The effect of supplementary parental corrective procedures on public school functional articulatory cases

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The effect of supplementary parental corrective procedures on public school functional articulatory cases
Shea, William Lawrence, 1916-
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viii, 138 leaves : illus. ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Child psychology ( jstor )
Children ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
Death ( jstor )
Hibernation ( jstor )
Imaging ( jstor )
Mental imagery ( jstor )
Parents ( jstor )
Questionnaires ( jstor )
Reading comprehension ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Speech -- UF ( lcsh )
Speech therapy ( lcsh )
Speech thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Thesis - University of Florida, 1957.
Bibliography: leaves 130-136.
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:

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University of Florida
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Full Text

The Effect of Supplementary Parental Corrective

Procedures on Public School Functional

Articulatory Cases




August, 1957

WIL w ie 3.u lik to wv hie snw aprcto to of the Spss* ths, *Mitiara vokrce to oaim4 chair at *A iwters F ~te w uxput and kidy

and for thevas adsmdm hoptality otitw b7 both Pmto~w and We*. Ca@t te the witer vA hi familys hertftU thiaw

to Dr. Magns&. V. Buck Wo va t ~ hezM In st4*U and 4wdV a tM. studys the write wL1 always be ilb.d To ths othe .i e a f his Commtte-*r 1m Hensaf, Pr .r so TW and St. Is]* andth we Is 1Mebted f 'thm esdn of his ane$y am for their we~ suis 'It fo

- -th al @h*$xmL of the 1 111i t...40

For the privilepge kuMa put .invw a V*t pse, adm ftle =As the wit~ obU vf*wi* oy the swrd Ge Uhe ho spa in cas and inz weme" th thin late Lw Sartt,
1Bltbt the uvat~dM .~t4 of Dr. Je tm
ore CO Upw Van Dwm, a" the oftrts~G the Unvrst of Him. the time wad) n~t bAw be avXailbl bW a 4itea P~v for the wiutr* ii

A00i i Asm s 9wA. tome, to tUS UNUq O~ uttee. ths on twhqdU D to *%, JaVM SUr 31~ of the h4. COyA 00b4 Opume fo thels *"VIA sI I MU at anX Um In the p~m avAmWS astt No teqwjm qp utdh thi UPswttias is bood.
b* Auk hna Dotty PMps and 04. AM u A n aP& noU of tbks IS * or UP te "leit i11 Ui to aM Is Ju to*. 10"".
Per y es1lai to w a brst fft ot *Ym3 fl*2 1110 dMI fIotw tr the um- i

Uo W;1I hisU ats to the aM Swl~ me Nw Uft
a* ft. is Cailli who msWAWW the dant npwb ta* Of wd re t In IVIG the Witer4 tlwt LOW~ ~t the gille* i iviih foim3 the WtW I 00% Sret&
To Us firot shee to&*"w %b he )m. hUs ntbsrw the VMW
ow tMW *bV am thm a lUf..Mg &041" to tssth.
*at of &UX the writw Is lnbft~ to his wift SOWPM h lbr five ym bu kna the Mam Imss MO om v5t be a
*"h*. v4mw ad i~ fo te pst twi mU isha m beft both nowo 40d tatl~ to thwfr fr~ shilArmu He aws .wpU mdbte ufaIing atmi adl esotant - 4mmie bso" this r~odf andisttw poaMbUO


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Table PO

1. boults of the latial Exaintion of INW Chidzft 2. nvuibtwound t a R ve lUm- of Eac

by Each of Thzm. JWS~a. 00a0

4.LQ,'9 of the Fifty-Subects frvm the otis qmdw
8.wlng Test of Muts1 Ability-k'm Test, 7mm B.. 42

5. kUuation Scres for the itty Subjets at the .. ... Of the�tuy* .* * ** ,. ... 42

6. bta i.. of the r Parents of the pinty bject* an the Revise Bts...... 42 70 of . o ...t. . . . . * * . * * . w 47

g. M N OttheAO fb r famtf fS ..b....o.... 47
9, To"at Eucaio of the Pwat o ujects .. 48 10. Mhe Nman Nmib. of T~aws of Unowationfor the foodst
of the Subectsa 0 * 0 00 * w.*.. 48 110asdt~i of Bt I.. of the Sixt-ou Paets

33. B.ll M3ufat Ivmtwr A. In of 1&. 3.31 MJ, e inewatrw C. leoal Md uiwb O t of
] *9O &I I 9 * *999*99999 53

MT? OF us*.gm m

Ta-le 15. IU~ MJumnt wXvmwtaw~rq 3. wtdaml Mdtmat
St .,..,...... �,..,.....

17. 3 5m qt lr t. pw We* , pw &W 28. *rt .r the Kffmtio ati sb 19. Ikiff=4m bvm �r iv md1=LA dt

. Art�easts-- - m fm a* ?if ty st�.�.


3. ftJo~sS s u2 * *,,,* * *. * * * * P9

8. T aTrinO'M 7. Ra 44444 4*454697 9. ttwtfS bT"ta tuRl m 7 . ...,

33. Wfm.tJim 44444444 ** * * @ *~ 335. Ot st 44 -- oooo - - o ao o4 U, Hn' ao a-*oo-�-oo~o��-lbt oo2 ust_ q . . oo o .

25. Ceigis... for..Loom U

~~~~m f o~o.oo~or. la a 17* l... Upoforloop= 2



ft the -aet we the sucos tomaohs of spec for the
90 to 95 per 9" t sal ddSldran wh 4.wml" inwml qSSh is, a, fact Ws -amy acetd that it moeds no auhntcton ht the pumf am the -~uMIR -- ,4. teembis at speh ar, pahas ev mm ieta the me at detective qe&in the 5 per of .M3Aew ue rod spoeh, tbor in the public, sshe~st is qm~m4 That the pOWte .at these children with speech~ defecs should ?la a diret par in their

A.. the eve s speech defets cau& by wn tmefet, a. Ian wh as cerebal psla, cleft palate or onpztal defam, the Vw"t inut accpt the bm to the extent, at loaxt, that the pby~.afly
4.tetive th134 - coweived by and bu' to them. This chils defective
-pa o~ipmnt, thmgh .at -msmarily hereditary.' is & ar of its bereityO

The fIpr at Mawn bas beow pointed In an m Cn
- t parents In reet yor as being the, chief pviptatn fogter, if not the direct some, of that mot befi~n of aU sec iod stuttering. Wwxiel MJoni been the oustndn em o e a

1~mriS= peee and Beaing Amocsltion Cmaitt~a on the M.
c~nttwY Vdte Houe Cof o "Seech Disorders and Spinh Cm'vwUmv, awa gr mmo - ta ei xv:' (tA.1952 l )t IX.

sU1,0-OS tSA1qU Of sbtting. &tzwd*, =d sewng1 tira847#y be ho swah*Aod &Ais pishint boois and artiles In uhia* be states his tam emwriti that stutterig Is ounde by riidI3 P'fes~ct�@s pmo ts 4 ls1g & dop'.. Of fbuinc. an ot spewk bduavwis in geus that Is beran the os 1tiof the diilA In the --r" Charles Vauip 1jx liss pretal bobalr o =0In a poxil *=U Mtiou of factor's that uY 0110 stuttw'�u.? bart~ Wet does rot sw nsay cite this tip. at pwM*4 ta'etMt 40 & PWMbl PMM4iAtiA f&.t4r in a child In ubra "No DO W lr*&dY WdetD. HOS Ulm tius that StUtt~ri~g is CO thebra UwdMIat! of the Aptw1am

the pant, but *dyvAs instesA that ftlivirig the pant. of wW f..3iou at Spilt shA3A ber a funstio of the, Speeh teKuAat~ or
8tadios by *M= a FUttO7 sb m psoaizwaa ality t~ite in the prwA of stuttwiz hobn A vw7 rasmL Invesoin, by Abbott beaed qpM observton of thu's an hildwsm

(2d edi., rviedl Now rat are n Mtet15). 4-0 (3d ed., rewiedl Now Yrk: rnsefll =#15
19bw1 Wgt' Lo K~x3i and A~ Curt 3k SO

apywh jig UId (ime 1$952), 155-165.
7A.C.I& olett, Parntl Evionmntof StteigChIldvu=,
jW~j 2f Uggh sd~ftdW Ma =, m (June, 1956), 2D6.


IS a &free, jP1 situwtt ndiftlates that the =Mhux of Stuttwilzg ehldwua tond to be one 1.t~tv In their tolaruase andI affection tw~ their dWAirua than do the ntba of incute.6 Abbtt am, h. em, that 'wfth *'1ft1' bdwxlr aw be an InsMuas to these peeh 4vi*.s Owat blIPftI s4fr that 'tho f2w a optm aijut~t my freqMitly be mthwed byr41avy blaant of attetion.09
ftviM atnted the kU &&tgu Mqj lM

Sto & S OV f PW*Of dil&rM vith naxua fbuwy and to a
POW of puwrmat cf hldareun at the aiot of stutterlq& Goset =u VshlstrIn report that 'the Usin Of ths. tiegove___no
differet fins the uxpected perfuum of pyhgr~l
PWM-1 in WOtA.rep ani tham* *Or" of stilesa

GOU"te~ S~ th4t "tUN etia1~Y Of stUttwdtW is wt related to as
IPPOM11W e the patof the s to III1 6itIii 'II
DI ,eviw It my be W'1Ayl sated, then# that Vwn~ behavior aid amiUt stil m trw fartors in the *tiAUW of ett tedig, the s: drwtic, puq, of &U1 speech diaodm's.
Pea tfm dwti to the avao= piag school mpeo* two, ia
ist is that tMp Of ROO d=eoeW aet O.~ 2*be.Rd 'the fimitisusi

sertationv Dept- of speech, iuivesity of nowtda, 1957), 6s.


articulttary dofeet, or disorder*" ooimij for 75 Per owat-U of bar sae loa a tste children ith Oasse of defoottr. articul~ation vbich
witbe assmut.d for br aW orais mmtal or fiysical eicec but wbiak are the result of insear t, us of the structurs mbish ar sMoi In Vec4 NW sots of imvetigatim have beemaude to disgm
-o aswrbl. diffema in this grou of children to find a* vb the struotureeas mi~
Zna &,ee of few studies of thirty Vubjeets vith sup a rtioulata ua thirty sutbets with detective artioultion (thirty MIa, and thirty' fimis, .uo3ly diided bom the tm gptq)o Orant Nirbas~ and his o iuw.tidts (1) rate of .aant at Orel stuo tues, (2) diumuios am oltdom of the ]ipat (3 the tamao am

(4) the tooth and hard palate.
In the stly of rats at jament &U the difforaoss between the two grup m small the ad s~gi aut diffmse me rat. of lip nwvamt amv the soles ith sqsl cuain In the mesan study there wa oIdmficant differame betweun the, tw grus In dbowasow ad z' 1iom14 gof Up*15 In the third stuy Fa~rboni and Debmt

33n'viwam , RGhildrm Ow Oan~t Task Pain,' a
CbJ~dM .e. WeweAI1 Johnson (New York: Qiw mad. S

14Gmnt Fafrbszfs and D. C. Srietersbacha *A Study of Mawo Organic Deviationm In 'Futa1 Dis~ore of Artoltion 1. rate Of Hawomt of Oral Strutures*' JOU4 SE BL29E3'5at Ffrbanks and R3eln K. Gow, "A Study of Minor Orgmi Dei~iam4s Z. Dnime.w and Raltianhis of the Un,'m ft a
Remek Ap, LWkW WROM xv (Jiaw, 1950), 1654168,

found that 'Wthe ifoubebam ability SmM wo smal and not

Up#, -m~mtg force, an pinx~ of oro In . Utiz A tows, Position; a -.ii m difform m fazA ony in mod =a tamorce,46 Hoprin the tooth en hard pate the inwipt~vs fwadn gnit dift~vms in the.b at of the deetal w-h "~ bard pato; in 1w mom , axtriar O.o n. &n0Viw &10 t or anterior spsee the gW-p did not differ In U4ts1 UXM ot sligt or -ale 4.viti frm nous1. Neither W tbw MW

diin ifferenc UsW the tm gnM* in the mnwe Of OqIM
&Rte"Corie re "MMPSof the ufwr and laer Matrlr tooth
,Th mbwof subjeets with opm bit. or cosed bit. -a mifcnl bigbor for the gujet with inforior sirtisulation-17
Uw piimis samts exwae that fmiitlml ~tr
doocs e us m aspet of a, a &3,v glw deeo Sm n a chil. Everhat hoad in reor of a, *t~y of 220 daildrm in CrdMS
thttSx, balf of vb had~ 4Wft of aWr~t�2ai4m with this stat.0iontt wrios ar no o~fiat differMM for e4~ r children witJ and without awdzaot4fets in reet to n~t of halig headup .pst of ..i& vt of pitting~ &lhuw moot of 3maltg M"t of 16G'ant Farks and Bettv Babout, vA S5my of Mio Orad XV (mw 1950)t 348-352.
17at Fairbunka ad y~y Van~Iur Lintnerl "A Suy of Ynozr Qrei Driatist 4. The T1owth andM Nu P1AtA.,'& A S O

t41~ldng onset a omi- cwtaonatr'ol of the bladder# auptin of fiwst tooth, grips bs$tv W1ritp and honeep.W0

)WV pwvta tear and .i wo Bp..h cor~etinsto
-o that the defective wts~tiOf ehi1d4m in the lamer 0100 tary pod" to uwt eataaly 4.tsetivis buzt that it In nwm7. for tW4 age. Tampintas ftinD, boev, stantitin those of Poole m that gils in -*rA -AV fttWO R'5ulation by the W of Sevvn and b~e by about eigt.19
Ca=U4.rWA* effort he. bow ade to determine whte ~do with ftus.t* articutory defects lack a normal ability to ds*i mate babmn relte4 sobs evv thm4b they jt IRY. nor=1 hearing wmdty. Auw the Invoetipto who belie"~ that their studiemr Ao positive reltionp oWee s 1s3**Ri ability andnoa arttaiati gr Krmnval and Diehl ina et~y upon %ftoh they
I.ors in 1954,30 spwuisbc adcurtle (iwfar a Anareonts study of children with Lfs] prbe As oncerned) in a 1M5 reorta21

1I5W4v.d C. Tpnv"os an a Savwdu Teat of r A&a for .." nw. trthA t*i O 4Alf 4&A AO&

_~sw U Uvm&U and Charles F. %tebl 02W W.L M Of Awtowy -1-srxnto to DeaIfectsof 1 n ith If*
--p-n grar Im sa
&K21 ow, ft lI-dUA

Me" $a 1%7,4 and bf an Bw*$ I.,2
Vamp ,om after' ca~i~ a of chumow with ia
q si d a grou of Ghtubpn with twwtl..i4 .w409wd*04 mw

t= d@JaOA*4 Is *wrtan that there v- -4ndf 4iftin. bitume thew on an qt tfas tewt.24 3h testing the
-wn - ability of u~t-fw= stuent at Of 1
UW~*%i~y twenfon no 04diaeut~ difference In tU ftes' his tbf 4"04 (L) thO *0ba fWI~ftI2 ArAI~tG7 ea wIth -o pvdi tbm (2) thof iw t~w -o tM of deesta but with P~m "pms he o and (3) tius Imia an&4 ee
U taew 4 vowwlty that taw shId with a ftwuImd). Orm* tory delat Wo It wy* a ~svq of 4A qw isI pAl i ocaity
31% a V0 met- red" .t theitamtm an thwn b*st, ki ItaI

Idreimncudo~~aiol- tuy hamus

Defot i 9MMA4F 3ne Mt rnt

-Jm 197) 4-1 Ju, % W

3h mso~, -m in -w to ..w~md tht th oorb
tribsm of -mrc to -n wwianof the relatioo
n~iv* b24e&a 4s Wt juwfr Aato 0et h

Dws js o of a ruU ww a bearin 3.s,# a I&* 1t -ow lffib.&e O r or a amwM1.* pW tya h
wor *wows, fi the defea I.~s~4t is .UU31 o

$at ho so bo elst at the pota ildM3w idth ths tM ot qoebs t W pO is UIuth Soott *Wt.
In 216 VWO pfs4~ the "S410 ot his doetaloui

'Cni-3-C ma the rewt Mt s Audw that mVw bp beft qw4 Ua me of the ledn txtbodo JA the 0M4o sch amutis

26D, iom)dosesb, *F~m nATilaMM81"C
Posruyp mm"atOgmdml UMM = F LW, 4M.e

Wood tu4k it At7 Pd of jumo t of UL4 idw MAe f =

U0b4 ar ecuuteuy 6fs. to utei4 pamt *4w mie te) m

p m~uwt~ halt f t b Wbr.I.R* bsmsC o W& wL iM~ww. at Wmsts ot% " hem Its S_ U001 40m ms US* Ow .m 14=3 peiou t'b to stlwuato tis e to, 0~st a stdys o qsb therw for c1d1dro with fuaatmal WO* W xs# a" Ini to~ ontirt. Mhe routs at Mebtudy iimat thate
l. Mtewa -o* an the Uamw lnanoz __f~e so
n~la~ fm the test -.m sbn that theawho of the -pes eefowtiw *134m as a gm flo
o t&bi in tmb,~ uw r~isl an -~ oatfaw the tk t m0*
go So cm Utto as~ found beosm the promiy test
sooe s a the qhlUmvm sa thee st UtIr puv~t.
,, Of tbAe * t fifty Vscb dotavtw W eq# 2 po
o ad*t loot on pae b theb60th pwomtitIn mwets tww and 6prat ba at just ampme
whew tb* 'AM pm.ur3.
4* IftaSrm4 se on the TsI~gnat O4 t
thfoeu mw lia;4 ft hIottota
Urns agreeiindcon itth arte Fatbars m'ted flower than tho test no*Ouinat

Ngnnth beatt WW.~ A Suat 1ft4.* bldubs n

IIS Ii'~ 91 I p!~t
1" I

J u
id , fti

SodIizn t7 suociated ith ma3ijwan and undex1z
able traits an the part of .un*, an such fatrsa

S.ea curret athorit4x an wrtiwabtlo 4o, wt -e In miat fiwt4a1 arwct�ay dofeots wW evidene of a doproe rAm an the pt of either the pum or the @b114. Jame F. Curis in thle -hpero *Dismrdw of Articuatior wtdiah he atoeinM2

ONO&NIAschi, umm states that met artiu~tw7y dratie
-m to be traceable tono otw swam thn failwo to lerth oew

Robert M~im in his desliof MA. htiasbl for Articulato

Dlsrdiv* vwsthat "it maenn _dffrems. wther the infants fail. ur to -eeo the Wd1ls and attitudes ..uwer for spec with good

arlwa& so du laz e to his ~itt.or thm of his

em umnt, tihe ffit coui4 baw be=eren w the child coul ban :*d Md t OrtiCilAtiam if the eavfrmot had been trainm4 to b"Aear ly in cretim a desire am wfll as a Ieia of v iu3

Virgi Ardeo mq#rgrin the awm of chbrmb ase

P mbbws that %ou -pec defets foun m the school aou~i we not Pulaaw y or dep asstde * * In othw ur~o apro ftol 75 per c e am=*, of the b4md t type, reutn from

(Decum. 1%),. ~

Intat&m of pow -pec modes, or inuced genrally by am
UW~w, r indiff*row.05
For the most pw, it woul oper, then,, tbat the p m of

or at les 4spec b~irpw spec moeolc of moiain
M~tGM jfIja=e-&-of thes somho imalv the prnt. Ih the Lit of this psibA preta i1uovw1sts toA ~LLtepbi 84seech- oincmat tu fo help lidslg Mtilae gru of ahildme i41h fwwmt1awtit dafes?

As a -rcm matr " need help. lI =wW Coy, nois Use loas for this xs, sd of the towy mintint cais a
-m lad of fma 130 to 173 dildran per wek. Most of thmeh&m bein fumatiaarti lary dfect, o owoc a week for abt twnms~xes s inrl with a gru of thre or four ote hlrg It wuld -m unikl that in s bifme the mot *1Ilful =

ovrat the ow speeh habts wich she has bo evi in inlto the dal ife of the chi14d.

The clsrm tece n a. eo re , r often a sorc of help ul MW be an ea~flt me. Sw ewh coroctonst -utuil ep tb* cla temb ainmd an to the wat niatr of the seh w: which the child is on 4and see~ks the tcherfs help ini provid~re the eh1l4 vith oportmtie to mshis am spesech *131 in the clasin o


With aw& damrw and1 UMV rrismA1 it Is *" to ryUs ba the brtit1ioe c3amrom teacher usyt nly i r~~n .ssson to rende a spca ervie to an iIivih* child with a
-mc defect. Lloy and AiWrth9*sudy of fit-o caso
-.A. Ms -1 i tsm v of help sWea to be q~te ani~i mem*g 41 114 pWt of the tbao ln. the imm"torel fi~i m thws
U. Tebe Imrw~ "7lttle AbOlt the aetivitifs awddo
by the qes tbaLdt
* 0 *0 *9** -t * 909W0 *0 0S999 099909 0 *09

MAI~ In an mx~tic n untmase Ma&4. ?kes IN& trinn in speh wea
5. do owt try to bind4 WOUl ttitadms in
the dam'r. for' the e*134 -th a spehprbm

7.~75 per cent or the teaw z~o giin
hap to chW3drU wth Pm1

31VOry few of the teahes w had their own -po

2.Wh Pim. of a spec mticr~t dom p t insw.
the Incrase In -pec acty or txvo~ of &tj
tud of the tmvh,

133 TOMM We -LZ of their Indequacy In een'e1 orrtisn.
14* 204a feel that speeh onam work is usful an

3.k% Attiue gr fVUWA~ fOr UdtrmiV of the mia
-~x t~asw gr IdAmg speseh

%Grtcm d~b L47 and Stanly Aiinath, UwO Qseamm ?TwbrW Activiti e a ttituls fttig to Speech C~mties' gaa 19 VM MW - m =(Jn, 1954). X6WA

VANMOVth - teW If Wt Ifite go -ea but It to no )Jely to ho &U4 ONVIt*l SM a PWi.A of tbw*o ro
fto Do Haabr In a it0 of *wt Mdig to PWU ouhw

-~~~~h t h- me t

ow spoc oorciit mas fiapa ua oml"

to e wmst - W to puwsmMe20 oyn thsa f Btbm own N m fbt. =i .r of im bur' inl Isb~ timw stm~peech aslthm t =~~ ma 4gm1 fa te~ s sh mWInwsow UA th~o and the pirmt. s *teacr sIs th a aov me wtn be mpaW n WU wato to 1~ to it 1oA4 t sia& sn.t nqsto s hateas to66OUi In~1 fthe tombsaswa 40 asz~ hata the ~o

vat*s wth"' or tsmh 4aoP with Iw Act4 bsoo at %we

-J boo WhM Obl weM 2=5. O ito O ~ sUM& d

mal w ko to wtiv*4t a ~~iyn their chidra's spehtuW go. John Tny C31mAct omamse wa' th em t dea4f ch~drea hm wmewd natIsm~l rempiti and acelaiw* Bwtt SAat In -oa to this pr- 'Thaw is m o say --- that the pets daIU be
gsfore ea the trained tftsmi. Roer, it Is san4 that with m~dled, tained ammte# psme can help 'to lay the A-t-m of 1mniimW for their yugdt .'Idra,.R39 She wap hooe0 that
*Th inmem at pum~t In toacig their children wz'im

- paintig cat that the pumat of dftf dti1dren m* often sid to tar'ai the, children In AUl am; eept speec itself, bsm an eloyiot plAs for the p a4 a tacher. A* *Vw

Is there astzt abowt the teaching of speec to them s n
4eaf children, that sha4 Jmstify this .w.iptU? Or in tbw*
a~th~ng about the yaen tht u ld jawf It? Hiet~hr
rh & dgre tbat prnm have ot been gie nopruiyt
49 ll tte y be ablo to doin that, weas in as mllmv? she motiae
A oomlet tewher tranin yrg is not nome=7f~ these yae-s -W we - t being traine fmw p
femisla pmin. bu as paet who w the mot effective
tmahamin their chI14m'* live uhether for ' orwtht

39W. Wieulson mtt, 'Din Teacing of Ybg Def alirau A PhxAtw in ft~o EdtItrn' " ~~ L&~ f" gw ZUI Dlarab 1957)0 68.


Dh83M IaLwdi bas, 0MInly farbl oete abut a prom Idth th P ofsa cerbral, Wade cuArn,2 an Huol fLJ2wt Sto tht the tMOWr evAldI be bra~t into the p:~r mr in the, 112irdal tratmnt of umw -pec dioers, w as thaw 9f the

It in obuiana tbu# that paea~ tomehln a aof * sm children with MOA Oea deot. haing au or~s is o Ua
-oepe -rtjs Jt what E115134 bo the Xwetst r~ in the spose tr.1inin PrVr of the M34' wit the lo som tuwwt4m1 typs, at $900h WOW~' Alttwgh Wood to wieay q~ted an his sud of the uuarti tonduds of the mthez of c~hSn with funtiam1 atinl&. tR'y deoet he wento wt-d &awt &iue in hsmdaten thit
-ant be wwn frm the actual pmtio., of

Mat SIwOt &U th authom ad'vot. that at sopint in spvs tamW7
or "o ognaeor *=WIG=~ nm bo nai to
-r~, crYOvw Of Mr -Pft WdII into 4i v It WMU be rxt4 that# althmgi this type of usek Ig reo 4 I h -110U nt Datu of It, is USY not W7 clearl dfined.
A~mth ism spc~ abot apesh bmww in his catr 40 "O&In the a~In M hfhftS atotkow he is in

P ' Ed t ad4oe -Lvn= APMt riigPo=fraCrba

hI. a an al au *poo ewrstsuw4 Zi the tamw& SO a, lit of lt I stio w fo blig the cM14 ith a pec 4.feet at bo w

Chos an opyqiate time each 4#W for pmreo

Pgmvid pratAe iink that In cloe to the ahiAl~evelw
of deeoua and achl Mnt so that he ca suce.
X&ka Puit *"LO at speefi. time for shot
Pariod. Bemtna at the chl4A.
44 9 9 9 9 0 0 9 . * 9 * 9 9 * 9 9 0 * 9 0 9 9 *
Nevr ton1 a ch414 id= he is speaking to Oso, n

AnenAm ain sm sort of p~~ enoomnpi ue
wba v&=yj, when he sap, IBM* na, 1= ti=. sto in the ta~nm

involve the habitual an natural. us of th ew u w -~in ariayzm. life situtiost' - the Wasro mi the p~aygrw~ an at hinw. *. In ooprtion of the paet a 1e alssed to be unI*Ut if the **34 U to Xwie his go e&o habts at 1w.*46

Irit material on "H PDmIsCa Hl at Hmw Is a*of the

lowe 4 Iwo of this matter* Ater quting Wood an the v~ablit~r

Ainw~rth,,&RIQ(Nm Yorksentuie-~ ~45tnley Awrth, 'Spee~c in the im," 22&&W i
46VfrZ:1 Anwmo M. ( t. 194-&54-

vf aww n t.Pvn frm Attotig -pec Coreot�i Pocaur*eat boe, xrIfri "31 ~

IHeer, if the parentsar a ble to h.Zp, the thumpat
shul aM 4istriate and a~aki wat tAGrdu ca be iasd 8m tm Would alm be spent :in t~hig the qulfedpM
hmto be th clinc 4 at h~. . . SpeechmebosW*f*

*unl use aaese.a tad at ..eee*, C= OOO*rU C CC

Befw the tbws plc"a asi~ t in the zoteobooks hm ,er sh unt be mz that the paen i able to he2lp.4

cusiM hw~iz-p~w.treatishjm, state that ":if at all podls se vM~ waist their epomtml bece at .wtain at"" of the carreti Mocw, hm comw 3 is 1-tr im tIn hepiM the

*114. to establsh fim the ne ihat he U3 learrig

1ter, -icssn the -m of Pa-m ste ' to &ho car-~ at 1ae, he ad:

A ston wr of cwtionis� neeex~, hamu'. Nucla
cani bomm hI, artificial and ver
to the ya~ sfor u thw ae~ plam4. Thy ab24l not
be aqoe rigdl an If al2tIue ar se o
seecp cratc fedM pd4m o resut. In .4rl 4 scoo sitatswe proabl better tha m sitain are

wit yo~w *ldens te Wathseustt i "nall awe VtAO~

4imi, 237. _.,141

4datiwtbe PUIatS Should be brought We tUs pictures to contim the SP8*Qh drill* In a p ~ayo~ at haw.00

It V=l be noted In the abow that a plAy ispow 14 wa l becms @@iwta&t CM*wsti*U Or Mgin tms to pouein the chld4 a a~gtif. attittdo tood speeh. BMW,, Van M-e ew= that fth pmaCft =d ta r at the asm 4.ftiW cnwirt tb~r rdd

Oftem"U4 wpms a few NIIi if4ad ad ivi .ewtsLIA razem soh
4-051' Hem dwevlp the 3atter of wSpqh Oamr~tss in the H= at VVtar 3.U in a laterapter in his text:

19= of theSm obseemt�i hold for pwarental.
Mhe paret.can sol be ued in the begiming gtq of trat
Mid, The ta to be too baty, even when they Ico wa to do.
The history of ps fai3~jr. in spec teshingted to hlit

of Cm" nu -aens to whm th*W bu do : no p, oeAm
of thm have dow eelet rinedi&l wok, but armel
they W*in the miawity.

[B3m 001 -mh hm coea i s n Wif the tratn is
to be efficient. . . d4s these cotrec the tece shmid
*end - Bj kmw to th prn. Tbm oh'deOTr

W6t Zsnady and Car in the 1947 edition of 21RA tl-a

mrD~t that wthe 143i 3 WxLdnt be =We omm of his defect lost he be -- mgmte tant n.t L
~4to .aatizz the defect So &aw ot ZIIZ*g attwntioa. .

Binde mMr Scott axid J, J. -hmq. II W (At~nat Vtbeu htidy Co.* 1951),, viii.
-5IVan MW, MIC M JO258.
52II m37-Me

3w'w* he ~iabo be m~ected to spn t4Ie a speh Obinwot'k 53

In the 1.957 .diticm of 2M g the outosi

Mith r~ww to s an ith pareU son this uIo34
be dmboth and in gr~. Th pwnts of the
aZ134 wth the pomini spec or beqi s1I1 be give .amo sieal repn~lt in the prg.m Tbe *mA be advse
to set, -,t fewmir~s eac 4z to hl the chiM in k

to do, an jitm matns htntt o

Warnig ahm4 be givn nt to nag the child4 but at the -om
t$m to imixt that he vwk an pJoba &ud &"~ +4
bt in the oa a and at ho.A

Vivian Po, whw std with HiLise mi the effect of matrai upo at&Pc1atim is amot a clam&Uio n the ti*]AO55 Ui Is" spcii in her oomuai' stating that whil the -pehatvtcas Is

prv4 reponsble for the corrctio of funtia"1 ariuam

dofecta, *Th chIldt paet ian his, lasrom teaoh us hew, mthe.IAJ Iapm-tt~ z'olss to p~y.56M We&W mins RO remeb .ike Va dp, that the paetssould not be empoted to tec in the en~

-tgs of ta, but tha~t #a" wna the .h=4 vmPefxin the

spj- pttrrswith eeS the wwto mw sent asst to

ON Ki ai0 _Mo 'i bbbl�tti f eh,

54&ibewt Wet If.rle kmebezry, Arm Car'r,Mt& aAW g
JR h(Mm York: Hu and &vthuaw, 1957)v .3Z-J3
557ivian Roo and Robert Miim, nThe Iffet of upon~m

56*% &fb77.

-1i 1 1100t~btION wich they n.t uM" IM cRO with the

-0 A qmestin, redn stwaes, -d PU1bg telephne.

Ulasbeth YlIleaU Sqnrio of Spec and Hern nw for the StateNitm of fteinof axo, advocte that "fo pr mz7 chIie the oaetion of the prets is eseial Upo-t. Fifteen ndmte pmtice a day X-fr~ in three fiveamte pe~ wkwiu4A be gur@*5

It is doubtful tat the pareta r In ewl the fttlal ariultr deet has ben clearV mtabli1ied. It is aoutl that the PWt role IA pweeh teayfr this type of deet has been 4~3w2v da43 natd. That the pai is exmre to p~tcpt in at least the car-ee eh of public mscol, speec is, in Verao an acepe poiy The effiay of this peis. ha not bean

In s he Jele of the Agooh erA hearing pvfaes.

Rt io the p~pee of this study to izwastigat. the efficay at a detailed pr of - oIMen.spec-omwr st.

577vian no* "Follow-p in the Gormetion of Functinl A't$lao

5OM~wi C.. )aceaias "Evalaion of the ZfastcwUve s of the Sec and Hezd Teer Lu tho Public Shos,, 21jp

by the palic oco tiwapst to a gru ofhlde receiving s.efh

to be Ftiae d41l by tbo ohld ith* his pvb. hesud wl attmp to r the foltn usin

to patcpt in~ ti" eperiet?
2. b ,wbat recent *ad for' how lon did the pants tav47

Patc~ts hain 00wtw. tba4"VI to such a Pnw
3. Wftw the reaso a o et se hide to vah a

4. Was there awtatictn diffeenc In the

=umt of seech Impwt mae by a gru of children who receive m* a a9 cag pr to & mthed eato gri of chil4rmn vh did tot wmciw the


iftY abildrmn in to public schol of Dade Ommys Florida# ON SOUt as p~t4 i uIA3.t for this stuy* 2h a--Wrn that they iIOAd bire ving spec thq flor funatiorl ari CUJtor defetel in the pabicoc s ol pa. ain that they *IA not have had previm -pec theaW ince speech tbeaW for this tape of defect is initiated in the third pre in Dade Omty, it W ddeI4.d tbat all the poeta subjects would bo Ostod frm mn third-Owie mhlrn Itwsrqie, f~theo, that &U the wzb~ects bume Wsia1 h1r)& and be of normal 30si.

(0i febru7 6, 1956v & petition van m1nitted to the ommttee for SPMI4 Tmt dei~atod b~y the Board of ftbli otrto ato Dade coity.1 The eCumttee ated favorab upo the petiti wA 0t forth its zeq~ete in a letter dated FeInma7 20, 195642

7h* avmV dai.1y attend&=*s during the ith of Sq~ter,

1956, in the uetary schools (grades an thwzah six) ofW Omwity

230 Apendix A.

was 6982 ch�idrn.' During the first two weeks of classes$ the twewy p~zb24 schoo asech tbaepists surveyed 12,242 child~ren In 303 third grae alaroe and found 1,837 children with speech defects, wislus enough to be *1i.Able for speech t3erW. (It Is of interest to note that,, of this nmberv 717 ha 0317 defective sibilanto VhIle another 368 W d 4ff�.u~tr with the sibilants Plus sm other sund or sowxls).4

fte proosduw. for smmeeing the third grade children ws the am Wiiah had been establish by the coptive efforts of the De. Cmty

-yec thmrpists in previous yaw. The smeuingws aore in the lid~ivida third gos mlasro. The -pec thex-aplst wrote the folw Ing seness on the blackboard4 and Man~ readl tlm 4m1 to the children,

a. Standupto spell inchool*

b. So the zebra at the moo*

*. Lt th girl ply with the bell.

d. Mother ha thirty4mo teeth.

*. Wo Rogers rid" his horses Md e

1, Jack went to the show,.

g. my sm ____ishhchild in turn wea then reputed (L) to count alod frm. am through ten, and (2) to read aloud the above muitexes.

3'nthly Attemldance bepor, Dds County Public Sctols from the office of Jms Rice,, Ditrector Stdent Wlfwe an Attenailnce - .ii f
4HObort frm the office of Mfrs. leave Sutter, Asistant Director of Special Edct~ion Dqpbunt, WO County Pudblic Schools.

After this wezaz In the clamercoi had bown .mpated# the
theistca their next, visits to the sme inter'vseved ALl thms
Obi4e wh they believed to bwve m;eaes dofostso They adistez'ed to esibsu .ah 4 cWd a am slabmt. speech test emssi of (a) ealnr (b) pstum waattrn test* smid (o) mai reaing fri one of the ds124't own shad bo.s
Ot the bowe of the mdnm owrniig toot A the OMpn
retosto the pui ewl -pec thersats then ieW p thei lists; s tbiadpCm. .h13dm Wm thy samu" for -pec thszW for tUs 1936-.57 school yeaw,

C. ~~ La "toa h-M~
After the M3UAe in third~ ds o been alested in the abeve
-ae fer theraW in the pubic sheel, pm io - titan prgr the I wiiiterI t with the thert and secured Am thm the lists: of the abildren wh they ww ehe e s ftm whic sujets hr this study would be * m c- wm thi s3mted, an the bowns of (1) havift a sufficient umber of children with futirl awioUtory Speech 01 esta, (2) involiz* the usO3est pinih~e nmer of -h--_ t- and

(0) msting the aproma3 of the Special Testing Cositte. at the We. Ownty Bor of PubLis Inetn~wtias

The director of this study then, uad au f01km3tWith 444h Of the prineip3a of the sohools tUm selected* The PmJ3.t we exlimd in detail, and the principelft 11, mias to cnutthe std in his wsbee was sougt. AUl of the pals1* t wr contacted pvw their pmu- a1mm s rmiet

Oni the Owmmi visit to each scooels all thers thir6..p'd.

children who had been listed by the public school therapist se having defect. of articulation, WW MWe i"v1ual by the Witer.
1. hgch child iw give a, swee test af hearing an a Xsdeo, B-1

Aaiiimt~anu all frequencie fr 250 c*p*O. to 6PDD c-poa.

inlsiwt at an Intensity level of 2D decibels. �1tha

each pricipl Un .WYCOPeative IR 4ss4FAM the quietst
rem in his buiding for this testing,, the zamsIn mot

-go WW rathe noisy. It IS believed, tbmrfaft, that A sorsenIng level of 20 db, actual, zoqreted a rather high standard of 3'dging hearing aty. Any child uho failed to hear twuo or awe freqmwios in either ear at the establis!-d level for the sweep test we elinzted a, pmsiblo, subjet

for this study.

2. ani this initial coact with the child, an amzntio sa it
childigs prihrs speech oras me made by the witer. To

record the remalte of this xmnain a brief form wes

adapted firm "?amu3: Nri~tzeral Speh )bcenwin EmiatiuF

as publihedin the 202" mainSo Cret by

dentitimn g third-prad. children varies so grety, it -a not practical to set up ana criterion for inclusion -0 4, v~ ject in this study a fully developed, perfectly aUgd st of teeth. If a childts speech defect cosuisted of a fr~atal Isp

and if two or more of either the uppe or lower central inalsors

511e Appandix C.

WONI' 515�D the child va excude an a subect, If the
chi~ws peech defeat included a lateAml limp an if the

1atm'al anision of air was eantind to an arawe rk

Mosvo moarswar m issing,, the child ws wwludod an

subect'. Any child with a semr over bite or defini~te

anterior ope bite vas also mtelued.

During this first contact with the child, a conversation with

hin a s held; he uas ased to count frm mn through ton; and

he was asked to repeatV etne "loaded" with the sond which

his Public schol. therapdat had inic~ated wer defective.

Because$ flor the purpose of this stdy, the child** spesech

WO~1d ultimately be evaluated from a tape recording, and

because sibilants vhich ar only slightly defective often fail

to reor faithfully even with recooding eqinr of hijh

fMelity, seeal children having onlq sligtlzv defective [*I souzds wr arbitrarily elded as subject* by the director

of this stud.

Of the 138 thigrd children caine by the direct-or of this stuy for (1) bWr& (2) pwi1rs1 speech mrns aM (3) meriwins at speech defect, 102 ur found1 to be potential subjects for this stuy. Of the children rejected, six mre rejected for failure to met the rWi4xed standiards in hewing, five for ses defect of the speech orws, tuMty-tw for having defects too aii~bt to records and three for aiscal-. leneAou - ,em Tbs rexulte awe muared in TI 1.

TA= 1


i 10 1& 8 U1 17 3. 3b2 11 9 1 8 IV IS 1. 4 2 V 10 2 8 VI 22 1 6 15 VU 6 1 5 V9 9 Ix 35 3 2 1e 9 I 8 1 7

14 2 4 I I

Totas 13 6 22 _ 3
Vaa marilg ing to hav child's badegtotd
b hil bad -a spec U pypreymusly at Uivezi�ty Of Kid ollat..

C~pwdsl pu~nts


Next, t~e mr..udin of the 1M potenial subects mee ned A Kagnordrvwth a MIodel PT 6.1 amplfier w.t# and a Model. PT 6 AN too

ta'wwptsng with an R.C.A. 88-Ami*rophozo wa used to make tie maeod1g in the various oods which the children attended. ftxm ~ "dr for :MW t of the 1,0"l Of speebh prnCCyo the suf had to be a~oe, it iw desl~eiI that & piture articoulartim test vu14 provide the beat single imtaimt for later an~vu1 soe Jdset This decisim was upported bV Sxwmf rA Miss~ Ot which .mun1z~ed that 'No * * of the tbro test the pitue not the oral# test shwml4 be p~orrd ube tetSU3g the wiutAmof chldre."(

rigbt, in awter of the no em .~w of stuies, es forth five u'lterla for' electnf icue to be aq~~ in risai testing:

lo A vwel sm shoul be adae djacnt to the zMan
being teted.
2.Th tested Soun should occor 61) onoe in w tet wr

2w # ue shoul remot wod that ar third rs

4. Eah pi~cture shoud be Used In teting olY O m Ud e i f
-n postion.

5.All pictures e1ld be of objects (ew is JU Ma
tkt -m, wit, Mmm -ou we o rdse m ited
on arau oard).?

Every .ffm't wa u d to selet pictures which mt theecitra*

Thechldren w" instructed that they would be shown the pictures "M that

6 Xthwd.4n 3. &Md &gm Milsen .g* I Iitflnoe of Oral. vug Fictoral Prwmtation upon Articulation Testing bav-1tso,"
NUCN RONhM YmgrpA I~e V (1954),Y'

7berbert Wright, 11kalability of Evabaatiora during Bai ri
*ulatiomn ad Iftmulation TvstingpW JMM fSee W tJ
MmxW~h Sqlawnt IV (1954), 21.

S**e Anstdix Do

* I


~I AI1 A




i ij
ii III






ae at the varioua schools at which meting wr held wthe folUmfingI

1. IsIt possble that Ican urt n7child in aw w f ItU7

to help hma with his Mec?

2. Bar inih tim will it take esch day?

Th dire.t of this, st4y ssure the Wat that, if theyr fe1loe the instructim in the hu a not onl1y asto meho bt&A*. as to the spirit, there wol be no Vester element of risk than �ug4 an the chbitsaugmin the defeat. As to time spn, tb ws advsed tbt fifti o twenty minutes a 4Wy vld be, reurd.

After this SWUwthe prents, wre sidr14 that,# If thay wa WmlIMn to Patiet iU tiw sa a they woul be res""t. to

answer tw qetimio (an inte.larwn1 toot sad a --'kUty jaw..tory) em to hae a mine test .f bea~.

Alhu ohly 50.9 per senat of pwt wh ba be invited to them intiW WuI2 axwro.4me at the inOtiW they m all willing to ptiite In the ax;r at =*op for am me~ vh aid th *Just 4it't hae that -th t1=.* DvAUA their abild -a me of the few with ftmrely involved arit1&i

Mos pas of the fifty~fu Wblrm r~ann o subjecs

-W tM aske at this firt umtixg to take the Uvised Beta .. rM 19" toirdnta Frm this, their Beta I.V mnwr later dtrie, This Prtilw tet In & naovra toot of adult itlgsewith &
*34in oftle which takes Into aos~rain&devw in to$cr Pf=Mss with se. Ther A- six subtests 4.ian (1) Mo,

.pl~tnd (6) identities. the intertest, ooszwatud of thewato tests i.thi the total. we.ited scores are .68,, X6, .82, .752 93s and .78 respectively. The I.4. tab axe onstucted so that the avw I.Q. is 3100 with a stardazt4 deviationi of 15 for each ag gru. 'Th stwa-c'diing sAm consisted of 1,225 Idt. mal ault prmeaat the United States Federal tdtatiary at isbrg, Pbzulaa 2w wxthors claim a earrz.1atio of .92 betdo bta I.'v9 --A W*w 14.1s, In a gru of 192 unseleoted perso frm the st.adsigs a~.1U Th test -" remunwed for this study by Peter Vande11ndo. the Diretor of the Foduation aW Vboational, (udaso Clinic at the Unve. sity of Mi~. b)esns. of it* relative xl=34ty, em.. ofWddtrtxn and bees it thertlealy gves no advntag rprtoae to the

mutof formal edction the cxwnm has ha. =a ow anIpotn

consderaiSin the study for there - no wy of preic i t theU .4ut1.se3 jl of the pment of ths Subs ee .

After the Bovid Beta =inti was take by the prns, they WM piwnted with cold of 21Awt3t k = Adult Fbn, by HLeh M. BelL. This test wS admnistred for the decip s rahe theta the wtatistiosl, vuw it might hav. in readto the pmvas Iamved JA this stud. 2W tt prvle five ewaau ma of es"an

ustnn b.*ot 31. 14xnd and Mitan Qu-vitx,
1%6)80k 2-.Tt Wk~j N ork: The Prd1LaCVrp

1. Hwm adjutmnt

2. Hlith adjustment 3. 8ooil. adjustmnt

4. MUcm1 ad~usta

The weftiicits of r.ibltrfor Saab of this chew five Se, tions of the inVentory7 andL its total wo w 9Lg .810 W .9 = .85 creatively. The noare bsed on 194 am and 27 oenbt t'bnty and fifty 7er of age -Te uan of the total for or SnI 34.60 with a standard davlati of 19.60g flor u 1 the iAuS IS 44.30 Vith a stanar az4eviation of20X1

2M Pfte wWO g1ien a dhoics Of 00PP1tiV9 th. 1n~tZ at the JUtAna or of doing it at )= and rstuz~i it in & okqp slf ~adreuw" am.lope to the direcoer of thigsudy. Nftrl aU p~uf 41=0 the latter awhd aid ol three Rwant. failed to rob= th ur try after~ rspeted regm. by teaph to do se.

Wfore they left the firot meeting. *1 the pawte ww rqso to take a Wfte tesnt of hearing on the )aico Il k~imte. In orw a-.t ftwpt one th~o o n meting wa M" in School weftomw IU wbich the various rergrtxs and ool4 st=-g units thef to Start their ~mw and to kpV thM umn for the boter pr Of th*e vnng Th tasting isv.., thewefeo ia St, at 25 deaMben;

2 N. '1 I

Aw-t Ega

the aWitWSAio for colvedam as a subjest-rmm ~n t a;Uurs to bura tm Westm fr.III&s.As in eithe r whoth sweat the test 2mm4.
Om mth and tw fth rn sluA4 bessuss of their e rg
tostal In &11 three ass both pa* at the child hdapeae and the other peret in asch of the three -" ptassed~ the smog toet f ic

An tt&1a'm-ps4. *fl~bm In the DOs Cont ptte s* we roatlusly given the Otis idk~m IMetal Abflity Toots Algm ast#, Foam I V th ec~tor of this stu~y wa nt pezaitted, ether to giv mW other �u"e1~ ws personalty test to the ehi~ren or to rent the testinat bla su.inb*"e jrdi to established Lesdlixm fir the Otis test (aW ties before the. and of the sixth w* uf od l, At this pont witha the 11; s mm of the Soesal Testing Cnttee at the Deo outy Bead at Public I the wadpale of atheA ten sumU In ich the fifty-fou ptotniasuJeots bad bown found vm amis4 to ad he lo able to the 4iresto of this study the laolgetext SOON1m of the Mhldm.en Ib m ig in the for the VW of fit-trCide
-a from 70 to "4 Otis o~alms that the - iaity for Uwe nxpVAXI test is .66 and for the vawt*1, .71; for the total~ amiM3t is Al.. Th Probable emw of the men -Is 345 points an the mon-verm). testo 3 pita n the visua and ". paints an the total sow..3 it

was deemed a4vissea to exclado. fiw thU sus~ the two children idtb I.Q'toof 7 ad 74.
?bea as poteU~tal subjects for this stuy, there revaine fifty'two children whe had been given (1) sweep test, of heaing,, (2) emis timss of the peri)gmsa3 speech orgn (3) wmn retests of speh,

to patiipte wd~ to take. tests of (1) ielgnc, (2) pr�mtyt and

(3) bsXMg*f,

IMWpomtbl., aNLle gth n the above data, to delete fr the tap. record of the orgm 102 potential sets the Up" of them forty-eght children whome parwtz had not made it posible for tbW to Patiiat in) this exermet. These rvae s a ew4 hiw

~1~to be utilived a training taps for the judges. The t~.
'd 1~ of the roim fifty,-four potential subjects if then

spee buAk togther for emg -in later judging by three w t Judge. Eah chid ua ssignd a subject, mmer simpl in the order in which his rocamlin apeae In the total seuec frm r thog fifttfur

I~cidngthe Li* children whome IA.'s wee 70 and 74 (tepes
umw 4 aed 8) an enterizng the second pag of R. A. Fisher ad F. Ittst Table of Randm "We 4in r 6, column 26 sad wakMd w , the first 26 mbrs thus emtrdwere assignd to the control grup the

Usspato~ m -Jt tn ths 0044 SOW= 1 tm Jm of

24 w tan st.4 .telt groV~ ~ of

2Db,, ui'MI mab f36

Ini oxde to poid -a bals of.i~ of th
In &st2ts at the boimL SAt at tba en of this aeimn, It
-o d4s44w that s% *1)4 alm bs asm an Me~ boo vms his peraomm m s xsmm at Us~ Picumle mrltop 4 the b"*mn mA agn at thel of tim - Z A d4WO A~mmn tat the mthm~o 4C- aW Pns Px a m m bo that -Aye by Imet Wood in hbs *Uq. Wo u+:wlymt
* mmu4m val to sea lom-nt bs"s Aq TrvJ~ s~ of th fo WVT of o~ura of 4as bor in tim run;n dioto st ebiwz
*aSw a tOL4 'as formob imd and xwel divim" tih va by threes to 4ets ui m 1*v2=i tim (3) Wtiml, (2) miial ir w ) find fre fr eels lIr*.d of 2 *NO u~of 2W f qu.* th rmtim aml I w~is "twain %y V*vgta &M]W the yVIOUM W& Wociwi sond as~ :bur JA bos taki.
Ob ..& smmsa f~ the tli "Jectg in t std WW 4AMMIXmd *y O~~s fho M thmo v&Uli (4sn by U"s) VW wbc tamv. Is a I-u-o- ai a Somot S~m by tam *q 3udgins awto & sounds ln.-totem

U5Ibw, *A ft~ of ?wut4 and FimctU~

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hSwr i this abldyt te "jW416 mot for a v j s90, At the fUrt SMONM. the tq* moarn at tesbiddls ie me reading SPPW thw in the a iWasa PmUs st Via ValmnwS*of Via was p~v ~#w jadeo a% I2 E d mW
*ec-M-4M 84, au M7 M agps naatvt A us1tie. Tt.17 U th JW~Aft hI bass , a nt4m 41" 3.24ftf which te, J04900 41000010 the bo"s Le. thodr vaA-w Iwg~k A tat4.t41 adls, t thes PrII2 3OOM 00 Wt= At the -wn tmnn -"lm u& thu P %*4A vhab tq. neodin at tba ub - hu boo. Mdot vfofq were $o ot ten 1Mmdron Aft 3.4 bee. pam~a 3ej*0 but ?A vil no4 t own a wmbots beW Utim wl b"A uI" beew vIng~ to pudpd in this stdy YWs 006 dd4, Saub jap -0ase to indoatbote
r-t'n1 ditfisrit awmfa In & tat4 ofstr-o peo441.. m oetly or inamstl pemod ft, than =aA* a totai at si
s'ad Sigty Judgments eh judge afte bing the to
~ ttheme ton no-atielt~n chiudrsa.
3b idilste tU pmeemtop ofapt 0 mI thu tiz

14n 3uie. e the Dfs. 4ogm in Opog Mhulx , -0 he tim In ftshIwtin, andU othe ir has a MA. Im p~A Quwest~m with Owr wor fiihe taar4 the PhoD,

(N krod Smt~ Feromn, an eM w 9~



62 65 65 65 2 62 63 62 63 3 41 59 0 4 60 60 60 61 5 66 68 66 66 6 64 65 67 64 7 57 59 65 58
862 63 67 63
9 56 62 62 56 10 55 58 62 58

f5 66 605

Of 85586.47 92.5' 8.97
Poyalsi 680 _ _ _ __ _ _ _

thW acorin to the Pracahi tice .ad of ths DW* Couny Schm System. Fur children with sinwa. arti.ulaum roie thIS thW *=KtU Of ~Mo* instriwtion, given om.* a week for bivnty

mimtest gerwwaly In grup of throe -or four cbfldron. Although techniqes mw7 vith the diffarnt, theraists. there is a peat deal of aromt amor them, sm to tkwz'epims and natoriss used. eaCh ?w4ey aftenmmn. all the -psc therapists Mt for' Plngs fier Steering and prepring Smterial, for record kmepiDgp end far stdy 4Qi Friday morninp, eah tradt dovtem his tim to--1 with ParmU lin am a*f the snchools wich he summ
Th beentr'-dx subeti In the - wgnt4 received
mot3ay tMeswprga ar of c corcto In a that the cmjtrels 4i4. in addition* kmor* the parents of the ddzvn wi n the

mperiita o receve in late Dome a letter imtifyizng tha af their' SIpnat to the omp w. At the -o tIm they mO Snt a SIst Of p sta for iWaWizg Wmt their ohimm an the speec hmm* amdiinnts.19

In the fizot week after the @ritea vacation and for sixteem oinomtiv wms therafter, the public odmo apeesh thqdstA ga to each child In the mg , so a eaLAd envlp at the and of his apweh lemon. In this enwiope wsan imtiin Vheet far the peats giving a far-b a po of speesh bomok and Vm vii the iMNc7 *41isated =t&aWala s0047 Of a SO net=**

Both the Imatriaotian dsets and the pmetime material, im desiped sxA executed bV the %witer. A 4w4e Of the sixteen

oo~~su~~3amsan the soun '1 am be fourm In tMe annx2

In the sesled ounlops there mw &l... "ftrwit Upwt rom too bo fUe3d in "oh vook by the pw~t end ret=Wm to the p*&o saboo Weemol therapist.21 An &Wds of thoe repwo TAU be fow Un aptor M.

In order to hay the .k mwwkt e t the noodo of the Ind$4aI rlen in the mWeimetol Vvw the director of this std wst their shool cerrestioists .aoh 7ri~q efteruom &an 4iwse4e idth them th*e oildreal'e pavss and their neefs for the M.1edziM veiL

K. m~v

After' the diviim of the fift sbjects Ivto the, esutzo). poy ant the m~smnt. gro by t.he use of the table of rwndm *=r., totstla wwo applied to test the safomof the diffmrono beoesi the =mof Uthe &rs p w in rgard to (1) the LQ~f* of the subjecsa (2) the dr~uAtias ome of the subjects, and (3) the Beta lSQ*'s o*f the subjete' Pwmnt&# MM"e VW nosqpiio 4iffwroe bei m w the tw grq in mW of the tests o1aorM as Is dw In Ihbs 4, 5, a" 6.

Since, thr we different -on fr mam end ftr foul an the SOU) k43U~tit Inuntey, end sine the total moer of prvnts WON GnU&64 it was wit b1iwmd that therimw a eufiictmber

2%ee #wWmiiH
21t Antpodix I.

TA= 4

RMA -~ 0- ( r rt cotrol 94 82" IU*W ).5* 24?7


7A875 5*0 .


W.?= HM5 5.5 L,

% 4iwtdferne

of 4ther mdse wr fml. qm si to aimi a va.Ud tA.ite xa.3si& at the test. 7he resuts vii be dissumsed in Chapter 1m1

The S~ variable rauinez as the mi2y varable to be onsidered in the flinial, tii2 aezuiis.' gmeoe itwa decided that the t-eatl would be appied to toot the iniio0cam of the diffoemeu bbtm the aswof the rtloulai� MmInat

-cre of the subjects in the control &ro and thae. In the awi mental p. The I5pt'oent, cr as ocPAted for~ each subJwt by sibtacating hi* articuation ecmv &t the begiming of them si*ms frm his *tsat iawe at the wmd of th ax uwIxnt*

After the siztemth kamisrk asis4t a been coplted by the ehbildren m~arent in the mg atai A& ru, the prnew a.4d to evaluate the PrOJet Wing a gsimre mont to tbhf by the director of tbe study. Thir repnss ii] be 41w4sa In m in*

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A pxt~l no to the qmtion =q be foun in tiat SrO of PWM ml Ver inited to partl c pts t but who di o. Itha 1rId bom puinted out that 49 of b 1C2pl of PMS Inited t.

-= to 4L 41ting to 41WA their d1d1o spec did m m. 2W ba redve & le.tter fr the 41etr at this std at Umg1 a ms RtoW 'to OiW mWad=wi& wavrmned by a tepm aaU frm the off.. at the prm of thidr ohidl oeo m the day of the meig EVO 0% & ba4hIX of the PUA So invited didno

31now tbaewen oal bewe m VIJ 0 Mass mmttm~frg puwj he em oay eco3wuo4 to tJh.1w

bane bee. lw.1wi4 4Ux*~ En'.~m esuayof 20~6 dd1drn with dysI&J emmadod tat tw w so deftoto of arid pbtm ~ Isho

-6 TM %7a of the adam eet m dre -,t. - this sdmIi ImmlAd no onm ~ In a dommel pqae in

I-4 of - aeisft So p The .Ipai of th school ha Mdated that the prnswould ftil to Ww b eWS -0 mw theve ww aR&Y4 beae the atnow at
ftrer~osTawher A*6UW h* be pow. In scoo rb IV MI tlwe. Of the thirteen paet invited - to the meI.
1. a WA OW sedm in a 4ist't of mmU o3Ad hoe d om

bul ofce hmar

ZWW f at mtre both m0b0a1 mu*W IX In idh OWa of

&U -y at the invited -aef repri 4am xw of thi al fra mrb bw in rotitd amU weba .ra It can o at bas onl an ir~w tha In this patiuli std In f Cowy, norda the - OPW tr Pua pa In Is 10ofC4

Thiln e 10C hI-COAD of ~u stts me
-et br the arms f best VWta"N0 the list at omtitalad lu UMl 7 dewstot mom to Impl that this Patiuwa p'.vp at p~ws we uIa- t shuld be natei, hvr, that an

zna of the mohers were tIW -l as"meie- It Is Peabl that aW at the sebt wwee Wm to 414cp~ Ud no dos become thy vw empoydatf their w om s em flt that th

I* ism for the -P~~r4 we lsted baw In Tob. 7.
Alha tb - vo c 'dws * divrsity In th taubr =d
Mbf of --o-s m the paens of the ujects# ter - Utti. nq In their ups.* 1~4%d of the -ef wo In the 303 up bukts fifteen mer In the 405 ya grip an 6 three w under thirty- w at o* p o m upis fr tha Wxy.wPrt is &t I ub3 .


Wan" mpim Baker C40tr"tor
Doooratoir Foromen
RMtu7 Optmotriat
F"Ubmlogi" Salami 's q vdX*AjNdAjnt

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mowvu o ARMo mm

%Mgndto tb. Imb in~to bla -ch plu blUS 41 %=dmdto tbw h am a Mtrt 40..o ftsigetow itb BdUJ. depge.


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0 0 0 20 34

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awwp s in sInub to th -M fo we


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ft mWA a rfde to -t~ #" qImmzm be 4. lot

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40 -OMS n-bm 49 abst at pmtg erfy

Uat mo m.Vm of paet b~ mpom thi 133 _ et %MA fifteen to tmtvVW s aw 4ob go 11 1 mw if b Us swr m~ o p.wA awr~dhr~ rsoxm e

sbdl~, mbm**wt th oq.I of U latvk 0

th4 th =Ur tail wa-iv tb* wtvity a am 4s)4 (wi
mfotuatly & tb*oyw4 tI7I* to mtc M.s OdMS' brt

As Aw -o fo -ot -pb am - a the
tb pretsA -m~ at st n about it vptdUx In Mw amu isot rdat ~a

-e Dual hM 9L maloss

Thi tbidqt m rase iSS . Ift waethe retm of
VWMA uAdd4iwm to vac a pmgrs After then aitmt binwk
-N bd bm miotd th pos r of the dblldxin the

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p~~~~ A~ I~w it 1 1..n -'
belid (X) *"t th. ddlmade mat I S01 (2) tat

(3) that tM ObiS seoe the Uinin* (4) that tsim m tUM at tb*, (5) that Meb a ~PM *W24 be aftimnd tow a f'41
Ye tr ehlrnvtha om sm dhU (6) tha the aMbdA' t~t4 POOMt did no et n U OW ,~ (7?) tha tiwma st* sa - mt mw eism skLU& Int &Ui . a w~is tt

(9) thet tho *MU2 rebu4W 4siaftdn the bmw* o4y' =w W

Um fmths ad P~t JO~ Vsf~4 uton In
VAO wo thit a tbr aw stus g-. MEMOi

1',~4 web064 tod qII sexf r a gt at ehlam %to IP l f 12It ~ 41 rf dAis oa thmpl&al - jpN om

At the b*SL=r of thU WVUn *gab of tb fty V~* m- salaw an wart1t sm mal Ubsdog saus Of V*J 4 irMJ~oate fsrU MIn aww w" ar m 1 mig i jIt ~m I I -, ati th 2Am =U tio taWme in aL gatu, =U4& tios test. 2bre 3 Judg tem~o t. tim ood1pw~ Mpm.t* at atmew 'r4;ht' w ege *md lii bt poL Umo I" no - d~ft~m. m* r tima no ati aw uat.

-m at the eousl an the mqmmn~lgopa wa 1n~otot Im

Atw the Acot bmwoi* loom bod barn od* by t0, chi1km in th wvkmo pvh U fit of tbo bdU~mfs m

Iapwmmm - s z the pltro -A the judpn a to the coet vwio c ornd wm a~ u byr the thm mq

-adss. The t1 -ao mo qp~n oo4.~d ug~ 1bmd tabi. ofvlus
Inaw to detalo the o~rflom at tbo 40"t q~ Ik o wot me" by ts hilre *1 .in bth the ontrogrw at sioL In *ue...a to the 41Umreoo bow the =~a of te~ n omm and the =nafth f~n

Am imt at the me per ot 1IO4 of 6OW34M TWO 4~t prsne In at ms 19 and UD

umEI 29

4mia* t the a*pw 0" eva a owndMm


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?ebamry 6, 1956

) Ma amt Gilkey

275 L. W. Seon Stee
MIJ Floida

Deow Mis mikmys Mr. Sutterr an Mr. MAirtw

By far the larget gru of chie with wbm w wk in spec Gliic mr in pubic schoo eaclorcippo sta ru wihi wbeidb umta ricuat7 idrot is, a spec disrde cued by fot lea~ rathe than by az rii inolete It ha bow asmd but neve acual tmied that the sor% roction of suc speech deets is expdited wearet ar u re tie. pore at ham to -apor the work of the speec.Ia pa. oev
-om vi ~wities fel that not only don suc paena "W maenora difec in th -ore orom fiPoams b hti Watal hinder - U00h6-adytahn nteprn~ atc
(2) the stting up of rmemtiw attitude twr spac m the par of the

Aa cadidate far the PhD. d9e at the Vzhiistty of nr"
and wIth Xw3 maoinSpeeh Pab g and my mino In Edcta I hew abeam to inawstigte this -rl and to report upon it in wdeal diwsetct In orer to hem this rsea as relisticas pssil, I shold like to imetgt it a prbl inanctlv utad school. sytwi MWase thatOf ft cuny* It in in this -eItim that I = -in the faoun reus.

a resarc proat a ect asn a~ ***tcou fDse ounty School Cid Um pjeat vou4 be set usp an fola:

(1) At the Wegizting of the school yew sixty thr-rd chilzAre -bo bae hfetli*3 ari~toy disordms would be selected fr stdy (Ttid grd has bwa .lsted becuea of the reqzAreots of this study is that the eckdAre shall not hae had speech the~ re viouly) Cbdldrm with sIfoi~hesn loss, structawal devitiw, or mntal b~ir Mont noldat be includted in this study.

INaUp 2 February 6. 1956

(2) 7hes sxty children would be divided into tw mK uM of thirty,, go evnl aatd.s possible for age, se4 intellignc ad parental

(3) The mpqrJnt43 uoup of thirty children would receive seeh therqv In astly the -a -vws they nowceve it. In addtion, the a641401100 of the prents would be sght for addit~onal pwi as nIzAleted, by the -pec thmrepiat..

(4) The control group of thirty children wuld rseive speech therq~' in mawty the snwAasthey rxr wseeio it, but there woldbe Ohtk"r assiiad which would rod~ jrutal a'.4Wv~msS or

(5) The thftrqms involvd. in this *t~y would, be seleted frm the regular Dade Cvwnty -pec coreeii.t wh wA mest voddy with the director! of this study in order that the V'opw mIit be -s cloely so.. ordinstod as pouibe.
(6) hch thevilst iabuded in the study Wa4 work with &iMldzw from bot V win harder that the study should evabiate the factor of
PWWt~aasistance rather then the relative effestivees at ote thireplat with anther therapist,

(7) At the, einn of the study tap xe'ings of each cild
muld be ma* ad emluated by a board af *emtL-j people with a doctog. a o at ast a uagterv dem in speech coecstin.

(8) At the endl of the study tap recording would one spin be ame, md 'atd by them. -a mort as to the mt of IWM

The finding of this study should m it possibe to do a better
Job of speech theapy with that large grou of hildrm 9 mot awed sach srvice. e ince the results wu be published nt on]2v in the dleugrtatiap itself, but lso In abstracted fam in national prfessia jounsg, the benefitsI Of the study would be usde anaila&e to children with futwt~cal ertiw Alanm defeats tbroughot the United State.

I iould pedI&at w ca'uu'rin my renet, and I sall be hWWp to mset, with you mittee at WW tim if furthmrlwfnta of AV reut is needed,

0111m L, Sa
Acting Director
Speech and Hearing Clinic
Univeity of NAIsa


.Acting Diretor
ftooc Aid Hering Clii

7ho eamtt. for spcia totug In the Dd County pu~cshol

St*1y &avig tUm 1956-57 ohmYesar of a of 60 thr ge
4ddrnhvin fuwwt~mo1 41asrders Nosds a
bowaft in tom of theight a* in aw letter of Nebwy ft.

usheaittoe 41w.. to this apoa ihtreqafc&
Z)Tht the sU~ shm14 be cnucted under the suerviio
ofs. Iw, Sau tter# Asistant Dietor of Spcm

2) That the .laeuais reaied in this, prjc be shard
wth the Dad Couty *Wmeus .tms, and

3) That the study be centered in ..he.1s with Pqd of
&m oooni stiau see asIn the a of Mig
hwt glaunr Schol or the Abmn~h Umww Scool
MW emmit~e. ce to yuits bt wishes and -oe that the remlts of yaw fidp will be haepu1 to yo pumnmI2v in ya uht
wokaespeially hepu nou okn with chiZ~wua inth M

Comtte for' Special Tetn in the Dad Couty Public 5~Sch


1.~ 9ms by tON4 m i' vatdwI p rtb Im a

a. . ... .
20 aI U N . . 061 !1U ant lall .... . .cd" M g-Z77 . N SW. i

(2) OMw of of autwLu

(2k) Otimo ntro

(3) cddS ot


(2) Qavetwist�. position at twin umath *vdMz root

(3) Si . M. P,,,ti.. of att . ...t of ..i... fri ..

4. LPs

(1) Ibiabmew
(2) Ootat 4uwi, re st an
(3) Adquc of labialtluu

DmI tl of-, 0-.e htl7t of heNw r1U WI

ao iUps

()Number' of times subject can say "psh!' in 5s~ou*i Trial Is .- final 21.ww" tial ....~

(1) Nuimn
(2) AMi~ty to pUkt se ~
(3) Ability to allnto tongu-Up ctole , (4) Ablity to 3*vmto t*V*-tiP b~al ItI

Speelfyr 4,wian that Im Jui*g to be

(Do nt sp.if4 them. that 7mi 3UUg tO Me~ Off.St OR p Oc Other Evaluiative Conta


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Dowr W. and1 Mrs* .

I shmwlike to a s my apreiation to Yqu fr yw SpmnIdid operation In he1*dx us act up ow researh project in speech ooz-ectio. TIs rather long d.1av in getting the 11rwit unmw has beon came" biy the Vsstt diffisuity in finding sixty' pumats ike Yweelvs wixi were sufficiently interested In their chldren prove to Pa-iipt1

Me children w=* divided into the aesrInt4L gro uwd the eOntr~l aPO an the basis of the minJus teste adadnistw"d Yur Youngster hmas been plamed In the ex~rimetal grop. This maw that you will be inIaled In the gru of parents if will be nsd to help the speech tbzwflat in hr tembift.

FINh Week YOU W112 rmiwv & lesson plen to work an with yaw' shld; the firt 1mmon vii be rt week. faeh wek, ale., ym vIi jr~m.v *littlS fa for reporting to -w the smunt of t~m jy wern able to devote to teechizg your &dld his or her speesh lessen. If , for MW Tn*Me M a ertein. day or days, You fIzul that ym caaixt or did not wm MW~ tUM with the lessons do not hestate to say so in the report, We 421 see our send intentions go astraq now and Um, wa coo of the

~pemOf tlis u~.rmnt is to tU7 to detozuiw just hin uxib tim the average parents I& devoted to the ty~e of speech hamom w.#r.

A Aj

j, I



puw and the children out be a psait n, This ill afI an ado amt~ af pa w an the pua prt at ti, but 7o -eUe wil be. rere tth tho Ml~d who. -j to IAM* For~sd
2mdj eeeia in mOWng. so Os. to usw w am"sb

=w at~u~ -rd= uam bad rwAU#6o
2. In ow m; 1 dwlgop, w %M oni ourin cor '4mo the
ditds, sech to those .4. qds ~ wt amdd ech day for
the teacin yez1. WAiS tQDV vi] be a little Wn t for mho you -e ya -a~e bgni to ake a little pvsw mtll have the w. to aomrt him each and mvy tiw hemae the
- .r norety This switnt sotion ME -ao vWbellio
6SIt ofe! lon tim jw~w~~- iptand ho WId. sp umkin

We %M mpl . : In detail to thm uts b to msks sahf su=6~ This is in orde that ym'U- feel im wetain about ubt jytre
doing and -echn. We do wt, hooeer, believe tht it iA VIse to giv tbe chiIA dhmol a lot of direwtl~i abut what to do with his

UI, togue let" M2AMlz - le=x to spek pdailb hib the vord, and w bells"e that a~ those id make soum

inaftmretly ado th. best and th. most pumt osa-etimn throuta

the sme of h2A

4. Sow - 'time'. ho31W in lear'ning spue seas is provided by the

mm@ of at sih.I=e in oery1 loomq be m ymi aft so

there i& = Sood light mM Lave., s~~ayaround the as ot the anth. let yor w xgw sit sothat his sv*4mO Is at ahut,

the lowl et iwu chi.
5,~l and fiilltwz tha we havw gien eah exec a :oe ANO Is the ~Wanae' 1, dP -*00Is the ft.-qisA*~ swa te, Ini vwn ith

70 youngter* Mo. thes tamn Mot of the tim, Tat hJm asesst, a .tii mtan of p.6tt'. play th the 0='Wtisne I, tAV
sl~ we am wiig anl 14 an the - a- a wrs and he

sap Instead atof "11, OW444 yi ay, *I idbxt bear w ami
an thatV rather then, OS!W left onf the st

6.e virite has sido *If a childI 3'~u his tacher, arUhilng thAt toulwa dame i1 be Mgh~t with the shM3A. If the oh134 dost 1i1M

his t~, the tessher doe ill be right." I think this

is a pod bIaqwto follow in wokn with ou .Mhiran~ owe

prd~m, thy sy already be overly serodtiv about tbam al we
==to in ou teadg, mae the re-2arningo the emwotions an

enjoyable s er ienc for beth the child and ouwasm.

7, V.21 tUy to lay out this retraining POMini what we fare 104 eel stepe. Smtvs, it youtr, Like I80 YM91i1 want to x"Oh ahead of the prgrm In peniurt. wete found that it's better to take eh
step slaily and be En itfe taken well, then to try to tab.
stp roodly aMd *t fall dod In ear progm a result.


lamon 1

our fist lesm in the -po reseereh pmjest is d~ote to Oser training,* Mw fm to be trained this weka those of the p"Aa the, dailrm eU have a sbilar sp nact, we*k iu 1fso tw.
First of ails lot no doibs saw f tho he c~rsis at
the soa fj wsIt Ia nmd pvud It IS a veislm omd it a&
sssm.IY ot a fine ta MOf air being Oia'ot. 4o a ~mIn the pster at the toan ma eeespin thi V a tzW qpming ub"r the vpp an4 2wer fruit tom t ma. Them atd the tue ano roem uphf e11Mug 'I to tokwh the inside at the ma teeth or. the gmrde The Up of the tMO Us mima-ny pised W3t bobld the Io t'int tet, lthmah sme poU~ mu~ to be sabl to maim a stWsfatasY A VMt the

-ot ti~p behind the WW the* teeth.
fts & sund usflnq Pew wf In we Oof mays. (1) it the side at the topww u too lmr, the air eecew wm the aides ma va hea a w3uiSa thingsing like an wdz smAu. (2) Far emwy the tumge pvtid *v the eg of the teet at 0e0 pain (WasM3
ngrthe rat)Dg sad we bea a son n lke a Uth.'T Thia is the Most
-! I e": eh 4,ftct thee is. a z'a twi ow &Wmiton of a tVat the tore Is iA* aul. the teet and that the teeth &m amwt

*oqpet~ly 43 as wo ak. the #,,
Am f ft em ear taing,, Notice tbat the Igt f. In a vwd
Lose not abnqo hav an & sound; it often sounds like go FOr MW in the foflAWAu MU-ds the IMU I has a & esmds hil3&o bIa& up# *w

Se2. e If ysi ean Jot dam 10) or mov wds In *dAh the ltter' j be& the amte-I k ji.

Onth other andthw better .often be* an I mum In tin wr4f Owitew and*l Rwi for 1rtmeo w bav to mwt the & emaiL.v be, if Iwa em jet don about 10 imuds in v~bih the latter & bowa the sound of

Chidrvs who bimw ditloulty with I Otmn mWnt uwsteot In their .rrein atiame they inmy be making the Sund corrmtlv. 2we a sound mW oo on the begiridne of a word asIn *am#* in the vdd at a =4 so In nmw.Uoran the erA &wr asin mmR tamW 2 oca In us blel ia4 m s.Is Wlawo4 Wy auwtbor .soumwubin *"o, I~* noUs Wi* Wk# ApirZr1 Xp, (w &iig Lten~ wery elaely to yw ymwtre neeh tis we and Jot datmsp waf in tdbh You heur btmm . ormetly.
Listem awd obsrv mlaelzv yo *114's, spec this wek buzt 4aitt esaweet him. Try to determivew mt2,v what be Is 4dlin that

aass n infltbel'6 j oud
L~m e and the leinww after that V=U be sont bow from sehowit vMya yeotr Wooli ym plame send the eme4o ropot from anyur ftwai-k book to ebmee with you chi 4 an the Mgt day that he bass; oil,~ and aw bim giwe It to his regular *PP ther~aps?

Tam* y" sad for yaw .oe"Mtin.

Lsavon 2

MW 4IMIl..a w&aMM (it) additi to y'mw hueodIs 16ma tho friendly snmims." WO call the a sound the 'anaksbs ni aind Sm to to be used In reviw of oa tralningo Hevoa the plant

k& d #.-- nory .M4. tLw Sin*W for about 20 or 25 ulzstos. Yu hide the Oak and after you baw bidden it, ma slogy -m a o o 100Is the jL ign-t thez .fma the letter 'some m --- h Aslwyvg
MUN .ese to the hidden wwam. m the �tm 1cadl. Itbome farter g a maMae the it moe softly. Rub time bes 1n~ it, make a
n~about wYm~ fm Sm the makto
IdJ. Play "Rid. the 8naimW iii & ulIitly different ,*To Y,0 7wmter that after you ham hidde the snake yo will min OWy b that that snmti ou will, say the k sund inated, If yaz my She San leok for' the ms, but If yui My ta4 be Is nt to loo fos' the snake. I.131 jrobably mat to hI4v the sneks bislf and tbat I* a&l right, bt d't Mkan lawnout ot hs rnucato of jet it S

kA W la- WAYRf the umk panm but today istoad of jwt plain ap Nos W$2aba (unot words) Nbsmisx4 with, &an soimms with

g~a- He". yva dxild tae an 4lA cml. book, or anold uepsine and try to find 5 pdstures of objects or p""pt ifss nine begin with the sound . but nt &. Haw hIm wA them vot. Go owr the -o with him to be - they do contain an a swi

Fig. l.--Sam Snake for Lesson 2


A"-- Me the p -e.ttu vbich he ho ot t and pay a pas as ym did cm the 3rd day. For = if youa ffmmp.t be looks far the ituAre but if yme l w ,, be do not. M JI.-~ Cast ya =ues .ad ad rW la$ peatIm fori losse thro.

lomi 3

After a we af m~ Amusks wmm~sm and hUIc ss Ita
5av u imwst1 tWy the DiA respect St. ftricko , w o all the dilbi f, old Ir1aln. ds W try rot to bo 'sm this wo

Lon= s3 1* a NbrU4' botwa the pur ar- .taning of lomm en. and tme ad the actual pr~atim ot the �L so by tm hemldren, in I a m 1a. nod wek. Islosed am tmlw cads with � somiotwem = then I m msugge1g am Swa belw In which bss cards migt be Uoos
a UK--Pt the earft In a stask# fa.. 6= an the t&U~. Mou adl yw ywnptor tak tws in dag en outd at a Um a th nm* the card# The Annm a eusW~ a the now cmver.tly smsmmo )mt say ftbeew lIstead of *"aqr SGOUIN*l as joib than Is to taon uhotim' tm "Ma it right, Or VT0 If he am tell, you ive him the cardl if not, 7W Iass" It he a ead, he -in tellsym whether aid It right W . DoIt corret a he sl it, WA It he IM wh e tbhre No r ,t m he k"im the card; if noto he S.ves it to 1W. Iha object of the Sm , o urn's, Is to se *s gat anl the earda.

&AM.m4b2f rl. tbe eafi ad~ 4Afl an .sae1 nmber to .eh I N s
Plain .a ~ '~. "Imoe ha1 ax bar ef smp* Tht v1 ,Mu giv me for' a bar of JMp1 yes' a bar of VW* I'll giv you a jip*Ah," ste, wntl ymtw trde all yor rd beck arnd forth.

hah plr keos~ his eaw4o face down. Mme he tabesn mof hs card, look, at the jstu' qdAkly maw p& the ur4 brAt bMs book In 4tea hwA*l lbon he mop#(hu *Gm& mbich hod W ino. Tau gumm w~hIj am?" US~e& g% %tat it Is** If ymanme the owrot b, ym hmp the cord; It nt* be j:mi it. L ea altsrmit. bak md fth ntil me playw bis A2l the Cl~f.

WA~ a.*-I you avaut vod up all 7w bi diu vAms bur =ohm you coul take tamu hing s,~io end than oigtm 3h oK--f You baw a little 4Ist V401 tie it onthe ad of a string. and thn tUs the string to a ps�1 or stick. Mw now hw a fIshims PO.' P" a eomman An or. POW clip an emm ol and turn th ace ownm News yn am talm tuam "flaing and det' tying ya Ofishe" Mw. pin will stisk to the mpt.o �_t mgo-U U3ot ~Sk poe bis AUl the cords and put tbm In an *v4iznr7 peer saik. Cns the seek and shalm the eaxds. Bh slayer in turn dames his .ous awl rouehe in far a .sar4, pills it out, modl ads the other to "Ihum what it isV'
MIS obJest in alU thawee. is to etiwalte the dild to b the diftoeso between, the riot andwl ws fetust ofaC),* Dwt tX7 Yet to a him ow the u'Inia loarrnmwt. J3at startsu nsxt 1041*0 See vm tblen$




I a ~

Fig. 2.-Cards for Lesson 3


Fig. 2.-Cont.

lso 4

It a good foudatin of vexrtaim " has been prvied it
you yonst em tell, the liftfme, almost infalibl bemem tUm right ad wrong Leun of th, swd #0 ws w rftd this me to hM yaw ch~ld begin a om m ntvste pr to l3aw how to Usk* the SOn a b1% a". Thi fWat 2ss"m wlu be Eawute to Wz~g the it *1M in isolation sad in "W1abes. but MI In wrds* Us feutty w of MWin & in sommol v&Mmcrd is, Aad4 so t~ily f that* umMi he has
-a ptatit. in mW the sound slams andi In slleblm# pw7un UM llamost 01tim- make it the ism Lu I fmlii wrd. Wb wil pmosed to a Lw berni & wzds In ou nex~t lemi.o
For the first tw fty w u mt you to prastiews the followng
rotine with yawy tr~ at 2eet twice a, ft for about 5 uimto each tim. Bq tO lai Ov b~, "I went YOU to lUste to As WY, V= Ms 9021y. Ism going to touch each finger an vq left hand and ms I tubc it VUl makes th sunao Tha to I'll =Ub the it son 5 tbms. go sith tim, 1911 point to za an then M =A tba, sondoi.M that'sa UP (do this 5 tim) U1w listen, to no apn This tim I'll OW 'pW an Nq finwstr and the sixth tim P21 p t to ymand yms 'ph."l (Do the sa thing then with the syliablest &w, spi, j * M%

Ona the 3vdo 4th, 5th, ad 6th dWOyA p* ' ckmW with a qua sbwke boar& ?es'f ntism that *a&h mebece" lam a deubhle sylable OR It, SGae 404i 'oh, - Wh or Op. - re.' Bach tse neither you or

Full Text




tfORMQBDCHBRiDI IhB uriter timOA XUob to ms^e^m his vinon* «ppir«ci&tion to fr^mmr fi* P. QmmtKcm, vfao grtoioiitly «lted to his dotlM BmA of «bt tpmA P tl prtB O ut tb« additional woark requlrod to mm m ilbtSamxx of tho «rit«r»t mipnvUHKer MWlttoe, For vxpnt «nd kindly twwitllns for tmna yoors, tw good 4m» too nuwrous to mnUoii» and f or tht mm gnuino hcMpitallty oxianted by both Prof asMr aA Gantans to tba wltor and hlo fadly* hoartf elt thaito aro •Cforod* To Dr« Mel&Mmla V. Buck, who wao mmt helpful in the t alo e t i o n and ^bmim ^ tfaia otvidj* tha vritor aball alwaya be indebted. To the other iiwiliai a of his si^ervlsevar aaaHitteo-<«I)r» Leon Handarsoa* Otr« Begr S* Utt, aui Dr. Leland 21 — Mt i>^the writer is I n doh t od fiar the raadliv his aanustrliit and for their aBDaeUsnt nm M frlim a for its IinttSfaiitv* Dean Leater U Hale thaidcs are «ctei)ded f

*j|yri>0ltt1 •artatim it baaed* TO Jiaek Benaen, Betty Vhllipa, and C* RijmmiA Vtai Duaen, a note of thaaiea ia due for the hours l^ent in listeniog to and in judging tape reooerdings. For peiaissisn to use a telef fozm of «Pom 5t Peripheral Heeharrlw Inninatiorf* txm the Mif^^^ SHBHI 1A SSSS^ Coweetion hgr Jdhnson, Oirley and Spriestersbaeh« the ittitar wisiM to iocpress his appreciation to the publishers— Haxver and Brothers of To Krs. Doris Carlile vho tind«Pteok i»» alaost Inyasalhlo ta* of translating and transcribing the %iriter»s tired handnriting into the aanuscript which foUoss, the writer is most grateful* To the first safaoal taaeher ^Aym he knew, his oother, the writer ones Btaxiy things, foong thm a life-long desire to teach. Most of all the wdter is indebted to his idftt, XathaLeen, nbo for five shears has knoiin the lonelinesf that OflBSS with being 4

is; ae tables. vi UK m ZLLOSmTIOIfiS •«•••••••••••••. vlU Cha|>t«r Z. ZHZBOODCTZQII. I StatMMnt of the Proibleau ZL n* V3SXSB5XSS&* •••••**#*««»«*««*^#»«. 23 The Flan. •••••••«••••«•«•••••«• 93 Preliainary Screttiing •••••••••••••••• 23 Selee-Ujon of Subjects for the Study ••••••••• 25 Bwordingt* 28 BB«ting8 idth the Parents ...••«•••••••• ^ Xntelligmee Tmit Scores fear the Potential Subjects • 34 MTiaAsn of the Sid>Jeets into the Eaeper i i asTit al and Oentrel Grcnqps* •••••••••••••••• 35 Articulation Scores for the Fifty Subjects. • • • • • 36 Training of the Judges. 3S ^^peseh Iber^pgr. 39 autistieal Creatawnt •••••.••••••«••• U Barest Bvalu&tion of the Speech liOBisiierk 43 Tt» Parents Parental Part-icipaticHi in the Project 55 ^u?ents* Evaluation of the Eaqperiaent 59 The Besults in l^ech SqaroveMMit •••••••••• 62 27. SOHARr USD CONCLQSZOKS .•••••*•••«••••• 66 taner • 66 Conclusions 6? Ir


VMM OF CQK!ffiHra-»Contlnned rnmoi 4« WmR TO COUNTT TSSWl CGMCRTIE 73B, sms Cr TBBTIMG COHniES. •••«•#«•••«*••• 73 C* F0eH3x I^EIPHEHAL SF!ffiCH MBCHAIOSK SKAHXHATXO^ 74 B* AETICOIATIOR TEST 76 E. INVmHOK TO PAEERTS 78 P. lEtsR 10 noBRi a in wamssBmL ossm • • 79 G. SUQCfflSTKM TO HLEBHBU a H, laSSCRS 1 TO X6 FOB THE SOORD [•] • ^ !• P&HBRT BSOS fOOU ^ J« PIREHT EmZUkTXQi OTCBT POBf SBKBOcurax* ••*«••••«««•••••«•••••••** -''^


LIST OF TABIDS Table Hgt Im BMuLta of the :foitial Examination of 138 Children uritii Functional Artieulatory Defects. ••«•••••• 28 2* ^leech-Soundl Inventozy and Relative Valties of Each Sound Used in Calculating the Artieulaticm Index. • • • 37 3* Percentages of Agreeomit

1X37 OP Tinrin ftiiijimii 15* Bill MiotAmKA JxtT&atoryt D* EMtional idjostment 16* KbHtM «f fftiltiiM ftr Child pn «iift ytr Qsy for PiftMa Mm •••«•••••«•• • 57 17* MizoitM «C IkMtlM ftr WHk end par B17fbr FiftMR 1Ma» •••• 50 10« IteraBb Svaliaation of th* SffeetlvuMM of ajpatah BaMMOfic I — ignM »nt»> •««>•« «^ «««•••••• • 60 19* I31ff«r«nM bwtman Qriginti and Final Articulatioi Seorvs in tha CosxtroCL (kwp .•••••••••••« 63 aO* aiff aransa batwaan Original and Final Artieulatioa Sa a aa a in tha £KpariB«ataL (k^mp. •••••••••• 64 21. irti^ulatioQ iBsproyeamat Soorea for the Fifty Suib^aet«« 6k vil


* «7 Urn 90 Ch^Btewi fyr LuMoo 4 • # # » # # • • • • • S8 4* • • 96 5* 97 6« 99 ZUn for Store tor Lsmoq 6« • 100 8« Valentlzw f«r Lowwo 7* • 103 f% % m 20* Additifflial Itens for Store f»r La— on 8 « « « • • 306 21. OirdlB BftM Qttoe for liiinn 9 * • « loe 12. 132 25. XL7 Mn^ £Br iMMtt 13 • * • nt'-mm-i*'*. # « • « • m 15. iMHMi 14 »'» '# w« -m « • m.nt-m--* • • • • 321 BuildHA-4ia(rd Qmm» for LMHMn 15 • • • * •iii * »«ii9^4l»»# 124 1% Bwter 6ggs for iMon l£ • • « # f * « • • • • • 126 Tin


Cli&PTER X thst parents aro the auecessftil teftehers tp»K$i for the 90 to 95 per cent of school Chlldrm who develop nonnal ^leech is a fact so conoooljr accepted that it needs no authentication. Hiat the parents are the unsiiceessful teachers of qpaedi «r, pcarh^ps vma joare directly, the cause of defective speech in the 5 per cent^ of childr^ who require fgpSMh therapy in the public schools, is questionable. That the parents of these children with speedi defects slwuld play a direct part in their cublie school nssoh tbttrssor iM slM cBiestioaahils. For the mors (wms spesdt def sets csnsad Toy an iaparf set orgnnifls WKh as cerebral palsy, deft palate or congenital dsafiwss, the parents Bast accept tl» blaH» to the extent, at least, that the {diysically defective child was conceived by and bom to then. Sit child^s defective tpwioh equipoent, thou^ not necessarily ''hereditary,** is a part of its hsrodityte-;,' Tbe finger of blane has bssn pointed in an ij'ffireasin&Ly menacing manner at par«its in recent years as being the chief precipitating factor, if not the direct cause, of that laost baffling of all sp^ch disorders, stuttering. Vfendell Johneon has been the outstanding espoxtser of a ^American Speech and Hearing Aswociation CccBsittee on the HidrCenttir3^' VJhite liouse Confer«noe, "Speech I^Lsorders and Speech Correction,** Journal Speech and Hearing Disorders. XVU (June, 1952), 130* 1


2 «ingl»-caa»« etiology of stuttering. Sincerely, and eeaningly tirelessly, he has publirfied and is publishing books ani articles in idiich he state* his fizia conviction that stuttering is caused by rigidly perf ectionistic permits ^»

3 in a free play situatdon indicates that the inothers of stuttering children tend to be zaore decionstrative in their tolerance and affecticm toward their diildr^ than do the mothers of nonnstutterers.^ Abbott warns, however, that "such *ideal* bebtaiar aag^ be aore detrioental to fhmt 9f»nh deviates" than helpful, atMing tlat "the fUaaa of optSjaun adjtutnnst may frequently be anwthered by a heavy blanket of affection."^ Having acbninistered the Minnesota Maltiphasie Personality Inventory to a group of parents of children > nozml flu^icy and to a group of i»rent8 of children at the oauet of stuttering, Goodstein and Oahlstroa report that "the perfoimances of these two grov^ were not significantly different frcm the expected perf oztoance of psychiatricaUy nocroal pearsons***^ In another report oa it» mmm series of studies, Goodstein mif9 that "tlw etlcdogy of stuttodiig is not related to severe peychopathology on the part of the stutterers* parents."-^ In rerview it may be briefly stated, then, that |«rental b^vior and persOTality are stiH controversial factors in the etiology of stut* tering, the most dramatic, pexiu^, of all speech disorders. Far free dranatic to the average public school speedh correct j^nist is that type of speech disorder most cooinonly labeled "tiw functional Thomas B. Abbott, "A Study of Observable Mother-Child Bslationships in Stuttering «Dd Hon-Stuttering Groups" (ui^ublished Fh.D. dissertation. Dept. of SftmBih, University of Florida, 1957), 68. ^Ibid . ^%.eonard D. Goodstein and W. G. Dahlstrcci, "Differences between Parents of Stuttering and No«-^tuttering Children," Journal of Consulting Psychology. XX (1956), 370. •^^Goodstein, "IffiDPI Profiles of Stutterers* Parents: A FoUx/u^ Study," Journal o£ Speech and Hearing Disorders. XXI (December, 1956), /t35.


4 articulatory defect, or disorder.** Accounting for 75 per ceat^ of tor case load are these children with "cases of defective articulation which cannot be accounted for by any organic, mental or physical deficiency but ^diich are ii» result of incorrect use of the structures \ are «o|>loyed in speech.**^ Many sorts of investigations havs bssn Bisde to discover mm Bsssurable difference in this group of children to fiisd out idyr the structures misfunetlcm. In a series of f<»ir studies of thirty subjects with superior arti^ eulation and thirtgr subjects with dsifMtive articulatim (UxLrty male, and thirty fenaSji, Sfvenly divided I m t iis sn the two groi^), Qrant Fairbanks and his co-«ozicers investigated (l) rate of noveB»nt of oral structures, (2) dimensions and relationships of the lii», (3) the t<»3gus, and (4) the teeth and hard palate* In the study of rate of sxmeisnt, all the differences betMSsn the tMO groc^ were small; the only significant difference was rate of lip movcoent among the oslss with superior articulaticm.^ In the second study there was no significant difference between the two groups in dlaenpslMis and relati

5 found that **th0 differences between ability groups were aoall and not statistically significant in aaxlmum tongue p3?otrusion, length of tongue i^ip, wat'toia toogos force, and perc«itage of error in duplicatii^ a tongue position; a significaait snc difference was found only ia fflaxlmm tongue force. Regarding the tee-Ui and hard palate, tto investigators found no significant differences in the diioextfiona of the d«ital arch and hard palate; in laaLar occlusicm, anterior occli:si

t4ilk1ns» <»i««t of voIitnUry contool of the bladder^ «ruptloii of first tooth, grip, h«i^t, weight, and handediwas***^ fltosr pKpmXBf XmtSmvg and 9fm mm ^ p a aah ewrectloniata tfMMM that the dafaetiTa artioolation of ddidran In the lowar iflbMwm taiy gr«cl»8 ia not actually dafeetlva, text that it is noraaX for this aga* TanpiUnta finding, hoiMwr, subatantiating thoaa of Pool«|| |p« that girlA in gWMral hava %Ktur^ articulation by the aga of aanai Kod boys by about ei^t«^9 Considerable effort baa baao made to deteroina whartber children with functional articulatory defects lack a normal ability to diacrlainate betwaan raXatad acM»cla« evaa thofugjb Umy oay have zsiamL hearing acuity, liaig tlva inv«atl«at«v« who baaiiirva thct their atudiaa lOmr « paaitiTe relationahip betwaan aound diaeriizdnation ability and nonnal tr*if iTitttiim lirai KrenvaU and Diehl in atudy upon tb^ TtporUA in 1954,^ Spriaatarabaah and Curtla (ir»ofar as Anderaontt atudy of children with [a] problaM ia e<»e«mid) in a 1951 rq^ort,^ ^%adnay W* Svarhart, "The Relationahip be ti i a a n Articulation and Other DaTe3«paantal Faatora in ChiXdran," Jbignal of apaaefa and Haartaa aUogdfrf. xrai (Oaa«riMr, 1953), 33^-338* ^^£U4rad C« Itaplin, <*Ik»»a on a Screening T«it of ArtidOatioai far Asm Three tteeugh Sight,** JauHial of aaaaah and Baaring MaaBaaaai^ mn ( i>np » ifi t asi^), 336. .^^^^^^ ^'^IHiatt tm &«nva31 and Chajriiea F. mem, ^»ThB Halatitmtfdp of Auditory I^ieerinination to Articulatory Daf acta of Children with Ito Enown Qrganie Kmaixmnt, s^imak ^ §SUS^ iS^ SUSk^ ^ (S^rtaMwr, 19^37335-3387^^ » ^ C« %iriestenAiaah and J. F« Curtic, ««taarUeuUtlon azxl Mt rtel n a t ii m «f te aii h lenoda,** Qoartarly Journal af ^b— ah. ZXZVZX (iMMber, 195l)» 4«3-49QU -w.^t nr


f spMch and & group of children with funotlcKoal wrticulatory defect* cm tilt Hwton of (1) auditoiT aeulty* (2) vmmry m^h 0) eoordinatlcm of itelMf (5) MUM of ziiytiKi and tonal smary, and (6) auditory articular t«i7 OiiwriKination, ia eortain that art n» al^snlf l e ant dif f onMot bitiiitt iim two gMMift on aagr of the faotora toatod*^ In totting the Mund diacrizBination ability of ninot^^-fivo aala ttudsnta of Purduo l&ilvnraLty, ItaMa fOuad no ai«nificanfe im^vmm in this factor mmm his thrao groupoi (1) tboso tiao had fonetloni!! artieulatory dofooto vith no ptrevioujB thorapy, (2) thooa ulth the as&e type of dofooto tat vltb proviooa ^paoeh ttm^g and (3) tbMo idth nansal •paoeh*^^ la there a possibility that the ^lild vLih a ftinetional artieulatory dof set has it lasrely as a tgvptoBi of a A aiy a r undorlyiqg personality prehlssl Zn a vwy roeont rovisir «f tfas litoratura on this sUbJeet^ SpriMilsrifaaOh italtit Biis rovisir ineliirtss every aifiropriate study that has bean abstracted or published in Speech l§f«fterM^ or ths ^ms^sLSssssktAmeie&VSjss^m.* it also i»a»dss ^^GUdys Beidf "Ttaa Stioloey axA Katuro «f Fuwtioiial Artieulatory Oofaets in SLBoentary flafastl Childron*** isWlAStSUtA Dio<»^T»HX (Jtoe, 1%7), 1A3-150. -^—m,mmmm ^« £• Ik«vi8 and B. Saasus, «*SpeO(^ Sound DisoriiBinatifm Ability of Cases idth Funotioml Disorders of Articulation,'* QiarterlT Journal s£. Speech, VIU (April, 1931), 217-aa6, xaasotrs COlle^, (Xaxauna univorslty, XyUojf oo* ^%irrelL F. Hansen, <*lhe Afiplication of Sound QliMBrdWUiatIm Tests to Fimetisnal Artieulatory Defeetivea idth tJoxsal HMrlng,* Journal si, BemA Djaordera. 2ZX (Jua»« 1947)* Vt^50>


haw been publUlMKi dnM 1950 (he lists tho«« « TaapUny sat NtiLson)* **•#••••••«#•••#* wmmey^ cm !• f oresd to eoneltide that the cootrUntlon of mccrch to «a undntrtianling of tho rel&tioD* llilp botNMQ articulatory defoett vaA vmewmrnXXty is lupfflly^ Mgativa* fhs^data do not Justify « Utw i iTl slwut ths r«lationshij>«^ His prmmii of sn CB^mie dif f srsnssi « iwsrlng loss* s Itdc of sound disoriBiinstiffii ability, or a loaXad justsd pwmiUty ss the ssuaSf or osusos* for ths ftmstlonal artieolatorj (tofset is still ssm* itek duMoos. Xt is not suzprisiog* thmrofors^ that Urn fingMr of fBilt has Sfisin boon pointwi at tho parents of children idth this typB of apeochj chief pointer is Kenneth Soott Itosd* U 1%6 Hbod iMWUhsd tho vtikto «i ids dootorsl study* ••Parental Msladjustaents and Functional Artieulatory Dsfocts in ChUdren,"^ vhidi stands as a Isndmrtc iA thi» i s s arch in Artieiaatisn Disorders vA VwMBelity," «faanMl jiff ffilf l iffil ^"ffilM M l?^Tt^ (Se|itsnber» 1956), 332 wadWT^ '''kiiiBisth Soott Itoed. 'VmmM MOjMUustsMBt mA Functional Artieulatory Defects in OxUdren.** Jmuil of teMMh Btaordors. 21 / ..^^ ^^^^ 255-275. 2%xth BeeiBey Imin, Speech ytf/ ftSidig' IteW fMHdiss-HUl, Xnoo 1953), 194* 29j

9 UMd ttuditd fifty pair* of puwnts ef ehiXdroa lAw h«d f t8»» Umtl artieulatory tefeeU* To tte parents w«r« giviQ tte fflMillfiP^fi fi^ 1 ty and the Bpffpfiy iHpitorir. From the parent* WMd alM obiaiaiA ««•• hiatwy oaterial. fh* children wore all given the £|]j£SiSlA jBHl^ At £K|^^ ClMiMr £i 9m Jlm^ AoM«r^ df fifty speech defective children, 72 per 9mA had at least one parent above the 60th percentile in DSttretie tendency and 64 per cent had at least one paroot above the 70th percentile* 4* Maternal sewes on the California Test of Personality differed significantly Irm fim test neRw indicating that aothers were lower in selfnuljustiaBnt and social ad^ustaent, thas agreeing in directicm with the Bemrcuter* Fathmrs rated si@niJ^[cant3y Imiw than the test nozms only in self* ad^ttstaent* ^%enneth Scott 1IOod« **A Study of fOrental ^Oadjustiaent and Functional Artieulatory Defects in Qdldresj^ (unpubliiAied lh*D* dissertatieof IMversity of Soutiiem Califomia« 19US), 97*


5« Of ttk^ sfwfi or fifty iqcMMeh dsfoetlv* cMMren 86 |Mnr *mt btA «at or both foront* beloir the 35th perecntilo in Mlf-Adjttilrarat, and 64 p«r 6«3t had cm or both parent* bolov tha 35th pareantile in aeeiaX ad^Juatmnt* 6« SooiaX atandards of mothers vara found to be very hi^ in coDpariaon with other adjuataant aaaraa* Vban thia ia viewed in relation to the nervana auA meAimaX inataMlitj of the atttamal groi^* it anpaara porababla that th* WfittuSx def eetive diildren have had ia|ioaed upon th«a a aat of very high atandarda in an atnoaphM^ of habitual «H»tianal out

21 moA significantly associated vlth maladjustiaant md undealiv able traits on the part of parents, and such factors ax« maternally cent«r©d.^ Several current authorities on articulation do not see in aomt functional artieulat(»y defects any evidence of a deep-rooted problera on the part of eith^ the parent or the child* Janes F* Curtis, in the chs^er on "Disorders of Articulatio2:i" which he authored, in Speech Handicapped School Children, states that most artieulatozy deviations sssm to be traceable to no otS^ cause than failure to laam the correct fitttvns of nonaal speech.**^ Eobert Hilisen in his discussion of "A Ratiwiale for Articulation IXlsorders" avers that "it makes no difference whether the infant*8 fall-' ure to dsvelqp the skills and attitudes necessary for speech with good articulation was due largely to his limitatior^ , or those of his environment, the difficulties could have been overccoie and the child eoold have had «de<^te articulation if the environsnt had been trained to begin early in creating a desire as well as a medium of ccomunication.*t34 Virgil Anderson says, regarding the causes of children's speech problecaj, that "nost qpeech defects found among the school population are not particularly oonpUcated or deep seated. • • In other words, approziaately 75 per cent are merely of the bad-habit type, resulting frco ^Ibid. 96-^. Johnson et al., ICf^m ^^BDbert Milisen, »»A Rationale for ArUculation Disorders," Journal Speech and Hearing Disorders. Honogra^ Suj^aaent 17 (DeceBber, 1954)7 S.


iJBitation of poor spew* modfeLB, or Inducod goierally carelessnem, laadness, or indifference.**^^ For the moat part, it would appear, then, that the parents of ^Jildren with functicaial articulatory defects are indirectly reaponsihle, or at least suspect, lij^jroper speech jaodels, lack of laotivation, — " ^'t**" * '' disturbances--«ll of these sooehow involve the parents. In the light of this possible parental involv«aent, to ulam. sbwili the public school speech correctionist txam for help in dealing vdth this larffi group of children with functional articulatory defects? As a practical matter, she needs help. In Dade County, Florida, locale for this study, each of the twenty correctionists carries a ease load of ftcm 150 to 175 children pnr WMk. 14>8t of these children, having functional articulatory defects, are seen once a week for about twenty nintutes, generally with a group of three or four oUier children. It wimld se«Bi unlikely that in this brief meeting the aost skillful and adept speech correctionist, unaided, could secure any significant carryover of the new speech habits which ^ has be«i teaching into the dally life of the child. Bie classrooci teacher is, of course, very often a source of help and may be an excellent one. The speech correctionist custaaarlly keeps the classrocKi teacher infonned as to the exact nature of the speech work which the child is doing and seeks the taach«r»8 help in providir^ the child wi«i opportunities to use his new speeeh skill in the classroom.


13 with eroNded classroam Md crasz^ied eurricxila it is 9asy to tmderstand how the beot-intentioned dlaasrooBi teacher msL^ find ardy infi-equent occasions to render a special service to an individual child with a speech defect. Llojti and Ainsworth*s study of fift;y>-tfour classroon teachers made this source of help appear to be qalte an unreliable ona * great part of the time, kmog the investigates* fizKlings were these: 1. Teachers Taxm vny little aboat the activities carried on fagr tlM ^p tsB h thavapcLst* ««••••«•••••••«•« « # 3« Ssafihers report i^}M»eh progress and supply ease history aatezdal in an erratic and unsysteiaatised manner. 4* l i l wwh ers lack training in speech correction. 5» TaadSers do not try to build acceptable attitudes In the Glassroam tor the diild with a speech probleci. 7» Approodastely 75 pw cent of the teachers report giving help to children with articulatory paroblao». « «• m^if-mimm-mm *m:mmm.m-mm * ••••••••••• XL* Very f eir of the tsMters have had tbsdr cun speech examined. 32« The prmence of a speech c<»rrectioni8t does not insure toe increase in speech activity or laprovemKit of attitudes of the teacher. 33. Tsachezns are mmre of their inadequacy in speech correction. 14* Taadiers feel that speech correction vrork is useful and necessary. 15« Attitudes are favorable for extensive educati

14 FtziM^ th» pietw« today Is net tplU 90 gloagay, taixb it It not lilMay to faavi altorod eentOLetoly in « poriod of throo yean* iMMUi 0. Houehit^ in a bit of direct advlco to patiUc school ifOMli tiMnqdarta, —wittlitd tte tfaati Ih« speech correctionist mist not expect regular tssebsm to be "errand to parents. The Isss riaUjdiic tloos^ pubULc sobod teadiers id» are ixMoqperisneed idth spsseh eoxreetiQa tenhnlgtisst tbs bsttsr for all coneenisd* He tfam addss His Btin ahare of the burden in {xiifalie school spesdi thsvsiQr wist fan emitualSy «n the spesdi eorz«ectj4Qist» tiie sfaildf and the parent* fbs teacher in the elsssrooa sust not be eoqpeeted in oaasr sssss to scMpsrsts rvnedl-' ally at this tfaae* Qften^ sbs tes neither the tins, the training^ interest, nor patlmss* to cooperate in a Significant sense* Ihat, of eoaim, depends entirely on the t«wber, as sope will undoubtedly be as "good" as the Upmh SMOFsetionist himself •37 WtlA>, than, of the parents* rds in the actual process ttt apeseh orarrectifinT Vtood is outspoken on the subject, stating, "It is recaa. oraded that parents be dissuaded trm. trying up eec h eonrection proseAarss idth the children in the hone, and that instead tfaqr bs «neouraged to play the roXs of a bsttsr parent in constructing a happier hone vhsre children will sant to listen to what is said azxl have a chance to rHpoad to parents he loves***^ ammr, in apite of the afasfa, se do find that the parents of chiUxtn with severe a p e s e h defects with an atgmle basis are usually 37lhOMas D* Houchin, "Cooperation in a Publie School Speech ^%food, "A Study of Parental Maladjustnent azxi Functional Artieulatory Defects in Children," lOL*


15 eallfld rspon to participate actively in their childr«i*8 speech therapy* The John Tracy Clinic'a coiirse for the parents of deaf children has received national recognition and acdaini* Bennett states in regard to this program^ '*There is never any suggestion that the parents should be substitutes for the tz-alnsd teacher* However, it is aswwisil. that with skined, trained assistanee, parents can help to lay fi» foundations of language for their young deaf children.**^"^ She warns, however, that **lhe success of parents in teaching their children varies widely***^ IsammRf pointing out that the parents of deaf children are often asked to train the children in all areas except speech itself, skes an eloquent plea for the parent as a teacher* She says: Is there anything about the teadiing of speech to ttose young deaf children that should justify this exception? Or is there anything about the parent that would justify it? Have teachers restricted speech training to their own highly trained grotq> to such a degree that parents have not been given an opportunity to do all they may be able to do in that area as well as others? She mntinoASi A coDQxLete teacher training program is not absolutely necessary for these parents. Tbay are not being trained for professional purposes, but as parents idio are the most effective teacl^t£S in their children's lives whether for good or ol^eiv 39naidine Nicholson Bennett, "Hooe Teaching of Ywng Deaf Childrent A Po inter in Parent EducatixMx," Journal Speech and Hearing Disorders. XTTT (March, 1957), 68* ^^k^ce Harris Lasaroan, "Parent Participation in Teaching Speech to the Deaf Oxlld," Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders. UU (December, 19Afi), 36^^-3^/


u Helen Levlnson has equally favorable caaoents about a progrm vith the parents of cerebral palsied children,^ and Harold Lilljrwhite •oeSBSts that the laother should be brought into the picture laore in the cIlTric a l treataamt of severe speech disorders such as those of the aphasic, spastic, or delayed-«pe«eh child.^ It is oi9ivia«i8« then, thaA jmrmial fmfMng of ^;«e^ aacmg children vdth mmaem iqpseeh dsfSets hsvlog an organic basis is an accepted practice. But what should be the parents* role in the speech training progroa of the child with the l«ra severe functional type of si»ech defect? Although Vfood is iddely quoted on his study of the neurotic tendencies of the laothers of childraa with functional articulaiteech correction indicates tfaftt almost all the auttuxre advocate that at sooe point in speech therapy, * >hPW i iio rk*' or "hocie assignaents" or "nucleus situations" be required to promote carry-over of nmr i^eech skills into daily vme» It will be noted that, althou^ this type of woric is reccraaerried, the exact nature of it is usually not very clearly defined* AinsKorth is more specific about speech hooewwric in his chapto* an "Speech in the Home" in Speech Problecas of Ch^T^?^" than he is in ^'^felen J, Levinson, "A Parent Training Program for a Cerebral PHlaied Unit," Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders. XK (June, 1954), ^^HanOd LiUywhite, "Make Mother a Clinician," J^aa-nal of 1^ iiS§£la£ M^gdwps. XJU Ojaroh^ Xm), 60^.


5T his own manual

^ dissuading parents froci attecapting speech correction procedures at hose, Mrs. Imin sayst Hcwever, if the parents are able to help, the therapist should demonstrate and eacplain vfaat teclmiques can be used. SoDe time should also be srpent in teaching the (^lalif ied parent how to be the clinician at hoae, • . Speech notebotdcs are frequently used as a atethod of securing hctae cooperation in «MiSBBMB>tS. Before the therapist places an assigraaent in the notebook, howevwr, she jnust be sure that the parent is able to help.^' I» Speech Handicapped School Children. Janes F, Curtis, discussing therapist-parent relationshiis, states that "if at all powible, she will enlist their cooperaticKx, because at certain sta^s of the ccm>recticm process, home cooperatiwi is extreciely lu^iortant in heljrijjg the child to establii^ flrnsly the rwfw habits he ie leaming."^^ Later, discussing the use of **mcleus situations" to achieve carry-over at hooe, he adds: A strOTg word of caution is necessary, hokrever. Nucleus situaticav oaa beccoe hi^Tlpr artificial and very distasteful to the ycKs^sistmrB for i*aa they are planned. Ihey should not be eo^xLoyed rigidly and uisreasonably. If ciealtiiaes are used for speech correction, feeding prol^ecis can result. In general, school situations are probaMy better than hooe situations are.^^ In Scott and Thompson's book, TallcUv^ Tine, which is widely used with younger children, the authors state, "In all cases ox speech 47irwin, o£, cj^., 194-195. ^Johnson et al,. Speech Handicapped Sctool Children. 120. ^ ^Ibid. 137.


19 deviations the parents should be brought into the pdcttire to continue the speech drills in a play way, at hoBe."50 It vill be noted in the above that a plaj approach is reccomended because constant correction or nagging temda to produce in the diild a ne^tive attitude toward speech. Emce, Van Hiper recnrmwnris that **th« parents and teachers of the speech defective concentrate their raninding and correcting vapoxi a few cotmon words and upon certain nuclei speech •ituations,"^ Be develops the laatter of »»Speoch Correction in the Home" at greater length in a later chapter in his text: Mmy of the ams observations hold for parental coop«rati'; Time (Atlantat IfebBter Publishing Co., 1951), viii. 51van Eiper, Speech Correction. 258. ^Ibid. 537-538.


20 Hcwevw, he aiwuld be expected to spend sooe tiiae on speech »hoineHork. '"53 In the 1957 edition of Ihe Rehabilitation of Speech, the authors write: KLth reference to cooperation with parents^ a^ain this ^lould be done both individiMuLl^'and in groups. Bie parwits of the child with the problm in speech or l»aring shcwld be given coa*ald er able reipoosibiLity in the progranu They shwiLd be advised to Mt apart a f «ir minutM each day to help the dxUd in his assignoents; they should be cautioned a£;ainst too much eo^ihasis on the proiileB; thigr Stolid be glvna instructions regaixling vhat to do, and j«nt aa IqMHrtant^ idtat not to do. Ifcndng should be given not to nag the child, but at the sMs tine to izadat that he Ttark on the nrol^eaa during assigned tiioss both in the classrooci and at hooe.**^^ Vivian fioe, vhoae study with llilisen on the effect of maturation yxgan articulation is almost a classic in the field, 55 ^ specific in her recocaaendations stating that lAile the ^eacsh correctionist Is primrili'^ responsible for the correction of functional articulatory defects, "the child»s parents and his clas«*oan teacliers have, nevertlw1m», iB^Jortant roles to play^"^ Elsewhere Hiss Boe reoassH^is, like Van Riper, that the parents should not be expected to teach in the early Bta^ of therapy, fewt that "as soon as the child wauti performing the speech patterns with ease, the parents were sent «mggMtions as to 53|fcst, Kennedy and Carr, The Rehabilitation of Speech, 296. 54ijobert West, Merle Araberry, Anna Carr, Sie R^amitatiOTLof Speech (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1957), 352-353. 55vivlan Roe and Robert Milisen, "The Effect of Maturation upon Articulation in ELaaiwitary Grades, Journal of Speecli Diaoraers. VH (March, 1942), 37-50. ^ ' ^^Roe, Spegch Q^fBs of Children. 77.


29. ccmcrete coitributicoa which they night make in ceech and Hiring Thnr^psr fear ths State Department of Education of Ohio, advocates that "fw prdwmry diildren the cooperation of the parents is especially icqxxrtant. Fifteen minutes practice a day, pareferably in three five-minute periods shoujLd be required."^^ It is doubtful that the parents* role in causing the funeti<»ial articulat

assigrnents, prepared by the director of thiis study, were distributed by the public school therapists to a group of children receiving speech correction for functional articulatory defectas. The assigrments wore to be practiced daily by the child tdth his parents. The study will V^Unpt to axumer t^te following questions: 1« ifitat type of parent, in genaEral^ rs^pooded to an invitation to participate in this axperiiasntT 2. To what ext«it and f«r Iww Iwig did the parents actively participate, having ccosaitted Idmiiselves to such a program? 3* Vfliat wei^ the reactions of parents and children to sxich a progras^ 4» Mas there any statistically significant dif f ererce in the aawunt of speech imfawwwit made by a group of children who received svich a stqipleQiental proscm. as ccmpared to a Hatched control group of diildren vho did not receive the mipptleoental speech honewz^ assignments?


i / f! / Fifty diiljdren in the public sehoolt of Da40 County, Floritia, Mrs Bought as potential subjects for this study. The recpii^oents mre thut they tAxKiiA be receiving speech therapy for functional articulately defects in the public school progran, and that they should not haw had previous qpee^ therapy. Since speech therapy f cxr this type of defect is initiated in tl» third grade in Dade County, it was decided that all the potential subjects would be selected finm Mooog third-Omte children. It vras required^ rurtheziaore, that all the sub;}ects have vaeaaX bearing and be of nemnal inteUi^gmee. On February 6, 1956, a petition was submitted to the Coanittee f (a* special Testing designated by the Boeurd of Public Instruction of Dwte County.^ The Coccittee acted favorably vegaa the petition and set forth its requireaaents in a letter dated February 20, 1956.^ Hie average daily attendance diiring the month of Septeober, 1956, in the atlSBBntary sclvx>ls (grades one through six) of Dade County B. Preli r Screening -^^ee Appendix A. Ijppendix B*


was 69,S21 children.^ During the first tiro weeks of classes, the twenty public school speech therapists surveyed 12,242 children in 3Q3 third grade classrooias and found 1,637 children with speech defects serious enough to be eligible for speech therai^. (It is of interest to nota that, of this number, 717 had only defective sibilants iiMle another 368 had difficulty with the sibilants i^us aam oth^ sound cur sounds).^ The procedure for screening the third grade children was the one which had been established by the cooperative efforts of the Dade County speech Uierapists in previ(»]s years* The screening was perf onoed in th* individual third grade classroocts. The speech therapist wrote the foUon*ing sentences on the blackboard and then read thoa aloud to ihe children; a* Stand up to spell in school* b. See the zebra at the zoo. c« Let the girl play with the ball* d. Mother has ttiirty-two teeth* e. Roy Bogera rides his horse. Trigger* f • Jack went to the shew* g* Hjt name is * Each child in turn was then reqpiested (l) to count aloud from cms liirou^ ten, and (2) to read aloud the above sentences. ^nthly Attendance Report, Dade County Public Schools fwo tbe office of James Rice, Director Student Welfare and Attendance Departznent* ^Report frcm the office of I^ps. Laura Sutter, Assistant Director of Special Education Department, Dade County Public Schools.


25 After IMs seireening in the cXasaroons had been consxLeted, the therapists re elaborate speech test ccnisisting of (a) conversation, (b) picture articulation test, and (c) «ral reading from one of the diild's own school booiokk On the bases of the original screening test and the subsequent re-test, the public school speech therapists then made vtp their lists of third-grade (^lildren lAim they schedulsd for iqpeech therapy for the 1956-57 school year* C» Selection of Sub.lects for the Stvdy After the childr en in third grade had been selected in the above aanner for thera^ in the public sdx>ol speech correction program, the writer met with the therapists and secured f rca thm the lists of the children whca they were seeing. The schools from which subjects for this study muld be iflwaen were then selected on the bases of (1) having a sufficient mnnber of children with functional artieulatory speech defeets, (2) involving ttw aaallest possible rasiber of therapists, and (3) meeting the approval of the Special Testing Coranittee of the Dade County 3oard of Public iMtruction. Ihe director of this study then made an appointiaent with each of the i^srineipals of the schools thus selected. The pro;}ect was explained in detail, and the principal*s pezmLssion to conduct Ute study in his school was sou^t. AH of principals wlw were contacted gave their penaission as requested.


26 On th» second visit to each school, all those IMrd-grade children who had been listed by the public school therapist as having defects of articulaticai were seen individually by the writer. !• Each child was given a sweep test of hearing on a Ilaico K>1 AmiiflSMtter on all frequencies fzm 250 c.p.s. to 6,000 c.p.s* inclusive, at an intensity level of 20 decibels. Althou^ each principal was very cooperative in assigning the c^etest rocm in his building for this testing, the roocjs in toomt TtmtTt were rather r»isy. It is believed, therefore, tJiat a screening level of 20 db actually represented a rather hi^ standard of judging hearing acuity, kcty child i*ho failed to hear two or laore Arec^ncies in either ear at the established level for the sweep test was eliminated as a possible subject for this stuc^. 2. On this initial contact with the child, an examination of each child's peripheral speech orsBOS was made by the writer. To record the results of this exassdnstion, a brief f om was adapted f^xan "Fcxna 3t Peripheral Speech IJechaniam Esaninatiorf* as published in tl» Diagnostic I^anual in Speech Correcticm Johnson, Barley, and Spriestersbach. ^ Since the status of dentition anBong tMixi-grade children varies so greatly, it was not pxtbctical to set up as a criterion for inclusion as a subject in this study a fully developed, perfectly aligned set of teeth. If a child's speech defect consisted of a frontal lisp and if two or laorc of either the upper or lower central incisors ^See Appendix C.


m mn nlMlng, the diild was exdudcKi as a sublet. If ths child's speech defect inclined a lateral lisp and if th« lateral anissl<»i of air was confined to an ax*ea where preaolars or snlars were missing, the diild was excluded as a subject. Any cliild \ a severe over bite or definite anterior open bite was also excluded. 3. Durins this first contact with the child, a cwiversaticm with him x-iaa held; he m» ariced to count from one through ten; and ha was asked to repeat sent^ces "loaded** with the sounds which his public school toerapdat had indicate! were defective. Because, for the purposes of this study, the child's speech would ultlioately be evaluated SroBk a tape receding, and because sibilants which are only sli^tly defective often fall to record faithfully even with recoixling equinaent of hi^ fidelity, seroral children having only sli^tly defective [•! sounds were arbitrarily excluded as subjects by the director of this study. Of the 138 third-grade children examined by the director of this study for (1) hearing, (2) peripheral speech organs, and (3) seriousness o£ Mpeech defect, Ice were found to be potential subjects for this study. Of the children rejected, six were rejected for failrire to meet the required standards in hearing, five for sccje defect of the speech organs, twenty-two for having defects too slight to record, and three for miscellaneous reasons. These results are sussaarized in Table I.



39 transpcarting loschaziiaa, with an lUC JU 3d-4 nlcrophont mm vmed to make tbMM rer(ling8 in the various Stools \M.tlti the children attantedU Since some standard far jud^nt of the level of speech proficiency of the subjects had to be enjiloTed, it was decided that a. picture articxQ*tion test wwild provide the best singpLe instrument for later analysis and jud^iwaat. !Ihis decision was supported by Snow and IIlllsen»B stxidy idiich COTiduded that • . of 1^ two tests, the pLctxire, not -Uie oral, test should be ia?eferred -wtmi testing the articulation of children."^ Ifrig^t, in another of the same series of studies, sets forth five criteria for selecting pictures to be eufHoyfsd in articulatixm testing: 1« A vowel sound should be isaediatelyadjacent to ths sound being tested. 2m Ihe tested sound should occur only once in any test word (escceptions: Baby, coofcLe, pige, ca^)* 3« Ihe pictures should represesit words that are third grade reading level or lower. 4* Each picture ^lould be Maad in testing cffily one sound in OQB positlcm. 5« AH pictures should be of objects (exceptions: Vq±3 one, t^t one, w itj^. and amoo;yh. These four words were printed on separate cards).? Every effort was made to select pictures which met these criteria.^ The

30 they w to xmm ateh pietur* m It m iu— a nt t rt to tbnu After tlw 102 mm MOt t* «Mh of ttwir parenta r«(|ae»tirig tbm to cam to an aMalog MMting at tliair ^bSM^B atiioel to hav» thia aK^ ta rt— lfc cqplainad.^ The pamita of only 55 children of thia groqp of 102 potential aubjecta reaponded to thia I iiijiit lb tba oasa of ZL ddldren, both paraota attendad; in tha eaaa of JO daHOrm, txtHy tfaa nothn* eamai in tha oaaa of 3 efalldraa» 0Dl7 tiw f athan eaaa* At the iiaatlTnu the parmita were appealad to on tha aaaa taaSM that Ifaad m^fia^ in his atudy*^ Sinea naay of the potential aub jaeta had ocOy sdnor def acU« x a f l ^ ^a aaa «aa alao aada to tha F i a i lw a n %na B h iapwqr bald aadi aitar at tha IMvarvit^^ of mandIt m pointed aui that tha aoct eoaaon daf aet avn at ocSlega ImvA ims tha ••funetionaX artieuOatifin defect," enparrliTTy of tha aihilanta« FurtherDacare, year after |«ar« ahaiHi 7 pnr cant of entering f ga rt mwa hsm ly ea ch dafaeta, MMt of idiidi are tha ofuoetdoaBl artieulatiaaf* t^ that their parents had probably aaMwd tiMy wsuM outgroir* 4 wmtfiM laaaop of the type that nooCld ba aant bona to thoaa diil* 43tm «l» nltlwateily wBuld oonatitnta tha axperiaental group icaa read and fli.ircnaaed. the paarenta* q ae at io n a ware ananared. The qiiaifclana r ep ea t e d ly Ajyendix X* ^^HlotA, ^ Madgr of Farantal Malad^uatnmt and Fonetional Artl«iaat<«7 MHdt ^ GbUdraQ,** SU


Mfkod at the various schools at Mhich oeetinss were held were the following: 1* Is it possible that I can hurt sgchild in aiQr way i£ 1 try to help hia with his 8pee<^? 2m How^ mch time will it take each day? The director of this stud;y assured the parents that, ±£ they foLItmA the lnstructi(»a in the hcBtfuork not only as to laethod but also as to the spirit, there would be no greater eletsmt of risk than gamhllng on the child*s outgrowtng the defect. As to time spent, they were advised that fifteen or twenty minutes a day would be required* After this discussion, the parents were advised that, if they were willing to participate in the eDQKriisent, they would be requested to mimmr two "questionnaires" (an intelligence test and a personality invei>totry) and to have a mtwp test of hearing. Altfaou^ oaaly 50*9 per cent of parents who had be&a. invited to these meetings actually appeared, once at the meeting tiiey were all willing to participate in the eacperiment except for one couple who said they "just didn't have "Uiat imi^ time.* Xttudeally, their child was one of the few with severely involved articulaticm. IhoBe par«Qte of the fifty-four children ranaining as subjects were then asked at this first nesting to take the Revised Beta Examination, 1946 Restandardizatic subtests designated as (1) maae.


(2) digit sjanbol, (3) error recognition, (4) fonaboard, (5) picture completion, and (6) identities. Ihe intertest correlations of the subtests vdth the total weighted scores are *68, .86, .82, .75, •83» and •73 re8X>ectivel7. Ihe I.Q. talxLes are constructed so that the averags I.Q. is 100 with a standard deviation of 15 for each age group. The standardizing sm^^le camisted of 1,225 idiite laale adult priacmers at the Tbited States Federal HenlteRtiary at tsid^Aiurg, Pennsylvania. Ihe authors clai£i a correlation of .92 between Beta I.Q.*8 and Wechaler I»Q«*s, in a ffccKsp of 1^ unselected peirsons frcm the standardizing saiqsle.^ The test was recaaoended for this study by Peter Varsderlindai, the Directs of the Educational and Vocational Guidance Clinic at the Univ«>sity of Miami, because of its relative sisqxLicity, ease of adTni,nistratic»» and because it theoretically gives no advantage proportionate to the amount of formal education -Uie exaninee has had. This was an important c«isideration in the study for there was no way of predicting idiat the educatiOTal backgrounds of the parents of the subjects were. After the Bevissd Beta li—i nation was taken by the parents, they ••PS presented with copies of Ad.1tataent Inventon'-. Adult Form, by Hu^ M. Bell. This test was adtoinistered for the descriptive, rather than the statistical, value it sd^t have in regturd to the parents involved in this study. The test provides five separate measures of perscmal axtd social adjustotmtt ^Robert M. Lindner and Milton Gkurvitz, Ilanual. 19U6 RestandardiISi^i fievi— 4 Beta f^unitra^^'"" (Hew Yorkt The Psychological Corooration, 1946}, 2-6.


1. Home adjustjnent 2. HMlth adjtistsieat 3« Social adjustnent 4* Bibotional adjiistment 5* Occixpatlotial adjiistment The coefficients q£ rflliaWlity £or vafib of the above five seoticns of the invttntor7 and its total score are .91, .Sd, and .85 respecttively. Ihe nonas are based on 194 men and 274 wxnen betMeen taenty and fifty years of age. The mean of the total score for awn is 34.60 vfith a standard deviation of 18,60; for wonen the mean is 44.30 with a standard deviation of 20.30.^ Hhe parents wore given a choice of cce^xleting the inventory at tits aseting, or of d«4ng it at faaae and rettimir^ it in a staq)ad selfaddiressed envelope to the director of this stiKiy, Nearly aH parents <*ose the latter nethod, and only three parents failed to rettim the invw>. tory after repeated requests by telej^ne to do so. Before ttegr 2M£t tim first meeting, all the parraxts were reqaired to talcs a weep ts0t of hearing on the Maico EL Audiometer. In every ease, except one, these evening meetings were held in school "cafetorivn^ In which the various refrigerators and cold storage units unfailingly •hose to start their motors and to keep tham running for the better part of the evening. a» testing level, therefore, was set at 25 dedb&Lsi ^ffti^ M, Ben, Manual for tjje Ad.iustnent Inventory. Adult Fom (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1938), 3.


tlw eriterLoa for occlusion as « «d>Jaot-

35 was dseaed advisable to ex

rooaining 26 wiv* attlgiwl im tbi ttqpw&BAntal gim^* Nmt tbt «ad (tf tlw wpTlTwnt, twd sub^ett in tlw motroiL group aonnd aany fixm HUBd# All ttatdUntieal studiM^ th«r«fon», ar« bUMd upcn 4 emtroiL groi9 of 2tf, and an oaqpsrinesntal grou^ of 26« lb ovdtr to provide fOBo of atutawint of the jurofleieney in artl CT ilat.i o n a,t the ht^fixmixig and at the aaod of this aDcpcrianxt, It IMi dacHed that each child ahoiiLdl be amlgned an articulatlmi aeore baaed vapcm his perfozwnM on the rocordlnga of his picture articulation teat at the begiraxii« and again at the tezmLnatiim of the SKparlment* It decided, furthezQare, that the aetfaod of atlgnlns such a aeore nould be that aqpaoyed \3cr Semstb Itood in hia atudjr«^ itoad aztltraxlly aaaigned a BMMrleal va2»e to ea^ oMiniMfc bMPadL mpon £ravia*a atuiiy of the tr*twaay of omamm if mmd la vmmt% Hmm» of ehiXdren, Vbad gave a total value for each sound, and laereljr divided l^t valxie by^ llbsm t>» ilitiWltlii yftHm In the (1) initial^ (2) aedial, or 0) final podtiSB as it indicated in WtX* 2* A aoore of 100 vwM r«vreaent apiaah trm trm angr errors of articulation* 2h oaaes of defective articulation, the articulation score is detemdned by subtracting from 100 the sub val;w8 of defective soun^ as found in libodts table. Qie artltfulailoa 96 w n$ far th* ilft^vtwe subjects in this stwtjr mm astnnined WdMaetji/kiiag hm those valass (assigned bj Vbsd) upon %diieh there i«s a 3-out-of-3 or a 2-out»of-3 agrecBwnt by the «qpert Judlgas as to a soundts incorz^otaiSi* ^htood, "A Study of Parental HOadJustaant and Functional Artisulatory Defects in Children,** 113,


37 amefr ^woiB ) zmneGi and mmyE 7A£ubb of each soao tSBD IB QAUSaUWG TBS AfiSSCHAIIGII SSBX ScMind Initial Final Sound H«3ial Final P M •93 .93 .03 .01 b M m .97 t •a 4 4 m !•? 1.7 1.7 2.4 •• 4 4 tz*o 4*0 4.0 4.0 ^.9 4 4 4 2*1 2*1 2a. tb 4.0 14 1«3 1.3 n 3.5 3.5 3.5 r 9.3 3a k 1.7 1.7 1.7 1 6.3 2a 8 2.9 # .9 7 1*7 ng M .95 If 4.2 1.4 • t.9 3*0 3.0 3.0 nh •6 4 4 •h X«3 . # .4 .7 4 4 4 •li •? •2 ' 4.3 h 3.9 1.4 2*0


Mat to th^ir ;^idging of the tap* reeoatiiogt of th« fifty children in this itudy, the thrM jndft^ Mt for two practice »«»At tho first mni/aa, Urn t«po rooordiiags of ton ohildran who ««« roeelving ap oo ch th«n«Qr In tho eourvo in Clinical frmstdM at tho Univor«it7 of XiiKi voro pla^ and ^^^ffmtiU aado* 9)* childron iiad tOBii'ded BrTagalMQ and OOMptgrta Fleturo Artioolation TMit«^7 Aftor tba jnd4pMto fatd boon nado, an infoznal diacuaaion ma held duirli^ uhleli the JdAgot iHtawatod the baaao for their variosoa judl^anita. A ctatiatxeal anal^rais of theao praliadnary jiwtpiawta ma not nade* At tl» IMNnd ti«iniE« iaailnmt using tba Mifinooorder upon vbissh tho tape rooexdinga of the «ii> jooia had IN^, rooeveUagi wo plajrad of ten children who had boon potential aub jecta but i«ho could not anrvo as mbjeets because their parents had not be«i willing to participate in thia atudy* For each diild, met judge wm aakad to indicate wfaothor tWtH>y-flvo dif f aswt aouanda in a total of aixtj'^-ei^t positiona woro oaCToetly or inaoiToetljr produeod* 1hia» than, siado a total of tiae Iwndrod aad oi^ty Judgnnxta tvm mA Jodie after hearing the tape rocoxdiogpi Oif thaaa ton xi9i>>jpartijU(ipatiQg cdbildron* Mdft i i»die«iM the pttmaHsttst in jgto— intr «mb8 tiw tfaraa expert JudgMi* ^^Qm Judge haa the D«Se«

39 T&BI£ 3 FEECENTA££S CF AGBEEl^IT ON 680 JUDGMENTS CF TAPE BSCQBDIKGS BY EACH OF imEE JUDGES Ilumber uxiami iiK/wig Judges A and B in AgrecBient Judges A and C in AgreflBttnt Judges B and C in Agrswaant 1 62 65 65 2 62 63 it 63 3 48 59 m 52 4 60 60 # . 61 5 66 68 66 6 64 65 » ' 64 7 'S7 ?f 77 At 62 63 «f 62 9 56 62 m 56 20 55 5t i» 58 Total isr. of 592 622 626 605 Percentage of Possible 680 85.58 91.47 92.05 88.97 The twenty-four subjects in the control group received apaaeh therajy according to the estalJAshed practices and procedxjres of the Dade County School Systeou For children with simple articulaticai problaas this therapy consists of speech instructixm giv«n ooce a week for twenty


sdnutea, gensrally in groups of three or four children. Although techniquM vmry idth the diff«:wit therapists, -Uiere is a great deal of a cro s n a nt ammg th«Bi as to therapies and materials UMd. Each Friday aftemcxKi, all the speech therapists c^et for planning, for gathering and preparing materlalSf for record keeping, and for study. On Friday laomlngSf each therapist devotes his tine to conferences with parents in sone one of the schools iddch he serves. Itae twnity-six subjects in the aaqpardasntal groi^> receivvd eocactly the sama program of speech correction in school that the conf trols did. In addi t ion, ho wev s a :', the parents of the diildren in the ssqperimsntal grotq> received in late Dec«D3ber a letter notifying thm of their a wiaiiMi i il to the esq)eriaental groi^*-^ At the nans tijss tbigr ware sent a list of suggestiaw for wmrking with their children on the speech haEsewozk assignoents.^^ In the first we^ after the Christoas vacation and for sixteen conseciztive we^ thereafter, the public school speech therapist gave to each child in the eoqperiinental group a sealed envelope at the end of his speech lesson. In this envelops was an instruction sheet for the parents giving a day-by-day program of speech hooeMoric, and providing the neeessary dtqpUcated materials, mostly of a gmm nature, for carrying out the asBltrwtntSi Both the instruction riieets and the practice materials were dissigned and eacecut^ by the writer. A sansple of the irtrteen 2^Bs« Aivsodix F. Appendix G.


consecutive lessons on the aound [»] can be fwtnd in the appendix.^ In the sealed envelope there vu also a "Parent Report Fonsf* to be filled in each WMk bsr the parent and returned to the public school speedi therapist*^ An anal^nsis of these reports will be found in Chapter HI* In ord«r to have the hooework amigments meet t^e needs of the individual children in tt» eoqmrimntal gro^p, ttt» director of t^iis study loet their school correctlonists each Friday afternoon and discussed with theu the chiXdren's progress and their needs for the following uMlu ^ . . . , i . K. Statistical Treatoent After the division of the fifty sitbjects into the control groiQ} and the agjerimntal grotq;> by the use of the table of random xamiberu, t-ratios wssrs applied to teat the significance of the dif f ereness between the means of the two groups in regard to (1) the I.Q.*s of the subjects* (2) the articulation scores of the subjects* and (3) the Beta I.Q.'s of the subjects* paz f erence betneen the tvo groiqM in any of the tests ec^)loyed as is shown in Tables 4* 5* and 6* Since there are different nonns for aialas and far f onales

At TABLB 4 Z«Q**S OF TBS fWCI SUBJECTS FBOH XBB QIXS mi OF lom ABixjxx * Aim w» B Bnog* cr cr MMOI Critical Ratio 24 15*22 2.17 26 86-036 2.58 50 4^)9 .53* •So arigniflcant diffurwnM. isncsuTxai scores for m 50 ammm a pi ira OP THE N.

of either nales or f OEoales represented to mSt» a -nlid statistical analysis of the tmt. T3m results will be rUsntsmifl In Chapter III» bOMsv'sr'*, Hm asqperiBiental vazdable reDsalnsd as the only variable to be considered in the final statistical analgia* Therefore, it was decided that the 1>4?atio would be ajpfilied to test the significance of the difference bstwssQ tbs wmum of the articulation ijscparovmeat scor«i of the subjects in the ccmtroCL group and those in the eoqperilaental groi^. Ttie igi|ii iiiiswint. score ww nMyitsrt for each subject l:^ subtracting his articulati<»i score at the bsginning of the axpsriant frcDi his articulation score at the end of the experlinent* Pyent SvalmtiCTi of t}» Speech After the sixteen^ ho p sw ori c assignnsnt had been completed by the childroa and parents in the «peris>ental geoap, the par^its were •lEsd to evaluate the project usiog a ^piestiormire^ sent to tbm by the direetor of the stud^. Iheir respot»es will be discussed, in Chapter IIU . Appendix J*


CHAPTER nx During the 1956-57 school y»ar tn Oid« County, Florida, fifty tblx-dhgrade school childrwn with functicnal articulatO(ry ipo«di deftot* participated in an eocparlanxt in puhlie school q^eaoh therapy. Sixtyf<»ir of the parenta of tlieaa children also partidpatad in tha c^ar^ aaai which waa da g lgw d to avaluaU the effectiveness of a progrm of daiOy speech hmnmk an ltfrw ai rta t» Ipt jwcticed by the children of tha aaqparteantal group with their parents, ISieae hccwHork asaigOBiiita ware a suppLflBwnt to the regular progrg a of public school i^eeeh corraation. IWmxty-aix of the ehildrm were sMigned to the axperlacsttal group and twnxty-f our to the control gcoap which received wily tim regular instruction f^>aii the public school therapigta. Answera to the four <|ueation8 preswited at tha eed of Chi^[yter ZZ idll provide tha basis for analysis of the results of this study. A« %e Saranta The first qpMstion wast In ganival, what type of parent raaponded to an invitation to participate in this esqperiiamt? Staoaing £rm this be anotbar wy pracUeal quasticns If auoh a sexles of ^leeeh hmmmsrk aa tlcnawita ware deaiffsed for and inUgrated into tba SKiatiQg system o£ BchocH Bpe««3x coacrection, would a sufficient anAwr of parwsta part5.«lpafce in the progrro to swrit its being eocw aldared a reliable source of carry-over imtrueticBi?


45 k partial aanrar to theoe qiimtLom aay b« found in that group oC tmemoAm iribo «m imitad to partiei|)ate, but icbo did not* Xt tea •Iraidy be«i pointed out tliat 48 of the U02 pairs of parents invited to eeaa to « aaating to diJMBua» thi^ cSailA^B «tt«)ding parenta, be can onSLy ccsi^ecture as to their rmnwii Ihare is a possibility that their socio-econccdc status aay bass bean involTBdy althou^ 8isrtkart*s study of IDS childrm with dysIaXis eencGLuded that there sea no sLgnifieant reLati<»ahi^ betHecn defeats of artioulation and pataanaX oornqpUxm.^ In sdhooL Mriber Tin caily one of the nine paraotv invited rasapanrtiait i This sc^wol iM located near dcwntotm Miani in a ctensely populated arsa in ndiixlk aovt pMpiLa live in rslatiincdy incocpsnsive avsrtoeat** lbs prist* cipal of the wthoaL had predicted that the parents vould £ail to appaar» hsaaase as aaoy lootbani imre nifliflyail, and beecuse the attendance at ftBfsi^Ttater iwswilatlnn laastlnga bad been poor* 2n satesSL aster Z? only three of the thiz-teen parents invited cane to the asstiag. Ihis is a fairly new schocO. in a distsdct of anadl oildar faeaisB mad ««a«aft3y toilt lotr-coet housing* ^Boda^r V. Sv«rhart« i^FiateroaX Ocet^potional fnasitlfl ration and I&turation of Articulation," Speect^ MoBogyaahs. 230356), 75-77*


By way of caatrmt, both school raxibT IX in which ei^t of s&nt invited parwito actually i^pwunvd and ocIkjoI nuedMr X in lAich all Mvan of the invited parents re^pondod* drer Mffiy of their pujidLa ttm suasurbaa hatw* in rMtrietad* anall <>«itct«^ arcw. It ecn ba, at \MKt, only an infaranea l^t in this F«rticalar »tud^ in umSm County, ]l£rida» the poorect raapnaiaaa trm pamxta imra in «r«M of Iomw i>i4iMT'f'1«M aoaiifriMaBMiA atatWi IftMka the iiaplicatlora <^ hi^mt mm\u ain'iniw! bommap, that oiOy ninatean fathan and eig}it oothere actually llstad oetaqiatlofia; thlr^ nine of the aaOmn war* eLuMdfiad only as *atiiie parenta are Hated belcv in Tabla 7* Altbmi^ thara mm 00DKid«nihle diveraity in the tamimp and Idnda of oc^^tiona aaaog tha parasntta of tha •t&^ets, there «aa little mmge in their a^aa* Fart9>-«ix of the parenta mra in the 30-39 yaar aga Iwaa l rat ., fifteen ware in the AO-50 year group, azxi only three i«ara under thirty jaara oat age. The aaan afiaa for the aiact;?>-A3iur parenta ia givm in fabSa d»


47 Caxtrol arnitaX ?«tal a 2 1 1 Contractor 1 2 DBQoarfttar 1 2 2 Military 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 aB^nraSMMMnt Air Conditioning 1 1 Q o 17 »Bl^, 1 1 2 Sn^gptor* iTilnypa 1 1 19 20 39 Tnwmiint adjustor 1 1 laundry aanir 1 I jMxml atdEiateria 1 1 awppai (itot tbsa) 1 X Supwndaor • fite* Stora 1 X 25 47 mW (F THE AGES OF BUBITS CP SUBJSCfS F^tbera MKthara %*a3a Control 1 1 Dotal Grow Ho, ^m 10 32 2S-49 25-49 3S.7 34.7 7 32 34^9 32-50 36.5 64 25-50 39.2 35.6


& «teeational M^pwoad, w in oeei^ationBy the p«r«nU vasd«d eomSOmwUi^r, rai^ix^ ftm two £itii«r« wLtii « «MMnr «elafla^ •aaw rt i t o p to om with a doetor*» 09gm In oteation, TiOA* 9 •Mto tlMW* 1 1 2 2d 1 1 10 22 7 25 64 HaoAg n ed to those iix» iadloKtcd hig^ wdacnl plus hislnese eoll^* Assigned to those idio tan a asster*s degree* ^teslipBd to pM pe nt idbtitt dscrss* maz no mfltti jonn CP siBB or anBtncN FOR JMiMMi^. ^^^^ ^^^b^^b .^kA^^K ^^^^^^^^^^ IK ftBSm GP TRE S0BJ(BC3S WjmmrisamnitMl Fatliers 33.4 12.3 12*9 12.5 12.5 12*5


li dwiillBna It jUi mt mxPBKitSaag to find tlmt «• a group tb&y warn CViMgiy or iteve* la iTtfalllgnnce a» Indicated tbt BnlMd Beta iMriMlMU g» reaulta of thijt i i inlwtt g n wmm fir«t ja npi ut ti l in flwylt XIU *f)wo«dur«ay** ita* It itm iSimm ttadb tl» nnsB in Beta X^t« ma 90-429* vith m ai^tsifioeiit differvoea batMva ii» w m m of tin eontrol and of the «KpndxattEKl«^ 0r«qp* Ha* d2«tzd2ntien of Z«Q««a ia SUda U ranals the ftet that 57*9 9W Mot of the paraita vara ylatalffad aa above M,vmmg» «r Id^ter, idbdla 2jOO per cent were wiimIiIiii lit to be mmmg^ or eliaii giiim' OPGK fHE 8131091 OF CIAS3ZF2SA!ISir Clawrificatiom B«r Cent 129 eadl 19 Wwy Bsparijor 1 1.6 9 m^JX9 27 42.2 9(V409 27 a.2 dO-d9 t 0.0 75^-79 ZnfwrdxKr 0 0.0 SeeCeetlve 0 0.0 64 100 Jl


m gipcmp €^ idLiLtjMMi iMMite IMP Ite BdOL AdjoifMitl^ iMHriHlPyv^ JidM Is a qowtdtem^ twwriitiing of mm bondrod end sixty qufwt.iww to to «B«iMf«d viUi *'Sin»»" iQio,** or «T« by tlit oocaednao* 9m tost is iMdHmH to ovBlMtto c»3ot»8 peroonal ad^Jiurtacust in tfao ax«Mi of tho tow» totlthf otrlal.j — itlmul, end occupational adlju«ta«at« Sinco tlwvo «rtt (MpKimto xaiwi for «m mA tm nwim (lOTinrtf 4» not 1322. in the itom on imimnttiwal «djiipt«>iit )t soi adiaM ttero «n« orOy twoBfey BOtlWBi «Bi olm ftthan in tho oaolaral. eroi^* cod tii«nty»£lvo mtiofi sntf «twiB fiMtaam in tfao mptgOmmkA ao oftwyt «•» muSm to •td>Joet the nouLto to wa^ ttotisiiQal insBttt of oignifieoQco^ IBm fifrilti wo pr MM iitnl fan* ftr tto Awertjptlw toOuos yixijA 0 ilm^ giiwy t*i1ii1itsml» q pnaMnwnal jo type of porsomli^ to«t My li«M* Sriba» la iWi O Mul i tht dotft fsor the total oooro yvtmamMtm oeoordiog to tin voam oot forth In tto tost wamal* n urn bo Botod in thio t^blo tint 86.9 por e«t of tho pmste iimilvod S& tbo oteidiy imto «l«nifiod w giod* or onta«* iMi on tolol odjuotaont os indieatod by tto aH9M «t IMi portleular tooti OBily 33«2 par oaot ware iBlaaoiniwI ao laMMttiofftetowr or vary am i t l i ra iitafy* Miilo tba 2±iBit«tioD» of a oii^ panontitfy 9ia»Iffi i Hatm aoteraaaodflad, it wnOd not oom probablo that aa a groap tho partmts <^ tfaaae chi3dron idtb funetionaX articuXatovy dof acts iiaro badSy aB2adJ«Mrtod poopilo. %lttoo paxanto faiXvd to rotum tha Bmil Adjuotnant Ztofaotoay ao r aq> i a at ad.


51 Mothers X 0 f 0 0 6 9^ 9 3 5 2 u X9 5XJ2 Fi»tfatz» 7 4 22 f X9 9 28 45.9 2 2 t 4 6 9.d flaaiitofactogy X 0 HO 2 0 2 29 32 61 61 ia>«o It idXX b» DQiUd tl»t on •djmteat seoar* tbnw ««• only tt» Malliu a hw in «fa» Mlna gmq) asd om in tte «aqp«ri-. aiofeaX grot9 i^ imre elaa«i£ii»d as wzy uawtijif^b^wsT; dUyni£iad «• iii|Millflill«i IRM ocOy tm ootim, mm vteh in th* eoiMl «ad •pMteiMt 8>m9», and tin Aitbtm in th> aontrol group* Jn othtr «Md«, 33.1 par cent tha piranta eouldl ba amrtdwad to ba baloir MW«iP in panwwilty ad^ntftanA aaconUng to tha noma for tld» fMrtleiilar invontory*


Zn tib» wM«r of <*Bnw Adjustsm^,** Har 90«2 par Mt of tfaMt f«rtal« war* rlawlflawl « xpwtft or Bbom, with 49*2 par cant rTaaalflad as aither good or cxecCUUmt. 9w diatarlbuUxm of oltHdfi«atdo» for tha «ixl^sM»a paraota is thBma in A* Hooa AdjnstMi^ of Bamzts POrcontaaea 3 a U QMia 3 & 4 15 ^Hothara 5 5 10 Fatham Avwaaa 2 3 5 15 24.6 U 0 19 Fatham 3 6 25 Mothers 0 1 3 FstlMmi 0 • 3 4.9 fary 1 X z Faltem 1 1 3 4.9 fbteX ItaBbar of Baranta 29 32 £1 61 Tba atatietica on "Haalth Mjustnant^ will not ba r^xrodoead in ta»* firat of all* tinnw tbi* part aif tte ta«t baa « rali*. Mlit7 of JSk idt& tha total tasfc «mk» «M« •aeeni, baeauae thi« DMtor of parantal faaalth would not aa«a to ba ao doaoly ralatad to tha


53 tidMrmfim pce^alm. of defective speech as are the other factofV analysed. On the factor of health Mjimtiauxt, hOMamr» this grcnq;) of yareota alMi iMBii to be weU tdthin the fiaiunuik of "nonad* or *lMIMig»«* fbr flS per ewl; wiMi iiliiafftai m cMmge or abof«e« Vtdle the nonber of parwxta daaslfled ae avnage or above m the factor of social adJustBUNxt, 75*4 par e«Bt» ins mmimlt Xomar than OR angr of the other factors, there atlU were only 24»6 per cent of parents ifho might be claMdfied as either retiring or very retiring* It is douhtfol that anor random sampling of the populaticm would pr»* date better recoLts, if me can assnss that the BaH AdJitstiMtxt Inmitory is a reliable iastannnst of aeasuxmercb of adJustBent* itiH* U pt ttHi Uts 4ai» m ^^SmUO, M jus^MU* Se Social Adjustnant of Parents Centred. B^qperiniMital !E)otal Total Ftereentages lery A»!»m4w Mothers 2 5 7 Fathers 1 1 8 23.1 Hothars X 4 Fathers 1 i 3 7 11.5 n 13 24 Fathers 5 2 7 31 90m6 5 s 7 Fathers 2 1 3 10 16.4 Mothers 1 1 3 f^^m 9 Itetal Bu'cnts 29 61


m mJth act«3 pttmat of tbit §tamAm o£ tbm sublets iiTtiilflni ii iwiiii «r atew in tte UibA» of

55 mommr the quMtions regardlz^ oeoopai^jon en th» Bell Ad,jwtDHBt fovHExtoxy* Ihe Mores of e31 tM«st7^our of the pemte ttto did • xa m ae , faoHvrer^ we

56 tilt idM thii tbim mg^m e Smma, ww flmpt.loning idLthin tte publie •obBol. l^iMM»k« tlM ynmteviM tated to haw tte «ldldm xvfewn ttag» wiiltV ni^erts to the pidxLLe sefaool nimh tliinfAii* H»» in tur»« jpfwti t i tta to tbB Jtpitm mub fxiiit^ «n«n»Q{u ilflm^ ttm Fftrccto nm itHtmA to ptfimit a rcfxirt en laMon «a»ir it has not bMm InrSlnrltril in th« taUlM TiiiMH it inralvsd tbi purants oolsr* Sllilo X6 pngnto % MMuy odT the«e r«pe«ta in tena of th» w i WMH iHtar «f Miaitos of imUM «Mrili <^SM had p«r nmk and par day for flftoan «Mto« A f lw i t i v «aik iMi mai tor eoBfutiqg daily Xi aigr to aaaiiit» of iiwiitu,^ tMt ra to ratum a vathSj SipH^ did BBl lOm^ indioate a laglitl Mfe «f prmetioe for that iiadu la aona caaoa tha tiii3.dr«c nd^^ ham loat tba r^porta tha HHnmupiat ada^t Jm* htm afaaanft ahm liia nporta ware Ixraii^ to So effort waa aate to wjt aa amV the pasranfta iixto oaidiig tbaaa yapecta. £t aaa daairad tl»t thia aipariiiit tfwuZd approodimta aa aaaiay aa pawrfbia lAat ad|^ hwa ban a xaotdini proeedure of boaaiMiu At tl» ant ^ the fifth week^ the writer Uls^wi tfaaaa pivanta ttm ate aa rtporta had beta raaa&vad* Ttm purpoae of tiw call aaa oarely dataiwtiia ahathar the ^rouogater had or had not loat «aia vapea^. Sana af tba pp i wli aaperted mm m Um, but atiM» tMftaad» that tbay faal p pw rtt w a bi^ had fte^ottni ta wiBa tha raporta. She only other direct ccmtact tfant tha dizaetar of the atiady aada with the pareota aaa at the eonduaion of the atody wban be


57 €P W£STJCE IBS CgP U? 1S& mD Fsa Oil FC& FXFttn of Aran^ no* Wik far of UilSZtM MP 15 Avinnigd no* of BifUfcMi av d«7 for 15 15 e 33 15 U 33 n 23 10 2 23 U 12 lU 10 3 4 0 21 14 9 9 n 5 12 6 ?0 U 1 134 17 43 14 If 39 39 22 m t9 16 Si 14 f 34 4 m i % k 33 4 I i 4 6 4 4 4 4 l^otal 172 "Wi.'W"""imgs i3o« of aln itM ptr ^ f «r tnbjMt a«ib«r 39 iMivtad mi on this final MiiteBt Mil tl»t ite bad practlMd «ad <«)N»t ton ia «21 tiw


58 MparU «vaii yvt. Sbm fajOAd to Mad in ttOy thi wiiily xvpoort* «(a>jMt« an avmga of a| yf m.teai aa y mmi wAaAm yar w^pi* in practicing tha ipaech tirniwali aaljuawiiiliS* iMBtaa of praetiee idth rafarwiea to tfaa imitiia ^ tSm ttm tfat MBufl through tha eixteonth week of tha ijailMWil Hum OP flycTSdi int wnt AID IB SUr FGR FSP9W «» Ammga no* Avmi^ no* Avantga no* Vbak of of BdzaztM of sdLmtaa of sdinnlaa Ftaraota par week p«r p«r iiMie for paar dagr i^ar aub of each of Bapoii"tad 26 Odldrai 26 CMldrm 2 24 m 12 3 25 71 66 14 4 66 63 13 5 23 59 52 10 6 57 46 10 7 2L 59 43 8 19 SI 37 1 9 1£ 55 34 10 13 48 24 XL 17 45 30 12 15 35 20 13 13 24 14 9 17 15 7 56 15 16 7 32 9


ftai mkHmv iM Man tlittb tikt mmmhi WMBt aoi the sftBus tMlSi, ^pending an a t uf i flBnter «f fxntmi of paractic* p»r da^, ar* all nrmwlitiwt, Nw«rtlMlM», Mm above tw» talxlra indicate claarly thafc aaosv « grenqt of parasUi ito b«d <»j|H" < *iiaar1 thair iriningrMW t* t^and firtaan to twmty mlntit,— a day doing apaoch bmmmA with tbalr HtdUraoy ttaslr ssod ixdMntibpna vara oo^ eaxriad out* Qjr tha aed of «i9«riMBt« oaily fsor yipNMlit iHMpi fbartaan «r aoara adnotaa par daST aet pamatdea* Furthazsxa«|, tha TsaAnKr of parmta riqporting drc^ipad ftaartlly aaah wnl^ iplft tlw anraapMrm of tfaa alavanth iiaak* vsaOX tSMK* HIM ai^ mntm parante raportliy an tha laat tao Smmos* An £nt«r«atiz]g aidallf^t on tha vaaidy paranta' rv^artm wm tha iiaat that ad^t o£ tha aub jaeta* paranta rapartad aniar "ftiaiiti* ttKt othar aamriari B of tha fMly naire Joining in tha apaaah gmm axxi liNil tha antlra finii3jr ibm anjoying tha activity « graat daal (evao, unfartonataaiyy a tfa r aa y a ar -old trying to natch hia oldn* brothar*« pvafpaaa in ImamLos tha [r] «MiBitl> As for xaaaans for not apanding mra tte m tha aiia1cmiant«» ttaea pavanb* aha aida any statoMot about it reportad iUneaa in tha fasaHy, no tine baoauaa of othaar childran and othar boaairark, Ioa» of iitewt, and tha praaanea of winter -slaltoav in tha hntna an aee^ptad waaaaa in aouth Florida* tta third queeticm ralaod vast Vhat ware the reactions of paranta and diildran to auch a praKSWt After tha aixtaanth tinmaaoilr aaai^naant had baan aoapayatad, tha paiEWsta of tha childran in tha


60 VMrUomaiM in cardir to ^btiia mm IAm otf tlMM ff^tatiwit^ ftiwit;^ f flRsr of tb» UmAs^-mtx. qontionnaixvs vert wiflMit «nel ireturmd to j«etl«»« Btwa rtbOw , fMOiogK ani attltate** r«car*a»— of hov ^Itl i li MQT |3«y 08 izoportont o pari Sa tiw parontxdiild rtiUtliaiafaipo 00 wmm MMarablo, anal^sablo* otatioU«a data. pamito* xoapoaoaa to tho t«i quactSom m tha ovaluatloa

Qri— t.1na 4* Hov did. yea react to your M l IHflM jjQ t)1f iTi1 ug, 6. 9. 10« 2f ywxt d£U4 had htfftmmA t» hkvm « aoor* aanra wptm Aafaety bav jwt tliizdc you Muld fasv* fait aSmit csarryjiX^ an ft jto^emk "^^fa^ Haw do you f acil that thia progm aff •etad ysur dOldta total perMoaUtyt Ih regard to tba enpunt of wavk idsl^ thaca do you thlidc it waa Za ragtrd to thi aaouQt of wcurk widch theaa laaaoma raqulrad of you, Bhsf Bsidli oiu'i'^Mjivai IsAa a9«d it * &^eyed it at timm So particular feadlBig adboot it MUiOy diaUIoBd it Stroi^ disUkad it •ould stroog]ly £a.90r it VOald wil iny finpor it IMd not osra v» w <«• tha othmr BULdQjT djiMippRMa Mad* no ehnga Cimaoil Ai^tXsr naoativa roanlta Cmaad strong nasitlw Far too xautAi K littla too EBidi A £air «Baunt Not quite onough Far too mxia Far toe mieii A little too Queb k fair amount Spt qoite enoiii^ rmt too llttla A great deal Quite a bit A taSr mensA Bet Sfwjr tJna you besaa Saaz^or eireery tixae About half the tdoe Only nov and then lievar


(A fm mx Uim th— i i^wmt, mm wX^ ny that aaat qf tte pMMoto of tte ddldmi who rMwivti ipMiii teMMHrik «illgBMHi» believed (X) that the child aate MLtisftetory iB^porowMst, (2) that tte dxilii wonOd bacw ante Ims lim^ n waiif without tte leMona, (3) ttet tte child Mjcvvd tte Xaa»oM» (4) ttet tte parent tnjcyvd Umb at tloM, <5) that audi a sro^nai AacOd te ocmtinuad fot a ftdl fbr ehildran idth am mara ipseeh dafaeta, (6) that tte chUdH total personality did not ehanee in any way» (7) ttet tte — wmt of mrk required nas fair for both child and parent, (8) that tteaw ma waa carryMwrmr of nav «aaali ridlla ioito ^Idly convemtioa, ani (9) ttet tte child r^taUad about doing tte haawertE only nov and ttea* Ite foorth, and paxte^a aoat pertinent, queation aated in CN p *« Z «m thiat Vto thare aBQr atatiatieally algnifleant diffiaauaa la tte aaoiBst of miaiaL lapwvaant aada by a grotq) of children «Au> raaaived aueh a «iBteratal pM^jnai aa eoavared to a aMad aontrol of children wte did not raealTB tte -fflrifft il nimli faoM. At tte bagfantng asf thia aKiatflawl aaeh 4»r tte fifty aiibjeeta aai aaai«nad an articulation aoere, oatnc UtedN aoale of valuoa aa indicated in Chapter U. TSomm aaeraa vara dafeaaaiaed fMa t^ recording of tte children OKdng the picturea in a picture artieul*tion teat. Tfaraa a^part ^iAsm Uatenad to tte recordinga and Mte JivVpnanta of either "right" or "wrong" for each aoond in each r^titiffin. ftera mm no a i g ni f icant difference betMeen tte naana of tte articulation


•oorM of the eontxvl «xkd tbs n^meiuuM giw^pt m VM indlcatod iax taHa* 5» C3l^pfter XZ« After tbs sixteonth hooBworic Isawn had bMn eanpaffUd bj tfa» ehildrsn in tte HMrt— i if i l gr«tq>, «11 fifty of th« children w tgKbi t«p»-recoiM «• tiMy niMd tlvi pieturM, and tbs Jud9»nts m to tte correct productim of sounds wsrs agiiii mtim hgr tbt tbrss siptH jalCMi. ths srtieulAtioR scores were agiidn fwimtsiij 1toed«s tslile of ifilmni In order to detenaizM the si^otfieaiioe of ths mmmA of lysech liiiiu'iivwsiit Bsde lay tbe children in both the control and ewysriasntsl jroops* « t-ratio sss applied in sai^ esse to the diff erem bstWM the aeen of the esdginel artiouXstion s as r es sad the aesn of the flml srtleulatloB asores* It was f onnd that both groups wds sicnlficaat 1*I>| t at the e»e par owt level of coof item* Bms« data are fW » «tt i d in Hibles 19 azxi ao. mrnmm amaor carsm tt asp fj s&m stssttam MHBB XR IBS MBBKII* WttSf Scmree N.

8BOB0 IS SSB BCRBCBBBZIL GBQDEP N« Mian Jaeto in tka aantzxa grovy) and in tte rnqgrnOmmtaik gro«9. 1!» raaulta ara tbam in ftlOa 2L ufaiali tsXkMm tmcmATm mmamtii mtm rm m pzra: mmm N. Banga Haan

H ilthtmgb ttatf* mm « aHOl dliivmm «r pcdnts in £kw of the OMn Ii^iihimiiiiI,. aaem of th» OKpwlMnUl group, tfaoro ia no iteUBtiaa «vld«neo that tl» ehU4r«n idth functional ortieulataKy defOeto in tho •KpoHawnUX gmop who roooivod* or id» «•«• «|pMiA to g t i i lf o, a pngem of wndsBantasy parsntal instruetion for alxUiB a a o ta ctt tiw mdoi aada aam lifMMMnii tiwn tho dcllilran in Urn oontrol gros^* Sia critical nttiio of 0*7i !• not aignificant at tbt m»t flv»« or ovon tan par e«st 2aiv«3. of ooaCHmM*


Harixig tiw X956-57 Mbool yar in the ptdslic sefaoolB of Bida County, FlaridA, a study vu conducted to ets mro dividod into a eontrcQ, groi^ and an espariU* an*aX 9«iiq>, Ihsrs wrs no rtgrtflMnt dif f eransss bstmea tbs msm of these two groups in I.Q.«s of the subjects, artieudatioit asm si aC the subjeeta, or Beta X.Q.*s of ths paraita*


67 Vat ilrtiwii WHkm, «fc a %Sm iten the pufalie ah i rt ^ pi Mh tfannipists ii«r» aMldng c»xTT

6B mmmAtA mCmt group in that thw wk9 indieatlo»s ikaA, m % SMI9» tlMigr MS* iOUM^tSy alxnre aversg* in IntAUi^sonee* •toMtional bftdcjtlwHf and aof \n iwiwiiili status* 3* Smv were no indleatijona ^t as a group tho partots osf ttMs flft7 dilLdran with funetloamL wi^Leulatory dsfaets vera awffelfinany or weiaXlar ailMSuatad* Unqt vsra^ indaad, according to tlii instru sant «c34)gniril^ INwSAmdblsr abois csmia in faoas^ teaSithf social* wwt.lomT » and oeeu|)atio3al adjtartsxent. 4* SI iasMi lia tMRMd tlMEb a ginup of ptfwte of piab^ mAatlL *>i MtAv m% with ftmeticoiBl artlKflAtonr lisftiits ^tii dUijesntly and ragi^tarljr earzy out a ssvmms «f i push fiiswiirfr isslgrsisnts^ Btm iflth a grmip of parants amra aotlntted than awraga to tim CBCtent that tlHgr vqparassad nHlingness to do so, thsre was a iPaML itSDiaass during the aixtatnsMk paslod in the nisber of pBMlli 1*0 waps wofltUig with thalr liiSlSrm aal in th» zxuBftmr of mlmtes per day bcdng dsvrtad to tha up ss el i aetlvltlss* 5« Both the children with the fumtlonal articulatory dofecta aal tbtir parents tended as a grm9 to enjogr tho i p ssc h gmm iMA w«re la wwiitsiU ZofUMooes of both positive and negative ynSmm migfA be drawQ trm this ooDsluslan* Ihls ^dnt and enjoTablo par t icipatio n of parent and child in spesah gHM tdt^A deereose anor negative feeling iMMi the ehlld had about ^>eech» or about hiaself heeanse of his iqpee^ Gn the other hand, the focusing of attention x^xsn faia In a pSLeasunble sense eadi day dtolng the xavetieiz^ of the epeedi inqproveMttt Mses oould tend to aake the ^^t^^^ eline to the daCeetlve aoeoeh M aa attentloQ-fprttlngf an aff eeti«» fettilng dsvlce*


69 ' 69 7km pi&U« mAkxi3» iipMHfet tlMn9lii> -ttiid/i^ 4Hn9NMW t



Felaruary 6, 1956 Misa IJarsaret Gilkey Si:^rvi8or of Quidanoe Services Dade County Board of Public Instruction 275 N. W. SMOoi Street Hisooi, Flori4a Dear Hiss SUkey, ICrs* Sutter, aad Mr. HLeiert By far the largest group of children with triuxa ve work in spee^ clinics or in public scl^l 8peecb-^rrecti rectloR of such speech defects is espodited wiisn parents carry out a practice program at hooe to support the work of the speedi therapists. However, sons authoac^tles feeQ. that not only does such parental **help^ make no real dif f er«MQee in the degprae or speed of ixapptyvmiKat, but that it my actually hinder iiaprovment through (l) faulty teachii^ on the jwtrent's part or (2) the setting vqa of negative attitudes toward speech on the part of the cMldren. As a candidate for the Fh.D* degree at the Uhiversity of Florida, and with my EiajQr in Speech Pathology and rny ndnor in Education, I have chosen to investigate this problaa and to report upcMi it in my doctoral dissertation. In order to sake this research as realistic as possible, I should lite to investigate it as a real problen in an actually functioning school systflBi — ^in my case, that of Dade County. It is in this cwmection that I m asking the foUcving reqi^st. During the 1956-57 school year I should like pennissiMi to supervise a research project mooQ a select group of Dade County School Children. Ihe project would be set up as follows; (1) At the beginning of the school year sixty third-grade children idio have functional articulatory disoorders would be selected for study. (Third grade has been ^[jRted because one of the requirements of this sttidy is that «ie childrffli shall not have had speech therapy previously.) Children with significant hearing loss, stnictural deviations, or mental izcpaiiw Bsnt could not be included in this study. 71


2 Mwuary 6, 1956 tl (2) ^ZhMM sixty ehUdrwi vetOd be divided into two groupe of thirty, M ev«nlj amtehed as possible for age, sex, intelligence, and parental soclo-eoffliocdc status. 0) Tins esq^erimental groqp of thirty children would receive speech thanqpor in escaetly the mm Banner as they nov receive it. In addition, the assistanoe of the parwits nould be sought for additional i»ractioe as indieated by the speech therapists. (4) The control grwp of thirty children would receive spee^ thert^ in OKaetly the sane nuumer as they now rendve it, but thnre noold be no **haBHtmricn assigisd lAiieh would rnqpilrs |«r«nt«l «;7i«rvision or |Nurtieip»— tion. (5) The th«r^pists involved in this study would be ssOLaeted froQ the regular Dade County speech correctionists vho would xoeet weddy with the director of this study in order that the progrffiu Ed^t be as closely coordinated as possihlst (6) Eadi thwraptst Included in the study would wozic with children f rem both groups in <»tier that t^ study cdiould evaluate the factor of parental assistance rather than the relative effectiveness of one therapist with another therapist. (7) At the beginning of the study tape recordings of each child would be isade and ev»"'uated by a board of "experts'*— i.e. peofile wltii a doctor's or at least, a master's degree in speech correction. (8) At the end of the study t«^ recordings would cmce again be Bttde and evaliiated by these sans ei^erts as to the anmint of i j upr ov ement ittde. The findings of this study shoiild nake it possible to do a better ^b of speech therapy with that large gcovp of children \iho most need such service. Since the results would be published not only in the dissertation itself, but also in abstracted fom in natlmial professional Journals, the benefits of the study would be made available to children with functional articulation defects throu^MKit the United States. I should appreciate yovac considering zay reqpiest, and I shall be happy to meet with your cooflittse at any time if further clarification of ay request is needed. Sincerely yours» wmian L. ShM Acting Director gp ss ch and Hearing Cllnie QkilvM«tt7 of Hi«Bi WLSjglJ


I APPEimiX B F«lmiary 20, 1956 Ifr. wmi«a L. Acting Director SpMch and Hearing dixde IMversity of Miami Coral Gables, Florida Dear Ifir* Steas The cccHidttee for special testing in the Dade Cotinty public schools ocn{>osed of Mrs. Laura Sutter, Ifr. Ttd HLeier, Mr. H* Gears^ LodLselle, and the writer, has approved your raqosst for pezmisaion to conduct a study during the 1956-57 school year of a group of 60 third grade children having functional articulatory 4l8oard«r9« Pttzsdssion has been granted in tezins of the eig^t vpi^Lfleiatlaoa as in your letter of February 6th. Va» cflOBdttee desires to grant this aj^roval nith three qualifications: 1) That the stiKly should b« conducted imder the stQ)ervi8i(»i of Mrs. Laura Sutter, Assistant Director of Special Education Departjoent. 2) Biat the c(»ielu8ions reached in this projeet be ahaz«d with the Dade County school systm, and, 3) 1!hat the study be centered in schools with ptQiils of average econooic status such as in the area of Kensington Parfc Elanentary School or the Shenandoah Elaoentaty School. The ccranittee extends to you its best wishes and hopes that the results of your findings will be helpful to you perscmally in your graduate woric and especially helpful in our working with children in the Dada County public schools. Sincerely, (Miss) Hftrgaret J. Gilkoy, Chaiznan Oandttee for Special IDesting in the Dade County Public Schools 73


FOeH 3s FEBIFHEBAL SPEECH MECHANISM EXiUaiiJlTICR (At «dapt«d from Pom 3* Diagnoatic Kanual in S CCTTection by Mttrnm^ Darl«7 and Sprleatersbach ach} Date !• Saaaary of toe Major Deviations Bsvealed by t^e Voice and Connected flfrwch Exaninatioo: 2» Description of the Size and Shape of the Peripheral Oral Structures; a. Teeth (1) Class of oecluBion, , , , (2) CcHKiitiMi of anterior teet h <3) MMbag teeth (describe ) ' <4) Otlier b. Hard Palate a) Hel^it (2) Cuspid widt h (3) Molar widt h «• Tongue (1) Size (In relaticm to dental arch ) (2) Characteristic position oif tongue in sumth during rest positiwi (3) Size and position of attaeteients of lingual £r&am


(1) IhleknM S (2) CJontact during rest poeltio n (3) Adequacy of labi-al tisau e peserlptlon of the Motility of the PeriiAeral Oral Structures i a. Lips (1) Rrotruaio a (2) Retraction (a) Unilaterall y (b) Bilaterally (3) Number of times subject can say "pah** in 5 seconds Trial 1: Trial 2: Trial 3t b* Tongue (1) MaxiMm Protrusio n (2) Ability to point tongu e (3) Ability to elevate tongue-tip outside lin e (4) Ability to elevate tongue-tip behind teet h Summary and Evaluation i Specify deviations that you Judge to be Disablin g Sever e Slight (Do not specify those that you jiidge to have no effect on speech.) Other Evaluatiw Comentst


AFPEKDIZ D _ , . , AETICUUTICK TEST If & sound is mlsartlculatsd in az^ my (ineluding emission), plaos a check ( ) in the eQliann following tt» wenrl in which the misarticulatiou accurs. VSiere two words ap^^ear for one sound, the sound tdll be considered incorrect in that position, if either word is chedcsd. apple •Mm £d£B b "soy Mr m fflan t table bujt>^er boat d 6pg ra^io n Im^e coo^es record ; eaks boojc g 1^ filrl boggy •fit Aug fj^Bger . rigg swlijg £oap perwil horg* dre^ T6


If MXnS^SLkTISXi TEST > ConttzBaMl z jsehra SLpper razor scisjsora ey«£ •h shoe war |i1 tw brush fi^ A a»^Lurlng crap ' television ehaif ketcjiup mat^Mi peafih leatdi J jockey soldier orar^e f fan coi^ee elephant l«tf kni^e V v]ao8 vaeocBii cleaner oven diver ' oilijre stoiye th thimble baUitub birthjday eake fflouth th tMs one . . that one f eatj^ grandtaot^r KitJi eeaootl? » £ed p^Qdoeet carrot »ta£ 1 gadder lastD pUXflv yeJipw ba^ dell i 2imn oolon h Jjat li^t|iouse sanchdch (hir) wheel


APPENDIX E Dear 14r« and Kcs, ka you krxm, efforts ar« cmstazitly being made to inprofve the ediication of our children. It has only been in recent years, for exanple, that a child vith a irilld speech probleni such as your diild has could receive special instructicm £roa. a public school speech teacher. Since s^ech correctic^ is quite a aaw sab^t, iJoan are many things we still do not kncM—ve only believe that they an bast for eai^ child. The Si)ecial Testing CooBdttee of the Dade County Board of Public Instruction has granted lae a rare privilege. They have given lae pennission to direct an expezdia^t tet^-ting two different ways of teaching q^ieeeh to third grade children with mild speech probletus. One grotq> of thirty Mleeted children will receive one type of trainir^, and another group of thirty selected children will receive a different type of speech training. Both types will need the cooperation of the parents. At the end of tte school year a cQB|)ari8

APFEHDH F Dear Mr. tad Vn, t Z «houlxi like to «xpreM my appreciaticHi to you for your spGLendid eooperatim in helping us set up our research project in speech corz>ecticm. Ttds rather IxmQ delay in ^tting the aoeperlinsnt \2nder has be«i caused by the gitwit difficulty in finding sixty parents yourselvM who tmre sufficiently interested in their children's pr o gt -s— to participate* Hw children wejre divided Into the eaqjeriiaental group and the control group an the basis of the various tests administered* Toxir jmoQgptar has been placed in the eoqjeriinental group. This means that you ifill be included in the group of parents who will be asked to help the speech therapist in her teaching* Each we^ you will receive a lesson plan to work on with your child; the first lesson will be next we^. Each week, also^ you will receive a little f om for reporting to as Urn «nDunt of tias you were able to devote to teaching your dilld his or her speech lesson. If, for ai^ reason on a certain day or days, you find that you cannot or did not ip«3d vay tioe with the lesscm, do not hesitate to say so in the report. all see our good intentions go astray new and th«i, and one of the purposes of this sacperiinent is to try to detenaine just how much time the average parents sm devote to the type of speech haaework we»re attwQpting. 79


Xow Mill find «iclos«d with this letter soiae basic suggestions to be foUfli*«d In every lessra which will follaw, Ue hope they will be of help to both you and your child, ELease feel free to ^.^n ae if you hsTO any c^stions as the experiment ccntinues. Blank you again for yoia* patience and your cooperatieai» Sincerely yaag^g, Acting Director Speedi «)d Hearing CGLinio V' . . . ; . ^ University of Hiani Eirector of the . 'J. Speech Research Problon WLStam


sam smsssncm to nmm for voenKG Mim chuboi WITH A DEFECTIVE SPEECH SOUND 1, First and foreaiost, the tcaehiiig-leaming relationship between the parents and ti% children must be a pleasant one. This will mean an endlsM amount of patience on tiie parents* part, at times, bat your patience will be rsMarded with the child idx> wants to learn. Forced learning, especially in saoBthing so close to iis as our own speech, MQT actually prodnos mm Ml VMUIts. 2. In our experimental groqp, we will confine our correction of the ehild*s speech to those periods specifically set aside each day for the teaching period. This, too, will bs a little difficult, for lAan you see your jmmitisi beginning to maks a little progrsse, ycm»ll have the urge to cocrect hia each and every tins he Bakes the omd lnoorrectl^<-. This o^wtant correction cause rebellion «plnst speech on the youngster^s part and he will stop making progress. 3« Vb will fmplain In detail to the parents Jjnur to malos ettdi sound. This is in order that you'll fed more certain about vrtiat yow're doii^ azid teaching. We do not, howeveor, bellew that it is wise to give the cMld hiaself a lot of direeU. . 81


82 incorrectly make the beat and ti» aost peznanent «»Tectl(»i through the sense of hearing . 4« Saoe additional help in learning speech sounds is provided by the sense of sight. Ihereforo, in every lesson, be sure you sit so there is vedry good light on your face, especially around the area of the mouth. Let your youngrter sit so that his eye-levaL is at about i3a» IvnU. of your chin* 5. Iou«ll find later that we have given each sound a nanet *>8*' is the "snake" sound, "sh" is the f^be-qulet** sound, etc. In iforkLng with TOUT 3roungster, ttte these texan aaat of the time. Let him associate a certain anmxnt of good^-natured play vLth the correction. If, for eyanpl»t working on ^m** on tt» beginning of words and he says, instead of ''aasll," %ell," ym say, **I didn«t hear any snake on thatt** rather than »rirou left off the »s»t» 6. One writer has said, "If a child likes his teacher, anything that teacher does will be right with the child. If the child doesn*t like his teacher, nothing the teacher does will be right.** I think this is a good philosoidiy to follow in working with owr children on speech probloos. !Ihey may already be overly sensitive about tham, and we mstf in our teaching, stake tits re^learojng, the correction, an enj<^;«KLe saeperience for both the ddld and ourselves. 7. We*ll try to lay out this retraining program in what we feel are logical st^. ^metiaes, if you*re like I m, you*ll want to rush ahead of the prc^raa. In general, we've found that it*s better to take each step slowly and be sure it's taken well, than to try to take too many steps rapidly and "to fall down** in our program as a result.




LMMon X Our first lesson in the speedi research project is devoted to **ear training.** The ears to be trained this woek are ttnse of the parents; the children will have a similar assignq^nt next week in iMSon ttfo. A First of all, let loe describe some of the characteristics of the sound s as it is normally produced. It is a voiceless sound; it consists merely of a fine stream of air being directed down a groove in the colter of the tongue and escaqpdz)g throu^ a tijny opening vhere the iqpper and lower front teeth meet . The sides of the tongue are rolled \xp hlijb enou^ to touch the inside of the upper teeth or the gtm ridge. The tip of the tongue is ordinarily placed just behind the lower frcait teeth, althom^ SflBie people seem to be able to make a satisfactory £ with the tongue tip behind the t^jper frcMit teeth, , The jB sound usually goes wrong in one of two ways. (1) If the sides of the tongue are too low, the air eBCvpea over the sides axvi we hear a "juicy** soiind scoething like an '»sh" sound. (2) Far laore cotsawiLy, the t<»}gue protrudes over the edge of the teeth at sooe point (usually near the £rn speech defect there is. You rmi^r from our description of £ that the tongue is entirely inside the teeth and that the teeth are almost coo^etely closed as we make the s. Ifow for sooe ear training. Notice that the letter £ in a word 4B89 not always have an s sound; it often sounds like £. For esxmfijs, in the follotfing words the letter s has a ^ sound: hills, his, use, cars.


85 callft. See if you can jot down 10 or more words In whi<* the letter £ ha« the sound of a. On the other hand, the letter £ often has an 4 sound, m the words "voice" and "price," for instance, we hxn to aake the 4 sound. See if you can jot down about 10 woJ:^ls in which the letter £ has the sound of s. Children who have difficulty with £ often are not consistent in their error; sooetijies they inay be laaking the sound correctly. Ihe £ sound Bay occur

Immm 2 Bw £ Sound J. •\ The eticloatd ii^cooie (?) addition to your household is "Sam, the firiendly snake." We call the £ sound the ^saake souiui" ani Sam is to be xxsed in review of ear training. Here*s the plans let and 2nd day >— Play "Hide the Snake" for about 10 or 15 minutes. You hide the saife» moA aftsr you ha:ve hidden ±t, say siiqxly "s-e^ s o— t hat is, the £ sotgi d ' no t the nans of the letter "ess-ess-ess." As your youngster eoMUi eloMr to the hidd^ snake inake the £ more loudly* If he aovse farther away, make the £ more softly. Eadi time he finds it, make a rmmk about "You found Sam the SMket" 3rd day .— Play "Hide the Snake" in a slightly different manner. Tell your youn^ter that after you have hiddoi Um snake you will soostloss say Sjf that that sametimes you will say the th sound instead. If you say s, he can look for the snake, butlfyousayj^^heisnotto look for the soaks. He*!! probably want to hide the snake himself and that is all right, but don't make an issue out of his pronunciation of £; let it go either way, 4th day .— Flay "Hide the Snake" again, but today instead of just plain £, use syllables (not wwds) beginning with £, mA MBStlmes with tjt— fbr eajBQxLe: sah, thah, so, gay, tjbjsy, me, j^ee, gow, JSjow, etc. 5th day.— Bam your diild take an old comic botdc, or an old magazine and try to find 5 pictures of objects or people wix>se names begin with the sound 8, but r»t Have him cut them out. Go over the naaaes wi«i him to be sure they do contain an £ sound.




6th day »— Ride the pieturoB vfaich he has cut out and play * gtm M 70a did on the 3rd day. For eaenple. If yoa sajr '*«oajp." he looks for the picture, Imt if you say "thoi^," he does not* 7th day. — Cast your snakes aside and relax in preparation for lesson Lesson 3 Bie s Sound After a week of making "make sou33ds** and hiding snal»8» I'm sure you understand i*iy the Irish respect St, Patrick, vd» droTe all the snakes frca old Ireland. We*ll try not to be "snaked this week. lASBon 3 is a "bridge between the pore ear-training of lesson one and two and the actual production of the s sound l?y the children in lesson four for next week. Enclosed ai^e twelve cards with £ Muni plotures on th«a. I m suggesting a few games below in vhLch these cards Slight be used: 1st gaffle .— Put the cards in a stack, face down, on the table. You and your youngster take t\ams in drawing one card at a time and thwi nnte the card. Mien name a card, say the name correctly saaetioes, but say "thoopP instead of "soi^» soawtlBSS. His job then is to tell whether you said it right w wrwig. If he can tell, you give him the card; if not, you keep it. When he mmm a card, he again tells you whether he said it right or wraag. Don't correct him on Jjosf he said it, but if he knows whether he was right or wr

«9 £|Qe.— Shtiffla the cards and deal an equal number to each person placing* lOajT "trade.** **1 have a bar of soap. Mtmt idll yon. give me for a bar of soap?" "For a bar of ffajt, Itll give you a sandidLch," etc. until you»ve traded all your cards back and forth. £^.->j>la7 "Guegg Uhl^ One.** Sniffle the cards and deal thou* Each player keeps his cards face down. Ihen he takes me of his cards, looks at the piettire quickly and puts the card behind his back in either hand. Ihen he says, ''Quejgs which hand it*£ in.** Tou guess. **Ihist QOiT** "Te2» gu«^ %ibat it is.** If you gusM the correct hand, you keep the card; if not, he ke^ it. Ihen alternate back and forth until <»ie jfijtgmr has all tin cards. £ing«—If you haven*t iised up all your hiding places for snakes, ywi, oould take turns hiding pictures, and then naming tbae* 2^ ajS£»~If you have a little dioe-store magnet, tie it on the «Ki of a string, and then tie the string to a pencil or stick. You now have a **fi8hing pole.** Put a oamon pin or paper clip on each card and turn them face down. Now, you can take turns *»fiahin^ and identifying your "fish.** !Ihe pin will stick to the magnet. ^g^.— The **Secret Sack^ game. Take all the cards and put then in an ordinary paper sack. Close sack and ^lake the cards. Each player in turn closes him egpwi and reaches in for a card, pulls it out, and asks the other to ^*Qqm9 what it ist** The object in all these games is to stimulate the child to hear the difference betweea the right and wrong foios of (s). Don»t try yet to make him say the socmd correctly. That starts next wetic. See you tbent


^ 1 V ' f 1^ SUE SOUP SIGN Fig. 2. — Cards for Lesson 3 90


I 91

PAGE 100

Lesson 4 XT « good foundatlcm of "ear-training" has been provided, if your youngster can nov tell the difference alisost infallibly between Uie ri^t and woag f onas of the sound we are ready this wsek to have your child begin a ewttentrated progra m to learn hotf to make the sound s, himself. Ihis fourth lesson will be devoted to saking the £ sound in isolation and in syllables, bat ^[t in words. Ihe faulty way of makix^ £ in coDiaonly used words is already m fixnly fbced that, until he has eocie practice in making the sound alcme, and in syllables, your youn^tw will aljaost autcmatically make it the wrong way in familiar words. Vto will proceed to a few basic s words in our next lesson. For the first two days «• wtnt ycax to practice the following routine with your youngster at least twice a day for about 5 minutes each time. Say to him or her, "I want you to listen to me very, very carefully. I*m going to touch each finger on left hand and as I touch it 1*11 make the sound £• Tts&t means 1*11 make the £ sound 5 times. Ihs sixth tjjDM, 1*11 point to you and then you make the sound. — — -!£here, that«s finsi** (do this 5 tiaMi) <*Itow listen to m agaixu Ihis tins 1*11 say "£ah" on toy fingers and «ie sixth time 1*11 point to you, and you say "fiah." (Do the mm thing then with the syllablsst £ay, £ee, sie, £p, and soo.) On the 3rd, 4th, 5t*i, and 6th day, play "Checkers" with a regular checker board. Xqu*11 noUce that eaich "cheeksr" has a double syllable on it, such as: *>«sh ^if* or "me » see." Sadi time either you car

PAGE 101

Fig. 3. — Checkers for Lesson 1+ 93

PAGE 102

Toair /oungiUr Tuam a ohMkBr* My it« dmm* B» wrr* b* mqw it eof»« reetly. If b» Mys it ineorreetly, M7» "Mm that tlw snake Mund?" Ihis IsMon eoBwa pr«tty eloM to btiag platn old drill iMeh OMt diildrca roMOit* lh» aoee— > of tha li—co idH dtptnd on jwr good-natur«d pati«aeaf your wmnm of ismatg ixx awklng a §mm out of tho Iomuu If thia laawn ia ^nw^^1T^/ oancM Mt^ your wartc hmraaftar idll ba amfei oaaiar* TtdB weak ae ara going to davofca our antire practice tlM to aiz wSBfiU, fraquantly uaad WKrda baglmtng with tha aaoDd ^ Exparimea baa ahoMn us that it la %«tt«r to ataava a aarect pro^ dwtion of tha aooBd in a fair <%a7 vocrda," and than to flgpn«i it to othar worda latar (i^hidi wa ahall do noct «Mk}« frsr to pilay tha "Bv«rgUdaa Ikvaaora Rtaxt^ gna at laaat anaa aaoh day vith your youneatar. 3ha dlractiona ara viecy alapiLa* raid up tha aadoaad eut-«ttt ao that it baecnaa a ei&a, oora or laaa lHea aoe of a pair of diaa* Ba aura it» words ara on the outaida* Jom start at ona of the atarting pointa, and your jiimmilai atarta at tha other. Ba^ takaa a turn. Thrsw tha (idiaa/' ra«l tha aord that acHsa vipt and aof ywr "playai^ ahaad on tha gaaa for the nadwr of •qparaa indicated by the red nmbar on tho fWba. Xoiar "player" aaa bo a peo^y or a little diae af 1ft irt mtjfin a iftita bixtton with a f^ dnwn on it* !Ehe firat one to reach the treavwa ciiaat idna« of aourse*

PAGE 103

95 <^thar of ywi miy tbm Hard jpcorrcctly. you BBMt c» |||||||^ one a<;piare« In oar^me to kocp your youQgpter al«rt» oeeaaionaUy wcr Urn miA lamg mamiSbm "nttihwi^ i»n» tk tm pM of tht« gmm ofUr 4 or 5
PAGE 104

Fig. 4. — Die for Lesson 5 96

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Fig. 5. — EvBrglades Treasiore Hiint for Lesson 5 97

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for mamsilM* Tou mjr, "X hnm wmm ide* gmfp hw*. It idn wit gbc c«at«.** (Be «ur« your prloe cocxUlns the sounl £ in lU) m» «w*— r aajWy onota? OJU Hsrs it is* 1 vaixb sane Zf the euetaaira> mnlers pbooi*** tJnts d«3imr7 bc^ c«n t«k» th« itcas to tlw cmtoBMr and d»ek ov«r the entire order before iMcvii^ it at the house* 4mtt> to teep ;ipQ«tr ypwrmtter «a the tUmt for his louni, raise ll» priee if he «aaw it Iaearx«et37» 1tm» too, ahould ssjr it ineornetisr nov and then to «ee utMtliar }»m be oh— twut and raiee the Of» day instead of playing store, 7«m adght let your child g» throu£^ your canned goods, or your refirlgeratw and saOoe a list of it«as beg i nn i n g with the souodi £ and then read the list to yea* ffiiffOr "slmppln^ until zttxt veekt Mb IMU you niiid savii^ the littlA store? Usm use it aoOn later* * ' * ' lesson 7 This week we are going to concentrate on the j| sound in the wSMla of words* Siaee ValentinBts Bay is ;)ttst meaaai the ooRiar, we»U «se that as center of activity this we^. Z «mss» as the soi« «ass, our Botto mlgfat be, **7oa«Te Gotta BaM BssrW* ;ou«ll fini «n«Iosed (X) « iKqgs haart-stmped vaXantine with twelve slots in it, (2) tmHre mnaH hearts with little tabs on than, cm of Wiich is cut out.

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PA'S COUNTRY STORE Fig, 6. — Store for Lesson 6 99

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lat <^n aaIo» m» prvtty «iqpU as jCmt «i drUl itM« Let your ytjungoter color tha hsart and tha twelvis littla hiirt»« Lai hia cut out the littla cnas 4u«t Uka tha codoMd Hov faaivv him put asflh of tha nalX baarta ia a «20t 1& tha pmii fai^ baart. Vbm this ia dona, ttrioa turna iKdUGs a littla haart out and M^ins tiia vord. If aithar «C jm imm tha word wem»g0 the heart shm^ ha put bade in tha a3«t» Hiiiwii haa the ooii haarta idna* 2nd <%7 t Jkm. earafallj iigr tlM» ma ef tOXVi aaall hearts «bA than Inaert thea in thair alats* Ml ana tdM a turn* Sra» ona haart out and a^ tha other "Ouna nhat it j^*** If tha other peraoQ guaaaea oosreetay, he gata a torn* IX nst, tha pacMB
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IXfi 5th dayi Sajr th* 12 nords earftfullj^ than on» ef tqu put tiMBt in tb» alotfl. Each dnm a heart, aays the word, tbn mIcmi up « mxtfltm, a •(•MM^ iiiti« tia» iie^ •Vind • ptnolX «Bd telng it to tte iwend pWHR wait then cany out th* CNWHodf or forfait ooa titrn* 6th dayt Sit^ of you take tuztia iletating haarts aixi aaying ItiNiir wmmB aactH all 12 «r« gone. Ihaa attdli of 70a Uk» % pmeil aod BBd iirite « ibsrt **atQry" vaOxig your kLx hox^. Sdea ttmm vteSiag ywr storiaa* Iho tn^att on»«* ydxm tba gm* 7th dayt If jmu «ra still f ealing "haarty," repaat ai^ oom of tha «KBa» abova* If i»t« rate anft Hilt ISir Immei d« (ter l a woa this nMk idll again usa «Fk*s Countzy 8t(»««« vith o^^Mt* inttm |» llMi ftA quicdc look at this naaicni "objacts" taam ttwta ef t«o waaks ago would s««& to raveal tha fset that "I^«s" •tora Bust have baao the torwaaanr of tha Bnd«m drug stot-a -ftt apparantljr sold alaost aivngrthiz^ Int gimrias ia his gtosmry storot Ota tha store in about tha sms aunar as swu did two waeks ago with ^"^^ ' ^«^ £• &y to wttrk the sound into tha prloas ^aotsd and into jwr asst often rqpaatwl r a ^is ai such as •Xai, that»j| rigbU IkMots^igbc oant^^o eto* Sons mOOL ywlty f «r mviag the scmzvl inoorroctljr will help vtiMOata greater asrs In mffhig weeds* »Hf mif^t say rxpoa haarii^ a wroQg sound, *^jWTy, ay hearb^ aid isnH woiidz«, Wm£UL you xoind fndte ttet aaiai'*

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BE MY VALENTINE Fig. 8, — Valentine for Lesson 7 103

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Qq th» 3Mt 2 or 3 a1ni> with lots otf advwti^a* SMta (ia ttara any otha> kind thaaa da^T) and pick out all th» artielaa he ean HbA mOix^ in the aound m wdH uaa the little stare a9Kt& after this vaek, so you ean do whatenrar you wish with it. If, hy dbanee, the first one has faaan lost, just take a piece of cardboard and cut a ooupSje of alots ia it with a Imif e or raaor Uade and set Tourself 19 in *«*ilT>ffft asaia* Sawk you again for ytxar ecsitinuing cooperation. lids week iie*re geiog to ran a hsrdle-raee* (The thii^ m Mdeam parents have to do to leeep up with our cMldrenl) 9m pMBdt VijOX be wxking wltii are the "b[U»ds*(* Xn a y^MBA the sound £ is so eloseljr Ued to another consonant Just after it that the apeeeh a^gfum aiust am srtvwarily xspidly f roo one so«al position to the nuct. Ttdm soaetJaes ffaitsea ths Usato to be m dif* fieult for children than the £ soond foaiared or preceded by a vowel, Om thing we must be careful about in woridi^ with the hlsads is to Vre>f«nt the tm parts of ths bXeni trcm being sepaiwlsd with a littls wnL-lSke sound in between. Ihus, we should sa^
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107 ifiaw wMtB«** not 'TWiMfio, jiwn-iHyj wnFwWKy crt ftnMiNlij^iF Xb our littlt gaoM of a iBirdl* rsM, pu^ vp tba littl« U-> lltiy iil Imrdlm m> that they stand vprU^^ 9m mtHn jiva ttki «b» ef ^ two runnnra and put him
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Fig. 11,— Hurdle Race Game for Lesson 9 108

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9ssmJi JK QMMHI x« star ante mm — it . « 11, 9m ffCOQL ida,t« 9« ttaar MUtKLSif-rHI Umdi «niff 9* «d12i •pin 10.

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210 Sm th«t yeur youngsttHr ham a pneil and paper and a bode at his flH& raadtog laval. Ibis oould ba tgasy ot hia acbooX booka« a coele book* a Wxnay boo}e--|g|||b||K that ha ean raad fairly aasUy* JGaeb day ham hia raad ailantly thraa pagea of tha book and zaaka a list of H]^ tha wMrda that hava tha £ aound in than* lhan, aftar ha haa £ii>lahad hia liat, haTa him giva tha Hat to you vhils ha reads aloud tha aaaa ttoaa fafaa* Xbii keep seoara— glva Mb ooa point for aaeh £ noxd ba aaya oorxaetly* liew get a peli^ maxit one ha mliiaa Ihia tjrpe of practice naada to ba imm ax ody tha five atiiool dajna. fVovlde aooa motivation for the work, irrvolvod by a little •I'—arriy of mm Hnd itea jmat child «!» tha gane— the nward can ba Mnathlng like a **treat,*' or even a tdce« genurwa* aerving of praiaa bgr 70a aft«r lia tei flnlabad adU aaiea tha af fbrt worth ahila for hiau Nart wade iie«ll oona bade to a gvaa approach acain* and altarnata b a ta aa p gmm and xamre direct t,*w^ing fron nor on. laaaonll Bow gbout a little tititdxig thia aatiet 1 auapaet aona of thaaa apeeioaoa cotOdnH be found even in tha daapaat <*daep," bist hara 0»aal IMMfallj the beat vay to "fi^tt noold be to put a pin or atiqaa an aaidi eanU Hmu fSaaUn a Uttla dime atora mugcmt to a piaea of i«ctqg about 2 faat Img, Tie tba athar eod of the atrimg to a paaeil er atidk fbr the **fi^)iQg pola«<* Tour "nnaarf* ana ba aagr opty boc In idiidi the £Li^ can be placed face doun. If you donH happen to have a mwami, ystt can aaa your togezBilty to davlae mm other meaiv of

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in fishing—mTbe a safety-pin hook, or Moe arrangeoBnt with clotf»« pins cm the cards* Each of you take turns catehing a fish. As soon as one p«>son eatgl nation and two chairs.

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SAI L Fl S H ^^^^^^^^^^ ^"^^^^^^^^^^^^ SWEET~SUE FISH SKINNY FISH SPOTTY FISH • III II w 1 1 ^^^^^ STARE FISH BASS SLY FISH STRIPED FISH Fig. 12.-— Fish for Lesson 11 1L2

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-1^ 314 Ftxt the tsbair» tlte ligr tSim, «r em bofalnd the o(3i«rw«n» fbr your ycmgfsUr and one for you. Eeeh eveniag take a little trip, talkijQg ftiMut vtiAt 70U see both inside aiai outside your selected sans of tranaportatlon. Ctas dsy t2«yel on a bu8| the second on a train; tbs third SB « ipwe ship} the farth» Ml a ieteariae; the fifth, on m ocBan liner; and the sixth* on an airiOane. Qss aU the (s) wctis ^au sm «• tnural. A fev guggested vco^ «re andlMsd «i * mpmt^ Am^» tet donH be limited to tbeae. (lou»ll probahly have to ask your ywwgster to tutor you in the outerliafie voQaiMlMT «ecQrdins to the lat«»t untfxridged eocdc book.) 'Wt 3W yfwini g itw says an (a) word incerroctly, pretmd you. cantt bear it, ssytag Masthtog Wm **8act7, the engine was Hddi« M WMfli noise that 1 dixJnH hoar you fftnad you mind repeating that?" lanriin g i t See you nhen you Qot badct fte C«) SoBn4 0-) Hilt ^ tf^ Curve «l«n, stop 3l#t, «w station, Biseayne Boulewd, seat, alsep, No Mtog ai^n, Iftat pOjKset, passing, Bdlss, suit c a ses, tJx«i* (2) gar the train ri^i Train station, stop, ssat, windows, outside, tracks, tdiistle, fanos, horses, street^ stsaa mtfim, Ho Mtti^ aUfig Moklng ear, suitesses, steps« . (3) For the space a^ Outer wpM, aalmty belts, star, aetecxv, stm, solar sgrstao, Veaaua, e«ratsiU«biMMt» Saturo« ftortc.

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as (4) ISSL^SUSSmSm ^» KtersB^ cBBt off » octopus, suite tvwMMrs, star sea, ica bco^ SautUus* st«r% 0bme, psrlse^* (5) fF tiM II —" liner t Sea, w^men^ starboard, steer, statsorocB, Mm* surf, sua dsok, lies bo>»|| i|> jlislr^ jwfc |^ pmd bar, sandylpor, sMMssd* (6) %p fifnte**' ^ Stai^dng sign, how mtCX srmrTthiQg looks* AMItiiB Twr safsty baits* sue* shining, passsrmws* dty* St. Anguotins, silv«r Spriogs, atom, seats, stumardiss* s«% ' • ^ •«sa ths J» Lmrmq 13 . lA cur TiWBUgt^ ls3m vouaia (p) «bA (a) are aOaost ittefltieid twins, B» toiigoe nvt be kept sirtipiily within the taatli on both aoasxis; the air atresia eooss domt a groove in the center of the tongue to be ecdtted in a fine* wkaarp **hiss** at the very front of the awttth. The on2^ differeaee is -^lat for (s), m vm also our vocal eords* uMle for (a) w« ^ »o1>~the latter is mreOy air. Htm a diSld has trouble with (s), he tamally has trouble with (e) also. If he aakas his (s) with a part of the toi^ sticking out •a that he «eta sort of A (th) «Mi^ (a) with the toa^QB toifr ttv jReamA mAwAasA gets a (th) sound like the one

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116 SdLxiee so such tise has already be«a t^pmA on toBw of the prelininazy steps can be ondtted on («}• RoBMnber that the letter (s) oftmi has the (s) sound as in words like: wi^ v^, ha£» hex2» ^^'^ bed£, leggj etc. Just as we called (s) the "nosles wmd,'" we*!! call (s) the "bussdng bee sound*** For the first two 6aym this if»«k we»ll have sooe mr training on {z)» yirst day : flay hide the thinhle (or any o«i©r object) with your youngster. Mbile he is trying to find the thimble, say z-z-z-z as he gets closer to wherever the thinble is hiddm. If he novM farther amy, oaks a soiaxi like th-tb-th-th (voirad, as in "this,** **9tlm*)« 0O -Uiia for about KV15 adnutes and quit tor the day» Second day : Play •*ltoy I.** lou be "it" at first, and let your child be the player. Say **Tou may take sabHsah^sah-aah (or any other nuEBber) baby steps (or giant steps, or i^t-have-you). Since yoa have used a good (z) soio^ he says, t*Hay I?** and advances 4 st^. If, h SMS m ', yoitt*v« said **thar>tha~tha>t^,** he is not to pay any attention to you. If he does, he must go byck that many steps. After he woErics his way 19 to you and wins the gms« he can be "it." Third, fourth^ fifth, and sixth dsant Play the enclosed gams. Take a Trip froa itj Vast to Peoisacola. Each of you takes a ttBm* Ihrcw the dice (die, more correctly), say the (s) ^rllabls that coBies up on tc^, and then xnove your player forward the nianber of spaces indicated by the red mmber below the syllable. Mien you get as far north as Hlaaii, each one ehoosM any one of the 3 routes to Pensacda. lSK>ever gets there first wins the gasie. Your two players

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ZEE ZIE ZO 2 3 4 Fig. 13. —Die for Lesson 13 117

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U9 can be any aaall rouod objects about th« wiae of a flMrt-eaiUar Ito mxeti^sr **g»ttlJDg aroan^ thM» put two vMtei trniH mt CQUl roeidac «iMir wUI e»t us aooD« tbou^ bMauaa aftar three Mm I maii i a our etxpartMot will be ended ad tteni nate mv tapeimiiiito ge of the two groi^a of dilldrro to itet tipiii—if baa Imhr. ttnlii ctoi# f f.i? r tmmmU llcbi wik wetre going to wnic on the aoond (a) in a fair -raty •isqp^ worte* Aetiallj, the wexmA (s) deaa not oeeur -mcy otftasi en the boglnBi2ig of words, but it irery often occurs in the laiddle of wmim and on the ffid of wada «te* it ia Xlre^tently lyallil idth the Itttter £• a— i bM that, like (a), (t) Mi^ be onto uLthout any tapfM paR^ruaion, or without air eaceping owr the sidea of the y>i1iMi «M 12 p&etope earcto. Play a diff emit little gam idth the pictures aaefa day. The gMss nagr be aSidlar to those m used on the (a) earda* or they laty be gsBM which you and yoRor ywmgster irnent* Bite are a few sngsMtisnas Im AMHIhUHM^ ^ the cards face down* QMw a eard» iBCk at it» vddOy pot it behind your back, and say« "Quesa lAdah hand it is in««* Aftor the othar parson giwisas tba oorra Ha ttwa »3Bi it » Hlt»f» Wmm&mm iliii he tty* lt« bi^ tids gns pravidw « dwl «t pgraetice on the word <»ia/' one of our laoot coaann jj^ words* fUoa tm 4adbEiB the guessiii|g»

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£90 ^ CamKAaratiixi is a good gtm upon ithieh to parsetieo Urn ward "mm". Turn «11 the cards fae* vy» and «ach of you cooceotrate on tiMB for alMot ooi mtoAm* Um, turn tte all f aoo dowu IDte iddc one 19, look at it« tfaon turn it f ae» 4bib «0dn« lour TVKsjgator llMR MSF»« "liM it a rasov^ Zf lit gmmw eoavaotly, he gets tfaa fittfd* Tbm it*a Ma turn to look at a oard* IBxwvir gmmm tbo zaoat cards k&ns tha gmm 3» CtM^Mtdan t Host pareota reported that children Mi^c^red this gWft* aU tha oarda f aea doim* Sne^ of you talOM a torn draifiqg a eard« iMklog at it* and tbsn "acting out a eltia as to whidi pietura ywi hava. Again* str ss s tlis ass «f tha mrA "is." "Is it a saoor bird?" «B», it i»H.« ate* ^ lBlde< Ml ti» cards* Mi ttln* s turn* Zf |«m «st tho xTlophoaM, for iastaM* ym iagr* *doiad you uas MastUng nsf^i* salt** If your efaild gisssws whst 7Qa*r« dsseribii^ ha s^» X mM vm * 3cai3a|lMas* GstOd Mip aarlain kini of floinr?" "Sm T9^, I eoulet vm a rosa,** ste« If TOtt lika» jrau can r«|Mat ono of ttess 9mm on tha fifth dar* nva das^ of prsetiaa should ba suffiaiani. 1li*ra in tha "has* stratdaf* now— <»3ly 2 nsra lassons befora wa BMlw our mawnrifngp , 'Smt ifilsniid ooopasaftian for tha past 14 wmk» has baan «ta>sway i|iiisfii>sit«

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DAISY nusic CLOSET Fig. 15. — Cards for Lesson 14 121

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123 fot «daitj«a3. pantetiM on 1 «r vords, this «Mk Litts piLasr mm mim 'vi ^bisS M m mu^ — h day ftr Hw d«y»^ lb» £ir*t ia«3"ir «uUm the "board** at an^ paixtt «sd prints a word with tte £ or •ooal in it (a* X imm mm Sm Mi ii«Q«iX <» «» ilwit)* H» tlna rmtOB the ward aal nakM 19 « tHdng it* tt» iMiaft ]lSfag«ar tfaaa print* croiiirtM on tho £lnit word another ward with tbt £ or g «MDd in it Z hmm 4mm ia bla» pencil)Urn mmak p&as^ tlwn vmOm his nezd and uMt it in a a a alw ia. Owi tl» £Lrat jfUsw prints aaotbar nord nitix an £ or £ sound across the iiord of the ssooni pSs9«r (as Z hava done in grsan psaeil) «te*« 9«ufw used up Most of the squares* UriUke "st<««** gnats of this type, we dooH hafs to IM «fUHQr<* ataw^ sasb nsv word baviiig to mite s inrd idth every other letter tiist It barters t^on— ^ust with the socd put on the board UMi!tiitely before* He keep seors, give one point Hmt miAk Isttsr tlie wvA writtsn on the boozd, and five additioniSl psists if it is said eoxw re^3j-. fb keep your youngster alsrt« you occasionaUy say the £ or £ sound ineorreetay^ soft thanfey I0BS five points* itet i«Mk
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L 5 E G U E S 5 N S D 0 A N Y Fig. 16. — Build-a-Vford Game for Lesson 15

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225 WiHX, thi> laMiMi mtxim tte vnd of oar «3q?«tiJMBi in ap t wh *lwnwili«" fbe ehildr«i will (XHstttaw to haw tiMir apM^ Immam at wtea3. m uiual, until tiisir apMdi ttenpiat XmA* tbci tbisr tfioaiLi iMi r«U«MMt* about tMO vmIu weUl ba sukiog nmr t«p»-rae<»tliQga of j^our ^lildrec. !Qmmw raoordin@> will than ba $aie^ tor iaprovaBWBt* Hda wuk «a«ll aak you, enea mon, to ba a "good os^f aa you ham baaa for tba paat aixtam imla. tbu'll find aona "agga" in tha mmSim^ this ifMiu Gn ttaMW «ra tg^ad asna Okf tha mat Ara^iaatay uMd nanla with tha £ or j| Mai* Oa the nrat day« aiaply hava your younsprtw cut out tha fsm^ color them, bring thm to yott» aay tha word on aaah, ttod iMka a abort emtanea uaixig each word. TsU him lAwtlmr 1» aaya the word eorraetlyar inoorreedy* Qa tha other four practice daya havt egg **fannfai." ISuoh of yon taHn a turn hiding all of tha «ap» fhe other p«raon then looka for thii to aooa aa he finda one, he msf* the word on tha ogg, and aakaa m aenlenee uaijag tha iHvd* If to Wtgm tha vord corraetly, ha kmp§ tha if he aaya it incorrectly, he satat give the egg to the peram tdlie hid th«Du Tbe <^Jeat, af aaw'iit ^ ^ ^ all tha egga* tmff aetnti after each round, and then add tha aeor e a fron the two romida to tea idio ia tt» real idnnagr. Xour help in earrying out thia project haa been deeply i^ppreeiatad* Bast wMk X tbaJJL aand ymi a loiter and a fltal evaluatiai blank ta gat an iim ahaut your f eali^ga and reaotiosaa m thia tgrpa of

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so SOME 1 /-% r*" 1 SEE Fig. 17. — Easter Eggs for Lesson l6 126

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tFPmWL I PAHEHT BEPQBT FGBf Lesson Naae Child's School Ho. of Mmites Mbat did you do? Ist day Date 2zxi d«7 3rd day 4th day 5th day 6th day 7th day CnilMiiits or questions: FImss return this to the speech therapist at schoc^. 127

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t 1« Haw aBMh i ana««wut ia ip ii ifc yitt ftil ymr ^MQd XMyiLfe of tlMBM IMMIcB of maejkae^ MMM^ llMMM ttt taMlf (a) a tnuasidoiur anna^ |bj qoit* a lot ,c} a satiafaetory moaxA Xf hs hai not raetivid tiMta «Btm lassona at born* do ym ttdxk im yovld haro laprofvaA !a) a ffraat daaX aora b) a Uttla aora ej about th* mbm MMBXt d] •) mil 3* Bov do 701 fMl that ha raaetad to tlieaa Ijmmxmt •n^ograd thaa vaary audi (b) rajegntd thaa lOMiCiat didnH 8««a to cara an* war or the otfaar xathar dlalitod thn ,a} atroQftly dialilsKi thai Hotf did 70a raaet to your aaqportanea in t aa dh i n g your ywngatar ^paaid)7 a) «\joywi it a graat doaL [b •nioyd. it at tisiaa want throuflh tfaa Inaacma with no particular faallng aboat it alldXy dialikwl it atm^ didiiJoad it Zf your ctiM bad happcnwd to hvm a aora aavara i gpa a e h dafaet, hm do 2^ thick Toa imQA hava fait about earcTiqg on a pa. ' og i t a a of thia typ9 for an axtra aehocd yaar? (a) would atMtagl;^ favor it lb) would ndldljr favor it icj would not partieiilarljr oar* osio way oar th» othar Ld) would wUdly dia^ppxtm (•) would atron^lj diaapprovo

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6« Bern do yen fMl that this prc^ran aff^seted ymac tsbUCtA^M tot^ P«rs»nality7 (a) X3ad* a grtat iB^psrovEOMaA (d; caused fl34ghtly mgatiw rasulta (•) rnmd •tmigl^ w^tiv* results 7* Xn rsgsrd to ths mtfoat of wcaHk wfalob thM» lesacaai rsquirsd «£ your child y do jou think it mmCa^ £sr too waA Lb J a little tos aueb (e) a satisftotory mstKo^t Id) mt quite cag«g^ le) far too little S* In regKrd to the mffaaat ctf wak idiich these lessons repaired of you* do you thi&k it la) far toe Cb) a little toe le) a fair «asunt (di not quite enoi^ (e) far too little Hm much "carry-ov«* Into daily* neoiael cotmamASm do you think your child aiede of the iiinii Ufiisiit. which I^ie showed duzdng the Isssoo periodst I a) a great deal b) quite a bit ei a fair dj not W7 Odd y
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B2B£I0(MPRT tliiWiii TTi^ SitgSbgy^ ikimA OaCTegtlon Hetbod«» Bear Torict Pr«nti«»2a»*» Antamm, mrgll. aaargving the Child's SniA^ Gbcford Unlv«r«lt7 nMHi7l953* Bmy, Hildrvd Fraborg, uxi Slamaon, ^iocu Defective Speech* Bmr Iteki F* S. Crofts & Co., 1%2. j^3«toi>-C«itux7Matst»« I, Joo* eni Qgilvle, UBrdsl. fa f 1 8 1 ^ Oaat yeetdxgi in t]be Schools , {lev lorki Hsmrillan Co., X957* Paiz«»i)lcs, Onni. 7|Bioe and Articulatioa Drillbook. Bw Toilet Huper aad 8r«th«»» Garrett, Bninr £• Sfc^tlati^ in Pgysbolo^ and Education. 4th ed« rmimA* Urn loxki TwrgmTW, Green, and Co., 1953* Xmin, Ruth BedG^. Sfg^ Tim^ *v lOl, 1953* Sxria nrwttieeOrane and Stntten, loe., JL950* ^ Oarle;-, Fredarle, and %xrieflten^}e^, D. C. TViilffTT^^'T ifi Sa— (^Jeotion. Neir lerks Hazper and Brothers, 19524 al. gp«^ ffmfillWBB^ S
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131 '« Bdsalwth WSixilBiy, and Dxfia, Ssrtoa P», 1954* teatt, loKdae Binder, azid llhaopMn, i» ttiiifcfaMr ttoe . St^Loulat hMwtMT hihliiihlng Co., tfim fi£p«r, Charles. Stoeech Correction, ftrtoetrileg and Hafeods. 3d «U v«wMU tow Hoackt ft^mtiee-UaSlT Inc., 1954. iilfl, Bofecrt, laAeanry, ItorXe, end Carr, Anna. ^ frW^V*^^*'^ S£ Speech. 3d ed« revised. Reir Yckrks Harper and Brothers, 1957. IKnmedy, Lou, and Carr, Anna. jQ^S B^abdlitatlon o£ ^i£Sg2ki» ^ ^* rwlMd* Bsv Yorkt Bazper and Brothers, 1947« Irtides and Periodicals Aaarlean ^wech and Hearijqg issociatlon (kzsnittee wi tiw Md-Cttxtury Ihlte HcR»e Cocf ersoee* *tSpw(^ Dls(»tl«rs and Speech Coarreo(Jux», 1952}, 129-137. t, Da^^me SUbelscm. "Haae Teaching oif SMBig 9aaf Odlidmt A Pointw in l^orent EdaeatioQ,<* Journal s£ aBeeeech Smpy," Sim Spoetii Teadwr. X, Bio. 4 (Itovwiber, 1952), 260^. Srorhart, liodney V. "Batenial OeeiQiational CI asslfl cation and &ti»»» tion of Articulation," Speech Monagw^. THTT (1956), 75-77.

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232 Srarhart, Bodn^r V* "tbs RtlttioBrtdp bvtmmi ArticulatiGRi and Ottmt OevtklofDMtital FaetOTfl in QiildrvQ,** Journ^ of Sp^t Haaring Ddgorders. XVm, Bo. 4 (Decaidwr, 19»)7l2 Falxtexdoi, (kwnt, and 3pirisat«r»bach, D. C« "A Studjr <^ Hlnor Organic Doviatiooa in *Functional* Dijnrdezv of Articulatioat X» Bate of ItovHumt of Oral Structiu^,** Jou pal «^ Spoeefa a»i H y^y lamrlnt sr, no. 1 (Harch, 1950), 60-69. « aoi (k««n, Ewljn K« "A Study of Mnaar Qrganie 0«9iar» ti«» la ^FunetioQal* QiMrduti of Artieulaticmt 2. BiSbidf* ^Lom mA Rel&tionahij?* of the XdpOt** Jourral o£ flp ea Bfa j^^ Hearing Dlaordera. X7, Ho. 2 (June, 1950), 165-168. . and Bebout, Betty. *»A Study of Kinar Organic DeviatioM in •Functional* QUeanln* of Articulatiom 3* Songtw," Speech jQd Haaring DiaorAera. 27, So. 4 (Beeober, 19»}r34»-352. and Xdntosr, Sny Van Bran. "A Study of Minor Organie Deviationa in fFunetioRal* Oiaordera of Art.limlat.lont 4. Ihe Taekh and Bard Palate," Jbum^ sJt teflfe^ SOtiUL PiaordeCT. X7I, No. 3 (P*rt 1, SeptooBlwr, 1951}, 32w279» Fein» BenxLce, et ^« "Effective Utilisation of Staff Xlae in Public School S^ech Cksrrection," Journal 2£ Speech aj|d Hearing aigl^T ^> No* 3 (SapUate^, 1956}, 2^^-551. FraoMa, Gerald G., and Scuxaega, Jtaaea A. "Peer Svaluation of (Mldren in S|peeeh Correction Class,** Journal Speech aead Hearing Disorders. 221, Ho. 2 (Aaoe, 1956}, 179-lS. Goodstein, Lemard 0. *9IIPI lk«£iles of Stutterers* Farentes A FollcHM^ St^dy," JpogBsl c£ Speech and Hearing Djeoardw. 2X1, Ho. 4 (DeesBber, 1956}, 43
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333 Eouchin* IhanM O* ^Coopnvtian in a fnMLIe ft^hool ap »» eh CorrectAop Iruln, Bnth BBdnj. oDkmxt grtigation in tho ^peeeii and Bsaring IhcdaUne* "nilpi aa h Edtucatltm tn the EXeBMntary Schoola/* r«a CoU^a» Baaaapd. XLH (March, 505--5I5Sr«i»aUL» taMt L., ani Mehl, Charlea F* BaUUonafalp of itoditory Biaczdmlnaticm to Artieulatory Dafecte of Chi l dr en idth Sa Eowtt dfg^do aqMiz»Kxt«» iniEa^ SC 9P»^ SS^ La Fesaiette, A. C. ^Piraatal BftvirenamA «r Pottering Ghl34r«n,«* Qrace ftoria* "Parent Partilidoe Mather a ginidan," Journal of Speech and pafyinp Qtaordera. XUl, Ho. 1 Oiarch, 1%B), 61-3i5. Ilogrd» C^tc2ia& Ifri^^t, and Aixwioirth, Stanley. "Iha CSaaarocn 1>ia«har»a Actiritlea and Attltudea Relating to %>each C oi ' r aa «fo"tml s£ Steeedi and Hearing DirordCTa. XDC, Kb* 2 (June, 1954), a!*4-249. Ma^«aria« Kllitabeth C* "Evaluation of the £f f Mtiveoaw of tlw Spaaeb and Hearing Teaeher in Pul^c SciiooLa," jg^S, Siniiii ~ H, Ho, 3 (SeiMter, 1953), 209-211. Hader, Joim B. "The fialative Frequency a[ Occurrence of EngUift flWil mailt Sounda in Vtetia in the l^pee^ of Children in C^^ea te, TitOp and !niz«e,** iteeech Manoegaaha. ZXI, No, 4 (fkmtaiw, 1954), 294^305.

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134 )feCarth7* Dorothea. "Tatngnag* Ptiwdtri and P*i*nt-Chlld Belatlon(Dooeoibor, 1954}« 514-52^. lUll—n, Bobert* «A Bational* for Artlcwlatlon Disorders," Joamal Spgoeh and HaajriLng Disordgrs. Maooirsvh S>qp p l w»n it ZV (195477 « J. P. "Buwxtal Dcnination in Stuttwring,** Jounad. of 8p— cfa and Hsarit^g Digordertt^ xyZZ> lieu 2 iJtxoe^95S6h 155-165. BarsMW, E« B* «la Bifri— ufc in S^poedi Sducat icaa i n the SLanwUoy ^B*^^^***)!**" Qaai^rly Journal of SmwAi, SSH, tlo. 2 {ipril, 19^5)» 216-222* Bidd, Olac^* "EfflM^ey of S^teecdt ft i s d acaticn of Fimetlonal Artlcalatcary Dif f leultioc in l^e E leBWiit ary Sdiodl," Jcmmal ££ Speech Djaordera. XU, No. 3 (SepUaber, 1947), 300^-333. » **Tb» £tlQlog7 •nd Mature of Funetinul ArtlculatOTy Defects in ELnentary Sdiool Children," Journal s£ S^)eeeh Disorders. XH, Ho, 2 (June, 1947), 143-1^-^ n^MSr, C* AgDM. "The QassrooBi !Deael»r and Speedi Ccareetixmi A BSiai^Oig^wttiig^,^ ^ Speedi tPeacher. HI, So. 1 ( Januar?, 1954), 0^4. Boe, Vivian. "Follow iy in the CoxTMtioa of Functional Artiexilata So* 4 (Dse«Bift)er, Dlsordaars«" j^ttgT^^ Spgg^^ Bering Disorctors. XQZ, , , . and ffilisen, E. "The Ef f eet of IHiittiraticm t^on ArtieuXation in the BlABsntary (trades," Joatmal a£ Speech Discg-ders. VII Hb« 1 (Hareh, 1942), 37-50. SetoMU, Hildred. "Wocfdng with Speech DefeetivM in PuM-ic Schools," Journal of Speech Dis<»derB. vm, 86* 4 CDM«kMtr, 19^), 355-362* Sbmm, Qeoz^ H. "l^ of the Nonsense-Sellable in Articulation ISmior," iaSfi^,^ Speech Hearing Disorders, mi. So. 2 (Aaw, 1957), 261-263. &mr, Eatherine, and Milism, Be/bnt* "Hw Inflitence of Oral vsrsus Fietoral Fi essiitat.lmi Upm Articulation Testing Results," ^a^^^^mk&SSSiB&l&a^^im» Ito»graph Si^^plflBant

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135 S^prUsteririMieh^ 0« C. "Rwareh in Ariicul&tioQ Wutordaem and Fmnmiality," Jbumal of Speech and flmiac fljattdggi. XO* and Curtis, teM F. <>9flMrti«xdLicfcinci and Diaeriflinatlan of a^paoeh Sotaids,* QoyrUrLy Journal <{£ Sdoo^. xmn* Ho. U (D»eiBbor, 1951}, A$3-A^ Ita^lin, Mildred C. "A Roo-diagnostie !KMt of ArticuUtion,** Journal ^ Soooch Diflordw. m« No. 4 (Daeodaor, 1947)* 392-396. (^SarMi OB a ScrMsdng Tost of Artleulatioa for Ages Thres througib Ei£^t.** Journal |£ Speech I| xrai. So. 4 CD«s«aber, 1953}. 323-3^ f*9pmtAi DsvalsiMnt in the ^esung ChUdt The OevvlafBMBt "of Certain ljn^p«>g> amis in Children," Journal c ~ ~ and HearijQg Maoar^rs. xm. Ho. 3 (S^jtaoiber, 19i "{Spontaneous versus Xaitated VertelisatioR in Sattiag Preschool Children,** Journal o£ Speech Disordwrs, XII, !»• 3 (SeptviMr, 1947}, 293-300. Study of Sound Diserdaination Ability of E Litentary "Sciwol Pi^dls,** Journal ^ Soeooh Disorders. VHt, Ho. 2 (June, 1%3), 3;J7-132. XmirLs, L. £., and RaasBis, B. ^^SptfKh Sound lUscrimination Ability of Cases idth Functional Disorders of Articulation," Quarterly ^tonal a£ Speech, mi. No. 2 (^ril, 1931}, 217-S6: mson, Betty Ann. *>Ihe ^mniiapmtA and Evaluation of a ^pesdi Aqprovaaent Progm for Sindergart«n Children, Journal of aaa^ find saftsaaa Stedsa* k, ko. i C&rdi, 1954}, 4-23. • 1fwd« KKnsth Seott. "Barental Kaladjastamt and Fuisrbional Articul*> tory Doftets in Children,* Jo yqal si. 9m9eh Disorders. XI, Bo. 4 (DecflBJber, 1946), 255-^5. « "The Par«3t*a Bole in the Clini cal Progrm,* Speech and Hearing Disorders, xm, I2o* 3 vS^ptcobW; 209^210. Ifrlght, Herbert. "Beliability of Svaluaticms during Basic ArtieiOaticn •ni St.imilatinn Tiesting,** Journal s£. Speech and yfayrHiy Disorders. Supplmst 17 (1954}, 19^.

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336 Office of Mr». laur* Suttart Board of Public Ih*taructicai of Dad* County, FlorUa. '«^part of tt» Spdeeii aarroy of BiirdQpaa» Ghlldrciu" IfiHdLs Board of Puislie Xnatxucticm of Oadto Oounty, Oete^» 1956* Stntait HAfare and AtteTxUnce Departiaant, Board of Public IrartruotioQ of Bad* Ceunty, Florida. ^VontlOy Attendance Baport." Hiaads Board of Public IiwtnifltiQa of Oada OGunty, flifMber, 1956. ^hpubliahed ^||t«ri^ AliboU, Vaomm B. "A Study of Obaervable Hother-Child Balatianafalpa in Stuttering and Ikmnitattaxdng Gbnwqpa." Ih^pajKli^ied Fb.I)« illl Mart it1 inn. University of Flarida» 1957* Ifoed, Ettowth Seott. «A Study of Parental JSCjtAjmimKA Faetox* Aaaociated idbUi fmaUanal ArtieulatoET I>af act* in Children." Ib^uhliahed RuS* illiarliitinn, Iftiivwrsity of awtlmtx California, 1%6, Ball, Hu^ M. HuaMl f^ ^ Ad.iuataent ^nwitory. Adult Fom. Stanford, Califondas Stanford Ummndty Press, 1^« dr^pj&iXm, Bryng, and ata^fiey, Esther, ^pef^ MftffflW 't^^ Hair Yofks Seott. Foreanan. and GoDmany, 195I* LLoiner, Robert K.,anl Gurvits, Hilton. Manual. }^Ma^S^M$mr , tion ; awissd B»ta ||^f|^^•-^,/mHew Ybricj The Psychological Corporatlm, 1%6. Otis, Artlrar S. Ot^ qi^ck-SoOTing Hental Ability Testsi Hyff^^ ^ KLrectlSg for Alpha Tes^. Yorikers-eai-Hudson, Nov Itarkt Vbrld Book Co., 1939.

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BZOCSUUPHZCAL NOBS mUiiR U flhtft iiM bora on April 96, 1916 In Ottnam* Xqm&» Ht ywHdTtd hie Bjthtlor of Arte degree at Farsons CoiUege, Fairfield, Jgm, in 19!37» «Ki his Master of Arts degree «t ISUidmn ftate Coaiife» atst ZAnsiag, in 19^* In January of 1%2 be mm anpodnted Sdreetor of the flp iet h CUnie at MlehigBn Hili OslUifs^ fefufc jPigigned ftw that position on July 1 to enter the tMted States Ravil Assenre* At the tine of his release f roa service in 1945 he hdLd the rank of Xdmttenant« At the presend^ tias the iffiter is Director of the ^peeeh sad Bearing Clinic at the Ibirerslty of KEUni* With his idfe, Kath«l»en» sad their four ddJUbfSn^ he llvss in Coral QtHkm^ Florida. fhs ilsgres of Doctor of FhHosofd^jr in i^peedi was granted to KUliaa L. Shea by the Univeznity of Florida on August 10, 1957* the writer is a a«ber of Hgm Alpha Eta and Fhi Delta Kanps* HS is also a nadier sf the Flmdda apssdi Assoeiation, the Southern a p ese h AsMeiatioa» the fl^pssoh Association of Miirlca» and the Ansrican l^peei^ and HMUribis AsMoiatiSR*

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fids diMMcrtatlon was prepared under the direction of the ebaJLaam «f the e«ndidate«e supervieory caatdttee end has been approved by all BMMbera of that coraaittee. It was uhodtted to the Oaen of the College of Arts and Seiences and to the (Graduate CouneiI« axA m» eppomd as partial ftOflUwnit of tlM y tq air ie n ts for tht of Doetco' of Fhilooophy* iMgnrt %0, 1957 Dtan, Gh«du«te School V SUISWIMRt GCWXnSBEt inian




Copyright 1982 by Sherrie Lee Nist


To Kama


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My sincere appreciation and gratitude is expressed to Dr. Ruthellen Crews, chair of the advisory committee, for her guidance, encouragement, assistance, and friendship throughout the writing of this dissertation. Thanks are also expressed to the other members of my committee: Dr. Stephen Olejnik, whose patience and guidance persisted from the inception of the study until its completion; Dr. John Newell, whose prodding questions enabled a better conceptualization of the study. A special thank you to Dr. H. T. Fillmer for his editorial assistance and whose belief in me and this study often kept me going; to Dr. Elois Scott for her support in ways too numerous to mention; to Dr. Linda Crocker who assisted me immeasurably in the development of the instrumentation; to Dr. John Bengston for his help in clarifying the theoretical views of imagery; and to Dr. Theodore Hippie whose sense of humor, concern, and confidence helped me to keep things in perspective. To my special fri ends--especial ly Claudette and Mary--and to my parents, an expression of thanks for their love and understanding through some very difficult times. Most of all, my love and affection to my daughter Kama for having to tolerate a half-time mother over the past three years. Though the going was often rough, she somehow loved me when I was unlovable and forgave me when I was unforgiveable. While I will never be able to make up lost time to her, in many respects, we have both grown as a result of this experience. iv


Finally, thank you Steve for providing support, time out, and most of all laughter. V


TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv LIST OF TABLES ix LIST OF FIGURES xi ABSTRACT xii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION -j Statement of the Problem 1 Significance of the Study 2 Theoretical Significance 3 Educational Significance * 5 Definition of Terms 8 Assumptions ]0 Delimitations and Limitations 10 Procedures 11 Instrument Development H The Study ' ' n Collection of the data H Design and statistical analysis ....,*..' 12 Hypotheses 13 Organization of the Research Report 74 II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE I5 Mental Imagery: A Historical Perspective 15 Differing Theoretical Views of Imagery 17 Mental Imagery and Paired-Associate Learning .... 19 vi


CHAPTER Page II Mental Imagery at the Phrase and Sentence Level 24 Mental Imagery and Prose Material 27 Research Undertaken with Children 27 Research Undertaken with Adults 33 Conclusions 36 III INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT AND METHODOLOGY 39 Development of the Instruments 39 Major Testing Device— The Imagery Content Area Tests (ICAT) 39 Vocabulary Pretests and Posttests 46 Imagery Questionnaire 46 Procedures for the Study 47 Description of the Sample 47 Instruction and Data Collection 49 Imagery group 49 Directed reading activity group 52 No instruction group 53 Treatment of the Data 54 IV ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 56 Findings Related to the Hypotheses 56 Findings Related to the Imagery Questionnaire .... 70 Discussion 75 V SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 82 Summary 32 Implications and Conclusions 84 Theoretical Implications and Conclusions .... 84 Educational Implications and Conclusions .... 86 Recommendations for Future Research 88 VI i




LIST OF TABLES TABLE pa^ 3-1 Length, Readability, and Mean Imaging Value of the Original Three Content Area Passages 42 3-2Follow-up Comparisons on Imagery Value Between the Original Three Content Area Passages 42 3-3 Follow-up Comparisons on Imagery Value Between the Final Three Content Area Passages 43 3-4 Final Validation Statistics for the Comprehension Test Items and Imagery Ratings for the Three Content Area Passages 44 35 Schedule of Procedures Followed in the Study 48 41 Adjusted Cell Means and Variances for the Dependent Variables 58 4-2 Summary Table for the Two-Factor Split-Plot Repeated Measures with One Covariate Design 58 4-3 Adjusted Cell Means for Comprehension and Retention Data Across all Groups 60 4-4 Adjusted Cell Means by Group for Comprehension and Retention Data Across all Passages 61 4-5 Adjusted Means Combined for Analysis for all Passages and all Groups 63 4-6 Comparisons of the Three Passages for Group 2 Using the LSD Procedure 67 4-7 Comparisons for the Three Groups on Passage B Using the LSD Procedure 69 4-8 Rank Order on Ease of Imaging for Each Passage 71 4-9 Rank Order on Ease of Understanding for each Passage 71 4-10 Subject Responses Regarding Other Strategies Used to Comprehend and Retain in Addition to Imagery 72


TABLE Page 4-n Chi Square Test of Significance for Each Item on the Imagery Questionnaire 73 4-12 Chi Square Test of Significance for Question 6e (Covert Rehearsal for Comprehension) 74 4-13 Chi Square Test of Significance for Question 7b (Covert Rehearsal for Retention) 74 X


1 LIST OF FIGURES "SURE 31 Graphic depiction of the split-plot repeated measures design 54 41 Plot indicating lack of interaction between passage and test 50 4-2 Plot indicating lack of interaction between test and group membership 61 4-3 Plot of cell means summarizing the relationship between passages and scores for each group 63 4-4 Plot of cell means summarizing the relationship between groups and scores for each passage 67 xi


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE EFFECTS OF INDUCED MENTAL IMAGERY ON THE COMPREHENSION AND RETENTION OF CONTENT AREA MATERIAL: A STUDY CONDUCTED WITH HIGH RISK COLLEGE STUDENTS By Sherrie Lee Nist August 1982 Chairperson: Ruthellen Crews Major Department: Instructional Leadership and Support This study was undertaken to determine the effects of induced mental imagery on the comprehension and retention of content area material and to determine if one content area appeared more appropriate for the use of imagery than another. The sample consisted of 41 high risk college students who were randomly assigned by classes to one of three groups: imagery, directed reading activity (DRA), or no instruction. The imagery group received two one-hour training sessions in imaging techniques. Over a five-week period all groups were given three 1,100 word content area passages to read, one from biological science, one from social science, and one from literature. The imagery group was given "warm-up" exercises and then was encouraged to use imaging strategies. The DRA group received instruction with a traditional directed reading activity. The no instruction group received no guidance from the researcher. Following the reading of each passage, all groups answered a series xii


of 18 multiple-choice comprehension questions. One week following the initial reading of each passage, the groups took an 18-item retention test parallel to the comprehension test. An imagery questionnaire administered at the conclusion of the investigation sought to determine if subjects used the imaging strategies throughout the course of the experiment. Data were analyzed using a split-plot repeated measures design with one covariate consistent across all repeated measures. The imagery questionnaire was analyzed with a chi-square test of significance. While the results indicated a main effect for test, passage, and group, an interaction between passage and group was also present. Further analyses revealed that for high risk college students imagery was equally effective for the three types of content area materials and that those in the imagery group scored consistently higher than the two control groups on all passages. Analysis of the imagery questionnaire indicated that while all students tended to image spontaneously, they often did not image to their academic advantage. This finding further supports the importance of imagery training.


CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION As numbers of non-traditional students have proliferated in colleges and universities across the United States, developmental and remedial reading courses have followed suit. Students enrolled in such programs represent a diversity of cultural and experiential backgrounds, and are expected to ease eventually into the academic mainstream. Since the materials they are required to read are from a variety of content areas, teachers are constantly seeking effective strategies that are appropriate for helping these students acquire the reading skills they need to achieve academic success. Statement of the Problem The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of induced mental imagery on the comprehension and retention of content area material. The study was conducted with high risk college students using reading passages from three disciplines: biological science, social science, and literature. Since the passages were found to be equivalent in length, readability, and imaging value, this study also tried to determine if mental imagery techniques are more effective for any of the three disciplines. Additionally, an imagery questionnaire administered at the conclusion of the experiment attempted to determine if those trained in imaging techniques actually used them, and if students in the two control groups imaged spontaneously. 1


2 Significance of the Study Reading courses for non-traditional students in colleges and universities are looked upon as answers for solving students' reading problems--methods of easing students into the academic mainstream. Programs have often been hastily instituted with little foresight and planning for their stability (Chaplin, 1978). Today, college populations remain diverse, but the practices that seemed effective in a period of change are no longer relevant or beneficial to sustaining the existence of college reading programs (Chaplin, 1978). There are several possible explanations for the failure of current college reading programs. First, there is the problem of the lack of transfer of the skills taught in a reading course to application of these skills for reading materials required in other courses taken by students. This is especially true in a highly individualized laboratory setting where students are often assigned numerous, repetitive exercises supposedly designed to strengthen reading skill weaknesses. A second explanation for the failure of college reading programs stems from the fact that materials used in laboratory programs are often poor in quality and limited in quantity. Such materials fail to contain reading selections that are similar in length, content, and difficulty to the texts in required academic courses. A third, and possibly the most neglected explanation for the lack of success of many college reading programs, is the relationship that world knowledge— an experiential framework— has on the college students' abilities to obtain meaning from the printed page. Although present reading research addresses the importance of world knowledge in children's comprehension, little research has explored its importance with college-age students who have reading problems.


3 Concomitant with the relationship between experiential background and comprehension is the influence that mental imagery has on the comprehension and retention of prose material, as well as the importance that perceptual world knowledge plays in one's ability to image textual propositions. The whole realm of imagery becomes even more significant for high risk students who are unaware that they can use imagery as a viable means for increasing reading comprehension and retention. If students were taught or merely made aware of imaging techniques, it might be possible for students to subsequently relate these images to personal past perceptual experiences, and, thus improve their comprehension and retention of content area material. Therefore, this study has the potential for being both educationally and theoretically significant. Theoretical Significance The majority of the research in the area of mental imagery has been conducted by psychologists. There is little agreement in this field regarding the nature of images and the function they serve in comprehension and retention. While most psychologists would agree that the hypothetical structure called "imaging" exists, essentially two different schools of thought emerge in their view of imagery as a form of internal representation. The first school is concerned with images as a structurally distinct form of internal representation possessing a different format from other internal representation; the second focus is concerned with images as a functionally distinct form of internal representation (Kosslyn and Pomerantz, 1977). . In studies conducted from both theoretical positions exploring the use of imagery with prose material, retention rather than comprehension


4 has been the focus. All of the studies cited in the Review of the Literature (Chapter II) use the terms "recall" and "comprehension" synonomously. Typically, subjects are instructed to form images, are given a passage to read, and are directed to engage in a recall task (either immediate or delayed) following the reading of the passage. The subjects are not permitted to refer to the reading selection. The question remains: Is a recall task or a recognition task a true test of comprehension, or is it, in fact, a retention or short term memory task? For the purpose of this study, a comprehension task is defined as one where subjects read the selection and then have access to the passage when answering the comprehension items. On the other hand, the retention task occurs one week following the initial reading of the passage and allows no access to the passage. The distinction made between comprehension and retention should clarify the role that imagery plays in reading textual materials; that is, is imagery functional in acquisition? Crowder (1976) makes the following distinction which focuses on the differences among acquisition, retention, and retrieval and serves to clarify why comprehension and recall are differentiated in this study. He states If performance on a memory task is perfect, of course one can be assured that information has been successfully learned by the subject. . . . The central problem occurs when there is a failure of retrieval. Such a failure brings up a very fundamental ambiguity: One has no idea whether the information has been (1) acquired adequately and retained adequately but is for some reason inaccessible at the time of attempted retrieval; (2) acquired adequately but then lost (forgotten) during the time elapsing between acquisition and retrieval; or finally (3) acquired inadequately in the first place so that there is nothing there to retain or retrieve, (p. 4)


5 Additional support for this viewpoint comes from Gibson and Levin (1976). When addressing the matter of comprehension, they make the following statement: Recall, either verbatim or free, does not suffice [to assess comprehension], and almost any measure raises questions of validity, reliability, and generalizability to any other material or task, (p. 409) Thus, while the majority of studies report significant differences in favor of those who use imagery techniques on the retention task than those who do not, the relationship between imaging and comprehension is much less clear. Does imagery enable comprehension to occur? Must comprehension occur prior to imagery? Does imagery imply comprehension? That is, could imagery and comprehension be synonomous terms? Is there an overlap of the two processes? This study may aid in clarifying the relationship between imagery and comprehension. It may further support one of the three theoretical perspectives above. Educational Significance There are several reasons why this study is educationally significant. First, there is an immediate need for new approaches for teaching reading at the college level, particularly for high risk students. In the few longitudinal studies which have been conducted, there is evidence that the standardized test gains made by students enrolled in college reading programs are not permanent (Gaither, 1968; Katz and Wright, 1977). Not only do these studies indicate a lack of permanence, but they also indicate that much of what is taught is not transferable to reading material required for regular college courses. These studies demonstrate the importance of investigating new techniques and approaches


6 to facilitate comprehension and retention which will be both permanent and transferable. Second, there is a lack of research in the area of mental imagery as related to the comprehension and retention of prose material, especially at the college level. Much of the research in the area of mental imagery has been conducted in paired-associate learning. Research in paired-associate learning has been conducted with college students, but even here, most subjects were enrolled in introductory psychology courses. This type of individual would be atypical of the student enrolled in most college reading courses. In addition, a major portion of this research has little relationship to reading in that the word pairs were presented orally rather than visually, making them, for the most part, exercises in memory (Paivio, Yuille, and Madigan, 1968; Bugelski, 1968; Paivio, Smythe, and Yuille, 1968; Paivio, 1969; Kee and Beuhring, 1978). Studies in mental imagery have also been conducted using phrases and sentences rather than paired-associate tasks. The greater portion of this research has been carried out using elementary students as subjects, and results have been encouraging (Levin, 1971; Kosslyn and Bower, 1974; Levin et al . , 1976; Montague and Hess, 1978). In studies that have been carried out with older subjects, results have also been positive (Paivio and Begg, 1971; Anderson, 1971; Begg, 1972). The investigation of the use of mental imagery at the prose level is particularly interesting due to the controversy involved. On one hand there are studies which support the use of mental imagery as a viable means of facilitating comprehension and retention (e.g.. Levin, 1972; Lesgold et al., 1974-1976). Other studies indicate that just the


7 opposite is true (e.g., Irwin and Witte, 1980). Upon examination of these studies, certain patterns emerge. First, the importance of explicit instructions in how to use imaging techniques appears to be an important factor in the effectiveness of imagery as a learning strategy. A study by Anderson and Kulhavy (1972) reported that scores on a test of retention were an increasing function of the amount of imagery that was reportedly used. All too often, subjects are merely instructed to use imagery but are not actually taught how to carry out this task. If Anderson and Kulhavy's findings are true, it seems only logical to assume that students rely on other less effective reading strategies if they have not learned to use imagery. Second, there appear to be differences in retention when induced imagery is used as opposed to imposed imagery, and these differences appear to be developmental in nature. Levin (1972) found that imposed imagery is initially less effective than imposed verbalization in younger children, but that the former becomes more effective with age. The same appears to be true for induced imagery versus induced verbalization. Along these same lines. Levin (1972) also concluded that adults respond to induced imagery much more readily than do children. Since adults were used as subjects in the present investigation, induced rather than imposed imagery was utilized. Of the articles reviewed, few were found in reading journals; if reading textbooks devote any space at all to the idea of mental imagery, it is mentioned only in passing. Therefore, it is important to begin to relate psychological theories of mental imagery to the reading process. Durrell and Catterson (1980) state the need for more empirical research J


8 in mental imagery as well as the importance it serves in comprehension as follows: The richness of imagery flow, especially in reading fiction, is probably the most important aspect of comprehension. Unfortunately, it is frequently ignored in current professional scholarship, (pp. 21-22) They continue by stating that imagery will play a major role in the future of reading. Thus, the area of imagery deserves much more attention from those in the reading profession than it is currently receiving. This may be especially true at the college level where virtually 80 percent of all learning involves reading (Baker, 1974). The results of this study may help to establish the feasibility of using mental imagery in group situations as an aid to both the comprehension and retention of content area material for students at the college level, particularly high risk students. Definition of Terms The following terms are defined in relationship to their use in this study: Mental imagery, imaging, visual imagery . Mental imagery, imaging, and visual imagery are all used synonomously. These terms refer to the innate ability of the mind to form patterns, mental structures of concepts, objects, processes, events and relationships which result from perception of the world. Mental imagery techniques, i ma ging techniques, visual imaging techniques . Mental imagery techniques, imaging techniques, and visual imagery techniques are all used synonomously. These terms refer to the procedures used to teach students to image what is read.


9 Learning strategies . Learning strategies are devices to aid in the understanding of, retention of, and retrieval of information read. Retention . Retention is defined as the ability to retain or remember information read seven days previously, as measured by an 18 item multiple-choice test. Comprehension . Comprehension is defined as the ability to answer a series of multiple-choice questions following the reading of each of three passages. Students had access to the passage when they answered the questions and they were encouraged to refer to the selection for clarification or verification. High risk students . High risk students are those students who are strongly recommended to enroll in a college level reading course due to scoring below a cutting score of the 35th percentile on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. Induced imagery . Induced imagery is a strategy taught to students prior to reading a passage in the form of an instructional set supplied by the experimenter. The students are not provided with different representations of particular items, but rather with a general set to generate their own images (Levin, 1972). Example ; The students are asked to image the word "chair" in such a way that it is meaningful to them, but the researcher gives no instructions as to what the chair looks like. The students image what will best help them to comprehend and to retain what is read about the subject. Imposed imagery . Imposed imagery is a strategy in which experimenters suggest images which they perceive as characteristic of the learning passage. Example : The students are instructed to image a specific kind of chair (i.e., "a wooden, straight back chair with a green seat").


10 Interactive images . Interactive images are defined as the combination of two or more images on the formation of a third image in the mind. Paired-associate task . A paired-associate task is one in which students are presented successively a collection of discrete item pairs. The students must focus on each pair as a separate unit, with the success of their performance dependent upon the degree to which stable associations within the pairs are generated (Levin, 1972). Assumptions In this study it was assumed that 1. Subjects had the intellectual ability and the skills to decode the words in the passages. 2. Subjects in the imagery group could be trained to use the imaging techniques. 3. Any subject loss was unrelated to the treatment. 4. Subjects received no special reading instruction other than that provided in the developmental course. 5. While every effort was made to ensure that the length, readability, and imaging value of the passages were equivalent, the possibility of an ordering effect may exist. This assumption is especially true when using a split-plot repeated measures design. I DeTvimitations and Limitations The delimitations of the study are 41 students voluntarily enrolled in a developmental reading course at Central Florida Community College during the spring semester, 1982. Since individuals taking this course are generally high risk students, the results of this study can be generalized only to individuals meeting this criterion.


n Procedures Instrument Development Three content area passages--"The Long, Cold Sleep" (1966) by Harold Schmeck, a biological science passage, "Immortality Syndrome" (1966) by James Gollin, a social science passage, and "Filboid Studge, the Story of a Mouse that Helped" (1966) by H. H. Munro, a literature passage— were selected for use in this study. Multiple-choice items were written and field tested on 114 high risk college students for the comprehension and retention questions. At the same time subjects rated each passage for imaging value as measured by the Voss-Newell Imagery Rating Scale (1977). Passage difficulty was determined through the use of the Fry Readability Formula (1968). Kuder-Richardson 20 reliability coefficients were also determined for the comprehension test items written for each passage. A vocabulary pretest and posttest were also developed for each selection, as was an imagery questionnaire. The Study Collection of the data The study sample consisted of 41 high risk students voluntarily enrolled in a developmental reading course at a local community college. The original sample size was 47 but due to absenteeism, 41 individuals had complete data which could be used in the analyses. Subjects were randomly assigned by classes to one of three conditions. Group 1, the experimental group, contained 14 subjects and was trained in imaging techniques; Group 2, a control group, contained 13 subjects and was instructed using a directed reading approach; Group 3, which contained 14 subjects, received no instruction and served as a second control group. Scores on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (Brown, Nelson, and


12 Denny, 1973) were obtained for all subjects. The comprehension score of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test was used to test for equivalency of the groups. It also served as a covariate. in the statistical analysis. Over a five-week period, each group read the three content area selections and answered a series of 18 multiple-choice comprehension items for each passage. One week following the initial reading, all subjects also took a parallel 18-item retention test. The only difference between the two tests was that both the items and the foils were reordered. A follow-up imagery questionnaire was administered to all groups upon completion of the data collection. This questionnaire was primarily designed to determine if those in the experimental group actually used imaging strategies and if subjects in the other groups imaged spontaneously. Design and statistical analysis This study utilized a twotrial factor, one grouping factor splitplot repeated measures design with one covariate consistent across all repeated measures. The two trial factors were the type of passage (biological science, social science, or literature) and the type of test (comprehension or retention). Group membership (imagery, directed reading activity, or no instruction) served as the grouping factor. The raw score of the comprehension subtest of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test served as the covariate and was employed to eliminate variation associated with reading comprehension. The data were analyzed using a packaged program from the Biomedical Computer Programs, p-series (Jennrich and Sampson, 1979). When the null hypothesis was rejected, follow-up comparisons were calculated.


13 Analysis of the descriptive data obtained from the follow-up imagery questionnaire was carried out using a packaged program from Statistical Analysis System (Helwig, 1978). These data are reported according to frequency of subject response and a chi square test of significance. Hypotheses The following major hypotheses, stated in the null form, were tested in this study. Follow-up analyses were conducted when statistical significance was found. All hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of significance. Hypothesis I : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the NelsonDenny Reading Test, there is no significant interaction between the type of passage (biological science, social science, or literature), the type of test (comprehension or retention), and group membership (imagery, directed reading activity, or no instruction). Hypothesis II : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there is no significant interaction between the type of passage and the type of test. Hypothesis III : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there is no significant interaction between the type of test and group membership. Hypothesis IV : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there are no significant differences between


14 the scores on the comprehension test and the scores on the retention test. Hypothesis V : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the NelsonDenny Reading Test, there is no significant interaction between the type of passage and group membership. Hypothesis VI : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there are no significant differences between the combined comprehension and retention scores on the biological science passage, the social science passage, and the literature passage, across all three groups. Hypothesis VII : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there are no significant differences between the combined comprehension and retention scores for Group 1, Group 2, or Group 3 across all passages. Organization of the Research Report Chapter II presents a Review of Related Literature, Chapter III describes the methodology used in the study including a detailed description of the instrument development. The data are presented, analyzed, and discussed in Chapter IV, while Chapter V includes a summary, implications and conclusions, and recommendations for further research.


CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Chapter II reviews literature and research in the following five areas relating to the topic of imagery: (1) a historical perspective of imagery, (2) differing theoretical views of imagery, (3) mental imagery and paired-associate learning, (4) mental imagery at the phrase and sentence level, and (5) mental imagery and prose material. While a portion of this research has been carried out with children as subjects rather than with college age students, it nonetheless somewhat clarifies the relationship between imagery and the comprehension and retention of content area material. Mental Imagery: A Historical Perspective Since the days of ancient Greece the idea that memory, and possibly understanding, is facilitated by cognitive elaborations has been centrally important in pedagogy and instruction (Wittrock, 1978). One such elaboration technique utilized by early Greeks such as Aristotle, Plato, and Simonides was that of forming mental images as an aid to memory. Aristotle defined "memory" or "remembering" as "a state induced by a mental image related as a likeness to that of which it is an image." (1964, p. 451) Plato's philosophy was similar to that of Aristotle's. He stated Suppose, then, I beg, for the sake of argument, that we have in our souls a waxen tablet . . , whatever is imprinted, this we remember and know, as long as the image remains, but when it is effaced, or is no longer imprinted we forget and do not know it. (1964, p. 296) 15


16 The Greek poet Simonides' system for remembering consisted of a mnemonic system designed to facilitate the construction of an ordered series of interactive images. Cicero described the system as follows: He (Simonides) inferred that persons desiring to train this faculty (memory) must select localities and form mental images of the facts they wish to remember and store. Those images in the localities will preserve the order of the facts, and the images of the facts themselves, and we shall employ the localities and images respectfully as a wax writing tablet and letters written on it. (Cicero, 1967, p. 354) The ancient art of mnemonics, such as the method described by Simonides, has survived, and new systems have been created; whereas, the concept of imagery as a means of remembering or understanding has been researched considerably in the area of psychology rather than in education. The work of Galton (1883) spurred a lively interest in mental imagery among psychologists around the turn of the century. Galton explored the measurement of individual differences in imagery through the use of his now famous breakfasttable questionnaire. His observations led other psychologists to investigate whether thought and memory were a function of the vividness of the images formed. During this particular period when the behavioristic movement was prevalent in psychology, strong objections arose to the claim that imagery had functional significance in behavior (Paivio, 1970). This belief proliferated for two reasons: First, the concept was viewed as unacceptably mentalistic; second, empirical support was lacking (Paivio, 1970). Some researchers, such as Fracker (1908) and Kuhlmann (1907), found that imaging ability enhanced memory for visual forms or colors while others, such as Carey (1915), failed to find such relationships. Betts (1909)


17 was the first to struggle with what is now deemed as imposed and induced imagery. Through his research he speculated that imposed imagery could be studied quantitatively better than induced imagery. Though he researched both aspects, his conclusion suggested imposed imagery as the more favorable method to use. This finding has been challenged by more recent research (e.g.. Levin, 1972). Thus, early research on imagery was conducted using primarily symbols, colors, or verbalizing familiar surroundings. Little, if any, thought had been given to the relationship between the utilization of imagery with printed materials or how imaging techniques could be used to increase comprehension or retention. Differing Theoretical Views of Imagery While the major focus of this study does not directly address the question of how information is stored in the brain, the differing views held by theorists deserve brief consideration. Although the hypothetical construct called mental imagery has been studied extensively by psychologists, there remain vast differences of opinion concerning its structure and function. These differing viewpoints apparently can be divided into two broad categories: the pictorialistics and the descriptional ists (Block, 1981). Both groups agree that there are mental representations; their disagreement arises in explaining the nature of these representations. The descriptionalists , or anti-imaging group, theorize that all mental representations are descriptional (Block, 1981). Pylyshyn (1973), for example, argues that the processing and storing of images would be cumbersome if not impossible because the amount of information stored (as images) would soon exceed the capacity of the brain. Rather,


18 Pylyshyn, as well as Anderson (1978) and Kintch (1972), theorizes that a propositional account of representation is much more plausible. Propositions are defined as abstract structures (not linguistic) that express precise relations between entities (Kosslyn and Pomerantz, 1977). These theorists argue that since propositions must be either true or false, this format is appropriate for representing knowledge. World knowledge, they contend, consists of a set of assertions which are necessarily true or false, while mental images do not have this quality. While the pi ctoriali sties do not purport that actual pictures are in the mind, they insist that mental images represent in much the same way that pictures represent (Block, 1981). The pi ctoriali sties can be further divided into the perceptually based theorists and the strong imagery theorists. The perceptually based theorists, who include Bransford and McCarrell (1974), Neisser (1976), and Verbrugge (1980), purport that an object or event can not be imaged unless that object or event or a pictorial representation of that object or event has been perceived. Further, they would argue that faulty imaging is a result of faulty perception. The strong imagery theorists argue that the need for a pictorial representation is crucial. However, they are not saying that descriptional representations do not exist but that there must also be pictorial representations. Paivio and Csapo(1973), for example, give evidence to support a dual-code theory which claims that mental representation can take two forms. They contend that abstract words or sentences are represented with verbal strings; concrete words or sentences are stored with both a verbal and an imaginal representation, thus enabling easier retrieval.


19 Kosslyn and Pomerantz (1977) summarize the assumptions of the pictorial istics as follows: 1. Images may be generated from underlying abstract representation. The contents of these underlying representations are assessible only via generation of an experienced image, (p. 65) 2. The same structures that represent spatial information extracted during vision also support images, (p. 66) 3. Many of the same operators that are used in analyzing percepts are also applied to images, (p. 66) 4. Images, once formed, are wholes that may be compared to percepts in a template-like manner, (p. 66) Since the focus of this study is the application of the use of imagery with content area materials, the viewpoint of this study supports the pictorial representation viewpoint. Research which further supports this stand is discussed in the following sections. Mental Imagery and Paired-Associate Learning A large portion of the research on mental imagery has been conducted in paired-associate learning. In a paired-associate task a collection of discrete item pairs are presented successively to the learner. The learners must focus on each pair as a separate unit with the success of their performance dependent upon the degree to which stable association within pairs is generated (Levin, 1972). Paivio's extensive work in imagery and paired-associate learning stresses the importance of the imagery value of a word. In a now classic study, Paivio, Yuille and Madigan (1968) obtained concreteness , imagery and meaningful ness values for 925 nouns. Concreteness was defined in terms of directness of reference to sensory experiences, and


0 20 imagery was defined in terms of a word's capacity to arouse nonverbal images. Meaningfulness was defined in terms of the mean number of written associations subjects could make in 30 seconds. Both concreteness and imagery were rated on seven-point scales. In rating the nouns for imagery level the subjects were instructed to rate high any word that easily aroused a mental picture and to rate low any word that did not. Ratings of concreteness followed the same general procedure. The subjects were instructed to give a high concreteness rating to any word that referred to objects, materials or persons, and a high abstractness rating to any word that referred to an abstract concept that could not be experienced by the senses. The results of this study on identification of the imagery value of a word indicated that words rated high in imaging value were also high in concreteness. Items rated high on imaging and concreteness were also high in meaning. Additionally, many items were found low in imaging, and low in concreteness but relatively high in meaning. This asynmetrical relationship was consistent with other work by Paivio and his associates (Paivio, 1966; Yuille and Paivio, 1968). Their research indicated that abstract items derived their meaning largely from intraverbal associates but not necessarily evoked images. Highly concrete items, on the other hand, presumably were associated with both sensory and verbal experience which were reflected in their high imaging and meaning values (Paivio, Yuille, and Madigan, 1968). This research on the rating of words as possessing either high or low imaging value paved the way for more credible research in paired-associated learning, retention and retrieval.


21 Bugelski (1968) conducted an experiment using 36 senior psychology majors. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups. Subjects in Group 1 (experimental group) were asked to memorize a nursery jingle. After reciting the jingle five times in a row correctly, subjects were shown how it could aid them in learning lists of ten words. They were to imagine the first word in the jingle as related in some way to the first word on the list, the second word in the jingle to the second word on the list and so on. Subjects in Group 2 (control group) were left to their own devices as to how they would learn the ten words. As expected, the learning scores of experimental subjects were clearly and significantly superior for each of the six lists than scores of the control group. Bugelski explained these findings by suggesting that verbal interference occurred from repeating the ten words. What he possibly overlooked was the fact that the words from all six lists were concrete nouns with very high imaging values, and were, therefore, more appropriate for learning through imaging than through verbalization. Additionally, since the control group received no specific instructions, it would naturally be assumed that any strategy was better than none. Paivio, Smythe, and Yuille (1968) conducted an experiment to investigate paired-associate learning as a function of high and low level stimuli. When noun imagery was varied in one list, meaning in a second, and the two were covaried in a third, reported imagery was strongly related to noun imagery, particularly of stimulus members, whereas, verbal mediators and repetition showed no such patterns. A correlational analysis involving item attributes, learning scores, and frequency of reported mediators for individual items over all three lists, confirmed the inference that the strongest relationships were between


22 reported use of imagery and the learning scores when the items served as stimulus members of pairs. Furthermore, reported imagery correlated significantly with learning even with stimulus imagery partialed out increasing the plausibility of the argument that associations were in fact mediated by imagery (Paivio, 1969). A 1970 study by Bower investigated imagery versus overt rehearsal (verbal repetition of pairs of words) in paired-associate learning. Subjects were 30 high school graduates solicited from a local newspaper advertisement. Group 1 received instructions for using overt repetition. Group 2 for using an interactive imagery strategy, and Group 3 for using a non-interactive imagery strategy. All words were nouns with high imagery values selected from the norms published by Paivio, Yuille, and Madigan (1968). There v/ere 90 pairs shown in three lists of 30 pairs, each pair visually displayed for ten seconds. The subjects first rated the likelihood that each word had appeared on a list of a prior study (recognition), and second, if the subjects thought the word had appeared on a prior list in the study, subjects tried to recall the other word paired with each word shown. Each list received one study trial followed by one test trial. Although recognition scores across the three groups showed no significant differences, the differences between conditions in recall were quite substantial. The group instructed to use interactive imagery clearly exceeded the separation imagery group and the rote repetition group while the later two conditions did not significantly differ from one another. More recent studies investigated the use of pictures in pairedassociate learning. Kee and Beuhring (1978) and Danner and Taylor


23 (1971) integrated the use of pictorial representation in imaging relations between separate pictures of nouns. In the Kee and Beuhring (1978) study it was found that when two groups were exposed to verbal presentation (standard versus elaborated) and pictorial representation (standard versus elaborated), both elaborated verbal and elaborated pictorial presentations facilitated noun pair learning as far as acquisition was concerned. Although Kee and Beuhring found no significant differences in subsequent retention of noun pairs, the study did conclude that to sustain the same level of noun pair retention after seven days, the imaging presentation required only half as many studytest cycles. The Danner and Taylor (1971) study.which attempted to assess the effect of relational imagery developmental ly, utilized pictorial relations as well as the combination of relational imagery and pictorial relations to test the recall of noun triplets. The subjects were 100 children from grades one, three, and six. Using a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial design, subjects were assigned to one of four conditions: relational imagery training, unitized pictures, the combination of training and unitized pictures, or a control group receiving neither training nor pictures. The major finding was that all three experimental conditions greatly facilitated recall. In this chapter certain patterns emerge. First, with few exceptions, imaging techniques tend to facilitate the learning of noun pairs. Second, word pairs that are concrete and high in imaging value tend to be learned with much more ease using a mental imagery technique. Abstract items appear to be acquired more readily through verbal rehearsal or a combination of imaging and overt rehearsal. The importance of the meaningful ness of a word deserves attention


24 also. Paivio's findings that words can be low in concreteness and imagery value but high in meaningful ness have possible implications. Perhaps the meaningfulness of a word has just as much influence over whether or not a word can be imaged as does concreteness. If multiple meanings for a word can be generated, it would seem that the subject would have several viable alternatives to image. For example, an abstract word such as "democracy" could generate many meaningful associations which could be readily imaged. Finally, the research cited herein suggests that pictorial representations presented with visual labels tend to aid subjects in imaging the pictorial representation. This procedure serves as an aid in recalling the paired-associated stimulus to a greater degree than a stimulus presented only visually. Mental Imagery at the Phrase and Sentence Level As with imagery and paired-associate learning, Paivio was a forerunner in investigating the role that imagery plays in comprehension and retention at the sentence level. Begg and Paivio (1969) attempted to extend the analysis to sentences and contextual meaning. Wanner (1968) reported that subjects were able to recognize changes in sentence meaning almost 100 percent of the time but to recognize changes in wording only at a chance level. Drawing on those findings, Begg and Paivio hypothesized that under natural conditions readers rely on mental imagery to represent concrete sentences, thereby losing the individual words completely. These researchers contended that the opposite holds true for abstract sentences. Using a 2 x 2 analysis of variance with change type (semantic or lexical) and sentence type (concrete or abstract) as independent factors.


25 120 college student volunteers listened to 20 sentences with five sentences in each set. After listening to each set of five sentences, the subjects then heard one sentence from the set in one of three ways: (1) in its original form, (2) with semantic changes, or (3) with lexical changes. Subjects were instructed to mark either "identical" or "change" on their answer sheet as well as to rate the confidence of their judgment. Although there were no significant main effects, the predicted interaction was highly significant. Thus, semantic changes were more often noticed than lexical changes in concrete sentences, while the reverse was true for abstract sentences. According to Begg and Paivio these findings indicate the possibility that the imaginal code reduces the memory load for the meaning of concrete sentences. The image permits the organization of the sentence into a single unit, while abstract material is not amenable to unitization. The viewpoint reported in this research is in conflict with the theoretical viewpoint of Pylyshyn (1973) who feels that the storage of images would be too cumbersome. A study by Montague and Hess (1978) attempted to differentiate between the dominant representation system with regard to imagery versus verbal coding of good and poor readers. Their research drew on the work of Waller (1976), who speculated that poor readers may predominantly use an imagery code while good readers use verbal or other abstract representation, or a combination of both verbal representation and imagery. On the basis of the SRA Assessment Survey total reading score, 90 fourth and fifth grade students were classified as good or poor readers. Task materials, originally developed by Paris and Carter (1973), consisted of nine, three-sentence stories and a set of five sentences per story which were later presented for recognition. Subjects were


26 assigned to one of three treatment groups: imagery-oriented strategy, verbal -oriented strategy, or a control situation. They were instructed to listen to the short stories and then to decide whether the sentences presented later were exactly the same as they had previously heard in the stories. Those assigned to the imagery condition were told to use imagery while listening to the stories ("Picture each story; make up a picture in your mind to go with the story"). A 2 x 3 x 5 analysis of variance showed a significant main effect of reader level and sentence type, but no significant main effect was found for instructions. Montague and Hess suggested several possible reasons for the lack of a significant main effect for instruction. The most plausible reason given was timing. Since the imagery instructions were given after task introduction and a practice trial, subjects may have already adopted strategies before the instructions and were, therefore, not affected by the researchers' instructions. A further explanation not explored by Montague and Hess is that the subjects were not given any instruction on how to form images. This lack of training could have resulted in confusion by the subjects concerning the exact nature of the task they were to accomplish. In addition, children of this age attempting to follow rather vague instructions may concentrate too intensively on forming a suitable image only to lose both the image and the comprehension. This is especially true when the stimulus is presented auditorily and rapidly (Bransford, 1979). A similar series of experiments conducted by Levin, Ghatala, Guttman, Subkoviak, McCabe, and Bender (1976) was undertaken to determine if those utilizing imagery would score significantly better on a test of 20 multiple-choice items than those who used overt and covert


27 rehearsal, or a control group who was given no specific rehearsal strategies. Means for the four groups (number of correct items out of 20) were 15,19, 9.50, 11.69, and 12.38 respectively. Using a Dunnett comparison, it was found that imagery did facilitate performance and overt repetition inhibited performance. Covert repetition did not differ significantly from the control performance. Since a significant difference was present in favor of the imagery group, a second experiment was conducted to determine the nature of the errors as well as to verify the results for instruction from Experiment One. Although the significance was not as large as that for the first experiment, a significant difference was once again found in favor of the imagery strategy. The researchers stated that these results may have been due to the fact that Experiment One was based on a recall method of testing while Experiment Two was based on recognition. Researchers now know the importance of the imagery-evoking value of words (e.g., Paivio, 1966, 1969, 1970). Training in how to form images is necessary if subjects are to utilize fully the technique. Imagery is a more effective elaboration technique than either overt or covert rehearsal. Mental Imagery and Prose Material Since mental imagery was found to facilitate retrieval and retention in both paired-associate learning and sentence learning, research was undertaken to determine if imagery was also facilitative with prose material . Research Undertaken with C hildren Levin (1973) was one of the first to explore the effects of imagery


28 on prose learning. Using a modification of his aptitude by treatment interaction model. Levin (1972) hypothesized that good readers typically perform better than poor readers no matter what instructional approach is used, but no less so in some conditions than in others. Subjects were 54 fourth grade students who were designated as either good or poor readers. "Good" readers were those whose reading comprehension score on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills was above grade level; "poor" readers had a reading comprehension score below grade level. Within the poor readers category a further distinction was made between deficit and difference poor readers (Heiner and Cromer, 1967). Those whose vocabulary grade equivalent was less than one year below grade level made up the difference poor group while the remainder comprised the deficit poor group. According to these classifications, students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: reading alone, reading with imagery or reading accompanied with pictures. Using a 2 x 3 x 3 factorial design, it was found that imagery instructions were facilitative while the pictorial representation was not. Similarly, good and poor readers differed significantly overall while the two types of poor readers did not. Levin concluded that imagery benefited only those students with adequate basic reading skills but who were in need of an organizational strategy. These findings supported Weiner and Cromer's (1967) distinctions among various types of readers. An experiment conducted by Levin and Divine-Hawkins (1974) revealed a main effect for instructions and an interaction between the instructions by presentation mode. Subjects were 48 fourth graders who were blocked on reading ability, and then randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: listening/regular instructions, reading/regular


29 instructions, listening/imagery instructions, or reading/imagery instructions. Levin and Divine-Hawkins interpreted the results of this experiment by postulating that a reading/imagery conflict arises from the two competing responses occurring simultaneously since subjects were allowed to read the passages at their own pace. A second experiment was designed to investigate this possibility. In the second experiment (Levin and Divine-Hawkins, 1974), the amount of time allotted for the reading of or listening to the passage was controlled by the experimenter. The slow rate was seven seconds per sentence while the fast rate was three and one-half seconds per sentence. Results indicated that more imagery was reported at the slow rate rather than at the fast rate. At the slow rate imagery-instructed subjects reported more imagery than regular-instructed subjects. The effect of instructions per se was not significant. At the fast rate much more imagery was reported in the listening than in the reading conditions regardless of the instructions given. The researchers concluded that even though the instructions by presentation mode interaction of Experiment One was replicated in Experiment Two, this does not permit unqualified support that visual imagery is more compatible with listening than with reading. Pressley (1976) investigated the use of mental imagery with 86 eight-year-olds using prose material that was typical of the type which third-graders would encounter in their everyday school work. Subjects in the experimental condition were taught imaging techniques, while those in the control group were instructed to do whatever they could do in order to remember. Using a 2 x 2 analysis of variance, Pressley found a significant effect due to the experimental condition


30 and no interaction between reading ability and treatment conditions. Pressley offers various interpretations of these data. First, he stresses the importance of training and practice in forming mental images. When this procedure is followed, an easily inaginal story can be improved by using mental imagery. Second, since the conditions of this experiment closely approximated a typical classroom reading group, this study did suggest the plausibility of teaching imagery techniques in the classroom in order to improve comprehension and retention. Finally, there exists the possibility that imagery may not be as facilitative in prose learning especially in good readers who may already process prose well. For poorer readers, however, imagery instructions seemed beneficial . Some controversy exists in this area, however. Levin (1973) found that imagery instructions were beneficial only for those in need of an organizational strategy. This assumption may be well-founded; if subjects have decoding or vocabulary problems, imagery would probably contribute little to increase comprehension or retention. Pressley, however, suggested further investigation into the effects of imagery with poor readers. Kulhavy and Swenson (1975) conducted an experiment with 128 fifth and sixth grade students. Half of the subjects were instructed to form mental images of the text during reading while the other half were instructed to read carefully. Findings were consistent with the previously cited studies in that grade school children remember more from a text if they employ mental images while reading. In line with the original prediction, it was concluded that imagery instructions act to increase the amount of text content available over time. Kulhavy and Swenson


31 also agreed with Pressley (1976) concerning the feasibility of teaching imaging techniques in the classroom. It should be pointed out, however, that none of the researchers suggest that the use of mental imagery should be the only strategy employed; rather, it provides the teacher with yet another alternative for increasing the comprehension and retention of prose material. Over a period of three years, Lesgold, Curtis, DeGood, Golinkoff, McCormick, and Shirmon (1974-1976) conducted numerous studies regarding the role of imagery in text comprehension. One of the major focuses of these studies was to determine if there is a developmental aspect in the utilization of mental imagery in facilitating comprehension and retention of prose material; that is, are there particular ages or perhaps stages when imagery mediation is more effective? Lesgold and his associates conducted a series of five experiments to attempt to answer this question. Experiments One and Two were conducted with adults. Experiments Three and Four were conducted with third and fourth graders, and Experiment Five was conducted with first graders. The results indicated that a developmental trend did appear to exist. The findings indicated that six-year-olds were inhibited in their performance by the extra task demands. This was found to be true even in light of the fact that these children listened to, rather than read, the passage. Nine-year-olds were able to benefit only after specific and extensive training. Adult subjects benefited from imagery spontaneously. An important distinction needs to be made concerning Lesgold's definition of comprehension. While some researchers may separate comprehension and retention into two different tasks, Lesgold does not; in


32 all of these studies, he equates the two processes. By definition, all of the tasks required by the subjects in this study were in fact retention rather than comprehension tasks. This approach to measuring comprehension was, in fact, used by all of the researchers discussed , in this section on imagery in prose learning. A recent investigation by Linden and Wittrock (1981) utilized Wittrock's model of generative learning in which readers build relationships between their knowledge and the text, as well as among the different parts of the text. Part of this model indicates that comprehension is facilitated by inducing readers to attend to the text through imagery. This experiment, conducted with ten-year-olds, included conditions that closely approximated a classroom setting, and it was conducted over several days. Using a unifactor, four-treatment design, 64 fifth grade children were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1) marginal to verbal generations, (2) verbal to marginal generations, (3) no instructions to generate, and (4) classroom teacher taught control group. Results indicated that the two groups that used the generative procedure had enhanced comprehension. It did not matter whether the student was in the imaginal to verbal group or the verbal to imaginal group. Both produced approximately the same number of generations and a comparison of their comprehension scores showed no significant differences. With the exception of the research by Lesgold and his associates (1974-1976), the previously cited research was undertaken with children. It is, therefore, of interest to investigate what the literature contains concerning mental imagery and comprehension of text material with older individuals. Does the available literature support Lesgold's


33 findings that imaging is a viable mediation technique for adults? Does the literature support his conclusion that adults benefit spontaneously from the utilization of mental imagery? Research Undertaken with Adults Anderson and Kulhavy (1972) conducted an experiment with 62 high school seniors using a 2,190 word content area passage. The experimental group was instructed to form vivid mental images of everything described in the passage while the control group was instructed to simply read the passage carefully. Upon completion of the reading, each student answered 34 short-answer items and 34 multiple-choice questions with stems in one-to-one correspondence to the short-answer questions. The subjects were also given a nine-item questionnaire which inquired about the study strategy used, carefulness in reading, and interest in the materials. Analysis of variance failed to show a significant effect for instruction, test mode, or the interaction of these factors. Analysis of the questionnaire, however, offered explanations of these results. More than half of the control group reported using imagery while studying the passage while about one-third of the experimental group reported that they did not use imagery elaboration. Anderson and Kulhavy then utilized an unweighted means analysis of variance which indicated that performance was related to imaging reports. These findings are consistent with those of the Lesgold et al. studies (19741976) in that older individuals may, in fact, spontaneously use imagery to better comprehend and retain prose material. The point should also be made that this study also employed a recall task in that the subjects did not have access to the passage while answering the questions. Two experiments conducted by Steingart and Glock (1979) explored


34 the effects of imagery and text organization of prose material. In the first experiment 66 college students read nine reading passages each containing 19 sentences. Three different topics and three different sentence organizers were used. The subjects were given one minute and thirty seconds to read each passage and were allowed five minutes to answer 16 multiple-choice questions. A 2 x 3 x 4 design collapsed for analysis showed significant results. Experiment Two employed essentially the same procedures except that the subjects were told to write down all they could remember about the passage (free-recall). Upon completion of the reading, the questionlevel factor was removed, a cueing factor was added, and the subjects were tested on both immediate and delayed recall. Imagery was found to be facilitative regardless of the text organization. From the results of the two experiments Steingart and Glock drew the following conclusions. First, subjects who used imagery were able to draw more inferences than the subjects who were instructed to use repetition strategies. The researchers interpret this as an indication that one of the functions of imagery with concrete prose is the formation of unitized non-verbal mnemonic representations. Second, it was felt that imagery encouraged a reorganization of textual material, and that this is the way the material is stored in the memory. Montague and Carter (1973) paralleled imagery research in pairedassociate learning and sentence learning by investigating how the vividness of passages affects the use of imagery. Hypothesizing that more vivid passages would be more appropriate for the use of mental imagery, they taught 44 subjects one of two versions of four paragraphs that were constructed with different degrees of vividness. After reading


35 the paragraphs, the subjects were given a four-minute free recall period. Using analysis of variance, it was found that instructions to use imagery produced no significant differences, but the image-evoking value (vividness) produced significant differences in the recall of substance words, but not for the function words. An interaction was observed between the instructions and vividness. The conclusions of Montague and Carter suggest that syntactic organization has a large effect on recall. They explained the lack of any effect due to instructions in much the same way as Lesgold and his associates (1974-1976); that older individuals tend to use imagery spontaneously. In addition, the results concur with Paivio's (1969) findings that for concrete learning materials, subjects automatically use imaging techniques. A study by Irwin and Witte (1980) conducted two investigations concerning relationships between the number and clarity of mental images reported by college students on either abstract or concrete expository materials and (1) their comprehension scores, (2) their self-rated reading ease, and (3) their interest ratings. In the first investigation 102 college students were randomly assigned to one of two abstract or one of two concrete passage conditions. Significant differences were found in terms of both the reported number of images and the clarity of images. The second investigation, however, produced no replication of these results. Irwin and Witte stated that the conflicting results were due to the fact that the readability was controlled for in the second investigation. In addition, no correlations were found between the number and clarity of images reported and the comprehension scores. This result is in


36 conflict with other researchers (Levin, 1973; Lesgold et al., 19741976; Steingart and Glock, 1979) but somewhat consistent with the results of Montague and Carter (1973), Irwin and Witte explain these results by suggesting that college students have a wider variety of reading strategies at their disposal. It should also be pointed out that the subjects involved in both of these studies were upper-level undergraduate or graduate level psychology students. Perhaps a more plausible e:xplanation would be that good readers, not necessarily college students in general, possess a wider variety of reading strategies. Research by Levin (1973) and Waller (1976) indicated that perhaps poor readers are more prone to the use of imaging techniques. Additionally, the authors have the students answer only five questions and it is never made clear whether the actual task at hand is one of comprehension or recall. Conclusions There are several problems that emerge when surveying the research conducted with imagery and its relationship to prose learning. First, it appears that researchers are confusing the terms "comprehension" and "retention." true comprehension task is one in which the subject has access to the passage while a retention or recall task does not permit such accessTj None of the studies cited were actually testing comprehension although researchers often claimed that they were. In all cases either immediate or delayed recall or recognition was being tested. In a large sense, therefore, these studies are telling nothing about the effects of mental imagery on reading comprehension. Second, while it is an accepted fact that the vocabulary level of a passage is a major factor in the amount comprehended (Carroll, 1977),


37 none of the studies even mentioned its importance. How can a student who does not know the meaning of a word image it? Third, the importance of vocabulary is closely tied to the world knowledge or perceptual background of the students. If the concepts presented in reading are at too high a level for an individual to grasp, imaging techniques or other learning strategies will probably not be successful. It, therefore, becomes important not only to teach imaging techniques, but also to control for the readability level of the passages. When surveying the total imagery picture from paired-associate learning to prose comprehension, certain patterns do emerge in the research. At all levels of processing--word, sentence, prose--the concreteness or abstractness appears to affect the ability to form images. Perhaps, however, even more important is the vocabulary and world knowledge aspect that an individual brings to the learning situation. No matter how concrete a word, sentence or passage, imagery would be difficult if the student lacked the perceptual background to form the needed images. Conflicting research exists on the developmental aspect of imagery. While some research indicates that older individuals spontaneously utilize mental imagery, other research indicates that this is not the case, however, there appears to be an agreement concerning the importance of imagery training at all age levels; that is, the more comprehensive the training, the more effective the facilitation.? While there is no empirical research to confirm or deny the relationship between the effectiveness of imagery with good and poor readers, the available literature does suggest that poor readers tend to utilize


38 more imagery than good readers. This is due to the fact that good readers possess a variety of reading strategies which they engage in at appropriate times while poor readers do not. Much of the research is either inconclusive or conflicting, especially research using prose material. Many questions remain unanswered. It is, therefore, important for more empirical research to be carried out by qualified persons who are well-versed in the problems and processes of reading and who can make practical applications of the findings to the classroom setting. Chapter III presents the development of the instruments and the methodology used in this study. These instruments and procedures were used to determine the effects that induced mental imagery has on the comprehension and retention of content area material for high risk college students.


CHAPTER III INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT AND METHODOLOGY The implications of the results of this study depend heavily on the instruments used; therefore, pilot work conducted in the development of the instrumentation is described in this chapter in considerable detail. Also included are a description of the sample, the instructional procedures followed, and the method of data collection. Development of the Instruments Major Testing Device— The Imagery Content Area Tests (ICAT) purpose of this study was not only to determine if imaging is a viable technique for increasing the comprehension and retention of high risk students, but also to determine if imagery is more appropriate for use in a particular content areaTj Consequently, it was important that the three passages used to test the hypotheses be equal in length, readability, and imaging value. Research undertaken by Paivio (e.g., 1969) has shown that material higher in imaging value is more easily retained. Therefore, if the passages differed significantly in imaging value, no causal inferences could be made concerning the use of imagery across different content areas since imaging value would confound with content area. In addition, the comprehension questions needed to be tested for reliability and equal difficulty. If the comprehension test which accompanied each of the passages had a low reliability it would not be known if all of the items were measuring the same thing (internal 39


40 consistency). The mean number of items correct for each passage also needed to be equivalent. In order to validate this instrumentation a pilot study was undertaken during the summer of 1981. The subjects were 114 students enrolled in several sections of a developmental reading course. Participants were first or second semester freshmen who were special admissions and, thus, high risk students who were enrolled in the Special Services Program at the University of Florida. Over a period of three consecutive weeks, subjects read three content area passages, one each week, in the following order: "Smoking" by Marshall Smith, a biological science selection (Passage A); "Immortality Syndrome" by James Gollin, a social science selection (Passage B); "Filboid Studge, the Story of a Mouse that Helped" by H. H. Munro, a literature selection (Passage C). Passages from these particular content areas were chosen because college students are expected to take courses from these disciplines. These passages exemplified the required reading materials for which a majority of lower division students were enrolled. Additionally, the length of each passage was reduced from approximately 1,500 words to approximately 1,000 words. Information judged as unimportant for the understanding of the passage was deleted or condensed. After the subjects read each passage with no time limits imposed, they answered 20 multiple-choice comprehension questions which were constructed by the researcher. Half of the items were classified as literal questions and half were identified as inferential questions. All subjects were then instructed to complete the Voss-Newell Imagery Rating Scale (V-NIRS) for each passage. The subjects were told


41 to circle one number for each pair of adjectives. They were also informed that there were no right or wrong answers; responses were general impressions of the passage and were not related in any way to intell igence. The V-NIRS was chosen for use in rating the imagery value of the passages selected for the ICAT for three reasons. First, this scale was developed for rating prose passages along three dimensions of imagery: abstraction, generality, and incl usiveness. The basic framework of the scale was taken from the work of Paivio and his associates (1968), Second, research has been conducted on the reliability of the scale. Newell and Olejnik (1980) conducted a principal components factor analysis on this seven-point semantic differential scale to evaluate the ratings of different prose passages which they selected. These passages were rated by three independent samples of raters. Each of the three solutions resulted in the identification of three significant factors. Third, no other data-based instrument could be found that rated the imaging value of prose materials. A random selection of the responses on the comprehension questions and imagery ratings for half of the subjects (n = 57) was used in the preliminary item analysis while the responses of the other half of the sample were used for cross validation purposes. Results of the preliminary investigation presented in Table 3-1 indicate that passage length was essentially the same and little variation existed in the readabilities as measured by the Fry Readability Formula. However, a one-way analysis of variance conducted on the imagery value data of the passages indicated significant differences between passages, F (2,56) = 8.29, £ = .005.


42 Table 3-1 Length, Readability, and Mean Imaging Values of the Original Three Content Area Passages Passage Length Readability Mean Imaging Value A 1 ,040 words low 10th 92.93 B 1 ,090 words low 10th 86.17 C 1 ,050 words high 9th 80.93 Note : Passage A is "Smoking" by Marshall Smith Passage B is "Immortality Syndrome" by James Gollin Passage C is "Filboid Studge, the Story of a Mouse that Helped" by H. H. Munro Table 3-2 indicates the results of the follow-up comparisons. No significant differences were revealed between Passage B and Passage C but significant differences were found between Passage A and Passage B as well as between Passage A and Passage C. Since including Passage A with its significantly higher imagery rating value would have confounded the results of the study, another biological science passage was chosen and piloted to ensure equivalency on length, readability, and imaging value. Table 3-2 Follow-up Comparisons on Imagery Value Between the Original Three Content Area Passages Contrast t-value p > t^ A vs B 2.29 .0245 B vs C 1.77 .0801 A vs C 4.06 .0001 Tested at the .05 level of significance


43 The new scientific passage, "The Long, Cold Sleep" by Harold Schmeck was selected because it approximated the length and readability of Passages B and C and because it appeared to have a similar imaging value as measured by the V-NIRS. The validation of the new selection followed the same procedures as those followed for the other two passages, but it was tested on a smaller sample size (n = 42). The subjects read the passage and then answered a series of 20 comprehension questions which had been constructed by the researcher. Then they completed the V-NIRS. The subjects involved in the validation of this passage were also classified as high risk students so that the same type of population was used to validate all three passages. The data obtained from the imagery rating scale on the two original passages and the new biological science passage were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance and all possible pairwise comparisons were made. The mean imaging value of the new passage was 85.77. Table 3-3, which indicates the results of the three comparisons, shows that the passages did not differ significantly on imaging value, F (2,89) = 2.14, £ = .1241. Table 3-3 Fol low-Up Comparisons on Imagery Value Between the Final Three Content Area Passages Contrast t-value A vs B -0.14 .887 B vs C 1.86 .067 A vs C 1.72 .090 Tested at the .05 level of significance


44 Initially, it was decided to eliminate from each passage the five comprehension test items with the lowest point biserial values. However, upon cross validation using only 15 items, reliability of the test was reduced considerably since the test length had actually been reduced by one-fourth. As a result, only items with a r , . < .20 were deleted pbis from each set of 20 questions, leaving 18 items on each passage for testing comprehension. The item analysis procedure was carried out using a packaged program from Statistical Analysis System (SAS) . A summary of the final reliabilities, means, and variances for the comprehension test items, as well as the mean imagery ratings for each passage, is presented in Table 3-4. Since the means of the comprehension scores differed by less than two items it was felt that carrying out an analysis of variance to test for equivalency of the scores was unnecessary. Point biserial values for each of the remaining 18 items for all passages are presented in Appendix B. Table 3-4 Final Validation Statistics for the Comprehension Test Items and Imagery Ratings for the Three Content Area Passages Mean Imagery Passage KR-20 Mean Variance Ratings A .74 n.O 12.41 85.77 B .70 10.91 10.92 86.17 C .71 9.85 10.94 80.93 Note : This final validation was based on 18 test items. When interpreting the results of the pilot data, several factors need to be kept in mind. While this pilot was conducted on an adequate


45 sample size (n = 57) and cross validated on the same number, the participants were all high risk college students. This homogeneous selection was appropriate since the actual study was conducted using this type of population. However, the fact that the validation was conducted with high risk college students is, in itself, a problem. It is difficult to write discriminating items for a group such as this. Their performance on comprehension tasks tends to be erratic due to a number of factors. First, reading performance is highly dependent on the vocabulary in the passage (Carroll, 1977). No actual instruction was given on vocabulary prior to the testing procedure; subjects were merely asked to read the passage and then to answer the questions. Second, the majority of high risk students have poor experiential backgrounds. Therefore, some of the vocabulary and concepts in the passages may have been difficult for students to understand without teacher-directed instruction. This might be true even though attempts v/ere made to control for readability levels of the passages. Finally, many of these students have low levels of motivation which could have caused one of two things to occur; either the student did not read the passage in the first place and then randomly guessed on the majority of test items, or the student guessed at answers to questions she/he was not sure of rather than referring to the passage. In conclusion, the three passages selected for the ICAT proved to be of approximately equal length and readability and showed no significant differences in imaging value as measured by the V-NIRS. The comprehension test items for the passages possessed almost equal reliability coefficients. It was concluded, therefore, that the instrument was appropriate for use in this investigation.


46 Vocabulary Pretests and Posttests Since vocabulary plays a major role in the comprehension of content area material (Carroll, 1977), a passage-specific vocabulary pretest was developed for each selection (see Appendix A). This pretest was constructed to be given prior to teaching the lessons and to indicate students' needs for vocabulary instruction. Words chosen for the pretest were checked for content validity by 11 students enrolled in the doctoral program in reading at the University of Florida. Difficult words that were identified by 50 percent of the doctoral students were included on the pretest. The instructions directed the subjects to read the stem containing an underlined word in content, to read the four foils, and then to choose the synonym that most closely approximated the underlined stimulus word. The vocabulary posttest was constructed consisting of the identical words used on the pretest. The only difference was that the ordering of both the words and the foils was changed. Imag e ry Questionnaire The final instrument prepared for the study was an imagery questionnaire to be given to all groups upon completion of the study (see Appendix A). The purpose of this questionnaire was to determine not only if Group 1 (those trained in imaging techniques) actually used them, but also to determine if those in Groups 2 and 3 (the two control groups) spontaneously imaged without having had instruction in imaging techniques. Subjects were also asked to indicate what additional strategies, if any, they thought enabled them to comprehend and/or retain the selections.


47 Procedures for the Study Instructional procedures and the collection of the data for this study were carried out over a consecutive six-week period beginning in early March 1982 and ending in mid-April 1982. Description of the Sample The sample was drawn from students voluntarily enrolled in REA 1105, a developmental reading course offered at Central Florida Community College in Ocala, Florida. Students enrolled in this course were classified as high risk because they received scores below the 35 percentile on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. Students were, therefore, strongly encouraged to take the reading course and were told that without it they would probably have problems handling college level text material. Because there were limitations on scheduling, random assignment by individuals was not possible. Rather, classes of students were randomly assigned by sections to one of the following three conditions: imagery, directed reading activity, or no instruction. In order to test for equivalency of the groups, the comprehension raw score on the NelsonDenny Reading Test was used. It was also used as a covariate to eliminate variation due to reading comprehension ability. The N-DRT is a standardized reading survey test which yields a vocabulary score, a comprehension score, and a reading rate. This test is widely used for both screening and global diagnosis in reading courses at the college level. The split-half reliability of the N-DRT is .83, while predictive validity coefficients range from .10 to .70 with a median of .40 (Brown, et al., p. 14). Recent scores on the N-DRT were available from the students' records and, therefore, it was not necessary to readminister the test.


48 The original sample size consisted of 48 subjects; however, data on only 41 subjects were used in the final data analysis. One subject in the imagery group missed several classes, two subjects in the DRA group chose not to participate, two subjects in the DRA had missing data, and two subjects in the no instruction group failed to attend all class sessions. A total of 41 subjects — 14 in the imagery group, 13 in the DRA group, and 14 in the no instruction group--had complete data which were analyzed in this study. Table 3-5 summarizes the schedule followed in carrying out this study. Table 3-5 Schedule of Procedures Followed in the Study Week Tuesday Thursday 1 Group 1: Imagery training Group 1: Imagery training 2 Teach Passage A to all groups and test for comprehension * 3 Test retention of Passage A to al 1 groups Teach Passage B to all groups and test for comprehension 4 * Test retention of Passage B to all groups 5 Teach Passage C to all groups and test for comprehension * 6 Retention--Passage C to all groups Administer imagery questionnaire to all groups *Indicates that nothing pertaining to the study was occurring on that particular day.


49 Instruction and Data Conection Imagery group Since research indicates that the induced imagery strategy tends to be more effective with older individuals than does the imposed imagery strategy (e.g.. Levin, 1972), the induced imagery strategy was used in this study. A body of research (e.g.. Levin, 1973; Kulhavy and Swenson, 1975; and Pressley, 1976) also indicates that those trained in induced imagery tend to comprehend and retain significantly more than those who are directed only to read a passage and then to answer a series of comprehension questions. During the first week of the study on Tuesday and Thursday, subjects in the imagery group (Group 1) were trained in imaging techniques. The researcher met with the imagery group for two training sessions, each session lasting one hour. Training in induced imagery took the following steps: 1. The researcher began by defining imagery as the innate ability of the mind to form patterns, mental structures of concepts, objects, processes, events, and relationships which result from perceptions of the world. This definition was explained in lay terms, and any misconceptions were clarified. The investigator then asked the subjects to image the word "dog" and to describe their image. The word "dog" was chosen because it is a concrete word and possesses a high imagery rating. It was stressed that images need not make sense to anyone else except the one imaging. The following additional words were given, each with decreasing imaging value: "chair," "dawn." "love," "kindness," "democracy." The same procedure was followed throughout the course of the study except that the words given were in some way related to the


50 passage being read. This exercise was referred to as "warm-up." 2. After "warm-up," the Breakfast Table Technique— a procedure developed and named by Galton (1883)--was taught. Students were asked to image and then to describe orally settings or objects familiar to them. Such suggested settings included the students' breakfast tables, their dorm rooms, their bedrooms at home, and/or the streets where they live. Students were encouraged to use as vivid descriptions as possible Leading questions were asked by the researcher to ensure as much detail as possible at this stage. This procedure was used to make the participants aware of what induced mental imagery is and to make them aware that they can remember objects they have seen or experiences they have had when they actively engage in this technique. 3. With explicit instructions from the researcher, the subjects in the -mental imagery group were trained to engage in imaging techniques using three different passages of increasing length (see Appendix A). The first passage chosen for imagery instruction was on human intelligence and was approximately 250 words. It was chosen because it was a short selection and easy to image since it contained many concrete nouns With the first introductory passage participants read the selection one paragraph at a time. After a paragraph was read, descriptions of mental images were verbalized and discussed. Again, the personalization of images was discussed. 4. As consecutive paragraphs were read, instructions were given on building-on to the previous image rather than on forming a completely new image. For example, after the first introductory passage was read, one of the subjects said that he imaged a mansion with the house number 125 on it to remember the one twin placed in the wealthy home, and he imaged a shack with the house number 80 on it to remember the other twin


51 placed with the poorer family. While some subjects appeared to image more vividly than others, no one had problems in describing what they imaged. 5. Upon completion of the first introductory passage, subjects were given three multiple-choice questions and were instructed to write out brief descriptions or to draw pictures of the images formed to answer each question. 6. The second passage was then read. It was 350 words long and contained information on animal intelligence. Five comprehension questions were written for this passage. The final training passage was the longest and contained 480 words. It was a literature passage that could generate a variety and wealth of images. Five comprehension questions also accompanied this selection. As students moved from one passage to the next, they were encouraged to extend the amount read while forming interactive images to aid in their comprehension. Subjects then were directed to follow the same procedures used in Steps 4 and 5. 7. Those who indicated difficulty in forming mental images were given suggestions by the researcher for possibly improving on their image formations and then were asked to form and describe verbally their own images. After the subjects in Group 1 completed the instructions for using imaging techniques, the first week of data collection began. Students were given the vocabulary pretest for Passage A, "The Long, Cold Sleep." Vocabulary instruction in which subjects were encouraged to formulate images to aid in remembering word meanings followed. Then subjects were reminded to form images as they read the content area passage and as they answered the 18-item comprehension test. In addition, subjects


52 were encouraged to answer the questions without referring to the selection, but they were told that they could refer to the passage if needed for clarification and verification. One week later, subjects were given the four "warm-up" words used in the comprehension activity for Passage A. This was done to stimulate recall. They they were re-tested on the passage to determine how much information they had retained from the initial reading and were given the vocabulary posttest. In the ensuing weeks at one-week intervals, data were collected for each of the two remaining selections in the same manner as for Passage A. The only difference was that different "warmup" words were used with each selection (see Appendix C). Directed reading activity group For each of the three passages on the ICAT, Group 2 received instruction using a traditional directed reading approach. Specific materials used for each passage are included in Appendix C. The general procedure for instruction included the following steps: 1. Vocabulary pretest . The subjects were given a passage specific vocabulary pretest for each of the three selections. This pretest was given prior to the introduction of each passage to identify students' needs for vocabulary instruction. 2. Motivation and background . At this stage in the directed reading activity subjects were given conceptual background information which would aid in their understanding of each passage. Probing questions were asked so that subjects could relate past perceptual experiences to what was going to be read. 3Vocabulary development . The passage specific vocabulary words were taught in context. Subjects received both oral and visual exposure


53 to each word. Each word was used in a sentence by the instructor and then was also used in a different sentence by one of the subjects in the group. 4. Purpose setting . Subjects were given specific purposes for reading each passage. They v;ere also encouraged to develop their own purposes based on the information provided in Step 2. 5. Silent reading . Each subject read the entire passage silently. 6. Comprehension questions . Subjects were instructed to answer 18 multiple-choice questions relating to the passage. Access to the passage was permitted and students were encouraged to refer to it for verification or clarification. One week following the initial reading of each passage. Group 2 was also given the 18-item multiple-choice retention test and the vocabulary posttest. No instruction group Group 3 received no instruction. They were given the vocabulary pretest and then received a vocabulary list which defined each of the words. This list was received along with the reading passage, and subjects were informed that the list might aid them when reading the selection. Prior to reading the passage, subjects were told to read the passage carefully after which they would be given a comprehension test on their reading. As with Group 1 and Group 2, Group 3 also was permitted access to the passage if needed when answering the comprehension questions. Additionally, one week later they were also given the retention test for each passage as well as the vocabulary posttest.


54 Treatment of the Data The major purpose of this study was to investigate the use of imagery as a means of increasing the comprehension and retention of content materials. An additional purpose was to determine if subjects benefited by using imaging techniques in one content area over another. Seven general hypotheses were tested in the investigation. The comprehension data and the retention data were analyzed using a two trial, one grouping factor (group x passage x test), split-plot repeated measures with one covariate consistent across all repeated measures design. This design, depicted in Figure 3-1, indicates that subjects in s^ receive only one level of treatment A but all levels of treatment B. Each level of B passage type contains two factors: comprehension (c) and retention (r). The analysis of treatments A and B in a split-plot design, when viewed separately, resembles the analysis for a completely randomized design and a randomized block design respectively (Kirk, 1968, p. 246). A Qj Mental Imagery DRA a. No Instruction Figure 3-1. Graphic depiction of the split-plot repeated measures des i gn .


55 Split-plot designs in which a subject receives all levels of some treatments but only one level of other treatments are often referred to as mixed designs. The grouping and trial factors are all fixed effects factors. A factor for subject, although not explicitly defined, is the only random effects factor. Each subject is observed at all combinations of the trial factors, but at only one level of each grouping factor (Jennrich and Sampson, p. 540). The comprehension subtest of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test was used as a covariate for each of the repeated measures. This analysis was used to eliminate variation due to reading comprehension at least as measured by this particular test. The use of analysis of covariance reduces the error variance and therefore makes the analysis more powerful. The Biomedical Computer Programs was used for the statistical analysis. Simple effects and follow-up planned comparisons were calculated when appropriate. The results of the imagery questionnaire were analyzed through two programs from SAS. The first program provided a frequency of responses in percentages to the items across all groups. The second procedure, a Chi square test for significance, was run on each question for each group to determine statistically significant differences in responses according to group membership. Chapter IV presents the results of these analyses and separately addresses whether or not each of the hypotheses tested in this study was rejected.


CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF THE DATA This study was concerned with two major questions. First, would high risk students who had been trained in induced mental imagery techniques perform significantly better on comprehension and retention activities than those students who were instructed with a directed reading approach or who received no instruction? Second, is one content area-biological science, social science, or 1 iterature--more appropriate for the application of imaging techniques than another? In order to answer these questions 41 high risk college students were randomly assigned by groups to one of three conditions: imagery, directed reading approach, or no instruction. Over a five-week period, each subject read three content area selections and answered a series of 18 multiple-choice comprehension questions. One week following the reading of each passage, subjects took an 18-item multiple-choice retention test. Seven hypotheses were tested using split-plot repeated measures design with analysis of covariance. The results of the statistical analyses are presented in this chapter. Findings Related to the Hypotheses Statistical analyses were carried out using the BMDP packaged program for a two-trial factor, one-grouping factor, with one covariate consistent across all repeated measures. The raw score on the comprehension subtest of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test was used as the covariate. The means and (variances) on the N-DRT for the three groups were as 56


57 follows: Group 1, 28.57 (8.50); Group 2, 29.23 (10.15); and Group 3, 26.28 (12.28). An analysis of variance test for the difference between these means was not significant, F (2.43) = .53, £ = .5903. The covariate, however, was shown to be a significant predictor of the dependent variable, F (1,37) = 27.31 , £= .000. The following major hypotheses, stated in the null form, were tested at the .05 level of significance: Hypothesis I : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there is no significant interaction between the type of passage (biological science, social science, or literature), the type of test (comprehension or retention), and group membership (imagery, directed reading activity, or no instruction). The adjusted cell means and standard deviations for the comprehension and retention scores for all groups and all passages are presented in Table 4-1. Table 4-2 summarizes the results of the statistical analyses for the design. The F statistic for the passage (P) by test (T) by group (G) interaction (P x T x G) was found to be nonsignificant, F (4,76) = 1.35, £ = .2609. Therefore, the null hypothesis was not rejected and it was concluded that after covarying on reading comprehension, there was insufficient evidence to suggest that the simple interaction effects of the two variables changed as a function of the level of a third.


58 Table 4-1 Adjusted Cell Means and Standard Deviations for Dependent Variables Passage A Passage B Passage C C R C R C R 1 12.27 10.98 11.41 11.13 11.98 11.06 (1.86) (1.27) (2.41) (2.39) (1.27) (1.79) 2 11.12 9.66 7.96 6.66 11.04 9.04 (2.81) (2.48) (2.19) (2.48) (2.89) (2.83) 3 10.83 10.05 10.55 8.76 10.76 9.62 (4.27) (4.32) (3.73) (4.23) (3.23) (3.43) Table 4-2 Summary Table for the Two-Factor Split-Plot Repeated Measures with One Covariate Design Source Sums of Squares Degrees of Freedom Mean Square F Group (G) 205.30625 2 102.65313 4.79** Covariate 585.54660 1 585.54660 27.31* Passage (P) 93.02271 2 46.51136 9.02* Test (T) 91 .48354 1 91 .48354 51 .54* P X G 71.00482 4 17.75121 3.44** T X G 5.80789 2 2.90395 1 .64 P X T .60128 2 .30064 .19 P X T X G 8.36371 4 2.09093 1.35 * < .01 level of significance * < .05 level of significance


59 Hypothesis II ; After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there is no significant interaction between the type of passage and the type of test. The adjusted means for comprehension and retention across all groups for the six combinations of passages and tests are presented in Table 4-3. Figure 4-1 presents a plot of the data and serves to pictorially clarify the relationship between passages and scores for each type of test. The statistical test for the interaction between the type of passage and type of test (P x T) was not significant, F (2,76) = .19, £ = .8245. Hypothesis II, therefore, was not rejected and it was conclud ed that after eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension the difference between comprehension scores and retention scores was the same for all three passages. Hypothesis III : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there is no significant interaction between the type of test and group membership. Table 4-4 presents the adjusted cell means across all passages for both comprehension and retention. Figure 4-2 displays the plot summarizing the relationship between comprehension and retention for each group. The statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant interaction between test and group membership, F (2,38) = 1.64, £ = .2081 Therefore, it was concluded that the difference between the magnitude of the groups on comprehension is the same as the difference on retention.


60 Table 4-3 Adjusted Cell Means for Comprehension and Retention Data Across all Groups Passage A Passage B Passage C Comprehension 11.04 9.97 11.26 Retention 10.23 8.85 9.96 Figure 4-1. Plot indicating lack of interaction between passage and test.


61 Table 4-4 Adjusted Cell Means by Group for Comprehension and Retention Data Across all Passages Group Pass A, B, a C Comprehension Pass A, B, & C Retention Difference 1 11.89 11.07 .82 2 10.04 8.45 1.59 3 10.71 9.48 1.23 13.0 12.0 II .0 CD O o 10.0 CO 5 9.0 o cc 8.0 7.0 Comprehension O Retention Figure 4-2. ' 2 3 Group Plot indicating lack of interaction between test and group membership.


62 Hypothesis IV ; After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there are no significant differences between the scores on the comprehension test and the scores on the retention test. The mean for comprehension across all groups and all passages was 10.88, while the mean for retention was 9.66. The main effect for test was significant, F (1 ,38) = 51.54, £= .000. Hypothesis IV, therefore, was rejected and it was concluded that across all groups and all passages comprehension scores were significantly higher than retention scores. Prior to the discussion of the remaining hypotheses, the decision not to reject the three way interaction (P x T x G) deserves elaboration. Since Hypothesis I was not rejected nor was the two way interaction for test by group (T x G) and the two way interaction for test by passage (T X P), comprehension and retention data were combined across passages for statistical analysis. That is, whatever can be said about comprehension can also be said about retention. Therefore, since it would be redundant to discuss comprehension and retention separately due to the results of this analysis, the two have been combined for a more succinct discussion in the remainder of this chapter. Hypothesis V : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there is no significant interaction between the type of passage and group membership. Table 4-5 indicates the combined adjusted means for each passage according to group membership, while Figure 4-3 plots the cell means and


63 Table 4-5 Adjusted Means Combined for Analysis for All Passages and All Groups Group Passage A Passage B Passage C 1 11.62 11.27 11.52 2 10.39 7.31 10.04 3 10.-44 9.66 10.19 Figure 4-3. I3.0r 12.0 I 1.0 (D 8 10.0 CO D 9.0 cr 8.0 7.0 Group ^ \ Group 3 /•''Group 2 B Passage _i_ c Plot of cell means summarizing the relationship between passages and scores for each group.


64 summarizes the relationship between passages and scores for each group. The test for the interaction (P x G) was significant, £ (4,75) = 3.44, £= .0122. Hypothesis V was rejected and it was concluded that the difference between the combined comprehension and retention scores on the three passages was not the same for the three groups. While Group 1 was consistent in combined scores on all three passages, Groups 2 and 3 were not. Group 2 scored especially low on Passage B while scores for subjects in Group 3 also declined but not as drastically. Further tests of statistical significance are discussed under Hypothesis VII. Hypothesis VI : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there are no significant differences between combined comprehension and retention scores on the biological science passage, the social science passage, and the literature passage across all three groups. The combined adjusted mean comprehension and retention scores for each passage across all groups were 10.82, 9.41, and 10.58 respectively. The test for statistical significance for the main effect for passage was found to be significant, F; (2,76) = 9.02, £ = .003, and Hypothesis VI was rejected. However, since an interaction between passage and group was found to be significant, a test for differences between passages across all groups was inappropriate. Consequently, simple effects which indicate differences on passages for each group were computed. Follow-up comparisons were calculated when appropriate.


65 Hypothesis VIA : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension, as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there are no significant differences between the combined comprehension and retention scores on the biological science passage, the social science passage, and the literature passage for Group 1. The means for Group 1 for Passages A, B, and C were 11.62, 11.27, and 11.52 respectively. The test for the simple effect for differences between passages for Group 1 was not significant, F (2,76) = .18247, £= .8356. It v;as concluded, therefore, that imagery was equally effective for all three types of passages, after covarying on the variation associated with reading comprehension. Hypothesis VIB : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension, as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there are no significant differences between the combined comprehension and retention scores on the biological science passage, the social science passage, and the literature passage for Group 2. For Group 2 the means for the three passages were 10.39, 7.31, and 10.04 respectively. Figure 4-4 visually depicts the relationship between the passages for each group and serves to pictorially clarify where differences exist. The test for the simple effect for differences between the passages for Group 2 was significant, F (2,76) = 14.330, £ = .0005. Hypothesis VIB was, therefore, rejected and it was concluded that after covarying on comprehension scores on the Nelson-Denny Reading


66 Test, subjects did significantly better on at least one of the three passages. Hence, follow-up comparisons using the LSD procedure with the error rate set at a .05 level of significance per comparison were conducted. The results of the follow-up comparisons, presented in Table 4-6, indicate that the subjects in the directed reading activity scored equally well on Passage A and Passage C. The contrast Passage A versus Passage B and the contrast Passage C versus Passage B do not contain zero and, therefore, both hypotheses were rejected. Additionally, the scores on Passage B were always lower than the scores on Passage A or C, thus indicating that subjects across all groups did poorer on Passage B than on Passages A and C. Hypothesis VIC : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension, as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there are no significant differences between the combined comprehension and retention scores on the biological science passage, the social science passage, and the literature passage for Group 3. The combined mean scores on each passage for Group 3 were 10.44, 9.66, and 10.19 respectively. The test for the simple effect for the differences between the passages for Group 3 was not significant, F (2,76) = .8759, £ = .4189. Hypothesis VIC was not rejected and it was concluded that after covarying on comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, those who received no instruction scored equally well on all passages. Hypothesis VII : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test,


67 Table 4-6 Comparisons of Three Passages for Group 2 Using the LSD Procedure Comparison Confidence Interval Decision Passage A vs Passage B (4.86,1.3) Passage C vs Passage B (4. 51, .95) Passage A vs Passage C (2.13,-1.43) Reject H„ A > B Reject H C > B Do not reject A = C ^


68 there are no significant differences between the combined comprehension and retention scores for Group 1, Group 2, or Group 3, across all passages. Across all passages means for the three groups were 11.47, 9.24, and 10.09 respectively. The test for the main effect for group was found to be significant, F (2,37) = 4.79, £ = .0141. Since an interaction between passage and group was also found to be significant, a test for differences between groups across all passages would be inappropriate. Consequently, the simple effects for the difference between groups for each passage are reported. Follow-up planned comparisons were made when appropriate. The nature of the relationship between groups and scores for each passage is clarified in Figure 4-3. Hypothesis VIIA : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there are no significant differences between the combined comprehension and retention scores for Group 1, Group 2, or Group 3 on the biological science passage. The means for Passage A for each group were 11.62, 10.39, and 10.44 respectively. The test for the simple effect for the difference between groups for Passage A was found to be nonsignificant, F (2,113) = 1.28, £ = .2820. Hypothesis VIIA, therefore, was not rejected and it was concluded that across all groups there was not a statistically significant difference in the scores on Passage A. Hypothesis VIIB : After eliminating variation associated with the reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there


69 are no significant differences between the combined comprehension and retention scores for Group 1, Group 2, or Group 3 on the social science passage. The adjusted cell means for Passage B for each group were 11.27, 7.31, and 9.66 respectively. Figure 4-3 presents the relationship between groups and scores for each passage. The test for the simple effect for the differences between groups for Passage B was found to be significant, F (2,113) = 10.026, £ = .00098. The hypothesis was rejected and it was concluded that after covarying on the comprehension score of the NelsonDenny Reading Test, subjects in at least one of the groups scored significantly better than another group on this passage. Since the simple effect was significant, follow-up comparisons using the LSD procedure, with the level of significance set at .05, were carried out. Results of the comparison of the means, presented in Table 4-7, indicate that Group 1 and Group 3 scored significantly higher on Passage B than Group 2, but that Group 1 and Group 3 did equally well. The contrast Group 1 versus Group 2 and the contrast Group 2 versus Group 3 did not contain zero in the interval and, therefore, both hypotheses were rejected. Table 4-7 Comparisons for the Three Groups on Passage B Using the LSD Procedure Comparison Confidence Interval Decision Group 1 vs Group 2 (5.69,2.23) Reject H 1 > 2 ° Group 1 vs Group 3 (3. 30, -.08) Do Not Reject H 1 = 3 0 Group 2 vs Group 3 (-.37,-4.33) Reject H 2 < 3 '


70 Thus, for Passage B, both the imagery group and the no instruction group scored significantly higher than the group receiving the DRA. The mean score was higher for the imagery group than for the no instruction group, but not significantly so. Hypothesis VI IC : After eliminating variation associated with reading comprehension as measured by the comprehension score on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, there are no significant differences between the combined comprehension and retention scores for Group 1, Group 2, or Group 3 on the literature passage. The adjusted means for Passage C were 11.52, 10.04, and 10.19 respectively. The test for simple effects for the differences between groups for Passage C was not significant, £ (2,113) = 1.712, £ = .18551. It was concluded that the adjusted means across all three groups for Passage C were equivalent. Therefore, Hypothesis VIIC was not rejected. Findings Related to the Imagery Questionnaire In order to obtain descriptive data pertaining to self-report of the utilization of mental imagery and other learning strategies across all groups, an imagery questionnaire was distributed, explained, and then administered to all subjects (see Appendix A). The resulting data were analyzed using a packaged statistical procedure from SAS. Analyses indicated that 87 percent of all subjects formed images when reading, 100 percent reported the formation of imaging when answering the comprehension questions, while 97 percent reported use of imagery when answering the retention questions. Subjects were then asked to rank order the passages according to the ease with which they were imaged, with "1" indicating the easiest to


71 image and "3" indicating the most difficult to image. A "0" was to be used if all passages seemed equally imaginal . Responses to this question are presented in percentages in Table 4-8. Item 5 on the questionnaire asked the subjects to rank the passages according to the ease with which they understood them. Directions for ranking were the same as for the previous question. The results, calculated in percentages, are shown in Table 4-9. Table 4-8 Rank Order on Ease of Imaging for Each Passage Rank "The Long, Cold Sleep" "Immortal ity Syndrome" "Filboid Studge" 1st 45% 20% 32.5% 22.5% 50% 3rd 30% 27.5% 40% No Difference 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% Rank Order Table 4-9 on Ease of Understanding for Each Passage Rank "The Long, Cold Sleep" "Immortal ity Syndrome" "Filboid Studge" 1st 37.5% 30% 30% 2nd 35% 45% 17% 3rd 25% 22.5% 50% No Difference 2.5% 2.5% 2.5%


72 The final two questions attempted to determine what additional reported strategies subjects used when comprehending and retaining. Table 4-10 summarizes these results. Table 4-10 Subject Responses Regarding Other Learning Strategies Used to Comprehend and Retain in Addition to Imagery *Comprehend *Retain Rereading 22.5% N.A. Summarizing 57.5% N.A. Paraphrasing 2.5% 5% Overt Rehearsal 0% 52% Covert Rehearsal 25% 0% Used Imagery Only 17.5% 42.5% Other 0% 7.5% Since subjects were asked to report all strategies used, some subjects reported more than one. This is why the total exceeds 100 percent. In order to determine if groups behaved significantly different in their responses to the questions, a chi square test of statistical significance was carried out for each imagery questionnaire item. All hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of significance. Table 4-11 presents these results. Responses to only two questions were found to be statistically significant. Question 6 required students to indicate strategies used in addition to or in place of imaging. One part of this question asked students to indicate if they said important material to themselves as an aid in comprehending (covert rehearsal). Responses were significant.


73 Table 4-11 Chi Square Test of Significance for Each Item on the Questionnaire Question X E. Decision 1 Imagery while reading .414 .81 Do not reject 2 Imagery for comprehension questions * * * 3 Imagery for retention questions 2.13 .34 Do not reject 4 Ease of imaging a Long, Cold Sleep 8.59 .19 Do not reject b Filboid Studge 4.24 .64 Do not reject c Inmortality Syndrome 7.38 .29 Do not reject 5 Ease of comprehending a Filboid Studge 4.88 .56 Do not reject b Long, Cold Sleep 7.739 .25 Do not reject c Immortality Syndrome 7.552 .27 Do not reject 6 Strategies used during comprehension a Kereaaing 1 . Ub CO Do not reject b Summarizing 1.12 .56 Do not reject c Paraphrasing 1.19 .38 Do not reject d Other ** ** ** e Covert rehearsal 8.00 .019 Reject f Overt rehearsal ** ** ** g No other techniques .23 .89 Do not reject 7 Strategies used during retention a Paraphrasing 1.02 .60 Do not reject b Covert rehearsal 16.47 .0003 Reject c Overt rehearsal ** ** ** d No other techniques 5.34 .07 Do not reject e Other 2.22 .33 Do not reject *A11 41 subjects answered this question affirmatively. *A11 41 subjects answered this question negatively.


74 X (2) = 8.00, p = .0183. Table 4-12 indicates the differences between the groups in the way they answered this question. Table 4-12 Chi Square Test of Significance for Question 6e (Covert Rehearsal for Comprehension) Group No Yes1 53.85% 46.15% 2 69.23% 30.77% 3 100% .00% The other question which was statistically significant addressed strategies used to aid in the retention of the passages. Again, the only response which was significant was covert rehearsal, (2) = 16.47, £= .0003. Table 4-13 indicates the differences between groups in the way students answered this question. Table 4-13 Chi Square Test of Significance for Question 7b (Covert Rehearsal for Retention) Group No Yes 1 7.69% 92.31% 2 46.15% 53.85% 3 85.71% 14.29% The results of the chi square test were not significant for any of the other questions indicating that responses were not dependent on group membership.


75 Discussion Prior to a discussion of the specific results of the study, an explanation of the reasons for using a covariate with the repeated measures seems to deserve attention. Repeated measures designs are more powerful across the repeated measures than they are across group membership. On the other hand, analysis of covariance reduces the error term, thus making the analysis more sensitive to differences between the groups. A combination of analysis of covariance with repeated measures provides a more powerful analysis than just repeated measures alone. For this investigation the data were analyzed first using analysis of variance with repeated measures and then with analysis of covariance. The use of a covariate made very little difference in the results. The only difference was that the main effect for group was significant when the covariate v;as used. The acceptance or rejection of all other hypotheses was the same for both statistical procedures. Justification for the use of the covariate was that it presented the most appropriate sensitive analysis. Several findings surfaced as a result of this investigation. First, since the passage by test by group interaction, the passage by test interaction, and the group by test interaction all showed no significant results, comprehension data and retention data were combined for analysis. This lack of interactions indicates that whatever can be said about comprehension can also be said about retention. While a main effect for test was found, indicating that comprehension scores were significantly higher than retention scores, the patterns shown by the two types of tests were the same. This means that the difference between the average comprehension scores and retention scores across all passages and across all groups was consistent.


76 Along these same lines, the fact that the difference between comprehension and retention scores for the imagery group was only .82, less than one point, deserves comment. This suggests that subjects in the experimental group, on the average, retained almost as much as they comprehended initially. Individuals in the two control groups, however, averaged greater discrepancies between their comprehension and retention scores. Of interest also is that the discrepancy between the scores on the two types of tests was greater for the DRA group (1.59) than for the group receiving no instruction (1.23). This may suggest that when high risk college students are left on their own to read material rather than given direction on what to learn from reading, their performance may be somewhat enhanced but not statistically so. Since an interaction between passage and group was significant simple effects and follow-up comparisons were computed. These results indicated that imagery was equally effective for the biological science passage, the social science passage, and the literature passage. But because of the interaction, it cannot be generalized that the imagery group had greater comprehension and retention than either the DRA group or the no instruction group, even though a main effect for group was present. The data do show, however, that the imagery group performed significantly better than the DRA group on Passage B. The findings may not coincide with Paivio's (1969) concrete-abstract explanation of ease of imaging and understanding, especially when the materials read are from content areas. Paivio states that materials which are more concrete are more easily imaged and, therefore, more easily understood. Analyses of the passage imagery ratings may not bear this out. Initial ratings for the three passages on the Voss-Newell Imagery Rating Scale indicated that they were of equal imaging value. However,


77 it was difficult to determine exactly how imaginal the selections were. It appears that they would fall within the average range (average scores were between 81 and 86 out of a possible 140 points), but it must be kept in mind that this is an average rating and that no normative data has been collected on the scale. Within the group of 114 subjects who rated the passages there existed a considerable range. Perhaps this indicates that an individual's ability to form images, as well as the type of images formed, is much more involved and personalized than the concrete-abstract explanation purported by Paivio (1969). Rather, these data suggest that past experience may have a larger role in determining the ease of imaging and ease of comprehension than does the concreteness or abstractness of a passage. The passage by group interaction, and main effect for both passage and group should be interpreted with caution since these results could have several possible interpretations. The depressed scores for both control groups on Passage B are the crux of the problem. The average respective comprehension and retention scores for Passage B were as follows: Group 1, 11.41 and 11.13; Group 2, 7.96 and 6.66; and Group 3, 10.55 and 8.76. The average score on Passage B for the imagery group was about the same as the scores on Passages A and C while this was not true of the two control groups. In a sense this further complicates the issue. This researcher would like to state that these results indicate that the use of imaging techniques enhances comprehension and retention. To a certain extent, this is supported by the data due to the consistent performance of the imagery group across all passages. But it should also be pointed out that there may be problems inherent either in the passage or the instruction received by the directed reading activity group. The investigator taped all three directed reading activities and


78 upon playing the tape for Passage B, could find nothing that would explain the considerable decrease in scores on this passage when compared to other passages. Perhaps the conceptual level was too high, although the readability of this passage was the same as the other two passages. Additionally, this fails to explain why the imagery group did well on Passage B while the two control groups (especially Group 2) did not. Again, it is possible that a large number of individuals in the two control groups lacked the background for understanding the concepts presented in Passage B. Other relevant findings stem from the results of the analysis of the questionnaire data. Several research studies emphasize the importance of some kind of imagery training (Montague and Hess, 1978; Pressley, 1976; Anderson and Kulhavy, 1972). The results of this study confirm the importance of imagery as it relates to the comprehension and retention of content area material. Virtually 100 percent of the subjects in all groups reported that they used imagery to aid in their comprehension and/ or retention. However, those in the study who received the training scored consistently higher than those in either of the control groups. These results substantiate conclusions prevalent in other studies where imagery has been utilized with prose material. Studies by Lesgold et al. (1974-1976), Montague and Carter (1973), and Levin (1972) suggested that adults image spontaneously. The fact that 100 percent of the 41 subjects in the study stated that they employed imaging techniques (at least from their own perception) supports this assertion. The consistently higher scores made by the imagery group, however, supports the need for imagery training. These results imply that even if adults do image spontaneously, they may not image advantageously. That is, they may not apply the images formed


79 adequately enough to aid in their comprehension and retention. It should be kept in mind that the subjects in the imagery group were taught a process for imaging, not told specific things to image. They were encouraged to draw on past experiences to create images that would be meaningful to them and consequently aid in their comprehension and retention. Still other interesting data can be gleaned from the analysis of the questionnaire. Most subjects reported using imagery in conjunction with additional learning strategies. This supports the suggestion made by Kulhavy and Swenson (1975) and Pressley (1976) that imagery be employed in conjunction with other strategies. These data would seem to suggest that perhaps more than one strategy is used spontaneously by college age subjects. Perhaps more than one strategy is required for students to have maximum learning. Of particular interest was the fact that the imaging group employed a more extensive use of covert rehearsal than either the DRA group or the no instruction group. While no one in Group 3 reported use of covert rehearsal as an aid to comprehension, and only 30.77 percent of Group 2 reported using this strategy, 46.15 percent of the experimental group indicated its use. The use of covert rehearsal as an aid to retention had even a wider spread. While 92.31 percent of the imagery group reported using covert rehearsal in conjunction with imagery, 53.85 percent of the DRA group used it, and only 14.29 percent of the no instruction group used it. An analysis of the questionnaire data may shed light on the reason for the depressed scores on Passage B made by the directed reading activity group. Items 4 and 5 on the questionnaire asked subjects to rate the three passages on ease of imaging and ease of understanding respectively. The results for Group 2 indicated that almost half (46.15 percent) of this group felt that Passage B was the most difficult to


80 image and 40 percent felt that it was the most difficult to understand. This is compared to less than 10 percent of the imagery group reporting Passage B as most difficult to image as well as to understand. The results of this study also indicate the feasibility of using imagery with high risk students as well as using the technique in a classroom situation. While Levin (1973) found that imagery instructions were beneficial only for those in need of an organizational strategy, the results of this study suggest that induced imagery techniques may benefit poorer readers. This would depend on an operational definition of "poor readers." It was difficult to determine on the basis of the length of the interactions with subjects in the imagery group, which subjects had decoding problems and/or vocabulary deficiencies, or who had these skills in tact and were merely in need of an organizational strategy. Finally, the results of this study support the feasibility of teaching and using imaging techniques in a classroom situation. Pressley (1976) found this to be true with children. With the expansion of reading programs at the college level to meet the needs of many of the non-traditional students, imagery appears to be a viable technique which could be beneficial to this type of student. In summary, while a main effect for test, passage, and group was found, an interaction between group and passage was also present. A test for simple effects of group and passage and follow-up comparisons indicated that the imagery group scored significantly higher on the social science passage than the DRA group. Results also indicated that imagery was equally effective for all three content areas. While scores of the two control groups were rather erratic, the scores obtained by the imagery group were consistent.


81 Analysis of the imagery questionnaire indicated that college level subjects appear to image spontaneously but not necessarily to their academic advantage. Chapter V summarizes the findings of the study and discusses both theoretical and educational implications. Recommendations for future research are also made.


CHAPTER V SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary This study examined the effects of induced mental imagery on high risk college students' comprehension and retention of content area materials. The investigation also sought to determine if materials read from one content area seemed more appropriate than another for the application of imaging techniques. An imagery questionnaire administered at the conclusion of the study supplied information regarding strategies used during text processing. The study sample consisted of 41 high risk students voluntarily enrolled in a developmental reading course at a local community college. Subjects were randomly assigned by classes to one of three groups: imagery, directed reading activity (DRA), or no instruction. Comprehension scores from the NelsonDenny Reading Test were collected for all subjects. Students assigned to the imagery group received two, one-hour training sessions on induced mental imagery techniques during the week prior to the collection of the data analyzed in this study. During the week following the training program, students participated in "warm-up" exercises for induced mental imagery and were reminded to apply imaging techniques as they read one prose passage from biological science material. They then answered 18 comprehension test items on the passage. A vocabulary pretest was also given to identify words that needed further study. One week following the reading of the passage, students took an 82


83 18-item retention test as well as the vocabulary posttest. The same procedure was followed the next two weeks when students were given a passage to read from social science material. The procedure was repeated., again during the final two weeks of the study when students read a literature passage. The DRA group received instruction with a traditional directed reading approach each week when they were presented with one of the same passages Group 1 had read. After this instruction they too answered the accompanying 18-item comprehension test and were tested again for retention the following week. This procedure was repeated until students in Group 2 had received direct instruction for reading the three passages and were tested for comprehension and later for retention. Group 3 merely read the same selections, one each week, with no instruction provided and took the comprehension test. One week after reading each passage, they were tested for retention. Data were analyzed using a split-plot repeated measures design,., with one covariate consistent across all repeated measures. In this study the three content area passages served as the repeated measure, and the Nelson-Denny Reading Test was used as the covariate. While the results indicated a main effect for passage, test, and group membership, an interaction between passage and group was also present. Follow-up analyses indicated that imagery was equally effective for all three types of content area material. A comparison of groups on individual passages indicated that the imagery group scored significantly higher than the DRA group on the social science passage. Combined comprehension and retention scores for the directed reading activity group and the no instruction group were rather erratic; the imagery group scored consistently well on all passages. Analysis of the imagery


84 questionnaire supported Levin's (1972) findings that adults appear to image spontaneously. However, imagery training facilitated this trait and increased the comprehension and retention of what was read. Implications and Conclusions Theoretical Implications and Conclusions The results of this investigation suggest several theoretical implications. First, and one of the more important theoretical aspects, is that there appears to be a much more complex relationship between the concreteness-abstractness value of a passage in conjunction with its ease of understanding and imaging ability. The tie-in to past perceptual experiences is perhaps more important than concreteness in one's ability to image, comprehend, and retain. All passages used in the study were rated for imaging value by an independent sample of subjects. Results of these ratings indicated that all three passages were of equal imaging value as measured by the Voss-Newell Imagery Rating Scale. Yet, when subjects in the actual study were asked to rate the passages according to imaginal ease, a wide range of ratings occurred even though subjects were instructed to rate all passages equally if they appeared to be equally imaginal. The range of ratings suggests that individuals may find selections to which they can relate experiences from their own backgrounds easier to image and consequently comprehend. These data also imply that subjects trained in imaging strategies tend to retain as much as they comprehend initially. This trend was not found either in the directed reading activity group or in the no instruction group. Along these same lines, scores on the comprehension and retention tests followed the same pattern. This finding could be expected. If initial comprehension scores were high for a given


85 individual or group, retention scores would also be high; if initial comprehension scores were low, then retention scores could also be expected to be low. The main effect for type of test, comprehension or retention, also has important theoretical implications. Results of this study indicated that scores on the comprehension test were statistically higher than scores on the retention test. Yet, every study that has been conducted investigating imagery and prose material has used an immediate or delayed recall task as a means of assessing the amount comprehended. If comprehension scores are consistently higher than retention scores, it would seem that researchers should be more careful in their definition of comprehension. While patterns of comprehension and retention may be the same, comprehension and retention scores did differ significantly in this study. Three theoretical questions concerning the relationship between imaging and comprehension were raised. Does imagery enable comprehension to occur? Must comprehension occur prior to imagery? Is there an overlap between comprehension and imagery? From the results of these data, as well as the operational definition of imaging strategies used in this study, it would appear, at least to some extent, that imagery enables comprehension to occur. This finding is supported by the fact that before comprehension can occur there must somehow be a tie-in to experiential background. If imagery is taught in such a way that subjects are instructed to make images personal, it seems only natural that some form of imaging must take place prior to comprehension. This imaging may trigger a deeper understanding, make retention greater, and/or initiate understanding. The results of the imagery questionnaire showed that 100 percent


86 of all subjects reported the use of imagery in comprehension and/or retention tasks. This would seem to contradict the position of the descriptionalists that all information is stored in the brain as propositions. If all information were stored in the brain as propositions--a series of assertions that must be either true or false— and only these propositions were used in the comprehension process, it seems that 100 percent of all subjects would not have reported using imagery even though two-thirds of the sample received no imagery training. Additionally, it would seem that there should be some relationship between how information is retrieved and how it is stored in the brain. Finally, the fact that most subjects reported using other strategies along with imagery may add support to Paivio and Csapo's (1973) dual code theory. They suggest that more concrete words (sentences or ideas) are represented by both images and verbal strings while abstract words (sentences and ideas) are represented only with verbal strings. The reporting of the use of imagery in conjunction with verbal strategies (i.e., covert rehearsal, rereading, paraphrasing) may imply that more than one type of representation exists. This implication may not be necessarily in the way Paivio and Csapo suggest (concrete versus abstract) but in different types and forms of representation depending on experiential background, type of material, and conceptual level of the material. Educational Implications and Conclusions Several educational implications also emerged as a result of this investigation. It would appear that imagery can be taught effectively in group situations. In fact,when using induced imagery rather than imposed imagery, group situations may be more advantageous. Students can discuss the different images formed and subsequently can be shown

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87 that any image which promotes the individual reader's comprehension and/or retention is a useful one. The consistency of the scores within the imagery group across all three passages generates several ideas. First, induced imaging techniques appear to be successful for use with any materials in the content areas used. The fact that the selections were not as long as a text chapter but longer than reading selections found in texts designed for use in developmental reading courses at the college level has important implications. It appears that somehow imaging involves students in text. Using the techniques requires them to think about and synthesize information to formulate interactive images. It may, as Levin (1973) suggests, provide an organizational strategy and when used in conjunction with other learning techniques, provide significant improvement in comprehension and retention. Second, imagery appears to be effective with high risk students and gives educators associated with developmental education at the college level still another strategy for increasing understanding in content area subjects. If students can be taught to utilize their experiential background in forming images, they should gain a better understanding of a content area chapter. This type of imagery would aid in the reading of all subject areas. It gives students the beginning of a comprehension process. It forces them to ask the question, "Does this make sense?" An ancillary educational implication surfaced when the data were analyzed. The data implied that a directed reading approach used with high risk college students is not as effective as teachers are led to believe. A re-examination of the data presented in this investigation indicates that the group receiving no instruction often scored higher

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88 than the DRA group. This could result from a conflict between the organizational patterns of the instructor and student, perhaps even with different types of content material. Perhaps the purposes set by the instructor do not adequately tie-in to a student's experiential background and, therefore, are not meaningful. If one of the keys to successful comprehension is involvement, perhaps purpose setting by instructors and reading for those purposes conflicts with rather than compliments comprehension and retention. Since subjects used in this study were both high risk and college students, it is not known whether this trend would exist for college students not classified as high risk. The results of the study may also have implications concerning testing methods in the classroom. The findings point out the need to investigate further the differences between a comprehension task and a retention task. If comprehension scores on a passage to which students have access are significantly higher than the scores on the retention test, it would seem that an accurate assessment is not being made of an individual's comprehension. This relates to a previously quoted statement by Crowder (1976) regarding the differences between comprehension and retention. The possibility exists that a true test of one's ability to comprehend content material would be one in which individuals have access to the material during a testing situation. Additionally, in a true test of how much an individual can remember or retain, the individual should not have access to the materials. Most testing situations at the college level appear to be testing the latter, and therefore, would be considered tests of retention. Recommendations for Future Research The findings of this study suggest that the use of imagery tends

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89 to increase the comprehension and retention of what is read, but an interaction between passage and group makes the relationship somewhat unclear and inconclusive. The findings support the past research of Lesgold et al . (1974-1976) and Pressley (1976), but somewhat contradicts Paivio's (1966) concrete-abstract theory of imaginal ease and understanding. The results of this study also raise questions concerning the claim of Steingart and Glock (1979) that all material is stored in the memory as images. In addition, it raises questions regarding the findings by Anderson and Kulhavy (1972) which claim that spontaneous imaging automatically results in better comprehension and retention. As a result of this study several recommendations for future research can be made. This investigation was conducted with a rather small sample size. Because of this, it was difficult to draw strong causal inferences concerning the relationship between induced mental imagery and the comprehension of content materials. While certain trends were evident, others were masked due to the interaction between group and passage. Therefore, this study needs to be replicated using a larger, completely randomized sample size to see if the relationship can be further clarified. One of the problems inherent in using a repeated measures design is the possibility of the occurrence of an ordering effect. Because of the limitations of the facilities in which the study was conducted and the small number of subjects available, it was not possible to give the passages in different orders. While the results of this study gave no indication that an ordering effect did occur, it might be advantageous to carry out this investigation using all possible orderings to determine if an interaction between order and group would surface. Another suggestion for future research stems from the finding that

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90 a majority of subjects in this study reported using imagery in conjunction with other learning strategies. This is consistent with the findings of Kulhavy and Swenson (1975). Perhaps research combining imagery techniques with such strategies as covert rehearsal, paraphrasing, networking, summarizing, or mnemonics may provide further insight into combinations of learning strategies that would be effective in applying to content materials. For example, the results of the imagery questionnaire clearly imply that for these students imagery may be effective with covert rehearsal. Since this investigation was the first to compare passages from a variety of content areas but was conducted on a very specific type of population, further exploration using either heterogeneous populations or subjects of different ages appears to be needed. If the present trend continues, the numbers of non-traditional students enrolled in both twoand four-year institutions will continue to rise. This trend warrants further investigations into more sophisticated training procedures for teaching imaging techniques as well as research into additional ways these techniques can be applied advantageously to content area materials. Follow-up investigations would provide information concerning whether or not students continued to apply the techniques to studying and reading in their academic courses. No strategy is beneficial unless there is some carry over into the practical application of it. It might also be helpful to include an item on the imagery questionnaire which asks if subjects are applying the techniques outside of the experimental setting. Additional research could involve using longer passages. This would be especially important in settings where students are expected to

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91 read, synthesize, and retain lengthy expository materials. Only one other study (Anderson and Kulhavy, 1972) used a passage which was longer than those used in this investigation. This is an area ripe for research since little is known about utilizing imaging strategies with entire chapters of text material. One of the interesting findings of this study was the very small difference between the average comprehension and retention scores for the imagery group. Additional research is needed to clarify further the role imagery plays in comprehension and retention. While Pressley (1976) suggests that imagery is effective only with highly imaginal passages, the results of this study do not totally concur with that suggestion. More research needs to be conducted regarding the feasibility of group instruction for imaging. The results of this study as well as previous work by Levin (1972) and Pressley (1976) indicate the plausibility of group instruction using imagery, but both Levin and Pressley conducted their research with younger subjects. In general, additional research should be conducted with high risk college age students. A final recommendation involves the finding that, in several instances, the group receiving no instruction out-performed the DRA group. More investigations need to be made to determine if these findings are consistent or if the sample used in this investigation was atypical.

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DIRECTIONS: Each of you has a short prose passage and a rating sheet containing twenty items. Please read the passage. After you have completed your reading, rate the passage on the rating sheet. Indicate your rating of the passage by circling the appropriate number to indicate your rating of the passage on each pair of items. For example, if you were to rate the passage on the rating item Simple . . . Complex, and you felt that it was very complex, you would circle the number seven (7); if it was rather simple, you would circle one (1) or two (2); if it was about half-way between simple and complex, your rating on the item would probably be a four (4). Circle only one (1) number for each item pair . PLEASE COMPLETE EACH ITEM PAIR FOR THE PASSAGE. 93

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94 Voss-Newell Imagery Rating Scale 1) Easy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Difficult 2) Concrete 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abstract 3) Ambiguous 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Clear 4) Coherent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Incoherent 5) Active 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Passive 6) Semantic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sensory 7) Non-Verbal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Verbal 8) Dull 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Interesting 9) Descriptive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Conceptual 10) Meaningful 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Rote 11) Useful 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Useless 12) Linguistic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Perceptual 13) Indirect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Direct 14) Obscure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Vivid 15) Objective 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Subjective 16) Pictoral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Symbol ic 17) Wordy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Concise 18) Specific 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 General 19) Hinders 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Helps 20) Confuses 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Clarifies

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95 Jl Passage--Inten igence There are two factors which determine an individual's intelligence. The first is the sort of brain he is born with. Human brains differ considerably, some being more capable than others. But no matter how good a brain he has to begin with, an individual will have a low order of intelligence unless he has opportunities to learn. So the second factor is what happens to the individual --the sort of environment in which he is reared. If an individual is handicapped environmentally, it is likely that his brain will fail to develop and he will never attain the level of intelligence of which he is capable. The importance of environment in determining an individual's intelligence can be demonstrated by the case history of the identical twins, Peter and Mark X. Being identical, the twins had identical brains at birth, and their growth processes were the same. When the twins were three months old, their parents died and they were placed in separate foster homes. Peter was reared by parents of low intelligence in an isolated community with poor educational opportunities. Mark was reared in the home of well-to-do parents who had been to college. He was read to as a child, sent to good schools, and given every opportunity to be stimulated intellectually. This environmental difference continued until the twins were in their late teens, when they were given tests to measure their intelligence. Peter's I.Q. was 85, well below the level he might have attained if reared under average conditions. Mark's I.Q. was 125, twenty-five points above average and fully forty points higher than his identical brother. Given equal opportunities, the twins, having identical brains, would have tested at roughly the same level.

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96 Jl Passage--Intelligence 1. Which of the following intelligence quotients would be the closest to an average I.Q.? a. 112 b. 99 c. 89 d. 120 2. The main idea of this article is a. twins rarely have the same I.Q. b. the size of one's brain determines intelligence c. extremely wealthy people have smarter children d. environmental factors are of great importance in determining a person's intelligence 3. It can be interred from this article that a. Peter probably was not read to as a child b. Peter probably was not loved as a child c. Mark probably was smarter at the time he was placed in the foster home d. Peter's parents had a college education

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97 TgPassage-Animal Intelligence Of all the animals in the animal kingdom, which one (aside from man) is the smartest? There are several ways of measuring the intelligence of animals. In one test a scientist sets three identical cans on a table. While the animal watches, he puts food under one of the cans. Then he leads the animal away. Some time later, he brings it back to see if it remembers which can has the food. No sniffing is allowed; the animal must go directly to the correct can or it fails. This is called a delayed-response test. The idea is to find out how long an animal's memory can retain information. The scientists would try showing the cans to the animal one hour later, or two hours later, or even a full day later. They discovered that chimpanzees and elephants have the best memory, and are able to remember the correct can for at least twenty hours. No other animal is close. Dogs came next, but they only remembered for nine hours. To settle the matter, the scientists devised a gigantic maze and ran the chimps and elephants through it. The maze was very complicated, with many blind alleys and dead ends. It took the chimps ten minutes to find their way out. The elephants needed a half hour. Even allowing for the elephants' slower rate of speed, the test indicates that chimpanzees are the smartest animals. From this and other tests, the scientists drew the following conclusion: An animal's intelligence depends on the size of its brain in proportion to the size of its body. The elephant's brain weighs ten pounds. But this is only l/600th of its 6,000 pound body. A chimp's brain weighs about one pound, or l/20th of its total body weight. So in proportion to its body size, the chimp has four times as much brain as the elephant— more brain for less body. The chimp is the champ!

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98 T2 Passage— Animal Intelligence 1. A delayed-response test actually tests an animal's a. speed of recognition b. I.Q. c. achievement d. retention 2. The chimpanzee's brain is approximately percent of it's body weight? ~ a. 5 b. 2 c. 20 d. 50 3. A chimpanzee remembers more than percent longer than a dog. a. 100 b. 150 c. 200 d. 250 4. According to this passage, which animal would be the smartest? a. Body weight = 300 pounds. Brain weight = 10 pounds. b. Body weight = 40 pounds. Brain weight = 2 pounds. c. Body weight = 150 pounds. Brain weight = 10 pounds. d. Body weight = 60 pounds. Brain weight = 1 pound. 5. The maze experiment was devised to a. find out how long it took all animals to go through the maze b. show that elephants were slower but smarter c. determine if elephants or chimps were smarter d. test the speed of dogs and chimps

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99 T3 Passage--The Merchant Once upon a time a worthy merchant of London, named Gilbert a Becket, made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and was taken prisoner by a Saracen lord. This lord, who treated him kindly and not like a slave, had one fair daughter, who fell in love with the merchant, and who told him that she wanted to become a Christian, and was willing to marry him if they could fly to a Christian country. The merchant returned her love until he found an opportunity to escape, when he did not trouble himself about the Saracen lady, but escaped with his servant, Richard, who had been taken prisoner along with him, and arrived in England. The Saracen Lady, who was more loving than the merchant, left her father's house in disguise to follow him, and made her way after many hardships to the seashore. The merchant had taught her only two English words (for I suppose he must have learned the Saracen tongue, and made love in that language), of which London was one, and his own name, Gilbert, the other. She went among the ships saying, "London! London!" over and over again, until the sailors understood that she wanted to find an English vessel that would carry her there; so they showed her such a ship, and she paid for her passage with some of her jewels, and sailed away. Well, the merchant was sitting in his countinghouse in London one day, when he heard a great noise in the street; and presently his servant Richard came running in from the warehouse, with his eyes wide open and breath almost gone, saying, "Master, master, here is the Saracen lady." The merchant thought Richard was mad; but Richard said, "No, master. As I live, the Saracen lady is going up and down the city calling 'Gilbert, Gilbert!'" Then he took the merchant by the sleeve, and pointed out the window; and there they saw her among the gables and water spouts of the dark, dirty street, in her foreign dress, so forlorn, surrounded by a wondering crowd, and passing slowly along, calling "Gilbert, Gilbert!" When the merchant saw her, and thought of the tenderness she had shown him in his captivity, and of her constancy, his heart was moved, and he ran down into the street; and she saw him coming, and with a great cry fainted in his arms. They were married without loss of time, and Richard (who was an excellent man) danced with joy the whole day of the wedding; and they all lived happy ever afterwards.

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100 T3 Passage--The Merchant 1. We can infer from the article that Saracen was a. a Christian country b. not a Christian country c. in the Holy Land d. near London 2. Which of the following best describes Gilbert's initial motives for having a relationship with the Saracen lady? a. He was in love with her. b. He wanted her father to take him to London. c. His servant was in love with her. d. He used her. 3. Gilbert had a change of heart about the Saracen lady because a. he realized how much she was devoted to him b. his servant encouraged Gilbert to marry her c. she knew no one in London d. she refused to return to her own country 4. The Saracen lady made her way to London by a. being a stow away on a luxurious ship b. begging Saracen sailors to take her there c. purchasing her own sailing vessel d. paying for her way with her possessions 5. When Richard first told Gilbert of the Saracen presence in London, Gilbert a. was overjoyed b. ran away c. felt that Richard was crazy d. ran to greet her

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101 Vocabularly List Passage A--The Long, Cold Sleep " The words listed below are found in the following passage. Since their definitions may aid you in the understanding of the passage, you may refer to them at anytime during your reading. 1. drought--a long period of time with no rain 2. detected — discovered 3. stethoscope--an instrument used for listening 4. mannots--furry, burrowing rodents 5. defenseless--unprotected; having no defense 6. consuming--using up 7. starvation--lacking to the point of perishing 8. exposure--! eave open or unprotected 9. stupor--loss of sensibility 10. potent--very strong 11. revived--brought back 12. cruel— mean; hateful 13. hoax— prank; trick 14. fiction— made up

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102 Vocabulary Pretest Passage A--'The Long, Cold Sleep " 1. a summer drought a. shower b. crop c. without rain d. vacation 2. Detected the problem a. attacked b. discovered c. answered d. considered 3. the cold stethoscope a. instrument for listening to the heart b. instrument for looking into the eye c. instrument for looking into the ear d. instrument for taking the blood pressure 4. furry marmots a. burrowing rodents b. monkeys c. animals d. bears 5. defenseless infant a. abandoned b. orphaned c. strong d. unprotected 6. consuming food a. using up b. destroying c. cooking d. buying 7. starvation diet a. lacking b. perish c. fasting d. prolonged 8. exposure to the sun a. lacking b. overly protected c. covered d. leave unprotected

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103 9. a drunken stupor a. brave b. loss of sensibility c. companion d. hangover 10. the potent medicine a. incorrect b. brand-new c. strong d. liquid 11. revived from sleep a. kept b. protected c. eliminated d. brought back 12. cruel prank a. mean b. unimportant c. childish d. funny 13. obvious hoax a. error b. example c. answer d. trick 14. modern f i cti on a. lies b. novel c. truth d. romance

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104 "A Long, Cold Sleep " Harold Schmeck Today no scientist on Earth knows whether or not human hibernation is possible, but most suspect it is not. Certainly no one has any idea how., a man might be put into such a state or how he might be safely brought out of it again. We don't even know what causes hiberation in animals, or what brings it to a safe end when spring comes. Hibernation is a state in which an animal seems to close down the throttle on his whole body. Temperature drops almost to the freezing point and heartbeat and breathing fade away almost to a standstill. Every function of life seems to shift into low gear; the animal uses little energy and needs almost no food. The reason for hibernating is clear; an animal hibernating safe underground can survive a winter in which it might starve or freeze if it tried to stay active and aboveground. Some desert creatures have the same ability to throttle down to a near standstill in periods of great heat and drought. This is called aestivation, but basically it is the same process as hibernation. But what is that process and how does it work? Scientists have watched animals do it, but they have never learned the secret. It is one of the great puzzles of modern biology. Only a few animals have learned the tnck, and they are all small creatures at that. A bear does not really hibernate; it simply goes to sleep and lives off its own fat during the winter. Neither its heartbeat nor its breathing slows down. One creature that really does hibernate is the Arctic ground squirrel, which spends almost half its life asleep. The little animals live north of the Arctic Circle, where the winters are long and bitter cold. The ground squirrels must go underground by the end of September, and they don't come out again, except briefly, until May. The squirrel builds itself an underground nest lined with hair and grass and whatever else it can find. The nest is stocked with seeds and other food; then the squirrel crawls in, curls up in a ball, and goes to sleep. Gradually its body temperature drops until it reaches the middle 30s— just a degree or so above the freezing point of water. Its breathing becomes slower and fainter until the animal is taking only about three breaths a minute. The heartbeat fades away until it can hardly be detected with a stethoscope. The ground squirrel doesn't sleep continuously through the entire cold season, but wakes up occasionally, eats a few of the seeds collected in the fall, and then, if the squirrel is lucky and undisturbed, goes back into its strange cold sleep for another long nap. Not until spring does it really come out to look the world in the face again; to find a mate and a hearty meal and to start fattening up again for the next winter, only about five months away.

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105 Marmots, hamsters, some bats, and a few species of brids also hibernate in the wild. It isn't as easy a way out as you might think, because the hibernating animal is defenseless all winter and the hibernation itself costs the body a lot. The process affects the teeth and the digestive system and probably other parts of the body as well and seems really to be a borderline state between life and death. Doctors have used something a little like hibernation to help patients through difficult surgery. This is called hypothermia--simply a process of cooling the body, or a part of it, with the help of ice water. The purpose is to stop the patient's brain from working so har; for even when you are asleep, your brain is using energy and consuming oxygen from the blood. If that supply of oxygen is cut off for as little as five minutes, brain cells can never recover and usually the patient dies. Even those who survive this kind of brain damage seldom awaken, although they often live for weeks or months. But when the brain is cooled it can withstand far longer periods of oxygen starvation. Surgeons who must interrupt a patient's blood circulation while operating on the heart or the brain have used hypothermia to buy extra minutes in which they can save a life. But in hypothermia the patient's temperature is seldom reduced more than ten or fifteen degrees below the normal 98.6, and the lowtemperature period lasts only a few hours at the most. Even in out-of-door accidents in which people have risked freezing to death from cold exposure, no human has been known to survive if his body temperature dropped below 65 degrees. Even at 86 degrees one will be in a state of stupor, and at 80 one is almost sure to be unconscious. Yet the Arctic ground squirrel in Alaska cools down to the middle 30s every winter. If doctors could really make their patients hibernate, they might have a potent new weapon against disease. Probably some infections could be cured through hibernation and new ways could be found to treat heart problems and cancer. But doctors cannot do it, and freezing, even of parts of the body, is a goal even farther beyond reach. Some cells growing in laboratory flasks can be frozen and later revived, and some tissues can be frozen and preserved, but they aren't alive at the end of the process. No human organ, such as a kidney, lung, or heart, can be frozen today without damaging it beyond repair— blood, skin, and bone are about the only things that can be used at all after careful freezing. As for the idea of freezing a person after his death and then reviving him later after we learn how to cure his fatal disease, many experts in low-temperature biology think this is so slim a chance as to amount to a cruel hoax on those who believe in it. Damage to the body

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106 starts before death. Brain damage can occur in minutes and the freezing itself does more harm. To revive a person after all this is not a matter or curing a disease, but rebuilding an entire human being. Scientists may someday solve the riddle of human hibernation, and then space travel many light-years beyond the earth, but that fantastic accomplishment in renewing human 1 ife--freezing a living person and reviving him at a later date--may never be possible except in science fiction.

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107 Comprehension Questions " A Long, Cold Sleep" by Harold Schmeck Which of the following does not occur during hibernation? a. The animal uses an abundance of energy. b. The animal eats small amounts of food. c. The animal's heartbeat slows considerably. d. The animal's temperature drops drastically. Hibernation is most similar to a. hypothermia b. freezing body organs c. aestivation d. unconsciousness When the brain is deprived of oxygen for more than five minutes a. the patient dies immediately b. brain cells die c. doctors gain more time for surgical procedures d. it can be cooled easier Which of the following would have the least chance of being damaged if frozen? a. a liver b. a toe c. an eye d. an appendix A bear does not really hibernate since a. he eats during this period b. he spends such a short time dormant c. his heartbeat does not change d. his breathing quickens If the arctic ground squirrel lived eight years, how much of that time would have been spent sleeping? a. two years b. three years c. four years d. impossible to tell Which of the following is not true about hypothermia? a. It gives the doctors precious extra time for surgery. b. It is usually used during heart or brain surgery. c. The patient's body (or part of it) is cooled with ice water. d. The patient's temperature is usually kept at about 75 degrees. Hibernation causes difficulty for animals because a. it is difficult for their body to begin functioning again. b. they can be easily attacked by their enemies. c. they lose a substantial amount of weight. d. they may not consume enough oxygen to keep them alive.

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108 The article suggests that knowing more about hibernation could aid in helping a. larger animals b. hypothermia techniques c. desert animals d. astronauts During hibernation, the body temperature in animals is a. just above freezing b. just below freezing c. right at freezing d. about 10 degrees below normal body temperature If the body temperature of a human dropped below 60 degrees we can assume that a. brain damage would occur b. frostbite would occur c. damage would occur to the heart and kidneys d. death would occur All of the following are valid arguments for further study of hibernation except that a. more animals could learn to adopt hibernation techniques b. advancements could occur in surgical techniques c. it could help in understanding how body organs could be frozen d. it could help treat cancer and heart attack Presently, the thought of freezing a human and later reviving him/he is a. feasible but not practical b. not researchable but fascinating c. impossible but worthy of research d. impractical but possible The main idea of this article is that a. hibernation only occurs in small animals b. hibernation is a complex process about which little is known c. hypothermia is as close to hibernation that humans can come d. hibernation could be a powerful weapon against disease T^e^purpose of dropping the temperature of the brain during surgery a. put the patient under sedation with greater ease b. allow the patient to be in a conscious state during an operation c. slow down the flow of blood to the brain d. prevent the brain from utilizing too much energy Tissues that are frozen and preserved a. can be grown in a laboratory b. are not alive at the end of the process c. are new weapons to fight cancer d. are used in hypothermia procedures

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109 Desert animals hibernate when a. night temperatures fall below zero for extended periods of time b. there are severe sand storms for extended periods of time c. there are extended periods of extreme heat and no rain d. their body temperature rises above normal for extended periods of time Which of the following does not hibernate? a. bears b. bats c. certain birds d. some squirrels

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no Retention Questions " A Long, Cold S1eep"by Harold Schmeck If the body temperature of a human dropped below 60 degrees we can assume that 1. frostbite would occur 2. death would occur 3. damage would occur to the heart and kidneys 4. brain damage would occur During hibernation, the body temperature in animals is 1. about 10 degrees below normal body temperature 2. just below freezing 3. right at freezing 4. just above freezing All of the following are valid arguments for further study of hibernation except that 1. advancements could occur in surgical techniques 2. it could help in understanding how body organs could be frozen 3. it could help treat cancer and heart attack 4. more animals could learn to adopt hibernation techniques Which of the following does not hibernate? 1. bears 2. certain birds 3. some quirrels 4. bats Hibernation causes difficulty for animals because 1. they may not consume enough oxygen to keep them alive 2. it is difficult for their body to begin functioning again 3. they can be easily attacked by their enemies 4. they lose a substnatial amount of weight Which of the following is not true of hypothermia? 1. It is usually used during heart or brain surgery 2. It gives doctors precious extra time for surgery 3. The patient's body (or part of it) is cooled with ice water 4. The patient's temperature is usually kept at about 75 degrees Tissues that are frozen and preserved 1. are not alive at the end of the process 2. can be grown in a laboratory 3. are used in hypothermia procedures 4. are new weapons to fight cancer The main idea of this article is that 1. hibernation is a complex process about which little is known ^. hibernation could be a powerful weapon against disease J. hibernation occurs in small animals 4. hypothennia is as close to hibernation that humans can come

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ni Which of the following would have the least chance of being damaged if frozen? 1. a liver 2. a toe 3. an eye 4. an appendix Presently, the thought of freezing a human and later reviving him/her is 1. impractical but possible 2. not researchable but fascinating 3. feasible but not practical 4. impossible but worthy of research A bear does not really hibernate since 1. his heartbeat does not change 2. he eats during this period 3. he spends such a short time dormant 4. his breathing quickens When the brain is deprived of oxygen for more than five minutes 1. doctors gain more time for surgical procedures 2. the patient dies immediately 3. it can be cooled easier 4. brain cells die Which of the following does not occur during hibernation? 1. The animal eats small amounts of food. 2. The animal's temperature drops drastically. 3. The animal uses an abundance of energy. 4. The animal's heartbeat slows considerably. Hibernation is most similar to 1. unconsciousness 2. hypothermia 3. aestivation 4. freezing body organs The^purpose of dropping the temperature of the brain during surgery 1. prevent the brain from using too much energy 2. slow down the flow of blood to the brain 3. allow the patient to be in a conscious state during an operation ^ 4. put the patient under sedation with greater ease Desert animals hibernate when 1. there are severe sand storms for extended periods of time ^. their body temperature rises above normal for extended periods of time ^ 3. there are extended periods of extreme heat and no rain 4. night temperatures fall below zero for extended periods of time ^

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112 17. If the Arctic ground squirrel lived eight years, how much of that time would have been spent sleeping? 1. impossible to tell 2. four years 3. three years 4. two years 18. The article suggests that knowing more about hibernation could aid in helping 1. astronauts 2. desert animals 3. larger animals 4. hypothennia techniques

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113 Vocabulary Posttest Passage A-^The Long, Cold Sleep " 1. a drunken stupor a. loss of sensibility b. hangover c. brave d. companion 2. modern fiction a. romance b. truth c. novel d. lies 3. starvation diet a. fasting b. perish c. lacking d. prolonged 4. defenseless infant a. strong b. orphaned c. abandoned d. unprotected 5. revived from sleep a. protected b. brought back c. kept d. eliminated 6. a summar drought a. vacation b. crop c. shower d. without rain 7. the cold stethoscope a. instrument for listening to the heart b. instrument for taking the blood pressure c. instrument for looking into the ear d. instrument for looking into the eye 8. cruel prank a. childish b. mean c. funny d. unimportant

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114 9. obvious hoax a. error b. trick c. example d. answer 10. detected the problem a. attacked b. considered c. answered d. discovered 11. the potent medicine a. brand-new b. incorrect c. liquid d. strong 12. exposure to the sun a. lacking b. covered c. overly protected d. leave unprotected 13. furry marmots a. burrowing rodents b. bears c. monkeys d. animals 14. consuming food a. destroying b. using up c. buying d. cooking

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115 Vocabulary List Passage B--Immortal ity Syndrome " The words listed below are found in the following passage. Since their definitions may aid you in the understanding of the passage, you may refer to them at anytime during your reading. 1. impending--soon to occur 2. ceremonious--a formal occasion 3. bereaved — surviving 4. homage--to pay tribute 5. Spartan--brave; courageous 6. preordained--decreed beforehand 7. taciturn--quiet 8. infatuated--carried away by shallow love 9. bureaucrat--one who insists on following the rules 10. pervasive--wide-spread 11. ideologies--beliefs 12. poignant--touching; sensitive 13. perpetual— constant 14. affirmation--confinnation; agreement 15. entity— separate individual 16. enshrinement—hold sacred 17. overt— not hidden; blatent

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116 Vocabulary Pretest Passage BImmortal ity Syndrome " impending disaster a. past b. coon to occur c. terrible d. natural ceremonious occasion a. cheerful b. gloomy c. formal d. planned bereaved widow a. tearful b. cautious c. beautiful d. surviving to pay homage a. attention b. dutifully c. dues d. tribute Spartan characteristics a. noble b. justifiable c. masculine d. brave preordained rite a. voted b. improper c. decree beforehand d. inappropriate taciturn man a. quiet b. gentle c. talkative d. ignorant infatuated adolescent a. extremely studious b. rebellious c. carried away by shallow love d. fun-loving

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117 9. sly bureaucrat a. one who insists on following rules b. one who goes against policy c. one who heads a large corporation d. one who is very wealthy pervasive feeling a. guilty b. withheld c. wide-spread d. nonexistent religious ideologies a. beliefs b. holidays c. artifacts d. documents 12. poignant story a. violent b. mysterious c. well -written d. touching, sensitive 13. perpetual motion a. circular b. constant c. interrupted d. slow 14. affirmation of love a. denial b. disagreement c. justification d. confirmation 15. corporate entity a. president b. policy c. separate individual d. attorney 16. enshri nement of a loved one a. burial b. holding sacred c. denial d. loss overt behavior a. unacceptable b. proper c. not hidden d. understandable 10. 11. 17.

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118 " Immortality Syndrome " James Gollin The big question for the friends and relatives of a dying man is. Does he know? Should we tell him? We spend a lot of time agonizing over this problem. But our instincts--or at least some very strong social reflexes--advise us to keep quiet. To tell him of his impending death, we fell, may tip the balance against him and against ourselves. Death, not life, would then take control. Just as we feel we must press life upon the dead and dying, so do we carry death back into life by our acts of mourning. In some ways, moreover, our mourning is as formal and ceremonious as that of societies where the bereaved wear black, retire from life, and set aside a time to weep. For us, the real act of homage to the dead is to keep on going. Such mourning in reverse is also a ritual test of endurance, a deliberately Spartan demonstration of our ability to carry someone else's death with us into our own life. In "going on as if nothing happened," there is the unmistakeable sense of participating in a preordained rite. We behave almost like those people in primitive societies who believe that the "life force" of the dead enteres into a close relative. In order to preserve that life force intact, such peoples insist upon continuing their own lives. If they should stop life in order to weep, they imperil the soul of the deceased. Just as we place a kind of taboo on overt demonstrations of grief, so do we also restrict talk about our own death. To name a thing is to evoke it, so it's better not to speak of your death. But that we choose to be taciturn about this subject doesn't mean Americans never mention it or think about it. Rather, we feel that there are much better ways than mere conversation to bring death before us. Going about our daily affairs, we habitually flirt with death in ways that terrify strangers. Of this, the crowning example is the American automobile. We're more than half aware of its perils; yet we nevertheless love the automobile with a terrible passion. Even on a trivial errand the car gives us a chance to test ourselves against death and win. For the same reason we are infatuated with such sickeningly dangerous sports as skiing, skin-diving, hunting, surfing, and craziest of all, parachuting out of airplanes for fun. And what about the pedestrian's own version of bullfighting, with oncoming cars as toros? Or the acrobatics we perform on shaky ladders when we climb up to fix the roof? Unthinkingly-but with such zest-everybody plays games like these. And far from being afraid to face death, Americans obviously love to have it near at hand. For without death, what would become of our feeling that life is a series of victories?

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119 As in every other society, our heroes are only enlargements of ourselves, doing (though naturally on a heroic scale) what we ourselves do. For instance, Americans have one hero who is a bureaucrat. He has to show up at the office in the morning. He detests, but nevertheless completes, stacks of paperwork. He submits to periodic job interviews. He's afraid of his boss, uneasy about his pension, and he often thinks half-heartedly about resigning. In private life, moreover, this hero is a finicky bachelor who fusses over his food and worries about his weight. He's also vain and a bit of a bore. His name is James Bond. James is the servant of the ordinary. Although he's a good shot, he hates guns. His most spectacularly destructive prop is a car. Like a good executive. Bond is at home everywhere. And like a good executive's hero. Bond never dies, but weaves, stumbles, and slips on his way through a world filled to overflowing with death. His reality is a souped-up version of our own. In turn, our reality certainly cannot be said to shun or shrink away from death. On the contrary, in America death is as pervasive as patriotism. We react to death neither as cowards nor as children ignorant of the truth. To account for those attitudes, we would have to dig into the American past. We'd have to see how different ideologies have been blended together— how, for instance, our traditional Protestantism has fused with our almost pagan belief in the inexhaustible bounty of the land we inhabit. We can see then our dual themes, money and death, inevitably converge. And in a society such as ours, what other connection could we make than that money— our great life symbol— is used both symbolically and in fact to abolish death. The evidence, even on the surface, is both plentiful and poignant to support that hypothesis. Americans don't leave money to pay for perpetual religious services for themselves after death. But our dead do bequeath money to endow universities for the young, hospitals to cure the sick, and research cneters to win out over disease. At the very first glance, our society affords more examples than we can count that Americans think of money as the most important way of making death give place to life. Life insurance is one of the best examples of our belief that money IS life, and as life, helps us triumph over death. Because of that belief, we have made out of buying and selling life insurance a tremendous process~an almost sacramental one. We don't just own insurance we believe vn life insurance as a symbol of everything we do, think, and ' feel about defeating death. Moreover, being Americans, we have carried this inner logic one step further by sponsoring and nurturing an industryand not a religious.

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120 governmental, or charitable institution--to provide insurance. Just as insurance symbolizes our feelings about conquering death, so in turn does any industry, and especially this one, stand for the triumphant affirmation of our inexhaustible welath, perpetual life, and ingenuity at outwitting death. Unlike ourselves, a great corporate entity is immortal. The enshrinement of life insurance explains some of the industry's curous customs. For instance, to an insurance salesman, it's never "when you die," but "if you die"~as a matter of fact, agents are taught never to be so blunt and impolite as to mention death by name. The favorite theme of the insurance ad is life. The industry talks constantly about the "living values" of insurance. In the ads the illustrations almost always feature children. According to one sophisticated salesman, "The only reason people buy insurance is they think the policy is a magic charm guaranteeing them against death. And the reason they don't buy is that they're afraid that the God of Death will know and point his finger at them." We may or may not agree completely with this agent. But we do buy $100 billion worth of insurance every year.

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121 Comprehension Questions "Immortality Syndronie"by James Gollin 1. According to the article, if you wanted to "live on" after death, you might a. have prayers said for your soul b. have a large marker placed on your grave c. leave a large sum of money to a favorite charity d. set up trust funds for all of your children 2. James Bond is used as an example of a. a man flirting with death b. the American executive c. someone we all would like to be d. an exaggeration of what we all do in our everyday lives 3. For Americans, the real act of homage to the dead is to a. retire from life b. wear black for a year c. set aside a time for weeping d. keep on going 4. People buy life insurance because a. they want to protect their family b. they want financial security in the future c. they are highly pressured by society to do so d. they believe that money is life 5. This writer feels that American attitudes toward death and money a. are diametrically opposed b. have no bearing on each other c. are similar to primitive peoples d. converge 6. We can infer from the article that if we talked about our own death a. it would happen b. we would have to try to avoid it c. that we could better face death d. that we could better deal with the death of a friend or relative 7. According to the author, if your close friend had only a short while to live, you would a. spend as much time with him/her as possible b. feel comfortable in discussing the matter with him/her c. avoid telling him/her at all possible costs d. persuade your friend to get his/her life in order

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122 8. According to the article, if you were an insurance sales person, which of the following would you stress with perspective clients? a. double indemnity clauses b. increasing life expectancy c. sudden death payments d. family security in the event of the breadwinners death 9. Buying life insurance is a symbolic process in that a. it symbolizes protection b. it symbolizes defeating death c. it symbolizes our need to feel secure d. it symbolizes a reduction in fear 10. Which of the following was not mentioned as being a dangerous sport? a. football b. hunting c. skiing d. skin-diving 11. The fact that Americans spend billions of dollars every year on insurance indicates that a. Americans take death seriously b. Americans are betting life insurance companies that they will live a long time c. Americans feel that having life insurance protects them from death d. Americans are investing in their future 12. We tend not to tell a person that they are dying because a. death would take control b. they may live after all c. it would be too difficult for the family d. the medical profession feels that it is better if they do not know 13. According to this writer, if we would not carry on in the event of the death of a loved one, we would be a. keeping the life force in tact b. harming the soul of the dead c. demonstrating Spartan abilities d. a martyr 14. We restrict talking about our own death because a. we tend to live just for today b. if we talk about it, it may happen c. we are afraid to die d. most people have not had a brush with death 15. The favorite theme of life insurance companies is a. family unity b. children c . 1 i f e d. death

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123 16. Approximately how much do Americans spend on life insurance every year? a. 100 billion b. 100 million c. 10 billion d. 10 mil 1 ion 17. Much of the standard sales message developed for insurance companies implies that a. the God of Death will get you if you don't buy b. insurance is the source of America's inexaustible wealth c. you need at least enough insurance to pay for funeral expenses in the event of your death d. immortality is included in the policy 18. The American automobile a. is our protection against death b. helps us flirt with death c. is a status symbol d. is more important than life insurance

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124 Retention Questions "Immortality Syndrome" by James Gollin Approximately how much do Americans spend on life insurance every year? 1. 100 million 2. 10 million 3. 100 billion 4. 10 billion We can infer from this article that if we talked about our own death 1. it would happen 2. that we could better deal with the death of a friend or relative 3. we would try to avoid it 4. that we could better face death Much of the standard sales message developed for insurance companies implies that 1. insurance is the source of America's inexhaustible wealth 2. immortality is included in the policy 3. the God of Death will get you if you don't buy 4. you need at least enough insurance to pay for funeral expenses in the event of your death According to the article, if you wanted to "live on" after death, you might 1. have prayers said for your soul 2. set up trust funds for all of your children 3. have a large marker placed on your grave 4. leave a large sum of money to a favorite charity According to this writer, if we would not^ carry on in the event of the death of a loved one, we would be 1. a martyr 2. demonstrating Spartan abilities 3. harming the soul of the dead 4. keeping the life force in tact The American automobile 1. is our protection against death 2. is a status symbol 3. helps us flirt with death 4. is more important than life insurance We restrict talking about our own death because 1. we are afraid to die 2. most people have not had a brush with death 3. we tend to live just for today 4. if we talk about it, it may happen

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125 8. People buy life insurance because 1. they are highly pressured by society to do so 2. they want to protect their family 3. they believe that money is life 4. they want financial security in the future 9. James Bond is used as an example of 1. a man flirting with death 2. an exaggeration of what we all do in our everyday lives 3. the American executive 4. someone we all would like to be 10. This writer feels that American attitudes toward death and money 1. converge 2. have no bearing on each other 3. are opposite 4. are similar to primitive peoples 11. According to the article, if you were an insurance sales person, which of the following would you stress with perspective clients? 1. double indemnity clauses 2. increasing life expectancy 3. family security in the event of the breadwinners death 4. sudden death payments 12. Which of the following was not mentioned as being a dangerous sport? 1. hunting 2. football 3. skin-diving 4. skiing 13. For Americans, the real act of homage to the dead is to 1. retire from life 2. set aside a time for weeping 3. keep on going 4. wear black for a year 14. The fact that Americans spend billions of dollars every year on insurance indicates that 1. Americans are betting life insurance companies that they will 1 ive a long time 2. Americans are investing in their future 3. Americans take death seriously 4. Americans feel that having life insurance protects them from death 15. According to the author, if your close friend had only a short while to live, you would 1. spend as much time with him/her as possible 2. feel comfortable in discussing the matter with him/her 3. avoid telling him/her at all possible costs 4. persuade your friend to get his/her life in order

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126 16. Buying life insurance is a symbolic process in that 1. it symbolizes a reduction in fear 2. it symbolizes our need to feel secure 3. it symbolizes defeating death 4. it symbolizes protection 17. The favorite theme of life insurance companies is 1. children 2. family unity 3. death 4. life 18. We tend not to tell a person that they are dying because 1. the medical profession feels that it is better if they do not know 2. they may live after all 3. death would take control 4. it would be too difficult for the family

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127 Vocabulary Posttest Passage B--Ininiortal ity Syndrome " 1. sly bureaucrat a. one who is very wealthy b. one who goes against policy c. one who insists on following rules d. one who heads a large corporation 2. taciturn man a. quiet b. talkative c. ignorant d. gentle 3. religious ideologies a. holidays b. beliefs c. artifacts d. documents 4. preordained rite a. improper b. inappropriate c. decree beforehand d. voted 5. bereaved widow a. cautious b. beautiful c. tearful d. surviving 6. pervasive feeling a. withheld b. widespread c. nonexistent d. guilty 7. to pay homage a. dutifully b. dues c. attention d. tribute 8. ceremonious occasion a. gloomy b. formal c. cheerful d. planned

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128 9. corporate entity a. separate individual b. president c. attorney d. policy 10. perpetual motion a. circular b. slow c. constant d. interrupted 11. enshrinement of a loved one a. holding sacred b. less c. denial d. burial 12. overt behavior a. understandable b. not hidden c. proper d. unacceptable 13. infatuated adolescent a. carried away by shallow love b. extremely studious c. fun-loving d. rebellious 14. Spartan characteristics a. masculine b. noble c. justifiable d. brave 15. poignant story a. well -written b. violent c. mysterious d. touching, sensitive 16. impending disaster a. terrible b. soon to occur c. unpreventable d. past 17. affirmation of love a. disagreement b. confirmation c. denial d. justification

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129 Vocabulary List Passage C--Fi1bo1d Studge " The words listed below are found in the following passage. Since their definitions may aid you in the understanding of the passage, you may refer to them at anytime during your reading. 1. fal tering--unsure; uncertain 2. fatuous--fool ish 3. fulsome — too much; excessive 4. frivolity— silliness 5. unpalatable--not tasty or appetizing 6. ostentatiously--showy 7. countermand--to call back 8. sombre--gloomy ; depressing 9. shoal s--groups; crowds 10. austerity--stern or forbidding 11. cavil --to object to something 12. presumption--jump to a conclusion 13. battered--broken; damaged 14. epigram— a witty statement 15. mortify-to embarrass; shame

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130 Vocabulary Pretest Passage C--Fi1boid Studge " 1. faltering statement a. truthful b. uncertain c. positive d. brief 2. fatuous idea a. amazing b. innovative c. practical d. foolish 3. fulsome praise a. excessive b. sincere c. undeserved d. little 4. idle frivol ity a. laughter b. silliness c. friendship d. spending 5. unpalatable food a. not desirable b. not fresh c. not cooked d. not tasty 6. ostentatiously wealthy a. showy b. untruthfully c. secretly d. suddenly 7. countermand an order a. to justify b. to write c. to give d. to call back 8. a sombre mood a. cheerful b. loving c. gloomy d. nasty

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131 9. shoals of people a. crowds b. friends c. enemies d. names 10. grim austerity a. truthfulness b. luxury c. stern or forbidding d. deceitful ness 11. to cavil continuously a. praise when it is not deserved b. object to something trivial c. spend extravagantly d. be foolish 12. to make a presumption a. jumping to a conclusion b. suggestion c. public display d. correct forecast 13. the battered automobile a. stolen b. repaired c. new d. damaged 14. to write an epigram a. poem b. epitaph c. witty statement d. final will 15. to mortify my friend a. 1 ie to b. shame c. ignore d. help

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132 " Filboid Studge, the Story of a Mouse that Helped " H.H. Munro "I want to marry your daughter," said Mark Spayley with faltering eagerness. "I am only an artist with an income of two hundred a year, and she is the daughter of an enormously wealthy man, so I suppose you will think my offer a piece of presumption." Duncan Dull amy, the great company inflator, showed no outward sign of displeasure. As a matter of fact, he was secretly relieved at the prospect of finding even a two-hundred-a-year husband for his daughter Leonore. A crisis was rapidly rushing upon him, from which he knew he would emerge with neither money nor credit; all his recent ventures had fallen flat, and the flattest of all had gone the wonderful new breakfast food, Pipenta, on the advertisement of which he had sunk such huge sums. It could scarcely be called a drug in the market; people bought drugs, but no one bought Pipenta. "Would you marry Leonore if she were a poor man's daughter?" asked the man of phantom wealth. "Yes," said Mark, wisely avoiding the error of over-protestation. And to his astonishment Leonore 's father not only gave his concent, he suggested a fairly early date for the wedding. "I wish I could show my gratitude in some way," said Mark with genuine emotion. "I'm afraid it's rather like the mouse proposing to help the lion." "Get people to buy that beastly muck," said Dullamy, nodding savagely at a poster of the despised Pipenta, "and you'll have done more than any of my agents have been able to accomplish." "It wants a better name," said Mark reflectively, "and something distinctive in the poster line. Anyway, I'll have a shot at it." Three weeks later the world was advised of the coming of a new breakfast food, heralded under the resounding name of "Filboid Studge." Spayley put forth no pictures of massive babies springing up with funguslike rapidity under its forcing influence, or of representatives of leading nations of the world scramblind with fatuous eagerness for its possession. One huge sombre poster depicted the Damned in Hell suffering a new torment from their inability to get at Filboid Studge which elegant young fiends held in transparent bowls just beyond their reach. The scene was rendered even more gruesome by a subtle suggestion of the features of leading men and women of the day in the portrayal of the Lost Souls; prominent individuals of both political parties. Society hostesses, well-known dramatic authors and novelists, and distinguished aeroplanists were dimly recognizable in that doomed throng; noted lights of the muscial -comedy stage flickered wanly in the shades of the Infero, smiling rage of baffled effort. The poster bore no fulsome allusions to

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133 the merits of the new breakfast food, but a single grim statement ran in bold letters along its base: "They cannot buy it now." Spayley had grasped the fact that people will do things from a sense of duty which they would never attempt as a pleasure. There are thousand of respectable middle-class men who, if you found them unexpectedly in a Turkish bath, would explain in all sincerity that a doctor had ordered them to take Turkish baths; if you told them in return that you went there because you liked it, they would stare in pained wonder at the frivolity of your motive. In the same way, whenever a massacre of Armenians is reported from Asia Minor, everyone assumes that it has been carried out "under orders" from somewhere or another; no one seems to think that there are people who might like to kill their neighbors now and then. And so it was with the new breakfast food. No one would have eaten Filboid Studge as a pleasure, but the grim austerity of its advertisement drove housewives in shoals to the grocers' shops to clamour for an immediate supply. In small kitchens solemn pig-tailed daughters helped depressed mothers to perform the primitive ritual of its preparation. On the breakfast-tables of cheerless parlours it was partaken of in silence. Once the womanfolk discovered that it was thoroughly unpalatabl their zeal in forcing it on their households knew no bounds. "You haven' eaten your Filboid Studge!" would be screamed at the appetiteless clerk as he hurried weariedly from the breakfast table, and his evening meal would be prefaced by a warmed-up mess which would be explained as "your Filboid Studge that you didn't eat this morning." Those strange fanatics who ostentatiously mortify themselves inwardly and outwardly, with health biscuits and health garments, battened aggressively on the new food. Earnest spectabled young men devoured it on the steps of the National Liberal Club. A bishop who did not believe in a future state preached against the poster, and a peer's daughter died from eating too much of the compound. A further advertisement was obtained when an infantry regiment mutinied and shot its officers rather than eat the nauseous mess; fortunately. Lord Birrell of Blatherstone, who was War Minister at the moment, saved the situation by his happy epigram, that "Discipline to be effective must be optional." Filboid Studge had become a household word, but Dullamy wisely realized that it was not necessarily the last word in breakfast dietary; its supremacy would be challenged as soon as some yet more unpalatable food should be put on the market. There might even be a reaction in favour of something tasty and appetizing, and the Puritan austerity of the moment might be banished from domestic cookery. At an opportune moment, therefore, he sold out his interests in the article which had brought him in a collossal wealth at a critical juncture, and placed his financial reputation beyond the reach of cavil. As for Leonore, who was now an heiress on a far greater scale than ever before, he naturally found her something a vast deal higher in the husband market than a twohundred-a-year poster designer. Mark Spayley, the brainmouse who had nelped the financial lion with such untoward effect, was left to curse the day he produced the wonder-working poster.

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134 "After all," said Clovis, meeting him shortly afterwards at his club, "you have this doubtful consolation, that 'tis not in mortals to countermand success.'"

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135 Comprehension Questions " Filboid Studge, the Story of a Mouse that Helped," by H.H. Munro 1. Mr. Dullamy gave his permission for Mark Spayley to marry is daughter because a. he genuinely liked him b. he felt Mark would be a good provider for his daughter c. he had lost all of his money d. he was impressed with Mark's artistic talents 2. One person who ate Filboid Studge a. went into a coma b. was poisoned c. went blind d. died 3. The statement "They cannot buy it now," implies that a. one would go to hell if s/he did not buy Filboid Studge b. people would go mad if they could not buy Filboid Studge c. only elite people eat Filboid Studge d. people would become ill if they did not eat Filboid Studge 4. Mark's advertisement was a huge poster depicting a. would-be starlets and unsuccessful politicians b. sinful creatures enjoying themselves c. lost souls in hell d. people enjoying Filboid Studge 5. It appears that Mark Spayley wanted to marry Leonore becuase a. he loved her b. he was after her money c. he wanted a job in her father's company d. he wanted to go into advertising 6. Why did Mr. Dullamy ask Mark Spayley if he would marry a poor man's daughter? a. Mr. Dullamy believed that Leonore would soon be a poor man's daughter b. Mr. Dullamy wanted to be sure of Mark's intentions c. it is the sort of question rich people ask poor people d. he was afraid that Mark would try to steal from him 7. Mark and Mr. Dullamy were similar in that they both a. were devious b. loved Leonore c. were successful d. were honest

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136 8. After the success of Filboid Studge, Mr. Dullamy a. sold his company of r a loss b. sold his company at a considerable profit c. came out with a new product d. made Mark a partner in the firm 9. Mark Spayley was the brainmouse while Mr. Dullamy was the a. successful lion b. corporate lion c. powerful lion d. financial lion 10. When Mark stated, "I'm afraid it's rather like the mouse proposing to help the lion," he meant a. that he thought he would be able to help b. that it was almost useless to try to help c. that he was afraid of Mr. Dullamy d. that he knew Mr. Dullamy would not want his help 11. What did Mark suggest when Mr. Dullamy asked him to get people to buy Pipenta? a. the product needed a better name and more distinctive advertising display b. he suggested that Mr. Dullamy hire an adverti sting firm c. he suggested a more appetizing product d. he thought Mr. Dullamy should take his loss and come up with a new product 12. In the end, Mark Spayley cursed the day he came up with the poster because a. Mr. Dullamy paid him nothing for it b. he lost Leonore c. it made him too famous d. it had not been the moral thing to do 13. The "mouse" in this story was a. Leonore b. Mark c. Mr. Dullamy d. those who at Filboid Studge 14. Which of the following was not depicted in Mark's poster? a. famous personalities b. suffering c. bowls of Filboid Studge d. the nutritional value of Filboid Studge 15. Which would best describe Mr. Dullamy? a. witty, protective, sly b. stingy, easy-going, snobbish c. frivolous, moral, smart d. cunning, wealthy, callous

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137 16. In the beginning, no one bought Pipenta because it a. was too expensive b. was poorly advertised c. made people sick d. tasted terrible 17. Pipenta was a. a cereal b. a soup c. a snack d. a dessert 18. What was the reasoning behind Mark's advertising? a. people like to identify with well-known personalities b. people act out of a sense of duty c. people act out of a desire for pleasure d. people buy what is advertised

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138 Retention Questions " Filboid Studge, the Story of a Mouse that Helped," by H.H. Munro 1. What is the reasoning behind Mark's advertising? 1. people like to identify with well-known personalities 2. people act out of a sense of duty 3. people act out of a desire for pleasure 4. people buy what is advertised 2. It appears that Mark Spayley wanted to marry Leonore because 1. he loved her 2. he was after her money 3. he wanted a job in her father's company 4. he wanted to go into advertising 3. After the success of Filboid Studge, Mr. Dullamy 1. came out with a new product 2. sold his company for a loss 3. made Mark a partner in the firm 4. sold his company at a considerable profit 4. The statement "They cannot buy it now," implies that 1. only elite people eat Filboid Studge 2. people would become well if they did not eat Filboid Studge 3. one would go to Hell if s/he did not buy Filboid Studge 4. people would go mad if they could not buy Filboid Studge 5. Which would best describe Mr. Dullamy? 1. witty, protective, sly 2. stingy, easy-going, snobbish 3. cunning, wealthy, callous 4. frivolous, moral, smart 6. In the end, Mark Spayley cursed the day he came up with the poster because 1. he lost Leonore 2. it had not been the moral thing to do 3. Mr. Dullamy paid him nothing for it 4. it made him too famous 7. In the beginning, no one bought Pipenta because it 1. tasted terrible 2. made people sick 3. was too expensive 4. was poorly advertised 8. The "mouse" in this stury was 1. Mr. Dullamy 2. Mark 3. those who ate Filboid Studge 4. Leonore

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139 Why did Mr. Dullamy ask Mark Spayley if he would marry a poor man's daughter? 1. Mr. Dullamy believed that Leonore would soon be a poor man's daughter 2. it was the sort of question rich people ask poor people 3. he was afraid that Mark would try to steal from him 4. Mr. Dullamy wanted to be sure of Mark's intentions What did Mark suggest when Mr. Dullamy asked him to get people to buy Pipenta? 1. the product needed a better name and more distinctive advertising display 2. he thought Mr. Dullamy should take his loss and come up with a new product 3. he suggested that Mr. Dullamy hire an advertising firm 4. he suggested a more appetizing product Mark Spayley was the brainmouse while Mr. Dullamy was the 1. corporate lion 2. powerful lion 3. successful lion 4. financial lion Mr. Dullamy gave his permission for Mark Spayley to marry his daughter because 1. he had lost all of his money 2. he felt Mark would be a good provider for his daughter 3. he was impressed with Mark's artistic talents 4. he genuinely liked him One person who ate Filboid Studge 1. went into a coma 2. went blind 3. died 4. was poisoned When Mark stated, "I'm afraid it's rather like the mouse proposing to help the lion," he meant 1. that he was afraid of Mr. Dullamy 2. that he thought he would be able to help 3. that he knew Mr. Dullamy would not want his help 4. that it was almost useless to try to help Mark and Mr. Dullamy were similar in that they both 1. were devious 2. were honest 3. loved Leonore 4. were successful Which of the following was not depicted in Mark's poster? 1. the nutritional value of Filboid Studge 2. bowls of Filboid Studge 3. suffering 4. famous personalities

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140 17. Piperita was a 1. snack 2. soup 3. dessert 4. cereal 18. Mark's advertisement was a huge poster depicting 1. sinful creatures enjoying themselves 2. would-be starlets and unsuccessful politicians 3. people enjoying Filboid Studge 4. lost souls in Hell

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141 Vocabulary Posttest Passage C--Filboid Studge " 1. a sombre mood a. nasty b. gloomy c. loving d. cheerful 2. shoal s of people a. crowds b. enemies c. names d. friends 3. to make a presumption a. suggestion b. jumping to a conclusion c. correct forecast d. public display 4. ful some praise a. sincere b. little c. undeserved d. excessive 5. the battered automobile a. broken b. new c. repaired d. stolen 6. to write an epigram a. epitaph b. final will c. poem d. witty statement 7. to mortify my friend a. help b. shame c. lie to d. ignore 8. idle frivol ity a. silliness b. friendship c. laughter d. spending

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142 9. grim austerity a. luxury b. deceitful ness c. truthfulness d. stern or forbidding 10. unpalatable food a. not fresh b. not desirable c. not tasty d. not cooked 11. countermand an order a. to call back b. to give c. to write d. to justify 12. to cavil continuously a. be foolish b. spend extravagantly c. praise when it is not deserved d. object to something trivial 13. ostentatiously wealthy a. secretly b. showy c. suddenly d. untruthfully 14. faltering statement a. brief b. positive c. undertain d. truthful 15. fatuous idea a. foolish b. innovative c. practical d. amazing

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143 NAME Group I D C (circle one) QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Did you form images in your mind when reading the passages? YES NO 2. Did you form images in your mind when answering the comprehension questions ? YES NO 3. Did you form images in your mind when answering the retention questions ? YES NO 4. If you had to rank the three passages according to the ease that they were imaginal, how would you rank them? Put 1 for the passage that was the easiest to image, 2 for the passage that was the next easiest to image, and 3 for the passage that was the most difficult to image. " The Long, Cold Sleep " " Filboid Studqe " " The Immortality Syndrome " Rank the three passages according to the ease that you understood them. " Filboid Studqe " " The Long, Cold Sleep " " The Immortality Syndrome " 6. If you did not use imagery on the three passages, what technique/s did you use to comprehend the passages? Mark as many as apply. Rereading Saying important material to Summarizing yourself Paraphrasing Saying important materials out Other loud I used no techniques that I was aware of 7. If you did not use imagery to aid you in the retention of the passages, what technique/s did you use? Paraphrasing Saying important material to yourself Saying important material out loud I used no techniques that I was aware of Other

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Point Biserial Values (rpb-j) for 18 Comprehension Items Passage A--'A Long, Cold Sleep " T tpm •^pbi 1 .69 2 .35 3 .33 4 .45 5 .61 6 .52 7 .52 8 .28 9 .36 10 .58 11 .50 12 .42 13 .37 14 15 .26 16 .33 17 .56 18 .28 145

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146 Point Biserial Values (rpbi) for 18 Comprehension Items Passage B--Immorta1 ity Syndrome " Item pbi 1 1 .31 o C .29 o O .34 .47 c D .41 e D .45 7 .32 o o .41 n y .12 1 n iU .31 1 1 .47 1 0 1^ .42 lo .22 14 .57 15 .52 16 .39 17 .41 18 .39

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147 Point Biserial Values {r^^^) for 18 Comprehension Items i Passage C— Filboid Studge, the Story of a Mouse That Helped " j 1 Item pu 1 1 2 ?R • 3 • *+ / 4 4Q 5 • 6 /Id 7 • o/ 8 9 10 . Do 11 • to 12 . ILL 13 At; 14 .36 15 .41 16 .31 17 .34 18 .49

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"Warm-up" Words for Imagery Group "Warm-up" words used for teaching each passage in the ICAT to the mage ry group were as follows: Passage A -"The Long, Cold Sleep "by Harold Schmeck, a biological science passage 1. hibernation 2. sleep 3. surgery 4. energy Passage B -"Immortality Syndrome" by James Gollin, a social science passage 1 . death 2 . money 3. life 4. insurance Passage C -"Filboid Studge, the Story of a Mouse that Helped , by H. H. Munro, a literature passage 1. love 2. wealth 3. devious 4. poster 149

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150 Directed Reading Activity Passage A -"The Long, Cold Sleep " Motivation and background . In order to provide background information the following questions were asked and discussion ensued concerning possible answers: 1. What is hibernation? 2. Why do animals hibernate? What purposes do you think it serves? 3. Scientists know very little about hibernation. Why do you think this is so? 4. Can you think of any ways that the hibernation process might be applied to humans if more was known about it? Purpose setting . The researcher asked the subjects to indicate what they would expect to learn from an article entitled The Long, Cold Sleep . Some of the responses were as follows: 1. What animals hibernate? 2. How long do animals hibernate? 3. What happens to animals during hibernation? 4. Why do some animals hibernate while others do not? The researcher indicated that the questions formulated by the students were good ones and they might additionally keep in mind the following: 1. Do only animals that live in a cold climate hibernate? 2. Why don't scientists know much about hibernation? 3. How might hibernation be scientifically studied in the future? 4. What is hypothermia? How is it like hibernation?

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151 Directed Reading Activity Passage B -"Immortality Syndrome " Motivation and background . In order to provide background information and motivation the following questions were asked and discussion ensued: 1. How many of you (or your parents) have life insurance policies? 2. Why do you (or your parents) have them? 3. What purposes do life insurance policies serve? 4. How do most people feel about dying? Do they think it will happen to them? 5. The discussion of death often results in a fear producing situation. Why do you think this is so? 6. What does the word "immortality" mean? 7. What does the term "syndrome" mean? Purpose setting . The researcher stated, "This passage deals with the topic of death as a majority of Americans view it. As you read it, compare your feelings on death to those expressed in the article. Think about ways in which you flirt with death every day." They were also instructed to read for answers to the following questions: 1. How do life insurance companies package death? 2. Why is James Bond discussed in this passage? 3. How are death and money related? 4. How do Americans deal with grief? 5. Why is death referred to as "an industry"?

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152 Directed Reading Activity Passage C -"Filboid Studge, the Story of a Mouse that Helped " Motivation and background . In order to provide background and motivation the following questions were asked and discussion ensued concerning possible answers: 1. How many of you know people who are wealthy? 2. How do they differ (if they do) in what is important to them? 3. If your family had a lot of money do you think they would want you to marry someone poor? Why or why not? 4. Pretend you are very poor. (Someone stated "I don't have to pretendl") You are in love with someone who is wealthy. You want to show that your intentions are good ones. How might you impress or win over your beloved's family? Purpose setting . The researcher stated that in the selection a fellow called Mark, a poor man, finds himself in love with Leonore, a rich girl. Read to find out if he wins Leonore. Also read to answer the following questions: 1. What does "Filboid Studge" have to do with the plot of the story? 2. Look at the title. What does it mean? 3. What kind of a man was Leonore 's father? Think of at least three words to describe him. 4. What caused the success of Filboid Studge? 5. Would you have bought it? Why or why not?

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155 Jennrich, R., and Sampson, P. Analysis of variance and covariance including repeated measures. In W. J. Dixon and M. B. Brown (Eds.), Biomedical computer programs -p-series . Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1979. Katz, C, and Wright, F. The effects of a reading and study skills program on academic performance and perserverance. Journal of General Education , 1977, 29, 89-96. Kee, D. W., and Beuhring, T. Verbal and pictorial elaboration effects on children's long-term memory for noun pairs. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1978, 70, '^5-'j53. Kintch, W. Abstract nouns: Imagery versus lexical complexity. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior , 1972, }]_, 59-65. Kirk, R. E. Experimental design: Procedures for the behavioral sciences . Belmont, California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1968. Kosslyn, S. M. , and Bower, G. H. The role of imagery in sentence memory: A developmental study. Child Development , 1974, 45, 30-38. Kosslyn, S. M. , and Pomerantz, J. R. Imagery, propositions, and the form of internal representations. Cognitive Psychology , 1977, 9^, 52-76. Kuhlmann, F. On the analysis of the memory consciousness for pictures of familiar objects. American Journal of Psychology , 1907, 18, 389-420. Kulhavy, R. W., and Swenson, I. Imagery instructions and the comprehension of text. British Journal o f Educational Psychology, 1975, 45, 47-51. ^ ^ — Lesgold, A. M., Curtis, M. E., DeGood, H., Golinkoff, R. M. , McCormick, C. and Shimron, J. The role of mental imagery in text comprehension : Preliminary studies . Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, 1974-1976. . Levin, J. R. Comprehending what we read: An outsider looks in. Journal of Reading Behavior , 1971, 4, 18-26. Levin, J. R. When is a picture worth a thousand words? Issues in imagery and learning: Four papers (Theoretical Paper #36). ^Madison, Wisconsin: Center for Cognitive Learning, University of Wisconsin, 1972. Levin, J. R. Inducing comprehension in poor readers. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1973, 65, 19-24. . Levin, J. R., and Divine-Hawkins, P. Visual imagery as a prose-learning process. Journal of Reading Behavior , 1974, 6, 23-30.

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156 Levin, J. R., Ghatala, E., Guttman, J., Subkoviak, M., McCabe, A., and Bender, B. Processes affecting children's learning from sentences. Report from the project on conditions of school learning and instructional strategies . Madison, Wisconsin: Wisconsin Research and Development Center for Cognitive Learning, University of Wisconsin, March, 1976. Linden, M., and Wittrock, M. C. The teaching of reading comprehension according to the model of generative learning. Reading Research Quarterly , 1981, 15, 44-57. Montague, R. B., and Hess, A. M. Verbal versus imagery encoding in good and poor readers: Evidence from word and sentence recognition data . Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Toronto, Canada, March, 1978. Montague, W. E., and Carter, J. F. Vividness of imagery in recalling connected discourse. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1973, 64, 72-75. ~ Munro, H. H. Filboid studge, the story of a mouse that helped. In The short stories of Saki . New York: The Viking Press, 1966. Neisser, U. Cognition and reality: Principles and implications of cognitive psycho! ogyT San Francisco, California: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1976. Newell, J. M. , and Olejnik, S, F. Imagery, concreteness , and advanced organizers . Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Boston, Massachusetts, 1980. Paivio, A. Latency of verbal associations and imagery to noun stimuli as a function of abstractness and generality. Canadian Journal of Psychology , 1966, 20, 367-387. Paivio, A. Mental imagery in associative learning and memory. Psychological Review , 1969, 76, 243-263. Paivio, A. On the functional significance of imagery. Psycholo gical Bulletin , 1970, 73, 385-392. Paivio, A., and Begg, I. Imagery and comprehension latencies as a function of sentence concreteness and structure. Perception and Psychophysics , 1971, 10, 408-412. Paivio, A., and Csapo, K. Picture superiority in free recall: Imagery or dual coding? Cognitive Psychology , 1973, 5, 176-206. Paivio, A., Smythe, P. C, and Yuille, J. C. Imagery versus meaningfulness of nouns in paired-associate learning. Canadian Journa l of Psychology , 1968, 22, 427-441. Paivio, A., and Yuille, J. C. Word abstractness, meaningful ness , and paired-associate learning in children. Journal of Experime ntal Child Psychology , 1966, 4, 81-89.

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157 Paivio, A., Yuille, J. C, and Madigan, S. A. Concreteness , imagery, and meaningful ness values for 925 nouns. Journal of Experimental Psychology Monograph Statement , 1968, 76^, 1-25. Paris, S. G., and Carter, A. Y. Semantic and constructive aspects of sentence memory in children. Developmental Psychology , 1973, 9, 109-113. Pressley, G. M. Mental imagery helps eight-year-olds remember what they read. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1976, 68, 355-359. Pylyshyn, Z. W. What the mind's eye tells the mind's brain: A critique of mental imagery. Psychological Bulletin , 1973, 80, 1-23. Schmeck, H. The long, cold sleep. Boy's Life , December, 1966, 36-40. Smith, M. Smoking. Cosmopolitan , March 1966, 149-141. Steingart, S. K. , and Glock, M. D. Imagery and the recall of connected discourse. Reading Research Quarterly , 1979, 25., 66-83. Verbrugge, R. R. Transformations in knowing: A realist view of metaphor. In R. Honeck and R. Hoffman (Eds.), Cognition and figurative language . Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1980. Voss, B. X., and Newell, J. M. An attempt at measuring sensory and imagistic qualities of written passages . Paper presented at the Florida Education Research Association, St. Petersburg, Florida, 1977. Waller, 6. T. Children's recognition memory for written sentences: A comparison of good and poor readers. Child Development, 1976, 47, 90-95. — Wanner, H. E. On remembering, forgetting and understanding sentences: A study of deep structure hypothesis. Doctoral Dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1968. Weiner, M. , and Cromer, W. Reading and reading difficulty: A conceptual analysis. Harvard Educational Review , 1967, 37, 620-643. Wittrock, M. C. The art of memory and a model of generative learning . Monograph. Los Angeles, California: University of California, March 28, 1978. Yuille, J. C, and Paivio, A. Imagery and verbal mediation instructions in paired-associate learning. Journa l of Experimental Psychology, 1968, 78, 436-441. ^ ^

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Sherrie Lee Nist was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on October 3, 1946. She graduated from South Park High School in 1964 and received her Bachelor of Science in elementary education from California State College, California, Pennsylvania, in 1967. After teaching third grade for one year in New Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, she moved to Titusville, Florida, where she taught first grade for four years. She moved to Daytona Beach, Florida, where she worked for two years as a diagnostician/remedial reading instructor in a private clinic. She then worked for one and a half years with disadvantaged youths having reading problems. Just prior to entering graduate school she implemented and maintained a reading laboratory at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University in Daytona Beach, Florida. Realizing unfulfilled goals, she applied and was accepted in the graduate program at the University of Florida in 1979 where she completed both a Master of Education and a Doctor of Philosophy in reading. During this period she was a graduate assistant for both the Office of Instructional Resources where she taught developmental reading to college students and the Department of Instructional Leadership and Support where she taught undergraduate reading courses. She has currently accepted the position of Reading Coordinator for the Department of Developmental Studies at the University of Georgia. She has one daughter, Kama Lenore, aged 12. /

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Ruthellen Crews, Chairperson Professor of Instructional Leadership and Support I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. M. Newell Professor of Foundations of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Steph(?fi F. Olejnik — Assistant Professor of Foundations of Education This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Division of Curriculum and Instruction in the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. August 1982 Dean for Graduate Studies and Research