltlng, hit as thirteen bot a so*
ssesier* at. is lots than half that Tost is- tersan ot- lmM
sStwpter n* page 17*
37


a
alts* te aomlMB teat am is the most iapcrtaat of
Interests and teat within the amm seat* bright csilmi sees aost
like aim children two or three years older*
la Brant outlined tee tollostog principies concarfitog read
ing as derived ta the eduo&btowal ¡Mloseptoy o fee University
26
School of toe College of Education at (Mo State SrAverolty
1} Tim culture of fee modem world indados read
teg as an i^Torfent factor for youth ad adults; it is
as- intrinsic factor in osar present way of living.
2) Indi viduals vary greatly in need and interests
and hence ere best served by a diversity of bootee and
reading emterlalsj they aim vary greatly in abilities
ate hence proceed at varying rates ate wife waning de
grees of antiaratendillg*
3) It besoms fee function of the school te provide
for estrameos in reading an a factor to an. emending
uteerstanding of society. dust m fee teacher is re
sponsible for guidance tote social ate- quantitative
adgrstatetog-s* so he to responsible for -guidance to
Kpriesao tomsgli books. Ibis guidance to always based
on fee growing needs ate interests of fee child ate con-
sequent!? eancot depend upon a formal gw-errangeaent of
mtertels*
I?
Her evaluatic -of fee free reading program set up to feat
sohool to accordance wife fee stove %iOtoa principles wan nade frota
a three-year continuous record of fee reading of fiftywitoe pupils
to fee- tente* tLeveiih,and tatfte grados, lo book liste were sup
plied tee pupils* no- written reports were made; tee pupils kept
26
saaaattooal Rwroh Sailetto XV lo# 2 (February 12*
193&), 36-kfc*" tjofcfcs* ,Tjblo*r''To3ilge of Education, the Ctdo State
idveraity.
2?
'Loa L. La Brant* to induction of t& Free Head
grades Ten. Eleven -and Xwlve. gesr&ea.
ba, Hloi ie (MoStete University reas 1936.
adiffi: ia
SSnwHJS
i. ZjT G<
colisa